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Sample records for ion exclusion chromatography

  1. Ion-Exclusion Chromatography for Analyzing Organics in Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, Richard; Rutz, Jeffrey A.; Schultz, John R.

    2006-01-01

    A liquid-chromatography technique has been developed for use in the quantitative analysis of urea (and of other nonvolatile organic compounds typically found with urea) dissolved in water. The technique involves the use of a column that contains an ion-exclusion resin; heretofore, this column has been sold for use in analyzing monosaccharides and food softeners, but not for analyzing water supplies. The prior technique commonly used to analyze water for urea content has been one of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), with reliance on hydrophobic interactions between analytes in a water sample and long-chain alkyl groups bonded to an HPLC column. The prior technique has proven inadequate because of a strong tendency toward co-elution of urea with other compounds. Co-elution often causes the urea and other compounds to be crowded into a narrow region of the chromatogram (see left part of figure), thereby giving rise to low chromatographic resolution and misidentification of compounds. It is possible to quantitate urea or another analyte via ultraviolet- and visible-light absorbance measurements, but in order to perform such measurements, it is necessary to dilute the sample, causing a significant loss of sensitivity. The ion-exclusion resin used in the improved technique is sulfonated polystyrene in the calcium form. Whereas the alkyl-chain column used in the prior technique separates compounds on the basis of polarity only, the ion-exclusion-resin column used in the improved technique separates compounds on the basis of both molecular size and electric charge. As a result, the degree of separation is increased: instead of being crowded together into a single chromatographic peak only about 1 to 2 minutes wide as in the prior technique, the chromatographic peaks of different compounds are now separated from each other and spread out over a range about 33 minutes wide (see right part of figure), and the urea peak can readily be distinguished from the other peaks. Although the analysis takes more time in the improved technique, this disadvantage is offset by two important advantages: Sensitivity is increased. The minimum concentration of urea that can be measured is reduced (to between 1/5 and 1/3 of that of the prior technique) because it is not necessary to dilute the sample. The separation of peaks facilitates the identification and quantitation of the various compounds. The resolution of the compounds other than urea makes it possible to identify those compounds by use of mass spectrometry.

  2. Instrumentation: Ion Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritz, James S.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the importance of ion chromatography in separating and measuring anions. The principles of ion exchange are presented, along with some applications of ion chromatography in industry. Ion chromatography systems are described, as well as ion pair and ion exclusion chromatography, column packings, detectors, and programming. (TW)

  3. Separation of Aliphatic and Aromatic Carboxylic Acids by Conventional and Ultra High Performance Ion Exclusion Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Mansour, Fotouh R.; Kirkpatrick, Christine L.; Danielson, Neil D.

    2013-01-01

    An ion exclusion chromatography (IELC) comparison between a conventional ion exchange column and an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) dynamically surfactant modified C18 column for the separation of an aliphatic carboxylic acid and two aromatic carboxylic acids is presented. Professional software is used to optimize the conventional IELC separation conditions for acetylsalicylic acid and the hydrolysis products: salicylic acid and acetic acid. Four different variables are simultaneously optimized including H2SO4 concentration, pH, flow rate, and sample injection volume. Thirty different runs are suggested by the software. The resolutions and the time of each run are calculated and feed back to the software to predict the optimum conditions. Derringers desirability functions are used to evaluate the test conditions and those with the highest desirability value are utilized to separate acetylsalicylic acid, salicylic acid, and acetic acid. These conditions include using a 0.35 mM H2SO4 (pH 3.93) eluent at a flow rate of 1 mL min-1 and an injection volume of 72 ?L. To decrease the run time and improve the performance, a UHPLC C18 column is used after dynamic modification with sodium dodecyl sulfate. Using pure water as a mobile phase, a shorter analysis time and better resolution are achieved. In addition, the elution order is different from the IELC method which indicates the contribution of the reversed-phase mode to the separation mechanism. PMID:24285874

  4. [Determination of maleic hydrazide in vegetables by high performance ion-exclusion chromatography].

    PubMed

    Pan, Guangwen; Zhao, Zengyun; Hu, Zhongyang; Ye, Mingli

    2010-07-01

    A new method was developed for the determination of maleic hydrazide (MH) in potatoes, onions and garlics by high performance ion-exclusion chromatography (HPIEC). The sample was extracted with acidic methanol, and then analyzed by HPIEC. The analytical column was IonPac ICE-AS1 (250 mm x 9 mm) and a mixture of 3 mmol/L formic acid water solution-acetonitrile (70: 30, v/v) was used as the eluent at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. The detection was performed at 205 nm by an Ultimate 3000 VWD. The quantitative analysis of external standard calibration curves was used. The linear range of the method for MH was 0.006 - 1.0 mg/L (r = 0.999 9). The average recoveries were 91% - 103% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 3%. The detection limit was 0.002 mg/L for MH. The method is simple, effective, precise, sensitive, reproducible and selective. It can be used to determine the residue of MH in potatoes, onions and garlics. PMID:21046793

  5. Indirect UV detection-ion-exclusion/cation-exchange chromatography of common inorganic ions with sulfosalicylic acid eluent.

    PubMed

    Kozaki, Daisuke; Mori, Masanobu; Nakatani, Nobutake; Arai, Kaori; Masuno, Tomoe; Koseki, Masakazu; Itabashi, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Herein, we describe indirect UV detection-ion-exclusion/cation-exchange chromatography (IEC/CEC) on a weakly acidic cation-exchange resin in the H(+)-form (TSKgel Super IC-A/C) using sulfosalicylic acid as the eluent. The goal of the study was to characterize the peaks detected by UV detector. The peak directions of analyte ions in UV at 315 nm were negative because the molar absorbance coefficients of analyte anions and cations were lower than that of the sulfosalicylic acid eluent. Good chromatographic resolution and high signal-to-noise ratios of analyte ions were obtained for the separations performed using 1.1 mM sulfosalicylic acid and 1.5 mM 18-crown-6 as the eluent. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the peak areas ranged from 0.6 to 4.9%. Lower detection limits of the analytes were achieved using indirect UV detection at 315 nm (0.23 - 0.98 ?M) than those obtained with conductometric detection (CD) (0.61 - 2.1 ?M) under the optimized elution conditions. The calibration curves were linear in the range from 0.01 to 1.0 mM except for Cl(-), which was from 0.02 to 2.0 mM. The present method was successfully applied to determine common inorganic ions in a pond water sample. PMID:23303096

  6. A process for separating acid-sugar mixtures using ion exclusion chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Hester, R.D.; Hartfield, S.W.; Farina, G.E.

    1994-10-01

    Work using a low-temperature concentrated sulfuric acid hydrolysis process to convert the cellulosic fraction of corn stover to monomeric sugars demonstrated the high conversion efficiencies possible with that process. The TVA work also confirmed the need for a cost-effective acid-sugar separation process. A preparative-scale ion-exclusion chromatography (IEC) system was designed, constructed, and tested with a variety of synthetic solutions and actual hydrolyzates. Although significant dispersion was observed initially, design changes were effective in minimizing this phenomenon. Data collected during the operation of the preparative-scale system were used in the design and construction of an IEC miniplant capable of processing larger volumes of synthetic solutions or hydrolyzates and in the design of an extraction-assisted IEC system. The data were also used to assess the viability of a continuous feed IEC system. This paper includes a discussion of the IEC process, provides overall material balances for various IEC process scenarios, and presents a discussion on process economics.

  7. Separation of acid and sugar by ion exclusion chromatography. An application in the conversion of cellulose to ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Hartfield, S.; Hester, R.

    1993-12-31

    The production of fuel grade alcohol by fermentation from sugars obtained by the acid hydrolysis of cellulose has been hindered by costly methods of cleansing the acid in the sugar stream. An economical and environmentally acceptable acid-sugar separation process based on ion exclusion chromatography has been developed and analyzed. This process recovers the acid for reuse in hydrolysis without producing landfill waste allowing a concentrated acid hydrolysis process to be commercially feasible.

  8. Vacancy ion-exclusion/adsorption chromatography of aliphatic amines on a polymethacrylate-based weakly basic anion-exchange column.

    PubMed

    Mori, Masanobu; Helaleh, Murad I H; Xu, Qun; Hu, Wenzhi; Ikedo, Mikaru; Ding, Ming-Yu; Taoda, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Kazuhiko

    2004-06-11

    Vacancy ion-exclusion/adsorption chromatography has been applied to investigate the separation behavior of five aliphatic amines (ethylamine, propylamine, butylamine, pentylamine and hexylamine) on a polymethacrylate-based weakly basic anion-exchange column (Tosoh TSKgel DEAE-5PW). This system is consisted of analytes as a mobile phase and water as an injected sample. In the vacancy ion-exclusion/adsorption chromatography, the elution order was as follows: ethylamine < propylamine < butylamine < pentylamine < hexylamine, depending on their hydrophobicity. The retention times of the amines were decreased with decreasing their concentrations in the mobile phase. The retention times and resolutions of the amines were increased by adding a basic compound (e.g., lithium hydroxide or heptylamine) and by increasing the pH of mobile phase (pH > 11). This was because the dissociations of amine samples in the mobile phase were suppressed and thus the hydrophobic adsorption effects were enhanced. The linearity of calibration graphs could be obtained from the peak areas of the amine samples injected to the 0.05, 0.5 and 5 mM of amine mobile phase at pH 11 by heptylamine. The detection limits of aliphatic amines as injected samples were around 1 microM for five aliphatic amines at three different amine mobile phases. From these results, the retention behaviors of aliphatic amines on vacancy ion-exclusion/adsorption chromatography were concluded to be governed by the hydrophobic adsorption effect. PMID:15250414

  9. Effect of the porosity of PS-DVB-copolymers on ion chromatographic behavior in inverse size-exclusion and ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Füssler, Rainer; Schäfer, Helwig; Seubert, Andreas

    2002-03-01

    Small and highly pressure-stable PS-DVB copolymers of different porosity had been prepared by a two-step swelling procedure which enabled variation of diluent composition, an important characteristic affecting the porosity. The polymers were characterized by inverse size-exclusion chromatography and scanning electron microscopy. Subsequent chloromethylation and amination resulted in anion exchangers suitable for ion chromatography. The pore volume and the pore-size distribution is substantially affected by the fraction of the solvens component in the diluent. It was apparent from scanning electron microscopy that surface structure and the size of the polymer particles was not affected by diluent composition. The functionalization process led to a decrease in pore volume. The pore-size distribution remained unchanged during functionalization, which can be explained in terms of partial closing of all pore sizes. The chromatographic efficiency of the functionalized polymers in ion chromatography was highly dependent on diluent composition and the extent of functionalization was determined by the total pore volume. The composition of the diluent is an excellent tool for optimization of polymers used for the synthesis of surface-functionalized anion exchangers. PMID:11941442

  10. Ion chromatography applications

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    This book describes recent advances in ion chromatography and demonstrates how it is used to solve scientific and industrial problems. The basic principles of ion chromatography are explained, including gradient elution of ions and micromembrane suppressors. The various anion and cation exchange columns together with various detection methods and applications of ion chromatography in the environmental and life sciences and industry are reviewed. Over 100 chromatograms which illustrate parameters needed to perform analysis and data on gradient and mobile phase ion chromatography are included.

  11. Ion Chromatography: An Account of Its Conception and Early Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Hamish

    2004-01-01

    The conception of ion chromatography and its development into a technique ready for commercialization is described. The pioneering development pointed the way to make ion exclusion an important member of the repertoire of IC methods.

  12. Simultaneous analysis of silicon and boron dissolved in water by combination of electrodialytic salt removal and ion-exclusion chromatography with corona charged aerosol detection.

    PubMed

    Mori, Masanobu; Sagara, Katsuya; Arai, Kaori; Nakatani, Nobutake; Ohira, Shin-Ichi; Toda, Kei; Itabashi, Hideyuki; Kozaki, Daisuke; Sugo, Yumi; Watanabe, Shigeki; Ishioka, Noriko S; Tanaka, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-29

    Selective separation and sensitive detection of dissolved silicon and boron (DSi and DB) in aqueous solution was achieved by combining an electrodialytic ion isolation device (EID) as a salt remover, an ion-exclusion chromatography (IEC) column, and a corona charged aerosol detector (CCAD) in sequence. DSi and DB were separated by IEC on the H(+)-form of a cation exchange resin column using pure water eluent. DSi and DB were detected after IEC separation by the CCAD with much greater sensitivity than by conductimetric detection. The five-channel EID, which consisted of anion and cation acceptors, cathode and anode isolators, and a sample channel, removed salt from the sample prior to the IEC-CCAD. DSi and DB were scarcely attracted to the anion accepter in the EID and passed almost quantitatively through the sample channel. Thus, the coupled EID-IEC-CCAD device can isolate DSi and DB from artificial seawater and hot spring water by efficiently removing high concentrations of Cl(-) and SO4(2-) (e.g., 98% and 80% at 0.10molL(-1) each, respectively). The detection limits at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 were 0.52μmolL(-1) for DSi and 7.1μmolL(-1) for DB. The relative standard deviations (RSD, n=5) of peak areas were 0.12% for DSi and 4.3% for DB. PMID:26755416

  13. Determination of arsenite, arsenate, and monomethylarsonic acid in seawater by ion-exclusion chromatography combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using reaction cell and hydride generation techniques.

    PubMed

    Nakazato, Tetsuya; Tao, Hiroaki; Taniguchi, Tadashi; Isshiki, Kenji

    2002-08-16

    This paper describes a robust and sensitive method for the determination of arsenic species in seawater by ion-exclusion liquid chromatography (LC) combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) using reaction cell and hydride generation (HG) techniques. A good separation of arsenite, arsenate, and monomethylarsonic acid was achieved using an ion-exclusion column packed with a sulfonated polystyrene resin and a dilute nitric acid at pH 2.0 as the eluent, even when a large volume, i.e. 200 mul, of seawater samples containing a large amount of matrix was repeatedly injected. Separations of the chloride ion due to the matrix and arsenic species were partially performed; however, the extensive peak of ArCl due to high content of Cl(-) in a sample overlapped peaks of the three arsenic species on (75)As measurement by ICP-MS. This ArCl polyatomic interference was efficiently eliminated by collision of ArCl molecules with helium in an octopole reaction cell which was introduced prior to a mass spectrometer. Detection limits of the three arsenic species in a sample containing 2% Cl(-), the concentration of which is comparable to that in a seawater sample, by LC-ICP-MS with the octopole reaction system (ORS), ranged from 21 to 25 pg As ml(-1); these values were three-six times lower than those by LC-ICP-MS without ORS. As another technique for ArCl interference elimination, HG prior to ICP-MS was also successfully used not only to reduce the interference but also to improve the detection limits to 3.4-4.5 pg As ml(-1). The developed LC-ICP-ORS-MS and LC-HG-ICP-MS were validated by analyzing a certified reference material (CRM) of seawater. In addition, no serious decrease in analytical performance of present methods was observed in the experimental periods of half a year for LC-ICP-ORS-MS and 1 year for LC-HG-ICP-MS, respectively. The latter method was successfully applied to characterize seasonal variations of three arsenic species in deep seawater and surface seawater. PMID:18968739

  14. ION CHROMATOGRAPHY OF ANIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Dionex Model 10 Ion Chromatograph was evaluated for the measurement of anionic species in water. The theoretical effect of hydrogen ion activity (pH) on the elution time of phosphate and arsenate was tested and empirical selectivity coefficients were determined for the major pr...

  15. Ion Exchange and Liquid Column Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Harold F.

    1980-01-01

    Emphasizes recent advances in principles and methodology in ion exchange and chromatography. Two tables list representative examples for inorganic ions and organic compounds. Cites 544 references. (CS)

  16. Investigation and interpretation of band broadening in size exclusion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Busnel, J P; Foucault, F; Denis, L; Lee, W; Chang, T

    2001-09-28

    Study of Band Broadening occurring in Size Exclusion Chromatography (SEC) is reported using very narrow PS standards obtained and characterised by Temperature Gradient Interaction Chromatography (TGIC). Chromatograms are fitted by Exponentially Modified Gaussian functions (EMG) and mapping of band broadening is obtained for different column sets. Interpretation of the skewing of the chromatograms is proposed with a new model using Brownian motion properties inside the pores. That explains why band broadening and tailing become so important near total exclusion volume. PMID:11681580

  17. Analysis of energetic materials by ion chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Hershey, M.K.

    1985-01-01

    Ion chromatography is a rapid, sensitive, and selective method for ion analysis in a variety of matrices. Ion chromatography was used to determine levels on chloride and chlorate in potassium perchlorate. Comparisons were made with the specific ion electrons method presently being used for these analyses. Also to be discussed are ion chromatographic methods for determining ammonium in boron potassium nitrate, and chloride and ammonium in CP.

  18. [Columns and separation mechanism of low pressure ion chromatography].

    PubMed

    Zhang, X; Jiang, X

    1997-01-01

    Ion chromatography which appeared in 1975 has been developed rapidly in recent years. But the working pressure increased with years. In this work, the authors put forward the low pressure ion chromatography (LPIC) and successfully designed several kinds of low pressure ion chromatography with inlet pressure of 1.92 x 10(5)-2.94 x 10(5) Pa. Many cations, such as, alkali metals, NH4+, alkaline earth metals, transition metals, inorganic anions and organic acidic ions can be analyzed rapidly by the technique. The detectable limit of numerous ions reaches 10(-6) g/L. Low working pressure, high performance separation and highly sensitive detection can be realized by LPIC. Among these, the columns play an important part. In this paper, the kinds and species of columns and the analytes are presented. The separation mechanism of low pressure ion chromatography is discussed, which indudes ion exchange equilibrium, complexation equilibrium and ion exclusion reaction. Furthermore, the relation between the exchange capacity of ion exchange media and the concentration of eluent are also discussed. In the meanwhile, the choice of LPIC elution systems and separation conditions are described in this paper too. PMID:15739433

  19. Using Ion Exchange Chromatography to Separate and Quantify Complex Ions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    Ion exchange chromatography is an important technique in the separation of charged species, particularly in biological, inorganic, and environmental samples. In this experiment, students are supplied with a mixture of two substitution-inert complex ions. They separate the complexes by ion exchange chromatography using a "flash"

  20. Using Ion Exchange Chromatography to Separate and Quantify Complex Ions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    Ion exchange chromatography is an important technique in the separation of charged species, particularly in biological, inorganic, and environmental samples. In this experiment, students are supplied with a mixture of two substitution-inert complex ions. They separate the complexes by ion exchange chromatography using a "flash"…

  1. A Size Exclusion Chromatography Laboratory with Unknowns for Introductory Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntee, Edward J.; Graham, Kate J.; Colosky, Edward C.; Jakubowski, Henry V.

    2015-01-01

    Size exclusion chromatography is an important technique in the separation of biological and polymeric samples by molecular weight. While a number of laboratory experiments have been published that use this technique for the purification of large molecules, this is the first report of an experiment that focuses on purifying an unknown small…

  2. A Size Exclusion Chromatography Laboratory with Unknowns for Introductory Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntee, Edward J.; Graham, Kate J.; Colosky, Edward C.; Jakubowski, Henry V.

    2015-01-01

    Size exclusion chromatography is an important technique in the separation of biological and polymeric samples by molecular weight. While a number of laboratory experiments have been published that use this technique for the purification of large molecules, this is the first report of an experiment that focuses on purifying an unknown small

  3. Factors affecting selectivity in ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Fritz, James S

    2005-08-26

    Methods for separation of ions by ion-exchange, ion-pair, and zwitterion ion chromatography share at least one common thread--the induced formation of a cation-anion pair in the stationary phase. Selectivity can be defined as the relative ability of sample ions to form such a pair. Examples are given in anion-exchange chromatography to show the effect of variations in the geometry, bulkiness and polarity of the resin cation on selectivity. The type of resin matrix, the hydrophobic nature of the resin surface and the degree of solvation also affect chromatographic behavior. The selectivity series observed in ion chromatography seems to be best explained by the interplay of two components: electrostatic attraction (ES) and the enforced-pairing (EP) that is brought about by hydrophobic attraction and by water-enforced ion pairing. Selectivity in ion-pair chromatography (IPC) and in zwitterion ion chromatography (ZIC) is affected by both the mobile phase cation and anion. This leads to elution orders for anions that are different from conventional ion-exchange chromatography (IC) of anions where cations are excluded from the stationary phase and have little effect on a separation. The elution order of anions in ZIC is similar to that in IC except for small anions of 2-charge, which are retained more weakly in ZIC. A unique advantage of ZIC is that sample ions can be eluted as ion pairs with pure water as the eluent and a conductivity detector. The mechanism for separation of anions on a zwitterionic stationary phase has been a subject for considerable debate. The available facts point strongly to a partitioning mechanism or a mixed mechanism in which partitioning is dominant with a weaker ion-exchange component. PMID:16106841

  4. ION-EXCLUSION CHROMATOGRAPHIC DETERMINATION OF CARBOXYLIC ACIDS USED TO SUPPORT THE MICROBIALLY MEDIATED REDUCTIVE DECHLORINATION OF TETRACHLOROETHENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    An analytical method was developed for the determination of lactic acid, formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid in environmental microcosm samples using ion-exclusion chromatography. The chromatographic behavior of various eluents was studied to determine the ...

  5. Size-exclusion chromatography system for macromolecular interaction analysis

    DOEpatents

    Stevens, Fred J.

    1988-01-01

    A low pressure, microcomputer controlled system employing high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) allows for precise analysis of the interaction of two reversibly associating macromolecules such as proteins. Since a macromolecular complex migrates faster than its components during size-exclusion chromatography, the difference between the elution profile of a mixture of two macromolecules and the summation of the elution profiles of the two components provides a quantifiable indication of the degree of molecular interaction. This delta profile is used to qualitatively reveal the presence or absence of significant interaction or to rank the relative degree of interaction in comparing samples and, in combination with a computer simulation, is further used to quantify the magnitude of the interaction in an arrangement wherein a microcomputer is coupled to analytical instrumentation in a novel manner.

  6. The History of Ion Chromatography: The Engineering Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Barton

    2004-01-01

    The development of ion chromatography from an engineering perspective is presented. As ion chromatography became more widely accepted, researchers developed dozens of standard applications that enabled the creation of many low-end instruments.

  7. Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) of branched polymers and polysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Gaborieau, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    Branched polymers are among the most important polymers, ranging from polyolefins to polysaccharides. Branching plays a key role in the chain dynamics. It is thus very important for application properties such as mechanical and adhesive properties and digestibility. It also plays a key role in viscous properties, and thus in the mechanism of the separation of these polymers in size-exclusion chromatography (SEC). Critically reviewing the literature, particularly on SEC of polyolefins, polyacrylates and starch, we discuss common pitfalls but also highlight some unexplored possibilities to characterize branched polymers. The presence of a few long-chain branches has been shown to lead to a poor separation in SEC, as evidenced by multiple-detection SEC or multidimensional liquid chromatography. The local dispersity can be large in that case, and the accuracy of molecular weight determination achieved by current methods is poor, although hydrodynamic volume distributions offer alternatives. In contrast, highly branched polymers do not suffer from this extensive incomplete separation in terms of molecular weight. Figure Representation of (a) a linear polymer chain and various branched polymer structures with (b) longchain branches (amylose-like), (c) short-chain branches (amylopectin-like), (d) both short-chain and long-chain branches (polyacrylate- or polyethylene-like). PMID:20967430

  8. Chromatography

    MedlinePLUS

    Chromatography is a way of separating two or more chemical compounds. Chemical compounds are chemicals that are ... of chemical compound. There are different kinds of chromatography. These include gas, high pressure liquid, or ion ...

  9. Ion Chromatography Analysis of Dibutyl Phosphoric Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, R.J.

    1998-12-04

    Analysis of dibutyl phosphate (DBP), a degradation product of tributyl phosphate (TBP), has long been a problem analysis by Ion Chromatography at the Savannah River Site. Due to the presence of UO{sub 2}{sup +2} and high NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}1} concentrations, inadequate recovery and separation of DBP on the chromatographic column had rendered the analysis undependable and very inconsistent, thus causing high uncertainties in the data. The method presented here by the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC)/Analytical Development Section (ADS) addresses the sample preparation problems encountered when analyzing for DBP in the presence of uranium and nitrate. The data presented reflects the improvements made to decrease data uncertainty and increase data accuracy and precision.

  10. Ion Exchange Chromatography and Spectrophotometry: An Introductory Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, N.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes an experiment in which students use ion exchange chromatography to separate a mixture of chloro complexes of transition metal ions and then use spectrophotometry to define qualitatively the efficiency of the ion exchange columns. Background information, materials needed, and procedures used are included. (JN)

  11. Kinetic plots in aqueous size exclusion chromatography of monoclonal antibodies and virus particles.

    PubMed

    Vajda, Judith; Conze, Werner; Mller, Egbert

    2015-12-24

    The growing importance of monoclonal antibodies and virus particles has led to a pressure for faster size exclusion chromatography. In recent years, numerous small particle columns for size exclusion chromatography of biologicals have been introduced. Small particles are a strategy to reduce analysis time. In the following study, opportunities of small particles in size exclusion chromatography of large biomolecules are investigated. Poppe plots reveal that the lower particle size limit depends on the size of the sample molecule. Hydrodynamic radii of monoclonal antibody monomer, aggregates and H1N1 as well as the diffusion coefficients were determined. Considering this sample compound dependency, kinetic plots referring to the resolution of a distinct compound pair instead of the plate number of a single analyte are more meaningful. Plate times were found to be equivalent with 4 and 2?m particles for a monoclonal antibody aggregate separation at resolutions smaller than 1.8. Quantification of a H1N1 in clarified cell culture can be accomplished with 17?m and 13?m particles at equal plate times at resolutions smaller than 2.5. Virus polydispersity is likely to be affected by run times of several hours at room temperature and shear forces resulting from particles smaller than 10?m. Comparatively high flow rates should be applied in size exclusion chromatography of the 100nm H1N1 virions. PMID:26643721

  12. Degradation of Ultra-High Molar Mass Polymers in Size-Exclusion Chromatography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The degradation of high molar mass polymers during size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) analysis has been a topic of interest for several decades. Should a polymer degrade during analysis, the accuracy of the molar mass (M) and architectural information obtained will be compromised. To this effect,...

  13. Mineral Separation in a CELSS by Ion-exchange Chromatography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballou, E. V.; Spitze, L. A.; Wong, F. W.; Wydeven, T.; Johnson, C. C.

    1982-01-01

    Operational parameters pertinent to ion exchange chromatography separation were identified. The experiments were performed with 9 mm diameter ion exchange columns and conventional column accessories. The cation separation beds were packed with AG 50W-X2 strong acid cation exchange resin in H(+) form and 200-400 dry mesh particle size. The stripper beds used in some experiments were packed with AG 1-XB strong base cation exchange resin in OH(-) form and 200-400 dry mesh particle size.

  14. Automated Precursor Ion Exclusion During LC-MS/MS Data Acquisition for Optimal Ion Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhongqi

    2012-08-01

    Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is widely used for characterizing multiple samples of complex mixtures with similar compositions. This article addresses a data acquisition strategy for collecting a maximal number of unique, high-quality MS/MS during LC-MS/MS analysis of multiple samples. Based on the concept that a component only needs to be identified once when analyzing multiple samples with similar compositions, an automated intersample data-dependent acquisition strategy was developed. The strategy is based on precursor ion exclusion (PIE) and is implemented in MassAnalyzer in an automated fashion for Thermo Scientific (San Jose, CA, USA) mass spectrometers. In this method, MassAnalyzer submits one sample at a time to the sample queue. After data acquisition of each sample, MassAnalyzer automatically analyzes the data to generate a PIE list based on the MS/MS precursor ions, merges this list with the list generated from previous runs, adds the list to the MS method file, and submits the next sample to the queue. The PIE list contains both m/z value and time window for each precursor ion, and is generated intelligently so that if an MS/MS is insufficient for identifying the peak of interest, it will be collected again near the top of the peak in the next run. Therefore, the strategy maximizes both quality and the number of unique MS/MS. When automated PIE was used to acquire LC-MS/MS data of an antibody tryptic digest and a soy hydrolysate sample, the number of identified ions increased by 52 % and 93 %, respectively, compared with data acquired without using PIE.

  15. CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF WET SCRUBBERS UTILIZING ION CHROMATOGRAPHY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the key elements required to develop a sampling and analysis program for a wet scrubber using ion chromatography as the main analytical technique. The first part of the report describes a sampling program for two different types of wet scrubbers: the venturi/...

  16. Determination of halogens in a petroleum product by ion chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, H.L.

    1994-07-15

    A rapid, high-performance ion chromatography (HPIC) method with isocratic separation and the anion self-regenerating suppressor (in the chemical suppression mode, specifically for the determination of fluoride, chloride, bromide, and iodide in a petroleum product) is discussed. This is a proposed new method for a production laboratory within the Analytical Services Organization at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant.

  17. ANALYSIS OF FERRIC AND FERROUS IONS IN SOIL EXTRACTS BY ION CHROMATOGRAPHY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method using ion chromatography (IC) for the analysis of ferrous (Fe 2+) and ferric (Fe 3+) ions in soil extracts has been developed. This method uses an ion exchange column with detection at 520 nm after post-column derivatization. Selectivity is achieved by using an anionic...

  18. Mathematical modeling of salt-gradient ion-exchange simulated moving bed chromatography for protein separations.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jian-Gang

    2004-12-01

    The salt-gradient operation mode used in ion-exchange simulated moving bed chromatography (SMBC) can improve the efficiency of protein separations. A detailed model that takes into account any kind of adsorption/ion-exchange equilibrium, salt gradient, size exclusion, mass transfer resistance, and port periodic switching mechanism, was developed to simulate the complex dynamics. The model predictions were verified by the experimental data on upward and downward gradients for protein separations reported in the literature. All design and operating parameters (number, configuration, length and diameter of columns, particle size, switching period, flow rates of feed, raffinate, desorbent and extract, protein concentrations in feed, different salt concentrations in desorbent and feed) can be chosen correctly by numerical simulation. This model can facilitate the design, operation, optimization, control and scale-up of salt-gradient ion-exchange SMBC for protein separations. PMID:15547973

  19. Etching and aging effects in nanosize Au clusters investigated using high resolution size-exclusion chromatography.

    SciTech Connect

    Provencio, Paula Polyak; Wilcoxon, Jess Patrick

    2003-06-01

    Experiments using high-resolution size exclusion chromatography (HRSEC), dynamic light scattering, and transmission electron microscopy are conducted to investigate the effects of aging of Au nanoclusters in the presence of surfactant ligands. It is observed that contrary to the expectation that aging in solution will always broaden the size dispersion and increase the average size (Ostwald ripening), a narrowing of the size dispersion and change in average size can occur with time under ambient conditions.

  20. Drug screening of pharmaceutical discovery compounds by micro-size exclusion chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wabnitz, Paul A; Loo, Joseph A

    2002-01-01

    Micro-size exclusion chromatography coupled with capillary liquid chromatography (capLC) and mass spectrometry (MS) provides a rapid and simple approach to the preliminary screening of active ligands toward a specific target macromolecule. In this study, the effectiveness of this technique is demonstrated by a number of small molecule ligands with known binding affinities towards the protein target. All ligands were incubated together with a target protein under native conditions. Separation was then achieved by microcentrifugation where the high molecular weight (MW) compounds were selectively passed through the size-exclusion material. The retained low MW compounds were then recovered and analyzed by capLC/MS. The absence of the ligand indicated strong affinity towards the target, while ligand detection indicated inactivity. This assay demonstrated the drugs that were acting as strong inhibitors of Co-PDF from those showing to be comparatively inactive. The relative binding rank order of the drugs towards Co-PDF was also determined. The results were validated by a corresponding set of control experiments in which the target molecules were excluded from the process. In principle, high-throughput micro-size exclusion chromatography, coupled with capLC/MS, offers a powerful technique as a preliminary screen in determining both the strong binding affinity and the relative affinity rank ordering of ligands towards a specific target macromolecule, and is complementary with other analytical drug screening techniques. PMID:11754252

  1. Determination of chloride in geological samples by ion chromatography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, S.A.; Gent, C.A.

    1983-01-01

    Samples of silicate rocks are prepared by sodium carbonate fusion and then treated by ion chromatography. The method was tested for geological standards with chloride concentration between 0.003 and 3%. Observed chloride concentrations comparedd favorably with literature values. The relative standard deviation and detection limit for the method were 8% and 7 ppm, respectively. Up to 30 determination per 24-hour period were possible. ?? 1983.

  2. Determination of total chromium in phosphate rocks by ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    al-Shawi, A W; Dahl, R

    1999-07-30

    Chromium(VI) is one of seven elements which is classified in the fertilizer industry as being harmful to plants and biological systems. Phosphate rocks represent the raw material for complex fertilizer production in the world. This paper investigates for the first time the determination of total chromium in phosphate rocks by ion chromatography. The developed analytical method involves the digestion of phosphate rocks with nitric acid followed by sample treatment of the resulting solution. The digestion solution obtained was treated with an oxidising agent (potassium peroxosulphate) to convert all chromium to the hexavalent state. The analytical method developed utilizes anion-exchange ion chromatography to achieve the separation and spectrophotometric post-column reaction for detection with diphenylcarbazide. The relative standard of deviation from analytical data comparison of six different phosphate rocks with atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry techniques, and cross-analysis data against an internationally certified phosphate rock standard were between 0.58 and 1.45%. Calibration curve between 0.2 and 0.9 microgram/ml was excellent, and the method has a detection limit for Cr(VI) of 0.05 ng. The developed method offers a fast, a reliable and an alternative procedure for the determination of total chromium in phosphate rock deposits by ion chromatography. PMID:10457474

  3. Size-exclusion chromatography-from high-performance to ultra-performance.

    PubMed

    Uliyanchenko, Elena

    2014-10-01

    Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) enables measurement of the average molecular weights and molecular-weight distributions of polymers. Because these characteristics may, in turn, be correlated with important performance characteristics of plastics, SEC is an essential analytical technique for characterization of macromolecules. Although SEC is one of the oldest instrumental chromatographic techniques, it is still under continuous development, as a result of the great demand for increased resolution and faster analysis in SEC. Ultra-high-pressure size-exclusion chromatography (UHPSEC) was recently introduced to satisfy the growing demands of analytical chemists. Using instrumentation capable of generating very high pressures and columns packed with small particles, this technique enables greater separation efficiency and faster analysis than are achieved with conventional SEC. UHPSEC is especially advantageous for high-resolution analysis of oligomers, for very rapid polymer separations, and as a second dimension in comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography of polymers. In this paper we discuss the benefits of UHPSEC for separation of macromolecules, with examples from the literature. PMID:25116601

  4. Ion exclusion by sub-2-nm carbon nanotube pores

    PubMed Central

    Fornasiero, Francesco; Park, Hyung Gyu; Holt, Jason K.; Stadermann, Michael; Grigoropoulos, Costas P.; Noy, Aleksandr; Bakajin, Olgica

    2008-01-01

    Biological pores regulate the cellular traffic of a large variety of solutes, often with high selectivity and fast flow rates. These pores share several common structural features: the inner surface of the pore is frequently lined with hydrophobic residues, and the selectivity filter regions often contain charged functional groups. Hydrophobic, narrow-diameter carbon nanotubes can provide a simplified model of membrane channels by reproducing these critical features in a simpler and more robust platform. Previous studies demonstrated that carbon nanotube pores can support a water flux comparable to natural aquaporin channels. Here, we investigate ion transport through these pores using a sub-2-nm, aligned carbon nanotube membrane nanofluidic platform. To mimic the charged groups at the selectivity region, we introduce negatively charged groups at the opening of the carbon nanotubes by plasma treatment. Pressure-driven filtration experiments, coupled with capillary electrophoresis analysis of the permeate and feed, are used to quantify ion exclusion in these membranes as a function of solution ionic strength, pH, and ion valence. We show that carbon nanotube membranes exhibit significant ion exclusion that can be as high as 98% under certain conditions. Our results strongly support a Donnan-type rejection mechanism, dominated by electrostatic interactions between fixed membrane charges and mobile ions, whereas steric and hydrodynamic effects appear to be less important. PMID:18539773

  5. Adenovirus purification by two-column, size-exclusion, simulated countercurrent chromatography.

    PubMed

    Nestola, Piergiuseppe; Silva, Ricardo J S; Peixoto, Cristina; Alves, Paula M; Carrondo, Manuel J T; Mota, Jos P B

    2014-06-20

    Adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) was successfully separated by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) using a simple, yet efficient, two-column, quasi-continuous, simulated moving-bed process operated in an open-loop configuration. The operating cycle is divided into two identical half-cycles, each of them consisting of the following sequence of sub-steps: (i) elution of the upstream column and direction of the effluent of the downstream column to waste; (ii) elution of the upstream column and redirection of its effluent to waste while the downstream column is fed with the clarified bioreaction bulk and its effluent collected as purified product; (iii) operation of the system as in step (i) but collecting the effluent of the downstream column as product; (iv) elution of the upstream column and direction of its effluent to waste while the flow through the downstream column is temporarily halted. Clearance of impurities, namely DNA and host cell protein (HCP), were experimentally assessed. The pilot-scale run yielded a virus recovery of 86%, and a clearance of 90% and 89% for DNA and HCP, respectively, without any fine tunning of the predetermined operating parameters. These figures compare very favorably against single-column batch chromatography for the same volume of size-exclusion resin. However, and most importantly, the virus yield was increased from 57% for the batch system to 86% for the two-column SEC process because of internal recycling of the mixed fractions of contaminated Ad5, even though the two-column process was operated strictly in an open-loop configuration. And last, but not least, the productivity was increased by 6-fold with the two-column process. In conclusion, the main drawbacks of size-exclusion chromatography, namely low productivity and low product titer, were overcome to a considerable extent by an innovative two-column configuration that keeps the mixed fractions inside the system at all times. PMID:24813933

  6. Size-exclusion chromatography for the determination of the boiling point distribution of high-boiling petroleum fractions.

    PubMed

    Boczkaj, Grzegorz; Przyjazny, Andrzej; Kami?ski, Marian

    2015-03-01

    The paper describes a new procedure for the determination of boiling point distribution of high-boiling petroleum fractions using size-exclusion chromatography with refractive index detection. Thus far, the determination of boiling range distribution by chromatography has been accomplished using simulated distillation with gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. This study revealed that in spite of substantial differences in the separation mechanism and the detection mode, the size-exclusion chromatography technique yields similar results for the determination of boiling point distribution compared with simulated distillation and novel empty column gas chromatography. The developed procedure using size-exclusion chromatography has a substantial applicability, especially for the determination of exact final boiling point values for high-boiling mixtures, for which a standard high-temperature simulated distillation would have to be used. In this case, the precision of final boiling point determination is low due to the high final temperatures of the gas chromatograph oven and an insufficient thermal stability of both the gas chromatography stationary phase and the sample. Additionally, the use of high-performance liquid chromatography detectors more sensitive than refractive index detection allows a lower detection limit for high-molar-mass aromatic compounds, and thus increases the sensitivity of final boiling point determination. PMID:25545251

  7. Quantification of amyloid fibrils using size exclusion chromatography coupled with online fluorescence and ultraviolet detection.

    PubMed

    Randrianjatovo-Gbalou, Irina; Marcato-Romain, Claire-Emmanuelle; Girbal-Neuhauser, Elisabeth

    2015-11-01

    An amyloid fibrils investigation within biofilm samples requires distinguishing the amyloid ?-sheet structure of these proteins and quantifying them. In this study, the property of amyloids to incorporate the fluorescent dye Thioflavin T has been exploited to propose a method of quantification. The experimental protocol includes the preparation of amyloids from commercial ?-casein (?CN) and their fractionation through size exclusion chromatography (SEC) to provide calibration curves from fluorescence and absorbance signals. Finally, a bacterial biofilm extract was injected into SEC, and the amyloid fibrils could be expressed as equivalent ?CN, representing approximately 21% of the total proteins. PMID:26239215

  8. Characterization of synthetic dyes by comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography combining ion-exchange chromatography and fast ion-pair reversed-phase chromatography.

    PubMed

    Pirok, Bob W J; Knip, Jitske; van Bommel, Maarten R; Schoenmakers, Peter J

    2016-03-01

    In the late 19th century, newly invented synthetic dyes rapidly replaced the natural dyes on the market. The characterization of mixtures of these so-called early synthetic dyes is complicated through the occurrence of many impurities and degradation products. Conventional one-dimensional liquid chromatography does not suffice to obtain fingerprints with sufficient resolution and baseline integrity. Comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography (LCLC) is employed in this study, with ion-exchange chromatography in the first dimension and fast ion-pair liquid chromatography in the second. Retention in the first dimension is largely determined by the number of charges, while the selection of a small ion-pair reagent (tetramethylammonium hydroxide) in the second dimension causes retention to be largely determined by the molecular structure of the dye. As a result, there is a high degree of orthogonality of the two dimensions, similar to the values typically encountered in GCGC. The proposed LCLC method shows a theroretical peak capacity of about 2000 in an analysis time of about three hours. Clear, informative fingerprints are obtained that open a way to a more efficient characterization of dyes used in objects of cultural heritage. PMID:26868445

  9. Using size exclusion chromatography-RPLC and RPLC-CIEF as two-dimensional separation strategies for protein profiling

    SciTech Connect

    Simson, David C.; Ahn, Seonghee; Pasa-Tolic, Liljiana; Bogdanov, Bogdan; Brewer, Heather M.; Vilkov, Andrey N.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Lipton, Mary S.; Smith, Richard D.

    2006-07-01

    Bottom-up proteomics (analyzing peptides that result from protein digestion) has demonstrated capability for broad proteome coverage and good throughput. However, due to incomplete sequence coverage, this approach is not ideally suited to the study of modified proteins. The modification complement of a protein can best be elucidated by analyzing the intact protein. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, typically coupled with the analysis of peptides that result from in-gel digestion, is the most frequently applied protein separation technique in MS-based proteomics. As an alternative, numerous column-based liquid phase techniques, which are generally more amenable to automation, are being investigated. In this work, the combination of size exclusion chromatography (SEC) fractionation with reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC)-Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR)-mass spectrometry (MS) is compared with the combination of RPLC fractionation with capillary isoelectric focusing (CIEF)-FTICR-MS for the analysis of the Shewanella oneidensis proteome. SEC-RPLC-FTICR-MS allowed the detection of 297 proteins, as opposed to 166 using RPLC-CIEF-FTICR-MS, indicating that approaches based on LC-MS provide better coverage. However, there were significant differences in the sets of proteins detected and both approaches provide a basis for accurately quantifying changes in protein and modified protein abundances.

  10. Detergent screening of the human voltage-gated proton channel using fluorescence-detection size-exclusion chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Agharkar, Amruta; Rzadkowolski, Jennifer; McBroom, Mandy; Gonzales, Eric B

    2014-01-01

    The human voltage-gated proton channel (Hv1) is a membrane protein consisting of four transmembrane domains and intracellular amino- and carboxy-termini. The protein is activated by membrane depolarization, similar to other voltage-sensitive proteins. However, the Hv1 proton channel lacks a traditional ion pore. The human Hv1 proton channel has been implicated in mediating sperm capacitance, stroke, and most recently as a biomarker/mediator of cancer metastasis. Recently, the three-dimensional structures for homologues of this voltage-gated proton channel were reported. However, it is not clear what artificial environment is needed to facilitate the isolation and purification of the human Hv1 proton channel for structural study. In the present study, we generated a chimeric protein that placed an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) to the amino-terminus of the human Hv1 proton channel (termed EGFP-Hv1). The chimeric protein was expressed in a baculovirus expression system using Sf9 cells and subjected to detergent screening using fluorescence-detection size-exclusion chromatography. The EGFP-Hv1 proton channel can be solubilized in the zwitterionic detergent Anzergent 3–12 and the nonionic n-dodecyl-β-d-maltoside (DDM) with little protein aggregation and a prominent monomeric protein peak at 48 h postinfection. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the chimeric protein exhibits a monomeric protein peak, which is distinguishable from protein aggregates, at the final size-exclusion chromatography purification step. Taken together, we can conclude that solubilization in DDM will provide a useable final product for further structural characterization of the full-length human Hv1 proton channel. PMID:24863684

  11. Ion chromatography in the manufacture of multilayer circuit boards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Robert E.

    1990-09-01

    Ion chromatography (IC) has proven useful in analyzing chemical solutions used in the manufacture of multilayer circuit boards. The manufacturing process is described briefly and previously published IC methods are reviewed. Then, methods are described for determining chlorate and chlorite in a brown oxide solution; salicylic acid in an epoxy cure agent; formate, sulfate, and tartrate in an electroless copper bath; anionic detergents in a tin-lead brightener and in a cleaning solution; and aqueous photoresist and nonionic brightener in a tin-lead bath. Anion exchange, reverse phase HPLC on a poly(styrene/divinylbenzene), PS/DVB, column and 2-D liquid chromatography also are described. Chemically suppressed conductivity and photometric detection are used.

  12. Ion chromatography in the manufacture of multilayer circuit boards

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.E.

    1990-09-01

    Ion chromatography (IC) has proven useful in analyzing chemical solutions used in the manufacture of multilayer circuit boards. The manufacturing process is described briefly and previously published IC methods are reviewed. Then, methods are described for determining chlorate and chlorite in a brown oxide solution; salicylic acid in an epoxy cure agent; formate, sulfate, and tartrate in an electroless copper bath; anionic detergents in a tin-lead brightener and in a cleaning solution; and aqueous photoresist and nonionic brightener in a tin-lead bath. Anion exchange, reverse phase HPLC on a poly(styrene/divinylbenzene), PS/DVB, column and two-dimensional liquid chromatography also are described. Chemically suppressed conductivity and photometric detection are used. 13 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Liquid Chromatography in 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, David H.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews trends in liquid chromatography including apparatus, factors affecting efficient separation of a mixture (peak sharpness and speed), simplified problem-solving, adsorption, bonded phase chromatography, ion selectivity, and size exclusion. The current trend is to control chemical selectivity by the liquid phase. (Author/JN)

  14. Determination of selected anions in water by ion chromatography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fishman, Marvin J.; Pyen, Grace

    1979-01-01

    Ion chromatography is a rapid, sensitive, precise, and accurate method for the determination of major anions in rainwater and surface waters. Simultaneous analyses of a single sample for bromide, chloride, fluoride, nitrate, nitrite, orthophosphate, and sulfate require approximately 20 minutes to obtain a chromatogram. Minimum detection limits range from 0.01 mg/L for fluoride to 0.20 mg/L for chloride and sulfate. Relative standard deviations were less than 9% for all anions except nitrite in Standard Reference Water Samples. Only one reference sample contained nitrite and its concentration was near the minimum level of detection. Similar precision was found for chloride, nitrate, and sulfate at concentrations less than 5 mg/L in rainfall samples. Precision for fluoride ranged from 12 to 22%, but is attributed to the low concentrations in these samples. The other anions were not detected. To determine accuracy of results, several samples were spiked with known concentrations of fluoride, chloride, nitrate, and sulfate; recoveries ranged from 96 to 103%. Known amounts of bromide and phosphate were added, separately, to several other waters, which contained bromide or phosphate. Recovery of added bromide and phosphate ranged from approximately 95 to 104%. No recovery data were obtained for nitrite. Chloride, nitrate, nitrite, orthophosphate, and sulfate, in several samples, were also determined independently by automated colorimetric procedures. An automated ion-selective electrode method was used to determine fluoride. Results are in agreement with results obtained by ion chromatography. (USGS).

  15. What can in situ ion chromatography offer for Mars exploration?

    PubMed

    Shelor, C Phillip; Dasgupta, Purnendu K; Aubrey, Andrew; Davila, Alfonso F; Lee, Michael C; McKay, Christopher P; Liu, Yan; Noell, Aaron C

    2014-07-01

    The successes of the Mars exploration program have led to our unprecedented knowledge of the geological, mineralogical, and elemental composition of the martian surface. To date, however, only one mission, the Phoenix lander, has specifically set out to determine the soluble chemistry of the martian surface. The surprising results, including the detection of perchlorate, demonstrated both the importance of performing soluble ion measurements and the need for improved instrumentation to unambiguously identify all the species present. Ion chromatography (IC) is the state-of-the-art technique for soluble ion analysis on Earth and would therefore be the ideal instrument to send to Mars. A flight IC system must necessarily be small, lightweight, low-power, and have low eluent consumption. We demonstrate here a breadboard system that addresses these issues by using capillary IC at low flow rates with an optimized eluent generator and suppressor. A mix of 12 ions known or plausible for the martian soil, including 4 (oxy)chlorine species, has been separated at flow rates ranging from 1 to 10 ?L/min, requiring as little as 200 psi at 1.0 ?L/min. This allowed the use of pneumatic displacement pumping from a pressurized aluminum eluent reservoir and the elimination of the high-pressure pump entirely (the single heaviest and most energy-intensive component). All ions could be separated and detected effectively from 0.5 to 100 ?M, even when millimolar concentrations of perchlorate were present in the same mixtures. PMID:24963874

  16. Quantifying vitamin K-dependent holoprotein compaction caused by differential ?-carboxylation using high-pressure size exclusion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Vanderslice, Nicholas C; Messer, Amanda S; Vadivel, Kanagasabai; Bajaj, S Paul; Phillips, Martin; Fatemi, Mostafa; Xu, Weijie; Velander, William H

    2015-06-15

    This study uses high-pressure size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) to quantify divalent metal ion (X(2+))-induced compaction found in vitamin K-dependent (VKD) proteins. Multiple X(2+) binding sites formed by the presence of up to 12 ?-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) residues are present in plasma-derived FIX (pd-FIX) and recombinant FIX (r-FIX). Analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) was used to calibrate the Stokes radius (R) measured by HPSEC. A compaction of pd-FIX caused by the filling of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) binding sites resulted in a 5 to 6% decrease in radius of hydration as observed by HPSEC. The filling of Ca(2+) sites resulted in greater compaction than for Mg(2+) alone where this effect was additive or greater when both ions were present at physiological levels. Less X(2+)-induced compaction was observed in r-FIX with lower Gla content populations, which enabled the separation of biologically active r-FIX species from inactive ones by HPSEC. HPSEC was sensitive to R changes of approximately 0.01nm that enabled the detection of FIX compaction that was likely cooperative in nature between lower avidity X(2+) sites of the Gla domain and higher avidity X(2+) sites of the epidermal growth factor 1 (EGF1)-like domain. PMID:25804408

  17. Determination of epichlorohydrin by sulfite derivatization and ion chromatography: characterization of the sulfite derivatives by ion chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bruzzoniti, Maria Concetta; Andrensek, Samo; Novic, Milko; Perrachon, Daniela; Sarzanini, Corrado

    2004-04-23

    This work is an upgrade of a previously developed method (J. Chromatogr. A 884 (2000) 251] for epichlorohydrin determination by ion chromatography (IC) and conductivity detection. Here, an ion chromatography-mass spectrometry (IC-MS) coupling has been employed for the separation and the identification of products of epichlorohydrin when reacted with the nucleophilic agent SO3(2-). The high capacity column (IonPac AS11-HC) used for separation provided good resolution. This allowed evaluation of the IC behavior and mass spectrometric identification of epichlorohydrin sulfite derivatives. By using atmospheric pressure interfaces (ESI and APCI) the following species were tentatively identified: 2,3-dihydroxy-1-propanesulfonic, 2,3-epoxy-1-propanesulfonic,1,3-dihydroxy-2-propanesulfonic and 3-oxetanesulfonic acids and 2-hydroxy-1,3-propanedisulfonic acid (or its isomer 3-hydroxy-1,2-propanedisulfonic acid). The study showed that chlorine atoms are displaced from epichlorohydrin during the reaction, while mass spectrometry confirmed that none of the products formed contains chlorine atoms. PMID:15116937

  18. Determination of sulphite in wines using suppressed ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Kenji; Uekusa, Yuki; Sakuragawa, Akio

    2015-05-01

    Suppressed ion chromatography with the use of a conductivity detector was developed for the determination of sulphite ions in wine samples. When a mixed solution of sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, and acetone was used as the mobile phase, simultaneous determination of eight inorganic anions (i.e., fluoride, chloride, nitrite, nitrate, sulphite, phosphate, sulphate, and thiosulphate) was completed in approximately 25 min. Linearity, reproducibility, and detection limits were determined for the proposed method. In the case of sulphite detection, a linear calibration curve with a good correlation coefficient of 0.9992 was obtained from the peak height of sulphite with a relative standard deviation (n = 6) 1.48%. In addition, the detection limit of sulphite was 0.27 mg/L at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. Further, the developed method was applied for the determination of sulphite contained in several wine samples. PMID:25529696

  19. Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brantley, L. Reed, Sr.; Demanche, Edna L.; Klemm, E. Barbara; Kyselka, Will; Phillips, Edwin A.; Pottenger, Francis M.; Yamamoto, Karen N.; Young, Donald B.

    This booklet presents some activities on chromatography. Directions for preparing leaf pigment extracts using alcohol are given, and paper chromatography and thin-layer chromatography are described as modifications of the basic principles of chromatography. (KHR)

  20. Three dimensional liquid chromatography coupling ion exchange chromatography/hydrophobic interaction chromatography/reverse phase chromatography for effective protein separation in top-down proteomics.

    PubMed

    Valeja, Santosh G; Xiu, Lichen; Gregorich, Zachery R; Guner, Huseyin; Jin, Song; Ge, Ying

    2015-01-01

    To address the complexity of the proteome in mass spectrometry (MS)-based top-down proteomics, multidimensional liquid chromatography (MDLC) strategies that can effectively separate proteins with high resolution and automation are highly desirable. Although various MDLC methods that can effectively separate peptides from protein digests exist, very few MDLC strategies, primarily consisting of 2DLC, are available for intact protein separation, which is insufficient to address the complexity of the proteome. We recently demonstrated that hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) utilizing a MS-compatible salt can provide high resolution separation of intact proteins for top-down proteomics. Herein, we have developed a novel 3DLC strategy by coupling HIC with ion exchange chromatography (IEC) and reverse phase chromatography (RPC) for intact protein separation. We demonstrated that a 3D (IEC-HIC-RPC) approach greatly outperformed the conventional 2D IEC-RPC approach. For the same IEC fraction (out of 35 fractions) from a crude HEK 293 cell lysate, a total of 640 proteins were identified in the 3D approach (corresponding to 201 nonredundant proteins) as compared to 47 in the 2D approach, whereas simply prolonging the gradients in RPC in the 2D approach only led to minimal improvement in protein separation and identifications. Therefore, this novel 3DLC method has great potential for effective separation of intact proteins to achieve deep proteome coverage in top-down proteomics. PMID:25867201

  1. The use of liquid chromatography for the analysis of metal ions in aqueous solutions and for the determination of water in organic matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Fortier, N.E.

    1988-07-01

    The value of a p-phenylenediammonium eluent in single-column ion chromatography is demonstrated. It is shown to be particularly useful for separating trivalent aluminum from common divalent metal ion interferences. The aluminum is detected with a conductivity detector. Postcolumn reaction in liquid chromatography is reviewed. The application of disodium 1-(2-thiazolylazo)-2-naphthol-3,6-disulfonate (TAN-3,6-S) to the detection of metal ions in single-column ion chromatography with a visible absorbance detector is explored. Temperature is shown to affect the retention times of divalent and trivalent metal ions in ion chromatography. Several chromatographic separations are improved by operating the system at elevated temperature. Two methods for the determination of water in organic matrices using liquid chromatography and a spectrophotometric detector are presented. Both employ a chromatographic separation by ion-exclusion. The first detection method makes use of solvatochromism, the shift in an organic spectrum which occurs as solvent polarity is changed. The second detection method uses a solid-phase postcolumn reactor containing a cation-exchange resin in the H/sup +/ form. This reactor acts as catalyst for a reaction occurring between water and two components of the mobile phase, methanol and trans-cinnamaldehyde. 122 refs., 40 figs., 16 tabs.

  2. One-step cleanup for PAH residue analysis in plant matrices using size-exclusion chromatography.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Hubert A; Popp P; Wenzel KD; Engewald W; Schüürmann G

    2003-05-01

    A new one-step cleanup procedure, based on size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), usable for the extracts from accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), Soxhlet extraction, or ultrasonic extraction (USE), is described. The method is suitable for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), especially from very complicated plant matrices (e.g. pine needles, deciduous leaves, mosses). The main improvement compared with previous conventional procedures is that analyte peaks barely overlap with matrix peaks in the chromatograms and that it is a very rapid and simple one-step procedure with clearly improved analytical performance. Essential advantages of this SEC procedure are the sharper GC-MS chromatograms for the PAH fraction at retention times between 9.2 and 12.0 min, distinctly separated substance peaks resulting in better analysis, shorter running times, and lower solvent consumption.

  3. Fluorescence-Detectino Size-Exclusion Chromatography for Precrystallization Screening of Integral Membrane Proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Kawate,T.; Gouaux, E.

    2006-01-01

    Formation of well-ordered crystals of membrane proteins is a bottleneck for structure determination by X-ray crystallography. Nevertheless, one can increase the probability of successful crystallization by precrystallization screening, a process by which one analyzes the monodispersity and stability of the protein-detergent complex. Traditionally, this has required microgram to milligram quantities of purified protein and a concomitant investment of time and resources. Here, we describe a rapid and efficient precrystallization screening strategy in which the target protein is covalently fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) and the resulting unpurified protein is analyzed by fluorescence-detection size-exclusion chromatography (FSEC). This strategy requires only nanogram quantities of unpurified protein and allows one to evaluate localization and expression level, the degree of monodispersity, and the approximate molecular mass. We show the application of this precrystallization screening to four membrane proteins derived from prokaryotic or eukaryotic organisms.

  4. Ion exclusion associated with marine gas hydrate deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ussler, William, III; Paull, Charles K.

    In marine sediments gas hydrate growth removes water and gas molecules from the pore water while dissolved ions are excluded from the clathrate cage. As a consequence, the surrounding pore waters become more saline. Conversely, when gas hydrates decompose, water is released, causing pore water to become fresher. Ion exclusion produces distinctive geochemical signatures that are used to identify the presence of gas hydrate and to calculate the amount of gas hydrate in marine sediment samples. These calculations, however, require knowledge of the dissolved ion concentration of the in situ pore water prior to gas hydrate decomposition. Because arguably no useable pore water samples have been collected in situ from gas-hydrate-bearing sediments, the calculated amounts of gas hydrate are very dependent on the assumed in situ dissolved ion concentrations. In this paper, the principles behind using measured pore water chloride concentrations to estimate gas hydrate amounts are reviewed, along with data from selected sites around the world. These data clearly define local pore water anomalies in the sediment zones that are believed to currently contain gas hydrate, but also document the occurrence of thick zones of low chloride concentrations immediately below the base of gas hydrate stability. The potential causes for these low chloride anomalies below the base of gas hydrate stability are discussed.

  5. Size exclusion chromatography of synthetic polymers and biopolymers on common reversed phase and hydrophilic interaction chromatography columns.

    PubMed

    Caltabiano, Anna M; Foley, Joe P; Barth, Howard G

    2016-03-11

    This work describes the applicability of common reversed phase and HILIC columns for size exclusion chromatography of synthetic and natural polymers. Depending on the nature of the solute and column stationary phase, a "non-retention" condition must be created with the aid of the mobile phase to achieve a unique size-based separation in isocratic mode. The various bonded phases show remarkable differences in size separations that are controlled by mobile phase conditions. Polymer-mobile phase and column-mobile phase solvation interactions determine polymer hydrodynamic volume (or solute bulkiness) and polymer-column steric interaction. Solvation interactions in turn depend on polymer, mobile phase and stationary phase polarities. Column-mobile phase solvation interactions determine the structural order of the bonded ligands that can vary from ordered (extended, aligned away from the silica substrate) to disordered (folded, pointing toward the silica substrate). Chain order increases with increased solvent penetration into the bonded phase. Increased chain order reduces pore volume, and therefore decreases the size-separation efficiency of a column. Conversely, decreased chain order increases pore volume and therefore increases the size-separation efficiency. The thermodynamic quality of the mobile phase also plays a significant role in the separation of polymers. "Poor" solvents can significantly reduce the hydrodynamic diameter of a solute and thus change their retention behavior. Medium polarity stationary phases, such as fluoro-phenyl and cyano, exhibit a unique retention behavior. With an appropriate polarity mobile phase, polar and non-polar synthetic polymers of the same molecular masses can be eluted at the same retention volumes. PMID:26877177

  6. Azide determination in protein samples by ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Annable, P L; Sly, L A

    1991-06-21

    Sodium azide is used as an anti-fungal agent in protein samples in the health related scientific community. Due to its toxic nature, monitoring of the azide level in proteins used in scientific research is necessary. Ion-exchange chromatography has been used to quantitate azide levels in protein samples. Anion-exchange methodology is described which allows for the separation of azide from various common anions found in analytical grade protein sample matrices. The analytical system described utilizes a polymer [poly(styrene-divinylbenzene)] stationary phase which has been surface sulfonated followed by the binding of the aminated latex bead active ion-exchange sites (Dionex, AS4A column). Sodium tetraborate is used as the weak anion-exchange mobile phase. A vendor ion-exchange column comparison is made along with eluent composition and selection studies. Method validation data are presented including: calibration plots for external standardization, limit of detection and method recovery. Various types of proteins are assayed using the described method. PMID:1885701

  7. Consequences of on-line dialysis on polyelectrolyte molar masses determined by size-exclusion chromatography with light scattering detection.

    PubMed

    Radke, Wolfgang

    2016-02-01

    Size-exclusion chromatography with light scattering detection experiments conducted on poly(acrylic acid) neutralized to different degrees or using hydroxides with different counterions suggest that the same counterion and degree of neutralization is observed at the detector, irrespective of salt concentration, degree of neutralization and counterion at the time of injection. This strongly supports that during the chromatographic experiment the counterions of the polyelectrolyte are exchanged with those of the eluent, resulting in an effective dialysis of the polyelectrolyte solution during the size-exclusion chromatography experiment. Consequently, the refractive index increment determined by a refractive index detector equals the refractive index increment obtained after excessive dialysis against the pure eluent. Therefore, the species detected and characterized by light scattering coupled to size-exclusion chromatography are not identical to the species injected into the chromatographic system. Despite this structural change during the chromatographic experiments, the correct molar mass for the injected species is obtained by size-exclusion chromatography with light scattering detection. PMID:26606911

  8. Peptide Orientation Affects Selectivity in Ion-Exchange Chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Alpert, Andrew J.; Petritis, Konstantinos; Kangas, Lars J.; Smith, Richard D.; Mechtler, Karl; Mitulovic, Goran; Mohammed, Shabaz; Heck, Albert J.

    2010-06-15

    Here we demonstrate that separation of proteolytic peptides, having the same net charge and one basic residue, is affected by their specific orientation toward the stationary phase in ion-exchange chromatography. In electrostatic repulsion-hydrophilic interaction chromatography (ERLIC) with an anion-exchange material, the C-terminus of the peptides is, on average, oriented toward the stationary phase. In cation exchange, the average peptide orientation is the opposite. Data with synthetic peptides, serving as orientation probes, indicate that in tryptic/Lys-C peptides the C-terminal carboxyl group appears to be in a zwitterionic bond with the side chain of the C-terminal Lys/Arg residue. In effect, the side chain is then less basic than the N-terminus, accounting for the specific orientation of tryptic and Lys-C peptides. Analyses of larger sets of peptides, generated from lysates by either Lys-N, Lys-C, or trypsin, reveal that specific peptide orientation affects the ability of harged side chains, such as phosphate residues, to influence retention. Phosphorylated residues that are remote in the sequence from the binding site affect retention less than those that are closer. When a peptide contains multiple charged sites, then orientation is observed to be less rigid and retention tends to be governed by the peptide’s net charge rather than its sequence. These general observations could be of value in confirming a peptide’s identification and, in particular, phosphosite assignments in proteomics analyses. More generally, orientation accounts for the ability of chromatography to separate peptides of the same compositionbut different sequence.

  9. Peptide Orientation Affects Selectivity in Ion-Exchange Chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Alpert, Andrew J.; Petritis, Konstantinos; Kangas, Lars J.; Smith, R. D.; Mechtler, Karl; Mitulovic, Goran; Mohammed, Shabaz; Heck, Albert J.

    2010-06-15

    Here we demonstrate that separation of proteolytic peptides, having the same net charge and one basic residue, is affected by their specific orientation toward the stationary phase in ion-exchange chromatography. In electrostatic repulsion-hydrophilic interaction chromatography (ERLIC) with an anion-exchange material, the C-terminus of the peptides is, on average, oriented toward the stationary phase. In cation exchange, the average peptide orientation is the opposite. Data with synthetic peptides, serving as orientation probes, indicate that in tryptic/ Lys-C peptides the C-terminal carboxyl group appears to be in a zwitterionic bond with the side chain of the C-terminal Lys/Arg residue. In effect, the side chain is then less basic than the N-terminus, accounting for the specific orientation of tryptic and Lys-C peptides. Analyses of larger sets of peptides, generated from lysates by either Lys-N, Lys-C, or trypsin, reveal that specific peptide orientation affects the ability of charged side chains, such as phosphate residues, to influence retention. Phosphorylated residues that are remote in the sequence from the binding site affect retention less than those that are closer. When a peptide contains multiple charged sites, then orientation is observed to be less rigid and retention tends to be governed by the peptide’s net charge rather than its sequence. These general observations could be of value in confirming a peptide’s identification and, in particular, phosphosite assignments in proteomics analyses. More generally, orientation accounts for the ability of chromatography to separate peptides of the same composition but different sequence.

  10. Analysis of starch in food systems by high-performance size exclusion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ovando-Martnez, Maribel; Whitney, Kristin; Simsek, Senay

    2013-02-01

    Starch has unique physicochemical characteristics among food carbohydrates. Starch contributes to the physicochemical attributes of food products made from roots, legumes, cereals, and fruits. It occurs naturally as distinct particles, called granules. Most starch granules are a mixture of 2 sugar polymers: a highly branched polysaccharide named amylopectin and a basically linear polysaccharide named amylose. The starch contained in food products undergoes changes during processing, which causes changes in the starch molecular weight and amylose to amylopectin ratio. The objective of this study was to develop a new, simple, 1-step, and accurate method for simultaneous determination of amylose and amylopectin ratio as well as weight-averaged molecular weights of starch in food products. Starch from bread flour, canned peas, corn flake cereal, snack crackers, canned kidney beans, pasta, potato chips, and white bread was extracted by dissolving in KOH, urea, and precipitation with ethanol. Starch samples were solubilized and analyzed on a high-performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) system. To verify the identity of the peaks, fractions were collected and soluble starch and beta-glucan assays were performed additional to gas chromatography analysis. We found that all the fractions contain only glucose and soluble starch assay is correlated to the HPSEC fractionation. This new method can be used to determine amylose amylopectin ratio and weight-averaged molecular weight of starch from various food products using as low as 25 mg dry samples. PMID:23330715

  11. Ultra-short columns for low-pressure ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Jiang, X; Zhang, X; Liu, M

    1999-10-01

    Since the development of low-pressure ion chromatography (LPIC), many inorganic cations and anions as well as organic acids could be analyzed at a low-pressure of 1.96 x 10(5)-2.94 x 10(5) Pa. And the ultra-short columns took the place of the common long chromatographic columns. Furthermore, the ultra-short columns of LPIC not only reduced the system pressure appreciably, but also achieved high sensitivity and precision. In order to assess the characteristics of the super-short columns, much analysis, i.e., the analysis of alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, transition-metals, rare-earth elements, inorganic anions and organic acids as well as the common amino acids, were conducted. Moreover, excellent results were obtained from the LPIC columns. PMID:10536836

  12. Analysis of anions in hydrofluoro ethers by ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Hulteen, John C; Schaible, Sandi M

    2004-06-11

    Hydrofluoro ethers (HFES) are considered to be an ideal cleaning solvent in applications like vapor degreasing and wet cleaning. It is also a good solvent replacement for CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons), HCFCs (hydrochlorofluorocarbons), HFCs (hydrofluorocarbons) and chlorinated solvents because they have a short atmospheric lifetime and low global warming potential. Based upon their properties, hydrofluoro ethers are ideally suited for the demands of the electronics industry. However, the electronics industry requires these solvents to have high purity, especially in the area of residual anions. This paper will present information on an extraction methodology for the transfer of anions from the hydrofluoro ether to water. Then, an analytical method utilizing ion chromatography that is capable of detection of 10 anions (fluoride, acetate, formate, chloride, nitrite, bromide, nitrate, sulfate, oxalate, and phosphate) in the part per billion level will be demonstrated. PMID:15250412

  13. Determination of polydextrose in foods by ion chromatography: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Craig, S A; Holden, J F; Khaled, M Y

    2001-01-01

    Eight collaborating laboratories assayed 7 blind duplicate pairs of foods for polydextrose content. The 7 test sample pairs ranged from low (2%) to high (95%) levels. The following foods were prepared with polydextrose mixed into the other ingredients and then baked, cooked, or otherwise prepared: milk chocolate candy, iced tea, sugar cookie, grape jelly, soft jellied candy, and powdered drink mix. Collaborators received a polydextrose standard to develop a calibration curve. The method determined polydextrose by ion chromatography, after removal of interfering food components (high molecular weight solubles). Repeatability standard deviations (RSDr) ranged from 3.93 to 9.04%; reproducibility standard deviations (RSDR) ranged from 4.48 to 14.06%. The average recovery was 94%. PMID:11324613

  14. Ion Exclusion by Sub 2-nm Carbon Nanotube Pores

    SciTech Connect

    Fornasiero, F; Park, H G; Holt, J K; Stadermann, M; Grigoropoulos, C P; Noy, A; Bakajin, O

    2008-04-09

    Carbon nanotubes offer an outstanding platform for studying molecular transport at nanoscale, and have become promising materials for nanofluidics and membrane technology due to their unique combination of physical, chemical, mechanical, and electronic properties. In particular, both simulations and experiments have proved that fluid flow through carbon nanotubes of nanometer size diameter is exceptionally fast compared to what continuum hydrodynamic theories would predict when applied on this length scale, and also, compared to conventional membranes with pores of similar size, such as zeolites. For a variety of applications such as separation technology, molecular sensing, drug delivery, and biomimetics, selectivity is required together with fast flow. In particular, for water desalination, coupling the enhancement of the water flux with selective ion transport could drastically reduce the cost of brackish and seawater desalting. In this work, we study the ion selectivity of membranes made of aligned double-walled carbon nanotubes with sub-2 nm diameter. Negatively charged groups are introduced at the opening of the carbon nanotubes by oxygen plasma treatment. Reverse osmosis experiments coupled with capillary electrophoresis analysis of permeate and feed show significant anion and cation rejection. Ion exclusion declines by increasing ionic strength (concentration) of the feed and by lowering solution pH; also, the highest rejection is observed for the A{sub m}{sup Z{sub A}} C{sub n}{sup Z{sub C}} salts (A=anion, C=cation, z= valence) with the greatest Z{sub A}/Z{sub C} ratio. Our results strongly support a Donnan-type rejection mechanism, dominated by electrostatic interactions between fixed membrane charges and mobile ions, while steric and hydrodynamic effects appear to be less important. Comparison with commercial nanofiltration membranes for water softening reveals that our carbon nanotube membranes provides far superior water fluxes for similar ion rejection capabilities.

  15. Deeply Virtual Exclusive Reactions in a Polarized Electron Ion Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyde, Charles

    2013-04-01

    An Electron Ion collider is proposed as the next major project for hadronic physics studies at high energy. I briefly review the JLab MEIC proposal, including a full acceptance detector. I focus on the integration of a far-forward spectrometer into the accelerator lattice of the Interaction Point (IP), optimized for detection of the recoil nucleons or nuclei in Deeply Virtual Exclusive Scattering (DVES) reactions. The far forward design features 100% neutron detection in a cone of 25 mrad around 0^o, complete detection of beam ions at all angles (down to 0^o for momenta |p-p0|/p0>0.05%, where p0 is the beam momentum, and detection of beam ions at all momenta, for scattering angles at the IP greater than 3 mrad. The momentum resolution in the far forward region is <=3.10-4, limited by the intrinsic beam momentum spread. Spatial imaging of nuclei via DVES in the coherent peak requires measuring transverse momentum transfers to less than 1/RA, where RA is the nuclear rms radius. For all but the lightest nuclei, mapping the coherent peak requires a special high-^* tune. I discuss the trade-offs of luminosity, count rate, and spatial resolution for DVES studies on nuclei.

