Science.gov

Sample records for ion exclusion chromatography

  1. Ion-Exclusion Chromatography for Analyzing Organics in Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, Richard; Rutz, Jeffrey A.; Schultz, John R.

    2006-01-01

    A liquid-chromatography technique has been developed for use in the quantitative analysis of urea (and of other nonvolatile organic compounds typically found with urea) dissolved in water. The technique involves the use of a column that contains an ion-exclusion resin; heretofore, this column has been sold for use in analyzing monosaccharides and food softeners, but not for analyzing water supplies. The prior technique commonly used to analyze water for urea content has been one of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), with reliance on hydrophobic interactions between analytes in a water sample and long-chain alkyl groups bonded to an HPLC column. The prior technique has proven inadequate because of a strong tendency toward co-elution of urea with other compounds. Co-elution often causes the urea and other compounds to be crowded into a narrow region of the chromatogram (see left part of figure), thereby giving rise to low chromatographic resolution and misidentification of compounds. It is possible to quantitate urea or another analyte via ultraviolet- and visible-light absorbance measurements, but in order to perform such measurements, it is necessary to dilute the sample, causing a significant loss of sensitivity. The ion-exclusion resin used in the improved technique is sulfonated polystyrene in the calcium form. Whereas the alkyl-chain column used in the prior technique separates compounds on the basis of polarity only, the ion-exclusion-resin column used in the improved technique separates compounds on the basis of both molecular size and electric charge. As a result, the degree of separation is increased: instead of being crowded together into a single chromatographic peak only about 1 to 2 minutes wide as in the prior technique, the chromatographic peaks of different compounds are now separated from each other and spread out over a range about 33 minutes wide (see right part of figure), and the urea peak can readily be distinguished from the other peaks. Although the analysis takes more time in the improved technique, this disadvantage is offset by two important advantages: Sensitivity is increased. The minimum concentration of urea that can be measured is reduced (to between 1/5 and 1/3 of that of the prior technique) because it is not necessary to dilute the sample. The separation of peaks facilitates the identification and quantitation of the various compounds. The resolution of the compounds other than urea makes it possible to identify those compounds by use of mass spectrometry.

  2. Instrumentation: Ion Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritz, James S.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the importance of ion chromatography in separating and measuring anions. The principles of ion exchange are presented, along with some applications of ion chromatography in industry. Ion chromatography systems are described, as well as ion pair and ion exclusion chromatography, column packings, detectors, and programming. (TW)

  3. Ion Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulik, James D.; Sawicki, Eugene

    1979-01-01

    Accurate for the analysis of ions in solution, this form of analysis enables the analyst to directly assay many compounds that previously were difficult or impossible to analyze. The method is a combination of the methodologies of ion exchange, liquid chromatography, and conductimetric determination with eluant suppression. (Author/RE)

  4. Separation of Aliphatic and Aromatic Carboxylic Acids by Conventional and Ultra High Performance Ion Exclusion Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Mansour, Fotouh R.; Kirkpatrick, Christine L.; Danielson, Neil D.

    2013-01-01

    An ion exclusion chromatography (IELC) comparison between a conventional ion exchange column and an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) dynamically surfactant modified C18 column for the separation of an aliphatic carboxylic acid and two aromatic carboxylic acids is presented. Professional software is used to optimize the conventional IELC separation conditions for acetylsalicylic acid and the hydrolysis products: salicylic acid and acetic acid. Four different variables are simultaneously optimized including H2SO4 concentration, pH, flow rate, and sample injection volume. Thirty different runs are suggested by the software. The resolutions and the time of each run are calculated and feed back to the software to predict the optimum conditions. Derringer’s desirability functions are used to evaluate the test conditions and those with the highest desirability value are utilized to separate acetylsalicylic acid, salicylic acid, and acetic acid. These conditions include using a 0.35 mM H2SO4 (pH 3.93) eluent at a flow rate of 1 mL min-1 and an injection volume of 72 ?L. To decrease the run time and improve the performance, a UHPLC C18 column is used after dynamic modification with sodium dodecyl sulfate. Using pure water as a mobile phase, a shorter analysis time and better resolution are achieved. In addition, the elution order is different from the IELC method which indicates the contribution of the reversed-phase mode to the separation mechanism. PMID:24285874

  5. Separation of acid and sugar by ion exclusion chromatography. An application in the conversion of cellulose to ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Hartfield, S.; Hester, R.

    1993-12-31

    The production of fuel grade alcohol by fermentation from sugars obtained by the acid hydrolysis of cellulose has been hindered by costly methods of cleansing the acid in the sugar stream. An economical and environmentally acceptable acid-sugar separation process based on ion exclusion chromatography has been developed and analyzed. This process recovers the acid for reuse in hydrolysis without producing landfill waste allowing a concentrated acid hydrolysis process to be commercially feasible.

  6. Vacancy ion-exclusion/adsorption chromatography of aliphatic amines on a polymethacrylate-based weakly basic anion-exchange column.

    PubMed

    Mori, Masanobu; Helaleh, Murad I H; Xu, Qun; Hu, Wenzhi; Ikedo, Mikaru; Ding, Ming-Yu; Taoda, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Kazuhiko

    2004-06-11

    Vacancy ion-exclusion/adsorption chromatography has been applied to investigate the separation behavior of five aliphatic amines (ethylamine, propylamine, butylamine, pentylamine and hexylamine) on a polymethacrylate-based weakly basic anion-exchange column (Tosoh TSKgel DEAE-5PW). This system is consisted of analytes as a mobile phase and water as an injected sample. In the vacancy ion-exclusion/adsorption chromatography, the elution order was as follows: ethylamine < propylamine < butylamine < pentylamine < hexylamine, depending on their hydrophobicity. The retention times of the amines were decreased with decreasing their concentrations in the mobile phase. The retention times and resolutions of the amines were increased by adding a basic compound (e.g., lithium hydroxide or heptylamine) and by increasing the pH of mobile phase (pH > 11). This was because the dissociations of amine samples in the mobile phase were suppressed and thus the hydrophobic adsorption effects were enhanced. The linearity of calibration graphs could be obtained from the peak areas of the amine samples injected to the 0.05, 0.5 and 5 mM of amine mobile phase at pH 11 by heptylamine. The detection limits of aliphatic amines as injected samples were around 1 microM for five aliphatic amines at three different amine mobile phases. From these results, the retention behaviors of aliphatic amines on vacancy ion-exclusion/adsorption chromatography were concluded to be governed by the hydrophobic adsorption effect. PMID:15250414

  7. Determination of volatile fatty acids in landfill leachates by ion-exclusion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Atsushi; Yasuhara, Akio; Kodama, Shuji; Matsunaga, Akinobu; Suzuki, Shigeru; Mohri, Shino; Yamada, Masato

    2004-03-01

    An ion-exclusion chromatographic method with on-line desalinization for the determination of volatile fatty acids in landfill leachates is described. Highly sensitive conductivity detection of the organic acids was achieved by using dilute p-hydroxybenzoic acid solution as an eluent. Interference with mineral acids was reduced by treatment with barium chloride solution prior to desalinization. A silver-loaded cation-exchange guard column for the desalinization was installed in series with the analytical column to avoid the contamination of organic acids. This method features detection limits of 0.01 mg L(-1) formic acid, 0.02 mg L(-1) acetic acid, 0.05 mg L(-1) propionic acid, and 0.1 mg L(-1) butyric acid, respectively, with an injection of 20 microL sample. Application of the on-line desalinization LC method is illustrated for leachate samples from a Japanese sanitary landfill. PMID:15334921

  8. Ion Chromatography: An Account of Its Conception and Early Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Hamish

    2004-01-01

    The conception of ion chromatography and its development into a technique ready for commercialization is described. The pioneering development pointed the way to make ion exclusion an important member of the repertoire of IC methods.

  9. Differences in the molecular composition of fulvic acid size fractions detected by size-exclusion chromatography-on line Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR-) mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Reemtsma, Thorsten; These, Anja; Springer, Andreas; Linscheid, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Size-exclusion chromatography was coupled to electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (SEC-FTICR-MS) to separate a fulvic acid isolate into three size fractions and to determine the elemental composition of fulvic acids in these fractions. Molecular formulas of about 3000 ions in the mass range of 200-700 Da were derived, many of which occur in all three fractions and follow the same system of elemental composition. Product ion spectra generated by SEC coupled to quadrupol-time-of-flight-MS (Q-TOF-MS) confirmed that the ions of all three fractions are basically polycarboxylates with hardly any other functional moiety. However, SEC-FTICR-MS revealed that the ions generated from the high molecular weight (HMW) fraction are enriched in carboxyl groups and are more aromatic as compared with the low molecular weight (LMW) fraction. These findings support the idea that the HMW fulvic acids are formed from LMW fulvic acids. The shift in the relative frequency of ions from the LMW to the HMW fraction is in line with different interaction mechanisms: HMW fulvic acids may be aggregates held together by electrostatic interaction of the carboxylate groups via hydrogen bonds or with polyvalent cations or by hydrophobic interaction of their carbon backbone, or consist of LMW fulvic acids covalently bound to each other or to (aliphatic) alcohols. PMID:17640699

  10. Selective and simultaneous determination of phosphate and silicate ions in leaching process waters for ceramics glaze raw materials of narutal origin by ion-exclusion chromatography coupled with UV-detection after postcolumn derivatization.

    PubMed

    Ikedo, Mikaru; Mori, Masanobu; Kurachi, Kazumasa; Hu, Wenzhi; Tanaka, Kazuhiko

    2006-01-01

    The selective and simultaneous ion-exclusion chromatography (IEC) with UV-detection on a weakly acidic cation-exchange resin column in the H+ -form (TSKgel Super IC-A/C) was developed and applied for the simultaneous determination of phosphate and silicate ions as the water quality parameters required for optimizing the water-leaching process for ceramics glaze raw materials of natural origin including feldspar, woods-ash, and straw-ash. Phosphate and silicate ions in these water-leaching process water samples were separated selectively from the coexisting anions such as sulfate, chloride, nitrate and carbonate ions, based on the ion-exclusion separation mechanism. They were detected selectively and simultaneously by a postcolumn derivatization with molybdenum-yellow using the UV-detector. Under the optimized separation and detection conditions (eluent, 0-1 mM sulfuric acid; reactant, 10 mM sodium molybdate-25 mM sulfuric acid; detector, UV at 370 nm; temperature, 45 degrees C), the linearity of calibration was in the range 0.1 - 10 ppm for both phosphate and silicate ions, and the detection limits at S/N = 3 were 2.58 ppb for silicate ions and 4.75 ppb for phosphate ions. The effectiveness of this method was demonstrated in practical applications to the water-leaching process for some ceramics glaze raw materials. PMID:16429785

  11. Ion Exchange Chromatography Using Fractogel

    E-print Network

    Lebendiker, Mario

    . Fig.1 X-ray structure of a protein. All charged amino acids involved in binding to the ion exchanger Chromatography Ion exchange chromatography is commonly used for nearly all purifications of proteins. This widely can be used as well as cation exchangers. With a strongly acidic pH value all amino acids are present

  12. Characterization of Nanocrystalline CdSe by Size Exclusion Chromatography

    E-print Network

    Natelson, Douglas

    Characterization of Nanocrystalline CdSe by Size Exclusion Chromatography Karl M. Krueger, Ali M 6100 Main Street, Houston, Texas 77005 High-performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC in solution. This paper demonstrates the application of high-performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC

  13. Determination of arsenite, arsenate, and monomethylarsonic acid in seawater by ion-exclusion chromatography combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using reaction cell and hydride generation techniques.

    PubMed

    Nakazato, Tetsuya; Tao, Hiroaki; Taniguchi, Tadashi; Isshiki, Kenji

    2002-08-16

    This paper describes a robust and sensitive method for the determination of arsenic species in seawater by ion-exclusion liquid chromatography (LC) combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) using reaction cell and hydride generation (HG) techniques. A good separation of arsenite, arsenate, and monomethylarsonic acid was achieved using an ion-exclusion column packed with a sulfonated polystyrene resin and a dilute nitric acid at pH 2.0 as the eluent, even when a large volume, i.e. 200 mul, of seawater samples containing a large amount of matrix was repeatedly injected. Separations of the chloride ion due to the matrix and arsenic species were partially performed; however, the extensive peak of ArCl due to high content of Cl(-) in a sample overlapped peaks of the three arsenic species on (75)As measurement by ICP-MS. This ArCl polyatomic interference was efficiently eliminated by collision of ArCl molecules with helium in an octopole reaction cell which was introduced prior to a mass spectrometer. Detection limits of the three arsenic species in a sample containing 2% Cl(-), the concentration of which is comparable to that in a seawater sample, by LC-ICP-MS with the octopole reaction system (ORS), ranged from 21 to 25 pg As ml(-1); these values were three-six times lower than those by LC-ICP-MS without ORS. As another technique for ArCl interference elimination, HG prior to ICP-MS was also successfully used not only to reduce the interference but also to improve the detection limits to 3.4-4.5 pg As ml(-1). The developed LC-ICP-ORS-MS and LC-HG-ICP-MS were validated by analyzing a certified reference material (CRM) of seawater. In addition, no serious decrease in analytical performance of present methods was observed in the experimental periods of half a year for LC-ICP-ORS-MS and 1 year for LC-HG-ICP-MS, respectively. The latter method was successfully applied to characterize seasonal variations of three arsenic species in deep seawater and surface seawater. PMID:18968739

  14. Simultaneous ion-exclusion/cation-exchange chromatography of anions and cations in acid rain waters on a weakly acidic cation-exchange resin by elution with sulfosalicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, K; Ohta, K; Haddad, P R; Fritz, J S; Miyanaga, D A; Hu, W; Hasebe, K

    2000-07-01

    A simple, selective, and sensitive method for the simultaneous determination of anions (sulfate, nitrate, and chloride) and cations (sodium, ammonium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium) in acid rain waters was developed using ion-exclusion/ cation-exchange chromatography with conductimetric detection. A weakly acidic cation-exchange resin column (Tosho TSKgel OA-PAK-A) and a sulfosalicylic acid-methanol-water eluent was used. With a mobile phase comprising 1.25 mM sulfosalicylic acid in methanol-water (7.5:92.5) at 1.2 ml/min, simultaneous separation and detection of the above anions and cations was achieved in about 30 min. Linear calibration plots of peak area versus concentration were obtained over the concentration ranges 0-1.0 mM for anions (R=0.9991) and 0-0.5 mM for cations (R=0.9994). Detection limits calculated at S/N=3 ranged from 4.2 to 14.8 ppb for the anions and from 2.4 to 12.1 ppb for the cations. The reproducibility of retention times was 0.14-0.15% relative standard deviation (RSD) for anions and 0.18-0.31% for cations, and reproducibility of chromatographic peak areas was 1.22-1.75% RSD for anions and 1.81-2.10% for cations. The method was applied successfully to the simultaneous determination of anions and cations in aerosols transported from mainland China to central Japan, as determined by a meteorological satellite data analyzer. PMID:10917435

  15. Soil & Water Lab, Ion Chromatography Procedure Page 1 Ion Chromatography Procedure

    E-print Network

    Soil & Water Lab, Ion Chromatography Procedure Page 1 Ion Chromatography Procedure Last updated: 5.29.13 A. Introduction Ion chromatography (IC) is used to separate out various ions based on their charge if a new machine part is needed. D. Stock Solution Preparation #12;Soil & Water Lab, Ion Chromatography

  16. ION CHROMATOGRAPHY OF ANIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Dionex Model 10 Ion Chromatograph was evaluated for the measurement of anionic species in water. The theoretical effect of hydrogen ion activity (pH) on the elution time of phosphate and arsenate was tested and empirical selectivity coefficients were determined for the major pr...

  17. Ion Exchange and Liquid Column Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Harold F.

    1980-01-01

    Emphasizes recent advances in principles and methodology in ion exchange and chromatography. Two tables list representative examples for inorganic ions and organic compounds. Cites 544 references. (CS)

  18. Investigation and interpretation of band broadening in size exclusion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Busnel, J P; Foucault, F; Denis, L; Lee, W; Chang, T

    2001-09-28

    Study of Band Broadening occurring in Size Exclusion Chromatography (SEC) is reported using very narrow PS standards obtained and characterised by Temperature Gradient Interaction Chromatography (TGIC). Chromatograms are fitted by Exponentially Modified Gaussian functions (EMG) and mapping of band broadening is obtained for different column sets. Interpretation of the skewing of the chromatograms is proposed with a new model using Brownian motion properties inside the pores. That explains why band broadening and tailing become so important near total exclusion volume. PMID:11681580

  19. Using Ion Exchange Chromatography to Separate and Quantify Complex Ions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    Ion exchange chromatography is an important technique in the separation of charged species, particularly in biological, inorganic, and environmental samples. In this experiment, students are supplied with a mixture of two substitution-inert complex ions. They separate the complexes by ion exchange chromatography using a "flash"…

  20. A Size Exclusion Chromatography Laboratory with Unknowns for Introductory Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntee, Edward J.; Graham, Kate J.; Colosky, Edward C.; Jakubowski, Henry V.

    2015-01-01

    Size exclusion chromatography is an important technique in the separation of biological and polymeric samples by molecular weight. While a number of laboratory experiments have been published that use this technique for the purification of large molecules, this is the first report of an experiment that focuses on purifying an unknown small…

  1. Recycling Size Exclusion Chromatography for the Analysis and Separation of Nanocrystalline Gold

    E-print Network

    Aazhang, Behnaam

    Recycling Size Exclusion Chromatography for the Analysis and Separation of Nanocrystalline Gold Ali University, MS-60 6100 Main Street, Houston, Texas 77025 Recycling size exclusion chromatography (RSEC defined sizes. This work aims to use size exclusion chromatography, or SEC, as a tool for evaluating

  2. Measurements of Protein-Protein Interactions by Size Exclusion Chromatography

    E-print Network

    J. Bloustine; V. Berejnov; S. Fraden

    2003-06-12

    A method is presented for determining second virial coefficients B_2 of protein solutions from retention time measurements in size exclusion chromatography (SEC). We determine B_2 by analyzing the concentration dependance of the chromatographic partition coefficient. We show the ability of this method to track the evolution of B_2 from positive to negative values in lysozyme and bovine serum albumin solutions. Our SEC results agree quantitatively with data obtained by light scattering.

  3. The History of Ion Chromatography: The Engineering Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Barton

    2004-01-01

    The development of ion chromatography from an engineering perspective is presented. As ion chromatography became more widely accepted, researchers developed dozens of standard applications that enabled the creation of many low-end instruments.

  4. Separation of lithium ions by chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, D.A.

    1983-11-12

    Trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) forms an adduct with lithium dibenzoylmethane (DBM). The chelate is readily extractable by nonaqueous solvents, and this is the basis for the chromatographic separation of lithium from other alkali ions. A liquid chromatography column with 0.1 M DBM - 0.1 M TOPO in dodecane as the stationary phase was used. Lithium ions were retrained on the column while the remaining alkali metal ions were eluted with ammonium hydroxide. Lithium was eluted with 0.6 N hydrochloric acid. The structure of the extracted lithium species was determined by extraction equilibria studies and by the method of continuous variations.

  5. Size-exclusion chromatography system for macromolecular interaction analysis

    DOEpatents

    Stevens, Fred J. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1988-01-01

    A low pressure, microcomputer controlled system employing high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) allows for precise analysis of the interaction of two reversibly associating macromolecules such as proteins. Since a macromolecular complex migrates faster than its components during size-exclusion chromatography, the difference between the elution profile of a mixture of two macromolecules and the summation of the elution profiles of the two components provides a quantifiable indication of the degree of molecular interaction. This delta profile is used to qualitatively reveal the presence or absence of significant interaction or to rank the relative degree of interaction in comparing samples and, in combination with a computer simulation, is further used to quantify the magnitude of the interaction in an arrangement wherein a microcomputer is coupled to analytical instrumentation in a novel manner.

  6. ION-EXCLUSION CHROMATOGRAPHIC DETERMINATION OF CARBOXYLIC ACIDS USED TO SUPPORT THE MICROBIALLY MEDIATED REDUCTIVE DECHLORINATION OF TETRACHLOROETHENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    An analytical method was developed for the determination of lactic acid, formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid in environmental microcosm samples using ion-exclusion chromatography. The chromatographic behavior of various eluents was studied to determine the ...

  7. Chromatography

    MedlinePLUS

    ... high pressure liquid, or ion exchange chromatography. In general, chromatography takes advantage of the differences in the chemicals you want to separate, such as their size, electric charge, or ability to stick to (bind) to ...

  8. Peak distortion effects in analytical ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wahab, M Farooq; Anderson, Jordan K; Abdelrady, Mohamed; Lucy, Charles A

    2014-01-01

    The elution profile of chromatographic peaks provides fundamental understanding of the processes that occur in the mobile phase and the stationary phase. Major advances have been made in the column chemistry and suppressor technology in ion chromatography (IC) to handle a variety of sample matrices and ions. However, if the samples contain high concentrations of matrix ions, the overloaded peak elution profile is distorted. Consequently, the trace peaks shift their positions in the chromatogram in a manner that depends on the peak shape of the overloading analyte. In this work, the peak shapes in IC are examined from a fundamental perspective. Three commercial IC columns AS16, AS18, and AS23 were studied with borate, hydroxide and carbonate as suppressible eluents. Monovalent ions (chloride, bromide, and nitrate) are used as model analytes under analytical (0.1 mM) to overload conditions (10-500 mM). Both peak fronting and tailing are observed. On the basis of competitive Langmuir isotherms, if the eluent anion is more strongly retained than the analyte ion on an ion exchanger, the analyte peak is fronting. If the eluent is more weakly retained on the stationary phase, the analyte peak always tails under overload conditions regardless of the stationary phase capacity. If the charge of the analyte and eluent anions are different (e.g., Br(-) vs CO3(2-)), the analyte peak shapes depend on the eluent concentration in a more complex pattern. It was shown that there are interesting similarities with peak distortions due to strongly retained mobile phase components in other modes of liquid chromatography. PMID:24328391

  9. Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) of branched polymers and polysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Gaborieau, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    Branched polymers are among the most important polymers, ranging from polyolefins to polysaccharides. Branching plays a key role in the chain dynamics. It is thus very important for application properties such as mechanical and adhesive properties and digestibility. It also plays a key role in viscous properties, and thus in the mechanism of the separation of these polymers in size-exclusion chromatography (SEC). Critically reviewing the literature, particularly on SEC of polyolefins, polyacrylates and starch, we discuss common pitfalls but also highlight some unexplored possibilities to characterize branched polymers. The presence of a few long-chain branches has been shown to lead to a poor separation in SEC, as evidenced by multiple-detection SEC or multidimensional liquid chromatography. The local dispersity can be large in that case, and the accuracy of molecular weight determination achieved by current methods is poor, although hydrodynamic volume distributions offer alternatives. In contrast, highly branched polymers do not suffer from this extensive incomplete separation in terms of molecular weight. Figure Representation of (a) a linear polymer chain and various branched polymer structures with (b) longchain branches (amylose-like), (c) short-chain branches (amylopectin-like), (d) both short-chain and long-chain branches (polyacrylate- or polyethylene-like). PMID:20967430

  10. Size exclusion chromatography of aged and crumb rubber modified asphalts

    SciTech Connect

    Duvall, J.J.

    1996-12-31

    Preparative size exclusion chromatography (SEC) has been used for several years in our laboratory to provide samples for further analysis and for use in other testing procedures. Asphalts have been separated into a first fraction (F-I) that contains nonfluorescing (at 350 nm) materials, and the rest of the asphalt, which is collected in one or more fractions (F-II or F-IIa, F-IIb, etc). The nonfluorescing materials have been shown to contain strongly associating molecules, while the fluorescing materials consist of weakly associating individual and smaller molecules. The fractionation data from these analyses have been related to the theological property tan delta, and thereby, to rutting and premature pavement cracking. We have developed a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique that yields these analytical data more rapidly and efficiently than preparative SEC and yet gives chromatograms similar to those derived from preparative SEC. The HPLC procedure described here uses toluene as the carrier as does the preparative procedure.

  11. An Empirical Formula From Ion Exchange Chromatography and Colorimetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Steven D.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a detailed procedure for finding an empirical formula from ion exchange chromatography and colorimetry. Introduces students to more varied techniques including volumetric manipulation, titration, ion-exchange, preparation of a calibration curve, and the use of colorimetry. (JRH)

  12. Ion Exchange Chromatography and Spectrophotometry: An Introductory Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, N.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes an experiment in which students use ion exchange chromatography to separate a mixture of chloro complexes of transition metal ions and then use spectrophotometry to define qualitatively the efficiency of the ion exchange columns. Background information, materials needed, and procedures used are included. (JN)

  13. Human Plasma Proteome Analysis by Multidimensional Chromatography Prefractionation and Linear Ion Trap Mass

    E-print Network

    Tian, Weidong

    Human Plasma Proteome Analysis by Multidimensional Chromatography Prefractionation and Linear Ion chromatography has attracted extensive attention, but most published works have focused on the fractionation strong cation exchange chromatography and reversed-phase chromatography. The resulting 30 samples were

  14. Discrimination of rubber-based pressure sensitive adhesives by size exclusion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kumooka, Yoshio

    2007-08-24

    In this report, three pairs of rubber-based pressure sensitive adhesives were analyzed by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (ATR/FT-IR) and size exclusion chromatography (SEC). The size exclusion chromatograph was equipped with a refractive index (RI) detector and an ultraviolet (UV) absorption detector set to measure at 254 nm. Both adhesives of each pair revealed indistinguishable pyrograms and IR spectra, however, the SEC chromatograms were able to provide further discrimination. The differences were observed in the range below the polystyrene equivalent molecular weight of 700 Da. PMID:17052877

  15. Degradation of Ultra-High Molar Mass Polymers in Size-Exclusion Chromatography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The degradation of high molar mass polymers during size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) analysis has been a topic of interest for several decades. Should a polymer degrade during analysis, the accuracy of the molar mass (M) and architectural information obtained will be compromised. To this effect,...

