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Sample records for ion drift velocity

  1. Negative Ion Drift Velocity and Longitudinal Diffusion in Mixtures of Carbon Disulfide and Methane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dion, Michael P.; Son, S.; Hunter, S. D.; deNolfo, G. A.

    2011-01-01

    Negative ion drift velocity and longitudinal diffusion has been measured for gas mixtures of carbon disulfide (CS2) and methane (CH4)' Measurements were made as a function of total pressure, CS2 partial pressure and electric field. Constant mobility and thermal-limit longitudinal diffusion is observed for all gas mixtures tested. Gas gain for some of the mixtures is also included.

  2. A first comparison of irregularity and ion drift velocity measurements in the E-region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarevich, R. A.; Honary, F.; Howells, V. S. C.; Koustov, A. V.; Milan, S. E.; Davies, J. A.; Senior, A.; Mccrea, I. W.; Dyson, P. L.

    2006-09-01

    E-region irregularity velocity measurements at large flow angles with the STARE Finland coherent VHF radar are considered in context of the ion and electron velocity data provided by the EISCAT tristatic radar system, CUTLASS Finland coherent HF radar, and IMAGE fluxgate magnetometers. The data have been collected during a special experiment on 27 March 2004 during which EISCAT was scanning between several E- and one F-region altitudes along the magnetic field line. Within the E-region, the EISCAT measurements at two altitudes of 110 and 115 km are considered while the electron velocity is inferred from the EISCAT ion velocity measurements at 278 km. The line-of-sight (l-o-s) VHF velocity measured by STARE VHF los is compared to the ion and electron velocity components (Vi0 comp and Ve0 comp) along the STARE l-o-s direction. The comparison with Ve0 comp for the entire event shows that the measurements exhibit large scatter and small positive correlation. The correlation with Ve0 comp was substantial in the first half of the interval under study when Ve0 comp was larger in magnitude. The comparison with Vi0 comp at 110 and 115 km shows a considerable positive correlation, with VHF velocity being typically larger (smaller) in magnitude than Vi0 comp at 110 km (115 km) so that VVHF los appears to be bounded by the ion velocity components at two altitudes. It is also demonstrated that the difference between VVHF los and Vi0 comp at 110 km can be treated, in the first approximation, as a linear function of the effective backscatter height heff also counted from 110 km; heff varies in the range 108-114 km due to the altitude integration effects in the scattering cross-section. Our results are consistent with the notion that VHF velocity at large flow angles is directly related to the ion drift velocity component at an altitude heff.

  3. Subauroral ion drift (SAID) velocity behavior as inferred from Dynamics Explorer-B and Intercosmos "Bulgaria-1300" data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bankov, L.; Vassileva, A.

    Rapid westward subauroral ion motion in the nighttime auroral oval during geomagnetically disturbed conditions had been first reported by ion drift measurements carried out on ``Cosmos--184'' satellite. The observed narrow band ion drift velocity jets at evening magnetic local times on the equatorward boundary of the auroral oval often exceed few km/s drift speed. In the present paper we use ion drift velocity data from Dynamics Explorer-2 (DE-2) and Intercosmos "BULGARIA-1300" (ICB-1300) satellites. DE-2 was launched on August 3 1981 with an inclination of 90, perigee of 300km and apogee 1000km. On board plasma diagnostics instrumentation had been addressed to study upper atmosphere dynamics as a manifestation of the ionosphere-magnetosphere interaction processes in the Earth's ionosphere. ICB-1300 was launched on August 7 1981 on a near circular orbit with an orbital inclination of 82, initial apogee 906km and perigee 825km under the same scientific objectives with a similar scientific instrumentation. Both satellites were in active operation almost of two years period. Here, DE-2 Ion Drift Meter (IDM) and Retarding Potential Analyzer (RPA) data together with ICB-1300 Electric Field Experiment (IESP-1) and Spherical Ion Trap (P-6) data are used. In the present work we examine subauroral ion drift (SAID) velocity behavior as inferred by ion drift data from both DE-2 and ICB-1300 satellites in respect to the geomagnetic activity at different magnetic local times (MLT). Relative changes in invariant latitude position of SAID jets vs. AE index show a larger equatorward shift of almost 9.8° ILAT in a 2100-2200 MLT sector (AE=1000). Corresponding statistics for dusk MLT sector show a 3.4° ILAT equatorward shift of the SAID position and a 6.4 o for earlier morning MLT hours respectively.

  4. Note: The role of external electric fields in enhancing ion mobility, drift velocity, and drift-diffusion rates in aqueous electrolyte solutions [J. Chem. Phys. 134, 114504 (2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murad, Sohail

    2012-02-01

    The effect of external electric fields on enhancing ion mobility, drift velocity, and drift diffusion as a function of solution concentration has been investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. Our results show that the unusual nonlinear behavior observed when the solution concentration matches seawater is also observed when the concentration is reduced to half of that value. These results are of significance in designing processes for desalinating seawater using electro-deionization in which the concentration would decrease during salt removal, and for purification of brackish waters which also have lower salt content.

  5. The role of external electric fields in enhancing ion mobility, drift velocity, and drift-diffusion rates in aqueous electrolyte solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murad, Sohail

    2011-03-01

    Molecular simulations have been carried out using the method of molecular dynamics to investigate the role of external electric fields on the ion mobility, drift velocity, and drift-diffusion rate of ions in aqueous electrolyte solutions. These properties are critical for a range of processes including electrodialysis, electro-deionization, electrophoresis, and electroosmosis. Our results show that external electric fields relax the hydrated ion structure at significantly larger time scales (between 300 and 800 ps), than most other relaxation processes in solutions (generally of the order of 1 ps). Previous studies that did not account for the much longer relaxation times did not observe this behavior for ions even with very high electric fields. External electric fields must also overcome several (at least two or more) activation energy barriers to significantly change the structure of hydrated ions. As a result, the dynamic behavior changes almost in bands as a function of electric field strengths, rather than linearly. Finally, the effect of the field is much less dramatic on water than the ions. Thus electric fields will be of more significance in processes that involve the transport of ions (such as electro-deionization) than the transport of water (electroosmosis).

  6. A case study of subauroral ion drift velocity jets by means of dynamics explorer-2 and intercosmos Bulgaria-1300 satellites data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bankov, L. G.; Stanev, G. A.; Vassileva, A. K.; Kirova, V. A.; Danov, D. L.; Hanson, W. B.; Heelis, R. A.; Anderson, P. C.

    Satellites INTERCOSMOS ``Bulgaria-1300'' (ICB-1300) and Dynamics Explorer-2 (DE-2) were launched close together early in August 1981. The satellite data base from both DE-2 and ICB-1300 covers almost a two years period. Data from both satellites were used to examine the longitudinal behavior of a few selected simultaneous subauroral ion drift (SAID) events in the late evening and earlier morning hours of magnetic local time (MLT). SAID velocity jets occur as a narrow region at the equatorward edge of the auroral oval in the westward direction in the evening hours, simultaneously in both hemispheres. It is shown, that the polward component of the DC electric field measured from ICB-1300 corresponds well to the ion drift velocity jets observed in the Ion Drift Meter (IDM) on DE-2 with some longitudinal extent of more than three hours MLT in the evening sector. In a specific case (orbit 705 of ICB-1300), we observe downward current associated with a SAID event of about 1.8 muA/m^2, corresponding to the previously reported current measurements on DE-2 (orbit 796) of about 2.1 muA/m^2. The simultaneous SAID observation taken in the earlier morning hours of the ion drift velocity distribution, shows an existence of velocity jets up to 0130 MLT.

  7. Ion Drift Meter for Dynamics Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heelis, R. A.; Hanson, W. B.; Lippincott, C. R.; Zuccaro, D. R.

    1982-01-01

    The ion drift meter for Dynamics Explorer B is discussed. It measures two mutually perpendicular angles of arrival of thermal ions with respect to the sensor look directions. These angles lie in the vertical and horizontal planes and may be thought of as pitch and yaw in the conventional aerodynamic sense. The components of the ion drift velocity along vertical and horizontal axes through the spacecraft body are derived to first order from knowledge of the spacecraft velocity vector and more accurately with additional knowledge of the component of ion drift along the sensor look direction.

  8. Modeling the daytime, equatorial ionospheric ion densities associated with the observed, four-cell longitude patterns in E × B drift velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araujo-Pradere, Eduardo A.; Fang, Tzu-Wei; Anderson, David N.; Fedrizzi, Mariangel; Stoneback, Russell

    2012-04-01

    Previous studies have quantified the longitude gradients in E × Bdrift associated with the four-cell tidal structures and have confirmed that these sharp gradients exist on a day-to-day basis. For this paper, we incorporate the Ion Velocity Meter (IVM) sensor on the Communications/Navigation Outage Forecasting System satellite to obtain the daytime, verticalE × B drift velocities at the magnetic equator as a function of longitude, local time, and season and to theoretically calculate the F region ion densities as a function of altitude, latitude, longitude, and local time using the Global Ionosphere Plasmasphere model. We compare calculated ion densities assuming no longitude gradients in E × Bdrift velocities with calculated ion densities incorporating the IVM-observedE × Bdrift at the boundaries of the four-cell tidal structures in the Peruvian and the Atlantic longitude sectors. Incorporating the IVM-observedE × B drift velocities, the ion density crests rapidly converge to the magnetic equator between 285 and 300°E geographic longitude, are absent between 300° and 305°, and move away from the magnetic equator between 305° and 340°. In essence, the steeper the longitude gradient in E × B drifts, the steeper the longitude gradient in the equatorial anomaly crest location.

  9. Drift velocity and pressure monitoring of the CMS muon drift chambers

    E-print Network

    Lars Sonnenschein

    2011-07-02

    The drift velocity in drift tubes of the CMS muon chambers is a key parameter for the muon track reconstruction and trigger. It needs to be monitored precisely in order to detect any deviation from its nominal value. A change in absolute pressure, a variation of the gas admixture or a contamination of the chamber gas by air affect the drift velocity. Furthermore, the temperature and magnetic field influence its value. First data, taken with a dedicated Velocity Drift Chamber (VDC) built by RWTH Aachen IIIA are presented. Another important parameter to be monitored is the pressure inside the muon drift tube chambers. The differential pressure must not exceed a certain value and the absolute pressure has to be kept slightly above ambient pressure to prevent air from entering into the muon drift tube chambers in case of a leak. Latest drift velocity monitoring results are discussed.

  10. Drift compression of an intense neutralized ion beam

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, P.K.; Yu, S.S.; Henestroza, E.; Anders, A.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Coleman, J.; Eylon, S.; Greenway, W.G.; Leitner, M.; Logan, B.G.; Waldron, W.L.; Welch, D.R.; Thoma, C.; Sefkow, A.B.; Gilson, E.P.; Efthimion, P.C.; Davidson, R.C.

    2004-10-25

    Longitudinal compression of a tailored-velocity, intense neutralized ion beam has been demonstrated. The compression takes place in a 1-2 m drift section filled with plasma to provide space-charge neutralization. An induction cell produces a head-to-tail velocity ramp that longitudinally compresses the neutralized beam, enhancing the beam peak current by a factor of 50 and producing a pulse duration of about 3 ns. this measurement has been confirmed independently with two different diagnostic systems.

  11. Two-stream instability with time-dependent drift velocity

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, Hong; Davidson, Ronald C.

    2014-06-15

    The classical two-stream instability driven by a constant relative drift velocity between two plasma components is extended to the case with time-dependent drift velocity. A solution method is developed to rigorously define and calculate the instability growth rate for linear perturbations relative to the time-dependent unperturbed two-stream motions. Stability diagrams for the oscillating two-stream instability are presented over a large region of parameter space. It is shown that the growth rate for the classical two-stream instability can be significantly reduced by adding an oscillatory component to the relative drift velocity.

  12. Two-stream instability with time-dependent drift velocity

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Qin, Hong; Davidson, Ronald C.

    2014-06-26

    The classical two-stream instability driven by a constant relative drift velocity between two plasma components is extended to the case with time-dependent drift velocity. A solution method is developed to rigorously define and calculate the instability growth rate for linear perturbations relative to the time-dependent unperturbed two-stream motions. The stability diagrams for the oscillating two-stream instability are presented over a large region of parameter space. It is shown that the growth rate for the classical two-stream instability can be significantly reduced by adding an oscillatory component to the relative drift velocity.

  13. Measuring the equatorial plasma bubble drift velocities over Morroco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagheryeb, Amine; Benkhaldoun, Zouhair; Makela, Jonathan J.; Harding, Brian; Kaab, Mohamed; Lazrek, Mohamed; Fisher, Daniel J.; Duly, Timothy M.; Bounhir, Aziza; Daassou, Ahmed

    2015-08-01

    In this work, we present a method to measure the drift velocities of equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs) in the low latitude ionosphere. To calculate the EPB drift velocity, we use 630.0-nm airglow images collected by the Portable Ionospheric Camera and Small Scale Observatory (PICASSO) system deployed at the Oukkaimden observatory in Morocco. To extract the drift velocity, the individual images were processed by first spatially registering the images using the star field. After this, the stars were removed from the images using a point suppression methodology, the images were projected into geographic coordinates assuming an airglow emission altitude of 250 km. Once the images were projected into geographic coordinates, the intensities of the airglow along a line of constant geomagnetic latitude (31°) are used to detect the presence of an EPB, which shows up as a depletion in airglow intensity. To calculate the EPB drift velocity, we divide the spatial lag between depletions found in two images (found by the application of correlation analysis) by the time difference between these two images. With multiple images, we will have several velocity values and consequently we can draw the EPB drift velocity curve. Future analysis will compare the estimates of the plasma drift velocity with the thermospheric neutral wind velocity estimated by a collocated Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) at the observatory.

  14. C/NOFS Daytime ExB Drift Velocity Measurements Compared With Ground-based Magnetometer-inferred ExB Drift Velocity Observations in the Peruvian Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, D. N.; Heelis, R.; Pfaff, R. F.

    2008-12-01

    A technique to determine realistic, daytime, vertical ExB drift velocities in the equatorial, ionospheric F-region has recently been developed. It has been established that taking the difference in the horizontal components (ÄH) between a ground-based magnetometer on the magnetic equator and one 6-9o away in magnetic latitude, provides these realistic velocities. Relationships between the ÄH values from the magnetometers at Jicamarca, Peru (1o N. mag. lat.) and Piura, Peru (6.5o N. mag. lat.) and the observed daytime ExB drift velocities from the JULIA (Jicamarca Unattended Long-term Ionosphere Atmosphere) coherent scatter radar have been developed and then applied, on a day-to-day basis, to obtain daytime, vertical ExB drift velocities between 0700 and 1700 LT in the Peruvian longitude sector. We briefly describe the ÄH-inferred ExB drift technique and demonstrate that the ÄH vs ExB drift relationship obtained in the Peruvian sector can be applied in other longitude sectors where appropriately-placed magnetometers exist. We then describe a study where we compare the ÄH-inferred ExB drift velocities obtained in the Peruvian sector with the CINDI/IVM (Ion Velocity Meter) and the DC VEFI (Vector Electric Field Experiment) observations in the Peruvian sector during the months of August, September and October, 2008. The local time of the observations range between 0900 and 1600 LT. The IVM velocity component and the VEFI electric fields perpendicular to B in the magnetic meridional plane are calculated and transformed to the apex altitude at the magnetic equator. The fact that daytime, vertical ExB drift velocities at the magnetic equator are essentially independent of altitude between 150 km and 800 km simplifies the comparisons with the ÄH- inferred ExB drift observations. It is important to validate the IVM and VEFI observations with a number of different ground-based ExB drift measurements and, while the Jicamarca ISR and JULIA are available, they are sporadic and all in one longitude sector. In contrast, the magnetometer-inferred ExB drift technique is available, continuously, day-to-day. In addition, the same technique can be used to validate VEFI and IVM daytime observations at other longitude sectors such as the Brazilian, African, Indian, Philippine and Indonesian sectors where appropriately-placed magnetometers already exist.

  15. Cap Bubble Drift Velocity in a Confined Test Section

    SciTech Connect

    Xiaodong Sun; Seungjin Kim; Mamoru Ishii; Frank W. Lincoln; Stephen G. Beus

    2002-10-09

    In the two-group interfacial area transport equation, bubbles are categorized into two groups, i.e., spherical/distorted bubbles as group 1 and cap/slug/churn-turbulent bubbles as group 2. The bubble rise velocities for both groups of bubbles may be estimated by the drift flux model by applying different distribution parameters and drift velocities for both groups. However, the drift velocity for group 2 bubbles is not always applicable (when the wall effect becomes important) as in the current test loop of interest where the flow channel is confined by two parallel flat walls, with a dimension of 200-mm in width and 10-mm in gap. The previous experiments indicated that no stable slug flow existed in this test section, which was designed to permit visualization of the flow patterns and bubble characteristics without the distortion associated with curved surfaces. In fact, distorted cap bubbly and churn-turbulent flow was observed. Therefore, it is essential to developed a correlation for cap bubble drift velocity in this confined flow channel. Since the rise velocity of a cap bubble depends on its size, a high-speed movie camera is used to capture images of cap bubbles to obtain the bubble size information. Meanwhile, the rise velocity of cap and elongated bubbles (called cap bubbles hereafter) is investigated by examining the captured images frame by frame. As a result, the conventional correlation of drift velocity for slug bubbles is modified and acceptable agreements between the measurements and correlation estimation are achieved.

  16. Photo: Sinead Farrell, NOAA Measuring Arctic Sea Ice Drift Velocities

    E-print Network

    Sandwell, David T.

    weather and climate · Gain a better understanding of the global climate system and recent climate changeJulia Ruth Photo: Sinead Farrell, NOAA Measuring Arctic Sea Ice Drift Velocities from Passive is Sea Ice? SIO 236: Remote Sensing, Spring 2015 NOAA Climate.gov YouTube Channel

  17. WINCS v.2 for the Neutral Wind and Ion-drift in the Thermosphere/Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrero, F. A.; Nicholas, A. C.

    2013-12-01

    The Wind Ion-drift Neutral Composition Suite (WINCS) has been updated to increase sensitivity to wind/ion-drift change and to further reduce risk and cost. Description of the new neutral wind/ion-drift spectrometer component of WINCS will be given with data results from simulations and laboratory tests of WINCS version 2. A 20-fold increase in wind/ion-drift sensitivity brings their uncertainties to about × 0.5 m/s; corresponding to a pointing uncertainty of × 0.005°. This precision improves accuracy in the wind/ion-drift when used with new star cameras that provide ×0.005° or better pointing accuracy; thus allowing vertical wind and vertical ion-drift measurements over broad regions of the upper atmosphere. The new design uses a larger aperture (0.1cm diameter instead of the 0.02cm diameter of WINCS v.1), and replaces the energy-scanning energy analyzer with a 30° PPA (parallel plate analyzer) energy spectrograph that simultaneously measures all energies of interest. These two features increase the signal to enable the new wind/ion-drift precisions stated above. Risk and cost reduction follow from the new electro-mechanical format that combines spectrometer mechanical mounting with the actual electrical connection. The presentation will close with discussion of cross-track and in-track wind and ion-drift components to emphasize the requirement of the energy analyzer in obtaining the magnitude of the total velocity in both cross-track and in-track winds and ion-drifts - that is, the total velocity of the neutrals or ions incident upon WINCS.

  18. Precision measurement of the carrier drift velocities in silicon

    E-print Network

    C. Scharf; R. Klanner

    2015-10-21

    Measurements of the drift velocities of electrons and holes as functions of electric field and temperature in high-purity n- and p-type silicon with crystal orientation are presented. The measurements cover electric field values between 2.4 and 50 kV/cm and temperatures between 233 and 333 K. Two methods have been used for extracting the drift velocities from current transient measurements: A time-of-flight (tof) method and fits of simulated transients to the measured transients, with the parameters describing the field and temperature dependence of the electron and hole mobilities as free parameters. A new mobility parametrization, which also provides a better description of existing data than previous ones, allowed an extension of the classical tof method to the situation of non-uniform fields. For the fit method, the use of the convolution theorem of Fourier transforms enabled us to precisely determine the electronics transfer function of the complete set-up, including the sensor properties. The agreement between the tof and the fit method is about 1 %, which corresponds to a time-of-flight uncertainty of 30 ps for a pad diode of 200 {\\mu}m thickness at the highest voltages. Combining our results with published data of low-field mobilities, we derive parameterizations of the drift velocities in high-ohmic silicon for electrons and holes for fields between 0 and 50 kV/cm and temperatures between 233 and 333 K.

  19. Variation of type I plasma wave phase velocity with electron drift velocity in the equatorial electrojet

    SciTech Connect

    Ravindran, S.; Reddy, C.A.

    1993-12-01

    The authors report the use of VHF coherent backscatter radar to detect the phase velocity variations of type I and type II plasma waves coming from the equatorial electrojet in conjunction with substorm and magnetic storm events. These plasma waves are generated by two-stream type instabilities. The authors observe a correlation between the phase velocity of the type I plasma waves and the electron drift velocity, which is consistent with present models which explain the generation of such waves.

  20. Filament velocity scaling laws for warm ions

    SciTech Connect

    Manz, P.; Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Assoziation, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching ; Carralero, D.; Birkenmeier, G.; Müller, H. W.; Scott, B. D.; Müller, S. H.; Fuchert, G.; Stroth, U.; Physik-Department E28, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Str. 1, 85748 Garching

    2013-10-15

    The dynamics of filaments or blobs in the scrape-off layer of magnetic fusion devices are studied by magnitude estimates of a comprehensive drift-interchange-Alfvén fluid model. The standard blob models are reproduced in the cold ion case. Even though usually neglected, in the scrape-off layer, the ion temperature can exceed the electron temperature by an order of magnitude. The ion pressure affects the dynamics of filaments amongst others by adding up to the interchange drive and the polarisation current. It is shown how both effects modify the scaling laws for filament velocity in dependence of its size. Simplifications for experimentally relevant limit regimes are given. These are the sheath dissipation, collisional, and electromagnetic regime.

  1. Magnetometer-inferred, Equatorial, Daytime Vertical ExB Drift Velocities Observed in the African Longitude Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, D. N.; Yizengaw, E.

    2011-12-01

    A recent paper has investigated the sharp longitude gradients in the dayside ExB drift velocities associated with the 4-cell, non-migrating structures thought to be connected with the eastward propagating, diurnal, non-migrating (DE3) tides. Observations of vertical ExB drift velocities obtained from the Ion Velocity Meter (IVM) on the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecast System (C/NOFS) satellite were obtained in the Western Pacific, Eastern Pacific, Peruvian and Atlantic sectors for a few days during the months of October, March and December, 2009. Respective ExB drift velocity gradients at the cell boundaries for these 4 longitude sectors were a.) -1.3m/sec/degree, b.) 3m/sec/degree, c.) -4m/sec/degree and d.) 1m/sec/degree and were observed on a day-to-day basis. In this talk, we estimate the longitude gradients in the dayside, vertical ExB drift velocities from magnetometer H-component observations in the African sector. We briefly describe the technique for obtaining realistic ExB drift velocities associated with the difference in the H-component values between a magnetometer on the magnetic equator and one off the magnetic equator at 6 to 9 degrees dip latitude (delta H). We present magnetometer-inferred, dayside ExB drift velocities obtained from the AMBER (African Meridian B-field Education and Research) magnetometer chain in the East Africa (Ethiopian) longitude sector and the West African (Nigerian) longitude sector. We compare the longitude gradients in ExB drift velocities in the African sector with the C/NOFS- observed longitude gradients mentioned above. We also discuss the advantages of using ground-based magnetometer observations to infer ExB drift velocities compared with the C/NOFS satellite observations.

  2. Role of ionization and electron drift velocity profile to Rayleigh instability in a Hall thruster plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Sukhmander; Malik, Hitendra K.

    2012-07-01

    Role of ionization to Rayleigh instability is clarified in a Hall thruster plasma under the variety of profiles of electron drift velocity, namely, step-like profile (SLP) and two different super-Gaussian profiles (SGP1 and SGP2). For this, a relevant Rayleigh equation is derived and solved numerically using fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. Interestingly, an upper cutoff frequency of oscillations {omega}{sub max} is realized for the occurrence of the instability that shows dependence on the ionization rate {alpha}, electron drift velocity u{sub 0}, electron cyclotron frequency {Omega}, azimuthal wave number k{sub y}, plasma density n{sub 0}, density gradient {partial_derivative}n{sub 0}/{partial_derivative}x, ion (electron) thermal speed V{sub thI}(V{sub thE}), and ion (electron) plasma frequency {omega}{sub pi}({omega}{sub pe}). The frequency {omega}{sub max} follows the trend {omega}{sub max} (for SGP2) >{omega}{sub max} (for SLP) >{omega}{sub max} (for SGP1) and shows a similar behaviour with ionization for all types of the velocity profiles. The instability is found to grow faster for the higher {alpha} and the ion temperature but it acquires lower rate under the effect of the higher electron temperature; the perturbed potential also varies in accordance with the growth rate. The electron temperature influences the growth rate and cutoff frequency less significantly in comparison with the ion temperature.

  3. Precision measurement of the carrier drift velocities in silicon

    E-print Network

    Scharf, C

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of the drift velocities of electrons and holes as functions of electric field and temperature in high-purity n- and p-type silicon with crystal orientation are presented. The measurements cover electric field values between 2.4 and 50 kV/cm and temperatures between 233 and 333 K. Two methods have been used for extracting the drift velocities from current transient measurements: A time-of-flight (tof) method and fits of simulated transients to the measured transients, with the parameters describing the field and temperature dependence of the electron and hole mobilities as free parameters. A new mobility parametrization, which also provides a better description of existing data than previous ones, allowed an extension of the classical tof method to the situation of non-uniform fields. For the fit method, the use of the convolution theorem of Fourier transforms enabled us to precisely determine the electronics transfer function of the complete set-up, including the sensor properties. The agreement...

  4. On Ion Drifts and Neutral Winds in Titan's Thermosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shebanits, Oleg; Wahlund, Jan-Erik; Edberg, Niklas J. T.; Andrews, David J.; Crary, Frank J.; Wellbrock, Anne; Coates, Andrew; Mandt, Kathleen E.; Waite, J. Hunter, Jr.

    2015-04-01

    Saturn's largest moon Titan hosts an atmosphere with complex organic chemistry initiated in the ionosphere. The nightside chemistry may be influenced by the ion transport from the dayside ionosphere. In turn, ion transport (ion drifts) may be affected by the neutral winds, which cannot be measured directly by Cassini. In this study we derive the ion drifts along the spacecraft trajectories based on analysis of in-situ measurements of electron and ion fluxes, positive and negative ion masses and the magnetic field. Data from Titan flybys TA to T100 was included (Oct 2005 - Apr 2014), of which 55 flybys were below 1400 km and 48 below 1200 km altitude. From the electron and ion flux measurements three regions were observed: 1) above 1600 km, ions are ExB-drifting (frozen into the fields), 2) 1100-1600 km altitudes, dynamo-region, ions drift in opposite directions (perpendicular to B) and 3) 880-1100 km altitude (upper limit depends on convection electric field strength), ions are following neutrals and ion drifts translate to neutral winds of 0.5-2.5 km/s with weaker winds on the dayside of Titan's ionosphere.

  5. INITIAL RESULTS ON NEUTRALIZED DRIFT COMPRESSION EXPERIMENTS (NDCX-IA) FOR HIGH INTENSITY ION BEAM

    E-print Network

    Gilson, Erik

    + ion beam is given a head to tail energy variation using a 'tilt core' induction cell. The tilt core were performed with the 3D parallel LSP [3,4] particle-in-cell code using a fully kinetic energy, (2) 4 quadrupole magnets, (3) 1.3 m-long neutralized drift compression section equipped with velocity

  6. The effect of plasma shear flow on drift Alfven instabilities of a finite beta plasma and on anomalous heating of ions by ion cyclotron turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Young Hyun; Lee, Hae June; Mikhailenko, Vladimir V.; Mikhailenko, Vladimir S.

    2016-01-01

    It was derived that the drift-Alfven instabilities with the shear flow parallel to the magnetic field have significant difference from the drift-Alfven instabilities of a shearless plasma when the ion temperature is comparable with electron temperature for a finite plasma beta. The velocity shear not only modifies the frequency and the growth rate of the known drift-Alfven instability, which develops due to the inverse electron Landau damping, but also triggers a combined effect of the velocity shear and the inverse ion Landau damping, which manifests the development of the ion kinetic shear-flow-driven drift-Alfven instability. The excited unstable waves have the phase velocities along the magnetic field comparable with the ion thermal velocity, and the growth rate is comparable with the frequency. The development of this instability may be the efficient mechanism of the ion energization in shear flows. The levels of the drift--Alfven turbulence, resulted from the development of both instabilities, are determined from the renormalized nonlinear dispersion equation, which accounts for the nonlinear effect of the scattering of ions by the electromagnetic turbulence. The renormalized quasilinear equation for the ion distribution function, which accounts for the same effect of the scattering of ions by electromagnetic turbulence, is derived and employed for the analysis of the ion viscosity and ions heating, resulted from the interactions of ions with drift-Alfven turbulence. In the same way, the phenomena of the ion cyclotron turbulence and anomalous anisotropic heating of ions by ion cyclotron plasma turbulence has numerous practical applications in physics of the near-Earth space plasmas. Using the methodology of the shearing modes, the kinetic theory of the ion cyclotron turbulence of the plasma with transverse current with strong velocity shear has been developed.

  7. Fast Faraday cup to measure neutralized drift compression in intense ion charge bunches A. B. Sefkow, R. C. Davidson, P. C. Efthimion, and E. P. Gilson

    E-print Network

    Gilson, Erik

    Fast Faraday cup to measure neutralized drift compression in intense ion charge bunches A. B compression in order to meet the requisite beam intensities desired at the target. The Neutralized Drift the effective limits of neutralized drift compression, which occurs due to an imposed longitudinal velocity tilt

  8. In situ measurements of plasma drift velocity and enhanced NO(+) in the auroral electroject by the Bennett spectrometer on AE-C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinton, H. C.

    1974-01-01

    Simultaneous measurements of ion composition and plasma drift velocity by the Bennett mass spectrometer on the Atmosphere Explorer-C satellite reveal a direct correlation between enhancements in NO(+) concentration and ion drift velocity in the southern auroral oval. Low altitude (137 to 250 km) nighttime data reveal a region of westward plasma flow at velocities up to 1.3 km/s between 62 deg and 68 deg invariant latitude, with corresponding NO(+) enhancements of up to a factor of 25. A narrow region of reverse flow at approximately 0.9 km/s was also measured. These drift observations are consistent with convective flow patterns derived from electric field measurements, and their correlation with NO(+) appears to support the suggestion that NO(+) enhancements would be expected in regions of drift owing to the dependence on ion energy of the reaction O(+) + N2 yields NO(+) + N.

  9. Observations of quiet time vertical ion drift in the equatorial ionosphere during the solar minimum period of 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoneback, R. A.; Heelis, R. A.; Burrell, A. G.; Coley, W. R.; Fejer, B. G.; Pacheco, E.

    2011-12-01

    The extended solar minimum conditions in 2008 and 2009 presented an opportunity to investigate the ionosphere at lower solar activity levels than previously observed. The Coupled Ion Neutral Dynamics Investigation (CINDI) Ion Velocity Meter (IVM) instrument onboard the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System is used to construct the median meridional (vertical) ion drifts, ion densities, and O+ concentrations during periods of low geomagnetic activity for four characteristic seasons each year spanning late 2008 to 2010. The presence of a large semidiurnal component in the ion drift variation at the equator produced significant differences from typical ionospheric conditions. Instead of upward drifts during the day and downward drifts at night, downward drifts in the afternoon and upward drifts near midnight are observed. This semidiurnal component is present in all seasons though it is strongest during the solstice seasons. It is shown that upward drifts at night correspond to regions with a high occurrence of postmidnight irregularities during the December 2008 and June 2009 solstices. A comparison with vertical ion drifts observed by the Jicamarca Radio Observatory supports the methodology used to extract meridional drifts from the IVM.

  10. Explaining the subpulse drift velocity of pulsar magnetosphere within the space-charge limited flow model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozova, Viktoriya S.; Ahmedov, Bobomurat J.; Zanotti, Olindo

    2014-10-01

    We try to explain the subpulse drift phenomena adopting the space-charge limited flow model and comparing the plasma drift velocity in the inner region of pulsar magnetospheres with the observed velocity of drifting subpulses. We apply the approach described in a recent paper of van Leeuwen & Timokhin, where it was shown that the standard estimation of the subpulse drift velocity through the total value of the scalar potential drop in the inner gap gives inaccurate results, while the exact expression relating the drift velocity to the gradient of the scalar potential should be used instead. After considering a selected sample of sources taken from the catalogue of Weltevrede et al. with coherently drifting subpulses and reasonably known observing geometry, we show that their subpulse drift velocities would correspond to the drift of the plasma located very close or above the pair formation front. Moreover, a detailed analysis of PSR B0826-34 and PSR B0818-41 reveals that the variation of the subpulse separation with the pulse longitude can be successfully explained by the dependence of the plasma drift velocity on the angular coordinates.

  11. Subpulse drift velocity of pulsar magnetosphere within the space-charge limited flow model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmedov, Bobomurat; Morozova, Viktoriya; Zanotti, Olindo

    We attempt to explain the subpulse drift phenomena adopting the space-charge limited flow (SCLF) model and comparing the plasma drift velocity in the inner region of pulsar magnetospheres with the observed velocity of drifting subpulses. We apply the approach described in a recent paper of van Leeuwen & Timokhin (2012), where it was shown that the standard estimation of the subpulse drift velocity through the total value of the scalar potential drop in the inner gap gives inaccurate results, while the exact expression relating the drift velocity to the gradient of the scalar potential should be used instead. After considering a selected sample of sources taken from the catalog of Weltevrede, Edwards & Stappers (2006) with coherently drifting subpulses and reasonably known observing geometry, we show that their subpulse drift velocities would correspond to the drift of the plasma located very close or above the pair formation front. Moreover, a detailed analysis of PSR B0826-34 and PSR B0818-41 reveals that the variation of the subpulse separation with the pulse longitude can be successfully explained by the dependence of the plasma drift velocity on the angular coordinates.

  12. Drift Compression and Final Focus Options for Heavy Ion Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Hong Qin; Ronald C. Davidson; John J. Barnard; Edward P. Lee

    2005-02-14

    A drift compression and final focus lattice for heavy ion beams should focus the entire beam pulse onto the same focal spot on the target. We show that this requirement implies that the drift compression design needs to satisfy a self-similar symmetry condition. For un-neutralized beams, the Lie symmetry group analysis is applied to the warm-fluid model to systematically derive the self-similar drift compression solutions. For neutralized beams, the 1-D Vlasov equation is solved explicitly, and families of self-similar drift compression solutions are constructed. To compensate for the deviation from the self-similar symmetry condition due to the transverse emittance, four time-dependent magnets are introduced in the upstream of the drift compression such that the entire beam pulse can be focused onto the same focal spot.

  13. The longitudinal variability of equatorial electrojet and vertical drift velocity in the African and American sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yizengaw, E.; Moldwin, M. B.; Zesta, E.; Biouele, C. M.; Damtie, B.; Mebrahtu, A.; Rabiu, B.; Valladares, C. F.; Stoneback, R.

    2014-03-01

    While the formation of equatorial electrojet (EEJ) and its temporal variation is believed to be fairly well understood, the longitudinal variability at all local times is still unknown. This paper presents a case and statistical study of the longitudinal variability of dayside EEJ for all local times using ground-based observations. We found EEJ is stronger in the west American sector and decreases from west to east longitudinal sectors. We also confirm the presence of significant longitudinal difference in the dusk sector pre-reversal drift, using the ion velocity meter (IVM) instrument onboard the C/NOFS satellite, with stronger pre-reversal drift in the west American sector compared to the African sector. Previous satellite observations have shown that the African sector is home to stronger and year-round ionospheric bubbles/irregularities compared to the American and Asian sectors. This study's results raises the question if the vertical drift, which is believed to be the main cause for the enhancement of Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability growth rate, is stronger in the American sector and weaker in the African sector - why are the occurrence and amplitude of equatorial irregularities stronger in the African sector?

  14. EFFECT OF ION B DRIFT DIRECTION ON TURBULENCE FLOW AND FLOW SHEAR

    SciTech Connect

    FENZI,C; McKEE,G.R; BURRELL,K.H; CARLSTROM,T.N; FONCK,R.J; GROEBNER,R.J

    2003-07-01

    The divertor magnetic geometry has a significant effect on the poloidal flow and resulting flow shear of turbulence in the outer region of L-mode tokamak plasmas, as determined via two-dimensional measurements of density fluctuations with Beam Emission Spectroscopy on DIII-D. Plasmas with similar parameters, except that in one case the ion {del}B drift points towards the divertor X-point (lower single-null, LSN), and in the other case, the ion {del}B drift points away from the divertor X-point (upper single-null, USN), are compared. Inside of r/a=0.9, the turbulence characteristics (amplitude, flow direction, correlation lengths) are similar in both cases, while near r/a=0.92, a dramatic reversal of the poloidal flow of turbulence relative to the core flow direction is observed in plasmas with the ion {del}B drift pointing towards the divertor X-point. No such flow reversal is observed in plasmas with the ion {del}B drift pointing away from the divertor X-point. This poloidal flow reversal results in a significantly larger local shear in the poloidal turbulence flow velocity in plasmas with the ion {del}B drift pointing towards the divertor X-point. Additionally, these plasmas locally exhibit significant dispersion, with two distinct and counter-propagating turbulence modes. Likewise, the radial correlation length of the turbulence is reduced in these plasmas, consistent with biorthogonal decomposition measurements of dominant turbulence structures. The naturally occurring turbulence flow shear in these LSN plasmas may facilitate the LH transition that occurs at an input power of roughly one-half to one-third that of corresponding plasmas with the ion {del}B drift pointing away from the X-point.

  15. Numerical simulation of drift waves and trapped ion modes

    SciTech Connect

    Kingsbury, O.T.; Waltz, R.E. )

    1994-07-01

    Two-dimensional numerical simulations are used to study the interaction of trapped electron drift waves (DW) and trapped ion modes (TIM). Wave-number ([ital k]) space is divided into long and short wave regions at a poloidal wave number corresponding to the ion bounce frequency. Two field models are used to describe trapped electron drift wave dynamics at short waves and trapped ion mode dynamics for long waves. The standard case has curvature effects and collisionality. The nonlinearity that couples the two regions includes a trapped ion banana width effect analogous to finite Larmor radius (FLR) polarization drift. The principal result of this study is that the TIM do not contribute to the diffusion significantly, regardless of the model for the nonlinear coupling to the DW. This conclusion is supported by a more general four field model that includes pressure dynamics and which allows ion temperature gradient (ITG) driven drift modes. When the collisionality is varied, the diffusion deviates from the [gamma]/[ital k][sup 2][sub [ital x

  16. Drift velocity versus electric field in ? 110 ? Si nanowires: Strong confinement effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Mugny, Gabriel; Niquet, Yann-Michel; Delerue, Christophe

    2015-08-01

    We have performed atomistic simulations of the phonon-limited high field carrier transport in ? 110 ? Si nanowires with small diameter. The carrier drift velocities are obtained from a direct solution of the non-linear Boltzmann transport equation. The relationship between the drift velocity and the electric field considerably depends on the carrier, temperature, and diameter of the nanowires. In particular, the threshold between the linear and non-linear regimes exhibits important variations. The drift velocity reaches a maximum value and then drops. These trends can be related to the effects of quantum confinement on the band structure of the nanowires. We also discuss the impact of the different phonon modes and show that high-energy phonons can, unexpectedly, increase the drift velocity at a high electric field.

  17. Ion composition and drift observations in the nighttime equatorial ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, R. A.; Aikin, A. C.; Murthy, B. V. K.

    1974-01-01

    The first in situ measurements of ion composition in the nighttime equatorial E and F region ionospheres (90-300 km) are presented and discussed. These profiles were obtained by two rocket-borne ion mass spectrometers launched from Thumba, India on March 9-10, 1970 at solar zenith angles of 112 deg and 165 deg. Ionosonde data established that the composition was measured at times bounding a period of F region downward drift. During this period the ions O(+) and N(+) were enhanced by one to three orders of magnitude between 220 and 300 km. Below the drift region (200 km), O(+) ceased to be the major ionic constituent, but the concentrations of O(+) and N(+) remained larger than predicted from known radiation sources and loss processes. Here also, both the O2(+) and NO(+) profiles retained nearly the same shape and magnitude throughout the night in agreement with theories assuming scattered UV radiation to be the maintaining source. Light metallic ions including Mg(+), Na(+) and possibly Si(+) were observed to altitude approaching 300 km, while the heavier ions Ca(+) and K(+) were seen in reduced quantity to 200 km. All metal ion profiles exhibited changes which can be ascribed to vertical drifting.

  18. Drift-Alfvén vortices at the ion Larmor radius scale: Cluster observations versus theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnoselskikh, Vladimir; Pokhotelov, Oleg; Onishchenko, Oleg. G.; Sundkvist, David

    Recently Cluster satellites have discovered short-scale drift-kinetic Alfven vortices in Cusp region of the Earth magnetosphere (Sundkvist et al., 2005). This discovery raised the question what are the critical parameters that determine the characteristics of vortex type structures observed. To adress these questions it was necessary to develop the theoretical model to describe nonlinear structures of such a type with the spatial scales comparable to the ion Larmor radius. New theoretical model was developed by Onishchenko et al., (2008). It was shown that the set of equations describing the nonlinear dynamics of drift-Alfvén waves in a quasistationary regime e admits a solution in the form of a solitary dipole vortex. The vortex structures propagating perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field faster than the diamagnetic ion drift velocity were shown to possess spatial scales larger than the ion Larmor radius, and vice versa. The variation of the vortex impedance and spatial scale as the function of the vortex velocity were analyzed. It was shown that incorporation of the finite electron temperature effects results in the appearance of a minimum in the dependence of the vortex impedance on the vortex velocity. This leads to the existence of the vortex structures with the smallest impedance. These structures are presumably the most favorable energetically and can easily be excited in space plasmas. The relevance of theoretical results obtained to the Cluster observations in the magnetospheric cusp and magnetosheath is shown. Sundkvist,D., V. Krasnoselskikh, P. Shukla, A. Vaivads, M. Andre, S. Buchert, H. Reme, In situ multi-satellite detection of coherent vortices as a manifestation of Alfvenic turbulence, Nature, v. 436, doi:10.1038/nature03931, August 2005; Onishchenko, O.G., V. Krasnoselskikh, O. Pokhotelov, Drift-Alfvén vortices at e the ion Larmor radius scale, Physics of Plasmas, 15, 2008.

  19. Transient ion-drift-induced capacitance signals in semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Heiser, T.; Weber, E.R.

    1998-08-01

    A theoretical model is developed that describes capacitance signals induced by drift of mobile ions in the space charge region of a Schottky diode. Pairing between the diffusing ion and the doping impurities is taken into account. The coupled partial differential equations are resolved numerically and the influence of key parameters on the signal shape is analyzed. Special emphasis is put on those features that enable transient ion-drift- (TID-) induced signals to be distinguished from capacitance transients caused by deep-level carrier emission processes. Relaxation kinetics and reverse bias dependence of the signal shape represent two reliable tools to verify the ion-drift nature of the signals. Methods for extracting quantitative information on both diffusion and pairing properties of the mobile ions are described. The question of whether pairing or diffusion is limiting the process is addressed. The influence of the doping level on the signal time constant is used to evaluate whether or not the diffusion is trap limited. A semiempirical model is described that permits the estimation of diffusion and pairing coefficients without resolving numerically the differential equations. Experiments are performed on interstitial copper in {ital p}-type silicon to test the predictions of the theoretical model. An overall agreement is found between theory and experiments. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  20. Determination of the Sharp, Longitudinal Gradients in Equatorial ExB Drift Velocities Associated with the 4-cell, Non-migrating Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, D. N.

    2011-12-01

    Previous studies have established the existence of a 4-cell, longitude pattern in equatorial F region ionospheric parameters such as TEC and electron densities and in daytime, equatorial ExB drift velocities. A recent paper, for the first time, quantified the longitude gradients in ExB drift associated with the 4-cell tidal structures and confirmed that these sharp gradients exist on a day-to-day basis. Using the Ion Velocity Meter (IVM) on the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecast System (C/NOFS) satellite to obtain daytime, vertical ExB drift velocities, it was found, for example, that for October 5, 6 and 7, 2009 in the Atlantic sector, the ExB drift velocity gradient was about 1m/sec/degree. For March 23, 24 and 25, 2009 in the Peruvian sector, it was about -4m/sec/degree. This talk summarizes past observations of the sharp longitude gradients in vertical ExB drift velocities and the effect of these sharp gradients on theoretically-calculated ion density distributions as a function of latitude and longitude. We also present initial, ground-based magnetometer-inferred vertical ExB drift velocities from the LISN (Low-latitude Ionospheric Sensor Network) chain of magnetometers at 295 E. geographic longitude and 310 E. geographic longitude that provide the day-to-day and seasonal variability in ExB drifts at the boundary between the Peruvian longitude sector and the Atlantic longitude sector. The advantages of these continuous, daytime observations are discussed.

  1. Asymptotic velocity of one dimensional diffusions with periodic drift

    E-print Network

    P. Collet S. Martinez

    2007-05-10

    We consider the asymptotic behaviour of the solution of one dimensional stochastic differential equations and Langevin equations in periodic backgrounds with zero average. We prove that in several such models, there is generically a non vanishing asymptotic velocity, despite of the fact that the average of the background is zero.

  2. Communications/Navigation Outage Forecasting System observational support for the equatorial E × B drift velocities associated with the four-cell tidal structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araujo-Pradere, Eduardo A.; Anderson, David N.; Fedrizzi, Mariangel; Stoneback, Russell

    2011-12-01

    Previous studies have established the existence of a four-cell longitude pattern in equatorial F region ionospheric parameters such as total electron content and electron densities and in daytime, equatorial E × B drift velocities. This paper, for the first time, quantifies the longitude gradients in E × B drift associated with the four-cell tidal structures and confirms that these sharp gradients exist on a day-to-day basis. For this purpose, we use the Ion Velocity Meter (IVM) sensor on the Communications/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) satellite to obtain the daytime, vertical E × B drift velocities at the magnetic equator as a function of longitude, local time, and season. The IVM sensor measures the E × B drift velocity in three dimensions; however, we only use the E × B drift observations perpendicular to B in the meridional plane. These observations can be used to obtain the vertical E × B drifts at the magnetic equator by mapping along the geomagnetic field line. The period initially selected for this work covers several days in October, March, and December 2009. We find, on a day-to-day basis, that (1) sharp E × B drift gradients of -1.3 m s-1 deg-1 exist in the western Pacific sector during equinox, (2) sharp E × B drift gradients of +3 m s-1 deg-1 are observed in the eastern Pacific sector during equinox, and (3) sharp E × B drift gradients of -1.7 m s-1 deg-1 exist in the eastern Pacific sector during December solstice.

  3. Coupled ion acoustic and drift waves in magnetized superthermal electron-positron-ion plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Adnan, Muhammad; Qamar, Anisa; Mahmood, S.

    2014-09-15

    Linear and nonlinear coupled drift-ion acoustic waves are investigated in a nonuniform magnetoplasma having kappa distributed electrons and positrons. In the linear regime, the role of kappa distribution and positron content on the dispersion relation has been highlighted; it is found that strong superthermality (low value of ?) and addition of positrons lowers the phase velocity via decreasing the fundamental scalelengths of the plasmas. In the nonlinear regime, first, coherent nonlinear structure in the form of dipoles and monopoles are obtained and the boundary conditions (boundedness) in the context of superthermality and positron concentrations are discussed. Second, in case of scalar nonlinearity, a Korteweg–de Vries-type equation is obtained, which admit solitary wave solution. It is found that both compressive and rarefactive solitons are formed in the present model. The present work may be useful to understand the low frequency electrostatic modes in inhomogeneous electron positron ion plasmas, which exist in astrophysical plasma situations such as those found in the pulsar magnetosphere.

  4. Measurement of the drift velocities of electrons and holes in high-ohmic < 100 > silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scharf, C.; Klanner, R.

    2015-11-01

    Measurements of the drift velocities of electrons and holes as functions of electric field and temperature in high-purity n- and p-type silicon with < 100 > lattice orientation are presented. The measurements cover electric field values between 2.5 and 50 kV / cm and temperatures between 233 and 333 K. For both electrons and holes differences of more than 15 % are found between our < 100 > results and the < 111 > drift velocities from literature, which are frequently also used for simulating < 100 > sensors. For electrons, the < 100 > results agree with previous < 100 > measurements; however, for holes differences between 5 and 15% are observed for fields above 10 kV / cm. Combining our results with published data of low-field mobilities, we derive parametrizations of the drift velocities in high-ohmic < 100 > silicon for electrons and holes for fields up to 50 kV / cm, and temperatures between 233 and 333 K. In addition, new parametrizations for the drift velocities of electrons and holes are introduced, which provide somewhat better descriptions of existing data for < 111 > silicon than the standard parametrization.

  5. Measurement of the drift velocities of electrons and holes in high-ohmic silicon

    E-print Network

    Christian Scharf; Robert Klanner

    2015-08-19

    Measurements of the drift velocities of electrons and holes as functions of electric field and temperature in high-purity n- and p-type silicon with orientation are presented. The measurements cover electric field values between 2.5 and 50 kV/cm and temperatures between 233 and 333 K. For both electrons and holes differences of more than 15 % are found between our results and the drift velocities from literature, which are frequently also used for simulating sensors. For electrons, the results agree with previous measurements, however, for holes differences between 5 to 15 % are observed for fields above 10 kV/cm. Combining our results with published data of low-field mobilities, we derive parametrizations of the drift velocities in high-ohmic silicon for electrons and holes for fields between 0 and 50 kV/cm, and temperatures between 233 and 333 K. In addition, new parametrizations for the drift velocities for electrons and holes are introduced, which provide somewhat better descriptions of existing data for silicon, than the standard parametrization.

  6. Determining the Daytime, Equatorial Ionospheric Electron Densities Associated with the Observed, 4-cell Longitude Patterns in ExB Drift Velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araujo-Pradere, E. A.; Anderson, D. N.; Fedrizzi, M.; Stoneback, R.

    2010-12-01

    It has been established from the C/NOFS Ion Velocity Meter (IVM) observations that there exist very sharp longitude gradients in daytime, vertical ExB drift velocities that define the boundaries of the 4-cell, non-migrating, ExB drift structures. These sharp gradients exist on a day-to-day basis. For example, for October 5, 6 and 7, 2009 in the Atlantic sector, the ExB drift velocity gradient is about 1/m/sec/degree while for March 23, 24 and 25, 2009 in the Peruvian sector it is about -4m/sec/degree. This paper examines the existence of sharp gradients in the Equatorial Ionospheric Anomaly (EIA) electron densities that are associated with these sharp gradients in ExB drift velocities as observed by IVM. While sharp gradients in ionospheric parameters such as TOPEX/TEC, and CHAMP/ Ne values have been associated with the 4-cell patterns, these are quantities that have been averaged over months and years. This paper presents IVM electron density observations, on a day-to-day basis, that reflect the close connection between daytime ExB drifts and the magnitude of the EIA electron densities. The periods of observations are for October, November and March, 2009 between 1000 and 1500 LT and the altitudes of the IVM observations are between 400 and 500 km. The implications of these results, as they relate to forecasting equatorial ionospheric parameters, are discussed.

  7. 2-D Drift Velocities from the IMAGE EUV Plasmaspheric Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, D.; Adrian, M.

    2007-01-01

    The IMAGE Mission extreme ultraviolet imager (EUY) observes He+ plasmaspheric ions throughout the inner magnetosphere. Limited by ionizing radiation and viewing close to the Sun, images of the He+ distribution are available every 10 minutes for many hours as the spacecraft passes through apogee in its highly elliptical orbit. As a consistent constituent at about 15%, He+ is an excellent surrogate for monitoring all of the processes that control the dynamics of plasmaspheric plasma. In particular, the motion ofHe+ transverse to the ambient magnetic field is a direct indication of convective electric fields. The analysis of boundary motions has already achieved new insights into the electrodynamic coupling processes taking place between energetic magnetospheric plasmas and the ionosphere. Yet to be fulfilled, however, is the original promise that global EUY images of the plasmasphere might yield two-dimensional pictures of meso-scale to macro-scale electric fields in the inner magnetosphere. This work details the technique and initial application of an IMAGE EUY analysis that appears capable of following thermal plasma motion on a global basis.

  8. Measuring drift velocity and electric field in mirror machine by fast photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Be'ery, I.; Seemann, O.; Fruchtman, A.; Fisher, A.; Nemirovsky, J.

    2013-02-01

    The flute instability in mirror machines is driven by spatial charge accumulation and the resulting E × B plasma drift. On the other hand, E × B drift due to external electrodes or coils can be used as a stabilizing feedback mechanism. Fast photography is used to visualize Hydrogen plasma in a small mirror machine and infer the plasma drift and the internal electric field distribution. Using incompressible flow and monotonic decay assumptions we obtain components of the velocity field from the temporal evolution of the plasma cross section. The electric field perpendicular to the density gradient is then deduced from E=-V × B. With this technique we analyzed the electric field of flute perturbations and the field induced by electrodes immersed in the plasma.

  9. Intersaccadic drift velocity is sensitive to short-term hypobaric hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Di Stasi, Leandro L; Cabestrero, Raúl; McCamy, Michael B; Ríos, Francisco; Catena, Andrés; Quirós, Pilar; Lopez, Jose A; Saez, Carolina; Macknik, Stephen L; Martinez-Conde, Susana

    2014-04-01

    Hypoxia, defined as decreased availability of oxygen in the body's tissues, can lead to dyspnea, rapid pulse, syncope, visual dysfunction, mental disturbances such as delirium or euphoria, and even death. It is considered to be one of the most serious hazards during flight. Thus, early and objective detection of the physiological effects of hypoxia is critical to prevent catastrophes in civil and military aviation. The few studies that have addressed the effects of hypoxia on objective oculomotor metrics have had inconsistent results, however. Thus, the question of whether hypoxia modulates eye movement behavior remains open. Here we examined the effects of short-term hypobaric hypoxia on the velocity of saccadic eye movements and intersaccadic drift of Spanish Air Force pilots and flight engineers, compared with a control group that did not experience hypoxia. Saccadic velocity decreased with time-on-duty in both groups, in correlation with subjective fatigue. Intersaccadic drift velocity increased in the hypoxia group only, suggesting that acute hypoxia diminishes eye stability, independently of fatigue. Our results suggest that intersaccadic drift velocity could serve as a biomarker of acute hypoxia. These findings may also contribute to our understanding of the relationship between hypoxia episodes and central nervous system impairments. PMID:24877213

  10. Development of an ion drift chamber for Laser Induced Fluorescence studies 

    E-print Network

    Cain, Benjamin J

    1998-01-01

    The use of Laser Induced Fluorescence to image ions in a gas has been proposed for a possible new type of subatomic particle detector.1 As a means to investigate this idea, an ion drift chamber has been developed that ...

  11. Topside equatorial zonal ion velocities measured by C/NOFS during rising solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coley, W. R.; Stoneback, R. A.; Heelis, R. A.; Hairston, M. R.

    2014-02-01

    The Ion Velocity Meter (IVM), a part of the Coupled Ion Neutral Dynamic Investigation (CINDI) instrument package on the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecast System (C/NOFS) spacecraft, has made over 5 yr of in situ measurements of plasma temperatures, composition, densities, and velocities in the 400-850 km altitude range of the equatorial ionosphere. These measured ion velocities are then transformed into a coordinate system with components parallel and perpendicular to the geomagnetic field allowing us to examine the zonal (horizontal and perpendicular to the geomagnetic field) component of plasma motion over the 2009-2012 interval. The general pattern of local time variation of the equatorial zonal ion velocity is well established as westward during the day and eastward during the night, with the larger nighttime velocities leading to a net ionospheric superrotation. Since the C/NOFS launch in April 2008, F10.7 cm radio fluxes have gradually increased from around 70 sfu to levels in the 130-150 sfu range. The comprehensive coverage of C/NOFS over the low-latitude ionosphere allows us to examine variations of the topside zonal ion velocity over a wide level of solar activity as well as the dependence of the zonal velocity on apex altitude (magnetic latitude), longitude, and solar local time. It was found that the zonal ion drifts show longitude dependence with the largest net eastward values in the American sector. The pre-midnight zonal drifts show definite solar activity (F10.7) dependence. The daytime drifts have a lower dependence on F10.7. The apex altitude (magnetic latitude) variations indicate a more westerly flow at higher altitudes. There is often a net topside subrotation at low F10.7 levels, perhaps indicative of a suppressed F region dynamo due to low field line-integrated conductivity and a low F region altitude at solar minimum.

  12. Precision measurement of the carrier drift velocities in langle100rangle silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scharf, C.; Klanner, R.

    2015-11-01

    Measurements of the drift velocities of electrons and holes as functions of electric field strength and temperature in high-purity n- and p-type silicon with langle100rangle crystal orientation are presented. The measurements cover electric field strengths between 2.4 and 50 kV/cm and temperatures between 233 and 333 K. Two methods have been used for extracting the drift velocities from current transient measurements: a time-of-flight (tof) method and fits of simulated transients to the measured transients, with the parameters describing the field and temperature dependence of the electron and hole mobilities as free parameters. A new mobility parametrization, which also provides a better description of existing data than previous ones, allowed an extension of the classical tof method to the situation of non-uniform field strengths. For the fit method, the use of the convolution theorem of Fourier transforms enabled us to precisely determine the electronics transfer function of the complete set-up, including the sensor properties. The agreement between the tof and the fit method is about 1%, which corresponds to a time-of-flight uncertainty of 30 ps for a pad diode of 200? m thickness at the highest voltages. Combining our results with published data of low-field mobilities, we derive parameterizations of the drift velocities in high-ohmic langle100rangle silicon for electrons and holes for field strengths between 0 and 50 kV/cm and temperatures between 233 and 333 K.

  13. Sudden appearance of sub-keV structured ions in the inner magnetosphere within one hour: drift simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Masatoshi; Ebihara, Yusuke; Dandouras, Iannis; Nilsson, Hans

    2014-05-01

    Energy-latitude dispersed structured sub-keV ions in the inner magnetosphere drifts very slowly in the noon-to-afternoon sectors because the eastward corotation and the westward magnetic drift balances to each other there. However, majority of Cluster ion observation by the Cluster Ion Spectrometry (CIS) COmposition DIstribution Function (CODIF) instrument during 2001-2006 showed significant development or intensification (by more than factor of 3) within 1-2 h in that sector during the Cluster perigee traversals that quickly scans latitudinal structure at a fixed local time (Yamauchi et al., 2013). The frequent observations of significant inbound-outbound differences in the wedge-like dispersed ions by Cluster indicates either new injections or high eastward drift velocity even in the afternoon sector. To examine the former possibility, i.e., whether such sudden appearances in the dayside can be explained by the drift motion of ions that are formed during substorm-related injections, we numerically simulated two such examples, one at noon (8 September 2002) and the other in the afternoon (9 July 2001), based on the same ion drift simulation model that has successfully reproduced the ion pattern of an inbound-outbound symmetric event at 5 MLT observed by the Cluster CIS/CODIF instrument. The model uses backward phase-space mapping to a boundary at the nightside 8 Earth radii and forward numerical simulation using re-constructed distribution function at that boundary. For both examples, the ion drift model with finite duration (limited to 1-2 hours) of proton source in the nightside can explain the observed large inbound-outbound differences in the sub-keV proton population without any new sources. Ion drift motion is thus able to cause rapid changes of complicated ion populations, at remote places from the source long time after the substorm activities, although this result does not eliminate the possibility of having independent ionospheric sources. References: Yamauchi, M. et al.: Cluster observation of few-hour-scale evolution of structured plasma in the inner magnetosphere, Ann. Geophys., 31, 1569-1578, doi:10.5194/angeo-31-1569-2013, 2013.

  14. A study of vacuum arc ion velocities using a linear set of probes

    SciTech Connect

    Hohenbild, Stefan; Grubel, Christoph; Yushkov, Georgy Yu.; Oks, Efim M.; Anders, Andre

    2008-07-15

    The most likely velocity of ions moving away from vacuum arc cathode spots was measured using a set of probes along the path of plasma expansion. The goal was to determine how much, if any, change of the ion drift velocity occurs in the expanded plasma. The arc discharge current was perturbed to create plasma density markers whose travel is picked up by the set of probes. It was found that the perturbation with current oscillations did not result in consistent data because ion current maxima and minima are not only determined by the plasma production but by the transients of the arc pulse and by the asymmetry of the ion velocity distribution function. Perturbation with a short current spike was more conclusive. The ion velocity was measured to be slightly reduced with increasing distance from the cathode, which can be explained by collisions of ions with the background of neutrals. The ion velocity was increased when the arc current was increased, which correlated with enhanced arc voltage and power dissipation. The ion velocity could be enhanced when the plasma was produced in a non-uniform magnetic field.

  15. The Influence of Drift Gas Composition on the Separation Mechanism in Traveling Wave Ion Mobility Spectrometry: Insight from Electrodynamic Simulations.

    PubMed

    May, Jody C; McLean, John A

    2003-06-01

    The influence of three different drift gases (helium, nitrogen, and argon) on the separation mechanism in traveling wave ion mobility spectrometry is explored through ion trajectory simulations which include considerations for ion diffusion based on kinetic theory and the electrodynamic traveling wave potential. The model developed for this work is an accurate depiction of a second-generation commercial traveling wave instrument. Three ion systems (cocaine, MDMA, and amphetamine) whose reduced mobility values have previously been measured in different drift gases are represented in the simulation model. The simulation results presented here provide a fundamental understanding of the separation mechanism in traveling wave, which is characterized by three regions of ion motion: (1) ions surfing on a single wave, (2) ions exhibiting intermittent roll-over onto subsequent waves, and (3) ions experiencing a steady state roll-over which repeats every few wave cycles. These regions of ion motion are accessed through changes in the gas pressure, wave amplitude, and wave velocity. Resolving power values extracted from simulated arrival times suggest that momentum transfer in helium gas is generally insufficient to access regions (2) and (3) where ion mobility separations occur. Ion mobility separations by traveling wave are predicted to be effectual for both nitrogen and argon, with slightly lower resolving power values observed for argon as a result of band-broadening due to collisional scattering. For the simulation conditions studied here, the resolving power in traveling wave plateaus between regions (2) and (3), with further increases in wave velocity contributing only minor improvements in separations. PMID:23888124

  16. Measurements of Electron Drift Velocity in Isobutane using the Pulsed Townsend Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivaldini, Túlio C.; Lima, Iara B.; Gonçalves, Josemary A. C.; Botelho, Suzana; Ridenti, Marco A.; Fonte, Paulo; Mangiarotti, Alessio; Pascholati, Paulo R.; Tobias, Carmen C. Bueno

    2011-08-01

    In the present work we report on the preliminary results related to the dependence of the electron drift velocity for isobutane as function of the reduced electric field E/N in the range of 190 Td up to 211 Td. The employed method is based on the Pulsed Townsend technique. In our configuration the anode is of a high resistivity (2.1010???.m) glass, while the cathode is made of aluminum. In order to validate the technique, the initial measurements were carried out for nitrogen, which is a gas widely studied.

  17. Graphene, a material for high temperature devices - intrinsic carrier density, carrier drift velocity, and lattice energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Yan; Cheng, Zengguang; Wang, Li; Jin, Kuijuan; Wang, Wenzhong

    2014-07-01

    Heat has always been a killing matter for traditional semiconductor machines. The underlining physical reason is that the intrinsic carrier density of a device made from a traditional semiconductor material increases very fast with a rising temperature. Once reaching a temperature, the density surpasses the chemical doping or gating effect, any p-n junction or transistor made from the semiconductor will fail to function. Here, we measure the intrinsic Fermi level (|EF| = 2.93 kBT) or intrinsic carrier density (nin = 3.87 × 106 cm-2K-2.T2), carrier drift velocity, and G mode phonon energy of graphene devices and their temperature dependencies up to 2400 K. Our results show intrinsic carrier density of graphene is an order of magnitude less sensitive to temperature than those of Si or Ge, and reveal the great potentials of graphene as a material for high temperature devices. We also observe a linear decline of saturation drift velocity with increasing temperature, and identify the temperature coefficients of the intrinsic G mode phonon energy. Above knowledge is vital in understanding the physical phenomena of graphene under high power or high temperature.

  18. Evaluation of drift gas selection in complex sample analyses using a high performance drift tube ion mobility-QTOF mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Kurulugama, Ruwan T; Darland, Ed; Kuhlmann, Frank; Stafford, George; Fjeldsted, John

    2015-10-21

    A recently developed uniform-field high resolution ion mobility (IM) quadrupole time of flight (Q-TOF) mass spectrometer is used for evaluating the utility of alternate drift gases for complex sample analyses. This study provides collision cross section comparison for 275 total pesticides including structural isomers in nitrogen, helium, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide and sulfur hexafluoride drift gases. Furthermore, a set of small molecules and Agilent tune mix compounds were used to study the trends in experimentally derived collision cross section values in argon and the alternate drift gases. Two isomeric trisaccharides, melezitose and raffinose, were used to evaluate the effect of the drift gasses for mobility separation. The hybrid ion mobility Q-TOF mass analyzer used in this study consists of a low pressure uniform field drift tube apparatus coupled to a high resolution Q-TOF mass spectrometer. Conventionally, low pressure ion mobility instruments are operated using helium drift gas to obtain optimal structural information and collision cross-section (CCS) values that compare to theoretical CCS values. The instrument employed in this study uses nitrogen as the standard drift gas but also allows the utility of alternate drift gases for improved structural analysis and selectivity under certain conditions. The use of alternate drift gases with a wide range of polarizabilities allows the evaluation of mobility separation power in terms of induced dipole interactions between the drift gas and the analyte ions. PMID:26178817

  19. Designing Neutralized Drift Compression for Focusing of Intense Ion Beam Pulses in a Background Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Kaganovich, I.D.; Davidson, R.C.; Dorf, M.; Startsev, E.A.; Barnard, J.J.; Friedman, A.; Lee, E.P.; Lidia, S.M.; Logan, B.G.; Roy, P.K.; Seidl, P.A.; Welch, D.R.; Sefkow, A.B.