  16. Enhanced methodology for porting ion chromatography retention data.

    PubMed

    Park, Soo Hyun; Shellie, Robert A; Dicinoski, Greg W; Schuster, Georg; Talebi, Mohammad; Haddad, Paul R; Szucs, Roman; Dolan, John W; Pohl, Christopher A

    2016-03-01

    Porting is a powerful methodology to recalibrate an existing database of ion chromatography (IC) retention times by reflecting the changes of column behavior resulting from either batch-to-batch variability in the production of the column or the manufacture of new versions of a column. This approach has been employed to update extensive databases of retention data of inorganic and organic anions forming part of the "Virtual Column" software marketed by Thermo Fisher Scientific, which is the only available commercial optimization tool for IC separation. The current porting process is accomplished by performing three isocratic separations with two representative analyte ions in order to derive a porting equation which expresses the relationship between old and new data. Although the accuracy of retention prediction is generally enhanced on new columns, errors were observed on some columns. In this work, the porting methodology was modified in order to address this issue, where the porting equation is now derived by using six representative analyte ions (chloride, bromide, iodide, perchlorate, sulfate, and thiosulfate). Additionally, the updated porting methodology has been applied on three Thermo Fisher Scientific columns (AS20, AS19, and AS11HC). The proposed approach showed that the new porting methodology can provide more accurate and robust retention prediction on a wide range of columns, where average errors in retention times for ten test anions under three eluent conditions were less than 1.5%. Moreover, the retention prediction using this new approach provided an acceptable level of accuracy on a used column exhibiting changes in ion-exchange capacity. PMID:26860051

  17. Performance evaluation of ion-exchange chromatography in capillary format.

    PubMed

    Eghbali, Hamed; Bruggink, Cees; Agroskin, Yury; Pohl, Christopher A; Eeltink, Sebastiaan

    2012-12-01

    The performance of a recently introduced capillary ion-exchange chromatography system was explored. Experiments were conducted in isocratic mode with a commercial capillary anion-exchange column (id = 0.4 mm, L = 15 cm) using a five-anion standard mixture. The achieved results were compared to the performance of a standard bore ion-exchange system (id = 4 mm, L = 15 cm), which was considered as a reference. The first-generation capillary columns exhibited a minimal reduced plate-height value below two witnessing a good packing quality and system performance. However, compared to the standard bore system the capillary system displayed an increased apparent C-term which could be due to a difference in packing morphology and/or possible external band-broadening contributions. For fast separations, the standard bore system outperformed the capillary system, while for complex separations both systems performed nearly equally well. In addition, the retention characteristics of the capillary system were investigated. To illustrate the suitability of the capillary system, the analysis of real-world water samples originating from two local Belgian rivers was demonstrated. PMID:23125111

  18. Surfactant-aided size-exclusion chromatography for the purification of immunoglobulin G.

    PubMed

    Horneman, D A; Ottens, M; Keurentjes, J T F; van der Wielen, L A M

    2007-07-20

    In the production of monoclonal antibodies, separate chains of the antibody are often present in the product mixture as well as other contaminating proteins. These fragments should be removed from the whole antibodies. This paper shows the purification of monoclonal immunoglobulin G (IgG) from its heavy chain contaminant. The heavy chain fragment is simulated experimentally using bovine serum albumin (BSA), which has approximately the same molecular weight. The purification is performed using traditional size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) and using surfactant-aided SEC (SASEC), testing two different surfactants (C(12)E(23) and Tween20) and two different gels (Sephacryl S200HR and Sephacryl S300 HR). Pulse experiments show that with SASEC both BSA and IgG are more distributed towards the solid phase than compared to using SEC. This effect is larger on IgG, the largest component than on BSA. As a consequence, azeotropes will be formed at a specific surfactant concentration. Above this concentration the selectivity is reversed and increased to values higher than obtained with conventional SEC. At 7.5% (w/w) of C(12)E(23), BSA actually elutes before IgG. These experiments further show that when using SASEC larger productivity, higher yields and lower solvent consumption can be achieved without loss of purity of IgG when compared to conventional SEC. Mathematical simulation of the separation of BSA and IgG using simulated moving bed (SMB) chromatography indicates a large increase in productivity when applying a surfactant gradient in SASEC SMB compared to conventional isocratic SEC-SMB. Furthermore, solvent consumption reductions with a factor 15 prove possible as well as concentrating the IgG by a factor 2. PMID:17543976

  19. Influence of extraction method on size exclusion chromatography fingerprints of EPS from wastewater sludges.

    PubMed

    Bourven, I; Simon, S; Guibaud, G

    2013-01-01

    Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) were separated using two serial-linked size exclusion chromatography (SEC) columns to obtain detailed fingerprints. The chromatographic profile results were influenced by the nature of biological sludge (activated sludges, anaerobic granules, anaerobic flocculated sludges). Furthermore, our results highlight that EPS fingerprints are also highly dependent on the extraction method. If physical extractions modify only the relative absorbance of the chromatographic peaks, heating during extraction induces significant modifications of the fingerprints, probably owing to better organic matter extraction efficiency as well as an increase in hydrolysis for some compounds but not for EPS extracted from anaerobic granular sludges. This confirms that thermal treatment is a proper method to extract EPS from anaerobic granular sludges. The use of chemical extraction results in major changes on the EPS fingerprints. This work demonstrates that some chromatographic peaks are due to residues from the chemical reagent (such as EDTA, glutaraldehyde) which can modify or form complexes with some EPS macromolecules. As a result, due to its sensitivity to sludge origin and/or extraction procedure, SEC appears to be a suitable tool for an accurate qualitative EPS characterization. PMID:23530346

  20. Size-exclusion chromatography of poly(ethylene 2,6-naphthalate).

    PubMed

    Mourey, T H; Slater, L A; Galipo, R C; Janes, D L; Moody, R E

    2012-09-21

    A solvent mixture of 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP) and dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) is used to dissolve difficultly soluble poly(ethylene 2,6-naphthalate) (PEN). Solutions can be diluted and analyzed in a common size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) eluent, HFIP. The HFIP/DCAA mixture is better at dissolving PEN than either solvent individually and it is easier and safer to work with than phenolic and strongly acidic eluents. Dissolution temperatures between 50 and 60 °C are sufficiently low to minimize hydrolytic degradation of the polyester. PEN does not dissolve in the solvent mixture if the water concentration is greater than 0.76 wt%, and preferably the water content should be less than 0.13 wt% to eliminate minor prepeak artifacts. The procedure is suitable for PEN that is less than 48% crystalline, including prepolymers, oriented films and some solid-state polymerized materials. Highly crystalline polymers can be melt-quenched into a more amorphous state to render them soluble. The dilute solution conformational properties of PEN are compared to PET in HFIP, and molar mass-intrinsic viscosity scaling constants and unperturbed dimensions are calculated from SEC data. PMID:22897859

  1. Inclusion body purification and protein refolding using microfiltration and size exclusion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Batas, B; Schiraldi, C; Chaudhuri, J B

    1999-02-19

    The presence of inclusion body impurities can affect the refolding yield of recombinant proteins, thus there is a need to purify inclusion bodies prior to refolding. We have compared centrifugation and membrane filtration for the washing and recovery of inclusion bodies of recombinant hen egg white lysozyme (rHEWL). It was found that the most significant purification occurred during the removal of cell debris. Moderate improvements in purity were subsequently obtained by washing using EDTA, moderate urea solutions and Triton X-100. Centrifugation between each wash step gave a purer product with a higher rHEWL yield. With microfiltration, use of a 0.45 micron membrane gave higher solvent fluxes, purer inclusion bodies and greater protein yield as compared with a 0.1 micron membrane. Significant flux decline was observed for both membranes. Second, we studied the refolding of rHEWL. Refolding from an initial concentration of 1.5 mg ml-1, by 100-fold batch dilution gave a 43% recovery of specific activity. Purified inclusion bodies gave rise to higher refolding yields, and negligible activity was observed after refolding partially purified material. Refolding rHEWL with a size exclusion chromatography based process gave rise to a refolding yield of 35% that corresponded to a 20-fold dilution. PMID:10194854

  2. Determination of pore size distributions of porous chromatographic adsorbents by inverse size-exclusion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yan; Lenhoff, Abraham M

    2004-05-28

    The macroscopic properties of porous chromatographic adsorbents are directly influenced by the pore structure, with the pore size distribution (PSD) playing a major role beyond simply the mean pore size. Inverse size-exclusion chromatography (ISEC), a widely used chromatographic method for determining the PSD of porous media, provides more relevant information on liquid chromatographic materials in situ than traditional methods, such as gas sorption and mercury intrusion. The fundamentals and applications of ISEC in the characterization of the pore structure are reviewed. The description of the probe solutes and the pore space, as well as theoretical models for deriving the PSD from solute partitioning behavior, are discussed. Precautions to ensure integrity of the experiments are also outlined, including accounting for probe polydispersity and minimization of solute-adsorbent interactions. The results that emerge are necessarily model-dependent, but ISEC nonetheless represents a powerful and non-destructive source of quantitative pore structure information that can help to elucidate chromatographic performance observations covering both retention and rate aspects. PMID:15214670

  3. Comments on exclusion of polymer chains from small pores and its relation to gel permeation chromatography.

    PubMed

    Casassa, E F

    1976-01-01

    Some criticisms of our theoretical treatment of the partial exclusion of flexible-chain polymers in solution from cavities of macromolecular size and its application to gel permeation chromatography are examined. In other discussion, it is confirmed by simple reasoning that the identification, explicit or implicit in various studies, of the mean projection of a polymer molecule onto a line as a characteristic dimension governing the extent of permeation of simple pores does not depend on specific molecular models. Our previous calculation of permeation by certain random-flight branched-chain species is shown to lead, incidentally, to the mean projection for these structures. From relations between the mean projection and the hydrodynamic volume of a molecule, it appears that the product of intrinsic viscosity and molecular weight is not a common calibration factor for elution of all molecular species from a gel chromatographic column, but theory and experience do support the validity of this correlation among solutes with similar molecular architecture. PMID:1249988

  4. Molecular weights of poly(butyl cyanoacrylate) nanoparticles determined by mass spectrometry and size exclusion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Bootz, Alexander; Russ, Thomas; Gores, Friedhelm; Karas, Michael; Kreuter, Jrg

    2005-08-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and size exclusion chromatography (SEC) were employed to elucidate the chemical composition, mean number average molecular weight (M(n)), mean weight average molecular weight (M(w)), and polydispersity (PD) of poly(butyl cyanoacrylate) (PBCA) manufactured by emulsion polymerisation. Both methods gave similar results for M(n), but substantial differences were observed for M(w) and PD, with MALDI producing consistently lower values which could not be improved by off-line coupling of SEC and MALDI. MALDI gave a more detailed view on the chemical composition of the cyanoacrylate and revealed the presence of two additional polymer series with different end groups besides the expected PBCA series, which showed different retention in SEC. Their formation is explained by the secession/addition of formaldehyde from/to the regular polymer via (reverse) Knoevenagel reaction. In additional experiments, the influence of different pH on PBCA-NP during polymerisation was examined by comparison of polymerisation yield and particle diameter to their chemical composition as revealed by the MALDI spectra. The most uniform nanoparticles, with the highest polymerisation yield, narrowest particle size, and mass distribution were produced at pH 1. PMID:15996580

  5. Analysis of reduced monoclonal antibodies using size exclusion chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongcheng; Gaza-Bulseco, Georgeen; Chumsae, Chris

    2009-12-01

    Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) has been widely used to detect antibody aggregates, monomer, and fragments. SEC coupled to mass spectrometry has been reported to measure the molecular weights of antibody; antibody conjugates, and antibody light chain and heavy chain. In this study, separation of antibody light chain and heavy chain by SEC and direct coupling to a mass spectrometer was further studied. It was determined that employing mobile phases containing acetonitrile, trifluoroacetic acid, and formic acid allowed the separation of antibody light chain and heavy chain after reduction by SEC. In addition, this mobile phase allowed the coupling of SEC to a mass spectrometer to obtain a direct molecular weight measurement. The application of the SEC-MS method was demonstrated by the separation of the light chain and the heavy chain of multiple recombinant monoclonal antibodies. In addition, separation of a thioether linked light chain and heavy chain from the free light chain and the free heavy chain of a recombinant monoclonal antibody after reduction was also achieved. This optimized method provided a separation of antibody light chain and heavy chain based on size and allowed a direct measurement of molecular weights by mass spectrometry. In addition, this method may help to identify peaks eluting from SEC column directly.

  6. Rapid characterization of biotherapeutic proteins by size-exclusion chromatography coupled to native mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Haberger, Markus; Leiss, Michael; Heidenreich, Anna-Katharina; Pester, Oxana; Hafenmair, Georg; Hook, Michaela; Bonnington, Lea; Wegele, Harald; Haindl, Markus; Reusch, Dietmar; Bulau, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    High-molecular weight aggregates such as antibody dimers and other side products derived from incorrect light or heavy chain association typically represent critical product-related impurities for bispecific antibody formats. In this study, an approach employing ultra-pressure liquid chromatography size-exclusion separation combined with native electrospray ionization mass spectrometry for the simultaneous formation, identification and quantification of size variants in recombinant antibodies was developed. Samples exposed to storage and elevated temperature(s) enabled the identification of various bispecific antibody size variants. This test system hence allowed us to study the variants formed during formulation and bio-process development, and can thus be transferred to quality control units for routine in-process control and release analytics. In addition, native SEC-UV/MS not only facilitates the detailed analysis of low-abundant and non-covalent size variants during process characterization/validation studies, but is also essential for the SEC-UV method validation prior to admission to the market. PMID:26655595

  7. Size exclusion chromatography for analyses of fibroin in silk: optimization of sampling and separation conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawcenis, Dominika; Koperska, Monika A.; Milczarek, Jakub M.; ?ojewski, Tomasz; ?ojewska, Joanna

    2014-02-01

    A direct goal of this paper was to improve the methods of sample preparation and separation for analyses of fibroin polypeptide with the use of size exclusion chromatography (SEC). The motivation for the study arises from our interest in natural polymers included in historic textile and paper artifacts, and is a logical response to the urgent need for developing rationale-based methods for materials conservation. The first step is to develop a reliable analytical tool which would give insight into fibroin structure and its changes caused by both natural and artificial ageing. To investigate the influence of preparation conditions, two sets of artificially aged samples were prepared (with and without NaCl in sample solution) and measured by the means of SEC with multi angle laser light scattering detector. It was shown that dialysis of fibroin dissolved in LiBr solution allows removal of the salt which destroys stacks chromatographic columns and prevents reproducible analyses. Salt rich (NaCl) water solutions of fibroin improved the quality of chromatograms.

  8. Separation of SHRP asphalts by preparative size exclusion chromatography. [Strategic Highway Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Branthaver, J.F.; Duvall, J.J.; Petersen, J.C. )

    1990-07-01

    Eight SHRP core asphalts have been separated by means of preparative size exclusion chromatography (SEC) on Bio-Beads S-X1 gel using toluene as a solvent. Recoveries are almost quantitative and reproducibilities are good. Molecular weight (MW) data obtained for the SEC fractions are in accord with expectations. The initial eluates are much higher in MW than subsequent eluates, and MW's of fractions decrease in MW with increasing fraction number. Initial eluates in these SEC separations do not fluoresce when irradiated with 350 nm light. This is probably due to quenching as a result of incorporation of normally fluorescing aromatic molecules in micellar associations. Subsequent SEC fractions are fluorescent to 350 nm light. Each of the eight asphalts separated by preparative SEC exhibited unique chromatograms. The chromatograms were compared with viscosity data for asphalts in which the highest MW fractions were removed by preparative SEC. The viscosity reductions observed in these residual fractions were greatest in those asphalts whose preparative SEC chromatograms exhibited the most pronounced bimodal distributions.

  9. Assessing natural organic matter treatability using high performance size exclusion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Chow, Christopher W K; Fabris, Rolando; Van Leeuwen, John; Wang, Dongsheng; Drikast, Mary

    2008-09-01

    This paper reports the use of high performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) as a tool to assess NOM removal by coagulation. Quantitative information such as percentage removal can be determined after "peak-fitting" the HPSEC molecular weight profile of the source water. A peak-fitting approach was developed based on the molecular weight profile of dissolved organic matter from surface water. A sequential jar testing procedure with five treatment steps was used to characterize organics and to confirm that several NOM components were recalcitrant to coagulation with alum. Despite differences found in both the concentration and character of NOM in three surface waters studied, the final concentrations and characteristics (e.g., molecular weight profile) were very similar after five treatment stages. The molecular weight profiles of the recalcitrant organics were subsequently used to build a peak-fitting technique for NOM removal. The approach was validated by further jar test results of several other water sources, such as ground and river waters, including one found to be very difficult to treat in terms of NOM removal by alum treatment. Predictions of removable and nonremovable organic fractions by coagulation using this peak fitting technique were found to be within 10% of actual values. PMID:18800549

  10. Oxidative protein refolding on size exclusion chromatography at high loading concentrations: fundamental studies and mathematical modeling.

    PubMed

    Saremirad, Pegah; Wood, Jeffery A; Zhang, Yan; Ray, Ajay K

    2014-11-28

    Size exclusion chromatography has been demonstrated as an effective method for refolding a variety of proteins. However, to date process development mainly relies on laboratory experimentation of individual factors. A robust model is essential for high-throughput process screening and optimization of systems to provide higher productivity and refolding yield. In this work, a detailed kinetic scheme of oxidative refolding of a model protein (lysozyme) has been investigated to predict the refolding results in SEC. Non-reactive native, quenched and equilibrium studies were conducted to obtain the model parameters for the species formed during refolding of denatured/reduced lysozyme. The model was tested in various operating conditions, such as: protein loading concentration, injection volume, flow rate and composition of refolding buffer with and without the use of l-arginine additive. An apparent two-state mechanism was found adequate to describe refolding of lysozyme on SEC for the operating condition tested in this work. Furthermore, using low concentration of l-arginine combined with urea as common aggregation suppressor additives showed insignificant change in kinetics of refolding of lysozyme on SEC. However, addition of l-arginine changed mass transfer properties of some of the species formed in refolding reaction which was considered in the model to accurately predict the result of refolding on SEC. PMID:25454139

  11. The trace determination of inorganic cations in brine solutions using ion chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, E.M.; Sweetin, D.

    1997-12-31

    With the advent of ion chromatography, the determination of inorganic ions in aqueous solutions has been relatively straightforward. However, there are significant complications when ion chromatography is used to determine trace concentrations of inorganic ions in brine matrices. The analysis is further complicated when the sample is radioactive and the sample volume is limited. A Dionex DX-500 ion chromatograph with Dionex CG12/CS12 columns and suppressed conductivity detector was used. Several method and instrument parameters (i.e., eluents, flow rates, pretreatment columns) were investigated. The detection limits for ammonium, alkali and alkaline earth metals are on the order of 50-100 ug/L.

  12. Determination of cyanogenic compounds in edible plants by ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hye-Jeon; Do, Byung-Kyung; Shim, Soon-Mi; Kwon, Hoonjeong; Lee, Dong-Ha; Nah, Ahn-Hee; Choi, Youn-Ju; Lee, Sook-Yeon

    2013-06-01

    Cyanogenic glycosides are HCN-producing phytotoxins; HCN is a powerful and a rapidly acting poison. It is not difficult to find plants containing these compounds in the food supply and/or in medicinal herb collections. The objective of this study was to investigate the distribution of total cyanide in nine genera (Dolichos, Ginkgo, Hordeum, Linum, Phaseolus, Prunus, Phyllostachys, Phytolacca, and Portulaca) of edible plants and the effect of the processing on cyanide concentration. Total cyanide content was measured by ion chromatography following acid hydrolysis and distillation. Kernels of Prunus genus are used medicinally, but they possess the highest level of total cyanide of up to 2259.81 CN(-)/g dry weight. Trace amounts of cyanogenic compounds were detected in foodstuffs such as mungbeans and bamboo shoots. Currently, except for the WHO guideline for cassava, there is no global standard for the allowed amount of cyanogenic compounds in foodstuffs. However, our data emphasize the need for the guidelines if plants containing cyanogenic glycosidesare to be developed as dietary supplements. PMID:24278641

  13. Ion-exchange chromatography for the characterization of biopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Fekete, Szabolcs; Beck, Alain; Veuthey, Jean-Luc; Guillarme, Davy

    2015-09-10

    Ion-exchange chromatography (IEX) is a historical technique widely used for the detailed characterization of therapeutic proteins and can be considered as a reference and powerful technique for the qualitative and quantitative evaluation of charge heterogeneity. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of theoretical and practical aspects of modern IEX applied for the characterization of therapeutic proteins including monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) and antibody drug conjugates (ADCs). The section on method development describes how to select a suitable stationary phase chemistry and dimensions, the mobile phase conditions (pH, nature and concentration of salt), as well as the temperature and flow rate, considering proteins isoelectric point (pI). In addition, both salt-gradient and pH-gradient approaches were critically reviewed and benefits as well as limitations of these two strategies were provided. Finally, several applications, mostly from pharmaceutical industries, illustrate the potential of IEX for the characterization of charge variants of various types of biopharmaceutical products. PMID:25800161

  14. Online comprehensive two-dimensional ion chromatography × capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Ranjbar, Leila; Gaudry, Adam J; Breadmore, Michael C; Shellie, Robert A

    2015-09-01

    A comprehensively coupled online two-dimensional ion chromatography-capillary electrophoresis (IC × CE) system for quantitative analysis of inorganic anions and organic acids in water is introduced. The system employs an in-house built sequential injection-capillary electrophoresis instrument and a nonfocusing modulation interface comprising a tee-piece and a six-port two-position injection valve that allows comprehensive sampling of the IC effluent. High field strength (+2 kV/cm) enables rapid second-dimension separations in which each peak eluted from the first-dimension separation column is analyzed at least three times in the second dimension. The IC × CE approach has been successfully used to resolve a suite of haloacetic acids, dalapon, and common inorganic anions. Two-dimensional peak capacity for IC × CE was 498 with a peak production rate of 9 peaks/min. Linear calibration curves were obtained for all analytes from 5 to 225 ng/mL (except dibromoacetic acid (10-225 ng/mL) and tribromoacetic acid (25-225 ng/mL)). The developed approach was used to analyze a spiked tap water sample, with good measured recoveries (69-119%). PMID:26171657

  15. Determination of Cyanogenic Compounds in Edible Plants by Ion Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hye-Jeon; Do, Byung-Kyung; Shim, Soon-Mi; Lee, Dong-Ha; Nah, Ahn-Hee; Choi, Youn-Ju; Lee, Sook-Yeon

    2013-01-01

    Cyanogenic glycosides are HCN-producing phytotoxins; HCN is a powerful and a rapidly acting poison. It is not difficult to find plants containing these compounds in the food supply and/or in medicinal herb collections. The objective of this study was to investigate the distribution of total cyanide in nine genera (Dolichos, Ginkgo, Hordeum, Linum, Phaseolus, Prunus, Phyllostachys, Phytolacca, and Portulaca) of edible plants and the effect of the processing on cyanide concentration. Total cyanide content was measured by ion chromatography following acid hydrolysis and distillation. Kernels of Prunus genus are used medicinally, but they possess the highest level of total cyanide of up to 2259.81 CN?/g dry weight. Trace amounts of cyanogenic compounds were detected in foodstuffs such as mungbeans and bamboo shoots. Currently, except for the WHO guideline for cassava, there is no global standard for the allowed amount of cyanogenic compounds in foodstuffs. However, our data emphasize the need for the guidelines if plants containing cyanogenic glycosidesare to be developed as dietary supplements. PMID:24278641

  16. Analysis of a MIL-L-27502 lubricant from a gas-turbine engine test by size-exclusion chromatography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. R., Jr.; Morales, W.

    1983-01-01

    Size exclusion chromatography was used to determine the chemical degradation of MIL-L-27502 oil samples from a gas turbine engine test run at a bulk oil temperature of 216 C. Results revealed a progressive loss of primary ester and additive depletion and the formation of higher molecular weight products with time. The high molecular weight products absorbed strongly in the ultraviolet indicating the presence of chromophoric groups.

  17. Ion chromatography for determination of metabolic patterns of sulfate-reducing bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Lebel, A.; Yen, T.F.

    1984-04-01

    Ion exchange chromatography is used to monitor the concentration of ionic species in bacterial growth media. The ions of interest are sulfate, lactate, acetate, and carbonate. All of these ions play important roles in the metabolism of the desired bacteria. It is possible, using this monitoring technique, to explore the growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria of the Desulfovibrio genus.

  18. Soft nanofluidics governing minority ion exclusion in charged hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Braschler, Thomas; Wu, Songmei; Wildhaber, Fabien; Bencherif, Sidi A; Mooney, David J

    2015-05-28

    We investigate ionic partition of negatively charged molecular probes into also negatively charged, covalently crosslinked alginate hydrogels. The aim is to delimit the domain of validity of the major nanoelectrostatic models, and in particular to assess the influence of hydrogel chain mobility on ionic partition. We find that the widely used Gibbs-Donnan model greatly overestimates exclusion of the co-ion probes used. For low molecular weight probes, a much better fit is obtained by taking into account the electrostatics in the nanometric gel pores by means of the Poisson-Boltzmann framework; the fit is improved slightly when taking into account alginate chain mobility. For high molecular weight probes, we find it essential to take into account local gel deformation due to electrostatic repulsion between the flexible gel strands and the probe. This is achieved by combining Poisson-Boltzmann simulations with heterogeneous pore size distribution given by the Ogston model, or more simply and precisely, by applying a semi-empirical scaling law involving the ratio between Debye length and pore size. PMID:25921409

  19. Unraveling the mystery of natural rubber biosythesis part I: investigation of the composition and growth of in vitro natural rubber using high resolution size exclusion chromatography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Monitoring the growth of in vitro natural rubberwas accomplished by high resolution size exclusion chromatography, SEC.Washed rubber particles isolated from H. brasiliensis latex, containing the rubber transferase enzyme, were used to catalyze the polymerization of synthetic isopentenyl pyrophosphat...

  20. Ion chromatography characterization of polysaccharides in ancient wall paintings.

    PubMed

    Colombin, Maria Perla; Ceccarini, Alessio; Carmignani, Alessia

    2002-08-30

    An analytical procedure for the characterisation of polysaccharides and the identification of plant gums in old polychrome samples is described. The procedure is based on hydrolysis with 2 M trifluoroacetic acid assisted by microwaves (20 min, 120 degrees C, 500 W), clean-up of the hydrolysate by an ion-exchange resin, and analysis by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection. Using this method the hydrolysis time was reduced to 20 min and the chromatographic separation of seven monosaccharides (fucose, rhamnose, arabinose, galactose, glucose, mannose, xylose) and two uronic acids (galacturonic and glucuronic) was achieved in 40 min. The whole analytical procedure allows sugar determination in plant gums at picomole levels, with an average recovery of 72% with an RSD of 8% as tested on arabic gum. The analytical procedure was tested with several raw gums, watercolour samples and reference painting specimens prepared according to old recipes at the Opificio delle Pietre Dure of Florence (Italian Ministry of Cultural Heritage, Italy). All the data collected expressed in relative sugar percentage contents were submitted to principal components analysis for gum identification: five groups were spatially separated and this enabled the identification of arabic, tragacanth, karaya, cherry+ghatty, and guar+locust bean gum. Wall painting samples from Macedonian tombs (Greece) of the 4th-3rd Centuries B.C., processed by the suggested method, showed the presence of a complex paint media mainly consisting of tragacanth and fruit tree gums. Moreover, starch had probably been added to plaster as highlighted by the presence of a huge amount of glucose. PMID:12236518

  1. Single-step isolation of extracellular vesicles by size-exclusion chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Bing, Anita N.; van der Pol, Edwin; Grootemaat, Anita E.; Coumans, Frank A. W.; Sturk, Auguste; Nieuwland, Rienk

    2014-01-01

    Background Isolation of extracellular vesicles from plasma is a challenge due to the presence of proteins and lipoproteins. Isolation of vesicles using differential centrifugation or density-gradient ultracentrifugation results in co-isolation of contaminants such as protein aggregates and incomplete separation of vesicles from lipoproteins, respectively. Aim To develop a single-step protocol to isolate vesicles from human body fluids. Methods Platelet-free supernatant, derived from platelet concentrates, was loaded on a sepharose CL-2B column to perform size-exclusion chromatography (SEC; n=3). Fractions were collected and analysed by nanoparticle tracking analysis, resistive pulse sensing, flow cytometry and transmission electron microscopy. The concentrations of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) and protein were measured in each fraction. Results Fractions 912 contained the highest concentrations of particles larger than 70 nm and platelet-derived vesicles (46%6 and 61%2 of totals present in all collected fractions, respectively), but less than 5% of HDL and less than 1% of protein (4.8%1 and 0.65%0.3, respectively). HDL was present mainly in fractions 1820 (32%2 of total), and protein in fractions 1921 (36%2 of total). Compared to the starting material, recovery of platelet-derived vesicles was 43%23 in fractions 912, with an 8-fold and 70-fold enrichment compared to HDL and protein. Conclusions SEC efficiently isolates extracellular vesicles with a diameter larger than 70 nm from platelet-free supernatant of platelet concentrates. Application SEC will improve studies on the dimensional, structural and functional properties of extracellular vesicles. PMID:25279113

  2. High-throughput characterization of virus-like particles by interlaced size-exclusion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ladd Effio, Christopher; Oelmeier, Stefan A; Hubbuch, Jrgen

    2016-03-01

    The development and manufacturing of safe and effective vaccines relies essentially on the availability of robust and precise analytical techniques. Virus-like particles (VLPs) have emerged as an important and valuable class of vaccines for the containment of infectious diseases. VLPs are produced by recombinant protein expression followed by purification procedures to minimize the levels of process- and product-related impurities. The control of these impurities is necessary during process development and manufacturing. Especially monitoring of the VLP size distribution is important for the characterization of the final vaccine product. Currently used methods require long analysis times and tailor-made assays. In this work, we present a size-exclusion ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (SE-UHPLC) method to characterize VLPs and quantify aggregates within 3.1min per sample applying interlaced injections. Four analytical SEC columns were evaluated for the analysis of human B19 parvo-VLPs and murine polyoma-VLPs. The optimized method was successfully used for the characterization of five recombinant protein-based VLPs including human papillomavirus (HPV) VLPs, human enterovirus 71 (EV71) VLPs, and chimeric hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) VLPs pointing out the generic applicability of the assay. Measurements were supported by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. It was demonstrated that the iSE-UHPLC method provides a rapid, precise and robust tool for the characterization of VLPs. Two case studies on purification tools for VLP aggregates and storage conditions of HPV VLPs highlight the relevance of the analytical method for high-throughput process development and process monitoring of virus-like particles. PMID:26845741

  3. Analysis of low-molecular-mass inorganic and organic anions by ion chromatography-atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ahrer, W; Buchberger, W

    1999-08-27

    Different nonvolatile mobile phases have been tested for the combination of ion-exchange chromatography combined with mass spectrometric detection of anions and organic acids. Buffer systems based on carbonate, sulfate, oxalate and citrate as the eluting species have been used. Among these, citrate proved to be the most versatile eluent allowing the separation of anions with absolute detection limits between 0.4 and 0.7 ng and of organic acids with detection limits between 0.4 and 4 ng in the non-suppressed mode. In the suppressed eluent mode iodate, bromate and chlorate could be separated using sodium carbonate as the mobile phase resulting in detection limits of 50 pg. The method was applied to the analysis of water samples containing oxyhalides originating from ozonization. Additionally, organic acids were separated by chromatographic separation techniques like reversed-phase, ion-pair or ion-exclusion chromatography and the compatibility with mass spectrometry was investigated with special respect to sensitivity of this detection mode. PMID:10497946

  4. Speciation of trace elements in proteins in human and bovine serum by size exclusion chromatography and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry with a magnetic sector mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Houk, R S; Dreessen, D; Wiederin, D R

    1999-10-01

    Proteins are separated by size exclusion chromatography while atomic ions from the inorganic elements are detected on-line by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. A double focusing mass analyzer provides very high sensitivity, low background, and sufficient spectral resolution to separate the atomic ions of interest from most polyatomic ions at the same nominal m/z value. The chromatograms show the distribution of the elements of interest between protein-bound and free fractions and provide the approximate molecular weights of those protein fractions that contain the elements monitored. The distribution of various elements, including V, Mo, Fe, Co, Mn, and lanthanides, in human or bovine serum samples are shown. Alkali metals and Tl are present primarily as free metal ions and are not bound to proteins. Inorganic elements spiked into the serum samples can be followed into various proteins. EDTA does not remove Fe, Pb, Sn, or Th from the proteins but does extract Mn from some proteins. Procedures for determining the effects of breaking disulfide linkages on the metal binding characteristics of proteins are also described. PMID:10550683

  5. Separation of catecholamines and their metabolites by adsorption, ion-pair and soap chromatography.

    PubMed

    Knox, J H; Jurand, J

    1976-09-29

    The separation of catecholamines and their metabolites has been carried out by high-performance liquid chromatography using three systems: liquid-solid adsorption, ion-pair partition, and soap chromatography. In the last newly developed technique a reversed-phase packing is used in conjunction with an aqueous organic eluent containing a detergent. The detergent is chosen so that its ion can form ion-pairs with ions of the solutes. Soap chromatography proved the best technique in terms of column efficiency (giving 3000-5000 plates in 125 mm), resolution and sensitivity of detection. Noradrenaline, adrenaline and dopamine, their 3-O-methyl derivatives, L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, homovanillic acid and other related compounds could be separated in less than 10 min at the 10-50-ng level on columns whose plate heights were in the range of 20-40 mum. The dependence of retention on the concentration of organic modifier and on detergent concentration for three anionic detergents is reported. The method is applied to the direct analysis of urine and the potential of the method for such analyses, especially of pathological urines is demonstrated. Soap chromatography is likely to enlarge the scope of application of high-performance liquid chromatography to biochemical analysis. It is a powerful method for the separation of ionizable compounds which could replace conventional ion-exchange chromatography. PMID:977684

  6. Organic acid eluents for single-column ion chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz, J.S.; DuVal, D.L.; Barron, R.E.

    1984-06-01

    Various organic acids are tested for use as eluents in single-column anion chromatography. Adsorption and dissociation characteristics of the acids are related to eluent strength and selectivity variations. Sensitivities and background conductances of these eluents are also compared to other common eluents used in single-and dual-column anion chromatography. Conclusions are drawn concerning the selection and advantages of acid eluents. 9 references, 3 figures, 7 tables.

  7. Ion-exchange chromatography separation applied to mineral recycle in closed systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballou, E.; Spitze, L. A.; Wong, F. W.; Wydeven, T.; Johnson, C. C.

    1981-01-01

    As part of the controlled ecological life support system (CELSS) program, a study is being made of mineral separation on ion-exchange columns. The purpose of the mineral separation step is to allow minerals to be recycled from the oxidized waste products of plants, man, and animals for hydroponic food production. In the CELSS application, relatively large quantities of minerals in a broad concentration range must be recovered by the desired system, rather than the trace quantities and very low concentrations treated in analytical applications of ion-exchange chromatography. Experiments have been carried out to assess the parameters pertinent to the scale-up of ion-exchange chromatography and to determine feasibility. Preliminary conclusions are that the column scale-up is in a reasonable size range for the CELSS application. The recycling of a suitable eluent, however, remains a major challenge to the suitability of using ion exchange chromatography in closed systems.

  8. Toxicity evaluation of organic sediment extracts resolved by size exclusion chromatography using rainbow trout hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Gagn, F; Pardos, M; Blaise, C; Turcotte, P; Qumerais, B; Fouquet, A

    1999-10-01

    The (geno)toxicity of sediment dichloromethane extracts and fractions obtained by size exclusion chromatography were evaluated to investigate effects based on size fractionation. In this study, three sediments were selected according to their incremental contamination in PAHs and in PCBs: Hamilton harbour, Toronto bay and lake St. Clair sediments. Heavy metals, total sulfur and elemental sulfur (S8) were also determined in the (un)fractionated sediment extracts. The liver cells were exposed to concentrations of sediment extracts and fractionated samples for 24 h at 15 degrees C, afterwhich cell viability, cytochrome P4501A1 activity, available free Zn, DNA damage and oxidative stress were determined. The results showed that the sediment extracts contained high levels of sulfur most of which was found in the low molecular weight (LMW) region, i.e., the 2000-50 atomic mass unit (amu) fraction. Elemental sulfur (S8) accounted for 14-41% of extractable sulfur and were found to elute in the post-column volume (PCV) fraction despite its molecular weight of 256 amu. Heavy metals were found mainly in the HMW (i.e. the > 2000 amu) fraction and LMW fractions and very few or none were observed in the PCV fractions. In sediment extracts, sublethal effects were present principally by the HMW and LMW fractions suggesting that some chemicals were also associated with high molecular weight compounds of extractable organic matter. Less toxicity or effect was sometimes found in the extract indicating an antagonistic effect of the contaminants. We found that cell viability and genotoxicity evaluations could be performed on the unfractionated extracts while EROD, available Zn and oxidative stress measurements should be performed on the LMW fractions because of possible antagonist or shielding effects. Considering the cytotoxic responses, the best toxicity ranking in respect to contaminant levels in sediment extract was obtained with the LMW and PCV fractions which accounted for most of the toxic responses in the chromatographic fractions. Moreover, the shielding effect could be explained, in part, by the association of LMW contaminants to large macromolecules. PMID:10481253

  9. Ion-exchange chromatography method for the purification of genomic DNA fraction from Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Gurin.

    PubMed

    Jing, Wang; Shuhan, Sun; Zhenlin, Hu; Fengjuan, Zhou; Yiling, Ling

    2004-11-25

    The goal of this study was to provide practical strategies for purifying genomic DNA fraction from Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Gurin (BCG-DNA) by ion-exchange chromatography. A multistep process was developed to purify BCG-DNA. The process consisted of sonication, heating, trypsin digestion, ion-exchange chromatography, gel-filter chromatography, and lyophilization. After ion-exchange chromatography, BCG-DNA was highly purified and possessed potent biological effects. The methods described were efficient and had good reproducibility. Further, this was the first reported chromatography method to purify BCG-DNA. PMID:15522708

  10. Characterization and quantification of humic substances 2D-Fluorescence by usage of extended size exclusion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Martin; Schmidt, Wido; Imhof, Lutz; Grübel, Anika; Jähn, Camilla; Georgi, Denise; Petzoldt, Heike

    2016-04-15

    In this article, two methods for in-depth analysis of humic substances fluorescence are presented. The first one allows the combined analysis of fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) with chromatography technique. The main issue is the coupling of size exclusion chromatography (SEC) with spectroscopy by the use of an absorption and a fluorescence spectrometer as additional detectors. These allow a detailed characterization of humic substances depending on their molecular size, concentration and optical properties. For the evaluation of the resulting complex data, a model based on non-negative matrix factorization, which is also presented in this article, was developed. From the results of the examined humic substances standards, the second method was developed. It allows the characterization and quantification of humic substances fluorescence of a natural water sample solely on the basis of an excitation-emission matrix. The validation of the model is carried out within the framework of extensive analysis of real water samples. PMID:26900971

  11. Impact of extraction and elution media on non-size effects in size exclusion chromatography of proteins.

    PubMed

    Lambrecht, Marlies A; Rombouts, Ine; Van Kelst, Lotte; Delcour, Jan A

    2015-10-01

    Size exclusion chromatography is extensively used to separate proteins and to determine their apparent molecular weights. It separates proteins based on hydrodynamic volume, but interactions between the chromatography resin and proteins lead to non-size effects. This report discusses the impact of co-solvents [salt, urea, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), dithiothreitol] in extraction media when separating wheat gluten proteins, soy glycinin, bovine serum albumin and ovalbumin on a Biosep-SEC-S4000 column. With acetonitrile/water (1:1, v/v) containing 0.05% (v/v) trifluoroacetic acid as eluent, salts and SDS in the extraction media increase while urea decreases non-size effects. Most gluten and globular proteins are extractable in sodium phosphate buffer (0.050M; pH 6.8) containing 2.0% (w/v) SDS. This chromatographic medium allows analyzing mixtures of various proteins without any non-size effects. PMID:26365913

  12. Size exclusion chromatography (XIII): Identification and quantitation of silicon hydride containing oligomeric components of Sylgard prepolymers. [Polydimethylsiloxane

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, E.; Chisum, M.E.; Moore, K.L.

    1987-12-01

    Methods for the identification and quantitation of oligomeric, silicon hydride (SiH), containing components of Sylgard prepolymers (polydimethylsiloxane: PDMS) have been developed. They employ a combination of size exclusion chromatography (SEC), with infrared (ir) and differential refractometer (DR) detection and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) verification. The identified oligomers were present at about 20% of total prepolymer and contained from one to six SiH linkages per molecule. Such lower molecular weight oligomers may contribute to the vapor pressure of resins prepared from the prepolymers since they may contain a significant number of molecules which have only one or two SiH groups and are not capable of forming large polymeric structures. 5 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. DETERMINATION OF TRACE ANIONS IN WATER BY MULTIDIMENSIONAL ION CHROMATOGRAPHY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Selenate, selenite, and arsenate ions were separated from the major anions chloride, nitrate, and sulfate in drinking water, surface water, and groundwater sources by collecting a selected portion of the ion chromatogram, after suppression, on a concentrator column and reinjectin...

  14. Sodium and potassium benzoate and benzoic acid as eluents for ion chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Gjerde, D.T.; Fritz, J.S.

    1981-12-01

    Benzoic acid is introduced as an eluent and is compared with benzoate salt eluents. Detector response to sample ions in single-column ion chromatogrphy is compared with dual-column (suppressed) ion chromatography. Benzoic acid has a higher background conductance; however, samples separated with benzoate salt eluents. Comparable sample peak areas are found with suppressor column treated benzoate eluents and benzoic acid eluents. Equations are described which predict detector response for a variety of conditions.

  15. Ion-exclusion chromatographic determination of carboxylic acids used to support the microbially mediated reductive dechlorination of tetrachloroethene

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, N.; Vandegrift, S.; Fine, D.D.; Sewell, G.W.

    1997-11-01

    An analytical method was developed for the determination of lactic acid, formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid in environmental microcosm samples using ion-exclusion chromatography. The chromatographic behavior of various eluents was studied to determine the optimum analytical conditions for eluent concentration and flow rate. Matrix effects caused by inorganic anions including carbonate were investigated. Methods for carbonate removal were also examined. Sub mg/L detection limits and small analytical variations (less than 1%) were obtained with all five acids. Calibration curves with regression coefficients (r{sup 2}) of 0.998 to 1.000 were obtained for acid concentrations ranging from 2.00 to 200.00 mg/L. The total run time for five carboxylic acids was less than 20 min with a relatively small sample volume requirement. The recoveries of the acids from microcosm samples were between 80 to 102%.

  16. Application of ion chromatography to the study of hydrolysis of some halogenated hydrocarbons at ambient temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otterson, D. A.

    1978-01-01

    The application of ion chromatography to the study of very slow rates of hydrolysis of some halogenated hydrocarbons was investigated. The halide concentrations in the aqueous phase of mixtures of a carbonate buffer (pH = 10.3) and either chloroform (CHC13) or fluorotrichloromethane (CFC13) after aging for various lengths of time at room temperature, were determined by ion chromatography. Hydrolysis of CHC13 caused the C1(-) concentration to increase by about 1500 ppb per day. On the other hand neither the F(-) or C1(-) concentration in the CFC13 mixture increased by as much as 1 ppb per day. The magnitude of errors in the determination of halides prevented any firm conclusions regarding hydrolysis in this mixture. However, these results were used to show how ion chromatography could expedite identification of the hydrolyzing substance as well as investigations of hydrolysis mechanisms.

  17. Orthogonal ion pairing reversed phase liquid chromatography purification of oligonucleotides with bulky fluorophores.

    PubMed

    Anacleto, Concordio; Ouye, Randall; Schoenbrunner, Nancy

    2014-02-14

    A dual labeled oligonucleotide used as TaqMan or 5' nuclease probe for in vitro diagnostic has been purified through orthogonal ion-pairing reversed phase chromatography, using polymeric semi-preparative and preparative PRP-1 column. We studied the mechanism of separation of oligonucleotides using ion-pairing reversed phase chromatography. We found that elution profiles of dye labeled oligonucleotides can be controlled by use of specific ion-pairing reagents. Here, we report a method for purification of an oligonucleotide containing an internally positioned rhodamine dye using two orthogonal chromatographic steps, in which the primary step resolves mostly by differences in hydrophobicity by using a weak ion-pairing reagent, and a secondary step uses a strong ion-pairing reagent for separation of length variants. Purification is demonstrated for both 1 and 15?mol scale syntheses, and amenable to further scale up for commercial lot production. PMID:24462467

  18. High resolution separation of recombinant monoclonal antibodies by size-exclusion ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (SE-UHPLC).

    PubMed

    Yang, Renee; Tang, Yun; Zhang, Bing; Lu, Xuemei; Liu, Alice; Zhang, Yonghua Taylor

    2015-05-10

    Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) is an important mode of separation used in monoclonal antibody (mAb) characterization and quality control. SEC separates mAbs into three major species: high molecular weight species, main peak (predominantly monomer), and low molecular weight species. However, mAb SEC separations have low resolution between the different sized species, and the analysis is slow with low sample throughput. The introduction of size-exclusion ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (SE-UHPLC) columns offers a new opportunity to improve both the resolution and throughput of SEC analysis. This study demonstrates that SE-UHPLC columns deliver better resolution of size variants in a shorter period of time than conventional SEC columns. For example, an SE-UHPLC column 300-mm in length produced separation of mAb Fab/c fragments in less than 10min, in comparison to a conventional SEC column output, where these fragments co-elute with the main peak. Furthermore, we observed that high back pressure does not generate HMWS under optimized mobile phase conditions for mAbs. The platform SE-UHPLC method has been demonstrated to be suitable for the analysis of multiple mAbs, with greatly improved sample throughput and peak resolution of mAb size variants. PMID:25766848

  19. Combined Yamamoto approach for simultaneous estimation of adsorption isotherm and kinetic parameters in ion-exchange chromatography.

    PubMed

    Rdt, Matthias; Gillet, Florian; Heege, Stefanie; Hitzler, Julian; Kalbfuss, Bernd; Gulat, Bertrand

    2015-09-25

    Application of model-based design is appealing to support the development of protein chromatography in the biopharmaceutical industry. However, the required efforts for parameter estimation are frequently perceived as time-consuming and expensive. In order to speed-up this work, a new parameter estimation approach for modelling ion-exchange chromatography in linear conditions was developed. It aims at reducing the time and protein demand for the model calibration. The method combines the estimation of kinetic and thermodynamic parameters based on the simultaneous variation of the gradient slope and the residence time in a set of five linear gradient elutions. The parameters are estimated from a Yamamoto plot and a gradient-adjusted Van Deemter plot. The combined approach increases the information extracted per experiment compared to the individual methods. As a proof of concept, the combined approach was successfully applied for a monoclonal antibody on a cation-exchanger and for a Fc-fusion protein on an anion-exchange resin. The individual parameter estimations for the mAb confirmed that the new approach maintained the accuracy of the usual Yamamoto and Van Deemter plots. In the second case, offline size-exclusion chromatography was performed in order to estimate the thermodynamic parameters of an impurity (high molecular weight species) simultaneously with the main product. Finally, the parameters obtained from the combined approach were used in a lumped kinetic model to simulate the chromatography runs. The simulated chromatograms obtained for a wide range of gradient lengths and residence times showed only small deviations compared to the experimental data. PMID:26306913

  20. Dextrin characterization by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography--pulsed amperometric detection and size-exclusion chromatography--multi-angle light scattering--refractive index detection.

    PubMed

    White, D Richard; Hudson, Patricia; Adamson, Julie T

    2003-05-16

    Starch hydrolysis products, or dextrins, are widely used throughout the food industry for their functional properties. Dextrins are saccharide polymers linked primarily by alpha-(1 --> 4) D-glucose units and are prepared by partial hydrolysis of starch. Hydrolysis can be accomplished by the use of acid, enzymes, or by a combination of both. The hydrolysis products are typically characterized by the "dextrose equivalent" (DE), which refers to the total reducing power of all sugars present relative to glucose. While the DE gives the supplier and buyer a rough guide to the bulk properties of the material, the physiochemical properties of dextrins are dependent on the overall oligosaccharide profile. High-performance anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC) with pulsed amperometric detection and size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) with multi-angle light-scattering and refractive index detection were used to characterize dextrins from commercial sources. HPAEC was used to acquire the oligosaccharide profile, and SEC to obtain an overall molar mass distribution. These methods in combination extended our understanding of the relationship between oligosaccharide profile, DE, and the hydrolysis process. Data from the two techniques enabled a method for estimating the DE that gave results in reasonable agreement with the accepted titration method. PMID:12830879

  1. Determination of phosphite in a eutrophic freshwater lake by suppressed conductivity ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Han, Chao; Geng, Jinju; Xie, Xianchuan; Wang, Xiaorong; Ren, Hongqiang; Gao, Shixiang

    2012-10-01

    The establishment of a sensitive and specific method for the detection of reduced phosphorus (P) is crucial for understanding P cycle. This paper presents the quantitative evidence of phosphite (P, +3) from the freshwater matrix correspondent to the typically eutrophic Lake Taihu in China. By ion chromatography coupled with gradient elution procedure, efficient separation of micromolar levels of phosphite is possible in the presence of millimolar levels of interfering ions, such as chloride, sulfate, and hydrogen carbonate in freshwater lakes. Optimal suppressed ion chromatography conditions include the use of 500 ?L injection volumes and an AS11 HC analytical column heated to 30 C. The method detection limit of 0.002 ?M for phosphite was successfully applied for phosphite determination in natural water samples with recoveries ranging from 90.7 3.2% to 108 1.5%. Phosphite in the freshwater matrix was also verified using a two-dimensional capillary ion chromatography and ion chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Results confirmed the presence of phosphite in Lake Taihu ranging from 0.01 0.01 to 0.17 0.01 ?M, which correlated to 1-10% of the phosphate. Phosphite is an important component of P and may influence biogeochemical P cycle in lakes. PMID:22954139

  2. Determination of polyacrylamides in coal washery effluents by ultrafiltration/site-exclusion chromatography-ultraviolet detection techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, R.W.M.; Pandey, R.N.; Das, B.S.

    1987-05-01

    The use of a combined technique of ultrafiltration and aqueous size-exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography-UV detection for monitoring trace levels of residual polyacrylamide flocculants in coal washery process water is described. Flocculants of both anionic and non-ionic types in effluents are analyzed by chromatography on a TSK 5000 PW type hydrophilic and semirigid porous polymer gel with 0.05 M Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ in water as the mobile phase and by UV detection at 208-nm wavelength for detection. Precision studies gave a relative standard deviation of 5.8% and a precision of 2.2% at the 95% confidence level in the concentration range of 20 ppm. The lower limit of detection for the method is 1.0 ..mu..g. Prior to chromatography, fractionation and concentration of the polyacrylamide in effluents are achieved by ultrafiltration with a hollow fiber cartridge having a nominal molecular weight cutoff of 100,000, and recoveries are determined by spiking studies. The application of the techniques for the analysis of residual flocculant in a coal washery thickener feed effluent sample is described.

  3. Ion-exchange sorption and preparative chromatography of biologically active materials

    SciTech Connect

    Samsonov, G.V.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents information on the following topics: the problems of fine physico-chemical biotechnology; types of highly permeable network polyelectrolytes; methods for studying the permeability and porosity of network polyelectrolytes; the conformation state and flexibility of the structural elements of network polyelectrolytes; ion-exchange processes without the sorption of physiologically active substances; ion exchange, hydration, and swelling; nucleosides, nucleotides, alkaloids, sulfonamides, and miscellaneous physiologically active subtances; sharp front formation for the exchange of ions with the same valences; standard quasi-equilibrium frontal chromatography on ionites; sorption kinetics in ionites with structural heterogeneity; experimental investigations of the diffusivities of organic and physiologically active ions in ionite beads; and increasing the efficiency of low-pressure chromatography by using surface-layer and bidispersed ionites.

  4. Analysis of trace inorganic anions in weak acid salts by single pump cycling-column-switching ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhongping; Ni, Chengzhu; Zhu, Zhuyi; Pan, Zaifa; Wang, Lili; Zhu, Yan

    2015-05-01

    The application of ion chromatography with the single pump cycling-column-switching technique was described for the analysis of trace inorganic anions in weak acid salts within a single run. Due to the hydrogen ions provided by an anion suppressor electrolyzing water, weak acid anions could be transformed into weak acids, existing as molecules, after passing through the suppressor. Therefore, an anion suppressor and ion-exclusion column were adopted to achieve on-line matrix elimination of weak acid anions with high concentration for the analysis of trace inorganic anions in weak acid salts. A series of standard solutions consisting of target anions of various concentrations from 0.005 to 10 mg/L were analyzed, with correlation coefficients r ? 0.9990. The limits of detection were in the range of 0.67 to 1.51 ?g/L, based on the signal-to-noise ratio of 3 and a 25 ?L injection volume. Relative standard deviations for retention time, peak area, and peak height were all less than 2.01%. A spiking study was performed with satisfactory recoveries between 90.3 and 104.4% for all anions. The chromatographic system was successfully applied to the analysis of trace inorganic anions in five weak acid salts. PMID:25641739

  5. Determination of surfactant sodium lauryl ether sulfate by ion pairing chromatography with suppressed conductivity detection

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, M.Y.; Walkup, R.G.; Hill, K.D. )

    1994-01-01

    A method for the determination of the anionic Steol CS-330 surfactant is described. CS-330 is a complex mixture of oligomers due to the various sizes of fatty alcohols and the number of moles of the ethoxylation. The main component of CS-330 is sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES). Since a SLES molecule has a hydrophilic sulfate head and a hydrophobic alkyl ethoxyl tail, it is very difficult to separate these molecules with conventional reverse phase chromatography or ion exchange chromatography. This work uses ion pairing chromatography with suppressed conductivity detection. The separation of oligomers in CS-330 is achieved. SLES does not have UV-absorbing chromophores, therefore an optical detector is not very sensitive. Suppressed conductivity detection technique significantly increases sensitivity and a quantitation limit of 56.60 ppm is achieved.

  6. APPLICATION OF SILVER ION CHROMATOGRAPHY TO THE SEPARATION OF CONJUGATED LINOLEIC ACID ISOMERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; 9c,11t-18:2), present in dairy products and beef, has been reported in animals to have anticarcinogenic, growth-promoting, antiatherogenic, anti-diabetic, and lean body mass-enhancing properties. Silver ion chromatography has, over the decades, become an important met...

  7. Application of Ion Chromatography to the Investigation of Real-World Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whelan, Rebecca J.; Hannon, Theresa E.; Zare, Richard N.

    2004-01-01

    The use of ion chromatography (IC) as a means to teach important analytical concepts while giving the students a valuable opportunity to identify and investigate a real-world system of interest to them is described. A single IC apparatus can be tailored for different classes of analyses by the selection of different column-eluent combinations.

  8. Novel determination of phytate by ion chromatography in wild rice and diet composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have developed an ion chromatography (IC) assay using ultraviolet (UV) detection following post-column derivatization with ferric nitrate to determine phytate [inositol hexakis phosphate (iP6)] (1) (2) in wild rice samples and other diet composites. Samples were ground to a fine homogeneous powd...

  9. Analysis of anions in geological brines using ion chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, R.M.

    1985-03-01

    Ion chromatographic procedures for the determination of the anions bromide, sulfate, nitrite, nitrate, phosphate, and iodide in brine samples have been developed and are described. The techniques have been applied to the analysis of natural brines, and geologic evaporites. Sample matrices varied over a range from 15,000 mg/L to 200,000 mg/L total halogens, nearly all of which is chloride. The analyzed anion concentrations ranged from less than 5 mg/L in the cases of nitrite, nitrate, and phosphate, to 20,000 mg/L in the case of sulfate. A technique for suppressing chloride and sulfate ions to facilitate the analysis of lower concentration anions is presented. Analysis times are typically less than 20 minutes for each procedure and the ion chromatographic results compare well with those obtained using more time consuming classical chemical analyses. 10 references, 14 figures.

  10. Size Exclusion Chromatography: An Experiment for High School and Community College Chemistry and Biotechnology Laboratory Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunauer, Linda S.; Davis, Kathryn K.

    2008-01-01

    A simple multiday laboratory exercise suitable for use in a high school or community college chemistry course or a biotechnology advanced placement biology course is described. In this experiment students gain experience in the use of column chromatography as a tool for the separation and characterization of biomolecules, thus expanding their…

  11. Size Exclusion Chromatography: An Experiment for High School and Community College Chemistry and Biotechnology Laboratory Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunauer, Linda S.; Davis, Kathryn K.

    2008-01-01

    A simple multiday laboratory exercise suitable for use in a high school or community college chemistry course or a biotechnology advanced placement biology course is described. In this experiment students gain experience in the use of column chromatography as a tool for the separation and characterization of biomolecules, thus expanding their

  12. Large-scale purification of plasmid insert DNA sequences using low-percentage agarose exclusion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Hansen, J C; Rickett, H

    1989-05-15

    Linear double-stranded DNA fragments ranging from 0.14 to 8.4 kbp have been fractionated on low-percentage agarose exclusion gels. Both Ultragel A2 (2% agarose) and Bio-Gel A150m (1% agarose) exclude DNA fragments greater than 900 bp, while the exclusion limit of Bio-Gel A50m (2% agarose) is about 350 bp. All gels result in moderate resolution of DNA fragments smaller than the exclusion limits; we generally observe nearly complete one-step separation of fragments that differ in size by a factor of 2. On the basis of these results, we have used these exclusion gels to routinely purify greater than 0.4 mg of plasmid insert DNA sequences in one step and over 2.5 mg with a single column, demonstrating that these gel matrices can be ideally suited for repeated rapid large-scale purification of plasmid inserts. In addition, this knowledge allows for a more rational design of plasmids in those cases where large-scale use of the insert DNA is required. PMID:2757192

  13. ION CHROMATOGRAPHY OF PHYTATE IN ROOTS AND TUBERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ion chromatographic method for the quantification of phytate (InsP6) in foods was adapted for the analysis of roots and tubers. To maximize sensitivity, UV detection following post-column derivatization was compared with evaporative light scattering detection (ELSD). Detection limits for phyta...

  14. High-resolution length sorting and purification of DNA-wrapped carbon nanotubes by size-exclusion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xueying; Mclean, Robert S; Zheng, Ming

    2005-10-01

    We report a size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) process to purify DNA-wrapped carbon nanotubes (DNA-CNT) and to sort them into fractions of uniform length. A type of silica-based column resin was identified that shows minimum adsorption of DNA-CNT. Three such columns in series with pore sizes of 2000, 1000, and 300 A were found to separate DNA-CNT into fractions of very narrow length distribution, as measured directly by atomic force microscopy. The average length decreases monotonically from > 500 nm in the early fractions to < 100 nm in the late fractions, with length variation < or = 10% in each of the measured fractions. Using UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy, we showed that SEC is very effective in removing graphitic impurities that contribute to the spectral baseline and a broad absorption peak at approximately 270 nm. This result highlights the importance of CNT purification in the study of optical properties of CNT. PMID:16194082

  15. Size exclusion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrographic study of Fe in bitumens derived from tar sands

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, J.G. ); Biggs, W.R. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on bitumens extracted from tar sands from various locations (Utah, California, Kentucky, and Alberta) that were examined by size exclusion chromatography with on-line element-specific detection to study the Fe concentration as a function of size. In most cases, the resulting profiles exhibit unimodal distributions at relatively large molecular size with very similar times for maximum elution. specifically, Sunnyside (Utah) and McKittrick (California) tar-sand bitumens exhibited very intense maxima consistent with extremely high bulk Fe contents. Arroyo Grande (California) exhibited an additional maximum at very large molecular size. This size behavior of the Fe appears to correlate with the large molecular size Ni and V components eluted under the same conditions.

  16. Towards determination of absolute molar mass of cellulose polymer by size exclusion chromatography with mulitple angle laser light scattering detection.

    PubMed

    Pawcenis, Dominika; Thomas, Jacob L; ?ojewski, Tomasz; Milczarek, Jakub M; ?ojewska, Joanna

    2015-08-28

    The study focuses on determination of a set of crucial parameters for molar mass calculation of cellulose from the results of size exclusion chromatography coupled with multiple angle laser light scattering (MALLS) and differential refractive index (DRI) detectors. In the present work, cellulose has been derivatised to obtain cellulose tricarbanilate (CTC) soluble in tetrahydrofuran (THF). The parameters of Rayleigh scattering in the MALLS detector: refractive index increment (dn/dc) and second virial coefficient (A2) of CTC in THF were determined for laser wavelength 658nm. In order to avoid errors resulting from cellulose derivatisation by-products present in the CTC solution, the so called "on-line" method of measuring dn/dc and A2 was applied. Based on the A2 determination, its influence on cellulose molar mass calculations and cellulose molecular dimensions were critically assessed. The latter includes evaluation of artificially aged cellulose towards conceivable branching by conformation plot analysis. PMID:26210115

  17. Reverse-phase ion-pair chromatography (HPLC) (high performance liquid chromatography) of alkylbenzene sulfonates

    SciTech Connect

    Verkruyse, L.A.; Lewis, R.V.; Meyers, K.O.; Salter, S.J.

    1983-01-01

    An HPLC procedure is presented that rapidly and quantitatively separates alkylbenzene sulfonates according to their alkyl chain length and structure. The separation employs octadecylsilanized silica gel as a stationary phase and an aqueous acetonitrile solution of tetrabutyl ammonium chloride (TBAC) as the mobile phase. The TBAC acts as an ion-pair reagent and suppresses the ionic nature of the sulfonates. Separation is effected by gradients in TBAC concentration and mobile phase polarity. The concentration of each component then is quantitatively measured by a UV detector. Gradient selection and sample matrix effects are discussed. Several examples are presented that demonstrate the utility of this analytic procedure. 14 references.

  18. Size exclusion and anion exchange high performance liquid chromatography for characterizing metals bound to marine dissolved organic matter.

    PubMed

    Garca-Otero, Natalia; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar; Moreda-Pieiro, Antonio

    2013-01-14

    Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) followed by anion exchange chromatography (AEC) hyphenated with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was applied for fractionating metals bound to marine dissolved organic matter (DOM). Surface seawater samples (100 L) were subjected to tangential flow ultrafiltration (10,000 Da cut off) for isolating and pre-concentrating dissolved large molecules. The isolated fraction (retentate) consisted of 1L, which was further freeze-dried and re-dissolved to 250 mL with ultrapure water. After HI Trap desalting of the re-dissolved retentate, SEC with UV detection showed marine DOM ranging from 6.5 kDa (lower than the permeable volume of the SEC column) to 16 kDa. A further characterization of this fraction by AEC with UV detection revealed the existence of four groups of macromolecules exhibiting retention times of 2.3, 2.8, 4.5 and 14.0 min. AEC hyphenated with ICP-MS showed the presence of strontium and zinc in the first AE fraction isolated from the SEC fraction; while manganese was found to be bound to the second AE fraction. Cobalt was found to be bound to molecules comprising the third AE fraction. PMID:23265737

  19. Evaluation of Multi-tRNA Synthetase Complex by Multiple Reaction Monitoring Mass Spectrometry Coupled with Size Exclusion Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jun Seok; Lee, Cheolju

    2015-01-01

    Eight aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (M, K, Q, D, R, I, EP and LARS) and three auxiliary proteins (AIMP1, 2 and 3) are known to form a multi-tRNA synthetase complex (MSC) in mammalian cells. We combined size exclusion chromatography (SEC) with reversed-phase liquid chromatography multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (RPLC-MRM-MS) to characterize MSC components and free ARS proteins in human embryonic kidney (HEK 293T) cells. Crude cell extract and affinity-purified proteins were fractionated by SEC in non-denaturing state and ARSs were monitored in each fraction by MRM-MS. The eleven MSC components appeared mostly in earlier SEC fractions demonstrating their participation in complex formation. TARSL2 and AIMP2-DX2, despite their low abundance, were co-purified with KARS and detected in the SEC fractions, where MSC appeared. Moreover, other large complex-forming ARS proteins, such as VARS and FARS, were detected in earlier fractions. The MRM-MS results were further confirmed by western blot analysis. Our study demonstrates usefulness of combined SEC-MRM analysis for the characterization of protein complexes and in understanding the behavior of minor isoforms or variant proteins. PMID:26544075

  20. Exploration of cardanol-based phenolated and epoxidized resins by size exclusion chromatography and MALDI mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fouquet, Thierry; Puchot, Laura; Verge, Pierre; Bomfim, João A S; Ruch, David

    2014-09-16

    Cardanol and cardanol derivatives are among the most important biobased materials currently investigated in green chemistry, as renewable and promising building blocks in lieu of traditional raw materials from non renewable resources, in particular owing to the olefinic linkages on the C15 alkyl side-chain. Despite the increasing interest they arouse, analytical chemistry dedicated to cardanol and associated resins has been rarely reported in the literature, found even poorer when dealing with chromatography and mass spectrometry. In this work, a thorough molecular characterization was conducted using matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry, size exclusion chromatography (SEC), and SEC-MALDI coupling to gain insights into the composition of phenolated, epoxidized, and epoxidized phenolated cardanol. A nomenclature was proposed to properly describe the numerous species found in these materials, while simulations of the unsaturation patterns and their comparison with the detected patterns in MALDI-MS gave useful details about the phenolation treatment expected to occur on the polyunsaturated C15 side chain. Finally, the SEC-MALDI off-line coupling allowed SEC peaks to be deconvoluted by mass spectrometry and MALDI artefacts related to matrix adduction to be pointed out. PMID:25150696

  1. Determination of amines used in the oil and gas industry (upstream section) by ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kadnar, R

    1999-07-30

    During production and purification of crude oil and natural gas several different amines are used as chemicals or operating materials, e.g. film forming long chain amines as corrosion inhibitors, steam volatile amines for pH correction and corrosion protection, alkanolamines as absorbents in sour gas treatment plants, etc. For analytical checks, e.g. determination of corrosion inhibitor concentration in produced media, classical chemical methods are used predominantly, because most of them can be performed in small field laboratories. Some amines, especially the small molecular aliphatic and heterocyclic amines can also be determined by ion chromatography. In our laboratory two types of separation columns (IonPac CS10 and CS12A) were available for ion chromatographic separation. The analysis of the amines in low-salt-containing water, soft water or steam condensate can be performed without problems. The presence of alkali and/or alkaline earth ions in the sample can lead to coelution with these ions, to poor peak resolution or enhanced analysis times, depending on the chromatographic conditions. This work shows some examples of ion chromatography applications for the determination of low-molecular-mass ethanolamines, morpholine and piperazine and discusses the possible interferences and troubles caused by alkali and alkaline earth ions in the matrix. PMID:10457490

  2. Simultaneous speciation of iron(II) and iron(III) by ion chromatography with chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun-Chieh; Jian, Yu-Ling; Chiu, Kong-Hwa; Yak, Hwa-Kwang

    2012-01-01

    This study reports on a method for the speciation of iron in aqueous samples by the simultaneous analysis of divalent and trivalent iron ions with ion chromatography equipped with chemiluminescence detection (IC-CLD). Ferrous and ferric ions are first chelated by pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (PDCA) to form complexed anions, and separated by a mixed-bed ion-exchange column. The separated complexed ions are then detected with a CLD system containing luminol and hydrogen peroxide in a basic solution. This luminescence system has a linear dynamic range of ca. 3 orders of magnitude, with method detection limits as low as 7 g L(-1) for Fe(II) and 3 g L(-1) for Fe(III), measured in the simultaneous detection mode. This system resists interferences from common cations such as Cd, Ca, Cr, Cu, Mg, Ni, Pb, and Zn. Evaluation by analyzing real samples shows that this method is rapid, accurate, sensitive, and selective. PMID:22878635

  3. Fabricating electrospun cellulose nanofibre adsorbents for ion-exchange chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Dods, Stewart R.; Hardick, Oliver; Stevens, Bob; Bracewell, Daniel G.

    2015-01-01

    Protein separation is an integral step in biopharmaceutical manufacture with diffusion-limited packed bed chromatography remaining the default choice for industry. Rapid bind-elute separation using convective mass transfer media offers advantages in productivity by operating at high flowrates. Electrospun nanofibre adsorbents are a non-woven fibre matrix of high surface area and porosity previously investigated as a bioseparation medium. The effects of compression and bed layers, and subsequent heat treatment after electrospinning cellulose acetate nanofibres were investigated using diethylaminoethyl (DEAE) or carboxylate (COO) functionalisations. Transbed pressures were measured and compared by compression load, COO adsorbents were 30%, 70% and 90% higher than DEAE for compressions 1, 5 and 10MPa, respectively, which was attributed to the swelling effect of hydrophilic COO groups. Dynamic binding capacities (DBCs) at 10% breakthrough were measured between 2000 and 12,000CV/h (2s and 0.3s residence times) under normal binding conditions, and DBCs increased with reactant concentration from 4 to 12mgBSA/mL for DEAE and from 10 to 21mglysozyme/mL for COO adsorbents. Comparing capacities of compression loads applied after electrospinning showed that the lowest load tested, 1MPa, yielded the highest DBCs for DEAE and COO adsorbents at 20mgBSA/mL and 27mglysozyme/mL, respectively. At 1MPa, DBCs were the highest for the lowest flowrate tested but stabilised for flowrates above 2000CV/h. For compression loads of 5MPa and 10MPa, adsorbents recorded lower DBCs than 1MPa as a result of nanofibre packing and reduced surface area. Increasing the number of bed layers from 4 to 12 showed decreasing DBCs for both adsorbents. Tensile strengths were recorded to indicate the mechanical robustness of the adsorbent and be related to packing the nanofibre adsorbents in large scale configurations such as pleated cartridges. Compared with an uncompressed adsorbent, compressions of 1, 5 and 10MPa showed increases of 30%, 110% and 110%, respectively, for both functionalisations. The data presented show that capacity and mechanical strength can be balanced through compression after electrospinning and is particular to different functionalisations. This trade-off is critical to the development of nanofibre adsorbents into different packing configurations for application and scale up in bioseparation. PMID:25541092

  4. Protein losses in ion-exchange and hydrophobic interaction high-performance liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Goheen, Steven C.; Gibbins, Betty M.

    2000-01-01

    Protein losses in ion-exchange and hydrophobic interaction HPLC were examined. The supports were allnon-porous, packed in columns of identical dimensions. Two ion-exchange chromatography (IEC), anion and cation, as well as a hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) columns were tested. Proteins included cytochrome c, bovine serum albumin (BSA), immunoglobulin G and fibrinogen. Temperature effects on HIC supports were studied for cytochrome c and BSA. Both retention times and recoveries of the proteins were measured. The influence of column residence time on the recovery of proteins were also investigated. We found a linear relationship between the amount of protein recovered and the log of the molecular mass. Retention times also generally increased with temperature for both HIC and IEC. Other trends in retention behavior and recoveries are discussed.

  5. Effect of Buffers on Aqueous Solute-Exclusion Zones around Ion-Exchange Resins

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jian-ming; Wexler, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Interaction between charged surfaces in aqueous solution is a fundamental feature of colloid science. Theoretically, surface potential falls to half its value at a distance equal to a Debye length, which is typically on the order of tens to hundreds of nanometers. This potential prevents colloids from aggregating. On the other hand, long-range surface effects have been frequently reported. Here we report additional long-range effects. We find that charged latex particles in buffer solutions are uniformly excluded from several-hundred-micron-thick shells surrounding ion-exchange beads. Exclusion is observed whether the beads are charged similarly or oppositely to the particles. Hence, electrostatic interactions between bead and microsphere do not cause particle exclusion. Rather, exclusion may be the consequence of water molecules re-orienting to produce a more ordered structure, which then excludes the particles. PMID:19185312

  6. Size exclusion chromatography on the novel mesoporous adsorbent MCM-41 with a regular pore structure

    SciTech Connect

    Unger, K.K.; Kurganov, A.A.; Schueth, F.