  16. Mineral Separation in a CELSS by Ion-exchange Chromatography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballou, E. V.; Spitze, L. A.; Wong, F. W.; Wydeven, T.; Johnson, C. C.

    1982-01-01

    Operational parameters pertinent to ion exchange chromatography separation were identified. The experiments were performed with 9 mm diameter ion exchange columns and conventional column accessories. The cation separation beds were packed with AG 50W-X2 strong acid cation exchange resin in H(+) form and 200-400 dry mesh particle size. The stripper beds used in some experiments were packed with AG 1-XB strong base cation exchange resin in OH(-) form and 200-400 dry mesh particle size.

  17. Solvent Extraction, Ion Chromatography, and Mass Spectrometry of Molybdenum Isotopes

    E-print Network

    Solvent Extraction, Ion Chromatography, and Mass Spectrometry of Molybdenum Isotopes Nicolas-le`s-Nancy Cedex, France A procedure was developed that allows precise determi- nation of molybdenum isotope abundances in natural samples. Purification of molybdenum was first achieved by solvent extraction using di(2

  18. CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF WET SCRUBBERS UTILIZING ION CHROMATOGRAPHY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the key elements required to develop a sampling and analysis program for a wet scrubber using ion chromatography as the main analytical technique. The first part of the report describes a sampling program for two different types of wet scrubbers: the venturi/...

  19. ANALYSIS OF FERRIC AND FERROUS IONS IN SOIL EXTRACTS BY ION CHROMATOGRAPHY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method using ion chromatography (IC) for the analysis of ferrous (Fe 2+) and ferric (Fe 3+) ions in soil extracts has been developed. This method uses an ion exchange column with detection at 520 nm after post-column derivatization. Selectivity is achieved by using an anionic...

  20. Application of Ion Chromatography to the Investigation of Real-World Samples Rebecca J. Whelan,*1

    E-print Network

    Zare, Richard N.

    Application of Ion Chromatography to the Investigation of Real-World Samples Rebecca J. Whelan,*1 Experiment #4: Ion Chromatography Handout prepared by David Rakestraw, Rebecca Whelan, Theresa Hannon, and Cheol Keun Chung I. Summary of Laboratory In this laboratory we will use ion chromatography to analyze

  1. Multidimensional separations of complex peptide mixtures: a combined high-performance liquid chromatography/ion mobility/

    E-print Network

    Clemmer, David E.

    chromatography/ion mobility/ time-of-flight mass spectrometry approach Stephen J. Valentine1, *, Manoj Kulchania chromatography (HPLC) has been combined with high-resolution ion mobility separations and time-of-flight mass-dimensional liquid chromatography-ion mobility separations (LC-IMS) and three-dimensional LC-IMS-MS separations

  2. Ion chromatography of cations using indirect photometric of fluorometric detection

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    Copper(II) and cerium(III) were compared as mobile phase counter-ions with a strong cation exchange column for indirect photometric chromatography (IPC). Sample ion retention time was found to be dependent upon both counter-ion size and charge, as well as mobile phase ionic strength. Detection limits of all sample ions were found to be highly dependent on the molar absorptivity of the counter-ion at the wavelength of detection. At 254nm, a cerium(III) mobile phase provided detection limits at least 100 times lower than did a copper(II) mobile phase. The detection limit of sodium was about 4 ppb, corresponding to 3.5 pmoles, using a Ce(III) mobile phase. Cerium(III) was used as a mobile phase counter-ion with a strong cation exchange column using indirect fluorescence detection. Separation of the alkali metal ions along with the ammonium ion was achieved with baseline resolution. The detection limit of sodium was 3 ppb, corresponding to 2.6 pmoles. Separation and quantitation of sodium, ammonium, and potassium ions in diluted urine was straightforward. In contrast, using indirect UV detection, interference from the sample matrix was a problem. IPC using a cerium(III) mobile phase was used to determine sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium ions in milk and infant formulas. Separation was complete within 17 minutes. No interference from the sample matrix was noted. Good agreement between the IPC results and atomic absorption spectroscopy was found. Several complexes of chromium(III) were studied as mobile phase candidates for indirect photometric chromatography. A complex of tris(bipyridine)chromium(III) possessed the required spectral properties of an IPC counterion, but proved to be somewhat labile in either water or methanol but not acetonitrile.

  3. Determination of chloride in geological samples by ion chromatography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, S.A.; Gent, C.A.

    1983-01-01

    Samples of silicate rocks are prepared by sodium carbonate fusion and then treated by ion chromatography. The method was tested for geological standards with chloride concentration between 0.003 and 3%. Observed chloride concentrations comparedd favorably with literature values. The relative standard deviation and detection limit for the method were 8% and 7 ppm, respectively. Up to 30 determination per 24-hour period were possible. ?? 1983.

  4. Electrospray-differential mobility analysis as an orthogonal tool to size-exclusion chromatography for characterization of protein aggregates.

    PubMed

    Guha, Suvajyoti; Wayment, Joshua R; Tarlov, Michael J; Zachariah, Michael R

    2012-06-01

    The biopharmaceutical industry characterizes and quantifies aggregation of protein therapeutics using multiple analytical techniques to cross-validate results. Here, we demonstrate the use of electrospray-differential mobility analysis (ES-DMA), a gas-phase and atmospheric pressure ion-mobility method for characterizing protein aggregates. Two immunoglobulin Gs are systematically heat treated to induce aggregation and characterized using size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) and ES-DMA. Although ES-DMA is a gas-phase characterization method, we find that aggregation kinetic rate constants determined by ES-DMA is in good agreement with those determined by SEC. ES-DMA appears to have a higher resolution and lower limit of detection as compared with SEC. Thus, ES-DMA can potentially become an important orthogonal tool for characterization of nascent protein aggregates in the biopharmaceutical industry. PMID:22411567

  5. Mathematical modeling and scale-up of size-exclusion chromatography

    E-print Network

    Gu, Tingyue

    a personal computer based simulation software program. Existing correlations in the literature were used and Wang for ion-exchange chromatography [18]. In this work, a personal computer (PC) based FORTRAN 77 computer simulation based on the model. A method was developed to scale up SEC columns based on a few

  6. Liquid Chromatography in 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, David H.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews trends in liquid chromatography including apparatus, factors affecting efficient separation of a mixture (peak sharpness and speed), simplified problem-solving, adsorption, bonded phase chromatography, ion selectivity, and size exclusion. The current trend is to control chemical selectivity by the liquid phase. (Author/JN)

  7. Automated Precursor Ion Exclusion During LC-MS/MS Data Acquisition for Optimal Ion Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhongqi

    2012-08-01

    Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is widely used for characterizing multiple samples of complex mixtures with similar compositions. This article addresses a data acquisition strategy for collecting a maximal number of unique, high-quality MS/MS during LC-MS/MS analysis of multiple samples. Based on the concept that a component only needs to be identified once when analyzing multiple samples with similar compositions, an automated intersample data-dependent acquisition strategy was developed. The strategy is based on precursor ion exclusion (PIE) and is implemented in MassAnalyzer in an automated fashion for Thermo Scientific (San Jose, CA, USA) mass spectrometers. In this method, MassAnalyzer submits one sample at a time to the sample queue. After data acquisition of each sample, MassAnalyzer automatically analyzes the data to generate a PIE list based on the MS/MS precursor ions, merges this list with the list generated from previous runs, adds the list to the MS method file, and submits the next sample to the queue. The PIE list contains both m/z value and time window for each precursor ion, and is generated intelligently so that if an MS/MS is insufficient for identifying the peak of interest, it will be collected again near the top of the peak in the next run. Therefore, the strategy maximizes both quality and the number of unique MS/MS. When automated PIE was used to acquire LC-MS/MS data of an antibody tryptic digest and a soy hydrolysate sample, the number of identified ions increased by 52 % and 93 %, respectively, compared with data acquired without using PIE.

  8. Evaluation of steric exclusion chromatography on cryogel column for the separation of serum proteins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chuan; Bai, Shu; Tao, Shi-Peng; Sun, Yan

    2014-03-14

    Steric exclusion chromatography (SXC) is a new mode of protein chromatography, in which large proteins are retained on hydrophilic stationary phase surface due to the steric exclusion of polyethylene glycol (PEG) in the mobile phase, and thereafter the retained proteins can be eluted by reducing PEG concentration. In this work, SXC was evaluated on a polyacrylamide cryogel monolith. Microscopic observation of ?-globulin precipitates on the gel surface in SXC was reported for the first time. Due to the compact packing of protein precipitates on the stationary phase surface, the dynamic retention capacity of the cryogel monolith for ?-globulin reached 20 mg/mL bed volume, much higher than those of cryogel beds in adsorption-based chromatography. The effect of molecular weight and concentration of PEG, solution pH and salt concentration on protein retention capacity was in agreement with the earlier work on SXC. Because the cryogel monoliths with interconnected macropores (10-100 ?m) allow much easy flow-through of viscous PEG buffer, the SXC can be operated at low back pressure. Hence, the cryogel monoliths are more suitable for SXC than other monoliths of narrow pores reported previously. In the separation of bovine serum proteins, albumin was recovered in the breakthrough fraction with high purity, and globulin was over eight times concentrated in the elution pool. This work has, thus, demonstrated the rapid serum protein separation and concentration by SXC on the cryogel monolith columns. PMID:24552971

  9. Ion chromatography in the manufacture of multilayer circuit boards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Robert E.

    1990-09-01

    Ion chromatography (IC) has proven useful in analyzing chemical solutions used in the manufacture of multilayer circuit boards. The manufacturing process is described briefly and previously published IC methods are reviewed. Then, methods are described for determining chlorate and chlorite in a brown oxide solution; salicylic acid in an epoxy cure agent; formate, sulfate, and tartrate in an electroless copper bath; anionic detergents in a tin-lead brightener and in a cleaning solution; and aqueous photoresist and nonionic brightener in a tin-lead bath. Anion exchange, reverse phase HPLC on a poly(styrene/divinylbenzene), PS/DVB, column and 2-D liquid chromatography also are described. Chemically suppressed conductivity and photometric detection are used.

  10. Ion chromatography in the manufacture of multilayer circuit boards

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.E.

    1990-09-01

    Ion chromatography (IC) has proven useful in analyzing chemical solutions used in the manufacture of multilayer circuit boards. The manufacturing process is described briefly and previously published IC methods are reviewed. Then, methods are described for determining chlorate and chlorite in a brown oxide solution; salicylic acid in an epoxy cure agent; formate, sulfate, and tartrate in an electroless copper bath; anionic detergents in a tin-lead brightener and in a cleaning solution; and aqueous photoresist and nonionic brightener in a tin-lead bath. Anion exchange, reverse phase HPLC on a poly(styrene/divinylbenzene), PS/DVB, column and two-dimensional liquid chromatography also are described. Chemically suppressed conductivity and photometric detection are used. 13 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brantley, L. Reed, Sr.; Demanche, Edna L.; Klemm, E. Barbara; Kyselka, Will; Phillips, Edwin A.; Pottenger, Francis M.; Yamamoto, Karen N.; Young, Donald B.

    This booklet presents some activities on chromatography. Directions for preparing leaf pigment extracts using alcohol are given, and paper chromatography and thin-layer chromatography are described as modifications of the basic principles of chromatography. (KHR)

  12. Size-exclusion chromatography for the determination of the boiling point distribution of high-boiling petroleum fractions.

    PubMed

    Boczkaj, Grzegorz; Przyjazny, Andrzej; Kami?ski, Marian

    2015-03-01

    The paper describes a new procedure for the determination of boiling point distribution of high-boiling petroleum fractions using size-exclusion chromatography with refractive index detection. Thus far, the determination of boiling range distribution by chromatography has been accomplished using simulated distillation with gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. This study revealed that in spite of substantial differences in the separation mechanism and the detection mode, the size-exclusion chromatography technique yields similar results for the determination of boiling point distribution compared with simulated distillation and novel empty column gas chromatography. The developed procedure using size-exclusion chromatography has a substantial applicability, especially for the determination of exact final boiling point values for high-boiling mixtures, for which a standard high-temperature simulated distillation would have to be used. In this case, the precision of final boiling point determination is low due to the high final temperatures of the gas chromatograph oven and an insufficient thermal stability of both the gas chromatography stationary phase and the sample. Additionally, the use of high-performance liquid chromatography detectors more sensitive than refractive index detection allows a lower detection limit for high-molar-mass aromatic compounds, and thus increases the sensitivity of final boiling point determination. PMID:25545251

  13. Determination of selected anions in water by ion chromatography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fishman, Marvin J.; Pyen, Grace

    1979-01-01

    Ion chromatography is a rapid, sensitive, precise, and accurate method for the determination of major anions in rainwater and surface waters. Simultaneous analyses of a single sample for bromide, chloride, fluoride, nitrate, nitrite, orthophosphate, and sulfate require approximately 20 minutes to obtain a chromatogram. Minimum detection limits range from 0.01 mg/L for fluoride to 0.20 mg/L for chloride and sulfate. Relative standard deviations were less than 9% for all anions except nitrite in Standard Reference Water Samples. Only one reference sample contained nitrite and its concentration was near the minimum level of detection. Similar precision was found for chloride, nitrate, and sulfate at concentrations less than 5 mg/L in rainfall samples. Precision for fluoride ranged from 12 to 22%, but is attributed to the low concentrations in these samples. The other anions were not detected. To determine accuracy of results, several samples were spiked with known concentrations of fluoride, chloride, nitrate, and sulfate; recoveries ranged from 96 to 103%. Known amounts of bromide and phosphate were added, separately, to several other waters, which contained bromide or phosphate. Recovery of added bromide and phosphate ranged from approximately 95 to 104%. No recovery data were obtained for nitrite. Chloride, nitrate, nitrite, orthophosphate, and sulfate, in several samples, were also determined independently by automated colorimetric procedures. An automated ion-selective electrode method was used to determine fluoride. Results are in agreement with results obtained by ion chromatography. (USGS).

  14. Using size exclusion chromatography-RPLC and RPLC-CIEF as two-dimensional separation strategies for protein profiling

    SciTech Connect

    Simson, David C.; Ahn, Seonghee; Pasa-Tolic, Liljiana; Bogdanov, Bogdan; Brewer, Heather M.; Vilkov, Andrey N.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Lipton, Mary S.; Smith, Richard D.

    2006-07-01

    Bottom-up proteomics (analyzing peptides that result from protein digestion) has demonstrated capability for broad proteome coverage and good throughput. However, due to incomplete sequence coverage, this approach is not ideally suited to the study of modified proteins. The modification complement of a protein can best be elucidated by analyzing the intact protein. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, typically coupled with the analysis of peptides that result from in-gel digestion, is the most frequently applied protein separation technique in MS-based proteomics. As an alternative, numerous column-based liquid phase techniques, which are generally more amenable to automation, are being investigated. In this work, the combination of size exclusion chromatography (SEC) fractionation with reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC)-Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR)-mass spectrometry (MS) is compared with the combination of RPLC fractionation with capillary isoelectric focusing (CIEF)-FTICR-MS for the analysis of the Shewanella oneidensis proteome. SEC-RPLC-FTICR-MS allowed the detection of 297 proteins, as opposed to 166 using RPLC-CIEF-FTICR-MS, indicating that approaches based on LC-MS provide better coverage. However, there were significant differences in the sets of proteins detected and both approaches provide a basis for accurately quantifying changes in protein and modified protein abundances.

  15. Quantification of amyloid fibrils using size exclusion chromatography coupled with online fluorescence and ultraviolet detection.

    PubMed

    Randrianjatovo-Gbalou, Irina; Marcato-Romain, Claire-Emmanuelle; Girbal-Neuhauser, Elisabeth

    2015-11-01

    An amyloid fibrils investigation within biofilm samples requires distinguishing the amyloid ?-sheet structure of these proteins and quantifying them. In this study, the property of amyloids to incorporate the fluorescent dye Thioflavin T has been exploited to propose a method of quantification. The experimental protocol includes the preparation of amyloids from commercial ?-casein (?CN) and their fractionation through size exclusion chromatography (SEC) to provide calibration curves from fluorescence and absorbance signals. Finally, a bacterial biofilm extract was injected into SEC, and the amyloid fibrils could be expressed as equivalent ?CN, representing approximately 21% of the total proteins. PMID:26239215

  16. What can in situ ion chromatography offer for Mars exploration?

    PubMed

    Shelor, C Phillip; Dasgupta, Purnendu K; Aubrey, Andrew; Davila, Alfonso F; Lee, Michael C; McKay, Christopher P; Liu, Yan; Noell, Aaron C

    2014-07-01

    The successes of the Mars exploration program have led to our unprecedented knowledge of the geological, mineralogical, and elemental composition of the martian surface. To date, however, only one mission, the Phoenix lander, has specifically set out to determine the soluble chemistry of the martian surface. The surprising results, including the detection of perchlorate, demonstrated both the importance of performing soluble ion measurements and the need for improved instrumentation to unambiguously identify all the species present. Ion chromatography (IC) is the state-of-the-art technique for soluble ion analysis on Earth and would therefore be the ideal instrument to send to Mars. A flight IC system must necessarily be small, lightweight, low-power, and have low eluent consumption. We demonstrate here a breadboard system that addresses these issues by using capillary IC at low flow rates with an optimized eluent generator and suppressor. A mix of 12 ions known or plausible for the martian soil, including 4 (oxy)chlorine species, has been separated at flow rates ranging from 1 to 10 ?L/min, requiring as little as 200 psi at 1.0 ?L/min. This allowed the use of pneumatic displacement pumping from a pressurized aluminum eluent reservoir and the elimination of the high-pressure pump entirely (the single heaviest and most energy-intensive component). All ions could be separated and detected effectively from 0.5 to 100 ?M, even when millimolar concentrations of perchlorate were present in the same mixtures. PMID:24963874

  17. Three dimensional liquid chromatography coupling ion exchange chromatography/hydrophobic interaction chromatography/reverse phase chromatography for effective protein separation in top-down proteomics.

    PubMed

    Valeja, Santosh G; Xiu, Lichen; Gregorich, Zachery R; Guner, Huseyin; Jin, Song; Ge, Ying

    2015-01-01

    To address the complexity of the proteome in mass spectrometry (MS)-based top-down proteomics, multidimensional liquid chromatography (MDLC) strategies that can effectively separate proteins with high resolution and automation are highly desirable. Although various MDLC methods that can effectively separate peptides from protein digests exist, very few MDLC strategies, primarily consisting of 2DLC, are available for intact protein separation, which is insufficient to address the complexity of the proteome. We recently demonstrated that hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) utilizing a MS-compatible salt can provide high resolution separation of intact proteins for top-down proteomics. Herein, we have developed a novel 3DLC strategy by coupling HIC with ion exchange chromatography (IEC) and reverse phase chromatography (RPC) for intact protein separation. We demonstrated that a 3D (IEC-HIC-RPC) approach greatly outperformed the conventional 2D IEC-RPC approach. For the same IEC fraction (out of 35 fractions) from a crude HEK 293 cell lysate, a total of 640 proteins were identified in the 3D approach (corresponding to 201 nonredundant proteins) as compared to 47 in the 2D approach, whereas simply prolonging the gradients in RPC in the 2D approach only led to minimal improvement in protein separation and identifications. Therefore, this novel 3DLC method has great potential for effective separation of intact proteins to achieve deep proteome coverage in top-down proteomics. PMID:25867201

  18. The use of liquid chromatography for the analysis of metal ions in aqueous solutions and for the determination of water in organic matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Fortier, N.E.

    1988-07-01

    The value of a p-phenylenediammonium eluent in single-column ion chromatography is demonstrated. It is shown to be particularly useful for separating trivalent aluminum from common divalent metal ion interferences. The aluminum is detected with a conductivity detector. Postcolumn reaction in liquid chromatography is reviewed. The application of disodium 1-(2-thiazolylazo)-2-naphthol-3,6-disulfonate (TAN-3,6-S) to the detection of metal ions in single-column ion chromatography with a visible absorbance detector is explored. Temperature is shown to affect the retention times of divalent and trivalent metal ions in ion chromatography. Several chromatographic separations are improved by operating the system at elevated temperature. Two methods for the determination of water in organic matrices using liquid chromatography and a spectrophotometric detector are presented. Both employ a chromatographic separation by ion-exclusion. The first detection method makes use of solvatochromism, the shift in an organic spectrum which occurs as solvent polarity is changed. The second detection method uses a solid-phase postcolumn reactor containing a cation-exchange resin in the H/sup +/ form. This reactor acts as catalyst for a reaction occurring between water and two components of the mobile phase, methanol and trans-cinnamaldehyde. 122 refs., 40 figs., 16 tabs.

  19. Intercomparison of the measurements of oxalic acid in aerosols by gas chromatography and ion chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Kimitaka; Barrie, Leonard A.; Toom-Sauntry, Desiree

    2010-12-01

    Oxalate, the anion of oxalic acid, is one of the most abundant measurable organic species in atmospheric aerosols. Traditionally, this bifunctional species has been measured by gas chromatography (GC) after derivatization to butyl ester and by ion chromatography (IC) without derivatization. However, there are few published comparisons of the two techniques. Here, we report the results of an intercomparison study for the measurement of oxalic acid in Arctic aerosols (<2.5 ?m, n = 82) collected in 1992 using GC and IC. The concentrations of oxalic acid by GC ranged from 6.5-59.1 ng m -3 (av. 26.0 ng m -3, median 26.2 ng m -3) whereas those by IC ranged from 6.6-52.1 ng m -3 (av. 26.6 ng m -3, median 25.4 ng m -3). They showed a good correlation ( r = 0.84) with a slope of 0.96. Thus, observations of oxalate obtained by GC employing dibutyl esters are almost equal to those by IC. Because the accuracy of oxalic acid by GC method largely depends on the method used, it is important to strictly examine the recovery in each study.

  20. Peptide Orientation Affects Selectivity in Ion-Exchange Chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Alpert, Andrew J.; Petritis, Konstantinos; Kangas, Lars J.; Smith, Richard D.; Mechtler, Karl; Mitulovic, Goran; Mohammed, Shabaz; Heck, Albert J.

    2010-06-15

    Here we demonstrate that separation of proteolytic peptides, having the same net charge and one basic residue, is affected by their specific orientation toward the stationary phase in ion-exchange chromatography. In electrostatic repulsion-hydrophilic interaction chromatography (ERLIC) with an anion-exchange material, the C-terminus of the peptides is, on average, oriented toward the stationary phase. In cation exchange, the average peptide orientation is the opposite. Data with synthetic peptides, serving as orientation probes, indicate that in tryptic/Lys-C peptides the C-terminal carboxyl group appears to be in a zwitterionic bond with the side chain of the C-terminal Lys/Arg residue. In effect, the side chain is then less basic than the N-terminus, accounting for the specific orientation of tryptic and Lys-C peptides. Analyses of larger sets of peptides, generated from lysates by either Lys-N, Lys-C, or trypsin, reveal that specific peptide orientation affects the ability of harged side chains, such as phosphate residues, to influence retention. Phosphorylated residues that are remote in the sequence from the binding site affect retention less than those that are closer. When a peptide contains multiple charged sites, then orientation is observed to be less rigid and retention tends to be governed by the peptide’s net charge rather than its sequence. These general observations could be of value in confirming a peptide’s identification and, in particular, phosphosite assignments in proteomics analyses. More generally, orientation accounts for the ability of chromatography to separate peptides of the same compositionbut different sequence.

  1. Peptide Orientation Affects Selectivity in Ion-Exchange Chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Alpert, Andrew J.; Petritis, Konstantinos; Kangas, Lars J.; Smith, R. D.; Mechtler, Karl; Mitulovic, Goran; Mohammed, Shabaz; Heck, Albert J.

    2010-06-15

    Here we demonstrate that separation of proteolytic peptides, having the same net charge and one basic residue, is affected by their specific orientation toward the stationary phase in ion-exchange chromatography. In electrostatic repulsion-hydrophilic interaction chromatography (ERLIC) with an anion-exchange material, the C-terminus of the peptides is, on average, oriented toward the stationary phase. In cation exchange, the average peptide orientation is the opposite. Data with synthetic peptides, serving as orientation probes, indicate that in tryptic/ Lys-C peptides the C-terminal carboxyl group appears to be in a zwitterionic bond with the side chain of the C-terminal Lys/Arg residue. In effect, the side chain is then less basic than the N-terminus, accounting for the specific orientation of tryptic and Lys-C peptides. Analyses of larger sets of peptides, generated from lysates by either Lys-N, Lys-C, or trypsin, reveal that specific peptide orientation affects the ability of charged side chains, such as phosphate residues, to influence retention. Phosphorylated residues that are remote in the sequence from the binding site affect retention less than those that are closer. When a peptide contains multiple charged sites, then orientation is observed to be less rigid and retention tends to be governed by the peptide’s net charge rather than its sequence. These general observations could be of value in confirming a peptide’s identification and, in particular, phosphosite assignments in proteomics analyses. More generally, orientation accounts for the ability of chromatography to separate peptides of the same composition but different sequence.

  2. Fluorescence-Detectino Size-Exclusion Chromatography for Precrystallization Screening of Integral Membrane Proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Kawate,T.; Gouaux, E.

    2006-01-01

    Formation of well-ordered crystals of membrane proteins is a bottleneck for structure determination by X-ray crystallography. Nevertheless, one can increase the probability of successful crystallization by precrystallization screening, a process by which one analyzes the monodispersity and stability of the protein-detergent complex. Traditionally, this has required microgram to milligram quantities of purified protein and a concomitant investment of time and resources. Here, we describe a rapid and efficient precrystallization screening strategy in which the target protein is covalently fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) and the resulting unpurified protein is analyzed by fluorescence-detection size-exclusion chromatography (FSEC). This strategy requires only nanogram quantities of unpurified protein and allows one to evaluate localization and expression level, the degree of monodispersity, and the approximate molecular mass. We show the application of this precrystallization screening to four membrane proteins derived from prokaryotic or eukaryotic organisms.