    2009-04-28

    Neutralized drift compression offers an effective method for particle beam focusing and current amplification. In neutralized drift compression, a linear radial and longitudinal velocity drift is applied to a beam pulse, so that the beam pulse compresses as it drifts in the drift-compression section. The beam intensity can increase more than a factor of 100 in both the radial and longitudinal directions, resulting in more than 10,000 times increase in the beam number density during this process. The self-electric and self-magnetic fields can prevent tight ballistic focusing and have to be neutralized by supplying neutralizing electrons. This paper presents a survey of the present theoretical understanding of the drift compression process and plasma neutralization of intense particle beams. The optimal configuration of focusing and neutralizing elements is discussed in this paper.

  20. Beam dynamics of the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment-II, a novel pulse-compressing ion accelerator

    E-print Network

    Gilson, Erik

    Beam dynamics of the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment-II, a novel pulse-compressing ion dynamics of the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment-II, a novel pulse-compressing ion acceleratora in neutralizing plasma; current amplification factors of 50­100 are routinely obtained on the Neutralized Drift

  1. Fluid and drift-kinetic description of a magnetized plasma with low collisionality and slow dynamics orderings. II. Ion theory

    SciTech Connect

    Ramos, J. J.

    2011-10-15

    The ion side of a closed, fluid and drift-kinetic theoretical model to describe slow and macroscopic plasma processes in a fusion-relevant, low collisionality regime is presented. It follows the ordering assumptions and the methodology adopted in the companion electron theory [Ramos, Phys. Plasmas 17, 082502 (2010)]. To reach the frequency scale where collisions begin to play a role, the drift-kinetic equation for the ion distribution function perturbation away from a Maxwellian must be accurate to the second order in the Larmor radius. The macroscopic density, flow velocity and temperature are accounted for in the Maxwellian, and are evolved by a fluid system which includes consistently the gyroviscous part of the stress tensor and second-order contributions to the collisionless perpendicular heat flux involving non-Maxwellian fluid moments. The precise compatibility among these coupled high-order fluid and drift-kinetic equations is made manifest by showing that the evolution of the non-Maxwellian part of the distribution function is such that its first three velocity moments remain equal to zero.

  2. Ion velocity distributions at the tokamak edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitts, R. A.

    1991-10-01

    This paper compares the form of f(v?) arising from the warm-ion, kinetic models of Emmert et al. [Phys. Fluids 23, 803 (1980)] and Bissel and Johnson [Phys. Fluids 30, 779 (1987)] with experimentally measured distributions from the DITE tokamak obtained with a retarding field analyzer (RFA). The results show that the commonly adopted assumption of a distribution accelerated through the sheath potential and approximating to a Maxwellian in the high-energy tail is reasonable. In this respect, Emmert's distribution is more appropriate. In addition, the common practice of neglecting the presheath effect on the distribution is generally justified in analyzing the RFA characteristic, but may incur large error under some circumstances. While the comparison also illustrates how differing assumptions regarding the source function can have a reasonably strong influence on the ion velocity distribution at walls and limiters, the integrated distributions required for comparison with RFA data are sufficiently similar that distinguishing between the models experimentally is not generally possible. The problems of resolving these differences experimentally are discussed and suggestions are proposed for further experiments.

  3. Rapidly changing distribution of velocity and suspended materials under the drifting Arctic sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Ho Kyung; Im, Jungho; Kim, Yong Hoon; Yae Son, Eun; Lee, Sanggyun

    2015-04-01

    In two summer seasons of 2011 and 2014, the short-term (1-4 days) ice-camp study has been conducted on the drifting Arctic sea ice. In particular, in 2014, the international collaboration with the Marginal Ice Zone program (sponsored by Office of Naval Research) has been integrated. The mooring package comprises the acoustic Doppler velocity profiler, holographic imaging camera, and conductivity-temperature-depth profiler, which are used to understand the dynamic behavior of sea ice and spatial-temporal variation of mixing layer (ML) and suspended particulate matters under the sea ice. Mooring data clearly shows the mixing and entrainment pattern in the upper ML in the marginal ice zone. When ice floes drift toward the pack ice, the upward entrainment from the seasonal pycnocline to sea ice-water boundary was induced by shear across ML and seasonal pycnocline. The entrainment speed was in the range of 0.25-2 m/hr, which matches well with thickening and thinning rate of ML during the near-inertial period (~12 hr). When ice floes drift toward the open ocean, the turbulent wakes at the advancing edge of ice were combined with the entrainment caused by near-inertial motion, which results in a complex mixing pattern of both upward and downward fluxes in the ML. Also, the acoustic backscatter observed by the acoustic Doppler current profiler and beam attenuation from transmissometer revealed the increased concentration of suspended particulate materials in the ML, which can be direct evidence visualizing the mixing pattern. Results suggest that the mixing and entrainment found in our study sustain particulate matters in suspension within the upper ML for a few months.

  4. Electron drift velocities in He and water mixtures: Measurements and an assessment of the water vapour cross-section sets

    SciTech Connect

    Urquijo, J. de; Juárez, A. M.; Basurto, E.; Ness, K. F.; Robson, R. E.; White, R. D.; Brunger, M. J.

    2014-07-07

    The drift velocity of electrons in mixtures of gaseous water and helium is measured over the range of reduced electric fields 0.1–300 Td using a pulsed-Townsend technique. Admixtures of 1% and 2% water to helium are found to produce negative differential conductivity (NDC), despite NDC being absent from the pure gases. The measured drift velocities are used as a further discriminative assessment on the accuracy and completeness of a recently proposed set of electron-water vapour cross-sections [K. F. Ness, R. E. Robson, M. J. Brunger, and R. D. White, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 024318 (2012)]. A refinement of the momentum transfer cross-section for electron-water vapour scattering is presented, which ensures self-consistency with the measured drift velocities in mixtures with helium to within approximately 5% over the range of reduced fields considered.

  5. Observations of Counter-Streaming Ion Velocity Distributions in LLBL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaisberg, O. L.; Avanonv, L. A.; Smirnov, V. N.; Moore, T. E.

    2003-01-01

    We analyze ion velocity distributions observed by Interball-Tail at two LLBL crossings under southward and variable magnetosheath magnetic field. These magnetic conditions lead to highly structured LLBL. D-shape ion velocity distributions were observed within LLBL structures along with other reconnection signatures. Another type of the ion velocity distributions observed within LLBL structures consists of two counter-streaming magnetosheath-type components. We consider two possible scenarios that may lead to development of these counterstreaming ion components: reflection of transmitted magnetosheath ions from the ionosphere and creation of these velocity distributions during formation of the LLBL. We argue that observed counter-streaming component could not be due to ionospheric reflection. The observations of these ion velocity distributions are in favor of the multiple reconnections between magnetosheath and magnetospheric flux tubes.

  6. Catastrophic Disruption of comet ISON: Determination of Size and Drift Velocity of ISON Fragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keane, Jacqueline V.; Milam, Stefanie; Coulson, Iain; Steckloff, Jordan; Knight, Matthew

    2015-08-01

    We report submillimeter dust continuum observations for comet C/2012 S1(ISON) obtained during the time period immediately before perihelion on 2013 November 28 (r = 0.0125AU). Prior to perihelion passage on 28 November 2013, the observed right ascension (RA) and declination (Dec) coordinates of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) significantly lagged the predicted JPL (# 53) ephemeris. We show that this “braking effect” is due to a dynamic pressure exerted by sublimating gases on the sunward side of the nucleus. When comet ISON was first detected at 850 ?m, the 1-mm-sized dust particles were tightly bound to the comet nucleus until at least November 23. Three days later, the dust was less tightly bound, elongated and diffuse, spread out over as much as 120 arc seconds (80,000 km) in the anti-solar direction, suggesting a fragmentation event. We calculate the average braking velocity of the nucleus of comet ISON by comparing the central RA position with the predicted JPL ephemeris. The difference in the observed nucleus distance from the predicted ephemeris in the elapsed time between two observations yields an average drift velocity for the comet. We apply a sublimation mass-loss model to determine the size and fragmentation of the comet ISON's nucleus over time.

  7. EARLY-TIME VELOCITY AUTOCORRELATION FOR CHARGED PARTICLES DIFFUSION AND DRIFT IN STATIC MAGNETIC TURBULENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Fraschetti, F.; Giacalone, J.

    2012-08-20

    Using test-particle simulations, we investigate the temporal dependence of the two-point velocity correlation function for charged particles scattering in a time-independent spatially fluctuating magnetic field derived from a three-dimensional isotropic turbulence power spectrum. Such a correlation function allowed us to compute the spatial coefficients of diffusion both parallel and perpendicular to the average magnetic field. Our simulations confirm the dependence of the perpendicular diffusion coefficient on turbulence energy density and particle energy predicted previously by a model for early-time charged particle transport. Using the computed diffusion coefficients, we exploit the particle velocity autocorrelation to investigate the timescale over which the particles 'decorrelate' from the solution to the unperturbed equation of motion. Decorrelation timescales are evaluated for parallel and perpendicular motions, including the drift of the particles from the local magnetic field line. The regimes of strong and weak magnetic turbulence are compared for various values of the ratio of the particle gyroradius to the correlation length of the magnetic turbulence. Our simulation parameters can be applied to energetic particles in the interplanetary space, cosmic rays at the supernova shocks, and cosmic-rays transport in the intergalactic medium.

  8. Optimal transport of two ions under slow spring-constant drifts

    E-print Network

    Xiao-Jing Lu; Mikel Palmero; Andreas Ruschhaupt; Xi Chen; Juan Gonzalo Muga

    2015-02-05

    We investigate the effect of slow spring-constant drifts of the trap used to shuttle two ions of different mass. We design transport protocols to suppress or mitigate the final excitation energy by applying invariant-based inverse engineering, perturbation theory, and a harmonic dynamical normal-mode approximation. A simple, explicit trigonometric protocol for the trap trajectory is found to be robust with respect to the spring-constant drifts.

  9. Ion mixing in the plasma sheet boundary layer by drift instabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horton, W.; Dong, J. Q.; Su, X. N.; Tajima, T.

    1993-01-01

    The linear stability properties of collisionless drift instabilities are analyzed in a Harris equilibrium model of the plasma sheet boundary layer (PSBL). The strearmng ions with drift-type instabilities driven in the PSBL are considered. The fluid approximation leads to growth but predicts that the mode width approaches the gyroradius of the energetic ions. Thus an integral equation theory for the modes is developed taking into account that in the PSBL the curvature drift is weak compared with the grad-B drift. The exact wave particle resonance is kept in the nonlocal response functions. Plasma density, temperature, and magnetic gradient drift motions are taken into account. The drift modes produce an anomalous cross-field momentum transport mixing the PSBL ions on the time scale of tens of seconds. A nonlinear simulation is performed which shows the coalescence of the small scale, fast growing modes into large-scale vortices. The relation between these collective modes and plasma sheet transport phenomena is discussed including the comparison with the competing plasma mixing from single-particle stochasticity.

  10. Stationary Plasma Thruster Ion Velocity Distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzella, David H.

    1994-01-01

    A nonintrusive velocity diagnostic based on laser induced fluorescence of the 5d4F(5/2)-6p4D(5/2) singly ionized xenon transition was used to interrogate the exhaust of a 1.5 kW Stationary Plasma Thruster (SPT). A detailed map of plume velocity vectors was obtained using a simplified, cost-effective, nonintrusive, semiconductor laser based scheme. Circumferential velocities on the order of 250 m/s were measured which implied induced momentum torques of approximately 5 x 10(exp -2) N-cm. Axial and radial velocities were evaluated one mm downstream of the cathode at several locations across the width of the annular acceleration channel. Radial velocities varied linearly with radial distance. A maximum radial velocity of 7500 m/s was measured 8 mm from the center of the channel. Axial velocities as large as 16,500 m/s were measured.

  11. A Study of Ion Velocities Observed by TIDE and How It Relates to Magnetospheric Circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, H. A.; Comfort, R. H.; Craven, P. D.; Chandler, M. O.; Moore, T. E.

    1998-01-01

    The high-latitude ion velocities measured by the Thermal Ion Dynamics Experiment (TIDE) instrument on the Polar spacecraft will be examined in relation to magnetospheric circulation. TIDE derives ion velocities from moments of measured distribution functions. Hydrogen and oxygen ions are E X B drifting in the polar cap and cleft regions with a speed of about 5-20 km/s at apogee (approximately 9 Re) and a speed of 1-2 km/s at perigee (approximately 1.8 Re). At perigee 0+ is typically seen flowing down in the polar cap and outflowing from the cleft. At the transition from downflowing to upflowing there is also seen a reversal in the ion convection. The convection at perigee is consistent with standard ionospheric convection models for given Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) conditions. Convection at high altitude (approximately 8.9 Re) polar regions has not been studied very much since there have not been many satellites in this region. Unlike previous missions to this region TIDE in conjunction the Plasma Source Instrument (PSI) can measure ions with as low an energy as several electron Volts. The outflowing ions observed by TIDE at apogee are believed to be important to the overall circulation of the magnetosphere. The convection of these outflowing ions at apogee will be related to the IMF. This study tries to answer the question of how the IMF response of the convection influences the overall circulation of the magnetosphere.

  12. Ionic Drift Velocity Measurements on A Nano-composite Polymer Electrolyte: 95[90PEO: 10AgNO3]: 5SiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Angesh; Chandra, Archana; Thakur, S. S.; Chakrawarti, V.

    2011-11-01

    Ionic drift velocity (vd) measurements on a hot-press synthesized nano-composite polymer electrolyte (NCPE) membrane: 95[90PEO: 10AgNO3]: 5SiO2, are reported. The ionic transference number (tion) values were determined using dc polarization Transient Ionic Current (TIC) technique for vd measurement at different temperatures. The drift energy (Ed), involved in the thermally activated process was determined from the temperature dependent studies on ionic drift velocity using the log vd vs 1/T Arrhenius plot. At all the temperatures, the ionic drift velocity is directly proportional to the ionic mobility (?) at a fixed value of applied dc potential.

  13. Drift compression and final focus systems for heavy ion inertial fusion

    SciTech Connect

    de Hoon, M.J.L.

    2001-05-01

    Longitudinal compression of space-charge dominated beams can be achieved by imposing a head-to-tail velocity tilt on the beam. This tilt has to be carefully tailored, such that it is removed by the longitudinal space-charge repulsion by the time the beam reaches the end of the drift compression section. The transverse focusing lattice should be designed such that all parts of the beam stay approximately matched, while the beam smoothly expands transversely to the larger beam radius needed in the final focus system following drift compression. In this thesis, several drift compression systems were designed within these constraints, based on a given desired pulse shape at the end of drift compression systems were designed within these constraints, based on a given desired pulse shape at the end of drift compression. The occurrence of mismatches due to a rapidly increasing current was analyzed. In addition, the sensitivity of drift compression to errors in the initial velocity tilt and current profile was studied. These calculations were done using a new computer code that accurately calculates the longitudinal electric field in the space-charge dominated regime.

  14. Optimization of curved drift tubes for ultraviolet-ion mobility spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Kai; Ou, Guangli; Zhang, Xiaoguo; Yu, Zhou; Yu, Quan; Qian, Xiang; Wang, Xiaohao

    2015-08-01

    Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) is a key trace detection technique for toxic pollutants and explosives in the atmosphere. Ultraviolet radiation photoionization source is widely used as an ionization source for IMS due to its advantages of high selectivity and non-radioactivity. However, UV-IMS bring problems that UV rays will be launched into the drift tube which will cause secondary ionization and lead to the photoelectric effect of the Faraday disk. So air is often used as working gas to reduce the effective distance of UV rays, but it will limit the application areas of UV-IMS. In this paper, we propose a new structure of curved drift tube, which can avoid abnormally incident UV rays. Furthermore, using curved drift tube may increase the length of drift tube and then improve the resolution of UV-IMS according to previous research. We studied the homogeneity of electric field in the curved drift tube, which determined the performance of UV-IMS. Numerical simulation of electric field in curved drift tube was conducted by SIMION in our study. In addition, modeling method and homogeneity standard for electric field were also presented. The influences of key parameters include radius of gyration, gap between electrode as well as inner diameter of curved drift tube, on the homogeneity of electric field were researched and some useful laws were summarized. Finally, an optimized curved drift tube is designed to achieve homogenous drift electric field. There is more than 98.75% of the region inside the curved drift tube where the fluctuation of the electric field strength along the radial direction is less than 0.2% of that along the axial direction.

  15. Development of Ion Drift-Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    E-print Network

    of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosol generation.8,9 These two major air pollutants have detrimental are chemically ionized into positive or negative product ions with a well- controlled ion-molecule reaction time of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air.5 There is a wide variety of sources of VOCs to the Earth

  16. Nonuniform charging effects on ion drag force in drifting dusty plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Dong-Man; Chang, Won-Seok; Jung, Young-Dae

    2006-03-01

    The nonuniform polarization charging effects on the ion drag force are investigated in drifting dusty plasmas. The ion drag force due to the ion-dust grain interaction is obtained as a function of the dust charge, ion charge, plasma temperature, Mach number, Debye length, and collision energy. The result shows that the nonuniform charging effects enhance the momentum transfer cross section as well as the ion drag force. It is found that the momentum transfer cross section and the ion drag force including nonuniform polarization charging effects increase with increasing the Mach number and also the ion drag force increases with increasing the temperature. In addition, it is found that the ion drag force is slightly decreasing with an increase of the Debye length.

  17. Generation of zonal flows by electrostatic drift waves in electron-positron-ion plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kaladze, T. D.; Shad, M.; Tsamalashvili, L. V.

    2010-02-15

    Generation of large-scale zonal flows by comparatively small-scale electrostatic drift waves in electron-positron-ion plasmas is considered. The generation mechanism is based on the parametric excitation of convective cells by finite amplitude drift waves having arbitrary wavelengths (as compared with the ion Larmor radius of plasma ions at the plasma electron temperature). Temperature inhomogeneity of electrons and positrons is taken into account assuming ions to be cold. To describe the generation of zonal flow generalized Hasegawa-Mima equation containing both vector and two scalar (of different nature) nonlinearities is used. A set of coupled equations describing the nonlinear interaction of drift waves and zonal flows is deduced. Explicit expressions for the maximum growth rate as well as for the optimal spatial dimensions of the zonal flows are obtained. Enriched possibilities of zonal flow generation with different growth rates are revealed. The present theory can be used for interpretations of drift wave observations in laboratory and astrophysical plasmas.

  18. Ion velocities in a micro-cathode arc thruster

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuang Taisen; Shashurin, Alexey; Keidar, Michael; Beilis, Isak

    2012-06-15

    Ion velocities in the plasma jet generated by the micro-cathode arc thruster are studied by means of time-of-flight method using enhanced ion detection system (EIDS). The EIDS triggers perturbations (spikes) on arc current waveform, and the larger current in the spike generates denser plasma bunches propagating along with the mainstream plasma. The EIDS utilizes double electrostatic probes rather than single probes. The average Ti ion velocity is measured to be around 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} m/s without a magnetic field. It was found that the application of a magnetic field does not change ion velocities in the interelectrode region while leads to ion acceleration in the free expanding plasma plume by a factor of about 2. Ion velocities of about 3.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} m/s were detected for the magnetic field of about 300 mT at distance of about 100-200 mm from the cathode. It is proposed that plasma is accelerated due to Lorentz force. The average thrust is calculated using the ion velocity measurements and the cathode mass consumption rate, and its increase with the magnetic field is demonstrated.

  19. Low velocity ion stopping in binary ionic mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Tashev, Bekbolat; Baimbetov, Fazylkhan; Deutsch, Claude; Fromy, Patrice

    2008-10-15

    Attention is focused on the low ion velocity stopping mechanisms in multicomponent and dense target plasmas built of quasiclassical electron fluids neutralizing binary ionic mixtures, such as, deuterium-tritium of current fusion interest, proton-heliumlike iron in the solar interior or proton-helium ions considered in planetology, as well as other mixtures of fiducial concern in the heavy ion beam production of warm dense matter at Bragg peak conditions. The target plasma is taken in a multicomponent dielectric formulation a la Fried-Conte. The occurrence of projectile ion velocities (so-called critical) for which target electron slowing down equals that of given target ion components is also considered. The corresponding multiquadrature computations, albeit rather heavy, can be monitored analytical through a very compact code operating a PC cluster. Slowing down results are systematically scanned with respect to target temperature and electron density, as well as ion composition.

  20. Velocity-dependent isotope fractionation in secondary-ion emission

    SciTech Connect

    Gnaser, H.; Hutcheon, I.D.

    1987-01-15

    The formation of secondary ions is subject to isotopic fractionation (differing ionization probabilities for two isotopes) that depends linearly on the inverse velocity of the ejected ions. Theoretically, such a correlation follows directly from an exponential dependence of the ionization probability P on v/sup -1/, Pproportionalexp(-v/sub 0//v). The parameter v/sub 0/, derived from the experiment, amounts to --2 x 10/sup 6/ cm/sec for B, Si, and Ca ions.

  1. Storm-to-storm main phase repeatability of the local time variation of disturbed low-latitude vertical ion drifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chao-Song

    2015-07-01

    Penetration electric field can be very strong during magnetic storms. However, the variation of penetration electric field with local time (LT) has not been well understood. The Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) satellite measures the plasma drift/electric field over all local times within ~100 min. In this paper, we present the first nearly simultaneous observations of the dependence of penetration electric field on local time. The meridional ion drift measured by C/NOFS during the main phase of five magnetic storms in 2012 is analyzed. The storm time ion drift shows a large enhancement around 1900 LT, a relatively small enhancement during daytime, and a deep decrease in the postmidnight sector with a peak around 0500 LT. The observed storm time variation of the meridional ion drift with local time represents the variation of the penetration electric field. The averaged ion drifts are in remarkable agreement with recent simulations.

  2. Observation of Anomalous Ion Heating by Broadband Drift-Wave Turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Enge, S.; Birkenmeier, G.; Manz, P.; Ramisch, M.; Stroth, U.

    2010-10-22

    Using laser induced fluorescence and passive spectroscopy on a magnetically confined low-temperature plasma, anomalous ion heating is observed which exceeds collisional heating from the electrons by a factor of up to five. Direct wave heating due to the 2.45 GHz microwave as well as stochastic heating by large-amplitude fluctuations could be ruled out as explanations. Good quantitative agreement is found when comparing the missing power in the ion species with heating power due to the dissipation of drift-wave turbulence. This turbulent energy transfer into the ion channel could have important consequences for the interpretation of transport in fusion plasmas.

  3. Laser induced fluorescence observation of ion velocity distribution functions in a plasma sheath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claire, Nicolas; Bachet, Gerard; Stroth, Ulrich

    2005-10-01

    New experimental results obtained by laser induced fluorescence on metastable ion velocity distribution functions (MIVDFs) in electrostatic presheaths and sheaths in multipolar Argon plasmas are presented. The laser power broadening of the MIVDFs has been observed when there is no ion drift. The MIVDFs parallel to the plate in front of which the sheath is formed are Maxwellian with the ions at exactly the ambient temperature. The MIVDFs perpendicular to the plate (PMIVDFs) are in qualitative agreement, for the presheath, with Emmert's predictions: a Maxwellian profile at the center of the device where the potential is zero, with an ion temperature equal to the ambient temperature (0.027 eV), and a profile made of three pieces at the beginning of the pre-sheath. The PMIVDFs point out that their width is related to the neutral pressure. In the sheath, where the theory is no more valid, the PMIVDFs recover a Maxwellian profile. This ``ion thermalization'' has never been observed in published simulations. The velocity and potential profiles for different plasma conditions have also been measured.

  4. Electrostatic ion cyclotron velocity shear instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemons, D. S.; Winske, D.; Gary, S. P.

    1992-01-01

    A local electrostatic dispersion equation is derived for a shear flow perpendicular to an ambient magnetic field, which includes all kinetic effects and involves only one important parameter. The dispersion equation is cast in the form of Gordeyev integrals and is solved numerically. Numerical solutions indicate that an ion cyclotron instability is excited. The instability occurs roughly at multiples of the ion cyclotron frequency (modified by the shear), with the growth rate or the individual harmonics overlapping in the wavenumber. At large values of the shear parameter, the instability is confined to long wavelengths, but at smaller shear, a second distinct branch at shorter wavelengths also appears. The properties of the instability obtained are compared with those obtained in the nonlocal limit by Ganguli et al. (1985, 1988).

  5. Lithium-ion drifting: Application to the study of point defects in floating-zone silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, J. T.; Wong, Y. K.; Zulehner, W.

    1997-01-01

    The use of lithium-ion (Li(+)) drifting to study the properties of point defects in p-type Floating-Zone (FZ) silicon crystals is reported. The Li(+) drift technique is used to detect the presence of vacancy-related defects (D defects) in certain p-type FZ silicon crystals. SUPREM-IV modeling suggests that the silicon point defect diffusivities are considerably higher than those commonly accepted, but are in reasonable agreement with values recently proposed. These results demonstrate the utility of Li(+) drifting in the study of silicon point defect properties in p-type FZ crystals. Finally, a straightforward measurement of the Li(+) compensation depth is shown to yield estimates of the vacancy-related defect concentration in p-type FZ crystals.

  6. Selected Ion Flow-Drift Tube Mass Spectrometry: Quantification of Volatile Compounds in Air and Breath.

    PubMed

    Spesyvyi, Anatolii; Smith, David; Špan?l, Patrik

    2015-12-15

    A selected ion flow-drift tube mass spectrometric analytical technique, SIFDT-MS, is described that extends the established selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, SIFT-MS, by the inclusion of a static but variable E-field along the axis of the flow tube reactor in which the analytical ion-molecule chemistry occurs. The ion axial speed is increased in proportion to the reduced field strength E/N (N is the carrier gas number density), and the residence/reaction time, t, which is measured by Hadamard transform multiplexing, is correspondingly reduced. To ensure a proper understanding of the physics and ion chemistry underlying SIFDT-MS, ion diffusive loss to the walls of the flow-drift tube and the mobility of injected H3O(+) ions have been studied as a function of E/N. It is seen that the derived diffusion coefficient and mobility of H3O(+) ions are consistent with those previously reported. The rate coefficient has been determined at elevated E/N for the association reaction of the H3O(+) reagent ions with H2O molecules, which is the first step in the production of H3O(+)(H2O)1,2,3 reagent hydrate ions. The production of hydrated analyte ion was also experimentally investigated. The analytical performance of SIFDT-MS is demonstrated by the quantification of acetone and isoprene in exhaled breath. Finally, the essential features of SIFDT-MS and SIFT-MS are compared, notably pointing out that a much lower speed of the flow-drive pump is required for SIFDT-MS, which facilitates the development of smaller cost-effective analytical instruments for real time breath and fluid headspace analyses. PMID:26583448

  7. Spectral anomalies of the light-induced drift effect caused by the velocity dependence of the collision broadening and shift of the absorption line

    SciTech Connect

    Parkhomenko, A I; Shalagin, Anatolii M

    2013-02-28

    We have theoretically investigated the spectral features of the light-induced drift (LID) effect, arising due to the dependence of the collision broadening {gamma} and shift {Delta} of the absorption line on the velocity of resonance particles, {nu}. It is shown that under certain conditions, account of this dependence can radically change the spectral shape of the LID signal, up to the appearance of additional zeros in the dependence of the drift velocity on the radiation frequency. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  8. Closed electron drift in a self-magnetically insulated ion diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pushkarev, A. I.; Isakova, Y. I.

    2013-05-01

    The paper investigates a spiral geometry self-magnetically insulated ion diode with an explosive-emission cathode made from graphite. The experiments have been carried out using the TEMP-4M accelerator, with the accelerator configured to operate in double-pulse mode: the first negative pulse (300-500 ns, 100-150 kV) and the second positive pulse (150 ns, 250-300 kV). The ion beam energy density was 0.4-0.8 J/cm2 and the beam was composed of carbon ions (80%-85%) and protons. In order to increase the efficiency of ion current generation, we have developed a new diode with a spiral-shaped grounded electrode. Using this geometry, it seems possible to realize closed electron drift in a diode with self-magnetic insulation. In the spiral diode, the efficiency of accelerated ions is increased from 5%-9% (conventional self-insulated diodes) up to 30%-40%. The realization of closed electron drift in the diode increases the efficiency of C+ ion generation up to 40-50 times the Childe-Langmuir limit, which is more than 4 times higher than with other known constructions of self-magnetically insulated diodes.

  9. Closed electron drift in a self-magnetically insulated ion diode

    SciTech Connect

    Pushkarev, A. I.; Isakova, Y. I.

    2013-05-15

    The paper investigates a spiral geometry self-magnetically insulated ion diode with an explosive-emission cathode made from graphite. The experiments have been carried out using the TEMP-4M accelerator, with the accelerator configured to operate in double-pulse mode: the first negative pulse (300–500 ns, 100–150 kV) and the second positive pulse (150 ns, 250–300 kV). The ion beam energy density was 0.4–0.8 J/cm{sup 2} and the beam was composed of carbon ions (80%–85%) and protons. In order to increase the efficiency of ion current generation, we have developed a new diode with a spiral-shaped grounded electrode. Using this geometry, it seems possible to realize closed electron drift in a diode with self-magnetic insulation. In the spiral diode, the efficiency of accelerated ions is increased from 5%–9% (conventional self-insulated diodes) up to 30%–40%. The realization of closed electron drift in the diode increases the efficiency of C{sup +} ion generation up to 40–50 times the Childe-Langmuir limit, which is more than 4 times higher than with other known constructions of self-magnetically insulated diodes.

  10. Scavenging of atmospheric ions and aerosols by drifting snow in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamra, A. K.; Siingh, Devendraa; Pant, Vimlesh

    2009-02-01

    Measurements of the small-, intermediate-, and large-ion concentrations and the air-earth current density along with simultaneous measurements of the concentration and size distribution of aerosol particles in the size ranges 4.4-163 nm and 0.5-20 ?m diameter are reported for a drifting snow period after the occurrence of a blizzard at a coastal station, Maitri, Antarctica. Ion concentrations of all categories and the air-earth current simultaneously decrease by approximately an order of magnitude as the wind speed increases from 5 to 10 ms - 1 . The rate of decrease is the highest for large ions, lowest for small ions and in-between the two for intermediate ions. Total aerosol number concentration decreases in the 4.4-163 nm size range but increases in the 0.5-20 ?m size range with wind speed. The size distribution of the nanometer particles shows a dominant maximum at ~ 30 nm diameter throughout the period of observations and the height of the maximum decreases with wind speed. However, larger particles show a maximum at ~ 0.7 ?m diameter but the height of the maximum increases with increasing wind speed. The results are explained in terms of scavenging of atmospheric ions and aerosols by the drifting snow particles.

  11. Distributed drift chamber design for rare particle detection in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Bellwied, R.; Bennett, M.J.; Bernardo, V.; Caines, H.; Christie, W.; Costa, S.; Crawford, H.J.; Cronqvist, M.; Debbe, R.; Dinnwiddie, R.; Engelage, J.; Flores, I.; Fuzesy, R.; Greiner, L.; Hallman, T.; Hoffmann, G.; Huang, H.Z.; Jensen, P.; Judd, E.G.; Kainz, K.; Kaplan, M.; Kelly, S.; Lindstrom, P.J; Llope, W.J.; LoCurto, G.; Longacre, R.; Milosevich, Z.; Mitchell, J.T.; Mitchell, J.W.; Mogavero, E.; Mutchler, G.; Paganis, S.; Platner, E.; Potenza, R.; Rotondo, F.; Russ, D.; Sakrejda, I.; Saulys, A.; Schambach, J.; Sheen, J.; Smirnoff, N.; Stokeley, C.; Tang, J.; Trattner, A.L.; Trentalange, S.; Visser, G.; Whitfield, J.P.; Witharm, F.; Witharm, R.; Wright, M.

    2001-10-02

    This report describes a multi-plane drift chamber that was designed and constructed to function as a topological detector for the BNL AGSE896 rare particle experiment. The chamber was optimized for good spatial resolution, two track separation, and a high uniform efficiency while operating in a 1.6 Tesla magnetic field and subjected to long term exposure from a 11.6 GeV/nucleon beam of 10**6 Au ions per second.

  12. Solvable Examples of Drift and Diffusion of Ions in Non-uniform Electric Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Cahn, Robert; Cahn, Robert N.; Jackson, John David

    2008-05-30

    The drift and diffusion of a cloud of ions in a fluid are distorted by an inhomogeneous electric field. If the electric field carries the center of the distribution in a straight line and the field configuration is suitably symmetric, the distortion can be calculated analytically. We examine the specific examples of fields with cylindrical and spherical symmetry in detail assuming the ion distributions to be of a generally Gaussian form. The effects of differing diffusion coefficients in the transverse and longitudinal directions are included.

  13. Resonant-to-nonresonant transition in electrostatic ion-cyclotron wave phase velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, J. J., III; Koepke, M. E.; Zintl, M. W.; Gavrishchaka, V.

    Because of the implications for plasmas in the laboratory and in space, attention has been drawn to inhomogeneous energy-density driven (IEDD) waves that are sustained by velocity-shear-induced inhomogeneity in cross-field plasma flow. These waves have a frequency vr in the lab frame within an order of magnitude of the ion gyrofrequency vci, propagate nearly perpendicular to the magnetic field (kz /k^ << 1), and can be Landau resonant (0 < v1/kz < nd) with a parallel drifting electron population (drift speed nd), where subscripts 1 and r indicate frequency in the frame of flowing ions and in the lab frame, respectively, and kz is the parallel component of the wavevector. A transition in phase velocity from 0 < v1/kz < nd to 0 > v1/kz > nd for a pair of IEDD eigenmodes is observed as the degree of in-homogeneity in the transverse E × B flow is increased in a magnetized plasma column. For weaker velocity shear, both eigenmodes are dissipative, i.e. in Landau resonance, with kz nd > 0. For stronger shear, both eigenmodes become reactive, with one's wavevector component kz remaining parallel, but with v1/kz > nd , and the other's wavevector component kz becoming anti-parallel, so that 0 > v1/kz . For both eigenmodes, the transition (1) involves a small frequency shift and (2) does not involve a sign change in the wave energy density, which is proportional to vr v1, both of which are previously unrecognized aspects of inhomogeneous energy-density driven waves.

  14. Beam dynamics of the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment-II (NDCX-II), a novel pulse-compressing ion accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A; Barnard, J J; Cohen, R H; Grote, D P; Lund, S M; Sharp, W M; Faltens, A; Henestroza, E; Jung, J; Kwan, J W; Lee, E P; Leitner, M A; Logan, B G; Vay, J; Waldron, W L; Davidson, R C; Dorf, M; Gilson, E P; Kaganovich, I

    2009-11-19

    Intense beams of heavy ions are well suited for heating matter to regimes of emerging interest. A new facility, NDCX-II, will enable studies of warm dense matter at {approx}1 eV and near-solid density, and of heavy-ion inertial fusion target physics relevant to electric power production. For these applications the beam must deposit its energy rapidly, before the target can expand significantly. To form such pulses, ion beams are temporally compressed in neutralizing plasma; current amplification factors of {approx}50-100 are routinely obtained on the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) at LBNL. In the NDCX-II physics design, an initial non-neutralized compression renders the pulse short enough that existing high-voltage pulsed power can be employed. This compression is first halted and then reversed by the beam's longitudinal space-charge field. Downstream induction cells provide acceleration and impose the head-to-tail velocity gradient that leads to the final neutralized compression onto the target. This paper describes the discrete-particle simulation models (1-D, 2-D, and 3-D) employed and the space-charge-dominated beam dynamics being realized.

  15. Beam dynamics of the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment-II (NDCX-II),a novel pulse-compressing ion accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A.; Barnard, J.J.; Cohen, R.H.; Grote, D.P.; Lund, S.M.; Sharp, W.M.; Faltens, A.; Henestroza, E.; Jung, J.-Y.; Kwan, J.W.; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.A.; Logan, B.G.; Vay, J.-L.; Waldron, W.L.; Davidson, R.C.; Dorf, M.; Gilson, E.P.; Kaganovich, I.D.

    2009-12-19

    Intense beams of heavy ions are well suited for heating matter to regimes of emerging interest. A new facility, NDCX-II, will enable studies of warm dense matter at {approx}1 eV and near-solid density, and of heavy-ion inertial fusion target physics relevant to electric power production. For these applications the beam must deposit its energy rapidly, before the target can expand significantly. To form such pulses, ion beams are temporally compressed in neutralizing plasma; current amplification factors of {approx}50-100 are routinely obtained on the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) at LBNL. In the NDCX-II physics design, an initial non-neutralized compression renders the pulse short enough that existing high-voltage pulsed power can be employed. This compression is first halted and then reversed by the beam's longitudinal space-charge field. Downstream induction cells provide acceleration and impose the head-to-tail velocity gradient that leads to the final neutralized compression onto the target. This paper describes the discrete-particle simulation models (1-D, 2-D, and 3-D) employed and the space-charge-dominated beam dynamics being realized.

  16. A Monte Carlo simulation of the effect of ion self-collisions on the ion velocity distribution function in the high-latitude F-region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barghouthi, I. A.; Barakat, A. R.; Schunk, R. W.

    1994-01-01

    Non-Maxwellian ion velocity distribution functions have been theoretically predicted and confirmed by observations, to occur at high latitudes. These distributions deviate from Maxwellian due to the combined effect of the E x B drift and ion-neutral collisions. At high altitude and/or for solar maximum conditions, the ion-to-neutral density ratio increases and, hence, the role of ion self-collisions becomes appreciable. A Monte Carlo simulation was used to investigate the behavior of O(+) ions that are E x B-drifting through a background of neutral O, with the effect of O(+) (Coulomb) self-collisions included. Wide ranges of the ion-to-neutral density ratio n(sub i)/n(sub n) and the electrostatic field E were considered in order to investigate the change of ion behavior with solar cycle and with altitude. For low altitudes and/or solar minimum (n(sub i)/n(sub n) less than or equal to 10(exp -5)), the effect of self-collisions is negligible. For higher values of n(sub i)/n(sub n), the effect of self-collisions becomes significant and, hence, the non-Maxwellian features of the O(+) distribution are reduced. The Monte Carlo results were compared to those that used simplified collision models in order to assess their validity. In general, the simple collision models tend to be more accurate for low E and for high n(sub i)/n(sub n).

  17. An updated climatology of thermospheric neutral winds and F region ion drifts above Millstone Hill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buonsanto, M. J.; Witasse, O. G.

    1999-11-01

    Incoherent scatter radar data from 63 experiments during the period 1984-1997 have been used to update earlier published climatologies of ion drifts and neutral thermospheric winds at Millstone Hill. Data are binned according to season, solar activity, geomagnetic activity, and local solar time. The derived ion drift patterns are similar to those previously published, but we now find that the main effect of the increased magnetic activity is an enhancement of the usual nighttime west-ward ion drift. A tidal decomposition of the winds from geomagnetically quiet conditions is carried out for each season/solar activity level to extract diurnal means, diurnal amplitudes and phases, and semidiurnal components. These winds are compared with previous results at Millstone Hill and the HWM-93 model. Using our expanded wind database, statistically significant semidiurnal components are now found in both summer and winter, at both solar maximum and solar minimum. Our bin-averaged results confirm earlier published findings that at all seasons the diurnal mean winds are more strongly equatorward and the diurnal amplitudes are stronger at solar cycle minimum than at solar cycle maximum. Diurnal amplitudes derived in the present work are larger than those found previously because we now use a smaller value for the O+,O collision frequency. Differences in the diurnal mean and diurnal amplitude between recent solar minimum data (1993-1997) and data from the previous solar minimum (1984-1986) are attributed to a difference in the EUV flux as inferred from Millstone Hill electron density data which one would not expect from the F10.7 index. This affects the ion drag and apparently also the relative importance of the EUV and high latitude heat sources.

  18. Exact representation of the asymptotic drift speed and diffusion matrix for a class of velocity-jump processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mascia, Corrado

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines a class of linear hyperbolic systems which generalizes the Goldstein-Kac model to an arbitrary finite number of speeds vi with transition rates ?ij. Under the basic assumptions that the transition matrix is symmetric and irreducible, and the differences vi -vj generate all the space, the system exhibits a large-time behavior described by a parabolic advection-diffusion equation. The main contribution is to determine explicit formulas for the asymptotic drift speed and diffusion matrix in term of the kinetic parameters vi and ?ij, establishing a complete connection between microscopic and macroscopic coefficients. It is shown that the drift speed is the arithmetic mean of the velocities vi. The diffusion matrix has a more complicate representation, based on the graph with vertices the velocities vi and arcs weighted by the transition rates ?ij. The approach is based on an exhaustive analysis of the dispersion relation and on the application of a variant of the Kirchoff's matrix tree Theorem from graph theory.

  19. Comparing daytime, equatorial E×B drift velocities and TOPEX/TEC observations associated with the 4-cell, non-migrating tidal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, D.; Araujo-Pradere, E.; Scherliess, L.

    2009-07-01

    We investigate the seasonal and longitude dependence of the daytime, vertical E×B drift velocities, on a day-to-day basis, using a recently-developed technique for inferring realistic E×B drifts from ground-based magnetometer observations. We have chosen only quiet days, Ap<10, from January 2001 through December 2002, so that the main contribution to the variability is due to the variability in the tidal forcing from below. In order to study the longitude dependence in daytime E×B drift velocities, we use appropriately-placed magnetometers in the Peruvian, Philippine, Indonesian and Indian longitude sectors. Since we are particularly interested in quantifying the E×B drift velocities associated with the 4-cell, non-migrating tidal structure, we compare the seasonal and longitude E×B drift structure with TOPEX satellite observations of Total Electron Content (TEC). We outline a plan to establish the magnitude of the longitude gradients that exist in the daytime, vertical E×B drift velocities at the boundaries of the observed 4-cell patterns and to theoretically identify the physical mechanisms that account for these sharp gradients. The paper demonstrates that sharp gradients in E×B drift velocities exist at one of the 4-cell boundaries and outlines how the C/NOFS IVM and VEFI sensor observations could be used to establish the E×B drift longitude gradients at the boundaries of each of the 4 cells. In addition, the paper identifies one of the theoretical, atmosphere/ionosphere models that could be employed to identify the physical mechanisms that might explain these observations.

  20. Jovian Auroral Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model (J-AITM): Part 2. Benchmarks of the Ion Velocity Model (IVM) and the Electric Field Model (EFM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egert, A.; Waite, J. H., Jr.; Bell, J. M.; Goldstein, J.

    2014-12-01

    As part of the Jupiter Auroral Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model (J-AITM) construction in support of the Juno mission, we present benchmarks of the Electric Field Model (EFM) and the Ion Velocity Model (IVM). IVM uses the published results from Krupp et al., 2001, to constrain estimated velocities, and it is found that a modified Gaussian distribution gives a first-order approximation to the velocity flow profile. EFM calculates the magnetospheric electric fields using IVM and a magnetic field model, and then assumes magnetic flux conservation to map the electric fields into the ionosphere. These ionospheric electric fields are then used to estimate ionospheric drift velocities.

  1. Li+ alumino-silicate ion source development for the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX)

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Prabir K.; Greenway, Wayne G.; Kwan, Joe W.; Seidl, Peter A.; Waldron, William L.; Wu, James K.

    2010-10-01

    We report results on lithium alumino-silicate ion source development in preparation for warmdense-matter heating experiments on the new Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCXII). The practical limit to the current density for a lithium alumino-silicate source is determined by the maximum operating temperature that the ion source can withstand before running into problems of heat transfer, melting of the alumino-silicate material, and emission lifetime. Using small prototype emitters, at a temperature of ~;;1275 oC, a space-charge-limited Li+ beam current density of J ~;;1 mA/cm2 was obtained. The lifetime of the ion source was ~;;50 hours while pulsing at a rate of 0.033 Hz with a pulse duration of 5-6 mu s.

  2. Drift orbit topology of fast ions in tokamaks Plasma Science and Fusion Centre, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,

    E-print Network

    Egedal, Jan

    Drift orbit topology of fast ions in tokamaks J. Egedal Plasma Science and Fusion Centre methods are developed by which the guiding centre orbit topology of fast ions in tokamaks is efficiently obtained and displayed. For constant energy we characterize the orbits by a new set of constant of motion

  3. Drift orbit topology of fast ions in tokamaks Plasma Science and Fusion Centre, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,

    E-print Network

    Egedal, Jan

    Drift orbit topology of fast ions in tokamaks J. Egedal Plasma Science and Fusion Centre methods are developed by which the guiding centre orbit topology of fast ions in tokamaks is e#ciently obtained and displayed. For constant energy we characterize the orbits by a new set of constant of motion

  4. A method for determining the drift velocity of plasma depletions in the equatorial ionosphere using far-ultraviolet spacecraft observations: initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    England, S. L.; Immel, T. J.; Park, S. H.; Frey, H. U.; Mende, S. B.

    2007-12-01

    The Far-Ultraviolet Imager (IMAGE-FUV) on-board the NASA IMAGE satellite has been used to observe plasma depletions in the nightside equatorial ionosphere. Observations from periods around spacecraft apogee, during which equatorial regions are visible for several hours, have allowed the velocity of these plasma depletions to be determined. A new method for determining the velocity of these depletions using an image analysis technique, Tracking Of Airglow Depletions (TOAD), has been developed. TOAD allows the objective identification and tracking of depletions. The automation of this process has also allowed for the tracking of a greater number of depletions than previously achieved without requiring any human input, which shows that TOAD is suitable for use with large data sets and for future routine monitoring of the ionosphere from space. Furthermore, this allows the drift velocities of each depletion to be determined as a function of magnetic latitude as well as local time. Previous ground-based airglow observations from a small number of locations have indicated that the drift velocities of depletions may vary rapidly with magnetic latitude. Here we shall present the first results from TOAD of this shear in drift velocities from our global sample of depletion drift velocities.

  5. A method for determining the drift velocity of plasma depletions in the equatorial ionosphere using far-ultraviolet spacecraft observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S. H.; England, S. L.; Immel, T. J.; Frey, H. U.; Mende, S. B.

    2007-11-01

    The Far-Ultraviolet Imager (IMAGE-FUV) on board the NASA IMAGE satellite has been used to observe plasma depletions in the nightside equatorial ionosphere. Observations from periods around spacecraft apogee, during which equatorial regions are visible for several hours, have allowed the velocity of these plasma depletions to be determined. A new method for determining the velocity of these depletions using an image analysis technique, Tracking Of Airglow Depletions (TOAD), has been developed. TOAD allows the objective identification and tracking of depletions. The automation of this process has also allowed for the tracking of a greater number of depletions than previously achieved without requiring any human input, which shows that TOAD is suitable for use with large data sets and for future routine monitoring of the ionosphere from space. Furthermore, this automation allows the drift velocities of each bubble to be determined as a function of magnetic latitude, which will give us the capability of retrieving geophysically important parameters such as the electric field, which are believed to vary rapidly with magnetic latitude.

  6. Preferential acceleration of heavy ions from thermal velocities D. B. MELROSE

    E-print Network

    Melrose, Don

    Preferential acceleration of heavy ions from thermal velocities D. B. MELROSE #12;Preferential acceleration of heavy ions from thermal velocities1 D. B. MELROSE Belfer Graduate School of Science, Yeshiva University, New York, N.Y., U.S.A. Received June 15, 1967 The acceleration of ions from thermal velocities

  7. Effects of drift gas on collision cross sections of a protein standard in linear drift tube and traveling wave ion mobility mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jurneczko, Ewa; Kalapothakis, Jason; Campuzano, Iain D G; Morris, Michael; Barran, Perdita E

    2012-10-16

    There has been a significant increase in the use of ion mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS) to investigate conformations of proteins and protein complexes following electrospray ionization. Investigations which employ traveling wave ion mobility mass spectrometry (TW IM-MS) instrumentation rely on the use of calibrants to convert the arrival times of ions to collision cross sections (CCS) providing "hard numbers" of use to structural biology. It is common to use nitrogen as the buffer gas in TW IM-MS instruments and to calibrate by extrapolating from CCS measured in helium via drift tube (DT) IM-MS. In this work, both DT and TW IM-MS instruments are used to investigate the effects of different drift gases (helium, neon, nitrogen, and argon) on the transport of multiply charged ions of the protein myoglobin, frequently used as a standard in TW IM-MS studies. Irrespective of the drift gas used, recorded mass spectra are found to be highly similar. In contrast, the recorded arrival time distributions and the derived CCS differ greatly. At low charge states (7 ? z ? 11) where the protein is compact, the CCS scale with the polarizability of the gas; this is also the case for higher charge states (12 ? z ? 22) where the protein is more unfolded for the heavy gases (neon, argon, and nitrogen) but not the case for helium. This is here interpreted as a different conformational landscape being sampled by the lighter gas and potentially attributable to increased field heating by helium. Under nanoelectrospray ionization (nESI) conditions, where myoglobin is sprayed from an aqueous solution buffered to pH 6.8 with 20 mM ammonium acetate, in the DT IM-MS instrument, each buffer gas can yield a different arrival time distribution (ATD) for any given charge state. PMID:22974196

  8. Mobility-Resolved Ion Selection in Uniform Drift Field Ion Mobility Spectrometry/Mass Spectrometry; Dynamic Switching in Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, Ian K.; Garimella, Venkata BS; Tolmachev, Aleksey V.; Chen, Tsung-Chi; Zhang, Xinyu; Cox, Jonathan T.; Norheim, Randolph V.; Prost, Spencer A.; Lamarche, Brian L.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Smith, Richard D.

    2014-10-07

    A Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations (SLIM) module that allows ion mobility separations and the switching of ions between alternative drift paths is described. The SLIM switch component has a “Tee” configuration and allows switching of ions between a linear path and a 90-degree bend. By controlling switching times, ions can be deflected to an alternative channel as a function of their mobilities. In the initial evaluation the switch is used in a static mode and shown compatible with high performance ion mobility separations at 4 torr. In the “dynamic mode” we show that mobility-selected ions can be switched into the alternative channel, and that various ion species can be independently selected based on their mobilities for time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF MS) IMS detection and mass analysis. This development also provides the basis for e.g. the selection of specific mobilities for storage and accumulation, and key modules for the assembly of SLIM devices enabling much more complex sequences of ion manipulations.

  9. Mobility-Resolved Ion Selection in Uniform Drift Field Ion Mobility Spectrometry/Mass Spectrometry: Dynamic Switching in Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations (SLIM) module that allows ion mobility separations and the switching of ions between alternative drift paths is described. The SLIM switch component has a “Tee” configuration and allows the efficient switching of ions between a linear path and a 90-degree bend. By controlling switching times, ions can be efficiently directed to an alternative channel as a function of their mobilities. In the initial evaluation the switch is used in a static mode and shown compatible with high performance ion mobility separations at 4 Torr. In the dynamic mode, we show that mobility-selected ions can be switched into the alternative channel, and that various ion species can be independently selected based on their mobilities for time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF MS) IMS detection and mass analysis. This development also provides the basis of, for example, the selection of specific mobilities for storage and accumulation, and the key component of modules for the assembly of SLIM devices enabling much more complex sequences of ion manipulations. PMID:25222548

  10. Ion flux energy distributions in a hydrogen-filled drift tube at high E/N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phelps, Arthur

    2008-10-01

    Ion flux energy distributions are calculated for H^+, H2^+, and H3^+ ions in H2 for low-current, uniform-electric-field drift tubes at 1 kTd < E/N < 10 kTd and 5x10^20 <=N d <=3x10^21 m^2, where E is the electric field, N is the gas density, and d is the electrode separation. We use updated cross sections in a multi-beam model of the spatial and energy dependent particle fluxes. Calculated distributions at the cathode are compared with experiments by Rao et al. and detailed theory by Bretagne et al. Hypothetical large increases in the total momentum transfer cross sections for H^+ and H3^+ at 100 to 1000 eV yield approximate fits to the relative experimental distributions at high energies at moderate E/N. However, these fitted distributions are much too small at low ion energies. Similar discrepancies occur for analytic solutions of the Boltzmann equations using simplified reaction cross sections and the almost free-fall conditions for H^+ at 10 kTd.

  11. Kinetic water-bag model of global collisional drift waves and ion temperature gradient instabilities in cylindrical geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Gravier, E.; Plaut, E.

    2013-04-15

    Collisional drift waves and ion temperature gradient (ITG) instabilities are studied using a linear water-bag kinetic model [P. Morel et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 112109 (2007)]. An efficient spectral method, already validated in the case of drift waves instabilities [E. Gravier et al., Eur. Phys. J. D 67, 7 (2013)], allows a fast solving of the global linear problem in cylindrical geometry. The comparison between the linear ITG instability properties thus computed and the ones given by the COLUMBIA experiment [R. G. Greaves et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 34, 1253 (1992)] shows a qualitative agreement. Moreover, the transition between collisional drift waves and ITG instabilities is studied theoretically as a function of the ion temperature profile.

  12. Analysis of heterogeneous uptake by nanoparticles via differential mobility analysis-drift tube ion mobility spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Oberreit, Derek R; McMurry, Peter H; Hogan, Christopher J

    2014-04-21

    Improved methods are needed to study sorption of vapor molecules by particles in the gas phase (heterogeneous uptake), which is an important process in both natural and engineered environments. Here, a new measurement system, composed of a differential mobility analyzer (DMA) and drift tube ion mobility spectrometer (DTIMS) in series, is used to examine the heterogeneous uptake of water vapor by 2.85-7.6 nm particles composed of lithium and sodium iodide. The extent of heterogeneous uptake is determined by controlling the relative humidity of the drift region in the DTIMS in the 0-30% range (in air at atmospheric pressure and room temperature), and is quantified via the dimensionless growth factor (GF), i.e. the ratio of the mobility diameter of particles at a prescribed relative humidity relative to their mobility diameter under dry conditions. The precision in GF estimation of the DMA-DTIMS system is shown to be below 0.2%. An analytical equation to calculate the growth factor, based upon predictions of the equilibrium constants for the successive uptake of vapor molecules by particles, is also presented. While the equation is sufficiently general to enable comparison between measured GFs and predictions from any theoretical expression for equilibrium constants, we specifically compare measurements to GF predictions based on the classical Kelvin-Thomson-Raoult (KTR) model for the vapor pressure of a small particle, with consideration of the influence of the ion-dipole potential on water vapor-nanoparticle collisions. It is shown that KTR calculations drastically underpredict the extent of heterogeneous uptake for the examined nanoparticles. PMID:24600691

  13. Track-membrane-based interface for field evaporation of ions from polar solutions in the diffusion-drift regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakin, A. A.; Buido, E. A.

    2013-11-01

    The possibility of realization of barrier-free field evaporation regime for ions from polar solutions in the conditions when the flux of ions from the liquid is limited by their diffusion and drift from the bulk to the surface is considered. The strength of the electric field extracting ions is estimated by simulating electric fields in an ion source with a track membrane as the interface with allowance for the sizes of channels in the membrane and their density. It is shown that when time-dependent electric fields are used, the regime of barrier-free field evaporation can be realized with an appropriate choice of geometrical parameters of the membrane.

  14. Threshold field for soft damage and electron drift velocity in InGaN two-dimensional channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardaravi?ius, L.; Kiprijanovi?, O.; Liberis, J.; Šermukšnis, E.; Matulionis, A.; Ferreyra, R. A.; Avrutin, V.; Özgür, Ü.; Morkoç, H.

    2015-10-01

    Experimental investigation of electron transport along a two-dimensional channel confined in an InGaN alloy of Al{}0.82In{}0.18N/AlN/In{}0.1Ga{}0.9N/GaN structure was performed at room temperature under near-equilibrium thermal-bath temperature. A soft damage was observed at a threshold electric field applied in the channel plane. The threshold current for soft damage and the supplied electric power were lower in the channels with a higher electron density. The results are interpreted in terms of plasmon-assisted heat dissipation. In agreement with ultra-fast decay of hot phonons in the vicinity of the resonance with plasmons, the electron drift velocity acquires a highest value of ?2 × 107 cm s?1 at 180 kV cm?1 in channels with 1 × 1013 cm?2 and decreases as the electron density increases. No negative differential resistance is observed. The effective hot-phonon lifetime is estimated as ? 2 ps at 1.6 × 1013 cm?2 at low electric fields and is found to decrease as the field increases.

  15. Periodic modulation of ion velocities within the magnetodisk of Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemeth, Zoltan; Szego, Karoly; Foldy, Lajos; Kivelson, Margaret; Jia, Xianzhe; Ramer, Katherine; Cowley, Stanley W. H.; Provan, Gabrielle

    2013-04-01

    The results of recent numerical simulations [Jia and Kivelson, 2012] show that in the magnetodisk of Saturn fluctuating magnetic field perturbations are accompanied by other oscillatory phenomena. They investigated the magnetotail response for a dual periodicity driver in the case when the solar wind flow was perpendicular to the rotation axis. As demonstrated in Fig. 7 of their paper the components of the flow velocity extracted at different radial distances plotted versus time exhibit periodic modulation. Andrews et al. [2012] and Provan et al. [2012] investigated magnetic field modulations in Saturn's magnetosphere. They have shown that in the high latitude regions single period modulations can be observed, but near the current sheet dual periodicities are characteristic. In this study we investigate periodicities in the azimuthal flow velocities using the numerical ion moments derived from the measurements of Cassini Plasma Spectrometer. Ramer et al. [2012] investigated these periodicities in the inner magnetosphere near the equatorial plane. We extend our study to include higher latitude passes in the outer magnetosphere to the orbit of Titan and beyond. To have a close match with the model assumptions of Jia and Kivelson, we investigated the behaviour of the ion velocities in the time range DOY 092-285, 2009, around Saturnian equinox, along different passes all containing a Titan flyby, and crossing the magnetodisk at different angles. We have found that the azimuthal velocities show oscillatory behavior. The amplitude of the oscillation is comparable with the corrotation speed. We have also compared the structure of the velocity variations to the variations of ion densities along the different passes, and compared those to the model as well. The results of the current study is reported in this presentation. References Andrews, D. J., S. W. H. Cowley, M. K. Dougherty, L. Lamy, G. Provan, and D. J. Southwood (2012), Planetary period oscillations in Saturn's magnetosphere: Evolution of magnetic oscillation properties from southern summer to postequinox, J. Geophys. Res., 117, A04224, doi:10.1029/2011JA017444. Jia and Kivelson (2012),Driving Saturn's magnetospheric periodicities from the upper atmosphere/ionosphere: Magnetotail response to dual sources, J. Geophys. Res., 117, A11219, doi:10.1029/2012JA018183. Ramer, K. M., M. G. Kivelson1, K. K. Khurana, N. Sergis, R. J. Walke1, X. Jia (2012), Forces and Phases: An Investigation of Azimuthal Plasma and Field Periodicities in Saturn's Inner Magnetosphere, AGU Fall Meeting 2012, SM51B-2303 Provan, G., D. J. Andrews, C. S. Arridge, A. J. Coates, S. W. H. Cowley, G. Cox, M. K. Dougherty, and C. M. Jackman (2012), Dual periodicities in planetary-period magnetic field oscillations in Saturn's tail, J. Geophys. Res., 117, A01209, doi:10.1029/2011JA017104.

  16. Regime transition of ion Bernstein instability driven by ion shell velocity distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Kyungguk; Liu, Kaijun

    2015-10-01

    Linear kinetic dispersion theory is used to investigate a regime transition of the ion Bernstein instability driven by a proton velocity distribution with positive slopes with respect to the perpendicular velocity, ?fp(v?˜0,v?)/?v?>0. The unstable waves arising from this instability are ion Bernstein waves with proton cyclotron harmonic dispersion. However, in the inner magnetosphere, particularly inside of the plasmapause where plasmas are dominated by a cold background, the instability leads to ion Bernstein waves which approximately follow the cold plasma dispersion relation for fast magnetosonic waves and are, therefore, fast magnetosonic-like. Subsequently, the relevant waves have been termed fast magnetosonic waves and many studies have assumed the cold plasma dispersion relation to describe them. On the other hand, how the dispersion properties of ion Bernstein waves become fast magnetosonic-like has not yet been well understood. To examine this regime transition of the instability, we perform linear dispersion analyses using a two-component proton model of fp(v) = fM(v) + fs(v), where fM is a Maxwellian velocity distribution and fs is an isotropic shell velocity distribution. The results show that the unstable waves are essentially ion Bernstein waves; however, when the shell proton concentration becomes sufficiently small (less than 10), the unstable waves approach the cold plasma dispersion relation for fast magnetosonic waves and become fast magnetosonic-like. Although a reduced proton-to-electron mass ratio of 100 has been used for convenience, which reduces the number of unstable modes involved by lowering the lower hybrid frequency, this does not change the overall regime transition picture revealed in this study.

  17. Relative ion expansion velocity in laser-produced plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsmith, S.; Moreno, J. C.; Griem, H. R.; Cohen, Leonard; Richardson, M. C.

    1988-01-01

    The spectra of highly ionized titanium, Ti XIII through Ti XXI, and C VI Lyman lines were excited in laser-produced plasmas. The plasma was produced by uniformly irradiating spherical glass microballoons coated with thin layers of titanium and parylene. The 24-beam Omega laser system produced short, 0.6 ns, and high-intensity, 4 x 10 to the 14th W/sq cm, laser pulses at a wavelength of 351 nm. The measured wavelength for the 2p-3s Ti XIII resonance lines had an average shift of + 0.023 A relative to the C VI and Ti XX spectral lines. No shift was found between the C VI, Ti XIX, and Ti XX lines. The shift is attributed to a Doppler effect, resulting from a difference of (2.6 + or - 0.2) x 10 to the 7th cm/s in the expansion velocities of Ti XIX and Ti XX ions compared to Ti XIII ions.

  18. Relative ion expansion velocity in laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, S.; Moreno, J.C.; Griem, H.R.; Cohen, L.; Richardson, M.C.

    1988-07-15

    The spectra of highly ionized titanium, TiXIII through TiXXI, and CVI Lyman lines were excited in laser-produced plasmas. The plasma was produced by uniformly irradiating spherical glass microballoons coated with thin layers of titanium and parylene. The 24-beam Omega laser system produced short, 0.6 ns, and high intensity, 4 x 10/sup 14/ W/cm,/sup 2/ laser pulses at a wavelength of 351 nm. The measured wavelength for the 2p-3s TiXIII resonance lines had an average shift of +0.023 A relative to the CVI and TiXX spectral lines. No shift was found between the CVI, TiXIX, and TiXX lines. The shift is attributed to a Doppler effect, resulting from a difference of (2.6 +- 0.2) x 10/sup 7/ cm/s in the expansion velocities of TiXIX and TiXX ions compared to TiXIII ions.

  19. Seasonal cycle of velocity in the Atlantic North Equatorial Countercurrent as measured by surface drifters, current meters, and ship drifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, P. L.; Reverdin, G.

    1987-04-01

    This report describes the general circulation and seasonal variation of currents in the equatorial Atlantic, concentrating on the North Equatorial Countercurrent (NECC), using data collected as part of the Seasonal Response of the Equatorial Atlantic and Programme Français Océan et Climat dans l'Atlantique Equatorial experiments plus historical ship drifts. During 1983-1985 the Lagrangian circulation was studied by launching and tracking 30 freely drifting drogued buoys in the North Equatorial Countercurrent and 23 in the South Equatorial Current (SEC). In addition, continuously recording current meters were moored for 20 months at depths from 20 to 300 m near the center of the NECC, at 6°N, 28°W. These measurements are the longest series ever obtained in this current and provide information about its seasonal and interannual variations and zonal, meridional, and vertical structure. The seasonal cycle of the NECC is very regular from year to year. Each year the NECC starts up in May-June. It flows eastward across the Atlantic with surface speeds of up to 143 cm/s in the west, extending down to 350 m at 28°W, and flowing into both the Guinea Current and North Equatorial Current. It disappears or reverses from about January-June west of 18°W. Some near-surface water of the NECC is inferred to downwell and flow equatorward toward the Equatorial Undercurrent. The SEC flows into the North Brazil Current, which during spring continues up the coast into the Caribbean. During fall, however, the whole North Brazil Current retroflects, or turns back on itself, between 45° and 50°W, forming the western NECC. The retroflection establishes a meander pattern in the NECC that slowly propagates westward during fall at a speed of 4 cm/s. The meanders have a displacement of about 300 km in latitude, a wavelength of 900 km, and meridional velocity fluctuations of up to 100 cm/s. The swift currents and time-dependent meanders in the western NECC cause a high eddy kinetic energy, ˜2400 cm2/s2, equivalent to that of the energetic part of the Gulf Stream.

  20. Temperature Dependence of Electron Drift Velocity and Electron Collision Cross Section Sets for Ground State and Vibrationally Excited State of the CO2 Molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, M.; Nakamura, Y.

    1998-10-01

    The electron drift velocity in carbon dioxide was calculated at gas temperatures ranging from 193 to 573 K and at E/N values up to 100 Td, assuming that the gas was a mixture of ground state and vibrationally excited molecules and that the mix-ratio was determined by the gas temperature. The elastic momentum cross sections for the ground and the vibrationally excited molecules used in the present calculation were based on the compilation of Hayashi (1990) and recent experiments of Nakamura (1995) and Strakeljahn (1998). We also assumed that all other inelastic cross sections for the ground and the vibrationally excited molecules were the same (Schulz 1969, Srivastava 1983). The calculated electron drift velocity showed marked temperature dependence which agreed fairly well with the measurement of Elford (1980).

  1. Effective ionization coefficients, electron drift velocities, and limiting breakdown fields for gas mixtures of possible interest to particle detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Datskos, P.G. . Dept. of Physics); Christophorou, L.G.; Carter, J.G. )

    1991-01-01

    We have measured the gas-density, N, normalized effective ionization coefficient, {bar a}/N, and the electron drift velocity, w, as a function of the density-reduced electric field, E/N, and obtained the limiting, (E/N){sub lim}, value of E/N for the unitary gases Ar, CO{sub 2}, and CF{sub 4}, the binary gas mixtures CO{sub 2}:Ar (20: 80), CO{sub 2}:CH{sub 4} (20:80), and CF{sub 4}:Ar (20:80), and the ternary gas mixtures CO{sub 2}:CF{sub 4}:Ar (10:10:80) and H{sub 2}O: CF{sub 4}:Ar (2:18:80). Addition of the strongly electron thermalizing gas CO{sub 2} or H{sub 2}O to the binary mixture CF{sub 4}:Ar (1) cools'' the mixture (i.e., lowers the electron energies), (2) has only a small effect on the magnitude of w(E/N) in the E/N range employed in the particle detectors, and (3) increases {bar a}/N for E/N {ge} 50 {times} 10{sup {minus}17} V cm{sup 2}. The increase in {bar a}/N, even though the electron energies are lower in the ternary mixture, is due to the Penning ionization of CO{sub 2}(or H{sub 2}O) in collisions with excited Ar* atoms. The ternary mixtures -- being fast, cool, and efficient -- have potential for advanced gas-filled particle detectors such as those for the SCC muon chambers. 17 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Effect of small-scale plasma turbulence on altitude profiles of electron drift velocity in the equatorial electrojet: An experimental study

    SciTech Connect

    Murthy, B.V.K.; Ravindran, S.