    1995-12-01

    Recently, Mobil scientists introduced a new family of highly uniform mesoporous silica adsorbents called M 41 S. One of the members of the family, the MCM-41, possesses a hexagonal array of uniform unidimensional channels whose pore diameters can be systematically varied between 2 and 10 nm. The materials are synthesized from a silica precursor and a cationic detergent eg. n-alkylammoniumbromide. The pore formation mechanisms have been studied in detail and are now fully explained. This paper reports on the assessment of size exclusion properties of MCM-41 with a mean pore diameter of 4 nm and a narrow particle size distribution using standard polymers with a narrow molecular weight distribution as solutes. As for comparison a microparticulate porous silica with a mean pore diameter of 4 nm was also studied. The results are discussed in context with theoretical calculations made by Yau et al.

  7. Fractionation of Aspergillus niger cellulases by combined ion exchange affinity chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, R.F.; Allen, T.L.; Dykema, P.A.

    1987-02-05

    Eight chemically modified cellulose supports were tested for their ability to adsorb components of the Aspergillus niger cellulase system. At least two of the most effective adsorbents, aminoethyl cellulose and carboxymethyl cellulose, were shown to be useful for the fractionation of cellulases. These supports apparently owe their resolving capacity to both ion exchange and biospecific binding effects; however, the relative importance of each effect is unknown. These observations form the basis for a new cellulase fractionation technique, combined ion exchange-affinity chromatography. 22 references.

  8. Multiple applications of ion chromatography oligosaccharide fingerprint profiles to solve a variety of sugar and sugar-biofuel industry problems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugar crops contain a broad variety of carbohydrates used for human consumption and the production of biofuels and bioproducts. Ion chromatography with integrated pulsed amperometric detection (IC-IPAD), also known as high performance anion exchange chromatography (HPAEC), can be used to simultaneo...

  9. Determination of alkylamines in atmospheric aerosol particles: a comparison of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and ion chromatography approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, R.-J.; Li, W.-B.; Wang, Y.-R.; Wang, Q. Y.; Jia, W. T.; Ho, K.-F.; Cao, J. J.; Wang, G. H.; Chen, X.; Haddad, I. EI; Zhuang, Z. X.; Wang, X. R.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; O'Dowd, C. D.; Hoffmann, T.

    2014-07-01

    In recent years low molecular weight alkylamines have been recognized to play an important role in particle formation and growth in the lower atmosphere. However, major uncertainties are associated with their atmospheric processes, sources and sinks, mostly due to the lack of ambient measurements and the difficulties in accurate quantification of alkylamines at trace level. In this study, we present the evaluation and optimization of two analytical approaches, i.e., gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and ion chromatography (IC), for the determination of alkylamines in aerosol particles. Alkylamines were converted to carbamates through derivatization with isobutyl chloroformate for GC-MS determination. A set of parameters affecting the analytical performances of the GC-MS approach, including reagent amount, reaction time and pH value, was evaluated and optimized. The accuracy is 84.3-99.1%, and the limits of detection obtained are 1.8-3.9 pg (or 0.02-0.04 ng m-3). For the IC approach, a solid-phase extraction (SPE) column was used to separate alkylamines from interfering cations before IC analysis. 1-2% (v/v) of acetone (or 2-4% (v/v) of acetonitrile) was added to the eluent to improve the separation of alkylamines on the IC column. The limits of detection obtained are 2.1-15.9 ng (or 0.9-6.4 ng m-3), and the accuracy is 55.1-103.4%. The lower accuracy can be attributed to evaporation losses of amines during the sample concentration procedure. Measurements of ambient aerosol particle samples collected in Hong Kong show that the GC-MS approach is superior to the IC approach for the quantification of primary and secondary alkylamines due to its lower detection limits and higher accuracy.

  10. Determination of alkyl amines in atmospheric aerosol particles: a comparison of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and ion chromatography approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, R.-J.; Li, W.-B.; Wang, Y.-R.; Wang, Q. Y.; Ho, K.-F.; Cao, J. J.; Wang, G. H.; Chen, X.; Haddad, I. EI; Zhuang, Z. X.; Wang, X. R.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; O'Dowd, C. D.; Hoffmann, T.

    2014-03-01

    In recent years low molecular weight alkyl amines have been recognized to play an important role in particle formation and growth in the lower atmosphere. However, major uncertainties are associated with their atmospheric processes, sources and sinks, mostly due to the lack of ambient measurements and the difficulties in accurate quantification of alkyl amines at trace level. In this study, we present the evaluation and optimization of two analytical approaches, i.e., gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and ion chromatography (IC), for the determination of alkyl amines in aerosol particles. Alkyl amines were converted to carbamates through derivatization with isobutyl chloroformate for GC-MS determination. A set of parameters affecting the analytical performances of the GC-MS approach, including reagent amount, reaction time and pH value, was evaluated and optimized. The accuracy is 84.3-99.1%, and the limits of detection obtained are 1.8-3.9 pg. For the IC approach, a solid phase extraction (SPE) column was used to separate alkyl amines from interfering cations before IC analysis. 1-2% (v/v) of acetone (or 2-4% (v/v) of acetonitrile) was added to the eluent to improve the separation of alkyl amines on the IC column. The limits of detection obtained are 2.1-15.9 ng and the accuracy is 55.1-103.4%. The lower accuracy can be attributed to evaporation losses of amines during the sample concentration procedure. Measurements of ambient aerosol particle samples collected in Hong Kong show that the GC-MS approach is superior to the IC approach for the quantification of primary and secondary alkyl amines due to its lower detection limits and higher accuracy.

  11. On the propensity of lignin to associate: a size exclusion chromatography study with lignin derivatives isolated from different plant species.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Anderson; Gaspar, Armindo R; Contreras, Sofa; Lucia, Lucian A; Crestini, Claudia; Argyropoulos, Dimitris S

    2007-10-01

    Despite evidence that lignin associates under both aqueous and organic media, the magnitude and nature of the underlying driving forces are still a matter of discussion. The present paper addresses this issue by examining both solution properties and size exclusion behaviour of lignins isolated from five different species of softwoods, as well as from the angiosperms Eucalyptus globulus and wheat straw. This investigation has used the recently described protocol for isolating enzymatic mild acidolysis lignin (EMAL), which offers lignin samples highly representative of the overall lignin present in the wood cell wall. The molecular weight distributions of these EMALs were found to be dependent upon the wood species from which they were isolated and upon the incubation conditions used prior to size exclusion chromatography. While the chromatograms of EMALs isolated from softwoods displayed a bimodal behaviour, the elution profiles of EMAL from E. globulus and straw were nearly unimodal. A marked tendency to dissociate prevailed under incubation at room temperature for all examined species with the exception of the straw lignin preparation; furthermore, lignin solutions incubated at 4 degrees C showed an associative behaviour manifested by an increase in the weight and number average molecular weights for some species. The extent of such association/dissociation, as well as the time needed for the process to reach completion, was also found to depend upon the wood species, i.e. lignins from softwoods were found to associate/dissociate to a greater extent than lignins from E. globulus and straw. The origin of such effects within the lignin structure is also discussed. PMID:17599370

  12. Quantification of diacylglycerols by capillary gas chromatography-negative ion chemical ionization-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Falardeau, P; Robillard, M; Hui, R

    1993-02-01

    We describe a method for quantifying diacylglycerols as their 1-pentafluorobenzoyl-2-acyl-3-acetyl-glycerol derivatives by capillary gas chromatography-negative ion chemical ionization-mass spectrometry. The basis of the method resides in the sequential treatment of diacylglycerols with acetic anhydride, pancreatic lipase, and pentafluorobenzoyl chloride. Cultured rat mesenteric artery vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) were incubated for 20 min in the presence of vehicle or vasopressin (10(-7) M). The incubations were stopped by aspirating the medium and adding 2 ml of methanol containing 790 pmol of internal standard 1-stearoyl-2-(10,13)-nonadecadienoyl- glycerol. After extraction, diacylglycerols were isolated by thin-layer chromatography, acetylated, and treated with pancreatic lipase. The resulting 2-acyl-3-acetylglycerols were then purified by thin-layer chromatography, transformed into their 1-pentafluorobenzoyl-derivatives, and monitored by capillary gas chromatography-negative ion chemical ionization-mass spectrometry on the selected ion-monitoring mode (m/z 614 and 604 for 2-arachidonoyl and 2-nonadecadienoyl species, respectively). The levels of diacylglycerols bearing an arachidonoyl moiety were 128 +/- 26 pmol/100 nmol lipid phosphorus in resting cells and 333 +/- 28 in stimulated cells (mean +/- SD, n = 3, P < 0.01). The presence of diacylglycerol species bearing an oleoyl or a linoleoyl group at the second position could also be detected in VSMC preparations by this approach. This new method can be applied to quantitate various diacylglycerol species bearing distinct acyl moieties at the second position of the glycerol molecule. PMID:8452226

  13. On-line gas-free electrodialytic eluent generator for capillary ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bingcheng; Takeuchi, Masaki; Dasgupta, Purnendu K

    2008-01-01

    Both low- and high-pressure, gas-free, capillary-scale electrodialytic generators for eluents in ion chromatography are described. While the low-pressure devices rely on planar or tubular membranes, the high-pressure devices rely on ion-exchange beads used both as one-way ionic gates and as ball-on-seat valves to provide sealing. The high-pressure device is easily implemented in the form of a commercial cross fitting and can withstand at least 1400 psi. By design these devices do not produce gas in the eluent channel; hence, it is not necessary to remove gas afterward. With appropriate electrolytes and electrode polarities, such devices can produce either acid or base or salt. In regard to ionic transport, the behavior of these devices fully corresponds to that of a semiconductor diode. To our knowledge, this is the first time such complete equivalence of ion transport through ion-exchange media and with the more familiar example of electron transport through a semiconductor diode under both forward- and reverse-biased conditions have been demonstrated. Reverse bias can be applied to minimize/prevent Donnan-forbidden leakage or ion exchange. Even with 4 M KOH in the electrode compartments and 4 microL/min water flowing through the eluent channel, with a reverse bias of -12 V, the leakage KOH concentration is <30 microM, whereas the KOH concentration with zero voltage applied, herein after termed open circuit penetration (OCP), is 1600 microM. It is suggested that this OCP occurs not as much through Donnan-forbidden leakage but via ion exchange. Chromatograms and reproducibility data are presented for both isocratic and gradient chromatography, using ion-exchange, latex-modified, open tubular and packed monolithic columns. PMID:18062705

  14. High-pressure size exclusion chromatography analysis of dissolved organic matter isolated by tangential-flow ultra filtration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Everett, C.R.; Chin, Y.-P.; Aiken, G.R.

    1999-01-01

    A 1,000-Dalton tangential-flow ultrafiltration (TFUF) membrane was used to isolate dissolved organic matter (DOM) from several freshwater environments. The TFUF unit used in this study was able to completely retain a polystyrene sulfonate 1,800-Dalton standard. Unaltered and TFUF-fractionated DOM molecular weights were assayed by high-pressure size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC). The weight-averaged molecular weights of the retentates were larger than those of the raw water samples, whereas the filtrates were all significantly smaller and approximately the same size or smaller than the manufacturer-specified pore size of the membrane. Moreover, at 280 nm the molar absorptivity of the DOM retained by the ultrafilter is significantly larger than the material in the filtrate. This observation suggests that most of the chromophoric components are associated with the higher molecular weight fraction of the DOM pool. Multivalent metals in the aqueous matrix also affected the molecular weights of the DOM molecules. Typically, proton-exchanged DOM retentates were smaller than untreated samples. This TFUF system appears to be an effective means of isolating aquatic DOM by size, but the ultimate size of the retentates may be affected by the presence of metals and by configurational properties unique to the DOM phase.

  15. Structural Evolution of Polylactide Molecular Bottlebrushes: Kinetics Study by Size Exclusion Chromatography, Small Angle Neutron Scattering and Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Pickel, Deanna L; Kilbey, II, S Michael; Uhrig, David; Hong, Kunlun; Carrillo, Jan-Michael Y; Sumpter, Bobby G; Ahn, Suk-Kyun; Han, Youngkyu; Kim, Dr. Tae-Hwan; Smith, Gregory Scott; Do, Changwoo

    2014-01-01

    Structural evolution from poly(lactide) (PLA) macromonomer to resultant PLA molecular bottlebrush during ring opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) was investigated for the first time by combining size exclusion chromatography (SEC), small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and coarse-grained molecular dynamics (CG-MD) simulations. Multiple aliquots were collected at various reaction times during ROMP, and subsequently analyzed by SEC and SANS. The two complementary techniques enable the understanding of systematic changes in conversion, molecular weight and dispersity as well as structural details of PLA molecular bottlebrushes. CG-MD simulation not only predicts the experimental observations, but it also provides further insight into the analysis and interpretation of data obtained in SEC and SANS experiments. We find that PLA molecular bottlebrushes undergo three conformational transitions with increasing conversion (i.e., increasing the backbone length): (1) from an elongated to a globular shape due to longer side chain at lower conversion, (2) from a globular to an elongated shape at intermediate conversion caused by excluded volume of PLA side chain, and (3) the saturation of contour length at higher conversion due to chain transfer reactions.

  16. Alternative approaches for the estimation of the band broadening parameters in single-detection size exclusion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Vega, Jorge R; Schnll-Bitai, Irene

    2005-11-18

    New approaches for the determination of the extent of symmetric and asymmetric band broadening (BB) in size exclusion chromatography (SEC) are presented. For this purpose raw data was simulated by starting with either a theoretical Poisson number chain length distribution (NCLD), or a log-normal weight chain length distribution (WCLD). Each distribution was first converted to a BB-free mass chromatogram, as typically obtained from a standard differential refractive index detector. Then, the broadened (or "measured") chromatograms were simulated by convoluting the BB-free chromatograms with a BB function, which was assumed to follow symmetrical (Gauss) as well as unsymmetrical (exponentially modified Gauss) function. A broad range of BB parameters (standard deviation, sigma(BB), and exponential decay, tau(BB)) was used for the simulations. The approaches are based on the determination of the points of inflection belonging to the peak of the broadened chromatogram, and closed as well as empirically derived equations connecting the peak width, its variance, and the parameters sigma(BB) and tau(BB). The developed methods are applicable for Poisson distributions well above a peak chain length of 100. PMID:16275289

  17. Estimation of the band broadening parameters in single detection size-exclusion chromatography: a comparative study of various column combinations.

    PubMed

    Schnll-Bitai, Irene; Vega, Jorge; Mader, Christoph

    2007-11-26

    Alternative approaches for the determination of band broadening in size-exclusion chromatography based on the use of exponentially modified Gaussian (EMG) functions were used to experimentally investigate the performance of two different column sets. In both cases, the columns were combined in order to cover the complete fractionation range (from 10(3) to 5x10(6) g mol(-1)), which is of interest in many applications. When analyzing experimental chromatograms the question of proper data treatment (especially the necessary smoothing routines) became obvious and is discussed accordingly. First results indicate that the exponential decay time of the EMG decreases and the standard deviation of its Gaussian component slightly increases (or remains almost constant) with increasing retention volumes. As a consequence, the total variance and the asymmetry of the EMG both decrease with the retention volume. A favorable agreement with independent experimental results (obtained by other researchers on the basis of analyzing ultra narrow standards) was found. Additionally, the skew was also investigated as a function of the retention volume and the trend was found to be in concordance with the predictions of theoretical models. The comparison with theoretical models is also discussed. PMID:17983775

  18. Superheated high temperature to improve size exclusion chromatography separation of polyethylene glycols with chloroform as the mobile phase.

    PubMed

    Lou, Xianwen; van Dongen, Joost L J; Meijer, E W

    2012-05-11

    In our laboratory, chloroform is increasingly required to be used as the mobile phase for the size exclusion chromatography (SEC) characterization of polyethylene glycol (PEG) derivatives, because some of the derivatives show poor solubility in many other solvents. Four types of SEC columns, all based on highly cross-linked polystyrene-polydivinylbenzene (PS/PDB) and compatible with chloroform, have been tried. However, a problem of using chloroform with all the columns tested is that retention might not be rationalized simply based on the SEC-mechanism even for the PEG standards. It was found that for the PEG standards raising the column temperature can significantly improve the SEC separation. In order to take full advantage of the temperature effect on separation, a system was developed which enables the SEC to be performed at superheated temperatures, i.e., temperatures well above the normal boiling point of the mobile phase. The improved SEC separation at elevated temperatures is most likely due to the combination of reduced adsorption of PEGs by the stationary phase and increased solubility of the solutes in the mobile phase. In this work, the SEC separation operated at temperatures above the normal boiling point of the mobile phase was called "superheated high temperature SEC". PMID:22463998

  19. Size-exclusion chromatography of ultrahigh molecular weight methylcellulose ethers and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose ethers for reliable molecular weight distribution characterization.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongfu; Shen, Hongwei; Lyons, John W; Sammler, Robert L; Brackhagen, Meinolf; Meunier, David M

    2016-03-15

    Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) coupled with multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS) and differential refractive index (DRI) detectors was employed for determination of the molecular weight distributions (MWD) of methylcellulose ethers (MC) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose ethers (HPMC) having weight-average molecular weights (Mw) ranging from 20 to more than 1,000kg/mol. In comparison to previous work involving right-angle light scattering (RALS) and a viscometer for MWD characterization of MC and HPMC, MALLS yields more reliable molecular weight for materials having weight-average molecular weights (Mw) exceeding about 300kg/mol. A non-ideal SEC separation was observed for cellulose ethers with Mw>800kg/mol, and was manifested by upward divergence of logM vs. elution volume (EV) at larger elution volume at typical SEC flow rate such as 1.0mL/min. As such, the number-average molecular weight (Mn) determined for the sample was erroneously large and polydispersity (Mw/Mn) was erroneously small. This non-ideality resulting in the late elution of high molecular weight chains could be due to the elongation of polymer chains when experimental conditions yield Deborah numbers (De) exceeding 0.5. Non-idealities were eliminated when sufficiently low flow rates were used. Thus, using carefully selected experimental conditions, SEC coupled with MALLS and DRI can provide reliable MWD characterization of MC and HPMC covering the entire ranges of compositions and molecular weights of commercial interest. PMID:26794765

  20. Improved size exclusion chromatography of coal derived materials using N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone as mobile phase

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, B.R.; Bartle, K.D.; Herod, A.A.; Kandiyoti, R.

    1995-12-31

    A detailed knowledge of the molecular mass distribution (MMD) in coal and its derived products is essential for a fundamental understanding of coal structure, and of the processes occurring during pyrolysis, liquefaction and combustion. Indeed with increased economic and environmental pressure to use natural resources more effectively such knowledge can be applied to gaining more from finite coal reserves. Of the methods available for determining MMDs size exclusion chromatography (SEC) is perhaps the most routinely employed. In SEC tetrahydrofuran (THF) is the most commonly employed mobile phase. However THF has limited solvating power for coal derived materials and consequently a significant proportion of such materials goes undetected. In addition the interpretation of chromatograms with reference to calibration of the column with polystyrene standards is flawed. By comparison, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) is capable of solvating more of the coal sample and therefore gives the opportunity to determine an improved MMD. In this contribution the extended capabilities of NMP as the mobile phase are demonstrated primarily through the analysis of a coal tar pitch. Both NMP and THF are used as mobile phases for SEC using a number of detection techniques, allowing comparison and evaluation of different chromatographic systems to the analysis of coal derived materials.

  1. Expanding the Chemical Cross-Linking Toolbox by the Use of Multiple Proteases and Enrichment by Size Exclusion Chromatography*

    PubMed Central

    Leitner, Alexander; Reischl, Roland; Walzthoeni, Thomas; Herzog, Franz; Bohn, Stefan; Frster, Friedrich; Aebersold, Ruedi

    2012-01-01

    Chemical cross-linking in combination with mass spectrometric analysis offers the potential to obtain low-resolution structural information from proteins and protein complexes. Identification of peptides connected by a cross-link provides direct evidence for the physical interaction of amino acid side chains, information that can be used for computational modeling purposes. Despite impressive advances that were made in recent years, the number of experimentally observed cross-links still falls below the number of possible contacts of cross-linkable side chains within the span of the cross-linker. Here, we propose two complementary experimental strategies to expand cross-linking data sets. First, enrichment of cross-linked peptides by size exclusion chromatography selects cross-linked peptides based on their higher molecular mass, thereby depleting the majority of unmodified peptides present in proteolytic digests of cross-linked samples. Second, we demonstrate that the use of proteases in addition to trypsin, such as Asp-N, can additionally boost the number of observable cross-linking sites. The benefits of both SEC enrichment and multiprotease digests are demonstrated on a set of model proteins and the improved workflow is applied to the characterization of the 20S proteasome from rabbit and Schizosaccharomyces pombe. PMID:22286754

  2. Electrophoresis and size-exclusion chromatography of humic substances extracted from detritus and soils of different geneses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trubetskaya, O. E.; Trubetskoi, O. A.; Borisov, B. A.; Ganzhara, N. F.

    2008-02-01

    Electrophoresis in 10% polyacrylamide gel in the presence of denaturants and size-exclusion chromatography in Sephadex G-75 in 7 M urea were used for the comparative analysis of humic substances isolated from a typical chernozem, soddy-podzolic soil, and chestnut soil and from the easily decomposable organic matter (plant detritus) contained in these soils. After the electrophoresis, the gel with naturally colored bands of humic substances was further stained with a dye specific for proteins by immersing into a solution containing Coomassie Brilliant Blue R-250 and CuSO4. The electrophoretic and chromatographic analyses showed that humic substances from the soils and the corresponding detritus fractions significantly differed in the intensity of the natural color of the electrophoretic fractions, the molecular-weight distribution, and the color of the electrophoretic fractions colored by the protein-specific dye (which was first discovered in this study). The hypothesis of Tyurin and Aleksandrova suggesting that the transformation of humus sources (plant detritus) into humic substances proceeds in the direction from the high-molecular compounds to the low-molecular compounds was experimentally confirmed.

  3. A combinatorial approach to studying protein complex composition by employing size-exclusion chromatography and proteome analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Li, S.; Giometti, C.; Biosciences Division

    2007-07-01

    The genome sequences of numerous organisms are available now, but gene sequences alone do not provide sufficient information to accurately deduce protein functions. Protein function is largely dependent on the association of multiple polypeptide chains into large structures with interacting subunits that regulate and support each other. Therefore, the mapping of protein interaction networks in a physiological context is conducive to deciphering protein functions, including those of hypothetical proteins. Although several high-throughput methods to globally identify protein interactions have been reported in recent years, these approaches often have a high rate of nonspecific or artificial interactions detected. For instance, the fraction of false positives of the protein interactions identified by yeast two-hybrid assay has been predicted to be of the order of 50%. We have developed a strategy to globally map Bacillus subtilis protein-protein interactions in a physiological context by fractionating the cell lysates using size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), followed by proteome analysis. Components of both known and unknown protein complexes, multisubunits and multiproteins, have been identified using this strategy. In one case, the partners of the B. subtilis protein complex have been coexpressed in Escherichia coli, and the formation of the overexpressed protein complex has been further confirmed by a pull-down assay.

  4. Reactivity of anticancer metallodrugs with serum proteins: new insights from size exclusion chromatography-ICP-MS and ESI-MS

    PubMed Central

    Groessl, Michael; Terenghi, Mattia; Casini, Angela; Elviri, Lisa; Lobinski, Ryszard; Dyson, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    A method based on the coupling of high resolution size-exclusion liquid chromatography using a polymer stationary phase with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was developed to study the interactions of two metallodrugs cisplatin and RAPTA-T with the serum proteins albumin and transferrin. In contrast to previous approaches, the technique allowed the total recovery of the metals from the column and was able to discriminate between the different species of the metallodrugs and their complexes with the proteins at femtomolar detection levels. Metal binding was found to be dependent on the protein concentration and on the incubation time of the sample. Cisplatin was found to bind the serum proteins to the same extent, whereas RAPTA-T showed marked preference for transferrin. The affinity of the ruthenium complex for holo-transferrin was higher than for the apo-form suggesting a cooperative iron-mediated metal binding mechanism. RAPTA-T binding to holo-transferrin was further investigated by electrospray mass spectrometry using both the intact protein and a model peptide mimicking the iron-binding pocket. PMID:21151827

  5. [An assay for anti-factor Xa activity of low molecular weight heparins by high performance liquid size exclusion chromatography].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qianqian; Kang, Jingwu

    2013-07-01

    The "gold standard" assay for monitoring low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs) activity is the chromogenic-based anti-factor Xa assay. The methodology of an anti-factor Xa assay is that LMWH is added to a known amount of excess factor Xa and excess antithrombin. It will bind to antithrombin and form a triplet complex with factor Xa, inhibiting the activity of factor Xa. However, the residual factor Xa can still hydrolyze chromogenic peptide substrate, releasing the chromophore for photometric detection. The absorbance is inversely proportional to the amount of heparin/LMWH. The results are given in anticoagulant concentration in units/ mL of anti-factor Xa, such that high values indicate high levels of anticoagulation and low values indicate low levels of anticoagulation. Herein, a novel assay method for anti-FXa activity of LMWHs using high performance liquid size exclusion chromatography (SEC) is reported, in which antithrombin III (AT Ill ) was diluted by the buffer solution contained LMWHs. Subsequently, exogenous FXa and p-nitroaniline coupled peptide substrate were added and incubated for a period, separately. The resulting mixture was separated based on size by SEC, and the free chromophore p-nitroaniline can be detected at an absorption maximum of 385 nm without interference from the absorbance of p-nitroanilide substrates. Moreover, the measurements are not influenced by sample opacity or turbidity, so it is possible to test various complex samples, such as plasma. The assay is robust, sensitive, and cost effective. PMID:24164039

  6. Fractionation of polyethylene glycol particles by simulated moving bed with size-exclusion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ming-Tsai; Liang, Ru-Chien

    2012-03-16

    In this study, a three-section simulated moving bed (SMB) with an open-loop design is used to fractionate polyethylene glycol (PEG) with different molecular weights. The purchased PEGs are mixed and separated by the open-loop SMB. A size-exclusion column with a pore size ranging from 10 to 100 nm, TOSOH GMPW 7.5 mm 30 cm, is used to separate the mixtures. Based on the Triangle theory, the operating parameters of the SMB are determined and used to separate the three binary mixtures. The results show that the PEG mixtures with molecular weights of 400 and 8000, and those of 1500 and 20,000, are separable, yet those of 1500 and 3500 are difficult to separate by the selected column. The relative elution for molecular weights of 400 and 8000, and 1500 and 2000, is 1.49 and 1.54, respectively, resulting in easy separation. However, the difference in the elution volume for mixtures with molecular weights of 1500 and 3500 is so small that the operation condition is confined to a tiny area on the (m(2), m(3)) plane defined by the Triangle theory. This makes robust application of the SMB impossible. Fortunately, it is still possible to obtain pure raffinate with low recovery, but a pure extract is still not possible. It is concluded that the low selectivity of the binary mixture and the fluctuation of the operation result in the difficulty in separating the 1500 and 3000 molecular weight mixtures. This paper presents the operation procedures, including the selection of the column, the discovery of selectivity, the application of the Triangle theory and the experimental results, in order to illustrate how to apply an SMB to the fractionation of PEGs. PMID:22293284

  7. Separation of boron from borated paraffin wax by pyrohydrolysis and alkali extraction methods and its determination using ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Raut, Vaibhavi Vishwajeet; Jeyakumar, Subbiah; Shah, Dipti Jayesh; Thakur, Uday Kumar; Tomar, Bhupendra Singh; Ramakumar, Karanam Lakshminarayana

    2015-01-01

    A method based on the pyrohydrolysis extraction of boron and its quantification with ion chromatography was proposed for paraffin waxes borated with H3BO3 and B4C. The optimum pyrohydrolysis conditions were identified. Wax samples were mixed with U3O8, which prevents the sample from flare up, and also accelerates the extraction of boron. Pyrohydrolysis was carried out with moist O2 at 950C for 60 and 90 min for wax with H3BO3 and wax with B4C, respectively. Two simple methods of separation based on alkali extraction and melting wax in alkali were also developed exclusively for wax with H3BO3. In all the separations, the recovery of B was above 98%. During IC separation, B was separated as boron-mannitol anion complex. Linear calibration was obtained it between 0.1 and 50 ppm of B, and LOD was calculated as 5 ppb (S/N = 3). The reproducibility was better than 5% (RSD). PMID:25765277

  8. Characterization of stable aluminium-citrate species as reference substances for aluminium speciation by ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Happel, Oliver; Seubert, Andreas

    2006-03-01

    Well-defined anionic aluminium-citrate species are accessible from crystalline aluminium complexes. The solution chemistry of those species can be investigated using ion chromatography as a powerful tool for aluminium speciation in aqueous samples. The separation of three anionic aluminium-citrate complexes by anion exchange chromatography is possible within 5 min using isocratic conditions. The element specific detection was done by online coupled ICP-AES. The remaining charge of the complexes after dissolution can be determined by ion chromatography using a retention model. Time-dependent monitoring of the species distribution gave information about the species stabilities and the decomposition pathways. With citric acid as an aluminium chelator partially very stable anionic species are observed. These complexes are important components in biological systems. An example for the practical use of the separation method and the well-defined standards is given for plant sap, which showed two species with similar behavior compared to the investigated stable aluminium-citrate complexes. PMID:16448659

  9. Quantitative lipoxygenase product profiling by gas chromatography negative-ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, W D; Metzger, K; Stephan, M; Wittig, U; Zalán, I; Habenicht, A J; Fürstenberger, G

    1995-01-01

    An assay for the quantitative determination of the hydroxylation profile of long-chain fatty acids is described for gas chromatography negative-ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry and stable isotope dilution using [carboxyl-18O2]-labeled internal standards. The assay has been applied to the study of fatty acids isolated from body fluids, tissue, and cultured cells. Examples for the analyses of biological systems expressing 5-, 8-, 12-, or 15-lipoxygenase activity are given and the most important sources of analytical errors are addressed. Increased specificity compared to analysis by negative-ion chemical ionization, at the cost of sensitivity, can be achieved by the use of positive-ion electron impact ionization for the investigation of hydrogenated pentafluorobenzylester/trimethylsilylether derivatives. The method described provides complete, specific, and quantitative profiles of hydroxylated fatty acids originally present in biological samples or generated in vitro by incubation with polyunsaturated fatty acid substrates such as linoleic or arachidonic acid. PMID:7710076

  10. [A novel gas chromatography detector based on ion mobility spectrometry technology and its application].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shasha; Chen, Chuang; Wang, Weiguo; Du, Yongzhai; Han, Fenglei; Li, Lin; Zhou, Qinghua; Zhang, Xiang; Li, Haiyang

    2011-09-01

    Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) is an attractive detector of gas chromatography (GC) due to its high sensitivity, short response time, and comparatively low cost. The hyphenated GC-IMS instrument can simultaneously provide high separation ability of GC and high sensitivity of IMS. In this paper, one setup of a GC-IMS instrument is introduced. The parameters of IMS as the GC detector were evaluated and studied with respect to the resolution and sensitivity including temperature, total voltage and drift gas flow rate. Under the optimal conditions, GC-IMS was used to detect iodomethane, 1,2-dichloroethane, tetrachloromethane and dibromomethane and the detection limits were 2, 0.02, 1 and 0.1 ng, respectively. And the linear ranges of two orders of magnitude were achieved. As the detector of gas chromatography, IMS can provide more information for compound identification because of its second dimensional separation and can realize selective detection of different compounds. PMID:22233080

  11. Determination of oxidation products in radiolysis of halophenols with pulse radiolysis, hplc, and ion chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, M. ); Schuler, R.H. )

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on hydroxyl radicals that react with halogen substituted phenols by several different ways. One is addition of OH radicals to the aromatic ring, which is followed by elimination of hydrogen halide, H{sub 2}O or H{sup {minus}}. The positions of OH radicals attack are dependent on the nature of the halogen which affects the electronic distribution in the ring. The oxidation of fluorophenols, chlorophenols and bromophenols with hydroxyl radicals in N{sub 2}O saturated solution has been investigated with pulse radiolysis and {gamma}-irradiation experiments. The intermediates of the reactions were studied by pulse radiolysis. The products created in the {gamma}-irradiation of aqueous solutions of halophenols were analyzed by ion chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). With the combination of time-resolved and steady-state experiments a complete and detailed description of radiolytic oxidation of halophenols by hydroxyl radicals was obtained.

  12. Simulation model for overloaded monoclonal antibody variants separations in ion-exchange chromatography.

    PubMed

    Guélat, Bertrand; Ströhlein, Guido; Lattuada, Marco; Delegrange, Lydia; Valax, Pascal; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2012-08-31

    A model was developed for the design of a monoclonal antibody charge variants separation process based on ion-exchange chromatography. In order to account for a broad range of operating conditions in the simulations, an explicit pH and salt concentration dependence has been included in the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The reliability of this model was tested using experimental chromatographic retention times as well as information about the structural characteristics of the different charge variants, e.g. C-terminal lysine groups and deamidated groups. Next, overloaded isocratic elutions at various pH and salt concentrations have been performed to determine the saturation capacity of the ion-exchanger. Furthermore, the column simulation model was applied for the prediction of monoclonal antibody variants separations with both pH and salt gradient elutions. A good prediction of the elution times and peak shapes was observed, even though none of the model parameters was adjusted to fit the experimental data. The trends in the separation performance obtained through the simulations were generally sufficient to identify the most promising operating conditions. The predictive column simulation model thus developed in this work, including a set of parameters determined through specific independent experiments, was experimentally validated and offers a useful basis for a rational optimization of monoclonal antibody variants separation processes on ion-exchange chromatography. PMID:22795935

  13. Method for the determination of dissolved chloride, nitrate, and sulfate in natural water using ion chromatography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brinton, Terry I.; Antweiler, Ronald C.; Taylor, Howard E.

    1996-01-01

    Ion chromatography was used for the determination of dissolved chloride, nitrate and sulfate in natural water where concentrations ranged from a detection limit of 0.02 milligrams per liter to 80 milligrams per liter for chloride, to 18 milligrams per liter for nitrate, and to 280 milligrams per liter for sulfate. Specific conductance was the mode of detection used. Three analytical sample size loops of 11, 61, and 250 microliters, were used to include the analytical ranges described. U.S. Geological Survey Standard Reference Water Samples were analyzed to test the precision and accuracy of the analyses.

  14. Isolation of Exosomes from Blood Plasma: Qualitative and Quantitative Comparison of Ultracentrifugation and Size Exclusion Chromatography Methods

    PubMed Central

    Baranyai, Tams; Herczeg, Kata; Ondi, Zsfia; Voszka, Istvn; Mdos, Kroly; Marton, Nikolett; Nagy, Gyrgy; Mger, Imre; Wood, Matthew J.; El Andaloussi, Samir; Plinks, Zoltn; Kumar, Vikas; Nagy, Pter; Kittel, gnes; Buzs, Edit Irn; Ferdinandy, Pter; Giricz, Zoltn

    2015-01-01

    Background Exosomes are emerging targets for biomedical research. However, suitable methods for the isolation of blood plasma-derived exosomes without impurities have not yet been described. Aim Therefore, we investigated the efficiency and purity of exosomes isolated with potentially suitable methods; differential ultracentrifugation (UC) and size exclusion chromatography (SEC). Methods and Results Exosomes were isolated from rat and human blood plasma by various UC and SEC conditions. Efficiency was investigated at serial UC of the supernatant, while in case of SEC by comparing the content of exosomal markers of various fractions. Purity was assessed based on the presence of albumin. We found that the diameter of the majority of isolated particles fell into the size range of exosomes, however, albumin was also present in the preparations, when 1h UC at 4C was applied. Furthermore, with this method only a minor fraction of total exosomes could be isolated from blood as deduced from the constant amount of exosomal markers CD63 and TSG101 detected after serial UC of rat blood plasma samples. By using UC for longer time or with shorter sedimentation distance at 4C, or UC performed at 37C, exosomal yield increased, but albumin impurity was still observed in the isolates, as assessed by transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering and immunoblotting against CD63, TSG101 and albumin. Efficiency and purity were not different in case of using further diluted samples. By using SEC with different columns, we have found that although a minor fraction of exosomes can be isolated without significant albumin content on Sepharose CL-4B or Sephacryl S-400 columns, but not on Sepharose 2B columns, the majority of exosomes co-eluted with albumin. Conclusion Here we show that it is feasible to isolate exosomes from blood plasma by SEC without significant albumin contamination albeit with low vesicle yield. PMID:26690353

  15. Comparison of Diafiltration and Size-Exclusion Chromatography to Recover Hemicelluloses From Process Water From Thermomechanical Pulping of Spruce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Alexandra; Persson, Tobias; Zacchi, Guido; Stlbrand, Henrik; Jnsson, Ann-Sofi

    Hemicelluloses constitute one of the most abundant renewable resources on earth. To increase their utilization, the isolation of hemicelluloses from industrial biomass side-streams would be beneficial. A method was investigated to isolate hemicelluloses from process water from a thermomechanical pulp mill. The method consists of three steps: removal of solids by microfiltration, preconcentration of the hemicelluloses by ultrafiltration, and purification by either size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) or diafiltration. The purpose of the final purification step is to separate hemicelluloses from small oligosaccharides, monosaccharides, and salts. The ratio between galactose, glucose, and mannose in oligo- and polysaccharides after preconcentration was 0.8?1?2.8, which is similar to that found in galactoglucomannan. Continuous diafiltration was performed using a composite fluoro polymer membrane with cutoff of 1000 Da. After diafiltration with four diavolumes the purity of the hemicelluloses was 77% (gram oligo- and polysaccharides/ gram total dissolved solids) and the recovery was 87%. Purification by SEC was performed with 5, 20, and 40% sample loadings, respectively and a flow rate of 12 or 25 mL/min (9 or 19 cm/h). The purity of hemicelluloses after SEC was approx 82%, and the recovery was above 99%. The optimal sample load and flow rate were 20% and 25 mL/min, respectively. The process water from thermomechanical pulping of spruce is inexpensive. Thus, the recovery of hemicelluloses is not of main importance. If the purity of 77%, obtained with diafiltration, is sufficient for the utilization of the hemicelluloses, diafiltration probably offers a less expensive alternative in this application.

  16. Indirect determination of cyanide compounds by ion chromatography with conductivity measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Nonomura, M.

    1987-09-01

    Ion chromatography (IC) is a suitable analytical technique for the determination of anions. The cyanide is not detected by the conductivity detector of the ion chromatograph due to its low dissolution constant (pK = 9.2). This paper describes an IC procedure for the determination of free cyanide and metal cyanide complexes that uses a conductivity detector. It is based on the oxidation of cyanide ion by sodium hypochlorite to cyanate ion (pK = 3.66). Therefore, cyanide ion can now be measured indirectly by the conductivity detector. In this procedure, optimum operating conditions were examined. In addition, the interferences from anions and reducing agents were investigated. The method was applied to the determination of metal cyanide complexes. The coefficients of variation (%) for CN/sup -/ (1.05 mg/L), Zn(CN)/sub 4//sup 2 -/ (CN/sup -/, 0.80 mg/L), and Ni(CN)/sub 4//sup 2 -/ (CN/sup -/, 0.96 mg/L) were 1.1%, 1.5%, and 0.5%, respectively. The proposed method proved to be useful for the determination of cyanide compounds in natural water and waste water.

  17. Portable, fully autonomous, ion chromatography system for on-site analyses.

    PubMed

    Elkin, Kyle R

    2014-07-25

    The basic operating principles of a portable, fully autonomous, ion chromatography system are described. The system affords the user the ability to collect and analyze samples continuously for 27 days, or about 1930 injections before needing any user intervention. Within the 13 kg system, is a fully computer controlled autosampling, chromatography and data acquisition system. An eluent reflux device (ERD), which integrates eluent suppression and generation in a single multi-chambered device, is used to minimize eluent consumption. During operation, about 1 ?L of water per minute is lost to waste while operating standard-bore chromatography at 0.5 mL min(-1) due to eluent refluxing. Over the course of 27 days, about 100mL of rinse water is consumed, effectively eliminating waste production. Data showing the reproducibility (below 1% relative standard deviation over 14 days) of the device is also presented. Chromatographic analyses of common anions (Cl(-), NO3(-), SO4(2-), PO4(3-)), is accomplished in under 15 min using a low backpressure guard column with ? 25 mM KOH isocratic elution. For detection, a small capacitively-coupled contactless conductivity detector (C4D) is employed, able to report analytes in the sub to low micromolar range. Preconcentration of the injected samples gives a 50-fold decrease in detection limits, primarily utilized for in-situ detection of phosphate (LOQ 10 ?g L(-1)). Field analyses are shown for multiple on-site analyses of stream water indifferent weather conditions. PMID:24913366

  18. Suppressed ion chromatography for monitoring chemical impurities in steam for geothermal power plants.

    PubMed

    Santoyo, E; Verma, S P; Sandoval, F; Aparicio, A; Garca, R

    2002-03-01

    A suppressed ion chromatography (IC) technique has been evaluated as a chemical monitoring tool for detecting major anions (F-, Cl-, NO3- and SO4(2-)) of condensed steam in geothermal power plants. It is shown that the suppressed IC technique provides a suitable means for preventing possible damage to generating equipment in the geothermal industry. An electrical conductivity detector (0.1 microS sensitivity) with an anion-exchange column (IonPac AS4A-SC), a micro-membrane suppressor (AMMS II), and an isocratic high-pressure pump system were successfully used for detecting low concentrations of inorganic anions. Method detection limits for the anions of interest were <0.184 mg/L. Details of the IC methodology as well as some experimental results obtained during its application for the chemical monitoring of geothermal steam pipes are also described. PMID:11999745

  19. The removal of uranium from acidic media using ion exchange and/or extraction chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    FitzPatrick, J.R.; Schake, B.S.; Murphy, J.; Holmes, K; West, M.H.

    1996-06-01

    The separation and purification of uranium from either nitric acid or hydrochloric acid media can be accomplished by using either solvent extraction or ion-exchange. Over the past two years at Los Alamos, emerging programs are focused on recapturing the expertise required to do limited, small-quantity processing of enriched uranium. During this period of time, we have been investigating ion-addition, waste stream polishing is associated with this effort in order to achieve more complete removal of uranium prior to recycle of the acid. Extraction chromatography has been demonstrated to further polish the uranium from both nitric and hydrochloric acid media thus allowing for a more complete recovery of the actinide material and creation of less waste during the processing steps.

  20. Determination of anionic surfactants during wastewater recycling process by ion pair chromatography with suppressed conductivity detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, L. H.; Judkins, J. E.; Garland, J. L.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    A direct approach utilizing ion pairing reversed-phase chromatography coupled with suppressed conductivity detection was developed to monitor biodegradation of anionic surfactants during wastewater recycling through hydroponic plant growth systems and fixed-film bioreactors. Samples of hydroponic nutrient solution and bioreactor effluent with high concentrations (up to 120 mS electrical conductance) of inorganic ions can be analyzed without pretreatment or interference. The presence of non-ionic surfactants did not significantly affect the analysis. Dynamic linear ranges for tested surfactants [Igepon TC-42, ammonium lauryl sulfate, sodium laureth sulfate and sodium alkyl (C10-C16) ether sulfate] were 2 to approximately 500, 1 to approximately 500, 2.5 to approximately 550 and 3.0 to approximately 630 microg/ml, respectively.

  1. Direct injection of native aqueous matrices by achiral-chiral chromatography ion trap mass spectrometry for simultaneous quantification of pantoprazole and lansoprazole enantiomers fractions.

    PubMed

    Barreiro, Juliana Cristina; Vanzolini, Kenia Lourenço; Cass, Quezia Bezerra

    2011-05-20

    A two-dimensional liquid chromatography system coupled to ion-trap tandem mass spectrometer (2DLC-IT-MS/MS) was employed for the simultaneous quantification of pantoprazole and lansoprazole enantiomers fractions. A restricted access media of bovine serum albumin octyl column (RAM-BSA C(8)) was used in the first dimension for the exclusion of the humic substances, while a polysaccharide-based chiral column was used in the second dimension for the enantioseparation of both pharmaceuticals. The results described here show good selectivity, extraction efficiency, accuracy, and precision with detection limits of 0.200 and 0.150 μg L(-1) for the enatiomers of pantoprazole and lansoprazole respectively, while employing a small amount (1.0 mL) of native water sample per injection. This work reports an innovative assay for monitoring work, studies of biotic and abiotic enantioselective degradation and temporal changes of enantiomeric fractions. PMID:21429496

  2. Improvements in ion reflux: An electrodialytic eluent generation and suppression device for ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Elkin, Kyle; Riviello, John; Small, Hamish

    2015-07-17

    This work describes a membrane based electrodialytic ion reflux device (IRD), which uses water as the pumped phase and integrates isocratic and gradient eluent generation and suppression. The current design incorporates several ion exchange membranes to create discrete chambers for suppression and eluent generation, while isolating the electrodes from the analytical stream. A small volume of recycled water can be used as the pumped phase while continuously refluxing the eluent ions. This current design permits electronically controlled eluent generation of at least 16.4?eq KOHmin(-1), while maintaining low suppressed background conductivity (<0.5?S/cm). The device was operated in gradient or isocratic mode continuously for up to 6 weeks. During this period, over 500 gradient and isocratic injections were performed, showing peak retention time precision below 1.5% RSD. PMID:26028513

  3. Influence of column design on process-scale ion-exchange chromatography.

    PubMed

    Levison, P R; Hopkins, A K; Hathi, P

    1999-12-31

    The performance of two new designs of pump-packed axial flow process chromatography columns have been evaluated for the preparative anion-exchange chromatography of hen egg-white proteins using Whatman Express-Ion Exchanger Q. A 16 1 Side-Pack column and a 24 1 IsoPak column containing Express-Ion Q were used in this study. In each case ca. 20 1 feedstock containing 5-7 g protein/l, was applied per litre packed bed at flow-rates of ca. 150 and 300 cm/h. In each case the ovalbumin binding capacity was ca. 70 g/l packed bed with ca. 100% (w/w) recovery of applied protein. A clean-in-place procedure involving storage in 0.5 M NaOH was effective in maintaining chromatographic performance in all cases. These data were consistent with our previous work using the more traditionally configured slurry-packed axial flow columns. Each of these column designs were easy to use facilitating rapid packing with this adsorbent and in the case of IsoPak rapid pump unpacking. The introduction of these column designs significantly improves the task of column packing, hitherto a labour intensive, physically demanding and potentially unreproducible process. PMID:10674926

  4. Determination of perchlorate in infant formula by isotope dilution ion chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Z.; Lau, B.P.-Y.; Tague, B.; Sparling, M.; Forsyth, D.

    2011-01-01

    A sensitive and selective isotope dilution ion chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (ID IC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the determination of perchlorate in infant formula. The perchlorate was extracted from infant formula by using 20 ml of methanol and 5 ml of 1% acetic acid. All samples were spiked with 18O4 isotope-labelled perchlorate internal standard prior to extraction. After purification on a graphitised carbon solid-phase extraction column, the extracts were injected into an ion chromatography system equipped with an Ionpac AS20 column for separation of perchlorate from other anions. The presence of perchlorate in samples was quantified by isotope dilution mass spectrometry. Analysis of both perchlorate and its isotope-labelled internal standard was carried out on a Waters Quattro Ultima triple quadrupole mass spectrometer operating in a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) negative ionisation mode. The method was validated for linearity and range, accuracy, precision, sensitivity, and matrix effects. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.4 ?g 1?1 for liquid infant formula and 0.95 ?g kg?1 for powdered infant formula. The recovery ranged from 94% to 110% with an average of 98%. This method was used to analyse 39 infant formula, and perchlorate concentrations ranging from

  5. Computer-assisted multi-segment gradient optimization in ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Tyteca, Eva; Park, Soo Hyun; Shellie, Robert A; Haddad, Paul R; Desmet, Gert

    2015-02-13

    This study reports simulation and optimization of ion chromatography separations using multi-segment gradient elution. First, an analytical expression for the gradient retention factor under these complex elution profiles was derived. This allows a rapid retention time prediction calculations under different gradient conditions, during computer-assisted method development. Next, these analytical expressions were implemented in an in-house written Matlab() routine that searches for the optimal (multi-segment) gradient conditions, either via a four-segment grid search or via the recently proposed one-segment-per-component search, in which the slope is adjusted after the elution of each individual component. Evaluation of the retention time simulation and optimization approaches was performed on a mixture of 18 inorganic anions and different subsets with varying number of compounds. The two considered multi-segment gradient optimization searches resulted in similar proposed gradient profiles, and corresponding chromatograms. Moreover, the resultant chromatograms were clearly superior to the chromatograms obtained from the best simple linear gradient profiles, found via a fine grid search. The proposed approach is useful for automated method development in ion chromatography in which complex elution profiles are often used to increase the separation power. PMID:25596760

  6. Systematic generation of buffer systems for pH gradient ion exchange chromatography and their application.

    PubMed

    Krner, Frieder; Hubbuch, Jrgen

    2013-04-12

    pH gradient protein separations are widely used techniques in the field of protein analytics, of which isoelectric focusing is the most well known application. The chromatographic variant, based on the formation of pH gradients in ion exchange columns is only rarely applied due to the difficulties to form controllable, linear pH gradients over a broad pH range. This work describes a method for the systematic generation of buffer compositions with linear titration curves, resulting in well controllable pH gradients. To generate buffer compositions with linear titration curves an in silico method was successfully developed. With this tool, buffer compositions for pH gradient ion exchange chromatography with pH ranges spanning up to 7.5 pH units were established and successfully validated. Subsequently, the buffer systems were used to characterize the elution behavior of 22 different model proteins in cation and anion exchange pH gradient chromatography. The results of both chromatographic modes as well as isoelectric focusing were compared to describe differences in between the methods. PMID:23489486

  7. Toward reading the sequence of short oligonucleotides from their retention factors obtained by means of hydrophilic interaction chromatography and ion-interaction reversed-phase liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Bittová, Miroslava; Havliš, Jan; Fuksová, Hana; Vrbková, Blanka; Trnková, Libuše

    2012-11-01

    Retention characteristics of selected synthetic 5'-terminal phosphate absent penta-nucleotides containing adenine, guanine, and thymine were studied in relation to their sequence by hydrophilic interaction chromatography and ion-interaction reversed-phase liquid chromatography. The organic solvent content, pH, and buffer concentration in mobile phases were evaluated as influential separation conditions. Data demonstrate that both compared chromatographic modes can be used to separate synthetic penta-nucleotides according to their nucleotide composition. Moreover, reversed-phase liquid chromatography allows separation according to their sequence. We have found a simple linear additive model to describe the retention order in both separation modes in regard to their sequence. In hydrophilic interaction chromatography, the retention behavior is controlled primarily by the hydrophilicity of involved nucleotides and minimally by their sequence position. For reversed-phase liquid chromatography, the nucleotide hydrophobicity plays an important role in their retention properties and the influence of their location in sequence on the retention increases toward the center and decreases toward the termini. Our results show that the penta-nucleotide sequence, and thus its spatial arrangement induced by the surrounding environment, is highly related to the retention properties, so it may be hypothetically used to read the sequence from the retention properties acquired under particular separation conditions. PMID:23175142

  8. Application of retention modelling to the simulation of separation of organic anions in suppressed ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Philip; Dicinoski, Greg W; Ng, Boon Khing; Shellie, Robert A; Hanna-Brown, Melissa; Haddad, Paul R

    2009-09-18

    The ion-exchange separation of organic anions of varying molecular mass has been demonstrated using ion chromatography with isocratic, gradient and multi-step eluent profiles on commercially available columns with UV detection. A retention model derived previously for inorganic ions and based solely on electrostatic interactions between the analytes and the stationary phase was applied. This model was found to accurately describe the observed elution of all the anions under isocratic, gradient and multi-step eluent conditions. Hydrophobic interactions, although likely to be present to varying degrees, did not limit the applicability of the ion-exchange retention model. Various instrumental configurations were investigated to overcome problems associated with the use of organic modifiers in the eluent which caused compatibility issues with the electrolytically derived, and subsequently suppressed, eluent. The preferred configuration allowed the organic modifier stream to bypass the eluent generator, followed by subsequent mixing before entering the injection valve and column. Accurate elution prediction was achieved even when using 5-step eluent profiles with errors in retention time generally being less than 1% relative standard deviation (RSD) and all being less than 5% RSD. Peak widths for linear gradient separations were also modelled and showed good agreement with experimentally determined values. PMID:19683244

  9. Determination of inorganic corrosion inhibitors in heat transfer systems by ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kadnar, Rainer; Madera, Martin; Schlifke, Ruth

    2003-05-16

    In water-based heating and cooling circuits monoethylene glycol is frequently used as an anti-freezing agent. For corrosion protection inhibitors based on nitrite, molybdate or amines are commonly added. The determination of nitrite is usually performed by ion chromatography (IC) using an IonPac AS14 analytical column for the anion separation and a suppressed conductivity detection. Local overheating in some circuits causes degradation of ethylene glycol and leads to the formation of some organic acids. Under such chemical conditions the correct quantification of nitrite becomes a more complex analytical task due to the interference of the organic acids. This problem was solved using the IonPac AS9-HC separation column. In heat transfer systems, where nitrite is not stable, molybdate can be used as an inhibitor for corrosion protection. In these cases photometric methods are recommended for monitoring the molybdate concentration. However, due to the dark brown colour and turbidity of aged glycol solutions photometric methods were not applicable. Thus the use of IC offered a reliable alternative for the determination of molybdate, also in aged glycol solutions, using IonPac AS9-HC or AS14 columns for separation. PMID:12830903

  10. Ion-pair reversed phase liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection for analysis of ultraviolet transparent cations.

    PubMed

    He, Yan; Cook, Kenneth S; Littlepage, Eric; Cundy, John; Mangalathillam, Ratish; Jones, Michael T

    2015-08-21

    This paper describes the use of an anionic ion-pair reagent (IPR) to impove the ultraviolet (UV) detection and hydrophobic retention of polar and UV transparent cations. Anionic IPR added to the mobile phase forms an ion-pair with cations. Formation of the ion-pair causes a redshift in the absorption wavength, making it possible for direct UV detection of UV-inactive cations. The ion-pairs with increased hydrophobicity were separated by reversed phase liquid chromatography (RPLC). Different perfluorinated caboxylic acids (trifluoroacetic acid, heptafluorobutyric acid, nonafluoropentanoic acid) were evaluted as IPR in the separation and detection of the common cations sodium, ammonium and Tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (Tris). The effects of the IPR type and concentration on separation and detection have been investigated to understand the separation and detection mechanisms. The optimal separation and detection condtions were attained with mobile phase containing 0.1% nonafluoropentanoic acid and with the UV detection at 210nm. UV detection and charged aerosol detection (CAD) were compared in the quantitation of the cations. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) of sodium and Tris with UV detection is comparable to that by CAD. The LOQ of ammonium with UV detection (1ppm or 3ng) is about 20-fold lower than that (20ppm or 60ng) by CAD. The RPLC-UV method was used to monitor ammonium clearance during ultrafiltration and diafiltration in the manfucaturing of biopharmceutical drug substance. PMID:26195039

  11. Determination of anions in human and animal tear fluid and blood serum by ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Salas-Auvert, R; Colmenarez, J; de Ledo, H; Colina, M; Gutierrez, E; Bravo, A; Soto, L; Azuero, S

    1995-07-01

    An important factor contributing to the development of ion chromatography (IC) has been the need for repetitive analyses of samples with high ionic contents and samples available in microvolumes. IC was selected for the determination of Cl, NO3, SO(2-)4 and PO(3-)4 anions in tear fluid and serum from ten human volunteers of both sexes, seven young-adult black vultures (Coragyps atratus) and three young-adult chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus). The samples were analysed on a Dionex Model 2000i/SP ion-exchange chromatograph equipped with an anion guard column (Dionex IonPac AG4A), anion separator column (Dionex IonPac AS4A), suppressor column (Dionex AMMS-II) and a conductivity detector. The flow-rte of the mobile phase, 1.7 mM NaHCO3 - 1.8 mM Na2CO3 was set at 2.0 ml/min. The R.S.D. was calculated to be less than 1.5% for all anions. In the human, black vulture and chicken serum samples, the NO3, PO(3-)4 and SO(2-)4 anion contents were higher than in tears; for Cl the reverse was found. No correlation was found amongst the anion concentrations present in the tear fluid and blood serum in all samples (p > 0.05). With no sample treatment, column maintenance was required. PMID:7640773

  12. Trace enrichment and separation of metal ions as dithiocarbamate complexes by liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Irth, H.; de Jong, G.J.; Brinkman, U.A.T.; Frei, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    A method is presented that involves the simultaneous formation of metal dithiocarbamates and on-line preconcentration and, subsequently, separation of heavy-metal ions (Cd(II), Pb(II), Hg(II), Cu(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Bi(III)) by reversed-phase liquid chromatography. A cetrimide-dithiocarbamate ion pair is loaded onto a precolumn packed with C/sub 18/-bonded silica, and the injected metal ions react instantaneously with the dithiocarbamate to form stable complexes. These relatively apolar complexes are efficiently preconcentrated on the precolumn. They can be eluted on-line to C/sup 18/ separation column and, next, separated with an acetonitrile/water gradient containing cetrimide and buffered to pH 6.8. The detection is effected with a UV-vis diode-array detector which allows the determination of subnanogram amounts of metal ions. The cleanup, preconcentration, and automation potential render the method suitable for multimetal analysis in complex samples. Application of this principle to the trace analysis of Cu(II) and Hg(II) in drinking water is demonstrated.

  13. Using contemporary liquid chromatography theory and technology to improve capillary gradient ion-exchange separations.

    PubMed

    Wouters, Bert; Broeckhoven, Ken; Wouters, Sam; Bruggink, Cees; Agroskin, Yury; Pohl, Christopher A; Eeltink, Sebastiaan

    2014-11-28

    The gradient-performance limits of capillary ion chromatography have been assessed at maximum system pressure (34.5 MPa) using capillary columns packed with 4.1 ?m macroporous anion-exchange particles coated with 65 nm positively-charged nanobeads. In analogy to the van-Deemter curve, the gradient performance was assessed applying different flow rates, while decreasing the gradient time inversely proportional to the increase in flow rate in order to maintain the same retention properties. The gradient kinetic-performance limits were determined at maximum system pressure, applying tG/t0=5, 10, and 20. In addition, the effect of retention on peak width was assessed in gradient mode for mono-, di-, and trivalent inorganic anions. The peak width of late-eluting ions can be significantly reduced by using concave gradient, resulting in better detection sensitivity. A signal enhancement factor of 8 was measured for a late-eluting ion when applying a concave instead of a linear gradient. For the analysis of a complex anion mixture, a coupled column with a total length of 1.05 m was operated at the kinetic-performance limit applying a linear 250 min gradient (tG/t0=10). The peak capacity varied between 200 and 380 depending on analyte retention, and hence on charge and size of the ion. PMID:25454130

  14. Anion exchangers with branched functional ion exchange layers of different hydrophilicity for ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Shchukina, O I; Zatirakha, A V; Smolenkov, A D; Nesterenko, P N; Shpigun, O A

    2015-08-21

    Novel polystyrene-divinylbenzene (PS-DVB) based anion exchangers differing from each other in the structure of the branched functional ion exchange layer are prepared to investigate the role of linker and functional site on ion exchange selectivity. The proposed method of synthesis includes the obtaining of aminated PS-DVB particles by means of their acylation with following reductive amination with methylamine. Further modification of the obtained secondary aminogroups is provided by the alkylation with either 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (1,4-BDDGE) or resorcinol diglycidyl ether (RDGE), which form the linkers of different hydrophobicity, and amination of terminal epoxide rings with trimethylamine (TMA), dimethylethanolamine (DMEA), methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) or triethanolamine (TEA). The variation of the structure and hydrophobicity of the linker and terminal quaternary ammonium sites in the functional layer allows the alteration of selectivity and separation efficiency of the obtained adsorbents. The ion exchange selectivity and separation efficiency of the anion exchangers are evaluated using the model mixtures of anions (F(-), HCOO(-), Cl(-), NO2(-), Br(-), NO3(-), HPO4(2-) and SO4(2-)) in potassium hydroxide eluents. The adsorbents show the decrease of selectivity with increasing the hydrophilicity of the terminal functional site. The anion exchangers having more flexible and hydrophilic 1,4-BDDGE linker provide smaller separation factors for most of the analytes as compared with RDGE-containing adsorbents with the same terminal ion exchange sites, but are characterized with higher column efficiencies and better peak symmetry for polarizable anions. In case of 1,4-BDDGE-modified anion exchangers of the particle size of 3.3μm functionalized with DMEA and MDEA the calculated values of column efficiencies for polarizable NO3(-) and Br(-) are up to 49,000 and 53,000N/m, respectively, which is almost twice higher than the values obtained for the RDGE-containing analogues. PMID:26159253

  15. Analysis of protein-protein interaction by simulation of small-zone size exclusion chromatography. Stochastic formulation of kinetic rate contributions to observed high-performance liquid chromatography elution characteristics.

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, F J

    1989-01-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) procedures provide size-exclusion chromatography with sufficient speed that the elution characteristics of mixtures of interacting macromolecules are potentially determined by the kinetics of association and dissociation. However, few studies have yet addressed the consequences of interaction kinetics on HPLC analyses or evaluated the potential application of HPLC methods for the qualitative and quantitative interpretation of macromolecular interaction kinetics. An earlier simulation of small-zone chromatography of interacting molecules (Stevens, F. J. 1986. Biochemistry. 25:981-993) has been modified to incorporate the effects of association/dissociation kinetics on elution behavior. The previous assumption of instantaneous equilibration has been replaced by explicit calculation of partial relaxation of complexed and free constituent mixtures during each iteration of the simulation. In addition, a stochastically based formulation has been introduced to determine a velocity probability distribution that emulates the partial intermixing of free and complexed pools during the iteration cycle. The simulation generates bimodal elution profiles representing stable complexed and free components of mixtures for which interaction is characterized by slow kinetics relative to chromatography run times. For mixtures with rapid kinetics, a single-asymmetric peak results. When tested with a large-zone sample such that a plateau of stable concentration is generated, the simulation reproduces previous characterizations based on evaluations of solute continuity equations. Therefore, HPLC may, in many cases be an appropriate basis for techniques by which to evaluate kinetic and affinity characteristics of interacting biomolecules. PMID:2765653

  16. Size Exclusion Chromatography Studies of the Initial Self-Association Steps of Chicken Egg White Lysozyme Nucleation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewing, Felecia; Donovan, David; Pusey, Marc

    2000-01-01

    Nucleation is one of the least understood aspects of crystallogenesis. In the case of macromolecule nucleation, this understanding is further hampered by uncertainty over what precisely is being discussed. We define the process of solute self-association (aggregation, oligomerization, interaction, clustering, etc.) whereby n-mers (n > or = 2) having a crystallographic or nascent crystallographic arrangement leading to the critical nucleus reversibly form in the solution, to be part of the nucleation process. This reversible self-association process is a fundamental part of the nucleation process, and occurs as a function of the solute concentration. In the case of chicken egg white lysozyme, a considerable body of experimental evidence leads us to the conclusion that it also forms the crystal growth units. Size exclusion chromatography is a simple and direct method for determining the equilibrium constants for the self-association process. A Pharmacia FPLC system was used to provide accurate solution flow rates. The column, injection valve, and sample loop were all mounted within a temperature-controlled chamber. Chromatographically re-purified lysozyme was first dialyzed against the column equilibration buffer, with injection onto the column after several hours pre-incubation at the running temperature. Preliminary experiments, were carried out using a Toyopearl HW-50F column (1 x 50cm), equilibrated with 0.1 M sodium acetate, 5% sodium chloride, pH 4.6, at 15C. Protein concentrations from 0.1 to 4 mg/ml were employed (C(sub sat) = 1.2 mg/ml). The data from several different protein preparations consistently shows a progressively decreasing elution volume with increasing protein concentration, indicating that reversible self-association is occurring. The dotted line indicates the monomeric lysozyme elution volume. However, lysozyme interacts with the column matrix in these experiments, which complicates data analysis.Accordingly, we are testing silica-based HPLC columns in an effort to eliminate this problem and substantially reduce the column volume and experimental run time. The results and data analysis from these and subsequent experiments will be presented.

  17. Insights Into Water-Soluble Organic Aerosol Sources From Carbon-13 Ratios of Size Exclusion Chromatography Fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruehl, C. R.; Chuang, P. Y.; McCarthy, M. D.

    2008-12-01

    Many sources of organic aerosols have been identified and quantified, and much of this work has used individual (mosty water-insoluble) compounds as tracers of primary sources. However, most organic aerosol cannot be molecularly characterized, and the water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in many aerosols is thought to originate from gaseous precursors (i.e., it is secondary in nature). It can therefore be difficult to infer aerosol sources, particularly of background (i.e., aged) aerosols, and of the relatively high-MW component of aerosols. The stable isotope ratios (?13C) of organic aerosols have been used to distinguish between sources, with lighter values (-30 to -25) interpreted as having originated from fossil fuel combustion and C4 biogenic emission, and heavier values (-25 to - 20) indicating a marine or C3 biogenic source. Most published measurements were of either total suspended particulates or PM2.5, however, and it is unknown to what extent these fractions differ from submicron WSOC. We report ?13C for submicron WSOC collected at a variety of sites, ranging from marine to polluted to background continental. Bulk marine organic ?13C ranged from -30.4 to - 27.6, slightly lighter than previously published results. This could be due to the elimination of supermicron cellular material or other biogenic primary emissions from the sample. Continental WSOC ?13C ranged from -19.1 to -29.8, with heavier values (-19.8 1.0) in Oklahoma and lighter values at Great Smoky Mountain National Park in Tennessee (-25.8 2.6) and Illinois (-24.5 1.0). This likely results from the greater proportional of C3 plant material in the Oklahoma samples. In addition to bulk samples, we used size exclusion chromatography (SEC) to report ?13C of organic aerosols as a function of hydrodynamic diameter. Variability and magnitude of hydrodynamic diameter was greatest at low SEC pH, indicative of the acidic character of submicron WSOC. Tennessee aerosols included neutral compounds not observed at other sites, and in general showed more variability in both hydrodynamic diameter and ?13C. This suggests that secondary formation processes were most active at this site.

  18. Characterization of the synthesis of N,N-dimethyltryptamine by reductive amination using gas chromatography ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Simon D; Moore, Sharon A; Freeman, Sally; Kanu, Abu B

    2010-07-01

    The present study established an impurity profile of a synthetic route to the hallucinogenic N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT). The synthesis was carried out under reductive amination conditions between tryptamine and aqueous formaldehyde in the presence of acetic acid followed by reduction with sodium cyanoborohydride. Analytical characterization of this synthetic route was carried out by gas chromatography ion trap mass spectrometry using electron- and chemical-ionization modes. Methanol was employed as a liquid CI reagent and the impact of stoichiometric modifications on side-products formation was also investigated. Tryptamine 1, DMT 2, 2-methyltetrahydro-β-carboline (2-Me-THBC, 3), N-methyl-N-cyanomethyltryptamine (MCMT, 4), N-methyltryptamine (NMT, 5), 2-cyanomethyl-tetrahydro-β-carboline (2-CM-THBC, 6) and tetrahydro-β-carboline (THBC, 7) have been detected under a variety of conditions. Replacement of formaldehyde solution with paraformaldehyde resulted in incomplete conversion of the starting material whereas a similar replacement of sodium cyanoborohydride with sodium borohydride almost exclusively produced THBC instead of the expected DMT. Compounds 1 to 7 were quantified and the limits of detection were 28.4, 87.7, 21.5, 23.4, 41.1, 36.6, and 34.9 ng mL(-1), respectively. The limits of quantification for compounds 1 to 7 were 32.4, 88.3, 25.4, 24.6, 41.4, 39.9, and 37.0 µg mL(-1), respectively. Linearity was observed in the range of 20.8-980 µg mL(-1) with correlation coefficients > 0.99. The application holds great promise in the area of forensic chemistry where development of reliable analytical methods for the detection, identification, and quantification of DMT are crucial and also in pharmaceutical analysis where DMT might be prepared for use in human clinical studies. PMID:20648523

  19. Determination of REEs distribution in monazite and xenotime minerals by ion chromatography and ICP-AES.

    PubMed

    Borai, E H; Eid, M A; Aly, H F

    2002-02-01

    Ion chromatographic techniques were investigated for the separation and the quantitative determination of some rare earth elements (REEs) in monazite and xenotime minerals. The influences of selected eluents containing complexing acids including oxalic and alpha-hydroxy isobutyric acid (alpha-HIBA) on the retention and hence the separation efficiency of REEs was studied. Different variables affecting the separation of different REEs such as pH, type, and concentration of the mobile phase were investigated. Gradient elution, using an advanced gradient pump, was controlled automatically by the Dionex AI-450 computer software. Separation of REEs was carried out using an Ion Pac CS5A column followed by a post column derivatization reaction with 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol (PAR) and UV-VIS spectrophotometric detection. Mineral dissolution was carried out using sulfuric acid. A comparative evaluation of REE distribution in monazite and xenotime minerals using both ion chromatography (IC) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometric (ICP-AES) techniques was carried out. PMID:11939628

  20. [Determination of alditols in foods by ion chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hongbin; Xiong, Zhiyu; Li, Ping; Li, Jing; Sun, Li; Zhao, Yunxia

    2013-11-01

    A method for the determination of alditols in foods by ion chromatography-mass spectrometry (IC-MS) has been developed. The samples were extracted and cleaned up with the solid phase extraction (SPE). Then, the ion chromatographic separation was performed on a CarboPar MA1 column. The alditols were determined by MS with the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode and quantified by the external standard method. The calibration curves showed good linearity in the certain ranges with the correlation coefficients (R2) greater than 0.99. The limits of quantification (S/N = 10) of erythritol, xylitol, D-sorbitol, D-mannitol, lactitol, maltitol were 0.98, 1.99, 2.24, 5.92, 13.56, 13.21 mg/kg and the limits of detection (S/N = 3) were 0.28, 0.59, 0.71, 1.74, 4.14, 4.03 mg/kg, respectively. The spiked recoveries of the alditols in the foods at different levels were in the range of 82.5%-108.0% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 1.5%-7.6%. The sensitivity, accuracy and precision of the method meet the technical standards of the determination. The method can be applied to the determination of alditols in foods. PMID:24558846

  1. Determination of sulfur anions in spent oil shale leachates by ion chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Niss, N.D.