  3. Ion-exchange chromatography for the characterization of biopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Fekete, Szabolcs; Beck, Alain; Veuthey, Jean-Luc; Guillarme, Davy

    2015-09-10

    Ion-exchange chromatography (IEX) is a historical technique widely used for the detailed characterization of therapeutic proteins and can be considered as a reference and powerful technique for the qualitative and quantitative evaluation of charge heterogeneity. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of theoretical and practical aspects of modern IEX applied for the characterization of therapeutic proteins including monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) and antibody drug conjugates (ADCs). The section on method development describes how to select a suitable stationary phase chemistry and dimensions, the mobile phase conditions (pH, nature and concentration of salt), as well as the temperature and flow rate, considering proteins isoelectric point (pI). In addition, both salt-gradient and pH-gradient approaches were critically reviewed and benefits as well as limitations of these two strategies were provided. Finally, several applications, mostly from pharmaceutical industries, illustrate the potential of IEX for the characterization of charge variants of various types of biopharmaceutical products. PMID:25800161

  4. Determination of cyanogenic compounds in edible plants by ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hye-Jeon; Do, Byung-Kyung; Shim, Soon-Mi; Kwon, Hoonjeong; Lee, Dong-Ha; Nah, Ahn-Hee; Choi, Youn-Ju; Lee, Sook-Yeon

    2013-06-01

    Cyanogenic glycosides are HCN-producing phytotoxins; HCN is a powerful and a rapidly acting poison. It is not difficult to find plants containing these compounds in the food supply and/or in medicinal herb collections. The objective of this study was to investigate the distribution of total cyanide in nine genera (Dolichos, Ginkgo, Hordeum, Linum, Phaseolus, Prunus, Phyllostachys, Phytolacca, and Portulaca) of edible plants and the effect of the processing on cyanide concentration. Total cyanide content was measured by ion chromatography following acid hydrolysis and distillation. Kernels of Prunus genus are used medicinally, but they possess the highest level of total cyanide of up to 2259.81 CN(-)/g dry weight. Trace amounts of cyanogenic compounds were detected in foodstuffs such as mungbeans and bamboo shoots. Currently, except for the WHO guideline for cassava, there is no global standard for the allowed amount of cyanogenic compounds in foodstuffs. However, our data emphasize the need for the guidelines if plants containing cyanogenic glycosidesare to be developed as dietary supplements. PMID:24278641

  5. Determination of Cyanogenic Compounds in Edible Plants by Ion Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hye-Jeon; Do, Byung-Kyung; Shim, Soon-Mi; Lee, Dong-Ha; Nah, Ahn-Hee; Choi, Youn-Ju; Lee, Sook-Yeon

    2013-01-01

    Cyanogenic glycosides are HCN-producing phytotoxins; HCN is a powerful and a rapidly acting poison. It is not difficult to find plants containing these compounds in the food supply and/or in medicinal herb collections. The objective of this study was to investigate the distribution of total cyanide in nine genera (Dolichos, Ginkgo, Hordeum, Linum, Phaseolus, Prunus, Phyllostachys, Phytolacca, and Portulaca) of edible plants and the effect of the processing on cyanide concentration. Total cyanide content was measured by ion chromatography following acid hydrolysis and distillation. Kernels of Prunus genus are used medicinally, but they possess the highest level of total cyanide of up to 2259.81 CN?/g dry weight. Trace amounts of cyanogenic compounds were detected in foodstuffs such as mungbeans and bamboo shoots. Currently, except for the WHO guideline for cassava, there is no global standard for the allowed amount of cyanogenic compounds in foodstuffs. However, our data emphasize the need for the guidelines if plants containing cyanogenic glycosidesare to be developed as dietary supplements. PMID:24278641

  6. Analysis of reduced monoclonal antibodies using size exclusion chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongcheng; Gaza-Bulseco, Georgeen; Chumsae, Chris

    2009-12-01

    Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) has been widely used to detect antibody aggregates, monomer, and fragments. SEC coupled to mass spectrometry has been reported to measure the molecular weights of antibody; antibody conjugates, and antibody light chain and heavy chain. In this study, separation of antibody light chain and heavy chain by SEC and direct coupling to a mass spectrometer was further studied. It was determined that employing mobile phases containing acetonitrile, trifluoroacetic acid, and formic acid allowed the separation of antibody light chain and heavy chain after reduction by SEC. In addition, this mobile phase allowed the coupling of SEC to a mass spectrometer to obtain a direct molecular weight measurement. The application of the SEC-MS method was demonstrated by the separation of the light chain and the heavy chain of multiple recombinant monoclonal antibodies. In addition, separation of a thioether linked light chain and heavy chain from the free light chain and the free heavy chain of a recombinant monoclonal antibody after reduction was also achieved. This optimized method provided a separation of antibody light chain and heavy chain based on size and allowed a direct measurement of molecular weights by mass spectrometry. In addition, this method may help to identify peaks eluting from SEC column directly.

  7. Inclusion body purification and protein refolding using microfiltration and size exclusion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Batas, B; Schiraldi, C; Chaudhuri, J B

    1999-02-19

    The presence of inclusion body impurities can affect the refolding yield of recombinant proteins, thus there is a need to purify inclusion bodies prior to refolding. We have compared centrifugation and membrane filtration for the washing and recovery of inclusion bodies of recombinant hen egg white lysozyme (rHEWL). It was found that the most significant purification occurred during the removal of cell debris. Moderate improvements in purity were subsequently obtained by washing using EDTA, moderate urea solutions and Triton X-100. Centrifugation between each wash step gave a purer product with a higher rHEWL yield. With microfiltration, use of a 0.45 micron membrane gave higher solvent fluxes, purer inclusion bodies and greater protein yield as compared with a 0.1 micron membrane. Significant flux decline was observed for both membranes. Second, we studied the refolding of rHEWL. Refolding from an initial concentration of 1.5 mg ml-1, by 100-fold batch dilution gave a 43% recovery of specific activity. Purified inclusion bodies gave rise to higher refolding yields, and negligible activity was observed after refolding partially purified material. Refolding rHEWL with a size exclusion chromatography based process gave rise to a refolding yield of 35% that corresponded to a 20-fold dilution. PMID:10194854

  8. Oxidative protein refolding on size exclusion chromatography at high loading concentrations: fundamental studies and mathematical modeling.

    PubMed

    Saremirad, Pegah; Wood, Jeffery A; Zhang, Yan; Ray, Ajay K

    2014-11-28

    Size exclusion chromatography has been demonstrated as an effective method for refolding a variety of proteins. However, to date process development mainly relies on laboratory experimentation of individual factors. A robust model is essential for high-throughput process screening and optimization of systems to provide higher productivity and refolding yield. In this work, a detailed kinetic scheme of oxidative refolding of a model protein (lysozyme) has been investigated to predict the refolding results in SEC. Non-reactive native, quenched and equilibrium studies were conducted to obtain the model parameters for the species formed during refolding of denatured/reduced lysozyme. The model was tested in various operating conditions, such as: protein loading concentration, injection volume, flow rate and composition of refolding buffer with and without the use of l-arginine additive. An apparent two-state mechanism was found adequate to describe refolding of lysozyme on SEC for the operating condition tested in this work. Furthermore, using low concentration of l-arginine combined with urea as common aggregation suppressor additives showed insignificant change in kinetics of refolding of lysozyme on SEC. However, addition of l-arginine changed mass transfer properties of some of the species formed in refolding reaction which was considered in the model to accurately predict the result of refolding on SEC. PMID:25454139

  9. Size exclusion chromatography for analyses of fibroin in silk: optimization of sampling and separation conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawcenis, Dominika; Koperska, Monika A.; Milczarek, Jakub M.; ?ojewski, Tomasz; ?ojewska, Joanna

    2014-02-01

    A direct goal of this paper was to improve the methods of sample preparation and separation for analyses of fibroin polypeptide with the use of size exclusion chromatography (SEC). The motivation for the study arises from our interest in natural polymers included in historic textile and paper artifacts, and is a logical response to the urgent need for developing rationale-based methods for materials conservation. The first step is to develop a reliable analytical tool which would give insight into fibroin structure and its changes caused by both natural and artificial ageing. To investigate the influence of preparation conditions, two sets of artificially aged samples were prepared (with and without NaCl in sample solution) and measured by the means of SEC with multi angle laser light scattering detector. It was shown that dialysis of fibroin dissolved in LiBr solution allows removal of the salt which destroys stacks chromatographic columns and prevents reproducible analyses. Salt rich (NaCl) water solutions of fibroin improved the quality of chromatograms.

  10. Studying Arsenite-Humic Acid Complexation Using Size Exclusion Chromatography-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guangliang; Cai, Yong

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic (As) can form complexes with dissolved organic matter (DOM), which affects the fate of arsenic in waste sites and natural environments. It remains a challenge to analyze DOM-bound As, in particular by using a direct chromatographic separation method. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) hyphenated with UV spectrophotometer and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was developed to characterize the complexation of arsenite (AsIII) with DOM. This SEC-UV-ICP-MS method is able to differentiate AsIII-DOM complexes from free As species and has the advantage of direct determination of both free and DOM-bound AsIII through mild separation. The suitability of this method for studying AsIII-DOM complexation was demonstrated by its application, in combination with the Scatchard plot and nonlinear regression of ligand binding model, for characterizing AsIII complexation with humic acid (HA) in the absence or presence of natural sand. The results suggest that, consistent with polyelectrolytic nature of HA, the AsIII-HA complexation should be accounted for by multiple classes of binding sites. By loosely classifying the binding sites into strong (S1) and weak (S2) sites, the apparent stability constants (Ks) of the resulting As-DOM complexes were calculated as log Ks1 = 6.5–7.1 while log Ks2 = 4.7–5.0. PMID:22664255

  11. Analysis of a MIL-L-27502 lubricant from a gas-turbine engine test by size-exclusion chromatography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. R., Jr.; Morales, W.

    1983-01-01

    Size exclusion chromatography was used to determine the chemical degradation of MIL-L-27502 oil samples from a gas turbine engine test run at a bulk oil temperature of 216 C. Results revealed a progressive loss of primary ester and additive depletion and the formation of higher molecular weight products with time. The high molecular weight products absorbed strongly in the ultraviolet indicating the presence of chromophoric groups.

  12. Ion chromatography characterization of polysaccharides in ancient wall paintings.

    PubMed

    Colombin, Maria Perla; Ceccarini, Alessio; Carmignani, Alessia

    2002-08-30

    An analytical procedure for the characterisation of polysaccharides and the identification of plant gums in old polychrome samples is described. The procedure is based on hydrolysis with 2 M trifluoroacetic acid assisted by microwaves (20 min, 120 degrees C, 500 W), clean-up of the hydrolysate by an ion-exchange resin, and analysis by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection. Using this method the hydrolysis time was reduced to 20 min and the chromatographic separation of seven monosaccharides (fucose, rhamnose, arabinose, galactose, glucose, mannose, xylose) and two uronic acids (galacturonic and glucuronic) was achieved in 40 min. The whole analytical procedure allows sugar determination in plant gums at picomole levels, with an average recovery of 72% with an RSD of 8% as tested on arabic gum. The analytical procedure was tested with several raw gums, watercolour samples and reference painting specimens prepared according to old recipes at the Opificio delle Pietre Dure of Florence (Italian Ministry of Cultural Heritage, Italy). All the data collected expressed in relative sugar percentage contents were submitted to principal components analysis for gum identification: five groups were spatially separated and this enabled the identification of arabic, tragacanth, karaya, cherry+ghatty, and guar+locust bean gum. Wall painting samples from Macedonian tombs (Greece) of the 4th-3rd Centuries B.C., processed by the suggested method, showed the presence of a complex paint media mainly consisting of tragacanth and fruit tree gums. Moreover, starch had probably been added to plaster as highlighted by the presence of a huge amount of glucose. PMID:12236518

  13. Unraveling the mystery of natural rubber biosythesis part I: investigation of the composition and growth of in vitro natural rubber using high resolution size exclusion chromatography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Monitoring the growth of in vitro natural rubberwas accomplished by high resolution size exclusion chromatography, SEC.Washed rubber particles isolated from H. brasiliensis latex, containing the rubber transferase enzyme, were used to catalyze the polymerization of synthetic isopentenyl pyrophosphat...

  14. Ion Exclusion by Sub 2-nm Carbon Nanotube Pores

    SciTech Connect

    Fornasiero, F; Park, H G; Holt, J K; Stadermann, M; Grigoropoulos, C P; Noy, A; Bakajin, O

    2008-04-09

    Carbon nanotubes offer an outstanding platform for studying molecular transport at nanoscale, and have become promising materials for nanofluidics and membrane technology due to their unique combination of physical, chemical, mechanical, and electronic properties. In particular, both simulations and experiments have proved that fluid flow through carbon nanotubes of nanometer size diameter is exceptionally fast compared to what continuum hydrodynamic theories would predict when applied on this length scale, and also, compared to conventional membranes with pores of similar size, such as zeolites. For a variety of applications such as separation technology, molecular sensing, drug delivery, and biomimetics, selectivity is required together with fast flow. In particular, for water desalination, coupling the enhancement of the water flux with selective ion transport could drastically reduce the cost of brackish and seawater desalting. In this work, we study the ion selectivity of membranes made of aligned double-walled carbon nanotubes with sub-2 nm diameter. Negatively charged groups are introduced at the opening of the carbon nanotubes by oxygen plasma treatment. Reverse osmosis experiments coupled with capillary electrophoresis analysis of permeate and feed show significant anion and cation rejection. Ion exclusion declines by increasing ionic strength (concentration) of the feed and by lowering solution pH; also, the highest rejection is observed for the A{sub m}{sup Z{sub A}} C{sub n}{sup Z{sub C}} salts (A=anion, C=cation, z= valence) with the greatest Z{sub A}/Z{sub C} ratio. Our results strongly support a Donnan-type rejection mechanism, dominated by electrostatic interactions between fixed membrane charges and mobile ions, while steric and hydrodynamic effects appear to be less important. Comparison with commercial nanofiltration membranes for water softening reveals that our carbon nanotube membranes provides far superior water fluxes for similar ion rejection capabilities.

  15. Organic acid eluents for single-column ion chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz, J.S.; DuVal, D.L.; Barron, R.E.

    1984-06-01

    Various organic acids are tested for use as eluents in single-column anion chromatography. Adsorption and dissociation characteristics of the acids are related to eluent strength and selectivity variations. Sensitivities and background conductances of these eluents are also compared to other common eluents used in single-and dual-column anion chromatography. Conclusions are drawn concerning the selection and advantages of acid eluents. 9 references, 3 figures, 7 tables.

  16. Ion-exchange chromatography separation applied to mineral recycle in closed systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballou, E.; Spitze, L. A.; Wong, F. W.; Wydeven, T.; Johnson, C. C.

    1981-01-01

    As part of the controlled ecological life support system (CELSS) program, a study is being made of mineral separation on ion-exchange columns. The purpose of the mineral separation step is to allow minerals to be recycled from the oxidized waste products of plants, man, and animals for hydroponic food production. In the CELSS application, relatively large quantities of minerals in a broad concentration range must be recovered by the desired system, rather than the trace quantities and very low concentrations treated in analytical applications of ion-exchange chromatography. Experiments have been carried out to assess the parameters pertinent to the scale-up of ion-exchange chromatography and to determine feasibility. Preliminary conclusions are that the column scale-up is in a reasonable size range for the CELSS application. The recycling of a suitable eluent, however, remains a major challenge to the suitability of using ion exchange chromatography in closed systems.

  17. Single-step isolation of extracellular vesicles by size-exclusion chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Böing, Anita N.; van der Pol, Edwin; Grootemaat, Anita E.; Coumans, Frank A. W.; Sturk, Auguste; Nieuwland, Rienk

    2014-01-01

    Background Isolation of extracellular vesicles from plasma is a challenge due to the presence of proteins and lipoproteins. Isolation of vesicles using differential centrifugation or density-gradient ultracentrifugation results in co-isolation of contaminants such as protein aggregates and incomplete separation of vesicles from lipoproteins, respectively. Aim To develop a single-step protocol to isolate vesicles from human body fluids. Methods Platelet-free supernatant, derived from platelet concentrates, was loaded on a sepharose CL-2B column to perform size-exclusion chromatography (SEC; n=3). Fractions were collected and analysed by nanoparticle tracking analysis, resistive pulse sensing, flow cytometry and transmission electron microscopy. The concentrations of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) and protein were measured in each fraction. Results Fractions 9–12 contained the highest concentrations of particles larger than 70 nm and platelet-derived vesicles (46%±6 and 61%±2 of totals present in all collected fractions, respectively), but less than 5% of HDL and less than 1% of protein (4.8%±1 and 0.65%±0.3, respectively). HDL was present mainly in fractions 18–20 (32%±2 of total), and protein in fractions 19–21 (36%±2 of total). Compared to the starting material, recovery of platelet-derived vesicles was 43%±23 in fractions 9–12, with an 8-fold and 70-fold enrichment compared to HDL and protein. Conclusions SEC efficiently isolates extracellular vesicles with a diameter larger than 70 nm from platelet-free supernatant of platelet concentrates. Application SEC will improve studies on the dimensional, structural and functional properties of extracellular vesicles. PMID:25279113

  18. Size-exclusion chromatography-based enrichment of extracellular vesicles from urine samples

    PubMed Central

    Lozano-Ramos, Inés; Bancu, Ioana; Oliveira-Tercero, Anna; Armengol, María Pilar; Menezes-Neto, Armando; Del Portillo, Hernando A.; Lauzurica-Valdemoros, Ricardo; Borràs, Francesc E.

    2015-01-01

    Renal biopsy is the gold-standard procedure to diagnose most of renal pathologies. However, this invasive method is of limited repeatability and often describes an irreversible renal damage. Urine is an easily accessible fluid and urinary extracellular vesicles (EVs) may be ideal to describe new biomarkers associated with renal pathologies. Several methods to enrich EVs have been described. Most of them contain a mixture of proteins, lipoproteins and cell debris that may be masking relevant biomarkers. Here, we evaluated size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) as a suitable method to isolate urinary EVs. Following a conventional centrifugation to eliminate cell debris and apoptotic bodies, urine samples were concentrated using ultrafiltration and loaded on a SEC column. Collected fractions were analysed by protein content and flow cytometry to determine the presence of tetraspanin markers (CD63 and CD9). The highest tetraspanin content was routinely detected in fractions well before the bulk of proteins eluted. These tetraspanin-peak fractions were analysed by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and nanoparticle tracking analysis revealing the presence of EVs. When analysed by sodium dodecyl sulphate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, tetraspanin-peak fractions from urine concentrated samples contained multiple bands but the main urine proteins (such as Tamm–Horsfall protein) were absent. Furthermore, a preliminary proteomic study of these fractions revealed the presence of EV-related proteins, suggesting their enrichment in concentrated samples. In addition, RNA profiling also showed the presence of vesicular small RNA species. To summarize, our results demonstrated that concentrated urine followed by SEC is a suitable option to isolate EVs with low presence of soluble contaminants. This methodology could permit more accurate analyses of EV-related biomarkers when further characterized by -omics technologies compared with other approaches. PMID:26025625

  19. DETERMINATION OF TRACE ANIONS IN WATER BY MULTIDIMENSIONAL ION CHROMATOGRAPHY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Selenate, selenite, and arsenate ions were separated from the major anions chloride, nitrate, and sulfate in drinking water, surface water, and groundwater sources by collecting a selected portion of the ion chromatogram, after suppression, on a concentrator column and reinjectin...

  20. Application of ion chromatography to the study of hydrolysis of some halogenated hydrocarbons at ambient temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otterson, D. A.

    1978-01-01

    The application of ion chromatography to the study of very slow rates of hydrolysis of some halogenated hydrocarbons was investigated. The halide concentrations in the aqueous phase of mixtures of a carbonate buffer (pH = 10.3) and either chloroform (CHC13) or fluorotrichloromethane (CFC13) after aging for various lengths of time at room temperature, were determined by ion chromatography. Hydrolysis of CHC13 caused the C1(-) concentration to increase by about 1500 ppb per day. On the other hand neither the F(-) or C1(-) concentration in the CFC13 mixture increased by as much as 1 ppb per day. The magnitude of errors in the determination of halides prevented any firm conclusions regarding hydrolysis in this mixture. However, these results were used to show how ion chromatography could expedite identification of the hydrolyzing substance as well as investigations of hydrolysis mechanisms.

  1. Limitations of electrospray ionization of fulvic and humic acids as visible from size exclusion chromatography with organic carbon and mass spectrometric detection.

    PubMed

    These, Anja; Reemtsma, Thorsten

    2003-11-15

    A method was developed to link size exclusion chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (SEC-ESI-MS) analyses of fulvic and humic acids with SEC and organic carbon detection (SEC-OCD), the latter providing an absolute measure of the amount of organic matter eluting from the SEC column. This approach allows us to determine which molecular weight fraction of the complex polydisperse mixtures is detectable by ESI-MS. It could be shown that the cone voltage setting for the ESI interface has strong impact on ESI-MS detection. Using conventional settings for low molecular weight compounds, the high molecular weight (HMW) compounds are hardly amenable to ESI-MS. With increasing cone voltage, an increasing signal intensity is obtained for the HMW fraction that elutes at shorter retention times. However, mostly fragment ions are obtained under these conditions. Thus, the range of compounds amenable to ESI-MS analysis is restricted by the limited stability of the fulvic and humic acid molecules of higher molecular weight in the electrospray process rather than by the mass spectrometer used. Compounds above 1000 amu are hardly visible as intact ions. However, insight into structural characteristics of these compounds can be gained by investigating their fragment ions by SEC-ESI-MS. The use of SEC-OCD parallel to SEC-MS helps to assess and optimize the detection potential of ESI-MS for polydisperse mixtures. PMID:14616011

  2. Determination of molecular formulas and structural regularities of low molecular weight fulvic acids by size-exclusion chromatography with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    These, Anja; Winkler, Marcus; Thomas, Christoph; Reemtsma, Thorsten

    2004-01-01

    Size-exclusion chromatography was coupled to a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer using electrospray ionization in the negative ion mode to analyze Suwannee River fulvic acid. About 220 exact masses of low molecular weight fulvic acids (FAs) were measured in the range from m/z 190 to 350, and molecular formulas could be deduced for all these molecular masses. All molecular formulas can be described by the superimposition of three homologous series in the FA mixture: (a) a series of hydrogen homologs constituted of five to six members for a given number of carbons and oxygens; (b) a series of alkyl chain homologs with stepwise addition of one methylene group; and (c) isobaric compounds that differ by the formal replacement of an oxygen atom by a methane group. Product ion spectra of the FA species reflect the repeated parallel losses of carbon dioxide and water. The minimum number of carboxylate groups and the maximum number of hydroxy moieties could be determined from the product ion spectra. Furthermore, it was obvious that the structural differences between homologs in the three series are located in the carbon backbone of the FA rather than in its extremities that are expelled as neutral fragments. These structural regularities reduce the complexity of FA mixtures to a certain set of yet unknown basic structures. PMID:15329870

  3. Characterization of polymer-based monolithic capillary columns by inverse size-exclusion chromatography and mercury-intrusion porosimetry.

    PubMed

    Urban, Jirí; Eeltink, Sebastiaan; Jandera, Pavel; Schoenmakers, Peter J

    2008-02-29

    Organic-polymer monolithic capillary columns were prepared in fused-silica capillaries by a radical copolymerization reaction of butyl methacrylate and ethylene dimethacrylate monomers in the presence of 1,4-butanediol and 1-propanol as porogen solvents and azobisisobutyronitrile as the initiator. The porous properties could be influenced by changing the ratio of porogen solvents, while keeping the monomer content constant, or by changing the ratio of monomers to porogen in the polymerization mixture. The resulting chromatographic properties, such as porosity, permeability were determined under high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) conditions. The mesopore size distributions of the monolithic materials determined with inverse size-exclusion chromatography (ISEC) were compared with those measured by mercury-intrusion porosimetry. Both techniques are complementary. While mercury-porosimetry measures the entire range of pore sizes and provides more physical information on the monoliths, ISEC is very suitable for determining the size of mesopores in the swollen monoliths. PMID:18206896

  4. Impact of extraction and elution media on non-size effects in size exclusion chromatography of proteins.

    PubMed

    Lambrecht, Marlies A; Rombouts, Ine; Van Kelst, Lotte; Delcour, Jan A

    2015-10-01

    Size exclusion chromatography is extensively used to separate proteins and to determine their apparent molecular weights. It separates proteins based on hydrodynamic volume, but interactions between the chromatography resin and proteins lead to non-size effects. This report discusses the impact of co-solvents [salt, urea, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), dithiothreitol] in extraction media when separating wheat gluten proteins, soy glycinin, bovine serum albumin and ovalbumin on a Biosep-SEC-S4000 column. With acetonitrile/water (1:1, v/v) containing 0.05% (v/v) trifluoroacetic acid as eluent, salts and SDS in the extraction media increase while urea decreases non-size effects. Most gluten and globular proteins are extractable in sodium phosphate buffer (0.050M; pH 6.8) containing 2.0% (w/v) SDS. This chromatographic medium allows analyzing mixtures of various proteins without any non-size effects. PMID:26365913

  5. Separation of beta-human chorionic gonadotropin and immunoglobulin G by a miniaturized size exclusion chromatography column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yongmo; Chae, Junseok

    2009-04-01

    This report describes a miniaturized size exclusion chromatography column that effectively preseparates raw samples for medical point-of-care testing (POCT) devices. The minicolumn is constructed of polydimethylsiloxane fabricated on a glass slide. The minicolumn separates 300 ng/ml of beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (?-hCG) from an immunoglobulin G (IgG)-rich solution (100 ?g/ml) in 7.7 min, with 2.23 resolution and 0.018 mm plate height. The complete analyte discrimination shows potential for the sample preparation stage of POCT devices for cancer screening, prognosis, and monitoring.