    1994-10-01

    The authors report recent observations of the effect of turbulence on the altitude behavior of the equatorial electrojet. Their results show that with an increase in observed turbulence that the altitude of maximum in the electron drift velocity shifts to higher altitudes. This is consistent with recent theoretical work which shows that small scale turbulence can produce large-scale changes in the dynamics of the equatorial electrojet.

  3. Spectroscopic measurement of ion temperature and ion velocity distributions in the flux-coil generated FRCa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, D.; Bolte, N.; Gota, H.; Hayashi, R.; Kiyashko, V.; Marsili, P.; Morehouse, M.; Primavera, S.; Roche, T.; Wessel, F.

    2010-10-01

    One aim of the flux-coil generated field reversed configuration at Tri Alpha Energy (TAE) is to establish the plasma where the ion rotational energy is greater than the ion thermal energy. To verify this, an optical diagnostic was developed to simultaneously measure the Doppler velocity-shift and line-broadening using a 0.75 m, 1800 groves/mm, spectrometer. The output spectrum is magnified and imaged onto a 16-channel photomultiplier tube (PMT) array. The individual PMT outputs are coupled to high-gain, high-frequency, transimpedance amplifiers, providing fast-time response. The Doppler spectroscopy measurements, along with a survey spectrometer and photodiode-light detector, form a suite of diagnostics that provide insights into the time evolution of the plasma-ion distribution and current when accelerated by an azimuthal-electric field.

  4. Enhancing Biological Analyses with Three Dimensional Field Asymmetric Ion Mobility, Low Field Drift Time Ion Mobility and Mass Spectrometry (µFAIMS/IMS-MS) Separations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xing; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Chen, Tsung-Chi; Kyle, Jennifer E.; Norheim, Randolph V.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Smith, Richard D.; Baker, Erin Shammel

    2015-06-30

    We report the first evaluation of a platform coupling a high speed field asymmetric ion mobility spectrometry microchip (µFAIMS) with drift tube ion mobility and mass spectrometry (IMS-MS). The µFAIMS/IMS-MS platform was used to analyze biological samples and simultaneously acquire multidimensional information of detected features from the measured FAIMS compensation fields and IMS drift times, while also obtaining accurate ion masses. These separations thereby increase the overall separation power, resulting increased information content, and provide more complete characterization of more complex samples. The separation conditions were optimized for sensitivity and resolving power by the selection of gas compositions and pressures in the FAIMS and IMS separation stages. The resulting performance provided three dimensional separations, benefitting both broad complex mixture studies and targeted analyses by e.g. improving isomeric separations and allowing detection of species obscured by “chemical noise” and other interfering peaks.

  5. An Effective Approach for Coupling Direct Analysis in Real Time with Atmospheric Pressure Drift Tube Ion Mobility Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keelor, Joel D.; Dwivedi, Prabha; Fernández, Facundo M.

    2014-09-01

    Drift tube ion mobility spectrometry (DTIMS) has evolved as a robust analytical platform routinely used for screening small molecules across a broad suite of chemistries ranging from food and pharmaceuticals to explosives and environmental toxins. Most modern atmospheric pressure IM detectors employ corona discharge, photoionization, radioactive, or electrospray ion sources for efficient ion production. Coupling standalone DTIMS with ambient plasma-based techniques, however, has proven to be an exceptional challenge. Device sensitivity with near-ground ambient plasma sources is hindered by poor ion transmission at the source-instrument interface, where ion repulsion is caused by the strong electric field barrier of the high potential ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) inlet. To overcome this shortfall, we introduce a new ion source design incorporating a repeller point electrode used to shape the electric field profile and enable ion transmission from a direct analysis in real time (DART) plasma ion source. Parameter space characterization studies of the DART DTIMS setup were performed to ascertain the optimal configuration for the source assembly favoring ion transport. Preliminary system capabilities for the direct screening of solid pharmaceuticals are briefly demonstrated.

  6. Ion velocity distributions in the vicinity of the current sheet in Earth's distant magnetotail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, L. A.; Paterson, W. R.; Ackerson, K. L.; Kokubun, S.; Kivelson, M. G.; Yamamoto, T.; Fairfield, D. H.

    1994-01-01

    Observations of the three-dimensional velocity distributions of positive ions and electrons have been recently gained for the first time in Earth's distant magnetotail with the Galileo and Geotail spacecraft. For this brief discussion of these exciting results the focus is on the overall character of the ion velocity distributions during substorm activity. The ion velocity distributions within and near the magnetotail current sheet are not accurately described as convecting, isotropic Maxwellians. The observed velocity distributions are characterized by at least two robust types. The first type is similar to the 'lima bean'-shaped velocity distributions that are expected from the nonadiabatic acceleration of ions which execute Speiser-type trajectories in the current sheet. The second distribution is associated with the presence of cold ion beams that presumably also arise from the acceleration of plasma mantle ions in the electric and weak magnetic fields in the current sheet. The ion velocity distributions in a magnetic field structure that is similar to that for plasmoids are also examined. Again the velocity distributions are not Maxwellian but are indicative of nonadiabatic acceleration. An example of the pressure tensor within the plasmoid-like event is also presented because it is anticipated that the off-diagonal elements are important in a description of magnetotail dynamics. Thus our concept of magnetotail dynamics must advance from the present assumption of co-moving electron and ion Maxwellian distributions into reformulations in terms of global kinematical models and nonadiabatic particle motion.

  7. Characteristics of equatorial plasma bubble zonal drift velocity and tilt based on Hong Kong GPS CORS network: From 2001 to 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Shengyue; Chen, Wu; Weng, Duojie; Wang, Zhenjie

    2015-08-01

    Hong Kong (22.3°N, 114.2°E, dip: 30.5°N; geomagnetic 15.7°N, 173.4°W, declination: 2.7°W) is a low-latitude area, and the Hong Kong Continuously Operating Reference Station (CORS) network has been developed and maintained by Lands Department of Hong Kong government since 2001. Based on the collected GPS observations of a whole solar cycle from 2001 to 2012, a method is proposed to estimate the zonal drift velocity as well as the tilt of the observed plasma bubbles, and the estimated results are statistically analyzed. It is found that although the plasma bubbles are basically vertical within the equatorial plane, the tilt can be as big as more than 60° eastward or westward sometimes. And, the tilt and the zonal drift velocity are correlated. When the velocity is large, the tilt is also large generally. Another finding is that large velocity and tilt generally occur in spring and autumn and in solar active years.

  8. Drift Velocity of Small-Scale Artificial Ionospheric Irregularities According to Multifrequency HF Doppler Radar. I. Method of Calculation and Its Hardware Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vertogradov, G. G.; Uryadov, V. P.; Vertogradov, V. G.; Vertogradova, E. G.; Kubatko, S. V.

    2015-10-01

    The method of calculating the total drift velocity vector of small-scale artificial ionospheric irregularities as measured by the effective Doppler frequency shift of aspect-scattered signals from several diagnostic illumination transmitters operated at different frequencies is discussed. The technique of adaptive simulation of decameter radio waves propagating in an inhomogeneous magnetized ionosphere with allowance for the aspect scattering effects due to small-scale field-aligned irregularities is developed. A multifrequency HF Doppler radar for simultaneous measurement of the Doppler spectra of radio signals at a set of frequencies is described.

  9. Spectral anomalies of the effect of light-induced drift of caesium atoms caused by the velocity dependence of transport collision frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Parkhomenko, A I; Shalagin, A M

    2014-10-31

    The spectral features of the light-induced drift (LID) velocity of caesium atoms in inert buffer gases are studied theoretically. A strong temperature dependence of the spectral LID line shape of Cs atoms in Ar or Kr atmosphere in the vicinity of T ? 1000 K is predicted. It is shown that the anomalous LID of Cs atoms in binary buffer mixtures of two different inert gases can be observed at virtually any (including ambient) temperature, depending on the content of the components in these mixtures. The results obtained make it possible to precisely test the interatomic interaction potentials in the experiments on the anomalous LID. (quantum optics)

  10. Experimental evidence for unstable waves in the lower E/Upper D-region excited near the bisector between the electric field and the drift velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blix, T. A.; Thrane, E. V.; Kirkwood, S.; Dimant, Y. S.; Sudan, R. N.

    During the METAL campaign conducted at Andøya Rocket Range in September-October 1991, detailed in situ measurements were performed by means of plasma probes in the TURBO rocket payload. During one of the salvoes (30 September 1991), strong plasma density fluctuations were detected above 78 km, especially on downleg. The results are shown to be in good agreement with the new instability predicted from the kinetic theory of Dimant and Sudan (1995). The new instability leads to the excitation of long wavelength plasma waves along the bisector between the drift velocity Vd and the electric field E.

  11. Effects of errors in velocity tilt on maximum longitudinal compression during neutralized drift compression of intense beam pulses: I. general description

    SciTech Connect

    Kaganovich, Igor D.; Massidda, Scottt; Startsev, Edward A.; Davidson, Ronald C.; Vay, Jean-Luc; Friedman, Alex

    2012-06-21

    Neutralized drift compression offers an effective means for particle beam pulse compression and current amplification. In neutralized drift compression, a linear longitudinal velocity tilt (head-to-tail gradient) is applied to the non-relativistic beam pulse, so that the beam pulse compresses as it drifts in the focusing section. The beam current can increase by more than a factor of 100 in the longitudinal direction. We have performed an analytical study of how errors in the velocity tilt acquired by the beam in the induction bunching module limit the maximum longitudinal compression. It is found that the compression ratio is determined by the relative errors in the velocity tilt. That is, one-percent errors may limit the compression to a factor of one hundred. However, a part of the beam pulse where the errors are small may compress to much higher values, which are determined by the initial thermal spread of the beam pulse. It is also shown that sharp jumps in the compressed current density profile can be produced due to overlaying of different parts of the pulse near the focal plane. Examples of slowly varying and rapidly varying errors compared to the beam pulse duration are studied. For beam velocity errors given by a cubic function, the compression ratio can be described analytically. In this limit, a significant portion of the beam pulse is located in the broad wings of the pulse and is poorly compressed. The central part of the compressed pulse is determined by the thermal spread. The scaling law for maximum compression ratio is derived. In addition to a smooth variation in the velocity tilt, fast-changing errors during the pulse may appear in the induction bunching module if the voltage pulse is formed by several pulsed elements. Different parts of the pulse compress nearly simultaneously at the target and the compressed profile may have many peaks. The maximum compression is a function of both thermal spread and the velocity errors. The effects of the finite gap width of the bunching module on compression are analyzed analytically.

  12. Superstatistical velocity distributions of cold trapped ions in molecular-dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouse, I.; Willitsch, S.

    2015-11-01

    We present a realistic molecular-dynamics treatment of laser-cooled ions in radio-frequency ion traps which avoids previously made simplifications such as modeling laser cooling as a friction force and combining individual heating mechanisms into a single effective heating force. Based on this implementation, we show that infrequent energetic collisions of single ions with background gas molecules lead to pronounced heating of the entire ion ensemble and a time-varying secular ensemble temperature, which manifests itself in a superstatistical time-averaged velocity distribution of the ions. The effect of this finding on the experimental determination of ion temperatures and rate constants for cold chemical reactions is discussed.

  13. Measurements of velocity shear and ion viscosity profile in a magnetohydrodynamic plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorf, L. A.; Intrator, T.; Sun, X.; Hendryx, J.; Wurden, G. A.; Furno, I.; Lapenta, G.

    2010-10-01

    Time-dependent, two-dimensional profiles of the axial flow velocity, density, electron temperature, and magnetic field components are measured at two axial locations in a screw pinch plasma column of the reconnection scaling experiment. The results show that the ion momentum flux for a given column radius is dissipated by the ion-ion Coulomb scattering viscosity due to a significant radial shear of the axial velocity. By comparing the terms of the magnetohydrodynamic momentum balance equation, radial profile of ion viscosity is determined. Chord-integrated ion temperature measurements performed at several radial locations using Doppler broadening spectroscopy show ion temperature of about 1 eV. Measured ion viscosity agrees within a factor of 2 with the classical Braginskii expectations.

  14. A velocity map imaging spectrometer for electron?ion and ion?ion coincidence experiments with synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Advanced Light Source; Kilcoyne, Arthur L; Rolles, D.; Pesic, Z.D.; Perri, M.; Bilodeau, R.C.; Ackerman, G.D.; Rude, B.S.; Kilcoyne, A.L.D.; Bozek, J.D.; Berrah, N.

    2007-04-27

    We have built a velocity imaging (VMI) spectrometer optimized for angle-resolved photoionization experiments with synchrotron radiation (SR) in the VUV and soft X-tay range. The spectrometer is equiped with four electrostatic lenses that focus the charged photoionization products onto a position-sensitive multi-hit delay-line anode. The use of two additional electrostatic lens elements as compared to the standard design of Eppink and Parker [T.J.B. Eppink and D.H. Parker, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68 (1997) 3477]provides better focusing of an extended interaction region, which is crucial for most SR applications. Furthermore, the apparatus is equipped with a second micro-channel plate detector opposite to the VMI spectrometer, enabling electron-ion coincidence experiments and thereby mass-resolved ion spectroscopy independent of the time structure of the synchrotron radiation. First results for the photofragmentation of CO2 molecules are presented.

  15. Electric and magnetic drift of non-adiabatic ions in the earth's geomagnetic tail current sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beard, D. B.; Cowley, S. W. H.

    1985-01-01

    It has been shown recently that nonadiabatic particles in the earth's magnetotail drift across the tail roughly as predicted for adiabatic particles with 90 deg pitch angles. In this paper it is shown that this result implies the existence of an approximate invariant of the motion. Adding the effect of convection associated electric fields, the approximate bounce averaged motion of nonadiabatic particles in the magnetotail can be obtained. Thus the particle motion and energization due to combined magnetic and electric drifts in the magnetotail are easily predicted.

  16. Ion velocities in direct current arc plasma generated from compound cathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhirkov, I.; Rosen, J.; Eriksson, A. O.; Oerlikon Balzers Coating AG, Iramali 18, 9496 Balzers

    2013-12-07

    Arc plasma from Ti-C, Ti-Al, and Ti-Si cathodes was characterized with respect to charge-state-resolved ion energy. The evaluated peak velocities of different ion species in plasma generated from a compound cathode were found to be equal and independent on ion mass. Therefore, measured difference in kinetic energies can be inferred from the difference in ion mass, with no dependence on ion charge state. The latter is consistent with previous work. These findings can be explained by plasma quasineutrality, ion acceleration by pressure gradients, and electron-ion coupling. Increasing the C concentration in Ti-C cathodes resulted in increasing average and peak ion energies for all ion species. This effect can be explained by the “cohesive energy rule,” where material and phases of higher cohesive energy generally result in increasing energies (velocities). This is also consistent with the here obtained peak velocities around 1.37, 1.42, and 1.55 (10{sup 4} m/s) for ions from Ti{sub 0.84}Al{sub 0.16}, Ti{sub 0.90}Si{sub 0.10}, and Ti{sub 0.90}C{sub 0.10} cathodes, respectively.

  17. Electrostatic ion-cyclotron waves driven by parallel velocity shear R. L. Merlinoa)

    E-print Network

    Merlino, Robert L.

    Electrostatic ion-cyclotron waves driven by parallel velocity shear R. L. Merlinoa) Department cyclotron frequency propagating at large angles to the ambient magnetic field can be excited in a magnetized in determining the stability of shear-driven electrostatic ion-cyclotron EIC modes is also considered

  18. Flute mode waves near the lower hybrid frequency excited by ion rings in velocity space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cattell, C.; Hudson, M.

    1982-01-01

    Discrete emissions at the lower hybrid frequency are often seen on the S3-3 satellite. Simultaneous observation of perpendicularly heated ions suggests that these ions may provide the free energy necessary to drive the instability. Studies of the dispersion relation for flute modes excited by warm ion rings in velocity space show that waves are excited with real frequencies near the lower hybrid frequency and with growth rates ranging from about 0.01 to 1 times the ion cyclotron frequency. Numerical results are therefore consistent with the possibility that the observed ions are the free energy source for the observed waves.

  19. Comparative analysis of nocturnal vertical plasma drift velocities inferred from ground-based ionosonde measurements of hmF2 and h?F

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adebesin, B. O.; Adeniyi, J. O.; Adimula, I. A.; Oladipo, O. A.; Olawepo, A. O.; Reinisch, B. W.

    2015-01-01

    Variations in the evening/nighttime ionosonde vertical plasma drift velocities inferred from the time rate of change of both the base of the F-layer height (Vz(h?F)) and height of the peak electron density (Vz(hmF2)) from an equatorial station were compared for better description of the E×B drifts. For better interpretation, both results were compared with the Incoherent Scatter (IS) radar observations (Vz(ISR)) which is taken to be the most accurate method of measuring drift, and therefore the data of reference level. An equinoctial maximum and June solstice minimum in post-sunset pre-reversal enhancement (PRE) was observed for Vz(hmF2), Vz(ISR), and Vz(h?F). The percentage correlation between VzhmF2 and Vzh?F ranges within 55-70%. While PRE for Vz(hmF2) peaked at 19 LT for all seasons, Vz(h?F) peaked at 18 LT for September equinox and December solstice, and start earlier. The nighttime downward reversal peak magnitudes for Vz(hmF2) and Vz(h?F) are respectively within the range of -4 to -14 and -2 to -14 m/s; whereas Vz(ISR) ranges within -12 and -34 m/s; and the peak time was reached earlier with the ionosonde observations than for the ISR. The PRE peak magnitude for Vz(hmF2), Vz(h?F) and Vz(ISR) varies between 3-14, 2-14, and 4-14 m/s for the entire seasons. Our results revealed higher drift correlation coefficients in both Vz(hmF2) vs. Vz(ISR) (0.983) and Vz(h?F) vs. Vz(ISR) (0.833) relationships during the equinoxes between 16-20 LT, at which time the F-layer altitude is higher than the 300 km threshold value; and lower for solstice period (0.326 and 0.410 in similar order). A better linear relationship between Vz(hmF2) and Vz(h?F2) was observed during the reversal (19-21 LT) phase period. PRE velocity was shown to be seasonal and solar activity dependent. Both VzhmF2 and Vzh?F compares almost equally with the ISR measurement. However, the PRE peak magnitude for the drift inferred using h?F2 is closer to the corresponding ISR magnitude during the equinoxes; whereas the drift inferred from hmF2 best represent the ISR magnitude for solstices. We established that both VzhmF2 and Vzh?F are governed by the same mechanism at nighttime, and as such any of them can be used to infer vertical drift as long as the 300 km threshold value condition is considered, otherwise chemical correction may be required for the F-layer uplift.

  20. Magnetized plasma sheath with two positive ions where collision frequencies have a power law dependency on ions velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoudi, S. Farhad; Khoramabadi, Mansor

    2015-09-01

    We study the dynamics of collisional magnetized plasma sheath with two species of positive ions by using the plasma fluid model. The basic equations of the fluid model are solved numerically where the sheath is in the external magnetic field and the elastic collision between ions and neutrals has been taken into account. In our model, we assume that the collisional momentum transferring cross section has a power law dependency on ion flow velocity. Our analysis demonstrates that the sheath dynamics are sensitive to the power law dependency, especially for the ion with greater density.

  1. Topside Equatorial Zonal Ion Velocities Measured by C/NOFS During a Rising Solar Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coley, W. R.; Stoneback, R.; Hairston, M. R.

    2012-12-01

    The Ion Velocity Meter (IVM), a part of the CINDI instrument package on the C/NOFS spacecraft, has made over four years of in-situ measurements of plasma temperatures, composition, densities, and velocities in the 400-850 km altitude range of the equatorial ionosphere. These measured ion velocities are then transformed into a coordinate system with components parallel and perpendicular to the geomagnetic field allowing us to examine the zonal (horizontal and perpendicular to Bg) component of plasma motion. The general pattern of local time variation of the equatorial zonal ion velocity is well known as westward during the day and eastward during the night, with the larger nighttime velocities leading to a net ionospheric superrotation. Since the C/NOFS launch in April 2008, F10.7 cm radio fluxes have gradually increased from around 70 sfu to levels in the 130-150 sfu range. The comprehensive coverage of C/NOFS over the low-latitude ionosphere allows us to examine variations of the topside zonal ion velocity over a wide level of solar activity as well as the dependence of the zonal velocity on apex altitude (magnetic latitude), longitude, and solar local time.

  2. Cold ion-polar-molecule reactions studied with a combined Stark-velocity-filter-ion-trap apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Kunihiro; Suganuma, Takuya; Furukawa, Takahiro; Takayanagi, Toshinobu; Wada, Michiharu; Schuessler, Hans A.

    2013-04-01

    We have developed a combined Stark-velocity-filter-ion-trap apparatus for the purpose of reaction-rate measurements between cold trapped ions and slow polar molecules under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. The prerequisite steps such as the characterization of velocity-selected polar molecules (PM), namely ND3, H2CO, and CH3CN, were performed using time-of-flight (TOF) measurements. We confirmed the generation of slow ND3, H2CO, and CH3CN molecules having thermal energies of a few Kelvin. Additionally, the number densities of the slow velocity-filtered polar molecules were determined to be in the range of n=104 to 106 cm-3 by calibrating the TOF signals. In a first experiment, the Stark velocity filter was connected to a cryogenic linear Paul trap and reaction-rate measurements between laser-cooled Ca+ Coulomb crystals and velocity-selected polar molecules were carried out. The observed reaction rates are of the order of 10-5 s-1, which are much slower than typical reaction rates of molecular ion-polar-molecule reactions at low temperatures. The present results confirm that reaction-rate measurements between velocity-selected polar molecules and sympathetically cooled molecular ions cooled by a laser-cooled Ca+ Coulomb crystal can be performed. Next we measured the reaction rates between sympathetically cooled nonfluorescent stored ion molecules namely N2H+ ions and velocity-selected CH3CN molecules at the average reaction energy of about 3 K. The measured reaction rate of 2.0(2)×10-3 s-1 is much faster than those of the Ca++PM reactions. This is strong evidence that the velocity-selected polar molecules undergo reactive collisions. We also confirmed that the present reaction-rate constant of CH3CN+N2H+ ? CH3CNH++N2 is consistent with the estimated values from the room temperature results and the trajectory-scaling formula of Su In the future, the present velocity-filter combined cryogenic trap apparatus will enable us to perform systematic measurements of cold ion-polar-molecule reactions, which are important problems from a fundamental viewpoint and also contribute to astrochemistry.

  3. Observation of coherent nonlinear interactions in the ion velocity distribution function

    SciTech Connect

    Uzun-Kaymak, Ilker Ue.; Skiff, Frederick

    2006-11-15

    Using laser induced fluorescence (LIF) and higher order spectral analysis, we present the first measurements of phase space resolved coherent nonlinear interactions among the components of low frequency density fluctuations ({omega}{<=}{omega}{sub ci}), in a linearly magnetized device. The bicoherence calculations employing the two point correlation technique suggest that there are two different coherent nonlinear wave-wave interactions in the measured spectrum. The first one, having a short correlation length and existing for slow moving ions, for which {upsilon}{sub iparallel}{<=}{upsilon}{sub ith}, is an interaction between fluctuations below the electron drift frequency, {omega}*. The second one is the strongest for fast moving ions, for which {upsilon}{sub iparallel}{>=}{upsilon}{sub ith}, and is a mode coupling between the azimuthal drift wave modes, m=1 and m=2. Combining these bispectral results with earlier linear analysis based on the power spectra of the fluctuations, we suggest that the nonlinear coupling observed between the spectral components below {omega}* for the case of slow moving ions is associated with the anomalous kinetic component. For slow moving ions, as we increase the neutral collision frequencies, the nonlinear interaction observed for spectral components below {omega}* decreases and the harmonic mode coupling for {omega}* takes over.

  4. Development of implicit kinetic simulation methods, and their application to ion beam propagation in current and future neutralized drift compression experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markidis, Stefano

    Ion beams can be accelerated and focused to hit a target thus releasing high density power to achieve nuclear fusion. They can also be used to study phase transition from the solid to the Warm Dense Matter state. The Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is being used to investigate the possibility of developing drivers for the heavy ion fusion reactors, and for Warm Dense Matter experiments. Because ion beams are positively charged, repulsive forces act on the beam ions. These electrostatic forces defocus the beam, increasing the beam size and degrading the applied compression and focus. Electrons are introduced via a preformed plasma to eliminate the electrostatic forces that defocus the beam in the NDCX. The spread of the background plasma electrons inside the beam, and the adjustment of their velocity to the beam propagation velocity is called neutralization process. Because collisions occur on time scales much larger than the time scales for the neutralization process, the plasma can be considered collision-less. Thus, the neutralization process is dominated by plasma-wave interactions instead of collisions, and the kinetic approach is required to model this phenomenon. In this dissertation, the neutralization process in the NDCX configuration is studied. The collision-less kinetic equations of plasma are solved numerically using two implicit Particle-in-Cell methods. The implicit nature of the time-differenced governing equations leads to unconditional numerical stability. The primary numerical scheme is based on an implicit moment Particle-in-Cell approach. It has been developed for the electromagnetic case and implemented in a 3D, parallel code to study the neutralization process. In addition, a fully implicit Particle-in-Cell method to solve the particle and field equations has been also developed and implemented for a simple one dimensional, electrostatic configuration. The goal of the fully implicit scheme was to demonstrate that a fully implicit scheme can indeed converge as it has been a challenge. It has been demonstrated that fully implicit schemes (at least 1D, electrostatic configuration) can in fact converge. The schemes developed and implemented are used extensively to study the neutralization dynamics. The aim of this study is to analyze the dynamics that governs the neutralization process in the NDCX configuration. It has been found that the neutralization is a transient phenomenon, typically occurring on time scales of tens of plasma periods. During this transient, the ion beam undergoes through large electron oscillations. The oscillations are damped by a sheath. This sheath regulates the electron flux into and out of the beam, and because it opposes the electron oscillations, it also oscillates. The forward moving and oscillating sheath persists after the transient, and forms an oscillating shock at the front of the ion beam. The shock is in the form of a moving and oscillating discontinuity in the electric field, the charge density, and the electron average velocity. It has been found that the background plasma and beam densities influence the neutralization process, changing the properties of the sheath at the beam-plasma interface. The damping of the oscillations is important when the background plasma and beam densities are close in value, while it is weaker when the background plasma density is higher than the beam density. Moreover, the magnetic field does not have a significant effect on the ion beam neutralization process in the current and future NDCX configurations, and the simulations can be carried out in the electrostatic limit, achieving the same results as those obtained using electromagnetic simulations. A comparison of the implicit Particle-in-Cell methods with the explicitly time differenced Particle-in-Cell method shows that the implicit moment and the fully implicit Particle-in-Cell methods are on average 4 to 40 times computationally more expensive if the same simulation time step is used. Because the ion beam neutralizati

  5. Ion temperature and toroidal velocity edge transport barriers in KSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Won-Ha; Ko, S. H.; Kwon, J. M.; Diamond, P. H.; Ida, K.; Jeon, Y. M.; Lee, J. H.; Yoon, S. W.; Kwak, J. G.

    2015-08-01

    The structure and evolution of the ion temperature ({{T}\\text{i}} ) and toroidal rotation ({{V}?} ) profile have been investigated in neutral beam injection (NBI)-heated KSTAR H-mode plasmas, both without and with resonant magnetic pertubations (RMPs). A clear disparity between the width of the {{V}?} -pedestal and that of the {{T}\\text{i}} -pedestal was observed. Also, it was found that there exists a close correlation and weak relative hysteresis between the pedestal \

  6. Single trapped indium and barium ion optical frequency standards and a laboratory constraint on the drift of fundamental constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimble, William

    2005-05-01

    Single trappped ions cooled to the Lamb-Dicke regime are spectroscopic systems free of many external perturbations and are therefore attractive as optical frequency standards. We report continued development of single indium ion and barium ion rf Paul-Straubel traps and laser cooling systems. The forbidden ^1S0<->^3P0 transition in In^+ at 237 nm has a quality factor of 10^15 and is immune to ˜1 Hz quadratic Stark shifts that can limit other systems. In addition, the extraordinarily long 5D3/2 lifetime (?˜80 s) in a single trapped barium ion yields an electric dipole forbidden 2051 nm 6S1/2<->5D3/2 transition with a quality factor of 10^16. Further, the odd isotope ^137Ba^+ (I = 3/2) has an excited state with total angular momentum F' = 0 so an optical frequency standard based on this transition also avoids significant quadratic Stark shifts. We present our latest experimental probes of these transitions using new low linewidth diode pumped solid state laser systems (a frequency quadrupled non-planar ring oscillator Nd:YAG at 946 nm and a diode pumped Tm,Ho:YLF at 2 ?m) and propose a laboratory constraint on fundamental constant drift.

  7. Regulation of ion drifts and anisotropies by parametrically unstable finite-amplitude Alfvén-cyclotron waves in the fast solar wind

    SciTech Connect

    Maneva, Y. G.; Araneda, J. A.; Marsch, E.

    2014-03-10

    We study the preferential heating and differential acceleration of minor ions by dissipation of ion-acoustic waves (IAWs) generated by parametric instabilities of a finite-amplitude monochromatic Alfvén-cyclotron pump wave. We consider the associated kinetic effects of Landau damping and nonlinear pitch-angle scattering of protons and ? particles in the tenuous plasma of coronal holes and the fast solar wind. Various data collected by Wind spacecraft show signatures for a local transverse heating of the minor ions, presumably by Alfvén-cyclotron wave dissipation, and an unexpected parallel heating by a so far unknown mechanism. Here, we present the results from a set of 1.5 dimensional hybrid simulations in search for a plausible explanation for the observed field-aligned kinetic features in the fast solar wind minor ions. We investigate the origin and regulation of ion relative drifts and temperature anisotropies in low plasma ?, fast solar wind conditions. Depending on their initial drifts, both ion species can heat up not only transversely through cyclotron resonance and non-resonant wave-particle interactions, but also strongly in the parallel direction by Landau damping of the daughter IAWs. We discuss the dependence of the relative ion drifts and temperature anisotropies on the plasma ? of the individual species and we describe the effect of the pump wave amplitude on the ion heating and acceleration.

  8. Ionization of highly charged iodine ions near the Bohr velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xianming; Cheng, Rui; Lei, Yu; Sun, Yuanbo; Ren, Jieru; Liu, Shidong; Deng, Jiachuan; Zhao, Yongtao; Xiao, Guoqing

    2015-01-01

    We have measured the L-shell X-rays of iodine from the collisions of 3 MeV Iq+(q=15,20,22,25,26) ions with an iron target. It is found that the X-ray yield decreases with the increasing initial charge state. The energy of the subshell X-ray has a blue shift, which is independent of the projectile charge state. In addition, the relative intensity ratios of L?1,3,4 and L?2,15 to L?1,2 X-ray are obtained and compared with the theoretical calculations. That they are larger than for a singly ionized atom can be understood by the multiple ionization effect of the outer-shell electrons.

  9. Ion velocity and plasma potential measurements of a cylindrical cusped field thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, N. A.; Young, C. V.; Cappelli, M. A.; Hargus, W. A.

    2012-05-01

    Measurements of the most probable time-averaged axial ion velocities and plasma potential within the acceleration channel and in the plume of a straight-channeled cylindrical cusped field thruster operating on xenon are presented. Ion velocities for the thruster are derived from laser-induced fluorescence measurements of the 5d[4]7/2-6p[3]5/2 xenon ion excited state transition centered at ? =834.72nm. Plasma potential measurements are made using a floating emissive probe with a thoriated-tungsten filament. The thruster is operated in a power matched condition with 300 V applied anode potential for comparison to previous krypton plasma potential measurements, and a low power condition with 150 V applied anode potential. Correlations are seen between the plasma potential drop outside of the thruster and kinetic energy contours of the accelerating ions.

  10. Ion velocity and plasma potential measurements of a cylindrical cusped field thruster

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, N. A.; Young, C. V.; Cappelli, M. A.; Hargus, W. A. Jr.

    2012-05-01

    Measurements of the most probable time-averaged axial ion velocities and plasma potential within the acceleration channel and in the plume of a straight-channeled cylindrical cusped field thruster operating on xenon are presented. Ion velocities for the thruster are derived from laser-induced fluorescence measurements of the 5d[4]{sub 7/2}-6p[3]{sub 5/2} xenon ion excited state transition centered at {lambda}=834.72nm. Plasma potential measurements are made using a floating emissive probe with a thoriated-tungsten filament. The thruster is operated in a power matched condition with 300 V applied anode potential for comparison to previous krypton plasma potential measurements, and a low power condition with 150 V applied anode potential. Correlations are seen between the plasma potential drop outside of the thruster and kinetic energy contours of the accelerating ions.

  11. Positive ion distributions in the morning auroral zone - local acceleration and drift effects

    SciTech Connect

    Sauvaud, J.A.; Bosqued, J.M.; Kovrazhkin, R.A.; Delcourt, D.; Berthelier, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    The typical structure of the large-scale ion precipitation in the morning sector of the auroral zone and associated low-frequency electromagnetic waves are examined on the basis of Aureole-3 satellite data. Two main precipitation regions are distinguished. In the poleward part of the auroral zone, the latitudinal variations of the average energy or temperature of the precipitated ions (mainly H+) indicate that they are adiabatically accelerated in the outer magnetosphere. In addition, a drastic change in the ion characteristics is observed near the boundary between discrete and diffuse electron auroras. The flux of energetic precipitated H(+) ions is sharply reduced, which suggests the formation of an Alfven layer; however, intense fluxes of precipitated H(+), O(+), and He(+) ions with energies below 3 keV are observed equatorward of the Alfven layer, coinciding with the diffuse aurora and associated with quasi-monochromatic electromagnetic waves with frequencies around the proton gyrofrequency. It is suggested that the precipitation of ionospheric ions inside the diffuse aurora results from convection and corotation of ions accelerated to suprathermal energies at higher latitudes. 13 references.

  12. Thermal Plasma Imager (TPI): An Imaging Thermal Ion Mass and 3-D Velocity Analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yau, A. W.; Amerl, P. V.; King, E. P.; Miyake, W.; Abe, T.

    2003-04-01

    The Thermal Plasma Imager (TPI) is an imaging thermal ion mass and 3-dimensional (3-D) velocity analyzer. It is designed to measure the instantaneous mass composition and detailed, mass-resolved, 3-dimensional, velocity distributions of thermal-energy (0.5-50 eV/q) ions on a 3-axis stabilized spacecraft. It consists of a pair of semi-toroidal deflection and fast-switching time-of-flight (TOF) electrodes, a hemispherical electrostatic analyzer (HEA), and a micro-channel plate (MCP) detector. It uses the TOF electrodes to clock the flight times of individual incident ions, and the HEA to focus ions of a given energy-per-charge and incident angle (elevation and azimuth) onto a single point on the MCP. The TOF/HEA combination produces an instantaneous and mass-resolved "image" of a 2-D cone of the 3-D velocity distribution for each ion species, and combines a sequence of concentric 2-D conical samples into a 3-D distribution covering 360° in azimuth and 120° in elevation. It is currently under development for the Enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (e-POP) and Planet-C Venus missions. It is an improved, "3-dimensional" version of the SS520-2 Thermal Suprathermal Analyzer (TSA), which samples ions in its entrance aperture plane and uses the spacecraft spin to achieve 3-D ion sampling. In this paper, we present its detailed design characteristics and prototype instrument performance, and compare these with the ion velocity measurement performances from its 2-D TSA predecessor on SS520-2.

  13. Effect of ion excape velocity and conversion surface material on H- production

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Kenneth F; Tarvainen, Olli A; Geros, E.; Stelzer, J.; Rouleau, G.; Kalvas, T.; Komppula, J.; Carmichael, J.

    2010-10-05

    According to generally accepted models surface production of negative ions depends on ion escape velocity and work function of the surface. We have conducted an experimental study addressing the role of the ion escape velocity on H{sup -} production. A converter-type ion source at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center was employed for the experiment. The ion escape velocity was changed by varying the bias voltage of the converter electrode. It was observed that due to enhanced stripping of H{sup -} no direct gain of extracted beam current can be achieved by increasing the converter voltage. At the same time the conversion efficiency of H{sup -} was observed to vary with converter voltage and follow the existing theories in qualitative manner. We discuss the role of surface material on H{sup -} formation probability and present calculations predicting relative H{sup -} yields from different cesiated surfaces. These calculations are compared with experimental observations from different types of H{sup -} ion sources. The effects caused by varying cesium coverage are also discussed. Finally, we present a novel idea of utilizing materials exhibiting so-called negative electron affinity in H{sup -}/D{sup -} production under UV-light exposure.

  14. Theoretical evaluation of peak capacity improvements by use of liquid chromatography combined with drift tube ion mobility-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Causon, Tim J; Hann, Stephan

    2015-10-16

    In the domain of liquid phase separations, the quality of separation obtainable is most readily gauged by consideration of classical chromatographic peak capacity theory. Column-based multidimensional strategies for liquid chromatography remain the most attractive and practical route for increasing the number of spatially resolved components in order to reduce stress on necessary mass spectrometric detection. However, the stress placed on a chromatographic separation step as a second dimension in a comprehensive online methodology (i.e. online LC×LC) is rather high. As an alternative to online LC×LC combinations, coupling of HPLC with ion mobility spectrometry hyphenated to mass spectrometry (IMS-MS) has emerged as an attractive approach to permit comprehensive sampling of first dimension chromatographic peaks and subsequent introduction to an orthogonal IMS separation prior to measurement of ions by a mass spectrometer. In the present work, utilization of classical peak capacity and ion mobility theory allows theoretical assessment of the potential of two- (LC×IMS-MS) or even three-dimensional (LC×LC×IMS-MS) experimental setups to enhance peak capacity and, therefore, the number of correctly annotated features within the framework of complex, non-targeted analysis problems frequently addressed using HPLC-MS strategies. Theoretical calculations indicate that newly-available drift tube IMS-MS instrumentation can yield peak capacities of between 10 and 40 using nitrogen drift gas for typical non-targeted metabolomic, lipidomic and proteomic applications according to the expected reduced mobilities of components in the respective samples. Theoretically, this approach can significantly improve the overall peak capacity of conventional HPLC-(MS) methodologies to in excess of 10(4) depending upon the column length and gradient time employed. A more elaborate combination of LC×LC×IMS-MS would improve the ion suppression limitation and possibly allow access to theoretically even higher peak capacities, but such a combination may render the IMS separation practically redundant as well as imparting the well-known dilution problems associated with LC×LC. Finally, some predictions for the separation of co-eluted isobaric compounds can also be made by considering the required peak-to-peak resolution for acceptable IMS separation. The here-described theoretical predication approach can be used to aid method development for HPLC×IMS-MS and is also accompanied by some practical considerations that should be contemplated in associated non-targeted analysis workflows. PMID:26372446

  15. Velocity and Density of Low Energy Ions in High-Latitude Magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, Heather A.; Comfort, Richard H.; Chandler, M. O.; Craven, P. D.; Moore, T. E.

    1999-01-01

    This study examines the characteristics of low energy ions at the polar cap boundary and within the polar cap in relationship to the convection velocity. The source of low energy ions in the magnetosphere could be driven by solar wind/IMF (interplanetary magnetic fields) interactions affecting energization processes of ionospheric ions. The IMF also influences the convection pattern which is in part responsible for determining the path ions take as they leave the ionosphere and contribute to magnetospheric populations. The primary source of data for this study is the Thermal Ion Dynamics Experiment (TIDE) on board the Polar satellite. TIDE can measure 3-D velocities and covers an energy range ideal for examining the polar cap plasma (0-450 eV). Due to certain limitations, this study uses H+ measurements at apogee and O+ measurements at perigee. At apogee H+ is very field-aligned and outflowing, and at perigee O+ is often moving downward in the polar cap proper. The path highly field-aligned flows take across the polar cap are also affected by changes in the magnetic field line topology which varies with geophysical conditions. Convection near the polar cap boundary is of particular interest since often the convection there is highly structured, and convection reversals may play a role in causing ion outflow. This study will examine in particular the density structures of ions in relationship to the convection velocity. Examining such relationships may provide insight into understanding the consequences of the 3-D flow on the density of ions in the polar cap, and transport of ions across the polar cap.

  16. Plasma immersion ion implantation characteristics with q-nonextensive electron velocity distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safa, N. Navab; Ghomi, H.; Niknam, A. R.

    2015-06-01

    The plasma immersion ion implantation process is investigated in the presence of q-nonextensive electrons by using a one-dimensional fluid model. The effect of the nonextensivity parameter, q, on the plasma parameters and sheath dynamics during the implantation process is studied. The results show that the implantation dose can be enhanced in the presence of energetic electrons at the tail of the distribution function. Different parameters of plasma such as sheath thickness, ion velocity and ion density show more change at the larger values of the q-parameter. Furthermore, the results of simulation tend to what is predicted by the Maxwellian electron distribution function (q = 1).

  17. Laser Induced Fluorescence Measurements of Ion Velocity in Magnetic Cusped Plasma Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, Natalia; Cappelli, Mark; Hargus, William, Jr.

    2012-10-01

    Cusped Field Thrusters (CFTs) are magnetized plasma accelerators that use strong cusps to shape the magnetic field and hence the electrostatic potential. The cusped magnetic field lines meter the electron transport to the anode and reduce the energetic ion flux towards the dielectric channel walls, thereby reducing the effects of erosion. This work presents time averaged laser induced fluorescence velocity measurements of the ions in the plumes of three CFT variants. These include the Cylindrical Hall Thruster (CHT), Cylindrical Cusped Field Thruster (CCFT), and Diverging Cusped Field Thruster (DCFT). Results indicate that magnetic cusps form equipotential surfaces, and that the majority of ion acceleration occurs outside of the thruster channels.

  18. Measurement of Plasma Ion Temperature and Flow Velocity from Chord-Averaged Emission Line Profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xu

    2011-06-01

    The distinction between Doppler broadening and Doppler shift has been analysed, the differences between Gaussian fitting and the distribution of chord-integral line shape have also been discussed. Local ion temperature and flow velocity have been derived from the chord-averaged emission line profile by a chosen-point Gaussian fitting technique.

  19. Ultrafast spectroscopy diagnostic to measure localized ion temperature and toroidal velocity fluctuations

    SciTech Connect

    Uzun-Kaymak, I. U.; Fonck, R. J.; McKee, G. R.; Schoenbeck, N.; Smith, D.; Winz, G.; Yan, Z.

    2010-10-15

    A dual-channel high-efficiency, high-throughput custom spectroscopic system has been designed and implemented at DIII-D to measure localized ion thermal fluctuations associated with drift wave turbulence. A large-area prism-coupled transmission grating and high-throughput collection optics are employed to observe C VI emission centered near {lambda}=529 nm. The diagnostic achieves 0.25 nm resolution over a 2.0 nm spectral band via eight discrete spectral channels. A turbulence-relevant time resolution of 1 {mu}s is achieved using cooled high-speed avalanche photodiodes and ultralow-noise preamplifiers. The system sensitivity is designed to provide measurements of normalized ion temperature fluctuations on the order of {delta}T{sub i}/T{sub i}{<=}1%.

  20. Photodissociation studies of CBr4+ and CBr3+ at 267 nm using ion velocity imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, Jamila R.; Francisco, Joseph S.; Huang, Jianhua; Xu, Dadong; Jackson, William M.

    2004-09-01

    Time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectroscopy and ion velocity imaging were employed to study the formation and photodissociation of CBr4+ and CBr3+ ions that were observed in the TOF spectrum when a CBr4 beam was irradiated with 118 nm and 355 nm lasers. Energy dependence measurements show that both CBr4+ and CBr3+ ions depend on the fourth power of the 355 nm laser energy, which indicates that direct ionization and dissociative ionization of CBr4 have low probabilities from the state initially excited at 118 nm. This is likely due to the large geometry change in the CBr4+ ion. Two ionic fragments Br+ and CBr2+ were observed from the dissociation of CBr4+ and CBr3+ ions when another laser at 267 nm was introduced to the interaction region at a delayed time. The possible dissociation pathways and the angular and translational distributions are discussed in the paper.

  1. Ion velocity distribution at the termination shock: 1-D PIC simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Quanming; Yang Zhongwei; Lembege, Bertrand

    2012-11-20

    The Voyager 2 (V2) plasma observations of the proton temperature downstream of the quasi-perpendicular heliospheric termination shock (TS) showed that upstream thermal solar wind ions played little role in the shock dissipation mechanism and their downstream temperature is an order of magnitude smaller than predicted by MHD Rankine-Hugoniot conditions. While pickup ions (PUI) are generally expected to play an important role in energy dissipation at the shock, the details remain unclear. Here, one-dimensional (1-D) Particle-in-cell (PIC) code is used to examine kinetic properties and downstream velocity distribution functions of pickup ions (the hot supra-thermal component) and solar wind protons (SWs, the cold component) at the perpendicular heliospheric termination shock. The code treats the pickup ions self-consistently as a third component. Present results show that: (1) both of the incident SWs and PUIs can be separated into two parts: reflected (R) ions and directly transmitted (DT) ions, the energy gain of the R ions at the shock front is much larger than that of the DT ions; (2) the fraction of reflected SWs and their downstream temperature decrease with the relative percentage PUI%; (3) no matter how large the PUI% is, the downstream ion velocity distribution function always can be separated into three parts: 1. a high energy tail (i.e. the wings) dominated by the reflected PUIs, 2. a low energy core mainly contributed by the directly transmitted SWs, and 3. a middle energy part which is a complicated superposition of reflected SWs and directly transmitted PUIs. The significance of the presence of pickup ions on shock front micro-structure and nonstationarity is also discussed.

  2. Conformational Ordering of Biomolecules in the Gas Phase: Nitrogen Collision Cross Sections Measured on a Prototype High Resolution Drift Tube Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Ion mobility-mass spectrometry measurements which describe the gas-phase scaling of molecular size and mass are of both fundamental and pragmatic utility. Fundamentally, such measurements expand our understanding of intrinsic intramolecular folding forces in the absence of solvent. Practically, reproducible transport properties, such as gas-phase collision cross-section (CCS), are analytically useful metrics for identification and characterization purposes. Here, we report 594 CCS values obtained in nitrogen drift gas on an electrostatic drift tube ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IM-MS) instrument. The instrument platform is a newly developed prototype incorporating a uniform-field drift tube bracketed by electrodynamic ion funnels and coupled to a high resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The CCS values reported here are of high experimental precision (±0.5% or better) and represent four chemically distinct classes of molecules (quaternary ammonium salts, lipids, peptides, and carbohydrates), which enables structural comparisons to be made between molecules of different chemical compositions for the rapid “omni-omic” characterization of complex biological samples. Comparisons made between helium and nitrogen-derived CCS measurements demonstrate that nitrogen CCS values are systematically larger than helium values; however, general separation trends between chemical classes are retained regardless of the drift gas. These results underscore that, for the highest CCS accuracy, care must be exercised when utilizing helium-derived CCS values to calibrate measurements obtained in nitrogen, as is the common practice in the field. PMID:24446877

  3. A simulation study on the impact of altitudinal dependent vertical plasma drift on the equatorial ionosphere in the evening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Cheng; Lei, Jiuhou; Wang, Wenbin

    2015-04-01

    We carry out a simulation study on the impact of altitudinal dependent plasma drift on the equatorial ionosphere in the evening, under geomagnetically quiet conditions. Our study used the vertical plasma drift velocity data measured by an incoherent scatter radar at Jicamarca (11.95°S, 76.87°W). The data covered the local sunset period on 15 and 16 November 2004. The plasma drift had significant altitudinal variations in the vertical component, which is perpendicular to the magnetic field. We employed SAMI2 (SAMI2 is another model of the ionosphere) to evaluate the effect of the altitude-dependent ion drift on the equatorial ionosphere. Three types of plasma drift velocity inputs were used in our simulations. The first input is calculated from an empirical model, the second is a height-averaged drift obtained from the observed drift velocity, and the third one corresponds to the observed altitudinal dependent drift data. A strong equatorial ionization anomaly occurred in the results of all numerical experiments. Additional layers (F3 layers) in electron densities over the equatorial F region and "arch" latitudinal structures extending to lower middle latitudes were seen in the simulations driven by the observed altitudinal dependent drift. We further show that neutral winds do not have a significant effect on the simulated F3 layers. The results of our numerical experiments suggest that the simulated additional ionospheric layers and arch structures are associated with the altitudinal gradients in the vertical plasma drift velocity.

  4. Sub-Auroral Ion Drifts as a Source of Mid-Latitude Plasma Density Irregularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotnikov, V.; Kim, T.; Mishin, E.; Paraschiv, I.; Rose, D.

    Ionospheric irregularities cause scintillations of electromagnetic signals that can severely affect navigation and transionospheric communication, in particular during space storms. At midlatitudes, such space weather events are caused mainly by subauroral electric field structures (SAID/SAPS) [1, 2]. SAID/SAPS –related shear flows and plasma density troughs point to interchange and Kelvin-Helmholtz type instabilities as a possible source of plasma irregularities. A model of nonlinear development of these instabilities based on the two-fluid hydrodynamic description with inclusion of finite Larmor radius effects will be presented. A numerical code in C language to solve the derived nonlinear equations for analysis of interchange and flow velocity shear instabilities in the ionosphere was developed. This code was used to analyze competition between interchange and Kelvin Helmholtz instabilities in the equatorial region [3]. The high-resolution simulations with continuous density and velocity profiles will be driven by the ambient conditions corresponding to the in situ Defence Military Satellite Program (DMSP) satellite low-resolution data [2] during UHF/GPS L-band subauroral scintillation events. [1] Mishin, E. (2013), Interaction of substorm injections with the subauroral geospace: 1. Multispacecraft observations of SAID, J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys., 118, 5782-5796, doi:10.1002/jgra.50548. [2] Mishin, E., and N. Blaunstein (2008), Irregularities within subauroral polarization stream-related troughs and GPS radio interference at midlatitudes. In: T. Fuller-Rowell et al. (eds), AGU Geophysical Monograph 181, MidLatitude Ionospheric Dynamics and Disturbances, pp. 291-295, doi:10.1029/181GM26, Washington, DC, USA. [3] V. Sotnikov, T. Kim, E. Mishin, T. Genoni, D. Rose, I. Paraschiv, Development of a Flow Velocity Shear Instability in the Presence of Finite Larmor Radius Effects, AGU Fall Meeting, San Francisco, 15 – 19 December, 2014.

  5. Positive/negative ion velocity mapping apparatus for electron-molecule reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Bin; Xia Lei; Li Hongkai; Zeng Xianjin; Tian Shanxi

    2012-01-15

    In molecular dissociative ionization by electron collisions and dissociative electron attachment to molecule, the respective positively and negatively charged fragments are the important products. A compact ion velocity mapping apparatus is developed for the angular distribution measurements of the positive or negative fragments produced in the electron-molecule reactions. This apparatus consists of a pulsed electron gun, a set of ion velocity mapping optic lenses, a two-dimensional position detector including two pieces of micro-channel plates, and a phosphor screen, and a charge-coupled-device camera for data acquisition. The positive and negative ion detections can be simply realized by changing the voltage polarity of ion optics and detector. Velocity sliced images can be directly recorded using a narrow voltage pulse applied on the rear micro-channel plate. The efficient performance of this system is evaluated by measuring the angular distribution of O{sup -} from the electron attachments to NO at 7.3 and 8.3 eV and O{sup +} from the electron collision with CO at 40.0 eV.

  6. Initial Velocity Distributions of MALDI Ions Desorbed from Single Crystals Ragnar Dworschak, Werner Ens, and Kenneth G Standing

    E-print Network

    Ens, Werner

    Initial Velocity Distributions of MALDI Ions Desorbed from Single Crystals Ragnar Dworschak, Werner Initial velocity measurements provide an important probe into the mechanism of matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI). Here we present some observations from initial velocity measurements made

  7. Low Energy Electron and Nuclear Recoil Thresholds in the DRIFT-II Negative Ion TPC for Dark Matter Searches

    E-print Network

    S. Burgos; E. Daw; J. Forbes; C. Ghag; M. Gold; C. Hagemann; V. A. Kudryavtsev; T. B. Lawson; D. Loomba; P. Majewski; D. Muna; A. St. J. Murphy; S. M. Paling; A. Petkov; S. J. S. Plank; M. Robinson; N. Sanghi; D. P. Snowden-Ifft; N. J. C. Spooner; J. Turk; E. Tziaferi

    2009-03-30

    Understanding the ability to measure and discriminate particle events at the lowest possible energy is an essential requirement in developing new experiments to search for weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) dark matter. In this paper we detail an assessment of the potential sensitivity below 10 keV in the 1 m^3 DRIFT-II directionally sensitive, low pressure, negative ion time projection chamber (NITPC), based on event-by-event track reconstruction and calorimetry in the multiwire proportional chamber (MWPC) readout. By application of a digital smoothing polynomial it is shown that the detector is sensitive to sulfur and carbon recoils down to 2.9 and 1.9 keV respectively, and 1.2 keV for electron induced events. The energy sensitivity is demonstrated through the 5.9 keV gamma spectrum of 55Fe, where the energy resolution is sufficient to identify the escape peak. The effect a lower energy sensitivity on the WIMP exclusion limit is demonstrated. In addition to recoil direction reconstruction for WIMP searches this sensitivity suggests new prospects for applications also in KK axion searches.

  8. Edge Ion Velocity and Temperature Measurements in NSTX T.M. Biewer, R.E. Bell, D. W. Johnson

    E-print Network

    Biewer, Theodore

    Edge Ion Velocity and Temperature Measurements in NSTX T.M. Biewer, R.E. Bell, D. W. JohnsonBeam Trajectories RF antenna Ion dynamics from C III, C IV, and He II are studied. C III triplet 47.88 eV ionization Waves (HHFW) are launched by the RF antenna into similar plasmas, a two-population distribution of ions

  9. Apparent Velocity Threshold in the Electronic Stopping of Slow Hydrogen Ions in LiF

    SciTech Connect

    Draxler, M.; Chenakin, S.P.; Markin, S.N.; Bauer, P.

    2005-09-09

    The electronic energy loss of hydrogen ions (protons and deuterons) in thin supported films of LiF has been studied in backscattering geometry for specific energies from 700 eV/u to 700 keV/u, using Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy and time-of-flight low-energy ion scattering spectroscopy. For specific energies below 8 keV/u, our data confirm velocity proportionality for the stopping cross section {epsilon} (like in a metal) down to 3.8 keV/u, as observed previously for protons and antiprotons despite the large band gap (14 eV) of LiF. Below 3.8 keV/u, the present results indicate an apparent velocity threshold at about 0.1 a.u. for the onset of electronic stopping.

  10. Temperature dependent sound velocity in hydrodynamic equations for relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    E-print Network

    Mikolaj Chojnacki

    2007-09-11

    We analyze the effects of different forms of the sound-velocity function cs(T) on the hydrodynamic evolution of matter formed in the central region of relativistic heavy-ion collisions. At high temperatures (above the critical temperature Tc) the sound velocity is calculated from the recent lattice simulations of QCD, while in the low temperature region it is obtained from the hadron gas model. In the intermediate region we use different interpolations characterized by the values of the sound velocity at the local maximum (at T = 0.4 Tc) and local minimum (at T = Tc). In all considered cases the temperature dependent sound velocity functions yield the entropy density, which is consistent with the lattice QCD simulations at high temperature. Our calculations show that the presence of a distinct minimum of the sound velocity leads to a very long (about 20 fm/c) evolution time of the system, which is not compatible with the recent estimates based on the HBT interferometry. Hence, we conclude that the hydrodynamic description is favored in the case where the cross-over phase transition renders the smooth sound velocity function with a possible shallow minimum at Tc.

  11. Kinetic Alfvén wave and ion velocity distribution functions in the solar wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Lu, Q.; Chen, Y.; Li, B.; Xia, L.

    2010-12-01

    Using 1D test particle simulations, the effect of a kinetic Alfvén wave on the velocity distribution function of protons in the collisionless solar wind is investigated. We first use linear Vlasov theory to obtain the property of a kinetic Alfvén wave numerically (the wave propagates in the direction almost perpendicular to the background magnetic field). We then numerically simulate how the wave will shape the proton velocity distribution function. It is found that Landau resonance may be able to generate two components in the initially Maxwellian proton velocity distribution function: a tenuous beam component along the direction of the background magnetic field and a core component. The streaming speed of the beam relative to the core proton component is about 1.2 -- 1.3 Alfvén speed. However, no perpendicular ion heating is observed from the simulation. Reference: Li, X., Lu, Q.M., Chen, Y., Li, B., Xia, L.D., ApJ, 719, L190, 2010.

  12. Laboratory Course on Drift Chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Ferreira, Ix-B.; Garcia-Herrera, J.; Villasenor, L.

    2006-09-25

    Drift chambers play an important role in particle physics experiments as tracking detectors. We started this laboratory course with a brief review of the theoretical background and then moved on to the the experimental setup which consisted of a single-sided, single-cell drift chamber. We also used a plastic scintillator paddle, standard P-10 gas mixture (90% Ar, 10% CH4) and a collimated 90Sr source. During the laboratory session the students performend measurements of the following quantities: a) drift velocities and their variations as function of the drift field; b) gas gains and c) diffusion of electrons as they drifted in the gas.

  13. A millimeter/submillimeter velocity modulation spectrometer for studies of molecular ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, C.; Ziurys, L. M.

    2005-04-01

    A millimeter/submillimeter direct absorption spectrometer has been constructed that employs velocity modulation to selectively detect molecular ions. The instrument consists of a phase-locked Gunn oscillator/Schottky diode multiplier source, a gas absorption cell, and an InSb hot-electron bolometer detector. The gas cell is a single-pass system with two ring-type discharge electrodes at either end, which are connected to an rf power supply. Modulation of the ac discharge at a rate of 50 kHz and phase-sensitive detection at 1f allows for selective observation of molecular ion signals and suppression of absorption from neutral species. The spectrometer can also be used in source-modulated mode, where the signal-to-noise ratio for signals generated in an ac plasma are significantly better than for dc discharges. Combining source modulation with the ac discharge for signal detection and velocity modulation for ion identification provides a powerful technique for molecular ion spectroscopy at millimeter/submillimeter wavelengths. This instrument has been used to measure the pure rotational spectra of CO+, HCO+, and SH+ with better precision than previous studies.

  14. Velocity filter mechanism for ion bowl disributions (Bimodal conics). [in high altitude auroral regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horwitz, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    The 'bowl-shaped' ion distributions in the high altitude auroral region observed by Klumpar et al. (1984) were originally interpreted as being due to a two-stage acceleration involving transverse ion heating and upward-aligned electric field acceleration. In this paper, it is shown that qualitatively similar bowl-shaped distributions can also be formed by transverse heating in a region of finite horizontal extent, followed by essentially adiabatic convective flow to the observation location. The latter stage contributes a velocity-filtering effect which produces some characteristics of the distributions observed. It is suggested it may be possible to use ion species observations to distinguish the mechanism proposed by Klumpar et al. from the alternative mechanism outlined in the present study.

  15. Extension of charge-state-distribution calculations for ion-solid collisions towards low velocities and many-electron ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamour, E.; Fainstein, P. D.; Galassi, M.; Prigent, C.; Ramirez, C. A.; Rivarola, R. D.; Rozet, J.-P.; Trassinelli, M.; Vernhet, D.

    2015-10-01

    Knowledge of the detailed evolution of the whole charge-state distribution of projectile ions colliding with targets is required in several fields of research such as material science and atomic and nuclear physics but also in accelerator physics, and in particular in regard to the several foreseen large-scale facilities. However, there is a lack of data for collisions in the nonperturbative energy domain and that involve many-electron projectiles. Starting from the etacha model we developed [Rozet et al., Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. B 107, 67 (1996), 10.1016/0168-583X(95)00800-4], we present an extension of its validity domain towards lower velocities and larger distortions. Moreover, the system of rate equations is able to take into account ions with up to 60 orbital states of electrons. The computed data from the different new versions of the etacha code are compared to some test collision systems. The improvements made are clearly illustrated by 28.9 MeV u-1P b56 + ions, and laser-generated carbon ion beams of 0.045 to 0.5 MeV u-1 , passing through carbon or aluminum targets, respectively. Hence, those new developments can efficiently sustain the experimental programs that are currently in progress on the "next-generation" accelerators or laser facilities.

  16. The Postsunset Vertical Plasma Drift and Its Effects on the Generation of Equatorial Plasma Bubbles Observed by the C/NOFS Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, C.; Hairston, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    The prereversal enhancement of the vertical plasma drift in the postsunset sector is an important factor that controls the generation of equatorial plasma bubbles. In this study, we use the measurements of the ion velocity meter (IVM) on board the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) satellite to identify the postsunset ion vertical drift and its effects on the occurrence of plasma bubbles. We only include the events when C/NOFS is located within ±5o from the magnetic equator during the interval of 1800-1900 LT and lower than 500 km in altitude. In total, we identified 886 events in which plasma bubbles were detected by C/NOFS between 1900 and 2100 LT and 1170 events in which no plasma bubbles were detected during May 2008-June 2013. The ion vertical drift is almost always upward for the 886 cases of occurrence of plasma bubbles, with a mean value of ~40 m/s. The mean ion vertical drift for bubble occurrence increases with the solar radio flux and varies with longitude. The mean ion vertical drift for the cases without plasma bubbles is smaller than 20 m/s, with minimum values near 60o and 300o longitude, respectively. There is some overlap in the ion vertical drift between the two categories, with plasma bubbles and without plasma bubbles. The occurrence probability of plasma bubbles increases with the ion upward drift when the ion drift is within 0 and 40 m/s.

  17. Atomic collision experiments utilizing low-velocity, highly-charged ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, B.M.; Jones, K.W.; Meron, M.

    1982-01-01

    Intense beams of highly-stripped ions are now routinely produced at low velocities using the Brookhaven dual MP-tandens in a unique four-stage accel/decel mode. This mode of operation combines three stages of acceleration, stripping at high energy, and one stage of deceleration to near-zero velocity. To date, experiments have used 10-100 nA beams of bare and few-electron heavy ions at energies as low as 0.2 MeV/amu, and upgrades of the facility should push the lower limit below 0.1 MeV/amu. Recent experiments, such as measurements of charge transfer and x-ray production for S/sup 6-16+/ on He and Ar at 6 to 20 MeV and P(b) measurements for MO x-rays produced in Cl/sup 16 +/ + Ar collisions at 20, 10, and 5 MeV have demonstrated the usefulness of highly-stripped, low-velocity projectiles. These experiments and a few possibilities for future experiments are discussed.

  18. MEASUREMENTS OF ANISOTROPIC ION TEMPERATURES, NON-THERMAL VELOCITIES, AND DOPPLER SHIFTS IN A CORONAL HOLE

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, M.; Savin, D. W.

    2013-02-15

    We present a new diagnostic allowing one to measure the anisotropy of ion temperatures and non-thermal velocities, as well as Doppler shifts with respect to the ambient magnetic field. This method provides new results, as well as an independent test for previous measurements obtained with other techniques. Our spectral data come from observations of a low-latitude, on-disk coronal hole. A potential field source surface model was used to calculate the angle between the magnetic field lines and the line of sight for each spatial bin of the observation. A fit was performed to determine the line widths and Doppler shifts parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field. For each line width component we derived ion temperatures T {sub i,} and T {sub i, Parallel-To} and non-thermal velocities v {sub nt,} and v {sub nt, Parallel-To }. T {sub i,} was cooler than off-limb polar coronal hole measurements, suggesting increasing collisional cooling with decreasing height. T {sub i, Parallel-To} is consistent with a uniform temperature of (1.8 {+-} 0.2) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} K for each ion. Since parallel ion heating is expected to be weak, this ion temperature should reflect the proton temperature. A comparison between our results and others implies a large proton temperature gradient around 1.02 R {sub Sun }. The non-thermal velocities are thought to be proportional to the amplitudes of various waves. Our results for v {sub nt,} agree with Alfven wave amplitudes inferred from off-limb polar coronal hole line width measurements. Our v {sub nt, Parallel-To} results are consistent with slow magnetosonic wave amplitudes inferred from Fourier analysis of time-varying intensity fluctuations. Doppler shift measurements yield outflows of Almost-Equal-To 5 km s{sup -1} for ions formed over a broad temperature range. This differs from other studies that found a strong Doppler shift dependence on formation temperature.

  19. Calculation of the Ion Distribution Function over Transverse Velocities under ICR Heating Conditions and Separation Parameters of a Collector of Heated Ions

    SciTech Connect

    Karchevskii, A.I.; Potanin, E.P.

    2004-12-15

    The ion distribution function over transverse velocities and the ion heating efficiency (which is defined as the fraction {eta} of ions heated above a certain energy W{sub min}) are calculated in the context of a plasma method for isotope separation on the basis of ion cyclotron resonance heating. The ion distribution function over longitudinal velocities is assumed to be linear in the range of low velocities. It is shown that, when the ions are heated to high energies, the averaged ion distribution function over transverse velocities becomes highly nonequilibrium and has two peaks. Results are presented from calculations of the ion heating efficiency {eta} for W{sub min} = 40 eV and for different values of the parameter p that characterizes the ratio of the wavelength {lambda} of the antenna electric field to the length L of the heating region. The relative roles of the time-of-flight and the Doppler broadening are analyzed, and the separation parameters of a collector of heated ions are estimated.

  20. Laser-induced-fluorescence observation of ion velocity distribution functions in a plasma sheath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claire, N.; Bachet, G.; Stroth, U.; Doveil, F.

    2006-06-01

    Experimental results obtained by laser-induced-fluorescence on metastable ion velocity distribution functions (MIVDF) in electrostatic presheaths and sheaths in argon plasmas produced by the thermoionic effect in a multipolar dc discharge are presented. The shape of the measured MIVDF are in qualitative agreement, for the presheath, with Emmert's model and exhibit: (1) a Maxwellian profile at the center of the device where the potential is zero; (2) a distribution function's shape made of three distinct parts at the entrance of the presheath. Inside the sheath the recorded MIVDF recovers a Maxwellian profile with a width unexpectedly related to the background neutral pressure. The velocity and potential profiles that can be deduced from the measured MIVDF show a strong influence of the primary electrons emitted by the filaments.