    1989-07-01

    The leaching and transport of chemical constituents from spent oil shale disposal areas is an area of environmental concern at the present time. Sulfur-containing compounds are prevalent in spent oil shales and have the potential to leach into aqueous systems surrounding disposal sites. Computer modeling has been used in recent years to predict the transport of species in an aqueous environment. The quality of model predictions, however, depends on the validation steps taken in comparing model predictions with laboratory data on ion speciation. Further, the quality of the validation step depends on the reliability of laboratory methods in generating ion speciation data. The purpose of this study was to develop methods to separate and quantify sulfur-containing anions in spent oil shale leachates by suppressed ion chromatography. The anions studied were S{sup 2{minus}} (sulfide), SO{sup 2{minus}}{sub 3} (sulfite), SO{sup 2{minus}}{sub 4} (sulfate), SCN{sup {minus}} (thiocyanate), S{sub 2}O{sup 2{minus}}{sub 3} (thiosulfate), and S{sub 4}O{sup 2{minus}}{sub 6} (tetrathionate). After the separations were developed, a series of method-challenging experiments were performed to test the reliability of the methods and assure the development of an analytically sound product. 24 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. [Simultaneous determination of alendronate, pamidronate, ibandronate and risedronate using ion chromatography with integrated pulsed amperometric detection].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Liu, Yuxiu; Chen, Zhidong; Chen, Meilan; Zhu, Yan

    2012-04-01

    A method for the simultaneous determination of alendronate, pamidronate, ibandronate and risedronate using ion chromatography with integrated pulsed amperometric detection (IPAD) has been developed. The electrochemical behavior showed the catalytic currents of these bisphosphonates are based on the oxidation of amines in their structures. Because the bisphosphonates are polar compounds and present as anions under alkaline condition, therefore, they can be separated by anion exchange chromatography. A Dionex AS18 column (250 mm x 2 mm) and an AG18 column (50 mm x 2 mm) and 24 mmol/L NaOH solution were used for the separation. Multi-step potential waveform parameters were optimized to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N), which exhibited adsorption/desorption catalytic features at the gold electrode surface in alkaline solution. Utilizing the optimized waveform, the method showed good linearity (r2 = 0.9972 - 0.9995), satisfactory repeatability (relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the peak areas in the range of 0.84% - 1.37%) and sufficient sensitivity (limits of detection of 0.061 - 0.18 microg/mL) for the identification of the four bisphosphonates. The recoveries were 80.81% - 97.32% with the RSDs of 1.46% - 3.02%. It is demonstrated that this method is a rapid and simple one for the determination of the four bisphosphonates in human plasma. PMID:22799202

  3. Analysis of carbohydrates and amino acids in vegetable waste waters by ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Arienzo, Michele; De Martino, Antonio; Capasso, Renato; Di Maro, Antimo; Parente, Augusto

    2003-01-01

    High-performance anion exchange chromatography coupled with pulsed amperometric detection was used for the quantitative determination of total and free sugars in olive oil mill waste waters (OMWW). Automated amino acid ion chromatography was employed to analyse total and free amino acids in the same OMWW. Sugars were analysed in samples pre-purified by means of a three-step purification procedure involving: (i) methanol precipitation of OMWW; (ii) dialysis of the obtained solid and liquid fractions; and (iii) chromatographic purification on RP18 phase followed by Amberlite resin. The amino acids were determined directly in samples obtained from the first two steps performed for sugar analysis. The analysis carried out with the reported methodologies allowed the quantitative determination of total sugars and amino acids and the differentiation between their free and bound forms. The sugars determined were arabinose, fructose, galactose, glucose, rhamnose, xylose, galacturonic and glucuronic acids, and the amino acids were Asp, Glu, Thr, Ser, Pro, Gly, Ala, Val, Met, Ile, Leu, Tyr, Phe, Lys, His, Arg and Cys. Asn, Gin, and Trp were not detected. The technological, biotechnological and environmental advantages arising from this analytical methodology applied to OMWW are briefly discussed. PMID:12693630

  4. Ion-exchange vs reversed-phase chromatography for separation and determination of basic psychotropic drugs.

    PubMed

    Petruczynik, Anna; Wrblewski, Karol; Deja, Micha?; Waksmundzka-Hajnos, Monika

    2015-11-01

    Ion exchange chromatography, an alternative to reversed-phase (RP) chromatography, is described in this paper. We aimed to obtain optimal conditions for the separation of basic drugs because silica-based RP stationary phases show silanol effect and make the analysis of basic analytes hardly possible. The retention, separation selectivity, symmetry of peaks and system efficiency were examined in different eluent systems containing different types of buffers at acidic pH and with the addition of organic modifiers: methanol and acetonitrile. The obtained results reveal a large influence of the salt cation used for buffer preparation and the type of organic modifier on the retention behavior of the analytes. These results were also compared with those obtained on an XBridge C18 column. The obtained results demonstrated that SCX stationary phases can be successfully used as alternatives to C18 stationary phases in the separation of basic compounds. The most selective and efficient chromatographic systems were applied for the quantification of some psychotropic drugs in fortified human serum samples. PMID:25944095

  5. Determination of substituted indole derivatives by ion suppression-reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Frankenberger, W T; Poth, M

    1987-09-01

    A method for the separation of substituted indole derivatives has been developed by the use of ion suppression-reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (IS-HPLC). Signal response, selectivity (alpha), retention times (tR), and capacity factors (k') were monitored by varying the mobile phase with respect to methanol composition and pH. Chromatographic parameters including tR, k', K (distribution coefficients), alpha, number of theoretical plates, height equivalent to theoretical plates, and column resolution were calculated and assessed in regard to the suitability of four stationary phases in the analysis of 20 substituted indole derivatives. This work has established the chromatographic foundation needed to analyze over 10 specific enzyme reactions involved in the microbial and plant metabolism of auxins. Quantitative studies on the stability of auxins were possible by employing IS chromatography (ISC). The application of the developed IS chromatographic technique was employed to detect indole-3-acetic acid derived from L-tryptophan in a fluorescent pseudomonad culture. PMID:3425900

  6. High-resolution determination of 147Pm in urine using dynamic ion-exchange chromatography.

    PubMed

    Elchuk, S; Lucy, C A; Burns, K I

    1992-10-15

    A procedure has been developed for measuring 147Pm in bioassay samples, based on the separation and preconcentration of 147Pm from the urine matrix by adsorption onto a conventional cation-exchange column with final separation and purification by HPLC using dynamic ion-exchange chromatography. The concentration of 147Pm is determined by collecting the appropriate HPLC fraction and measuring the 147Pm by liquid scintillation counting. The limit of detection is 0.1 Bq (3 fg) 147Pm based on a 500-mL sample of urine and a counting time of 30 min with a background of 100 cpm. Ten samples can be processed in 1.5-2 days. PMID:1466450

  7. Effect of modulator sorption on gradient shape in ion-exchange chromatography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Velayudhan, A.; Ladisch, M. R.; Mitchell, C. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    Mobile phase additives, or modulators, are used in gradient elution chromatography to facilitate separation and reduce separation time. The modulators are usually assumed to be linearly adsorbed or unadsorbed. Here, the consequences of nonlinear modulator adsorption are examined for ion-exchange gradient elution through a series of simulations. Even when the buffer salt is identical to the modulator salt, gradient deformation is observed; the extent of deformation increases as the volume of the feed is increased. When the modulator salt is different from the buffer salt, unusual effects are observed, and the chromatograms are quite different from those predicted by classical gradient elution theory. In particular, local increases in the buffer concentration are found between feed bands, and serve to improve the separation. These effects become more pronounced as the feed volume increases, and could therefore prove valuable in preparative applications.

  8. Evaluation of vaginal malodor and efficacy of treatment by high performance ion exchange chromatography.

    PubMed

    Stanek, R; Glover, D D; Mya, S; Larsen, B

    1987-01-01

    High performance ion exchange chromatography was employed to evaluate the presence of short chain organic acids in the vaginal fluid of a woman troubled by persistent foul vaginal odor, but who did not have typical bacterial vaginosis. The vaginal secretions from this patient were collected on a weighed cotton swab and eluted into water and extracted by acidified ether. Salts of the acids were back-extracted into aqueous solution and chromatographed on an H-form resin column and compared to commercially available standards. A strikingly large amount of caproic acid was found. The caproic acid disappeared after metronidazole therapy, and a subsequent follow-up chromatogram showed a predominance of lactic acid. The success of this technique in evaluating the present case suggests that such a method may prove useful in other types of vaginal infection. PMID:3506838

  9. Determination of hippuric acid in human urine by ion chromatography with conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fuyong; Wang, Zonghua; Wang, Hui; Ding, Mingyu

    2011-02-01

    A simple, rapid, precise and eco-friendly ion chromatography (IC) method for the determination of hippuric acid (HA) in human urine was proposed in this paper. The separation was carried out an anion exchange column with 2.0 mmol L? Na?CO? + 2.0 mmol L? NaHCO? as mobile phase at the flow-rate 0.7 mL min?. A suppressed conductivity detector was used and the detection limit was 1.0 ?g L? (S/N=3) for hippuric acid. The analysis time for one run was 30 min under the optimized IC condition. The recovery of hippuric acid was 93.2-98.0% while the relative standard deviation (RSD) was 1.4-2.3% by seven measurements. PMID:21236740

  10. Coxsackievirus B3 VLPs purified by ion exchange chromatography elicit strong immune responses in mice.

    PubMed

    Koho, Tiia; Koivunen, Minni R L; Oikarinen, Sami; Kummola, Laura; Mkinen, Selina; Mhnen, Anssi J; Sioofy-Khojine, Amirbabak; Marjomki, Varpu; Kazmertsuk, Artur; Junttila, Ilkka; Kulomaa, Markku S; Hyty, Heikki; Hytnen, Vesa P; Laitinen, Olli H

    2014-04-01

    Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) is an important cause of acute and chronic viral myocarditis, and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Although vaccination against CVB3 could significantly reduce the incidence of serious or fatal viral myocarditis and various other diseases associated with CVB3 infection, there is currently no vaccine or therapeutic reagent in clinical use. In this study, we contributed towards the development of a CVB3 vaccine by establishing an efficient and scalable ion exchange chromatography-based purification method for CVB3 virus and baculovirus-insect cell-expressed CVB3 virus-like particles (VLPs). This purification system is especially relevant for vaccine development and production on an industrial scale. The produced VLPs were characterized using a number of biophysical methods and exhibited excellent quality and high purity. Immunization of mice with VLPs elicited a strong immune response, demonstrating the excellent vaccine potential of these VLPs. PMID:24485896

  11. Full scan confirmation of tetrahydrophthalimide in whole milk using gas chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chichila, T M; Erney, D R

    1994-01-01

    The determination of tetrahydrophthalimide (THPI) in whole milk extracts by gas chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry (GC/ITMS) in the full-scan, electron impact (EI) mode is presented. THPI is first isolated from whole milk by a procedure including protein precipitation, liquid-liquid partitioning, and 2 solid-phase extraction (SPE) cleanup steps. GC/ITMS in the EI mode is used for the determinative step. The average recovery of THPI at fortification levels ranging from 5 to 54 ppb was 85.6% (n = 16, coefficient of variation = 9.13%). Full-scan mass spectral confirmation of THPI in milk extracts was obtained at the 5 ppb fortification level. The limit of detection was estimated to be 0.5 ppb. Chemical ionization also was used for THPI determination in whole milk extracts. The simultaneous isolation and determination of captan and captofol in whole milk are also discussed. PMID:7819767

  12. Nitrate and nitrite content in bottled beverages by ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Song, Yang; Deng, Gui-Fang; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Chen, Yong-Hong; Chen, Feng; Li, Hua-Bin

    2013-01-01

    Nitrate and nitrite levels in six types of beverages--total of 292 individual samples from 73 brands (four bottles each)--from Guangzhou city in China were evaluated by ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography. All samples contained nitrate. Nitrate and nitrite ranges were 0.43-46.08 and <0.005-0.501?mg/L, respectively. The highest nitrate levels were detected in tea drinks (46.08?mg/L). For nitrite, the highest levels were found in fruit juice drinks (0.501?mg/L). Three brands of fruit juice drinks exceeded the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives provisional guideline value of 0.2?mg/L for nitrite and were considered to be hazardous for public health. This study supplies useful information on safety of Chinese bottled beverages. PMID:24786624

  13. Determination of paraquat in marijuana by reversed-phase paired-ion high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Needham, L; Paschal, D; Rollen, Z J; Liddle, J; Bayse, D

    1979-02-01

    A sensitive and selective method is described for the quantitative determination of paraquat in marijuana. Paraquat is extracted from finely ground plant material with hydrochloric acid with sonification, and the resulting acidic solution is extracted with chloroform:isopropanol (9:1) and evaporated to dryness. The residue is reconstituted with aqueous phosphate buffer pH 7.0; the solution is passed through a C-18 SEP-PAK TM and is analyzed with high performance liquid chromatography, using a reversed-phase column and an "ion pairing" reagent in the mobile phase. The recovery of paraquat in laboratory-spiked material varied from 90-97%. Results obtained with confiscated, field-sprayed marijuana by the procedure described were in excellent agreement with those obtained with a well-established ultraviolet procedure. The calculated limit of detection with this method is 2 ng of paraquat. PMID:479338

  14. Liquid chromatography/coordination ion spray-mass spectrometry for the analysis of rubber vulcanization products.

    PubMed

    Hayen, Heiko; Alvarez-Grima, M Montserrat; Debnath, Subhas C; Noordermeer, Jacques W M; Karst, Uwe

    2004-02-15

    Liquid chromatography/coordination ion spray-mass spectrometry has been used for the identification of reaction products in a model rubber vulcanization process. After LC separation using reversed-phase conditions, AgBF(4) in acetonitrile was added, and strong signals were observed for silica-rubber coupling agents and products of the reaction between these and alkenes. The method performs best for substances containing sulfur chains with chain lengths between two and eight sulfur atoms, but sulfur-free compounds containing triethoxysilyl groups were detected as well. For the latter, the postcolumn addition of NaBF(4) proved to be a suitable alternative. Besides the coupling agents, various reaction products, including sulfur-chain bridged alkenes were identified. PMID:14961739

  15. Analysis of radioactive waste samples by ion chromatography-ICP/MS

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, O.T. III; Reeves, J.H.; Wyse, E.J.; Clemeston, C.J.; Barinaga, C.J.; Smith, M.R.; Koppenaal, D.W.

    1994-10-01

    A comprehensive ion chromatography (IC) with beta-counting (beta) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) detection approach has been developed to separate and detect 20 radionuclides in a Hanford waste tank sample. The IC separation was performed using a multi-functional group (anion/cation) resin and eluents of oxalic acid, diglycolic acid, and hydrochloric acid. Shorter-lived radionuclides were detected by a solid-state beta scintillation counter on-line with the IC separation. Mass spectrometry detection using an efficient and robust plasma ionization source provides isotopic discernability for both stable isotopes and long-lived radioactive species. Effective separation of over 47 elements and 160 isotopes was obtained from a single-elution scheme lasting 70 min. Automated IC separations provide the potential for rapid isotopic and radionuclide analysis of complex radioactive waste, using minimal sample and reagent volumes and reducing personnel exposures.

  16. DIONEX ICS3000 ION CHROMATOGRAPHY SYSTEM INSTALLATION AND INSTRUMENT ASSESSMENT FOR SRNL APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Wiedenman, B.; White, T.

    2009-11-16

    Ion Chromatography (IC) is routinely used at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for sample analysis and characterization. Results from IC analysis are valued in corrosion control maintenance and measurement programs, remediation waste process control, soil and ground water measurement, nuclear materials processing, and various other research and development programs. Presented in this report are analytical methods developed on a DIONEX ICS3000 Reagent Free Ion Chromatography (RFIC) system located in AD at SRNL. This IC system contains two independent analysis channels comprising of a mobile phase generator, a pump, stationary phase columns, a suppressor and a conductivity detector. One channel is dedicated to anion analysis using Potassium Hydroxide (KOH) as the mobile phase while a second channel is configured for cation analysis using Methanesulfonic Acid (MSA) as the mobile phase. Both channels share an autosampler and the peak analysis software, Chromeleon{reg_sign} v.6.8. Instrument configuration is modified from the manufacturer for radiological service. Listed within this report are Dionex ICS3000 parameters and results for the analysis of routine anions and cations. Additional method parameters and discussion are presented on the analysis of Acetate (CH{sub 3}COO{sup -}) and Iodate (IO{sub 3}{sup -}). Previous IC analysis instruments at AD have been based upon carbonate/bicarbonate buffer mobile phase chemistry. This report represents a transition to hydroxide as a mobile phase eluent. The hydroxide eluent offers a lower baseline conductivity, which allows for greater sample dilution and/or lower detection limits. Also the hydroxide mobile phase and column set has a significant separation of the phosphate peak from the nitrate and sulfate peaks vs. the carbonate/bicarbonate mobile phase and column set, an advantage for the industrial waste analyzed at SRNL.

  17. Modeling of dual gradient elution in ion exchange and mixed-mode chromatography.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yi Feng; Schmidt, Michael; Graalfs, Heiner; Hafner, Mathias; Frech, Christian

    2015-10-23

    Protein retention using dual gradient elution in ion exchange- and mixed-mode chromatography can be modeled using the combination of a modified Yamamoto's LGE model and a conversion term to correlate the elution salt concentration and pH at any given gradient slope. Incorporation of the pH dependence of the binding charges into the model also provides some insights on the dual effects of salt and pH in protein-ligand interaction. The fitted thermodynamic parameters (?GP(0)/RT, ?GS(0)/RT, number of charged amino acids involved in binding) of the dual gradient elution data using lysozyme and mAbs on SP Sepharose() FF, Eshmuno() HCX, and Capto() MMC ImpRes were consistent to the results of mono gradient data. This gives rise to an approach to perform thermodynamic modeling of protein retention in ion exchange- and mixed-mode chromatography by combining both salt and pH gradient into a single run of dual gradient elution which will increase time and cost efficiency. The dual gradients used in this study encompassed a wide range of pH (4-8) and NaCl concentrations (0-1M). Curve fits showed that ?GP(0)/RT is protein type and ligand dependent. ?GS(0)/RT is strongly dependent on the stationary phase but not the protein. For mAb04 on mixed-mode resin Capto() MMC, ?GS(0)/RT is 5-6 times higher than the result reported for the same protein on cation exchanger Fractogel() EMD SO3(-) (S). PMID:26391873

  18. Formation of iron complexs from trifluoroacetic acid based liquid chromatography mobile phases as interference ions in liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometric analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla, Anil K.; Zhang, Rui; Orton, Daniel J.; Zhao, Rui; Clauss, Therese RW; Moore, Ronald J.; Smith, Richard D.

    2011-05-30

    Two unexpected singly charged ions at m/z 1103 and 944 have been observed in mass spectra obtained from electrospray ionization-mass spectrometric analysis of liquid chromatography effluents with mobile phases containing trifluoroacetic acid. Accurate mass measurement and tandem mass spectrometry studies revealed that these two ions are not due to any contamination from solvents and chemicals used for mobile and stationary phases or from the laboratory atmospheric environment. Instead these ions are clusters of trifluoroacetic acid formed in association with acetonitrile, water and iron from the stainless steel union used to connect the column with the electrospray tip and to apply high voltage; the molecular formulae are Fe+((OH)(H2O)2)9(CF3COOH)5 and Fe+((OH)(H2O)2)6 (CF3COOH)5.

  19. Chemical Speciation Analysis of Sports Drinks by Acid-Base Titrimetry and Ion Chromatography: A Challenging Beverage Formulation Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drossman, Howard

    2007-01-01

    Students have standardized a sodium hydroxide solution and analyzed commercially available sports drinks by titrimetric analysis of the triprotic citric acid, dihydrogen phosphate, and dihydrogen citrate and by ion chromatography for chloride, total phosphate and citrate. These experiments are interesting examples of analyzing real-world food and…

  20. SPECIATION OF SELENIUM(IV) AND SELENIUM(VI) USING COUPLED ION CHROMATOGRAPHY: HYDRIDE GENERATION ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETRY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A simple method was developed to speciate inorganic selenium in the microgram per liter range using coupled ion chromatography-hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Because of the differences in toxicity and adsorption behavior, determination of the redox states selenite, Se(IV), and s...

  1. Chemical Speciation Analysis of Sports Drinks by Acid-Base Titrimetry and Ion Chromatography: A Challenging Beverage Formulation Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drossman, Howard

    2007-01-01

    Students have standardized a sodium hydroxide solution and analyzed commercially available sports drinks by titrimetric analysis of the triprotic citric acid, dihydrogen phosphate, and dihydrogen citrate and by ion chromatography for chloride, total phosphate and citrate. These experiments are interesting examples of analyzing real-world food and

  2. Determination of Methylamines and Trimethylamine-N-oxide in particulate matter by non-suppressed ion chromatography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An ion chromatography method with non-suppressed conductivity detection was developed for the simultaneous determination of methylamines (methylamine, dimethylamine, trimethylamine) and trimethylamine-N-oxide in particulate matter air samples. The analytes were well separated by means of cation-exch...

  3. The application of the high-performance ion-exchange chromatography for the analysis of bovine milk proteins.

    PubMed

    Bican, P

    1985-07-15

    A high-performance ion-exchange chromatographic (HPIEC) method for the analysis of milk proteins is described. The technique provides an alternative to other separation methods. The resolution obtained for both the proteins of the casein group and bovine lactoserum is comparable with that of electrophoretic analysis on polyacrylamide gels and low-pressure chromatography. PMID:4007137

  4. IDENTIFICATION OF MICROCYSTIN TOXINS FROM A STRAIN OF MICROCYSTIS AERUGINOSA BY LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY INTRODUCTION INTO A HYBRID LINEAR ION TRAP-FOURIER TRANSFORM ION CYCLOTRON RESONANCE MASS SPECTROMETER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The cyclic heptapeptide microcystin toxins produced by a strain of Microcystis aeruginosa that has not been investigated previously were separated by liquid chromatography and identified by high-accuracy m/z measurements of their [M + H]+ ions and the fragment i...

  5. Probing the metal-homeostatis effects of the administration of chromium(vi) to mice by ICP MS and size-exclusion chromatography-ICP MS.

    PubMed

    Döker, Serhat; Mounicou, Sandra; Doğan, Mehmet; Lobinski, Ryszard

    2010-08-01

    Concentrations of chromium, copper, iron, manganese and zinc were determined in liver, kidney, brain, lung, heart and testis of mouse following intraperitoneal injection of hexavalent chromium [Cr(vi)] at a single dose of 8.0 mg Cr/kg. As result, chromium concentrations increased ca. 40-fold in liver and kidney and by a factor of 3-5 in all the other tissues. The homeostasis of Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn was also affected. The element molecular weight distribution was evaluated in the cytosols of the different mouse organs by size-exclusion chromatography (Superdex-75) with UV-VIS and ICP-MS detection. The administration of Cr(vi) resulted in differences in the elution profiles of Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn-protein complexes. Bioinduced Mn, Fe and Zn-binding proteins could be detected in some tissues, especially in liver and kidney. Different molecular weight fractions containing chromium were heartcut and submitted to tryptic digestion prior to MALDI MS analysis. Cr-peptide complexes could be obtained both in non-denaturing and in denaturing (in the presence of urea and DTT) conditions. They were isolated by size-exclusion chromatography with a smaller separation range (Superdex Peptide) but could not be identified by MALDI MS. PMID:21072339

  6. Continuous processing of recombinant proteins: Integration of inclusion body solubilization and refolding using simulated moving bed size exclusion chromatography with buffer recycling.

    PubMed

    Wellhoefer, Martin; Sprinzl, Wolfgang; Hahn, Rainer; Jungbauer, Alois

    2013-12-01

    An integrated process which combines continuous inclusion body dissolution with NaOH and continuous matrix-assisted refolding based on closed-loop simulated moving bed size exclusion chromatography was designed and experimentally evaluated at laboratory scale. Inclusion bodies from N(pro) fusion pep6His and N(pro) fusion MCP1 from high cell density fermentation were continuously dissolved with NaOH, filtered and mixed with concentrated refolding buffer prior to refolding by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). This process enabled an isocratic operation of the simulated moving bed (SMB) system with a closed-loop set-up with refolding buffer as the desorbent buffer and buffer recycling by concentrating the raffinate using tangential flow filtration. With this continuous refolding process, we increased the refolding and cleavage yield of both model proteins by 10% compared to batch dilution refolding. Furthermore, more than 99% of the refolding buffer of the raffinate could be recycled which reduced the buffer consumption significantly. Based on the actual refolding data, we compared throughput, productivity, and buffer consumption between two batch dilution refolding processes - one using urea for IB dissolution, the other one using NaOH for IB dissolution - and our continuous refolding process. The higher complexity of the continuous refolding process was rewarded with higher throughput and productivity as well as significantly lower buffer consumption compared to the batch dilution refolding processes. PMID:24169042

  7. Determination of pyrethroid insecticides in sediment by gas chromatography--ion trap tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    You, Jing; Wang, Dongli; Lydy, Michael J

    2010-04-15

    A method was developed to analyze 10 pyrethroid insecticides in sediment by gas chromatography-ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) after accelerated solvent extraction and solid phase extraction cleanup. The MS/MS parameters included selection of the precursor and product ions, excitation mode, excitation amplitude and the stability parameter q(z), and were optimized to maximize detection sensitivity. Due to its superior ability to remove background noise, GC-MS/MS showed elevated selectivity and improved confidence in peak identification compared to GC-electron capture detector (ECD). The instrumental detection limits for GC-MS/MS ranged from 148 to 4033 fg, and the calibration curves were linear from 5 to 1000 microg/L for all of the pyrethroids except cyfluthrin. The method detection limits for pyrethroids ranged from 0.10 to 0.80 microg/kg dry sediment, while the recoveries were 59.7-128%, 60.6-90.9% and 63.2-83.6% with the relative standard deviations of 5.3-25.3%, 1.1-10.6% and 3.0-15.6% at the spiking levels of 1, 5 and 20 microg/kg, respectively. Field sediment collected from California was used to validate the newly developed method, and analytical results were comparable to those by GC-ECD in most cases. However, as the result of a cleaner background, more pyrethroids were identified by GC-MS/MS. PMID:20188899

  8. Characterization of impurities in tylosin using dual liquid chromatography combined with ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Shruti; Van Schepdael, Ann; Hoogmartens, Jos; Adams, Erwin

    2013-03-15

    Investigation of unknown impurities in a tylosin sample was performed using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC/MS). Separation was performed according to the recently described LC-UV method of Ashenafi et al. (2011) [14]. This method was reported to have a good selectivity as it was able to separate the four main components of tylosin from the already known and 23 unknown impurities. However, as this method uses a mobile phase with non-volatile constituents, direct characterization of these impurities using LC/MS was not possible. The impurity fractions were therefore first collected and then desalted before sending them to the MS. Identification of the impurities in the tylosin sample was performed with a quadruple ion trap (IT) MS, with an electrospray ionization (ESI) source in the positive ion mode. The structure of the impurities was deduced by comparing their fragmentation pattern with those of the main components of tylosin. As several peaks in the LC-UV method contained multiple compounds, using this method in total 41 new impurities were (partly) characterized. PMID:23598092

  9. The use of on-line ion chromatography for high temperature and high pressure reaction studies

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, G.J.

    1993-10-01

    This paper describes the use of on-line ion chromatography as a tool for chemistry reaction studies in small volume systems. The technique was used to study chemistry behavior in a high temperature and high pressure autoclave system. A dual analyzer, multi-channel on-line ion chromatograph (IC) was configured to automate the sampling and analysis. Analytical channels were set up for analysis of inorganic anions, monovalent cations, conductivity, and pH. Conductivity and pH were measured using the IC as a flow injection analyzer. Use of the IC system provides significant advantages over conventional sampling and analysis techniques: Reduction in sample volume, a closed sampling system that protects air or light sensitive analytes from breakdown, around-the-clock test performance combined with automatic calibration and quality control checking, and detection and tracking of reaction products or unexpected contaminants. Methods used to correct measured concentrations for the effects of sampling and for calculation of control chemical loss half-lives are presented. A limited evaluation of the flow injection analysis methods for conductivity and pH is provided.

  10. Determination of phosphonates in natural waters by ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Nowack, B

    1997-06-27

    The paper describes a new method for the determination of phosphonates by ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography. The phosphonates are complexed with Fe(III) and separated on a reversed-phase polymer column. The eluent consists of a bicarbonate solution at pH 8.3, tetrabutylammoniumbromide as counter-ion and 14% acetonitrile. The complexes are detected at 260 nm. The four phosphonates HEDP (1-hydroxyethylene-1,1-diphosphonic acid). ATMP (aminotris [methylenephosphonic acid]), EDTMP [ethylenediaminetetra(methylenephosphonic acid)], and DTPMP [diethylenetriaminepenta (methylenephosphonic acid)] are well separated within 20 min. The limits of detection are 5.10(-8) M for ATMP and EDTMP, 1.10(-7) M for DTPMP and 5.10(-7) M for HEDP. The method is suitable for the determination of phosphonates in the influent and effluent of wastewater treatment plants. A preconcentration of 10 is easily achieved by adsorption of the phosphonates onto freshly precipitated calcium carbonate and subsequent dissolution of the solid-phase by HCl. PMID:9228795

  11. Ionic content in plant extracts determined by ion chromatography with conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    Cataldi, Tommaso R I; Margiotta, Giovanna; Del Fiore, Antonella; Bufo, Sabino A

    2003-01-01

    A simple method is described for the determination of the ionic content of vegetable samples by ion chromatography with suppressed conductivity detection. Extracts of leaves of cucumber (Cucumis sativus), leaves and cotyledons of watermelon (Citrullus lanantus), cotyledons of zucchini (Cucurbitapepo), and leaves and roots of olive (Olea europaea) obtained at room temperature yielded chromatographic profiles with substantial differences in the relative contents of Cl-, NO3-, HPO4(2-) and SO4(2-) as well as of Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+. Although NO3-, Cl- and K+ were common to each extracted sample and accounted for most of the ions present, two additional anion peaks (i.e. malate and oxalate) were detected. Among the vegetable tissues investigated, olive roots contained a considerable amount of oxalate (37 mg/g dry weight), while Na+, which is present in very low amount in extracted samples of leaves and cotyledons, represented ca. 30% of the cationic content of olive roots. In all the examined tissue extracts, K+ was the main cation (16-55 mg/g dry weight) and NO3-, Cl- and HPO4(2-) were the main inorganic anions. PMID:12793466

  12. Separation of amaranthine-type betacyanins by ion-pair high-speed countercurrent chromatography.

    PubMed

    Jerz, Gerold; Gebers, Nadine; Szot, Dominika; Szaleniec, Maciej; Winterhalter, Peter; Wybraniec, Slawomir

    2014-05-30

    Betacyanins, red-violet plant pigments, were fractionated by ion-pair high-speed countercurrent chromatography (IP-HSCCC) from leaves extract of Iresine lindenii Van Houtte, an ornamental plant of the family Amaranthaceae. An HSCCC solvent system consisting of TBME-1-BuOH-ACN-H2O (1:3:1:5, v/v/v/v) was applied using ion-pair forming heptafluorobutyric acid (HFBA). Significantly different elution profiles of betacyanin diastereomeric pairs (derivatives based on betanidin and isobetanidin) observed in the HSCCC in comparison to HPLC systems indicate a complementarity of both techniques' fractionation capabilities. The numerous diastereomeric pairs can be selectively separated from each other using the HSCCC system simplifying the pigment purification process. Apart from the three well known highly abundant pigments (amaranthine, betanin and iresinin I) together with their isoforms, three new acylated (feruloylated and sinapoylated) betacyanins as well as known pigment hylocerenin (previously isolated from cacti fruits) were characterized in the plant for the first time and they are new for the whole Amaranthaceae family. PMID:24767836

  13. Determination of trace transition metals in environmental matrices by chelation ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Murgia, Sandro M; Selvaggi, Roberta; Poletti, Antonio

    2011-03-01

    Trace transition metals (Fe(3+), Mn, Cu, Cd, Co, Zn, Ni) in environmental samples were analyzed by chelation ion chromatography using a mixed bed ion-exchange column with pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (PDCA) and oxalic acid as eluent and large volume direct injection (1,000 ?l). The two eluents, PDCA and oxalic acid, were tested, and repeatability and detection limits were compared. The total analysis time was ~15 min. The separation with PDCA was more successful than that obtained with acid oxalic. It was observed that utilizing PDCA resulted in lower detection limits, higher repeatability, and a quantitative detection of Cd and Mn, which coelute as a single peak when using the oxalic acid. At last, the PDCA calibration graphs resulted linear (r (2)?> 0.999) in the range 0.4-1,000 ?g/L. The procedure was applied to the analysis of metals in soils and in water samples. The results obtained from the analysis of natural waters have demonstrated that the method is simple and efficient, therefore, can be used for the determination of metals in natural waters using a continuous and automatic monitoring system. PMID:20446032

  14. Improved characterization of tomato polyphenols using liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization linear ion trap quadrupole Orbitrap mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Vallverd-Queralt, Anna; Juregui, Olga; Medina-Remn, Alexander; Andrs-Lacueva, Cristina; Lamuela-Ravents, Rosa M

    2010-10-30

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) is the second most important fruit crop worldwide. Tomatoes are a key component in the Mediterranean diet, which is strongly associated with a reduced risk of chronic degenerative diseases. In this work, we use a combination of mass spectrometry (MS) techniques with negative ion detection, liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization linear ion trap quadrupole-Orbitrap-mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS) and liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS) on a triple quadrupole, for the identification of the constituents of tomato samples. First, we tested for the presence of polyphenolic compounds through generic MS/MS experiments such as neutral loss and precursor ion scans on the triple quadrupole system. Confirmation of the compounds previously identified was accomplished by injection into the high-resolution system (LTQ-Orbitrap) using accurate mass measurements in MS, MS(2) and MS(3) modes. In this way, 38 compounds were identified in tomato samples with very good mass accuracy (<2?mDa), three of them, as far as we know, not previously reported in tomato samples. PMID:20872631

  15. Determination of photodegradation and ozonation by products of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates by liquid chromatography and ion chromatography under controlled laboratory experiments.

    PubMed

    Fernndez, J; Riu, J; Garca-Calvo, E; Rodrguez, A; Fernndez-Alba, A R; Barcel, D

    2004-09-01

    A Suntest solar simulator with arc xenon lamp was used to irradiate pure linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) standard and some commercial LAS solutions. The ozonation treatment was carried out in a pilot plant air-lift type reactor. Kinetic degradation curves were obtained showing an apparent first order reaction in both cases. Extraction and preconcentration of samples was carried out by off-line SPE using polymeric an RP-18 cartridges with recoveries varying from 77 to 93% for the LAS compounds. For LC chromatographic elution of LAS and degradation products an ion pair based on 5mM triethylamine and 5nM acetic acid had to the acetonitrile-water or methanol-water mobile phases. Fluorescence detection was achieved at 225 and 295nm as excitation and emission radiation wavelength, respectively. Degradation by products were identified by liquid chromatography electrospray mass spectrometry detection (LC-ESI-MS). Ion chromatography (IC) was used to analyze refractory species such as oxalate, formate and acetate ions which were present in the treated solution even after 3h of ozone treatment. The LAS mixture was almost totally degraded in less than 20min using O(3)/H(2)O(2), the reaction being faster than in the case of catalyzed photodecomposition. TOC removal reached 84% after 3h of ozonation process. PMID:18969570

  16. A simple liquid extraction protocol for overcoming the ion suppression of triacylglycerols by phospholipids in liquid chromatography mass spectrometry studies.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Pedro; Tilahun, Ephrem; Breivik, Joar Fjrtoft; Abdulkader, Bashir M; Fryland, Livar; Zeng, Yingxu

    2016-02-01

    It is well-known that triacylglycerol (TAG) ions are suppressed by phospholipid (PL) ions in regiospecific analysis of TAG by mass spectrometry (MS). Hence, it is essential to remove the PL during sample preparation prior to MS analysis. The present article proposes a cost-effective liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) method to remove PL from TAG in different kinds of biological samples by using methanol, hexane and water. High performance thin layer chromatography confirmed the lack of PL in krill oil and salmon liver samples, submitted to the proposed LLE protocol, and liquid chromatography tandem MS confirmed that the identified TAG ions were highly enhanced after implementing the LLE procedure. PMID:26653473

  17. LC-IMS-MS Feature Finder. Detecting Multidimensional Liquid Chromatography, Ion Mobility, and Mass Spectrometry Features in Complex Datasets

    SciTech Connect

    Crowell, Kevin L.; Slysz, Gordon W.; Baker, Erin Shammel; Lamarche, Brian L.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Payne, Samuel H.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Smith, Richard D.

    2013-09-05

    We introduce a command line software application LC-IMS-MS Feature Finder that searches for molecular ion signatures in multidimensional liquid chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (LC-IMS-MS) data by clustering deisotoped peaks with similar monoisotopic mass, charge state, LC elution time, and ion mobility drift time values. The software application includes an algorithm for detecting and quantifying co-eluting chemical species, including species that exist in multiple conformations that may have been separated in the IMS dimension.

  18. Reversed-phase ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography assay of polyprenyl diphosphate oligomer homologues.

    PubMed

    Kozlov, Vyacheslav V; Danilov, Leonid L

    2016-02-01

    A reversed-phase ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography procedure was developed for the separation of polyprenyl diphosphate oligomer homologues obtained chemically from plant polyprenols. Tetrabutylammonium phosphate was used as the ion-pair reagent, and the dependence of the separation quality on pH of ion-pair reagent was investigated for the first time. The procedure is applicable for the control of commercial available polyprenyl monophosphates (the active components of veterinary drugs Phosprenyl and Gamapren) for the possible presence of polyprenyl diphosphate byproducts. PMID:26608950

  19. High-performance size-exclusion chromatography of /sup 63/Ni-constituents in renal cytosol and microsomes from /sup 63/NiCl/sub 2/-treated rats

    SciTech Connect

    Sunderman, F.W. Jr.; Mangold, B.L.; Wong, S.H.; Shen, S.K.; Reid, M.C.; Jansson, I.

    1983-03-01

    Fractionations of /sup 63/Ni-constituents were performed by high-performance size-exclusion chromatography upon samples of renal cytosol and washed renal microsomes from rats that were killed 1 h after an im injection of /sup 63/NiCl2. Chromatography of renal cytosol on TSK-GEL SW-2000 and SW-3000 separated /sup 63/Ni into six fractions. The largest component (Fraction F) contained approximately 80% of cytosolic /sup 63/Ni. Since Fraction F was eluted near the total permeation volume of SW-2000 columns and beyond the total permeation volume of SW-3000 columns, its molecular weight could not be reliably estimated. The other components, which comprised collectively the remaining 20% of cytosolic /sup 63/Ni, had apparent molecular weights of 168,000 (Fraction A), 84,000 (Fraction B), 51,000 (Fraction C), 24,000 (Fraction D), and approximately 10,000 (Fraction E). Solubilized washed microsomes from kidneys of /sup 63/NiCl2-treated rats contained /sup 63/Ni in five components with elution profiles and /sup 63/Ni-contents that resembled Fractions A, B, D, E, and F of renal cytosol, based upon chromatography on SW-3000 columns. This study provides a rapid, convenient, and reproducible technique to fractionate /sup 63/Ni-components in tissue extracts, and it demonstrates in vivo binding of /sup 63/Ni to several constituents of renal cytosol and microsomes from /sup 63/NiCl2-treated rats.

  20. Determination of perchlorate anion in foods by ion chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Krynitsky, Alexander J; Niemann, Richard A; Nortrup, David A

    2004-09-15

    A rapid, sensitive, and specific method was developed for determining perchlorate anion in lettuce, cantaloupe, bottled water, and milk. A test portion of chopped crop homogenate was extracted with diluted nitric acid and filtered. Milk proteins were precipitated with acetonitrile, and the supernatant, after centrifugation, was cleaned up on a graphitized carbon solid-phase extraction column. Water samples were analyzed directly. All test solutions were syringe filtered and mixed with an 18O4-labeled perchlorate internal standard before ion chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A strong anion exchange column eluted with 100 mM ammonium acetate in 50:50 (v/v) acetonitrile/water was interfaced via electrospray ionization to a triple stage quadrupole mass spectrometer operated in the negative ion mode. The labeled internal standard corrected for any sample matrix effects on measured signals. Four parent-to-product ion transitions, for loss of oxygen, were monitored for native and 18O4-labeled perchlorate anion, respectively: 35Cl-perchlorate, m/z 99 --> 83 and 107 --> 89; 37Cl-perchlorate, m/z 101 --> 85 and 109 --> 91. The limit of quantitation was 1.0 microg/kg in lettuce, 2.0 microg/kg in cantaloupe, 0.50 microg/L in bottled water, and 3.0 microg/L in milk. Native perchlorate was recovered from fortified test portions in the range 93-107% for lettuce, 107-114% for cantaloupe, 100-115% for bottled water, and 99-101% for milk. PMID:15362915

  1. Comprehensive analysis of pharmaceutical products using simultaneous mixed-mode (ion-exchange/reversed-phase) and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kazarian, Artaches A; Nesterenko, Pavel N; Soisungnoen, Phimpha; Burakham, Rodjana; Srijaranai, Supalax; Paull, Brett

    2014-08-01

    Liquid chromatographic assays were developed using a mixed-mode column coupled in sequence with a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography column to allow the simultaneous comprehensive analysis of inorganic/organic anions and cations, active pharmaceutical ingredients, and excipients (carbohydrates). The approach utilized dual sample injection and valve-mediated column switching and was based upon a single high-performance liquid chromatography gradient pump. The separation consisted of three distinct sequential separation mechanisms, namely, (i) ion-exchange, (ii) mixed-mode interactions under an applied dual gradient (reversed-phase/ion-exchange), and (iii) hydrophilic interaction chromatography. Upon first injection, the Scherzo SS C18 column (Imtakt) provided resolution of inorganic anions and cations under isocratic conditions, followed by a dual organic/salt gradient to elute active pharmaceutical ingredients and their respective organic counterions and potential degradants. At the top of the mixed-mode gradient (high acetonitrile content), the mobile phase flow was switched to a preconditioned hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography column, and the standard/sample was reinjected for the separation of hydrophilic carbohydrates, some of which are commonly known excipients in drug formulations. The approach afforded reproducible separation and resolution of up to 23 chemically diverse solutes in a single run. The method was applied to investigate the composition of commercial cough syrups (Robitussin), allowing resolution and determination of inorganic ions, active pharmaceutical ingredients, excipients, and numerous well-resolved unknown peaks. PMID:24890905

  2. Highly sensitive determination of dialkyl phosphinate acids in environmental samples by ion chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yu-Min; Liang, Yong; Liu, Ji-Yan; Liu, Jing-Fu

    2015-05-15

    Dialkyl phosphinate acids (DPAs) are the hydrolysates of aluminum dialkyl phosphinates (ADPs), one class of emerging phosphorus flame retardants since brominated flame retardants have been gradually phased out in recent years. It has been found that once dissolved in water, ADPs are completely hydrolyzed and exist as DPAs. However, there is no report on the determination of DPAs in environmental water samples. For the first time, we developed a method for the analysis of trace DPAs and ADPs in different environmental samples, including waters, soils and sediments. In this proposed method, MAX cartridges were employed for the purification, and ion chromatography (IC) tandem mass spectrometry (MS) method with large volume injection (200?L) and postcolumn addition of methanol and NH3H2O were employed for the determination of DPAs and ADPs. The matrix effects were <16% for water samples and <25% for soil/sediment samples, which were greatly improved in comparison to the liquid chromatography (LC) tandem MS determination. Determined at three fortified levels of 0.02?g/L, 0.2?g/L and 1.0?g/L, the mean recoveries were from 75.8% to 110.2%, with an acceptable coefficient of variation (3.3-20%, n=6) for water samples. The limits of the method were 3.5-9.3ng/L for DPAs in environmental water samples, and 0.06-0.09?g/kg for DPAs and ADPs in soil and sediment samples. For soil and sediment samples, results determined by the present IC-MS method were in good agreement with that determined by LC-MS in our previous study. PMID:25836050

  3. Ion chromatography to detect salts in stone structures and to assess salt removal methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez de Buergo, M.; Lopez-Arce, P.; Fort, R.

    2012-04-01

    Stone - and in general all materials- from built heritage is very often damaged by salt crystallisation processes. Such processes usually derive into a loss of material compactness, as salts - given specific conditions and parameters- crystallize inside the material pores, exerting a pressure against the material pore walls higher than what they can resist - similar to the effect of liquid water when converts to solid water or ice-, thus breaking and disrupting the material by generating fissures and increasing the pore volume ratio, loosing its initial cohesion. When these deterioration processes take place inside a structure, salts - from different sources: material itself, restoration materials, from the ground, etc.- may come up to the stone surface - either temporarily or in permanently-, from beneath it, as efflorescences, depending mainly on the microclimatic conditions of the environment and the salts source. Efflorescences can be analysed and their nature identified (e.g. by means of X ray diffraction, in which the mineralogical composition of the salt is obtained), which can be, general, of aid not only for restoration but for preventive conservation measures. But what we do not know a priori when only characterising salt compounds- is the extent of the damage due to the presence of salts inside a structure (sub- and cryptoefflorescences). In this work we present a procedure in which the depth of the salt content can be measured, and its nature identified, based on the use of the ion chromatography technique. This technique allows identifying the existing ions in a specific sample, both anions and cations. The procedure consists of drilling (with a drilling core ranging from 5 to 8 mm in diameter, therefore causing the minimum damage to the material) in a same point at different depths from the surface and several depths from the bottom. The samples obtained are analysed and the ion content determined, qualitative and quantitatively. By means of a thorough previous inspection, we can select the most representative points by a drilling net - as minimum as possible- and make some profiles of the inner salt content of a structure. Moreover, this procedure is not only reliable for determining the nature and extent of salts damage, but to assess the efficacy of salts removal methods in cultural heritage. Here we present two case studies from relevant buildings of the Spanish cultural heritage in which this procedure was performed with successful and useful results, in both terms of understanding what types of salts were decaying the stones structures, and also whether the salts removal methods that were planned in the restoration project were efficient or not. It should be remarked that even ion chromatography is not a non destructive technique (can be considered as a minimally destructive one due to the few quantity it is needed for the analysis), the information it can provide is so useful that should not be ruled out from the beginning, depending of each specific case.

  4. UTILIZATION OF AN EVAPORATIVE LIGHT SCATTERING DETECTOR FOR HIGH PERFORMANCE SIZE EXCLUSION CHROMATOGRAPHY OF GALACTURONIC ACID OLIGOMERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A high performance size exclusion chromatographic method utilizing an evaporative light scattering detector was developed to separate and quantify galacturonic acid (GA) oligomers. Values of k for GA monomer ranged from 0.16 in water to 0.67 in 100 mM acetic acid. In 40 mM acetic acid calibration ...

  5. Electrostatic contributions to protein retention in ion-exchange chromatography. 1. Cytochrome C variants.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yan; Lenhoff, Abraham M

    2004-11-15

    Among the factors that modulate protein interactions, several protein structural properties, such as size, shape, and charge distribution, may play significant roles. In this work, we investigate the influence of protein structure on binding in ion-exchange chromatography, in which electrostatic interactions are dominant. Chromatographic experiments show separation of cytochrome c variants with a limited number of sequence differences to be feasible. To probe the molecular basis for this behavior, protein-adsorbent electrostatic interactions were modeled in the context of continuum electrostatics accounting for the full 3D protein structure. Protein retention was modeled by averaging over all protein-adsorbent configurations using the full accessible surface of the protein. The electrostatic interaction free energy distribution shows that configurations in which numerous positive protein charges are close to the cation exchanger functional groups produce the most favorable binding. The calculated binding equilibrium constant, found by averaging over the full 3D configurational space, captures the chromatographic differentiation of closely related cytochrome c variants. To obviate the need for full sampling of protein configurations, calculations of interaction free energies at short protein-adsorbent separation distances or of protein surface potentials were found to yield reasonable semiquantitative descriptions of the retention trends. PMID:15538799

  6. Separation of uremic toxins from urine with resorcinarene-based ion chromatography columns.

    PubMed

    Panahi, Tayyebeh; Weaver, Douglas J; Lamb, John D; Harrison, Roger G

    2015-01-01

    People with chronic kidney disease suffer from uremic toxins which accumulate in their bodies. Detection and quantification of uremic toxins help diagnose kidney problems and start patient care. The aim of this research was to seek a new method to assist this diagnosis by trace level detection and separation of guanidine containing uremic toxins in water and urine. To detect and quantify the uremic toxins, new stationary phases for ion chromatography (IC) columns based on glutamic acid functionalized resorcinarenes bound to divinylbenzene macroporous resin were prepared. The new column packing material afforded separation of the five compounds: guanidinoacetic acid, guanidine, methylguanidine, creatinine, and guanidinobenzoic acid in 30min. Peak resolutions ranged from 7.6 to 1.3. Gradient elutions at ambient temperature with methanesulfonic acid (MSA) solution as eluent resulted in detection levels in water from 10 to 47ppb and in synthetic urine from 28 to 180ppb. Limits of quantification for the analytes using pulsed amperometric detection were 30-160ppb in water and 93-590ppb in urine. Trace levels of creatinine (1ppm) were detected in the urine of a healthy individual using the columns. PMID:25537175

  7. Detection of metabolites of trapped humans using ion mobility spectrometry coupled with gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Vautz, Wolfgang; Slodzynski, Rafael; Hariharan, Chandrasekhara; Seifert, Luzia; Nolte, Jrgen; Fobbe, Rita; Sielemann, Stefanie; Lao, Bolan C; Huo, Ran; Thomas, C L Paul; Hildebrand, Lars

    2013-02-19

    For the first time, ion mobility spectrometry coupled with rapid gas chromatography, using multicapillary columns, was applied for the development of a pattern of signs of life for the localization of entrapped victims after disaster events (e.g., earthquake, terroristic attack). During a simulation experiment with entrapped volunteers, 12 human metabolites could be detected in the air of the void with sufficient sensitivity to enable a valid decision on the presence of a living person. Using a basic normalized summation of the measured concentrations, all volunteers involved in the particular experiments could be recognized only few minutes after they entered the simulation void and after less than 3 min of analysis time. An additional independent validation experiment enabled the recognition of a person in a room of ?25 m(3) after ?30 min with sufficiently high sensitivity to detect even a person briefly leaving the room. Undoubtedly, additional work must be done on analysis time and weight of the equipment, as well as on validation during real disaster events. However, the enormous potential of the method as a significantly helpful tool for search-and-rescue operations, in addition to trained canines, could be demonstrated. PMID:23249433

  8. Anionic Forensic Signatures for Sample Matching of Potassium Cyanide Using High Performance Ion Chromatography and Chemometrics

    SciTech Connect

    Fraga, Carlos G.; Farmer, Orville T.; Carman, April J.

    2011-01-30

    Potassium cyanide, a known poison, was used a model compound to determine the feasibility of using anionic impurities as a forensic signature for matching KCN samples back to their source. In this study, portions of eight KCN stocks originating from four countries were separately dissolved in water and analyzed by high performance ion chromatography (HPIC) using an anion exchange column and conductivity detection. Sixty KCN aqueous samples were produced from the eight stocks and analyzed for 11anionic impurities. Hierarchal cluster analysis and principal component analysis were used to demonstrate that KCN samples cluster according to source based on the concentrations of their anionic impurities. The F-ratio method and degree-of-class separation (DCS) were used for feature selection on a training set of KCN samples in order to optimize sample clustering. The optimal subset of anions needed for sample classification was determined to be sulfate, oxalate, phosphate, and an unknown anion named unk5. Using K-nearest neighbors (KNN) and the optimal subset of anions, KCN test samples from different KCN stocks were correctly determined to be manufactured in the United States. In addition, KCN samples from stocks manufactured in Belgium, Germany, and the Czech Republic were all correctly matched back to their original stocks because each stock had a unique anionic impurity profile. The application of the F-ratio method and DCS for feature selection improved the accuracy and confidence of sample classification by KNN.

  9. Human salivary glucose analysis by high-performance ion-exchange chromatography and pulsed amperometric detection.

    PubMed

    Gough, H; Luke, G A; Beeley, J A; Geddes, D A

    1996-02-01

    The aim of this project was to develop an analytical procedure with the required level of sensitivity for the determination of glucose concentrations in small volumes of unstimulated fasting whole saliva. The technique involves high-performance ion-exchange chromatography at high pH and pulsed amperometric detection. It has a high level of reproducibility, a sensitivity as low as 0.1 mumol/l and requires only 50 microliters samples (sensitivity = 0.002 pmol). Inhibition of glucose metabolism, by procedures such as collection into 0.1% (w/v) sodium fluoride, was shown to be essential if accurate results are to be obtained. Collection on to ice followed by storage at -20 degrees C was shown to be unsuitable and resulted in glucose loss by degradation. There were inter- and intraindividual variations in the glucose concentration in unstimulated mixed saliva (range; 0.02-0.4 mmol/l). The procedure can be used for the analysis of other salivary carbohydrates and for monitoring the clearance of dietary carbohydrates from the mouth. PMID:8712970

  10. Direct coupling of packed column supercritical fluid chromatography to continuous corona discharge ion mobility spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Rahmanian, A; Ghaziaskar, H S; Khayamian, T

    2013-01-11

    In this study, packed column supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) was directly coupled to a continuous corona discharge (CD) ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) with several modifications. The main advantage of the developed detector is its capability to introduce full column effluent up to 2000 mL min(-1) CO(2) gas directly into the IMS cell relative to 40 mL min(-1) CO(2) gas as a maximum tolerance, reported for the previous IMS detectors. This achievement was made possible because of using corona discharge instead of (63)Ni as an ionization source and locating the inlet and outlet of the CO(2) gas in the counter electrode of the CD in opposite direction. In addition, a heated interface was placed between back pressure regulator (BPR) and the IMS cell to heat the output of the BPR for introducing sample as the gas phase into the IMS cell. Furthermore, a make-up methanol flow was introduced between the column outlet and BPR to provide a more uniform flow through the BPR and also to prevent freezing and deposition of the analytes in the BPR. The performance of the SFC-CD-IMS was evaluated by analysis of testosterone, medroxyprogesterone, caffeine, and theophylline as test compounds and figures of merit for these compounds have been calculated. PMID:23261285

  11. Discontinuous and continuous purification of single-chain antibody fragments using immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Martnez Cristancho, Carlos Andrs; David, Florian; Franco-Lara, Ezequiel; Seidel-Morgenstern, Andreas

    2013-01-20

    This work describes the adsorption-desorption behavior of a histidine-tagged single-chain Fragment variable antibody (D1.3 scFv) on a commercial immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) column. A clarified cell culture supernatant originating from Bacillus megaterium was characterized using single column experiments in a pH-gradient elution mode. The cell culture supernatant containing the antibody fragment D1.3 scFv could be treated in the chromatographic separation process as a pseudo-binary mixture. Adsorption equilibrium constants of the antibody fragment fraction (ABF) and the non-specifically retained protein impurity fraction (IMP) were determined experimentally at constant pH by reinjecting pulses of pooled fractions collected in preliminary batch gradient elution runs. Based on the estimated adsorption equilibrium constants a possible multicolumn open-loop three-zone two-step pH-gradient simulated moving bed (SMB) process is suggested and designed, which possesses the potential to isolate continuously the antibody fragment fraction (ABF) containing the single-chain antibody fragment D1.3 scFv. PMID:22985797

  12. Preparation and chromatographic performance of polymer-based anion exchangers for ion chromatography: A review.

    PubMed

    Zatirakha, A V; Smolenkov, A D; Shpigun, O A

    2016-01-21

    In the last decade the developments in the field of ion chromatography (IC) were aimed at increasing the efficiency, sensitivity and rapidity of analysis, as well as on improving separation selectivity. Since selectivity and efficiency to the large extent depend on the surface chemistry of the stationary phase, the development of novel anion exchangers remains one of the priority tasks in modern IC. The exact chemistry of commercially available resins is not known and not many literature data devoted to the procedures of preparing anion exchangers for IC have become available in the last 10-15 years. However, the knowledge about the surface chemistry of anion exchangers can provide understanding of the trends in selectivity and efficiency changes, as well as help with the choice of the stationary phase type suitable for solving a particular analytical task. The current review is devoted to the methods of preparing anion exchangers based on polystyrene-divinylbenzene (PS-DVB) and ethylvinylbenzene-divinylbenzene (EVB-DVB) for IC of inorganic and small organic anions and is aimed at demonstrating the improvement of their performance over the years, which was brought by the development of the new types of stationary phase architecture. PMID:26724761

  13. Laboratory robotics -- An automated tool for preparing ion chromatography calibration standards

    SciTech Connect

    Chadwick, J.L.

    1995-04-01

    This paper describes the use of a laboratory robot as an automated tool for preparing multi-level calibration standards for On-Line Ion Chromatography (IC) Systems. The robot is designed for preparation of up to six levels of standards, with each level containing up to eleven ionic species in aqueous solution. The robot is required to add the standards` constituents as both a liquid and solid additions and to keep a record of exactly what goes into making up every standard. Utilizing a laboratory robot to prepare calibration standards provides significant benefits to the testing environment. These benefits include: accurate and precise calibration standards in individually capped containers with preparation traceability; automated and unattended multi-specie preparation for both anion and cation analytical channels; the ability to free up a test operator from a repetitive routine and re-apply those efforts to test operations; The robot uses a single channel IC to analyze each prepared standard for specie content and concentration. Those results are later used as a measure of quality control. System requirements and configurations, robotic operations, manpower requirements, analytical verification, accuracy and precision of prepared solutions, and robotic downtime are discussed in detail.

  14. Mixing characteristics of mixers in flow analysis. Application to two-dimensional detection in ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Liao, Hongzhu; Dasgupta, Purnendu K; Srinivasan, Kannan; Liu, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Three mixer designs, a back-flow tee mixer (BT), an end-blocked membrane tee mixer (EMT), and a tubular membrane mixer (TM), were fabricated and compared to three commercially available mixers, Visco-Jet Micro mixer (VJM) and HS binary tee mixer with 2 and 10 ?L volume (HS-2 and HS-10) mixing cartridges. Internal volumes ranged from 8.3 to 20.3 ?L. Performance characteristics were evaluated by the Villermaux-Dushman reaction, noise in baseline conductance upon mixing an electrolyte solution with water, and dispersion/relative dispersion of an injected solute. No single characteristic would uniquely qualify a particular device. In typical postcolumn use when a small reagent flow is added to a principal flow stream using a low-pulsation high-end chromatographic pump, with the worst of these mixers, imperfect mixing accounted for 99.6% of the observed noise. EMT, BT, and TM with asymmetric inlets provided better mixing performances relative to VJM, HS-2, and HS-10 with symmetric inlet ports, especially when the secondary liquid flow rate was much lower than the principal stream-flow rate. Dispersion per unit residence time was singularly large for HS-2. Based on its mixing efficiency and small dispersion, the BT design was found to be the best for practicing postcolumn reaction. As an illustrative application, this was then used to introduce electrogenerated LiOH in a suppressed ion chromatography system to perform sensitive detection of weak acids in a second dimension. PMID:25426864

  15. Determination of beryllium in a stream sediment by high-performance chelation ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Shaw, M J; Hill, S J; Jones, P; Nesterenko, P N

    2000-04-21

    High-performance chelation ion chromatography (HPCIC), involving a chelating silica substrate bonded with aminomethylphosphonic acid, has been developed as a novel technique for the quantitative determination of beryllium in complex matrices. An isocratic separation method, using an eluent containing 1 M KNO3, 0.5 M HNO3 and 0.08 M ascorbic acid, allowed the Be2+ to elute away from the sample matrix peak in under 6 min in a sample containing in excess of 800 mg l(-1) matrix metals. A detection limit of 35 microg l(-1) Be(II) was found using a post-column reaction involving Chrome Azurol S (CAS), 1 M hexamine and 10 mM EDTA buffered at pH 6. The standard addition curve gave excellent linearity (R2>0.999). The procedure was applied to the determination of trace beryllium in a certified sediment sample. The results obtained compared well with the certified value for beryllium. PMID:10823508

  16. Off-line coupling of multidimensional immunoaffinity chromatography and ion mobility spectrometry: A promising partnership.

    PubMed

    Armenta, Sergio; de la Guardia, Miguel; Abad-Fuentes, Antonio; Abad-Somovilla, Antonio; Esteve-Turrillas, Francesc A

    2015-12-24

    The extreme specificity of immunoaffinity chromatography (IAC) columns coupled to the high sensitivity of ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) measurements makes this combination really useful for rapid, selective, and sensitive determination of a high variety of analytes in different samples. The capabilities of the IAC-IMS coupling have been highlighted under three different scenarios: (i) multiclass residue analysis using a single IAC column, (ii) multiclass residue analysis using stacked IAC columns, and (iii) isomer analysis. In the first case, the determination of three strobilurin fungicides - azoxystrobin, picoxystrobin, and pyraclostrobin - in water and strawberry juice was considered, obtaining limits of quantification (LOQs) from 11 to 63μgL(-1). Recoveries from 96 to 106% for water, and from 67 to 104% for strawberry juice were obtained. In the second case, anilinopyrimidine compounds, including two analytes with similar drift time, were selectively retained in different IAC columns and analyzed after independent elution in commercial wine samples by IMS. LOQ values of 16, 14 and 12μgL(-1) were obtained for pyrimethanil, mepanipyrim, and cyprodinil, respectively. The obtained recoveries for wine samples spiked with 25 and 100μgL(-1) were from 82 to 123%. Additionally, the stacked IAC columns concept was applied to the separation of Z and E isomers of azoxystrobin that were selectively retained in specific IAC columns and quantified by IMS. Recoveries between 91 and 94% were obtained for both isomers in water samples. PMID:26654255

  17. Dimethylamine and ammonia measurements with ion chromatography during the CLOUD4 campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praplan, A. P.; Bianchi, F.; Dommen, J.; Baltensperger, U.

    2012-03-01

    The CLOUD project investigates the influence of galactic cosmic rays on the nucleation of new particles in an environmental chamber at CERN. Ion chromatography was utilised together with a sampling device developed for CLOUD in order to measure ammonia (NH3) and dimethylamine (DMA) at low pptv levels. Sampling was performed by dissolving the gaseous NH3 and DMA, which were protonated and retained on trace cation concentrator columns as ammonium and dimethylaminium with an efficiency well above 95%. The sampling time varied between 70 and 210 min. A longer sampling time allowed a decrease of the detection limit for each species down to the sub-pptv level. NH3 mixing ratios reported were initially high du to an unintentional injection of NH3. They then recovered to background levels around 10 pptv, with no further injection of NH3. DMA was injected intentionally to reach atmospherically relevant levels away from sources (up to 60 pptv) in order to study its effect on nucleation with sulphuric acid and water at 278 K.

  18. Coupled ion chromatography for the determination of chloride, phosphate and sulphate in concentrated nitric acid.

    PubMed

    Biesaga, Magdalena; Schmidt, Nicole; Seubert, Andreas

    2004-02-13

    A coupled ion chromatography (IC) system was used for the determination of chloride, sulphate and phosphate in high-purity nitric acid. Such a high ionic strength matrix causes a selectivity problem in single IC systems. The first part of the system is used for a pre-separation of the analytes from the nitrate matrix. A specially designed high-capacity anion exchanger with low retention for the analytes and high retention for nitrate was developed. The eluent stream containing the analytes was transferred to the second part of the system via a heart-cut valve and a pre-concentration column. The second system utilizes a high performance anion exchanger and is used to quantify the analytes. Recoveries of the analytes are 80-100% for phosphate, and around 100% for sulphate and chloride. Detection limits for chloride, sulphate and phosphate in concentrated nitric acid (69% w/w) are 0.1, 1 and 5 mg/l, respectively. PMID:14763747

  19. ANION ANALYSES BY ION CHROMATOGRAPHY FOR THE ALTERNATE REDUCTANT DEMONSTRATION FOR THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Best, D.

    2010-08-04

    The Process Science Analytical Laboratory (PSAL) at the Savannah River National Laboratory was requested by the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) to develop and demonstrate an Ion Chromatography (IC) method for the analysis of glycolate, in addition to eight other anions (fluoride, formate, chloride, nitrite, nitrate, sulfate, oxalate and phosphate) in Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) samples. The method will be used to analyze anions for samples generated from the Alternate Reductant Demonstrations to be performed for the DWPF at the Aiken County Technology Laboratory (ACTL). The method is specific to the characterization of anions in the simulant flowsheet work. Additional work will be needed for the analyses of anions in radiological samples by Analytical Development (AD) and DWPF. The documentation of the development and demonstration of the method fulfills the third requirement in the TTQAP, SRNL-RP-2010-00105, 'Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan for Glycolic-Formic Acid Flowsheet Development, Definition and Demonstrations Tasks 1-3'.

  20. Characterisation of aquatic humic and non-humic matter with size-exclusion chromatography--organic carbon detection--organic nitrogen detection (LC-OCD-OND).

    PubMed

    Huber, Stefan A; Balz, Andreas; Abert, Michael; Pronk, Wouter

    2011-01-01

    Size-exclusion chromatography in combination with organic carbon detection (SEC-OCD) is an established method to separate the pool of NOM into major fractions of different sizes and chemical functions and to quantify these on the basis of organic carbon. One specific approach, also known as LC-OCD-OND, is based on the Grntzel thin-film UV-reactor. This approach is described with recent improvements in fraction assignation (humic substances, biopolymers, building blocks, low molecular weight organic acids and neutrals, hydrophobic organic carbon), the coupling of a novel organic nitrogen detector (OND), and an improved diagram for the characterisation of aquatic humic substances (HS-diagram). The diagram replaces the operational distinction between humic and fulvic acids by a continuum ranging from aquagenic fulvic acids to pedogenic humic acids. PMID:20937513

  1. Combined Protein A and size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography for the single-step measurement of mAb, aggregates and host cell proteins.

    PubMed

    Gjoka, Xhorxhi; Schofield, Mark; Cvetkovic, Aleksandar; Gantier, Rene

    2014-12-01

    Quantification of monoclonal antibody (mAb) monomer, mAb aggregates, and host cell proteins (HCPs) is critical for the optimization of the mAb production process. The present work describes a single high throughput analytical tool capable of tracking the concentration of mAb, mAb aggregate and HCPs in a growing cell culture batch. By combining two analytical HPLC methods, Protein A affinity and size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), it is possible to detect a relative increase or decrease in the concentration of all three entities simultaneously. A comparison of the combined Protein A-SEC assay to SEC alone was performed, demonstrating that it can be useful tool for the quantification of mAb monomer along with trending data for mAb aggregate and HCP. Furthermore, the study shows that the Protein A-SEC method is at least as accurate as other commonly used analytical methods such as ELISA and Bradford. PMID:25310707

  2. Determination of alkanolamines in cattails (Typha latifolia) utilizing electrospray ionization with selected reaction monitoring and ion-exchange chromatography.

    PubMed

    Peru, Kerry M; Headley, John V; Doucette, William J

    2004-01-01

    Selected reaction monitoring (SRM) with electrospray ionization was used as a specific detection technique for the analysis of alkanolamines in plant tissue extracts. Ion-exchange chromatography was used as the method of separation. Quantification was based on monitoring the loss of either H2O or 2(H2O) from the protonated molecule [M+H]+. The method provided increased selectivity for all analytes and better detection limits for three of the six analytes investigated compared with an earlier method using selected ion monitoring with liquid chromatography. Instrumental detection limits ranged from 6-300 pg injected for monoethanolamine (MEA), monoisopropanolamine (MIPA), diethanolamine (DEA), methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), diisopropanolamine (DIPA), and triethanolamine (TEA). Method robustness and selectivity were demonstrated by the determination of DIPA and a known transformation product MIPA in over 35 plant extract samples derived from a laboratory study of plant uptake mechanisms. PMID:15282789

  3. Characterization and quantitative amino acids analysis of analgesic peptides in cinobufacini injection by size exclusion chromatography, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry and gas chromatography mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xu; Si, Nan; Bo, Gao; Hu, Hao; Yang, Jian; Bian, Baolin; Zhao, Hai Yu; Wang, Hongjie

    2015-01-01

    Cinobufacini injection that comes from the water extract of Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor skin is widely used for cancer treatment in China. Peptide is one of its major types of constituents, however the biological effects and content of this injection are little reported. In present study, the analgesic effect of peptides was determined and evaluated by in-vivo models. To characterize and quantitatively analyze these peptides, a reliable and efficient method combining size exclusion chromatography and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry with amino acid analysis was developed. The peptides presented as a series of analogs with similar molecular weights mostly ranging from 2 to 8 kDa. The amino acid analysis by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed to determine both free and combined amino acids (FAA and CAA) in cinobufacini injection. This method achieved good linearity (R(2) , 0.9909-0.9999) and low limit of detection and quantification. FAA and CAA samples were efficiently analyzed by modified Phenomenex EZ: faast procedure. For the sample analysis, the method showed good repeatability (relative standard deviation, RSD ≤ 10%). For most FAA and CAA the mean recoveries were >80% with RSD <10%. The GC-MS based method is useful for quality assurance of both FAA and CAA in cinobufacini injection. PMID:24924921

  4. [Determination of principal components and related substances in adenosine disodium triphosphate preparation by ion chromatography].

    PubMed

    Shan, Guangzhi; Zong, Yanping; Wang, Xiao; Lu, Jinghua

    2014-11-01

    A new method was developed for the determination of adenosine disodium triphos- phate (ATP-Na2 ) and its related substances in ATP-Na2 preparation by ion chromatography (IC). The sample was diluted with ultrapure water and filtrated by 0.22 ?m polyether sulfone filter membrance, and then analyzed by IC directly without any more pretreatment. The analysis was performed on a Dionex IonPac AS11-HC column (250 mm x 4 mm) and a guard column Ion-Pac AG11-HC (50 mm x 4 mm). A KOH eluent generator cartridge was used for gradient elution at the flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The detection was performed by a Dionex suppressed (Dionex AERS 500 4-mm) conductivity detector. The injection volume was 10 ?L. The assay was quantitatively completed by external standard method and the related substances were calculated with correction factors. The linear ranges of the method for ATP-Na2, adenosine disodium diphosphate (ADP-Na2) and adenosine disodium monophosphate (AMP-Na2) were 0.000 146-1.83 g/L (r = 0.9997), 0.000484-1.51 g/L (r = 0.9996) and 0.000426-0.804 g/L (r = 0.9999), respectively. The average recoveries of ATP-Na2 were 96.50%, 96.57% and 96.77% at three spiked levels. The limits of quantitation (S/N = 10) of ATP-Na2, ADP-Na2 and AMP-Na2 were 1.5 ng, 4.8 ng, 4.3 ng, and the limits of detection (S/N = 3) were 0.58 ng, 1.21 ng, 1.28 ng, respectively. The results demonstrated that the system has the advantages of high sensitivity, facile automation and simple sample pretreatment. The method is suitable for the quality control of adenosine disodium triphosphate preparations. PMID:25764665

  5. Mechanistic modeling of ion-exchange process chromatography of charge variants of monoclonal antibody products.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vijesh; Leweke, Samuel; von Lieres, Eric; Rathore, Anurag S

    2015-12-24

    Ion-exchange chromatography (IEX) is universally accepted as the optimal method for achieving process scale separation of charge variants of a monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapeutic. These variants are closely related to the product and a baseline separation is rarely achieved. The general practice is to fractionate the eluate from the IEX column, analyze the fractions and then pool the desired fractions to obtain the targeted composition of variants. This is, however, a very cumbersome and time consuming exercise. A mechanistic model that is capable of simulating the peak profile will be a much more elegant and effective way to make a decision on the pooling strategy. This paper proposes a mechanistic model, based on the general rate model, to predict elution peak profile for separation of the main product from its variants. The proposed approach uses inverse fit of process scale chromatogram for estimation of model parameters using the initial values that are obtained from theoretical correlations. The packed bed column has been modeled along with the chromatographic system consisting of the mixer, tubing and detectors as a series of dispersed plug flow and continuous stirred tank reactors. The model uses loading ranges starting at 25% to a maximum of 70% of the loading capacity and hence is applicable to process scale separations. Langmuir model has been extended to include the effects of salt concentration and temperature on the model parameters. The extended Langmuir model that has been proposed uses one less parameter than the SMA model and this results in a significant ease of estimating the model parameters from inverse fitting. The proposed model has been validated with experimental data and has been shown to successfully predict peak profile for a range of load capacities (15-28mg/mL), gradient lengths (10-30CV), bed heights (6-20cm), and for three different resins with good accuracy (as measured by estimation of residuals). The model has been also validated for a two component mixture consisting of the main mAb product and one of its basic charge variants. The proposed model can be used for optimization and control of preparative scale chromatography for separation of charge variants. PMID:26686559

  6. A Volatile Organic Analyzer for Space Station - Description and evaluation of a gas chromatography/ion mobility spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limero, Thomas; Brokenshire, John; Cumming, Colin; Overton, ED; Carney, Ken; Cross, Jay; Eiceman, Gary; James, John

    1992-01-01

    An on-board Volatile Organic Analyzer (VOA), an essential component of the Environmental Health System (EHS) air-quality monitoring strategy, is described. The strategy is aimed at warning the crew and ground personnel if volatile compounds exceed safe exposure limits. The VOA uses a combination of gas chromatography (GC) and ion-mobility spectrometry (IMS) for environmental monitoring and analysis. It is concluded that the VOA dual-mode detection capability and the ion mobilities in the drift region are unique features that can assist in the resolution of coeluting GC peaks. The VOA is capable of accurately identifying and quantifying target compounds in a complex mixture.