  6. Size exclusion chromatography for semipreparative scale separation of Au38(SR)24 and Au40(SR)24 and larger clusters.

    PubMed

    Knoppe, Stefan; Boudon, Julien; Dolamic, Igor; Dass, Amala; Bürgi, Thomas

    2011-07-01

    Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) on a semipreparative scale (10 mg and more) was used to size-select ultrasmall gold nanoclusters (<2 nm) from polydisperse mixtures. In particular, the ubiquitous byproducts of the etching process toward Au(38)(SR)(24) (SR, thiolate) clusters were separated and gained in high monodispersity (based on mass spectrometry). The isolated fractions were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, MALDI mass spectrometry, HPLC, and electron microscopy. Most notably, the separation of Au(38)(SR)(24) and Au(40)(SR)(24) clusters is demonstrated. PMID:21609127

  7. Separation of basic oligopeptides by ion-pairing reversed-phase chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Wenchun

    The present thesis consist of five chapters. Chapter I introduces background information on the ion-pairing reversed-phase chromatography and liquid chromatography in the critical condition. Chapter II decribes our study on the isocratic separation of oligolysine (dp = 2 to 8) using a fixed content of acetonitrile (ACN) (23%) and different concentrations of HFBA in the mobile phase (0.6-30.6 mM) on a Waters XBridge Shield RP18® column. We found that the retention time of oligolysine increases as the dp increases, because of an increased number of HFBA bound to the peptides. Furthermore, when [HFBA] increased, the retention time increased at different rates. The greater the dp, the faster the rate. Based on a closed pairing model that presumes an equilibrium between an unpaired state and the paired state with a fixed number of HFBA molecules, an equation was derived for the retention factor of oligolysine. In Chapter III, we compare retention behaviors of oligolysine (dp = 2 to 8) and oligoarginine (dp = 2 to 8) when they are separated on the Waters XBridge Shield RP18® using fixed a ACN content (23%) and difference concentrations of HFBA (0.4-30.6 mM) in the mobile phase. The retention time of oligoarginine also increased at different rates as [HFBA] increased. The greater the dp, the faster the rate. The retention time of oligolysine is shorter than that of oligarginine having the dame dp. We applied Eq.1 to analyze the plot of ln k as a function of [HFBA] for each oligopeptide component to obtain the values for n, Kip,m, and ?Kd,ip. For oligolysine, n increases linearly as dp increase and oligoarginine exhibits an accelerated increase in n as dp rises. The plot of ln ?Kd,ip against dp followed a linear relationship for both peptides. In Chapter IV, we study the effect of mobile phase composition on the retention of oligolysine (dp = 2 to 8) on the Waters XBridge Shield RP18 ®. The ACN content was changed from 20% to 33% and the HFBA concentration from 0.7 to 38.4 mM. We investigated the effect of [HFBA] and percentage of ACN on the resolution in separating the peptides and determined the optimal mobile phase composition. We applied Eq.1 to fit the plot of ln k as a function of [HFBA] for each ACN content, which provided us values for n, Kip,m, and ? Kd,ip. n. We found that ? KD,ip decreases as the ACN content increases and the decrease slows down as the percentage of ACN increases, possibly caused by ACN enrichment in the stationary phase. The study described in Chapter V used a different column, SuperAW 3000 ®, to separate an oligolysine mixture (dp = 3 to 11) in different separation modes including ion exchange, size exclusion, critical condition and reversed phase. The analysis was carried on the SuperAW 3000® column with heptafluorobutyric acid (HFBA) as an ion-pairing reagent. We changed either the percentage of ACN at a fixed concentration of HFBA or the concentration of HFBA at a fixed percentage of ACN to investigate the effects of the percentages ACN and HFBA on the retention of oligolysine in different separation modes. A low molecular weight polyethylene glycol and a low molecular weight polypropylene glycol was used as references in different conditions. We compared the reversed-phase separation on Xbridge Shield ® and SuperAW 3000®, at different concentrations of HFBA. We also found that both ion-exchange and hydrophobic interaction play a role in the separation of oligolysine on SuperAW 3000®, when [HFBA] was low. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  8. Zonal rate model for stacked membrane chromatography part II: characterizing ion-exchange membrane chromatography under protein retention conditions.

    PubMed

    Francis, Patrick; von Lieres, Eric; Haynes, Charles

    2012-03-01

    The Zonal Rate Model (ZRM) has previously been shown to accurately account for contributions to elution band broadening, including external flow nonidealities and radial concentration gradients, in ion-exchange membrane (IEXM) chromatography systems operated under nonbinding conditions. Here, we extend the ZRM to analyze and model the behavior of retained proteins by introducing terms for intra-column mass transfer resistances and intrinsic binding kinetics. Breakthrough curve (BTC) data from a scaled-down anion-exchange membrane chromatography module using ovalbumin as a model protein were collected at flow rates ranging from 1.5 to 20 mL min(-1). Through its careful accounting of transport nonidealities within and external to the membrane stack, the ZRM is shown to provide a useful framework for characterizing putative protein binding mechanisms and models, for predicting BTCs and complex elution behavior, including the common observation that the dynamic binding capacity can increase with linear velocity in IEXM systems, and for simulating and scaling separations using IEXM chromatography. Global fitting of model parameters is used to evaluate the performance of the Langmuir, bi-Langmuir, steric mass action (SMA), and spreading-type protein binding models in either correlating or fundamentally describing BTC data. When combined with the ZRM, the bi-Langmuir, and SMA models match the chromatography data, but require physically unrealistic regressed model parameters to do so. In contrast, for this system a spreading-type model is shown to accurately predict column performance while also providing a realistic fundamental explanation for observed trends, including an observed increase in dynamic binding capacity with flow rate. PMID:22012741

  9. Ion-exchange sorption and preparative chromatography of biologically active materials

    SciTech Connect

    Samsonov, G.V.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents information on the following topics: the problems of fine physico-chemical biotechnology; types of highly permeable network polyelectrolytes; methods for studying the permeability and porosity of network polyelectrolytes; the conformation state and flexibility of the structural elements of network polyelectrolytes; ion-exchange processes without the sorption of physiologically active substances; ion exchange, hydration, and swelling; nucleosides, nucleotides, alkaloids, sulfonamides, and miscellaneous physiologically active subtances; sharp front formation for the exchange of ions with the same valences; standard quasi-equilibrium frontal chromatography on ionites; sorption kinetics in ionites with structural heterogeneity; experimental investigations of the diffusivities of organic and physiologically active ions in ionite beads; and increasing the efficiency of low-pressure chromatography by using surface-layer and bidispersed ionites.

  10. Determination of eight synthetic food colorants in drinks by high-performance ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Chen, Q C; Mou, S F; Hou, X P; Riviello, J M; Ni, Z M

    1998-12-01

    Eight synthetic food colorants (Amaranth, Brilliant Blue, Indigo Carmine, New Red, Ponceau 4R, Sunset Yellow, Tartrazine, Allura Red) were determined by high-performance ion chromatography on an anion-exchange analytical column with very low hydrophobicity and visible absorbance detection. Gradient elution with hydrochloric acid-acetonitrile effected both the chromatographic separation of these colorants and the on-line clean-up of the analytical column, which was very advantageous for routine analysis. High-performance ion chromatography may be a solution to the chromatographic analysis for some water-soluble, organic analytes with strong hydrophobicity. The method has been applied to the determination of colorants in drinks and in instant drink powder. No time-consuming pretreatment, as used in conventional liquid chromatography, was needed. PMID:9894346

  11. Analysis of trace inorganic anions in weak acid salts by single pump cycling-column-switching ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhongping; Ni, Chengzhu; Zhu, Zhuyi; Pan, Zaifa; Wang, Lili; Zhu, Yan

    2015-05-01

    The application of ion chromatography with the single pump cycling-column-switching technique was described for the analysis of trace inorganic anions in weak acid salts within a single run. Due to the hydrogen ions provided by an anion suppressor electrolyzing water, weak acid anions could be transformed into weak acids, existing as molecules, after passing through the suppressor. Therefore, an anion suppressor and ion-exclusion column were adopted to achieve on-line matrix elimination of weak acid anions with high concentration for the analysis of trace inorganic anions in weak acid salts. A series of standard solutions consisting of target anions of various concentrations from 0.005 to 10 mg/L were analyzed, with correlation coefficients r ? 0.9990. The limits of detection were in the range of 0.67 to 1.51 ?g/L, based on the signal-to-noise ratio of 3 and a 25 ?L injection volume. Relative standard deviations for retention time, peak area, and peak height were all less than 2.01%. A spiking study was performed with satisfactory recoveries between 90.3 and 104.4% for all anions. The chromatographic system was successfully applied to the analysis of trace inorganic anions in five weak acid salts. PMID:25641739

  12. imagination at work Data file 29-0452-69AA Size exclusion chromatography

    E-print Network

    Lebendiker, Mario

    the separation. SEC is an excellent technique for discriminating between monomer, oligomer, and aggregated forms of a target protein. GE Healthcare Life Sciences Medium characteristics The chromatography medium in Superdex

  13. APPLICATION OF SILVER ION CHROMATOGRAPHY TO THE SEPARATION OF CONJUGATED LINOLEIC ACID ISOMERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; 9c,11t-18:2), present in dairy products and beef, has been reported in animals to have anticarcinogenic, growth-promoting, antiatherogenic, anti-diabetic, and lean body mass-enhancing properties. Silver ion chromatography has, over the decades, become an important met...

  14. On-line coupling of size exclusion chromatography with electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis of aquatic fulvic and humic acids.

    PubMed

    Reemtsma, Thorsten; These, Anja

    2003-03-15

    A method was developed for the analysis of humic and fulvic acids by size-exclusion chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry using a completely volatile eluent. Humic and fulvic acids were separated into three peaks. These fractions occupied different mass ranges and showed differences in the fine structure of their mass spectra. The low-molecular-weight (LMW) fraction of fulvic acids is most sensitively determined by ESI-MS, and it appears that previous results obtained by infusion-ESI-MS were primarily determined by this fulvic acid fraction. The average molecular weight of this fractions turned out to be lower than that reported from infusion-ESI-MS measurements. Its scan spectra and the product ion spectra of some of its molecular anions perfectly match those previously obtained from whole fulvic acid mixtures. Obviously, a class of well-defined polycarboxylated molecules exist that occurs in all fulvic acid fractions thus far investigated. With decreasing elution time and increasing molecular weight, detection by ESI-MS loses sensitivity as compared to the parallel UV recording, and the fine structure of the scan spectra becomes increasingly uniform for both fulvic and humic acids. The average molecular weight of the HMW fraction exceeds those values calculated from infusion experiments. Scan spectra and product ion spectra of the high-molecular-weight (HMW) fraction of both the humic and the fulvic acids suggest that the HMW fraction consists of several subunits that originate from the LMW fraction. PMID:12659215

  15. Analysis of anions in geological brines using ion chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, R.M.

    1985-03-01

    Ion chromatographic procedures for the determination of the anions bromide, sulfate, nitrite, nitrate, phosphate, and iodide in brine samples have been developed and are described. The techniques have been applied to the analysis of natural brines, and geologic evaporites. Sample matrices varied over a range from 15,000 mg/L to 200,000 mg/L total halogens, nearly all of which is chloride. The analyzed anion concentrations ranged from less than 5 mg/L in the cases of nitrite, nitrate, and phosphate, to 20,000 mg/L in the case of sulfate. A technique for suppressing chloride and sulfate ions to facilitate the analysis of lower concentration anions is presented. Analysis times are typically less than 20 minutes for each procedure and the ion chromatographic results compare well with those obtained using more time consuming classical chemical analyses. 10 references, 14 figures.

  16. ION CHROMATOGRAPHY OF PHYTATE IN ROOTS AND TUBERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ion chromatographic method for the quantification of phytate (InsP6) in foods was adapted for the analysis of roots and tubers. To maximize sensitivity, UV detection following post-column derivatization was compared with evaporative light scattering detection (ELSD). Detection limits for phyta...

  17. Methods for analysis of conjugated linoleic acids and trans-18:1 isomers in dairy fats by using a combination of gas chromatography, silver-ion thin-layer chromatography/gas chromatography, and silver-ion liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Hernandez, Cristina; Deng, Zeyuan; Zhou, Jianqiang; Hill, Arthur R; Yurawecz, Martin P; Delmonte, Pierluigi; Mossoba, Magdi M; Dugan, Michael E R; Kramer, John K G

    2004-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are octadecadienoic acids (18:2) that have a conjugated double-bond system. Interest in these compounds has expanded since CLA were found to be associated with a number of physiological and pathological responses such as cancer, metastases, atherosclerosis, diabetes, immunity, and body fat/protein composition. The main sources of these conjugated fatty acids are dairy fats. Rumen bacteria convert polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially linoleic and linolenic acids, to CLA and numerous trans- containing mono- and diunsaturated fatty acids. It has been established that an additional route of CLA synthesis in ruminants and monogastric animals, including humans, occurs via delta9 desaturation of the trans-18:1 isomers. To date, a total of 6 positional CLA isomers have been found in dairy fats, each occurring in 4 geometric forms (cis,trans; trans,cis; cis,cis; and trans,trans) for a total of 24. All of these CLA isomers can be resolved only by a combination of gas chromatography (GC), using 100 m highly polar capillary columns, and silver-ion liquid chromatography, using 3 of these 25 cm columns in series. Complete analysis of all the trans-18:1 isomers requires prior isolation of trans monoenes by silver-ion thin-layer chromatography (TLC), followed by GC analysis using the same 100 m capillary columns operated at low temperatures starting from 120 degrees C. These analytical techniques are required to assess the purity of commercial CLA preparations, because their purity will affect the interpretation of any physiological and/or biochemical response obtained. Prior assessment of CLA preparations by TLC is also recommended to determine the presence of any other impurities. The availability of pure CLA isomers will permit the evaluation and analysis of individual CLA isomers for their nutritional and biological activity in model systems, animals, and humans. These techniques are also essential to evaluate dairy fats for their content of specific CLA isomers and to help design experimental diets to increase the level of the desired CLA isomers in dairy fats. These improved techniques are further required to evaluate the CLA profile in monogastric animals fed commercial CLA preparations for CLA enrichment of animal products. This is particularly important because absorption and metabolism will alter the ingested-CLA profile in the animal fed. PMID:15164853

  18. Size Exclusion Chromatography: An Experiment for High School and Community College Chemistry and Biotechnology Laboratory Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunauer, Linda S.; Davis, Kathryn K.

    2008-01-01

    A simple multiday laboratory exercise suitable for use in a high school or community college chemistry course or a biotechnology advanced placement biology course is described. In this experiment students gain experience in the use of column chromatography as a tool for the separation and characterization of biomolecules, thus expanding their…

  19. Large-scale purification of plasmid insert DNA sequences using low-percentage agarose exclusion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Hansen, J C; Rickett, H

    1989-05-15

    Linear double-stranded DNA fragments ranging from 0.14 to 8.4 kbp have been fractionated on low-percentage agarose exclusion gels. Both Ultragel A2 (2% agarose) and Bio-Gel A150m (1% agarose) exclude DNA fragments greater than 900 bp, while the exclusion limit of Bio-Gel A50m (2% agarose) is about 350 bp. All gels result in moderate resolution of DNA fragments smaller than the exclusion limits; we generally observe nearly complete one-step separation of fragments that differ in size by a factor of 2. On the basis of these results, we have used these exclusion gels to routinely purify greater than 0.4 mg of plasmid insert DNA sequences in one step and over 2.5 mg with a single column, demonstrating that these gel matrices can be ideally suited for repeated rapid large-scale purification of plasmid inserts. In addition, this knowledge allows for a more rational design of plasmids in those cases where large-scale use of the insert DNA is required. PMID:2757192

  20. Determination of pore size distributions in capillary-channeled polymer fiber stationary phases by inverse size-exclusion chromatography and implications for fast protein separations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhengxin; Marcus, R Kenneth

    2014-07-18

    Capillary-channeled polymer (C-CP) fibers have been utilized as liquid chromatography stationary phases, primarily for biomacromolecule separations on the analytical and preparative scales. The collinear packing of the eight-channeled C-CP fibers provides for very efficient flow, allowing operation at high linear velocity (u>100mm s(-1)) and low backpressure (<2000psi) in analytical-scale separations. To take advantage of these fluid transport properties, there must not be mass transfer limitations as would be imposed by having an appreciably porous phase, wherein solute diffusion limits the overall mass transport rates. To better understand the physical nano-/micro- structure of C-CP fibers, inverse size exclusion chromatography (iSEC) has been employed to determine the pore size distribution (PSD) within C-CP fibers. A diversity of test species (from metal ions to large proteins) was used as probes under non-retaining conditions to obtain a response curve reflecting the apparent partition coefficient (Kd) versus hydrodynamic radii (rm). A mean pore radius (rp) of 4.2nm with standard deviation (sp) of ±1.1nm was calculated by fitting the Kd versus rm data to model equations with a Gaussian pore size distribution, and a pore radius of 4.0±0.1nm was calculated based on a log-normal distribution. The derived mean pore radius is much smaller than traditional support materials, with the standard deviation showing a relatively uniform pore distribution. van Deemter plots were analyzed to provide practical confirmation of the structural implications. Large molecules (e.g., proteins) that are fully excluded from pores have no significant C-terms in the van Deemter plots whereas small molecules that can access the pore volumes display appreciable C-terms, as expected. Fitting of retention data to the Knox equation suggests that the columns operate with a characteristic particle diameter (dp) of ?53?m. PMID:24877979

  1. Fabricating electrospun cellulose nanofibre adsorbents for ion-exchange chromatography.

    PubMed

    Dods, Stewart R; Hardick, Oliver; Stevens, Bob; Bracewell, Daniel G

    2015-01-01

    Protein separation is an integral step in biopharmaceutical manufacture with diffusion-limited packed bed chromatography remaining the default choice for industry. Rapid bind-elute separation using convective mass transfer media offers advantages in productivity by operating at high flowrates. Electrospun nanofibre adsorbents are a non-woven fibre matrix of high surface area and porosity previously investigated as a bioseparation medium. The effects of compression and bed layers, and subsequent heat treatment after electrospinning cellulose acetate nanofibres were investigated using diethylaminoethyl (DEAE) or carboxylate (COO) functionalisations. Transbed pressures were measured and compared by compression load, COO adsorbents were 30%, 70% and 90% higher than DEAE for compressions 1, 5 and 10MPa, respectively, which was attributed to the swelling effect of hydrophilic COO groups. Dynamic binding capacities (DBCs) at 10% breakthrough were measured between 2000 and 12,000CV/h (2s and 0.3s residence times) under normal binding conditions, and DBCs increased with reactant concentration from 4 to 12mgBSA/mL for DEAE and from 10 to 21mglysozyme/mL for COO adsorbents. Comparing capacities of compression loads applied after electrospinning showed that the lowest load tested, 1MPa, yielded the highest DBCs for DEAE and COO adsorbents at 20mgBSA/mL and 27mglysozyme/mL, respectively. At 1MPa, DBCs were the highest for the lowest flowrate tested but stabilised for flowrates above 2000CV/h. For compression loads of 5MPa and 10MPa, adsorbents recorded lower DBCs than 1MPa as a result of nanofibre packing and reduced surface area. Increasing the number of bed layers from 4 to 12 showed decreasing DBCs for both adsorbents. Tensile strengths were recorded to indicate the mechanical robustness of the adsorbent and be related to packing the nanofibre adsorbents in large scale configurations such as pleated cartridges. Compared with an uncompressed adsorbent, compressions of 1, 5 and 10MPa showed increases of 30%, 110% and 110%, respectively, for both functionalisations. The data presented show that capacity and mechanical strength can be balanced through compression after electrospinning and is particular to different functionalisations. This trade-off is critical to the development of nanofibre adsorbents into different packing configurations for application and scale up in bioseparation. PMID:25541092

  2. Fabricating electrospun cellulose nanofibre adsorbents for ion-exchange chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Dods, Stewart R.; Hardick, Oliver; Stevens, Bob; Bracewell, Daniel G.

    2015-01-01

    Protein separation is an integral step in biopharmaceutical manufacture with diffusion-limited packed bed chromatography remaining the default choice for industry. Rapid bind-elute separation using convective mass transfer media offers advantages in productivity by operating at high flowrates. Electrospun nanofibre adsorbents are a non-woven fibre matrix of high surface area and porosity previously investigated as a bioseparation medium. The effects of compression and bed layers, and subsequent heat treatment after electrospinning cellulose acetate nanofibres were investigated using diethylaminoethyl (DEAE) or carboxylate (COO) functionalisations. Transbed pressures were measured and compared by compression load, COO adsorbents were 30%, 70% and 90% higher than DEAE for compressions 1, 5 and 10 MPa, respectively, which was attributed to the swelling effect of hydrophilic COO groups. Dynamic binding capacities (DBCs) at 10% breakthrough were measured between 2000 and 12,000 CV/h (2 s and 0.3 s residence times) under normal binding conditions, and DBCs increased with reactant concentration from 4 to 12 mg BSA/mL for DEAE and from 10 to 21 mg lysozyme/mL for COO adsorbents. Comparing capacities of compression loads applied after electrospinning showed that the lowest load tested, 1 MPa, yielded the highest DBCs for DEAE and COO adsorbents at 20 mg BSA/mL and 27 mg lysozyme/mL, respectively. At 1 MPa, DBCs were the highest for the lowest flowrate tested but stabilised for flowrates above 2000 CV/h. For compression loads of 5 MPa and 10 MPa, adsorbents recorded lower DBCs than 1 MPa as a result of nanofibre packing and reduced surface area. Increasing the number of bed layers from 4 to 12 showed decreasing DBCs for both adsorbents. Tensile strengths were recorded to indicate the mechanical robustness of the adsorbent and be related to packing the nanofibre adsorbents in large scale configurations such as pleated cartridges. Compared with an uncompressed adsorbent, compressions of 1, 5 and 10 MPa showed increases of 30%, 110% and 110%, respectively, for both functionalisations. The data presented show that capacity and mechanical strength can be balanced through compression after electrospinning and is particular to different functionalisations. This trade-off is critical to the development of nanofibre adsorbents into different packing configurations for application and scale up in bioseparation. PMID:25541092

  3. Evaluation of Multi-tRNA Synthetase Complex by Multiple Reaction Monitoring Mass Spectrometry Coupled with Size Exclusion Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jun Seok; Lee, Cheolju

    2015-01-01

    Eight aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (M, K, Q, D, R, I, EP and LARS) and three auxiliary proteins (AIMP1, 2 and 3) are known to form a multi-tRNA synthetase complex (MSC) in mammalian cells. We combined size exclusion chromatography (SEC) with reversed-phase liquid chromatography multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (RPLC-MRM-MS) to characterize MSC components and free ARS proteins in human embryonic kidney (HEK 293T) cells. Crude cell extract and affinity-purified proteins were fractionated by SEC in non-denaturing state and ARSs were monitored in each fraction by MRM-MS. The eleven MSC components appeared mostly in earlier SEC fractions demonstrating their participation in complex formation. TARSL2 and AIMP2-DX2, despite their low abundance, were co-purified with KARS and detected in the SEC fractions, where MSC appeared. Moreover, other large complex-forming ARS proteins, such as VARS and FARS, were detected in earlier fractions. The MRM-MS results were further confirmed by western blot analysis. Our study demonstrates usefulness of combined SEC-MRM analysis for the characterization of protein complexes and in understanding the behavior of minor isoforms or variant proteins. PMID:26544075

  4. Exploration of cardanol-based phenolated and epoxidized resins by size exclusion chromatography and MALDI mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fouquet, Thierry; Puchot, Laura; Verge, Pierre; Bomfim, João A S; Ruch, David

    2014-09-16

    Cardanol and cardanol derivatives are among the most important biobased materials currently investigated in green chemistry, as renewable and promising building blocks in lieu of traditional raw materials from non renewable resources, in particular owing to the olefinic linkages on the C15 alkyl side-chain. Despite the increasing interest they arouse, analytical chemistry dedicated to cardanol and associated resins has been rarely reported in the literature, found even poorer when dealing with chromatography and mass spectrometry. In this work, a thorough molecular characterization was conducted using matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry, size exclusion chromatography (SEC), and SEC-MALDI coupling to gain insights into the composition of phenolated, epoxidized, and epoxidized phenolated cardanol. A nomenclature was proposed to properly describe the numerous species found in these materials, while simulations of the unsaturation patterns and their comparison with the detected patterns in MALDI-MS gave useful details about the phenolation treatment expected to occur on the polyunsaturated C15 side chain. Finally, the SEC-MALDI off-line coupling allowed SEC peaks to be deconvoluted by mass spectrometry and MALDI artefacts related to matrix adduction to be pointed out. PMID:25150696

  5. Aggregation analysis of pharmaceutical human immunoglobulin preparations using size-exclusion chromatography and analytical ultracentrifugation sedimentation velocity.

    PubMed

    Krayukhina, Elena; Uchiyama, Susumu; Nojima, Kiyoko; Okada, Yoshiaki; Hamaguchi, Isao; Fukui, Kiichi

    2013-01-01

    In the pharmaceutical industry, analysis of soluble aggregates in pharmaceutical formulations is most commonly performed using size-exclusion chromatography (SEC). However, owing to concerns that aggregates can be overlooked by SEC analysis, it has been suggested that its results should be confirmed with orthogonal methods. One of the main alternative methods for SEC is analytical ultracentrifugation sedimentation velocity (AUC-SV), which has been indicated as an important tool for the measurement of protein aggregation. The present study aimed to show that AUC-SV can be effectively applied for the characterization of marketed immunoglobulin pharmaceutical preparations to support the results obtained by SEC. In addition, the present research aimed to assess the appropriateness of two integration approaches for the quantitative analysis of the SEC results. Thus, the aggregates were measured in seven different preparations of human immunoglobulins by AUC-SV and SEC, and the acquired chromatographic data were processed by using either the vertical drop method or the Gaussian skim approach, implemented in the Empower II chromatography data software (Waters, Tokyo, Japan). The results of aggregation measurements performed using AUC-SV were in good agreement with those obtained using SEC. As expected, the Gaussian skim integration approach inherently provided lower estimates of aggregation content than the results of the vertical drop method. The finding of this study confirmed the complementary nature of AUC-SV to SEC for aggregate composition analysis and underscored the important role that the different integration methods can play in the quantitative interpretation of chromatographic results. PMID:22925901

  6. Size analysis and stability study of lipid vesicles by high-performance gel exclusion chromatography, turbidity, and dynamic light scattering.