  1. Design and test of a superconducting structure for high-velocity ions

    SciTech Connect

    Delayen, J.R.; Kennedy, W.L.; Roche, C.T.

    1992-10-01

    Following the successful development of a niobium coaxial half-wave structure we have designed, built and tested a new half-wave geometry: the spoke resonator. This geometry is better suited for high frequency resonators and for the acceleration of high velocity ions. The prototype cavity is a 2-gap structure resonating at 855 MHz, and optimized for particle velocity of 0.30 c. It is easier to manufacture than the coaxial half-wave resonator and the geometry can be straightforwardly extended to multigap designs. Rf-tests have been performed on this cavity both prior to and after high temperature annealing. An accelerating gradient of 7.2 MV/m (cw) and 7.8 MV/m (pulsed) was observed at 4.2 K. After annealing, a low power Q{sub 0} of 1.2 {times}10{sup 8} was observed with small Q degradation due to field emission at high accelerating fields.

  2. Design and test of a superconducting structure for high-velocity ions

    SciTech Connect

    Delayen, J.R.; Kennedy, W.L.; Roche, C.T.

    1992-01-01

    Following the successful development of a niobium coaxial half-wave structure we have designed, built and tested a new half-wave geometry: the spoke resonator. This geometry is better suited for high frequency resonators and for the acceleration of high velocity ions. The prototype cavity is a 2-gap structure resonating at 855 MHz, and optimized for particle velocity of 0.30 c. It is easier to manufacture than the coaxial half-wave resonator and the geometry can be straightforwardly extended to multigap designs. Rf-tests have been performed on this cavity both prior to and after high temperature annealing. An accelerating gradient of 7.2 MV/m (cw) and 7.8 MV/m (pulsed) was observed at 4.2 K. After annealing, a low power Q{sub 0} of 1.2 {times}10{sup 8} was observed with small Q degradation due to field emission at high accelerating fields.

  3. Ion Bernstein waves in a plasma with a kappa velocity distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Nsengiyumva, F.; Mace, R. L.; Hellberg, M. A.

    2013-10-15

    Using a Vlasov-Poisson model, a numerical investigation of the dispersion relation for ion Bernstein waves in a kappa-distributed plasma has been carried out. The dispersion relation is found to depend significantly on the spectral index of the ions, ?{sub i}, the parameter whose smallness is a measure of the departure from thermal equilibrium of the distribution function. Over all cyclotron harmonics, the typical Bernstein wave curves are shifted to higher wavenumbers (k) if ?{sub i} is reduced. For waves whose frequency lies above the lower hybrid frequency, ?{sub LH}, an increasing excess of superthermal particles (decreasing ?{sub i}) reduces the frequency, ?{sub peak}, of the characteristic peak at which the group velocity vanishes, while the associated k{sub peak} is increased. As the ratio of ion plasma to cyclotron frequency (?{sub pi}/?{sub ci}) is increased, the fall-off of ? at large k is smaller for lower ?{sub i} and curves are shifted towards larger wavenumbers. In the lower hybrid frequency band and harmonic bands above it, the frequency in a low-?{sub i} plasma spans only a part of the intraharmonic space, unlike the Maxwellian case, thus exhibiting considerably less coupling between adjacent bands for low ?{sub i}. It is suggested that the presence of the ensuing stopbands may be a useful diagnostic for the velocity distribution characteristics. The model is applied to the Earth's plasma sheet boundary layer in which waves propagating perpendicularly to the ambient magnetic field at frequencies between harmonics of the ion cyclotron frequency are frequently observed.

  4. Studies of endothelial monolayer formation on irradiated poly-L-lactide acid with ions of different stopping power and velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbeitman, Claudia R.; del Grosso, Mariela F.; Ibañez, Irene L.; Behar, Moni; Grasselli, Mariano; Bermúdez, Gerardo García

    2015-12-01

    In this work we study cell viability, proliferation and morphology of bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) cultured on poly-L-lactide acid (PLLA) modified by heavy ion irradiation. In a previous study comparing ions beams with the same stopping power we observed an increase in cell density and a better cell morphology at higher ion velocities. In the present work we continued this study using heavy ions beam with different stopping power and ion velocities. To this end thin films of 50 ?m thickness were irradiated with 2 MeV/u and 0.10 MeV/u ion beams provided the Tandar (Buenos Aires, Argentina) and Tandetron (Porto Alegre, Brazil) accelerators, respectively. The results suggest that a more dense and elongated cell shapes, similar to the BAEC cells on the internal surface of bovine aorta, was obtained for stopping power of 18.2-22.1 MeV cm2 mg-1 and ion velocity of 2 MeV/u. On the other hand, for low ion velocity 0.10 MeV/u the cells present a more globular shapes.

  5. Atomic physics effects on tokamak edge drift-tearing modes

    SciTech Connect

    Hahm, T.S.

    1993-03-01

    The effects of ionization and charge exchange on the linear stability of drift-tearing modes are analytically investigated. In particular, the linear instability threshold [Delta][sup Th], produced by ion sound wave coupling is modified. In the strongly collisional regime, the ionization breaks up the near cancellation of the perturbed electric field and the pressure gradient along the magnetic field, and increases the threshold. In the semi-collisional regime, both ionization and charge exchange act as drag on the ion parallel velocity, and consequently decrease the threshold by reducing the effectiveness of ion sound wave propagation.

  6. Atomic physics effects on tokamak edge drift-tearing modes

    SciTech Connect

    Hahm, T.S.

    1993-03-01

    The effects of ionization and charge exchange on the linear stability of drift-tearing modes are analytically investigated. In particular, the linear instability threshold {Delta}{sup Th}, produced by ion sound wave coupling is modified. In the strongly collisional regime, the ionization breaks up the near cancellation of the perturbed electric field and the pressure gradient along the magnetic field, and increases the threshold. In the semi-collisional regime, both ionization and charge exchange act as drag on the ion parallel velocity, and consequently decrease the threshold by reducing the effectiveness of ion sound wave propagation.

  7. ION TEMPERATURE AND NON-THERMAL VELOCITY IN A SOLAR ACTIVE REGION: USING EMISSION LINES OF DIFFERENT ATOMIC SPECIES

    SciTech Connect

    Imada, S.; Hara, H.; Watanabe, T.

    2009-11-10

    We have studied the characteristics of the ion thermal temperature and non-thermal velocity in an active region observed by the EUV Imaging Spectrometer onboard Hinode. We used two emission lines of different atomic species (Fe XVI 262.98 A and S XIII 256.69 A) to distinguish the ion thermal velocity from the observed full width at half-maximum. We assumed that the sources of the two emission lines are the same thermal temperature. We also assumed that they have the same non-thermal velocity. With these assumptions, we could obtain the ion thermal temperature, after noting that M{sub sulfur} approx 0.6M{sub iron}. We have carried out the ion thermal temperature analysis in the active region where the photon counts are sufficient (>4500). What we found is as follows: (1) the common ion thermal temperatures obtained by Fe XVI and S XIII are approx2.5 MK, (2) the typical non-thermal velocities are approx13 km s{sup -1}, (3) the highest non-thermal velocities (>20 km s{sup -1}) are preferentially observed between the bright points in Fe XVI, while (4) the hottest material (>3 MK) is observed relatively inside the bright points compared with the highest non-thermal velocity region.

  8. Investigation of transfer ionization in collisions of partially stripped carbon ions with helium at low to intermediate velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xi-Meng; Gao, Zhi-Min; Liu, Zhao-Yuan; Ding, Bao-Wei; Lu, Yan-Xia; Fu, Hong-Bin; Shao, Jian-Xiong; Cui, Ying; Zhang, Hong-Qiang; Liu, Yu-Wen; Du, Juan; Sun, Guang-Zhi

    2007-07-01

    The ratios of transfer ionization (TI) to single-electron capture (SC) cross sections have been measured for the collisions of partially stripped Cq+ ions (q 1-4) with He. The collision velocity ranges from 0.7 to 4.4 v0 (v0 is the Bohr velocity). The projectile-ion and recoil-ion coincidence technique is used to separate the processes of TI and SC. The ratios reach the maximum when the velocity is about 3.7 v0. This can be explained qualitatively based on the two-step mechanism. The experimental results are also compared with the results calculated using the classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) method. The CTMC results are in agreement with the experimental data basically. The discrepancies in higher velocity region are interpreted by the effective charge effect.

  9. Spectroscopy of L-shell Xenon for Ion Temperature and Velocity Measurements on ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepson, Jaan; Beiersdorfer, Peter; Chun, Hyun

    2014-05-01

    In the ITER tokamak, the ion temperature and bulk toroidal velocity will be measured as a function of plasma minor radius using an imaging crystal spectrometer. The diagnostic relies on measuring the Doppler broadening and shift of x-ray lines from embedded impurity ions. However, in line with current trends in magnetic fusion devices, the ITER plasma is designed to have few heavy impurity ions, limited to those of argon and tungsten. Neither element produces ions whose radiation can cover the broad range of temperatures that are expected for ITER plasmas between the core and a fractional minor radius of r / a < 0 . 8 , throughout which the diagnostic is to function. While L-shell tungsten lines, in particular those from neonlike W64+, can be employed to diagnose the hottest parts of the plasma, it has been suggested to inject iron in order to utilize its K-shell emission to diagnose the cooler regions. Here, we show that the L-shell x rays of neonlike Xe44+ can provide the same information as iron. Moreover, we show that L-shell xenon ions will also persist in the hottest part of ITER plasmas and thus can be used in lieu of tungsten or krypton, whose injection had also been suggested. Moreover, because xenon is a noble gas, it can be readily removed from the plasma withou This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  10. Absolute Wavelength Calibration of the IDSII Spectrometer for Impurity Ion Velocity Measurements in the MST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltzer, M.; Craig, D.; den Hartog, D. J.; Nornberg, M. D.; MST Team

    2014-10-01

    The MST operates two Ion Doppler Spectrometers (IDS) for high time-resolution passive and active measurements of impurity ion emission. Absolutely calibrated measurements of flow are difficult because the spectrometers record data within 0.3 nm of the line of interest, and commercial calibration lamps do not produce lines in this narrow range . Four calibration methods were investigated. First, emission along the chord bisecting the poloidal plane was measured as it should have no time-averaged Doppler shift. Second, a calibrated CCD spectrometer and the IDSII were used to observe the same plasma from opposing sides so as to measure opposite Doppler shifts. The unshifted line is located halfway between the two opposing measurements. Third, the two fibers of the IDSI were positioned to take absolute flow measurements using opposing views. Substituting the IDSII for one of the IDSI fibers, absolute measurements of flow from the IDSI were used to calibrate the IDSII. Finally, an optical system was designed to filter an ultraviolet LED, providing a known wavelength source within the spectral range covered by the IDSII. The optical train is composed of an air-gapped etalon and fused silica lenses. The quality of calibration for each of these methods is analyzed and their results compared. Preliminary impurity ion velocity measurements are shown. This work has been supported by the US DOE and the NSF.

  11. Physics of a magnetic filter for negative ion sources. II. E Multiplication-Sign B drift through the filter in a real geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Boeuf, J. P.; Claustre, J.; Chaudhury, B.; Fubiani, G.

    2012-11-15

    The physics of a magnetic filter under conditions similar to those of the negative ion source for the ITER neutral beam injector is analyzed with the help of a two-dimensional particle-in-cell Monte Carlo Collisions model. A detailed analysis of the different terms of the electron momentum equations shows how diamagnetic and drift currents can be dominant in different regions of the filter. Electron transport through the filter is due to an E Multiplication-Sign B drift current on one side of the chamber induced by the presence of the chamber walls perpendicular to the electron diamagnetic current. The filter design of the ITER negative ion source, which does not allow a closed electron diamagnetic current, induces an asymmetry of the plasma that is analyzed with the particle model. It is shown that electron transport through the filter in this geometry is very different from the transport in an ideal, one-dimensional magnetic filter often considered in the literature and described in detail in the companion paper [Boeuf et al., Phys. Plasmas 19, 113509 (2012)].

  12. Velocity space diffusion and nongyrotropy of pickup water group ions at comet Grigg-Skjellerup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coates, A. J.; Johnstone, A. D.; Wilken, B.; Neubauer, Fritz M.

    1993-01-01

    The diffusion of water group cometary ions in velocity space at comet Grigg-Skjellerup was measured during the Giotto spacecraft encounter. The evolution of the collapsed pitch angle and energy distributions during the inbound and outbound passes shows that the timescale for energy diffusion may be similar to that for pitch angle diffusion. Fully isotropic pitch angle distributions were never seen. Also the bulk parameters of the three-dimensional distributions are examined. Transformation of these parameters into a field-aligned solar wind frame allows us to test the gyrotropy of the distributions. These observations imply that there were deviations from gyrotropy throughout the encounter becoming most important near to closest approach.

  13. Analytical Solutions for the Nonlinear Longitudinal Drift Compression (Expansion) of Intense Charged Particle Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Edward A. Startsev; Ronald C. Davidson

    2004-04-09

    To achieve high focal spot intensities in heavy ion fusion, the ion beam must be compressed longitudinally by factors of ten to one hundred before it is focused onto the target. The longitudinal compression is achieved by imposing an initial velocity profile tilt on the drifting beam. In this paper, the problem of longitudinal drift compression of intense charged particle beams is solved analytically for the two important cases corresponding to a cold beam, and a pressure-dominated beam, using a one-dimensional warm-fluid model describing the longitudinal beam dynamics.

  14. Climatology and Morphology of the Early Morning Upward Drift (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, T.; Richmond, A. D.; Stoneback, R.; Wang, H.; Wu, F.

    2013-12-01

    During the recent solar minimum, a large amount of satellite measurements at equatorial latitudes have revealed an upward drift that occurs in the early morning near dawn (between 4 LT and 7 LT), before the occurrence of the regular upward drift in the daytime. An upward drift near dawn has also been shown from previous radar measurements, but has not yet been emphasized or explained. In this study, the simulations using the coupled Whole Atmosphere Model and Global Ionosphere Plasmasphere Model (WAM/GIP) are conducted to investigate the unusual upward drift and to obtain its climatology. The climatology from the simulations is then compared with observations from Ion Velocity Meter (IVM) instrument onboard the Communications/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (CNOFS) satellite during year 2010. The morphology and characteristics of the early morning upward drift are studied through analyzing the neutral winds, field-line integrated conductivities and currents in the electrodynamics solver. We also compare the conditions of the early morning upward drift with the pre-reversal enhancement (PRE) to further understand the causal mechanisms.

  15. A statistical study of fundamental toroidal mode standing Alfvén waves using THEMIS ion bulk velocity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Kazue; Hartinger, Michael D.; Angelopoulos, Vassilis; Glassmeier, Karl-Heinz

    2015-08-01

    We have studied the statistical properties of toroidal mode standing Alfvén waves with a fundamental eigenmode structure along the field line, denoted T1 waves, in the L range 7-12, using THEMIS-D data for 2008-2013. T1 wave events were identified in hourly data segments using an automated procedure that detects narrowband oscillations in the azimuthal component of the ion bulk velocity. For each event we determined the frequency, amplitude, ellipticity, and the orientation angle of the polarization ellipse, and we examined the L and magnetic local time dependence of the detection rate and physical properties of the T1 waves. Confirming previous observations in space and on the ground, we found a pronounced dawn-dusk asymmetry in the wave detection rate and amplitude. The detection rate in the dawn sector is approximately twice as high as that in the dusk sector, and the amplitude in the dawn sector is larger by ˜50%. The same asymmetry is also evident in the velocity amplitude averaged in the fixed Pc5 band (1.7-6.7 mHz) and in the amplitude of the electric field and field line displacement that are derived from the velocity amplitude. The ellipticity and the orientation angle of the polarization ellipse are organized by local time, in accordance with the theoretical prediction of toroidal mode waves excited by field line resonance with tailward propagating waves in the magnetosphere, which are in turn driven by external sources. Although infrequently, T1 waves are also detected in the midnight sector, suggesting magnetotail sources for this subset of events.

  16. Photodissociation dynamics of CBr4 at 267 nm by means of ion velocity imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, Jamila R.; Francisco, Joseph S.; Xu, Dadong; Huang, Jianhua; Jackson, William M.

    2006-10-01

    The photodissociation dynamics of CBr4 at 267nm has been studied using time of flight (TOF) mass spectrometry and ion velocity imaging techniques. The photochemical products are detected with resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) as well as single-photon vacuum ultraviolet ionization at 118nm. REMPI at 266.65 and 266.71nm was used to detect the ground Br(P3/22) and spin-orbit excited Br(P1/22) atoms, respectively. The translational energy and angular distributions are consistent with direct dissociation from an excited triplet state and indirect dissociation from high vibrational levels on the singlet ground state surface. Br2+ ions are also observed in the TOF spectra with a focused 267nm laser. The counter fragment, CBr2+, is observed when this photolysis laser is unfocused, and photons at 118nm are used to ionize the radical products. The translational energy distributions of the CBr2+ and Br2+ products can be momentum matched, which indicates that molecular Br2 elimination is one of the primary dissociation channels.

  17. Photodissociation dynamics of CBr4 at 267 nm by means of ion velocity imaging.

    PubMed

    Greene, Jamila R; Francisco, Joseph S; Xu, Dadong; Huang, Jianhua; Jackson, William M

    2006-10-01

    The photodissociation dynamics of CBr4 at 267 nm has been studied using time of flight (TOF) mass spectrometry and ion velocity imaging techniques. The photochemical products are detected with resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) as well as single-photon vacuum ultraviolet ionization at 118 nm. REMPI at 266.65 and 266.71 nm was used to detect the ground Br(2P32) and spin-orbit excited Br(2P12) atoms, respectively. The translational energy and angular distributions are consistent with direct dissociation from an excited triplet state and indirect dissociation from high vibrational levels on the singlet ground state surface. Br2+ ions are also observed in the TOF spectra with a focused 267 nm laser. The counter fragment, CBr2+, is observed when this photolysis laser is unfocused, and photons at 118 nm are used to ionize the radical products. The translational energy distributions of the CBr2+ and Br2+ products can be momentum matched, which indicates that molecular Br2 elimination is one of the primary dissociation channels. PMID:17029464

  18. Generation of lower hybrid and whistler waves by an ion velocity ring distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Winske, D.; Daughton, W.

    2012-07-15

    Using fully kinetic simulations in two and three spatial dimensions, we consider the generation and nonlinear evolution of lower hybrid waves produced by a cold ion ring velocity distribution in a low beta plasma. We show that the initial development of the instability is very similar in two and three dimensions and not significantly modified by electromagnetic effects, consistent with linear theory. At saturation, the level of electric field fluctuations is a small fraction of the background thermal energy; the electric field and corresponding density fluctuations consist of long, field-aligned striations. Energy extracted from the ring goes primarily into heating the background ions and the electrons at comparable rates. The initial growth and saturation of the magnetic components of the lower hybrid waves are related to the electric field components, consistent with linear theory. As the growing electric field fluctuations saturate, parallel propagating whistler waves develop by the interaction of two lower hybrid waves. At later times, these whistlers are replaced by longer wavelength, parallel propagating whistlers that grow through the decay of the lower hybrid fluctuations. Wave matching conditions demonstrate these conversion processes of lower hybrid waves to whistler waves. The conversion efficiency (=ratio of the whistler wave energy to the energy in the saturated lower hybrid waves) is computed and found to be significant ({approx}15%) for the parameters of the three-dimensional simulation (and even larger in the two-dimensional simulation), although when normalized in terms of the initial kinetic energy in the ring ions the overall efficiency is very small (<10{sup -4}). The results are compared with relevant linear and nonlinear theory.

  19. 2-dimensional ion velocity distributions measured by laser-induced fluorescence above a radio-frequency biased silicon wafer

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Nathaniel B.; Gekelman, Walter; Pribyl, Patrick; Zhang, Yiting; Kushner, Mark J.

    2013-08-15

    The dynamics of ions traversing sheaths in low temperature plasmas are important to the formation of the ion energy distribution incident onto surfaces during microelectronics fabrication. Ion dynamics have been measured using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) in the sheath above a 30 cm diameter, 2.2 MHz-biased silicon wafer in a commercial inductively coupled plasma processing reactor. The velocity distribution of argon ions was measured at thousands of positions above and radially along the surface of the wafer by utilizing a planar laser sheet from a pulsed, tunable dye laser. Velocities were measured both parallel and perpendicular to the wafer over an energy range of 0.4–600 eV. The resulting fluorescence was recorded using a fast CCD camera, which provided resolution of 0.4 mm in space and 30 ns in time. Data were taken at eight different phases during the 2.2 MHz cycle. The ion velocity distributions (IVDs) in the sheath were found to be spatially non-uniform near the edge of the wafer and phase-dependent as a function of height. Several cm above the wafer the IVD is Maxwellian and independent of phase. Experimental results were compared with simulations. The experimental time-averaged ion energy distribution function as a function of height compare favorably with results from the computer model.

  20. Velocity fluctuations of a heavy particle interacting with a hot and cold gas: Applications to molecular ion traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaca, Christian; Bruinsma, Robijn; Levine, Alex J.

    2014-03-01

    Understanding the stochastic motion of a heavy particle in a gas of lighter ones is a classic problem in statistical mechanics. Alkemade, MacDonald, and Van Kampen (AMvK) analyzed this problem in one dimension, computing the velocity distribution function of the heavy particle in a perturbation expansion using the ratio of mass of the light to the heavy particle as a small parameter. Novel tests of this theory are now being provided by modern molecular ion traps [arXiv:1310.5190]. In such experiments, the heavy molecular ion interacts with a cold gas used for sympathetic cooling and low density hot gasses that leak into the system. Thus, the heavy ion is maintained in a complex nonequilibrium state due to its interactions with the hot and cold gasses. In this talk, we present an extension of the AMvK model appropriate to these experiments. Using new analytic and computational techniques, we explore the time-dependent velocity distribution function of the molecular ion interacting with the gasses including higher order perturbative corrections necessary to discuss the case in which the ion's mass is not significantly larger than that of the other two species. Using this analysis we address the experimental observation of non-Gaussian velocity distributions of the heavy ions.

  1. Following the movement of Cu ions in a SSZ-13 zeolite during dehydration, reduction and adsorption: a combined in situ TP-XRD, XANES/DRIFTS study

    SciTech Connect

    Kwak, Ja Hun; Varga, Tamas; Peden, Charles HF; Gao, Feng; Hanson, Jonathan C.; Szanyi, Janos

    2014-05-05

    Cu-SSZ-13 has been shown to possess high activity and superior N2 formation selectivity in the selective catalytic reduction of NOx under oxygen rich conditions. Here, a combination of synchrotron-based (XRD and XANES) and vibrational (DRIFTS) spectroscopy tools have been used to follow the changes in the location and coordination environment of copper ions in a Cu-SSZ-13 zeolite during calcinations, reduction with CO, and adsorption of CO and H2O. XANES spectra collected during these procedures provides critical information not only on the variation in the oxidation state of the copper species in the zeolite structure, but also on the changes in the coordination environment around these ions as they interact with the framework, and with different adsorbates (H2O and CO). Time-resolved XRD data indicate the movement of copper ions and the consequent variation of the unit cell parameters during dehydration. DRIFT spectra provide information about the adsorbed species present in the zeolite, as well as the oxidation states of and coordination environment around the copper ions. A careful analysis of the asymmetric T-O-T vibrations of the CHA framework perturbed by copper ions in different coordination environments proved to be especially informative. The results of this study will aid the identification of the location, coordination and oxidation states of copper ions obtained during in operando catalytic studies. Financial support was provided by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Program. Part of this work (sample preparation) was performed in the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The EMSL is a national scientific user facility supported by the US DOE, Office of Biological and Environmental Research. PNNL is a multi-program national laboratory operated for the US DOE by Battelle. All of the spectroscopy work reported here was carried out at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). NSLS is a national scientific user facility supported by the US DOE.

  2. Broadband Velocity Modulation Spectroscopy of Molecular Ions for Use in the Jila Electron Edm Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gresh, Daniel N.; Cossel, Kevin C.; Cornell, Eric A.; Ye, Jun

    2013-06-01

    The JILA electron electric dipole moment (eEDM) experiment will use a low-lying, metastable ^3?_1 state in trapped molecular ions of HfF^+ or ThF^+. Prior to this work, the low-lying states of these molecules had been investigated by PFI-ZEKE spectroscopy. However, there were no detailed studies of the electronic structure. The recently developed technique of frequency comb velocity modulation spectroscopy (VMS) provides broad-bandwidth, high-resolution, ion-sensitive spectroscopy, allowing the acquisition of 150 cm^{-1} of continuous spectra in 30 minutes over 1500 simultaneous channels. By supplementing this technique with cw-laser VMS, we have investigated the electronic structure of HfF^+ in the frequency range of 9950 to 14600 cm^{-1}, accurately fitting and assigning 16 rovibronic transitions involving 8 different electronic states including the X^1?^+ and a^3?_1 states. In addition, an observed ^3?_{0+} state with coupling to both the X and a states has been used in the actual eEDM experiment to coherently transfer population from the rovibronic ground state of HfF^+ to the eEDM science state. Furthermore, we report on current efforts of applying frequency comb VMS at 700 - 900 nm to the study of ThF^+, which has a lower energy ^3?_1 state and a greater effective electric field, and will provide increased sensitivity for a measurement of the eEDM. A. E. Leanhardt et. al., Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy 270, 1-25 (2011). B. J. Barker, I. O. Antonov, M. C. Heaven, K. A. Peterson, Journal of Chemical Physics 136, 104305 (2012). L. C. Sinclair, K. C. Cossel, T. Coffey, J. Ye, E. A. Cornell, Physical Review Letters 107, 093002 (2011). K.C. Cossel et. al., Chemical Physics Letters 546, 1-11 (2012).

  3. An Analytic Study of the Perpendicularly Propagating Electromagnetic Drift Instabilities in the Magnetic Reconnection Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y., Kulsrud, R., Ji, H

    2008-12-03

    A local linear theory is proposed for a perpendicularly propagating drift instability driven by relative drifts between electrons and ions. The theory takes into account local cross-field current, pressure gradients and modest collisions as in the Magnetic Reconnection Experiment (MRX) [10]. The unstable waves have very small group velocities in the direction of the pressure gradient, but have a large phase velocity near the relative drift velocity between electrons and ions in the direction of cross-field current. By taking into account the electron-ion collisions and applying the theory in the Harris sheet, we establish that this instability could be excited near the center of the Harris sheet and have enough efoldings to grow to large amplitude before it propagates out of the unstable region. Comparing with the other magnetic reconnection related instabilities (LHDI, MTSI et.) studied previously, we believe the instability we find is a favorable candidate to produce anomalous resistivity because of its unique wave characteristics, such as electromagnetic component, large phase velocity, and small group velocity in the cross current layer direction.

  4. Pseudochemotactic drifts of artificial microswimmers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Pulak K.; Li, Yunyun; Marchesoni, Fabio; Nori, Franco

    2015-07-01

    We numerically investigate the motion of active artificial microswimmers diffusing in a fuel concentration gradient. We observe that, in the steady state, their probability density accumulates in the low-concentration regions, whereas a tagged swimmer drifts with velocity depending in modulus and orientation on how the concentration gradient affects the self-propulsion mechanism. Under most experimentally accessible conditions, the particle drifts toward the high-concentration regions (pseudochemotactic drift). A correct interpretation of experimental data must account for such an "anti-Fickian" behavior.

  5. Gyrobunching and wave-particle resonance in the lower hybrid drift instability

    E-print Network

    Cook, J W S; Chapman, S C

    2011-01-01

    We report a first principles study of the coupled evolution of energetic ions, background majority ions, electrons and electromagnetic fields in magnetised plasma during the linear phase of the lower hybrid drift instability. A particle-in-cell code, with one spatial and three velocity space co-ordinates, is used to analyse the evolving distribution of a drifting ring-beam population of energetic protons in physical space and gyrophase angle. This analysis is carried out for plasma parameters that approximate to edge conditions in large tokamaks, in a scenario that is motivated by observations of ion cyclotron emission and may be relevant to alpha channelling. Resonant energy transfer occurs at the two gyrophase angles at which the instantaneous speed of an energetic proton on its cyclotron orbit precisely matches the phase velocity of the lower hybrid wave along the simulation domain. Electron space-charge oscillations determine the wavelength of the propagating lower hybrid wave, and thereby govern the spat...

  6. Photodetachment Studies Of Atomic Negative Ions Through Velocity-Map Imaging Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chartkunchand, Kiattichart

    The technique of velocity-map imaging (VMI) spectroscopy as been adapted to a keV-level negative ion beamline for studies of photon-negative ion collisions. The design and operation of the VMI spectrometer takes into consideration the use of continuous, fast-moving (5 keV to 10 keV) ion beams, as well as a continuous wave (CW) laser as the source of photons. The VMI spectrometer has been used in photodetachment studies of the Group 14 negative ions Ge--, Sn--, and Pb-- at a photon wavelength of 532 nm. Measurements of the photoelectron angular distributions and asymmetry parameters for Ge-- and Sn-- were benchmarked against those measured previously [W. W. Williams, D. L. Carpenter, A. M. Covington, and J. S. Thompson, Phys. Rev. A 59, 4368 (1999), V. T. Davis, J. Ashokkumar, and J. S. Thompson, Phys. Rev. A 65, 024702 (2002)], while fine-structure-resolved asymmetry parameters for Pb-- were measured for the first time. Definitive evidence of a "forbidden" 4S 3/2?1D2 transition was observed in both the Ge-- and Sn-- photoelectron kinetic energy spectra. This transition is explained in terms of the inadequacy of the single-configuration description for the 1D2 excited state in the corresponding neutral. Near-threshold photodetachment studies of S-- were carried out in order to measure the spectral dependence of the photoelectron angular distribution. The resulting asymmetry parameters were measured at several photon wavelengths in the range of 575 nm (2.156 eV photon energy) to 615 nm (2.016 eV photon energy). Comparison of the measurements to a qualitative model of p-electron photodetachment [D. Hanstorp, C. Bengtsson, and D. J. Larson, Phys. Rev. A 40, 670 (1989)] were made. Deviations of the measured asymmetry parameters from the Hanstorp model near photodetachment thresholds suggests a reduced degree of suppression of d partial-waves than predicted by models. Measurement of the electron affinity of terbium was performed along with a determination of the structure of Tb--. The energy scale for the Tb-- photoelectron kinetic energy spectrum was calibrated to the photoelectron kinetic energy spectrum of Cs-- , whose electron affinity is well-known [T. A. Patterson, H. Hotop, A. Kasdan, D. W. Norcross, and W. C. Lineberger, Phys. Rev. Lett. 32 , 189 (1974)]. Comparison to a previous experimental measurement of the electron affinity of terbium [S. S. Duvvuri, Ph. D. dissertation, University of Nevada, Reno (2006)] and to theoretical calculations of the electron affinity [S. M. O'Malley and D. R. Beck, Phys. Rev. A 79, 012511 (2009)] were made. In contrast to the [Xe]4f106 s2 5I8 ground state configuration proposed in the experimental study and the [Xe]4f 85d6s26p 9G7 ground state configuration proposed in the theoretical study, the present study suggests a Tb-- ground state of [Xe]4f96s 26p 7I3 and an electron affinity of 0.13 +/- 0.07 eV for terbium.

  7. Velocity damping and fragmenta2on in non-central intermediate energy heavy-ion collisions

    E-print Network

    de Souza, Romualdo T.

    Velocity damping and fragmenta2on in non-central intermediate energy heavy Hierarchy observed between fragment size and velocity #12;Reac2on Characteris2cs: 114°4° color indicates yield in log-scale #12;PLF*: velocity damping R. Yanez et al., PRC68, 011602 (R

  8. The Relation between Relaxation Time, Mean Free Path, Collision Time and Drift Velocity--Pitfalls and a Proposal for an Approach Illustrating the Essentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakoby, Bernhard

    2009-01-01

    The collision model is frequently introduced to describe electronic conductivity in solids. Depending on the chosen approach, the introduction of the collision time can lead to erroneous results for the average velocity of the electrons, which enters the expression for the electrical conductivity. In other textbooks, correct results are obtained…

  9. A velocity map ion imaging study of difluorobenzene-water complexes: Binding energies and recoil distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellm, Susan M.; Moulds, Rebecca J.; van Leeuwen, Matthew P.; Lawrance, Warren D.

    2008-03-01

    The binding energies of the p-, m-, and o-difluorobenzene-H2O complexes have been measured by velocity map ion imaging to be 922±10, 945±10, and 891±4cm-1, respectively. The lack of variation provides circumstantial evidence for water binding to the three isomers via the same interaction, viz. an in-plane O-H⋯F hydrogen bond to one of the fluorine atoms on the ring, with a second, weaker interaction of the water O atom with an ortho hydrogen, as determined previously for the p-difluorobenzene-H2O complex [Kang et al., J. Phys. Chem. A 109, 767 (2005)]. The ground state binding energies for the difluorobenzene-H2O complexes are ˜5%-11% larger than that for benzene-H2O, where binding occurs to the ? electrons out-of-plane. However, in the S1 state the binding energies of the o- and p-difluorobenzene-H2O complexes are smaller than the benzene-H2O value, raising an interesting question about whether the geometry at the global energy minimum remains in-plane in the excited electronic states of these two complexes. Recoil energy distributions for dissociation of p-difluorobenzene-H2O have been measured from the 31¯, 52¯, and 3151¯ levels of the excited electronic state. These levels are 490, 880, and 1304cm-1, respectively, above the dissociation threshold. Within the experimental uncertainty, the recoil energy distributions are the same for dissociation from these three states, with average recoil energies of ˜100cm-1. These recoil energies are 60% larger than was observed for the dissociation of p-difluorobenzene-Ar, which is a substantially smaller increase than the 400% seen in a comparable study of dissociation within the triplet state for pyrazine-Ar, -H2O complexes. The majority of the available energy is partitioned into vibration and rotation of the fragments.

  10. High-velocity, multistage, nozzled, ion driven wind generator and method of operation of the same adaptable to mesoscale realization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn-Rankin, Derek (Inventor); Rickard, Matthew J. A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Gas flows of modest velocities are generated when an organized ion flux in an electric field initiates an ion-driven wind of neutral molecules. When a needle in ambient air is electrically charged to a potential sufficient to produce a corona discharge near its tip, such a gas flow can be utilized downstream of a ring-shaped or other permeable earthed electrode. In view of the potential practical applications of such devices, as they represent blowers with no moving parts, a methodology for increasing their flow velocities includes exploitation of the divergence of electric field lines, avoidance of regions of high curvature on the second electrode, control of atmospheric humidity, and the use of linear arrays of stages, terminating in a converging nozzle. The design becomes particularly advantageous when implemented in mesoscale domains.

  11. Temporally resolved ion velocity distribution measurements in a radio-frequency plasma sheath

    E-print Network

    Carter, Troy

    is conserved within the sheath region. The characteristic bimodal structure of the time-averaged ion sheath electric fields is used extensively in materials processing for a wide variety of applications includ- ing deposition of thin films, reactive ion etching (RIE), and ion implantation (doping).2

  12. Electron injection in semiconductor drift detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Rehak, P. ); Gatti, E.; Longoni, A.; Sampietro, M.; Castoldi, A. ); Vacchi, A. )

    1990-01-01

    The paper reports the first successful results of a simple MOS structure to inject electrons at a given position in Silicon Drift Detectors. The structure allows on-line calibration of the drift velocity of electrons within the detector. The calibration is a practical method to trace the temperature dependence of the electron mobility. Several of these injection structures can be implemented in silicon drift detectors without additional steps in the fabrication process. 5 refs., 11 figs.

  13. Number-conserving linear-response study of low-velocity ion stopping in a collisional magnetized classical plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Nersisyan, Hrachya B.; Deutsch, Claude; Das, Amal K.

    2011-03-15

    The results of a theoretical investigation of the low-velocity stopping power of ions in a magnetized collisional and classical plasma are reported. The stopping power for an ion is calculated through the linear-response (LR) theory. The collisions, which lead to a damping of the excitations in the plasma, are taken into account through a number-conserving relaxation time approximation in the LR function. In order to highlight the effects of collisions and magnetic field, we present a comparison of our analytical and numerical results obtained for nonzero damping or magnetic field with those for vanishing damping or magnetic field. It is shown that the collisions remove the anomalous friction obtained previously [Nersisyan et al., Phys. Rev. E 61, 7022 (2000)] for the collisionless magnetized plasmas at low ion velocities. One of the major objectives of this paper is to compare and to contrast our theoretical results with those obtained through a diffusion coefficient formulation based on the Dufty-Berkovsky relation evaluated for a magnetized one-component plasma modeled with target ions and electrons.

  14. Method for enhancing the resolving power of ion mobility separations over a limited mobility range

    SciTech Connect

    Shvartsburg, Alexandre A; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D

    2014-09-23

    A method for raising the resolving power, specificity, and peak capacity of conventional ion mobility spectrometry is disclosed. Ions are separated in a dynamic electric field comprising an oscillatory field wave and opposing static field, or at least two counter propagating waves with different parameters (amplitude, profile, frequency, or speed). As the functional dependencies of mean drift velocity on the ion mobility in a wave and static field or in unequal waves differ, only single species is equilibrated while others drift in either direction and are mobility-separated. An ion mobility spectrum over a limited range is then acquired by measuring ion drift times through a fixed distance inside the gas-filled enclosure. The resolving power in the vicinity of equilibrium mobility substantially exceeds that for known traveling-wave or drift-tube IMS separations, with spectra over wider ranges obtainable by stitching multiple segments. The approach also enables low-cutoff, high-cutoff, and bandpass ion mobility filters.

  15. Search for auroral belt E-parallel fields with high-velocity barium ion injections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heppner, J. P.; Ledley, B. G.; Miller, M. L.; Marionni, P. A.; Pongratz, M. B.

    1989-01-01

    In April 1984, four high-velocity shaped-charge Ba(+) injections were conducted from two sounding rockets at 770-975 km over northern Alaska under conditions of active auroral and magnetic disturbance. Spatial ionization (brightness) profiles of high-velocity Ba(+) clouds from photometric scans following each release were found to be consistent with the 28-sec theoretical time constant for Ba photoionization determined by Carlsten (1975). These observations therefore revealed no evidence of anomalous fast ionization predicted by the Alfven critical velocity hypothesis.

  16. Ion acceleration from laser-driven electrostatic shocks

    SciTech Connect

    Fiuza, F.; Stockem, A.; Boella, E.; Fonseca, R. A.; Silva, L. O.; Haberberger, D.; Tochitsky, S.; Mori, W. B.; Joshi, C.

    2013-05-15

    Multi-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations are used to study the generation of electrostatic shocks in plasma and the reflection of background ions to produce high-quality and high-energy ion beams. Electrostatic shocks are driven by the interaction of two plasmas with different density and/or relative drift velocity. The energy and number of ions reflected by the shock increase with increasing density ratio and relative drift velocity between the two interacting plasmas. It is shown that the interaction of intense lasers with tailored near-critical density plasmas allows for the efficient heating of the plasma electrons and steepening of the plasma profile at the critical density interface, leading to the generation of high-velocity shock structures and high-energy ion beams. Our results indicate that high-quality 200 MeV shock-accelerated ion beams required for medical applications may be obtained with current laser systems.

  17. Dissociation of internal energy-selected methyl bromide ion revealed from threshold photoelectron-photoion coincidence velocity imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Xiaofeng; National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230029 ; Zhou, Xiaoguo E-mail: yanbing@jlu.edu.cn; Liu, Shilin; Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 ; Sun, Zhongfa; Liu, Fuyi; Sheng, Liusi; Yan, Bing E-mail: yanbing@jlu.edu.cn

    2014-01-28

    Dissociative photoionization of methyl bromide (CH{sub 3}Br) in an excitation energy range of 10.45–16.90 eV has been investigated by using threshold photoelectron-photoion coincidence (TPEPICO) velocity imaging. The coincident time-of-flight mass spectra indicate that the ground state X{sup 2}E of CH{sub 3}Br{sup +} is stable, and both A{sup 2}A{sub 1} and B{sup 2}E ionic excited states are fully dissociative to produce the unique fragment ion of CH{sub 3}{sup +}. From TPEPICO 3D time-sliced velocity images of CH{sub 3}{sup +} dissociated from specific state-selected CH{sub 3}Br{sup +} ion, kinetic energy release distribution (KERD) and angular distribution of CH{sub 3}{sup +} fragment ion are directly obtained. Both spin-orbit states of Br({sup 2}P) atom can be clearly observed in fast dissociation of CH{sub 3}Br{sup +}(A{sup 2}A{sub 1}) ion along C–Br rupture, while a KERD of Maxwell-Boltzmann profile is obtained in dissociation of CH{sub 3}Br{sup +}(B{sup 2}E) ion. With the aid of the re-calculated potential energy curves of CH{sub 3}Br{sup +} including spin-orbit coupling, dissociation mechanisms of CH{sub 3}Br{sup +} ion in A{sup 2}A{sub 1} and B{sup 2}E states along C–Br rupture are revealed. For CH{sub 3}Br{sup +}(A{sup 2}A{sub 1}) ion, the CH{sub 3}{sup +} + Br({sup 2}P{sub 1/2}) channel is occurred via an adiabatic dissociation by vibration, while the Br({sup 2}P{sub 3/2}) formation is through vibronic coupling to the high vibrational level of X{sup 2}E state followed by rapid dissociation. C–Br bond breaking of CH{sub 3}Br{sup +}(B{sup 2}E) ion can occur via slow internal conversion to the excited vibrational level of the lower electronic states and then dissociation.

  18. Long wavelength gradient drift instability in Hall plasma devices. I. Fluid Winston Frias, Andrei I. Smolyakov, Igor D. Kaganovich, and Yevgeny Raitses

    E-print Network

    to the equilibrium magnetic field B0; thus producing stationary E0 Â B0 drift velocity. The ions, due to large Larmor accelerators, typi- cally in coaxial geometry with radial magnetic field B0, axial E0, and azimuthal E0 Â B0, electron temperature, and magnetic field is proposed. It is shown that full account of compressibility

  19. Filamentation instability of nonextensive current-driven plasma in the ion acoustic frequency range

    SciTech Connect

    Khorashadizadeh, S. M. Rastbood, E.; Niknam, A. R.

    2014-12-15

    The filamentation and ion acoustic instabilities of nonextensive current-driven plasma in the ion acoustic frequency range have been studied using the Lorentz transformation formulas. Based on the kinetic theory, the possibility of filamentation instability and its growth rate as well as the ion acoustic instability have been investigated. The results of the research show that the possibility and growth rate of these instabilities are significantly dependent on the electron nonextensive parameter and drift velocity. Besides, the increase of electrons nonextensive parameter and drift velocity lead to the increase of the growth rates of both instabilities. In addition, the wavelength region in which the filamentation instability occurs is more stretched in the presence of higher values of drift velocity and nonextensive parameter. Finally, the results of filamentation and ion acoustic instabilities have been compared and the conditions for filamentation instability to be dominant mode of instability have been presented.

  20. Stopping power for low-velocity heavy ions: (0--1. 0)-MeV/nucleon Mg ions in 17 ( Z =22--79) elemental solids

    SciTech Connect

    Arstila, K.; Keinonen, J.; Tikkanen, P. )

    1990-04-01

    The stopping power for {sup 24,26}Mg ions in 17 ({ital Z}=22--79) elemental solids has been studied in the energy region 0--1.0 MeV/nucleon by application of the Doppler-shift attenuation method. At velocities 2{ital v}{sub 0}{lt}{ital v}{lt}5{ital v}{sub 0} ({ital v}{sub 0} the Bohr velocity), the scaling factors 1.10 (Ti), 0.90 (V), 0.93 (Fe), 0.97 (Co), 0.99 (Ni), 1.03 (Cu), 1.05 (Ge), 1.05 (Nb), 1.15 (Mo), 1.05 (Pd), 1.08 (Ag), 1.09 (Hf), 1.07 (Ta), 1.05 (W), 1.05 (Re), 1.05 (Pt), and 0.96 (Au) to the commonly used empirical electronic stopping power by Ziegler, Biersack, and Littmark were determined to an accuracy of {plus minus}5%. At velocities {ital v}{lt}2{ital v}{sub 0}, much higher electronic stopping power and different velocity dependence than predicted by the empirical model were obtained. The electronic stopping power was determined to an accuracy of {plus minus}5%. The reduction of the nuclear stopping power due to the polycrystalline structure of the slowing-down materials was taken into account in the deduction of the electronic stopping power.

  1. Stopping power for low-velocity heavy ions: (0-1.0)-MeV/nucleon Mg ions in 17 (Z=22-79) elemental solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arstila, K.; Keinonen, J.; Tikkanen, P.

    1990-04-01

    The stopping power for 24,26Mg ions in 17 (Z=22-79) elemental solids has been studied in the energy region 0-1.0 MeV/nucleon by application of the Doppler-shift attenuation method. At velocities 2v0velocity), the scaling factors 1.10 (Ti), 0.90 (V), 0.93 (Fe), 0.97 (Co), 0.99 (Ni), 1.03 (Cu), 1.05 (Ge), 1.05 (Nb), 1.15 (Mo), 1.05 (Pd), 1.08 (Ag), 1.09 (Hf), 1.07 (Ta), 1.05 (W), 1.05 (Re), 1.05 (Pt), and 0.96 (Au) to the commonly used empirical electronic stopping power by Ziegler, Biersack, and Littmark were determined to an accuracy of +/-5%. At velocities v<2v0, much higher electronic stopping power and different velocity dependence than predicted by the empirical model were obtained. The electronic stopping power was determined to an accuracy of +/-5%. The reduction of the nuclear stopping power due to the polycrystalline structure of the slowing-down materials was taken into account in the deduction of the electronic stopping power.

  2. Ion Velocity Phase Space Studies of the VASIMR Engine Exhaust Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bering, III; Chang-Diaz, F. R.; Squire, J.; Jacobson, V.; Tarditi, A.; Bengtson, R. D.; Glover, T. W.; Brukardt, M.; McCaskill, G. E.

    2004-11-01

    The Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR) is a high power engine capable of Isp/thrust modulation at constant power. The plasma is produced by helicon discharge. The bulk of the energy is added by ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH.) Axial momentum is obtained by adiabatic expansion of the plasma in a magnetic nozzle. Thrust/specific impulse ratio control in the VASIMR is primarily achieved by the partitioning of the RF power to the helicon and ICRH systems, with the proper adjustment of the propellant flow. Ion dynamics in the exhaust were studied using probes, gridded energy analyzers (RPAÂ's), microwave interferometry and optical techniques. This paper will focus on the RPA data. We will examine the ion dynamics in a deuterium exhaust plasma using ˜9 kW of RF power to the helicon ionization stage and varying power levels to the ICRH acceleration stage. Ion heating of ˜70 eV/ion/kW of applied ICRH has been demonstrated. Results also confirm conversion of transverse ion motion to axial motion.

  3. Determination of plasma ion velocity distribution via charge-exchange recombination spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Fonck, R.J.; Darrow, D.S.; Jaehnig, K.P.

    1983-12-01

    Spectroscopy of line radiation from plasma impurity ions excited by charge-exchange recombination reactions with energetic neutral beam atoms is rapidly becoming recognized as a powerful technique for measuring ion temperature, bulk plasma motion, impurity transport, and more exotic phenomena such as fast alpha particle distributions. In particular, this diagnostic offers the capability of obtaining space- and time-resolved ion temperature and toroidal plasma rotation profiles with relatively simple optical systems. Cascade-corrected excitation rate coefficients for use in both fully stripped impurity density studies and ion temperature measurements have been calculated to the principal ..delta..n = 1 transitions of He+, C/sup 5 +/, and O/sup 7 +/ with neutral beam energies of 5 to 100 keV/amu. A fiber optically coupled spectrometer system has been used on PDX to measure visible He/sup +/ radiation excited by charge exchange. Central ion temperatures up to 2.4 keV and toroidal rotation speeds up to 1.5 x 10/sup 7/ cm/s were observed in diverted discharges with P/sub INJ/ less than or equal to 3.0 MW.

  4. Radar and satellite investigations of equatorial evening vertical drifts and spread F

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. M.; Rodrigues, F. S.; de Paula, E. R.

    2015-11-01

    We analyzed pre-midnight equatorial F region observations made by the 30 MHz coherent backscatter radar of São Luis, Brazil between August 2010 and February 2012. These measurements were processed, and used to create monthly maps of the echo occurrence as a function of local time and height. The maps show the inter-annual variability associated with equatorial spread F (ESF) occurrence in the Brazilian longitude sector. We also constructed monthly curves of the evening vertical drifts, for the Brazilian sector, using measurements by the ion velocity meter (IVM) onboard the C/NOFS satellite. The IVM evening drifts show a good overall agreement with the Scherliess and Fejer (1999) empirical model. Measured and model drifts show the development of the pre-reversal enhancement (PRE) of the vertical plasma drifts during ESF season. Using joint radar and satellite measurements, we found that evening (18:00-18:30 LT) mean non-negative drifts provide a necessary but not sufficient condition for the occurrence of topside ESF echoes. Evening downward (negative) drifts preceded the absence of topside ESF irregularities.

  5. Sawtooth-Control Mechanism using Toroidally Propagating Ion-Cyclotron-Resonance Waves in Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, J. P.; Coda, S.; Chapman, I.

    2009-02-13

    The sawtooth control mechanism in plasmas employing off-axis toroidally propagating ion cyclotron resonance waves in tokamaks is reinvestigated. The radial drift excursion of energetic passing ions distributed asymmetrically in the velocity parallel to the magnetic field determines stability when the rational q=1 surface resides within a narrow region centered about the shifted fundamental cyclotron resonance.

  6. Drift reduction with drift control adjuvants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous drift reduction adjuvants and spray deposition aids are available to applicators of crop production and protection chemicals. Performance of many of the newly introduced drift control adjuvants has not been well documented for aerial application. Four new drift control adjuvants were sele...

  7. Drift reduction with drift control adjuvants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous drift reduction adjuvants and spray deposition aids are available to applicators of crop production and protection chemicals. Performance of many of the newly introduced drift control adjuvants has not been well documented for aerial application. Five new drift control adjuvants were sele...

  8. Effect of ion orbit loss on the structure in the H-mode tokamak edge pedestal profiles of rotation velocity, radial electric field, density, and temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Stacey, Weston M.

    2013-09-15

    An investigation of the effect of ion orbit loss of thermal ions and the compensating return ion current directly on the radial ion flux flowing in the plasma, and thereby indirectly on the toroidal and poloidal rotation velocity profiles, the radial electric field, density, and temperature profiles, and the interpretation of diffusive and non-diffusive transport coefficients in the plasma edge, is described. Illustrative calculations for a high-confinement H-mode DIII-D [J. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002)] plasma are presented and compared with experimental results. Taking into account, ion orbit loss of thermal ions and the compensating return ion current is found to have a significant effect on the structure of the radial profiles of these quantities in the edge plasma, indicating the necessity of taking ion orbit loss effects into account in interpreting or predicting these quantities.

  9. Background and Pickup Ion Velocity Distribution Dynamics in Titan's Plasma Environment: 3D Hybrid Simulation and Comparison with CAPS T9 Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipatov, A. S.; Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Hartle, R. E.; Cooper, J. F.; Simpson, D. G.

    2011-01-01

    In this report we discuss the ion velocity distribution dynamics from the 3D hybrid simulation. In our model the background, pickup, and ionospheric ions are considered as a particles, whereas the electrons are described as a fluid. Inhomogeneous photoionization, electron-impact ionization and charge exchange are included in our model. We also take into account the collisions between the ions and neutrals. The current simulation shows that mass loading by pickup ions H(+); H2(+), CH4(+) and N2(+) is stronger than in the previous simulations when O+ ions are introduced into the background plasma. In our hybrid simulations we use Chamberlain profiles for the atmospheric components. We also include a simple ionosphere model with average mass M = 28 amu ions that were generated inside the ionosphere. The moon is considered as a weakly conducting body. Special attention will be paid to comparing the simulated pickup ion velocity distribution with CAPS T9 observations. Our simulation shows an asymmetry of the ion density distribution and the magnetic field, including the formation of the Alfve n wing-like structures. The simulation also shows that the ring-like velocity distribution for pickup ions relaxes to a Maxwellian core and a shell-like halo.

  10. Upstream gyrophase bunched ions - A mechanism for creation at the bow shock and the growth of velocity space structure through gyrophase mixing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurgiolo, C.; Parks, G. K.; Mauk, G. H.

    1983-01-01

    The conditions necessary for the production of gyrophase bunched ions at the bow shock are developed. The conditions are applied to the reflection mechanism presented by Paschmann et al. (1980), showing that when in their model a portion of the incident parallel velocity is converted into reflected perpendicular velocity, the reflected particles are gyrophase bunched. The growth of velocity space structure in the gyrophase bunched distribution through gyrophase mixing is also explored. The structure is found to be similar to that reported in diffuse and dispersed ion events. This together with the close correlation of the observation of gyrophase bunched ions with diffuse and dispersed ions has led us to speculate that these two populations may be closely related.

  11. Dynamics of positive probes in underdense, strongly magnetized, E×B drifting plasma: Particle-in-cell simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Heinrich, Jonathon R.; Cooke, David L.

    2013-09-15

    Electron trapping, electron heating, space-charge wings, wake eddies, and current collection by a positive probe in E×B drifting plasma were studied in three-dimensional electromagnetic particle-in-cell simulations. In these simulations, electrons and ions were magnetized with respect to the probe and the plasma was underdense (?{sub pe}drift velocity (Mach 4.5 with respect to the ion acoustic speed) between the plasma and probe was created with background electric and magnetic fields. Four distinct regions developed in the presences of the positive probe: a quasi-trapped electron region, an electron-depletion wing, an ion-rich wing, and a wake region. We report on the observations of strong electron heating mechanisms, space-charge wings, ion cyclotron charge-density eddies in the wake, electron acceleration due to a magnetic presheath, and the current-voltage relationship.

  12. Drift-induced modifications to the dynamical polarization of graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabbaghi, Mohsen; Lee, Hyun-Woo; Stauber, Tobias; Kim, Kwang S.

    2015-11-01

    The response function of graphene is calculated in the presence of a constant current across the sample. For small drift velocities and finite chemical potential, analytic expressions are obtained and consequences on the plasmonic excitations are discussed. For general drift velocities and zero chemical potential, numerical results are presented and a plasmon gain region is identified that is related to interband transitions.

  13. Ionization of highly charged iodine ions in collisions near the Bohr velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xianming, Zhou; Yongtao, Zhao; Rui, Cheng; Jieru, Ren; Yu, Lei; Yuanbo, Sun; Yuyu, Wang; Shidong, Liu; Ge, Xu; Guoqing, Xiao

    2014-04-01

    The L-shell X-rays of iodine induced by 3MeV Iq+(q=20,22,25,26) ions impacting on Fe target were measured. The results indicated that, in addition to the ionization of L-shell, the projectile M- and N-shell were multiply ionized. The ratios of the sub-shell X-ray relative intensity were also investigated.

  14. Bulk properties and velocity distributions of water group ions at Comet Halley - Giotto measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coates, A. J.; Johnstone, A. D.; Wilken, B.; Jockers, K.; Glassmeier, K.-H.

    1990-01-01

    In the region upstream of Comet Halley, pickup heavy ions of cometary origin were directly observed by the implanted ion spectrometer on Giotto. Diffusion of this population in pitch angle and in energy, during the approach to the comet and on the outbound leg is discussed. The two data sets are compared and qualitative ideas on scattering timescales are inferred. In addition the bulk parameters of these distributions have been computed and a comparison of the observed speed in the solar wind frame and the observed density with expectations is presented. Pitch angle scattering occurs more slowly than expected with filled shells appearing at 2,500,000 km, and significant energy diffusion does not occur until the bow shock region. Also the shell distributions downstream of the shock flow at the bispherical bulk speed (related to the Alfven speed) along the magnetic field with respect to the solar wind in accordance with conservation of energy between the pickup ions and the wave turbulence.

  15. Electronic stopping power calculations for all heavy ions at low velocity in all elements. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, J.G.; Land, D.J.

    1980-03-17

    Values of the electronic stopping power for projectiles from carbon to uranium in elemental targets from hydrogen through the transuranic elements at the Bohr velocity, are presented in sets of tables. The stopping powers were calculated within a modified Firsov model. An algorithm for determining the stopping power from v=0 to v=3 to 4 v sub o is discussed. The stopping powers, as obtained from this algorithm, are compared with an extensive collection of experimental data. The results are presented in a series of graphs.

  16. Study of incomplete fusion for light heavy-ion systems using velocity distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Y.; Albiston, C.; Bantel, M.; Budzanowski, A.; DiGregorio, D.; Stokstad, R.G.; Wald, S.; Zhou, S.; Zhou, Z.

    1986-03-01

    Experimental results on incomplete fusion for light systems are discussed by studying the velocity distribution of fusion-like residues in the energy range of 6 to 20 MeV/nucleon. Original experimental work and results from other groups including the Hahn-Meitner Institute and the Argonne National Laboratory are also cited. Reactions between /sup 14/N, /sup 16/O, /sup 19/F, and /sup 20,22/Ne projectiles and /sup 24,26/Mg, /sup 27/Al, /sup 28/Si, /sup 40/Ca and /sup 58,60/Ni targets have been studied. 19 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Experimental test of instability enhanced collisional friction for determining ion loss in two ion species plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Hershkowitz, N.; Yip, C.-S.; Severn, G. D.

    2011-05-15

    Recent experiments have shown that ions in weakly collisional plasmas containing two ion species of comparable densities approximately reach a common velocity at the sheath edge equal to the bulk plasma ion sound velocity. A recent theory [S. D. Baalrud, C. C. Hegna, and J. D. Callen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 205002 (2009)] suggests that this is a consequence of collisional friction between the two ion species enhanced by the two stream instability. The theory finds that the difference in velocities at the sheath edge depends on the relative concentrations of the two ions. The difference in velocities is small, with both species approaching to the bulk sound velocity, when the concentrations are comparable, and is large, with each species reaching its own Bohm velocity, when the relative concentration differences are large. To test these findings, drift velocities of Ar and Xe ions were measured with laser-induced fluorescence in Ar-Xe and He-Xe plasmas and combined with ion acoustic wave and plasma potential data. In addition, electron temperature was varied by a Maxwell demon [K. R. MacKenzie et al., App. Phys. Lett. 18, 529 (1971)]. The predictions were found to be in excellent agreement with the experimental data. The generalized Bohm criterion in two ion species plasmas is also verified in a wider variety of relative ion concentrations.

  18. Relative drifts and temperature anisotropies of protons and ? particles in the expanding solar wind: 2.5D hybrid simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maneva, Y. G.; Ofman, L.; Viñas, A.

    2015-06-01

    Context. We perform 2.5D hybrid simulations to investigate the origin and evolution of relative drift speeds between protons and ? particles in the collisionless turbulent low- tilde? solar wind plasma. Aims: We study the generation of differential streaming by wave-particle interactions and absorption of turbulent wave spectra. Next we focus on the role of the relative drifts for the turbulent heating and acceleration of ions in the collisionless fast solar wind streams. Methods: The energy source is given by an initial broad-band spectrum of parallel propagating Alfvén-cyclotron waves, which co-exists with the plasma and is self-consistently coupled to the perpendicular ion bulk velocities. We include the effect of a gradual solar wind expansion, which cools and decelerates the minor ions. We here consider for the first time the combined effect of self-consistently initialized dispersive turbulent Alfvénic spectra with differentially streaming protons and ? particles in the expanding solar wind outflows within a 2.5D hybrid simulation study. Results: For differential streaming of V?p < 0.5VA, the selected initial wave spectrum accelerates the minor ions in the non-expanding wind. At V?p = 0.5VA the relative drift speed remains nearly steady. For ions that stream below this threshold value, the waves act to increase the magnitude of the relative drift speed. Ions that stream faster than the threshold value become subject to a nonlinear streaming instability, and as the system evolves, their bulk velocities decrease. We find that the solar wind expansion strongly affects the relative drift speed and significantly slows down both ion species for all values of the relative drift speeds considered in this study. The initial nonresonant wave spectra interact with the particles, resulting in preferential and anisotropic heating for the minor ions with a prominent increase of their perpendicular temperature, which overcomes the effect of the double-adiabatic cooling that is due to the solar wind expansion. Finally, the initial parallel spectra undergo a micro-turbulent nonlinear cascade during which oblique waves are generated, whose intensity depends on the value of the relative drift speed.

  19. Magnetic island evolution in hot ion plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Ishizawa, A.; Nakajima, N.; Waelbroeck, F. L.; Fitzpatrick, R.; Horton, W.

    2012-07-15

    Effects of finite ion temperature on magnetic island evolution are studied by means of numerical simulations of a reduced set of two-fluid equations which include ion as well as electron diamagnetism in slab geometry. The polarization current is found to be almost an order of magnitude larger in hot than in cold ion plasmas, due to the strong shear of ion velocity around the separatrix of the magnetic islands. As a function of the island width, the propagation speed decreases from the electron drift velocity (for islands thinner than the Larmor radius) to values close to the guiding-center velocity (for islands of order 10 times the Larmor radius). In the latter regime, the polarization current is destabilizing (i.e., it drives magnetic island growth). This is in contrast to cold ion plasmas, where the polarization current is generally found to have a healing effect on freely propagating magnetic island.

  20. Drift of dislocation tripoles under ultrasound influence.

    PubMed

    Murzaev, R T; Bachurin, D V; Nazarov, A A

    2016-01-01

    Numerical simulations of dynamics of different stable dislocation tripoles under influence of monochromatic standing sound wave were performed. The basic conditions necessary for the drift and mutual rearrangements between dislocation structures were investigated. The dependence of the drift velocity of the dislocation tripoles as a function of the frequency and amplitude of the external influence was obtained. The results of the work can be useful in analysis of motion and self-organization of dislocation structure under ultrasound influence. PMID:26278625

  1. Drift mechanism for energetic charged particles at shocks

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, G.M.; Axford, W.I.; Terasawa, T.

    1983-07-15

    The energy changes of energetic charged particles at a plane shock due to the so-called drift mechanism are analyzed by using the ''adiabatic treatment.'' The analysis shows that for a fast MHD shock, particles lose energy owing to acceleration (curvature) drift in the magnetic field at the shock with the drift velocity being antiparallel to the electric field, and they gain energy owing to gradient drift parallel to the electric field. It is shown that particles with pitch angles aligned along the magnetic field which pass through the shock tend to lose energy owing to acceleration drift, whereas particles with pitch angles nonaligned to the magnetic field gain energy owing to gradient drift. Particles that are reflected by the shock always gain energy. Slow-mode shocks may be similarly analyzed, but in this case curvature drifts give rise to particle energy gains, and gradient drifts result in particle energy losses.

  2. Pseudo-Chemotactic Drifts of Artificial Microswimmers

    E-print Network

    Pulak K. Ghosh; Yunyun Li; Fabio Marchesoni; Franco Nori

    2015-06-24

    We numerically investigate the motion of active artificial microswimmers diffusing in a fuel concentration gradient. We observe that, in the steady state, their probability density accumulates in the low-concentration regions, whereas a tagged swimmer drifts with velocity depending in modulus and orientation on how the concentration gradient affects the self-propulsion mechanism. Under most experimentally accessible conditions, the particle drifts toward the high-concentration regions (pseudo-chemotactic drift). A correct interpretation of experimental data must account for such an "anti-Fickian" behavior.

  3. Verification of continuum drift kinetic equation solvers in NIMROD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Held, E. D.; Kruger, S. E.; Ji, J.-Y.; Belli, E. A.; Lyons, B. C.

    2015-03-01

    Verification of continuum solutions to the electron and ion drift kinetic equations (DKEs) in NIMROD [C. R. Sovinec et al., J. Comp. Phys. 195, 355 (2004)] is demonstrated through comparison with several neoclassical transport codes, most notably NEO [E. A. Belli and J. Candy, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 54, 015015 (2012)]. The DKE solutions use NIMROD's spatial representation, 2D finite-elements in the poloidal plane and a 1D Fourier expansion in toroidal angle. For 2D velocity space, a novel 1D expansion in finite elements is applied for the pitch angle dependence and a collocation grid is used for the normalized speed coordinate. The full, linearized Coulomb collision operator is kept and shown to be important for obtaining quantitative results. Bootstrap currents, parallel ion flows, and radial particle and heat fluxes show quantitative agreement between NIMROD and NEO for a variety of tokamak equilibria. In addition, velocity space distribution function contours for ions and electrons show nearly identical detailed structure and agree quantitatively. A ?-centered, implicit time discretization and a block-preconditioned, iterative linear algebra solver provide efficient electron and ion DKE solutions that ultimately will be used to obtain closures for NIMROD's evolving fluid model.

  4. Verification of continuum drift kinetic equation solvers in NIMROD

    SciTech Connect

    Held, E. D.; Ji, J.-Y.; Kruger, S. E.; Belli, E. A.; Lyons, B. C.

    2015-03-15

    Verification of continuum solutions to the electron and ion drift kinetic equations (DKEs) in NIMROD [C. R. Sovinec et al., J. Comp. Phys. 195, 355 (2004)] is demonstrated through comparison with several neoclassical transport codes, most notably NEO [E. A. Belli and J. Candy, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 54, 015015 (2012)]. The DKE solutions use NIMROD's spatial representation, 2D finite-elements in the poloidal plane and a 1D Fourier expansion in toroidal angle. For 2D velocity space, a novel 1D expansion in finite elements is applied for the pitch angle dependence and a collocation grid is used for the normalized speed coordinate. The full, linearized Coulomb collision operator is kept and shown to be important for obtaining quantitative results. Bootstrap currents, parallel ion flows, and radial particle and heat fluxes show quantitative agreement between NIMROD and NEO for a variety of tokamak equilibria. In addition, velocity space distribution function contours for ions and electrons show nearly identical detailed structure and agree quantitatively. A ?-centered, implicit time discretization and a block-preconditioned, iterative linear algebra solver provide efficient electron and ion DKE solutions that ultimately will be used to obtain closures for NIMROD's evolving fluid model.

  5. Physics-Based Model Driven by Plasma Drifts Obtained From the C/NOFS Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Y.; Retterer, J. M.; Stoneback, R.; de La Beaujardiere, O.; Roddy, P. A.; Heelis, R. A.; Pfaff, R. F.