  7. Optimization of operating conditions for the determination of perchlorate in biological samples using preconcentration/preelution ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Caas, Jaclyn E; Cheng, Qiuqiong; Tian, Kang; Anderson, Todd A

    2006-01-20

    Perchlorate originates as a contaminant in the environment from the use of salts in the manufacture of solid rocket fuels and munitions. Monitoring potential perchlorate contamination in the environment is of interest, however, very few analytical methods have been developed for perchlorate determination in biological samples. Analysis of complex samples by ion chromatography is complicated by matrix components that can interfere with perchlorate determination. However, a recently developed preconcentration/preelution (PC/PE) ion chromatography method has demonstrated the capability to analyze certain complex samples such as high salinity water, milk, and hydroponic fertilizers. The ability of this method to reduce sample background and lower detection limits in ion chromatography for various biological samples was evaluated in this study. The PC/PE method was applicable to the analysis of kidneys, livers, zebrafish, quail eggs, lettuce, and urine. Optimal operating conditions were determined for each matrix. Ranges of optimal wash volumes were shorter when 15 mM NaOH prewash solutions were used compared with 10mM and good recovery was achieved for most matrices with an injection period > or =60s. Prewash solution concentration did not appear to significantly affect matrix background. The PC/PE method was capable of reducing sample background when compared to EPA Method 314.0, which resulted in detection limits, with the exception of zebrafish and urine, that were two-fold lower than those achieved with EPA Method 314.0. PMID:16310204

  8. Characterization of currently marketed heparin products: reversed-phase ion-pairing liquid chromatography mass spectrometry of heparin digests.

    PubMed

    Brustkern, Adam M; Buhse, Lucinda F; Nasr, Moheb; Al-Hakim, Ali; Keire, David A

    2010-12-01

    Here we report results from the analyses by enzymatic digestion and reversed-phase ion-pairing liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (RPIP-LC-MS) of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) unfractionated heparins (UFHs) from six different manufacturers and one USP standard sample. We employed a reverse phase ion-pairing chromatography method using a C(18) column and hexylamine as the ion-pairing reagent with acetonitrile gradient elution to separate disaccharides generated from the digestion of the heparins by lyase I and III (E.C. 4.2.2.7 and 4.2.2.8) before introduction into an ion-trap mass spectrometer by an electrospray ionization (ESI) interface. Extracted ion chromatograms (EICs) were used to determine the relative abundance of the disaccharides by mass spectrometry. Eight disaccharides were observed and a similar composition profile was observed from digests of 20 UFH samples. The compositional profile determined from these experiments provides a measure of the norm and range of variation in "good" heparin to which future preparations can be compared. Furthermore, the profile obtained in the RPIP-LC-MS assay is sensitive to the presence of the contaminant, oversulfated chondroitin sulfate A (OSCS), in heparin. PMID:21069966

  9. Characterization and quantification of histidine degradation in therapeutic protein formulations by size exclusion-hydrophilic interaction two dimensional-liquid chromatography with stable-isotope labeling mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunlei; Chen, Sike; Brailsford, John A; Yamniuk, Aaron P; Tymiak, Adrienne A; Zhang, Yingru

    2015-12-24

    Two dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC) coupling size exclusion (SEC) and hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) is demonstrated as a useful tool to study polar excipients, such as histidine and its degradant, in protein formulation samples. The SEC-HILIC setup successfully removed interferences from complex sample matrices and enabled accurate mass measurement of the histidine degradation product, which was then determined to be trans-urocanic acid. Because the SEC effluent is a strong solvent for the second dimension HILIC, experimental parameters needed to be carefully chosen, i.e., small transferring loop, fast gradient at high flow rates for the second dimension gradient, in order to mitigate the solvent mismatch and to ensure good peak shapes for HILIC separations. In addition, the generation of trans-urocanic acid was quantified by single heart-cutting SEC-HILIC 2D-LC combined with stable-isotope labeling mass spectrometry. Compared with existing 2D quantification methods, the proposed approach is fast, insensitive to solvent mismatch between dimensions, and tolerant of small retention time shifts in the first dimension. Finally, the first dimension diode array detector was found to be a potential degradation source for photolabile analytes such as trans-urocanic acid. PMID:26674608

  10. Distribution of elements binding to molecules with different molecular weights in aqueous extract of Antarctic krill by size-exclusion chromatography coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Bergmann, Jan; Lassen, Stephan; Leonhard, Peter; Prange, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    The distribution of silver, arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, lead, selenium and zinc binding to species with different molecular weight in aqueous extract of krill was studied by on-line size-exclusion chromatography (SEC)/inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The extract was fractionated in three fractions with different molecular weight (MW) ranges (>20,000 relative molecular mass (rel. mol. mass), 2000-20,000 rel. mol. mass and <2000 rel. mol. mass), which were further analyzed by SEC with columns having different optimum fractionation ranges in order to obtain more detailed information about the MW distribution of the elements. Various distribution profiles for the target elements among different MW ranges were observed. The results obtained indicated that manganese, zinc, silver, cadmium and lead species were mostly distributed in the higher MW range (>20,000 rel. mol. mass). In the case of chromium, iron, cobalt, arsenic and selenium, most of them bind to species with lower MW (<2000 rel. mol. mass). Only copper and nickel species was predominantly present in middle MW range (2000-20,000 rel. mol. mass). Further speciation of arsenic compounds in the small MW fraction was carried out with anion exchange chromatography (AEC) coupled with ICP-MS. The results showed that the dominant arsenic species in this fraction is As(III) (63% of extractable arsenic), while As(V) (13%) and two unknown arsenic species (19% and 5%, respectively) are present in lower amounts. PMID:15607711

  11. Preparative size-exclusion chromatography for purification and characterization of colloidal quantum dots bound by chromophore-labeled polymers and low-molecular-weight chromophores.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingfeng; Bardajee, Ghasem Rezanejade; Kumar, Sandeep; Nitz, Mark; Scholes, Gregory D; Winnik, Mitchell A

    2009-06-19

    We explore the use of preparative size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to purify quantum dots (QDs) after surface modification. In one example, in which Bio-Beads (S-X1) were used as the packing material for the preparative SEC column, CdSe QDs treated with a functional coumarin dye could be separated from the excess free dye by using tetrahydrofuran (THF) as the mobile phase. This column was unable to separate polymer-coated QDs from free polymer (M approximately 8000) because of the relatively low cutoff mass of the column. Here a preparative HPLC column packed with TOYOPEARL gel allowed the effective separation of polymer-bound QDs from the excess free polymer by using N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) as the mobile phase. When other solvents such as absolute ethanol, acetonitrile, THF, and THF-triethylamine mixtures were used as the eluent, QDs stuck to the column. While NMP was an effective medium to remove excess free polymer from the QDs, it was difficult to transfer the purified QDs to more volatile solvents and maintain colloidal stability. PMID:19446821

  12. Size Exclusion High Performance Liquid Chromatography: Re-Discovery of a Rapid and Versatile Method for Clean-Up and Fractionation in Chemical Ecology.

    PubMed

    Sperling, Sergej; Khbandner, Stephan; Engel, Katharina C; Steiger, Sandra; Stkl, Johannes; Ruther, Joachim

    2015-06-01

    Solvent extraction of bioactive molecules from glands, tissues, or whole organisms is a common first step in chemoecological studies. Co-extraction of a surplus of high boiling materials such as triacylglycerides (TAGs) and other lipids with higher molecular weight might hamper the identification of volatile or medium-volatile semiochemicals by high resolution chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. Therefore, effective clean-up procedures are needed to separate potential semiochemicals from the accompanying materials. Size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography (SE-HPLC), a technique often disregarded by chemoecologists, has proved to be a rapid and efficient clean-up method for complex crude extracts. We demonstrated that TAGs can be baseline separated from typical semiochemicals within less than 10 min on a porous gel stationary phase based on highly cross-linked polystyrene/divinylbenzene. We applied the method as a rapid one-step clean-up procedure for the analysis of juvenile hormone III in insect hemolymph by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We furthermore introduced some recent application examples on insect pheromones to demonstrate that SE-HPLC is not only an effective method for the purification of crude extracts, but can as well be used as a first fractionation step for the bioassay-guided identification of behavior modifying natural products. SE-HPLC can be well operated with low-boiling solvents such as dichloromethane, and results in fraction volumes of typically less than one ml, which decreases the danger of losing volatile analytes during subsequent concentration steps. PMID:25943862

  13. Designed synthesis of Graphene @titania @mesoporous silica hybrid material as size-exclusive metal oxide affinity chromatography platform for selective enrichment of endogenous phosphopeptides.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jizong; Sun, Nianrong; Deng, Chunhui; Zhang, Xiangming

    2016-04-01

    In this work, a novel size-exclusive metal oxide affinity chromatography (SE-MOAC) platform was built for phosphoproteome research. The operation for preparing graphene @titania @mesoporous silica nanohybrids (denoted as G@TiO2@mSiO2) was facile and easy to conduct by grafting titania nanoparticles on polydopamine (PD)-covered graphene, following a layer of mesoporous silica was coated on the outermost layer. The G@TiO2@mSiO2 nanohybrids exhibited high sensitivity with a low detection limit of 5amol/μL (a total amount of 1fmol) and high selectivity for phosphopeptides at a mass ratio of phosphopeptides to non-phosphopeptides (1:1000). The size-exclusive capability of the nanohybrids were also demonstrated by enriching the phosphopeptides from the mixture of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA), α-casein, and β-casein digests with a high mass ratio (β-casein digests: α-casein: BSA, 1:500:500), which was attributed to the large surface area and ordered mesoporous channels. In addition, the G@TiO2@mSiO2 nanohybrids were employed to capture the endogenous phosphopeptides from human serum successfully. PMID:26838411

  14. ANALYSIS FOR B-LACTAM ANTIBIOTICS IN KIDNEY TISSUE BY LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY WITH ELECTROSPRAY IONIZATION AND SELECTIVE REACTION MONITORING/TANDEM ION TRAP MASS SPECTROMETRY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eleven B-lactams antibiotics were analyzed in fortified and incurred beef kidney tissue using high-performance liquid chromatography/selective reaction monitoring/tandem ion trap mass spectrometry. The analytes included: deacetylcephapirin, amoxicillin, cephapirin, desfuroylceftiofur cysteine disul...

  15. OVERVIEW OF A NEW EPA METHOD: DETERMINATION OF PERCHLORATE IN DRINKING WATER, GROUNDWATER AND HIGH SALINITY WATER BY ION CHROMATOGRAPHY, SUPPRESSED CONDUCTIVITY WITH ELECTROSPRAY IONIZATION MASS SPECTROMETRIC DETECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this presentation the analytical instrumentation and procedures necessary to qualitatively and quantitatively determine low levels of perchlorate (ClO4-) in drinking waters using ion chromatography with electrolytic conductivity suppression, electrospray ionization mass spec...

  16. METHOD 332.0: DETERMINATION OF PERCHLORATE IN DRINKING WATER BY ION CHROMATOGRAPHY WITH SUPPRESSED CONDUCTIVITY AND ELECTROSPRAY IONIZATION MASS SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This method is applicable to the identification and quantitation of perchlorate in raw and finished drinking waters. The approach used is ion chromatography with suppressed conductivity and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (IC-ESI/MS)

  17. An online monitoring system for atmospheric nitrous acid (HONO) based on stripping coil and ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Peng; Cheng, Yafang; Lu, Keding; Su, Hang; Yang, Qiang; Zou, Yikan; Zhao, Yanran; Dong, Huabing; Zeng, Limin; Zhang, Yuanhang

    2013-05-01

    A new instrument for measuring atmospheric nitrous acid (HONO) was developed, consisting of a double-wall glass stripping coil sampler coupled with ion chromatography (SC-IC). SC-IC is featured by small size (50 x 35 x 25 cm) and modular construction, including three independent parts: the sampling unit, the transfer and supporting unit, and the detection unit. High collection efficiency (> 99%) was achieved with 25 micromol/L Na2CO3 as absorption solution even in the presence of highly acidic compounds. This instrument has a detection limit of 8 pptv at 15 min time resolution, with a measurement uncertainty of 7%. Potential interferences from NO(x), NO2+SO2, NO2+VOCs, HONO+O3, HNO3, peroxyacetyl nitrite (PAN) and particle nitrite were quantified in laboratory studies and were found to be insignificant under typical atmospheric conditions. Within the framework of the 3C-STAR project, inter-comparison between the SC-IC and LOPAP (long path liquid absorption photometer) was conducted at a rural site in the Pearl River Delta. Good agreement was achieved between the two instruments over three weeks. Both instruments determined a clear diurnal profile of ambient HONO concentrations from 0.1 to 2.5 ppbv. However, deviations were found for low ambient HONO concentrations (i.e. < 0.3 ppbv), which cannot be explained by previous investigated interference species. To accurately determine the HONO budget under illuminated conditions, more intercomparison of HONO measurement techniques is still needed in future studies, especially at low HONO concentrations. PMID:24218819

  18. A volatile organic analyzer for Space Station: Description and evaluation of a gas chromatography/ ion mobility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limero, Thomas F.; James, John T.

    1994-01-01

    A Volatile Organic Analyzer (VOA) is being developed as an essential component of the Space Station's Environmental Health System (EHS) air quality monitoring strategy to provide warning to the crew and ground personnel if volatile organic compounds exceed established exposure limits. The short duration of most Shuttle flights and the relative simplicity of the contaminant removal mechanism have lessened the concern about crew exposure to air contaminants on the Shuttle. However, the longer missions associated with the Space Station, the complex air revitalization system and the proposed number of experiments have led to a desire for real-time monitoring of the contaminants in the Space Station atmosphere. Achieving the performance requirements established for the VOA within the Space Station resource (e.g., power, weight) allocations led to a novel approach that joined a gas chromatograph (GC) to an ion mobility spectrometer (IMS). The authors of this paper will discuss the rational for selecting the GC/IMS technology as opposed to the more established gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for the foundation of the VOA. The data presented from preliminary evaluations will demonstrate the versatile capability of the GC/IMS to analyze the major contaminants expected in the Space Station atmosphere. The favorable GC/IMS characteristics illustrated in this paper included excellent sensitivity, dual-mode operation for selective detection, and mobility drift times to distinguish co-eluting GC peaks. Preliminary studies have shown that the GC/IMS technology can meet surpass the performance requirements of the Space Station VOA.

  19. Comprehensive and reproducible phosphopeptide enrichment using iron immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (Fe-IMAC) columns.

    PubMed

    Ruprecht, Benjamin; Koch, Heiner; Medard, Guillaume; Mundt, Max; Kuster, Bernhard; Lemeer, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Advances in phosphopeptide enrichment methods enable the identification of thousands of phosphopeptides from complex samples. Current offline enrichment approaches using TiO(2), Ti, and Fe immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) material in batch or microtip format are widely used, but they suffer from irreproducibility and compromised selectivity. To address these shortcomings, we revisited the merits of performing phosphopeptide enrichment in an HPLC column format. We found that Fe-IMAC columns enabled the selective, comprehensive, and reproducible enrichment of phosphopeptides out of complex lysates. Column enrichment did not suffer from bead-to-sample ratio issues and scaled linearly from 100 ?g to 5 mg of digest. Direct measurements on an Orbitrap Velos mass spectrometer identified >7500 unique phosphopeptides with 90% selectivity and good quantitative reproducibility (median cv of 15%). The number of unique phosphopeptides could be increased to more than 14,000 when the IMAC eluate was subjected to a subsequent hydrophilic strong anion exchange separation. Fe-IMAC columns outperformed Ti-IMAC and TiO(2) in batch or tip mode in terms of phosphopeptide identification and intensity. Permutation enrichments of flow-throughs showed that all materials largely bound the same phosphopeptide species, independent of physicochemical characteristics. However, binding capacity and elution efficiency did profoundly differ among the enrichment materials and formats. As a result, the often quoted orthogonality of the materials has to be called into question. Our results strongly suggest that insufficient capacity, inefficient elution, and the stochastic nature of data-dependent acquisition in mass spectrometry are the causes of the experimentally observed complementarity. The Fe-IMAC enrichment workflow using an HPLC format developed here enables rapid and comprehensive phosphoproteome analysis that can be applied to a wide range of biological systems. PMID:25394399

  20. Method for the determination of ammonium in cigarette tobacco using ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Watson, Christina Vaughan; Valentin-Blasini, Liza; Damian, Maria; Watson, Clifford H

    2015-07-01

    Ammonia and other alkaline substances have been postulated to be important in cigarette design. The most significant potential contribution of ammonia is a possible interaction with the native, protonated nicotine in the smoke. Ammonia is more alkaline than nicotine and could facilitate a shift in the acid/base equilibrium where a fraction of the total nicotine converts to the more lipophilic, non-protonated form. This non-protonated, or free-base, form of nicotine absorbs more efficiently across membranes, resulting in more rapid delivery to the smoker's bloodstream. Ammonia and other potential ammonia sources, such as additives like diammonium phosphate, could influence the acid-base dynamics in cigarette smoke and ultimately the rate of nicotine delivery. To examine and characterize the ammonia content in modern cigarettes, we developed a fast, simple and reliable ion chromatography based method to measure extractable ammonia levels in cigarette filler. This approach has minimal sample preparation and short run times to achieve high sample throughput. We quantified ammonia levels in tobacco filler from 34 non-mentholated cigarette brands from 3 manufacturers to examine the ranges found across a convenience sampling of popular, commercially available domestic brands and present figures of analytical merit here. Ammonia levels ranged from approximately 0.9 to 2.4mg per gram of cigarette filler between brands and statistically significance differences were observed between brands and manufacturers. Our findings suggest that ammonia levels vary by brand and manufacturer; thus in domestic cigarettes ammonia could be considered a significant design feature because of the potential influence on smoke chemistry. PMID:25934256

  1. A two level hierarchical model of protein retention in ion exchange chromatography.

    PubMed

    Salvalaglio, Matteo; Paloni, Matteo; Guelat, Bertrand; Morbidelli, Massimo; Cavallotti, Carlo

    2015-09-11

    Predicting protein retention in ion exchange chromatography (IEX) from first principles is a fascinating perspective. In this work a two level hierarchical modeling strategy is proposed in order to calculate protein retention factors. Model predictions are tested against experimental data measured for Lysozyme and Chymotrypsinogen A in IEX columns as a function of ionic strength and pH. At the highest level of accuracy Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations in explicit water are used to determine the interaction free energy between each of the two proteins and the IEX stationary phase for a reference pH and ionic strength. At a lower level of accuracy a linear response model based on an implicit treatment of solvation and adopting a static protein structure is used to calculate interaction free energies for the full range of pHs and ionic strengths considered. A scaling coefficient, determined comparing MD and implicit solvent simulations, is then introduced in order to correct the linear response model for errors induced by the adoption of a static protein structure. The calculated free energies are then used to compute protein retention factors, which can be directly compared with experimental data. The possibility to introduce a third level of accuracy is explored testing the predictions of a semiempirical model. A quantitative agreement between the predicted and measured protein retention factors is obtained using the coupled MD-linear response models, supporting the reliability of the proposed approach. The model allows quantifying the electrostatic, van der Waals, and conformational contributions to the interaction free energies. A good agreement between experiments and model is obtained also using the semiempirical model that, although requiring parameterization over higher level models or experimental data, proves to be useful in order to rapidly determine protein retention factors across wide pH and ionic strength ranges as it is computationally inexpensive. PMID:26278361

  2. Comprehensive and Reproducible Phosphopeptide Enrichment Using Iron Immobilized Metal Ion Affinity Chromatography (Fe-IMAC) Columns

    PubMed Central

    Ruprecht, Benjamin; Koch, Heiner; Medard, Guillaume; Mundt, Max; Kuster, Bernhard; Lemeer, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Advances in phosphopeptide enrichment methods enable the identification of thousands of phosphopeptides from complex samples. Current offline enrichment approaches using TiO2, Ti, and Fe immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) material in batch or microtip format are widely used, but they suffer from irreproducibility and compromised selectivity. To address these shortcomings, we revisited the merits of performing phosphopeptide enrichment in an HPLC column format. We found that Fe-IMAC columns enabled the selective, comprehensive, and reproducible enrichment of phosphopeptides out of complex lysates. Column enrichment did not suffer from bead-to-sample ratio issues and scaled linearly from 100 μg to 5 mg of digest. Direct measurements on an Orbitrap Velos mass spectrometer identified >7500 unique phosphopeptides with 90% selectivity and good quantitative reproducibility (median cv of 15%). The number of unique phosphopeptides could be increased to more than 14,000 when the IMAC eluate was subjected to a subsequent hydrophilic strong anion exchange separation. Fe-IMAC columns outperformed Ti-IMAC and TiO2 in batch or tip mode in terms of phosphopeptide identification and intensity. Permutation enrichments of flow-throughs showed that all materials largely bound the same phosphopeptide species, independent of physicochemical characteristics. However, binding capacity and elution efficiency did profoundly differ among the enrichment materials and formats. As a result, the often quoted orthogonality of the materials has to be called into question. Our results strongly suggest that insufficient capacity, inefficient elution, and the stochastic nature of data-dependent acquisition in mass spectrometry are the causes of the experimentally observed complementarity. The Fe-IMAC enrichment workflow using an HPLC format developed here enables rapid and comprehensive phosphoproteome analysis that can be applied to a wide range of biological systems. PMID:25394399

  3. High speed, high resolution, and continuous chemical analysis of ice cores using a melter and ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Cole-Dai, Jihong; Budner, Drew M; Ferris, Dave G

    2006-11-01

    Measurement of trace chemical impurities in ice cores contributes to the reconstruction of records of the atmospheric environment and of the climate system. Ion chromatography (IC) is an effective analytical technique for ionic species in ice cores but has been used on discretely prepared ice samples, resulting in extensive and slow sample preparation and potential for contamination. A new technique has been developed that utilizes IC as the online detection technique in a melter-based continuous flow system for quantitative determination of major ionic chemical impurities. The system, called CFA-IC for continuous flow analysis with ion chromatography detection, consists of an ice core melter, several ion chromatographs, and an interface that distributes meltwater to the IC instruments. The CFA-IC technique combines the accuracy, precision, and ease of use of IC measurement with the enhanced speed and depth resolution of continuous melting systems and is capable of virtually continuous, high-speed and high-resolution chemical analysis of long ice cores. The new technique and operating procedures have been tested and validated with the analysis of over 100 m of ice cores from Antarctica. The current CFA-IC system provides an all-major-ion analysis speed of up to 8 m a day at a depth resolution of approximately 2 cm. PMID:17144308

  4. Determination of vanillin, ethyl vanillin, and coumarin in infant formula by liquid chromatography-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yan; Han, Chao; Liu, Bin; Lin, Zhengfeng; Zhou, Xiujin; Wang, Chengjun; Zhu, Zhenou

    2014-02-01

    A simple, precise, accurate, and validated liquid chromatography-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry method was developed for the determination of vanillin, ethyl vanillin, and coumarin in infant formula samples. Following ultrasonic extraction with methanol/water (1:1, vol/vol), and clean-up on an HLB solid-phase extraction cartridge (Waters Corp., Milford, MA), samples were separated on a Waters XSelect HSS T3 column (150 2.1-mm i.d., 5-?m film thickness; Waters Corp.), with 0.1% formic acid solution-acetonitrile as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.25 mL/min. Quanti?cation of the target was performed by the internal standard approach, using isotopically labeled compounds for each chemical group, to correct matrix effects. Data acquisition was carried out in multiple reaction monitoring transitions mode, monitoring 2 multiple reaction monitoring transitions to ensure an accurate identi?cation of target compounds in the samples. Additional identi?cation and con?rmation of target compounds were performed using the enhanced product ion modus of the linear ion trap. The novel liquid chromatography-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry platform offers the best sensitivity and speci?city for characterization and quantitative determination of vanillin, ethyl vanillin, and coumarin in infant formula and fulfills the quality criteria for routine laboratory application. PMID:24359823

  5. Solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry and multistage mass spectrometry experiments in the characterization of germacrene D.

    PubMed

    Gioacchini, A M; Menotta, M; Polidori, E; Giomaro, G; Stocchi, V

    2002-12-01

    Germacrene D is a vegetable pheromone utilized in interactions among organisms belonging to different species. For the first time, using solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry, the presence of this compound was detected in an in vitro mycorrhizal synthesis system where the mycelium of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Tuber borchii Vittad. interacts with the plant Tilia Americana L. From this symbiosis, a new structure, called ectomycorrhiza, is formed where the two symbionts exchange nutrients and metabolites. It seems that only after this interaction can the mycelium develop the fruitbody, commonly known as truffle. The results obtained allowed us to ascertain that germacrene D was synthesized by the plant exclusively in the presence of T. borchii. The originality of these data prompted us to hypothesize that this compound could be involved in the first step of ectomycorrhiza formation, as it is able to stimulate specific fungi receptors. In fact, plants release hundreds of secondary metabolites that are important in their interactions with other organisms. PMID:12489082

  6. Simultaneous and sensitive analysis of aliphatic carboxylic acids by ion-chromatography using on-line complexation with copper(II) ion.

    PubMed

    Kemmei, Tomoko; Kodama, Shuji; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Inoue, Yoshinori; Hayakawa, Kazuichi

    2015-01-01

    A new approach to ion chromatography is proposed to improve the UV detection of aliphatic carboxylic acids separated by anion-exchange chromatography. When copper(II) ion added to the mobile phase, it forms complexes with carboxylic acids that can be detected at 240 nm. The absorbance was found to increase with increasing copper(II) ion concentration. The retention times of α-hydroxy acids were also found to depend on the copper(II) ion concentration. Addition of acetonitrile to the mobile phase improved the separation of aliphatic carboxylic acids. The detection limits of the examined carboxylic acids (formate, glycolate, acetate, lactate, propionate, 3-hydroxypropionate, n-butyrate, isobutyrate, n-valerate, isovalerate, n-caproate) calculated at S/N=3 ranged from 0.06 to 3 μM. The detector signal was linear over three orders of magnitude of carboxylic acid concentration. The proposed method was successfully applied to analyze aliphatic carboxylic acids in rainwater and bread. PMID:25523885

  7. Boosting Sensitivity in Liquid Chromatography-Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance-Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Product Ion Analysis of Monoterpene Indole Alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Nakabayashi, Ryo; Tsugawa, Hiroshi; Kitajima, Mariko; Takayama, Hiromitsu; Saito, Kazuki

    2015-01-01

    In metabolomics, the analysis of product ions in tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) is noteworthy to chemically assign structural information. However, the development of relevant analytical methods are less advanced. Here, we developed a method to boost sensitivity in liquid chromatography-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance-tandem mass spectrometry analysis (MS/MS boost analysis). To verify the MS/MS boost analysis, both quercetin and uniformly labeled (13)C quercetin were analyzed, revealing that the origin of the product ions is not the instrument, but the analyzed compounds resulting in sensitive product ions. Next, we applied this method to the analysis of monoterpene indole alkaloids (MIAs). The comparative analyses of MIAs having indole basic skeleton (ajmalicine, catharanthine, hirsuteine, and hirsutine) and oxindole skeleton (formosanine, isoformosanine, pteropodine, isopteropodine, rhynchophylline, isorhynchophylline, and mitraphylline) identified 86 and 73 common monoisotopic ions, respectively. The comparative analyses of the three pairs of stereoisomers showed more than 170 common monoisotopic ions in each pair. This method was also applied to the targeted analysis of MIAs in Catharanthus roseus and Uncaria rhynchophylla to profile indole and oxindole compounds using the product ions. This analysis is suitable for chemically assigning features of the metabolite groups, which contributes to targeted metabolome analysis. PMID:26734034

  8. Quantitative In Silico Analysis of Retention of Phenylthiohydantoin-Amino Acids in Reversed-Phase Ion-Pair Liquid Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Hanai, Toshihiko

    2016-04-01

    The retention mechanisms of phenylthiohydantoin (PTH)-amino acids in reversed-phase ion-pair liquid chromatography were quantitatively analyzed in silico. The most significant interaction for the retention was the Lewis acid-base interaction between an aromatic ring of a PTH-amino acid and a hydroxyl-group hydrogen of tetra-alkyl ammonium hydroxide. Solvent effects, addition of molecular interaction (MI) energy values between an analyte and solvent molecules, significantly improved the relationship between the MI energy values, calculated using a molecular mechanics program, and logk values, measured via chromatography. The correlation coefficient between the calculated MI energy values and the logk values was 0.98 (n = 19). PMID:26769717

  9. MEASUREMENT OF RADIONUCLIDES USING ION CHROMATOGRAPHY AND FLOW-CELL SCINTILLATION COUNTING WITH PULSE SHAPE DISCRIMINATION

    SciTech Connect

    R. A. Fjeld; T.A. DeVol; J.D. Leyba

    2000-03-30

    Radiological characterization and monitoring is an important component of environmental management activities throughout the Department of Energy complex. Gamma-ray spectroscopy is the technology most often used for the detection of radionuclides. However, radionuclides which cannot easily be detected by gamma-ray spectroscopy, such as pure beta emitters and transuranics, pose special problems because their quantification generally requires labor intensive radiochemical separations procedures that are time consuming and impractical for field applications. This project focused on a technology for measuring transuranics and pure beta emitters relatively quickly and has the potential of being field deployable. The technology combines ion exchange liquid chromatography and on-line alpha/beta pulse shape discriminating scintillation counting to produce simultaneous alpha and beta chromatograms. The basic instrumentation upon which the project was based was purchased in the early 1990's. In its original commercial form, the instrumentation was capable of separating select activation/fission products in ionic forms from relatively pure aqueous samples. We subsequently developed the capability of separating and detecting actinides (thorium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium, and curium) in less than 30 minutes (Reboul, 1993) and realized that the potential time savings over traditional radiochemical methods for isolating some of these radionuclides was significant. However, at that time, the technique had only been used for radionuclide concentrations that were considerably above environmental levels and for aqueous samples of relatively high chemical purity. For the technique to be useful in environmental applications, development work was needed in lowering detection limits; to be useful in applications involving non-aqueous matrices such as soils and sludges or complex aqueous matrices such as those encountered in waste samples, development work was needed in sample preparation and processing. The general goal of this project was to address the issues mentioned above, and in so doing transform an interesting laboratory technique of limited applicability into a robust field instrument suitable for environmental restoration and waste management applications. The project consisted of the following tasks: (1) development of a low background, flow-cell detector, (2) identification of sample chemical and radiological interferences, (3) development of protocols for processing waste and/or environmental samples, and (4) integration and testing of the prototype system. The scope of work associated with these tasks has been completed and the report for Tasks 1-3 was submitted previously. Presented here are the results for Task 4.

  10. An Ultra-Trace Analysis Technique for SF6 Using Gas Chromatography with Negative Ion Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jong, Edmund C; Macek, Paul V; Perera, Inoka E; Luxbacher, Kray D; McNair, Harold M

    2015-07-01

    Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) is widely used as a tracer gas because of its detectability at low concentrations. This attribute of SF6 allows the quantification of both small-scale flows, such as leakage, and large-scale flows, such as atmospheric currents. SF6's high detection sensitivity also facilitates greater usage efficiency and lower operating cost for tracer deployments by reducing quantity requirements. The detectability of SF6 is produced by its high molecular electronegativity. This property provides a high potential for negative ion formation through electron capture thus naturally translating to selective detection using negative ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry (NCI-MS). This paper investigates the potential of using gas chromatography (GC) with NCI-MS for the detection of SF6. The experimental parameters for an ultra-trace SF6 detection method utilizing minimal customizations of the analytical instrument are detailed. A method for the detection of parts per trillion (ppt) level concentrations of SF6 for the purpose of underground ventilation tracer gas analysis was successfully developed in this study. The method utilized a Shimadzu gas chromatography with negative ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry system equipped with an Agilent J&W HP-porous layer open tubular column coated with an alumina oxide (Al2O3) S column. The method detection limit (MDL) analysis as defined by the Environmental Protection Agency of the tracer data showed the method MDL to be 5.2 ppt. PMID:25452581

  11. Combining voltammetry and ion chromatography: application to the selective reduction of nitrate on Pt and PtSn electrodes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jian; Kwon, Youngkook; Duca, Matteo; Koper, Marc T M

    2013-08-20

    To overcome the shortcomings of electroanalytical methods in analyzing the ionic reaction products that are either electrochemically inert or lack distinct electrochemical/spectroscopic fingerprints, we suggest combining voltammetry with ion chromatography by applying online sample collection to the electrochemical cell and offline ion chromatographic analysis. This combination allows a quantitative analysis including the potential dependence of the product distribution in a straightforward way. As a proof-of-concept example, we discuss the formation of ionic reaction products from nitrate reduction on Pt and Sn-modified Pt electrode in acid. On the Pt electrode, ammonia was the only identifiable product. After Sn modification of the Pt electrode, a change in selectivity was observed to hydroxylamine as the dominant product. Moreover, the rate determining step of nitrate reduction (reduction to nitrite) was enhanced by Sn modification of the Pt electrode, and a significant concentration of nitrite was evidenced on a Pt electrode with a high coverage of Sn species. The suggested combination of voltammetry and online ion chromatography hence proves very useful in the quantitative elucidation of electrocatalytic reactions with different ionic products. PMID:23899010

  12. Size exclusion chromatography for the unambiguous detection of aliphatics in fractions from petroleum vacuum residues, coal liquids, and standard materials, in the presence of aromatics

    SciTech Connect

    Eiman M. Al-Muhareb; Fatma Karaca; Trevor J. Morgan; Alan A. Herod; Ian D. Bull; Rafael Kandiyoti

    2006-05-15

    A method has been developed using size exclusion chromatography (SEC) in heptane eluent that can detect aliphatics unambiguously without fractionation to remove aromatics. Spherical molecules such as colloidal silicas elute at the exclusion limit, while alkanes up to C{sub 50} elute through the porosity of the column. Detection of aliphatics was defined by use of an evaporative light scattering (ELS) detector with the simultaneous absence of UV absorbance at 300 nm. Alkanes smaller than C{sub 12} were not detected because the conditions of operation of the ELS caused their evaporation. All aromatics eluted after the permeation limit of about 25 min and were not detected until well after 45 min by their UV absorbance. The SEC method was applied to petroleum vacuum residues and coal liquids, and their fractions were soluble in pentane or heptane. High-temperature (HT) GC-MS confirmed the presence of alkanes in the pentane- and heptane-soluble fractions of petroleum vacuum residues, but did not elute any of the aromatics known to be present from SEC. Alkanes were examined in pentane-soluble fractions of a coal digest and a low-temperature coal tar; alkanes up to C{sub 40} were detected in the low-temperature tar and, although present in the digest, were masked by aromatics. No alkanes were detected by either SEC or HT GC-MS in fractions from a coal tar pitch. Aromatics in coal liquids and one petroleum residue were also examined by SEC using NMP as eluent and by UV fluorescence spectroscopy. The SEC method will find application to pentane- and heptane-soluble fractions of petroleum liquids and coal liquids where the alkanes are concentrated relative to the more abundant aromatics. 43 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Organic analysis by ion chromatography. 1. Determination of aromatic amines and aromatic diisocyanates by cation-exchange chromatography with amperometric detection.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yan; Wang, Muhua; Du, Huangyong; Wang, Fang; Mou, Shifen; Haddad, Paul R

    2002-05-17

    A method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of a range of aromatic amines using cation-exchange chromatography performed on a standard ion chromatography column using d.c. amperometric detection. The analytes separated were 2,4- and 2,6-toluenediamine (2,4- and 2,6-TDA), aniline, o-toluidine, benzidine, p-chloroaniline, 4,4'-diaminodiphenyl (4,4'-DDP), m-nitroaniline and 1-naphthylamine. A Dionex CS12 column was used with gradient elution from an initial eluent of 5% CH3CN+35 mM H2SO4 to 27% CH3CN+35 mM H2SO4 (at 35 min). Detection limits in the range 2.6-22.6 microg/l were observed for all analytes except m-nitroaniline, for which the detection limit was 201 microg/l. Linear calibrations and good precision were observed and the method was applied to the determination of benzidine, p-chloroaniline and 1-naphthylamine in wastewater samples. Further, the separation was also used (after some modification of the eluent conditions) for the determination of 2,4- and 2,6-toluene diisocyanate (2,4- and 2,6-TDI) and 4,4'-methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (4,4'-MDI) after their hydrolysis to 2,4-TDA, 2,6-TDA and 4,4'-DDP. Detection limits for 2,6- and 2,4-TDI and 4,4'-MDI were 3.8, 8.2, and 11.2 microg/l, respectively. The method was applied to the determination of diisocyanates in air. PMID:12108653

  14. Determination of methylmercury in waters using sodium tetraphenylaborate derivatization/solvent extraction and gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Guanglin Hu; Wang Xiaoru; Wang Yiru

    1997-11-01

    An analytical approach involving aqueous-phase derivatization followed by gas chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry (GC/ITMS) for the determination of methylmercury in waters is described. The aqueous-phase derivatization is based on the formation of a more hydrophobic compound between MeHg{sup +} and BPh{sub 4}{sup -}, i.e., MeHgPh, which is extractable into dichloromethane. The detection limit of the method for MeHg is 1 ng/mL for Hg when 100 ml water was analyzed. Recoveries from standard addition to tap water, lake water are 96 {+-} 8% and 92 {+-} 8%, respectively.

  15. Separation of membrane-embedded tryptic peptides of Na,K-ATPase by size-exclusion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Tal, D M; Goldshleger, R; Karlish, S J

    1993-08-27

    Several attempts to separate hydrophobic tryptic and cyanogen bromide-digested short peptides from Na,K-ATPase, using HPLC and different acid-organic solvent gradients, failed because of the insolubility of the peptides in the initial or final solvents of the gradients used for elution. Therefore, we opted to use a detergent-containing mobile phase. For sodium dodecyl sulphate-solubilized tryptic peptides of M(r) 7 x 10(3)-100 x 10(3), elution on a TSK-G3000SW size-exclusion column successfully separates families of peptides with a resolution of M(r) 5 x 10(3)-10 x 10(3). Peptides in these size ranges can then be resolved completely by tricine-sodium dodecyl sulphate gel electrophoresis, and identified by microsequencing after transfer to polyvinylidene difluoride paper. For separation of smaller peptides a Biosep-SEC-S2000 column, eluted at slow flow-rates, was evaluated. Use of ammonium chloride buffer allows sensitive detection at 214 nm. The separated fractions are resolved and identified on 16.5% tricine gels. Reasonable resolution has been obtained with defined cyanogen bromide fragments of myoglobin. Resolution of small tryptic and cyanogen bromide fragments of Na,K-ATPase is less successful, but the experiments suggest ways of improving the resolution of peptides in the range M(r) 2 x 10(3)-10 x 10(3). PMID:8408423

  16. Broad-Spectrum Drug Screening Using Liquid Chromatography-Hybrid Triple-Quadrupole Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Stone, Judy

    2016-01-01

    Urine is processed with a simple C18 solid-phase extraction (SPE) and reconstituted in mobile phase. The liquid chromatography system (LC) injects 10 μL of extracted sample onto a reverse-phase LC column for gradient analysis with ammonium formate/acetonitrile mobile phases. Drugs in the column eluent become charged in the ion source using positive electrospray ionization (ESI). Pseudomolecular ions (M + H) are analyzed by a hybrid triple-quadrupole linear ion trap (QqQ and QqLIT) mass spectrometer using an SRM-IDA-EPI acquisition. An initial 125 compound selected ion monitoring (SRM) survey scan (triple quadrupole or QqQ mode) is processed by the information-dependent acquisition (IDA) algorithm. The IDA algorithm selects SRM signals from the survey scan with a peak height above the threshold (the three most abundant SRM signals above 1000 cps) to define precursor ions for subsequent dependent scanning. In the dependent QqLIT scan(s), selected precursor ion(s) are passed through the first quadrupole (Q1), fragmented with three different collision energies in the collision cell (Q2 or q), and product ions are collected in the third quadrupole (Q3), now operating as a linear ion trap (LIT). The ions are scanned out of the LIT in a mass dependent manner to produce a full-scan product ion spectrum (m/z 50-700) defined as an Enhanced (meaning acquired in LIT mode) Product Ion (EPI) spectrum (Mueller et al., Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 19:1332-1338, 2005). Each EPI spectrum is linked to its precursor ion and to the associated SRM peak from the survey scan. EPI spectra are automatically searched against a 125 drug library of reference EPI spectra for identification. When the duty cycle is complete (one survey scan of 125 SRMs plus 0-3 dependent IDA-EPI scans) the mass spectrometer begins another survey scan of the 125 SRMs. PMID:26660183

  17. Peptide profiling of Internet-obtained Cerebrolysin using high performance liquid chromatography - electrospray ionization ion trap and ultra high performance liquid chromatography - ion mobility - quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gevaert, Bert; D'Hondt, Matthias; Bracke, Nathalie; Yao, Han; Wynendaele, Evelien; Vissers, Johannes Petrus Cornelis; De Cecco, Martin; Claereboudt, Jan; De Spiegeleer, Bart

    2015-09-01

    Cerebrolysin, a parenteral peptide preparation produced by controlled digestion of porcine brain proteins, is an approved nootropic medicine in some countries. However, it is also easily and globally available on the Internet. Nevertheless, until now, its exact chemical composition was unknown. Using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to ion trap and ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to quadrupole-ion mobility-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-IM-TOF MS), combined with UniProt pig protein database search and PEAKS de novo sequencing, we identified 638 unique peptides in an Internet-obtained Cerebrolysin sample. The main components in this sample originate from tubulin alpha- and beta-chain, actin, and myelin basic protein. No fragments of known neurotrophic factors like glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), neurotrophin nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) were found, suggesting that the activities reported in the literature are likely the result of new, hitherto unknown cryptic peptides with nootropic properties. PMID:26017115

  18. An improved thin-layer chromatography/mass spectrometry coupling using a surface sampling probe electrospray ion trap system

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, Michael J; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2004-01-01

    A combined surface sampling probe/electrospray emitter coupled with an ion trap mass spectrometer was used for the direct read out of unmodified reversed-phase C18 thin-layer chromatography (TLC) plates. The operation of the surface sampling electrospray ionization interface in positive and negative ionization modes was demonstrated through the direct analysis of TLC plates on which a commercial test mix comprised of four dye compounds viz., rhodamine B, fluorescein, naphthol blue black, and fast green FCF, and an extract of the caffeine-containing plant Ilex vomitoria, were spotted and developed. Acquisition of full-scan mass spectra and automated collection of MS/MS product ion spectra while scanning a development lane along the surface of a TLC plate demonstrated the advantages of using an ion trap in this combination. Details of the sampling system, benefits of analyzing a developed lane in both positive ion and negative ion modes, levels of detection while surface scanning, surface scan speed effects, and the utility of three-dimensional data display, are also discussed.

  19. The Effects of Light-Accelerated Degradation on the Aggregation of Marketed Therapeutic Monoclonal Antibodies Evaluated by Size-Exclusion Chromatography With Diode Array Detection.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Jiménez, José; Salmerón-García, Antonio; Cabeza, José; Vélez, Celia; Capitán-Vallvey, Luis Fermín; Navas, Natalia

    2016-04-01

    Research into the effects that exposure to light can have on therapeutic proteins is essential for ensuring the quality and safety of the medicines in which they are used. It is important to understand the effects of light on aggregation to help avoid undesirable colloidal instabilities, both in the original medicines and in the formats in which they are finally administered. In this study, 5 marketed therapeutic mAbs, namely bevacizumab, cetuximab, infliximab, rituximab, and trastuzumab, were investigated for this purpose. The medicines and 2 diluted preparations in 0.9 NaCl (2 mg/mL and 5 mg/mL)-commonly used in clinical practice-were subjected to controlled light-accelerated degradation. The formation of aggregates was monitored by size-exclusion chromatography. The results indicated that light induced protein aggregation. This process of protein damage was influenced above all by mAb concentration, although the particular characteristics of each mAb were also important. Photodegradation also produced the fragmentation of the mAbs. The damage caused to the mAbs as a result of light-induced aggregation and/or fragmentation was demonstrated both in the medicines and in the diluted preparation forms. These findings should be carefully considered when handling the medicines for administration and when recommending beyond-use dates in normal hospital conditions. PMID:26952878

  20. Size-exclusion chromatography-mass spectrometry with m-nitrobenzyl alcohol as post-column additive for direct characterization of size variants of monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chong-Feng; Zang, Li; Weiskopf, Andrew

    2014-06-01

    Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) is commonly used to monitor low molecular weight fragments and aggregates present in recombinant monoclonal antibody (mAb) biopharmaceuticals. It has been previously demonstrated that SEC could be coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) to directly measure the molecular weights of these protein species to aid in their identification. However, the use of certain mobile phase modifiers led to compromised sensitivity in MS detection. In this work, we demonstrate that the use of m-nitrobenzyl alcohol (m-NBA) as a post-column additive in an SEC-MS method is able to improve the ionization of antibody light chain and heavy chain approximately 7-fold and 2-fold, respectively, and thus allows the MS detection of low-abundance size variants present in mAb biopharmaceuticals. Application of the 15-min reducing SEC-UV/MS method enabled the direct identification of size variants present in an IgG1 mAb sample. One high molecular weight species observed under reducing conditions was identified to be a thioether-linked heterodimer of light chain and heavy chain. Multiple lower molecular weight species were found to result from cleavage of the heavy chain at a number of sites throughout the conserved sequence. The reducing SEC-UV/MS method provides a straightforward approach for identification of size variants present in mAb and may be applicable generally to all types of mAb biopharmaceuticals. PMID:24835510

  1. The use of high-performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) as a molecular weight screening technique for polygalacturonic acid for use in pharmaceutical applications.

    PubMed

    White, G W; Katona, T; Zodda, J P

    1999-09-01

    Polygalacturonic acid is a linear carbohydrate polymer of monomeric galacturonic acid. It is commercially available as apple and citrus pectins comprised of a mixture of partially methoxylated and/or amidated polygalacturonic acids with molecular weights ranging from 25,000 to > 100,000 Da. Pectin can be chemically or enzymatically hydrolyzed to yield polygalacturonic acid fractions of diverse average molecular weight ranges and polydispersities for a variety of uses. Pectin and polygalacturonic acid are used extensively as gelling agents and stabilizers by the food industry, and have applications as therapeutic, and diagnostic pharmaceutical agents such as the magnetic resonance imaging agent LumenHance. A simple high-performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) method, employing commonly available non-specialized HPLC instrumentation, is described for use as a rapid molecular weight screening technique to determine the average molecular weight range and polydispersity of polygalacturonic acid intended for use in pharmaceutical formulations. A TosoHaas G3000PWXL HPLC column, 50 mM phosphate buffer (pH approximately 6.9) mobile phase, and refractive index detection were used. A molecular weight calibration curve was linear for polysaccharide standards of 180-100,000 Da with a coefficient of correlation of 0.999. The method was employed to screen commercially available polygalacturonic acid raw materials for average molecular weight data (Mn, Mw, and Mp) and polydispersity (Mw/Mn). PMID:10746959

  2. Interactions between sodium dodecyl sulphate and non-ionic cellulose derivatives studied by size exclusion chromatography with online multi-angle light scattering and refractometric detection.

    PubMed

    Wittgren, Bengt; Stefansson, Morgan; Porsch, Bedrich

    2005-08-01

    The novel approach described allows to characterise the surfactant-polymer interaction under several sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) concentrations (0-20 mM) using size exclusion chromatography (SEC) with online multi-angle light scattering (MALS) and refractometric (RI) detection. Three different cellulose derivatives, hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC), hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) and hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC), have been studied in solution containing 10 mM NaCl and various concentrations of sodium dodecyl sulphate. It is shown that this approach is well suited for successful application of both Hummel-Dreyer and multi-component light scattering principles and yields reliable molecular masses of both the polymer complex and the polymer itself within the complex, the amount of surfactant bound into the complex as well as appropriate values of the refractive index increment (dn/dc)micro, of both the complex and the polymer in question. The more hydrophobic derivatives HPC and HPMC adsorbed significantly more SDS than HEC. The inter-chain interactions close to critical aggregation concentration (cac) were clearly seen for HPC and HPMC as an almost two-fold average increase in polymer molecular mass contained in the complex. PMID:16035358

  3. Size exclusion and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography/UV for routine control of thermal processing of cows' and donkey milk major proteins.

    PubMed

    Pinho, Carina; Martins, Zita E; Petisca, Catarina; Figurska, Agata M; Pinho, Olvia; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O

    2012-05-01

    Cows' and donkey milks (raw and thermally processed) and respective whey were analysed for quantification of major proteins. Two different chromatographic approaches, size exclusion (SE-HPLC) and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) both coupled to UV detection were used. Usefulness of these methods for routine control of the effect of thermal processing was evaluated. The external standard method was used to calibrate the SE-HPLC and RP-HPLC systems. Concerning quantification of ?-lactoglobulin (?-lg), ?-lactalbumin (?-la), lysozyme (lys), and total casein (cn), no significant differences between results obtained by SE-HPLC and by RP-HPLC (t-test, P>005) were observed for raw milks and whey. Heating of cows' milk promoted aggregation of denatured proteins as observed by SE-HPLC, whereas ?-la and ?-lg from donkey milk were stable to thermal processing at 100 C (5 min). Lys was quantified in donkey raw milk and whey however, in thermally processed donkey milk lys was denatured and could not be quantified by HPLC. PMID:22420770

  4. Purification of recombinant virus-like particles of porcine circovirus type 2 capsid protein using ion-exchange monolith chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zaveckas, Mindaugas; Snipaitis, Simas; Pesliakas, Henrikas; Nainys, Juozas; Gedvilaite, Alma

    2015-06-01

    Diseases associated with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infection are having a severe economic impact on swine-producing countries. The PCV2 capsid (Cap) protein expressed in eukaryotic systems self-assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs) which can serve as antigens for diagnostics or/and as vaccine candidates. In this work, conventional adsorbents as well as a monolithic support with large pore sizes were examined for the chromatographic purification of PCV2 Cap VLPs from clarified yeast lysate. Q Sepharose XL was used for the initial separation of VLPs from residual host nucleic acids and some host cell proteins. For the further purification of PCV2 Cap VLPs, SP Sepharose XL, Heparin Sepharose CL-6B and CIMmultus SO3 monolith were tested. VLPs were not retained on SP Sepharose XL. The purity of VLPs after chromatography on Heparin Sepharose CL-6B was only 4-7% and the recovery of VLPs was 5-7%. Using ion-exchange chromatography on the CIMmultus SO3 monolith, PCV2 Cap VLPs with the purity of about 40% were obtained. The recovery of VLPs after chromatography on the CIMmultus SO3 monolith was 15-18%. The self-assembly of purified PCV2 Cap protein into VLPs was confirmed by electron microscopy. Two-step chromatographic purification procedure of PCV2 Cap VLPs from yeast lysate was developed using Q Sepharose XL and cation-exchange CIMmultus SO3 monolith. PMID:25910233

  5. [Determination of mannose-6-phosphate in pharmaceutical intermediates by high performance ion-exchange chromatography-electrochemical detection].

    PubMed

    Pan, Guangwen; Liu, Lye; Ye, Mingli; Hu, Zhongyang

    2012-04-01

    A novel method was developed for the determination of mannose-6-phosphate and the phosphate in pharmaceutical intermediates by high performance ion-exchange chromatography (IC) and electrochemical detection. The sample was dissolved with purified water, filtrated by a 0.22 microm nylon filter membrane, and then separated by ion-exchange chromatography. The separation was performed on an IonPac AS18 column (250 mm x4 mm) with an IonPac AG18 (50 mm x4 mm) as guard column, and 25 mmol/L KOH solution as the eluent at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The detection was performed with electrochemical detectors (an integrated pulsed amperometric detector and a suppressed conductivity detector in line). Mannose-6-phosphate was selectively determined with an integrated pulsed amperometric detector first. Then, both of mannose-6-phosphate and phosphate were determined with a suppressed conductivity detector after the background conductance of KOH was suppressed with the ASRS suppressor. The injection volume was 25 microL. The external standard calibration curve was used for quantitative analysis. With an amperometric detector, the linear range of the method for mannose-6-phosphate were 0.06 - 10.0 mg/L (r = 0.9998). The recoveries were 92.1% - 103.1% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 3%. The detection limit was 0.02 mg/L for mannose-6-phosphate. The method is simple, effective, sensitive and selective. It can be used to determine the quality of pharmaceutical intermediates. PMID:22799198

  6. Direct separation and detection of biogenic amines by ion-pair liquid chromatography with chemiluminescent nitrogen detector.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jingshun; Guo, Hong-Xun; Semin, David; Cheetham, Janet

    2011-07-22

    Analysis of biogenic amines is critical to pharmaceutical and food industry due to their biological importance. For many years, the determination of biogenic amines has relied on high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupling with pre-, on-, or post-column derivatization procedures to enable UV or fluorescent detections. In this study, 14 biogenic amines were separated on a Phenomenex Luna Phenyl-Hexyl column by an ion-pair liquid chromatography method using perfluorocarboxylic acids as ion-pair reagents and detected by a chemiluminescent nitrogen detector (CLND). This direct separation and detection HPLC method eliminated the time consuming and cumbersome derivatization procedures. Compared with HPLC-UV (post-column derivatization with ninhydrin) and HPLC-charged aerosol detector (CAD) methods, this HPLC-CLND technique provided narrower peaks, better baselines, and improved separations and detections. Excellent linearity was acquired by CLND for each of the 14 biogenic amines ranging from less than 1 ng to about 1000 ng (on-column weights). The relative response factors determined by this LC-CLND method were proportional to the numbers of nitrogen atoms in each compound, which has been the characteristic of the equimolar determinations by CLND. In addition, a number of samples including beer, dairy beverage, herb tea, and vinegar were analyzed by the LC-CLND method with satisfactory precision and accuracy. PMID:21665217

  7. Simultaneous determination of artificial sweeteners, preservatives, caffeine, theobromine and theophylline in food and pharmaceutical preparations by ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Chen, Q C; Wang, J

    2001-12-01

    A novel ion chromatographic method was proposed for the simultaneous determination of artificial sweeteners (sodium saccharin, aspartame, acesulfame-K), preservatives (benzoic acid, sorbic acid), caffeine, theobromine and theophylline. The separation was performed on an anion-exchange analytical column operated at 40 degrees C within 45 min by an isocratic elution with 5 mM aqueous NaH2PO4 (pH 8.20) solution containing 4% (v/v) acetonitrile as eluent, and the determination by wavelength-switching ultraviolet absorbance detection. The detection limits (signal-to-noise ratio 3:1) for all analytes were below the sub-microg/ml level. Under the experimental conditions, several organic acids, including citric acid, malic acid, tartaric acid and ascorbic acid, did not interfere with the determination. The method has been successfully applied to the analysis of various food and pharmaceutical preparations, and the average recoveries for real samples ranged from 85 to 104%. The levels of all analytes determined by this method were in good agreement with those obtained by the high-performance liquid chromatographic procedure. The results also indicated that ion chromatography would be possibly a beneficial alternative to conventional high-performance liquid chromatography for the separation and determination of these compounds. PMID:11765085

  8. Analysis of sulfonated naphthalene-formaldehyde condensates by ion-pair chromatography and their quantitative determination from aqueous environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Wolf, C; Storm, T; Lange, F T; Reemtsma, T; Brauch, H J; Eberle, S H; Jekel, M

    2000-11-01

    An ion-pair solid-phase extraction (IPE), ion-pair chromatography (IPC) procedure with fluorescence detection for the quantitative analysis of sulfonated naphthalene-formaldehyde condensates (SNFC) was developed, which provides full resolution of SNFC up to a degree of condensation n = 5 and partial resolution up to n = 15. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry confirmed that SNFC elute in the order of condensation. Response factors in fluorescence detection proved to be mass-constant, thereby allowing us to determine total SNFC amounts. With this IPC method, the weight- and the number-average molecular weights of these high-volume production chemicals (kiloton per annum), used as synthetic tanning agents, concrete plasticizers, and dispersants, can be determined. Recoveries in IPE range from 73 to 85% in river Rhine water and from 79 to 93% in tap water for n = 2 to n = 7 with limits of detection of 3-8 ng/L for individual homologues from 500 mL of water. The IPE-IPC procedure was applied to samples of secondary industrial effluents, river Rhine water, a river bank filtrate, and a groundwater sample. SNFC up to n = 6 were detected in the treated effluents. Total concentrations ranged from 208 micrograms/L in a secondary treated SNFC production effluent to < 1.4 micrograms/L in groundwater. These first analyses suggest a widespread occurrence of the lower oligomers of SNFC in the aquatic environment. PMID:11080902

  9. Online spectrophotometric determination of Fe(II) and Fe(III) by flow injection combined with low pressure ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shujuan; Li, Nan; Zhang, Xinshen; Yang, Dongjing; Jiang, Heimei

    2015-03-01

    A simple and new low pressure ion chromatography combined with flow injection spectrophotometric procedure for determining Fe(II) and Fe(III) was established. It is based on the selective adsorption of low pressure ion chromatography column to Fe(II) and Fe(III), the online reduction reaction of Fe(III) and the reaction of Fe(II) in sodium acetate with phenanthroline, resulting in an intense orange complex with a suitable absorption at 515nm. Various chemical (such as the concentration of colour reagent, eluant and reductive agent) and instrumental parameters (reaction coil length, reductive coil length and wavelength) were studied and were optimized. Under the optimum conditions calibration graph of Fe(II)/Fe(III) was linear in the Fe(II)/Fe(III) range of 0.040-1.0mg/L. The detection limit of Fe(III) and Fe(II) was respectively 3.09 and 1.55μg/L, the relative standard deviation (n=10) of Fe(II) and Fe(III) 1.89% and 1.90% for 0.5mg/L of Fe(II) and Fe(III) respectively. About 2.5 samples in 1h can be analyzed. The interfering effects of various chemical species were studied. The method was successfully applied in the determination of water samples. PMID:25523043

  10. Online spectrophotometric determination of Fe(II) and Fe(III) by flow injection combined with low pressure ion chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shujuan; Li, Nan; Zhang, Xinshen; Yang, Dongjing; Jiang, Heimei

    2015-03-01

    A simple and new low pressure ion chromatography combined with flow injection spectrophotometric procedure for determining Fe(II) and Fe(III) was established. It is based on the selective adsorption of low pressure ion chromatography column to Fe(II) and Fe(III), the online reduction reaction of Fe(III) and the reaction of Fe(II) in sodium acetate with phenanthroline, resulting in an intense orange complex with a suitable absorption at 515 nm. Various chemical (such as the concentration of colour reagent, eluant and reductive agent) and instrumental parameters (reaction coil length, reductive coil length and wavelength) were studied and were optimized. Under the optimum conditions calibration graph of Fe(II)/Fe(III) was linear in the Fe(II)/Fe(III) range of 0.040-1.0 mg/L. The detection limit of Fe(III) and Fe(II) was respectively 3.09 and 1.55 μg/L, the relative standard deviation (n = 10) of Fe(II) and Fe(III) 1.89% and 1.90% for 0.5 mg/L of Fe(II) and Fe(III) respectively. About 2.5 samples in 1 h can be analyzed. The interfering effects of various chemical species were studied. The method was successfully applied in the determination of water samples.

  11. Ion and gas chromatography mass spectrometry investigations of organophosphates in lithium ion battery electrolytes by electrochemical aging at elevated cathode potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Waldemar; Wagner, Ralf; Streipert, Benjamin; Kraft, Vadim; Winter, Martin; Nowak, Sascha

    2016-02-01

    The electrochemical aging of commercial non-aqueous lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6)/organic carbonate solvent based lithium ion battery electrolyte has been investigated in view of the formation of ionic and non-ionic alkylated phosphates. Subject was a solvent mixture of ethylene carbonate/ethyl methyl carbonate EC:EMC (1:1, by wt.) with 1 M LiPF6 (LP50 Selectilyte™, BASF). The analysis was carried out by ion chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) for ionic compounds and (headspace) gas chromatography mass spectrometry ((HS)-GC-MS) for non-ionic compounds. The electrochemical aging was performed by galvanostatic charge/discharge cycling and potentiostatic experiments with LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LMNO) as cathode material at increased cut-off potentials (>4.5 V vs. Li/Li+). A strong dependence of the formation of organophosphates on the applied electrode potential was observed and investigated by quantitative analysis of the formed phosphates. In addition, new possible "fingerprint" compounds for describing the electrolyte status were investigated and compared to existing compounds.

  12. Determination of major sodium iodide symporter (NIS) inhibitors in drinking waters using ion chromatography with conductivity detector.

    PubMed

    Cengiz, Mehmet Fatih; Bilgin, Ayse Kevser

    2016-02-20

    Goiter is an important health problem all over the world and iodine deficiency is its most common cause. Perchlorate, thiocyanate and nitrate (called as major NIS inhibitors) are known to competitively inhibit iodide uptake by the thyroid gland and thus, human exposure to major NIS inhibitors is a public health concern. In this study, an ion chromatographic method for the determination of most common NIS inhibitor ions in drinking waters was developed and validated. This is the first study where an analytical method is used for the determination of major NIS inhibitors in drinking water by an ion chromatography system in a single run. Chromatographic separations were achieved with an anion-exchange column and separated ions were identified by a conductivity detector. The method was found to be selective, linear, precise accurate and true for all of interested ions. The limits of the detections (LOD) were estimated at 0.003, 0.004 and 0.025mgL(-1) for perchlorate, thiocyanate and nitrate, respectively. Possible interference ions in drinking waters were examined for the best separation of NIS inhibitors. The excellent method validation data and proficiency test result (Z-score for nitrate: -0.1) of the FAPAS(®) suggested that the developed method could be applied for determination of NIS inhibitor residues in drinking waters. To evaluate the usefulness of the method, 75 drinking water samples from Antalya/Turkey were analyzed for NIS inhibitors. Perchlorate concentrations in the samples ranged from not detected (less than LOD) to 0.07±0.02mgL(-1) and the range of nitrate concentrations were found to be 3.60±0.01mgL(-1) and 47.42±0.40mgL(-1). No thiocyanate residues were detected in tested drinking water samples. PMID:26744989

  13. Analysis of inorganic species by capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry and ion exchange chromatography-mass spectrometry using an ion spray source.

    PubMed

    Corr, J J; Anacleto, J F

    1996-07-01

    Mixtures of inorganic ions separated by capillary electrophoresis (CE) and ion exchange chromatography (IC) are detected by mass spectrometry (MS) using an ion spray atmospheric pressure ionization source. The selectable degree of ion-adduct declustering and molecular fragmentation in the MS interface region allows the system to be operated as an elemental analyzer or as a molecular detector suitable for oxidation state determinations. Both inorganic anions and cations (including alkalis, alkaline earths, transition metals, and lanthanides) are analyzed by CE-MS. A variety of CE separation buffers are evaluated for the cation analyses (e.g., creatinine, ammonium acetate, and tris[hydroxymethyl]aminomethane). Only one of the buffers (i.e., creatinine) can be used for CE-indirect UV detection. A CE capillary permanently coated with strong anion exchange sites and a pyromellitic acid buffer (suitable for indirect UV detection) is used for the inorganic anion separations. The coated column eliminates the need for buffer modifiers to reverse the flow in the capillary, which then reduces background noise and mass spectral complexity. The separation and detection of 13 inorganic anions are also accomplished by IC using an anion exchange column with a carbonate-bicarbonate mobile phase, on-line suppressed conductivity detection, and mass spectrometric detection. PMID:21619300

  14. Liquid chromatography and ion trap mass spectrometry for simultaneous and multiclass analysis of antimicrobial residues in feed water.

    PubMed

    Ardsoongnearn, Chusak; Boonbanlu, Ongart; Kittijaruwattana, Sunan; Suntornsuk, Leena

    2014-01-15

    This work firstly reported the development of liquid chromatography coupled to an ion trap mass spectrometer (LC-MS ion trap) for the simultaneous determination of nitrofurans (e.g. nitrofurazone (NFZ), nitrofurantoin (NFT), furazolidone (FZD) and furaltadone (FTD)), nitroimidazoles (e.g. metronidazole (MNZ), ronidazole (RNZ) and dimetridazole (DMZ)) and chloramphenicol (CAP) in feed water. Isotope-labeled internal standards for the corresponding target analytes were employed to prevent matrix effects that might lead to signal suppression/enhancement. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis was performed on a Prodigy ODS-3 column, 2.0mm150mm, 5?m with a guard cartridge at a flow rate of 0.2mL/min, column oven temperature of 40C, and an injection volume of 10?L. Solid phase extraction (SPE) procedures, factors affecting HPLC separation (e.g. buffer pH and concentrations) and mass spectrometry (MS) parameters were optimized. After an off-line SPE by the OASIS HLB cartridges (with an enrichment factor of 400), the eight antimicrobial agents were separated in 18min using a gradient elution of acetonitrile in acidified water (pH 5.0). MS detection was by an ion trap MS coupled with electrospray ionization (ESI) in tandem mass spectrometry mode (MS/MS) using the nebulizer gas at 35psi, drying gas at 9L/min and drying temperature of 325C. Method linearity was good (r(2)=0.979-0.999) with acceptable precision (% RSDs=3.4-26.6%) and accuracy (%recovery=88.4-110.1%). Very low limits of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ) were achieved in ranges of 0.002-0.06?g/L and 0.005-0.25?g/L, respectively. The established method is successfully employed by the Department of Livestock Development of Thailand for the monitoring of the drug residues in feed waterbecause of its convenience, reliability and high sensitivity. PMID:24321758

  15. Molecular dynamic theories in chromatography.

    PubMed

    Felinger, Attila

    2008-03-14

    The molecular dynamic model of chromatography is a microscopic model that consists of two fundamental processes: (i) the random migration of the molecules in the mobile phase, and (ii) the random adsorption-desorption of molecules on the stationary phase. The diffusion and drift of the molecules in the mobile phase is usually described with a simple one-dimensional random walk. The adsorption-desorption process is modeled most of the time by a Poisson process that assumes exponential sojourn times of the molecules in both the mobile and the stationary phases. The molecular dynamic model of chromatography can simply be used to characterize the chromatographic process on heterogeneous stationary phases. It has been applied to reversed phase, chiral, size-exclusion, and ion-exchange separations. PMID:18199443

  16. MULTIPLE ELUENT AND PH EFFECTS ON ION CHROMATOGRAPHY OF PHOSPHATE AND ARSENATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ion-exchange separation theory of Mayer and Tompkins is extended to the case of multiple eluent ions. The selectivity coefficients for carbonate and hydroxide, each relative to bicarbonate, were estimated from retention data for bromide and sulfate. These results were used to...

  17. Multidimensional Separation of Natural Products Using Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Hadamard Transform Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenjie; Zhang, Xing; Knochenmuss, Richard; Siems, William F.; Hill, Herbert H.

    2016-02-01

    A high performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC)was interfaced to an atmospheric drift tube ion mobility time of flight mass spectrometry. The power of multidimensional separation was demonstrated using chili pepper extracts. The ambient pressure drift tube ion mobility provided high resolving powers up to 166 for the HPLC eluent. With implementation of Hadamard transform (HT), the duty cycle for the ion mobility drift tube was increased from less than 1% to 50%, and the ion transmission efficiency was improved by over 200 times compared with pulsed mode, improving signal to noise ratio 10 times. HT ion mobility and TOF mass spectrometry provide an additional dimension of separation for complex samples without increasing the analysis time compared with conventional HPLC.

  18. How does roasting affect the antioxidants of a coffee brew? Exploring the antioxidant capacity of coffee via on-line antioxidant assays coupled with size exclusion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Smrke, Samo; Opitz, Sebastian E W; Vovk, Irena; Yeretzian, Chahan

    2013-07-01

    During coffee roasting major changes occur in coffee bean composition. Among others dark coloured melanoidins are formed, which are high molecular weight Maillard reaction products. A new approach is presented here to monitor the influence of roasting conditions on the antioxidant capacity of melanoidins and chlorogenic acids (CGAs) in a coffee brew. Validated Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) and ABTS assays were used as on-line antioxidant assays coupled (post-column) with high performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC). HPSEC enabled the separation of melanoidins from CGAs and the determination of the antioxidant capacity of each fraction, within a total elution time of 25 min. Besides the on-line assay measurements, both assays were also applied off-line with flow injection analysis (FIA). The maximum antioxidant capacity was determined to be at a light-to-medium roast degree, measured with both ABTS-FIA and FC-FIA assays as well as on-line ABTS assay. With FC on-line assay the maximum was found to be at a very light roast degree. Based on the peak areas obtained with the new coupled technique the roasting effects on the variability of melanoidin and CGA contents in coffee brews were studied. The majority of melanoidins are already formed in the early stage of the roasting process and the relative contribution of melanoidins to the total antioxidant capacity increases towards darker roasts, mainly because CGAs degrade during roasting. A new parameter, the ratio of melanoidin to CGA peak area, was introduced as a possible predictor of the roast degree. PMID:23592006

  19. Continuous processing of recombinant proteins: integration of refolding and purification using simulated moving bed size-exclusion chromatography with buffer recycling.

    PubMed

    Wellhoefer, Martin; Sprinzl, Wolfgang; Hahn, Rainer; Jungbauer, Alois

    2014-04-11

    Continuous processing of recombinant proteins was accomplished by combining continuous matrix-assisted refolding and purification by tandem simulated moving bed (SMB) size-exclusion chromatography (SEC). Recombinant proteins, N(pro) fusion proteins from inclusion bodies were dissolved with NaOH and refolded in the SMB system with a closed-loop set-up with refolding buffer as the desorbent buffer and buffer recycling of the refolding buffer of the raffinate by tangential flow filtration. For further purification of the refolded proteins, a second SMB operation also based on SEC was added. The whole system could be operated isocratically with refolding buffer as the desorbent buffer, and buffer recycling could also be applied in the purification step. Thus, a significant reduction in buffer consumption was achieved. The system was evaluated with two proteins, the N(pro) fusion pep6His and N(pro) fusion MCP-1. Refolding solution, which contained residual N(pro) fusion peptide, the cleaved autoprotease N(pro), and the cleaved target peptide was used as feed solution. Full separation of the cleaved target peptide from residual proteins was achieved at a purity and recovery in the raffinate and extract, respectively, of approximately 100%. In addition, more than 99% of the refolding buffer of the raffinate was recycled. A comparison of throughput, productivity, and buffer consumption of the integrated continuous process with two batch processes demonstrated that up to 60-fold higher throughput, up to 180-fold higher productivity, and at least 28-fold lower buffer consumption can be obtained by the integrated continuous process, which compensates for the higher complexity. PMID:24630055

  20. Size-exclusion chromatography as a stand-alone methodology identifies novel markers in mass spectrometry analyses of plasma-derived vesicles from healthy individuals

    PubMed Central

    de Menezes-Neto, Armando; Sáez, María José Fidalgo; Lozano-Ramos, Inés; Segui-Barber, Joan; Martin-Jaular, Lorena; Ullate, Josep M. Estanyol; Fernandez-Becerra, Carmen; Borrás, Francesc E.; del Portillo, Hernando A.