    PubMed

    Lesieur, S; Grabielle-Madelmont, C; Paternostre, M T; Ollivon, M

    1991-02-01

    Vesicles of egg phosphatidylcholine (EPC) and phosphatidic acid (EPA) were prepared by reverse-phase evaporation (REV) followed either by sequential extrusion through polycarbonate membranes with pore diameters of 0.8, 0.4, 0.2, 0.1, and 0.05 micron or by filtration through 0.8-micron cellulosic or 0.22-micron polyvinylidene fluoride (PVF) membranes. The resulting vesicles ranging from 130 to 640 nm in mean diameter (REVs) were characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using a TSK G6000 PW gel exclusion column. The efficiency of this technique to determine vesicle size parameters was studied by the analysis of the chromatograms in combination with dynamic light scattering (DLS) determination of the mean diameters (MD) of the fractionated vesicles in the region of the elution profile maxima. The HPLC TSK G6000 PW gel exclusion provides a reproducible and fast method of size characterization for lipid vesicles having MD up to 1 micron, the best selectivity being obtained in the 20- to 500-nm MD range. HPLC analysis of REV's demonstrates that: (i) both the average size and polydispersity of the vesicles decrease with decreasing pore size of the membranes, cellulosic or PVF "tortuous" ones being less efficient than "straight bores" polycarbonate ones; (ii) mixed EPC/EPA REVs sequentially extruded down through 0.2-micron polycarbonate membranes are highly deformable without rupture of the bilayer; and (iii) the mean size of extruded REV's is stable for at least 1 week. The role of EPA on the size stability of mixed EPC/EPA vesicles was studied by coupling HPLC gel exclusion and turbidity analysis of pure EPC and EPC/EPA (mole ratio: 91/9) sonicated small unilamellar vesicles as a function of time. The apparent size variation of EPC vesicles observed over a week, is mainly due to their aggregation which is significantly reduced by the introduction of a small amount of EPA in the vesicle membrane. PMID:2035833

  7. Determination of alkylamines in atmospheric aerosol particles: a comparison of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and ion chromatography approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, R.-J.; Li, W.-B.; Wang, Y.-R.; Wang, Q. Y.; Jia, W. T.; Ho, K.-F.; Cao, J. J.; Wang, G. H.; Chen, X.; Haddad, I. EI; Zhuang, Z. X.; Wang, X. R.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; O'Dowd, C. D.; Hoffmann, T.

    2014-07-01

    In recent years low molecular weight alkylamines have been recognized to play an important role in particle formation and growth in the lower atmosphere. However, major uncertainties are associated with their atmospheric processes, sources and sinks, mostly due to the lack of ambient measurements and the difficulties in accurate quantification of alkylamines at trace level. In this study, we present the evaluation and optimization of two analytical approaches, i.e., gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and ion chromatography (IC), for the determination of alkylamines in aerosol particles. Alkylamines were converted to carbamates through derivatization with isobutyl chloroformate for GC-MS determination. A set of parameters affecting the analytical performances of the GC-MS approach, including reagent amount, reaction time and pH value, was evaluated and optimized. The accuracy is 84.3-99.1%, and the limits of detection obtained are 1.8-3.9 pg (or 0.02-0.04 ng m-3). For the IC approach, a solid-phase extraction (SPE) column was used to separate alkylamines from interfering cations before IC analysis. 1-2% (v/v) of acetone (or 2-4% (v/v) of acetonitrile) was added to the eluent to improve the separation of alkylamines on the IC column. The limits of detection obtained are 2.1-15.9 ng (or 0.9-6.4 ng m-3), and the accuracy is 55.1-103.4%. The lower accuracy can be attributed to evaporation losses of amines during the sample concentration procedure. Measurements of ambient aerosol particle samples collected in Hong Kong show that the GC-MS approach is superior to the IC approach for the quantification of primary and secondary alkylamines due to its lower detection limits and higher accuracy.

  8. Determination of alkyl amines in atmospheric aerosol particles: a comparison of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and ion chromatography approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, R.-J.; Li, W.-B.; Wang, Y.-R.; Wang, Q. Y.; Ho, K.-F.; Cao, J. J.; Wang, G. H.; Chen, X.; Haddad, I. EI; Zhuang, Z. X.; Wang, X. R.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; O'Dowd, C. D.; Hoffmann, T.

    2014-03-01

    In recent years low molecular weight alkyl amines have been recognized to play an important role in particle formation and growth in the lower atmosphere. However, major uncertainties are associated with their atmospheric processes, sources and sinks, mostly due to the lack of ambient measurements and the difficulties in accurate quantification of alkyl amines at trace level. In this study, we present the evaluation and optimization of two analytical approaches, i.e., gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and ion chromatography (IC), for the determination of alkyl amines in aerosol particles. Alkyl amines were converted to carbamates through derivatization with isobutyl chloroformate for GC-MS determination. A set of parameters affecting the analytical performances of the GC-MS approach, including reagent amount, reaction time and pH value, was evaluated and optimized. The accuracy is 84.3-99.1%, and the limits of detection obtained are 1.8-3.9 pg. For the IC approach, a solid phase extraction (SPE) column was used to separate alkyl amines from interfering cations before IC analysis. 1-2% (v/v) of acetone (or 2-4% (v/v) of acetonitrile) was added to the eluent to improve the separation of alkyl amines on the IC column. The limits of detection obtained are 2.1-15.9 ng and the accuracy is 55.1-103.4%. The lower accuracy can be attributed to evaporation losses of amines during the sample concentration procedure. Measurements of ambient aerosol particle samples collected in Hong Kong show that the GC-MS approach is superior to the IC approach for the quantification of primary and secondary alkyl amines due to its lower detection limits and higher accuracy.

  9. Ultraperformance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization ion trap mass spectrometry for chondroitin disaccharide analysis.

    PubMed

    Solakyildirim, Kemal; Zhang, Zhenqing; Linhardt, Robert J

    2010-02-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) has an important role in cell division, in the central nervous system, and in joint-related pathologies such as osteoarthritis. Due to the complex chemical structure and biological importance of CS, simple, sensitive, high resolution, and robust analytical methods are needed for the analysis of CS disaccharides and oligosaccharides. An ion-pairing, reversed-phase, ultraperformance liquid chromatography (IPRP-UPLC) separation, coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry with an ion trap mass analyzer, was applied for the analyses of CS-derived disaccharides. UPLC separation technology uses small particle diameter, short column length, and elevated column temperature to obtain high resolution and sensitivity. Hexylamine (15 mM) was selected as the optimal ion-pairing reagent. PMID:19769936

  10. The purification of human urinary kallikrein with ion-exchange radial flow membrane chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Li, T; Zou, H; Zhang, Y; Chao, J; Chao, L

    1996-01-01

    A method was developed for the purification of kallikrein from human urine. The procedure consisted of three steps: ultradialysis, diethyl-(2-hydroxypropyl) aminoethyl (QAE) ion exchange radial flow membrane chromatography and affinity chromatography on aprotinin agarose. It is simple and suitable for large-scale purification. The purified product was checked by SDS-PAGE and matrix-assisted laser desorption:ionization mass spectrometery (MALDI). A single band with apparent molecular weight (MW) 42,000 in SDS-PAGE and a single monomer peak with MW33,000 in MALDI were observed, respectively. The biological activity tested by ELISA showed positive immunological identity of the purified product compared with human urinary kallikrein standard. PMID:8792866

  11. Ni2+-based immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography of lactose operon repressor protein from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Velkov, Tony; Jones, Alun; Lim, Maria L R

    2008-01-01

    A two-step chromatographic sequence is described for the purification of native lactose operon repressor protein from Escherichia coli cells. The first step involves Ni(2+)-based immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography of the soluble cytoplasmic extract. This method provides superior speed, resolution and yield than the established phosphocellulose cation-exchange chromatographic procedure. Anion-exchange chromatography is used for further purification to >95% purity. The identity and purity of the lactose repressor protein were demonstrated using sodium dodecylsulphate polyacrylamide electrophoresis, crystallization, tryptic finger-printing mass spectrometry, and inducer binding assays. The purified lac repressor exhibited inducer sensitivity for operator DNA binding and undergoes a conformational change upon inducer binding. By all these extensive biochemical criteria, the purified protein behaves exactly as that described for the Escherichia coli lactose operon repressor. PMID:18800304

  12. Influence of soil type and extraction conditions on perchlorate analysis by ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    MacMillan, Denise K; Dalton, Shana R; Bednar, Anthony J; Waisner, Scott A; Arora, Prem N

    2007-02-01

    Perchlorate is a stable anion that has been introduced into the environment through activities related to its production and use as a solid rocket propellant. Perchlorate is thought to transport through soils without being adsorbed; thus, for determination of perchlorate in soil, samples are typically extracted with water prior to analysis. The completeness of extraction depends on perchlorate existing as a free ion within the soil matrix. In this study, perchlorate extraction efficiency was evaluated with five soil types under two different oxygen states. For each soil, 30% (w/w) slurries were prepared and equilibrated under either oxic or anoxic conditions prior to spiking with a stock solution of sodium perchlorate, and the slurries were then maintained for 1-week or 1-month. At the end of the exposure, slurries were centrifuged and separated into aqueous and soil phases. After phase separation, the soil was washed first with deionized water and then with 50mM NaOH, producing second and third aqueous phases, respectively. Perchlorate concentrations in the three aqueous phases were determined using ion chromatography. The results obtained from this study suggest that matrix interference and signal suppression due to high conductivity have greater effects upon observed perchlorate concentrations by ion chromatography than does perchlorate interaction with soil. Thus, a single water extraction is sufficient for quantitative determination of perchlorate in soil. PMID:17092539

  13. Structural Evolution of Polylactide Molecular Bottlebrushes: Kinetics Study by Size Exclusion Chromatography, Small Angle Neutron Scattering and Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Pickel, Deanna L; Kilbey, II, S Michael; Uhrig, David; Hong, Kunlun; Carrillo, Jan-Michael Y; Sumpter, Bobby G; Ahn, Suk-Kyun; Han, Youngkyu; Kim, Dr. Tae-Hwan; Smith, Gregory Scott; Do, Changwoo

    2014-01-01

    Structural evolution from poly(lactide) (PLA) macromonomer to resultant PLA molecular bottlebrush during ring opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) was investigated for the first time by combining size exclusion chromatography (SEC), small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and coarse-grained molecular dynamics (CG-MD) simulations. Multiple aliquots were collected at various reaction times during ROMP, and subsequently analyzed by SEC and SANS. The two complementary techniques enable the understanding of systematic changes in conversion, molecular weight and dispersity as well as structural details of PLA molecular bottlebrushes. CG-MD simulation not only predicts the experimental observations, but it also provides further insight into the analysis and interpretation of data obtained in SEC and SANS experiments. We find that PLA molecular bottlebrushes undergo three conformational transitions with increasing conversion (i.e., increasing the backbone length): (1) from an elongated to a globular shape due to longer side chain at lower conversion, (2) from a globular to an elongated shape at intermediate conversion caused by excluded volume of PLA side chain, and (3) the saturation of contour length at higher conversion due to chain transfer reactions.

  14. High-pressure size exclusion chromatography analysis of dissolved organic matter isolated by tangential-flow ultra filtration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Everett, C.R.; Chin, Y.-P.; Aiken, G.R.

    1999-01-01

    A 1,000-Dalton tangential-flow ultrafiltration (TFUF) membrane was used to isolate dissolved organic matter (DOM) from several freshwater environments. The TFUF unit used in this study was able to completely retain a polystyrene sulfonate 1,800-Dalton standard. Unaltered and TFUF-fractionated DOM molecular weights were assayed by high-pressure size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC). The weight-averaged molecular weights of the retentates were larger than those of the raw water samples, whereas the filtrates were all significantly smaller and approximately the same size or smaller than the manufacturer-specified pore size of the membrane. Moreover, at 280 nm the molar absorptivity of the DOM retained by the ultrafilter is significantly larger than the material in the filtrate. This observation suggests that most of the chromophoric components are associated with the higher molecular weight fraction of the DOM pool. Multivalent metals in the aqueous matrix also affected the molecular weights of the DOM molecules. Typically, proton-exchanged DOM retentates were smaller than untreated samples. This TFUF system appears to be an effective means of isolating aquatic DOM by size, but the ultimate size of the retentates may be affected by the presence of metals and by configurational properties unique to the DOM phase.

  15. Estimation of the band broadening parameters in single detection size-exclusion chromatography: a comparative study of various column combinations.

    PubMed

    Schnöll-Bitai, Irene; Vega, Jorge; Mader, Christoph

    2007-11-26

    Alternative approaches for the determination of band broadening in size-exclusion chromatography based on the use of exponentially modified Gaussian (EMG) functions were used to experimentally investigate the performance of two different column sets. In both cases, the columns were combined in order to cover the complete fractionation range (from 10(3) to 5x10(6) g mol(-1)), which is of interest in many applications. When analyzing experimental chromatograms the question of proper data treatment (especially the necessary smoothing routines) became obvious and is discussed accordingly. First results indicate that the exponential decay time of the EMG decreases and the standard deviation of its Gaussian component slightly increases (or remains almost constant) with increasing retention volumes. As a consequence, the total variance and the asymmetry of the EMG both decrease with the retention volume. A favorable agreement with independent experimental results (obtained by other researchers on the basis of analyzing ultra narrow standards) was found. Additionally, the skew was also investigated as a function of the retention volume and the trend was found to be in concordance with the predictions of theoretical models. The comparison with theoretical models is also discussed. PMID:17983775

  16. A combinatorial approach to studying protein complex composition by employing size-exclusion chromatography and proteome analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Li, S.; Giometti, C.; Biosciences Division

    2007-07-01

    The genome sequences of numerous organisms are available now, but gene sequences alone do not provide sufficient information to accurately deduce protein functions. Protein function is largely dependent on the association of multiple polypeptide chains into large structures with interacting subunits that regulate and support each other. Therefore, the mapping of protein interaction networks in a physiological context is conducive to deciphering protein functions, including those of hypothetical proteins. Although several high-throughput methods to globally identify protein interactions have been reported in recent years, these approaches often have a high rate of nonspecific or artificial interactions detected. For instance, the fraction of false positives of the protein interactions identified by yeast two-hybrid assay has been predicted to be of the order of 50%. We have developed a strategy to globally map Bacillus subtilis protein-protein interactions in a physiological context by fractionating the cell lysates using size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), followed by proteome analysis. Components of both known and unknown protein complexes, multisubunits and multiproteins, have been identified using this strategy. In one case, the partners of the B. subtilis protein complex have been coexpressed in Escherichia coli, and the formation of the overexpressed protein complex has been further confirmed by a pull-down assay.

  17. Method for the determination of dissolved chloride, nitrate, and sulfate in natural water using ion chromatography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brinton, Terry I.; Antweiler, Ronald C.; Taylor, Howard E.

    1996-01-01

    Ion chromatography was used for the determination of dissolved chloride, nitrate and sulfate in natural water where concentrations ranged from a detection limit of 0.02 milligrams per liter to 80 milligrams per liter for chloride, to 18 milligrams per liter for nitrate, and to 280 milligrams per liter for sulfate. Specific conductance was the mode of detection used. Three analytical sample size loops of 11, 61, and 250 microliters, were used to include the analytical ranges described. U.S. Geological Survey Standard Reference Water Samples were analyzed to test the precision and accuracy of the analyses.

  18. Portable, fully autonomous, ion chromatography system for on-site analyses.

    PubMed

    Elkin, Kyle R

    2014-07-25

    The basic operating principles of a portable, fully autonomous, ion chromatography system are described. The system affords the user the ability to collect and analyze samples continuously for 27 days, or about 1930 injections before needing any user intervention. Within the 13 kg system, is a fully computer controlled autosampling, chromatography and data acquisition system. An eluent reflux device (ERD), which integrates eluent suppression and generation in a single multi-chambered device, is used to minimize eluent consumption. During operation, about 1 ?L of water per minute is lost to waste while operating standard-bore chromatography at 0.5 mL min(-1) due to eluent refluxing. Over the course of 27 days, about 100mL of rinse water is consumed, effectively eliminating waste production. Data showing the reproducibility (below 1% relative standard deviation over 14 days) of the device is also presented. Chromatographic analyses of common anions (Cl(-), NO3(-), SO4(2-), PO4(3-)), is accomplished in under 15 min using a low backpressure guard column with ? 25 mM KOH isocratic elution. For detection, a small capacitively-coupled contactless conductivity detector (C4D) is employed, able to report analytes in the sub to low micromolar range. Preconcentration of the injected samples gives a 50-fold decrease in detection limits, primarily utilized for in-situ detection of phosphate (LOQ 10 ?g L(-1)). Field analyses are shown for multiple on-site analyses of stream water indifferent weather conditions. PMID:24913366

  19. Determination of anionic surfactants during wastewater recycling process by ion pair chromatography with suppressed conductivity detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, L. H.; Judkins, J. E.; Garland, J. L.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    A direct approach utilizing ion pairing reversed-phase chromatography coupled with suppressed conductivity detection was developed to monitor biodegradation of anionic surfactants during wastewater recycling through hydroponic plant growth systems and fixed-film bioreactors. Samples of hydroponic nutrient solution and bioreactor effluent with high concentrations (up to 120 mS electrical conductance) of inorganic ions can be analyzed without pretreatment or interference. The presence of non-ionic surfactants did not significantly affect the analysis. Dynamic linear ranges for tested surfactants [Igepon TC-42, ammonium lauryl sulfate, sodium laureth sulfate and sodium alkyl (C10-C16) ether sulfate] were 2 to approximately 500, 1 to approximately 500, 2.5 to approximately 550 and 3.0 to approximately 630 microg/ml, respectively.

  20. [Simultaneous determination of ammonium and six alkylamines in cosmetics by ion chromatography].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Zhixiong; Li, Gongke; Zhu, Binghui; Luo, Zhibin; Wu, Ximei

    2010-07-01

    A method for the simultaneous determination of ammonium and six alkylamines in cosmetic products by ion chromatography (IC) was developed. The sample pretreatment process and the separation resolution of chromatography were investigated. The samples were extracted by 100 mmol/L acetic acid-20% (v/v) acetonitrile solution at room temperature, and then solid phase extraction (SPE) column was used to eliminate the interferences. The influences of pH value, organic solvent and coexisted ions were investigated. The separation was carried out on IonPac CS17 (250 mm x 4 mm)analytical column and IonPac CG17 (50 mm x 4 mm)guard column using 1.5 - 15 mmol/L methanesulfonic acid and 0.5% - 5% (v/v) acetonitrile gradient elution at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min at 24 degrees C, coupled with suppressed conductivity detector. Under the optimum conditions, a measurement could be completed less than 26 min. The linearity ranged from 0.3 to 15 mg/L, the detection limits and the quantification limits were in the ranges of 2.1 - 7.9 mg/kg and 7 - 26 mg/kg, respectively. The method was successfully employed for the determination of ammonium, methylamine, dimethylamine, trimethylamine, ethylamine, propylamine and butylamine in samples including cleaning, body lotion, skin-bleaching, sun block, marcel, hair dye and pilatory cosmetics with the recoveries of 80.2% - 109.2% and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 0.5% - 3.1%. The method offered high selectivity, sensitivity, and gave satisfactory results for real sample analysis. PMID:21046791

  1. Quantitation of diethylene glycol and its metabolites by gas chromatography mass spectrometry or ion chromatography mass spectrometry in rat and human biological samples.

    PubMed

    Perala, Adam W; Filary, Mark J; Bartels, Michael J; McMartin, Kenneth E

    2014-05-01

    The misuse of the commonly used chemical diethylene glycol (DEG) has lead to many poisonings worldwide. Methods were developed for analysis of DEG and its potential metabolites; ethylene glycol, glycolic acid, oxalic acid, diglycolic acid and hydroxyethoxy acetic acid in human urine, serum and cerebrospinal fluid samples, collected following a DEG-associated poisoning in the Republic of Panama during 2006. In addition, methods were developed for rat blood, urine, kidney and liver tissue to support toxicokinetic analysis during the conduct of DEG acute toxicity studies in the rat. Sample analysis was conducted using two techniques; ion chromatography with suppressed conductivity and negative ion electrospray ionization with MS detection or with gas chromatography using electron impact ionization or methane negative chemical ionization with MS detection. Stable-isotope-labeled analogs of each analyte were employed as quantitative internal standards in the assays. PMID:24668490

  2. Influence of column design on process-scale ion-exchange chromatography.

    PubMed

    Levison, P R; Hopkins, A K; Hathi, P

    1999-12-31

    The performance of two new designs of pump-packed axial flow process chromatography columns have been evaluated for the preparative anion-exchange chromatography of hen egg-white proteins using Whatman Express-Ion Exchanger Q. A 16 1 Side-Pack column and a 24 1 IsoPak column containing Express-Ion Q were used in this study. In each case ca. 20 1 feedstock containing 5-7 g protein/l, was applied per litre packed bed at flow-rates of ca. 150 and 300 cm/h. In each case the ovalbumin binding capacity was ca. 70 g/l packed bed with ca. 100% (w/w) recovery of applied protein. A clean-in-place procedure involving storage in 0.5 M NaOH was effective in maintaining chromatographic performance in all cases. These data were consistent with our previous work using the more traditionally configured slurry-packed axial flow columns. Each of these column designs were easy to use facilitating rapid packing with this adsorbent and in the case of IsoPak rapid pump unpacking. The introduction of these column designs significantly improves the task of column packing, hitherto a labour intensive, physically demanding and potentially unreproducible process. PMID:10674926

  3. Effect of Buffers on Aqueous Solute-Exclusion Zones around Ion-Exchange Resins

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jian-ming; Wexler, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Interaction between charged surfaces in aqueous solution is a fundamental feature of colloid science. Theoretically, surface potential falls to half its value at a distance equal to a Debye length, which is typically on the order of tens to hundreds of nanometers. This potential prevents colloids from aggregating. On the other hand, long-range surface effects have been frequently reported. Here we report additional long-range effects. We find that charged latex particles in buffer solutions are uniformly excluded from several-hundred-micron-thick shells surrounding ion-exchange beads. Exclusion is observed whether the beads are charged similarly or oppositely to the particles. Hence, electrostatic interactions between bead and microsphere do not cause particle exclusion. Rather, exclusion may be the consequence of water molecules re-orienting to produce a more ordered structure, which then excludes the particles. PMID:19185312

  4. [Simultaneous analysis of iodate, iodide, bromate and bromide by ion chromatography with ultraviolet detection].

    PubMed

    Li, Meng; Yu, Hong; Zheng, Xiurong

    2014-03-01

    An analytical method of ion chromatography with ultraviolet detection has been developed and applied for the simultaneous determination of iodate, iodide, bromate and bromide. The separation was performed on a quaternary ammonium type anion exchange column with citric acid and acetonitrile as mobile phase. The effects of the detection wavelength, the kind and concentration of the mobile phase and other parameters on separation and detection of the four ions were investigated. The retention rules were studied and the chromatographic conditions were optimized. Under the conditions of 210 nm as detection wavelength, 0.9 mL/min as flow rate, 40 degrees C as column temperature, and 1.0 mmol/L citric acid-acetonitrile (85:15, v/ v; pH 5.0) as mobile phase, the four ions were completely separated and the system peaks and other common anions didn't interfere with the determination. The detection limits of the four ions (S/N = 3) were 0.07-0.16 mg/L. The relative standard deviations of the retention times and peak areas obtained by determining samples five times continuously were below 1%. The spiked recoveries of the four anions were from 98.0% to 102%. This method has been successfully used to determine ionic liquids synthesized by chemistry laboratory and underground water samples. The results were accurate and reliable. PMID:24984472

  5. Method for Characterization of Low Molecular Weight Organic Acids in Atmospheric Aerosols Using Ion Chromatography Mass

    E-print Network

    Dickerson, Russell R.

    Chromatography Mass Spectrometry Lacey C. Brent,* Jessica L. Reiner, Russell R. Dickerson, and Lane C. Sander spectroscopy (FTIR), liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (LCUV), or nuclear magnetic resonance chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) methods have demonstrated reliable structural identification of water

  6. Comparison of Diafiltration and Size-Exclusion Chromatography to Recover Hemicelluloses From Process Water From Thermomechanical Pulping of Spruce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Alexandra; Persson, Tobias; Zacchi, Guido; Stålbrand, Henrik; Jönsson, Ann-Sofi

    Hemicelluloses constitute one of the most abundant renewable resources on earth. To increase their utilization, the isolation of hemicelluloses from industrial biomass side-streams would be beneficial. A method was investigated to isolate hemicelluloses from process water from a thermomechanical pulp mill. The method consists of three steps: removal of solids by microfiltration, preconcentration of the hemicelluloses by ultrafiltration, and purification by either size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) or diafiltration. The purpose of the final purification step is to separate hemicelluloses from small oligosaccharides, monosaccharides, and salts. The ratio between galactose, glucose, and mannose in oligo- and polysaccharides after preconcentration was 0.8?1?2.8, which is similar to that found in galactoglucomannan. Continuous diafiltration was performed using a composite fluoro polymer membrane with cutoff of 1000 Da. After diafiltration with four diavolumes the purity of the hemicelluloses was 77% (gram oligo- and polysaccharides/ gram total dissolved solids) and the recovery was 87%. Purification by SEC was performed with 5, 20, and 40% sample loadings, respectively and a flow rate of 12 or 25 mL/min (9 or 19 cm/h). The purity of hemicelluloses after SEC was approx 82%, and the recovery was above 99%. The optimal sample load and flow rate were 20% and 25 mL/min, respectively. The process water from thermomechanical pulping of spruce is inexpensive. Thus, the recovery of hemicelluloses is not of main importance. If the purity of 77%, obtained with diafiltration, is sufficient for the utilization of the hemicelluloses, diafiltration probably offers a less expensive alternative in this application.