    2010-12-01

    An important parameter in determining low-latitude ionospheric plasma density is the plasma drift. Two instruments on-board the Communication/Navigation Outage System (C/NOFS) satellite were designed to directly or indirectly measure the plasma drifts: the Ion Velocity Drift Meter (IVM) and the Vector Electric Field Instrument (VEFI). By using the electric field measurements obtained from VEFI, the physics-based model (PBMOD) developed at the Air Force Research Laboratory has been shown to qualitatively reproduce post-midnight density trenches observed in June 2008. In this presentation, we will demonstrate simulation results obtained from PBMOD driven by averaged IVM [Stoneback and Heelis, 2010] and VEFI data [Pfaff et al., 2010]. A wave-4 structure has been identified in averaged IVM data. Based on our preliminary study, the ion density output from IVM-driven PBMOD also presents a similar wave-four structure in geographical longitudes (GLON). In addition, the lowest density region occurs near 300 degree GLON for all seasons, where the magnetic equator declination is largest. Model results will be compared with those driven by the Scherliess-Fejer drift model, as well as in-situ density measurements obtained from the Planar Langmuir Probe (PLP). Stoneback, R. and R. Heelis (2010), Equatorial ion densities and meridional ion drifts in 2009, C/NOFS Science Workshop at Breckenridge, Colorado. Pfaff, R. , H. Freudenreich, J. Klenzing, D. Rowland, and K. Bromund (2010), DC electric fields as observed on the C/NOFS satellite during solar minimum conditions, C/NOFS Science Workshop at Breckenridge, Colorado.

  6. Spin drift in highly doped n-type Si

    SciTech Connect

    Kameno, Makoto; Ando, Yuichiro; Shinjo, Teruya; Koike, Hayato; Sasaki, Tomoyuki; Oikawa, Tohru; Suzuki, Toshio; Shiraishi, Masashi

    2014-03-03

    A quantitative estimation of spin drift velocity in highly doped n-type silicon (Si) at 8?K is presented in this letter. A local two-terminal Hanle measurement enables the detection of a modulation of spin signals from the Si as a function of an external electric field, and this modulation is analyzed by using a spin drift-diffusion equation and an analytical solution of the Hanle-type spin precession. The analyses reveal that the spin drift velocity is linearly proportional to the electric field. The contribution of the spin drift effect to the spin signals is crosschecked by introducing a modified nonlocal four-terminal method.

  7. Dynamics of pickup ion velocity distribution function in Titan's plasma environment (TA encounter): 3D hybrid kinetic modeling and comparison with CAPS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, D. G.; Lipatov, A. S.; Sittler, E. C.; Hartle, R. E.; Cooper, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    Wave-particle interactions play a very important role in the plasma dynamics near Titan: mass loading, excitation of the low-frequency waves and the formation of the particle velocity distribution function, e.g. ring/shell-like distributions, etc. The kinetic approach is important for estimation of the collision processes e.g. a charge exchange. The particle velocity distribution function also plays a key role for understanding the observed particle fluxes. In this report we discuss the ion velocity distribution function dynamics from 3D hybrid modeling. The modeling is based on recent analysis of the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) ion measurements during the TA flyby. In our model the background ions, all pickup ions, and ionospheric ions are considered as particles, whereas the electrons are described as a fluid. Inhomogeneous photoionization, electron-impact ionization and charge exchange are included in our model. The temperatures of the background electrons and pickup electrons were also included into the generalized Ohm's law. We also take into account the collisions between the ions and neutrals. We use Chamberlain profiles for the exosphere's components and include a simple ionosphere model with M=28 ions that were generated inside the ionosphere. The moon is considered as a weakly conducting body. Our modeling shows that interaction between background plasma and pickup ions H+, H2+, CH4+ and N2+ has a more complicated structure than was observed in the T9 flyby and modeling due to the large gyroradius of the background O+ ions [1,2,3,4]. Special attention will be paid to comparing the simulated pickup ion velocity distribution with CAPS TA observations. We also compare our kinetic modeling with other hybrid and MHD modeling of Titan's environment. References [1] Sittler, E.C., et al., Energy Deposition Processes in Titan's Upper Atmosphere and Its Induced Magnetosphere. In: Titan from Cassini-Huygens, Brown, R.H., Lebreton J.P., Waite, J.H., Eds., Springer, (Dordrecht, Heidelberg, London, New York, pp. 393-455, 2009). [2] Sittler, E.C., et al., Saturn's Magnetospheric Interaction with Titan as Defined by Cassini Encounters T9 and T18: New Results, Planet. Space Sci., doi.10.1016/j.pss.2009.09.017. [3] Coates, A.J., Interaction of Titan's ionosphere with Saturn's magnetosphere. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A (2009) 367, 773-788, doi: 10.1098/rsta.2008.0248. [4] Lipatov, A.S., et al., Background and pickup ion velocity distribution dynamics in Titan's plasma environment: 3D hybrid simulation and comparison with CAPS T9 observations. Adv. Space Res. 48, 1114-1125, 2011.

  8. General ignition requirements in TMR's with drift pumping

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, B.G.

    1983-01-01

    Drift pumping of collisionally trapped DT ions and thermal alpha ash in the transitions and thermal barriers of TMR plugs can be shown by simple models to dominate the central cell energy losses, requiring in fact more radial ion loss by drift pumping than axial ion loss through the potential plugs, and setting a minimum central cell length for ignition. Induced electron transport due to drift pumping is shown to be small, so grids are not needed on the direct converter to separate ion and electron currents.

  9. Adiabatic particle motion in a nearly drift-free magnetic field - Application to the geomagnetic tail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, D. P.

    1978-01-01

    An investigation is made of the adiabatic particle motion occurring in an almost drift-free magnetic field. The dependence of the mean drift velocity on the equatorial pitch angle and the variation of the local drift velocity along the trajectories is studied. The fields considered are two-dimensional and resemble the geomagnetic tail. Derivations are presented for instantaneous and average drift velocities, bounce times, longitudinal invariants, and approximations to the adiabatic Hamiltonian. As expected, the mean drift velocity is significantly smaller than the instantaneous drift velocities found at typical points on the trajectory. The slow drift indicates that particles advance in the dawn-dusk direction rather slowly in the plasma sheet of the magnetospheric tail.

  10. Collisional effects on nonlinear ion drag force for small grains

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, I. H.; Haakonsen, C. B.

    2013-08-15

    The ion drag force arising from plasma flow past an embedded spherical grain is calculated self-consistently and non-linearly using particle in cell codes, accounting for ion-neutral collisions. Using ion velocity distribution appropriate for ion drift driven by a force field gives wake potential and force greatly different from a shifted Maxwellian distribution, regardless of collisionality. The low-collisionality forces are shown to be consistent with estimates based upon cross-sections for scattering in a Yukawa (shielded) grain field, but only if non-linear shielding length is used. Finite collisionality initially enhances the drag force, but only by up to a factor of 2. Larger collisionality eventually reduces the drag force. In the collisional regime, the drift distribution gives larger drag than the shift distribution even at velocities where their collisionless drags are equal. Comprehensive practical analytic formulas for force that fit the calculations are provided.

  11. Stability of ion acoustic solitary waves in a magnetized plasma consisting of warm adiabatic ions and non-thermal electrons having vortex-like velocity distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Jayasree; Bandyopadhyay, Anup; Das, K. P.; Das

    2014-02-01

    Schamel's modified Korteweg-de Vries-Zakharov-Kuznetsov (S-ZK) equation, governing the behavior of long wavelength, weak nonlinear ion acoustic waves propagating obliquely to an external uniform static magnetic field in a plasma consisting of warm adiabatic ions and non-thermal electrons (due to the presence of fast energetic electrons) having vortex-like velocity distribution function (due to the presence of trapped electrons), immersed in a uniform (space-independent) and static (time-independent) magnetic field, admits solitary wave solutions having a sech 4 profile. The higher order stability of this solitary wave solution of the S-ZK equation has been analyzed with the help of multiple-scale perturbation expansion method of Allen and Rowlands (Allen, M. A. and Rowlands, G. 1993 J. Plasma Phys. 50, 413; 1995 J. Plasma Phys. 53, 63). The growth rate of instability is obtained correct to the order k 2, where k is the wave number of a long wavelength plane wave perturbation. It is found that the lowest order (at the order k) instability condition is strongly sensitive to the angle of propagation (?) of the solitary wave with the external uniform static magnetic field, whereas at the next order (at the order k 2) the solitary wave solutions of the S-ZK equation are unstable irrespective of ?. It is also found that the growth rate of instability up to the order k 2 for the electrons having Boltzmann distribution is higher than that of the non-thermal electrons having vortex-like distribution for any fixed ?.

  12. Dependence of the relative backscatter cross section of 1-m density fluctuations in the auroral electrojet on the angle between electron drift and radar wave vector

    SciTech Connect

    Andre, D.

    1983-10-01

    With the STARE radar system it is possible to measure, with high spatial and temporal resolution the electron drift velocity V/sub D/ and the relative amplitude of electron density fluctuations of 1-m wavelength in the auroral electrojet. These density fluctuations are generated by the combined effects of the two-stream and the gradient drift instabilities. We have determined the angular dependence of the backscatter intensity (which is proportional to the square of the amplitude of the density fluctuations) on the angle theta betweeen the electron drift direction and the direction from the scattering volume to the radar in the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field. We find a fluctuation minimum for theta = 90/sup 0/ and an increase towards theta = 0/sup 0/ over the whole velocity range up to 1000 m/s. This increase is small for velocities below the ion acoustic velocity C/sub N/ but reaches over 20 dB gain in the backscatter intensity (corresponding to a density fluctuation more than 10 times as great) for higher velocities. We explain that the backscatter is caused mainly by two-stream instability in the range cos theta>C/sub S//V/sub d/ and by secondary gradient drift instability elsewhere.

  13. Ion heating mechanism in a modified Penning discharge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    Ions with Maxwellian energy distributions and kinetic temperatures ranging from 20 eV to 7 keV have been observed in a modified Penning discharge operating in the steady state. Investigation of the plasma revealed two distinct spoke-like concentrations of charge rotating with different velocities in the sheath between the plasma and the anode ring. The faster spoke consists of electrons rotating with the E/B drift velocity, where E is the electric field and B is the magnetic field strength. The slow spoke consists of ions, the thermal velocity of which is observed to be proportional to the spoke velocity. The experimental data are consistent with a model whereby the ion drift velocity in this spoke, corresponding to kilovolt ion energies, is Maxwellianized by strong electrostatic turbulence in the sheath. Theoretical expressions are derived for the frequency of the electron and ion spoke rotation, for the ion kinetic temperature, and for the ion heating efficiency as functions of the discharge parameters. These expressions are shown to be consistent with extensive experimental data.

  14. A time-resolved laser induced fluorescence study on the ion velocity distribution function in a Hall thruster after a fast current disruption

    SciTech Connect

    Mazouffre, S.; Gawron, D.; Sadeghi, N.

    2009-04-15

    The temporal characteristics of the Xe{sup +} ion axial velocity distribution function (VDF) were recorded in the course of low-frequency discharge current oscillations ({approx}14 kHz) of the 5 kW class PPS X000 Hall thruster. The evolution in time of the ion axial velocity component is monitored by means of a laser induced fluorescence diagnostic tool with a time resolution of 100 ns. As the number of fluorescence photons is very low during such a short time period, a homemade pulse-counting lock-in system was used to perform real-time discrimination between background photons and fluorescence photons. The evolution in time of the ion VDF was observed at three locations along the thruster channel axis after a fast shutdown of the thruster power. The anode discharge current is switched off at 2 kHz during 5 {mu}s without any synchronization with the current oscillation cycle. This approach allows to examine the temporal behavior of the ion VDF during decay and ignition of the discharge as well as during forced and natural plasma oscillations. Measurements show that the distribution function of the axial component of the Xe{sup +} ion does change periodically in time with a frequency close to the current oscillation frequency in both forced and natural cases. The ion density and the mean velocity are found to oscillate, whereas the velocity dispersion stays constant, which indicates that ionization and acceleration layers have identical dynamics. Finally, variations over time in the electric field are for the first time experimentally evidenced in a crossed-field discharge.

  15. Local poloidal and toroidal plasma rotation velocities and ion temperature in a tokamak plasma obtained with a matrix inversion method considering asymmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condrea, I.; Haddad, E.; Gregory, B. C.; Abel, G.

    2000-09-01

    An inversion technique is presented for the local poloidal and toroidal rotation velocities and for the ion temperature from line integrated measurements performed on Tokamak de Varennes (TdeV) [R. Decoste and TdeV Team, Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, Seville, 1994 (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1995) IAEA-CN-60/A4-11]. The velocity is obtained using two matrix inversions; the first for the emissivity and the second with the velocity weighted emissivity. The temperature is obtained with three matrix inversions: emissivity, temperature weighted emissivity and rotation velocity squared. The effect of the rotation velocity represents up to 16% in the ion temperature for TdeV plasmas. The local values obtained using the lengths matrix with the magnetic flux lines from the equilibrium code are compared with those obtained by a standard Abel inversion with circular flux lines. Differences up to 20% are observed between the emissivities deduced with circular and real flux lines, whereas the rotation velocity and the ion temperature are very similar. The technique was applied for the poloidal and toroidal geometry to determine the poloidal and toroidal velocities and the emission asymmetries. Top poloidal and toroidal emissivities present strong asymmetries due to the divertor plates and the X point whereas bottom poloidal and toroidal emissivities show an inner-outer symmetry, making the inversion more reliable in this region. A first approach to model the strong asymmetry was made assuming that the emissivity has both a radial and a poloidal dependence. The best result was obtained using a radial dependence and a peaked function of the poloidal angle for the poloidal asymmetric part of the emissivity. Both emissivity and velocity asymmetries are present in the upper part of the plasma implying that the X point behaves as a source. Examples of emissivities, rotation velocities and ion temperatures observed in TdeV plasmas in H and L (high and low confinement) modes with different bottom plasma triangularity are shown.

  16. Ion composition aspects of magnetotail plasma flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lennartsson, O. W.

    2001-08-01

    Recent archiving of energetic (<18 keV /e) ion composition data from the ISEE 1 satellite has created a 4.5-year World Wide Web based set well suited for statistical investigations of magnetospheric plasmas inside of 23 RE, especially with regard to signatures of solar (He++) or terrestrial (O+) origins. This is an application that investigates tail ion flows in the 10-23 RE radial range, specifically the (spacecraft spin plane) GSE x and y flows of H+, He++, and O+ ions in the 0.1-16 keV/e energy range. The plasma sheet is divided into (1) ``high,'' (2) ``intermediate,'' and (3) ``low'' latitude regions based on magnetic field GSE elevation angle ? and ion beta (sum of H+, He++, He+, and O+ ions), such that regions 1 and 2 both have |?|<=9°, i.e., |Bz|<<(Bx2+By2)1/2, with region 1 being at ?<0.1 and region 2 being at ?>0.1, and region 3 has |Bz|>(Bx2+By2)1/2 and ?>0.1. A fourth region has remaining plasma sheet samples (30%). In region 1 the most common drift is within +/-30° of the tailward magnetic field direction for all ions, including, somewhat surprisingly, the He++ ions (about half the time). Tailward drift speeds (<100 km s-1) are substantially smaller than thermal speeds (~500 km s-1) for both He++ and H+ ions. Only the O+ ions have a net field-aligned (and tailward) distribution (<2??2>-1~6). On average, the He++/H+ number density and mean energy ratios are ~4% and ~4, respectively, indicating a mostly solar origin of both species. The second most common drift of He++ and H+ ions (~20%) is aligned near the earthward field direction and has the largest speeds (>100 km s-1). It also has velocity dispersion, however, and seems to be associated with the leading edge of intermittent bursts of ions expanding earthward from the downtail plasma sheet. Superimposed on these drifts is E×B drift of varying speed and direction, which has a net average of the order of 10 km s-1 toward local midnight, away from the tail flanks. Comparing times (2-hour intervals) of northward and southward interplanetary magnetic field, drift speeds are some 50% larger in the southward case, and thermal speeds are 10-20% larger. In region 2, drifts are more random in direction and somewhat slower, whereas thermal speeds are 30-50% larger than in region 1. Only the O+ ions maintain dominantly tailward (field-aligned) drift. The average E×B drift is reversed, away from local midnight, but still of the order of 10 km s-1. In region 3, average E×B drift is sunward and away from midnight. Sunward drift occurs ~2.5 times more often than tailward drift with northward interplanetary magnetic field and almost 8 times more often with southward interplanetary magnetic field. Comparing all four regions, tailward flows of H+ and He++ ions in region 1 can account for some but only part (<=30%) of the sunward flows at lower latitude, implying that solar ions enter the plasma sheet both tailward and sunward of the ISEE 1.

  17. Origins of ion irradiation-induced Ga nanoparticle motion on GaAs surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, M.; Wu, J. H.; Chen, H. Y.; Thornton, K.; Goldman, R. S.; Sofferman, D. L.; Department of Physics, Adelphi University, Garden City, New York 11530-0701 ; Beskin, I.

    2013-08-12

    We have examined the origins of ion irradiation-induced nanoparticle (NP) motion. Focused-ion-beam irradiation of GaAs surfaces induces random walks of Ga NPs, which are biased in the direction opposite to that of ion beam scanning. Although the instantaneous NP velocities are constant, the NP drift velocities are dependent on the off-normal irradiation angle, likely due to a difference in surface non-stoichiometry induced by the irradiation angle dependence of the sputtering yield. It is hypothesized that the random walks are initiated by ion irradiation-induced thermal fluctuations, with biasing driven by anisotropic mass transport.

  18. Drift distance survey in DPIS for high current beam production

    SciTech Connect

    Kanesue,T.; Okamura, M.; Kondo, K.; Tamura, J.; Kashiwagi, H.; Zhang, Z.

    2009-09-20

    In a laser ion source, plasma drift distance is one of the most important design parameters. Ion current density and beam pulse width are defined by plasma drift distance between laser target and beam extraction position. In direct plasma injection scheme (DPIS), which uses a laser ion source and Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) linac, we can apply relatively higher electric field at the beam extraction due to the unique shape of a positively biased electrode. However, when we aim at very high current acceleration like several tens of mA, we observed mismatched beam extraction conditions. We tested three different ion current at ion extraction region by changing plasma drift distance to study better extraction condition. In this experiment, C{sup 6+} beam was accelerated. We confirmed that the matching condition can be improved by controlling plasma drift distance.

  19. Gradient drift eigenmodes in the equatorial electrojet

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.H.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    1994-07-01

    The problem of kilometer-scale irregularities in the daytime equatorial electrojet is revisited by means of an eigenmode analysis of the gradient drift instability. Realistic physical parameters are used, including the modeled altitude variations of ion and electron collision frequencies and mobilities. The full fourth-order system of two coupled differential equations (each of second order) for the density and electrostatic potential perturbations is solved numerically by a relaxation technique. Under some approximations, the fourth-order system can be shown to reduce to a second-order differential equation for the perturbed potential or density. The latter is solved using a shooter technique and provides initial guesses for numerical solutions to the full problem. It is shown that the linear growth rate peaks for kilometer-scale waves, contrary to the findings of recent initial-value studies. This occurs because the equilibrium velocity shear is much more effective as a damping mechanism for short-wavelength modes than it is for the longer, kilometer-scale modes. These results provide a natural qualitative explanation for the observed dominance of kilometer-scale structures in the daytime electrojet spectrum. 27 refs., 9 figs.

  20. Gradient drift eigenmodes in the equatorial electrojet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, X.-H.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    1994-01-01

    The problem of kilometer-scale irregularities in the daytime equatorial electrojet is revisited by means of an eigenmode analysis of the gradient drift instability. Realistic physical parameters are used, including the modeled altitude variations of ion and electron collision frequencies and mobilities. The full fourth-order system of two coupled differential equations (each of second order) for the denisty and electrostatic potential perturbations is solved numerically by a relaxation technique. Under some approximations, the fourth-order system can be shown to reduce to a second-order differential equation for the perturbed potential or density. The latter is solved using a shooting technique and provides initial guesses for numerical solutions to the full problem. It is shown that the linear growth rate peaks for kilometer-scale waves, contrary to the findings of recent initial-value studies. This occurs because the equilibrium velocity shear is much more effective as a damping mechanism for short-wavelength modes than it is for the longer, kilometer-scale modes. These results provide a natural qualitative explanation for the observed dominance of kilometer-scale structures in the daytime electrojet spectrum.

  1. Dike/Drift Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    E. Gaffiney

    2004-11-23

    This report presents and documents the model components and analyses that represent potential processes associated with propagation of a magma-filled crack (dike) migrating upward toward the surface, intersection of the dike with repository drifts, flow of magma in the drifts, and post-magma emplacement effects on repository performance. The processes that describe upward migration of a dike and magma flow down the drift are referred to as the dike intrusion submodel. The post-magma emplacement processes are referred to as the post-intrusion submodel. Collectively, these submodels are referred to as a conceptual model for dike/drift interaction. The model components and analyses of the dike/drift interaction conceptual model provide the technical basis for assessing the potential impacts of an igneous intrusion on repository performance, including those features, events, and processes (FEPs) related to dike/drift interaction (Section 6.1).

  2. Ion Heating in Laser-Plasma Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendonca, J.

    2007-11-01

    Ion instabilities due to relativistic electron beams in dense plasmas are considered. They can lead to anomalous heating and transport in inertial fusion plasmas. Results obtained using kinetic and fluid models are given. Significant ion growth rates are possible once the plasma electron drift velocity equals or exceeds the ion sound speed. An hybrid model, in which potential energies are introduced in addition to Temperatures, is also described. Energy is deposited into the electron potential energy which is converted to electron temperature by collisions and to ion potential energy by the ion instability, using integrated growth rates. Ion potential energy is then converted into ion temperature by collisions. The implications for fast ignition are discussed.

  3. Development of a High Resolution X-Ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer for Measurement of Ion-Temperature and Rotation-Velocity Profiles in Fusion Energy Research Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, K W; Broennimann, Ch; Eikenberry, E F; Ince-Cushman, A; Lee, S G; Rice, J E; Scott, S

    2008-01-29

    A new imaging high resolution x-ray crystal spectrometer (XCS) has been developed to measure continuous profiles of ion temperature and rotation velocity in fusion plasmas. Following proof-of-principle tests on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak and the NSTX spherical tokamak, and successful testing of a new silicon, pixilated detector with 1 MHz count rate capability per pixel, an imaging XCS is being designed to measure full profiles of Ti and v? on C-Mod. The imaging XCS design has also been adopted for ITER. Ion-temperature uncertainty and minimum measurable rotation velocity are calculated for the C-Mod spectrometer. The affects of x-ray and uclear-radiation background on the measurement uncertainties are calculated to predict performance on ITER.

  4. Development of a High Resolution X-Ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer for Measurement of Ion-Temperature and Rotation-Velocity Profiles in Fusion Energy Research Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, K W; Broennimann, Ch; Eikenberry, E F; Ince-Cushman, A; Lee, S G; Rice, J E; Scott, S

    2008-02-27

    A new imaging high resolution x-ray crystal spectrometer (XCS) has been developed to measure continuous profiles of ion temperature and rotation velocity in fusion plasmas. Following proof-of-principle tests on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak and the NSTX spherical tokamak, and successful testing of a new silicon, pixilated detector with 1MHz count rate capability per pixel, an imaging XCS is being designed to measure full profiles of Ti and v? on C-Mod. The imaging XCS design has also been adopted for ITER. Ion-temperature uncertainty and minimum measurable rotation velocity are calculated for the C-Mod spectrometer. The affects of x-ray and nuclear-radiation background on the measurement uncertainties are calculated to predict performance on ITER.

  5. Magnetotail acceleration using generalized drift theory - A kinetic merging scenario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whipple, E. C.; Rosenberg, M.; Brittnacher, M.

    1990-01-01

    It is possible to describe particle behavior in the magnetotail, including particle energization, by means of generalized drift theory. Generalized drift velocities are obtained by using the generalized first invariant which has been shown to be useful in such current sheet configurations. Particles whose generalized invariant is preserved gain energy entirely in the field-aligned direction. The form of the accelerated particle velocity distribution is obtained and self-consistency conditions are derived.

  6. Free Drifting Buoys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Information was exchanged between people directly involved with the development, use, and/or potential use of free drifting buoys. Tracking systems and techniques, where methods and accuracy of optical, radio, radar, satellite, and sonic tracking of free-drifting buoys were discussed. Deployment and retrieval covering methods currently used or planned in the deployment and retrieval of free-drifting buoys from boats, ships, helicopters, fixed platforms, and fixed-wing aircraft were reported. Simulation, sensors, and data emphasizing the status of water circulation modeling, and sensors useful on free-drifting buoys, and data display and analysis were described.

  7. The complex mixed Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin-full-wave approach and its application to the two dimensional mode structure analysis of ion temperature gradient/collisionless trapped electron mode drift waves

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Z. X.

    2015-05-15

    The complex mixed Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin (WKB)-full-wave approach is applied to the 2D mode structure analysis of ion temperature gradient/collisionless trapped electron mode drift waves in tokamak plasmas. The parallel mode structure is calculated with the full-wave approach, while the radial envelope is calculated with the complex WKB method. The tilting of the global mode structure along radius is demonstrated analytically. The effects of the phase and amplitude variation of the radial envelope on the parallel mode structure are included in terms of a complex radial wave vector in the parallel mode equation. It is shown that the radial equilibrium non-uniformity leads to the asymmetry of the parallel mode structure not only in configuration space but also in spectrum space. The mixed approach provides a practical way to analyze the asymmetric component of the global mode structure due to radial equilibrium non-uniformity.

  8. Drift Degradation Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Dwayne C. Kicker

    2001-09-28

    A statistical description of the probable block sizes formed by fractures around the emplacement drifts has been developed for each of the lithologic units of the repository host horizon. A range of drift orientations with the drift azimuth varied in 15{sup o} increments has been considered in the static analysis. For the quasi-static seismic analysis, and the time-dependent and thermal effects analysis, two drift orientations have been considered: a drift azimuth of 105{sup o} and the current emplacement drift azimuth of 75{sup o}. The change in drift profile resulting from progressive deterioration of the emplacement drifts has been assessed both with and without backfill. Drift profiles have been determined for four different time increments, including static (i.e., upon excavation), 200 years, 2,000 years, and 10,000 years. The effect of seismic events on rock fall has been analyzed. Block size distributions and drift profiles have been determined for three seismic levels, including a 1,000-year event, a 5,000-year event, and a 10,000-year event. Data developed in this modeling and analysis activity have been entered into the TDMS (DTN: MO0109RDDAAMRR.003). The following conclusions have resulted from this drift degradation analysis: (1) The available fracture data are suitable for supporting a detailed key block analysis of the repository host horizon rock mass. The available data from the north-south Main Drift and the east-west Cross Drift provide a sufficient representative fracture sample of the repository emplacement drift horizon. However, the Tptpln fracture data are only available from a relatively small section of the Cross Drift, resulting in a smaller fracture sample size compared to the other lithologic units. This results in a lower degree of confidence that the key block data based on the Tptpln data set is actually representative of the overall Tptpln key block population. (2) The seismic effect on the rock fall size distribution for all events analyzed is relatively minor. (3) The analysis of thermal and time-dependent effects on rock fall in this study is based on a reduction in the joint cohesion. Joint cohesion has been conservatively reduced from a laboratory test value of 0.86 MPa to a value of 0.01 MPa after 10,000 years. The results from this analysis indicate that time-dependent and thermal effects have a minor impact on rock fall. (4) Both the 75 percentile and the worst-case drift degradation profiles have been provided in this analysis for the current emplacement drift azimuth of approximately 75{sup o}. Most of the emplacement drift openings were not affected by rock fall. For the current emplacement drift alignment, the highest percentage of drift affected by rock fall was 8% in the Tptpmn unit. The Tptpmn unit produced the highest frequency of key blocks per kilometer compared to the other lithologic units (Tables 26 and 41). (5) This key block analysis has shown that the current drift alignment is relatively favorable in terms of reducing the potential maximum size rock block compared to most drift orientations.

  9. Dust magneto-gravitational drift wave in g×B configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Salahshoor, M. Niknam, A. R.

    2014-11-15

    The dispersion relation of electrostatic waves in a magnetized complex plasma under gravity is presented. It is assumed that the waves propagate perpendicular to the external fields. The effects of weak electric field, neutral drag force, and ion drag force are also taken into account. The dispersion relation is numerically examined in an appropriate parameter space in which the gravity plays the dominant role in the dynamics of magnetized microparticles. The numerical results show that an unstable low frequency drift wave can be developed in the long wavelength limit. This unstable mode is transformed into an aperiodic stationary structure at a cut-off wavenumber. Furthermore, the influence of the external fields on the dispersion properties is analyzed. It is shown that the instability is essentially due to the E×B drift motion of plasma particles. However, in the absence of weak electric field, the g×B drift motion of microparticles can cause the instability in a wide range of wavenumbers. It is also found that by increasing the magnetic field strength, the wave frequency is first increased and then decreased. This behaviour is explained by the existence of an extremum point in the dust magneto-gravitational drift velocity.

  10. An Improved Neoclassical Drift-Magnetohydrodynamical Fluid Model of Helical Magnetic Island Equilibria in Tokamak Plasmas

    E-print Network

    Fitzpatrick, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The effect of the perturbed ion polarization current on the stability of neoclassical tearing modes is calculated using an improved, neoclassical, four-field, drift-MHD model. The calculation involves the self-consistent determination of the pressure and scalar electric potential profiles in the vicinity of the associated magnetic island chain, which allows the chain's propagation velocity to be fixed. Two regimes are considered. First, a regime in which neoclassical ion poloidal flow damping is not strong enough to enhance the magnitude of the polarization current (relative to that found in slab geometry). Second, a regime in which neoclassical ion poloidal flow damping is strong enough to significantly enhance the magnitude of the polarization current. In both regimes, two types of solution are considered. First, a freely rotating solution (i.e., an island chain that is not interacting with a static, resonant, magnetic perturbation). Second, a locked solution (i.e., an island chain that has been brought to ...

  11. Development of A Cryogenic Drift Cell Spectrometer and Methods for Improving the Analytical Figures of Merit for Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometry Analysis 

    E-print Network

    May, Jody C.

    2010-10-12

    with Electron Impact) grid a transparent array of thin wires used in charged particle optics IMS Ion Mobility Spectrometry LDI Laser Desorption/Ionization longitudinal/axial the direction parallel to the transit of the ion beam or swarm MALDI Matrix...) scanning / filtering Parallel Electrodes; Planar Orthogonal DC Field orthogonal [26] High-Field Asymmetric IMS (FAIMS) Differential Mobility Spectrometry (DMS) scanning / filtering Parallel Electrodes; Planar or Curved Orthogonal RF (or...

  12. Abstraction of Drift Seepage

    SciTech Connect

    J.T. Birkholzer

    2004-11-01

    This model report documents the abstraction of drift seepage, conducted to provide seepage-relevant parameters and their probability distributions for use in Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). Drift seepage refers to the flow of liquid water into waste emplacement drifts. Water that seeps into drifts may contact waste packages and potentially mobilize radionuclides, and may result in advective transport of radionuclides through breached waste packages [''Risk Information to Support Prioritization of Performance Assessment Models'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS 168796], Section 3.3.2)]. The unsaturated rock layers overlying and hosting the repository form a natural barrier that reduces the amount of water entering emplacement drifts by natural subsurface processes. For example, drift seepage is limited by the capillary barrier forming at the drift crown, which decreases or even eliminates water flow from the unsaturated fractured rock into the drift. During the first few hundred years after waste emplacement, when above-boiling rock temperatures will develop as a result of heat generated by the decay of the radioactive waste, vaporization of percolation water is an additional factor limiting seepage. Estimating the effectiveness of these natural barrier capabilities and predicting the amount of seepage into drifts is an important aspect of assessing the performance of the repository. The TSPA-LA therefore includes a seepage component that calculates the amount of seepage into drifts [''Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) Model/Analysis for the License Application'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168504], Section 6.3.3.1)]. The TSPA-LA calculation is performed with a probabilistic approach that accounts for the spatial and temporal variability and inherent uncertainty of seepage-relevant properties and processes. Results are used for subsequent TSPA-LA components that may handle, for example, waste package corrosion or radionuclide transport.

  13. Search for the best timing strategy in high-precision drift chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Va'vra, J.

    1983-06-01

    Computer simulated drift chamber pulses are used to investigate various possible timing strategies in the drift chambers. In particular, the leading edge, the multiple threshold and the flash ADC timing methods are compared. Although the presented method is general for any drift geometry, we concentrate our discussion on the jet chambers where the drift velocity is about 3 to 5 cm/..mu..sec and the individual ionization clusters are not resolved due to a finite speed of our electronics.

  14. Direct Observation of the Primary and Secondary C-Br Bond Cleavages from the 1,2-Dibromopropane Photodissociation at 234 and 265 nm Using the Velocity Map Ion

    E-print Network

    Kim, Sang Kyu

    Photodissociation at 234 and 265 nm Using the Velocity Map Ion Imaging Technique Kyoung-Seok Lee, Ki Young Yeon, Kyung-Hoon Jung, and Sang Kyu Kim* Department of Chemistry and School of Molecular Science (BK21), KAIST

  15. Ions

    MedlinePLUS

    An ion is an atom or group of atoms that has an electric charge. Ions with a positive charge are called cations. Ions with a negative charge are called anions. Many normal substances exist in the body as ions. ...

  16. Dual mode ion mobility spectrometer and method for ion mobility spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Jill R [Idaho Falls, ID; Dahl, David A [Idaho Falls, ID; Miller, Carla J [Idaho Falls, ID; Tremblay, Paul L [Idaho Falls, ID; McJunkin, Timothy R [Idaho Falls, ID

    2007-08-21

    Ion mobility spectrometer apparatus may include an ion interface that is operable to hold positive and negative ions and to simultaneously release positive and negative ions through respective positive and negative ion ports. A first drift chamber is operatively associated with the positive ion port of the ion interface and encloses an electric field therein. A first ion detector operatively associated with the first drift chamber detects positive ions from the first drift chamber. A second drift chamber is operatively associated with the negative ion port of the ion interface and encloses an electric field therein. A second ion detector operatively associated with the second drift chamber detects negative ions from said second drift chamber.

  17. A Benign, Low Z Electron Capture Agent for Negative Ion TPCs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martoff, C. J.; Dion, M. P.; Hosack, M.; Barton, D.; Black, J. K.

    2008-01-01

    We have identified nitromethane (CH3NO2) as an effective electron capture agent for negative ion TPCs (NITPCs). We present drift velocity and longitudinal diffusion measurements for negative ion gas mixtures using nitromethane as the capture agent. Not only is nitromethane substantially more benign than the only other identified capture agent, CS2, but its low atomic number will enable the use of the NITPC as a photoelectric X-ray polarimeter in the 1-10 keV band.

  18. Lithium drifted germanium system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fjarlie, E. J.

    1969-01-01

    General characteristics of the lithium-drifted germanium photodiode-Dewar-preamplifier system and particular operating instructions for the device are given. Information is included on solving operational problems.

  19. Alternative dust-ion acoustic waves in a magnetized charge varying dusty plasma with nonthermal electrons having a vortex-like velocity distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadjaz, Idir; Tribeche, Mouloud

    2014-06-01

    Alternative localized dust-ion acoustic waves are investigated in a magnetized charge varying dusty plasma with nonthermal electrons having a vortex-like velocity distribution. The correct non-Maxwellian charging currents are obtained based on the well-known orbit limited motion theory. Following the standard reductive perturbation technique, a Schamel-Zakharov Kuznetsov Burgers (S-ZKB) equation is derived. It is shown that due to an interplay between trapping and nonthermality, our dusty plasma model may support solitary as well as shock waves the main quantities (phase velocity, amplitude and width) of which are drastically influenced by trapping, nonthermality and charge variation. Due to the flexibility provided by the outlined distribution function (two concepts of non isothermality), we stress that our model should provide a good fit of the space observations.

  20. A Spatially Resolving X-ray Crystal Spectrometer for Measurement of Ion-temperature and Rotation-velocity Profiles on the AlcatorC-Mod Tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, K. W.; Bitter, M. L.; Scott, S. D.; Ince-Cushman, A.; Reinke, M.; Rice, J. E.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Gu, M. F.; Lee, S. G.; Broennimann, C. H.; Eikenberry, E. F.

    2009-03-24

    A new spatially resolving x-ray crystal spectrometer capable of measuring continuous spatial profiles of high resolution spectra (?/d? > 6000) of He-like and H-like Ar K? lines with good spatial (~1 cm) and temporal (~10 ms) resolutions has been installed on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak. Two spherically bent crystals image the spectra onto four two-dimensional Pilatus II pixel detectors. Tomographic inversion enables inference of local line emissivity, ion temperature (Ti), and toroidal plasma rotation velocity (v?) from the line Doppler widths and shifts. The data analysis techniqu

  1. Study of plasma meniscus and beam halo in negative ion sources using three dimension in real space and three dimension in velocity space particle in cell model

    SciTech Connect

    Nishioka, S. Goto, I.; Hatayama, A.; Miyamoto, K.; Okuda, S.; Fukano, A.

    2014-02-15

    Our previous study by two dimension in real space and three dimension in velocity space-particle in cell model shows that the curvature of the plasma meniscus causes the beam halo in the negative ion sources. The negative ions extracted from the periphery of the meniscus are over-focused in the extractor due to the electrostatic lens effect, and consequently become the beam halo. The purpose of this study is to verify this mechanism with the full 3D model. It is shown that the above mechanism is essentially unchanged even in the 3D model, while the fraction of the beam halo is significantly reduced to 6%. This value reasonably agrees with the experimental result.

  2. Study of plasma meniscus and beam halo in negative ion sources using three dimension in real space and three dimension in velocity space particle in cell model.

    PubMed

    Nishioka, S; Miyamoto, K; Okuda, S; Goto, I; Hatayama, A; Fukano, A

    2014-02-01

    Our previous study by two dimension in real space and three dimension in velocity space-particle in cell model shows that the curvature of the plasma meniscus causes the beam halo in the negative ion sources. The negative ions extracted from the periphery of the meniscus are over-focused in the extractor due to the electrostatic lens effect, and consequently become the beam halo. The purpose of this study is to verify this mechanism with the full 3D model. It is shown that the above mechanism is essentially unchanged even in the 3D model, while the fraction of the beam halo is significantly reduced to 6%. This value reasonably agrees with the experimental result. PMID:24593471

  3. Numerical simulation of drifting snow sublimation in the saltation layer

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xiaoqing; Huang, Ning

    2014-01-01

    Snow sublimation is an important hydrological process and one of the main causes of the temporal and spatial variation of snow distribution. Compared with surface sublimation, drifting snow sublimation is more effective due to the greater surface exposure area of snow particles in the air. Previous studies of drifting snow sublimation have focused on suspended snow, and few have considered saltating snow, which is the main form of drifting snow. In this study, a numerical model is established to simulate the process of drifting snow sublimation in the saltation layer. The simulated results show 1) the average sublimation rate of drifting snow particles increases linearly with the friction velocity; 2) the sublimation rate gradient with the friction velocity increases with increases in the environmental temperature and the undersaturation of air; 3) when the friction velocity is less than 0.525?m/s, the snowdrift sublimation of saltating particles is greater than that of suspended particles; and 4) the snowdrift sublimation in the saltation layer is less than that of the suspended particles only when the friction velocity is greater than 0.625?m/s. Therefore, the drifting snow sublimation in the saltation layer constitutes a significant portion of the total snow sublimation. PMID:25312383

  4. Drift Scale THM Model

    SciTech Connect

    J. Rutqvist

    2004-10-07

    This model report documents the drift scale coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical (THM) processes model development and presents simulations of the THM behavior in fractured rock close to emplacement drifts. The modeling and analyses are used to evaluate the impact of THM processes on permeability and flow in the near-field of the emplacement drifts. The results from this report are used to assess the importance of THM processes on seepage and support in the model reports ''Seepage Model for PA Including Drift Collapse'' and ''Abstraction of Drift Seepage'', and to support arguments for exclusion of features, events, and processes (FEPs) in the analysis reports ''Features, Events, and Processes in Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport and Features, Events, and Processes: Disruptive Events''. The total system performance assessment (TSPA) calculations do not use any output from this report. Specifically, the coupled THM process model is applied to simulate the impact of THM processes on hydrologic properties (permeability and capillary strength) and flow in the near-field rock around a heat-releasing emplacement drift. The heat generated by the decay of radioactive waste results in elevated rock temperatures for thousands of years after waste emplacement. Depending on the thermal load, these temperatures are high enough to cause boiling conditions in the rock, resulting in water redistribution and altered flow paths. These temperatures will also cause thermal expansion of the rock, with the potential of opening or closing fractures and thus changing fracture permeability in the near-field. Understanding the THM coupled processes is important for the performance of the repository because the thermally induced permeability changes potentially effect the magnitude and spatial distribution of percolation flux in the vicinity of the drift, and hence the seepage of water into the drift. This is important because a sufficient amount of water must be available within a drift to transport any exposed radionuclides out of the drift to the groundwater below, and eventually to people within the accessible environment. Absent sufficient water, radionuclides cannot be transported and there would be no significant health effect on people, even if radioactive waste containers were damaged or corroded to such an extent that radionuclides were exposed to water.

  5. Hamiltonian fluid reductions of electromagnetic drift-kinetic equations for an arbitrary number of moments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tassi, E.

    2015-11-01

    We present an infinite family of Hamiltonian electromagnetic fluid models for plasmas, derived from drift-kinetic equations. An infinite hierarchy of fluid equations is obtained from a Hamiltonian drift-kinetic system by taking moments of a generalized distribution function and using Hermite polynomials as weight functions of the velocity coordinate along the magnetic guide field. Each fluid model is then obtained by truncating the hierarchy to a finite number N + 1 of equations by means of a closure relation. We show that, for any positive N, a linear closure relation between the moment of order N + 1 and the moment of order N guarantees that the resulting fluid model possesses a Hamiltonian structure, thus respecting the Hamiltonian character of the parent drift-kinetic model. An orthogonal transformation is identified which maps the fluid moments to a new set of dynamical variables in terms of which the Poisson brackets of the fluid models become a direct sum and which unveils remarkable dynamical properties of the models in the two-dimensional (2D) limit. Indeed, when imposing translational symmetry with respect to the direction of the magnetic guide field, all models belonging to the infinite family can be reformulated as systems of advection equations for Lagrangian invariants transported by incompressible generalized velocities. These are reminiscent of the advection properties of the parent drift-kinetic model in the 2D limit and are related to the Casimirs of the Poisson brackets of the fluid models. The Hamiltonian structure of the generic fluid model belonging to the infinite family is illustrated treating a specific example of a fluid model retaining five moments in the electron dynamics and two in the ion dynamics. We also clarify the connection existing between the fluid models of this infinite family and some fluid models already present in the literature.

  6. Drift Degradation Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    D. Kicker

    2004-09-16

    Degradation of underground openings as a function of time is a natural and expected occurrence for any subsurface excavation. Over time, changes occur to both the stress condition and the strength of the rock mass due to several interacting factors. Once the factors contributing to degradation are characterized, the effects of drift degradation can typically be mitigated through appropriate design and maintenance of the ground support system. However, for the emplacement drifts of the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, it is necessary to characterize drift degradation over a 10,000-year period, which is well beyond the functional period of the ground support system. This document provides an analysis of the amount of drift degradation anticipated in repository emplacement drifts for discrete events and time increments extending throughout the 10,000-year regulatory period for postclosure performance. This revision of the drift degradation analysis was developed to support the license application and fulfill specific agreement items between the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The earlier versions of ''Drift Degradation Analysis'' (BSC 2001 [DIRS 156304]) relied primarily on the DRKBA numerical code, which provides for a probabilistic key-block assessment based on realistic fracture patterns determined from field mapping in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) at Yucca Mountain. A key block is defined as a critical block in the surrounding rock mass of an excavation, which is removable and oriented in an unsafe manner such that it is likely to move into an opening unless support is provided. However, the use of the DRKBA code to determine potential rockfall data at the repository horizon during the postclosure period has several limitations: (1) The DRKBA code cannot explicitly apply dynamic loads due to seismic ground motion. (2) The DRKBA code cannot explicitly apply loads due to thermal stress. (3) The DRKBA code, which determines structurally controlled key-block failure, is not applicable for stress-controlled failure in the lithophysal units. To address these limitations, additional numerical codes have been included that can explicitly apply seismic and thermal loads, providing significant improvements to the analysis of drift degradation and extending the validity of drift degradation models.

  7. On the height variation of the equatorial F region vertical plasma drifts

    SciTech Connect

    Pingree, J.E.; Fejer, B.G. )

    1987-05-01

    The authors have used improved incoherent scatter radar measurements at the Jicamarca Radio Observatory to study the height variation of the F region vertical plasma drift velocity (driven by the zonal electric field) during moderately quiet conditions. Preliminary results indicate a nearly linear change of the vertical drift velocity with altitude between 200 and 700 km, but with considerable day-to-day variations in the value of the slope. On the average, the velocity gradients are positive in the late night and morning periods and negative during the afternoon and evening hours. Simultaneous vertical and zonal drift measurements confirm that the measured height variation of the vertical drift is consistent with the existence of a curl free electric field in the low latitude ionosphere. The time dependence of the Jicamarca vertical drifts extrapolated to higher altitudes closely resembles the diurnal variation of the drift component due to the zonal electric field observed at F region heights over Arecibo.

  8. Spiral silicon drift detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Rehak, P.; Gatti, E.; Longoni, A.; Sampietro, M.; Holl, P.; Lutz, G.; Kemmer, J.; Prechtel, U.; Ziemann, T.

    1988-01-01

    An advanced large area silicon photodiode (and x-ray detector), called Spiral Drift Detector, was designed, produced and tested. The Spiral Detector belongs to the family of silicon drift detectors and is an improvement of the well known Cylindrical Drift Detector. In both detectors, signal electrons created in silicon by fast charged particles or photons are drifting toward a practically point-like collection anode. The capacitance of the anode is therefore kept at the minimum (0.1pF). The concentric rings of the cylindrical detector are replaced by a continuous spiral in the new detector. The spiral geometry detector design leads to a decrease of the detector leakage current. In the spiral detector all electrons generated at the silicon-silicon oxide interface are collected on a guard sink rather than contributing to the detector leakage current. The decrease of the leakage current reduces the parallel noise of the detector. This decrease of the leakage current and the very small capacities of the detector anode with a capacitively matched preamplifier may improve the energy resolution of Spiral Drift Detectors operating at room temperature down to about 50 electrons rms. This resolution is in the range attainable at present only by cooled semiconductor detectors. 5 refs., 10 figs.

  9. Measuring the effect of ion-induced drift-gas polarization on the electrical mobilities of multiply-charged ionic liquid nanodrops in air.

    PubMed

    Fernández-García, Juan; Fernández de la Mora, Juan

    2013-12-01

    The electrical mobilities of multiply-charged nanodrops of the ionic liquid 1-ethyl, 3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide (EMI-N[CN]2) were accurately measured in air at 20 °C for mass-selected clusters of composition [EMI-N[CN]2] n [EMI(+)] z , with 2 ? n ? 369 and 1 ? z ? 10. We confirm prior reports that the mobility Z of a globular ion of mass m is given approximately by the modified Stokes-Millikan law for spheres, Z? = ?Z SM,mod (d m ? + ?d g ,?z,?m), where d m ? = ?(6m/??)(1/3) is the nanodrop mass-diameter based on the density ? of the liquid (corrected for the capillary compression and electrostatic deformation of the nanodrop), and d g is an effective air molecule diameter. There is however a measurable (up to 7%) and systematic z-dependent departure of Z from Z SM,mod . As theoretically expected at small ? (*) , this effect is accurately described by a simple correction factor of the form Z/Z SM,mod ? = ??(1? - ??? (*)), where kT? (*) is the potential energy due to the ion-induced dipole (polarization) attraction between a perfectly-conducting charged nanodrop and a polarized neutral gas-molecule at a distance (d m ? + ?d g )/2 from its center. An excellent fit of this model to hundreds of data points is found for d g ? 0.26 nm, ? ? 0.36, and ? ? 0.954. Accounting for the effect of polarization decreases d g considerably with respect to values inferred from earlier nanodrop measurements that ignored this effect. In addition, and in spite of ambiguities in the mobility calibration scale, the measured constant ? smaller than unity increases Millikan's drag enhancement factor from the accepted value ? m ? 1.36 to the new value ? ? ? m /? ? 1.42? ± 0.03. PMID:24048890

  10. Measuring the Effect of Ion-Induced Drift-Gas Polarization on the Electrical Mobilities of Multiply-Charged Ionic Liquid Nanodrops in Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-García, Juan; Fernández de la Mora, Juan

    2013-12-01

    The electrical mobilities of multiply-charged nanodrops of the ionic liquid 1-ethyl, 3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide (EMI-N[CN]2) were accurately measured in air at 20 °C for mass-selected clusters of composition [EMI-N[CN]2] n [EMI+] z , with 2 ? n ? 369 and 1 ? z ? 10. We confirm prior reports that the mobility Z of a globular ion of mass m is given approximately by the modified Stokes-Millikan law for spheres, Z = Z SM, mod ( d m + d g , z, m), where d m = (6 m/ ??)1/3 is the nanodrop mass-diameter based on the density ? of the liquid (corrected for the capillary compression and electrostatic deformation of the nanodrop), and d g is an effective air molecule diameter. There is however a measurable (up to 7 %) and systematic z-dependent departure of Z from Z SM,mod . As theoretically expected at small ? * , this effect is accurately described by a simple correction factor of the form Z/ Z SM, mod = ?(1 - ?? *), where kT? * is the potential energy due to the ion-induced dipole ( polarization) attraction between a perfectly-conducting charged nanodrop and a polarized neutral gas-molecule at a distance ( d m + d g )/2 from its center. An excellent fit of this model to hundreds of data points is found for d g ? 0.26 nm, ? ? 0.36, and ? ? 0.954. Accounting for the effect of polarization decreases d g considerably with respect to values inferred from earlier nanodrop measurements that ignored this effect. In addition, and in spite of ambiguities in the mobility calibration scale, the measured constant ? smaller than unity increases Millikan's drag enhancement factor from the accepted value ? m ? 1.36 to the new value ? ? ? m / ? ? 1.42 ± 0.03.

  11. Collective capture of released lithium ions in the solar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winske, D.; Wu, C. S.; Li, Y. Y.; Zhou, G. C.

    1984-01-01

    The capture of newly ionized lithium ions in the solar wind by means of electromagnetic instabilities is investigated through linear analysis and computer simulation. Three instabilities, driven by a lithium velocity ring perpendicular to and drifting along the magnetic field, are considered. The capture time of the lithium by the solar wind is roughly 10 linear growth times, regardless of whether resonant or nonresonant modes dominate initially. Possible implications of the results for the Active Magnetosphere Particle Tracer Explorer (AMPTE) mission are discussed.

  12. wave velocity group velocity

    E-print Network

    Walker, D. Greg

    Time scales device size phonon mean free path Length scales ion track gate drainsource Transverse Engineering 1.1eV per pair 1.4eV kinetic 2.2eV phonon Ionization energy symmetry/insulated boundary ion track thermalized boundary · · · · Partitioning of phonon energy to electronic energy is comparable Localized phonon

  13. Drift Wave Turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, W.; Kim, J.-H.; Asp, E.; Hoang, T.

    2008-05-14

    Drift waves occur universally in magnetized plasmas producing the dominant mechanism for transport of particles, energy and momentum across magnetic field lines. A wealth of information obtained from laboratory experiments for plasma confinement is reviewed for drift waves driven unstable by density gradients, temperature gradients and trapped particle effects. The modern understanding of origin of the scaling laws for Bohm and gyro-Bohm transport fluxes is discussed. The role of sheared flows and magnetic shear in reducing the transport fluxes is discussed and illustrated with large scale computer simulations. Plasmas turbulence models are derived with reduced magnetized fluid descriptions. The types of theoretical descriptions reviewed include weak turbulence theory and anisotropic Kolmogorov-like spectral indices, and the mixing length. A number of standard turbulent diffusivity formulas are given for the various space-time scales of the drift-wave turbulent mixing.

  14. Laser initiated reactions in N{sub 2}O clusters studied by time-sliced ion velocity imaging technique

    SciTech Connect

    Honma, Kenji

    2013-07-28

    Laser initiated reactions in N{sub 2}O clusters were studied by a time-sliced velocity imaging technique. The N{sub 2}O clusters, (N{sub 2}O){sub n}, generated by supersonic expansion were irradiated by an ultraviolet laser around 204 nm to convert reactant pairs, O({sup 1}D{sub 2})-(N{sub 2}O){sub n?1}. The NO molecules formed from these reactant pairs were ionized by the same laser pulse and their velocity distribution was determined by the time-sliced velocity imaging technique. At low nozzle pressure, lower than 1.5 atm, the speed distribution in the frame moving with the clusters consists of two components. These components were ascribed to the products appeared in the backward and forward directions in the center-of-mass frame, respectively. The former consists of the vibrational ground state and the latter consists of highly vibrational excited states. At higher nozzle pressure, a single broad speed distribution became dominant for the product NO. The pressure and laser power dependences suggested that this component is attributed to the product formed in the clusters larger than dimer, (N{sub 2}O){sub n} (n ? 3)

  15. Cross-field potential hill arisen eccentrically in toroidal electron cyclotron resonance plasmas in the Low Aspect ratio Torus Experiment device to regulate electron and ion flows from source to boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroda, Kengoh; Wada, Manato; Uchida, Masaki; Tanaka, Hitoshi; Maekawa, Takashi

    2015-07-01

    We have investigated the electron and ion flows in toroidal electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasmas maintained by a 2.45 GHz microwave power around 1 kW under a simple toroidal field in the low aspect ratio torus experiment (LATE) device. We have found that a vertically uniform ridge of electron pressure that also constitutes the source belt of electron impact ionization is formed along just lower field side of the ECR layer and a cross-field potential hill ({{V}S}\\cong 30?V while {{T}e}\\cong 10?eV), eccentrically shifted toward the corner formed by the top panel and the ECR layer, arises. Combination of the hill-driven E× B drift and the vertical drift due to the field gradient and curvature, being referred to as vacuum toroidal field (VTF) drift, realizes steady flows of electrons and ions from the source to the boundary. In particular, the ions, of which VTF drift velocity is much slower than the electron VTF drift velocity near the source belt, are carried by the E× B drift around the hill to the vicinity of the top panel, where the ion VTF drift is enhanced on the steep down slope of potential toward the top panel. On the other hand the electron temperature strongly decreases in this area. Thus the carrier of VTF drift current is replaced from the electrons to the ions before the top panel, enabling the current circulation through the top and bottom panels and the vessel (electrons mainly to the bottom and ions mainly to the top) that keeps the charge neutrality very high. A few percent of electrons from the source turn around the hill by 360 degree and reentry the source belt from the high field side as seed electrons for the impact ionization, keeping the discharge stable.

  16. Ballistic Mass And Velocity Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, Ara; Smith, Steven J.; Hecht, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Proposed device for measuring distribution of masses and velocities of ions in plasma or ion beam of general type denoted variously as mass, velocity, and energy analyzers. Yields indications of charge-to-mass ratios and velocities; from these quantities, one computes masses and energies if one also either measures charges of ions by other means or else makes realistic assumption that each ion carries small number (usually 1) of fundamental units of electric charge. In comparison with older devices of this type, device smaller, and operates faster, yielding simultaneous indications of both charge-to-mass ratios and velocities.

  17. Effects of particle drifts on the solar modulation of galactic cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jokipii, J. R.; Levy, E. H.

    1977-01-01

    Gradient and curvature drifts in an Archimedean-spiral magnetic field are shown to produce a significant effect on the modulation of galactic cosmic rays by the solar wind. The net modulation, heliocentric radial gradient, and average energy change of particles which reach the inner solar system are significantly reduced. The effects of drifts are due to the fact that cosmic rays for which the drift velocity is comparable to the wind velocity or larger, have more rapid access to the inner solar system than in the absence of drifts.

  18. Differences in drift behavior between drouged and undrogued satellite-tracked drifting buoys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brügge, B.; Dengg, J.

    1991-04-01

    Drift behavior of drogued and undrogued Hermes-type buoys is studied. After drogue loss, an increase in drift speed and acceleration is observed as well as improved correlations between drift and wind in both speed and direction. With these criteria, a method for the separation of large data sets into a drogued and an undrogued part has been developed. In most areas of the North Atlantic this works very well; problems arise in regions with strong surface currents and/or light winds. A statistical analysis is performed in a selected area to demonstrate the errors that can be caused by indiscriminate use of drogued and undrogued drifters. Mean and rms velocities as well as kinetic energies change significantly when undrogued buoys are considered. Therefore caution is essential when using surface drifters without drogues.

  19. Continental drift before 1900.

    PubMed

    Rupke, N A

    1970-07-25

    The idea that Francis Bacon and other seventeenth and eighteenth century thinkers first conceived the notion of continental drift does not stand up to close scrutiny. The few authors who expressed the idea viewed the process as a catastrophic event. PMID:16057953

  20. Streamers generation by small-scale drift-Alfvén waves

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, J. S.; Yu, M. Y.

    2014-10-15

    Excitation of streamers by modulationally unstable small-scale drift-Alfvén wave (SSDAW) is investigated. It is found that the excitation depends strongly on the propagation direction of the SSDAW, and the ion and electron diamagnetic drift waves are both unstable due to the generation of streamers. It is also shown that zonal flows can be effectively excited by the SSDAW with the propagation direction different from that for streamer excitation.

  1. Drift wave instability in a nonuniform quantum dusty magnetoplasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salimullah, M.; Jamil, M.; Zeba, I.; Uzma, Ch.; Shah, H. A.

    2009-03-01

    Using the quantum hydrodynamic model of plasmas and with quantum effects arising through the Bohm potential and the Fermi degenerate pressure, the possible drift waves and their instabilities have been investigated in considerable detail in a nonuniform dusty magnetoplasma. It is found that in the presence of a nonuniform ambient magnetic field, the drift waves grow in amplitude by taking energy from the streaming ions and density inhomogeneity. The implication of the drift wave instability for nonthermal electrostatic fluctuations to laboratory and astrophysical environments is also pointed out.

  2. Ion cyclotron and spin-flip emissions from fusion products in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Arunasalam, V.; Greene, G.J.; Young, K.M.

    1993-02-01

    Power emission by fusion products of tokamak plasmas in their ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) and at their spin-flip resonance frequency is calculated for some specific model fusion product velocity-space distribution functions. The background plasma of say deuterium (D) is assumed to be in equilibrium with a Maxwellian distribution both for the electrons and ions. The fusion product velocity distributions analyzed here are: (1) A monoenergetic velocity space ring distribution. (2) A monoenergetic velocity space spherical shell distribution. (3) An anisotropic Maxwellian distribution with T {perpendicular} {ne} T{parallel}and with appreciable drift velocity along the confining magnetic field. Single ``dressed`` test particle spontaneous emission calculations are presented first and the radiation temperature for ion cyclotron emission (ICE) is analyzed both for black-body emission and nonequilibrium conditions. Thresholds for instability and overstability conditions are then examined and quasilinear and nonlinear theories of the electromagnetic ion cyclotron modes are discussed. Distinctions between ``kinetic or causal instabilities`` and ``hydrodynamic instabilities`` are drawn and some numerical estimates are presented for typical tokamak parameters. Semiquantitative remarks are offered on wave accessibility, mode conversion, and parametric decay instabilities as possible for spatially localized ICE. Calculations are carried out both for k{parallel} = 0 for k{parallel} {ne} 0. The effects of the temperature anisotropy and large drift velocities in the parallel direction are also examined. Finally, proton spin-flip resonance emission and absorption calculations are also presented both for thermal equilibrium conditions and for an ``inverted`` population of states.

  3. Ion cyclotron and spin-flip emissions from fusion products in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Arunasalam, V.; Greene, G.J.; Young, K.M.

    1993-02-01

    Power emission by fusion products of tokamak plasmas in their ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) and at their spin-flip resonance frequency is calculated for some specific model fusion product velocity-space distribution functions. The background plasma of say deuterium (D) is assumed to be in equilibrium with a Maxwellian distribution both for the electrons and ions. The fusion product velocity distributions analyzed here are: (1) A monoenergetic velocity space ring distribution. (2) A monoenergetic velocity space spherical shell distribution. (3) An anisotropic Maxwellian distribution with T [perpendicular] [ne] T[parallel]and with appreciable drift velocity along the confining magnetic field. Single dressed'' test particle spontaneous emission calculations are presented first and the radiation temperature for ion cyclotron emission (ICE) is analyzed both for black-body emission and nonequilibrium conditions. Thresholds for instability and overstability conditions are then examined and quasilinear and nonlinear theories of the electromagnetic ion cyclotron modes are discussed. Distinctions between kinetic or causal instabilities'' and hydrodynamic instabilities'' are drawn and some numerical estimates are presented for typical tokamak parameters. Semiquantitative remarks are offered on wave accessibility, mode conversion, and parametric decay instabilities as possible for spatially localized ICE. Calculations are carried out both for k[parallel] = 0 for k[parallel] [ne] 0. The effects of the temperature anisotropy and large drift velocities in the parallel direction are also examined. Finally, proton spin-flip resonance emission and absorption calculations are also presented both for thermal equilibrium conditions and for an inverted'' population of states.

  4. Dike Propagation Near Drifts

    SciTech Connect

    NA

    2002-03-04

    The purpose of this Analysis and Model Report (AMR) supporting the Site Recommendation/License Application (SR/LA) for the Yucca Mountain Project is the development of elementary analyses of the interactions of a hypothetical dike with a repository drift (i.e., tunnel) and with the drift contents at the potential Yucca Mountain repository. This effort is intended to support the analysis of disruptive events for Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). This AMR supports the Process Model Report (PMR) on disruptive events (CRWMS M&O 2000a). This purpose is documented in the development plan (DP) ''Coordinate Modeling of Dike Propagation Near Drifts Consequences for TSPA-SR/LA'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b). Evaluation of that Development Plan and the work to be conducted to prepare Interim Change Notice (ICN) 1 of this report, which now includes the design option of ''Open'' drifts, indicated that no revision to that DP was needed. These analyses are intended to provide reasonable bounds for a number of expected effects: (1) Temperature changes to the waste package from exposure to magma; (2) The gas flow available to degrade waste containers during the intrusion; (3) Movement of the waste package as it is displaced by the gas, pyroclasts and magma from the intruding dike (the number of packages damaged); (4) Movement of the backfill (Backfill is treated here as a design option); (5) The nature of the mechanics of the dike/drift interaction. These analyses serve two objectives: to provide preliminary analyses needed to support evaluation of the consequences of an intrusive event and to provide a basis for addressing some of the concerns of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) expressed in the Igneous Activity Issue Resolution Status Report.

  5. A drift-magnetohydrodynamical fluid model of helical magnetic island equilibria in the pedestals of H-mode tokamak plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzpatrick, R.; Waelbroeck, F. L.

    2010-06-15

    A drift-magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) fluid model is developed for an isolated, steady-state, helical magnetic island chain, embedded in the pedestal of a large aspect ratio, low-beta, circular cross section, H-mode tokamak plasma, to which an externally generated, multiharmonic, static magnetic perturbation whose amplitude is sufficiently large to fully relax the pedestal toroidal ion flow is applied. The model is based on a set of single helicity, reduced, drift-MHD fluid equations which take into account neoclassical poloidal and toroidal flow damping, the perturbed bootstrap current, diamagnetic flows, anomalous cross-field diffusion, average magnetic-field line curvature, and coupling to drift-acoustic waves. These equations are solved analytically in a number of different ordering regimes by means of a systematic expansion in small quantities. For the case of a freely rotating island chain, the main aims of the calculation are to determine the chain's phase velocity, and the sign and magnitude of the ion polarization term appearing in its Rutherford radial width evolution equation. For the case of a locked island chain, the main aims of the calculation are to determine the sign and magnitude of the polarization term.

  6. Toroidal universal drift instability: A global gyrokinetic study

    SciTech Connect

    Chowdhury, J.; Ganesh, R.; Brunner, S.; Vaclavik, J.; Villard, L.

    2010-10-15

    An electron density gradient driven instability identified as the toroidal branch of the universal drift instability is studied using a global gyrokinetic model treating both electrons and ions fully nonadiabatically and valid at all orders in the ratio of the Larmor radius to the wavelength. The physics of the magnetic drift resonance, Landau resonance and transit resonance, which are considered to be important for the toroidal universal mode, are kept for both species. A systematic parametric study is carried out for the mode. The toroidal universal drift mode is observed to sustain finite temperature gradient and can thus coexist with the temperature gradient driven modes and may contribute to the observed particle transport along with other drift modes. Especially at intermediate scales between the ion temperature gradient driven mode and electron temperature gradient driven mode, this branch of the drift instability can also be a plausible candidate for the observed particle loss. The effect of magnetic fluctuations on the mode is also investigated. In contrast to the slab mode, the toroidal branch of the universal drift mode is found to be strongly stabilized by electromagnetic effects at finite plasma {beta}. Finally, the effect of trapped electrons on the universal mode is studied and compared with the other possible modes in the same parameter regime, namely, ion temperature gradient mode in the presence of trapped electrons and pure trapped electron modes.

  7. Gyrokinetic simulation of momentum transport with residual stress from diamagnetic level velocity shears

    SciTech Connect

    Waltz, R. E.; Staebler, G. M.; Solomon, W. M.

    2011-04-15

    Residual stress refers to the remaining toroidal angular momentum (TAM) flux (divided by major radius) when the shear in the equilibrium fluid toroidal velocity (and the velocity itself) vanishes. Previously [Waltz et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 122507 (2007); errata 16, 079902 (2009)], we demonstrated with GYRO [Candy and Waltz, J. Comp. Phys. 186, 545 (2003)] gyrokinetic simulations that TAM pinching from (ion pressure gradient supported or diamagnetic level) equilibrium ExB velocity shear could provide some of the residual stress needed to support spontaneous toroidal rotation against normal diffusive loss. Here we show that diamagnetic level shear in the intrinsic drift wave velocities (or ''profile shear'' in the ion and electron density and temperature gradients) provides a comparable residual stress. The individual signed contributions of these small (rho-star level) ExB and profile velocity shear rates to the turbulence level and (rho-star squared) ion energy transport stabilization are additive if the rates are of the same sign. However because of the additive stabilization effect, the contributions to the small (rho-star cubed) residual stress is not always simply additive. If the rates differ in sign, the residual stress from one can buck out that from the other (and in some cases reduce the stabilization.) The residual stress from these diamagnetic velocity shear rates is quantified by the ratio of TAM flow to ion energy (power) flow (M/P) in a global GYRO core simulation of a ''null'' toroidal rotation DIII-D [Mahdavi and Luxon, Fusion Sci. Technol. 48, 2 (2005)] discharge by matching M/P profiles within experimental uncertainty. Comparison of global GYRO (ion and electron energy as well as particle) transport flow balance simulations of TAM transport flow in a high-rotation DIII-D L-mode quantifies and isolates the ExB shear and parallel velocity (Coriolis force) pinching components from the larger ''diffusive'' parallel velocity shear driven component and the much smaller profile shear residual stress component.