    2015-01-01

    Plasma-derived vesicles hold a promising potential for use in biomedical applications. Two major challenges, however, hinder their implementation into translational tools: (a) the incomplete characterization of the protein composition of plasma-derived vesicles, in the size range of exosomes, as mass spectrometric analysis of plasma sub-components is recognizably troublesome and (b) the limited reach of vesicle-based studies in settings where the infrastructural demand of ultracentrifugation, the most widely used isolation/purification methodology, is not available. In this study, we have addressed both challenges by carrying-out mass spectrometry (MS) analyses of plasma-derived vesicles, in the size range of exosomes, from healthy donors obtained by 2 alternative methodologies: size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) on sepharose columns and Exo-Spin™. No exosome markers, as opposed to the most abundant plasma proteins, were detected by Exo-Spin™. In contrast, exosomal markers were present in the early fractions of SEC where the most abundant plasma proteins have been largely excluded. Noticeably, after a cross-comparative analysis of all published studies using MS to characterize plasma-derived exosomes from healthy individuals, we also observed a paucity of “classical exosome markers.” Independent of the isolation method, however, we consistently identified 2 proteins, CD5 antigen-like (CD5L) and galectin-3-binding protein (LGALS3BP), whose presence was validated by a bead-exosome FACS assay. Altogether, our results support the use of SEC as a stand-alone methodology to obtain preparations of extracellular vesicles, in the size range of exosomes, from plasma and suggest the use of CD5L and LGALS3BP as more suitable markers of plasma-derived vesicles in MS. PMID:26154623

  1. Analysis of oligosaccharides derived from heparin by ion-pair reversed-phase chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Doneanu, Catalin E; Chen, Weibin; Gebler, John C

    2009-05-01

    Current chromatographic and mass spectrometric techniques have limitations for analyzing heparin and heparin oligomers due to their high polarity, structural diversity, and sulfate lability. A rapid method for the analysis of heparin oligosaccharides was developed using ion-pair reversed-phase ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry (IPRP-UPLC ESI Q-TOF MS). The method utilizes an optimized buffer system containing a linear pentylamine and a unique additive, 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP), to achieve highly efficient separation together with enhanced mass response of heparin oligosaccharides. Analyses of a heparin oligosaccharide test mixture, dp6 through dp22, reveal that the chromatographic conditions enable baseline resolution of isomeric heparin oligosaccharides (dp6) and produce intact molecular ions with no sulfate losses during mass spectrometric analysis. In addition, the described conditions are amenable to the detection of heparin oligosaccharides in positive ion mode, yield stronger positive ion signals for corresponding oligosaccharides compared to the negative ion mode, and allow identification of structural isomers by an MS/MS approach. Because sensitive detection of oligosaccharides is also achieved with ultraviolet (UV) detection, the method utilizes a dual detection scheme (UV and MS in series) along with IPRP UPLC to simultaneously obtain quantification (UV) and characterization (MS) data for heparin oligosaccharides. The broad potential of this new method is further demonstrated for the analysis of a low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) preparation from porcine heparin. This approach will be of particular utility for profiling the molecular entities of heparin materials, as well as for structural variability comparison for samples from various sources. PMID:19344114

  2. Generic detection of basic taxoids in wood of European Yew (Taxus baccata) by liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kite, Geoffrey C; Rowe, Emily R; Veitch, Nigel C; Turner, Jill E; Dauncey, Elizabeth A

    2013-02-01

    The occurrence of the cardiotoxin taxine (comprising taxine B and several other basic taxoids) in leaves of Taxus baccata L. (European yew) is well known and has led to public concerns about the safety of eating or drinking from utensils crafted from the wood of this poisonous species. The occurrence of basic taxoids in the heartwood of T. baccata had not been examined in detail, although the bark is known to contain 2'β-deacetoxyaustrospicatine. Initial examination of heartwood extracts for 2'β-deacetoxyaustrospicatine by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) revealed the presence of this basic taxoid at about 0.0007% dry weight, using a standard isolated from bark. Analyses for taxine B, however, proved negative at the extract concentration analysed. Observing other basic taxoids within the heartwood extracts was facilitated by developing generic LC-MS methods that utilised a fragment arising from the N-containing acyl group of basic taxoids as a reporter ion. Of the various MS strategies available on a hybrid ion trap-orbitrap instrument that allowed observation of this reporter ion, combining all-ion collisions with high resolution ion filtering by the orbitrap was most effective, both in terms of the number of basic taxoids detected and sensitivity. Numerous basic taxoids, in addition to 2'β-deacetoxyaustrospicatine, were revealed by this method in heartwood extracts of T. baccata. Red wine readily extracted the basic taxoids from heartwood while coffee extracted them less efficiently. Contamination with basic taxoids could also be detected in soft cheese that had been spread onto wood. The generic LC-MS method for detecting basic taxoids complements specific methods for detecting taxine B when investigating yew poisoning cases in which the analysis of complex extracts may be required or taxine B has not been detected. PMID:23314400

  3. Quantitative analysis of cytokinins in plants by high performance liquid chromatography: electronspray ionization ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weiqi; Gai, Ying; Liu, Shichang; Wang, Renxiao; Jiang, Xiangning

    2010-10-01

    The present paper introduces a highly sensitive and selective method for simultaneous quantification of 12 cytokinins (free form and their conjugates). The method includes a protocol of extraction with methanol/water/formic acid (15/4/1, v/v/v) to the micro-scale samples, pre-purification with solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridges of the extracts, separation with a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and detection by an electrospray ionization ion trap mass spectrometry (ESI-Ion trap-MS) system in a consecutive ion monitoring (CRM) mode at the three stage fragmentation of mass spectrometry (MS(3) ). The lowest detection level of the cytokinins of the method reaches 0.1-2.0 pg with a very wide range of linear regression from 1-512 pg, at the coefficient factors of 0.98-0.99. The feasibility of this method has been proven in the application of the method to the analysis of the trace-amount contents of cytokinins in the micro-scale samples of various types of plant materials, such as aerial parts of rice and poplar leaves etc. 12 endogenous cytokinins had been identified and quantified in the plant tissues, with an acceptable relatively higher recovery rate from 40% to 70%. PMID:20883444

  4. Ionic composition of seawaters and derived saline solutions determined by ion chromatography and its relation to other water quality parameters.

    PubMed

    Gros, Natasa; Cames, M F; Oliveira, Cristina; Silva, M C R

    2008-11-01

    Ion chromatography (IC) presents new possibilities for assessing information about environmental samples, namely waters of various compositions, ranging from high-purity water to highly saline ones. Constant proportion between major ions present in seawater, has been assumed in the past, from which the first practical equation relating chlorinity and salinity has been developed, being later substituted by a practical salinity scale, derived from conductivity measurements relative to a standard seawater, according to internationally accepted recommended procedures. Seawaters are characterized by salinity values around 35 while derived saline solutions may present considerable changes in ionic composition, conductivity, hence on salinity. Natural and anthropogenic phenomena may introduce new issues requiring clarification for which qualitative and quantitative information from additional sources is useful, e.g. ionic composition from IC. The different ranges of concentration of major and minor species present in seawater and derived saline solutions are a challenge for the optimization of a practical methodology for composition assessment in two single IC runs, one for anions and another one for cations, which has been attained in this work. Composition of saline solutions determined by IC was critically assessed in terms of anion-cation balance and further related to conductivity and salinity measurements aiming to evaluate the quality/completeness of ion chromatographic analyses performed at preselected conditions and to search for other meaningful relations for efficient recognition/distinction between saline solutions of different types. PMID:18829032

  5. Immobilized palladium(II) ion affinity chromatography for recovery of recombinant proteins with peptide tags containing histidine and cysteine.

    PubMed

    Kikot, Pamela; Polat, Aise; Achilli, Estefania; Fernandez Lahore, Marcelo; Grasselli, Mariano

    2014-11-01

    Fusion of peptide-based tags to recombinant proteins is currently one of the most used tools for protein production. Also, immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) has a huge application in protein purification, especially in research labs. The combination of expression systems of recombinant tagged proteins with this robust chromatographic system has become an efficient and rapid tool to produce milligram-range amounts of proteins. IMAC-Ni(II) columns have become the natural partners of 6xHis-tagged proteins. The Ni(II) ion is considered as the best compromise of selectivity and affinity for purification of a recombinant His-tagged protein. The palladium(II) ion is also able to bind to side chains of amino acids and form ternary complexes with iminodiacetic acid and free amino acids and other sulfur-containing molecules. In this work, we evaluated two different cysteine- and histidine-containing six amino acid tags linked to the N-terminal group of green fluorescent protein (GFP) and studied the adsorption and elution conditions using novel eluents. Both cysteine-containing tagged GFPs were able to bind to IMAC-Pd(II) matrices and eluted successfully using a low concentration of thiourea solution. The IMAC-Ni(II) system reaches less than 20% recovery of the cysteine-containing tagged GFP from a crude homogenate of recombinant Escherichia coli, meanwhile the IMAC-Pd(II) yields a recovery of 45% with a purification factor of 13. PMID:25277090

  6. Metabolomic analysis via reversed-phase ion-pairing liquid chromatography coupled to a stand alone orbitrap mass spectrometer

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Wenyun; Clasquin, Michelle F.; Melamud, Eugene; Amador-Noguez, Daniel; Caudy, Amy A.; Rabinowitz, Joshua D.

    2010-01-01

    We present a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method that capitalizes on the mass-resolving power of the orbitrap to enable sensitive and specific measurement of known and unanticipated metabolites in parallel, with a focus on water soluble species involved in core metabolism. The reversed phase LC method, with a cycle time 25 min, involves a water-methanol gradient on a C18 column with tributylamine as the ion pairing agent. The MS portion involves full scans from 85 800 m/z at 1 Hz and 100,000 resolution in negative ion mode on a stand alone orbitrap (Exactive). The median limit of detection, across 80 metabolite standards, was 5 ng/mL with linear range typically ? 100-fold. For both standards and a cellular extract from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Bakers yeast), the median inter-run relative standard deviation in peak intensity was 8%. In yeast exact, we detected 137 known compounds, whose 13C-labeling patterns could also be tracked to probe metabolic flux. In yeast engineered to lack a gene of unknown function (YKL215C), we observed accumulation of an ion of m/z 128.0351, which we subsequently confirmed to be oxoproline, resulting in annotation of YKL215C as an oxoprolinase. These examples demonstrate the suitability of the present method for quantitative metabolomics, fluxomics, and discovery metabolite profiling. PMID:20349993

  7. Analysis of particle content of recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 8 vectors by ion-exchange chromatography.

    PubMed

    Lock, Martin; Alvira, Mauricio R; Wilson, James M

    2012-02-01

    Advances in adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene therapy have brought the possibility of commercial manufacturing of AAV vectors one step closer. To realize this prospect, a parallel effort with the goal of ever-increasing sophistication for AAV vector production technology and supporting assays will be required. Among the important release assays for a clinical gene therapy product, those monitoring potentially hazardous contaminants are most critical for patient safety. A prominent contaminant in many AAV vector preparations is vector particles lacking a genome, which can substantially increase the dose of AAV capsid proteins and lead to possible unwanted immunological consequences. Current methods to determine empty particle content suffer from inconsistency, are adversely affected by contaminants, or are not applicable to all serotypes. Here we describe the development of an ion-exchange chromatography-based assay that permits the rapid separation and relative quantification of AAV8 empty and full vector particles through the application of shallow gradients and a strong anion-exchange monolith chromatography medium. PMID:22428980

  8. Detection of anionic energetic material residues in enhanced fingermarks on porous and non-porous surfaces using ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Love, Catherine; Gilchrist, Elizabeth; Smith, Norman; Barron, Leon

    2013-09-10

    The ability to link criminal activity and identity using validated analytical approaches can be of great value to forensic scientists. Herein, the factors affecting the recovery and detection of inorganic and organic energetic material residues within chemically or physically enhanced fingermarks on paper and glass substrates are presented using micro-bore anion exchange chromatography with suppressed conductivity detection. Fingermarks on both surfaces were enhanced using aluminium powder or ninhydrin after spiking with model test mixtures or through contact with black-powder substitutes. A quantitative study of the effects of environmental/method interferences, the sweat matrix, the surface and the enhancement technique on the relative anion recovery of forensically relevant species is presented. It is shown that the analytical method could detect target analytes at the nanogram level even within excesses of enhancement reagents and their reaction products when using solid phase extraction and/or microfiltration. To our knowledge, this work demonstrates for the first time that ion chromatography can detect anions in energetic materials within fingermarks on two very different surfaces, after operational enhancement techniques commonly used by forensic scientists and police have been applied. PMID:23890630

  9. Separation of silver ions and starch modified silver nanoparticles using high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet and inductively coupled mass spectrometric detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanley, Traci A.; Saadawi, Ryan; Zhang, Peng; Caruso, Joseph A.; Landero-Figueroa, Julio

    2014-10-01

    The production of commercially available products marketed to contain silver nanoparticles is rapidly increasing. Species-specific toxicity is a phenomenon associated with many elements, including silver, making it imperative to develop a method to identify and quantify the various forms of silver (namely, silver ions vs. silver nanoparticles) possibly present in these products. In this study a method was developed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet (UV-VIS) and inductively coupled mass spectrometric (ICP-MS) detection to separate starch stabilized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and silver ions (Ag+) by cation exchange chromatography with 0.5 M nitric acid mobile phase. The silver nanoparticles and ions were baseline resolved with an ICP-MS response linear over four orders of magnitude, 0.04 mg kg- 1 detection limit, and 90% chromatographic recovery for silver solutions containing ions and starch stabilized silver nanoparticles smaller than 100 nm.

  10. Simultaneous determination of amino acids and carbohydrates in culture media of Clostridium thermocellum by valve-switching ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Fa, Yun; Yang, Haiyan; Ji, Chengshuai; Cui, He; Zhu, Xinshu; Du, Juan; Gao, Jun

    2013-10-10

    An improved method for the simultaneous determination of 20 amino acids and 7 carbohydrates using one-valve switching after injection, ion chromatography, and integrated pulsed amperometric detection is proposed. The resolution of the amino acids and carbohydrates in the cation trap column was investigated. In addition, parameters including flow liquid type, flow rate, concentration, and valve-switch timing were optimized. The method is time-saving, effective, and accurate for the simultaneous separation of amino acids and carbohydrates, with a mean correlation coefficient of >0.99 and repeatability of 0.5-4.6% for eight replicates. The method was successfully applied in the analysis of amino acids and carbohydrates in aseptic media and in extracellular culture media of three phenotypes of Clostridium thermocellum. PMID:24070489

  11. Hand-portable gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometer for the determination of the freshness of fish

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, A. Peter; Harden, Charles S.; Davis, Dennis M.; Shoff, Donald B.; Maswadeh, Waleed M.

    1995-01-01

    A hand-held, portable gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometer (GC-IMS) device was used to detect the presence of volatile amine compounds in the headspace of decomposing fish. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) largely relies on olfactory discrimination with respect to fresh and spoiled, frozen and unfrozen fish. The fish are delivered at ship docks on pallets, and each pallet of fish can range from 30-40 thousand dollars in value. Fresh fish were placed in a teflon bag and the direct headspace was interrogated. In the first three days, only low molecular weight volatile amines were detected. On the fourth day, a number of spectral signatures were observed which indicated the presence of 1,5-diaminopentane, cadaverine. Analyses typically took from 0.5-1 minute.

  12. [Rapid determination of alkaloids in tobacco using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with full scan-selected ion monitoring mode].

    PubMed

    Wang, Baoxing; Yang, Shihua; Hou, Ying; Zeng, Xiaoying; Wu, Yi; Xu, Guowang

    2008-05-01

    Simultaneous full scan-selected ion monitoring mode (Scan-SIM) is a new improvement method of data acquisition of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A method of determing alkaloids in tobacco was established by GC-MS with Scan-SIM. Nicotine, nornicotine, anabasine and anatabine were determined with scan mode, and myosmine, nicotyrine, 2,3'-bipyridyl and cotinine were determined with SIM mode. The average recoveries of alkaloids ranged from 94.8% to 98.8%, and the relative standard deviations were less than 6.0% (n = 5). Therefore, it is a simple, rapid, accurate method. Tobacco samples picked in different years were determined using this method, and the results were satisfactory. PMID:18724666

  13. Evaluation of liquid chromatography-negative ion electrospray mass spectrometry for the determination of selected resin acids in river water.

    PubMed

    McMartin, Dena W; Peru, Kerry M; Headley, John V; Winkler, Marcus; Gillies, Jon A

    2002-04-01

    A liquid chromatography-negative ion electrospray mass spectrometric (LC-ESI-MS) method was evaluated for detection of four prevalent softwood-derived resin acids in natural water. Method detection limits based on a signal-to-noise ratio of 3:1 in river water samples of 0.40, 0.40, 0.30 and 0.25 microg l(-1) for abietic, dehydroabietic, isopimaric and pimaric acids, respectively, are comparable or lower than reported GC methods. Unlike the majority of GC methods, however, the three structural resin acid isomers (abietic, isopimaric and pimaric acids) do not separate sufficiently under the various LC conditions evaluated in this work. Therefore, LC-ESI-MS may not be suitable for instances where measurement of individual isomeric resin acids is required. However, the method is suitable for trace analysis of resin acids in natural waters where isomeric speciation is not required. PMID:12064541

  14. Liquid chromatography quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry for multiclass screening and identification of lipophilic marine biotoxins in bivalve mollusks.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haiyan; Guo, Mengmeng; Tan, Zhijun; Cheng, Haiyan; Li, Zhaoxin; Zhai, Yuxiu

    2014-09-01

    A liquid chromatography quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry method with fast polarity switching and a scheduled multiple reaction monitoring algorithm mode was developed for multiclass screening and identification of lipophilic marine biotoxins in bivalve molluscs. A major advantage of the method is that it can detect members of all six groups of lipophilic marine biotoxins [okadaic acid (OA), yessotoxins (YTX), azaspiracids (AZA), pectenotoxins (PTX), cyclic imines (CI), and brevetoxins (PbTx)], thereby allowing quantification and high confidence identification from a single liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) injection. An enhanced product ion (EPI) library was constructed after triggered collection of data via information-dependent acquisition (IDA) of EPI spectra from standard samples. A separation method for identifying 17 target toxins in a single analysis within 12min was developed and tested. Different solid phase extraction sorbents, the matrix effect (for oyster, scallop, and mussel samples), and stability of the standards also were evaluated. Matrix-matched calibration was used for quantification of the toxins. The limits of detection were 0.12-13.6?g/kg, and the limits of quantification were 0.39-45.4?g/kg. The method was used to analyze 120 shellfish samples collected from farming areas along the coast of China, and 7% of the samples were found to be contaminated with toxins. The library search identified PbTx-3, YTX, OA, PTX2, AZA1, AZA2, and desmethylspirolide C (SPX1). Overall, the method exhibited excellent sensitivity and reproducibility, and it will have broad applications in the monitoring of lipophilic marine biotoxins. PMID:25086754

  15. Influence of carboxylic ion-pairing reagents on retention of peptides in thin-layer chromatography systems with C18 silica-based adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Gwarda, Radosław Ł; Aletańska-Kozak, Monika; Klimek-Turek, Anna; Ziajko-Jankowska, Agnieszka; Matosiuk, Dariusz; Dzido, Tadeusz H

    2016-04-01

    One of the main problems related to chromatography of peptides concerns adverse interactions of their strong basic groups with free silanol groups of the silica based stationary phase. Influence of type and concentration of ion-pairing regents on peptide retention in reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) systems has been discussed before. Here we present influence of these mobile phase additives on retention of some peptide standards in high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) systems with C18 silica-based adsorbents. We prove, that due to different characteristic of adsorbents used in both techniques (RP HPLC and HPTLC), influence of ion-pairing reagents on retention of basic and/or amphoteric compounds also may be quite different. C18 silica-based HPTLC adsorbents provide more complex mechanism of retention and should be rather considered as mixed-mode adsorbents. PMID:26944833

  16. [Simultaneous determination of 25 persistent organic pollutants in rice by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with selected ion monitoring mode].

    PubMed

    Hou, Shengjun; Chen, Dandan; Li, Xiang; Li, Gang; Yang, Qiang; Min, Shungeng; Zhong, Weike; Chu, Xiaogang; Wang, Daning

    2005-05-01

    A multi-residue analytical method for the simultaneous determination of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in rice samples was developed. POPs were extracted from rice with ethyl acetate/n-hexane (80:20, v/v) by sonication, and determined by gas chromatography with electron impact mass spectrometric detection in the selected ion monitoring mode. A fused silica capillary column DB-35MS (30 m x 0.25 mm i.d. x 0.25 microm) was employed. Operating conditions were as follows: injector port temperature, 300 degrees C; column temperature, programming; carrier gas, helium; flow rate, 1.0 mL/min; sample size, 1 microL with splitless injection. The mass spectrometric detector (MSD) was operated in electron impact ionization mode with an ionizing energy of 70 eV. Analysis was performed with selected ion monitoring (SIM) using one target and one or two qualifier ion. POPs were confirmed by their retention times, their qualifier and target ions, and their qualifier/target abundance ratios. Recovery studies were performed at 0.05, 0.1, and 0.5 mg/L spiked levels of each POPs, and the recoveries obtained ranged from 81.99% to 100.60% with relative standard deviations between 2.37% and 18.48%. The detection limits of the method ranged from 0.1 to 5 ng/g for the different POPs except endrin, trans-chlordane and cis-chlordane. The results show that the method developed is sensitive and reliable. PMID:16124561

  17. Characterization of diacylglycerol isomers in edible oils using gas chromatography-ion trap electron ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hanjiang; Clegg, Michael S; Shoemaker, Charles F; Wang, Selina C

    2013-08-23

    Verifying the authenticity of edible oils is of international concern. A new quality control standard for olive oil has been proposed that relates the ratio of 1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG) to 1,3-DAG to sensory aspects of olive oil. DAGs and their isomers are difficult to quantitate and characterize by Flame Ionization Gas Chromatography (GC-FID) due to the lack of suitable standards. Mass detectors offer the advantage of providing structural detail to the eluding DAG(s), thus removing ambiguity to the identification of both resolved and unresolved DAGs in GC chromatograms. In this study, a GC Electron Ionization Mass Spectrometry (GC-EI-MS) method was developed to determine the fatty acid composition and molecular structure of trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatized DAGs present in edible oils. Twenty-two species of DAG isomers were identified in refined coconut oil and unrefined olive oil utilizing signature fragment ions, [M-15](+), [M-89](+), [M-RCO2](+), [RCO2+58](+) and [M-RCO2CH2](+). The [M-RCO2CH2](+) ion is considered the key diagnostic ion to distinguish between DAG positional isomers. MS/MS spectra of [M-RCO2](+) and [M-15](+) ions obtained from commercial standards containing both 1,2- and 1,3-DAG isomers were used as a model system to confirm the identification of DAG isomers in natural products. Furthermore, a number of reaction mechanisms are proposed to explain the formation of the most abundant mass fragments of DAGs and their isomers. PMID:23880469

  18. Analysis of indandione anticoagulant rodenticides in animal liver by eluent generator reagent free ion chromatography coupled with electrospray mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jin, Mi-cong; Chen, Xiao-hong; Ye, Ming-li; Zhu, Yan

    2008-12-01

    A novel analytical method has been developed for simultaneous determination of four indandione anticoagulant rodenticides (diphacinone, chlorophacinone, pindone and valone) in animal liver tissues by eluent generator reagent free ion chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (RFIC-ESI-MS). After the rodenticides were extracted from homogenized animal liver tissues with methanol-acetonitrile (10/90, v/v), the extracts were subjected to a solid-phase extraction (SPE) process using Oasis HLB cartridges. The IC separation was carried out on an IonPac AS11 analytical column (250 mm x 4.0 mm) using 10% methanol in a gradient of KOH solution at a constant flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The objective compounds were ionized by negative ion pneumatically assisted electrospray and detected in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. Warfarin was applied as an internal standard (IS) for the compensation of the losses in the course of sample processing and the sensitivity drift of the detector, linear calibration functions were calculated for all analytes. The relative average recoveries of the objective compounds spiked in animal liver tissues were between 83.4 and 104.9%. The limits of quantification (LOQs) were 0.2-1.0 ng/g for them. Within-day and day-to-day relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than 10.4 and 13.3%, respectively. It was confirmed that this method could be used in a toxicological analysis. The coupling of IC to MS provided a new analytical tool to the analysts faced with the requirement of separating and analyzing indandione rodenticides in animal livers. PMID:18804211

  19. EVALUATION OF GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY COUPLED WITH ION MOBILITY SPECTROMETRY FOR MONITORING VINYL CHLORIDE AND OTHER CHLORINATED AND AROMATIC COMPOUNDS IN AIR SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this research was to evaluate, in the laboratory, the potential of gas chromatography/ion mobility spectrometry (GC/IMS) for monitoring vinyl chloride and other organic compounds in air samples in the field. It was determined that GC/IMS has the potential to dire...

  20. A Computer-Based Undergraduate Exercise Using Internet-Accessible Simulation Software for the Study of Retention Behavior and Optimization of Separation Conditions in Ion Chromatography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddad, Paul R.; Shaw, Matthew J.; Madden, John E.; Dicinoski, Greg W.

    2004-01-01

    The ability to scan retention data over a wide range of eluent composition opens up the possibility of a computerized selection of the optimal separation conditions. The major characteristics of retention behavior, peak-shape effects and pH effects evident in ion chromatography (IC) using common stationary phases and eluents are illustrated.

  1. POLAR ORGANIC CHEMICAL INTEGRATIVE SAMPLING AND LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY-ELECTROSPRAY/ION-TRAP MASS SPECTROMETRY FOR ASSESSING SELECTED PRESCRIPTION AND ILLICIT DRUGS IN TREATED SEWAGE EFFLUENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the research presented in this paper is two-fold: (1) to demonstrate the 4 coupling of two state-of-the-art techniques: a time-weighted polar organic integrative sampler (POCIS) and micro-liquid chromatography-electrospray/ion trap mass spectrometry (u-LC-6 ES/ITMS...

  2. DETERMINATION OF A BOUND MUSK XYLENE METABOLITE IN CARP HEMOGLOBIN AS A BIOMARKER OF EXPOSURE BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY MASS SPECTROMETRY USING SELECTED ION MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Musk xylene (MX) is widely used as a fragrance ingredient in commercial toiletries. Identification and quantification of a bound 4-amino-MX (AMX) metabolite was carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), with selected ion monitoring (SIM). Detection of AMX occur...

  3. Profiling the indole alkaloids in yohimbe bark with ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ion mobility quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-ion mobility- quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-IM-QTOF-MS) method was developed for profiling the indole alkaloids in yohimbe bark. Many indole alkaloids with the yohimbine core structure, plus methylated, oxidized, and reduced speci...

  4. Application of linear pH gradients for the modeling of ion exchange chromatography: Separation of monoclonal antibody monomer from aggregates.

    PubMed

    Kluters, Simon; Wittkopp, Felix; Jöhnck, Matthias; Frech, Christian

    2016-02-01

    The mobile phase pH is a key parameter of every ion exchange chromatography process. However, mechanistic insights into the pH influence on the ion exchange chromatography equilibrium are rare. This work describes a mechanistic model capturing salt and pH influence in ion exchange chromatography. The pH dependence of the characteristic protein charge and the equilibrium constant is introduced to the steric mass action model based on a protein net charge model considering the number of amino acids interacting with the stationary phase. This allows the description of the adsorption equilibrium of the chromatographed proteins as a function of pH. The model parameters were determined for a monoclonal antibody monomer, dimer, and a higher aggregated species based on a manageable set of pH gradient experiments. Without further modification of the model parameters the transfer to salt gradient elution at fixed pH is demonstrated. A lumped rate model was used to predict the separation of the monoclonal antibody monomer/aggregate mixture in pH gradient elution and for a pH step elution procedure-also at increased protein loadings up to 48 g/L packed resin. The presented model combines both salt and pH influence and may be useful for the development and deeper understanding of an ion exchange chromatography separation. PMID:26549715

  5. Speciation of arsenic(III)/arsenic(V) and selenium(IV)/ selenium(VI) using coupled ion chromatography - hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Simple analytical methods have been developed to speciate inorganic arsenic and selenium in the ppb range using coupled ion chromatography-hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Because of the differences in toxicity and adsorption behavior, determinations of the redox states arsenite A...

  6. Ion exchange chromatography and radioimmunoassay procedure for measuring opioid peptides and substance P

    SciTech Connect

    Bergstroem, L.; Christensson, I.; Folkesson, R.; Stenstroem, B.; Terenius, L.

    1983-10-01

    The measurements of peptides of the enkephalin, dynorphin and substance P systems is complicated by the number of possible precursor fragments and degradation products that might cross-react with the antisera. By using an ion-exchanger step before radioimmunoassay one can reduce the possibility that observed peptide levels are due to precursors or metabolites. The ion-exchanger method runs with good recovery and its main advantage is that many samples can be run in parallel. The recovery from the ion-exchanger was similar using two different homogenizing media, whereas the measured endogenous levels of (Met) and (Leu)enkephalin were 3-4 fold higher with 1M acetic acid than when a 1:1 MeOH/HCl mixture was used for tissue extraction.

  7. Nuclear stopping in heavy-ion collisions at 100 MeV/nucleon from inclusive and exclusive neutral pion measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Badala, A.; Barbera, R.; Palmeri, A.; Pappalardo, G.S.; Riggi, F.; Russo, A.C.; Russo, G.; Turrisi, R. ||

    1996-04-01

    Inclusive and exclusive measurements of neutral pions in heavy-ion collisions around 100 MeV/nucleon, carried out in a near 4{pi} geometry, have been analyzed to obtain information on the nuclear stopping of the projectile. Stopping of the projectile has been investigated by the analysis of the source velocity, of the distribution of the energetic products of the collisions, and of the associated rapidity distribution of the baryon matter. Collisions were classified according to their centrality by the charged particle multiplicity. Clear evidence for this phenomenon has been obtained by the study of different observables. Both stopping and reabsorption effects play an essential role in the interpretation of the results. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  8. Metabolite Profile of Salidroside in Rats by Ultraperformance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Quadrupole-Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhiwei; Wang, Ziming; Liu, Yong; Wu, Yan; Han, Xuejiao; Zheng, Jian; Yan, Xiufeng; Wang, Yang

    2015-10-21

    In the present work, the salidroside metabolite profile in rat urine was investigated, and subsequently the metabolic pathways of salidroside were proposed. After administrations of salidroside at an oral dose of 100 or 500 mg/kg, rat urine samples were collected and pretreated with methanol to precipitate the proteins. The pretreated samples were analyzed by an Acquity ultraperformance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with an HSS T3 column and detected by quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF-MS) or high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with hybrid triple-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry (HPLC/Q-trap-MS). A total of eight metabolites were detected and identified on the basis of the characteristics of their protonated ions in the urine samples. The results elucidated that salidroside was metabolized via glucuronidation, sulfation, deglycosylation, hydroxylation, methylation, and dehydroxylation pathways in vivo. PMID:26461036

  9. Concentration of Methylamine and Ethylamine Salts measured by a particle into liquid sampler and Ion Chromatography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A Particle-Into-Liquid Sampler (PILS) and ion chromatographs (ICs) were used to detect the concentration of methylamine salts associated with atmospheric particulate matter reactions in a smog chamber. The smog chamber is located at U.C. Riverside’s College of Engineering Center for Environmental Re...

  10. High-resolution determination of {sup 147}Pm in urine using dynamic ion-exchange chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Elchuk, S.; Lucy, C.A.; Burns, K.I.

    1992-10-15

    Ion exchange preconcentration followed by HPLC purification prior to scintillation counting was used to measure the concentration of {sup 147}Pm in urine. the detection limit for this method was found to be 0.1 Bq (3 fg) of {sup 147}Pm in 500 ml of urine.

  11. Improvements in macroreticular particles for ion-exchange and gel-permeation chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    The effectiveness of chromatographic processes is often limited by the resistance to mass transfer into the exchanger particles. The likelihood of the exchange process being limited by particle diffusion resistance is especially high when one or both of the exchanging ions has a high molecular weight, and thus large molecular size and low mobility within the particles. Separation of ionic species from bioreactors is likely to involve such high molecular weight species and slow diffusion rates. Macroreticular particles are more effective in these applications because the larger specie can diffuse more freely into the inner regions of the particles through large pores. The effects of small viscous flow rates through the larger pores of the macroreticular particle structure are examined in this paper to show how such flow can increase exchange rates. The importance of such flow is evaluated in terms of an effective diffusivity within the particle. The performance of an ion-exchange material can be affected strongly by the dimensions of its internal structure. The approach used to describe and evaluate the performance of ion-exchange materials with high-molecular-weight ions can be applied to macroreticular particles for separation of biological species and polymers by gel permeation. 7 refs., 2 figs.

  12. [Simultaneous determination of chlormequat chloride and mepiquat chloride in plants by mobile phase ion chromatography].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xu; Xu, Jingang; Chen, Zhidong; Zhu, Yan

    2011-03-01

    Ion-pair reagent was used as mobile phase for the simultaneous separation of chlormequat chloride and mepiquat chloride in plants. The rapid separation was performed on a Dionex IonPac NG1 guard column and a Dionex IonPac NS1 analytical column using 1.0 mL/min of the eluent mixture of 1.00 mmol/L nonafluoropentanoic acid (as ion-pair reagent) and 7% acetonitrile, and the detection was achieved by a suppressed conductivity detector. The method provided good resolution of the analyte peaks without any interference. The detection limits of chlormequat chloride and mepiquat chloride were 0.154 6 mg/L and 0.171 4 mg/L, respectively. The linear calibration curves were obtained in the range of 1 - 100 mg/L. The mean recoveries in the ranges of 96.06% - 104.6% for chlormequat chloride and 98.53% - 103.7% for mepiquat chloride were obtained in real samples. The method requires only simple sample preparation and the technique is suitable for routine quality control analysis. PMID:21657055

  13. DETERMINATION OF BROMATE IN DRINKING WATERS BY ION CHROMATOGRAPHY WITH INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRIC DETECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bromate is a disinfection by-product in drinking water, formed during the ozonation of source water containing bromide. An inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer is combined with an ion chromatograph for the analysis of bromate in drinking waters. Three chromatographic colu...

  14. METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF PERCHLORATE ANION IN PLANT AND SOLID MATRICES BY ION CHROMATOGRAPHY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A standardized method for the analysis of perchlorate in plants was developed, based on dry weight, and applied to the analysis of plant organs, foodstuffs, and plant products. The procedure greatly reduced the ionic interferences in water extracts of plant materials. Ion chro...

  15. CRC handbook of chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Qureshi, M.

    1986-01-01

    This book provides technology for routine analysis or developing new methods of chromatography or organic materials. In this book Section 1 presents the principles, techniques, quantitative determinations and detection methods used in chromatographic analysis. In the major part of the book, Section 2 summarizes data in voluminous tabular/graphic form on paper, thin layer, liquid and gas chromatography. Section 3 lists important books on electrophoreses, gel permeation chromatography, and ion exchange, in addition to the other forms of chromatography.

  16. Identification and separation of saxitoxins using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to traveling wave ion mobility-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Poyer, Salom; Loutelier-Bourhis, Corinne; Coadou, Gal; Mondeguer, Florence; Enche, Julien; Bosse, Anne; Hess, Philipp; Afonso, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a reliable and efficient analytical method to characterise and differentiate saxitoxin analogues (STX), including sulphated (gonyautoxins, GTX) and non-sulphated analogues. For this purpose, hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) was used to separate sulphated analogues. We also resorted to ion mobility spectrometry to differentiate the STX analogues because this technique adds a new dimension of separation based on ion gas phase conformation. Positive and negative ionisation modes were used for gonyautoxins while positive ionisation mode was used for non-sulphated analogues. Subsequently, the coupling of these three complementary techniques, HILIC-IM-MS, permitted the separation and identification of STX analogues; isomer differentiation was achieved in HILIC dimension while non-sulphated analogues were separated in the IM-MS dimension. Additional structural characteristics concerning the conformation of STXs could be obtained using IM-MS measurements. Thus, the collision cross sections (CCS) of STXs are reported for the first time in the positive ionisation mode. These experimental CCSs correlated well with the calculated CCS values using the trajectory method. PMID:25601690

  17. Determination of four tobacco-specific nitrosamines in mainstream cigarette smoke by gas chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jun; Bai, Ruoshi; Zhu, Yongfa

    2007-01-01

    A specific and sensitive method was developed and validated to quantitatively analyze four tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) in the particulate phase of mainstream cigarette smoke. Cigarette smoke particulate matter was collected according to ISO 4387. The particulate matter was extracted with acetic ether, cleaned up with a Supelclean ENVI-Carb silod-phase extraction (SPE) cartridge, concentrated under the protection of nitrogen and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC)/ion trap mass spectrometry (MS) with a very-low-flow-loss column (VF-17 MS) in MS(n) mode using N-nitrosopentyl-3-picolylamine (NNPA) as an internal standard. TSNAs were identified by chromatographic retention time, matching the spectra of the standards and the samples and the consistency of the ratio of the abundance of the ions detected in the standards and the samples. Limits of detection of each TSNA varied from 0.01 to 0.06 ng/cig. A linear calibration range for this method is large enough to measure TSNA levels in cigarette smoke. The recovery of each TSNA was from 91.5 to 102.7%. The method achieved excellent reproducibility (RSD: 1.8-4.8% for intra-assay, 3.4-7.1% for inter-assay). It also shows no evidence of artifact formation. This method is very suitable for the routine detection of TSNAs in mainstream cigarette smoke. PMID:18008390

  18. The determination of the Fe sup 2+ /Fe sup 3+ ratio in simulated nuclear waste glass by ion chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.

    1990-10-01

    Liquid high-level nuclear waste will be immobilized at the Savannah River Site (SRS) by vitrification in borosilicate glass in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). In this facility, control of the oxidation/reduction (redox) equilibrium in the glass melter is critical for processing of the nuclear waste. Therefore, the development of a rapid and reliable analytical method for the determination of the redox equilibrium is of considerable interest. Redox has been determined by measuring the ratio of ferrous to ferric ions in the glass melt. Two analytical techniques for glass redox measurement have been investigated for the DWPF: Mossbauer Spectroscopy which may be subject to interferences from the radiation in actual waste, and a rapid and simple chemical dissolution/spectrophotometric technique. Comparisons of these techniques have been made at several laboratories including Clemson University. In the study attached, the determination of the redox ratio by Ion Chromatography (IC) was investigated as a potential new technology. Clemson University performed IC analyses on the same glasses as previously examined by wet chemical and Mossbauer techniques. Results from all three techniques were highly correlated and IC was reported to be a promising new technology for redox measurement. 19 refs., 19 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Isotope analysis of sulfur, bromine, and chlorine in individual anionic species by ion chromatography/multicollector-ICPMS.

    PubMed

    Zakon, Yevgeni; Halicz, Ludwik; Gelman, Faina

    2014-07-01

    We developed an analytical method for precise and accurate analysis of δ(34)S, δ(81)Br, and δ(37)Cl in individual anionic species by coupled ion chromatography (IC) and multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS). The method is based on the online separation and purification of ions by IC prior to their isotope analysis by MC-ICPMS. The developed technique significantly simplifies δ(34)S, δ(81)Br, and δ(37)Cl analysis in environmental samples. In cases when several anionic species of the same element are present in the sample, they might be analyzed in a single analytical run. Major isobaric interferences for the analyzed elements were reduced by using "dry" plasma conditions and applying sufficient mass resolution power. The sample-standard bracketing technique was used for instrumental drift correction. In the case of δ(34)S analysis, precisions up to 0.15‰ (1sd) have been achieved for analytes containing down to 5 nmol of S; for δ(81)Br, the attained precision was 0.1‰ (1sd) for analytes containing down to 0.6 nmol of Br. Precisions of 0.2‰ have been obtained for δ(37)Cl with analytes containing 0.7 μmol of Cl. Robustness of the developed analytical method, as well as high precisions and accuracies, has been demonstrated for the laboratory standard solutions and for environmental samples. PMID:24893134

  20. Single-column method of ion chromatography for the determination of common cations and some transition metals.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Wenfang; Chen, Yongxin; Cui, Hairong; Wu, Feiyan; Zhu, Yan; Fritz, James S

    2006-06-16

    A single-column method for the simultaneous determination of common cations and transition metals in real samples is proposed in this paper. Eleven cations (copper, lithium, sodium, ammonium, potassium, cobalt, nickel, magnesium, calcium, strontium and zinc) were separated and analyzed by means of ion chromatography using an isocratic elution with 2.5 mM methane sulfonic acid and 0.8 mM oxalic acid as mobile phase, IonPac SCS1 (250 mm x 4 mm I.D.) as the separation column and non-suppressed conductor detection. Optimized analytical conditions were further validated in terms of accuracy, precision and total uncertainty and the results showed the reliability of the IC method. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the retention time and peak area were less than 0.04 and 1.30%, respectively. The coefficients of determination for cations ranged from 0.9988 to 1.000. The method developed was successfully applied to determination of cations in samples of beer and bottled mineral water. The spiked recoveries for the cations were 94-106%. The method was applied to beer and beverage without interferences. PMID:16483592

  1. Urine iodide determination by ion-pair reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography and pulsed amperometric detection.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Vo Thanh Phuong; Piersoel, Virginie; El Mahi, Tarik

    2012-09-15

    A sensitive and specific ion-pair reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for urinary iodine analysis is described. This method is based on pulsed amperometric detection (PAD) using a silver working electrode (HPLC-PAD), which improves peak shape, electrode stability as well as linearity and reproducibility. A two-step extraction process consisting of solid phase extraction (SPE) and liquid-liquid extraction with dichloromethane was added in order to improve sample purification which is essential with the use of PAD. Treated samples were eluted on a C18 column, using a phosphate buffer containing ion-pairing reagent tetrabutylammonium and 5% MeOH. The calibration standard curves were linear up to 500 ?g/L and within-run and between-run coefficients of variation (CVs) were <6% with the quantification limit fixed at 6 ?g/L. Accuracy, expressed as recovery, ranged from 94% to 104%. Comparison with the Technicon AutoAnalyzer acid digestion (AA) method resulted in a high correlation (r=0.9916). Due to a low quantification limit and high sample throughput, the proposed technique appears suitable for both epidemiological and clinical follow-up studies. PMID:22967590

  2. Analysis of water from the Space Shuttle and Mir Space Station by ion chromatography and capillary electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orta, D.; Mudgett, P. D.; Ding, L.; Drybread, M.; Schultz, J. R.; Sauer, R. L.

    1998-01-01

    Drinking water and condensate samples collected from the US Space Shuttle and the Russian Mir Space Station are analyzed routinely at the NASA-Johnson Space Center as part of an ongoing effort to verify water quality and monitor the environment of the spacecraft. Water quality monitoring is particularly important for the Mir water supply because approximately half of the water consumed is recovered from humidity condensate. Drinking water on Shuttle is derived from the fuel cells. Because there is little equipment on board the spacecraft for monitoring the water quality, samples collected by the crew are transported to Earth on Shuttle or Soyuz vehicles, and analyzed exhaustively. As part of the test battery, anions and cations are measured by ion chromatography, and carboxylates and amines by capillary electrophoresis. Analytical data from Shuttle water samples collected before and after several missions, and Mir condensate and potable recovered water samples representing several recent missions are presented and discussed. Results show that Shuttle water is of distilled quality, and Mir recovered water contains various levels of minerals imparted during the recovery processes as designed. Organic ions are rarely detected in potable water samples, but were present in humidity condensate samples.

  3. [Determination of 16 polychlorinated biphenyls in fish oil by gas chromatography-negative ion chemical ionization-mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Li, Shushu; Zhang, Zhan; Wang, Shoulin; Li, Lei

    2015-08-01

    An analytical method for the simultaneous determination of 16 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in fish oil was developed. PCBs were extracted from fish oil with n-hexane, purified by sulfuric acid and determined by using gas chromatography-negative ion chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (GC-NCI-MS) in selected ion-monitoring (SIM) mode. A good linear relationship (r > 0.99) was observed with the PCBs concentrations from 0.01 µg/L to 10 µg/L, and the limits of quantification (LOQ, S/N = 10) were between 3 pg/g and 67 pg/g for different kinds of PCBs. The average recoveries ranged from 62.3% to 121.8% with the relative standard deviations ( RSDs, n = 3) smaller than 12%. Compared with the traditional pre-treatment of multiple material solid phase extraction, this new method is simple, rapid and less organic solvent usage. Meanwhile the method has good selectivity and sensitivity, and it is suitable for the determination of multiple trace PCBs in fish oil. PMID:26749866

  4. [Determination of 1-hydroxyethylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid in recycle-cooling water by ion chromatography].

    PubMed

    Ma, Jian; Yuan, Dongxing; Guan, Bin; Yang, Rong; Ge, Laowei

    2007-03-01

    1-Hydroxyethylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid (HEDP) is usually used as a scale and corrosion inhibitor in recycle-cooling water for steel industry. The quick and accurate analysis of HEDP concentration in water is of importance to control the inhibitor adding program. However, the common method for HEDP analysis, which determines the total phosphate in water samples, may suffer the serious problem of incorrectly including degraded HEDP as the active HEDP reagent. In this study, the method of the determination of HEDP in recycle-cooling water by ion chromatography was investigated. The chromatographic parameters, including elution and detection, were optimized. The separation was achieved on an IonPac AS14A column with NaOH solution of 80 mmol/L as the eluent at a flow rate of 1. 0 mL/min, and the detection was performed by a suppressed conductivity detection mode with the injection volume of 25 microL. The method showed good linearity within the range of 0. 25 and 25 mg/L with an average recovery of 102%. The detection limit of the method reached as low as 0. 1 mg/L. The relative standard deviations for 0. 25 and 0. 5 mg/L HEDP standard solutions were 4. 7% and 3. 5% (n = 13) , respectively. The method has been applied for the determination of HEDP in recycle-cooling water samples with the advantages of being simple, fast, sensitive, and interference free. PMID:17580697

  5. Simultaneous analysis of strychnine and brucine and their major metabolites by liquid chromatography-electrospray ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xueguo; Lai, Yongquan; Cai, Zongwei

    2012-04-01

    A liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-ITMS) method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of strychnine, brucine and their major metabolites. Strychnine and brucine were individually incubated with rat liver S9 fraction. The incubation samples were pooled together and analyzed with LC-ESI-ITMS in positive ion and full-scan detection mode. The calibration curves of strychnine and brucine in rat liver showed good linearity in ranges of 0.020 to 8.0 µg/mL for strychnine and 0.020 to 8.5 µg/mL for brucine. The limits of detections were both 0.008 µg/mL and the recoveries were 88.3 and 83.2% for strychnine and brucine, respectively. Two metabolites were identified as strychnine N-oxide and brucine N-oxide by comparing the molecular mass, retention time, full-scan mass spectra, tandem MS and MS(3) spectra with those of strychnine and brucine. The developed method provided high sensitivity and selectivity for the determination of poisonous alkaloids and their major metabolites and can be applied in the determination of samples in forensic and clinically toxicological cases. PMID:22417832

  6. [Study of chemical kinetics between pyrroloquinoline quinine and D-serine in body by ion-pair liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xingqin; Qin, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Jiankang; Cao, Guoxian

    2012-02-01

    As a new neurotransmitter present in the glial cells, D-serine (DSer) plays an important role in central nervous system diseases. Pyrroloquinoline quinine (PQQ) can promote the production of the nerve growth factor and has a protective effect on nerve injuries. The chemical kinetics of PQQ and DSer was studied by determining the free contents of PQQ using ion-pair liquid chromatography (LC), so it can provide important information for the mechanisms of PQQ in the regulation of neurotransmitter. The PQQ and the production of the incubation were separated on an Amethyst C18-P column using tetrabutylammonium bromide as ion-pair reagent. The average recoveries were between 94.2% and 99.3%, and the relative standard deviations were between 1.05% and 2.03%. The average rate constants (K) of PQQ with DSer were 0.032, 0.07 and 0.17 h(-1) at 25, 37 and 50 degrees C, respectively. The average activation energy (E(a)) was 54.7 kJ/mol. The values of half life (t1/2) were 22.0, 9.8 and 3.99 h at 25, 37 and 50 degrees C, respectively. The results showed that PQQ can regulate the balance of DSer in the brain. The method is simple and reliable. PMID:22679836

  7. Simultaneous determination of 13 components in oxidative hair dyes by high-performance chromatography using an ion-pair reagent.

    PubMed

    Lai, Ying; Wang, Honghui; Dong, Qingmu; Chen, Hexiu; Lin, Rui; Cai, Yanping

    2012-01-01

    A reliable high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 13 dye intermediates, including benzenediamines, aminophenols, benzenediols, naphthalenediol, and diaminopyridine, in oxidative hair dyes. Samples were extracted with 50% ethanol by adding sodium dithionite to prevent oxidation. The influences of buffer type, buffer pH, ion-pair reagent, and elution gradient were studied. A C18 column with aqueous compatibility and acetonitrile-citric acid mobile phase system (pH 2.6) with sodium 1-octanesulfonate as ion-pair reagent were selected for the separation of target compounds. Detection was performed by a diode array detector, (DAD) and two different wavelengths (280 and 331 nm) were used for quantification. Results showed that 13 dye intermediates got good separation within 25 min. The detection limits of these compounds were in the range of 0.2-2 mg/l. The calibration curves were linear within 2-500 mg/l with 0.999 as a typical correlation coefficient. The recoveries of target compounds in hair dyes ranged from 81.7% to 102.0% with four addition levels. The method described was validated by five different laboratories and successfully applied to the analysis of commercial oxidative hair dyes. PMID:23089354

  8. A new approach for trace analysis of guanidine compounds in surface water with resorcinarene-based ion chromatography columns.

    PubMed

    Panahi, Tayyebeh; Weaver, Douglas J; Lamb, John D; Harrison, Roger G

    2016-01-25

    Trace levels of pharmaceuticals have been detected in surface water and may pose a health risk to humans and other organisms. New chromatographic materials will help identify and quantify these contaminants. We introduce a new ion chromatographic (IC) material designed to separate cationic pharmaceuticals and report its ability to separate a group of guanidine compounds. Guanidine moieties are strongly basic and protonated under acid conditions, and therefore can potentially be separated on the newly designed stationary phase and detected by ion exchange chromatography. The new column packing material is based on glutamic acids bonded to resorcinarene moieties that in turn are bound to divinylbenzene macroporous resin. Detection limits in the range of 5-30 ?g L(-1) were achieved using integrated pulsed amperometric detection (IPAD) for guanidine (G), methylguanidine (MG), 1,1-dimethylbiguanide (DMG), agmatine (AGM), guanidinobenzoic acid (GBA) and cimetidine (CIM). Suppressed conductivity (CD) and UV-vis detection resulted in limits of detection similar to IPAD, in the range of 2-66 ?g L(-1), but were not able to detect all of the analytes. Three water sources, river, lake, and marsh, were analyzed and despite matrix effects, sensitivity for guanidine compounds was in the 100 ?g L(-1) range and apparent recoveries were 80-96%. The peak area precision was 0.01-2.89% for IPAD, CD and UV-vis detection. PMID:26649362

  9. Determination of trace perchlorate in high-salinity water samples by ion chromatography with on-line preconcentration and preelution.

    PubMed

    Tian, Kang; Dasgupta, Purnendu K; Anderson, Todd A

    2003-02-01

    A simple, automated system for the determination of trace perchlorate by ion chromatography (IC) with an online preconcentration technique is reported. The sample is preconcentrated, and less strongly held ions preeluted before the analyte is transferred to the principal separation system. This approach provides low limits of detection (LOD) and is particularly robust toward the effect of high concentrations of common anions, such as those present in groundwater samples. It compares favorably with currently promulgated EPA method 314.0. The LOD (S/N = 3) is 0.77 microg/L for a 2-mL reagent water sample and decreases more-or-less proportionately with increasing sample volume, at least up to 20 mL. Even with a sample of conductivity 14.7 mS/cm (approximately that of 0.1 M Na2SO4), the recovery of added perchlorate at the 25.0 microg/L level was still 92%. The concentration of added perchlorate in the range of 1-400 microg/L was linearly correlated to the peak area, with an r2 value of 0.9997. The recovery of perchlorate from artificial samples with different conductivity by the present method compares favorably with those from the currently recommended EPA Method. The ability of this approach to remove matrix interferences suggests that it would be also promising for perchlorate analysis in other challenging samples. PMID:12585505

  10. Investigation of the preparation and use of low-capacity anion exchangers in single-column ion chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Barron, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    The preparation and uses of strong-base anion exchangers of low capacity are reviewed. A new adaptation of known reactions is presented for the reproducible preparation of Type I anion exchangers of low capacity and it is explored in some detail. The resins are based on the macroreticular copolymer known as XAD-1. It is shown that the same reaction scheme may be used on any porous styrene-divinylbenzene copolymer. Procedures are described for the preparation of twelve other strong-base resins with various structural differences in the quaternary ammonium functional group. These resins are then evaluated to determine the effect of chemical structure on selectivity for a number of common monovalent and divalent anions. It is shown that the structure of the quaternary ammonium ion has a definite effect on selectivity. It is also shown that surface modification can affect selectivity. The implications for single-column ion chromatography are discussed and some examples are given where a change in the chemical structure of the functional group is of practical value in the separation of anions. The factors influencing the choice of an eluent acid are outlined and it is shown that some acids are better than others on the basis on their lack of interaction with the copolymer matrix.

  11. Development Of Ion Chromatography Methods To Support Testing Of The Glycolic Acid Reductant Flowsheet In The Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Wiedenman, B. J.; White, T. L.; Mahannah, R. N.; Best, D. R.; Stone, M. E.; Click, D. R.; Lambert, D. P.; Coleman, C. J.

    2013-10-01

    Ion Chromatography (IC) is the principal analytical method used to support studies of Sludge Reciept and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) chemistry at DWPF. A series of prior analytical ''Round Robin'' (RR) studies included both supernate and sludge samples from SRAT simulant, previously reported as memos, are tabulated in this report.2,3 From these studies it was determined to standardize IC column size to 4 mm diameter, eliminating the capillary column from use. As a follow on test, the DWPF laboratory, the PSAL laboratory, and the AD laboratory participated in the current analytical RR to determine a suite of anions in SRAT simulant by IC, results also are tabulated in this report. The particular goal was to confirm the laboratories ability to measure and quantitate glycolate ion. The target was + or - 20% inter-lab agreement of the analyte averages for the RR. Each of the three laboratories analyzed a batch of 12 samples. For each laboratory, the percent relative standard deviation (%RSD) of the averages on nitrate, glycolate, and oxalate, was 10% or less. The three laboratories all met the goal of 20% relative agreement for nitrate and glycolate. For oxalate, the PSAL laboratory reported an average value that was 20% higher than the average values reported by the DWPF laboratory and the AD laboratory. Because of this wider window of agreement, it was concluded to continue the practice of an additional acid digestion for total oxalate measurement. It should also be noted that large amounts of glycolate in the SRAT samples will have an impact on detection limits of near eluting peaks, namely Fluoride and Formate. A suite of scoping experiments are presented in the report to identify and isolate other potential interlaboratory disceprancies. Specific ion chromatography inter-laboratory method conditions and differences are tabulated. Most differences were minor but there are some temperature control equipment differences that are significant leading to a recommendation of a heated jacket for analytical columns that are remoted for use in radiohoods. A suggested method improvement would be to implement column temperture control at a temperature slightly above ambient to avoid peak shifting due to temperature fluctuations. Temperature control in this manner would improve short and longer term peak retention time stability. An unknown peak was observed during the analysis of glycolic acid and SRAT simulant. The unknown peak was determined to best match diglycolic acid. The development of a method for acetate is summaraized, and no significant amount of acetate was observed in the SRAT products tested. In addition, an alternative Gas Chromatograph (GC) method for glycolate is summarized.

  12. Ion size effects upon ionic exclusion from dielectric interfaces and slit nanopores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buyukdagli, Sahin; Achim, C. V.; Ala-Nissila, T.

    2011-05-01

    A previously developed field-theoretic model (Coalson et al 1995 J. Chem. Phys. 102 4584) that treats core collisions and Coulomb interactions on the same footing is investigated in order to understand ion size effects on the partition of neutral and charged particles at planar interfaces and the ionic selectivity of slit nanopores. We introduce a variational scheme that can go beyond the mean-field (MF) regime and couple in a consistent way pore-modified core interactions, steric effects, electrostatic solvation and image-charge forces, and surface charge induced electrostatic potential. Density profiles of neutral particles in contact with a neutral hard wall, obtained from Monte Carlo (MC) simulations are compared with the solutions of mean-field and variational equations. A recently proposed random-phase approximation (RPA) method is tested as well. We show that in the dilute limit, the MF and the variational theories agree well with simulation results, in contrast to the RPA method. The partition of charged Yukawa particles at a neutral dielectric interface (e.g. an air-water or protein-water interface) is investigated. It is shown that as a result of the competition between core collisions that push the ions toward the surface, and repulsive solvation and image forces that exclude them from the interface, a concentration peak of finite size ions sets in close to the dielectric interface. This effect is amplified with increasing ion size and bulk concentration. An integral expression for the surface tension that accounts for excluded volume effects is computed and the decrease of the surface tension with increasing ion size is illustrated. We also characterize the role played by the ion size in the ionic selectivity of neutral slit nanopores. We show that the complex interplay between electrostatic forces, excluded volume effects induced by core collisions and steric effects leads to an unexpected reversal in the ionic selectivity of the pore with varying pore size: while large pores exhibit a higher conductivity for large ions, narrow pores exclude large ions more efficiently than small ones.

  13. Membrane ion-exchange chromatography for process-scale antibody purification.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, H L; Fahrner, R L; Xu, Y; Norling, L A; Blank, G S

    2001-01-12

    The large-scale production of recombinant monoclonal antibodies demands economical purification processes with high throughputs. The potential for ion-exchange membrane adsorbers to replace traditional ion-exchange columns was evaluated. Breakthrough capacities of commercially available cation-exchange membranes were determined as a function of flow-rate and layer number. Due to economic and process restrictions, cation-exchange membranes may not currently be advantageous for process-scale antibody purification in a bind and elute mode. However, anion-exchange membranes in a flow-through mode may provide a reasonable alternative to columns for the removal of low levels of impurities such as DNA, host cell protein, and virus. PMID:11217020

  14. Determination of ammonium in a buddingtonite sample by ion-chromatography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klock, P.R.; Lamothe, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    An ion-chromatographic method for the direct determination of ammonium, potassium, and sodium in geologic materials is described. Samples are decomposed with a mixture of hydrofluoric and hydrochloric acids in a sealed polycarbonate bottle heated in a microwave oven. The ion-chromatograph separates the cations and determines them by conductivity measurement. The ammonium concentrations thus determined have been verified by use of an ammonia-specific electrode. A total of 32 analyses of ammonium salts by both techniques showed an average error of -4%, with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 6%. The ammonium concentrations found in a buddingtonite sample had an RSD of 2.2% and their mean agreed with that obtained by the Kjeldahl method. By use of the prescribed dilution of the sample, detection limits of 0.1% can be achieved for all three cations. ?? 1986.

  15. DETERMINATION OF CARBOXYLIC ACIDS BY ION-EXCLUSION CHROMATOGRAPHY WITH NON-SUPPRESSED CONDUCTIVITY AND OPTICAL DETECTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Determination of carboxylic acids using non-suppressed conductivity and UV detections is described. The background conductance of 1-octanesulfonic acid, hexane sulfonic acid and sulfuric acid at varying concentrations was determined. Using 0.2 mM 1-octanesulfonic acid as a mobile...

  16. DETERMINATION OF CARBOXYLIC ACIDS BY ION-EXCLUSION CHROMATOGRAPHY WITH NON-SUPPRESSED CONDUCTIVITY AND OPTICAL DETECTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Determination of carboxylic acids using non-suppressed conductivity and UV detections is described. he background conductance of I-octanesulfonic acid, hexane sulfonic acid and sulfuric acid at varying concentrations was determined. sing 0.2 MM I-octanesulfonic acid as a mobile p...

  17. Determination of iodide in ground water and soil by ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Tucker, H L; Flack, R W

    1998-04-24

    Comprehensive elemental analysis of samples from the Bear Creek Valley near the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, and its floodplain have been performed in order to allow an unclassified assessment of possible elemental contamination within this area. A rapid ion Chromatographic method, with isocratic separation and micromembrane suppression is discussed within this paper for the analysis of iodide in soils, and floodplain ground waters. This developmental method will be used for future routine iodide analysis. PMID:9615401

  18. Purification of two muscle enzymes by chromatography on immobilized ferric ions.

    PubMed

    Chaga, G; Andersson, L; Ersson, B; Porath, J

    1989-08-01

    Two enzymes, glycogen phosphorylase and lactate dehydrogenase, were purified simultaneously in a single step. Ferric ions immobilized on a chelating gel were used as the adsorbent. Adsorption and desorption steps were accomplished by changes in buffer composition. The recoveries were better than 80% and the capacities were about 5 mg of protein per milliliter of adsorbent. The procedure worked well both on a small and on a preparative scale. The homogeneity of the purified enzymes was checked by FPLC. PMID:2775499

  19. Gas chromatography/ion mobility spectrometry as a hyphenated technique for improved explosives detection and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercado, AL; Marsden, Paul

    1995-01-01

    Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) is currently being successfully applied to the problem of on-line trace detection of plastic and other explosives in airports and other facilities. The methods of sample retrieval primarily consist of batch sampling for particulate residue on a filter card for introduction into the IMS. The sample is desorbed into the IMS using air as the carrier and negative ions of the explosives are detected, some as an adduct with a reagent ion such as Cl(-). Based on studies and tests conducted by different airport authorities, this method seems to work well for low vapor pressure explosives such as RDX and PETN, as well as TNT that are highly adsorptive and can be found in nanogram quantities on contaminated surfaces. Recently, the changing terrorist threat and the adoption of new marking agents for plastic explosives has meant that the sample introduction and analysis capabilities of the IMS must be enhanced in order to keep up with other detector developments. The IMS has sufficient analytical resolution for a few threat compounds but the IMS Plasmogram becomes increasingly more difficult to interpret when the sample mixture gets more complex.

  20. Improved determination of tributyl phosphate degradation products (mono- and dibutyl phosphates) by ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Dodi, A; Verda, G

    2001-06-22

    Tributyl phosphate (TBP) is a very important compound in the nuclear industry, particularly in the area of nuclear fuel reprocessing. This compound is used in the PUREX (plutonium and uranium refining extraction) process which consists of the extraction of uranium and plutonium from an aqueous nitric acid phase, for the purpose of recycling. But TBP may be degraded to dibutyl phosphate (DBP) and monobutyl phosphate (MBP) by dealkylation of one or two butoxy groups, respectively. We have compared and evaluated the capacity of two resins manufactured by Dionex (AS11 and AS5A) in the separation and measurement of these two degradation products. AS11 generates two interferences: nitrite/DBP and carbonate/MBP. The first one is the most serious. So, we have developed a method for oxidising nitrite ions to nitrate ions which have no trouble over the measurement. The second resin tested, AS5A, allows a very efficient separation between DBP and NO2- ions and a good separation between MBP and CO3(2-) in comparison with the AS11. The detection limits for the AS5A column are 0.13 microM for MBP and 0.71 microM for DBP (injection loop=50 microl). PMID:11453010

  1. Dye-ligand and immobilized metal ion interaction chromatography for the purification of enzymes of prenyl pyrophosphate metabolism.

    PubMed

    Lanznaster, N; Croteau, R

    1991-02-01

    Dye-ligand and immobilized metal ion interaction chromatography were shown to be efficient techniques for the rapid batchwise fractionation, from crude plant extracts, of a series of enzymes of prenyl pyrophosphate metabolism. Isopentenyl pyrophosphate isomerase, two prenyltransferases, and a number of terpene cyclases (synthases) were readily adsorbed to Matrex Gel Red A (a dimeric triazine dye coupled to cross-linked agarose beads), and desorbed in good yield with relatively high concentrations of KCl and increasing pH. Although all of these enzymes exhibit the common feature of employing a pyrophosphorylated substrate, selective elution could not be achieved with substrate or substrate analogues bearing a pyrophosphate function. Nor could the strong binding of these enzymes to triazine dyes be attributed solely to metal ion interactions or to hydrophobic effects. In a similar way, the isomerase, the prenyltransferases, and all of the terpene cyclases bound to a column of iminodiacetate-immobilized Ni(II) and were desorbed in relatively high fold purity with 15 mM imidazole. Although all of these enzymes bear accessible histidine residues, the interactions with the chelated metal ion were not sufficiently different to permit selective enzyme desorbtion by imidazole gradient elution. However, the use of columns charged with Zn(II) or Co(II) did allow some separation of the different cyclase and transferase types. While empirical in nature, these techniques offer simple, effective, and high-capacity methods for the preliminary concentration and purification of a group of enzymes that utilize prenyl pyrophosphate intermediates of isoprenoid biosynthesis. PMID:1821775

  2. Highly sensitive determination of iodide by ion chromatography with amperometric detection at a silver-based carbon paste electrode.

    PubMed

    Malongo, Trsor Kimbeni; Patris, Stphanie; Macours, Pascale; Cotton, Frdric; Nsangu, Jean; Kauffmann, Jean-Michel

    2008-07-30

    A silver-based solid carbon paste electrode was developed for use as a detector in ion chromatography (IC) for the sensitive determination of iodide in real samples. Micro- and nano-particles of silver were investigated for the fabrication of different electrodes. The iodide assay was based on IC with amperometric detection (IC-AD) at a silver composite electrode polarized at +0.080 V versus Ag/AgCl. Free iodide and organoiodide compounds were studied. The detection process was characterized by studying the redox behavior of iodide ions at both silver and silver composite electrodes by cyclic voltammetry (CV). The presence of iodide ions in solution was found to considerably facilitate metallic silver oxidation, with response currents directly related to iodide concentration. The calibration curve at the selected silver carbon paste electrode was linear in the concentration range comprised between 0.635 microg/L and 63.5 microg/L iodide. The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) for successive injections was below 3% for all iodide standard solutions investigated. The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.47 microg/L (3.7 nmol/L) for an injection volume of 20 microL, i.e. 74 fmol injected. The IC-AD method was successfully applied to the determination of iodide in complex real samples such as table salts, sea products and iodide bound drug compounds. The analytical accuracy was verified by the assay of iodide in milk powder from an iodide certified reference material (CRM) Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) 150. PMID:18585319

  3. Analysis of paralytic shellfish toxins using high-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Beach, Daniel G; Melanson, Jeremy E; Purves, Randy W

    2015-03-01

    The analysis of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry remains a challenge because of their high polarity, large number of analogues and the complex matrix in which they occur. Here we investigate the potential utility of high-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) as a gas-phase ion separation tool for analysis of PSTs by mass spectrometry. We investigate the separation of PSTs using FAIMS with two divergent goals: using FAIMS as a primary separation tool for rapid screening by electrospray ionization (ESI)-FAIMS-MS or combined with LC in a multidimensional LC-ESI-FAIMS-MS separation. First, a survey of the parameters that affect the sensitivity and selectivity of PST analysis by FAIMS was carried out using ESI-FAIMS-MS. In particular, the use of acetonitrile as a gas additive in the carrier gas flow offered good separation of all PST epimeric pairs. A second set of FAIMS conditions was also identified, which focussed PSTs to a relatively narrow CV range allowing development of an LC-ESI-FAIMS-MS method for analysis of PST toxins in complex mussel tissue extracts. The quantitative capabilities of this method were evaluated by analysing a PST containing mussel tissue matrix material. Results compared favourably with analysis by an established LC-post-column oxidation-fluorescence method with recoveries ranging from 70 to 106%, although sensitivity was somewhat reduced. The current work represents the first successful separation of PST isomers using ion mobility and shows the promise of FAIMS as a tool for analysis of algal biotoxins in complex samples and outlines some critical requirements for its future improvement. PMID:25619987

  4. Neutral Loss Ion Mapping Experiment Combined with Precursor Mass List and Dynamic Exclusion for Screening Unstable Malonyl Glucoside Conjugates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Min; Zhou, Zhe; Yao, Shuai; Li, Shangrong; Yang, Wenzhi; Jiang, Baohong; Liu, Xuan; Wu, Wanying; Qv, Hua; Guo, De-an

    2016-01-01

    Malonates are one type of the acylation conjugates and found abundantly in ginseng and soybean. Malonyl conjugates of ginsenosides and isoflavone glycosides were often considered as the characteristic components to evaluate various species and different forms of ginseng and soybean products because of their thermal instability. Another famous isoflavonoid-rich leguminous traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), named Puerarin lobata (Gegen), has also been reported to contain malonyl daidzin and malonyl genistin. However, the conjugates were found to present in very low amount and particularly unstable in the negative ion mode scan using LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization (ESI). In order to screen and characterize the malonyl conjugates in Gegen, a specific method was designed and developed combining neutral loss ion mapping (NLIM) experiment and precursor mass list (PL) triggered data dependent acquisition (DDA). Along with the activation of dynamic exclusion (DE), the method was proven to be specific and efficient for searching the malonate derivatives from Gegen. Two samples were examined by the established method. A total of 66 compounds were found, and 43 of them were malonates of isoflavone glycoside. Very few compounds were reported previously in Gegen. The results are helpful to understand the constituents of Gegen with more insight. The study not only provided a method for analyzing the malonyl conjugates from complex matrices but also explored a way to trace other low amount components in TCMs.

  5. Neutral Loss Ion Mapping Experiment Combined with Precursor Mass List and Dynamic Exclusion for Screening Unstable Malonyl Glucoside Conjugates.

    PubMed

    Yang, Min; Zhou, Zhe; Yao, Shuai; Li, Shangrong; Yang, Wenzhi; Jiang, Baohong; Liu, Xuan; Wu, Wanying; Qv, Hua; Guo, De-An

    2016-01-01

    Malonates are one type of the acylation conjugates and found abundantly in ginseng and soybean. Malonyl conjugates of ginsenosides and isoflavone glycosides were often considered as the characteristic components to evaluate various species and different forms of ginseng and soybean products because of their thermal instability. Another famous isoflavonoid-rich leguminous traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), named Puerarin lobata (Gegen), has also been reported to contain malonyl daidzin and malonyl genistin. However, the conjugates were found to present in very low amount and particularly unstable in the negative ion mode scan using LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization (ESI). In order to screen and characterize the malonyl conjugates in Gegen, a specific method was designed and developed combining neutral loss ion mapping (NLIM) experiment and precursor mass list (PL) triggered data dependent acquisition (DDA). Along with the activation of dynamic exclusion (DE), the method was proven to be specific and efficient for searching the malonate derivatives from Gegen. Two samples were examined by the established method. A total of 66 compounds were found, and 43 of them were malonates of isoflavone glycoside. Very few compounds were reported previously in Gegen. The results are helpful to understand the constituents of Gegen with more insight. The study not only provided a method for analyzing the malonyl conjugates from complex matrices but also explored a way to trace other low amount components in TCMs. Graphical Abstract ?. PMID:26334988

  6. Neutral Loss Ion Mapping Experiment Combined with Precursor Mass List and Dynamic Exclusion for Screening Unstable Malonyl Glucoside Conjugates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Min; Zhou, Zhe; Yao, Shuai; Li, Shangrong; Yang, Wenzhi; Jiang, Baohong; Liu, Xuan; Wu, Wanying; Qv, Hua; Guo, De-an

    2015-09-01

    Malonates are one type of the acylation conjugates and found abundantly in ginseng and soybean. Malonyl conjugates of ginsenosides and isoflavone glycosides were often considered as the characteristic components to evaluate various species and different forms of ginseng and soybean products because of their thermal instability. Another famous isoflavonoid-rich leguminous traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), named Puerarin lobata (Gegen), has also been reported to contain malonyl daidzin and malonyl genistin. However, the conjugates were found to present in very low amount and particularly unstable in the negative ion mode scan using LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization (ESI). In order to screen and characterize the malonyl conjugates in Gegen, a specific method was designed and developed combining neutral loss ion mapping (NLIM) experiment and precursor mass list (PL) triggered data dependent acquisition (DDA). Along with the activation of dynamic exclusion (DE), the method was proven to be specific and efficient for searching the malonate derivatives from Gegen. Two samples were examined by the established method. A total of 66 compounds were found, and 43 of them were malonates of isoflavone glycoside. Very few compounds were reported previously in Gegen. The results are helpful to understand the constituents of Gegen with more insight. The study not only provided a method for analyzing the malonyl conjugates from complex matrices but also explored a way to trace other low amount components in TCMs.

  7. Miniaturized GC/MS instrumentation for in situ measurements: micro gas chromatography coupled with miniature quadrupole array and paul ion trap mass spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, P.; Chutjian, A.; Darrach, M.; Orient, O.

    2002-01-01

    Miniaturized chemical instrumentation is needed for in situ measurements in planetary exploration and other spaceflight applications where factors such as reduction in payload requirements and enhanced robustness are important. In response to this need, we are 'continuing to develop miniaturized GC/MS instrumentation which combines chemical separations by gas chromatography (GC) with mass spectrometry (MS) to provide positive identification of chemical compounds in complex mixtures of gases, such as those found in the International Space Station's cabin atmosphere. Our design approach utilizes micro gas chromatography components coupled with either a miniature quadrupole mass spectrometer array (QMSA) or compact, high-resolution Paul ion trap.