  7. Isolation of Exosomes from Blood Plasma: Qualitative and Quantitative Comparison of Ultracentrifugation and Size Exclusion Chromatography Methods

    PubMed Central

    Baranyai, Tamás; Herczeg, Kata; Onódi, Zsófia; Voszka, István; Módos, Károly; Marton, Nikolett; Nagy, György; Mäger, Imre; Wood, Matthew J.; El Andaloussi, Samir; Pálinkás, Zoltán; Kumar, Vikas; Nagy, Péter; Kittel, Ágnes; Buzás, Edit Irén; Ferdinandy, Péter; Giricz, Zoltán

    2015-01-01

    Background Exosomes are emerging targets for biomedical research. However, suitable methods for the isolation of blood plasma-derived exosomes without impurities have not yet been described. Aim Therefore, we investigated the efficiency and purity of exosomes isolated with potentially suitable methods; differential ultracentrifugation (UC) and size exclusion chromatography (SEC). Methods and Results Exosomes were isolated from rat and human blood plasma by various UC and SEC conditions. Efficiency was investigated at serial UC of the supernatant, while in case of SEC by comparing the content of exosomal markers of various fractions. Purity was assessed based on the presence of albumin. We found that the diameter of the majority of isolated particles fell into the size range of exosomes, however, albumin was also present in the preparations, when 1h UC at 4°C was applied. Furthermore, with this method only a minor fraction of total exosomes could be isolated from blood as deduced from the constant amount of exosomal markers CD63 and TSG101 detected after serial UC of rat blood plasma samples. By using UC for longer time or with shorter sedimentation distance at 4°C, or UC performed at 37°C, exosomal yield increased, but albumin impurity was still observed in the isolates, as assessed by transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering and immunoblotting against CD63, TSG101 and albumin. Efficiency and purity were not different in case of using further diluted samples. By using SEC with different columns, we have found that although a minor fraction of exosomes can be isolated without significant albumin content on Sepharose CL-4B or Sephacryl S-400 columns, but not on Sepharose 2B columns, the majority of exosomes co-eluted with albumin. Conclusion Here we show that it is feasible to isolate exosomes from blood plasma by SEC without significant albumin contamination albeit with low vesicle yield. PMID:26690353

  8. Improvements in ion reflux: An electrodialytic eluent generation and suppression device for ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Elkin, Kyle; Riviello, John; Small, Hamish

    2015-07-17

    This work describes a membrane based electrodialytic ion reflux device (IRD), which uses water as the pumped phase and integrates isocratic and gradient eluent generation and suppression. The current design incorporates several ion exchange membranes to create discrete chambers for suppression and eluent generation, while isolating the electrodes from the analytical stream. A small volume of recycled water can be used as the pumped phase while continuously refluxing the eluent ions. This current design permits electronically controlled eluent generation of at least 16.4?eq KOHmin(-1), while maintaining low suppressed background conductivity (<0.5?S/cm). The device was operated in gradient or isocratic mode continuously for up to 6 weeks. During this period, over 500 gradient and isocratic injections were performed, showing peak retention time precision below 1.5% RSD. PMID:26028513

  9. Calix[4]pyrroles with Shortest Possible Strap: Exclusively Selective toward Fluoride Ion.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Ritwik; Kumar, B Sathish; Panda, Pradeepta K

    2015-09-01

    Four new calix[4]pyrroles with the shortest possible strap so far through ortho-linking of the aromatic unit have been synthesized, including a naphthalene-derived fluorescent receptor. They show exclusive selectivity toward the fluoride ion as confirmed by (1)H NMR, isothermal titration calorimetry, and fluorescence spectroscopic study. Anion affinity could also be modulated further via functionalization at the strap. Computational analysis displays calix[4]pyrroles binding to fluoride ion in a very unusual 1,3-alternate conformation where the anion resides on the opposite side of the strap. PMID:26313641

  10. Continuous measurement of macronutrient ions in the transpiration stream of intact plants using the meadow spittlebug coupled with ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Malone, Michael; Herron, Michelle; Morales, M-Angeles

    2002-11-01

    A method is described for continuous, nondestructive analysis of xylem-borne mineral nutrients in intact transpiring plants. The method uses the xylem-feeding insect the meadow spittlebug (Philaenus spumarius L. [Homoptera: Cercopidae]). This insect will feed from a wide range of plant species and organs. Insect excreta can be collected at all times of the day and night, and its mineral ion content can be analyzed rapidly, and without purification, by ion chromatography. The excreta will have a mineral content virtually identical to that of xylem sap. Cages suitable for containing the insects and collecting excreta from any desired location on plants in both laboratory and greenhouse are described. Even in the greenhouse, evaporation had only a minor effect on the sample ion content. Example results are presented which illustrate dynamics, over several days, in the xylem concentrations of sodium (Na(+)), potassium (K(+)), NH(4)(+), magnesium (Mg(2+)), calcium (Ca(2+)), chloride (Cl(-)), NO(3)(-), PO(4)(3-), and SO(4)(2-). These data were collected from young plants growing in pots of compost in the laboratory and from fully mature pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv Bellboy) plants growing in hydroponics (rockwool) in the greenhouse. This method should facilitate studies of macronutrient uptake and transport in a range of plants and environments. PMID:12428008

  11. Anion exchangers with branched functional ion exchange layers of different hydrophilicity for ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Shchukina, O I; Zatirakha, A V; Smolenkov, A D; Nesterenko, P N; Shpigun, O A

    2015-08-21

    Novel polystyrene-divinylbenzene (PS-DVB) based anion exchangers differing from each other in the structure of the branched functional ion exchange layer are prepared to investigate the role of linker and functional site on ion exchange selectivity. The proposed method of synthesis includes the obtaining of aminated PS-DVB particles by means of their acylation with following reductive amination with methylamine. Further modification of the obtained secondary aminogroups is provided by the alkylation with either 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (1,4-BDDGE) or resorcinol diglycidyl ether (RDGE), which form the linkers of different hydrophobicity, and amination of terminal epoxide rings with trimethylamine (TMA), dimethylethanolamine (DMEA), methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) or triethanolamine (TEA). The variation of the structure and hydrophobicity of the linker and terminal quaternary ammonium sites in the functional layer allows the alteration of selectivity and separation efficiency of the obtained adsorbents. The ion exchange selectivity and separation efficiency of the anion exchangers are evaluated using the model mixtures of anions (F(-), HCOO(-), Cl(-), NO2(-), Br(-), NO3(-), HPO4(2-) and SO4(2-)) in potassium hydroxide eluents. The adsorbents show the decrease of selectivity with increasing the hydrophilicity of the terminal functional site. The anion exchangers having more flexible and hydrophilic 1,4-BDDGE linker provide smaller separation factors for most of the analytes as compared with RDGE-containing adsorbents with the same terminal ion exchange sites, but are characterized with higher column efficiencies and better peak symmetry for polarizable anions. In case of 1,4-BDDGE-modified anion exchangers of the particle size of 3.3?m functionalized with DMEA and MDEA the calculated values of column efficiencies for polarizable NO3(-) and Br(-) are up to 49,000 and 53,000N/m, respectively, which is almost twice higher than the values obtained for the RDGE-containing analogues. PMID:26159253

  12. Determination of sulfur anions in spent oil shale leachates by ion chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Niss, N.D.

    1989-07-01

    The leaching and transport of chemical constituents from spent oil shale disposal areas is an area of environmental concern at the present time. Sulfur-containing compounds are prevalent in spent oil shales and have the potential to leach into aqueous systems surrounding disposal sites. Computer modeling has been used in recent years to predict the transport of species in an aqueous environment. The quality of model predictions, however, depends on the validation steps taken in comparing model predictions with laboratory data on ion speciation. Further, the quality of the validation step depends on the reliability of laboratory methods in generating ion speciation data. The purpose of this study was to develop methods to separate and quantify sulfur-containing anions in spent oil shale leachates by suppressed ion chromatography. The anions studied were S{sup 2{minus}} (sulfide), SO{sup 2{minus}}{sub 3} (sulfite), SO{sup 2{minus}}{sub 4} (sulfate), SCN{sup {minus}} (thiocyanate), S{sub 2}O{sup 2{minus}}{sub 3} (thiosulfate), and S{sub 4}O{sup 2{minus}}{sub 6} (tetrathionate). After the separations were developed, a series of method-challenging experiments were performed to test the reliability of the methods and assure the development of an analytically sound product. 24 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Determination of trace sulfides in turbid waters by gas dialysis/ion chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, L.R.; Francom, D.; Urso, A.; Dieken, F.P.

    1988-02-01

    The accuracy of the methylene blue colorimetric procedure for the determination of sulfide in environmental waters and waste waters is influenced by turbidity interferences even after application of recommended pretreatment techniques. The direct analysis of sulfide by ion chromatography (IC), without sample pretreatment, is complicated by field preservation of samples with zinc ion (or equivalent). A continuous-flow procedure has been developed that converts the acid-extractable sulfide to H/sub 2/S, which is separated from the sample matrix by a gas dialysis membrane and then trapped in a dilute sodium hydroxide solution. A 200-..mu..L portion of this solution is injected into the ion chromatograph for analysis with an electrochemical detector. Detection limits as low as 1.9 ng/mL have been obtained. Good agreement was found between the gas dialysis/IC and methylene blue methods for nonturbid standards. The addition of ascorbic acid as an antioxidant is required to obtain adequate recoveries from spiked tap and well waters.

  14. Ion-exchange vs reversed-phase chromatography for separation and determination of basic psychotropic drugs.

    PubMed

    Petruczynik, Anna; Wróblewski, Karol; Deja, Micha?; Waksmundzka-Hajnos, Monika

    2015-11-01

    Ion exchange chromatography, an alternative to reversed-phase (RP) chromatography, is described in this paper. We aimed to obtain optimal conditions for the separation of basic drugs because silica-based RP stationary phases show silanol effect and make the analysis of basic analytes hardly possible. The retention, separation selectivity, symmetry of peaks and system efficiency were examined in different eluent systems containing different types of buffers at acidic pH and with the addition of organic modifiers: methanol and acetonitrile. The obtained results reveal a large influence of the salt cation used for buffer preparation and the type of organic modifier on the retention behavior of the analytes. These results were also compared with those obtained on an XBridge C18 column. The obtained results demonstrated that SCX stationary phases can be successfully used as alternatives to C18 stationary phases in the separation of basic compounds. The most selective and efficient chromatographic systems were applied for the quantification of some psychotropic drugs in fortified human serum samples. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25944095

  15. Effect of modulator sorption on gradient shape in ion-exchange chromatography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Velayudhan, A.; Ladisch, M. R.; Mitchell, C. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    Mobile phase additives, or modulators, are used in gradient elution chromatography to facilitate separation and reduce separation time. The modulators are usually assumed to be linearly adsorbed or unadsorbed. Here, the consequences of nonlinear modulator adsorption are examined for ion-exchange gradient elution through a series of simulations. Even when the buffer salt is identical to the modulator salt, gradient deformation is observed; the extent of deformation increases as the volume of the feed is increased. When the modulator salt is different from the buffer salt, unusual effects are observed, and the chromatograms are quite different from those predicted by classical gradient elution theory. In particular, local increases in the buffer concentration are found between feed bands, and serve to improve the separation. These effects become more pronounced as the feed volume increases, and could therefore prove valuable in preparative applications.

  16. High-resolution determination of 147Pm in urine using dynamic ion-exchange chromatography.

    PubMed

    Elchuk, S; Lucy, C A; Burns, K I

    1992-10-15

    A procedure has been developed for measuring 147Pm in bioassay samples, based on the separation and preconcentration of 147Pm from the urine matrix by adsorption onto a conventional cation-exchange column with final separation and purification by HPLC using dynamic ion-exchange chromatography. The concentration of 147Pm is determined by collecting the appropriate HPLC fraction and measuring the 147Pm by liquid scintillation counting. The limit of detection is 0.1 Bq (3 fg) 147Pm based on a 500-mL sample of urine and a counting time of 30 min with a background of 100 cpm. Ten samples can be processed in 1.5-2 days. PMID:1466450

  17. Determination of hippuric acid in human urine by ion chromatography with conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fuyong; Wang, Zonghua; Wang, Hui; Ding, Mingyu

    2011-02-01

    A simple, rapid, precise and eco-friendly ion chromatography (IC) method for the determination of hippuric acid (HA) in human urine was proposed in this paper. The separation was carried out an anion exchange column with 2.0 mmol L?¹ Na?CO? + 2.0 mmol L?¹ NaHCO? as mobile phase at the flow-rate 0.7 mL min?¹. A suppressed conductivity detector was used and the detection limit was 1.0 ?g L?¹ (S/N=3) for hippuric acid. The analysis time for one run was 30 min under the optimized IC condition. The recovery of hippuric acid was 93.2-98.0% while the relative standard deviation (RSD) was 1.4-2.3% by seven measurements. PMID:21236740

  18. Impurity profiling of micronomicin sulfate injection by liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yao-zuo; Zhao, Xun; Zhang, Mei; Fan, Xia-Lei; Hu, Chang-qin; Jin, Shao-hong; Van Schepdael, Ann; Hoogmartens, Jos; Adams, Erwin

    2013-03-01

    The characterization of impurities present in micronomicin sulfate injection by liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) is described. A reversed phase (RP)-LC method using a C?? column resistant to an alkaline (pH 11) aqueous mobile phase was developed and coupled to MS with an electrospray ionization (ESI) source in the positive ion mode which provides MS(n) capability. A total of thirty six impurities were detected in commercial samples: five impurities were identified by comparison of their fragmentation patterns with those of available related substances, eleven of them were identified in accordance with relevant literature, while the other twenty impurities were newly identified using the MS/MS spectra of the available related reference substances as interpretative templates combined with knowledge of the nature of functional group fragmentation behaviors. This work was applied to evaluate the quality of micronomicin sulfate injection from different manufacturers. PMID:23261805

  19. Liquid chromatography/coordination ion spray-mass spectrometry for the analysis of rubber vulcanization products.

    PubMed

    Hayen, Heiko; Alvarez-Grima, M Montserrat; Debnath, Subhas C; Noordermeer, Jacques W M; Karst, Uwe

    2004-02-15

    Liquid chromatography/coordination ion spray-mass spectrometry has been used for the identification of reaction products in a model rubber vulcanization process. After LC separation using reversed-phase conditions, AgBF(4) in acetonitrile was added, and strong signals were observed for silica-rubber coupling agents and products of the reaction between these and alkenes. The method performs best for substances containing sulfur chains with chain lengths between two and eight sulfur atoms, but sulfur-free compounds containing triethoxysilyl groups were detected as well. For the latter, the postcolumn addition of NaBF(4) proved to be a suitable alternative. Besides the coupling agents, various reaction products, including sulfur-chain bridged alkenes were identified. PMID:14961739

  20. Formation of iron complexs from trifluoroacetic acid based liquid chromatography mobile phases as interference ions in liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometric analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla, Anil K.; Zhang, Rui; Orton, Daniel J.; Zhao, Rui; Clauss, Therese RW; Moore, Ronald J.; Smith, Richard D.

    2011-05-30

    Two unexpected singly charged ions at m/z 1103 and 944 have been observed in mass spectra obtained from electrospray ionization-mass spectrometric analysis of liquid chromatography effluents with mobile phases containing trifluoroacetic acid. Accurate mass measurement and tandem mass spectrometry studies revealed that these two ions are not due to any contamination from solvents and chemicals used for mobile and stationary phases or from the laboratory atmospheric environment. Instead these ions are clusters of trifluoroacetic acid formed in association with acetonitrile, water and iron from the stainless steel union used to connect the column with the electrospray tip and to apply high voltage; the molecular formulae are Fe+((OH)(H2O)2)9(CF3COOH)5 and Fe+((OH)(H2O)2)6 (CF3COOH)5.

  1. DIONEX ICS3000 ION CHROMATOGRAPHY SYSTEM INSTALLATION AND INSTRUMENT ASSESSMENT FOR SRNL APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Wiedenman, B.; White, T.

    2009-11-16

    Ion Chromatography (IC) is routinely used at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for sample analysis and characterization. Results from IC analysis are valued in corrosion control maintenance and measurement programs, remediation waste process control, soil and ground water measurement, nuclear materials processing, and various other research and development programs. Presented in this report are analytical methods developed on a DIONEX ICS3000 Reagent Free Ion Chromatography (RFIC) system located in AD at SRNL. This IC system contains two independent analysis channels comprising of a mobile phase generator, a pump, stationary phase columns, a suppressor and a conductivity detector. One channel is dedicated to anion analysis using Potassium Hydroxide (KOH) as the mobile phase while a second channel is configured for cation analysis using Methanesulfonic Acid (MSA) as the mobile phase. Both channels share an autosampler and the peak analysis software, Chromeleon{reg_sign} v.6.8. Instrument configuration is modified from the manufacturer for radiological service. Listed within this report are Dionex ICS3000 parameters and results for the analysis of routine anions and cations. Additional method parameters and discussion are presented on the analysis of Acetate (CH{sub 3}COO{sup -}) and Iodate (IO{sub 3}{sup -}). Previous IC analysis instruments at AD have been based upon carbonate/bicarbonate buffer mobile phase chemistry. This report represents a transition to hydroxide as a mobile phase eluent. The hydroxide eluent offers a lower baseline conductivity, which allows for greater sample dilution and/or lower detection limits. Also the hydroxide mobile phase and column set has a significant separation of the phosphate peak from the nitrate and sulfate peaks vs. the carbonate/bicarbonate mobile phase and column set, an advantage for the industrial waste analyzed at SRNL.

  2. Determination of total dissolved inorganic carbon in freshwaters by reagent-free ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Polesello, Stefano; Tartari, Gabriele; Giacomotti, Paola; Mosello, Rosario; Cavalli, Silvano

    2006-06-16

    Studies of inorganic carbon cycle in natural waters provide important information on the biological productivity and buffer capacity. Determination of total inorganic carbon, alkalinity and dissolved carbon dioxide gives an indication of the balance between photosynthesis and respiration by biota, both within the water column and sediments, and carbon dioxide transfers from the water column to the atmosphere. There are few methods to measure and distinguish the different forms of inorganic carbon, but all require a measure or an indirect quantification of total inorganic carbon. A direct measurement of TIC in water is made possible by the introduction of electrolytic generated hydroxide eluent in ion chromatography which allows to detect a chromatographic peak for carbonate. The advantage of this method is that all the inorganic forms of carbon are converted in carbonate at eluent pH and can be detected as a single peak by conductivity detection. Repeatability of carbonate peak was evaluated at different levels from 0.02 to 6 mequiv.l(-1) both in high purity water and in real samples and ranged from 1 to 9%. The calibration curve was not linear and has to be fitted by a quadratic curve. Limit of detection was estimated to be 0.02 mequiv.l(-1). Accuracy has been estimated by comparing ion chromatography method with total inorganic carbon calculated from alkalinity and pH. The correlation between the two methods was good (R(2)=0.978, n=141). The IC method has been applied to different typologies of surface waters (alpine and subalpine lakes and rivers) characterised by different chemical characteristics (alkalinity from 0.05 to 2 mequiv.l(-1) and pH from 6.7 to 8.5) and low total organic carbon concentrations. This analytical method allowed to describe the distribution of TIC along the water column of two Italian deep lakes. PMID:16620857

  3. SPECIATION OF SELENIUM(IV) AND SELENIUM(VI) USING COUPLED ION CHROMATOGRAPHY: HYDRIDE GENERATION ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETRY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A simple method was developed to speciate inorganic selenium in the microgram per liter range using coupled ion chromatography-hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Because of the differences in toxicity and adsorption behavior, determination of the redox states selenite, Se(IV), and s...

  4. Chemical Speciation Analysis of Sports Drinks by Acid-Base Titrimetry and Ion Chromatography: A Challenging Beverage Formulation Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drossman, Howard

    2007-01-01

    Students have standardized a sodium hydroxide solution and analyzed commercially available sports drinks by titrimetric analysis of the triprotic citric acid, dihydrogen phosphate, and dihydrogen citrate and by ion chromatography for chloride, total phosphate and citrate. These experiments are interesting examples of analyzing real-world food and…

  5. Determination of Methylamines and Trimethylamine-N-oxide in particulate matter by non-suppressed ion chromatography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An ion chromatography method with non-suppressed conductivity detection was developed for the simultaneous determination of methylamines (methylamine, dimethylamine, trimethylamine) and trimethylamine-N-oxide in particulate matter air samples. The analytes were well separated by means of cation-exch...

  6. Simultaneous and sensitive analysis of aliphatic carboxylic acids by ion-chromatography using on-line complexation with copper(II) ion.

    PubMed

    Kemmei, Tomoko; Kodama, Shuji; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Inoue, Yoshinori; Hayakawa, Kazuichi

    2015-01-01

    A new approach to ion chromatography is proposed to improve the UV detection of aliphatic carboxylic acids separated by anion-exchange chromatography. When copper(II) ion added to the mobile phase, it forms complexes with carboxylic acids that can be detected at 240 nm. The absorbance was found to increase with increasing copper(II) ion concentration. The retention times of ?-hydroxy acids were also found to depend on the copper(II) ion concentration. Addition of acetonitrile to the mobile phase improved the separation of aliphatic carboxylic acids. The detection limits of the examined carboxylic acids (formate, glycolate, acetate, lactate, propionate, 3-hydroxypropionate, n-butyrate, isobutyrate, n-valerate, isovalerate, n-caproate) calculated at S/N=3 ranged from 0.06 to 3 ?M. The detector signal was linear over three orders of magnitude of carboxylic acid concentration. The proposed method was successfully applied to analyze aliphatic carboxylic acids in rainwater and bread. PMID:25523885

  7. Polydispersity characterization of lipid nanoparticles for siRNA delivery using multiple detection size-exclusion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingtao; Haas, R Matthew; Leone, Anthony M

    2012-07-17

    The development of lipid nanoparticle (LNP) based small interfering RNA (siRNA) therapeutics presents unique pharmaceutical and regulatory challenges. In contrast to small molecule drugs that are highly pure and well-defined, LNP drug products can exhibit heterogeneity in size, composition, surface property, or morphology. The potential for batch heterogeneity introduces a complexity that must be confronted in order to successfully develop and ensure quality in LNP pharmaceuticals. Currently, there is a lack of scientific knowledge in the heterogeneity of LNPs as well as high-resolution techniques that permit this evaluation. This article reports a size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) method that permits the high-resolution analysis of LNP size distribution in its native solution condition. When coupled with multiple detection systems including UV-vis, multi-angle light scattering, and refractive index, on-line characterization of the distributions in size, molecular weight, and siRNA cargo loading of LNPs could be achieved. Six LNPs with sizes in the rang of 60-140 nm were evaluated and it was found that the SEC separation is efficient, highly reproducible, and can be broadly applied to a diverse range of LNPs. A comparison between the current SEC method and asymmetric field flow fractionation (FFF) shows that the current method provides similar size distribution results on LNPs compared to FFF. Two representative LNPs with similar bulk properties were evaluated in-depth using the SEC method along with two other sizing techniques-dynamic light scattering and cryo-TEM. Profound differences in batch polydispersity were observed between them. Despite the similarity in the particle assembly process, it was found that one LNP (A) possessed a narrow size and molecular weight distribution while the other (B) was polydisperse. The present results suggest that LNP drug products are highly complex and diverse in nature, and care should be taken in examining and understanding them to ensure quality and consistency. The method developed here can not only serve as a method for understanding LNP product property, permitting control on product quality, but also could serve as a potential manufacturing method for product purification. Understandings obtained in this work can help to facilitate the development of LNPs as a well-defined pharmaceutical product. PMID:22816783

  8. Size Exclusion Chromatography Studies of the Initial Self-Association Steps of Chicken Egg White Lysozyme Nucleation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewing, Felecia; Donovan, David; Pusey, Marc

    2000-01-01

    Nucleation is one of the least understood aspects of crystallogenesis. In the case of macromolecule nucleation, this understanding is further hampered by uncertainty over what precisely is being discussed. We define the process of solute self-association (aggregation, oligomerization, interaction, clustering, etc.) whereby n-mers (n > or = 2) having a crystallographic or nascent crystallographic arrangement leading to the critical nucleus reversibly form in the solution, to be part of the nucleation process. This reversible self-association process is a fundamental part of the nucleation process, and occurs as a function of the solute concentration. In the case of chicken egg white lysozyme, a considerable body of experimental evidence leads us to the conclusion that it also forms the crystal growth units. Size exclusion chromatography is a simple and direct method for determining the equilibrium constants for the self-association process. A Pharmacia FPLC system was used to provide accurate solution flow rates. The column, injection valve, and sample loop were all mounted within a temperature-controlled chamber. Chromatographically re-purified lysozyme was first dialyzed against the column equilibration buffer, with injection onto the column after several hours pre-incubation at the running temperature. Preliminary experiments, were carried out using a Toyopearl HW-50F column (1 x 50cm), equilibrated with 0.1 M sodium acetate, 5% sodium chloride, pH 4.6, at 15C. Protein concentrations from 0.1 to 4 mg/ml were employed (C(sub sat) = 1.2 mg/ml). The data from several different protein preparations consistently shows a progressively decreasing elution volume with increasing protein concentration, indicating that reversible self-association is occurring. The dotted line indicates the monomeric lysozyme elution volume. However, lysozyme interacts with the column matrix in these experiments, which complicates data analysis.Accordingly, we are testing silica-based HPLC columns in an effort to eliminate this problem and substantially reduce the column volume and experimental run time. The results and data analysis from these and subsequent experiments will be presented.

  9. IDENTIFICATION OF MICROCYSTIN TOXINS FROM A STRAIN OF MICROCYSTIS AERUGINOSA BY LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY INTRODUCTION INTO A HYBRID LINEAR ION TRAP-FOURIER TRANSFORM ION CYCLOTRON RESONANCE MASS SPECTROMETER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The cyclic heptapeptide microcystin toxins produced by a strain of Microcystis aeruginosa that has not been investigated previously were separated by liquid chromatography and identified by high-accuracy m/z measurements of their [M + H]+ ions and the fragment i...