  8. Gyrokinetic simulation of momentum transport with residual stress from diamagnetic level velocity shears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waltz, R. E.; Staebler, G. M.; Solomon, W. M.

    2011-04-01

    Residual stress refers to the remaining toroidal angular momentum (TAM) flux (divided by major radius) when the shear in the equilibrium fluid toroidal velocity (and the velocity itself) vanishes. Previously [Waltz et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 122507 (2007); errata 16, 079902 (2009)], we demonstrated with GYRO [Candy and Waltz, J. Comp. Phys. 186, 545 (2003)] gyrokinetic simulations that TAM pinching from (ion pressure gradient supported or diamagnetic level) equilibrium E ×B velocity shear could provide some of the residual stress needed to support spontaneous toroidal rotation against normal diffusive loss. Here we show that diamagnetic level shear in the intrinsic drift wave velocities (or "profile shear" in the ion and electron density and temperature gradients) provides a comparable residual stress. The individual signed contributions of these small (rho-star level) E ×B and profile velocity shear rates to the turbulence level and (rho-star squared) ion energy transport stabilization are additive if the rates are of the same sign. However because of the additive stabilization effect, the contributions to the small (rho-star cubed) residual stress is not always simply additive. If the rates differ in sign, the residual stress from one can buck out that from the other (and in some cases reduce the stabilization.) The residual stress from these diamagnetic velocity shear rates is quantified by the ratio of TAM flow to ion energy (power) flow (M/P) in a global GYRO core simulation of a "null" toroidal rotation DIII-D [Mahdavi and Luxon, Fusion Sci. Technol. 48, 2 (2005)] discharge by matching M/P profiles within experimental uncertainty. Comparison of global GYRO (ion and electron energy as well as particle) transport flow balance simulations of TAM transport flow in a high-rotation DIII-D L-mode quantifies and isolates the E ×B shear and parallel velocity (Coriolis force) pinching components from the larger "diffusive" parallel velocity shear driven component and the much smaller profile shear residual stress component.

  9. A spatially resolving x-ray crystal spectrometer for measurement of ion-temperature and rotation-velocity profiles on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak.

    PubMed

    Hill, K W; Bitter, M L; Scott, S D; Ince-Cushman, A; Reinke, M; Rice, J E; Beiersdorfer, P; Gu, M-F; Lee, S G; Broennimann, Ch; Eikenberry, E F

    2008-10-01

    A new spatially resolving x-ray crystal spectrometer capable of measuring continuous spatial profiles of high resolution spectra (lambda/d lambda>6000) of He-like and H-like Ar K alpha lines with good spatial (approximately 1 cm) and temporal (approximately 10 ms) resolutions has been installed on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak. Two spherically bent crystals image the spectra onto four two-dimensional Pilatus II pixel detectors. Tomographic inversion enables inference of local line emissivity, ion temperature (T(i)), and toroidal plasma rotation velocity (upsilon(phi)) from the line Doppler widths and shifts. The data analysis techniques, T(i) and upsilon(phi) profiles, analysis of fusion-neutron background, and predictions of performance on other tokamaks, including ITER, will be presented. PMID:19044482

  10. Drift waves in helically symmetric stellarators

    SciTech Connect

    Rafiq, T.; Hegna, C.

    2005-11-15

    The local linear stability of electron drift waves and ion temperature gradient modes (ITG) is investigated in a quasihelically symmetric (QHS) stellarator and a conventional asymmetric (Mirror) stellarator. The geometric details of the different equilibria are emphasized. Eigenvalue equations for the models are derived using the ballooning mode formalism and solved numerically using a standard shooting technique in a fully three-dimensional stellarator configuration. While the eigenfunctions have a similar shape in both magnetic geometries, they are slightly more localized along the field line in the QHS case. The most unstable electron drift modes are strongly localized at the symmetry points (where stellarator symmetry is present) and in the regions where normal curvature is unfavorable and magnitude of the local magnetic shear and magnetic field is minimum. The presence of a large positive local magnetic shear in the bad curvature region is found to be destabilizing. Electron drift modes are found to be more affected by the normal curvature than by the geodesic curvature. The threshold of stability of the ITG modes in terms of {eta}{sub i} is found to be 2/3 in this fluid model consistent with the smallest threshold for toroidal geometry with adiabatic electrons. Optimization to favorable drift wave stability has small field line curvature, short connection lengths, the proper combination of geodesic curvature and local magnetic shear, large values of local magnetic shear, and the compression of flux surfaces in the unfavorable curvature region.

  11. Probabilities for {ital L}-shell ionization in intermediate-velocity collisions of medium-mass elements with {sup 4}He{sup 2+} ions

    SciTech Connect

    Boschung, B.; Carlen, M.W.; Dousse, J.; Galley, B.; Herren, C.; Hoszowska, J.; Kern, J.; Rheme, C.; Ludziejewski, T.; Rymuza, P.; Sujkowski, Z.; Halabuka, Z.

    1995-11-01

    The {ital K}{alpha} and {ital K}{beta} x ray spectra of zirconium, molybdenum, palladium, and praseodymium bombarded by 28-, 40-, 65-, and 100-MeV {sup 4}He{sup 2+} ions were measured with a high-resolution transmission curved crystal spectrometer. The {ital K}{alpha}{ital L}{sup 1} and {ital K}{beta}{ital L}{sup 1} satellite lines were observed and resolved from the parent diagram lines. The deduced satellite energy shifts are very well reproduced by multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock calculations. The experimental average {ital L}-shell ionization probabilities for nearly central collisions were obtained from the measured relative yields of the satellites. They are compared with theoretical predictions from the semiclassical independent particle approximation using hydrogenic wavefunctions (SCA-HWF) or Dirac-Hartree-Fock wave functions (SCA-DHF) and with {ital n}-body classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) calculations. A satisfactory agreement is obtained between the experimental probabilities and the SCA-DHF predictions. The variation of the probabilities in function of the projectile reduced velocity is also well reproduced by CTMC calculations although the predictions are in general smaller than the values deduced from our experiment. The same holds for the SCA-HWF calculations for which, in addition, an increasing discrepancy with the projectile reduced velocity is observed.

  12. Obliquely propagating ion acoustic waves in the auroral E region: Further evidence of irregularity production by field-aligned electron streaming

    SciTech Connect

    Villain, J.P. ); Hanuise, C. ); Greenwald, R.A.; Baker, K.B.; Ruohoniemi, J.M. )

    1990-06-01

    Common volume observations of E region high-latitude irregularities at decameter wavelengths have been obtained with the JHU/APL HF radar located at Goose Bay, Labrador, and the SHERPA HF radar located at Schefferville, Quebec. In this paper, the authors analyze an event with characteristics similar to those of a distinctive type of event described by Villain et al. (1987). The experimental configuration, which combines the azimuthal-scanning capability of the Goose Bay radar with the frequency-scanning operation of the Schefferville radar, has provided unambiguous evidence of the existence of two irregularity layers at different altitudes within the E region. The layers, which exhibit different characteristics, can be related to the action of the gradient drift and ion acoustic instability mechanisms. It is shown that the ion acoustic modes have phase velocities in the range of 400 to 550 m/s and are produced in regions of subcritical perpendicular electron Hall drift. They infer that the observed irregularities are produced through a combination of perpendicular and field-aligned relative electron-ion drifts. Features previously observed but no t satisfactorily explained by perpendicular drift excitation alone can be understood in terms of field-aligned drift excitation. They conclude that the role of electron-ion field-aligned drift may be much more important than previously realized.

  13. Coupled-cavity drift-tube linac

    DOEpatents

    Billen, J.H.

    1996-11-26

    A coupled-cavity drift-tube linac (CCDTL) combines features of the Alvarez drift-tube linac (DTL) and the {pi}-mode coupled-cavity linac (CCL). In one embodiment, each accelerating cavity is a two-cell, 0-mode DTL. The center-to-center distance between accelerating gaps is {beta}{lambda}, where {lambda} is the free-space wavelength of the resonant mode. Adjacent accelerating cavities have oppositely directed electric fields, alternating in phase by 180 degrees. The chain of cavities operates in a {pi}/2 structure mode so the coupling cavities are nominally unexcited. The CCDTL configuration provides an rf structure with high shunt impedance for intermediate velocity charged particles, i.e., particles with energies in the 20-200 MeV range. 5 figs.

  14. Coupled-cavity drift-tube linac

    DOEpatents

    Billen, James H. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1996-01-01

    A coupled-cavity drift-tube linac (CCDTL) combines features of the Alvarez drift-tube linac (DTL) and the .pi.-mode coupled-cavity linac (CCL). In one embodiment, each accelerating cavity is a two-cell, 0-mode DTL. The center-to-center distance between accelerating gaps is .beta..lambda., where .lambda. is the free-space wavelength of the resonant mode. Adjacent accelerating cavities have oppositely directed electric fields, alternating in phase by 180 degrees. The chain of cavities operates in a .pi./2 structure mode so the coupling cavities are nominally unexcited. The CCDTL configuration provides an rf structure with high shunt impedance for intermediate velocity charged particles, i.e., particles with energies in the 20-200 MeV range.

  15. Effect of parallel electron heat transport on drift and drift-tearing modes in RFP plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirnov, V. V.; Hegna, C. C.; Sauppe, J. P.; Sovinec, C. R.

    2014-10-01

    Linear numerical simulations were performed for plasma slab with cold ions and hot electrons in a doubly periodic box bounded by two perfectly conducting walls. Within this model, configurations with magnetic shear are unstable to current-driven drift-tearing instability. Additionally, there is an unstable pressure-gradient driven mode that is largely electrostatic in nature, suggestive of a resistive-drift type instability. The simultaneous presence of linear drift-like and tearing instabilities was observed using both two fluid extended modeling with NIMROD and analytical methods. The primary motivation for these studies is to understand the electrostatic transport thought to be present in Madison Symmetric Torus RFP experiments. Our previous analytical studies were performed either in the limit of infinitively large parallel electron heat conduction or in the pure adiabatic regime with an isentropic equilibrium. We report now on a general model with arbitrary equilibrium and finite parallel thermal conduction. Drift mode stability is sensitive to the ratio of density and temperature gradient scales and the instability exists even for pure transverse perturbations. Preliminary analytical results confirm some reduction of the drift-tearing mode growth rate caused by finite electron thermal conduction, consistent with previous works. Results of NIMROD simulations for different regimes of the electron thermal conduction are reported as well. The work is supported by the U. S. DOE and NSF.

  16. Pre-sheath density drop induced by ion-neutral friction along plasma blobs and implications for blob velocities

    SciTech Connect

    Furno, I.; Chabloz, V.; Fasoli, A.; Loizu, J.; Theiler, C.

    2014-01-15

    The pre-sheath density drop along the magnetic field in field-aligned, radially propagating plasma blobs is investigated in the TORPEX toroidal experiment [Fasoli et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 52, 124020 (2010)]. Using Langmuir probes precisely aligned along the magnetic field, we measure the density n{sub se} at a poloidal limiter, where blobs are connected, and the upstream density n{sub 0} at a location half way to the other end of the blobs. The pre-sheath density drop n{sub se}/n{sub 0} is then computed and its dependence upon the neutral background gas pressure is studied. At low neutral gas pressures, the pre-sheath density drop is ?0.4, close to the value of 0.5 expected in the collisionless case. In qualitative agreement with a simple model, this value decreases with increasing gas pressure. No significant dependence of the density drop upon the radial distance into the limiter shadow is observed. The effect of reduced blob density near the limiter on the blob radial velocity is measured and compared with predictions from a blob speed-versus-size scaling law [Theiler et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 065001 (2009)].

  17. A photodissociation study of CH{sub 2}BrCl in the A-band using the time-sliced ion velocity imaging method

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Jingang; Lau, K.-C.; Hassanein, Elsayed; Xu Haifeng; Tian Shanxi; Jones, Brant; Ng, C.Y.

    2006-01-21

    Employing a high-resolution (velocity resolution {delta}{nu}/{nu}<1.5%) time-sliced ion velocity imaging apparatus, we have examined the photodissociation of CH{sub 2}BrCl in the photon energy range of 448.6-618.5 kJ/mol (193.3-266.6 nm). Precise translational and angular distributions for the dominant Br({sup 2}P{sub 3/2}) and Br({sup 2}P{sub 1/2}) channels have been determined from the ion images observed for Br({sup 2}P{sub 3/2}) and Br({sup 2}P{sub 1/2}). In confirmation with the previous studies, the kinetic-energy distributions for the Br({sup 2}P{sub 1/2}) channel are found to fit well with one Gaussian function, whereas the kinetic- energy distributions for the Br({sup 2}P{sub 3/2}) channel exhibit bimodal structures and can be decomposed into a slow and a fast Gaussian component. The observed kinetic-energy distributions are consistent with the conclusion that the formation of the Br({sup 2}P{sub 3/2}) and Br({sup 2}P{sub 1/2}) channels takes place on a repulsive potential-energy surface, resulting in a significant fraction (0.40-0.47) of available energy to appear as translational energy for the photofragments. On the basis of the detailed kinetic-energy distributions and anisotropy parameters obtained in the present study, together with the specific features and relative absorption cross sections of the excited 2A{sup '}, 1A{sup ''}, 3A{sup '}, 4A{sup '}, and 2A{sup ''} states estimated in previous studies, we have rationalized the dissociation pathways of CH{sub 2}BrCl in the A-band, leading to the formation of the Br({sup 2}P{sub 3/2}) and Br({sup 2}P{sub 1/2}) channels. The analysis of the ion images observed at 235 nm for Cl({sup 2}P{sub 3/2,1/2}) provides strong evidence that the formation of Cl mainly arises from the secondary photodissociation process CH{sub 2}Cl+h{nu}{yields}CH{sub 2}+Cl.

  18. Concepts and development of drift pumping for the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U)

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, R.J.; Pedrotti, L.R.; Brooksby, C.A.; Cummins, W.F.; Jackson, M.C.; Poulsen, P.; ver Planck, P.

    1985-11-11

    Low-energy ions trapped in the thermal barrier region of the TMX-U plasma cause a potential reduction which results in increased scattering and less thermal isolation between regions of the plasma. A method of removing these ions using magnetic field perturbations at the ion drift frequency has been developed. The concepts of ''drift pumping'' and hardware development are described in this paper. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  19. On the validity of drift-reduced fluid models for tokamak plasma simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leddy, Jarrod; Dudson, Ben; Romanelli, Michele; Contributors, JET

    2015-12-01

    Drift-reduced plasma fluid models are commonly used in plasma physics for analytic studies and simulations, so the validity of such models must be verified for the regions of parameter space in which tokamak plasmas exist. By deriving and comparing the linear dispersion relations for the drift-wave instability for both a drift-reduced model and a full-velocity model, the importance of the physics lost with the drift-reduction is examined. This analysis is generalised for typical tokamak parameter spaces and is then applied directly to JET data. It is found that drift-reduced models are generally more applicable to the edge plasma (<10% error), while the core plasma shows more significant disagreement (>30% error) particularly at mid-radius. The effect of drift-wave mode number and wavelength also play a key role in determining the accuracy of drift-reduced models.

  20. Flow shear induced Compton scattering of electron drift instability

    SciTech Connect

    Hahm, T.S.

    1992-02-01

    Plasma flow shear effects on nonlinear saturation of electron drift waves are analyzed in the weak turbulence regime. Flow shear can enhance ion Compton scattering of long wavelength electron drift waves not only by modifying the beat wave-ion resonance condition, but also via the radial dependence of linear susceptibility. A nonlinear dispersion relation is obtained as a solution of the radially nonlocal nonlinear eigenmode equation. At nonlinear saturation, the spectral intensity of the fluctuations scales with flow shear as ({partial_derivative}V{var_phi}/{partial_derivative}r){sup {minus}2} in addition to the linear dependence on the linear growth rate.

  1. Electromagnetic nonlinear gyrokinetics with polarization drift

    SciTech Connect

    Duthoit, F.-X.; Hahm, T. S.; Wang, Lu

    2014-08-15

    A set of new nonlinear electromagnetic gyrokinetic Vlasov equation with polarization drift and gyrokinetic Maxwell equations is systematically derived by using the Lie-transform perturbation method in toroidal geometry. For the first time, we recover the drift-kinetic expression for parallel acceleration [R. M. Kulsrud, in Basic Plasma Physics, edited by A. A. Galeev and R. N. Sudan (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1983)] from the nonlinear gyrokinetic equations, thereby bridging a gap between the two formulations. This formalism should be useful in addressing nonlinear ion Compton scattering of intermediate-mode-number toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes for which the polarization current nonlinearity [T. S. Hahm and L. Chen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 266 (1995)] and the usual finite Larmor radius effects should compete.

  2. Particle-in-cell simulations of the critical ionization velocity effect in finite size clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moghaddam-Taaheri, E.; Lu, G.; Goertz, C. K.; Nishikawa, K. - I.

    1994-01-01

    The critical ionization velocity (CIV) mechanism in a finite size cloud is studied with a series of electrostatic particle-in-cell simulations. It is observed that an initial seed ionization, produced by non-CIV mechanisms, generates a cross-field ion beam which excites a modified beam-plasma instability (MBPI) with frequency in the range of the lower hybrid frequency. The excited waves accelerate electrons along the magnetic field up to the ion drift energy that exceeds the ionization energy of the neutral atoms. The heated electrons in turn enhance the ion beam by electron-neutral impact ionization, which establishes a positive feedback loop in maintaining the CIV process. It is also found that the efficiency of the CIV mechanism depends on the finite size of the gas cloud in the following ways: (1) Along the ambient magnetic field the finite size of the cloud, L (sub parallel), restricts the growth of the fastest growing mode, with a wavelength lambda (sub m parallel), of the MBPI. The parallel electron heating at wave saturation scales approximately as (L (sub parallel)/lambda (sub m parallel)) (exp 1/2); (2) Momentum coupling between the cloud and the ambient plasma via the Alfven waves occurs as a result of the finite size of the cloud in the direction perpendicular to both the ambient magnetic field and the neutral drift. This reduces exponentially with time the relative drift between the ambient plasma and the neutrals. The timescale is inversely proportional to the Alfven velocity. (3) The transvers e charge separation field across the cloud was found to result in the modulation of the beam velocity which reduces the parallel heating of electrons and increases the transverse acceleration of electrons. (4) Some energetic electrons are lost from the cloud along the magnetic field at a rate characterized by the acoustic velocity, instead of the electron thermal velocity. The loss of energetic electrons from the cloud seems to be larger in the direction of plasma drift relative to the neutrals, where the loss rate is characterized by the neutral drift velocity. It is also shown that a factor of 4 increase in the ambient plasma density, increases the CIV ionization yield by almost 2 orders of magnitude at the end of a typical run. It is concluded that a larger ambient plasma density can result in a larger CIV yield because of (1) larger seed ion production by non-CIV mechanisms, (2) smaller Alfven velocity and hence weak momentum coupling, and (3) smaller ratio of the ion beam density to the ambient ion density, and therefore a weaker modulation of the beam velocity. The simulation results are used to interpret various chemical release experiments in space.

  3. Quaternary Contourite Drifts of the Western Spitsbergen Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laberg, J. S.; Rebesco, M.; Wahlin, A.; Schauer, U.; Beszczynska-Möller, A.; Lucchi, R. G.; Noormets, R.; Accettella, D.; Zarayskaya, Y.; Diviacco, P.

    2014-12-01

    The study of contourite drifts is an increasingly used tool for understanding the climate history of the oceans. In this paper we analyse two contourite drifts along the continental margin west of Spitsbergen, just south of the Fram Strait where significant water mass exchanges impact the Arctic climate. We detail the internal geometry and the morphologic characteristics of the two drifts on the base of multichannel seismic reflection data, sub-bottom profiles and bathymetry. These mounded features, that we propose to name Isfjorden and Bellsund drifts, are located on the continental slope between 1200 and 1800 m depth, whereas the upper slope is characterized by reduced- or non-deposition. The more distinct Isfjorden Drift is about 25 km wide and 45 km long, and over 200 ms TWT thick. We revise the 13 years-long time series of velocity, temperature, and salinity obtained from a mooring array across the Fram Strait. Two distinct current cores are visible in the long-term average. The shallower current core has an average northward velocity of about 20 cm/s, while the deeper bottom current core at about 1450 m depth has an average northward velocity of about 9 cm/s. We consider Norwegian Sea Deep Water episodically ventilated by relatively dense and turbid shelf water from the Barents Sea responsible for the accumulation of the contourites. The onset of the drift growth west of Spitsbergen is inferred to be about 1.3 Ma and related to the Early Pleistocene glacial expansion recorded in the area. The lack of mounded contouritic deposits on the continental slope of the Storfjorden is related to consecutive erosion by glacigenic debris flows. The Isfjorden and Bellsund drifts are inferred to contain the record of the regional palaeoceanography and glacial history and may constitute an excellent target of future scientific drilling.

  4. Magnetic conjugate point observations of kilometer and hundred-meter scale irregularities and zonal drifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Paula, E. R.; Muella, M. T. A. H.; Sobral, J. H. A.; Abdu, M. A.; Batista, I. S.; Beach, T. L.; Groves, K. M.

    2010-08-01

    The Conjugate Point Equatorial Experiment (COPEX) campaign was carried out in Brazil, between October and December 2002, to study the conjugate nature of plasma bubble irregularities and to investigate their generation mechanisms, development characteristics, spatial-temporal distribution, and dynamics. In this work we will focus mainly on the zonal spaced GPS (1.575 GHz) and VHF (250 MHz) receivers' data collected simultaneously at two magnetic conjugate sites of the COPEX geometry: Boa Vista and Campo Grande. These GPS/VHF receivers were set up to detect the equatorial scintillations and to measure ionospheric scintillation pattern velocities. Then, the zonal irregularity drift velocities were estimated by applying a methodology that corrects the effects caused by vertical drifts and geometrical factors. The results reveal the coexistence of kilometer- (VHF) and hundred-meter-scale (GPS L-band) irregularities into the underlying depletion structure. Over the conjugate site of Campo Grande, the average zonal velocity at VHF seems to be consistently larger than the estimated GPS velocities until ˜0200 UT, whereas over Boa Vista the irregularities detected from both techniques are drifting with comparable velocities. The hundred-meter-scale structures causing L-band scintillations appear to be drifting with comparable velocities over both the conjugate sites, whereas the kilometer-scale structures are drifting over Campo Grande with larger average velocities (before 0300 UT). Complementary data of ionospheric parameters scaled from collocated digital ionosondes are used in the analysis to explain differences/similarities on the scintillation/zonal drift results.

  5. Geodesic mode instability driven by electron and ion fluxes in tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elfimov, A. G.; Camilo de Souza, F.; Galvão, R. M. O.

    2015-11-01

    The effect of the parallel electron current and plasma flux on Geodesic Acoustic Modes (GAM) in a tokamak is analyzed by kinetic theory taking into the account the ion Landau damping and diamagnetic drifts. It is shown that the electron current and plasma flow, modeled by shifted Maxwell distributions of electrons and ions, may overcome the ion Landau damping generating the GAM instability when the parallel electron current velocity is larger than the effective parallel GAM phase velocity of sidebands, Rq?. The instability is driven by the electron current and the parallel ion flux cross term. Possible applications to tokamak experiments are discussed. The existence of the geodesic ion sound mode due to plasma flow is shown.

  6. Ion distributions in the fast solar wind and associated kinetic instabilities: Ulysses observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matteini, L.; Hellinger, P.; Goldstein, B. E.; Landi, S.; Velli, M. M.

    2011-12-01

    We investigate properties of ions in the fast solar wind using Ulysses observations and we compare the results with linear theory predictions. An analysis of ion distribution functions, which are characterized by temperature anisotropy and differential velocities, based on drifting bi-Maxwellians (Goldstein et al. 2010) is reported. The stability of the plasma, composed by the core and beam proton populations and the alpha particles, is investigated with respect to kinetic instabilities driven by temperature anisotropies and/or by drift velocities between different species. We find that while the total global distribution of protons appears constrained by a fire hose instability, in agreement with previous studies, the core of distributions is anisotropic with the perpendicular temperature that is larger then the parallel one, thus possibly exciting an ion-cyclotron or mirror instability. At the same time, signatures of ion-beam instabilities are found, suggesting that such instabilities play a role in the regulation of the ion drifts during the solar wind expansion. These Ulysses observations suggest that wave-particle interactions driven by kinetic instabilities are most of the time at work in the fast solar wind, influencing the plasma thermodynamics and providing also a possible explanation for recent magnetic field spectra observations (Wicks et al. 2010).

  7. Imaging and Rapid-Scanning Ion Mass Spectrometer (IRM) for the CASSIOPE e-POP Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yau, Andrew W.; Howarth, Andrew; White, Andrew; Enno, Greg; Amerl, Peter

    2015-06-01

    The imaging and rapid-scanning ion mass spectrometer (IRM) is part of the Enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (e-POP) instrument suite on the Canadian CASSIOPE small satellite. Designed to measure the composition and detailed velocity distributions of ions in the ˜1-100 eV/q range on a non-spinning spacecraft, the IRM sensor consists of a planar entrance aperture, a pair of electrostatic deflectors, a time-of-flight (TOF) gate, a hemispherical electrostatic analyzer, and a micro-channel plate (MCP) detector. The TOF gate measures the transit time of each detected ion inside the sensor. The hemispherical analyzer disperses incident ions by their energy-per-charge and azimuth in the aperture plane onto the detector. The two electrostatic deflectors may be optionally programmed to step through a sequence of deflector voltages, to deflect ions of different incident elevation out of the aperture plane and energy-per-charge into the sensor aperture for sampling. The position and time of arrival of each detected ion at the detector are measured, to produce an image of 2-dimensional (2D), mass-resolved ion velocity distribution up to 100 times per second, or to construct a composite 3D velocity distribution by combining successive images in a deflector voltage sequence. The measured distributions are then used to investigate ion composition, density, drift velocity and temperature in polar ion outflows and related acceleration and transport processes in the topside ionosphere.

  8. Electron current drive by fusion-product-excited lower hybrid drift instability

    E-print Network

    Cook, J W S; Dendy, R O

    2010-01-01

    We present first principles simulations of the direct collisionless coupling of the free energy of fusion-born ions into electron current in a magnetically confined fusion plasma. These simulations demonstrate, for the first time, a key building block of some "alpha channelling" scenarios for tokamak experiments. A fully self-consistent electromagnetic 1D3V particle-in-cell code is used to evolve a parallel drifting ring-beam distribution of 3MeV protons in a 10keV thermal deuterium-electron plasma with realistic mass ratio. Collective instability gives rise to electromagnetic field activity in the lower hybrid range of frequencies. These spontaneously excited obliquely propagating waves undergo Landau damping on resonant electrons, drawing out an asymmetric tail in the distribution of electron parallel velocities, which carries a current.

  9. High Performance Ion Mobility Spectrometry Using Hourglass Electrodynamic Funnel And Internal Ion Funnel

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Richard D. (Richland, WA); Tang, Keqi (Richland, WA); Shvartsburg, Alexandre A. (Richland, WA)

    2005-11-22

    A method and apparatus enabling increased sensitivity in ion mobility spectrometry/mass spectrometry instruments which substantially reduces or eliminates the loss of ions in ion mobility spectrometer drift tubes utilizing a device for transmitting ions from an ion source which allows the transmission of ions without significant delay to an hourglass electrodynamic ion funnel at the entrance to the drift tube and/or an internal ion funnel at the exit of the drift tube. An hourglass electrodynamic funnel is formed of at least an entry element, a center element, and an exit element, wherein the aperture of the center element is smaller than the aperture of the entry element and the aperture of the exit elements. Ions generated in a relatively high pressure region by an ion source at the exterior of the hourglass electrodynamic funnel are transmitted to a relatively low pressure region at the entrance of the hourglass funnel through a conductance limiting orifice. Alternating and direct electrical potentials are applied to the elements of the hourglass electrodynamic funnel thereby drawing ions into and through the hourglass electrodynamic funnel thereby introducing relatively large quantities of ions into the drift tube while maintaining the gas pressure and composition at the interior of the drift tube as distinct from those at the entrance of the electrodynamic funnel and allowing a positive gas pressure to be maintained within the drift tube, if desired. An internal ion funnel is provided within the drift tube and is positioned at the exit of said drift tube. The advantage of the internal ion funnel is that ions that are dispersed away from the exit aperture within the drift tube, such as those that are typically lost in conventional drift tubes to any subsequent analysis or measurement, are instead directed through the exit of the drift tube, vastly increasing the amount of ions exiting the drift tube.

  10. Distinctive features of the model of the drift of phases used in computational dynamic reactor programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khabenskii, V. B.; Migrov, Yu. A.; Tokar', O. V.

    1994-09-01

    We present relations of the overall model of drift for use in dynamic reactor programs. On the boundaries that separate the sets of conditions of a two-phase flow, a smooth transition is achieved between the drift velocity relations corresponding to different regimes. The relations suggested can be use for vertical channels of various geometries with ascending and descending motion of a coolant in a wide, range of flow velocities.

  11. Drift-Scale Radionuclide Transport

    SciTech Connect

    J. Houseworth

    2004-09-22

    The purpose of this model report is to document the drift scale radionuclide transport model, taking into account the effects of emplacement drifts on flow and transport in the vicinity of the drift, which are not captured in the mountain-scale unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport models ''UZ Flow Models and Submodels'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169861]), ''Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 164500]), and ''Particle Tracking Model and Abstraction of Transport Process'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170041]). The drift scale radionuclide transport model is intended to be used as an alternative model for comparison with the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport model ''EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169868]). For that purpose, two alternative models have been developed for drift-scale radionuclide transport. One of the alternative models is a dual continuum flow and transport model called the drift shadow model. The effects of variations in the flow field and fracture-matrix interaction in the vicinity of a waste emplacement drift are investigated through sensitivity studies using the drift shadow model (Houseworth et al. 2003 [DIRS 164394]). In this model, the flow is significantly perturbed (reduced) beneath the waste emplacement drifts. However, comparisons of transport in this perturbed flow field with transport in an unperturbed flow field show similar results if the transport is initiated in the rock matrix. This has led to a second alternative model, called the fracture-matrix partitioning model, that focuses on the partitioning of radionuclide transport between the fractures and matrix upon exiting the waste emplacement drift. The fracture-matrix partitioning model computes the partitioning, between fractures and matrix, of diffusive radionuclide transport from the invert (for drifts without seepage) into the rock water. The invert is the structure constructed in a drift to provide the floor of the drift. The reason for introducing the fracture-matrix partitioning model is to broaden the conceptual model for flow beneath waste emplacement drifts in a way that does not rely on the specific flow behavior predicted by a dual continuum model and to ensure that radionuclide transport is not underestimated. The fracture-matrix partitioning model provides an alternative method of computing the partitioning of radionuclide releases from drifts without seepage into rock fractures and rock matrix. Drifts without seepage are much more likely to have a significant fraction of radionuclide releases into the rock matrix, and therefore warrant additional attention in terms of the partitioning model used for TSPA.

  12. Fingermark ridge drift.

    PubMed

    De Alcaraz-Fossoul, Josep; Roberts, Katherine A; Feixat, Carme Barrot; Hogrebe, Gregory G; Badia, Manel Gené

    2016-01-01

    Distortions of the fingermark topography are usually considered when comparing latent and exemplar fingerprints. These alterations are characterized as caused by an extrinsic action, which affects entire areas of the deposition and alters the overall flow of a series of contiguous ridges. Here we introduce a novel visual phenomenon that does not follow these principles, named fingermark ridge drift. An experiment was designed that included variables such as type of secretion (eccrine and sebaceous), substrate (glass and polystyrene), and degrees of exposure to natural light (darkness, shade, and direct light) indoors. Fingermarks were sequentially visualized with titanium dioxide powder, photographed and analyzed. The comparison between fresh and aged depositions revealed that under certain environmental conditions an individual ridge could randomly change its original position regardless of its unaltered adjacent ridges. The causes of the drift phenomenon are not well understood. We believe it is exclusively associated with intrinsic natural aging processes of latent fingermarks. This discovery will help explain the detection of certain dissimilarities at the minutiae/ridge level; determine more accurate "hits"; identify potentially erroneous corresponding points; and rethink identification protocols, especially the criteria of "no single minutiae discrepancy" for a positive identification. PMID:26646735

  13. Strange Attractors in Drift Wave Turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Jerome L.V. Lewandowski

    2003-09-03

    There are growing experimental, numerical and theoretical evidences that the anomalous transport observed in tokamaks and stellarators is caused by slow, drift-type modes (such as trapped electron modes and ion-temperature gradient-driven modes). Although typical collision frequencies in hot, magnetized fusion plasmas can be quite low in absolute values, collisional effects are nevertheless important since they act as dissipative sinks. As it is well known, dissipative systems with many (strictly speaking more than two) degrees of freedom are often chaotic and may evolve towards a so-called attractor.

  14. A drift model of interchange instability

    SciTech Connect

    Benilov, E. S.; Power, O. A.

    2007-08-15

    A set of asymptotic equations is derived, describing the dynamics of the flute mode in a magnetized plasma with cold ions, under a 'local' approximation (i.e., near a particular point). The asymptotic set is then used to calculate the growth rate of interchange instability in the slab model. It is shown that, unlike the magnetohydrodynamic ordering, the drift one allows instability to occur for either sign of the pressure gradient (i.e., for both 'bad' and 'good' curvature of the magnetic field). It is also demonstrated that finite beta gives rise to an extra instability that does not exist in the small-beta limit.

  15. A parametric study of the drift-tearing mode using an extended-magnetohydrodynamic model

    SciTech Connect

    King, J. R.; Kruger, S. E.

    2014-10-15

    The linear, collisional, constant-? drift-tearing mode is analyzed for different regimes of the plasma-?, ion-skin-depth parameter space with an unreduced, extended-magnetohydrodynamic model. New dispersion relations are found at moderate plasma ? and previous drift-tearing results are classified as applicable at small plasma ?.

  16. Drift dynamics of larval pallid sturgeon and shovelnose sturgeon in a natural side channel of the Upper Missouri River, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braaten, P.J.; Fuller, D.B.; Holte, L.D.; Lott, R.D.; Viste, W.; Brandt, T.F.; Legare, R.G.

    2008-01-01

    The drift dynamics of larval shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus (1, 2, 6, and 10 d posthatch [dph]) and pallid sturgeon S. albus (1, 2, 5, 9, 11, and 17 dph) were examined in a natural side channel of the Missouri River to quantify the vertical drift location of larvae in the water column, determine the drift velocity of larvae relative to water velocity, and simulate the cumulative distance (km) drifted by larvae during ontogenetic development. Larvae were released at the side-channel inlet and sampled at points 100, 500, 900, and 1,300 m downstream. Larvae drifted primarily near the riverbed, as 58-79% of recaptured shovelnose sturgeon and 63-89% of recaptured pallid sturgeon were sampled in the lower 0.5 m of the water column. The transition from the drifting to the benthic life stage was initiated at 6 dph (mean length, 15.6 mm) for shovelnose sturgeon and at 11-17 dph (mean length, 18.1-20.3 mm) for pallid sturgeon. Across ages, the drift rates of larval shovelnose sturgeon averaged 0.09-0.16 m/s slower than the mean water column velocity. The drift rates of pallid sturgeon were similar to or slightly slower (0.03-0.07 m/s) than the mean water column velocity for 1-11-dph larvae. Conversely, 17-dph larval pallid sturgeon dispersed downstream at a much slower rate (mean, 0.20 m/s slower than the mean water column velocity) owing to their transition to benthic habitats. Drift simulations indicated that the average larval shovelnose sturgeon may drift from 94 to 250 km and the average larval pallid sturgeon may drift from 245 to 530 km, depending on water velocity. Differences in larval drift dynamics between species provide a possible explanation for differences in recruitment between shovelnose sturgeon and pallid sturgeon in the upper Missouri River. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  17. Lower hybrid drift waves: space observations.

    PubMed

    Norgren, Cecilia; Vaivads, Andris; Khotyaintsev, Yuri V; André, Mats

    2012-08-01

    Lower hybrid drift waves (LHDWs) are commonly observed at plasma boundaries in space and laboratory, often having the strongest measured electric fields within these regions. We use data from two of the Cluster satellites (C3 and C4) located in Earth's magnetotail and separated by a distance of the order of the electron gyroscale. These conditions allow us, for the first time, to make cross-spacecraft correlations of the LHDWs and to determine the phase velocity and wavelength of the LHDWs. Our results are in good agreement with the theoretical prediction. We show that the electrostatic potential of LHDWs is linearly related to fluctuations in the magnetic field magnitude, which allows us to determine the velocity vector through the relation ??Edt·v = ?(?B)(?). The electrostatic potential fluctuations correspond to ?10% of the electron temperature, which suggests that the waves can strongly affect the electron dynamics. PMID:23006181

  18. Measurements of Doppler-ion temperature and flow in the multi-pulsing CHI experiment on HIST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanao, T.; Ishihara, M.; Hirono, H.; Hyobu, T.; Ito, K.; Matsumoto, K.; Nakayama, T.; Kikuchi, Y.; Fukumoto, N.; Nagata, M.

    2012-10-01

    The steady-state current sustainment of spherical torus (ST) configurations is expected to be achieved by Multi-pulsing Coaxial Helicity Injection (M-CHI) method. In the double-pulsing discharges, the plasma current can be sustained much longer against the resistive decay compared to the single CHI. The M-CHI has capabilities as a static ion heating method. Ion Doppler Spectrometer (IDS) measurements confirmed a significant increase in the ion temperature after the second CHI pulse. The ion heating mechanism is an important issue to be explored in the M-CHI experiments. It is considered due to the magnetic reconnection process of plasmoids and/or the damping of the Alfven wave. The ion heating becomes suppressed around the separatrix layer in the high field side where the amplitude of the magnetic fluctuations is minimized due to the poloidal flow shear. The shear flow generation is caused by ExB drift and ion diamagnetic drift. The contribution from the diamagnetic drift on the shear flow can be evaluated by measuring the flow velocity of hydrogen and impurity ions by using Mach probe and IDS. We will discuss the dependence of the ion heating characteristics on the variation of the density gradient by varying TF coil current.

  19. Pulsed discharge ionization source for miniature ion mobility spectrometers

    DOEpatents

    Xu, Jun; Ramsey, J. Michael; Whitten, William B.

    2004-11-23

    A method and apparatus is disclosed for flowing a sample gas and a reactant gas (38, 43) past a corona discharge electrode (26) situated at a first location in an ion drift chamber (24), applying a pulsed voltage waveform comprising a varying pulse component and a dc bias component to the corona discharge electrode (26) to cause a corona which in turn produces ions from the sample gas and the reactant gas, applying a dc bias to the ion drift chamber (24) to cause the ions to drift to a second location (25) in the ion drift chamber (24), detecting the ions at the second location (25) in the drift chamber (24), and timing the period for the ions to drift from the corona discharge electrode to the selected location in the drift chamber.

  20. Theory of semicollisional drift-interchange modes in cylindrical plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Hahm, T.S.; Chen, L.

    1985-01-01

    Resistive interchange instabilities in cylindrical plasmas are studied, including the effects of electron diamagnetic drift, perpendicular resistivity, and plasma compression. The analyses are pertinent to the semicollisional regime where the effective ion gyro-radius is larger than the resistive layer width. Both analytical and numerical results show that the modes can be completely stabilized by the perpendicular plasma transport. Ion sound effects, meanwhile, are found to be negligible in the semicollisional regime.

  1. An experimental test and models of drift and dispersal processes of pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) free embryos in the Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braaten, P.J.; Fuller, D.B.; Lott, R.D.; Ruggles, M.P.; Brandt, T.F.; Legare, R.G.; Holm, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    Free embryos of wild pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus were released in the Missouri River and captured at downstream sites through a 180-km reach of the river to examine ontogenetic drift and dispersal processes. Free embryos drifted primarily in the fastest portion of the river channel, and initial drift velocities for all age groups (mean?=?0.66–0.70 m?s?1) were only slightly slower than mean water column velocity (0.72 m?s?1). During the multi-day long-distance drift period, drift velocities of all age groups declined an average of 9.7% day?1. Younger free embryos remained in the drift upon termination of the study; whereas, older age groups transitioned from drifting to settling during the study. Models based on growth of free embryos, drift behavior, size-related variations in drift rates, and channel hydraulic characteristics were developed to estimate cumulative distance drifted during ontogenetic development through a range of simulated water temperatures and velocity conditions. Those models indicated that the average free embryo would be expected to drift several hundred km during ontogenetic development. Empirical data and model results highlight the long-duration, long-distance drift and dispersal processes for pallid sturgeon early life stages. In addition, results provide a likely mechanism for lack of pallid sturgeon recruitment in fragmented river reaches where dams and reservoirs reduce the length of free-flowing river available for pallid sturgeon free embryos during ontogenetic development.

  2. Drift scintillation meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-03-01

    This is the final report for the subject contract under which The University of Texas at Dallas (UTD) built, tested and delivered an engineering model and three flight versions of the Drift Scintillation Meter (DSM) to the Air Force Geophysics Laboratory for flight on the Air Force DMSP satellites. The report is divided into three sections. Section 1 contains the instrument description and theory of operation. Section 2 contains a description of planned spacecraft-level instrument testing, stimulation requirements and instrument handling and safety. Section 3 contains an instrument interconnection diagram and a list of the schematics, drawings, parts lists and wiring lists that describe the as-built configuration of the instrument. This documentation is available in the R&D Equipment Information Reports that were submitted to AFGL after each instrument delivery.

  3. Progress in semiconductor drift detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Rehak, P.; Walton, J.; Gatti, E.; Longoni, A.; Sanpietro, M.; Kemmer, J.; Dietl, H.; Holl, P.; Klanner, R.; Lutz, G.

    1985-01-01

    Progress in testing semiconductor drift detectors is reported. Generally better position and energy resolutions were obtained than resolutions published previously. The improvement is mostly due to new electronics better matched to different detectors. It is shown that semiconductor drift detectors are becoming versatile and reliable detectors for position and energy measurements.

  4. Electrostatic ion-acoustic-like instabilities in the solar wind with a backstreaming alpha particle beam

    SciTech Connect

    Gomberoff, L.; Gomberoff, K.; Deutsch, A.

    2010-06-15

    Nonlinear electrostatic instabilities have been shown to occur frequently and under very different conditions in plasma with two ion beams such as the fast solar wind. These instabilities can be triggered when the phase velocity of electrostatic ion-acoustic waves propagating forward and backward relative to the interplanetary magnetic field overlaps due to the presence of a finite amplitude of circularly polarized wave. The instabilities can be triggered by waves supported by the same ion component, or by waves supported by different ion components. By assuming a beam of alpha particles moving backward relative to the external magnetic field, as observed in some events in the fast solar wind, it is shown that a very small negative drift velocity of the alpha particle beam relative to the core plasma--a few percent of the local Alfven velocity--can trigger a very rich variety of nonlinear electrostatic acousticlike instabilities. Their growth rates can be rather large and they persist for larger negative alpha particles drift velocities and temperatures.

  5. A statistical analysis of systematic errors in temperature and ram velocity estimates from satellite-borne retarding potential analyzers

    SciTech Connect

    Klenzing, J. H.; Earle, G. D.; Heelis, R. A.; Coley, W. R.

    2009-05-15

    The use of biased grids as energy filters for charged particles is common in satellite-borne instruments such as a planar retarding potential analyzer (RPA). Planar RPAs are currently flown on missions such as the Communications/Navigation Outage Forecast System and the Defense Meteorological Satellites Program to obtain estimates of geophysical parameters including ion velocity and temperature. It has been shown previously that the use of biased grids in such instruments creates a nonuniform potential in the grid plane, which leads to inherent errors in the inferred parameters. A simulation of ion interactions with various configurations of biased grids has been developed using a commercial finite-element analysis software package. Using a statistical approach, the simulation calculates collected flux from Maxwellian ion distributions with three-dimensional drift relative to the instrument. Perturbations in the performance of flight instrumentation relative to expectations from the idealized RPA flux equation are discussed. Both single grid and dual-grid systems are modeled to investigate design considerations. Relative errors in the inferred parameters for each geometry are characterized as functions of ion temperature and drift velocity.

  6. Interferometric phase velocity measurements in the auroral electrojet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labelle, J.; Kintner, P. M.; Kelley, M. C.

    1986-01-01

    A double-probe electric field detector and two spatially separated fixed-bias Langmuir probes were flown on a Taurus-Tomahawk sounding rocket launched from Poker Flat Research Range in March 1982. Interesting wave data have been obtained from about 10s of the downleg portion of the flight during which the rocket passed through the auroral electrojet. Here the electric field receiver and both density fluctuation (delta-n/n) receivers responded to a broad band of turbulence centered at 105 km-altitude and at frequencies generally below 4 kHz. Closer examination of the two delta-n/n turbulent waveforms reveals that they are correlated; from the phase difference between the two signals, the phase velocity of the waves in the rocket reference frame is inferred. The magnitude and direction of the observed phase velocity are consistent either with waves which travel at the ion sound speed or with waves which travel at the electron drift velocity. The observed phase velocity varies by about 50 percent over a 5 km altitude range, an effect which probably results from shear in the zonal neutral wind, although, unfortunately, no simultaneous neutral wind measurements exist to confirm this.

  7. Drifting subpulses and inner acceleration regions in radio pulsars

    E-print Network

    Janusz Gil; George I. Melikidze; Ulrich Geppert

    2003-05-23

    The classical vacuum gap model of Ruderman & Sutherland, in which spark-associated subbeams of subpulse emission circulate around the magnetic axis due to the EB drift, provides a natural and plausible physical mechanism of the subpulse drift phenomenon. Recent progress in the analysis of drifting subpulses in pulsars has provided a strong support to this model by revealing a number of subbeams circulating around the magnetic axis in a manner compatible with theoretical predictions. However, a more detailed analysis revealed that the circulation speed in a pure vacuum gap is too high when compared with observations. Moreover, some pulsars demonstrate significant time variations of the drift rate, including a change of the apparent drift direction, which is obviously inconsistent with the EB drift scenario in a pure vacuum gap. We resolved these discrepancies by considering a partial flow of iron ions from the positively charged polar cap, coexisting with the production of outflowing electron-positron plasmas. By fitting the observationally deduced drift-rates to the theoretical values, we managed to estimate polar cap surface temperatures in a number of pulsars. The estimated surface temperatures correspond to a small charge depletion of the order of a few percent of the corotational charge density. We also argue that if the thermionic electron outflow from the surface of a negatively charged polar cap is slightly below the Goldreich-Julian density, then the resulting small charge depletion will have similar consequences as in the case of the ions outflow. We thus believe that the sparking discharge of a partially shielded acceleration potential drop occurs in all pulsars, with both positively (``pulsars'') and negatively (``anti-pulsars'') charged polar caps.

  8. The electron forewake: Shadowing and drift-energization as flowing magnetized plasma encounters an obstacle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haakonsen, Christian Bernt; Hutchinson, Ian H.

    2015-10-01

    Flow of magnetized plasma past an obstacle creates a traditional wake, but also a forewake region arising from shadowing of electrons. The electron forewakes resulting from supersonic flows past insulating and floating-potential obstacles are explored with 2D electrostatic particle-in-cell simulations, using a physical ion to electron mass ratio. Drift-energization is discovered to give rise to modifications to the electron velocity-distribution, including a slope-reversal, providing a novel drive of forewake instability. The slope-reversal is present at certain locations in all the simulations, and appears to be quite robustly generated. Wings of enhanced electron density are observed in some of the simulations, also associated with drift-energization. In the simulations with a floating-potential obstacle, the specific potential structure behind that obstacle allows fast electrons to cross the wake, giving rise to a more traditional shadowing-driven two-stream instability. Fluctuations associated with such instability are observed in the simulations, but this instability-mechanism is expected to be more sensitive to the plasma parameters than that associated with the slope-reversal.

  9. Gyrokinetic theory of electrostatic lower-hybrid drift instabilities in a current sheet with guide field

    SciTech Connect

    Tummel, K.; Chen, L.; Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, California 92697 ; Wang, Z.; Wang, X. Y.; Lin, Y.

    2014-05-15

    A kinetic electrostatic eigenvalue equation for the lower-hybrid drift instability (LHDI) in a thin Harris current sheet with a guide field is derived based on the gyrokinetic electron and fully kinetic ion(GeFi) description. Three-dimensional nonlocal analyses are carried out to investigate the influence of a guide field on the stabilization of the LHDI by finite parallel wavenumber, k{sub ?}. Detailed stability properties are first analyzed locally, and then as a nonlocal eigenvalue problem. Our results indicate that at large equilibrium drift velocities, the LHDI is further destabilized by finite k{sub ?} in the short-wavelength domain. This is demonstrated in a local stability analysis and confirmed by the peak in the eigenfunction amplitude. We find the most unstable modes localized at the current sheet edges, and our results agree well with simulations employing the GeFi code developed by Lin et al. [Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 47, 657 (2005); Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 53, 054013 (2011)].

  10. Drift-Kinetic Simulations of Neoclassical Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Belli, E. A.; Candy, J.

    2008-11-01

    We present results from numerical studies of neoclassical transport for multi-species plasmas. The code, NEO, provides a first-principles based calculation of the neoclassical transport coefficients directly from solution of the distribution function by solving a hierarchy of equations derived by expanding the fundamental drift-kinetic equation in powers of {rho}{sub *i}, the ratio of the ion gyroradius to system size. It extends previous studies by including the self-consistent coupling of electrons and multiple ion species and strong toroidal rotation effects. Systematic calculations of the second-order particle and energy fluxes and first-order plasma flows and bootstrap current and comparisons with existing theories are given for multi-species plasmas. The ambipolar relation {sigma}{sub a}z{sub a}{gamma}{sub a} = 0, which can only be maintained with complete cross-species collisional coupling, is confirmed. The effects of plasma shaping are also explored.

  11. High-Performance Ion Mobility Spectrometry Using Hourglass Electrodynamic Funnel And Internal Ion Funnel

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Richard D. (Richland, WA); Tang, Keqi (Richland, WA); Shvartsburg, Alexandre A. (Richland, WA)

    2004-11-16

    A method and apparatus enabling increased sensitivity in ion mobility spectrometry/mass spectrometry instruments which substantially reduces or eliminates the loss of ions in ion mobility spectrometer drift tubes utilizing an hourglass electrodynamic ion funnel at the entrance to the drift tube and/or an internal ion funnel at the exit of the drift tube. An hourglass electrodynamic funnel is formed of at least an entry element, a center element, and an exit element, wherein the aperture of the center element is smaller than the aperture of the entry element and the aperture of the exit elements. Ions generated in a relatively high pressure region by an ion source at the exterior of the hourglass electrodynamic funnel are transmitted to a relatively low pressure region at the entrance of the hourglass funnel through a conductance limiting orifice. Alternating and direct electrical potentials are applied to the elements of the hourglass electrodynamic funnel thereby drawing ions into and through the hourglass electrodynamic funnel thereby introducing relatively large quantities of ions into the drift tube while maintaining the gas pressure and composition at the interior of the drift tube as distinct from those at the entrance of the electrodynamic funnel and allowing a positive gas pressure to be maintained within the drift tube, if desired. An internal ion funnel is provided within the drift tube and is positioned at the exit of said drift tube. The advantage of the internal ion funnel is that ions that are dispersed away from the exit aperture within the drift tube, such as those that are typically lost in conventional drift tubes to any subsequent analysis or measurement, are instead directed through the exit of the drift tube, vastly increasing the amount of ions exiting the drift tube.

  12. Effects of Solar Energetic Particle deceleration due to drift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalla, Silvia; Marsh, Micheal S.; Laitinen, Timo

    2015-04-01

    Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs) experience deceleration during their propagation through the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). Adiabatic deceleration has been known for decades to be an important process that influences SEP intensity profiles and spectra, and needs to be properly accounted for in models.Recently we have shown that drifts due to the gradient and curvature of the large scale Parker IMF cause SEP cross-field transport of a nearly symmetric nature in the heliolongitudinal direction and asymmetric in the heliolatitudinal one. As a result of the latitudinal drift, SEPs move in the direction opposite to that of the solar wind electric field and experience deceleration.Drift-induced deceleration is not accounted for by focussed transport approaches that neglect drift velocities within their spatial convection term, i.e. it is not included in the majority of current SEP models, on which interpretations of SEP data are based.Here we use 3D full orbit test particle simulations to demonstrate the effect of drift-induced deceleration on SEP populations injected near the Sun at different energies. Protons injected at 100 MeV experience latitudinal drifts of about 5 to 10 degrees and the associated deceleration reduces their kinetic energy by between 20 and 55% of the initial value, after four days. At lower energies (1 MeV) the spatial drift is of the order of 0.1 of a degree, however the effect of drift-induced deceleration is stronger, with particles losing between 35 and 90% of the initial kinetic energy during the same time.We show that the magnitude of drift-induced deceleration is similar to that of standard adiabatic deceleration, indicating that it needs to be accounted for in models. While adiabatic energy change is strongly influenced by the scattering conditions, the dependence of drift-induced deceleration on the level of pitch-angle scattering is weak. We discuss ways in which deceleration associated with drift could be included within SEP models.

  13. Production of Magnetic Turbulence by Cosmic Rays Drifting Upstream of Supernova Remnant Shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroman, Thomas; Niemiec, Jacek; Pohl, Martin; Nishikawa, Ken-ichi

    2008-01-01

    I will present results of our recent two- and three-dimensional Particle-In-Cell simulations of magnetic-turbulence production by cosmic-ray ions drifting upstream of supernova remnant shocks. These studies' aim is twofold: test recent predictions of strong amplification in short wavelength, non-resonant wave modes, and study the subsequent evolution of the magnetic turbulence, including its backreaction on cosmic-ray trajectories. We confirm that the drifting cosmic rays give rise to a turbulent magnetic field, but show that an oblique filamentary mode grows more rapidly than the non-resonant parallel modes found in analytical theory. The field perturbations grow more slowly than estimated using a quasi-linear analytical approach for the parallel plane-wave mode, and saturate in amplitude at deltaB/B approximately equal to 1. The backreaction of the magnetic turbulence on the particles leads to an alignment of the bulk-flow velocities of the cosmic rays and the background medium. This is an essential characteristic of cosmic ray-modified shocks: the upstream flow speed is continuously changed by the cosmic rays. The reduction of relative drift between cosmic rays and background medium accounts for the saturation of the instability at only moderate magnetic-field amplitudes. It is possible that the prolonged magnetic field growth observed in recent MHD simulations results from a cosmic-ray current assumed to be constant and thus immune to the backreaction from the turbulent field. We speculate that the parallel plane-wave mode found in analytical treatments very quickly leads co filamentation, which we observe in our PIC modeling and is also apparent in the MHD simulations.

  14. Production of magnetic turbulence by cosmic rays drifting upstream of supernova remnant shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroman, Thomas; Niemiec, Jacek; Pohl, Martin; Nishikawa, Ken-Ichi

    I will present results of our recent twoand three-dimensional Particle-In-Cell simulations of magnetic-turbulence production by cosmic-ray ions drifting upstream of supernova remnant shocks. These studies' aim is twofold: test recent predictions of strong amplification in shortwavelength, non-resonant wave modes, and study the subsequent evolution of the magnetic turbulence, including its backreaction on cosmic-ray trajectories. We confirm that the drifting cosmic rays give rise to a turbulent magnetic field, but show that an oblique filamentary mode grows more rapidly than the non-resonant parallel modes found in analytical theory. The field perturbations grow more slowly than estimated using a quasi-linear analytical approach for the parallel plane-wave mode, and saturate in amplitude at ?B/B ˜ 1. The backreaction of the magnetic turbulence on the particles leads to an alignment of the bulk-flow velocities of the cosmic rays and the background medium. This is an essential characteristic of cosmic ray-modified shocks: the upstream flow speed is continuously changed by the cosmic rays. The reduction of relative drift between cosmic rays and background medium accounts for the saturation of the instability at only moderate magnetic-field amplitudes. It is possible that the prolonged magnetic field growth observed in recent MHD simulations results from a cosmic-ray current assumed to be constant and thus immune to the backreaction from the turbulent field. We speculate that the parallel plane-wave mode found in analytical treatments very quickly leads to filamentation, which we observe in our PIC modeling and is also apparent in the MHD simulations.

  15. Linear electronic field time-of-flight ion mass spectrometers

    DOEpatents

    Funsten, Herbert O. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2010-08-24

    Time-of-flight mass spectrometer comprising a first drift region and a second drift region enclosed within an evacuation chamber; a means of introducing an analyte of interest into the first drift region; a pulsed ionization source which produces molecular ions from said analyte of interest; a first foil positioned between the first drift region and the second drift region, which dissociates said molecular ions into constituent atomic ions and emits secondary electrons; an electrode which produces secondary electrons upon contact with a constituent atomic ion in second drift region; a stop detector comprising a first ion detection region and a second ion detection region; and a timing means connected to the pulsed ionization source, to the first ion detection region, and to the second ion detection region.

  16. Dust-lower-hybrid drift instabilities with dust charge fluctuations in an inhomogeneous dusty magnetoplasma.

    PubMed

    Salimullah, M; Rizwan, A M; Nambu, M; Nitta, H; Shukla, P K

    2004-08-01

    Effects of a uniform magnetic field, the plasma inhomogeneity, and dust charge fluctuations on low-frequency dust-lower-hybrid drift waves have been investigated. Charging currents of electrons and ions to a spherical dust grain in a nonuniform magnetized dusty plasma have been calculated to study the charge fluctuation induced damping or growth of low-frequency drift waves. It is found that for strongly magnetized electrons and ions, the charge fluctuation damping is reduced significantly from that of an unmagnetized plasma. For sufficiently hot electrons, the drift wave exhibits instability in the absence of dust charge fluctuation damping. PMID:15447598

  17. Towards a complete parametrization of the ordinary-mode electromagnetic instability in counterstreaming plasmas. II. Ion effects

    SciTech Connect

    Ibscher, D.; Schlickeiser, R.

    2013-04-15

    The linear marginal instability analysis of the ordinary perpendicular mode instability of drifting bi-Maxwellian plasma particle distributions with and without temperature anisotropy is extended by including the modifications of heavier ion species. For general values of the temperature anisotropy, the streaming velocity, and the parallel plasma beta, accurate marginal stability conditions are derived, which enable a better understanding of the interplay of counterstreaming and temperature anisotropy.

  18. Asymmetric particle fluxes from drifting ionization zones in sputtering magnetrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panjan, Matjaž; Franz, Robert; Anders, André

    2014-04-01

    Electron and ion fluxes from direct current and high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (dcMS and HiPIMS) plasmas were measured in the plane of the target surface. Biased collector probes and a particle energy and mass analyzer showed asymmetric emission of electrons and of singly and doubly charged ions. For both HiPIMS and dcMS discharges, higher fluxes of all types of particles were observed in the direction of the electrons' E × B drift. These results are put in the context with ionization zones that drift over the magnetron's racetrack. The measured currents of time-resolving collector probes suggest that a large fraction of the ion flux originates from drifting ionization zones, while energy-resolving mass spectrometry indicates that a large fraction of the ion energy is due to acceleration by an electric field. This supports the recently proposed hypothesis that each ionization zone is associated with a negative-positive-negative space charge structure, thereby producing an electric field that accelerates ions from the location where they were formed.

  19. Drift Due to Two Obstacles in Different Arrangements

    E-print Network

    Melkoumian, Sergei

    2015-01-01

    We study the drift induced by the passage of two cylinders through an unbounded extent of inviscid incompressible fluid under the assumption that the flow is two-dimensional and steady in the moving frame of reference. The goal is to assess how the resulting total particle drift depends on the parameters of the geometric configuration, namely, the distance between the cylinders and their angle with respect to the direction of translation. This problem is studied by numerically computing, for different cylinder configurations, the trajectories of particles starting at various initial locations. The velocity field used in these computations is expressed in closed form using methods of the complex function theory and the accuracy of calculations is carefully verified. We identify cylinder configurations which result in increased and decreased drift with respect to the reference case when the two cylinders are separated by an infinite distance. Particle trajectories shed additional light on the hydrodynamic inter...

  20. Quantum diffusion with drift and the Einstein relation. I

    SciTech Connect

    De Roeck, Wojciech; Fröhlich, Jürg; Schnelli, Kevin

    2014-07-15

    We study the dynamics of a quantum particle hopping on a simple cubic lattice and driven by a constant external force. It is coupled to an array of identical, independent thermal reservoirs consisting of free, massless Bose fields, one at each site of the lattice. When the particle visits a site x of the lattice it can emit or absorb field quanta of the reservoir at x. Under the assumption that the coupling between the particle and the reservoirs and the driving force are sufficiently small, we establish the following results: The ergodic average over time of the state of the particle approaches a non-equilibrium steady state describing a non-zero mean drift of the particle. Its motion around the mean drift is diffusive, and the diffusion constant and the drift velocity are related to one another by the Einstein relation.

  1. Drift and pseudomomentum in bounded turbulent shear flows.

    PubMed

    Phillips, W R C

    2015-10-01

    This paper is concerned with the evaluation of two Lagrangian measures which arise in oscillatory or fluctuating shear flows when the fluctuating field is rotational and the spectrum of wave numbers which comprise it is continuous. The measures are the drift and pseudomomentum. Phillips [J. Fluid Mech. 430, 209 (2001)10.1017/S0022112000002858] has shown that the measures are, in such instances, succinctly expressed in terms of Lagrangian integrals of Eulerian space-time correlations. But they are difficult to interpret, and the present work begins by expressing them in a more insightful form. This is achieved by assuming the space-time correlations are separable as magnitude, determined by one-point velocity correlations, and spatial diminution. The measures then parse into terms comprised of the mean Eulerian velocity, one-point velocity correlations, and a family of integrals of spatial diminution, which in turn define a series of Lagrangian time and velocity scales. The pseudomomentum is seen to be strictly negative and related to the turbulence kinetic energy, while the drift is mixed and strongly influenced by the Reynolds stress. Both are calculated for turbulent channel flow for a range of Reynolds numbers and appear, as the Reynolds number increases, to approach a terminal form. At all Reynolds numbers studied, the pseudomomentum has a sole peak located in wall units in the low teens, while at the highest Reynolds number studied, Re_{?}=5200, the drift is negative in the vicinity of that peak, positive elsewhere, and largest near the rigid boundary. In contrast, the time and velocity scales grow almost logarithmically over much of the layer. Finally, the drift and pseudomomentum are discussed in the context of coherent wall layer structures with which they are intricately linked. PMID:26565328

  2. Drift and pseudomomentum in bounded turbulent shear flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, W. R. C.

    2015-10-01

    This paper is concerned with the evaluation of two Lagrangian measures which arise in oscillatory or fluctuating shear flows when the fluctuating field is rotational and the spectrum of wave numbers which comprise it is continuous. The measures are the drift and pseudomomentum. Phillips [J. Fluid Mech. 430, 209 (2001), 10.1017/S0022112000002858] has shown that the measures are, in such instances, succinctly expressed in terms of Lagrangian integrals of Eulerian space-time correlations. But they are difficult to interpret, and the present work begins by expressing them in a more insightful form. This is achieved by assuming the space-time correlations are separable as magnitude, determined by one-point velocity correlations, and spatial diminution. The measures then parse into terms comprised of the mean Eulerian velocity, one-point velocity correlations, and a family of integrals of spatial diminution, which in turn define a series of Lagrangian time and velocity scales. The pseudomomentum is seen to be strictly negative and related to the turbulence kinetic energy, while the drift is mixed and strongly influenced by the Reynolds stress. Both are calculated for turbulent channel flow for a range of Reynolds numbers and appear, as the Reynolds number increases, to approach a terminal form. At all Reynolds numbers studied, the pseudomomentum has a sole peak located in wall units in the low teens, while at the highest Reynolds number studied, Re?=5200 , the drift is negative in the vicinity of that peak, positive elsewhere, and largest near the rigid boundary. In contrast, the time and velocity scales grow almost logarithmically over much of the layer. Finally, the drift and pseudomomentum are discussed in the context of coherent wall layer structures with which they are intricately linked.

  3. Shear in the zonal drifts of 3 m irregularities inside spread F plumes observed over Sanya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guozhu; Ning, Baiqi; Liu, Libo; Abdu, M. A.; Wan, Weixing; Hu, Lianhuan

    2015-09-01

    Incoherent scatter radars near magnetic equator regularly measured a vertical shear in zonal drifts of the evening background plasma, with westward drifts below the equatorial F region peak and eastward drifts above. We report here observations of a clear shear structure in the zonal drifts of 3 m irregularities inside spread F (SF) backscatter plumes measured with a 47.5 MHz coherent scatter radar operated at a low-latitude site Sanya (18.4°N, 109.6°E; dip latitude 12.8°N). The radar interferometry analysis on the zonal drifts of the 3 m irregularities yields results consistent with that estimated from the irregularity echo Doppler velocity measurements with multiple beams. It is shown that the SF 3 m irregularities move westward at the lowest altitudes, while at higher altitudes in the same SF plume structure, the 3 m irregularities drift eastward. One interesting point is that the vertical shear of zonal drifts was centered at ~300 km altitude over Sanya, which maps to an apex altitude of ~650 km at magnetic equator and is thus apparently higher than the apex altitudes 250-450 km where the zonal velocity shear has usually been observed. Analysis of the observations suggests that while the possibility of local generation of the shear flow of the irregularities can exist, the possibility of a plasma vortex appearing at relative high altitudes causing the zonal drift shear of F region 3 m irregularities measured over Sanya cannot be totally ruled out.