  8. Two-step ion-exchange chromatographic purification combined with reversed-phase chromatography to isolate C-peptide for mass spectrometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Kabytaev, Kuanysh; Durairaj, Anita; Shin, Dmitriy; Rohlfing, Curt L; Connolly, Shawn; Little, Randie R; Stoyanov, Alexander V

    2016-02-01

    A liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry on-line platform that includes the orthogonal techniques of ion exchange and reversed phase chromatography is applied for C-peptide analysis. Additional improvement is achieved by the subsequent application of cation- and anion-exchange purification steps that allow for isolating components that have their isoelectric points in a narrow pH range before final reversed-phase mass spectrometry analysis. The utility of this approach for isolating fractions in the desired "pI window" for profiling complex mixtures is discussed. PMID:26717885

  9. Determination of argininosuccinate lyase in human serum by ion-pair reversed phase liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Canepari, S; Carunchio, V; Girelli, A M; Messina, A

    1995-01-01

    A new assay for argininosuccinate lyase based on the separation of the enzymatic reaction mixture components by an ion-pair reversed phase mechanism is reported. The determination of enzyme activity is performed after direct injection by UV detection of the fumarate formed. The chromatographic analysis time is 8 min and a detection limit of 0.4 U/L is achieved. The HPLC method is highly accurate, sensitive and precise. The simple procedure makes this method suitable for the routine determination of ASAL activity in human serum samples. PMID:8520205

  10. Semiautomated pH gradient ion-exchange chromatography of monoclonal antibody charge variants.

    PubMed

    Talebi, Mohammad; Shellie, Robert A; Hilder, Emily F; Lacher, Nathan A; Haddad, Paul R

    2014-10-01

    A new approach using a chromatography system equipped with isocratic pumps and an electrolytic eluent generator (EG) is introduced, replacing external pH gradient delivery using conventional gradient systems, in which bottled buffers with preadjusted pH are mixed using a gradient pump. The EG is capable of generating high purity base or acid required for online preparation of the buffer at the point of use, utilizing deionized water as the only carrier stream. Typically, the buffer was generated from online titration of a reagent composed of low molecular weight amines. The reagent was delivered isocratically into a static mixing tee, where it was titrated to the required pH with electrolytically generated base or acid. The required pH gradient was thus conveniently generated by electrically controlling the concentration of titrant. Also, since the pH was adjusted at the point of use, this approach offered enhanced throughput in terms of eluent preparation time and labor, and with a more reproducible pH profile. The performance of the system was demonstrated by running pH gradients ranging from pH 8.2 to 10.9 on a polymer monolith cation-exchange column for high throughput profiling of charge heterogeneity of intact, basic therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. A high degree of flexibility in modulating the key parameters of the pH gradient, including the buffer concentration, the pH gradient slope and the operating pH range was demonstrated. This enabled fine-tuning of the separation conditions for each individual antibody in order to enhance the chromatographic resolution. PMID:25199803

  11. Permeative Amine Introduction for Very Weak Acid Detection in Ion Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Liao, Hongzhu; Dasgupta, Purnendu K

    2016-02-16

    A permeative amine introduction device (PAID) is placed after a conventional KOH eluent-suppressed conductometric anion chromatography (SCAC) system. The PAID converts the suppressed eluites from the acid form to the corresponding ammonium salt (NR2H + HX → NR2H2(+) + X(-)) and allows very weak acids HX (pKa ≥ 7.0) that cannot normally be detected by SCAC to be measured by a second conductivity detector following the PAID. Permeative reagent introduction is dilutionless, can be operated without pumps, and provides good mixing (baseline noise 0.8 nS/cm for 27 μM diethylamine) with low band dispersion (as small as 30 μL). Diethylamine (DEA) was chosen as the amine source due to its low pKb value (3.0), high vapor pressure, low toxicity, and low odor. The eluites are thus detected against a low diethylammonium hydroxide (DEAOH) background (5-31 μS/cm) as negative peaks because the equivalent conductance of OH(-) is greater than that of X(-). Reducing the background DEA concentration enhances the detectability of traces of weak acids. Lower background [DEA] will limit the maximum concentration of analyte acids that can be determined; a general concept of peak width measurement at a fixed height is proposed as a solution. Trace impurities formed during electrodialytic suppression play a role in background noise; for the first time, we look at the nature of such impurities. The appearance of silicate in a sample put in a glass container as a function of pH can be readily followed. The maximum silica level in high purity type 1 water is 50 nM (1.40 μg/L Si), which is a measurement challenge in particular. A large injection volume (1 mL) permits detection limits of 21 nM silicate, 3 nM taurine, 3 nM sulfide, and 13 nM cyanide. PMID:26815767

  12. High performance ion chromatography of haloacetic acids on macrocyclic cryptand anion exchanger.

    PubMed

    Bruzzoniti, Maria Concetta; De Carlo, Rosa Maria; Horvath, Krisztian; Perrachon, Daniela; Prelle, Ambra; Tfalvi, Renta; Sarzanini, Corrado; Hajs, Pter

    2008-04-11

    A new high performance ion chromatographic method has been developed for the separation of the nine chlorinated-brominated haloacetic acids (HAAs) that are the disinfection by-products of chlorination of drinking water, using a macrocycle-based adjustable-capacity anion-exchange separator column (IonPac Cryptand A1). A gradient method based on theoretical and experimental considerations has been optimized in which 10 mM NaOH-LiOH step gradient was performed at the third minute of the analysis. The optimized method allowed us to separate the nine HAAs and seven possibly interfering inorganic anions in less than 25 min with acceptable resolution. The minimum concentrations detectable for HAAs were between 8.0 (MBA) and 210 (TBA) microg L(-1), with linearity included between 0.9947 (TBA) and 0.9998 (MBA). To increase sensitivity, a 25-fold preconcentration step on a reversed phase substrate (LiChrolut EN) has been coupled. Application of this method to the analysis of haloacetic acids in real tap water samples is illustrated. PMID:18304560

  13. Ion pair liquid chromatography method for the determination of thiamine (vitamin B1) homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Basiri, Babak; Sutton, James Michael; Hanberry, Bradley S; Zastre, Jason A; Bartlett, Michael G

    2016-01-01

    A new method for reversed phase HPLC determination of thiamine and its major in vivo phosphorylation products, thiamine monophosphate (TMP) and thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), was developed using tetrabutylammonium hydroxide as the ion-pairing agent. The separation was performed on a Phenomenex Kinetex EVO C18 column with a gradient of a phosphate-buffered aqueous solution of the ion-pair reagent and methanol. The duty cycle for the assay was 13 min and pyrithiamine was successfully used as the internal standard for the first time in a thiamine HPLC measurement protocol. Detection of the fluorescence derivatives of the analytes as well as the IS allowed for lower detection limits in order to support biological applications in cell culture models. The linearity, sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and precision of the method were evaluated and met the requirements specified by the US Food and Drug Administration. The calibration curves proved to be linear and the method was validated over the range from 1.0-4000 nm for both cells and the media where complete recovery of the analytes was also achieved. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26120008

  14. Capillary ion chromatography with on-column focusing for ultra-trace analysis of methanesulfonate and inorganic anions in limited volume Antarctic ice core samples.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Estrella Sanz; Poynter, Sam; Curran, Mark; Haddad, Paul R; Shellie, Robert A; Nesterenko, Pavel N; Paull, Brett

    2015-08-28

    Preservation of ionic species within Antarctic ice yields a unique proxy record of the Earth's climate history. Studies have been focused until now on two proxies: the ionic components of sea salt aerosol and methanesulfonic acid. Measurement of the all of the major ionic species in ice core samples is typically carried out by ion chromatography. Former methods, whilst providing suitable detection limits, have been based upon off-column preconcentration techniques, requiring larger sample volumes, with potential for sample contamination and/or carryover. Here, a new capillary ion chromatography based analytical method has been developed for quantitative analysis of limited volume Antarctic ice core samples. The developed analytical protocol applies capillary ion chromatography (with suppressed conductivity detection) and direct on-column sample injection and focusing, thus eliminating the requirement for off-column sample preconcentration. This limits the total sample volume needed to 300?L per analysis, allowing for triplicate sample analysis with <1mL of sample. This new approach provides a reliable and robust analytical method for the simultaneous determination of organic and inorganic anions, including fluoride, methanesulfonate, chloride, sulfate and nitrate anions. Application to composite ice-core samples is demonstrated, with coupling of the capillary ion chromatograph to high resolution mass spectrometry used to confirm the presence and purity of the observed methanesulfonate peak. PMID:26206628

  15. Separation of polar betalain pigments from cacti fruits of Hylocereus polyrhizus by ion-pair high-speed countercurrent chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wybraniec, S?awomir; Stalica, Pawe?; Jerz, Gerold; Klose, Bettina; Gebers, Nadine; Winterhalter, Peter; Sprna, Aneta; Szaleniec, Maciej; Mizrahi, Yosef

    2009-10-01

    Polar betacyanin pigments together with betaxanthins from ripe cactus fruits of Hylocereus polyrhizus (Cactaceae) were fractionated by means of preparative ion-pair high-speed countercurrent chromatography (IP-HSCCC) also using the elution-extrusion (EE) approach for a complete pigment recovery. HSCCC separations were operated in the classical 'head-to-tail' mode with an aqueous mobile phase. Different CCC solvent systems were evaluated in respect of influence and effectiveness of fractionation capabilities to separate the occurring pigment profile of H. polyrhizus. For that reason, the additions of two different volatile ion-pair forming perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCA) were investigated. For a direct comparison, five samples of Hylocereus pigment extract were run on preparative scale (900 mg) in 1-butanol-acetonitrile-aqueous TFA 0.7% (5:1:6, v/v/v) and the modified systems tert.-butyl methyl ether-1-butanol-acetonitrile-aqueous PFCA (2:2:1:5, v/v/v/v) using 0.7% and 1.0% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) or heptafluorobutyric acid (HFBA) in the aqueous phase, respectively. The chemical affinity to the organic stationary CCC solvent phases and in consequence the retention of these highly polar betalain pigments was significantly increased by the use of the more lipophilic fluorinated ion-pair reagent HFBA instead of TFA. The HFBA additions separated more effectively the typical cacti pigments phyllocactin and hylocerenin from betanin as well as their iso-forms. Unfortunately, similar K(D) ratios and selectivity factors alpha around 1.0-1.1 in all tested solvent systems proved that the corresponding diastereomers, 15S-type pigments cannot be resolved from the 15R-epimers (iso-forms). Surprisingly, additions of the stronger ion-pair reagent (HFBA) resulted in a partial separation of hylocerenin from phyllocactin which were not resolved in the other solvent systems. The pigments were detected by means of HPLC-DAD and HPLC-electrospray ionization-MS using also authentic reference materials. PMID:19732900

  16. Theoretical evaluation of peak capacity improvements by use of liquid chromatography combined with drift tube ion mobility-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Causon, Tim J; Hann, Stephan

    2015-10-16

    In the domain of liquid phase separations, the quality of separation obtainable is most readily gauged by consideration of classical chromatographic peak capacity theory. Column-based multidimensional strategies for liquid chromatography remain the most attractive and practical route for increasing the number of spatially resolved components in order to reduce stress on necessary mass spectrometric detection. However, the stress placed on a chromatographic separation step as a second dimension in a comprehensive online methodology (i.e. online LCLC) is rather high. As an alternative to online LCLC combinations, coupling of HPLC with ion mobility spectrometry hyphenated to mass spectrometry (IMS-MS) has emerged as an attractive approach to permit comprehensive sampling of first dimension chromatographic peaks and subsequent introduction to an orthogonal IMS separation prior to measurement of ions by a mass spectrometer. In the present work, utilization of classical peak capacity and ion mobility theory allows theoretical assessment of the potential of two- (LCIMS-MS) or even three-dimensional (LCLCIMS-MS) experimental setups to enhance peak capacity and, therefore, the number of correctly annotated features within the framework of complex, non-targeted analysis problems frequently addressed using HPLC-MS strategies. Theoretical calculations indicate that newly-available drift tube IMS-MS instrumentation can yield peak capacities of between 10 and 40 using nitrogen drift gas for typical non-targeted metabolomic, lipidomic and proteomic applications according to the expected reduced mobilities of components in the respective samples. Theoretically, this approach can significantly improve the overall peak capacity of conventional HPLC-(MS) methodologies to in excess of 10(4) depending upon the column length and gradient time employed. A more elaborate combination of LCLCIMS-MS would improve the ion suppression limitation and possibly allow access to theoretically even higher peak capacities, but such a combination may render the IMS separation practically redundant as well as imparting the well-known dilution problems associated with LCLC. Finally, some predictions for the separation of co-eluted isobaric compounds can also be made by considering the required peak-to-peak resolution for acceptable IMS separation. The here-described theoretical predication approach can be used to aid method development for HPLCIMS-MS and is also accompanied by some practical considerations that should be contemplated in associated non-targeted analysis workflows. PMID:26372446

  17. Efficient purification of small unsaturated oligoglucuronides by reversed-phase chromatography.

    PubMed

    Tavernier, Marie-Laure; Petit, Emmanuel; Lesur, David; Wadouachi, Anne; Courtois, Bernard; Courtois, Josiane; Michaud, Philippe

    2008-03-01

    Ion-exchange chromatography has been applied to purification of unsaturated oligoglucuronans. After an isocratic elution on a strong anion-exchange column, the collected fractions were desalted by low pressure size exclusion chromatography. However, this efficient separation was limited by the time required to desalt. So, we developed a reversed-phase chromatography method using back ionization of oligomers. Two C18 columns were tested with trifluoroacetic acid (TFA 0.7%) as eluent. Different selectivities and column stabilities were observed in this acidic condition. The scale up for semi-preparative applications enabled us to recover pure unsaturated oligoglucuronans without desalting step. PMID:18262480

  18. Automated determination of bromide in waters by ion chromatography with an amperometric detector

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pyen, G.S.; Erdmann, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    An automated ion chromatograph, including a program controller, an automatic sampler, an integrator, and an amperometric detector, was used to develop a procedure for the determination of bromide in rain water and many ground waters. Approximately 10 min is required to obtain a chromatogram. The detection limit for bromide is 0.01 mg l-1 and the relative standard deivation is <5% for bromide concentrations between 0.05 and 0.5 mg l-1. Chloride interferes if the chloride-to-bromide ratio is greater than 1 000:1 for a range of 0.01-0.1 mg l-1 bromide; similarly, chloride interferes in the 0.1-1.0 mg l-1 range if the ratio is greater than 5 000:1. In the latter case, a maximum of 2 000 mg l-1 of chloride can be tolerated. Recoveries of known concentrations of bromide added to several samples, ranged from 97 to 110%. ?? 1983.

  19. Measurement of trace nitrate concentrations in seawater by ion chromatography with valve switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Juan; Fa, Yun; Zheng, Yue; Li, Xuebing; Du, Fanglin; Yang, Haiyan

    2014-05-01

    An ion chromatographic method with a valve switching facility was developed to determine trace nitrate concentrations in seawater using two pumps, two different suppressors, and two columns. A carbohydrate membrane desalter was used to reduce the high concentrations of sodium salts in samples. In this method, trace nitrate was eluted from the concentrator column to the analytical columns, while the matrix fl owed to waste. Neither chemical pre-treatment nor sample dilution was required. In the optimized separation conditions, the method showed good linearity ( R >0.99) in the 0.05 and 50 mg/L concentration range, and satisfactory repeatability (RSD<5%, n =6). The limit of detection for nitrate was 0.02 mg/L. Results showed that the valve switching system was suitable and practical for the determination of trace nitrate in seawater.

  20. Separation of sulfite, sulfate, and thiosulfate by ion chromatography with gradient elution

    SciTech Connect

    Sunden, T.; Lindgren, M.; Cedergren, A.; Siemer, D.D.

    1983-01-01

    A simple gradient apparatus, consisting of a peristaitic pump in addition to a standard high-pressure pump, is described. The device is used to make a single-run ion chromotographic separation of sulfite, sulfate, and thiosulfate in less than 15 min. This separation required a step gradient with 4.8 mM NaHCO/sub 3//4.7 mM Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ as start eluent and 6.9 mM NaHCO/sub 3//8.6 mM Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ is final eluent when two (4 x 50) mm Dionex anion precolumns in series were used as separator. The eluent compositions were simplex optimized.

  1. Recovering Paleo-Records from Antarctic Ice-Cores by Coupling a Continuous Melting Device and Fast Ion Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Severi, Mirko; Becagli, Silvia; Traversi, Rita; Udisti, Roberto

    2015-11-17

    Recently, the increasing interest in the understanding of global climatic changes and on natural processes related to climate yielded the development and improvement of new analytical methods for the analysis of environmental samples. The determination of trace chemical species is a useful tool in paleoclimatology, and the techniques for the analysis of ice cores have evolved during the past few years from laborious measurements on discrete samples to continuous techniques allowing higher temporal resolution, higher sensitivity and, above all, higher throughput. Two fast ion chromatographic (FIC) methods are presented. The first method was able to measure Cl(-), NO3(-) and SO4(2-) in a melter-based continuous flow system separating the three analytes in just 1 min. The second method (called Ultra-FIC) was able to perform a single chromatographic analysis in just 30 s and the resulting sampling resolution was 1.0 cm with a typical melting rate of 4.0 cm min(-1). Both methods combine the accuracy, precision, and low detection limits of ion chromatography with the enhanced speed and high depth resolution of continuous melting systems. Both methods have been tested and validated with the analysis of several hundred meters of different ice cores. In particular, the Ultra-FIC method was used to reconstruct the high-resolution SO4(2-) profile of the last 10?000 years for the EDML ice core, allowing the counting of the annual layers, which represents a key point in dating these kind of natural archives. PMID:26494022

  2. Separation of betalains from berries of Phytolacca americana by ion-pair high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Jerz, Gerold; Skotzki, Tanja; Fiege, Kathrin; Winterhalter, Peter; Wybraniec, S?awomir

    2008-05-01

    The first preparative fractionation of betalain pigments by means of ion-pair high-speed counter-current chromatography (IP-HSCCC) from berry extracts of Phytolacca americana (Phytolaccaceae) is presented. A novel HSCCC solvent system consisting of 1-butanol-acetonitrile-water (5:1:6, v/v/v) was applied using ion-pair forming trifluoroacetic acid at low concentration (0.7%, v/v). Affinity of polar betacyanins and betaxanthins to the organic stationary phase of the biphasic HSCCC solvent mixture was considerably improved. Partitioning coefficient values and influence of increasing trifluoroacetic acid additions to the biphasic solvent mixture were measured for all identified betacyanins and betaxanthins. Gentle separation by IP-HSCCC of the injected pigment extract (900 mg) yielded sufficient amounts of the principal pigments 15S-betanin/15R-isobetanin. The pure epimers separated by C18-HPLC were immediately studied by one- and two-dimensional NMR. In the recovered fractions, minor concentrated betacyanins and betaxanthins were significantly enriched by IP-HSCCC and were detected for the first time in the extracts of P. americana. IP-HSCCC and C18-HPLC were shown to be complementary techniques in the isolation procedure of recovering minor concentrated, highly polar and chemically instable betacyanins and betaxanthin from complex plant matrices. Altogether, identification of 17 betalains was achieved by HPLC-diode array detection-electrospray ionization MS/MS in the HSCCC fractions with their respective isomers, also resulting in the tentative elucidation of betacyanins with novel salicylic acid substitution pattern in the berry extracts of P. americana. PMID:18374932

  3. Potential of ion chromatography coupled to isotope ratio mass spectrometry via a liquid interface for beverages authentication.

    PubMed

    Guyon, Francois; Gaillard, Laetitia; Brault, Audrey; Gaultier, Nicolas; Salagoty, Marie-Hlne; Mdina, Bernard

    2013-12-27

    New tools for the determination of characteristic parameters for food authentication are requested to prevent food adulteration from which health concerns, unfair competition could follow. A new coupling in the area of compound-specific carbon 13 isotope ratio (?(13)C) analysis was developed to simultaneously quantify ?(13)C values of sugars and organic acids. The coupling of ion chromatography (IC) together with isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) can be achieved using a liquid interface allowing a chemical oxidation (co) of organic matter. Synthetic solutions containing 1 polyol (glycerol), 3 carbohydrates (sucrose, glucose and fructose) and 12 organic acids (gluconic, lactic, malic, tartaric, oxalic, fumaric, citric and isocitric) were used to optimize chromatographic conditions (concentration gradient and 3 types of column) and the studied isotopic range (-32.28 to -10.65) corresponds to the values found in food products. Optimum chromatographic conditions are found using an IonPac AS15, an elution flow rate of 0.3mLmin(-1) and a linear concentration gradient from 2 to 76mM (rate 21mMmin(-1)). Comparison between ?(13)C value individually obtained for each compound with the coupling IRMS and elemental analyzer, EA-IRMS, and the ones measured on the mixture of compounds by IC-co-IRMS does not reveal any isotope fractionation. Thus, under these experimental conditions, IC-co-IRMS results are accurate and reproducible. This new coupling was tested on two food matrices, an orange juice and a sweet wine. Some optimization is necessary as the concentration range between sugars and organic acids is too large: an increase in the filament intensity of the IRMS is necessary to simultaneously detect the two compound families. These first attempts confirm the good results obtained on synthetic solutions and the strong potential of the coupling IC-co-IRMS in food authentication area. PMID:24267317

  4. Analysis of inorganic nitrogen and related anions in high salinity water using ion chromatography with tandem UV and conductivity detectors.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Brian; Gandhi, Jay; Zhang, Chunlong Carl

    2011-09-01

    Over 97% of the Earth's water is high salinity water in the form of gulfs, oceans, and salt lakes. There is an increasing concern for the quality of water in bays, gulfs, oceans, and other natural waters. These waters are affected by many different sources of contamination. The sources are, but not limited to, groundwater run-off of nitrogen containing fertilizer, pesticides, cleaning agents, solid wastes, industrial waters, and many more. The final destinations of these contaminants are rivers, lakes, and bayous that eventually will lead to bays, gulfs, and oceans. Many industries depend on the quality of these waters, such as the fishing industry. In addition to wild marine life, there are large aquariums and fish and shrimp farms that are required to know the quality of the water. However, the ability of these industries to monitor their processes is limited. Most analytical methods do not apply to the analysis of high salinity waters. They are dependent on wet chemistry techniques, spectrophotometers, and flow analyzers. These methods do not have the accuracy, precision, and sensitivity when compared to ion chromatography (IC). Since the inception of IC, it has become a standard practice for determining the content of many different water samples. Many IC methods are limited in the range of analytes that can be detected, as well as the numerous sample sources of which the methods are applicable. The main focus of current IC methods does not include high salinity waters. This research demonstrates an ion chromatographic method that has the ability to determine low level concentrations of inorganic nitrogen and related anions (nitrite-N, nitrate-N, phosphorous-P, sulfate, bromide, chloride, sulfide, fluoride, ammonia, calcium, and magnesium) in a single run using a combination of UV and conductivity detectors. This method is applicable to various waters, and uses both freshwater and high salinity water samples. PMID:21859532

  5. [Determination of total cyanides and sulfides in wastewater using ion chromatography coupled with ultraviolet photo-dissociation/gas-membrane diffusion].

    PubMed

    Lu, Keping

    2015-03-01

    An automated system for the determination of total cyanides and sulfides in wastewater has been developed using flow injection, ultraviolet (UV) photo-dissociation, gas-membrane diffusion, column trapping, ion chromatography separation and pulsed amperometric detection. When the sample was mixed with sulfuric acid and hypophosphorous acid medium containing the appropriate amount of sulfamic acid, ascorbic acid, EDTA and citric acid, metal-cyanide complexes such as Fe (CN)3-(6) can be photo-dissociated by 312 nm UV light, which results in hydrogen cyanide ( HCN) and similarly, sulfides release hydrogen sulfide (H2S). These products were diffused through a 0.45 m hydrophobic porous polypropylene membrane and were then absorbed in the dilute NaOH solution, concentrated with a Metrosep A PCC 1 HC/4.0 column, separated on an IonPac AS7 column, and finally detected by the pulsed amperometric detector with Ag electrode. The total cyanides and sulfides were good linear in the range of 0.5-1,000 g/L with correlation coefficients of 0.998 9 and 0.999 7 respectively. The recoveries were 93%-102% and the limits of detection were 0.5 g/L for total cyanides and 1.0 g/L for sulfides under the conditions of the sample volume of 100 L and the signal to noise ratio of 5. The sample throughput of the system was six samples per hour. The results from this new method have been compared with the ones obtained with the standard method, which shows a good agreement. PMID:26182472

  6. Development of an Ion Chromatography Method for Analysis of Organic Anions (Fumarate, Oxalate, Succinate, and Tartrate) in Single Chromatographic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Kaviraj, Yarbagi; Srikanth, B.; Moses Babu, J.; Venkateswara Rao, B.; Paul Douglas, S.

    2015-01-01

    A single organic counterion analysis method was developed by using an ion chromatography separation technique and conductivity detector. This allows the rapid characterization of an API to support clinical studies and to fulfil the regulatory requirements for the quantitation of fumarate, oxalate, succinate, and tartrate counterions in active pharmaceutical ingredients (quetiapine fumarate, escitalopram oxalate, sumatriptan succinate, and tolterodine tartrate). The method was developed by using the Metrohm Metrosep A Supp 1 (250 × 4.0 mm, 5.0 µm particle size) column with a mobile phase containing an isocratic mixture of solution A: 7.5 mM sodium carbonate and 2.0 mM sodium bicarbonate in Milli-Q water and solution B: acetonitrile. The flow rate was set at 1.0 mL/min and the run time was 25 minutes. The developed method was validated as per ICH guidelines, and the method parameters were chosen to ensure the spontaneous quantitation of all four anions. The method was validated for all four anions to demonstrate the applicability of this method to common anions present in various APIs. PMID:26839842

  7. The use of ion chromatography for the determination of clean-in-place-200 (CIP-200) detergent traces.

    PubMed

    Resto, Wilfredo; Roque, Joan; Rey, Rosamil; Coln, Hctor; Zayas, Jos

    2007-01-01

    Anion chromatography with conductivity detection was chosen as the analytical technique for the development of a cleaning validation method for clean-in-place (CIP) detergents. The method was developed and validated for the determination of traces of the detergent CIP-200. It was shown to be linear with a squared correlation coefficient (r(2)) of 0.9999 and the accuracy experiments presented average recoveries of 88.2% (area response factor) from stainless steel surfaces. The repeatability was found to be 1.6% and an intermediate precision of 1.9% across the range. The method was also shown to be sensitive with an average Detection Limit (DL) of 0.23 ppm and a Quantitation Limit (QL) of 0.70 ppm based on the amount of phosphate in the detergent sample. The phosphate signal was well resolved from typical ions encountered in water samples or any other interference presented from swabs and surfaces. The method was applied to cleaning validation samples and proved to be suitable for rapid and reliable quality control. PMID:19690632

  8. The Use of Ion Chromatography for the Determination of Clean-In-Place-200 (CIP-200) Detergent Traces

    PubMed Central

    Resto, Wilfredo; Roque, Joan; Rey, Rosamil; Coln, Hctor; Zayas, Jos

    2006-01-01

    Anion chromatography with conductivity detection was chosen as the analytical technique for the development of a cleaning validation method for clean-in-place (CIP) detergents. The method was developed and validated for the determination of traces of the detergent CIP-200. It was shown to be linear with a squared correlation coefficient (r2) of 0.9999 and the accuracy experiments presented average recoveries of 88.2% (area response factor) from stainless steel surfaces. The repeatability was found to be 1.6% and an intermediate precision of 1.9% across the range. The method was also shown to be sensitive with an average Detection Limit (DL) of 0.23 ppm and a Quantitation Limit (QL) of 0.70 ppm based on the amount of phosphate in the detergent sample. The phosphate signal was well resolved from typical ions encountered in water samples or any other interference presented from swabs and surfaces. The method was applied to cleaning validation samples and proved to be suitable for rapid and reliable quality control. PMID:19690632

  9. Immobilised metal ion affinity chromatography purification of alcohol dehydrogenase from baker's yeast using an expanded bed adsorption system.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, N A; Kirschner, T; Smith, M P; Hjorth, R; Titchener-Hooker, N J

    1999-04-30

    Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) from solutions of homogenised packed bakers' yeast has been successfully purified using immobilised metal-ion affinity chromatography in an expanded bed. Method scouting carried out using pure ADH solutions loaded onto 5-ml HiTrap columns charged with Zn2+, Ni2+ and Cu2+ and eluted using 0-50 mM EDTA gradient found that charging with Zn2+ gave the highest recovery and the lowest EDTA concentration required for elution. These results were used to develop a protocol for the expanded bed system and further tested using clarified yeast homogenate loaded onto XK16/20 packed beds (approximately 30 ml) packed with Chelating Sepharose FastFlow matrix in order to determine the optimum elution conditions using EDTA. The ADH was found to elute at 5 mM EDTA and the dynamic and total binding capacities of Streamline chelating for ADH were found to be 235 U/ml and 1075 U/ml matrix, respectively. Expanded bed work based on a step EDTA elution protocol demonstrated that ADH could be successfully eluted from unclarified homogenised bakers' yeast diluted to 10 mg/ml total protein content with a recovery of 80-100% that was maintained over five consecutive runs with a vigorous clean-in-place procedure between each run. PMID:10343398

  10. Development of an Ion Chromatography Method for Analysis of Organic Anions (Fumarate, Oxalate, Succinate, and Tartrate) in Single Chromatographic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Kaviraj, Yarbagi; Srikanth, B; Moses Babu, J; Venkateswara Rao, B; Paul Douglas, S

    2015-01-01

    A single organic counterion analysis method was developed by using an ion chromatography separation technique and conductivity detector. This allows the rapid characterization of an API to support clinical studies and to fulfil the regulatory requirements for the quantitation of fumarate, oxalate, succinate, and tartrate counterions in active pharmaceutical ingredients (quetiapine fumarate, escitalopram oxalate, sumatriptan succinate, and tolterodine tartrate). The method was developed by using the Metrohm Metrosep A Supp 1 (250 × 4.0 mm, 5.0 µm particle size) column with a mobile phase containing an isocratic mixture of solution A: 7.5 mM sodium carbonate and 2.0 mM sodium bicarbonate in Milli-Q water and solution B: acetonitrile. The flow rate was set at 1.0 mL/min and the run time was 25 minutes. The developed method was validated as per ICH guidelines, and the method parameters were chosen to ensure the spontaneous quantitation of all four anions. The method was validated for all four anions to demonstrate the applicability of this method to common anions present in various APIs. PMID:26839842

  11. Determination of arsenic speciation in sulfidic waters by Ion Chromatography Hydride-Generation Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (IC-HG-AFS).

    PubMed

    Keller, Nicole S; Stefánsson, Andri; Sigfússon, Bergur

    2014-10-01

    A method for the analysis of arsenic species in aqueous sulfide samples is presented. The method uses an ion chromatography system connected with a Hydride-Generation Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometer (IC-HG-AFS). With this method inorganic As(III) and As(V) species in water samples can be analyzed, including arsenite (HnAs(III)O3(n-3)), thioarsenite (HnAs(III)S3(n-3)), arsenate (HnAs(V)O4(n-3)), monothioarsenate (HnAs(V)SO3(n-3)), dithioarsenate (HnAs(V)S2O2(n-3)), trithioarsenate (HnAs(V)S3O(n-3)) and tetrathioarsenate (HnAs(V)S4(n-3)). The peak identification and retention times were determined based on standard analysis of the various arsenic compounds. The analytical detection limit was ~1-3 µg L(-1) (LOD), depending on the quality of the baseline. This low detection limit makes this method also applicable to discriminate between waters meeting the drinking water standard of max. 10 µg L(-1) As, and waters that do not meet this standard. The new method was successfully applied for on-site determination of arsenic species in natural sulfidic waters, in which seven species were unambiguously identified. PMID:25059187

  12. Simultaneous screening and confirmation of multiple classes of drug residues in fish by liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Smith, Shani; Gieseker, Charles; Reimschuessel, Renate; Decker, Christie-Sue; Carson, Mary C

    2009-11-13

    LC-ion trap mass spectrometry was used to screen and confirm 38 compounds from a variety of drug classes in four species of fish: trout, salmon, catfish, and tilapia. Samples were extracted with acetonitrile and hexane. The acetonitrile phase was evaporated, redissolved in water and acetonitrile, and analyzed by gradient chromatography on a phenyl column. MS(2) or MS(3) spectra were monitored for each compound. Qualitative method performance was evaluated by the analysis over several days of replicate samples of control fish, fish fortified with a drug mixture at 1 ppm, 0.1 ppm and 0.01 ppm, and fish dosed with a representative from each drug class. Half of the 38 drugs were confirmed at 0.01 ppm, the lowest fortification level. This included all of the quinolones and fluoroquinolones, the macrolides, malachite green, and most of the imidazoles. Florfenicol amine, metronidazole, sulfonamides, tetracyclines, and most of the betalactams were confirmed at 0.1 ppm. Ivermectin and penicillin G were only detectable in the 1 ppm fortified samples. With the exception of amoxicillin, emamectin, metronidazole, and tylosin, residue presence was confirmed in all the dosed fish. PMID:19616215

  13. Determination of malachite green and leucomalachite green in edible goldfish muscle by liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kim-Chung; Wu, Jian-Lin; Cai, Zongwei

    2006-11-01

    A liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry method with three "time segments" has been developed to determine malachite green (MG) and its major metabolite, leucomalachite green (LMG) in edible goldfish muscle. By using the optimized "time segments", MG and LMG as well as the internal standard atrazine-d(5) were analyzed with good sensitivity with positive ESI-MS in a single run. The homogenized fish muscle tissues were extracted with a solution of perchloric acid and acetonitrile, followed by partitioning with dichloromethane. Strata-x polymeric solid-phase extraction column was used for the clean-up process. The determination of MG and LMG was achieved by using a reversed-phase HPLC gradient program coupled with MS/MS in multiple-reaction-monitoring mode. Matrix calibration curves were linear over the ranges of 5-500 ng/ml for MG and 1-100 ng/ml for LMG. Recoveries of the fish tissue extraction at three spiked levels (2, 10 and 30 ng/g for MG as well as 0.4, 2 and 6 ng/g for LMG) were better than 71% and 89%, respectively. Relative standard derivations from six determinations were less than 8%. The method detection limits were 0.13 ng/g for MG and 0.06 ng/g for LMG. PMID:16824810

  14. Direct Separation of Molybdenum from Solid Uranium Matrices Employing Pyrohydrolysis, a Green Separation Method, and Its Determination by Ion Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Vivekchandra G; Thakur, Uday K; Shah, Dipti J; Gupta, Neeraj K; Jeyakumar, Subbiah; Tomar, Bhupendra S; Ramakumar, Karanam L

    2015-11-01

    Pyrohydrolysis is a well-established separation method, and it is being used as a sample preparation method for several materials for further determination of non-metals such as halogens, boron, and sulfur. Analytes are retained in a diluted solution that is suitable for carrying out analysis by several determination techniques and minimizing the use of concentrated reagents. Pyrohydrolysis separation of metals has not been reported yet. The present study demonstrates the pyrohydrolysis separation of Mo as MoO4(2-) from uranium materials and its subsequent determination using ion chromatography coupled with suppressed conductivity detector. With use of TGA and XRD the volatilization behavior of Mo was studied. Important parameters for the pyrohydrolysis method required for the quantitative separation of Mo were evaluated. The precision of the method was better than 5% at 25 ppm of Mo. The accuracy was evaluated by analysis of a CRM (U3O8-ILCE-IV). The method was applied to determine Mo in ammonium diuranate samples, where the conventional methods suffer from the loss of Mo. PMID:26465172

  15. Multiple applications of ion chromatography oligosaccharide fingerprint profiles to solve a variety of sugar and sugar-biofuel industry problems.

    PubMed

    Eggleston, Gillian; Borges, Eduardo

    2015-03-25

    Sugar crops contain a broad variety of carbohydrates used for human consumption and the production of biofuels and bioproducts. Ion chromatography with integrated pulsed amperometric detection (IC-IPAD) can be used to simultaneously detect mono-, di-, and oligosaccharides, oligosaccharide isomers, mannitol, and ethanol in complex matrices from sugar crops. By utilizing a strong NaOH/NaOAc gradient method over 45 min, oligosaccharides of at least 2-12 dp can be detected. Fingerprint IC oligosaccharide profiles are extremely selective, sensitive, and reliable and can detect deterioration product metabolites from as low as 100 colony-forming units/mL lactic acid bacteria. The IC fingerprints can also be used to (i) monitor freeze deterioration, (ii) optimize harvesting methods and cut-to-crush times, (iii) differentiate between white refined sugar from sugar cane and from sugar beets, (iv) verify the activities of carbohydrate enzymes, (v) select yeasts for ethanol fermentations, and (vi) isolate and diagnose infections and processing problems in sugar factories. PMID:25708094

  16. Simple column-switching ion chromatography method for determining eight monosaccharides and oligosaccharides in honeydew and nectar.

    PubMed

    Ni, Chengzhu; Zhu, Binhe; Wang, Nani; Wang, Muhua; Chen, Suqing; Zhang, Jiajie; Zhu, Yan

    2016-03-01

    Honeydew is excreted by aphids as a sweet waste and nectar is floral honey. Honeydew and nectar are complicated samples which consist of various sugars and amino acids. In this work, a simple ion chromatography with column-switching method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of 8 monosaccharides and oligosaccharides in honeydew and nectar. A reversed-phase column was used as a pretreatment column to eliminate organics on-line and sugars were eluted from a collection loop to analytical column by using column-switching technique. This method showed good linearity (r⩾0.9994) and afforded low limits of detection ranging from 1.55 to 10.17μgL(-1) for all the analytes. Recoveries ranged from 95% to 105% and repeatability results were acceptable with relative standard deviation of less than 3.21% (n=6). This method was successfully applied to quantification of these sugars in honeydew and nectar. These results showed honeydew had much more oligosaccharides than nectar. PMID:26471592

  17. [Simultaneous determination of trivalent chromium and hexavalent chromium in plastics by accelerated solvent extraction-ion chromatography].

    PubMed

    Yu, Ruipeng; Hu, Zhongyang; Ye, Mingli; Che, Jinshui

    2012-04-01

    A method based on accelerated solvent extraction-ion chromatography (ASE-IC) was developed for the simultaneous determination of trivalent chromium (Cr(III)) and hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in plastic samples. The accelerated solvent extraction was employed as the pretreatment method for the simultaneous extraction of the Cr(III) and Cr(VI) from the samples. Cr(III) and Cr(VI) were derivatized with 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid (PDCA) and 1,5-diphenyl-carbazide (DPC), and detected by an ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) detector at UV and visible wavelengths, respectively. The results showed that the limits of detection for Cr(III) and Cr(VI) were 5.0 microg/L and 0.5 microg/L and the good linearities of the calibration curves for them were in the ranges of 50 - 1 000 microg/L (r2 = 0.9994) and 5.0 - 100 microg/L (r2 = 0.9998), respectively. The recoveries were between 90.7% and 101.1% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 1.7% -4.4% for Cr(III) and Cr(VI). The method is sensitive, reproducible and adaptable to the simultaneous determination of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in the plastic samples. PMID:22799201

  18. Development of packed-column suppressor system for capillary ion chromatography and its application to environmental waters.

    PubMed

    Sedyohutomo, Anang; Lim, Lee Wah; Takeuchi, Toyohide

    2008-09-01

    A novel suppressor unit for capillary ion chromatography was designed to reduce the background conductivity and at the same time to increase the analyte signal. Regeneration of the suppressor was carried out on-line by passing an appropriate acidic solution through the column to displace the accumulated eluent cations. By using two 6-port microswitching valves and two packed capillary column suppressors, the background conductivity of sodium carbonate-bicarbonate mobile phase was maintained at low conductivity for continuous chromatographic runs, and the detection limits at low ppb levels were achieved. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) for the retention time, peak area and peak height of six common inorganic anions (0.05 mM each of F(-), Cl(-), NO(2)(-), Br(-), NO(3)(-) and SO(4)(2-)) were between 0.5-0.9, 1.1-4.6 and 0.7-4.9%, respectively. The present system was successfully applied to the determination of inorganic anions in river water and tap water samples. PMID:18675983

  19. Microscopic insight into role of protein flexibility during ion exchange chromatography by nuclear magnetic resonance and quartz crystal microbalance approaches.

    PubMed

    Hao, Dongxia; Ge, Jia; Huang, Yongdong; Zhao, Lan; Ma, Guanghui; Su, Zhiguo

    2016-03-18

    Driven by the prevalent use of ion exchange chromatography (IEC) for polishing therapeutic proteins, many rules have been formulated to summarize the different dependencies between chromatographic data and various operational parameters of interest based on statically determined interactions. However, the effects of the unfolding of protein structures and conformational stability are not as well understood. This study focuses on how the flexibility of proteins perturbs retention behavior at the molecular scale using microscopic characterization approaches, including hydrogen-deuterium (H/D) exchange detected by NMR and a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). The results showed that a series of chromatographic retention parameters depended significantly on the adiabatic compressibility and structural flexibility of the protein. That is, softer proteins with higher flexibility tended to have longer retention times and stronger affinities on SP Sepharose adsorbents. Tracing the underlying molecular mechanism using NMR and QCM indicated that an easily unfolded flexible protein with a more compact adsorption layer might contribute to the longer retention time on adsorbents. The use of NMR and QCM provided a previously unreported approach for elucidating the effect of protein structural flexibility on binding in IEC systems. PMID:26896917

  20. Selective removal of carbon dioxide contained in the effluent from ion chromatography suppressors using a new non-vacuum device.

    PubMed

    Masunaga, Hiroto; Higo, Yuji; Ishii, Mizuo; Maruyama, Noboru; Yamazaki, Shigeo

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, a new CO2 gas removal device optimized to selectively remove CO2 gas contained in the effluent from suppressors used in ion chromatography (IC) under non-vacuum conditions is described. This device consists of a closed vessel equipped with gas permeable tubing (GPT) and a CO2 adsorbent. During operation, the CO2 adsorbent adsorbs CO2 gas in the vessel, creating CO2 partial pressure difference between the inside of the GPT and the vessel. The CO2 gas contained in the effluent being pumped into the GPT is selectively removed from the effluent based on the diffusion of the CO2 associated with the CO2 partial pressure difference. The purpose of this study is to optimize the IC operating conditions with the aim of selectively removing HCO3(-) (CO3(2-)) contained in the effluent and reducing the electrical conductivity of the effluent under non-vacuum conditions. The electrical conductivity of the effluent and the signal intensity of the water dip is decreased by approximately 25 ?S/cm (from 30 to 5 ?S/cm) and by approximately twentieth, respectively, using the optimized CO2 remover. In addition, the anion detection limit achieved in IC instruments with a CO2 remover is on the order of a few ppb. PMID:25817478

  1. Derivatization Ion Chromatography for the Determination of Monoethanolamine in Presence of Hydrazine in PHWR Steam-Water Circuits

    PubMed Central

    D., Ayushi; Sengupta, Arijit; Kumar, Sangita D.; Kumbhar, A. G.; Venkateswaran, G.

    2011-01-01

    A simple, rapid and accurate method for the determination of monoethanolamine (MEA) in PHWR steam-water circuits has been developed. MEA is added in the feed water to provide protection against corrosion while hydrazine is added to scavenge dissolved oxygen. The quantitative determination of MEA in presence of hydrazine was accomplished using derivatization ion chromatography with conductometric detection in nonsuppressed mode. A Metrosep cation 1-2 analytical column and a Metrosep cartridge were used for cation separation. A mixture of 4?mM tartaric acid, 20% acetone and 0.05?mM HNO3 was used as eluent. Acetone in the mobile phase leads to the formation of different derivatives with MEA and hydrazine. The interferences due Na+ and NH4?+ were eliminated by adopting a simple pretreatment procedure employing OnGuard-H cartridge. The limit of detection limit of MEA was 0.1??g?mL?1 and the relative standard deviation was 2% for the overall method. The recovery of MEA added was in the range 95%102%. The method was applied to the determination of MEA in steam generator water samples. PMID:21785596

  2. Determination of lincomycin residue in salmon tissues by ion-pair reversed-phase liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Wenhong; Hansen, E.B. Jr.; Thompson, H.C. Jr.

    1996-07-01

    A method is described for detecting and quantitating lincomycin residue in salmon muscle and skin tissues by ion-pair reversed-phase chromatography (LC) with electrochemical detection at +0.9 V. Lincomycin was extracted from tissues by homogenizing with 0.01M KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4} buffer (pH 4.5) and centrifuging the mixture. Water-soluble proteins were precipitated by adding sodium tungstate and sulfuric acid and removed by centrifugation. The buffer extract was then passed through a C{sub 18} solid-phase extraction cartridge. Lincomycin was eluted with 50% acetonitrile in water, and the eluate containing lincomycin was extracted with ethyl acetate. After the solvent had evaporated, the residue was redissolved in mobile phase and analyzed by LC. The method had a limit of detection of 7 ng/g lincomycin for salmon muscle and 24 ng/g for salmon skin. Average recoveries of lincomycin spiked at 50, 100, and 200 ng/g were {ge}85% for salmon muscle and {le}80% for salmon skin. 12 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Quantification of four arsenic species in fruit juices by ion-chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Conklin, Sean D; Chen, Peter E

    2012-08-01

    A method using ion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (IC-ICP-MS) for the quantification of arsenic species in fruit juices has been developed and validated. The method is capable of quantifying four anionic arsenic species - arsenite (As(III)), arsenate (As(V)), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) - in the presence of unretained species such as arsenobetaine (AsB). Method validation was based on repeatability, analysis of reference materials, recovery of fortified samples, and determination of detection and quantification limits. The method was tested for use with apple, pear, cranberry, grape (red, white and purple) juices, as well as several juice blends. Limits of detection were 0.35, 0.41, 0.45 and 0.70?g?kg? for As(III), DMA, MMA and As(V), respectively. Chromatographic recovery was good for most samples (90-107% compared to total arsenic), though recovery for some grape juice samples was lower (67-78%). PMID:22639850

  4. Determination of plasma mexiletine levels with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and selected-ion monitoring.

    PubMed

    Minnigh, M B; Alvin, J D; Zemaitis, M A

    1994-12-01

    Mexiletine, 1-(2,6-dimethylphenoxy)-2-aminopropane (Mexitil), is an orally effective agent useful in the treatment of serious ventricular arrhythmias. This paper describes a gas chromatographic-mass spectrophotometric assay with selected-ion monitoring for the measurement of plasma or serum mexiletine levels. The drug and internal standard (p-chlorophenylalanine methyl ester) were extracted from plasma into ethyl acetate-hexane-methanol (60:40:1, v/v). After separation and evaporation of the organic phase, the drug and internal standard were derivatized to their pentafluoropropyl derivatives prior to analysis. The reproducibility of the daily standard curve yielded mean inter- and intra-day coefficients of variability from 0.7 to 11.0%. The coefficients of variability for control plasma samples (0.5 and 1.0 micrograms/ml) ranged from 2.6 to 5.0% and the accuracy of the assay was 106 +/- 6 and 100 +/- 5% for the low and high level controls respectively. The limit of quantitation for the assay was 0.1 micrograms/ml. No interfering peaks were detected in any patient samples. This method can be used as a primary analytical method to measure mexiletine plasma levels or can serve as a convenient back-up method to HPLC procedures when contaminating peaks coelute with mexiletine. PMID:7894684

  5. Monitoring fermentation media by ion-chromatography with a double chamber bulk acoustic wave detector.

    PubMed

    Xie, Y T; Zeng, H S; Yao, S Z; Wei, W Z

    1999-12-01

    A reliable ion-chromatographic (IC) method with a novel double chamber bulk acoustic wave (DCBAW) detector was developed for monitoring five important inorganic cations (Na(+), K(+), NH(4)(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+)) in biological culture media. A Shimpack IC-C1 analytical column with 5 mM hydrochloric acid and 2 mM acetonitrile as mobile phase was used. All investigated inorganic cations could be detected and qualified in the range of 0.1-100 mg/l. Results showed that the consumption velocities of Mg(2+) and K(+) are related to the growth of the cells and decrease fastest during the first 2-5 h. Mg became a growth limiting factor at concentration below 0.1 mg/l. The concentrations of the other cations stayed nearly constant during the whole fermentation process. The simple sample preparation, short analytical time and accurate results made it a useful tool for the on-line monitoring, controlling and optimization of the fermentation process. PMID:18967796

  6. Elution profiles of lanthanides with ?-hydroxyisobutyric acid by ion exchange chromatography using fine resin.

    PubMed

    Trikha, Rahul; Sharma, Bal Krishan; Sabharwal, Kanwal Nain; Prabhu, Krishan

    2015-11-01

    Experiments were carried out using a strong acid cation exchange resin with a particle size of 75-150 ?m, termed as "fine resin" in hydrogen ion form for the elution of individual lanthanides Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, and Dy that are produced as fission products in the spent nuclear fuel and generated in the effluent during reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. Batch experiments were carried out to study the effect of concentration of nitric acid on distribution coefficient. The distribution coefficient values for these individual lanthanides were determined in nitric acid medium in the concentration range of 0.01-4.0 N. Uptake of each individual lanthanide by resin was increased with increased nitric acid concentration from 0.01 to 0.5 N and remained similar from 0.5 to 1.0 N and decreased thereafter up to 4.0 N. Column experiments were also carried out using the same resin to study the parameters like pH of the eluent, flow rate, and resin bed height under isocratic elution conditions for eluting lanthanide elements using ?-hydroxyisobutyric acid as eluent. The results of this study have indicated the possibility for the elution of individual lanthanides. PMID:26333182

  7. Simultaneous determination of Ephedra sinica and Citrus aurantium var. amara alkaloids by ion-pair chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ganzera, M; Lanser, C; Stuppner, H

    2005-05-15

    Ephedra sinica (Ma Huang) preparations have recently gained a lot of attention because of serious side effects associated with their prolonged consumption. Citrus aurantium var. amara is now used as an alternative, despite the fact that similar side effects are suspected. We have developed and validated the first analytical procedure for the simultaneous determination of all major alkaloids from both species. Using the ion-pairing reagent SDS, a C-18 stationary phase (3mum material) and a pH-gradient for elution enabled the baseline separation of six alkaloids ((+/-)-octopamine, (+/-)-synephrine, tyramine, (-)-norephedrine, (+)-pseudoephedrine and (-)-ephedrine) within less than 30min. The method is sensitive (LOD

  8. Determination of total sulfite in wine by ion chromatography after in-sample oxidation.

    PubMed

    Koch, Matthias; Kppen, Robert; Siegel, David; Witt, Angelika; Nehls, Irene

    2010-09-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) or sulfites are the most common preservatives used in winemaking. The level of total SO2 is subject to regulation. Currently, the regulatory determination of total SO2 (including sulfites) is done by the optimized Monier-Williams (OMW) method, which includes time-consuming distillation and titration steps. This paper describes the development and application of an alternative, rapid, straightforward, and reliable method for the determination of total sulfite in wine. In this method, a simple oxidation step using alkaline hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) solution is followed by ion chromatographic (IC) analysis of sulfate coupled with conductometric detection. Thirteen wines were analyzed in order to compare the in-sample oxidation method with the OMW-procedure. A t-test revealed satisfying compliance regarding sample preparation, i.e., alkaline H2O2 treatment and acidic distillation (OMW method). Comparable results were also obtained between IC analysis and acid/base titration. Our results indicate that the novel method (limit of quantification: 4 mg SO2 L(-1)) is well suited for the cost-efficient monitoring of regulatory limits. PMID:20690603

  9. Custom-tailored adsorbers: A molecular dynamics study on optimal design of ion exchange chromatography material.

    PubMed

    Lang, Katharina M H; Kittelmann, Jrg; Pilgram, Florian; Osberghaus, Anna; Hubbuch, Jrgen

    2015-09-25

    The performance of functionalized materials, e.g., ion exchange resins, depends on multiple resin characteristics, such as type of ligand, ligand density, the pore accessibility for a molecule, and backbone characteristics. Therefore, the screening and identification process for optimal resin characteristics for separation is very time and material consuming. Previous studies on the influence of resin characteristics have focused on an experimental approach and to a lesser extent on the mechanistic understanding of the adsorption mechanism. In this in silico study, a previously developed molecular dynamics (MD) tool is used, which simulates any given biomolecule on resins with varying ligand densities. We describe a set of simulations and experiments with four proteins and six resins varying in ligand density, and show that simulations and experiments correlate well in a wide range of ligand density. With this new approach simulations can be used as pre-experimental screening for optimal adsorber characteristics, reducing the actual number of screening experiments, which results in a faster and more knowledge-based development of custom-tailored adsorbers. PMID:26319376

  10. Separation of oxyanions of sulphur by single-column ion-chromatography.

    PubMed

    Beveridge, A; Pickering, W F; Slavek, J

    1988-04-01

    After stabilization of sulphite by addition of a five-fold excess of formaldehyde, mixtures of sulphite, sulphate and thiosulphate are readily separated by HPLC. For use with Vydac columns (302IC or 300IC) a suitable eluent is 1-3mM phthalic acid (pH 5-6), and the eluted ions may be detected by means of the change in refractive index or the absorbance at 290 nm. With a flow-rate of 2 ml/min, anion elution times are about 2.7 (0.7) min for HOCH(2)SO(-)(3), 7.5 (2.6) min for SO(2-)(4) and 8.4 (5.2) min for S(2)O(2-)(3), the values in parentheses being those for the shorter 300IC column. Detection limits for sulphite and sulphate were around 1 mg/l., with relative standard deviations of 2-3% at higher levels. The sensitivity for S(2)O(2-)(3) was an order of magnitude lower. The proposed method has advantages over earlier procedures based on alkaline eluents. PMID:18964518

  11. Retention behavior of o-phthalic, 3-nitrophthalic, and 4-nitrophthalic acids in ion-suppression reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography using acids instead of buffers as ion-suppressors.

    PubMed

    Lian, Hong-Zhen; Wang, Wei-Han; Li, Dan-Ni

    2005-07-01

    In reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography, the logarithm of the retention factor, log k, is usually correlated with the logarithm of the octanol-water partition coefficient, log Kow. The k and Kow of an ionizable analyte are greatly influenced by the mobile phase pH. In this paper, log kw of diprotic o-phthalic, 3-nitrophthalic, and 4-nitrophthalic acids, are obtained by extrapolation to pure aqueous fraction of mobile phase in ion-suppression reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography with acetic acid and perchloric acid as the ion-suppressors. The Kow values of the three analytes are calibrated according to the apparent octanol-water partition coefficient, Kow, under different pH conditions, and the log K"ow values show a much better correlation with log kw than do log Kow. The influences of two ion-suppressors, acetic and perchloric acids, on the retention behavior of these diprotic acids at different pH are contrasted. An abnormal trend is found in the k vs. pHw plot of the acetic acid system when the methanol content is low. A possible reason is that acetic acid is an even stronger organic modifier than methanol, besides being an ion-suppressor. The results make the selection of mobile phase for the separation of acidic compounds by ion-suppression reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography direct, accurate, and practical. PMID:16116995

  12. True ion pick (TIPick): a denoising and peak picking algorithm to extract ion signals from liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry data.

    PubMed

    Ho, Tsung-Jung; Kuo, Ching-Hua; Wang, San-Yuan; Chen, Guan-Yuan; Tseng, Yufeng J

    2013-02-01

    Liquid Chromatography-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry has become an important technique for toxicological screening and metabolomics. We describe TIPick a novel algorithm that accurately and sensitively detects target compounds in biological samples. TIPick comprises two main steps: background subtraction and peak picking. By subtracting a blank chromatogram, TIPick eliminates chemical signals of blank injections and reduces false positive results. TIPick detects peaks by calculating the S(CC(INI)) values of extracted ion chromatograms (EICs) without considering peak shapes, and it is able to detect tailing and fronting peaks. TIPick also uses duplicate injections to enhance the signals of the peaks and thus improve the peak detection power. Commonly seen split peaks caused by either saturation of the mass spectrometer detector or a mathematical background subtraction algorithm can be resolved by adjusting the mass error tolerance of the EICs and by comparing the EICs before and after background subtraction. The performance of TIPick was tested in a data set containing 297 standard mixtures; the recall, precision and F-score were 0.99, 0.97 and 0.98, respectively. TIPick was successfully used to construct and analyze the NTU MetaCore metabolomics chemical standards library, and it was applied for toxicological screening and metabolomics studies. PMID:23378096

  13. Measurement of gas-phase ammonia and amines in air by collection onto an ion exchange resin and analysis by ion chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, M. L.; Perraud, V.; Gomez, A.; Arquero, K. D.; Ezell, M. J.; Finlayson-Pitts, B. J.

    2014-02-01

    Ammonia and amines are common trace gases in the atmosphere and have a variety of both biogenic and anthropogenic sources, with a major contribution coming from agricultural sites. In addition to their malodorous nature, both ammonia and amines have been shown to enhance particle formation from acids such as nitric, sulfuric and methanesulfonic acids, which has implications for visibility, human health and climate. A key component of quantifying the effects of these species on particle formation is accurate gas-phase measurements in both laboratory and field studies. However, these species are notoriously difficult to measure as they are readily taken up on surfaces, including onto glass surfaces from aqueous solution as established in the present studies. We describe here a novel technique for measuring gas-phase ammonia and amines that involves uptake onto a weak cation exchange resin followed by extraction and analysis using ion chromatography. Two variants, one for ppb concentrations in air and the second with lower (ppt) detection limits, are described. The latter involves the use of a custom-designed high-pressure cartridge to hold the resin for in-line extraction. These methods avoid the use of sampling lines, which can lead to significant inlet losses of these compounds. They also have the advantages of being relatively simple and inexpensive. The applicability of this technique to ambient air is demonstrated in measurements made near a cattle farm in Chino, CA.

  14. Measurement of gas-phase ammonia and amines in air by collection onto an ion exchange resin and analysis by ion chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, M. L.; Perraud, V.; Gomez, A.; Arquero, K. D.; Ezell, M. J.; Finlayson-Pitts, B. J.

    2014-08-01

    Ammonia and amines are common trace gases in the atmosphere and have a variety of both biogenic and anthropogenic sources, with a major contribution coming from agricultural sites. In addition to their malodorous nature, both ammonia and amines have been shown to enhance particle formation from acids such as nitric, sulfuric and methanesulfonic acids, which has implications for visibility, human health and climate. A key component of quantifying the effects of these species on particle formation is accurate gas-phase measurements in both laboratory and field studies. However, these species are notoriously difficult to measure as they are readily taken up on surfaces, including onto glass surfaces from aqueous solution as established in the present studies. We describe here a novel technique for measuring gas-phase ammonia and amines that involves uptake onto a weak cation exchange resin followed by extraction and analysis using ion chromatography. Two variants - one for parts per billion concentrations in air and the second with lower (parts per trillion) detection limits - are described. The latter involves the use of a custom-designed high-pressure cartridge to hold the resin for in-line extraction. These methods avoid the use of sampling lines, which can lead to significant inlet losses of these compounds. They also have the advantages of being relatively simple and inexpensive. The applicability of this technique to ambient air is demonstrated in measurements made near a cattle farm in Chino, CA.

  15. Capillary ion chromatography of inorganic anions on octadecyl silica monolith modified with an amphoteric surfactant.

    PubMed

    O Rordin, Colmn; Gillespie, Eoin; Connolly, Damian; Nesterenko, Pavel N; Paull, Brett

    2007-02-23

    A reversed-phase monolithic silica based capillary column (Onyx C(18), 150 mm x 0.1 mm) was modified with the amphoteric surfactant, N-dodecyl-N,N-(dimethylammonio)undecanoate (DDMAU) and evaluated for the separation and determination of inorganic anions using on-column capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (C(4)D). The chromatographic performance of the column was evaluated and under optimal conditions separation efficiencies of 56,200 plates per meter or 7025 plates per column (at detection point) were observed (for iodide). Direct plumbing of the capillary column to the micro-injector and on-column detection eliminated extra-column band broadening, thus allowing accurate analysis of van Deemter curves obtained for the monolithic capillary column. The calculated value for the C-term in the obtained van Deemter curve was between 3 and 4 ms for inorganic anions, allowing for the utilisation of relatively high flow rates without significant losses in efficiency. The performance of the C(4)D detector was investigated and compared for detection on an open tubular capillary column and on the modified monolithic silica capillary column. The on-column detection approach did not result in any significant decrease in peak sensitivity for the monolith compared to responses recorded for open tubular capillary columns, and in addition meant the system could be applied to rapid separations by simple variation in apparent column length. The proposed chromatographic system allowed for detection of common anions at sub-ppm level with a 10 nL injection volume. Additionally, on-column detection allowed visualisation of the development of the separation at any point in time and evaluation of the longitudinal uniformity of the ion-exchange coating. PMID:17207491

  16. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric ion-switching determination of chlorantraniliprole and flubendiamide in fruits and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Caboni, Pierluigi; Sarais, Giorgia; Angioni, Alberto; Vargiu, Simona; Pagnozzi, Daniela; Cabras, Paolo; Casida, John E

    2008-09-10

    The anthranilic and phthalic diamides, chlorantraniliprole (CAP) and flubendiamide (FLU), respectively, represent a new class of very effective insecticides that activate the ryanodine-sensitive intracellular calcium release channel (ryanodine receptor). This paper reports an analytical method for the simultaneous determination of the two insecticides on fruits and vegetables by liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry operated in the positive and negative ionization switching mode. The two diamides were extracted with acetonitrile and separated on a Zorbax Column Eclipse XDB C8 (4.6 mm x 150 mm i.d., 3 microm) by isocratic elution with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and water with 0.1% formic acid pumped at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. The diamides were selectively detected by multiple reaction monitoring for transitions of proton adduct precursor ions simultaneously: positive m/z 484.3-->285 for CAP, m/z 445.5-->169 for internal standard, and negative m/z 681.4-->253 for FLU. For CAP calibration in the positive mode was linear over a working range of 2 to 1000 microg/L with r > 0.992. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for CAP were 0.8 and 1.6 microg/kg, respectively. For FLU in the negative mode the corresponding values were 1-1000 microg/L for linear working range, with r > 0.996 and 0.4 and 0.8 microg/L for LOD and LOQ, respectively. Moreover, the presence of interfering compounds in the fruit and vegetable extracts was found to be minimal. Due to the linear behavior of the MS detector response for the two analytes, it was concluded that the multiple reaction transitions of molecular ions in the ion-switching mode can be used for analytical purposes, that is, for identification and quantification of diamides in fruit and vegetable extracts at trace levels. PMID:18690687

  17. Comparison of Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and Gas Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry with Electron Ionization and Negative-Ion Chemical Ionization for Analyses of Pesticides at Trace Levels in Atmospheric Samples

    PubMed Central

    Raina, Renata; Hall, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    A comparison of detection limits of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in selected ion monitoring (SIM) with gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode with both electron ionization (EI) and negative-ion chemical ionization (NCI) are presented for over 50 pesticides ranging from organochlorines (OCs), organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) and pre-emergent herbicides used in the Canadian prairies (triallate, trifluralin, ethalfluralin). The developed GC-EI/SIM, GC-NCI/SIM, and GC-NCI/SRM are suitable for the determination of pesticides in air sample extracts at concentrations <100 pg ?L?1 (<100 pg m?3 in air). No one method could be used to analyze the range of pre-emergent herbicides, OPs, and OCs investigated. In general GC-NCI/SIM provided the lowest method detection limits (MDLs commonly 2.510 pg ?L?1) along with best confirmation (<25% RSD of ion ratio), while GC-NCI/SRM is recommended for use where added selectivity or confirmation is required (such as parathion-ethyl, tokuthion, carbofenothion). GC-EI/SRM at concentration <100 pg ?L?1 was not suitable for most pesticides. GC-EI/SIM was more prone to interference issues than NCI methods, but gave good sensitivity (MDLs 110 pg ?L?1) for pesticides with poor NCI response (OPs: sulfotep, phorate, aspon, ethion, and OCs: alachlor, aldrin, perthane, and DDE, DDD, DDT). PMID:19609395

  18. The analysis of aqueous mixtures using liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, S.

    1999-02-12

    The focus of this dissertation is the use of chromatographic methods coupled with electrospray mass spectrometry (ES-MS) for the determination of both organic and inorganic compounds in aqueous solutions. The combination of liquid chromatography (LC) methods and ES-MS offers one of the foremost methods for determining compounds in complex aqueous solutions. In this work, LC-ES-MS methods are devised using ion exclusion chromatography, reversed phase chromatography, and ion exchange chromatography, as well as capillary electrophoresis (CE). For an aqueous sample, these LC-ES-MS and CE-ES-MS techniques require no sample preparation or analyte derivatization, which makes it possible to observe a wide variety of analytes as they exist in solution. The majority of this work focuses on the use of LC-ES-MS for the determination of unknown products and intermediates formed during electrochemical incineration (ECI), an experimental waste remediation process. This report contains a general introduction to the project and the general conclusions. Four chapters have been removed for separate processing. Titles are: Chapter 2: Determination of small carboxylic acids by ion exclusion chromatography with electrospray mass spectrometry; Chapter 3: Electrochemical incineration of benzoquinone in aqueous media using a quaternary metal oxide electrode in the absence of a soluble supporting electrolyte; Chapter 4: The determination of electrochemical incineration products of 4-chlorophenol by liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry; and Chapter 5: Determination of small carboxylic acids by capillary electrophoresis with electrospray mass spectrometry.

  19. Employing atmospheric pressure photoionization in liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry to minimize ion suppression and matrix effects for the quantification of venlafaxine and O-desmethylvenlafaxine.

    PubMed

    Theron, Hendrik B; van der Merwe, Marthinus J; Swart, Kenneth J; van der Westhuizen, Jan H

    2007-01-01

    During the development of a method for quantitative determination of venlafaxine and its major metabolite O-desmethylvenlafaxine, elevated concentrations of the analyte as well as co-eluting matrix compounds caused ion suppression. This ion suppression was inconsistent and therefore influenced the reproducibility of detection. The use of atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) in the positive mode was investigated as a tool to circumvent this problem. Employing APPI resulted in negligible ion suppression and increased linearity of the concentration range. A selective, sensitive and rapid liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of venlafaxine and its major metabolite O-desmethylvenlafaxine in human plasma was developed. The analyte was extracted from plasma into tert-butyl methyl ether followed by back extraction into 2% formic acid. An Agilent 1100 high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system, employing reversed-phase chromatography on a cyano column, coupled to an Applied Biosystems API 3000 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer set to multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode, was used for separation and detection of the analytes. The method was validated between 2.36-605 ng per mL with a mean recovery of approximately 88% for both parent compound and metabolite analytes. APPI technology was employed to improve the reproducibility of detection enabling rapid, selective and sensitive quantification of venlafaxine and O-desmethylvenlafaxine in human plasma samples. PMID:17465011

  20. Ultrafiltration by a compacted clay membrane-II. Sodium ion exclusion at various ionic strengths

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanshaw, B.B.; Coplen, T.B.

    1973-01-01

    Several recent laboratory studies and field investigations have indicated that shales and compacted clay minerals behave as semipermeable membranes. One of the properties of semipermeable membranes is to retard or prevent the passage of charged ionic species through the membrane pores while allowing relatively free movement of uncharged species. This phenomenon is termed salt filtering, reverse osmosis, or ultrafiltration. This paper shows how one can proceed from the ion exchange capacity of clay minerals and, by means of Donnan membrane equilibrium concept and the Teorell-Meyer-Siever theory, develop a theory to explain why and to what extent ultrafiltration occurs when solutions of known concentration are forced to flow through a clay membrane. Reasonable agreement between theory and laboratory results were found. The concentration of the ultrafiltrate was always greater than predicted because of uncertainty in values of some parameters in the equations. Ultrafiltration phenomena may be responsible for the formation of some subsurface brines and mineral deposits. The effect should also be taken into consideration in any proposal for subsurface waste emplacement in an environment containing large quantities of clay minerals. ?? 1973.

  1. Liquid chromatography coupled to negative electrospray/ion trap mass spectrometry for the identification of isomeric glutathione conjugates of catechol estrogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathahao, E.; Page, A.; Jouanin, I.; Paris, A.; Debrauwer, L.

    2004-02-01

    Conjugation to glutathione (GSH) represents an important detoxification pathway for preventing DNA damage due to oxidation products of catechol estrogens. In order to identify isomeric GSH conjugates of catechol estrogens, liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray/ion trap mass spectrometry was used. For this purpose, both positive and negative ion modes were applied, generating protonated and deprotonated species, respectively. Energy-resolved fragmentation of each isomeric quasi-molecular ion was achieved in two regions of the mass spectrometer: (i) the mass analyzer (ion trap mass spectrometer) and (ii) the interface region of the electrospray ionization source. The resonance excitation of [M+H]+ protonated ions carried out into the ion trap did not show any isomeric differentiation. Although ion source fragmentation of these same species allowed identification of each isomer, this method requires a good chromatographic separation, making it inefficient for the analysis of low sample amounts from in vitro or in vivo sources. Conversely, using resonance excitation of deprotonated ions, isomer distinction could be achieved. Thus, this technique should yield the best data for the direct characterization of isomers of catechol estrogen-GSH conjugates from biological samples.

  2. Influence of Equilibration Time in Solution on the Inclusion/Exclusion Topology Ratio of Host-Guest Complexes Probed by Ion Mobility and Collision-Induced Dissociation.

    PubMed

    Carroy, Glenn; Daxhelet, Charlotte; Lemaur, Vincent; De Winter, Julien; De Pauw, Edwin; Cornil, Jérôme; Gerbaux, Pascal

    2016-03-18

    Host-guest complexes are formed by the creation of multiple noncovalent bonds between a large molecule (the host) and smaller molecule(s) or ion(s) (the guest(s)). Ion-mobility separation coupled with mass spectrometry nowadays represents an ideal tool to assess whether the host-guest complexes, when transferred to the gas phase upon electrospray ionization, possess an exclusion or inclusion nature. Nevertheless, the influence of the solution conditions on the nature of the observed gas-phase ions is often not considered. In the specific case of inclusion complexes, kinetic considerations must be taken into account beside thermodynamics; the guest ingression within the host cavity can be characterized by slow kinetics, which makes the complexation reaction kinetically driven on the timescale of the experiment. This is particularly the case for the cucurbituril family of macrocyclic host molecules. Herein, we selected para-phenylenediamine and cucurbit[6]uril as a model system to demonstrate, by means of ion mobility and collision-induced dissociation measurements, that the inclusion/exclusion topology ratio varies as a function of the equilibration time in solution prior to the electrospray process. PMID:26880721

  3. Qualitative and Quantitative Characterization of Plasma Proteins When Incorporating Traveling Wave Ion Mobility into a Liquid ChromatographyMass Spectrometry Workflow for Biomarker Discovery: Use of Product Ion Quantitation As an Alternative Data Analysis Tool for Label Free Quantitation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Discovery of protein biomarkers in clinical samples necessitates significant prefractionation prior to liquid chromatographymass spectrometry (LCMS) analysis. Integrating traveling wave ion mobility spectrometry (TWIMS) enables in-line gas phase separation which when coupled with nanoflow liquid chromatography and data independent acquisition tandem mass spectrometry, confers significant advantages to the discovery of protein biomarkers by improving separation and inherent sensitivity. Incorporation of TWIMS leads to a packet of concentrated ions which ultimately provides a significant improvement in sensitivity. As a consequence of ion packeting, when present at high concentrations, accurate quantitation of proteins can be affected due to detector saturation effects. Human plasma was analyzed in triplicate using liquid-chromatography data independent acquisition mass spectrometry (LC-DIA-MS) and using liquid-chromatography ion-mobility data independent acquisition mass spectrometry (LC-IM-DIA-MS). The inclusion of TWIMS was assessed for the effect on sample throughput, data integrity, confidence of protein and peptide identification, and dynamic range. The number of identified proteins is significantly increased by an average of 84% while both the precursor and product mass accuracies are maintained between the modalities. Sample dynamic range is also maintained while quantitation is achieved for all but the most abundant proteins by incorporating a novel data interpretation method that allows accurate quantitation to occur. This additional separation is all achieved within a workflow with no discernible deleterious effect on throughput. Consequently, TWIMS greatly enhances proteome coverage and can be reliably used for quantification when using an alternative product ion quantification strategy. Using TWIMS in biomarker discovery in human plasma is thus recommended. PMID:24397486

  4. Analysis of 19-nortestosterone residue in animal tissues by ion-trap gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry*

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jin-qing; Zhang, Lei; Li, Guang-ling; Zhang, Hai-tang; Yang, Xue-feng; Liu, Jun-wei; Li, Ren-feng; Wang, Zi-liang; Wang, Jian-hua

    2011-01-01

    A rapid sample treatment procedure for the gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS) determination of 19-nortestosterone (19-NT) in animal tissues has been developed. In our optimized procedures, enzymatic hydrolysis with ?-glucuronidase from Escherichia coli was performed in an acetate buffer (pH 5.2, 0.2 mol/L). Next, the homogenate was mixed with methanol and heated at 60 C for 15 min, then placed in an ice-bath at ?18 C for 2 h. After liquid-liquid extraction with n-hexane, the analytes were subjected to a normal-phase solid phase extraction (SPE) C18 cartridge for clean-up. The dried organic extracts were derivatized with heptafluorobutyric anhydride (HFBA), and then the products were injected into GC-MS. Using electron impact mass spectrometry (EI-MS) with positive chemical ionization (PCI), four diagnostic ions (m/z 666, 453, 318, and 306) were determined. A standard calibration curve over the concentration range of 120 ng/g was reached, with Y=467 084X?68 354 (R 2=0.999 7) for 19-NT, and the detection limit was 0.3 ng. When applied to spiked samples collected from bovine and ovine, the recoveries ranged from 63% to 101% with relative standard deviation (RSD) between 2.7% and 8.9%. The procedure is a highly efficient, sensitive, and more economical method which offers considerable potential to resolve cases of suspected nandrolone doping in husbandry animals. PMID:21634039

  5. Multiresidue analysis of 50 pesticides in grape, pomegranate, and mango by gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Savant, Rahul H; Banerjee, Kaushik; Utture, Sagar C; Patil, Sangram H; Dasgupta, Soma; Ghaste, Manoj S; Adsule, Pandurang G

    2010-02-10

    A selective and sensitive multiresidue analysis method is reported for simultaneous determination of 50 pesticides of different chemical classes in three commercially important fruits of different nature viz. grape, pomegranate, and mango. The sample preparation method involves extraction of a 10 g sample with 10 mL of ethyl acetate; cleanup by dispersive solid phase extraction with primary secondary amine (PSA, 25 mg) for grape and PSA + graphitized carbon black (25 + 5 mg) for pomegranate and mango; and determination by gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry through multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). Sample preparation under acidified (pH 4) and cold (<4 degrees C) conditions, use of PTV-large volume injection (20 microL) through multibaffled liner and chromatographic separation on a short 10 m VF-5MS capillary column gave a satisfactory response for all of the analytes including relatively unstable compounds such as captan, captafol, folpet, endrine, and iprodione within 31.8 min. The limit of quantification (LOQ) of most of the compounds was

  6. Determination of O-isopropyl methylphosphonic acid in living microorganism-agar matrixes using ion chromatography conductivity detection.