  10. The use of on-line ion chromatography for high temperature and high pressure reaction studies

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, G.J.

    1993-10-01

    This paper describes the use of on-line ion chromatography as a tool for chemistry reaction studies in small volume systems. The technique was used to study chemistry behavior in a high temperature and high pressure autoclave system. A dual analyzer, multi-channel on-line ion chromatograph (IC) was configured to automate the sampling and analysis. Analytical channels were set up for analysis of inorganic anions, monovalent cations, conductivity, and pH. Conductivity and pH were measured using the IC as a flow injection analyzer. Use of the IC system provides significant advantages over conventional sampling and analysis techniques: Reduction in sample volume, a closed sampling system that protects air or light sensitive analytes from breakdown, around-the-clock test performance combined with automatic calibration and quality control checking, and detection and tracking of reaction products or unexpected contaminants. Methods used to correct measured concentrations for the effects of sampling and for calculation of control chemical loss half-lives are presented. A limited evaluation of the flow injection analysis methods for conductivity and pH is provided.

  11. Simultaneous quantitative analysis of metabolites using ion-pair liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Coulier, Leon; Bas, Richard; Jespersen, Sonja; Verheij, Elwin; van der Werf, Mariët J; Hankemeier, Thomas

    2006-09-15

    We have developed an analytical method, consisting of ion-pair liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (IP-LC-ESI-MS), for the simultaneous quantitative analysis of several key classes of polar metabolites, like nucleotides, coenzyme A esters, sugar nucleotides, and sugar bisphosphates. The use of the ion-pair agent hexylamine and optimization of the pH of the mobile phases were critical parameters in obtaining good retention and peak shapes of many of the above-mentioned polar and acidic metabolites that are impossible to analyze using standard reversed-phase LC/MS. Optimum conditions were found when using a gradient from 5 mM hexylamine in water (pH 6.3) to 90% methanol/10% 10 mM ammonium acetate (pH 8.5). The IP-LC-ESI-MS method was extensively validated by determining the linearity (R2 > 0.995), sensitivity (limit of detection 0.1-1 ng), repeatability, and reproducibility (relative standard deviation <10%). The IP-LC-ESI-MS method was shown to be a useful tool for microbial metabolomics, i.e., the comprehensive quantitative analysis of metabolites in extracts of microorganisms, and for the determination of the energy charge, i.e., the cellular energy status, as an overall quality measure for the sample workup and analytical protocols. PMID:16970336

  12. Separation of amaranthine-type betacyanins by ion-pair high-speed countercurrent chromatography.

    PubMed

    Jerz, Gerold; Gebers, Nadine; Szot, Dominika; Szaleniec, Maciej; Winterhalter, Peter; Wybraniec, Slawomir

    2014-05-30

    Betacyanins, red-violet plant pigments, were fractionated by ion-pair high-speed countercurrent chromatography (IP-HSCCC) from leaves extract of Iresine lindenii Van Houtte, an ornamental plant of the family Amaranthaceae. An HSCCC solvent system consisting of TBME-1-BuOH-ACN-H2O (1:3:1:5, v/v/v/v) was applied using ion-pair forming heptafluorobutyric acid (HFBA). Significantly different elution profiles of betacyanin diastereomeric pairs (derivatives based on betanidin and isobetanidin) observed in the HSCCC in comparison to HPLC systems indicate a complementarity of both techniques' fractionation capabilities. The numerous diastereomeric pairs can be selectively separated from each other using the HSCCC system simplifying the pigment purification process. Apart from the three well known highly abundant pigments (amaranthine, betanin and iresinin I) together with their isoforms, three new acylated (feruloylated and sinapoylated) betacyanins as well as known pigment hylocerenin (previously isolated from cacti fruits) were characterized in the plant for the first time and they are new for the whole Amaranthaceae family. PMID:24767836

  13. A simple liquid extraction protocol for overcoming the ion suppression of triacylglycerols by phospholipids in liquid chromatography mass spectrometry studies.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Pedro; Tilahun, Ephrem; Breivik, Joar Fjørtoft; Abdulkader, Bashir M; Frøyland, Livar; Zeng, Yingxu

    2016-02-01

    It is well-known that triacylglycerol (TAG) ions are suppressed by phospholipid (PL) ions in regiospecific analysis of TAG by mass spectrometry (MS). Hence, it is essential to remove the PL during sample preparation prior to MS analysis. The present article proposes a cost-effective liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) method to remove PL from TAG in different kinds of biological samples by using methanol, hexane and water. High performance thin layer chromatography confirmed the lack of PL in krill oil and salmon liver samples, submitted to the proposed LLE protocol, and liquid chromatography tandem MS confirmed that the identified TAG ions were highly enhanced after implementing the LLE procedure. PMID:26653473

  14. LC-IMS-MS Feature Finder: Detecting Multidimensional Liquid Chromatography, Ion Mobility, and Mass Spectrometry Features in Complex Datasets

    SciTech Connect

    Crowell, Kevin L.; Slysz, Gordon W.; Baker, Erin Shammel; Lamarche, Brian L.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Payne, Samuel H.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Smith, Richard D.

    2013-09-13

    We introduce a command line software application LC-IMS-MS Feature Finder that searches for molecular ion signatures in multidimensional liquid chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (LC-IMS-MS) data by clustering deisotoped peaks with similar monoisotopic mass, charge state, LC elution time, and ion mobility drift time values. The software application includes an algorithm for detecting and quantifying co-eluting chemical species, including species that exist in multiple conformations that may have been separated in the IMS dimension.

  15. Application of ion chromatography for the determination of inorganic ions, especially thiocyanates, in human semen samples as biomarkers of environmental tobacco smoke exposure.

    PubMed

    Demkowska, Ilona; Polkowska, ?aneta; Kie?bratowska, Bogumi?a; Namie?nik, Jacek

    2010-11-01

    Tobacco smoking constitutes a significant source of indoor air pollution. Various chemical compounds that are emitted during tobacco smoking can have a direct cytotoxic effect on spermatozoa by damaging DNA. There is some evidence that tobacco smoking in men could affect male fertility. The goals of this study were to find relationships between thiocyanates (as biomarkers of environmental tobacco smoke exposure) and other inorganic ions in human semen samples and present the effectiveness of the proposed sample preparation procedure combined with ion chromatography technique for the determination of inorganic ions, especially thiocyanates, in human semen samples collected from heavy, moderate, and passive smokers, as well as nonsmoking individuals. PMID:21073804

  16. Factors influencing the separation of oligonucleotides using reversed-phase/ion-exchange mixed-mode high performance liquid chromatography columns.

    PubMed

    Biba, Mirlinda; Jiang, Eileen; Mao, Bing; Zewge, Daniel; Foley, Joe P; Welch, Christopher J

    2013-08-23

    New mixed-mode columns consisting of reversed-phase and ion-exchange separation modes were evaluated for the analysis of short RNA oligonucleotides (?20mers). Conventional analysis for these samples typically involves using two complementary methods: strong anion-exchange liquid chromatography (SAX-LC) for separation based on charge, and ion-pair reversed-phase liquid chromatography (IP-RPLC) for separation based on hydrophobicity. Recently introduced mixed-mode high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) columns combine both reversed-phase and ion-exchange modes, potentially offering a simpler analysis by combining the benefits of both separation modes into a single method. Analysis of a variety of RNA oligonucleotide samples using three different mixed-mode stationary phases showed some distinct benefits for oligonucleotide separation and analysis. When using these mixed-mode columns with typical IP-RPLC mobile phase conditions, such as ammonium acetate or triethylammonium acetate as the primary ion-pair reagent, the separation was mainly based on the IP-RPLC mode. However, when changing the mobile phase conditions to those more typical for SAX-LC, such as salt gradients with NaCl or NaBr, very different separation patterns were observed due to mixed-mode interactions. In addition, the Scherzo SW-C18 and SM-C18 columns with sodium chloride or sodium bromide salt gradients also showed significant improvements in peak shape. PMID:23859796

  17. Ion chromatography to detect salts in stone structures and to assess salt removal methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez de Buergo, M.; Lopez-Arce, P.; Fort, R.

    2012-04-01

    Stone - and in general all materials- from built heritage is very often damaged by salt crystallisation processes. Such processes usually derive into a loss of material compactness, as salts - given specific conditions and parameters- crystallize inside the material pores, exerting a pressure against the material pore walls higher than what they can resist - similar to the effect of liquid water when converts to solid water or ice-, thus breaking and disrupting the material by generating fissures and increasing the pore volume ratio, loosing its initial cohesion. When these deterioration processes take place inside a structure, salts - from different sources: material itself, restoration materials, from the ground, etc.- may come up to the stone surface - either temporarily or in permanently-, from beneath it, as efflorescences, depending mainly on the microclimatic conditions of the environment and the salts source. Efflorescences can be analysed and their nature identified (e.g. by means of X ray diffraction, in which the mineralogical composition of the salt is obtained), which can be, general, of aid not only for restoration but for preventive conservation measures. But what we do not know a priori when only characterising salt compounds- is the extent of the damage due to the presence of salts inside a structure (sub- and cryptoefflorescences). In this work we present a procedure in which the depth of the salt content can be measured, and its nature identified, based on the use of the ion chromatography technique. This technique allows identifying the existing ions in a specific sample, both anions and cations. The procedure consists of drilling (with a drilling core ranging from 5 to 8 mm in diameter, therefore causing the minimum damage to the material) in a same point at different depths from the surface and several depths from the bottom. The samples obtained are analysed and the ion content determined, qualitative and quantitatively. By means of a thorough previous inspection, we can select the most representative points by a drilling net - as minimum as possible- and make some profiles of the inner salt content of a structure. Moreover, this procedure is not only reliable for determining the nature and extent of salts damage, but to assess the efficacy of salts removal methods in cultural heritage. Here we present two case studies from relevant buildings of the Spanish cultural heritage in which this procedure was performed with successful and useful results, in both terms of understanding what types of salts were decaying the stones structures, and also whether the salts removal methods that were planned in the restoration project were efficient or not. It should be remarked that even ion chromatography is not a non destructive technique (can be considered as a minimally destructive one due to the few quantity it is needed for the analysis), the information it can provide is so useful that should not be ruled out from the beginning, depending of each specific case.

  18. Bacterial sulfate production by biodesulfurization of aromatic hydrocarbons, determined by ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Soto, L M; Ledo, H; Calderón, Y; Marín, J; Galarraga, F

    1998-10-16

    The use of bacteria to remove sulfur from crude oil or petroleum distillates is a novel concept that presents an alternative biotechnology to the current technology of hydrodesulfurization (HDS). Sulfur must be removed from crude oils prior use. The burning of fossil fuels containing sulfur releases sulfur dioxide into the atmosphere causing acid rain. The aim of this work is to determine the sulfate concentration by ion chromatography (IC), and calculate the percentage of transformation of organic bound sulfur, that is converted to sulfate, and estimate the efficiency of bacteria in desulfurization. IC is a suitable method for sulfate concentration determination. However, when chloride concentrations are significantly high, interference of the sulfate signal does occur. In this case, it could be avoided by diluting samples. A Dionex Model 2000i/SP IC system, with an anionic pre-column (Dionex AG4A), an anion separator column (Dionex AS4A), a suppressor column (Dionex AMMS-II), and a conductivity detector was used. The eluent (21 mM NaOH) and regenerant (electrolyzed 18 M omega/cm water) flow-rates were 1.0 and 2.0 ml/min, respectively. The sample loop volume was 10 microliters and the conductivity sensitivity was 30 muS. The diluted samples were filtered through a 0.45-micron filter before injection. The highest sulfate concentration detected was 24.10 mg/l, corresponding to a maximal conversion rate of 10% in a month. Sulfate ions were not detected in control samples. The correlation coefficient for a linear least squares fit was 0.99 (p < 0.001). The minimal concentration that we can read was 0.02 mg/l and this concentration corresponded to the limit of detection obtained under the conditions employed in this study. IC is an economical, sensitive and accurate way to estimate the sulfate concentrations in microbiological samples. PMID:9818427

  19. Detection of metabolites of trapped humans using ion mobility spectrometry coupled with gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Vautz, Wolfgang; Slodzynski, Rafael; Hariharan, Chandrasekhara; Seifert, Luzia; Nolte, Jürgen; Fobbe, Rita; Sielemann, Stefanie; Lao, Bolan C; Huo, Ran; Thomas, C L Paul; Hildebrand, Lars

    2013-02-19

    For the first time, ion mobility spectrometry coupled with rapid gas chromatography, using multicapillary columns, was applied for the development of a pattern of signs of life for the localization of entrapped victims after disaster events (e.g., earthquake, terroristic attack). During a simulation experiment with entrapped volunteers, 12 human metabolites could be detected in the air of the void with sufficient sensitivity to enable a valid decision on the presence of a living person. Using a basic normalized summation of the measured concentrations, all volunteers involved in the particular experiments could be recognized only few minutes after they entered the simulation void and after less than 3 min of analysis time. An additional independent validation experiment enabled the recognition of a person in a room of ?25 m(3) after ?30 min with sufficiently high sensitivity to detect even a person briefly leaving the room. Undoubtedly, additional work must be done on analysis time and weight of the equipment, as well as on validation during real disaster events. However, the enormous potential of the method as a significantly helpful tool for search-and-rescue operations, in addition to trained canines, could be demonstrated. PMID:23249433

  20. Laboratory robotics -- An automated tool for preparing ion chromatography calibration standards

    SciTech Connect

    Chadwick, J.L.

    1995-04-01

    This paper describes the use of a laboratory robot as an automated tool for preparing multi-level calibration standards for On-Line Ion Chromatography (IC) Systems. The robot is designed for preparation of up to six levels of standards, with each level containing up to eleven ionic species in aqueous solution. The robot is required to add the standards` constituents as both a liquid and solid additions and to keep a record of exactly what goes into making up every standard. Utilizing a laboratory robot to prepare calibration standards provides significant benefits to the testing environment. These benefits include: accurate and precise calibration standards in individually capped containers with preparation traceability; automated and unattended multi-specie preparation for both anion and cation analytical channels; the ability to free up a test operator from a repetitive routine and re-apply those efforts to test operations; The robot uses a single channel IC to analyze each prepared standard for specie content and concentration. Those results are later used as a measure of quality control. System requirements and configurations, robotic operations, manpower requirements, analytical verification, accuracy and precision of prepared solutions, and robotic downtime are discussed in detail.

  1. Anionic Forensic Signatures for Sample Matching of Potassium Cyanide Using High Performance Ion Chromatography and Chemometrics

    SciTech Connect

    Fraga, Carlos G.; Farmer, Orville T.; Carman, April J.

    2011-01-30

    Potassium cyanide, a known poison, was used a model compound to determine the feasibility of using anionic impurities as a forensic signature for matching KCN samples back to their source. In this study, portions of eight KCN stocks originating from four countries were separately dissolved in water and analyzed by high performance ion chromatography (HPIC) using an anion exchange column and conductivity detection. Sixty KCN aqueous samples were produced from the eight stocks and analyzed for 11anionic impurities. Hierarchal cluster analysis and principal component analysis were used to demonstrate that KCN samples cluster according to source based on the concentrations of their anionic impurities. The F-ratio method and degree-of-class separation (DCS) were used for feature selection on a training set of KCN samples in order to optimize sample clustering. The optimal subset of anions needed for sample classification was determined to be sulfate, oxalate, phosphate, and an unknown anion named unk5. Using K-nearest neighbors (KNN) and the optimal subset of anions, KCN test samples from different KCN stocks were correctly determined to be manufactured in the United States. In addition, KCN samples from stocks manufactured in Belgium, Germany, and the Czech Republic were all correctly matched back to their original stocks because each stock had a unique anionic impurity profile. The application of the F-ratio method and DCS for feature selection improved the accuracy and confidence of sample classification by KNN.

  2. Off-line coupling of multidimensional immunoaffinity chromatography and ion mobility spectrometry: A promising partnership.

    PubMed

    Armenta, Sergio; de la Guardia, Miguel; Abad-Fuentes, Antonio; Abad-Somovilla, Antonio; Esteve-Turrillas, Francesc A

    2015-12-24

    The extreme specificity of immunoaffinity chromatography (IAC) columns coupled to the high sensitivity of ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) measurements makes this combination really useful for rapid, selective, and sensitive determination of a high variety of analytes in different samples. The capabilities of the IAC-IMS coupling have been highlighted under three different scenarios: (i) multiclass residue analysis using a single IAC column, (ii) multiclass residue analysis using stacked IAC columns, and (iii) isomer analysis. In the first case, the determination of three strobilurin fungicides - azoxystrobin, picoxystrobin, and pyraclostrobin - in water and strawberry juice was considered, obtaining limits of quantification (LOQs) from 11 to 63?gL(-1). Recoveries from 96 to 106% for water, and from 67 to 104% for strawberry juice were obtained. In the second case, anilinopyrimidine compounds, including two analytes with similar drift time, were selectively retained in different IAC columns and analyzed after independent elution in commercial wine samples by IMS. LOQ values of 16, 14 and 12?gL(-1) were obtained for pyrimethanil, mepanipyrim, and cyprodinil, respectively. The obtained recoveries for wine samples spiked with 25 and 100?gL(-1) were from 82 to 123%. Additionally, the stacked IAC columns concept was applied to the separation of Z and E isomers of azoxystrobin that were selectively retained in specific IAC columns and quantified by IMS. Recoveries between 91 and 94% were obtained for both isomers in water samples. PMID:26654255

  3. Behavior of the Inadvertent pH Transient Formed by a Salt Gradient in the Ion-Exchange Chromatography of Proteins

    E-print Network

    Frey, Douglas D.

    -Exchange Chromatography of Proteins Jessica Soto Pe´rez and Douglas D. Frey* Department of Chemical and Biochemical produced when a stepwise change in salt concentration is used as the eluent in ion-exchange chromatography the observed trends for the pH transients to be interpreted in terms of the physical properties of the column

  4. Prepared polymethacrylate-based monoliths for the separation of cations by non-suppressed capillary ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Zhu, Yan

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a novel analytical system for non-suppressed capillary ion chromatography. Methacrylate monolithic columns were prepared from silanized fused-silica capillaries of 320 µm i.d. by in situ polymerization of glycidyl methacrylate and ethylene dimethacrylate in the presence of 1,4-butanediol, 1-propanol and water as the porogen solvents. The introduction of cation-exchange sites was achieved by sulfonating the matrix with sodium sulfite to produce total cation-exchange capacities in the range of 45-105 ?equiv/mL for a 25 cm column. The conditions (concentrations of sodium sulfite solution, reacting time and modified flow rate) of sulfonation were optimized. The hydrodynamic and chromatographic performances were estimated. Coupled with a conductivity detector, a capillary ion chromatography system was set up with the prepared column. Finally, the resultant column was used for the separations of five common univalent cations (Li(+), Na(+), NH4(+), K(+) and Cs(+)) using methanesulfonic acid as the eluent and four divalent cations (Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Sr(2+) and Ba(2+)) by non-suppressed capillary ion chromatography; the chromatographic parameters were further researched. PMID:23677716

  5. METHOD 332.0: DETERMINATION OF PERCHLORATE IN DRINKING WATER BY ION CHROMATOGRAPHY WITH SUPPRESSED CONDUCTIVITY AND ELECTROSPRAY IONIZATION MASS SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This method is applicable to the identification and quantitation of perchlorate in raw and finished drinking waters. The approach used is ion chromatography with suppressed conductivity and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (IC-ESI/MS)

  6. OVERVIEW OF A NEW EPA METHOD: DETERMINATION OF PERCHLORATE IN DRINKING WATER, GROUNDWATER AND HIGH SALINITY WATER BY ION CHROMATOGRAPHY, SUPPRESSED CONDUCTIVITY WITH ELECTROSPRAY IONIZATION MASS SPECTROMETRIC DETECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this presentation the analytical instrumentation and procedures necessary to qualitatively and quantitatively determine low levels of perchlorate (ClO4-) in drinking waters using ion chromatography with electrolytic conductivity suppression, electrospray ionization mass spec...

  7. ANALYSIS FOR B-LACTAM ANTIBIOTICS IN KIDNEY TISSUE BY LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY WITH ELECTROSPRAY IONIZATION AND SELECTIVE REACTION MONITORING/TANDEM ION TRAP MASS SPECTROMETRY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eleven B-lactams antibiotics were analyzed in fortified and incurred beef kidney tissue using high-performance liquid chromatography/selective reaction monitoring/tandem ion trap mass spectrometry. The analytes included: deacetylcephapirin, amoxicillin, cephapirin, desfuroylceftiofur cysteine disul...

  8. A Volatile Organic Analyzer for Space Station - Description and evaluation of a gas chromatography/ion mobility spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limero, Thomas; Brokenshire, John; Cumming, Colin; Overton, ED; Carney, Ken; Cross, Jay; Eiceman, Gary; James, John

    1992-01-01

    An on-board Volatile Organic Analyzer (VOA), an essential component of the Environmental Health System (EHS) air-quality monitoring strategy, is described. The strategy is aimed at warning the crew and ground personnel if volatile compounds exceed safe exposure limits. The VOA uses a combination of gas chromatography (GC) and ion-mobility spectrometry (IMS) for environmental monitoring and analysis. It is concluded that the VOA dual-mode detection capability and the ion mobilities in the drift region are unique features that can assist in the resolution of coeluting GC peaks. The VOA is capable of accurately identifying and quantifying target compounds in a complex mixture.

  9. Determination of metaldehyde in suspected cases of animal poisoning using gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jones, A; Charlton, A

    1999-11-01

    A method was developed to detect the molluscicide metaldehyde in samples of stomach contents for forensic toxicology investigations. Gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry in full-scan mode was used to identify and quantify metaldehyde. The limit of detection based on mass chromatograms for the m/z 89 ion was 3 microg/g. Mean recoveries from six different spiked samples were 74% at 25 microg/g and 94% at 500 microg/g. The relative standard deviation of six replicate determinations of a sample containing 632 microg/g metaldehyde was 7.3%. PMID:10552870

  10. Broad-Spectrum Drug Screening Using Liquid Chromatography-Hybrid Triple-Quadrupole Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Stone, Judy

    2016-01-01

    Urine is processed with a simple C18 solid-phase extraction (SPE) and reconstituted in mobile phase. The liquid chromatography system (LC) injects 10 ?L of extracted sample onto a reverse-phase LC column for gradient analysis with ammonium formate/acetonitrile mobile phases. Drugs in the column eluent become charged in the ion source using positive electrospray ionization (ESI). Pseudomolecular ions (M?+?H) are analyzed by a hybrid triple-quadrupole linear ion trap (QqQ and QqLIT) mass spectrometer using an SRM-IDA-EPI acquisition. An initial 125 compound selected ion monitoring (SRM) survey scan (triple quadrupole or QqQ mode) is processed by the information-dependent acquisition (IDA) algorithm. The IDA algorithm selects SRM signals from the survey scan with a peak height above the threshold (the three most abundant SRM signals above 1000 cps) to define precursor ions for subsequent dependent scanning. In the dependent QqLIT scan(s), selected precursor ion(s) are passed through the first quadrupole (Q1), fragmented with three different collision energies in the collision cell (Q2 or q), and product ions are collected in the third quadrupole (Q3), now operating as a linear ion trap (LIT). The ions are scanned out of the LIT in a mass dependent manner to produce a full-scan product ion spectrum (m/z 50-700) defined as an Enhanced (meaning acquired in LIT mode) Product Ion (EPI) spectrum (Mueller et al., Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 19:1332-1338, 2005). Each EPI spectrum is linked to its precursor ion and to the associated SRM peak from the survey scan. EPI spectra are automatically searched against a 125 drug library of reference EPI spectra for identification. When the duty cycle is complete (one survey scan of 125 SRMs plus 0-3 dependent IDA-EPI scans) the mass spectrometer begins another survey scan of the 125 SRMs. PMID:26660183

  11. Characterization of currently marketed heparin products: reversed-phase ion-pairing liquid chromatography mass spectrometry of heparin digests.