  4. Hamiltonian fluid reductions of drift-kinetic equations and the correspondence with water-bag distribution functions

    E-print Network

    Maxime Perin; Cristel Chandre; Emanuele Tassi

    2015-10-12

    Hamiltonian models for the first three moments of the drift-kinetic distribution function, namely the density, the fluid velocity and the parallel pressure, are derived from the Hamiltonian structure of the drift-kinetic equations. The link with the water-bag closure is established, showing that, unlike the one-dimensional Vlasov equations, these solutions are the only Hamiltonian fluid reductions for the drift-kinetic equation. These models are discussed through their equations of motion and their Casimir invariants.

  5. Hamiltonian fluid reductions of drift-kinetic equations and the correspondence with water-bag distribution functions

    E-print Network

    Perin, Maxime; Tassi, Emanuele

    2015-01-01

    Hamiltonian models for the first three moments of the drift-kinetic distribution function, namely the density, the fluid velocity and the parallel pressure, are derived from the Hamiltonian structure of the drift-kinetic equations. The link with the water-bag closure is established, showing that, unlike the one-dimensional Vlasov equations, these solutions are the only Hamiltonian fluid reductions for the drift-kinetic equation. These models are discussed through their equations of motion and their Casimir invariants.

  6. Pulsed Drift Tube Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Faltens, A.

    2004-10-25

    The pulsed drift-tube accelerator (DTA) concept was revived by Joe Kwan and John Staples and is being considered for the HEDP/WDM application. It could be used to reach the full energy or as an intermediate accelerator between the diode and a high gradient accelerator such as multi-beam r.f. In the earliest LBNL HIF proposals and conceptual drivers it was used as an extended injector to reach energies where an induction linac with magnetic quadrupoles is the best choice. For HEDP, because of the very short pulse duration, the DTA could provide an acceleration rate of about 1MV/m. This note is divided into two parts: the first, a design based on existing experience; the second, an optimistic extrapolation. The first accelerates 16 parallel K{sup +} beams at a constant line charge density of 0.25{micro} C/m per beam to 10 MeV; the second uses a stripper and charge selector at around 4MeV followed by further acceleration to reach 40 MeV. Both benefit from more compact sources than the present 2MV injector source, although that beam is the basis of the first design and is a viable option. A pulsed drift-tube accelerator was the first major HIF experiment at LBNL. It was designed to produce a 2{micro}s rectangular 1 Ampere C{sub s}{sup +} beam at 2MeV. It ran comfortably at 1.6MeV for several years, then at lower voltages and currents for other experiments, and remnants of that experiment are in use in present experiments, still running 25 years later. The 1A current, completely equivalent to 1.8A K{sup +}, was chosen to be intermediate between the beamlets appropriate for a multi-beam accelerator, and a single beam of, say, 10A, at injection energies. The original driver scenarios using one large beam on each side of the reactor rapidly fell out of favor because of the very high transverse and longitudinal fields from the beam space charge, circa 1MV/cm and 250 kV/cm respectively, near the chamber and because of aberrations in focusing a large diameter beam down to a 1mm radius spot at a distance of 10m. Almost all subsequent work and the present concept have invoked multiple beams. For HEDP the major differences are that the focal distance can be centimeters instead of meters, provided strong-enough lenses exist and they do, thereby allowing much higher transverse and longitudinal emittances than driver concepts, and focusing parallel small beams is easier than one big beam.

  7. HOMOGENIZATION OF THE G-EQUATION WITH INCOMPRESSIBLE RANDOM DRIFT IN TWO DIMENSIONS

    E-print Network

    Pardon, William L.

    of thin flames. For a fluid velocity field that is statistically stationary and ergodic, we prove drift. This Hamilton-Jacobi equation is a model for flame propagation in a turbulent fluid in the regime and the fluid velocity is divergence-free, we verify that these conditions hold under suitable assumptions about

  8. Equatorial F region zonal plasma irregularity drifts under magnetospheric disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdu, M. A.; Jayachandran, P. T.; MacDougall, J.; Cecile, J. F.; Sobral, J. H. A.

    Equatorial F region plasma drift velocities measured by a digital ionosonde (CADI) that was recently installed in Fortaleza, Brazil, are used to investigate magnetospheric disturbance effects in the vertical (zonal) and zonal (vertical) velocities (electric fields). For the first time we report evidence of large fluctuations in irregularity zonal drift velocities (˜50-180 m/s) associated with magnetospheric disturbances. The fluctuations in the zonal velocity, anti correlated with those in vertical velocity, are unlikely to be produced by prompt penetration of disturbance meridional electric field of high latitude/magnetospheric origin. A mechanism is proposed to explain the velocity fluctuations that involves: (1) Hall polarization vertical electric field in the E-layer that is field line mapped on to F-layer, and (2) electric field caused by vertical current arising from divergence in field line integrated zonal Pedersen current; both produced by the primary disturbance zonal electric field. Enhanced nighttime E region conductivity with possible spatial gradients, a requirement for the functioning of this mechanism, is observed to be present from other simultaneous measurements, whose source is suggested to be particle induced ionization in the south Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly (SAMA) zone, as known also from previous studies.

  9. Drifting and standing fields in the geomagnetic field for the past 400 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yukutake, Takesi; Shimizu, Hisayoshi

    2015-11-01

    Based on the field model by Jackson et al. (2000), we reanalyzed the data of historical times and decomposed the geomagnetic field into drifting and standing fields. It has been confirmed that the results are consistent with the earlier analyses. When the field is expressed in a spherical harmonic series, the drifting field is characterized by two remarkable features. One is that the drifting field is represented mostly by sectorial harmonics, and the other is that the drift velocity does not differ significantly between the harmonics. The standing field that remains after subtraction of the drifting field from the main geomagnetic field is stronger than the drifting field. The predominance of sectorial terms in the drifting field means that the vertical component, for instance, of the drifting field is symmetric about the equator. On the other hand, the standing field is antisymmetric. Due to this difference, the drifting field largely controls the geomagnetic secular variation in the low latitude region, whereas the standing field dominates in the middle and higher latitudes.

  10. LSP SIMULATIONS OF THE NEUTRALIZED DRIFT COMPRESSION , D.R. Welch, ATK-MR, Albuquerque, NM 87110, USA

    E-print Network

    Gilson, Erik

    LSP SIMULATIONS OF THE NEUTRALIZED DRIFT COMPRESSION EXPERIMENT C.H. Thoma , D.R. Welch, ATK The Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory involves of a temporal velocity tilt and a neutralizing plasma to achieve small pulse lengths[1]. Here, we consider

  11. Extended-MHD modeling of diamagnetic-drift tearing instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Jacob; Kruger, Scott

    2012-03-01

    We use analytics and computations with the NIMROD code to examine tearing stability in large-guide-field slab cases with a nonzero equilibrium pressure gradient. A well known result from drift-reduced MHD is the diamagnetic drift associated with the pressure gradient has a stabilizing influence were the dispersion relation becomes (?+i?*e)^3?(?+i?*i)=?rMHD^5 [1]. Here ?*i and ?*e are the ion- and electron-diamagnetic frequencies and ?rMHD is the tearing growth rate with a resistive-MHD model. Preliminary computational results with an unreduced extended-MHD model do not produce the expected drift-reduced result. For moderate values of ?*i (?*i<=3?rMHD), the computations follow the dispersion relation that would result if the ?pe term were not included in the drift-reduced parallel Ohm's law: (?+i?*e)^4(?+i?*i)=?rMHD^5. Analytics, guided by computational diagnostics, are used to examine the significant terms in the flux evolution equation and investigate the discrepancy with the drift-reduced result.[4pt] [1] For example Coppi, PoF 7, 1501 (1964); Biskamp, NF 18, 1059 (1978).

  12. Drift coefficients of motor proteins moving along sidesteps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing-Hui

    2014-10-01

    In the paper, we investigate two motor proteins moving along the sidesteps: a motor protein moving along a two-dimensional sidestep and another protein moving along a three-dimensional sidestep. The drift coefficients (or stationary average velocities) of these two motor proteins are calculated. We believe that our investigation of the motor proteins moving along the sidesteps in the present paper can benefit the investigation of the transport of the motor proteins to some extent.

  13. Sunward Propagating Alfvén Waves in Association with Sunward Drifting Proton Beams in the Solar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jiansen; Pei, Zhongtian; Wang, Linghua; Tu, Chuanyi; Marsch, Eckart; Zhang, Lei; Salem, Chadi

    2015-06-01

    Using measurements from the WIND spacecraft, here we report the observation of sunward propagating Alfvén waves (AWs) in solar wind that is magnetically disconnected from the Earth's bow shock. In the sunward magnetic field sector, we find a period lasting for more than three days in which there existed (during most time intervals) a negative correlation between the flow velocity and magnetic field fluctuations, thus indicating that the related AWs are mainly propagating sunward. Simultaneous observations of counter-streaming suprathermal electrons suggest that these sunward AWs may not simply be due to the deflection of an open magnetic field line. Moreover, no interplanetary coronal mass ejection appears to be associated with the counter-streaming suprathermal electrons. As the scale goes from the magnetohydrodynamic down to the ion kinetic regime, the wave vector of magnetic fluctuations usually becomes more orthogonal to the mean magnetic field direction, and the fluctuations become increasingly compressible, which are both features consistent with quasi-perpendicular kinetic AWs. However, in the case studied here, we find clear signatures of quasi-parallel sunward propagating ion-cyclotron waves. Concurrently, the solar wind proton velocity distribution reveals a sunward field-aligned beam that drifts at about the local Alfvén speed. This beam is found to run in the opposite direction of the normally observed (anti-sunward) proton beam, and is apparently associated with sunward propagating Alfvén/ion-cyclotron waves. The results and conclusions of this study enrich our knowledge of solar wind turbulence and foster our understanding of proton heating and acceleration within a complex magnetic field geometry.

  14. On the dependence of the phase velocity of equatorial irregularities on the polarization electric field and theoretical implications

    SciTech Connect

    St.-Maurice, J.; Hanuise, C.; Kudeki, E.

    1986-12-01

    We have studied the mean Doppler shift of equatorial irregularities in the E region, using data from a coherent radar situated in Ethiopia between 1976 and 1980. We found that even though the primary two-stream (or type I) waves are drifting at a speed close to the expected ion acoustic speed, there is a small but nonnegligible increase in the phase velocity with increasing electron drift in the electrojet. We attribute this increase to a heating of the electron gas by the large-amplitude, low-frequency waves that are present in the region when conditions are favorable to the production of large-scale gradient drift instabilities. On the other hand, for the single day when the production of large-scale gradient drift instabilities was inhibited, the behavior of the irregularities was quite different. Namely, the Doppler shift of 10-m waves (type O waves) was usually below the linear threshold value while the spectra remained narrow and type I-like rather than type II-like. On the other hand, the Doppler shift followed a dependence similar to that expected from type II waves. We have tentatively attributed this type O behavior to weak mode coupling, following similar inferences from recent Condor observations made near the top of the electrojet.

  15. Apparatus and method for laser velocity interferometry

    DOEpatents

    Stanton, Philip L. (Bernalillo County, NM); Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM); Crump, Jr., O. B. (Albuquerque, NM); Bonzon, Lloyd L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1993-09-14

    An apparatus and method for laser velocity interferometry employing a fixed interferometer cavity and delay element. The invention permits rapid construction of interferometers that may be operated by those non-skilled in the art, that have high image quality with no drift or loss of contrast, and that have long-term stability even without shock isolation of the cavity.

  16. Electron and ion inertia effects on current-driven collisional dust acoustic, dust ion acoustic, and ion acoustic instabilities

    E-print Network

    Merlino, Robert L.

    Electron and ion inertia effects on current-driven collisional dust acoustic, dust ion acoustic, and ion acoustic instabilities Robert L. Merlino and Nicola D'Angelo Department of Physics and Astronomy online 20 April 2005 Ion acoustic waves can be excited by electrons drifting relative to the ions

  17. Drift wave turbulence in the Texas Helimak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyerson, Dmitry; Horton, Wendell; Waelbroeck, Francois; Gentle, Kenneth

    2011-10-01

    The BOUT++ framework is used to study resistive drift-wave turbulence in the Texas Helimak. Experimental electrostatic fluctuation data is compared with results from a three dimensional axysymmetic simulation as well as analytic predictions. The physical basis for the simulation is a nonlinear 3 field, cold ion, drift-ordered fluid model. In the linear limit eigenmodes of the system are examined analytically. The helimak is a low temperature experimental plasma device that allows convenient comparisons between theoretical models and experimental evidence. The most important geometric effects founds in a tokamak's SOL, magnetic shear and toroidicity, are present in this device. BOUT++ is an open source, C/C++ based, framework developed to quickly prototype physical models by decoupling the physics of a given model and the particular numerical methods used to evolve the desired set of equations. The original motivation was the study of the relatively low temperature scape-off-layer (SOL) in high temperature plasma devices. Two motivations are (1) to validate models of the scrape-off-layer (SOL) and (2) to investigate the role of Er shear in forming transport barriers. A 3D axisymmetric configuration is assumed with a finite difference equations along the helical magnetic field line and in the bi-normal direction.

  18. A theory of non-local linear drift wave transport

    SciTech Connect

    Moradi, S.; Anderson, J.; Weyssow, B.

    2011-06-15

    Transport events in turbulent tokamak plasmas often exhibit non-local or non-diffusive action at a distance features that so far have eluded a conclusive theoretical description. In this paper a theory of non-local transport is investigated through a Fokker-Planck equation with fractional velocity derivatives. A dispersion relation for density gradient driven linear drift modes is derived including the effects of the fractional velocity derivative in the Fokker-Planck equation. It is found that a small deviation (a few percent) from the Maxwellian distribution function alters the dispersion relation such that the growth rates are substantially increased and thereby may cause enhanced levels of transport.

  19. In-Drift Microbial Communities

    SciTech Connect

    D. Jolley

    2000-11-09

    As directed by written work direction (CRWMS M and O 1999f), Performance Assessment (PA) developed a model for microbial communities in the engineered barrier system (EBS) as documented here. The purpose of this model is to assist Performance Assessment and its Engineered Barrier Performance Section in modeling the geochemical environment within a potential repository drift for TSPA-SR/LA, thus allowing PA to provide a more detailed and complete near-field geochemical model and to answer the key technical issues (KTI) raised in the NRC Issue Resolution Status Report (IRSR) for the Evolution of the Near Field Environment (NFE) Revision 2 (NRC 1999). This model and its predecessor (the in-drift microbial communities model as documented in Chapter 4 of the TSPA-VA Technical Basis Document, CRWMS M and O 1998a) was developed to respond to the applicable KTIs. Additionally, because of the previous development of the in-drift microbial communities model as documented in Chapter 4 of the TSPA-VA Technical Basis Document (CRWMS M and O 1998a), the M and O was effectively able to resolve a previous KTI concern regarding the effects of microbial processes on seepage and flow (NRC 1998). This document supercedes the in-drift microbial communities model as documented in Chapter 4 of the TSPA-VA Technical Basis Document (CRWMS M and O 1998a). This document provides the conceptual framework of the revised in-drift microbial communities model to be used in subsequent performance assessment (PA) analyses.

  20. T.M. Biewer, April 4th, 2003 US/EU Transport Task Force Meeting, Madison, WI Edge Impurity Ion Velocity and

    E-print Network

    Biewer, Theodore

    . poloidal view may indicate anisotropy in parallel v. perp. distribution function ­ Non resolution of 0.22 Å/pixel with 75 mm slits. Overview of the Edge Rotation Diagnostic Poloidal Chords) ions and He (bulk) ions. counts RF off Toroidal, rtan~146 cm Pixel # RF on RF off Poloidal, rtan~146 cm

  1. An ion mobility mass spectrometer for investigating photoisomerization and photodissociation of molecular ions

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, B. D.; Coughlan, N. J. A.; Markworth, P. B.; Bieske, E. J.; Continetti, R. E.

    2014-12-15

    An ion mobility mass spectrometry apparatus for investigating the photoisomerization and photodissociation of electrosprayed molecular ions in the gas phase is described. The device consists of a drift tube mobility spectrometer, with access for a laser beam that intercepts the drifting ion packet either coaxially or transversely, followed by a quadrupole mass filter. An ion gate halfway along the drift region allows the instrument to be used as a tandem ion mobility spectrometer, enabling mobility selection of ions prior to irradiation, with the photoisomer ions being separated over the second half of the drift tube. The utility of the device is illustrated with photoisomerization and photodissociation action spectra of carbocyanine molecular cations. The mobility resolution of the device for singly charged ions is typically 80 and it has a mass range of 100-440 Da, with the lower limit determined by the drive frequency for the ion funnels, and the upper limit by the quadrupole mass filter.

  2. Magnetohydrodynamic Slow Mode with Drifting He++: Implications for Coronal Seismology and the Solar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollweg, Joseph V.; Verscharen, Daniel; Chandran, Benjamin D. G.

    2014-06-01

    The MHD slow mode wave has application to coronal seismology, MHD turbulence, and the solar wind where it can be produced by parametric instabilities. We consider analytically how a drifting ion species (e.g. He++) affects the linear slow mode wave in a mainly electron-proton plasma, with potential consequences for the aforementioned applications. Our main conclusions are as follows. 1. For wavevectors highly oblique to the magnetic field, we find solutions that are characterized by very small perturbations of total pressure. Thus, our results may help to distinguish the MHD slow mode from kinetic Alfvén waves and non-propagating pressure-balanced structures, which can also have very small total pressure perturbations. 2. For small ion concentrations, there are solutions that are similar to the usual slow mode in an electron-proton plasma, and solutions that are dominated by the drifting ions, but for small drifts the wave modes cannot be simply characterized. 3. Even with zero ion drift, the standard dispersion relation for the highly oblique slow mode cannot be used with the Alfvén speed computed using the summed proton and ion densities, and with the sound speed computed from the summed pressures and densities of all species. 4. The ions can drive a non-resonant instability under certain circumstances. For low plasma beta, the threshold drift can be less than that required to destabilize electromagnetic modes, but damping from the Landau resonance can eliminate this instability altogether, unless Te /Tp Gt 1.

  3. Filamental quenching of the current-driven ion-cyclotron instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartier, S. L.; Dangelo, N.; Merlino, R. L.; Krumm, P. H.

    1985-01-01

    Since their discovery by D'Angelo and Motley (1962), ion-cyclotron waves have been an area of active research. Drummond and Rosenbluth (1962) have first conducted a theoretical analysis of the current-driven ion-cyclotron wave instability, taking into account a uniform, magnetized plasma, without magnetic shear, in which electrons drift along B field lines with the same drift velocity at all points in the plasma. Bakshi et al. (1983) have found conditions for which the instability is completely quenched. This phenomenon has been referred to as filamental quenching. The present investigation is concerned with a systematic test of the filamental quenching effect. It is found that filamental quenching operates at widths of the current channel comparable to the local Larmor radius, in agreement with the conclusions of Bakshi et al.

  4. SuperDARN convection and Sondrestrom plasma drift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, L.; Koustov, A. V.; Thayer, J.; McCready, M. A.

    Plasma convection measurements by the Goose Bay and Stokkseyri SuperDARN radar pair and the Sondrestrom incoherent scatter radar are compared in three different ways, by looking at the line-of-sight (l-o-s) velocities, by comparing the SuperDARN vectors and corresponding Sondrestrom l-o-s velocities and by comparing the end products of the instruments, the convection maps. All three comparisons show overall reasonable agreement of the convection measurements though the data spread is significant and for some points a strong disagreement is obvious. The convection map comparison shows a tendency for the SuperDARN velocities to be often less than the Sondrestrom drifts for strong flows (velocities > 1000 m/s) and larger for weak flows (velocities < 500 m/s). On average, both effects do not exceed 35%. Data indicate that inconsistencies between the two data sets occur largely at times of fast temporal variations of the plasma drift and for strongly irregular flow ac-cording to the SuperDARN convection maps. These facts indicate that the observed discrepancies are in many cases a result of the different spatial and temporal resolutions of the instruments.Key words. Ionosphere (ionospheric irregularities; plasma convection; polar ionosphere)

  5. SuperDARN convection and Sondrestrom plasma drift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, L.; Koustov, A. V.; Thayer, J.; McCready, M. A.

    2001-07-01

    Plasma convection measurements by the Goose Bay and Stokkseyri SuperDARN radar pair and the Sondrestrom incoherent scatter radar are compared in three different ways, by looking at the line-of-sight (l-o-s) velocities, by comparing the SuperDARN vectors and corresponding Sondrestrom l-o-s velocities and by comparing the end products of the instruments, the convection maps. All three comparisons show overall reasonable agreement of the convection measurements though the data spread is significant and for some points a strong disagreement is obvious. The convection map comparison shows a tendency for the SuperDARN velocities to be often less than the Sondrestrom drifts for strong flows (velocities > 1000 m/s) and larger for weak flows (velocities < 500 m/s). On average, both effects do not exceed 35%. Data indicate that inconsistencies between the two data sets occur largely at times of fast temporal variations of the plasma drift and for strongly irregular flow ac-cording to the SuperDARN convection maps. These facts indicate that the observed discrepancies are in many cases a result of the different spatial and temporal resolutions of the instruments.

  6. The continental drift convection cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitehead, J. A.; Behn, Mark D.

    2015-06-01

    Continents on Earth periodically assemble to form supercontinents and then break up again into smaller continental blocks (the Wilson cycle). Previous highly developed numerical models incorporate fixed continents while others indicate that continent movement modulates flow. Our simplified numerical model suggests that continental drift is fundamental. A thermally insulating continent is anchored at its center to mantle flow on an otherwise stress-free surface for infinite Prandtl number cellular convection with constant material properties. Rayleigh numbers exceed 107, while continent widths and chamber lengths approach Earth's values. The Wilson cycle is reproduced by a unique, rugged monopolar "continental drift convection cell." Subduction occurs at the cell's upstream end with cold slabs dipping at an angle beneath the moving continent (as found in many continent/subduction regions on Earth). Drift enhances vertical heat transport up to 30%, especially at the core-mantle boundary, and greatly decreases lateral mantle temperature differences.

  7. Multi-water-bag models of ion temperature gradient instability in cylindrical geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Coulette, David; Besse, Nicolas

    2013-05-15

    Ion temperature gradient instabilities play a major role in the understanding of anomalous transport in core fusion plasmas. In the considered cylindrical geometry, ion dynamics is described using a drift-kinetic multi-water-bag model for the parallel velocity dependency of the ion distribution function. In a first stage, global linear stability analysis is performed. From the obtained normal modes, parametric dependencies of the main spectral characteristics of the instability are then examined. Comparison of the multi-water-bag results with a reference continuous Maxwellian case allows us to evaluate the effects of discrete parallel velocity sampling induced by the Multi-Water-Bag model. Differences between the global model and local models considered in previous works are discussed. Using results from linear, quasilinear, and nonlinear numerical simulations, an analysis of the first stage saturation dynamics of the instability is proposed, where the divergence between the three models is examined.

  8. NAME: Date: = Total Velocity

    E-print Network

    Lega, Joceline

    NAME: Date: = Total Velocity = Vertical Velocity = Horizontal Velocity Instructions: Fire your horizontal velocity. My average rate is________________________ #12;To find the average vertical velocity the ground, given an initial vertical velocity v. My average vertical velocity

  9. Propagation of cylindrical lower hybrid drift solitary wave in an inhomogeneous plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Haifeng; Wang Shiqing; Fazhan Yang; Li Kehua; Wang Zhanhe; Zhang Weibing; Wang Zhilong; Qiangxiang; Kaihuang; Yaoliu; Silili; Lanchang

    2013-04-15

    The nonlinear cylindrical lower hybrid drift solitary wave in an inhomogeneous, magnetized plasma with the combined effects of electron density inhomogeneity and electron temperature inhomogeneity is investigated in a two-fluid model. The amplitude and width of the solitary wave are found to decrease as the electronic density inhomogeneity increases. When the electron temperature inhomogeneity grows, the amplitude of the soliton decays and the width never changes. It is noted that the decrease of diamagnetic drift velocity will strengthen the cylindrical lower hybrid drift solitary wave height and width.

  10. Rotating field mass and velocity analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Steven Joel (Inventor); Chutjian, Ara (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A rotating field mass and velocity analyzer having a cell with four walls, time dependent RF potentials that are applied to each wall, and a detector. The time dependent RF potentials create an RF field in the cell which effectively rotates within the cell. An ion beam is accelerated into the cell and the rotating RF field disperses the incident ion beam according to the mass-to-charge (m/e) ratio and velocity distribution present in the ion beam. The ions of the beam either collide with the ion detector or deflect away from the ion detector, depending on the m/e, RF amplitude, and RF frequency. The detector counts the incident ions to determine the m/e and velocity distribution in the ion beam.

  11. Cross-B convection of artificially created, negative-ion clouds and plasma depressions - Low-speed flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernhardt, Paul A.

    1988-01-01

    A negative-ion, positive-ion plasma produced by the release of an electron attachment chemical into the F region becomes electrically polarized by collisions with neutrals moving across magnetic field lines. The resulting electric field causes E x B drift of the two ion species and the residual electrons. The cross-field flow of the modified ionosphere is computed using a two-dimensional numerical simulation which includes electron attachment and mutual neutralization chemistry, self-consistent electric fields, and three-species plasma transport. The velocity of the plasma is initially in the direction of the neutral wind because the negative-ion cloud is a Pedersen conductivity enhancement. As the positive and negative ions react, the Pedersen conductivity becomes depressed below the ambient value and the velocity of the plasma reverses direction. A plasma hole remains after the positive and negative ions have mutually neutralized. The E x B gradient drift instability produces irregularities on the upwind edge of the hole.

  12. The collisional drift mode in a partially ionized plasma. [in the F region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, M. K.; Kennel, C. F.

    1974-01-01

    The structure of the drift instability was examined in several density regimes. Let sub e be the total electron mean free path, k sub z the wave-vector component along the magnetic field, and the ratio of perpendicular ion diffusion to parallel electron streaming rates. At low densities (k sub z lambda 1) the drift mode is isothermal and should be treated kineticly. In the finite heat conduction regime square root of m/M k sub z Lambda sub 1) the drift instability threshold is reduced at low densities and increased at high densities as compared to the isothermal threshold. Finally, in the energy transfer limit (k sub z kambda sub e square root of m/M) the drift instability behaves adiabatically in a fully ionized plasma and isothermally in a partially ionized plasma for an ion-neutral to Coulomb collision frequency ratio.

  13. The Transpolar Drift in the Central Arctic Ocean as Measured by AON Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morison, J.; Andersen, R.; Kwok, R.; Smethie, W. M., Jr.; Rigor, I. G.; Alkire, M. B.; Newton, R.; Schlosser, P.; Steele, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Transpolar Drift of sea ice across Arctic Ocean was arguably the first major element of Arctic Ocean circulation to be discovered. Nansen's plan for his pioneering Fram expedition was based on the observation of the drift of the wreckage of the De Long's ill-fated Jeanette from near Wrangle Island to the southern coast of Greenland. In this context the Transpolar Drift characterizes the large-scale motion of sea ice, but the term can be applied to the geostrophic circulation of the upper ocean as well. The Transpolar Drift of sea ice and upper ocean are related because both are driven, at least in part, by the gradient in dynamic ocean topography (DOT, sea surface height - geoid) associated with the Transpolar Front between Pacific and Atlantic-derived waters. Starting in the 1990s, major changes in direction of the ocean and ice transpolar drifts characterized shifts between anticyclonic and cyclonic ocean circulation. These affect the dominant pathways of ice, freshwater, and chemical constituents through Arctic Basin. Consequently, tracking behavior of the Transpolar Drift has been a high priority for the AON North Pole Environmental Observatory (NPEO). Recent hydrographic sections across the 90°E (from NPEO) and 90°W (from the Switchyard Project) longitude lines mainly straddle the Drift so that dynamic heights derived from the hydrography can be used as a proxy for DOT, and annual sections of geostrophic velocity determined. Sections along 0° and 180° longitude usually cross the Transpolar Front and Drift at a more oblique angle but provide a measure of Transpolar Drift direction. Hydrography results will be compared with DOT from satellite remote sensing, optimally interpolated satellite and buoy-derived ice drift, and changes in chemical constituents to describe the significance of and recent changes in the Transpolar Drift.

  14. Universal Velocity-Field Characteristics for a Nanowire Arbitrary Degeneracy

    SciTech Connect

    Chek, Desmond C. Y.; Hashim, Abdul Manaf; Tan, Michael Loong Peng; Arora, Vijay K.

    2011-05-25

    The effects of electric field on the carrier motion and drift velocity in nanowire (NW) are presented in this paper. When the electric field is applied in NW, the electron is expected to move in anti-parallel direction to the electric field. This is so-called randomness motion is transformed into streamlined motion in extremely high electric field. The normalized Fermi energy and relative electron population as a function of electric field are examined for various degeneracies. It was found that the electric field has lesser influence on the relative electron population with the increased degeneracy. The drift velocity in NW is shown to increase with electric field until it reaches the saturation velocity. Two approximations have been made to simplify the theoretical equation. It is also shown in this paper that when the quantum emission is taken into account, the drift and saturation velocity degrades.

  15. Forecast of iceberg ensemble drift

    SciTech Connect

    El-Tahan, M.S.; El-Tahan, H.W.; Venkatesh, S.

    1983-05-01

    The objectives of the study are to gain a better understanding of the characteristics of iceberg motion and the factors controlling iceberg drift, and to develop an iceberg ensemble drift forecast system to be operated by the Canadian Atmospheric Environment Service. An extensive review of field and theoretical studies on iceberg behaviour, and the factors controlling iceberg motion has been carried out. Long term and short term behaviour of icebergs are critically examined. A quantitative assessment of the effects of the factors controlling iceberg motion is presented. The study indicated that wind and currents are the primary driving forces. Coriolis Force and ocean surface slope also have significant effects. As for waves, only the higher waves have a significant effect. Iceberg drift is also affected by iceberg size characteristics. Based on the findings of the study a comprehensive computerized forecast system to predict the drift of iceberg ensembles off Canada's east coast has been designed. The expected accuracy of the forecast system is discussed and recommendations are made for future improvements to the system.

  16. The Continental Drift Convection Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitehead, J. A.; Behn, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    Continents on Earth periodically assemble to form supercontinents, and then break up again into smaller continental blocks (the Wilson Cycle). Highly developed but realistic numerical models cannot resolve if continents respond passively to mantle convection or whether they modulate flow. Our simplified numerical model addresses this problem: A thermally insulating continent floats on a stress-free surface for infinite Prandtl number cellular convection with constant material properties in a chamber 8 times longer than its depth. The continent moves back and forth across the chamber driven by a "continental drift convection cell" of a form not previously described. Subduction exists at the upstream end with cold slabs dipping at an angle beneath the moving continent. Fluid moves with the continent in the upper region of this cell with return flow near the bottom. Many continent/subduction regions on Earth have these features. The drifting cell enhances vertical heat transport by approximately 30% compared to a fixed continent, especially at the core-mantle boundary, and significantly decreases lateral mantle temperature differences. However, continent drift or fixity has smaller effects on profiles of horizontally averaged temperature. Although calculations are done at Rayleigh numbers lower than expected for Earth's mantle (2x105 and 106), the drift speed extrapolates to reasonable Wilson Cycle speeds for larger Ra.

  17. Drift Hamiltonian in magnetic coordinates

    SciTech Connect

    White, R.B.; Boozer, A.H.; Hay, R.

    1982-02-01

    A Hamiltonian formulation of the guiding-center drift in arbitrary, steady state, magnetic and electric fields is given. The canonical variables of this formulation are simply related to the magnetic coordinates. The modifications required to treat ergodic magnetic fields using magnetic coordinates are explicitly given in the Hamiltonian formulation.

  18. Evolution: drift will tear us apart.

    PubMed

    Maderspacher, Florian

    2012-11-01

    That the widely scattered geographical distribution of some animals could be due to continental drift is a neat idea. Now, cave animals provide evidence for extreme long-term persistence on continents drifting apart. PMID:23137684

  19. Drift correction for scanning-electron microscopy

    E-print Network

    Snella, Michael T

    2010-01-01

    Scanning electron micrographs at high magnification (100,000x and up) are distorted by motion of the sample during image acquisition, a phenomenon called drift. We propose a method for correcting drift distortion in images ...

  20. Ultraviolet laser calibration of drift chambers

    E-print Network

    Elliott, Grant (Grant Andrew)

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of a focused ultraviolet laser as a track calibration source in drift chambers, and specifically in a small time projection chamber (TPC). Drift chambers such as TPCs reconstruct the trajectories of ...

  1. Performance of drift tubes under high radiation

    E-print Network

    Shi, Yue, S.B. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, the aging and the rejuvenation of an ATLAS proportional drift tube are described. Firstly, the Diethorn model of gain is tested using pressure and sense-wire voltage measurements. The drift tube was then ...

  2. First background-free limit from a directional dark matter experiment: results from a fully fiducialised DRIFT detector

    E-print Network

    J. B. R. Battat; J. Brack; E. Daw; A. Dorofeev; A. C. Ezeribe; J. -L. Gauvreau; M. Gold; J. L. Harton; J. M. Landers; E. Law; E. R. Lee; D. Loomba; A. Lumnah; J. A. J. Matthews; E. H. Miller; A. Monte; F. Mouton; A. StJ. Murphy; S. M. Paling; N. Phan; M. Robinson; S. W. Sadler; A. Scarff; F. Schuckman; D. P. Snowden-Ifft; N. J. C. Spooner; S. Telfer; S. E. Vahsen; D. Walker; D. Warner; L. Yuriev

    2015-07-23

    The addition of O2 to gas mixtures in time projection chambers containing CS2 has recently been shown to produce multiple negative ions that travel at slightly different velocities. This allows a measurement of the absolute position of ionising events in the z (drift) direction. In this work, we apply the z-fiducialisation technique to a directional dark matter search. In particular, we present results from a 46.3 live-day source-free exposure of the DRIFT-IId detector run in this completely new mode. With full-volume fiducialisation, we have achieved the first background-free operation of a directional detector. The resulting exclusion curve for spin-dependent WIMP-proton interactions reaches 1.1 pb at 100 GeV/c2, a factor of 2 better than our previous work. We describe the automated analysis used here, and argue that detector upgrades, implemented after the acquisition of these data, will bring an additional factor of >3 improvement in the near future.

  3. First background-free limit from a directional dark matter experiment: Results from a fully fiducialised DRIFT detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battat, J. B. R.; Brack, J.; Daw, E.; Dorofeev, A.; Ezeribe, A. C.; Gauvreau, J.-L.; Gold, M.; Harton, J. L.; Landers, J. M.; Law, E.; Lee, E. R.; Loomba, D.; Lumnah, A.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Miller, E. H.; Monte, A.; Mouton, F.; Murphy, A. StJ.; Paling, S. M.; Phan, N.; Robinson, M.; Sadler, S. W.; Scarff, A.; Schuckman, F. G., II; Snowden-Ifft, D. P.; Spooner, N. J. C.; Telfer, S.; Vahsen, S. E.; Walker, D.; Warner, D.; Yuriev, L.

    2015-09-01

    The addition of O2 to gas mixtures in time projection chambers containing CS2 has recently been shown to produce multiple negative ions that travel at slightly different velocities. This allows a measurement of the absolute position of ionising events in the z  (drift) direction. In this work, we apply the z-fiducialisation technique to a directional dark matter search. We present results from a 46.3 live-day source-free exposure of the DRIFT-IId detector run in this new mode. With full-volume fiducialisation, we have achieved the first background-free operation of a directional detector. The resulting exclusion curve for spin-dependent WIMP-proton interactions reaches 1.1 pb at 100 GeV/c2, a factor of 2 better than our previous work. We describe the automated analysis used here, and argue that detector upgrades, implemented after the acquisition of these data, will bring an additional factor of ? 3 improvement in the near future.

  4. New advances in the partial-reflection-drifts experiment using microprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruggerio, R. L.; Bowhill, S. A.

    1982-01-01

    Improvements to the partial reflection drifts experiment are completed. The results of the improvements include real time processing and simultaneous measurements of the D region with coherent scatter. Preliminary results indicate a positive correlation between drift velocities calculated by both methods during a two day interval. The possibility now exists for extended observations between partial reflection and coherent scatter. In addition, preliminary measurements could be performed between partial reflection and meteor radar to complete a comparison of methods used to determine velocities in the D region.

  5. Response of macrofauna to drifting tidal sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zühlke, R.; Reise, K.

    1994-06-01

    The effect of hydrodynamically-mobilized sediment on abundance and vertical distribution of macrobenthic fauna was studied in Königshafen, a sheltered tidal bay at the northern end of the Island of Sylt (North Sea). Sediment drift tended to increase from high towards low tide level, while abundance of nearly all species decreased (with the polychaete Spio filicornis as a notable exception). To test whether this decrease could be attributed to water currents affecting sediment stability, experimental flumes with funnels at both ends were set up to enhance sediment mobility by increasing tidal current velocities. Abundance and vertical distribution of fauna inside and outside the flumes were compared. Responses of individual species depended on their vertical position in the sediment, and resembled those observed along the gradient of sediment drift between high and low tide levels. Mainly juveniles of Pygospio elegans, Scoloplos armiger, Hydrobia ulvae and Macoma balthica, and the small polychaete Microphthalmus sczelkowii were washed out of the sediment. No effect of increased erosion inside the flume was found on the numbers of Capitella capitata and the oligochaetes Tubificoides benedii and T. pseudogaster. These oligochaetes probably migrated downwards with increasing erosion in the flumes. Numbers decreased in the upper cm and tended to increase below. A storm had a similar effect on oligochaete vertical distribution, while under conditions of permanently high sediment mobility near low tide level, these species were rare or absent. It is concluded that even under sheltered conditions, differential degrees of sediment mobility may have effects on the zonation of the tidal flat macrofauna.

  6. Spray drift mitigation with spray mix adjuvants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous drift reduction adjuvants and spray deposition aids are available to applicators of crop production and protection chemicals. Performance of many of the newly introduced drift control adjuvants has not been well documented for aerial application. Four new drift control adjuvants were sele...

  7. Ion transport in stellarators

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, D.D.M.; Kulsrud, R.M.

    1985-09-01

    Stellarator ion transport in the low-collisionality regime with a radial electric field is calculated by a systematic expansion of the drift-Boltzmann equation. The shape of the helical well is taken into account in this calculation. It is found that the barely trapped ions with three to four times the thermal energy give the dominant contribution to the diffusion. Expressions for the ion particle and energy fluxes are derived.

  8. Effects of Na+ and He+ pickup ions on the solar wind - Moon interaction: 3D hybrid modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipatov, Alexander; Cooper, John; Sittler, Edward; Hartle, Richard

    2011-11-01

    The hybrid kinetic model used here supports comprehensive simulation of the interaction between different spatial and energetic elements for the Moon, solar wind, and Earth magnetosphere in the Earth-Moon system. Computational capabilities exist for MHD, kinetic, hybrid, drift kinetic, electrostatic and full kinetic modeling of the Lunar plasma environment. However, observations show the existence of several species of the neutrals and pickup ions like Na and He. The solar wind parameters are chosen for our work from ARTEMIS observations. The hybrid kinetic model allows us to take into account finite gyroradius effects of pickup ions and to estimate correctly the ions velocity distribution and the fluxes along the magnetic field. We will discuss the results of modeling, including separate species of pickup ions, (Na+, and He+) and their combinations. Modeling shows the formation of the asymmetric Mach cone, pickup ion tails, and another type of lunar-solar wind interaction.

  9. Coronal Heating & Solar Wind Acceleration by Drift Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poedts, S.; Kanella, Ch; Lapenta, G.

    2015-09-01

    An alternative approach to the coronal heating problem, based on the theory of drift waves, has been proposed. The drift mode is the only mode that is able to survive the drastically different (collisional/collisionless) extremes in the different layers of the solar atmosphere. As a matter of fact, this mode is over stable, i.e. able to grow, in both of these extreme situations, and has been called the universally growing mode in the literature. In collisional plasma of the lower layers of the solar atmosphere, the drift mode grows due to the electron collisions and this can be described within the two-fluid model. In the collisionless coronal plasma, however, the mode grows due to a pure kinetic effect, viz. the electron resonance effect in the presence of a density gradient. It has been shown, with qualitative and quantitative arguments, that the drift waves have the potential to satisfy all coronal heating requirements. The basic ingredient required for the heating is the presence of density gradients in the direction perpendicular to the magnetic flux surfaces. The drift wave theory is well-established and has been explicitly verified experimentally in laboratory (fusion) plasmas, similar (hot, low-beta, highly conductive) to those in the solar atmosphere. In these circumstances, two mechanisms of the energy exchange and heating take place simultaneously: Landau damping in the direction parallel to the magnetic field, and stochastic heating in the perpendicular direction. The latter, in fact, is more effective on ions than on electrons, acts predominantly in the perpendicular direction, and heats heavy ions more efficiently than lighter ions. Moreover, for plasmas at a temperature of 1MK and beyond, the parallel wave field resulting from the drift waves exceeds the Dreicer field so that the bulk plasma species (primarily electrons) can be accelerated/decelerated by the wave in the parallel direction. In addition, this acceleration is more effective on the particles that are already more energetic, resulting in a distribution function considerably different from a Maxwellian, similar to the observed kappa-distribution in the outer solar atmosphere and in the solar wind.

  10. A Optical Diagnostic Study of the Ion Dynamics in a Simple Axisymmetric Magnetic Mirror - Stability, Heating, and Confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Good, Timothy Nelson

    This thesis dissertation describes a series of experimental inves- tigations of ion dynamics in a simple axisymmetric magnetic mirror. Experiments were performed in a low (beta), quiescent plasma that was produced by contact ionization of an alkaline earth metal vapor on a thermionically emitting, rhenium hot plate. A barium plasma was chosen in order to facilitate the optical diagnosis of the ion velocity distribution function, f(,I)((')v), by laser induced fluorescence. The plasma source was positioned at one magnetic field maxi- mum. Adiabatic flow of plasma along flaring magnetic field lines was studied. Ion bulk parameters of temperature, drift velocity, and density were determined from the measurements of f(,I)((')v), under con- ditions of variable mirror ratio. The results demonstrated conserva - tion of the first adiabatic invariant, <(mu)> = T(,(PERP))/B. Ion acceleration by the (')(mu) (.) (')(DEL)B force was observed as the parallel drift velocity increased while the temperature, T(,(PARLL)), cooled. We have explored methods of producing a mirror trapped ion distribution. Ions were heated by plasma wave -particle resonant interactions. Two methods were employed: ion heating by broadband lower hybrid waves and ion cyclotron resonance heating. A ten-fold increase of the ion perpendicular temperature, T(,(PERP)), was achieved and the concomitant formation of a mirror trapped distribution was docu- mented by measurements of f(,I)((')v). The heated ion velocity distribu- tion function exhibited non-Maxwellian characteristics, as f(,I)(v(,(PERP))) was broadened, and as a reflected beam developed in f(,I)(v(,(PARLL))). At high plasma density, pitch angle scattering by ion-ion collisions enhanced ion mirror trapping. Collisional trapping was examined under variable magnetic field configurations. In order to destabilize the mirror confined plasma to the magnetic curvature induced interchange instability, an electrostatic gate was utilized to insulate the plasma from the stabilizing influence of the source. The gate cut off the flow of plasma and the density decayed by classical losses which were investigated by temporal analysis of f(,I)((')v). The plasma afterglow was susceptible to growth of the m = 1 flute mode, identified by wave dispersion characteristics. An experi- mental and theoretical analysis of flute growth rate reduction by sur- face line-tying is presented. The ion confinement properties of the surface line-tied plasma afterglow are also described.

  11. Effects of neutral interactions on velocity-shear-driven plasma waves

    SciTech Connect

    Enloe, C. L.; Tejero, E. M.; Amatucci, W. E.; Crabtree, C.; Ganguli, G.; Sotnikov, V.

    2014-06-15

    In a laboratory experiment, we demonstrate the substantial effects that collisions between charged and neutral particles have on low-frequency (?{sub i}????????{sub e}) shear-driven electrostatic lower hybrid waves in a plasma. We establish a strong (up to 2.5?kV/m) highly localized electric field with a length scale shorter than the ion gyroradius, so that the ions in the plasma, unlike the electrons, do not develop the full E?×?B drift velocity. The resulting shear in the particle velocities initiates the electron-ion hybrid (EIH) instability, and we observe the formation of strong waves in the vicinity of the shear with variations in plasma densities of 10% or greater. Our experimental configuration allows us to vary the neutral background density by more than a factor of two while holding the charged particle density effectively constant. Not surprisingly, increasing the neutral density decreases the growth rate/saturation amplitude of the waves and increases the threshold electric field necessary for wave formation, but the presence of neutrals affects the dominant wave frequency as well. We show that a 50% increase in the neutral density decreases the wave frequency by 20% while also suppressing the electric field dependence of the frequency that is observed when fewer neutrals are present. The majority of these effects, as well as the values of the frequencies we observe, closely match the predictions of previously developed linear EIH instability theory, for which we present the results of a numerical solution.

  12. Equatorial 150 km echoes and daytime F region vertical plasma drifts in the Brazilian longitude sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, F. S.; Shume, E. B.; de Paula, E. R.; Milla, M.

    2013-10-01

    Previous studies showed that conventional coherent backscatter radar measurements of the Doppler velocity of the so-called 150 km echoes can provide an alternative way of estimating ionospheric vertical plasma drifts during daytime hours (Kudeki and Fawcett, 1993; Chau and Woodman, 2004). Using observations made by a small, low-power 30 MHz coherent backscatter radar located in the equatorial site of São Luís (2.59° S, 44.21° W; -2.35° dip lat), we were able to detect and monitor the occurrence of 150 km echoes in the Brazilian sector. Using these measurements we estimated the local time variation of daytime vertical ionospheric drifts in the eastern American sector. Here, we present a few interesting cases of 150 km-echoes observations made by the São Luís radar and estimates of the diurnal variation of vertical drifts. These cases exemplify the variability of the vertical drifts in the Brazilian sector. Using same-day 150 km-echoes measurements made at the Jicamarca Radio Observatory in Peru, we also demonstrate the variability of the equatorial vertical drifts across the American sector. In addition to first estimates of the absolute vertical plasma drifts in the eastern American (Brazilian) sector, we also present observations of abnormal drifts detected by the São Luís radar associated with the 2009 major sudden stratospheric warming event.

  13. Effects of a nonuniform equilibrium electric field on ion temperature gradient instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Migliuolo, S. ); Sen, A.K. )

    1990-12-01

    A nonuniform equilibrium electric field oriented in the direction perpendicular to the magnetic field, and parallel to the density and temperature gradients, is considered. The effects of electric field gradients on the behavior of ion temperature gradient instabilities are examined. Electrostatic modes are considered in the local approximation for a shearless slab geometry, with phase velocities much lower than the characteristic electron thermal speed. The adiabatic response of electrons to the perturbing potential precludes the existence of Kelvin--Helmholtz (driven by velocity shear) and Rayleigh--Taylor (driven, e.g., by a centrifugal acceleration) instabilities. The velocity shear, caused by the nonuniform equilibrium electric field, has two principal effects. The first, proportional to the gradient of the velocity shear, causes both the well-known finite Larmor radius (FLR) modification to the {bold E}{times}{bold B} drift, as well as distortions of the particle unperturbed orbits. The second, proportional to both first and second spatial derivatives of the {bold E}{times}{bold B} drift velocity, shifts the cyclotron frequency, thereby modifying the effective FLR parameter, {ital k}{sub {perpendicular}} {rho}{sub {ital i}}. Generally, electric field profiles with a positive second derivative in {ital x} (the radial coordinate in a slab geometry) have a stabilizing influence.

  14. Effects of drift angle on model ship flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longo, J.; Stern, F.

    The effects of drift angle on model ship flow are investigated through towing tank tests for the Series 60 CB=0.6 cargo/container model ship. Resistance, side force, drift moment, sinkage, trim, and heel data are procured for a range of drift angles ? and Froude numbers (Fr) and the model free condition. Detailed free-surface and mean velocity and pressure flow maps are procured for high and low Fr=0.316 and 0.16 and ?=5° and 10° (free surface) and ?=10° (mean velocity and pressure) for the model fixed condition (i.e. fixed with zero sinkage, trim, and heel). Comparison of results at high and low Fr and previous data for ?=0° enables identification of important free-surface and drift effects. Geometry, conditions, data, and uncertainty analysis are documented in sufficient detail so as to be useful as a benchmark for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) validation. The resistance increases linearly with ? with same slope for all Fr, whereas the increases in the side force, drift moment, sinkage, trim, and heel with ? are quadratic. The wave profile is only affected near the bow, i.e. the bow wave amplitude increases/decreases on the windward/leeward sides, whereas the wave elevations are affected throughout the entire wave field. However, the wave envelope angle on both sides is nearly the same as ?=0°, i.e. the near-field wave pattern rotates with the hull and remains within a similar wave envelope as ?=0°. The wave amplitudes are significantly increased/decreased on the windward/leeward sides. The wake region is also asymmetric with larger wedge angle on the leeward side. The boundary layer and wake are dominated by the hull vortex system consisting of fore body keel, bilge, and wave-breaking vortices and after body bilge and counter-rotating vortices. The occurrence of a wave-breaking vortex for breaking bow waves has not been previously documented in the literature. The trends for the maximum vorticity, circulation, minimum axial velocity, and trajectories are discussed for each vortex.

  15. Measurements of the ion fraction and mobility of alpha and beta decay products in liquid xenon using EXO-200

    E-print Network

    J. B. Albert; D. J. Auty; P. S. Barbeau; D. Beck; V. Belov; M. Breidenbach; T. Brunner; A. Burenkov; G. F. Cao; C. Chambers; B. Cleveland; M. Coon; A. Craycraft; T. Daniels; M. Danilov; S. J. Daugherty; C. G. Davis; J. Davis; S. Delaquis; A. Der Mesrobian-Kabakian; R. DeVoe; T. Didberidze; A. Dolgolenko; M. J. Dolinski; M. Dunford; W. Fairbank Jr.; J. Farine; W. Feldmeier; P. Fierlinger; D. Fudenberg; R. Gornea; K. Graham; G. Gratta; C. Hall; M. Hughes; M. J. Jewell; X. S. Jiang; A. Johnson; T. N. Johnson; S. Johnston; A. Karelin; L. J. Kaufman; R. Killick; T. Koffas; S. Kravitz; A. Kuchenkov; K. S. Kumar; D. S. Leonard; C. Licciardi; Y. H. Lin; J. Ling; R. MacLellan; M. G. Marino; B. Mong; D. Moore; R. Nelson; K. O'Sullivan; A. Odian; I. Ostrovskiy; A. Piepke; A. Pocar; C. Y. Prescott; A. Robinson; P. C. Rowson; J. J. Russell; A. Schubert; D. Sinclair; E. Smith; V. Stekhanov; M. Tarka; T. Tolba; R. Tsang; K. Twelker; J. -L. Vuilleumier; A. Waite; J. Walton; T. Walton; M. Weber; L. J. Wen; U. Wichoski; J. D. Wright; J. Wood; L. Yang; Y. -R. Yen; O. Ya. Zeldovich

    2015-06-01

    Alpha decays in the EXO-200 detector are used to measure the fraction of charged $^{218}\\mathrm{Po}$ and $^{214}\\mathrm{Bi}$ daughters created from alpha and beta decays, respectively. $^{222}\\mathrm{Rn}$ alpha decays in liquid xenon (LXe) are found to produce $^{218}\\mathrm{Po}^{+}$ ions $50.3 \\pm 3.0\\%$ of the time, while the remainder of the $^{218}\\mathrm{Po}$ atoms are neutral. The fraction of $^{214}\\mathrm{Bi}^{+}$ from $^{214}\\mathrm{Pb}$ beta decays in LXe is found to be $76.4 \\pm 5.7\\%$, inferred from the relative rates of $^{218}\\mathrm{Po}$ and $^{214}\\mathrm{Po}$ alpha decays in the LXe. The average velocity of $^{218}\\mathrm{Po}$ ions is observed to decrease for longer drift times. Initially the ions have a mobility of $0.390 \\pm 0.006~\\mathrm{cm}^2/(\\mathrm{kV}~\\mathrm{s})$, and at long drift times the mobility is $0.219 \\pm 0.004~\\mathrm{cm}^2/(\\mathrm{kV}~\\mathrm{s})$. Time constants associated with the change in mobility during drift of the $^{218}\\mathrm{Po}^{+}$ ions are found to be proportional to the electron lifetime in the LXe.

  16. Measurements of the ion fraction and mobility of alpha and beta decay products in liquid xenon using EXO-200

    E-print Network

    Albert, J B; Barbeau, P S; Beck, D; Belov, V; Breidenbach, M; Brunner, T; Burenkov, A; Cao, G F; Chambers, C; Cleveland, B; Coon, M; Craycraft, A; Daniels, T; Danilov, M; Daugherty, S J; Davis, C G; Davis, J; Delaquis, S; Der Mesrobian-Kabakian, A; DeVoe, R; Didberidze, T; Dolgolenko, A; Dolinski, M J; Dunford, M; Fairbank, W; Farine, J; Feldmeier, W; Fierlinger, P; Fudenberg, D; Gornea, R; Graham, K; Gratta, G; Hall, C; Hughes, M; Jewell, M J; Jiang, X S; Johnson, A; Johnson, T N; Johnston, S; Karelin, A; Kaufman, L J; Killick, R; Koffas, T; Kravitz, S; Kuchenkov, A; Kumar, K S; Leonard, D S; Licciardi, C; Lin, Y H; Ling, J; MacLellan, R; Marino, M G; Mong, B; Moore, D; Nelson, R; O'Sullivan, K; Odian, A; Ostrovskiy, I; Piepke, A; Pocar, A; Prescott, C Y; Robinson, A; Rowson, P C; Russell, J J; Schubert, A; Sinclair, D; Smith, E; Stekhanov, V; Tarka, M; Tolba, T; Tsang, R; Twelker, K; Vuilleumier, J -L; Waite, A; Walton, J; Walton, T; Weber, M; Wen, L J; Wichoski, U; Wright, J D; Wood, J; Yang, L; Yen, Y -R; Zeldovich, O Ya

    2015-01-01

    Alpha decays in the EXO-200 detector are used to measure the fraction of charged $^{218}\\mathrm{Po}$ and $^{214}\\mathrm{Bi}$ daughters created from alpha and beta decays, respectively. $^{222}\\mathrm{Rn}$ alpha decays in liquid xenon (LXe) are found to produce $^{218}\\mathrm{Po}^{+}$ ions $50.3 \\pm 3.0\\%$ of the time, while the remainder of the $^{218}\\mathrm{Po}$ atoms are neutral. The fraction of $^{214}\\mathrm{Bi}^{+}$ from $^{214}\\mathrm{Pb}$ beta decays in LXe is found to be $76.4 \\pm 5.7\\%$, inferred from the relative rates of $^{218}\\mathrm{Po}$ and $^{214}\\mathrm{Po}$ alpha decays in the LXe. The average velocity of $^{218}\\mathrm{Po}$ ions is observed to decrease for longer drift times. Initially the ions have a mobility of $0.390 \\pm 0.006~\\mathrm{cm}^2/(\\mathrm{kV}~\\mathrm{s})$, and at long drift times the mobility is $0.219 \\pm 0.004~\\mathrm{cm}^2/(\\mathrm{kV}~\\mathrm{s})$. Time constants associated with the change in mobility during drift of the $^{218}\\mathrm{Po}^{+}$ ions are found to be propor...

  17. Low frequency drift instabilities in a dusty plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, M.; Krall, N.A.

    1996-02-01

    Low frequency drift instabilities are investigated in a dusty magnetized plasma with negatively charged grains in which locally there is an electron density gradient which is opposite in sign to a dust density gradient. Frequencies less than the ion gyrofrequency but much larger than the dust gyrofrequency are considered. Two different equilibria are considered that are characterized by {rho}{sub {ital d}}{lt_or_gt}{ital L}{sub {ital nd}}, where {rho}{sub {ital d}} is the dust gyroradius and {ital L}{sub {ital nd}} is the dust density scale length. Instabilities analogous to the universal instability and to the lower-hybrid-drift instability (with the lower-hybrid frequency in this case associated with the dust) are investigated. Possible applications to dusty space plasmas such as the spoke regions of Saturn{close_quote}s B-ring are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  18. Integrated Simulation of an Ion-Driven Warm Dense MatterExperiment

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, D.R.; Rose, D.V.; Thoma, C.; Sefkow, A.B.; Kaganovich,I.D.; Seidl, P.A.; Yu, S.S.; Barnard, J.J.; Roy, P.K.

    2006-11-15

    Longitudinal compression factors in excess of 50 of a 300-keV, 20-mA K+ ion beam have been demonstrated in the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) in agreement with LSP particle-in-cell simulations using the experimental tilt voltage waveform. Here, pre-formed plasma provides beam neutralization for a 1-2-m drift length. To achieve simultaneous transverse and longitudinal compression, we must understand and account for the impact of the applied velocity tilt on the transverse phase space of the beam. Of equal importance to achieving warm dense matter and heavy ion fusion conditions, is quantifying the effect of beam plasma interactions, including stability and neutralization, on the beam transport throughout the drift section up to the target. Critical new issues relate to transverse focusing of the axially compressing ion beam in a high-field (3-15T) solenoid that is filled with plasma. Integrated LSP simulations that include modeling of the diode, magnetic transport, induction bunching module, plasma neutralized transport, solenoidal focusing and beam target interaction, are assisting in the design of a near-term warm dense matter experiment. We discuss the simulation algorithms and present calculations of designs for such an experiment that will heat an aluminum target up to roughly 1-eV temperature.

  19. Superhilac real-time velocity measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Feinberg, B.; Meaney, D.; Thatcher, R.; Timossi, C.

    1987-03-01

    Phase probes have been placed in several external beam lines at the LBL heavy ion linear accelerator (SuperHILAC) to provide non-destructive velocity measurements independent of the ion being accelerated. The existing system has been improved to provide the following features: a display refresh rate better than twice per second, a sensitive pseudo-correlation technique to pick out the signal from the noise, simultaneous measurements of up to four ion velocities when more than one beam is being accelerated, and a touch-screen operator interface. These improvements allow the system to be used as a routine tuning aid and beam velocity monitor.

  20. Coexistence of drift-like and tearing instabilities in non-uniform plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirnov, V. V.; Hegna, C. C.; Sauppe, J. P.; Sovinec, C. R.

    2013-10-01

    The simultaneous presence of drift-like and tearing instabilities is investigated with the use of two-fluid extended MHD code NIMROD and analytical methods. The model includes electron compressibility and the physics of electron-ion decoupling on short scales as well as the effect of diamagnetic flows caused by non-uniform density profile. Linear numerical simulations are performed for plasma slab with cold ions and hot electrons in a doubly periodic box bounded by two perfectly conducting walls. Magnetic shear configuration utilizes a sinusoidal profile for the reconnecting magnetic field which is unstable with respect to current-driven drift-tearing instability. This instability is characterized by a clear magnetic perturbation. Additionally, there is an unstable pressure-gradient driven mode suggestive of a resistive-drift type with largely electrostatic perturbations. Both modes are observed in NIMROD simulations. Simplified two-fluid linear analytical model confirms coexistence of drift-tearing and resistive-drift unstable modes. We investigate the nature (physical or numerical) of the newly observed drift-like mode and its role in the dynamics of the system. The work is supported by the U. S. DOE and NSF.

  1. Electronic excitation and charge transfer processes in collisions of H{sup +}, H{sub 2}{sup +}, and H{sub 3}{sup +} ions with carbon monoxide at typical solar-wind velocities

    SciTech Connect

    Werbowy, S.; Pranszke, B.

    2014-01-10

    Luminescence in the 200-580 nm spectral region was observed in the collisions of H{sup +}, H{sub 2}{sup +}, and H{sub 3}{sup +} with CO in the 50-1000 eV projectile energy range. Using computer simulations, we have identified emission of the following products in the observed spectra: the CO{sup +}(A-X) comet-tail system, CO{sup +}(B-X) first negative system, CO{sup +}(B-A) Baldet-Johnson system, and CO(b-a) third positive system. Also, an emission from atomic hydrogen (H{sub ?} line at 486nm) has been observed. From the analysis of the experimental spectra, we have determined the absolute emission cross-sections for the formation of the observed products. Computer simulations gave the excited-product population distributions over vibrational and rotational energy levels. The vibrational level distribution from the CO{sup +}(A-X) comet-tail system is compared with the data for CO excited by 100 eV electrons and extreme ultraviolet radiation (XUV) photons. We have used these data to analyze the excitation conditions in the comet Humason (1961e). From the vibrational population distributions observed in the comet, we found that this distribution can be reproduced if electrons produce 25%, protons 70%, and XUV photons produce 5% of the emitting molecules. We find that the ratio of the CO{sup +}(B-X) emission to the sum of two main emissions (CO{sup +}(A-X)+CO{sup +}(B-X)) is velocity dependent and does not depend on the projectile ion type. For small velocities (below 100 km s{sup –1}) the ratio is about 5%, while for higher velocities it increases to 30%. For these data, we have found an empirical formula that satisfactorily describes the experimental data: R = R {sub max}(1 – v {sub th}/v), (where R {sub max} = 33%, v {sub th} = 87 km s{sup –1}). This could be used to infer the velocity of ions producing the observed emission of CO{sup +} products.

  2. Drift-Kinetic Modeling of Particle Acceleration and Transport in Solar Flares

    E-print Network

    Minoshima, T; Miyoshi, Y

    2010-01-01

    Based on the drift-kinetic theory, we develop a model for particle acceleration and transport in solar flares. The model describes the evolution of the particle distribution function by means of a numerical simulation of the drift-kinetic Vlasov equation, which allows us to directly compare simulation results with observations within an actual parameter range of the solar corona. Using this model, we investigate the time evolution of the electron distribution in a flaring region. The simulation identifies two dominant mechanisms of electron acceleration. One is the betatron acceleration at the top of closed loops, which enhances the electron velocity perpendicular to the magnetic field line. The other is the inertia drift acceleration in open magnetic field lines, which produces antisunward electrons. The resulting velocity space distribution significantly deviates from an isotropic distribution. The former acceleration can be a generation mechanism of electrons that radiate loop-top nonthermal emissions, and...

  3. Drift solitary structures in inhomogeneous degenerate quantum plasmas with trapped electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, H. A.; Masood, W.; Asim, M. T.; Qureshi, M. N. S.

    2014-04-01

    In the present work, we have considered the nonlinear effects due to trapped electrons in an inhomogeneous degenerate quantum plasma. The formation of drift solitary structures has been investigated for both fully and partially degenerate plasmas. The Sagdeev potential approach has been employed to obtain arbitrary amplitude solitary structures. Interestingly, for a fixed value of density, not only compressive but rarefactive solitary structures have been obtained for a certain temperature range. Furthermore, it has been observed that the drift solitary structures exist only for the case when the drift velocity is smaller than the velocity of the nonlinear structure. The theoretical results obtained have been analyzed numerically for the parameters typically found in white dwarfs and the relevance of the results with regard to white dwarf asteroseismology is also pointed out.

  4. Development and Application of an Electrospray Ionization Ion Mobility-mass Spectrometer Using an RF Ion Funnel and Periodic-focusing Ion Guide 

    E-print Network

    Jeon, Junho

    2013-10-16

    , ? CD Circular Dichroism CID Collision Induced Dissociation CFD Computational Fluid Dynamics CM Center-of-Mass CV Compensation Voltage DT Drift Tube DTIM Drift Tube Ion Mobility DV Dispersion Voltage ESI Electrospray Ionization FAIMS Field... convergence of available up-to-date technologies and new concepts. Types of Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometers There are two major types of ion mobility techniques adaptable to MS. First, field-asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS), also known...

  5. Electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves observed near the oxygen cyclotron frequency by ISEE 1 and 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraser, B. J.; Samson, J. C.; Hu, Y. D.; Mcpherron, R. L.; Russell, C. T.

    1992-01-01

    The first results of observations of ion cyclotron waves by the elliptically orbiting ISEE 1 and 2 pair of spacecraft are reported. The most intense waves (8 nT) were observed in the outer plasmasphere where convection drift velocities were largest and the Alfven velocity was a minimum. Wave polarization is predominantly left-handed with propagation almost parallel to the ambient magnetic field, and the spectral slot and polarization reversal predicted by cold plasma propagation theory are identified in the wave data. Computations of the experimental wave spectra during the passage through the plasmapause show that the spectral slots relate to the local plasma parameters, possibly suggesting an ion cyclotron wave growth source near the spacecraft. A regular wave packet structure seen over the first 30 min of the event is attributed to the modulation of this energy source by the Pc 5 waves seen at the same time.

  6. Modulation of drift-wave envelopes in a nonuniform quantum magnetoplasma

    SciTech Connect

    Misra, A. P. E-mail: apmisra@gmail.com

    2014-04-15

    We study the amplitude modulation of low-frequency, long-wavelength electrostatic drift-wave envelopes in a nonuniform quantum magnetoplasma consisting of cold ions and degenerate electrons. The effects of tunneling associated with the quantum Bohm potential and the Fermi pressure for nonrelativistic degenerate electrons, as well as the equilibrium density and magnetic field inhomogeneities are taken into account. Starting from a set of quantum magnetohydrodynamic equations, we derive a nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) that governs the dynamics of the modulated quantum drift-wave packets. The NLSE is used to study the modulational instability (MI) of a Stoke's wave train to a small plane wave perturbation. It is shown that the quantum tunneling effect as well as the scale length of inhomogeneity plays crucial roles for the MI of the drift-wave packets. Thus, the latter can propagate in the form of bright and dark envelope solitons or as drift-wave rogons in degenerate dense magnetoplasmas.

  7. AN IMPLICIT"DRIFT-LORENTZ" PARTICLE MOVER FOR PLASMA AND BEAM SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P.; Vay, J.-L; Cohen, R.H.

    2008-07-15

    In order to efficiently perform particle simulations in systems with widely varying magnetization, we developed a drift-Lorentz mover, which interpolates between full particle dynamics and drift kinetics in such a way as to preserve a physically correct gyroradius and particle drifts for both large and small ratios of the timestep to the cyclotron period. In order to extend applicability of the mover to systems with plasma frequency exceeding the cyclotron frequency such as one may have with fully neutralized drift compression of a heavy-ion beam we have developed an implicit version of the mover. A first step in this direction, in which the polarization charge was added to the field solver, was described previously. Here we describe a fully implicit algorithm (which is analogous to the direct-implicit method for conventionalparticle-in-cell simulation), summarize a stability analysis of it, and describe several tests of the resultant code.