    SciTech Connect

    Nassar, Alaa F.; Lucas, Samuel V.; Thomas, Susan A. )

    1999-01-01

    A direct an anion exchange, ion chromatography (IC)-based method for the detection of the chemical warfare agent surrogate O-isopropyl methylphosphonic acid (IMPA) in agar medium has been developed. This is the first report of the systematic development and validation of an IC-based method for the analysis of the chemical warfare agent degradation product, IMPA, in Petri dishes containing the agar medium with 10, 100 and 1000 mg/mL IMPA. Samples were prepared by dilution of the agar medium with deionized water followed by sonication and then filtration before the analysis by IC/conductivity detection. Using this method, the amount of IMPA in the Petri dishes was measured. Excellent separation efficiency and freedom from interference due to common anions such as phosphate and sulfate was obtained in the developed methods. Retention time precision is less than 1.0% relative standard deviation (%RSD) and the detection limit is 0.1 mg/mL. Three calibration curves were performed over the range 1-100 mg/mL using blank agar matrices spiked with five IMPA concentrations; with correlation coefficients (R{sup 2}) of 0.993, 0.991, and 0.992 for the calibration standard without dilution of agar matrix, at 4-times dilution and at 40-times dilution, respectively. Using three different samples at three IMPA spike levels, analysis accuracy was assessed by spiking the actual agar samples with IMPA. Average recoveries were 76, 79, and 84% for 10, 100, and 1000 mg/mL, respectively.

  7. Quality evaluation of extracted ion chromatograms and chromatographic peaks in liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry-based metabolomics data

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Extracted ion chromatogram (EIC) extraction and chromatographic peak detection are two important processing procedures in liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS)-based metabolomics data analysis. Most commonly, the LC/MS technique employs electrospray ionization as the ionization method. The EICs from LC/MS data are often noisy and contain high background signals. Furthermore, the chromatographic peak quality varies with respect to its location in the chromatogram and most peaks have zigzag shapes. Therefore, there is a critical need to develop effective metrics for quality evaluation of EICs and chromatographic peaks in LC/MS based metabolomics data analysis. Results We investigated a comprehensive set of potential quality evaluation metrics for extracted EICs and detected chromatographic peaks. Specifically, for EIC quality evaluation, we analyzed the mass chromatographic quality index (MCQ index) and propose a novel quality evaluation metric, the EIC-related global zigzag index, which is based on an EIC's first order derivatives. For chromatographic peak quality evaluation, we analyzed and compared six metrics: sharpness, Gaussian similarity, signal-to-noise ratio, peak significance level, triangle peak area similarity ratio and the local peak-related local zigzag index. Conclusions Although the MCQ index is suited for selecting and aligning analyte components, it cannot fairly evaluate EICs with high background signals or those containing only a single peak. Our proposed EIC related global zigzag index is robust enough to evaluate EIC qualities in both scenarios. Of the six peak quality evaluation metrics, the sharpness, peak significance level, and zigzag index outperform the others due to the zigzag nature of LC/MS chromatographic peaks. Furthermore, using several peak quality metrics in combination is more efficient than individual metrics in peak quality evaluation. PMID:25350128

  8. Development and validation of an ion-exchange chromatography method for heparin and its impurities in heparin products.

    PubMed

    Thiangthum, Sumate; Vander Heyden, Yvan; Buchberger, Wolfgang; Viaene, Johan; Prutthiwanasan, Brompoj; Suntornsuk, Leena

    2014-11-01

    An anion-exchange liquid chromatography method for the determination of heparin and its impurities (dermatan sulfate and oversulfated chondroitin sulfate) was developed using chemometric-assisted optimization, including multivariate experimental design and response surface methodology. The separation of heparin, dermatan sulfate, and oversulfated chondroitin sulfate (Rs above 2.0) was achieved on a Dionex RF IC IonPac AS22 column with a gradient elution of 10-70% of 2.5M sodium chloride and 20mM Tris phosphate buffer (pH 2.1) at a flow rate of 0.6mL/min and UV detection at 215nm. Method validation shows good linearity (r > 0.99), acceptable precision (%relative standard deviations <11.4%) and trueness (%recovery of 92.3-103.9%) for all analytes. The limits of detection for dermatan sulfate and oversulfated chondroitin sulfate are equivalent to 0.11% w/w (10.5?g/mL) and 0.07% w/w (7.2?g/mL), while the limits of quantification are 0.32% w/w (31.5?g/mL) and 0.22% w/w (22.0?g/mL) relative to heparin, respectively. The method is specific for heparin, dermatan sulfate, and oversulfated chondroitin sulfate without interference from mobile phase and sample matrices and could be used for accurate quantitation the drug and its impurities in a single run. Applications of the method reveal contents of heparin between 90.3 and 97.8%. Dermatan sulfate and oversulfated chondroitin sulfate were not detected in any of the real-life samples. PMID:25146711

  9. Chemometric Analysis of Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry Data using Fast Retention Time Alignment via a Total Ion Current Shift Function

    SciTech Connect

    Nadeau, Jeremy S.; Wright, Bob W.; Synovec, Robert E.

    2010-04-15

    A critical comparison of methods for correcting severely retention time shifted gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) data is presented. The method reported herein is an adaptation to the Piecewise Alignment Algorithm to quickly align severely shifted one-dimensional (1D) total ion current (TIC) data, then applying these shifts to broadly align all mass channels throughout the separation, referred to as a TIC shift function (SF). The maximum shift varied from (-) 5 s in the beginning of the chromatographic separation to (+) 20 s toward the end of the separation, equivalent to a maximum shift of over 5 peak widths. Implementing the TIC shift function (TIC SF) prior to Fisher Ratio (F-Ratio) feature selection and then principal component analysis (PCA) was found to be a viable approach to classify complex chromatograms, that in this study were obtained from GC-MS separations of three gasoline samples serving as complex test mixtures, referred to as types C, M and S. The reported alignment algorithm via the TIC SF approach corrects for large dynamic shifting in the data as well as subtle peak-to-peak shifts. The benefits of the overall TIC SF alignment and feature selection approach were quantified using the degree-of-class separation (DCS) metric of the PCA scores plots using the type C and M samples, since they were the most similar, and thus the most challenging samples to properly classify. The DCS values showed an increase from an initial value of essentially zero for the unaligned GC-TIC data to a value of 7.9 following alignment; however, the DCS was unchanged by feature selection using F-Ratios for the GC-TIC data. The full mass spectral data provided an increase to a final DCS of 13.7 after alignment and two-dimensional (2D) F-Ratio feature selection.

  10. Two-dimensional ion chromatography for the separation of ionic organophosphates generated in thermally decomposed lithium hexafluorophosphate-based lithium ion battery electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Vadim; Grtzke, Martin; Weber, Waldemar; Menzel, Jennifer; Wiemers-Meyer, Simon; Winter, Martin; Nowak, Sascha

    2015-08-28

    A two-dimensional ion chromatography (IC/IC) technique with heart-cutting mode for the separation of ionic organophosphates was developed. These analytes are generated during thermal degradation of three different commercially available Selectilyte lithium ion battery electrolytes. The composition of the investigated electrolytes is based on 1M lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) dissolved in ethylene carbonate/dimethyl carbonate (50:50wt%, LP30), ethylene carbonate/diethyl carbonate (50:50wt%, LP40) and ethylene carbonate/ethyl methyl carbonate (50:50wt%, LP50). The organophosphates were pre-separated from PF6(-) anion on the low capacity A Supp 4 column, which was eluted with a gradient step containing acetonitrile. The fraction containing analytes was retarded on a pre-concentration column and after that transferred to the high capacity columns, where the separation was performed isocratically. Different stationary phases and eluents were applied on the 2nd dimension for the investigation of retention times, whereas the highly promising results were obtained with a high capacitive A Supp 10 column. The organophosphates generated in LP30 and LP40 electrolytes could be separated by application of an aqueous NaOH eluent providing fast analysis time within 35min. For the separation of the organophosphates of LP50 electrolyte due to its complexity a NaOH eluent containing a mixture of methanol/H2O was necessary. In addition, the developed two dimensional IC method was hyphenated to an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) using aqueous NaOH without organic modifiers. This proof of principle measurement was carried out for future quantitative investigation regarding the concentration of the ionic organophosphates. Furthermore, the chemical stability of several ionic organophosphates in water and acetonitrile at room temperature over a period of 10h was investigated. In both solvents no decomposition of the investigated analytes was observed and therefore water as solvent for dilution of samples was proved as suitable. PMID:26209196

  11. Wide-scope screening and quantification of 50 pesticides in wine by liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry combined with liquid chromatography/quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    He, Zeying; Xu, Yaping; Wang, Lu; Peng, Yi; Luo, Ming; Cheng, Haiyan; Liu, Xiaowei

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, a wide scope screening method of pesticides in wine was established using liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF MS) and liquid chromatography/quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-QqLIT MS). Information dependent acquisition (IDA) experiments are used to obtain both MS and MS/MS information for LC-QTOF MS analysis. For LC-QqLIT MS analysis, MS/MS spectra of target pesticides were simultaneously acquired using Enhanced Product Ion (EPI) mode at very low concentrations to increase the confidence in analytical results of multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) by library searching. Method validation was carried out using 50 pesticides commonly used in vineyards. The LOQs, linearity, repeatability were determined and good enough for quantification. The screening and quantification results obtained using LC-QTOF MS and LC-QqLIT MS were compared. Contaminants were screened against libraries containing over 2800 compounds based on accurate mass, isotopic patterns, and MS/MS spectra searching to extend the scope of this methodology to non-target screening. PMID:26593613

  12. Separation and analysis of phenolic acids from Salvia miltiorrhiza and its related preparations by off-line two-dimensional hydrophilic interaction chromatographyreversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wanyang; Tong, Ling; Miao, Jingzhuo; Huang, Jingyi; Li, Dongxiang; Li, Yunfei; Xiao, Hongting; Sun, Henry; Bi, Kaishun

    2016-01-29

    Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM) is one of the most widely used Traditional Chinese Medicine. Active constituents of SM mainly contain hydrophilic phenolic acids (PAs) and lipophilic tanshinones. However, due to the existing of multiple ester bonds and unsaturated bonds in the structures, PAs have numerous chemical conversion products. Many of them are so low-abundant that hard to be separated using conventional methods. In this study, an off-line two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC) method was developed to separate PAs in SM and its related preparations. In the first dimension, samples were fractionated by hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) (AcchromAmide, 4.6250mm, 5?m) mainly based on the hydrogen bonding effects. The fractions were then separated on reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RP-LC) (Acquity HSS T3, 2.150mm, 1.7?m) according to hydrophobicity. For the selective identification of PAs, diode array detector (DAD) and electrospray ionization tandem ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-IT-TOF-MS) were employed. Practical and effective peak capacities of all the samples were greater than 2046 and 1130, respectively, with the orthogonalities ranged from 69.7% to 92.8%, which indicated the high efficiency and versatility of this method. By utilizing the data post-processing techniques, including mass defect filter, neutral loss filter and product ion filter, a total of 265 compounds comprising 196 potentially new PAs were tentatively characterized. Twelve kinds of derivatives, mainly including glycosylated compounds, O-alkylated compounds, condensed compounds and hydrolyzed compounds, constituted the novelty of the newly identified PAs. The HILICRP-LC/TOF-MS system expanded our understanding on PAs of S. miltiorrhiza and its related preparations, which could also benefit the separation and characterization of polar constituents in complicated herbal extracts. PMID:26792448

  13. Immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography on Co2+-carboxymethylaspartate-agarose Superflow, as demonstrated by one-step purification of lactate dehydrogenase from chicken breast muscle.

    PubMed

    Chaga, G; Hopp, J; Nelson, P

    1999-02-01

    A rapid method for the purification of lactate dehydrogenase from whole chicken muscle extract in one chromatographic step is reported. The purification procedure can be accomplished in less than 1 h. A new type of immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography adsorbent is used that can be utilized at linear flow rates higher than 5 cm/min. The final preparation of the enzyme was with purity higher than 95% as ascertained by SDS-PAGE. Three immobilized metal ions (Ni2+, Zn2+ and Co2+) were compared for their binding properties towards the purified enzyme. The binding site of the enzyme for immobilized intermediate metal ions was determined after cleavage with CNBr and binding studies of the derivative peptides on immobilized Co2+. A peptide located on the N-terminus of the enzyme, implicated in the binding, has great potential as a purification tag in fusion proteins. PMID:9889081

  14. How to decrease ion suppression in a multiresidue determination of beta-agonists in animal liver and urine by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry with ion-trap detector.

    PubMed

    Moragues, Francisco; Igualada, Carmen

    2009-04-01

    A new liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry with ion-trap detection method for the determination of clenbuterol, ractopamine, clenpenterol, brombuterol, hydroxyclenbuterol, mapenterol and mabuterol in animal liver and urine is described to decrease ion suppression in both matrices. The developed method consists of an aqueous extraction and a two-step clean-up. Final extract was injected in a liquid chromatograph with ion trap mass spectrometer optimized to obtain MS(3) ions which provided more specificity and better signal to noise ratio in the investigated analytes. Those steps have been essential to reach decision limits (CCalpha) values below the proposed MRPL values for each substance. The CCalpha were determined and their values were 0.05 microgkg(-1) for clenbuterol, 0.2 microgkg(-1) for ractopamine and 0.1 microgkg(-1) for the other analytes in liver and the same values in microgL(-1) for urine samples. PMID:19286029

  15. The determination of underivatized chlorophenols in human urine by combined high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry and selected ion monitoring.

    PubMed

    Wright, L H; Edgerton, T R; Arbes, S J; Lores, E M

    1981-10-01

    A method for the determination of underivatized chlorophenols in human urine samples by combined high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry is described. Results obtained on individual samples are reported and compared with data obtained by alternative chromatographic methods. PMID:7295873

  16. Simultaneous ionization and analysis of 84 anabolic androgenic steroids in human urine using liquid chromatography-silver ion coordination ionspray/triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kim, So-Hee; Cha, Eun-Ju; Lee, Kang Mi; Kim, Ho Jun; Kwon, Oh-Seung; Lee, Jaeick

    2014-01-01

    Metal ion coordination ionspray (M(+) CIS) ionization is a powerful technique to enhance ionization efficiency and sensitivity. In this study, we developed and validated an analytical method for simultaneous ionization and analysis of 84 anabolic androgenic steroids (65 exogenous and 19 endogenous) using liquid chromatography-silver ion coordination ionspray/triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-Ag(+) CIS/MS/MS). The concentrations of silver ions and organic solvents have been optimized to increase the amount of silver ion coordinated complexes. A combination of 25??M of silver ions and methanol showed the best sensitivity. The validation results showed the intra- (0.8-9.2%) and inter-day (2.5-14.9%) precisions, limits of detection (0.0005-5.0?ng/mL), and matrix effect (71.8-100.3%) for the screening analysis. No significant ion suppression was observed. In addition, this method was successfully applied to analysis of positive samples from suspected abusers and useful for the detection of the trace levels of anabolic steroids in human urine samples. PMID:25382000

  17. Size exclusion chromatography to gain insight into the complex formation of carrot pectin methylesterase and its inhibitor from kiwi fruit as influenced by thermal and high-pressure processing.

    PubMed

    Jolie, Ruben P; Duvetter, Thomas; Verlinde, Philippe H C J; Van Buggenhout, Sandy; Van Loey, Ann M; Hendrickx, Marc E

    2009-12-01

    A size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) method was implemented to study complex formation between carrot pectin methylesterase (PME) and its inhibitor (PMEI) from kiwi fruit in the context of traditional thermal and novel high-pressure processing. Evidence was gained that both thermal and high-pressure treatments of PME give rise to two distinct enzyme subpopulations: a catalytically active population, eluting from the size exclusion column, and an inactive population, aggregated and excluded from the column. When mixing a partly denatured PME sample with a fixed amount of PMEI, a PME-PMEI complex peak was observed on HPSEC, of which the peak area was highly correlated with the residual enzyme activity of the corresponding PME sample. This observation indicates complex formation to be restricted to the active PME fraction. When an equimolar mixture of PME and PMEI was subjected to either a thermal or a high-pressure treatment, marked differences were observed. At elevated temperature, enzyme and inhibitor remained united and aggregated as a whole, thus gradually disappearing from the elution profile. Conversely, elevated pressure caused the dissociation of the PME-PMEI complexes, followed by a separate action of pressure on enzyme and inhibitor. Remarkably, PMEI appeared to be pressure-resistant when compressed at acidic pH (ca. 4). PMID:19908835

  18. Total zinc quantification by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and its speciation by size exclusion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry in human milk and commercial formulas: Importance in infant nutrition.

    PubMed

    Fernndez-Menndez, Sonia; Fernndez-Snchez, Mara L; Fernndez-Colomer, Beln; de la Flor St Remy, Rafael R; Cotallo, Gil Daniel Coto; Freire, Aline Soares; Braz, Bernardo Ferreira; Santelli, Ricardo Erthal; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarises results of zinc content and its speciation in human milk from mothers of preterm and full-term infants at different stages of lactation and from synthetic formula milks. Human milk samples (colostrum, 7th, 14th, and 28th day after delivery) from Spanish and Brazilian mothers of preterm and full-term infants (and also formula milks) were collected. After adequate treatment of the sample, total Zn was determined, while speciation analysis of the Zn was accomplished by size exclusion chromatography coupled online with the ICP-MS. It is observed that total zinc content in human milk decreases continuously during the first month of lactation, both for preterm and full term gestations. All infant formulas analysed for total Zn were within the currently legislated levels. For Zn speciation analysis, there were no differences between preterm and full term human milk samples. Moreover Zn species elute mainly associated with immunoglobulins and citrate in human milk whey. Interestingly the speciation in formula milk whey turned out to be completely different as the observed Zn(2+) was bound almost exclusively to low molecular weight ligands (citrate) and only comparatively very low amounts of the metal appeared to be associated with higher mass biomolecules (e.g. proteins). PMID:26381570

  19. Field detection and identification of a bioaerosol suite by pyrolysis-gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, A. Peter; Tripathi, Ashish; Maswadeh, Waleed M.; Ho, Jim; Spence, Mel

    2002-06-01

    Improvements were made to a pyrolysis-gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry stand-alone biodetector to provide more pyrolyzate compound information to the IMS detector module. Air carrier gas flowing continuously through the pyrolysis tube, the rate of air flow, and pyrolysis rate were found to improve the relative quality and quantity of pyrolyzate compounds detected by the IMS detector compare to earlier work. These improvements allowed a greater degree of confidence in the correlation of biological aerosols obtain in outdoor testing scenarios to a standard GC-IMS biological aerosol dataset. The airflow improvement allowed more biomarker compounds to be observed in the GC-IMS data domain for aerosols of Gram-negative Erwinia herbicola (EH) and ovalbumin protein as compared to previous studies. Minimal differences were observed for Gram-positive spores of Bacillus subtilis var. globigii (BG) from that of earlier work. Prior outdoor aerosol challenges dealt with the detection of one organism, either EH or BG. Biological aerosols were disseminated in a Western Canadian prairie and the Py-GC-IMS was tested for its ability to detect the biological aerosols. The current series of outdoor trials consisted of three different biological aerosol challenges. Forty-two trials were conducted and a simple area calculation of the GC-IMS data domain biomarker peaks correlated with the correct bioaerosol challenge in 30 trials. In another 7 trials, the status of an aerosol was determined to be biological in origin. Two additional trials had no discernible, unambiguous GC-IMS biological response, because they were black water sprays. Reproducible limits of detection were at a concentration of less than 0.5 bacterial analyte-containing particles per liter of air (ACPLA). In order to realize this low concentration, an aerosol concentrator was used to concentrate 2000 liters of air in 2.2 minutes. Previous outdoor aerosol trials have shown the Py-GC-IMS device to be a credible detector with response to determining the presence of a biological aerosol. The current series of outdoor trials has provided a platform to show that the Py-PC-IMS can provide information more specific than a biological or non-biological analysis to an aerosol when the time of dissemination is unknown to the operator. The Py-GC-IMS is shown to be able to discriminate between aerosols of a Gram-positive spore, a Gram-negative bacterium and a protein.

  20. Field detection of bacillus spore aerosols with stand-alone pyrolysis-gas chromatography and ion mobility spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, A.; Maswadeh, Waleed M.; Parsons, John A.; Tripathi, Ashish; Meuzelaar, Henk L. C.; Dworzanski, Jacek P.; Kim, Man-Goo

    1999-12-01

    A commercially available, hand-held chemical vapor detector was modified to detect Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis var. globigii spores (BG) in outdoor field scenarios. An Airborne Vapor Monitor (AVM) ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) vapor detector was interfaced to a biological sample processing and transfer introduction system. The biological sample processing was accomplished by quartz tube pyrolysis (Py), and the resultant vapor was transferred by gas chromatography (GC) to the IMS detector. The Py-GC/IMS system can be described as a hyphenated device where two analytical dimensions, in series, allow the separation and isolation of individual components from the pyrolytic decomposition of biological analytes. Gram positive spores such as BG contain 5 - 15% by weight of dipicolinic acid (DPA), and picolinic acid is a pyrolysis product of DPA. Picolinic acid has a high proton affinity, and it is detected in a sensitive fashion by the atmospheric pressure-based IMS device. Picolinic acid occupies a unique region in the GC/IMS data domain with respect to other bacterial pyrolysis products. A 1000 to 1, air-to-air, aerosol concentrator was interfaced to the Py-GC/IMS instrument, and the system was placed in an open-air, Western United States desert environment. The system was tested with BG spore aerosol releases, and the instrument was remotely operated during a trial. A Met-One aerosol particle counter was placed next to the Py-GC/IMS so as to obtain a real-time record of the ambient and bacterial aerosol challenges. The presence/absence of an aerosol event, determined by an aerosol particle counter and a slit sampler-agar plate system, was compared to the presence/absence of a picolinic acid response in a GC/IMS data window at selected times in a trial with respect to a BG challenge. In the 21 BG trials, the Py-GC/IMS instrument experienced two true negatives, no false positives, and the instrument developed a software failure in one trial. The remaining 18 trials were true positive determinations for the presence of BG aerosol, and a limit of detection for the Py-GC/IMS instrument was estimated at approximately 3300 BG spore-containing particles.

  1. Characterization of molecular mass ranges of two coal tar distillate fractions (creosote and anthracene oils) and aromatic standards by LD-MS, GC-MS, probe-MS and size-exclusion chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    T.J. Morgan; A. George; P. A'lvarez; M. Millan; A.A. Herod; R. Kandiyoti

    2008-09-15

    Laser-desorption mass spectrometry (LD-MS) method development was undertaken to improve estimates of mass ranges for complex hydrocarbon mixtures. A creosote oil, an anthracene oil, and a mixture of known polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds were examined. The formation of cluster ions was possible without overloading the detector system. These multimer ions overlapped with higher-mass ion signals from the sample. However, careful balancing of sample concentration, laser power, total ion current, and delayed ion extraction appears to show high-mass materials without generating high-mass multimer (artifact) ions. It is possible to suppress the formation of cluster ions by keeping low target concentrations and, consequently, low gas phase concentrations formed by the laser pulse. The principal method used in this work was the fractionation of samples by planar chromatography followed by successive LD-MS analysis of the separated fractions directly from the chromatographic plates. This method separated the more abundant small molecules from the less abundant large molecules to permit the generation of their mass spectra independently, as well as reducing the concentration of sample by spreading over the PC-plate. The technique demonstrably suppressed multimer formation and greatly improved the reproducibility of the spectra. Results showed the presence of molecule ions in the ranges m/z 1000-2000 for the anthracene oil sample and m/z 600-1500 for the creosote oil sample, tailing off to m/z about 5,000. The creosote oil contained significantly less of this high-mass material than the anthracene oil sample, and in both cases, high-mass material was only present in low quantities. The method outlined in the paper appears directly applicable to the characterization of heavier coal and petroleum derived fractions. 44 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Speciation of glyphosate, phosphate and aminomethylphosphonic acid in soil extracts by ion chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with an octopole reaction system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zuliang; He, Wenxiang; Beer, Michael; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravendra

    2009-05-15

    Ion-pairing chromatography coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) used for the speciation of phosphorus is limited as the mobile phase containing organic solvents changes in detection sensitivity and the carbon precipitates on torch and cones. To address this issue, anion-exchange chromatography with ICP-MS has been used for the speciation of glyphosate, phosphate and aminomethylphosphonic acid in soil extracts. The separation of the targets on a new column was achieved within 5 min using an eluent containing 20 mM NH(4)NO(3) at pH 5.1. Furthermore, since the polyatomic ions such as (14)N(16)O(1)H(+) and (15)N(16)O(+) from a nitrogen-based ion-pairing reagent interfered with ICP-MS detection of (31)P, an octopole reaction system was investigated to determine whether the polyatomic interferences could be reduced. The results show that addition of He to the cell can benefit analyses by reducing such interferences, but at the expense of reduced sensitivity. The detection limits in the range of 1.0-1.5 microg L(-1) (expressed as P) was achieved when 50 microL was injected using He as the collusion gas. PMID:19269440

  3. Metabonomic Study of Biochemical Changes in Human Hair of Heroin Abusers by Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Ion Trap-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Xie, Pu; Wang, Tie-Jie; Yin, Guo; Yan, Yan; Xiao, Li-He; Li, Qing; Bi, Kai-Shun

    2016-01-01

    Hair analysis is with the advantage of non-invasive collection and long surveillance window. The present study employed a sensitive and reliable liquid chromatography coupled with ion trap-time of flight mass spectrometry method to study the metabonomic characters in the hair of 58 heroin abusers and 72 non-heroin abusers. Results indicated that certain endogenous metabolites, such as sorbitol and cortisol, were accelerated, and the level of arachidonic acid, glutathione, linoleic acid, and myristic acid was decreased in hair of heroin abusers. The metabonomic study is helpful for further understanding of heroin addiction and clinical diagnosis. PMID:26445826

  4. Determination of trace labile copper in environmental waters by magnetic nanoparticle solid phase extraction and high-performance chelation ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wei, Z; Sandron, S; Townsend, A T; Nesterenko, P N; Paull, B

    2015-04-01

    Cobalt magnetic nanoparticles surface functionalised with iminodiacetic acid were evaluated as a nano-particulate solid phase extraction absorbent for copper ions (Cu(2+)) from environmental water samples. Using an external magnetic field, the collector nanoparticles could be separated from the aqueous phase, and adsorbed ions simply decomplexed using dilute HNO3. Effects of pH, buffer concentration, sample and sorbent volume, extraction equilibrium time, and interfering ion concentration on extraction efficiency were investigated. Optimal conditions were then applied to the extraction of Cu(2+) ions from natural water samples, prior to their quantitation using high-performance chelation ion chromatography. The limits of detection (LOD) of the combined extraction and chromatographic method were ~0.1 ng ml(-1), based upon a 100-fold preconcentration factor (chromatographic performance; LOD=9.2 ng ml(-1) Cu(2+)), analytical linear range from 20 to 5000 ng mL(-1), and relative standard deviations=4.9% (c=1000 ng ml(-1), n=7). Accuracy and precision of the combined approach was verified using a certified reference standard estuarine water sample (SLEW-2) and comparison of sample determinations with sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Recoveries from the addition of Cu(2+) to impacted estuarine and rain water samples were 103.5% and 108.5%, respectively. Coastal seawater samples, both with and without prior UV irradiation and dissolved organic matter removal were also investigated using the new methodology. The effect of DOM concentration on copper availability was demonstrated. PMID:25640140

  5. Chelation ion chromatography of alkaline earth and transition metals a using monolithic silica column with bonded N-hydroxyethyliminodiacetic acid functional groups.

    PubMed

    McGillicuddy, Nicola; Nesterenko, Ekaterina P; Nesterenko, Pavel N; Jones, Phil; Paull, Brett

    2013-02-01

    A commercially available porous silica monolithic column (Onyx Monolithic Si, 100 mm4.6 mm I.D.) was 'in-column' covalently functionalised with 2-hydroxyethyliminodiacetic acid (HEIDA) groups, and applied to the simultaneous and rapid separation of alkaline earth and transition metal ions, using high-performance chelation ion chromatography (HPCIC). With a 0.3mM dipicolinic acid (DPA) containing eluent, the baseline separation of various common transition and heavy metal ions and the four alkaline earth metal ions could be achieved in under 14 min with a flow rate of just 0.8 mL/min. Detection was achieved using spectrophotometric detection at 540 nm after post-column reaction (PCR) with 4-(2-pyridylazo)-resorcinol (PAR). Significant effects from variation of eluent nature, concentration and temperature upon selectivity and retention were demonstrated with the new monolithic silica chelating phase. Under optimised conditions (0.165 M LiNO(3) eluent, pH 2.5), peak efficiencies of 54,000, 60,000 and 64,000 N/m, for Zn(2+), Mn(2+) and Cd(2+), respectively, were recorded, far exceeding that previously reported for IDA based chelation ion exchange columns. PMID:23298846

  6. Direct and unbiased information recovery from liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry raw data for phenotype-differentiating metabolites based on screening window coefficient of ion currents.

    PubMed

    Kokubun, Tetsuo; D'Costa, Lilla

    2013-09-17

    A reworking of a data mining strategy, in which statistical treatment of raw data from liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) precedes recognition of chromatographic peaks, is presented. In this algorithm the tR-m/z plane of LC-MS data is divided into equal-sized segments of twelve seconds by one m/z unit each, and the total ion currents in corresponding segments as specified by the tR-m/z pair from multiple LC-MS runs are evaluated to generate mean ion currents (?) and standard deviations (?). The ?'s and ?'s of the segments, derived from contrasting classes of LC-MS data set (e.g., resistant-susceptible, case-control, etc.), are used to calculate the Z-factor (screening window coefficient) which is in turn used to rank the segments. Chromatographic peaks are recognized only where the ion currents are shown to differentiate the classes. The result-reporting format enables detection of positive as well as negative correlations between ion intensities and biological traits under study and thus points to the presence of potentially phenotype-discriminating metabolites. Examples of data analyses are presented, in which ions that may distinguish resistant and susceptible species of Aesculus to the leaf-miner Cameraria ohridella were detected. PMID:24004415

  7. Reversed-phase ion-pair ultra-high-performance-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for fingerprinting low-molecular-weight heparins.

    PubMed

    Langeslay, Derek J; Urso, Elena; Gardini, Cristina; Naggi, Annamaria; Torri, Giangiacomo; Larive, Cynthia K

    2013-05-31

    Heparin is a complex mixture of sulfated linear carbohydrate polymers. It is widely used as an antithrombotic drug, though it has been shown to have a myriad of additional biological activities. Heparin is often partially depolymerized in order to decrease the average molecular weight, as it has been shown that low molecular weight heparins (LMWH) possess more desirable pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties than unfractionated heparin (UFH). Due to the prevalence of LMWHs in the market and the emerging availability of generic LMWH products, it is important that analytical methods be developed to ensure the drug quality. This work explores the use of tributylamine (TrBA), dibutylamine (DBA), and pentylamine (PTA) as ion-pairing reagents in conjunction with acetonitrile and methanol modified mobile phases for reversed-phase ion-pairing ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (RPIP-UPLC-MS) for fingerprint analysis of LMWH preparations. RPIP-UPLC-MS fingerprints are presented and compared for tinzaparinand enoxaparin. PMID:23352830

  8. Ion exchange chromatography of aluminum using 3-carboxy-2-naphthylamine-N,N-diacetic acid as a fluorescent post-column chelating reagent.

    PubMed

    Miyahara, T; Kitamura, H; Narita, K; Toyo'oka, T

    1999-02-01

    Ion exchange chromatography of aluminum ion using 3-carboxy-2-naphthylamine-N,N-diacetic acid (CNDA) as a fluorescent post-column chelating reagent was studied. The solution containing ammonium chloride and hydrochloric acid was used for the eluent, and acetate buffer solution containing CNDA was used for the post column chelating reagent. The peak of aluminum was separated from that of calcium, magnesium and zinc, and the chromatogram was not affected by copper(II) and iron(III). The calibration curve gave linear plots with a range of 0.0027-0.54 ppm aluminum, the regression coefficient of correlation (r2) was 1.000, and the detection limit (S/N = 3) was 0.3 ppb, indicating that the method could determine aluminum with high sensitivity. It was demonstrated that CNDA is a useful metallofluorescent reagent for aluminum. This method has been successfully applied to the determination of aluminum in some tea drinks. PMID:10191948

  9. The identification and quantification of a high molecular weight light stabilizer in polycarbonate by application of an online coupling of size exclusion chromatography in stopped flow mode with pyrolysis gas chromatography time of flight mass spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Brander, Eric; Wold, Christian

    2014-10-01

    The identification and quantification of a high molecular weight light stabilizer (Uvinul 3030) in an unknown polycarbonate sample was achieved through the application of SEC-Py-TOF-GCMS. A size exclusion column optimized to achieve resolution in the lower mass range was applied to allow the fractionation of an individual additive peak. A commercially available sampling interface was operated in stop flow mode and fractions were pyrolyzed to allow chromatographic separation of the fragments of the otherwise non-volatile stabilizer. After identification on the basis of accurate mass and elemental composition of the additive the quantification was compared using the available SEC-UV and SEC-PY-GC-TOFMS data. The resulting method provided a high degree of certainty in identification and flexibility in quantification expected to be applicable to other additives of similar volatilities or functional class. PMID:25160954

  10. Studies on the analysis of food additives by high-performance liquid chromatography. V. Simultaneous determination of preservatives and saccharin in foods by ion-pair chromatography.

    PubMed

    Terada, H; Sakabe, Y

    1985-10-18

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of sorbic acid, benzoic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid and its methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, n-propyl, isobutyl, n-butyl esters and saccharin in foodstuffs is described. For good separations of these compounds, acetonitrile-water-0.2 M phosphate buffer pH 3.6 (7:12:1) containing 2 mM cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as an ion-pair reagent and a Nucleosil 5C18 column are required. A steam distillation method and a Sep-Pak C18 cartridge method for the sample preparation are compared. The recoveries from a coffee drink were generally better than 93.8% and the relative standard deviations were 0.85-2.15% for the Sep-Pak C18 cartridge method. PMID:4086620

  11. Determination of human insulin and its analogues in human blood using liquid chromatography coupled to ion mobility mass spectrometry (LC-IM-MS).

    PubMed

    Thomas, Andreas; Schnzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The qualitative and quantitative determination of insulin from human blood samples is an emerging topic in doping controls as well as in other related disciplines (e.g. forensics). Beside the therapeutic use, insulin represents a prohibited, performance enhancing substance in sports drug testing. In both cases accurate, sensitive, specific, and unambiguous determination of the target peptide is of the utmost importance. The challenges concerning identifying insulins in blood by liquid chromatography coupled to ion mobility mass spectrometry (LC-IM-MS) are detecting the basal concentrations of approximately 0.2?ng/mL and covering the hyperinsulinaemic clamps at?>?3?ng/mL simultaneously using up to 200??L of plasma or serum. This is achieved by immunoaffinity purification of the insulins with magnetic beads and subsequent separation by micro-scale liquid chromatography coupled to ion mobility / high resolution mass spectrometry. The method includes human insulin as well as the synthetic or animal analogues insulin aspart, glulisine, glargine, detemir, lispro, bovine, and porcine insulin. The method validation shows reliable results considering specificity, limit of detection (0.2?ng/mL except for detemir: 0.8?ng/mL), limit of quantification (0.5?ng/mL for human insulin), precision (CV??0.99), recovery, accuracy (>90%), robustness (plasma/serum), and ion suppression. For quantification of human insulin a labelled internal standard ([[(2) H10 ]-Leu(B6,B11,B15,B17) ] - human Insulin) is introduced. By means of the additional ion mobility separation of the different analogues, the chromatographic run time is shortened to 8?min without losing specificity. As proof-of-concept, the procedure was successfully applied to different blood specimens from diabetic patients receiving recombinant synthetic analogues. PMID:25219675

  12. Quantitation of Phenol Levels in Oil of Wintergreen Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry with Selected Ion Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobel, Robert M.; Ballantine, David S.; Ryzhov, Victor

    2005-01-01

    Industrial application of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis is a powerful technique that could be used to elucidate components of a complex mixture while offering the benefits of high-precision quantitative analysis. The natural wintergreen oil is examined for its phenol concentration to determine the level of refining

  13. Quantitation of Phenol Levels in Oil of Wintergreen Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry with Selected Ion Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobel, Robert M.; Ballantine, David S.; Ryzhov, Victor

    2005-01-01

    Industrial application of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis is a powerful technique that could be used to elucidate components of a complex mixture while offering the benefits of high-precision quantitative analysis. The natural wintergreen oil is examined for its phenol concentration to determine the level of refining…

  14. Residues from low-order energetic materials: the comparative performance of a range of sampling approaches prior to analysis by ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Szomborg, Katarzyna; Jongekrijg, Fleur; Gilchrist, Elizabeth; Webb, Tony; Wood, Dan; Barron, Leon

    2013-12-10

    A quantitative study of common forensic evidence collection devices for the recovery of low-explosive residues from non-porous glass and plastic is presented herein. Swabbing materials including cotton, rayon, Nomex() (poly(isophthaloylchloride/m-phenylenediamine)), Teflon/Teflon-coated fibreglass (polytetrafluoroethylene) and adhesive-coated tapes were used to collect known quantities of up to 14 forensically relevant inorganic and organic anion and cation species from both surfaces. Analysis was performed using two validated ion chromatography methods. This study revealed that all swabs and surfaces contributed highly variable levels of interfering ionic species and that swabbing materials showed variance in the quantities and total number of analytes recovered from both surfaces. Teflon and Nomex() materials demonstrated the most promise due to their ability to collect and release analytes into simple extraction solvents as well as displaying relatively low endogenous interference. In parallel, the ability to extract residue directly from both surfaces via the addition of a suitable extraction solvent was investigated instead of swabbing. This work highlights that direct solvent extraction from a surface should be considered as an alternative approach, especially for small areas or objects. To the best of our knowledge, this work represents the most comprehensive study of the efficiencies of sample collection technologies for low-explosive residues prior to analysis by ion chromatography. PMID:24314502

  15. Diagnostic filtering to screen polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols from Garcinia oblongifolia by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography coupled with ion mobility quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Zheng, Dan; Li, Hao-Hao; Wang, Hui; Tan, Hong-Sheng; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2016-03-17

    A novel multistage MS approach, insource collision-induced dissociation (CID) combined with Time Aligned Parallel (TAP) fragmentation, was established to study the fragmentation behavior of polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols (PPAPs), which could provide a more reliable fragmentation relationship between precursor and daughter ions. The diagnostic ions for different subtypes of PPAPs and their fragmentation behaviors have been summarized. Moreover, a new and reliable multidimensional analytical workflow that combines ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC), data-independent mass spectrometry (MS(E)), and tandem MS with ion mobility (IM) has been optimized and established for the analysis of PPAPs in the plant Garcinia oblongifolia by diagnostic filtering. Diagnostic fragment ions were used to selectively screen PPAPs from extracts, whereas IM coupled to MS was used to maximize the peak capacity. Under the optimized UHPLC-IM-MS(E) and UHPLC-IM-MS/MS method, 140 PPAPs were detected from the crude extract of G.oblongifolia, and 10 of them were unambiguously identified by comparing them to the reference compounds. Among those PPAPs, 7 pairs of coeluting isobaric PPAPs that were indistinguishable by conventional UHPLC-HRMS alone, were further resolved using UHPLC-IM-MS. It is anticipated that the proposed method will be extended to the rapid screening and characterization of the other targeted or untargeted compounds, especially these coeluting isomers in complex samples. PMID:26920776

  16. Identification of 1-hydroxypyrene glucuronide in tissue of marine polychaete Nereis diversicolor by liquid chromatography/ion trap multiple mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Giessing, Anders M B; Lund, Torben

    2002-01-01

    1-Hydroxypyrene glucuronide is identified as the single major aqueous metabolite of the tetracyclic aromatic hydrocarbon pyrene, in tissue from a deposit-feeding marine polychaete, Nereis diversicolor. Identification was performed using an ion trap mass spectrometer fitted with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) probe and connected to a high-performance liquid chromatography/diode array detector (HPLC/DAD) system. Besides 1-hydroxypyrene, the 339-nm UV trace of tissue samples from pyrene-exposed worms showed only one dominant peak that could be related to pyrene metabolism. Negative APCI-MS of this supposed 1- hydroxypyrene conjugate gave a characteristic signal at m/z 429 corresponding to the molecular ion of 1-hydroxypyrene glucuronide plus eluent adducts ([M - H + 2H(2)O](-)). Fragmentation pathways were studied by isolating the abundant ion at m/z 429 in the ion trap and performing multiple mass spectrometric experiments (MS(n)). The fragmentations observed were consistent with the proposed identification. Two low intensity LC peaks that could be related to pyrene metabolism by their DAD absorption spectra were also present in the 339-nm UV chromatogram of tissue samples. However, these peaks could not be identified by their mass spectra in negative ion mode due to ion suppression by very abundant co-eluting impurities. The present method shows that LC/MS(n) is a fast and useful analytical tool for identification of aqueous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon biotransformation products in samples from relatively small marine invertebrates with limited sample preparation. PMID:12203242

  17. Simultaneous determination of trace amounts of borate, chloride and fluoride in nuclear fuels employing ion chromatography (IC) after their extraction by pyrohydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Jeyakumar, S; Raut, Vaibhavi V; Ramakumar, K L

    2008-09-15

    An accurate and sensitive method based on the combination of pyrohydrolysis-ion chromatography (PH-IC) is proposed for the simultaneous separation and determination of boron as borate, chloride and fluoride in nuclear fuels such as U(3)O(8), (Pu,U)C and Pu-alloys. The determination is based on the initial pyrohydrolytic extraction of B, Cl and F from the samples as boric acid, HCl and HF, respectively, which are subsequently separated by ion chromatography (IC). The proposed method significantly improves the existing analytical methodology as it combines the determination of boron, a critical trace constituent in nuclear materials, along with F(-) and Cl(-) for chemical quality control measurements. Various experimental parameters were optimized to achieve maximum recoveries of the analytes during the pyrohydrolysis and to get better ion chromatographic (IC) separation of borate, F(-) and Cl(-) along with other anions such as CH(3)COO(-), NO(2)(-), NO(3)(-), Br(-), PO(4)(3-) and SO(4)(2-). Recoveries of more than 93% could be obtained for all the analytes in the sample (0.5-1.5 g) at 1200+/-25K and distilled with pre-heated steam at the flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. An isocratic elution with a mobile phase of 0.56 M d-mannitol in 6.5mM NaHCO(3) was used for the IC separation. The detection limits for B (as borate), F(-) and Cl(-) were 24, 13 and 25 microgL(-1), respectively. Precision of about 5% was achieved for determination of boron, Cl(-) and F(-) in the samples containing 1-5 ppm(w) of boron, and 10-25 ppm(w) of Cl and F. The method was validated with reference materials and successfully applied to the nuclear fuels. The methodology is easy to adapt on routine basis. PMID:18761185

  18. Applying Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Jessie W.; Patev, Paul

    1998-01-01

    Presents three experiments to introduce students to different kinds of chromatography: (1) paper chromatography; (2) gel filtration chromatography; and (3) reverse-phase liquid chromatography. Written in the form of a laboratory manual, explanations of each of the techniques, materials needed, procedures, and a glossary are included. (PVD)

  19. Study of ion suppression for phenolic compounds in medicinal plant extracts using liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Faccin, H; Viana, C; do Nascimento, P C; Bohrer, D; de Carvalho, L M

    2016-01-01

    A systematic study on the various sources of ion suppression in UHPLC-MS-MS analysis was carried out for 24 phenolic antioxidants in 6 different extracts of medicinal plants from Amazonia. The contributions of matrix effects, mobile-phase additives, analyte co-elution and electric charge competition during ionization to the global ion suppression were evaluated. Herein, the influence of mobile-phase additives on the ionization efficiency was found to be very pronounced, where ion suppression of approximately 90% and ion enhancement effects greater than 400% could be observed. The negative effect caused by the wrong choice of internal standard (IS) on quantitative studies was also evaluated and discussed from the perspective of ion suppression. This work also shows the importance of performing studies with this approach even for very similar matrices, such as varieties of medicinal plants from the same species, because different effects were observed for the same analyte. PMID:26709070

  20. Automated Gain Control and Internal Calibration With External Ion Accumulation Capillary liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance.

    SciTech Connect

    Belov, Mikhail E.; Zhang, Rui ); Strittmatter, Eric F.); Prior, David C.); Tang, Keqi ); Smith, Richard D.)

    2003-08-15

    When combined with capillary LC separations, Electrospray Ionization Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (ESI-FTICR MS) has increasingly been applied for advanced characterization of proteolytic digests. Incorporation of external (to the ICR cell) ion accumulation multipoles with FTICR for ion pre selection and accumulation has enhanced the dynamic range, sensitivity and duty cycle of measurements. However, the highly variable ion production rate from an LC separation can result in overfilling of the external trap, resulting in m/z discrimination and fragmentation of peptide ions. An excessive space charge trapped in the ICR cell causes significant shifts in the detected ion cyclotron frequencies, reducing the achievable mass measurement accuracy (MMA) for protein identification. To eliminate m/z discrimination in the external ion trap, further increase the duty cycle and improve MMA, we developed a capability for data-dependent adjustment of ion accumulation times in the course of an LC separation, referred to as Automated Gain Control (AGC), in combination with low kinetic energy gated ion trapping and internal calibration using a dual-channel electrodynamic ion funnel. The system was initially evaluated in the analysis of a 0.5 mg/mL tryptic digest of bovine serum albumin. The implementation of LC/ESI/AGC/FTICR with internal calibration gave rise to a {approx} 10-fold increase in the number of identified tryptic peptides within mass measurement accuracy of 2 ppm as compared to that detected during the conventional LC/FTICR run with a fixed ion accumulation time and external calibration.

  1. Comparative study of comprehensive gas chromatography-nitrogen chemiluminescence detection and gas chromatography-ion trap-tandem mass spectrometry for determining nicotine and carcinogen organic nitrogen compounds in thirdhand tobacco smoke.

    PubMed

    Ramrez, Noelia; Vallecillos, Laura; Lewis, Alastair C; Borrull, Francesc; Marc, Rosa M; Hamilton, Jacqueline F

    2015-12-24

    Thirdhand tobacco smoke (THS) constitutes a poorly understood pathway of exposure of non-smokers, especially toddlers, to tobacco-related carcinogens. However, to date most of the carcinogens present in tobacco smoke have not been detected in THS and, therefore, the significance of THS health risk is still unknown. In this study, we have compared the performance of two analytical methods - one based on gas chromatography coupled to ion trap mass spectrometry detection (GC-IT-MS) and the other on comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to a nitrogen chemiluminescence detector (GCGC-NCD) - for simultaneously determining, in settled house dust, the presence of 16 organic nitrogen carcinogens already detected in tobacco smoke. The target compounds included four aromatic amines, two nitrocompounds, eight N-nitrosamines and two tobacco-specific nitrosamines, as well as nicotine as a tobacco marker. Dust samples were extracted using in-cell clean up pressurized liquid extraction with silica as clean up sorbent and ethyl acetate as the organic solvent, with average recovery of 89%. Although GC-IT-MS, using chemical ionization with methanol and tandem MS, performed well, the optimized GCGC-NCD gave lower limits of detection (from 4 to 22ngg(-1)) and better repeatability and reproducibility a low concentration levels (%RSD<8%) and, therefore, was applicable for determining these different groups of carcinogens without the need for derivatization prior to the GC analysis. The performance of the optimized PLE/GCGC-NCD method was tested by quantifying the target compounds in house dust samples from smokers' and non-smokers' homes. The median carcinogen compounds detected was 3.8?gg(-1) and 1.1?gg(-1) in smokers' and non-smokers' house dust, respectively. In this study, we have detected highly carcinogenic aromatic amines and nitro compounds for the first time in settled house dust complementing the state of knowledge of THS composition and providing fresh evidence about THS health risks. PMID:26684592

  2. Quadrupole mass filter with means to generate a noise spectrum exclusive of the resonant frequency of the desired ions to deflect stable ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langmuir, R. V. (inventor)

    1967-01-01

    A mass spectrometer for the separation or separate indication of ions of different specific electric charges is reported. The instrument uses a periodically varying electric field in its analyzing section to excite the injected ions into oscillations while traveling along their trajectories which are either stable or unstable depending on specific parameters. Only stable trajectory ions pass through the electric field to the collector for indication.

  3. Direct analysis of carbohydrates in animal plasma by ion chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and pulsed amperometric detection for use as a non-invasive diagnostic tool.

    PubMed

    Kotnik, Darja; Smidovnik, Andrej; Jazbec-Kriman, Petra; Kriman, Mitja; Proek, Mirko

    2011-12-01

    The present paper demonstrates that electrochemical detection (ECD) coupled to ion chromatography and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (IC-ECD-ESI/MS/MS) can be used to rapidly estimate some indications of the health status of organisms. The lactulose to mannitol ratio (L/M) is used as a non-invasive assay to investigate small intestinal absorption pathways and mucosal integrity. In the present study, an evaluation of the negative effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug meloxicam perorally administrated to a group of dogs was carried out by determining the lactulose/mannitol index using the IC-ECD-ESI/MS/MS hyphenated technique. According to the results of the study, meloxicam altered gastrointestinal permeability. Coenzyme Q(10) (CoQ(10)) was tested to determine if it could prevent meloxicam induced gastrointestinal damage and it was found that CoQ(10) could be an effective preventive treatment. Furthermore, plasma glucose concentration level was determined to be an indirect indicator of the oxidative state in the blood. To find out the beneficial effects of a double antioxidant combination (?-lipoic acid (ALA) and CoQ(10)) on the total glucose level in chickens, ALA and CoQ(10) were provided as food additives in factory farm raised chicken. The results of the pilot study indicate that the glucose level in the plasma of chickens group fed with CoQ(10) and ALA was significantly decreased compared to the control group. Ion chromatography (IC) utilizing pulsed amperometric detection (PAD) was compared to ion chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) as an analytical tool for monitoring the carbohydrate level in biological fluids. In electrochemical detection, the newly developed two-pulse waveform successfully withstands matrix effects in biological samples. Continuous on-line desalting of the high salt concentrations used as the eluent for carbohydrate separation from the anion-exchange column allows coupling of IC and MS techniques. A make-up solution (0.5mM LiCl) was delivered prior to MS detection for efficient ionization of eluted carbohydrates. Method validation showed that both used techniques are practically comparable and some advantages of each are presented. PMID:22041089

  4. Study of fungal degradation products of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using gas chromatography with ion trap mass spectrometry detection.

    PubMed

    Cajthaml, Toms; Mder, Monika; Kacer, Petr; Sasek, Vclav; Popp, Peter

    2002-10-18

    Representatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were degraded by ligninolytic fungus Irpex lacteus. The products were analyzed by GC-Ion trap mass spectrometry. The combination of full scan mass spectra, product ion scans (MS-MS) and derivatization of the degradation products of anthracene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene provided further insight in the degradation mechanism initiated by I. lacteus. Particularly, the product ion scans enabled the interpretation of unknown degradation products, even though they were only produced at trace level. Most of the structures suggested were later confirmed with authentic standards. PMID:12458938

  5. Organic solvent and temperature-enhanced ion chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry for the determination of low molecular weight organic and inorganic anions.

    PubMed

    Gilchrist, Elizabeth S; Nesterenko, Pavel N; Smith, Norman W; Barron, Leon P

    2015-03-20

    There has recently been increased interest in coupling ion chromatography (IC) to high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) to enable highly sensitive and selective analysis. Herein, the first comprehensive study focusing on the direct coupling of suppressed IC to HRMS without the need for post-suppressor organic solvent modification is presented. Chromatographic selectivity and added HRMS sensitivity offered by organic solvent-modified IC eluents on a modern hyper-crosslinked polymeric anion-exchange resin (IonPac AS18) are shown using isocratic eluents containing 5-50 mM hydroxide with 0-80% methanol or acetonitrile for a range of low molecular weight anions (<165 Da). Comprehensive experiments on IC thermodynamics over a temperature range between 20-45 °C with the eluent containing up to 60% of acetonitrile or methanol revealed markedly different retention behaviour and selectivity for the selected analytes on the same polymer based ion-exchange resin. Optimised sensitivity with HRMS was achieved with as low as 30-40% organic eluent content. Analytical performance characteristics are presented and compared with other IC-MS based works. This study also presents the first application of IC-HRMS to forensic detection of trace low-order anionic explosive residues in latent human fingermarks. PMID:25732588

  6. Simultaneous characterization of quaternary alkaloids, 8-oxoprotoberberine alkaloids, and a steroid compound in Coscinium fenestratum by liquid chromatography hybrid ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Deevanhxay, Phengxay; Suzuki, Makoto; Maeshibu, Nariaki; Li, He; Tanaka, Ken; Hirose, Sachio

    2009-10-15

    Simultaneous characterization of quaternary alkaloids, 8-oxoprotoberberine alkaloids, and a steroid compound in Coscinium fenestratum was successfully performed by liquid chromatography hybrid ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/IT-TOF MS). A total of 32 compounds, including 2 benzylisoquinoline alkaloids, 3 aporphine alkaloids, 12 quaternary protoberberine alkaloids, 10 8-oxoprotoberberine alkaloids, 3 tetrahydroprotoberberine alkaloids, and a steroid compound were simultaneously separated and characterized by matching the empirical molecular formulae with those published in literature and the multi-stage mass spectrometry (MS(n)) data obtained using structural information from IT, accurate mass measurement obtained from TOF MS, and HPLC separation. A total of 20 compounds, including 4 novel natural products were identified or tentatively identified for the first time from Coscinium fenestratum. In the positive-ion mode, 8-oxoprotoberberines produced [M+H](+) and [M+Na](+); the fragmentation of 8-oxodihydroprotoberberines produced [M+H-*CH(3)](+*), [M+H-*CH(3)-*CH(3)](+), and [M+H-*CH(3)-*CH(3)-CO](+), while 8-oxotetrahydroprotoberberines generated [M+H-*CH(3)](+*), [M+H-*CH(3)-*CH(3)](+), [M+H-*CH(3)-*H](+), and iminium ions from the cleavage of the protoberberine skeleton. The method can be applied for the analysis of 8-oxoberberine and other alkaloids in Coptis japonica, Phellodendron amurense, and other herbal medicines. PMID:19539442

  7. Detection and chemical profiling of Ling-Gui-Zhu-Gan decoction by ultra performance liquid chromatography-hybrid linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pei; Wang, Bo; Xu, Jingyao; Sun, Jianbo; Yan, Qin; Ji, Bin; Zhao, Yunli; Yu, Zhiguo

    2015-02-01

    Ling-Gui-Zhu-Gan decoction (LGZGD), a well-known traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula, has been extensively used for the treatment of cardiovascular disease in clinic. However, the chemical constituents in LGZGD had not been investigated so far. In this study, an ultra performance liquid chromatography-hybrid electrospray ionization linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometry (UPLC-LTQ-Oribitrap-MS/MS) method was established for rapid separation and structural identification of the constituents in LGZGD. Separation was performed on an ACQUITY(TM) UPLC BEH C18 column (50 2.1 mm, 1.7 ?m) by gradient elution mode, using acetonitrile-water containing 0.1% formic acid as mobile phase at the flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. Accurate mass measurement for molecular ions and characteristic fragment ions could represent identification criteria for these compounds. As a result, 95 compounds including triterpene acids, triterpene saponins, flavonoids, coumarins, coumestans, benzofurans, phenylpropanoids and sesquiterpenoid lactones were detected, and 90 of them were tentatively identified. All compounds were further assigned in the individual raw material. In conclusion, the UPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS/MS is a highly efficient technique to separate and identify constituents in complex matrices of TCMs. These results obtained in this research will provide a basis for quality control and further in vivo study of LGZGD. PMID:24920655

  8. Quantitative determination of trace concentrations of tetracycline and sulfonamide antibiotics in surface water using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography/ion trap tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shinwoo; Cha, Jongmun; Carlson, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    The occurrence of human and veterinary pharmaceutical compounds in surface waters (e.g. streams, lakes and reservoirs) is an important emerging environmental issue. There is a need for robust, sensitive and reliable analytical methods for measuring these compounds in a variety of natural water and wastewater matrices. This paper describes a method for the determination of seven tetracycline (TC) and six sulfonamide (SA) compounds in pristine and wastewater-influenced surface water using solid-phase extraction, and LCQ Duo ion trap liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) with positive electrospray ionization (ESI(+)) and selected reaction monitoring (SRM). The seven TCs and six SAs analyzed using this method include oxytetracycline (OTC), chlortetracycline (CTC), tetracycline (TC), democlocycline (DMC), doxycycline (DXC), meclocycline (MCC), minocycline (MNC), sulfathiazole (STZ), sulfamerazine (SMR), sulfamethazine (SMT), sulfachloropyridazine (SCP), sulfamethoxazole (SMX), and sulfadimethoxane (SDM). This study discusses the effects of flow rate, LC column diameter and LC column temperature on UV and/or mass peak quality of the different analytes. Several product ions for MS/MS detection have been identified and compared for ion trap and triple quadrupole LC/MS/MS instruments. Statistical analysis for determination of the method detection limit (MDL), accuracy and precision of the method is described. Matrix effects are evaluated in deionized, pristine and wastewater-influenced river water. The method is applied to evaluate the occurrence of these compounds in a small watershed in northern Colorado. PMID:15317045

  9. Selective determination of organophosphate flame retardants and plasticizers in indoor air by gas chromatography, positive-ion chemical ionization and collision-induced dissociation mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bjrklund, Jonas; Isetun, Sindra; Nilsson, Ulrika

    2004-01-01

    Gas chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry with in-source ionization and dissociation was used in positive-ion chemical ionization (PICI) mode for the determination of organophosphate triesters in indoor air. These compounds are widely used as additive flame retardants and plasticizers in different types of materials and have become ubiquitous pollutants in indoor environments. When using collision-induced dissociation in PICI mode the fragmentation of the organophosphate triesters can be performed in a more controllable way than in electron ionization (EI) mode. The developed selected-reaction monitoring method provided high selectivity for the investigated compounds. For 8-h air measurements (corresponding to 1.5 m3 of sampled air) the limit of detection of the method was determined to be in the range 0.1-1.4 ng m(-3), which is comparable with nitrogen-phosphorus detection and about 50-fold lower than when using EI in selected-ion monitoring mode. The presented method was applied to samples from three common indoor environments, in which a number of organophosphate triesters were identified and quantified. The dominating compound was found to be tris(2-chloropropyl) phosphate, which occurred at levels up to 0.8 microg m(-3). PMID:15543547

  10. Rapid Quantification of Four Anthocyanins in Red Grape Wine by Hydrophilic Interaction Liquid Chromatography/Triple Quadrupole Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yongming; Xia, Biqi; Chen, Xiangzhun; Duanmu, Chuansong; Li, Denghao; Han, Chao

    2015-01-01

    The identification and quantification of four anthocyanins (cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, peonidin-3-O-glucoside, delphinidin-3-O-glucoside, and malvidin-3-O-glucoside) in red grape wine were carried out by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography/triple quadrupole linear ion trap MS (HILIC/QTrap-MS/MS). Samples were diluted directly and separated on a Merck ZIC HILIC column with 20 mM ammonium acetate solution-acetonitrile mobile phase. Quantitative data acquisition was carried out in the multiple reaction monitoring mode. Additional identification and confirmation of target compounds were performed using the enhanced product ion mode of the linear ion trap. The LOQs were in the range 0.05-1.0 ng/mL. The average recoveries were in the range 94.6 to 104.5%. The HILIC/QTrap-MS/MS platform offers the best sensitivity and specificity for characterization and quantitative determination of the four anthocyanins in red grape wines and fulfills the quality criteria for routine laboratory application. PMID:26651575

  11. Determination of free-form amphetamine in rat brain by ion-pair liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry with in vivo microdialysis.

    PubMed

    Fuh, Ming-Ren; Haung, Chiuan-Hung; Lin, Shiang-Ling; Pan, Wynn H T

    2004-03-26

    An ion-pair liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) method with in vivo microdialysis for the determination of free-form amphetamine in rat brain has been developed. A microdialysis probe was surgically implanted into the striatum of the rat and artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) was used as the perfusion medium. Samples were collected and then analyzed off-line by LC-ESI-MS. A reversed phase C18 column was employed for LC separation. Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) was added in the mobile phase (acetonitrile-water, 10:90, v/v) as an ion-pair reagent. The ion-pair process disguises the protonated amphetamine cations from the ESI-MS electric field as neutral molecules. Post-column addition of volatile organic acid was utilized to minimize TFA signal suppression effect on ESI-MS detection. More than six-fold enhancement of ESI-MS response was achieved by the post-column addition of propionic acid. Good linearity (0.01-1.00 microg/ml, r2 = 0.99) and detection limit (0.002 microg/ml) were determined. Good precision and accuracy were obtained. The applicability of this newly developed method was demonstrated by continuous monitoring of amphetamine concentrations in rat brain after a single 3.0 mg/kg i.p. administration. PMID:15058583

  12. Mass Spectrometry Parameters Optimization for the 46 Multiclass Pesticides Determination in Strawberries with Gas Chromatography Ion-Trap Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Virgínia C.; Vera, Jose L.; Domingues, Valentina F.; Silva, Luís M. S.; Mateus, Nuno; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2012-12-01

    Multiclass analysis method was optimized in order to analyze pesticides traces by gas chromatography with ion-trap and tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The influence of some analytical parameters on pesticide signal response was explored. Five ion trap mass spectrometry (IT-MS) operating parameters, including isolation time (IT), excitation voltage (EV), excitation time (ET), maximum excitation energy or " q" value (q), and isolation mass window (IMW) were numerically tested in order to maximize the instrument analytical signal response. For this, multiple linear regression was used in data analysis to evaluate the influence of the five parameters on the analytical response in the ion trap mass spectrometer and to predict its response. The assessment of the five parameters based on the regression equations substantially increased the sensitivity of IT-MS/MS in the MS/MS mode. The results obtained show that for most of the pesticides, these parameters have a strong influence on both signal response and detection limit. Using the optimized method, a multiclass pesticide analysis was performed for 46 pesticides in a strawberry matrix. Levels higher than the limit established for strawberries by the European Union were found in some samples.

  13. Conformation of Macromolecules in the Gas Phase: Use of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Methods in Ion Chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Helden, Gert; Wyttenbach, Thomas; Bowers, Michael T.

    1995-03-01

    Conformational data for macromolecules in the gas phase have been obtained by the coupling of a matrix-assisted laser desorption ion source to an ion chromatograph. A series of polyethylene glycol (PEG) polymers "cationized" (converted to a cation) by sodium ions (Na^+PEG9 to Na^+PEG19) and a protonated neurotransmitter protein, bradykinin, were studied. Mobilities of Na^+PEG9 to Na^+PEG19 are reported. Detailed modeling of Na^+PEG9 with molecular mechanics methods indicates that the lowest energy structure has the Na^+ ion "solvated" by the polymer chain with seven oxygen atoms as nearest neighbors. The agreement between the model and experiment is within 1 percent for Na^+PEG9, Na^+PEG13, and Na^+PEG17, giving strong support to both the method and the deduced structures. Similar agreement was obtained in initial studies that modeled experimental data for arginine-protonated bradykinin.

  14. Separation and identification of water-soluble food dyes by ion-exchange and soap thin-layer chromatography.

    PubMed

    Lepri, L; Desideri, P G; Coas, V

    1978-11-21

    Eighteen water-soluble food dyes have been studied by chromatography on thin layers of anion-exchange (AG 1-X4, DEAE-cellulose, PAB-cellulose and chitosan) and cation-exchange (Dowex 50-X4, Rexyn 102 and humic acid) materials; layers of silanised silica gel impregnated with cationic or anionic detergent were also used. Fourteen of the dyes were separated, but the two orange and the two black dyes were not. Some applications of the techniques to commercial products are reported. PMID:730801

  15. Liquid chromatography coupled to ion trap-tandem mass spectrometry to evaluate juvenile hormone III levels in bee hemolymph from Nosema spp. infected colonies.

    PubMed

    Ares, A M; Nozal, M J; Bernal, J L; Martn-Hernndez, R; M Higes; Bernal, J

    2012-06-15

    It has been described a fast, simple and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to measure juvenile hormone III (JH III), which was used to study of the effects of Nosema spp. infection on JH III levels in bee hemolymph. Honey bee hemolymph was extracted by centrifugation and mixed with a solution of phenylthiourea in methanol. This mixture was then centrifuged and the supernatant removed and evaporated to dryness. The residue was reconstituted in methanol containing the internal standard (methoprene) and injected onto an LC-MS/MS (ion-trap) system coupled to electrospray ionization (ESI) in positive mode. Chromatography was performed on a Synergi Hydro-RP column (4 ?m, 30 mm 4.60 mm i.d.) using a mobile phase of 20 mM ammonium formate and methanol in binary gradient elution mode. The method was fully validated and it was found to be selective, linear from 15 to 14,562 pg/?L, precise and accurate, with %RSD values below 5%. The limits of detection and quantification were: LOD, 6 pg/?L; LOQ, 15 pg/?L. Finally, the proposed LC-MS/MS method was used to analyze JH III levels in the hemolymph of worker honey bees (Apis mellifera iberiensis) experimentally infected with different Nosema spp. (Nosema apis, Spanish and Dutch Nosema ceranae strains). The highest concentrations of JH III were detected in hemolymph from bees infected with Spanish N. ceranae. PMID:22664054

  16. Direct chemical-analysis of uv laser-ablation products of organic polymers by using selective ion monitoring mode in gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cho, Yirang; Lee, H.W.; Fountain, S.T.; Lubman, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    Trace quantities of laser ablated organic polymers were analyzed by using commercial capillary column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry; the instrument was modified so that the laser ablation products could be introduced into the capillary column directly and the constituents of each peak in the chromatogram were identified by using a mass spectrometer. The present study takes advantage of the selective ion monitoring mode for significantly improving the sensitivity of the mass spectrometer as a detector, which is critical in analyzing the trace quantities and confirming the presence or absence of the species of interest in laser ablated polymers. The initial composition of the laser ablated polymers was obtained by using an electron impact reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer and the possible structure of the fragments observed in the spectra was proposed based on the structure of the polymers.

  17. Characterization of imazamox degradation by-products by using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry and high-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Harir, M; Frommberger, M; Gaspar, A; Martens, D; Kettrup, A; El Azzouzi, M; Schmitt-Kopplin, Ph

    2007-11-01

    The photodecomposition of imazamox, a herbicide of the imidazolinone family, was investigated in pure water. The main photoproducts from the photolysis were followed over time by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry and structures were proposed from exact mass determinations obtained by electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. The method comprised exact mass determination with better than 0.2 ppm mass accuracy and a corresponding structural visualization taking care of respective isotopes with an adapted van Krevelen diagram that enabled a systematic approach to the characterisation of the elementary composition of each photoproduct. By taking advantage of the high resolving power of FT-ICR MS to make precise formula assignments, the derived 2D van Krevelen diagram (O/C; H/C; m/z) enabled one to structurally differentiate the formed photoproducts and to propose a degradation pathway for imazamox. PMID:17554530

  18. Characterization of Compounds in Psoralea corylifolia Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Diode Array Detection, Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry and Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tan, Guangguo; Yang, Tiehong; Miao, Huayan; Chen, Hao; Chai, Yifeng; Wu, Hong

    2015-10-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD), time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-TOFMS) and quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry (HPLC-QITMS) were used for separation and identification of multi-components in Psoralea corylifolia. Benefiting from combining the accurate mass measurement of HPLC-TOFMS to generate elemental compositions, the complementary multilevel structural information provided by HPLC-QITMS and the characteristic UV spectra obtained from HPLC-DAD, 24 components in P. corylifolia were identified. The five groups of isomers were differentiated based on the fragmentation behaviors in QITMS and UV spectra. It can be concluded that an effective method based on the combination of HPLC-DAD, HPLC-TOFMS and HPLC-QITMS for identification of chemical components in P. corylifolia was established. The results provide essential data for further pharmacological and clinical studies of P. corylifolia and facilitate the rapid quality control of the crude drug. PMID:25903696

  19. The determination of potassium concentration in vitreous humor by low pressure ion chromatography and its application in the estimation of postmortem interval.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bin; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Gengqian; Zhang, Xinshen; Jiang, Xiaoping

    2007-06-01

    An analytical method was developed for the determination of potassium in vitreous humor by low pressure ion chromatography (LPIC). Experimental conditions for LPIC analysis were optimized. High sensitivity and selectivity were obtained using this method. The LOD and LOQ were 1 and 2 mmol l(-1), respectively. The linearity was demonstrated from 2 to 20 mmol l(-1). The intra- and inter-day precision (CV) based on three concentrations was less than 5.0%. It was a simple and fast method to measure potassium and was suitable for evaluating the postmortem interval (PMI) in relatively well-preserved bodies. Sixty-two samples from medical-legal autopsies with known PMI were analyzed. A linear correlation equation for potassium concentration in the vitreous humor and PMI was established: [K(+)]=0.1702PMI+5.5678, r=0.8692. PMID:17347058

  20. Rapid screening and identification of multi-class substances of very high concern in textiles using liquid chromatography-hybrid linear ion trap orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Luo, Xin; Niu, Zengyuan; Ye, Xiwen; Tang, Zhixu; Yao, Peng

    2015-03-20

    A new analytical method was established and validated for the analysis of 19 substances of very high concern (SVHCs) in textiles, including phthalic acid esters (PAEs), organotins (OTs), perfluorochemicals (PFCs) and flame retardants (FRs). After ultrasonic extraction in methanol, the textile samples were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography-hybrid linear ion trap Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-LTQ/Orbitrap). The values of LOQ were in the range of 2-200mg/kg. Recoveries at two levels (at the LOQ and at half the limit of regulation) ranged from 68% to 120%, and the repeatability was lower than 13%. This method was successfully applied to the screening of SVHCs in commercial textile samples and is useful for the fast screening of various SVHCs. PMID:25698382