  8. Lattice Boltzmann model for collisionless electrostatic drift wave turbulence obeying Charney-Hasegawa-Mima dynamics

    E-print Network

    Held, M

    2015-01-01

    A lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) approach to the Charney-Hasegawa-Mima (CHM) model for adiabatic drift wave turbulence in magnetised plasmas, is implemented. The CHM-LBM model contains a barotropic equation of state for the potential, a force term including a cross-product analogous to the Coriolis force in quasigeostrophic models, and a density gradient source term. Expansion of the resulting lattice Boltzmann model equations leads to cold-ion fluid continuity and momentum equations, which resemble CHM dynamics under drift ordering. The resulting numerical solutions of standard test cases (monopole propagation, stable drift modes and decaying turbulence) are compared to results obtained by a conventional finite difference scheme that directly discretizes the CHM equation. The LB scheme resembles characteristic CHM dynamics apart from an additional shear in the density gradient direction. The occuring shear reduces with the drift ratio and is ascribed to the compressible limit of the underlying LBM.

  9. Drift-flux analysis of two-phase flow in microgravity 

    E-print Network

    Braisted, Jonathan David

    2004-01-01

    that of the transition and annular flow regimes respectively for the microgravity data and correlated well with other R-12 microgravity data for the slug flow regime. The V[gj] for slug flow was found to be negative, which was unexpected, but the drift velocities...

  10. Development of a Spatially Resolving X-Ray Crystal Spectrometer (XCS) for Measurement of Ion-Temperature (Ti) and Rotation-Velocity (v) Profiles in ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, K W; Delgado-Aprico, L; Johnson, D; Feder, R; Beiersdorfer,; Dunn, J; Morris, K; Wang, E; Reinke, M; Podpaly, Y; Rice, J E; Barnsley, R; O'Mullane, M; Lee, S G

    2010-05-21

    Imaging XCS arrays are being developed as a US-ITER activity for Doppler measurement of Ti and v profiles of impurities (W, Kr, Fe) with ~7 cm (a/30) and 10-100 ms resolution in ITER. The imaging XCS, modeled after a PPPL-MIT instrument on Alcator C-Mod, uses a spherically bent crystal and 2d x-ray detectors to achieve high spectral resolving power (E/dE>6000) horizontally and spatial imaging vertically. Two arrays will measure Ti and both poloidal and toroidal rotation velocity profiles. Measurement of many spatial chords permits tomographic inversion for inference of local parameters. The instrument design, predictions of performance, and results from C-Mod will be presented.

  11. Development Of a Spatially Resolving X-ray Crystal Spectrometer For Measurement Of Ion-temperature (Ti) And Rotation-velocity (v) Profiles in ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, K W; Delgado-Aparico, L; Johnson, David; Feder, R; Beiersdorfer, P; Dunn, James; Morris, K; Wang, E; Reinke, M; Podpaly, Y; Rice, J E; Barnsley, R; O'Mullane, M

    2010-12-15

    Imaging x-ray crystal spectrometer #2;XCS#3; arrays are being developed as a US-ITER activity for Doppler measurement of Ti and v profiles of impurities #2;(W, Kr, and Fe)#3; with ~#4;7 cm (a/30)#3; and 10-100 ms resolution in ITER. The imaging XCS, modeled after a prototype instrument on Alcator C-Mod, uses a spherically bent crystal and 2D x-ray detectors to achieve high spectral resolving power (E / dE >#2;6000)#3; horizontally and spatial imaging vertically. Two arrays will measure Ti and both poloidal and toroidal rotation velocity profiles. The measurement of many spatial chords permits tomographic inversion for the inference of local parameters. The instrument design, predictions of performance, and results from C-Mod are presented.

  12. Ion Trap/Ion Mobility/Quadrupole/Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry for Peptide Mixture Analysis

    E-print Network

    Clemmer, David E.

    Ion Trap/Ion Mobility/Quadrupole/Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry for Peptide Mixture Analysis for the analysis of peptide mixtures. In this approach, a mixture of peptides is electrosprayed into the gas phase. The mixture of ions that is created is accumulated in an ion trap and periodi- cally injected into a drift

  13. Nonlocal linear theory of the gradient drift instability in the equatorial electrojet

    SciTech Connect

    Ronchi, C.; Similon, P.L.; Sudan, R.N.

    1989-02-01

    The linear global eigenmodes of the gradient drift instability in the daytime equatorial electrojet are investigated. A main feature of the analysis is the inclusion of ion-neutral and electron-neutral collision frequencies dependent on altitude. It is found that the basic characteristics and localization of the unstable modes are determined mainly by the profiles of the Pedersen and Hall mobilities, which are derived from the Cowling conductivity model and experimental data. The equilibrium density profile is parabolic, which is fairly representative of the actual measurements. The unstable modes are sensitive not to the details of this profile, but only to the average value of the gradient. The results are obtained from a direct numerical integration of nonlocal linearized equations. They are further analyzed through an eikonal analysis, which provides both an interpretation of the transient modes observed by Fu et al. (1986) and some additional physics insight into the linear evolution of the global unstable modes. Finally, it is shown that the previously reported short-wavelength stabilization effect due to velocity shear may be overshadowed by the presence of regions in which the transient modes can develop into absolute instabilities. copyright American Geophysical Union 1989

  14. On the dynamics of the jovian ionosphere and thermosphere.. IV. Ion-neutral coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millward, George; Miller, Steve; Stallard, Tom; Achilleos, Nick; Aylward, Alan D.

    2005-01-01

    We use the fully coupled, three-dimensional, global circulation Jovian Ionospheric Model (JIM) to calculate the coupling between ions in the jovian auroral ovals and the co-existing neutral atmosphere. The model shows that ions subject to drift motion around the auroral oval, as a result of the E×B coupling between a meridional, equatorward electric field and the jovian magnetic field, generate neutral winds in the planetary frame of reference. Unconstrained by the magnetic field, these neutral winds have a greater latitudinal extent than the corresponding ion drifts. Values of the coupling coefficient, k(h), are presented as a function of altitude and cross-auroral electric field strength, for different incoming electron fluxes and energies. The results show that, with ion velocities of several hundred metres per second to over 1 km s -1, k(h) can attain values greater than 0.5 at the ion production peak. This parameter is key to calculating the effective conductivities required to model magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling correctly. The extent to which angular momentum (and therefore energy) is transported vertically in JIM is much more limited than earlier, one-dimensional, studies have predicted.

  15. WORLD SURFACE CURRENTS FROM SHIP'S DRIFT OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, C.P.; Schladow, S.G.

    1980-11-01

    Over 4 million observations of ship's drift are on file at the U.S. National Oceanographic Data Centre, in Washington, D. C., representing a vast amount of information on ocean surface currents. The observed drift speeds are dependent on the frequency of occurence of the particular current speeds and the frequency of observation. By comparing frequency of observation with the drift speeds observed it is possible to confirm known current patterns and detect singularities in surface currents.

  16. Drift chamber tracking with neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsey, C.S.; Denby, B.; Haggerty, H.

    1992-10-01

    We discuss drift chamber tracking with a commercial log VLSI neural network chip. Voltages proportional to the drift times in a 4-layer drift chamber were presented to the Intel ETANN chip. The network was trained to provide the intercept and slope of straight tracks traversing the chamber. The outputs were recorded and later compared off line to conventional track fits. Two types of network architectures were studied. Applications of neural network tracking to high energy physics detector triggers is discussed.

  17. The response of drifting buoys to currents and wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krauss, W.; Dengg, J.; Hinrichsen, H.-H.

    1989-03-01

    Two buoy types have been tested with respect to their drift performance under drogued and undrogued conditions. Additionally, forces acting on the buoys were measured directly. Quadratic drag laws have been confirmed for the drag in water and the combined drag of wind and waves. Stokes drift contributes about one half to the wind factor of 0.023, which is obtained for undrogued buoys in the Atlantic. The forces on a windowshade drogue are given by a linear relation between force and water velocity for speeds exceeding 10 cm/s. They have been extrapolated to speeds of less than 10 cm/s by both a linear and a quadratic relationship. Correlations between drift and wind speed in the Atlantic suggest that the linear law is a better approximation under realistic conditions. According to these measurements in the Atlantic the described buoy-drogue system with a windowshade drogue in 100-m depth is a good current-measuring device. Slippage is negligible for wind speeds of less than 15 m/s and is less than 2 cm/s under gale conditions. Undrogued buoys are strongly affected by wind and cannot be used for the analysis of currents without correction, even under light winds.

  18. THERMAL EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT DRIFT DIAMETER SIZES

    SciTech Connect

    H.M. Wade

    1999-01-04

    The purpose of this calculation is to estimate the thermal response of a repository-emplaced waste package and its corresponding drift wall surface temperature with different drift diameters. The case examined is that of a 21 pressurized water reactor (PWR) uncanistered fuel (UCF) waste package loaded with design basis spent nuclear fuel assemblies. This calculation evaluates a 3.5 meter to 6.5 meter drift diameter range in increments of 1.0 meters. The time-dependent temperatures of interest, as determined by this calculation, are the spent nuclear fuel cladding temperature, the waste package surface temperature, and the drift wall surface temperature.

  19. Drift tube soft-landing for the production and characterization of materials: Applied to Cu clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Davila, Stephen J.; Birdwell, David O.; Verbeck, Guido F.

    2010-03-15

    We have recently developed a soft-landing (SL) instrument that is capable of depositing ions onto substrates for preparative and developmental research of new materials using a laser ablation source. This instrument was designed with a custom drift tube and a split-ring ion optic for the isolation of selected ions. The drift tube allows for the separation and thermalization of ions formed after laser ablation through collisions with an inert bath gas. These collisions allow the ions to be landed at energies below 1 eV onto substrates. The split-ring ion optic is capable of directing ions toward the detector or a landing substrate for selected components. Experiments will be shown ablating Cu using an Nd:YAG (1064 and 532 nm) for cluster formation and landing onto a muscovite (mica) surface. The laser ablation of Cu in 8 Torr of He gas gives a spectrum that contains multiple peaks corresponding to Cu{sub n}, Cu{sub n}O{sub m} clusters, and their corresponding isomers. Atomic force microscopy and drift tube measurements were performed to characterize the performance characteristics of the instrument.

  20. Near-lunar proton velocity distribution explained by electrostatic acceleration

    E-print Network

    Hutchinson, Ian H.

    The observation of parallel ion velocity in the near-lunar wake approximately equal to external solar wind velocity can be explained within uncertainties by an analytic electrostatic expansion model. The one-dimensional ...

  1. Collision cross section calibrants for negative ion mode traveling wave ion mobility-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Forsythe, Jay G; Petrov, Anton S; Walker, Chelsea A; Allen, Samuel J; Pellissier, Jarrod S; Bush, Matthew F; Hud, Nicholas V; Fernández, Facundo M

    2015-10-21

    Unlike traditional drift-tube ion mobility-mass spectrometry, traveling-wave ion mobility-mass spectrometry typically requires calibration in order to generate collision cross section (CCS) values. Although this has received a significant amount of attention for positive-ion mode analysis, little attention has been paid for CCS calibration in negative ion mode. Here, we provide drift-tube CCS values for [M - H](-) ions of two calibrant series, polyalanine and polymalic acid, and evaluate both types of calibrants in terms of the accuracy and precision of the traveling-wave ion mobility CCS values that they produce. PMID:26148962

  2. Sheared Flow Driven Drift Instability and Vortices in Dusty Plasmas with Opposite Polarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mushtaq, A.; Shah, AttaUllah; Ikram, M.; Clark, R. E. H.

    2015-11-01

    Low-frequency electrostatic drift waves are studied in an inhomogeneous dust magnetoplasma containing dust with components of opposite polarity. The drift waves are driven by the magnetic-field-aligned (parallel) sheared flows in the presence of electrons and ions. Due to sheared flow in the linear regime, the electrostatic dust drift waves become unstable. The conditions of mode instability, with the effects of dust streaming and opposite polarity, are studied. These are excited modes which gain large amplitudes and exhibit interactions among themselves. The interaction is governed by the Hasegawa-Mima (HM) nonlinear equation with vector nonlinearity. The stationary solutions of the HM equation in the form of a vortex chain and a dipolar vortex, including effects of dust polarity and electron (ion) temperatures, are studied. The relevance of the present work to space and laboratory four component dusty plasmas is noted.

  3. More evidence for azimuthal ion spin in HiPIMS discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poolcharuansin, P.; Liebig, B.; Bradley, J. W.

    2012-02-01

    The velocity and energy distribution functions of ions escaping radially from the magnetic trap region of a HiPIMS discharge have been measured using a retarding field analyzer (RFA). Spatially and angularly resolved measurements recorded at a representative time show more energetic ions detected along a line-of-sight coincident with an oncoming rotating ion fluid, which circulates above the racetrack in the same direction as the electron E × B drift. The difference in the mean ion energies between measurements made into and against the direction of rotation is ~5 eV. Numerical solutions of the equation of motion for the ions accounting for azimuthal acceleration (modified two-stream instability model used by Lundin et al) have been found. The centripetal force caused by the radial electric field and a drag force term accounting for ion collisions revealed that only a small fraction (typically <5%) of the circulating ion flux can leave the discharge tangentially. Operating the discharge at different background pressures revealed an interplay between the azimuthal acceleration of ions, dominating under low pressure conditions and the scattering of ions into the RFA at higher pressure.

  4. Magnetic conjugate point observations of kilometer and hundred meter-scale irregularities and zonal drifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Paula, E. R.; Muella, M. T.; Sobral, J. H.; Groves, K. M.; Beach, T. L.; Batista, I. S.; Abdu, M. A.

    2009-12-01

    The Conjugate Point Equatorial Experiment (COPEX) campaign was held from October 1st to December 10th, 2002, over 4 sites in the Brazilian territory: Campo Grande (20.5o S, 54.7o W, -22.3o dip angle), Alta Floresta (9.7oS, 56.0o W, -3.38o dip angle), Cachimbo (9.5oS, 54.8oW, -4.25o dip angle) and Boa Vista (2.8o N, 60.7o W, -22.0o dip angle). Many ionospheric sounding instruments including GPS receivers, VHF receivers, all-sky imagers, digital ionosondes, and VHF radar were installed at the COPEX stations. In this work we will focus on the GPS (1.575 GHz) and VHF (240 MHz) receivers’ data. These receivers were set up to detect the equatorial scintillations and to measure ionospheric scintillation pattern velocities. Then, the zonal irregularity drift velocities were estimated by applying a methodology that corrects the effects due to vertical drifts and the geometrical factors. The amplitude scintillations and the zonal velocities measured by these two methods are compared. The results reveal the coexistence of kilometer (VHF) and hundred-meter scale (L-band) irregularities into the underlying depletion structure. However, the VHF scintillations are more intense and tend to cease latter than the GPS L-band scintillations. Over the conjugate site of Campo Grande the average zonal velocity at VHF was consistently larger than the estimated GPS velocities, whereas over Boa Vista they are comparable. The hundred meter scale structures causing L-band scintillations seem to be drifting with comparable velocities over both the conjugate points, whereas the kilometer scale structures appear to be drifting over Campo Grande with larger velocities until about local midnight. Complementary data of ionospheric parameters scaled from collocated digital ionosondes and results published in previous COPEX reports are used in the analysis.

  5. Linking River Morphology to Larval Drift of an Endangered Sturgeon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazzetta, L.; Jacobson, R. B.; Braaten, P. J.; Elliott, C. M.; Reuter, J. M.

    2009-12-01

    Computational models developed to calculate longitudinal advection and dispersion of contaminants in rivers have potential application in predicting larval drift. A critical component of this family of models is the longitudinal dispersion coefficient which parameterizes the processes that retain and distribute a contaminant along the river. Here we evaluate the potential for longitudinal dispersion coefficients to characterize larval drift of the endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) in various segments of the free-flowing Missouri River ranging from Missouri to Montana. We randomly selected transects of acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) flow velocity data from reach-scale datasets that were collected in the Missouri River from 2002-2008 under comparable discharge conditions. We used previously developed equations (Kim and others, 2007) to calculate a one-dimensional longitudinal dispersion coefficient for each ADCP transect. We compared the statistical distributions of these coefficients for 2 to 6 reaches chosen from each of six geomorphic segments of the Missouri. Distributional patterns indicate that dispersion coefficients relate to observed variation in hydrology and geomorphology of the channel at the segment scale. Although one-dimensional dispersion analysis demonstrates potential as a tool for estimating pallid sturgeon larval drift and habitat suitability in unchannelized portions of the Missouri River, the large spatial variation in calculated dispersion coefficients resulting from river-training structures (wing dikes) in the Lower Missouri complicates selection of appropriate values. Recent data indicating that pallid sturgeon larvae occur in greater concentration in the thalweg indicate that the majority of larvae may bypass these structures and their associated retentive eddies. A two-dimensional space-averaged dispersion calculation and analysis may more accurately characterize the potential drift times and distances of larval transport. In addition, comparison of transport predicted using ADCP-calculated dispersion coefficients with larval drift data from a side channel near Culbertson, Montana (Braaten et al., 2008), and a dye-trace study on the mainstem channel in Montana (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, unpub. data, 2004) will help evaluate the usefulness of ADCP-calculated dispersion coefficients in predicting larval drift in mainstem segments.

  6. Magnetohydrodynamic slow mode with drifting He{sup ++}: Implications for coronal seismology and the solar wind

    SciTech Connect

    Hollweg, Joseph V.; Verscharen, Daniel; Chandran, Benjamin D. G. E-mail: daniel.verscharen@unh.edu

    2014-06-10

    The MHD slow mode wave has application to coronal seismology, MHD turbulence, and the solar wind where it can be produced by parametric instabilities. We consider analytically how a drifting ion species (e.g. He{sup ++}) affects the linear slow mode wave in a mainly electron-proton plasma, with potential consequences for the aforementioned applications. Our main conclusions are as follows. 1. For wavevectors highly oblique to the magnetic field, we find solutions that are characterized by very small perturbations of total pressure. Thus, our results may help to distinguish the MHD slow mode from kinetic Alfvén waves and non-propagating pressure-balanced structures, which can also have very small total pressure perturbations. 2. For small ion concentrations, there are solutions that are similar to the usual slow mode in an electron-proton plasma, and solutions that are dominated by the drifting ions, but for small drifts the wave modes cannot be simply characterized. 3. Even with zero ion drift, the standard dispersion relation for the highly oblique slow mode cannot be used with the Alfvén speed computed using the summed proton and ion densities, and with the sound speed computed from the summed pressures and densities of all species. 4. The ions can drive a non-resonant instability under certain circumstances. For low plasma beta, the threshold drift can be less than that required to destabilize electromagnetic modes, but damping from the Landau resonance can eliminate this instability altogether, unless T{sub e} /T{sub p} >> 1.

  7. A space-charge-neutralizing plasma for beam drift compression P.K. Roya,, P.A. Seidl a

    E-print Network

    Gilson, Erik

    A space-charge-neutralizing plasma for beam drift compression P.K. Roya,Ã, P.A. Seidl a , A. Anders online 7 April 2009 Keywords: Beam Ion Neutralization Compression Plasma Plasma probe Plasma density a b the space- charge forces of the ion beam are neutralized. Recently, a system of four cathodic arc plasma

  8. 40 CFR 1065.550 - Gas analyzer range validation, drift validation, and drift correction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Gas analyzer range validation, drift... Over Specified Duty Cycles § 1065.550 Gas analyzer range validation, drift validation, and drift correction. (a) Range validation. If an analyzer operated above 100% of its range at any time during the...

  9. 40 CFR 1065.550 - Gas analyzer range validation, drift validation, and drift correction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gas analyzer range validation, drift... Over Specified Duty Cycles § 1065.550 Gas analyzer range validation, drift validation, and drift correction. (a) Range validation. If an analyzer operated above 100% of its range at any time during the...

  10. The Genetic Drift Inventory: A Tool for Measuring What Advanced Undergraduates Have Mastered about Genetic Drift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Rebecca M.; Andrews, Tessa C.; McElhinny, Teresa L.; Mead, Louise S.; Abraham, Joel K.; Thanukos, Anna; Perez, Kathryn E.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding genetic drift is crucial for a comprehensive understanding of biology, yet it is difficult to learn because it combines the conceptual challenges of both evolution and randomness. To help assess strategies for teaching genetic drift, we have developed and evaluated the Genetic Drift Inventory (GeDI), a concept inventory that measures…

  11. Correlation ion mobility spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Pfeifer, Kent B. (Los Lunas, NM); Rohde, Steven B. (Corrales, NM)

    2008-08-26

    Correlation ion mobility spectrometry (CIMS) uses gating modulation and correlation signal processing to improve IMS instrument performance. Closely spaced ion peaks can be resolved by adding discriminating codes to the gate and matched filtering for the received ion current signal, thereby improving sensitivity and resolution of an ion mobility spectrometer. CIMS can be used to improve the signal-to-noise ratio even for transient chemical samples. CIMS is especially advantageous for small geometry IMS drift tubes that can otherwise have poor resolution due to their small size.

  12. A Study of a Mini-drift GEM Tracking Detector

    E-print Network

    B. Azmoun; B. DiRuzza; A. Franz; A. Kiselev; R. Pak; M. Phipps; M. L. Purschke; C. Woody

    2015-10-06

    A GEM tracking detector with an extended drift region has been studied as part of an effort to develop new tracking detectors for future experiments at RHIC and for the Electron Ion Collider that is being planned for BNL or JLAB. The detector consists of a triple GEM stack with a small drift region that was operated in a mini TPC type configuration. Both the position and arrival time of the charge deposited in the drift region were measured on the readout plane which allowed the reconstruction of a short vector for the track traversing the chamber. The resulting position and angle information from the vector could then be used to improve the position resolution of the detector for larger angle tracks, which deteriorates rapidly with increasing angle for conventional GEM tracking detectors using only charge centroid information. Two types of readout planes were studied. One was a COMPASS style readout plane with 400 micron pitch XY strips and the other consisted of 2x10mm2 chevron pads. The detector was studied in test beams at Fermilab and CERN, along with additional measurements in the lab, in order to determine its position and angular resolution for incident track angles up to 45 degrees. Several algorithms were studied for reconstructing the vector using the position and timing information in order to optimize the position and angular resolution of the detector for the different readout planes. Applications for large angle tracking detectors at RHIC and EIC are also discussed.

  13. A Study of a Mini-drift GEM Tracking Detector

    E-print Network

    Azmoun, B; Franz, A; Kiselev, A; Pak, R; Phipps, M; Purschke, M L; Woody, C

    2015-01-01

    A GEM tracking detector with an extended drift region has been studied as part of an effort to develop new tracking detectors for future experiments at RHIC and for the Electron Ion Collider that is being planned for BNL or JLAB. The detector consists of a triple GEM stack with a small drift region that was operated in a mini TPC type configuration. Both the position and arrival time of the charge deposited in the drift region were measured on the readout plane which allowed the reconstruction of a short vector for the track traversing the chamber. The resulting position and angle information from the vector could then be used to improve the position resolution of the detector for larger angle tracks, which deteriorates rapidly with increasing angle for conventional GEM tracking detectors using only charge centroid information. Two types of readout planes were studied. One was a COMPASS style readout plane with 400 micron pitch XY strips and the other consisted of 2x10mm2 chevron pads. The detector was studie...

  14. Kinetic Alfven waves and electron physics. I. Generation from ion-ion streaming

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, L.; Winske, D.; Daughton, W.; Bowers, K. J.

    2007-06-15

    Short-wavelength kinetic Alfven waves (KAWs) that propagate at large angles with respect to the magnetic field and interact with both electrons and ions have broad application to laboratory and space plasmas. Using linear Vlasov theory and particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, the generation of KAWs by ion-ion streaming along the magnetic field at relatively low (2.5x the Alfven speed) and low plasma beta (ratio of plasma thermal pressure to magnetic pressure {<=}0.1) are investigated. The instability has been examined previously using linear theory and a hybrid simulation method in which the ions are treated kinetically and the electrons as an adiabatic fluid. In this work it is found that when the electron Landau resonance factor or equivalently the ratio of the Alfven speed to the electron thermal speed is large enough, the interaction of KAWs with the electrons produces strong parallel electron heating. The electron parallel heating in turn increases both the wave growth rates and the range of unstable modes of the instability, leading to enhanced saturated wave levels, increased perpendicular ion heating and larger spatial fluctuations in the drift speeds of the ions that appear as greater reductions of relative ion streaming in localized regions, compared to results from hybrid simulations. The interaction of KAWs with the electrons shifts from the bulk to the tail of the parallel velocity distribution at larger values of the resonant factor, corresponding to situations at lower electron beta or more obliquely propagating waves. Ion-to-electron mass ratio effects are considered together with the scaling to electron beta and the resonant factor in order to apply the results to systems of interest. In particular, KAWs and electron kinetics are discussed in the context of oblique slow shock formation and structure [Yin et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 062105 (2007)].

  15. What drives the southward drift of sea ice in the Sea of Okhotsk?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simizu, Daisuke; Ohshima, Kay I.; Ono, Jun; Fukamachi, Yasushi; Mizuta, Genta

    2014-08-01

    The Sea of Okhotsk is the southernmost sea-ice zone with sizable ice. It is widely believed that the prevailing northwesterly wind and the southward East Sakhalin Current (ESC) are the two main factors that drive the southward drift of sea ice. However, the relative contributions of these factors have not been understood. In this paper, by using the current and ice-drift data measured with the moored Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler, a 3-D ocean model simulation, objective analysis data of the wind, and satellite sea-ice data, we examine to what degree and how the ice drift is determined by the wind and ocean current. From a linear regression of the observed ice drift, ocean current, and wind, the wind-forced component of the ice drift was best fitted when sea ice is assumed to move with a speed of 1.6% of the geostrophic wind with a turning angle of 17.6° to the left of the wind. Such a relationship was adopted as the wind-drift component for all sea-ice pixels detected from Special Sensor Microwave Imager data. For the ocean-forced component of the ice drift, we adopted the current at 20 m depth from a numerical model simulation that reproduces well the ESC and its variability. We then evaluated the sea-ice drift over 46-54°N during 1998-2005. For the southward drift of sea ice, the contribution of the wind component is found to be larger than the oceanic component, although the ocean contribution becomes larger, typically comparable to the wind contribution, near the coast and in the northern region where the ESC is stronger. We estimated the average annual cumulative southward ice transport to be 3.0 ± 0.9 × 1011 m3 at 53°N. This ice transport is comparable to the annual discharge of the Amur River. The ratio of wind to oceanic components in the transport is estimated to be ?1.2-1.8. We also conducted ice-drift simulations based on the modeled current velocity and the assumed wind drift of 1.5% geostrophic wind with a turning angle of 15° to the left. The simulations reproduce well the ice drift north of 47°N but not south of 47°N, likely due to the poor representation of the current system at the latter, underevaluation of the wind factor near the ice edges, and the neglect of ice formation and melt.

  16. Electron cloud effects in intense, ion beam linacs theory and experimental planning for heavy-ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Molvik, A.W.; Cohen, R.H.; Lund, S.M.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Lee, E.P.; Prost, L.R.; Seidl, P.A.; Vay, Jean-Luc

    2002-05-21

    Heavy-ion accelerators for HIF will operate at high aperture-fill factors with high beam current and long pulses. This will lead to beam ions impacting walls: liberating gas molecules and secondary electrons. Without special preparation a large fractional electron population ({approx}>1%) is predicted in the High-Current Experiment (HCX), but wall conditioning and other mitigation techniques should result in substantial reduction. Theory and particle-in-cell simulations suggest that electrons, from ionization of residual and desorbed gas and secondary electrons from vacuum walls, will be radially trapped in the {approx}4 kV ion beam potential. Trapped electrons can modify the beam space charge, vacuum pressure, ion transport dynamics, and halo generation, and can potentially cause ion-electron instabilities. Within quadrupole (and dipole) magnets, the longitudinal electron flow is limited to drift velocities (E x B and {del}B) and the electron density can vary azimuthally, radially, and longitudinally. These variations can cause centroid misalignment, emittance growth and halo growth. Diagnostics are being developed to measure the energy and flux of electrons and gas evolved from walls, and the net charge and gas density within magnetic quadrupoles, as well as the their effect on the ion beam.

  17. Magnetohydrodynamic Slow Mode with Drifting He$^{++}$: Implications for Coronal Seismology and the Solar Wind

    E-print Network

    Hollweg, Joseph V; Chandran, Benjamin D G

    2014-01-01

    The MHD slow mode wave has application to coronal seismology, MHD turbulence, and the solar wind where it can be produced by parametric instabilities. We consider analytically how a drifting ion species (e.g. He$^{++}$) affects the linear slow mode wave in a mainly electron-proton plasma, with potential consequences for the aforementioned applications. Our main conclusions are: 1. For wavevectors highly oblique to the magnetic field, we find solutions that are characterized by very small perturbations of total pressure. Thus, our results may help to distinguish the MHD slow mode from kinetic Alfv\\'en waves and non-propagating pressure-balanced structures, which can also have very small total pressure perturbations. 2. For small ion concentrations, there are solutions that are similar to the usual slow mode in an electron-proton plasma, and solutions that are dominated by the drifting ions, but for small drifts the wave modes cannot be simply characterized. 3. Even with zero ion drift, the standard dispersion ...

  18. Lithium drifted silicon detector fabrication on gettered Floating-Zone silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, J.T.; Wong, Y.K.; Derhacobian, N.; Haller, E.E.

    1993-11-01

    A gettering procedure using phosphorus doped glass is shown to remove lithium-ion precipitation sites from p-type Floating-Zone (FZ) silicon. A model involving interaction between grown-in vacancies and oxidation-injected silicon interstitials is proposed to explain the gettering procedure. Examples of silicon lithium-drifted detectors fabricated on ungettered and gettered FZ silicons are presented.

  19. Lithium drifted silicon detector fabrication on gettered floating-zone silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, J.T.; Wong, Y.K.; Derhacobian, N.; Haller, E.E. )

    1994-08-01

    A gettering procedure using phosphorus doped glass is shown to remove lithium-ion precipitation sites from p-type Floating-Zone (FZ) silicon. A model involving interaction between grown-in vacancies and oxidation-injected silicon interstitials is proposed to explain the gettering procedure. Examples of silicon lithium-drifted detectors fabricated on ungettering and gettered FZ silicons are presented.

  20. Formation of isobaric discontinuities in large-scale flute drift motions

    SciTech Connect

    Dreizin, Y.A.; Sokolov, E.P.

    1982-05-01

    The flute drift motion in MHD-stable plasma configurations with closed lines of force is analyzed qualitatively. The onset of this motion can lead to isobaric discontinuities in experimentally observable quantitites: the electric potential and the electron and ion densities and temperatures.

  1. Miniaturized Ion Mobility Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaye, William J. (Inventor); Stimac, Robert M. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    By utilizing the combination of a unique electronic ion injection control circuit in conjunction with a particularly designed drift cell construction, the instantly disclosed ion mobility spectrometer achieves increased levels of sensitivity, while achieving significant reductions in size and weight. The instant IMS is of a much simpler and easy to manufacture design, rugged and hermetically sealed, capable of operation at high temperatures to at least 250.degree. C., and is uniquely sensitive, particularly to explosive chemicals.

  2. The DRIFT Dark Matter Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Eric

    2010-11-01

    The DRIFT dark matter detector is a 1 cubic meter scale TPC with direction sensitivity to WIMP recoils operating in the Boulby Mine in England. Results on a spin-dependent limit from data taken underground with a 30 Torr CS2 - 10 Torr CF4 gas mixture will be presented. The primary source of backgrounds in this data are from low-energy nuclear recoil events due to radon progeny plated out on the detector's wire central cathode. Here we describe a dramatic background reduction resulting from the installation of a new thin-film central cathode. We also describe a new technique which promises to fully fiducialize the chamber, potentially eliminating this source of background entirely.

  3. Banana drift transport in tokamaks with ripple

    SciTech Connect

    Linsker, R.; Boozer, A.H.

    1981-04-01

    Ripple transport in tokamaks is discussed for the banana drift collisionality regime, which lies below the ripple plateau regime treated earlier. The physical mechanisms that dominate banana drift transport are found to differ from those considered in previous work on this regime, and the resulting transport coefficients can consequently differ by several orders of magnitude.

  4. Biology Undergraduates' Misconceptions about Genetic Drift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, T. M.; Price, R. M.; Mead, L. S.; McElhinny, T. L.; Thanukos, A.; Perez, K. E.; Herreid, C. F.; Terry, D. R.; Lemons, P. P.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores biology undergraduates' misconceptions about genetic drift. We use qualitative and quantitative methods to describe students' definitions, identify common misconceptions, and examine differences before and after instruction on genetic drift. We identify and describe five overarching categories that include 16 distinct…

  5. Electron transport in closed EB drift devices

    E-print Network

    Kaganovich, Igor

    1 Electron transport in closed E×B drift devices Michael Keidar University of Michigan Isak I ­ Magnetrons ­ Hall thruster · Electron transport issues overview · Electron transport model ­ near wall duration: 250 ms bias voltage: 2-8 kV magnetic field: 0-0.12 T ExB #12;4 Electron drift To control sheath

  6. Spray Drift Issues and Technologies for Mitigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Herbicide-induced plant damage due to off-target spray drift has become a major problem in some regions prompting States to take regulatory action regarding drift mitigation. For example, the Arkansas Plant Board has proposed new regulations regarding spray of Glyphosate and 2, 4-D. These regulation...

  7. Spray drift reduction test method correlation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ASTM Standard E609 Terminology Relating to Pesticides defines drift as “The physical movement of an agrochemical through the air at the time of application or soon thereafter to any non or off target site.” Since there are many commercial tank mix adjuvants designed to reduce spray drift, ASTM esta...

  8. Generation of hydrogen isotope ions in a vacuum arc discharge with a composite zirconium deuteride cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barengolts, S. A.; Karnaukhov, D. Yu.; Nikolaev, A. G.; Savkin, K. P.; Oks, E. M.; Uimanov, I. V.; Frolova, V. P.; Shmelev, D. L.; Yushkov, G. Yu.

    2015-07-01

    The mass and charge composition of the plasma of a vacuum arc with thick and film-type zirconium cathodes containing deuterium and hydrogen is investigated experimentally and theoretically. For a thick cathode, it is shown that such a system ensures effective generation of deuterium ions with an integral fraction per arc current pulse of approximately 60%; the maximal concentration of deuterium is observed at the initial stage of the arc operation. In the case of the film cathode, such a concentration of hydrogen isotopes can be attained for currents exceeding 400 A and for an arc duration at a level of a few tens of microseconds. Occlusion of deuterium in the cathode leads to additional energy expenditures for its ionization and, as a consequence, a decrease in the average charge of ions of the cathode material in the arc plasma. Deuterium in the cathode spot is ionized completely, and the drift velocity of its ions almost coincides with the velocity of ions of the cathode material due to the high frequency of ion-ion collisions in the cathode region. The interaction of a dense (˜1020 cm-3) cathode-spot plasma with microinhomogeneities of the cathode surface leads to the development of thermal instability in them over time intervals that do not exceed tens of nanoseconds.

  9. The magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability and flute waves at the ion Larmor radius scales

    SciTech Connect

    Onishchenko, O. G.; Pokhotelov, O. A.; Stenflo, L.; Shukla, P. K.

    2011-02-15

    The theory of flute waves (with arbitrary spatial scales compared to the ion Larmor radius) driven by the Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) is developed. Both the kinetic and hydrodynamic models are considered. In this way we have extended the previous analysis of RTI carried out in the long wavelength limit. It is found that complete finite ion Larmor radius stabilization is absent when the ion diamagnetic velocity attains the ion gravitation drift velocity. The hydrodynamic approach allowed us to deduce a new set of nonlinear equations for flute waves with arbitrary spatial scales. It is shown that the previously deduced equations are inadequate when the wavelength becomes of the order of the ion Larmor radius. In the linear limit a Fourier transform of these equations yields the dispersion relation which in the so-called Pade approximation corresponds to the results of the fully kinetic treatment. The development of such a theory gives us enough grounds for an adequate description of the RTI stabilization by the finite ion Larmor radius effect.

  10. 4DoF Drift Free Navigation Using Inertial Cues and Optical Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, Stephan; Brockers, Roland; Matthies, Larry

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a novel approach in fusing optical flow with inertial cues (3D acceleration and 3D angular velocities) in order to navigate a Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) drift free in 4DoF and metric velocity. Our approach only requires two consecutive images with a minimum of three feature matches. It does not require any (point) map nor any type of feature history. Thus it is an inherently failsafe approach that is immune to map and feature-track failures. With these minimal requirements we show in real experiments that the system is able to navigate drift free in all angles including yaw, in one metric position axis, and in 3D metric velocity. Furthermore, it is a power-on-and-go system able to online self-calibrate the inertial biases, the visual scale and the full 6DoF extrinsic transformation parameters between camera and IMU.

  11. FIELD INVESTIGATION OF THE DRIFT SHADOW

    SciTech Connect

    G.W. Su; T.J. Kneafsey

    2006-02-01

    A drift shadow is an area immediately beneath an underground void that, in theory, will be relatively drier than the surrounding rock mass. Numerical and analytical models of water flow through unsaturated rock predict the existence of a drift shadow, but field tests confirming the existence of the drift shadow have yet to be performed. Proving the existence of drift shadows and understanding their hydrologic and transport characteristics could provide a better understanding of how contaminants move in the subsurface if released from waste emplacement drifts such as the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. We describe the field program that will be used to investigate the existence of a drift shadow--and the corresponding hydrological process at the Hazel-Atlas silica-sand mine located at the Black Diamond Mines Regional Preserve in Antioch, California. The location and configuration of this mine makes it an excellent site to observe and measure drift shadow characteristics. The mine is located in a porous sandstone unit of the Domengine formation, an approximately 230 meter thick series of interbedded Eocene-age shales, coals, and massive-bedded sandstones. The mining method used at the mine required the development of two parallel drifts, one above the other, driven along the strike of the mined sandstone stratum. This configuration provides the opportunity to introduce water into the rock mass in the upper drift and to observe and measure its flow around the underlying drift. The passive and active hydrologic tests to be performed are described. In the passive method, cores will be obtained in a radial pattern around a drift and will be sectioned and analyzed for in-situ water content using a gravimetric technique, as well as analyzed for chemistry. With the active hydrologic test, water will be introduced into the upper drift of the two parallel drifts and the flow of the water will be tracked as it passes near the bottom drift. Tensiometers, electrical resistance probes, neutron probes, and ground penetrating radar may be used to monitor the change in moisture content/potential over time as water is released.

  12. Creating unstable velocity-space distributions with barium injections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pongratz, M. B.

    1983-01-01

    Ion velocity-space distributions resulting from barium injections from orbiting spacecraft and shaped charges are discussed. Active experiments confirm that anomalous ionization processes may operate, but photoionization accounts for the production of the bulk of the barium ions. Pitch-angle diffusion and/or velocity-space diffusion may occur, but observations of barium ions moving upwards against gravity suggests that the ions retain a significant enough fraction of their initial perpendicular velocity to provide a mirror force. The barium ion plasmas should have a range of Alfven Mach numbers and plasma betas. Because the initial conditions can be predicted these active experiments should permit testing plasma instability hypotheses.

  13. Ground Control for Emplacement Drifts for LA

    SciTech Connect

    Y. Sun

    2004-07-09

    The purpose of this calculation is to analyze the stability of repository emplacement drifts during the preclosure period, and to provide a final ground support method for emplacement drifts for the License Application (LA). The scope of the work includes determination of input parameter values and loads, selection of appropriate process and methods for the calculation, application of selected methods, such as empirical or analytical, to the calculation, development and execution of numerical models, and evaluation of results. Results from this calculation are limited to use for design of the emplacement drifts and the final ground support system installed in these drifts. The design of non-emplacement openings and their ground support systems is covered in the ''Ground Control for Non-Emplacement Drifts for LA'' (BSC 2004c).

  14. Cascaded Kalman and particle filters for photogrammetry based gyroscope drift and robot attitude estimation.

    PubMed

    Sadaghzadeh N, Nargess; Poshtan, Javad; Wagner, Achim; Nordheimer, Eugen; Badreddin, Essameddin

    2014-03-01

    Based on a cascaded Kalman-Particle Filtering, gyroscope drift and robot attitude estimation method is proposed in this paper. Due to noisy and erroneous measurements of MEMS gyroscope, it is combined with Photogrammetry based vision navigation scenario. Quaternions kinematics and robot angular velocity dynamics with augmented drift dynamics of gyroscope are employed as system state space model. Nonlinear attitude kinematics, drift and robot angular movement dynamics each in 3 dimensions result in a nonlinear high dimensional system. To reduce the complexity, we propose a decomposition of system to cascaded subsystems and then design separate cascaded observers. This design leads to an easier tuning and more precise debugging from the perspective of programming and such a setting is well suited for a cooperative modular system with noticeably reduced computation time. Kalman Filtering (KF) is employed for the linear and Gaussian subsystem consisting of angular velocity and drift dynamics together with gyroscope measurement. The estimated angular velocity is utilized as input of the second Particle Filtering (PF) based observer in two scenarios of stochastic and deterministic inputs. Simulation results are provided to show the efficiency of the proposed method. Moreover, the experimental results based on data from a 3D MEMS IMU and a 3D camera system are used to demonstrate the efficiency of the method. PMID:24342270

  15. Sheath-Induced Instabilities in Plasmas with E0 B0 Drift A. I. Smolyakov,1,* W. Frias,1

    E-print Network

    to the E0 Â B0 electron drift, while ions do not feel the magnetic field due to their large Larmor radius with collisions, applied magnetic field B0 ¼ B0 ^z, and external electric field E0 ¼ E0 ^x. In absenceSheath-Induced Instabilities in Plasmas with E0 Â B0 Drift A. I. Smolyakov,1,* W. Frias,1 I. D

  16. Drift of particles in self-similar systems and its Liouvillian interpretation

    E-print Network

    Felipe Barra; Thomas Gilbert; Mauricio Romo

    2006-01-19

    We study the dynamics of classical particles in different classes of spatially extended self-similar systems, consisting of (i) a self-similar Lorentz billiard channel, (ii) a self-similar graph, and (iii) a master equation. In all three systems the particles typically drift at constant velocity and spread ballistically. These transport properties are analyzed in terms of the spectral properties of the operator evolving the probability densities. For systems (i) and (ii), we explain the drift from the properties of the Pollicott-Ruelle resonance spectrum and corresponding eigenvectors

  17. ARCTIC SEA ICE EXTENT AND DRIFT, MODELED AS A VISCOUS FLUID.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ling, Chi-Hai; Parkinson, Claire L.

    1986-01-01

    A dynamic/thermodynamic numerical model of sea ice has been used to calculate the yearly cycle of sea ice thicknesses, concentrations, and velocities in the Arctic Ocean and surrounding seas. The model combines the formulations of two previous models, taking the thermodynamics and momentum equations from the model of Parkinson and Washington and adding the constitutive equation and equation of state from the model of Ling, Rasmussen, and Campbell. Simulated annually averaged ice drift vectors compare well with observed ice drift from the Arctic Ocean Buoy Program.

  18. The molecular velocity of sound. [aqueous solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auslaender, D.; Onitiu, L.

    1974-01-01

    The molecular velocity of sound was calculated according to Rao's formula and the temperature and concentration dependences of this value were studied in aqueous solutions of alkali and alkaline-earth halides. Study of relative association brought to light characteristic effects of ions. The variation of the relative association can be explained by a breaking of hydrogen bonds by ions and thermal agitation.

  19. Positive and negative streamers in ambient air: modeling evolution and velocities

    E-print Network

    Luque, Alejandro; Ebert, Ute

    2008-01-01

    We simulate short positive and negative streamers in air at standard temperature and pressure. They evolve in homogeneous electric fields or emerge from needle electrodes with voltages of 10 to 20 kV. The streamer velocity at given streamer length depends only weakly on the initial ionization seed, except in the case of negative streamers in homogeneous fields. We characterize the streamers by length, head radius, head charge and field enhancement. We show that the velocity of positive streamers is mainly determined by their radius and in quantitative agreement with recent experimental results both for radius and velocity. The velocity of negative streamers is dominated by electron drift in the enhanced field; in the low local fields of the present simulations, it is little influenced by photo-ionization. Though negative streamer fronts always move at least with the electron drift velocity in the local field, this drift motion broadens the streamer head, decreases the field enhancement and ultimately leads to...

  20. Observations of the structure and vertical transport of the polar upper ionosphere with the EISCAT VHF radar. II - First investigations of the topside O(+) and H(+) vertical ion flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Jian; Blanc, Michel; Alcayde, Denis; Barakat, Abdullah R.; Fontanari, Jean; Blelly, Pierre-Louis; Kofman, Wlodek

    1992-01-01

    EISCAT VHF radar was used to investigate the vertical flows of H(+) and O(+) ions in the topside high-latitude ionosphere. The radar transmitted a single long pulse to probe the ionosphere from 300 to 1200 km altitude. A calculation scheme is developed to deduce the H(+) drift velocity from the coupled momentum equations of H(+), O(+), and the electrons, using the radar data and a neutral atmosphere model. The H(+) vertical drift velocity was expressed as a linear combination of the different forces acting on the plasma. Two nights, one very quiet, one with moderate magnetic activity, were used to test the technique and to provide a first study of the morphology and orders of magnitudes of ion outflow fluxes over Tromso. O(+) vertical flows were found to be downward or close to zero most of the time in the topside ionosphere; they appeared to be strongly correlated with magnetic activity during the disturbed night. H(+) topside ion fluxes were always directed upward, with velocity reaching 500-1000 m/s. A permanent outflow of H(+) ions is inferred.

  1. Early time evolution of negative ion clouds and electron density depletions produced during electron attachment chemical release experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scales, W. A.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Ganguli, G.

    1994-01-01

    Two-dimensional electrostatic particle-in-cell simulations are used to study the early time evolution of electron depletions and negative ion clouds produced during electron attachment chemical releases in the ionosphere. The simulation model considers the evolution in the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field and a three-species plasma that contains electrons, positive ions, and also heavy negative ions that result as a by-product of the electron attachment reaction. The early time evolution (less than the negative ion cyclotron period) of the system shows that a negative charge surplus initially develops outside of the depletion boundary as the heavy negative ions move across the boundary. The electrons are initially restricted from moving into the depletion due to the magnetic field. An inhomogenous electric field develops across the boundary layer due to this charge separation. A highly sheared electron flow velocity develops in the depletion boundary due to E x B and Delta-N x B drifts that result from electron density gradients and this inhomogenous electric field. Structure eventually develops in the depletion boundary layer due to low-frequency electrostatic waves that have growth times shorter than the negative ion cyclotron period. It is proposed that these waves are most likely produced by the electron-ion hybrid instability that results from sufficiently large shears in the electron flow velocity.

  2. Modeling Ring Current Ion Anisotropy and Plasma Instability in Non-Dipolar Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordanova, V. K.; Chen, L.; Thorne, R. M.; Zaharia, S. G.; Welling, D. T.; Thomsen, M. F.

    2010-12-01

    Intense plasma waves, which may cause significant acceleration or loss of energetic particles, are excited in the inner magnetosphere during magnetically active periods. The free energy for these waves is supplied from the anisotropic ring current ion and electron distributions. We evaluate the spatial and temporal development of the ring current during several high-speed streams driven geomagnetic storms, using our newly improved kinetic model (RAM) which has been extended for non-dipolar magnetic field geometry. The RAM is two-way coupled with a 3-D equilibrium code that calculates self-consistently the magnetic field (SCB) in force balance with the anisotropic ring current distributions. The plasma boundary conditions of RAM-SCB are specified from LANL data measured at geosynchronous orbit. We investigate the effects of non-dipolar magnetic field configuration on ring current evolution like the formation of ion ring distributions due to energy dependent drifts, charge exchange losses, and injection boundaries between open and closed drift paths. We find that as strong depressions in the self-consistent magnetic field develop on the nightside during the main phase of a storm, the particles’ gradient-curvature drift velocity increases, the ion fluxes are reduced and the ring current is confined close to Earth. As a result of drift-shell splitting, the pitch angle anisotropy decreases at large L shells on the nightside and increases on the dayside. We calculate the linear growth rate of EMIC and magnetosonic waves in the equatorial plane and identify regions for potential excitation of these plasma instabilities in the inner magnetosphere during storm time.

  3. Initial Results of DC Electric Fields, Associated Plasma Drifts, Magnetic Fields, and Plasma Waves Observed on the C/NOFS Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfaff, R.; Freudenreich, H.; Bromund, K.; Klenzing, J.; Rowland, D.; Maynard, N.

    2010-01-01

    Initial results are presented from the Vector Electric Field Investigation (VEFI) on the Air Force Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) satellite, a mission designed to understand, model, and forecast the presence of equatorial ionospheric irregularities. The VEFI instrument includes a vector DC electric field detector, a fixed-bias Langmuir probe operating in the ion saturation regime, a flux gate magnetometer, an optical lightning detector, and associated electronics including a burst memory. Compared to data obtained during more active solar conditions, the ambient DC electric fields and their associated E x B drifts are variable and somewhat weak, typically < 1 mV/m. Although average drift directions show similarities to those previously reported, eastward/outward during day and westward/downward at night, this pattern varies significantly with longitude and is not always present. Daytime vertical drifts near the magnetic equator are largest after sunrise, with smaller average velocities after noon. Little or no pre-reversal enhancement in the vertical drift near sunset is observed, attributable to the solar minimum conditions creating a much reduced neutral dynamo at the satellite altitude. The nighttime ionosphere is characterized by larger amplitude, structured electric fields, even where the plasma density appears nearly quiescent. Data from successive orbits reveal that the vertical drifts and plasma density are both clearly organized with longitude. The spread-F density depletions and corresponding electric fields that have been detected thus far have displayed a preponderance to appear between midnight and dawn. Associated with the narrow plasma depletions that are detected are broad spectra of electric field and plasma density irregularities for which a full vector set of measurements is available for detailed study. Finally, the data set includes a wide range of ELF/VLF/HF oscillations corresponding to a variety of plasma waves, in particular banded ELF hiss, whistlers, and lower hybrid wave turbulence triggered by lightning-induced sferics. The VEFI data represents a new set of measurements that are germane to numerous fundamental aspects of the electrodynamics and irregularities inherent to the Earth's low latitude ionosphere.

  4. Ion drag force on a dust grain in a weakly ionized collisional plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Semenov, I. L.; Krivtsun, I. V.; Zagorodny, A. G.

    2013-01-15

    The problem of calculating the ion drag force acting on a dust grain immersed in a weakly ionized collisional plasma is studied using an approach based on the direct numerical solution of the Vlasov-Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook kinetic equations. A uniform subthermal flow of argon plasma past a spherical dust grain is considered. The numerical computations are performed for a wide range of plasma pressures. On the basis of the obtained results, the effect of ion-neutral collisions on the ion drag force is analyzed in a wide range of ion collisionality. In the collisionless limit, our results are shown to be in good agreement with the results obtained by the binary collision approach. As the ion collisionality increases, the ion drag force is found to decrease sharply and even become negative, i.e., directed oppositely to the plasma flow. A qualitative explanation of this effect is presented and a comparison of our results with those obtained using the drift diffusion approach is discussed. The velocity dependence of the ion drag force in the highly collisional regime is examined. The relationship between the ion and the neutral drag forces in the highly collisional limit is analyzed and the possibility of a superfluid-like behavior of dust grains is discussed.

  5. A Space-Charge-Neutralizing Plasma for Beam Drift Compression

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, P.K.; Seidl, P.A.; Anders, A.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Coleman, J.E.; Gilson, E.P.; Greenway, W.; Grote, D.P.; Jung, J.Y.; Leitner, M.; Lidia, S.M.; Logan, B.G.; Sefkow, A.B.; Waldron, W.L.; Welch, D.R.

    2008-08-01

    Simultaneous radial focusing and longitudinal compression of intense ion beams are being studied to heat matter to the warm dense matter, or strongly coupled plasma regime. Higher compression ratios can be achieved if the beam compression takes place in a plasma-filled drift region in which the space-charge forces of the ion beam are neutralized. Recently, a system of four cathodic arc plasma sources has been fabricated and the axial plasma density has been measured. A movable plasma probe array has been developed to measure the radial and axial plasma distribution inside and outside of a {approx} 10 cm long final focus solenoid (FFS). Measured data show that the plasma forms a thin column of diameter {approx} 5 mm along the solenoid axis when the FFS is powered with an 8T field. Measured plasma density of {ge} 1 x 10{sup 13} cm{sup -3} meets the challenge of n{sub p}/Zn{sub b} > 1, where n{sub p} and n{sub b} are the plasma and ion beam density, respectively, and Z is the mean ion charge state of the plasma ions.

  6. Seepage into drifts with mechanical degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Guomin; Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2002-09-01

    Seepage into drifts in unsaturated tuff is an important issue for the long-term performance of the potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Drifts in which waste packages will potentially be emplaced are subject to degradation in the form of rockfall from the drift ceiling induced by stress relief, seismic, or thermal effects. The objective of this study is to calculate seepage rates for various drift-degradation scenarios and for different values of percolation flux for the Topopah Spring middle nonlithophysal (Tptpmn) and the Topopah Spring lower lithophysal (Tptpll) units. Seepage calculations are conducted by (1) defining a heterogeneous permeability model on the drift scale that is consistent with field data, (2) selecting calibrated parameters associated with the Tptpmn and Tptpll units, and (3) simulating seepage on detailed degraded-drift profiles, which were obtained from a separate rock mechanics engineering analysis. The simulation results indicate (1) that the seepage threshold (i.e., the percolation flux at which seepage first occurs) is not significantly changed by drift degradation, and (2) the degradation-induced increase in seepage above the threshold is influenced more by the shape of the cavity created by rockfall than the rockfall volume.

  7. Nonlinear theory of collisionless trapped ion modes

    SciTech Connect

    Hahm, T.S.; Tang, W.M.

    1996-03-01

    A simplified two field nonlinear model for collisionless trapped-ion-mode turbulence has been derived from nonlinear bounce-averaged drift kinetic equations. The renormalized thermal diffusivity obtained from this analysis exhibits a Bohm-like scaling. A new nonlinearity associated with the neoclassical polarization density is found to introduce an isotope-dependent modification to this Bohm-like diffusivity. The asymptotic balance between the equilibrium variation and the finite banana width induced reduction of the fluctuation potential leads to the result that the radial correlation length decreases with increasing plasma current. Other important conclusions from the present analysis include the predictions that (i) the relative density fluctuation level {delta}n/n{sub 0} is lower than the conventional mixing length estimate, {Delta}r/L{sub n} (ii) the ion temperature fluctuation level {delta}T{sub i}/T{sub i} significantly exceeds the density fluctuation level {delta}n/n{sub 0}; and (iii) the parallel ion velocity fluctuation level {delta}v{sub i}{sub {parallel}}/v{sub Ti} is expected to be negligible.

  8. Investigation of electron beam parameters inside the drift region of plasma cathode electron gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Deepak K.; Pal, U. N.; Kumar, N.; Prajapati, J.; Kumar, M.; Prakash, Ram; Srivastava, V.

    2012-05-01

    This paper presents experimental studies for the production and propagation of an electron beam from a single gap pseudospark discharge based plasma cathode electron (PCE) gun. The generated electron beam has been successfully propagated for more than 25 cm in a gaseous environment without application of external guiding magnetic field at different operating conditions. The electron beam losses due to recombination with ions and collision with walls of drift space have been estimated. The electron beam profile has also been analyzed in the drift region of the gun.

  9. Heuristic Drift Elimination for Personnel Tracking Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borenstein, Johann; Ojeda, Lauro

    This paper pertains to the reduction of the effects of measurement errors in rate gyros used for tracking, recording, or monitoring the position of persons walking indoors. In such applications, bias drift and other gyro errors can degrade accuracy within minutes. To overcome this problem we developed the Heuristic Drift Elimination (HDE) method, that effectively corrects bias drift and other slow-changing errors. HDE works by making assumptions about walking in structured, indoor environments. The paper explains the heuristic assumptions and the HDE method, and shows experimental results. In typical applications, HDE maintains near-zero heading errors in walks of unlimited duration.

  10. FIELD INVESTIGATIONS OF THE DRIFT SHADOW

    SciTech Connect

    G. W. Su, T. J. Kneafsey, T. A. Ghezzehei, B. D. Marshall, and P. J. Cook

    2006-01-15

    The ''Drift Shadow'' is defined as the relatively drier region that forms below subsurface cavities or drifts in unsaturated rock. Its existence has been predicted through analytical and numerical models of unsaturated flow. However, these theoretical predictions have not been demonstrated empirically to date. In this project they plan to test the drift shadow concept through field investigations and compare our observations to simulations. Based on modeling studies they have an identified suitable site to perform the study at an inactive mine in a sandstone formation. Pretest modeling studies and preliminary characterization of the site are being used to develop the field scale tests.

  11. Drift and dispersion studies of ocean-dumped waste using Landsat imagery and current drogues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V.; Philpot, W. D.

    1981-01-01

    The drift and dispersion of industrial acid wastes dumped 64 km off the Delaware coast were investigated using 16 Landsat images. Waste plume drift velocities and spread rates were obtained, and principal component analysis was performed to discriminate the acid waste from other pollutants. Waste plumes averaged drifting rates from 0.59 km/hr to 3.39 km/hr into the southwest quadrant, and remained above the thermocline, which formed at depths ranging from 13 m to 24 m. Rapid waste movement toward shore occurred primarily during storms, although plumes were rapidly dispersed and diluted at spread rates in excess of 4 cm/sec. Landsat data analysis also indicates plume width increase of about 1.5 cm/sec during calm sea conditions, which is also in agreement with Falk's (1974) estimates of plume dilution.

  12. RIA Superconducting Drift Tube Linac R & D

    SciTech Connect

    J. Popielarski; J. Bierwagen; S. Bricker; C. Compton; J. DeLauter; P. Glennon; T. Grimm; W. Hartung; D. Harvell; M. Hodek; M. Johnson; F. Marti; P. Miller; A. Moblo; D. Norton; L. Popielarski; J. Wlodarczak; R. C. York; A. Zeller

    2009-05-22

    Cavity and cryomodule development work for a superconducting ion linac has been underway for several years at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory. The original application of the work was the proposed Rare Isotope Accelerator. At present, the work is being continued for use with the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB). The baseline linac for FRIB requires 4 types of superconducting cavities to cover the velocity range needed to accelerate an ion beam to #21; 200 MeV/u: 2 types of quarter-wave resonator (QWR) and 2 types of half-wave resonator (HWR). Superconducting solenoids are used for focussing. Active and passive shielding is required to ensure that the solenoids’ field does not degrade the cavity performance. First prototypes of both QWR types and one HWR type have been fabricated and tested. A prototype solenoid has been procured and tested. A test cryomodule has been fabricated and tested. The test cryomodule contains one QWR, one HWR, one solenoid, and one super-ferric quadrupole. This report covers the design, fabrication, and testing of this cryomodule

  13. The Upper Pliocene-Quaternary Evolution of the Ioffe Calcareous Contourite Drift, Western South Atlantic.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, E. V.; Borisov, D.; Murdmaa, I.; Levchenko, O. V.; Dmitrenko, O.; Emelyanov, E.

    2014-12-01

    The high-resolution seismic profiling during cruise 32 of the RV "Akademik Ioffe" (2010) discovered a large elongated contourite drift on the ridge of the Rio Grande fracture zone (Brazil Basin, western South Atlantic). This sedimentary body with a thickness up to 300 m, named Ioffe drift, is traced at water depth range from 3790 to 3980 m. Five seismic units are distinguished within the upper drift structure recorded to a depth of 60 mbsf. The seismic units are separated by angular discontinuities. The sediment core AI-2436 (25°51.6'S, 34°01.40'W, water depth 3800 m) retrieved near the drift top recovers about 6 m of nanno-foraminiferal ooze intercalated with foraminiferal sand interbeds. According to the planktonic foraminiferal and nannofossil stratigraphy, the sediment record embraces about 3 My of the Ioffe drift history, from the Late Pliocene to present. Absence of several foraminiferal and nannofossil zones in the core section indicates long-term hiatuses. Some zones are thicker here while others are reduced as compared to those on the nearby Rio Grande Rise. This suggests reworking of the biogenic material in the drift. The Ioffe drift was formed as a result of transport and deposition of biogenic calcareous material by the eastern branch of the Antarctic bottom water (AABW) flow. The biogenic calcareous material is mainly derived from the Rio Grande Rise where planktonic foraminiferal and nannofossil assemblages identical to those in core AI-2436 are studied at the DSDP site 516 (Barash et al., 1983). We suggest that the grain-size distribution of the calcareous sediments roughly corresponding to the foraminiferal/nannofossil ratio reflects the bottom currents velocity variations. Very high current velocities result in erosion and stratigraphic hiatuses. Angular unconformities in seismic profiles indicate episodes of intensified AABW flow velocity which led to the drift migration. The study was supported by RFBR, research projects 14-05-31357-mol_a, 14-05-00744-a. Barash, M.S., Oskina, N.S., Blyum, N., S., 1983. Quaternary biostratigraphy and surface paleotemperatures based on planktonic foraminifers. In: Barker, PF; Carlson, RL; Johnson, DA; et al. (eds.), Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project (U.S. Govt. Printing Office), 72, 849-869, doi:10.2973/dsdp.proc.72.142.1983

  14. H{sub 2} and N{sub 2} ionization and dissociative ionization by C{sup -} and O{sup -} ions at intermediate velocities: Direct and electron loss channels

    SciTech Connect

    Barros, A.L.F. de; Zappa, F.; Jalbert, Ginette; Coelho, L.F.S.; Castro Faria, N.V. de; Martinez, S.; Suarez, S.; Bernardi, G.

    2005-09-15

    Cross sections for single ionization and dissociative ionization of molecular targets under the impact of atomic anions were measured. Three systems were investigated, a H{sub 2} target with C{sup -} and O{sup -} projectiles, and a N{sub 2} target with O{sup -} projectiles. The velocity range was 1.07-2.14 a.u. Recoil ions originated from the target (H{sub 2}{sup +},H{sup +},N{sub 2}{sup +},N{sup +}, and N{sup 2+}) were measured in coincidence with projectiles in several final charge states (q=-1, 0, +1, and +2). These states, negative, neutral, and positive, respectively, correspond to direct, single, and multiple electron loss channels. Target ionization is mostly due to the projectile single electron loss and direct processes, while target fragmentation is dominated by the projectile double electron loss. These results point to both target ionization and projectile direct or single electron loss processes being dominated by large impact parameters, while fragmentation and multiple electron loss are associated to small impact parameters.

  15. Group velocity Roger Grimshaw

    E-print Network

    Group velocity Roger Grimshaw July 2, 2002 Abstract A short and largely traditional review, called the phase velocity, is dif- ferent from that of the group as a whole, this speed being called the group velocity. For water waves, the phase velocity is greater than the group velocity, except

  16. Aging effect in the BESIII drift chamber

    E-print Network

    M. Y. Dong; Q. L. Xiu; L. H. Wu; Z. Wu; Z. H. Qin; P. Shen; F. F. An; X. D. Ju; Y. Liu; K. Zhu; Q. Ouyang; Y. B. Chen

    2015-08-17

    As the main tracking detector of BESIII, the drift chamber works for accurate measurements of the tracking and the momentum of the charged particles decayed from the reaction of BEPCII e+ and e-. After operation six years, the drift chamber is suffering from aging problems due to huge beam related background. The gains of the cells in the first ten layers experience an obvious decrease, reaching a maximum of about 29% for the first layer cells. Two calculation methods for the gains change (Bhabha events and accumulated charges with 0.3% aging ratio for inner chamber cells) get almost the same results. For the Malter effect encountered by the inner drift chamber in Jan., 2012, about 0.2% water vapor was added to MDC gas mixture to solve this cathode aging problem. These results provide an important reference for MDC operation high voltage setting and the upgrade of the inner drift chamber.

  17. CROSS DRIFT ALCOVE/NICHE UTILITIES ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    S. Goodin

    1999-07-08

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide the design basis and general arrangement requirements of the non-potable water, waste water, compressed air and ventilation (post excavation) utilities required in support of the Cross Drift alcoves and niches.

  18. The Electron Drift Instrument for MMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torbert, R. B.; Vaith, H.; Granoff, M.; Widholm, M.; Gaidos, J. A.; Briggs, B. H.; Dors, I. G.; Chutter, M. W.; Macri, J.; Argall, M.; Bodet, D.; Needell, J.; Steller, M. B.; Baumjohann, W.; Nakamura, R.; Plaschke, F.; Ottacher, H.; Hasiba, J.; Hofmann, K.; Kletzing, C. A.; Bounds, S. R.; Dvorsky, R. T.; Sigsbee, K.; Kooi, V.

    2015-08-01

    The Electron Drift Instrument (EDI) on the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission measures the in-situ electric and magnetic fields using the drift of a weak beam of test electrons that, when emitted in certain directions, return to the spacecraft after one or more gyrations. This drift is related to the electric field and, to a lesser extent, the gradient in the magnetic field. Although these two quantities can be determined separately by use of different electron energies, for MMS regions of interest the magnetic field gradient contribution is negligible. As a by-product of the drift determination, the magnetic field strength and constraints on its direction are also determined. The present paper describes the scientific objectives, the experimental method, and the technical realization of the various elements of the instrument on MMS.

  19. Lower hybrid drift instability with temperature gradient in a perpendicular shock wave

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Y. M.; Wong, H. K.; Wu, C. S.

    1983-01-01

    Finite beta effects and an electron temperature gradient are included in the present study of the perpendicular bow shock geometry's lower hybrid instability, where the flute mode that is stable at the shock for constant electron temperature is destabilized in the case of a sufficiently great temperature gradient. Numerical solutions are given for cases in which the ion distribution is either drifting Maxwellian or consists of two Maxwellians, to represent the effect of reflected ions at the shock. A discussion is presented of the implications of results obtained for ion and electron heating and electron acceleration at the bow shock.

  20. Strange Attractors in Drift Wave Turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    J.L.V. Lewandowski

    2003-04-25

    A multi-grid part-in-cell algorithm for a shearless slab drift wave model with kinetic electrons is presented. The algorithm, which is based on an exact separation of adiabatic and nonadiabatic electron responses, is used to investigate the presence of strange attractors in drift wave turbulence. Although the simulation model has a large number of degrees of freedom, it is found that the strange attractor is low-dimensional and that it is strongly affected by dissipative (collisional) effects.