    PubMed

    Brustkern, Adam M; Buhse, Lucinda F; Nasr, Moheb; Al-Hakim, Ali; Keire, David A

    2010-12-01

    Here we report results from the analyses by enzymatic digestion and reversed-phase ion-pairing liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (RPIP-LC-MS) of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) unfractionated heparins (UFHs) from six different manufacturers and one USP standard sample. We employed a reverse phase ion-pairing chromatography method using a C(18) column and hexylamine as the ion-pairing reagent with acetonitrile gradient elution to separate disaccharides generated from the digestion of the heparins by lyase I and III (E.C. 4.2.2.7 and 4.2.2.8) before introduction into an ion-trap mass spectrometer by an electrospray ionization (ESI) interface. Extracted ion chromatograms (EICs) were used to determine the relative abundance of the disaccharides by mass spectrometry. Eight disaccharides were observed and a similar composition profile was observed from digests of 20 UFH samples. The compositional profile determined from these experiments provides a measure of the norm and range of variation in "good" heparin to which future preparations can be compared. Furthermore, the profile obtained in the RPIP-LC-MS assay is sensitive to the presence of the contaminant, oversulfated chondroitin sulfate A (OSCS), in heparin. PMID:21069966

  12. Principles and Methods Chromatography

    E-print Network

    Lebendiker, Mario

    Edition AC 18-1022-29 Principles and Methods Affinity Chromatography #12;Antibody Purification-1142-75 Protein Purification Handbook 18-1132-29 Ion Exchange Chromatography Principles and Methods 18-1114-21 Affinity Chromatography Principles and Methods 18-1022-29 Hydrophobic Interaction Chromatography Principles

  13. Mechanistic modeling of ion-exchange process chromatography of charge variants of monoclonal antibody products.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vijesh; Leweke, Samuel; von Lieres, Eric; Rathore, Anurag S

    2015-12-24

    Ion-exchange chromatography (IEX) is universally accepted as the optimal method for achieving process scale separation of charge variants of a monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapeutic. These variants are closely related to the product and a baseline separation is rarely achieved. The general practice is to fractionate the eluate from the IEX column, analyze the fractions and then pool the desired fractions to obtain the targeted composition of variants. This is, however, a very cumbersome and time consuming exercise. A mechanistic model that is capable of simulating the peak profile will be a much more elegant and effective way to make a decision on the pooling strategy. This paper proposes a mechanistic model, based on the general rate model, to predict elution peak profile for separation of the main product from its variants. The proposed approach uses inverse fit of process scale chromatogram for estimation of model parameters using the initial values that are obtained from theoretical correlations. The packed bed column has been modeled along with the chromatographic system consisting of the mixer, tubing and detectors as a series of dispersed plug flow and continuous stirred tank reactors. The model uses loading ranges starting at 25% to a maximum of 70% of the loading capacity and hence is applicable to process scale separations. Langmuir model has been extended to include the effects of salt concentration and temperature on the model parameters. The extended Langmuir model that has been proposed uses one less parameter than the SMA model and this results in a significant ease of estimating the model parameters from inverse fitting. The proposed model has been validated with experimental data and has been shown to successfully predict peak profile for a range of load capacities (15-28mg/mL), gradient lengths (10-30CV), bed heights (6-20cm), and for three different resins with good accuracy (as measured by estimation of residuals). The model has been also validated for a two component mixture consisting of the main mAb product and one of its basic charge variants. The proposed model can be used for optimization and control of preparative scale chromatography for separation of charge variants. PMID:26686559

  14. Characterization and quantitative amino acids analysis of analgesic peptides in cinobufacini injection by size exclusion chromatography, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry and gas chromatography mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xu; Si, Nan; Bo, Gao; Hu, Hao; Yang, Jian; Bian, Baolin; Zhao, Hai Yu; Wang, Hongjie

    2015-01-01

    Cinobufacini injection that comes from the water extract of Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor skin is widely used for cancer treatment in China. Peptide is one of its major types of constituents, however the biological effects and content of this injection are little reported. In present study, the analgesic effect of peptides was determined and evaluated by in-vivo models. To characterize and quantitatively analyze these peptides, a reliable and efficient method combining size exclusion chromatography and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry with amino acid analysis was developed. The peptides presented as a series of analogs with similar molecular weights mostly ranging from 2 to 8 kDa. The amino acid analysis by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed to determine both free and combined amino acids (FAA and CAA) in cinobufacini injection. This method achieved good linearity (R(2) , 0.9909-0.9999) and low limit of detection and quantification. FAA and CAA samples were efficiently analyzed by modified Phenomenex EZ: faast procedure. For the sample analysis, the method showed good repeatability (relative standard deviation, RSD???10%). For most FAA and CAA the mean recoveries were >80% with RSD <10%. The GC-MS based method is useful for quality assurance of both FAA and CAA in cinobufacini injection. PMID:24924921

  15. UTILIZATION OF AN EVAPORATIVE LIGHT SCATTERING DETECTOR FOR HIGH PERFORMANCE SIZE EXCLUSION CHROMATOGRAPHY OF GALACTURONIC ACID OLIGOMERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A high performance size exclusion chromatographic method utilizing an evaporative light scattering detector was developed to separate and quantify galacturonic acid (GA) oligomers. Values of k for GA monomer ranged from 0.16 in water to 0.67 in 100 mM acetic acid. In 40 mM acetic acid calibration ...

  16. A volatile organic analyzer for Space Station: Description and evaluation of a gas chromatography/ ion mobility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limero, Thomas F.; James, John T.

    1994-01-01

    A Volatile Organic Analyzer (VOA) is being developed as an essential component of the Space Station's Environmental Health System (EHS) air quality monitoring strategy to provide warning to the crew and ground personnel if volatile organic compounds exceed established exposure limits. The short duration of most Shuttle flights and the relative simplicity of the contaminant removal mechanism have lessened the concern about crew exposure to air contaminants on the Shuttle. However, the longer missions associated with the Space Station, the complex air revitalization system and the proposed number of experiments have led to a desire for real-time monitoring of the contaminants in the Space Station atmosphere. Achieving the performance requirements established for the VOA within the Space Station resource (e.g., power, weight) allocations led to a novel approach that joined a gas chromatograph (GC) to an ion mobility spectrometer (IMS). The authors of this paper will discuss the rational for selecting the GC/IMS technology as opposed to the more established gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for the foundation of the VOA. The data presented from preliminary evaluations will demonstrate the versatile capability of the GC/IMS to analyze the major contaminants expected in the Space Station atmosphere. The favorable GC/IMS characteristics illustrated in this paper included excellent sensitivity, dual-mode operation for selective detection, and mobility drift times to distinguish co-eluting GC peaks. Preliminary studies have shown that the GC/IMS technology can meet surpass the performance requirements of the Space Station VOA.

  17. A two level hierarchical model of protein retention in ion exchange chromatography.

    PubMed

    Salvalaglio, Matteo; Paloni, Matteo; Guelat, Bertrand; Morbidelli, Massimo; Cavallotti, Carlo

    2015-09-11

    Predicting protein retention in ion exchange chromatography (IEX) from first principles is a fascinating perspective. In this work a two level hierarchical modeling strategy is proposed in order to calculate protein retention factors. Model predictions are tested against experimental data measured for Lysozyme and Chymotrypsinogen A in IEX columns as a function of ionic strength and pH. At the highest level of accuracy Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations in explicit water are used to determine the interaction free energy between each of the two proteins and the IEX stationary phase for a reference pH and ionic strength. At a lower level of accuracy a linear response model based on an implicit treatment of solvation and adopting a static protein structure is used to calculate interaction free energies for the full range of pHs and ionic strengths considered. A scaling coefficient, determined comparing MD and implicit solvent simulations, is then introduced in order to correct the linear response model for errors induced by the adoption of a static protein structure. The calculated free energies are then used to compute protein retention factors, which can be directly compared with experimental data. The possibility to introduce a third level of accuracy is explored testing the predictions of a semiempirical model. A quantitative agreement between the predicted and measured protein retention factors is obtained using the coupled MD-linear response models, supporting the reliability of the proposed approach. The model allows quantifying the electrostatic, van der Waals, and conformational contributions to the interaction free energies. A good agreement between experiments and model is obtained also using the semiempirical model that, although requiring parameterization over higher level models or experimental data, proves to be useful in order to rapidly determine protein retention factors across wide pH and ionic strength ranges as it is computationally inexpensive. PMID:26278361

  18. Simultaneous determination of three chloroacetic acids, three herbicides, and 12 anions in water by ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ximing; Chen, Liang; Zhao, Yanqing

    2015-09-01

    An ion chromatography method was developed for the simultaneous detection of three soluble herbicides (glyphosate, bentazone and picloram), three chlorine disinfection byproducts (monochloroacetic acid, dichloroacetic acid and trichloroacetic acid) and 12 anions in water (Cl(-), Br(-), SO4(2-), CO3(2-), ClO3(-), ClO4(-), BrO3(-), PO4(3-), NO2(-), NO3(-), CH3COO(-) and COO(-)). High linearity (r(2) > 0.996) was observed for all target analytes for each respective concentration range. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were between 0.21-0.85 and 0.06-25.46 ?g/L, respectively. However, the interference effect of Cl(-), NO3(-) , SO4 (2-) and CO3(2-) on some target analytes must be considered during the analysis. Sample pre-treatment by a hydrogen column (H-column) required to reduce the negative effect of CO3(2-). Additionally, sample pre-treatment by a sliver-hydrogen column (Ag-H-column) is required when Cl(-) > 100 mg/L and SO4(2-) < 50 mg/L, and pre-treatment by both a barium column (Ba-column) and an H-column is required when Cl(-) > 100 mg/L and SO4(2-) > 50 mg/L. When Cl(-) > 100 mg/L, SO4(2-) > 50 mg/L and CO3(2-) > 20 mg/L, the sample pre-treatment by either an Ag-H-Ba-column or an Ag-H-column and Ba-column is required to minimize interference. PMID:26147076

  19. Comprehensive and reproducible phosphopeptide enrichment using iron immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (Fe-IMAC) columns.

    PubMed

    Ruprecht, Benjamin; Koch, Heiner; Medard, Guillaume; Mundt, Max; Kuster, Bernhard; Lemeer, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Advances in phosphopeptide enrichment methods enable the identification of thousands of phosphopeptides from complex samples. Current offline enrichment approaches using TiO(2), Ti, and Fe immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) material in batch or microtip format are widely used, but they suffer from irreproducibility and compromised selectivity. To address these shortcomings, we revisited the merits of performing phosphopeptide enrichment in an HPLC column format. We found that Fe-IMAC columns enabled the selective, comprehensive, and reproducible enrichment of phosphopeptides out of complex lysates. Column enrichment did not suffer from bead-to-sample ratio issues and scaled linearly from 100 ?g to 5 mg of digest. Direct measurements on an Orbitrap Velos mass spectrometer identified >7500 unique phosphopeptides with 90% selectivity and good quantitative reproducibility (median cv of 15%). The number of unique phosphopeptides could be increased to more than 14,000 when the IMAC eluate was subjected to a subsequent hydrophilic strong anion exchange separation. Fe-IMAC columns outperformed Ti-IMAC and TiO(2) in batch or tip mode in terms of phosphopeptide identification and intensity. Permutation enrichments of flow-throughs showed that all materials largely bound the same phosphopeptide species, independent of physicochemical characteristics. However, binding capacity and elution efficiency did profoundly differ among the enrichment materials and formats. As a result, the often quoted orthogonality of the materials has to be called into question. Our results strongly suggest that insufficient capacity, inefficient elution, and the stochastic nature of data-dependent acquisition in mass spectrometry are the causes of the experimentally observed complementarity. The Fe-IMAC enrichment workflow using an HPLC format developed here enables rapid and comprehensive phosphoproteome analysis that can be applied to a wide range of biological systems. PMID:25394399

  20. High speed, high resolution, and continuous chemical analysis of ice cores using a melter and ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Cole-Dai, Jihong; Budner, Drew M; Ferris, Dave G

    2006-11-01

    Measurement of trace chemical impurities in ice cores contributes to the reconstruction of records of the atmospheric environment and of the climate system. Ion chromatography (IC) is an effective analytical technique for ionic species in ice cores but has been used on discretely prepared ice samples, resulting in extensive and slow sample preparation and potential for contamination. A new technique has been developed that utilizes IC as the online detection technique in a melter-based continuous flow system for quantitative determination of major ionic chemical impurities. The system, called CFA-IC for continuous flow analysis with ion chromatography detection, consists of an ice core melter, several ion chromatographs, and an interface that distributes meltwater to the IC instruments. The CFA-IC technique combines the accuracy, precision, and ease of use of IC measurement with the enhanced speed and depth resolution of continuous melting systems and is capable of virtually continuous, high-speed and high-resolution chemical analysis of long ice cores. The new technique and operating procedures have been tested and validated with the analysis of over 100 m of ice cores from Antarctica. The current CFA-IC system provides an all-major-ion analysis speed of up to 8 m a day at a depth resolution of approximately 2 cm. PMID:17144308

  1. An Interface for Sensitive Analysis of Monoamine Neurotransmitters by Ion-Pair Chromatography–ESI-MS with Continuous On-Line Elimination of Ion-Pair Reagents

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Shuyun; Zhao, Binqing; Yagnik, Gargey; Zhou, Feimeng

    2013-01-01

    A challenge in coupling ion-pair chromatography (IPC) on-line with electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) is that the nonvolatile ion-pair reagent (e.g., alkyl sulfate for amines or tetrabutylammonium for carboxylic acids) in the mobile phase suppresses the ESI-MS signals in the gas phase and their accumulation can clog the MS sampling interface. Consequently, IPC–ESI-MS is conducted either with a volatile ion-pair reagent, which could compromise the analyte separation efficiency, or with a downstream ion-exchange column to rid the ion-pair reagents of the mobile phase. In the latter approach, the limited capacity of ion-exchange columns requires frequent off-line column regeneration, which affects the separation throughput and prohibits long separations from being performed. A dual-valve, dual-ion exchange column interface of IPC–ESI-MS is designed for undisrupted separations and simultaneous column regeneration. Owing to the efficacy in removing the ion-pair reagent, the detection of eluents of monoamine neurotransmitters by an ion trap MS results in the limits of detection of 0.03 ?M for dopamine or DA and 0.01 ?M for 5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT. These values are lower than those obtained with ion trap MS of similar sensitivity when combined with the use of specialized chromatographic columns or sample preconcentration. Excellent reproducibility was attained with repeatedly regenerated ion-exchange columns (RSD = 4–6%) for an extended period of time (RSD < 6% for six days). DA and 5-HT in rat straital extracts were analyzed and our data demonstrate that interferences inherent in the tissues and the ion-pair reagent have been successfully eliminated. This simple interface should be readily amenable to the separation and MS analysis of other types of polar compounds in complex sample media. PMID:23767971

  2. Characterization and quantification of histidine degradation in therapeutic protein formulations by size exclusion-hydrophilic interaction two dimensional-liquid chromatography with stable-isotope labeling mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunlei; Chen, Sike; Brailsford, John A; Yamniuk, Aaron P; Tymiak, Adrienne A; Zhang, Yingru

    2015-12-24

    Two dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC) coupling size exclusion (SEC) and hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) is demonstrated as a useful tool to study polar excipients, such as histidine and its degradant, in protein formulation samples. The SEC-HILIC setup successfully removed interferences from complex sample matrices and enabled accurate mass measurement of the histidine degradation product, which was then determined to be trans-urocanic acid. Because the SEC effluent is a strong solvent for the second dimension HILIC, experimental parameters needed to be carefully chosen, i.e., small transferring loop, fast gradient at high flow rates for the second dimension gradient, in order to mitigate the solvent mismatch and to ensure good peak shapes for HILIC separations. In addition, the generation of trans-urocanic acid was quantified by single heart-cutting SEC-HILIC 2D-LC combined with stable-isotope labeling mass spectrometry. Compared with existing 2D quantification methods, the proposed approach is fast, insensitive to solvent mismatch between dimensions, and tolerant of small retention time shifts in the first dimension. Finally, the first dimension diode array detector was found to be a potential degradation source for photolabile analytes such as trans-urocanic acid. PMID:26674608

  3. Simultaneous determination of selenite and trimethylselenonium ions in urine by anion exchange chromatography and molecular neutron activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Blotcky, A.J.; Hansen, G.T.; Borkar, N.; Ebrahim, A.; Rack, E.P.

    1987-09-01

    A method has been developed for the determination of trimethylselenonium (TMSe) ion and selenite (SeO/sub 3//sup 2 -/) ion in urine by anion exchange chromatography, selectively eluting TMSe and SeO/sub 3//sup 2 -/. Since the recoveries are quantitative, a method of additive spikes is employed to determine TMSe and SeO/sub 3//sup 2 -/ ion concentrations in urine specimens. The TMSe and SeO/sub 3//sup 2 -/ chromatographic elutions were collected in vials, irradiated with neutrons, and radioassayed for /sup 77m/Se activity. The limit of detection is 10 ng of Se as TMSe or SeO/sub 3//sup 2 -//ml of urine. Thirteen urine specimens from normal subjects were analyzed for TMSe, SeO/sub 3//sup 2 -/, and total selenium concentration.

  4. Quantitative determination of terbutaline and orciprenaline in human plasma by gas chromatography/negative ion chemical ionization/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Leis, H J; Gleispach, H; Nitsche, V; Malle, E

    1990-06-01

    A method for the determination of unconjugated terbutaline and orciprenaline in human plasma is described. The assay is based on stable isotope dilution gas chromatography/negative ion chemical ionization/mass spectrometry. An inexpensive and rapid method for preparation of stable isotope labelled analogues as well as their use in quantitative gas chromatography/mass spectrometry is shown. A highly efficient sample work-up procedure with product recoveries of more than 95% is presented. The method developed permits quantitative measurement of terbutaline and orciprenaline in human plasma down to 100 pg ml-1, using 1 ml of sample. Plasma levels of terbutaline after oral administration of 5 mg of terbutaline sulphate were estimated. PMID:2357489

  5. Boosting Sensitivity in Liquid Chromatography–Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance–Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Product Ion Analysis of Monoterpene Indole Alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    Nakabayashi, Ryo; Tsugawa, Hiroshi; Kitajima, Mariko; Takayama, Hiromitsu; Saito, Kazuki

    2015-01-01

    In metabolomics, the analysis of product ions in tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) is noteworthy to chemically assign structural information. However, the development of relevant analytical methods are less advanced. Here, we developed a method to boost sensitivity in liquid chromatography–Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance–tandem mass spectrometry analysis (MS/MS boost analysis). To verify the MS/MS boost analysis, both quercetin and uniformly labeled 13C quercetin were analyzed, revealing that the origin of the product ions is not the instrument, but the analyzed compounds resulting in sensitive product ions. Next, we applied this method to the analysis of monoterpene indole alkaloids (MIAs). The comparative analyses of MIAs having indole basic skeleton (ajmalicine, catharanthine, hirsuteine, and hirsutine) and oxindole skeleton (formosanine, isoformosanine, pteropodine, isopteropodine, rhynchophylline, isorhynchophylline, and mitraphylline) identified 86 and 73 common monoisotopic ions, respectively. The comparative analyses of the three pairs of stereoisomers showed more than 170 common monoisotopic ions in each pair. This method was also applied to the targeted analysis of MIAs in Catharanthus roseus and Uncaria rhynchophylla to profile indole and oxindole compounds using the product ions. This analysis is suitable for chemically assigning features of the metabolite groups, which contributes to targeted metabolome analysis.

  6. An Ultra-Trace Analysis Technique for SF6 Using Gas Chromatography with Negative Ion Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jong, Edmund C; Macek, Paul V; Perera, Inoka E; Luxbacher, Kray D; McNair, Harold M

    2015-07-01

    Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) is widely used as a tracer gas because of its detectability at low concentrations. This attribute of SF6 allows the quantification of both small-scale flows, such as leakage, and large-scale flows, such as atmospheric currents. SF6's high detection sensitivity also facilitates greater usage efficiency and lower operating cost for tracer deployments by reducing quantity requirements. The detectability of SF6 is produced by its high molecular electronegativity. This property provides a high potential for negative ion formation through electron capture thus naturally translating to selective detection using negative ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry (NCI-MS). This paper investigates the potential of using gas chromatography (GC) with NCI-MS for the detection of SF6. The experimental parameters for an ultra-trace SF6 detection method utilizing minimal customizations of the analytical instrument are detailed. A method for the detection of parts per trillion (ppt) level concentrations of SF6 for the purpose of underground ventilation tracer gas analysis was successfully developed in this study. The method utilized a Shimadzu gas chromatography with negative ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry system equipped with an Agilent J&W HP-porous layer open tubular column coated with an alumina oxide (Al2O3) S column. The method detection limit (MDL) analysis as defined by the Environmental Protection Agency of the tracer data showed the method MDL to be 5.2 ppt. PMID:25452581

  7. MEASUREMENT OF RADIONUCLIDES USING ION CHROMATOGRAPHY AND FLOW-CELL SCINTILLATION COUNTING WITH PULSE SHAPE DISCRIMINATION

    SciTech Connect

    R. A. Fjeld; T.A. DeVol; J.D. Leyba

    2000-03-30

    Radiological characterization and monitoring is an important component of environmental management activities throughout the Department of Energy complex. Gamma-ray spectroscopy is the technology most often used for the detection of radionuclides. However, radionuclides which cannot easily be detected by gamma-ray spectroscopy, such as pure beta emitters and transuranics, pose special problems because their quantification generally requires labor intensive radiochemical separations procedures that are time consuming and impractical for field applications. This project focused on a technology for measuring transuranics and pure beta emitters relatively quickly and has the potential of being field deployable. The technology combines ion exchange liquid chromatography and on-line alpha/beta pulse shape discriminating scintillation counting to produce simultaneous alpha and beta chromatograms. The basic instrumentation upon which the project was based was purchased in the early 1990's. In its original commercial form, the instrumentation was capable of separating select activation/fission products in ionic forms from relatively pure aqueous samples. We subsequently developed the capability of separating and detecting actinides (thorium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium, and curium) in less than 30 minutes (Reboul, 1993) and realized that the potential time savings over traditional radiochemical methods for isolating some of these radionuclides was significant. However, at that time, the technique had only been used for radionuclide concentrations that were considerably above environmental levels and for aqueous samples of relatively high chemical purity. For the technique to be useful in environmental applications, development work was needed in lowering detection limits; to be useful in applications involving non-aqueous matrices such as soils and sludges or complex aqueous matrices such as those encountered in waste samples, development work was needed in sample preparation and processing. The general goal of this project was to address the issues mentioned above, and in so doing transform an interesting laboratory technique of limited applicability into a robust field instrument suitable for environmental restoration and waste management applications. The project consisted of the following tasks: (1) development of a low background, flow-cell detector, (2) identification of sample chemical and radiological interferences, (3) development of protocols for processing waste and/or environmental samples, and (4) integration and testing of the prototype system. The scope of work associated with these tasks has been completed and the report for Tasks 1-3 was submitted previously. Presented here are the results for Task 4.

  8. Separation of deuteriated isotopomers of dopamine by ion-pair reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Masters, C.F.; Markey, S.P.; Mefford, I.N.; Duncan, M.W.

    1988-10-01

    The ion-pair reversed-phase separation of dopamine and deuterium-substituted dopamine isotopomers is described. Chromatographic parameters and deuterium isotope effects governing the resolution are examined and compared to the factors regulating the resolution are examined and compared to the factors regulating the resolution of the chemically distinct entities dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine. The potential utility of the (/sup 2/H/sub 7/)dopamine, isotopomer as an internal standard for the high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of dopamine is demonstrated by using aluminum oxide extraction prior to chromatographic separation.

  9. Peptide profiling of Internet-obtained Cerebrolysin using high performance liquid chromatography - electrospray ionization ion trap and ultra high performance liquid chromatography - ion mobility - quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gevaert, Bert; D'Hondt, Matthias; Bracke, Nathalie; Yao, Han; Wynendaele, Evelien; Vissers, Johannes Petrus Cornelis; De Cecco, Martin; Claereboudt, Jan; De Spiegeleer, Bart

    2015-09-01

    Cerebrolysin, a parenteral peptide preparation produced by controlled digestion of porcine brain proteins, is an approved nootropic medicine in some countries. However, it is also easily and globally available on the Internet. Nevertheless, until now, its exact chemical composition was unknown. Using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to ion trap and ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to quadrupole-ion mobility-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-IM-TOF MS), combined with UniProt pig protein database search and PEAKS de novo sequencing, we identified 638 unique peptides in an Internet-obtained Cerebrolysin sample. The main components in this sample originate from tubulin alpha- and beta-chain, actin, and myelin basic protein. No fragments of known neurotrophic factors like glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), neurotrophin nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) were found, suggesting that the activities reported in the literature are likely the result of new, hitherto unknown cryptic peptides with nootropic properties. PMID:26017115

  10. Purification of recombinant virus-like particles of porcine circovirus type 2 capsid protein using ion-exchange monolith chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zaveckas, Mindaugas; Snipaitis, Simas; Pesliakas, Henrikas; Nainys, Juozas; Gedvilaite, Alma

    2015-06-01

    Diseases associated with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infection are having a severe economic impact on swine-producing countries. The PCV2 capsid (Cap) protein expressed in eukaryotic systems self-assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs) which can serve as antigens for diagnostics or/and as vaccine candidates. In this work, conventional adsorbents as well as a monolithic support with large pore sizes were examined for the chromatographic purification of PCV2 Cap VLPs from clarified yeast lysate. Q Sepharose XL was used for the initial separation of VLPs from residual host nucleic acids and some host cell proteins. For the further purification of PCV2 Cap VLPs, SP Sepharose XL, Heparin Sepharose CL-6B and CIMmultus SO3 monolith were tested. VLPs were not retained on SP Sepharose XL. The purity of VLPs after chromatography on Heparin Sepharose CL-6B was only 4-7% and the recovery of VLPs was 5-7%. Using ion-exchange chromatography on the CIMmultus SO3 monolith, PCV2 Cap VLPs with the purity of about 40% were obtained. The recovery of VLPs after chromatography on the CIMmultus SO3 monolith was 15-18%. The self-assembly of purified PCV2 Cap protein into VLPs was confirmed by electron microscopy. Two-step chromatographic purification procedure of PCV2 Cap VLPs from yeast lysate was developed using Q Sepharose XL and cation-exchange CIMmultus SO3 monolith. PMID:25910233

  11. An improved thin-layer chromatography/mass spectrometry coupling using a surface sampling probe electrospray ion trap system

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, Michael J; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2004-01-01

    A combined surface sampling probe/electrospray emitter coupled with an ion trap mass spectrometer was used for the direct read out of unmodified reversed-phase C18 thin-layer chromatography (TLC) plates. The operation of the surface sampling electrospray ionization interface in positive and negative ionization modes was demonstrated through the direct analysis of TLC plates on which a commercial test mix comprised of four dye compounds viz., rhodamine B, fluorescein, naphthol blue black, and fast green FCF, and an extract of the caffeine-containing plant Ilex vomitoria, were spotted and developed. Acquisition of full-scan mass spectra and automated collection of MS/MS product ion spectra while scanning a development lane along the surface of a TLC plate demonstrated the advantages of using an ion trap in this combination. Details of the sampling system, benefits of analyzing a developed lane in both positive ion and negative ion modes, levels of detection while surface scanning, surface scan speed effects, and the utility of three-dimensional data display, are also discussed.

  12. An improved thin-layer chromatography/mass spectrometry coupling using a surface sampling probe electrospray ion trap system.

    PubMed

    Ford, Michael J; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2004-01-01

    A combined surface sampling probe/electrospray emitter coupled with an ion trap mass spectrometer was used for the direct read out of unmodified reversed-phase C18 thin-layer chromatography (TLC) plates. The operation of the surface sampling electrospray ionization interface in positive and negative ionization modes was demonstrated through the direct analysis of TLC plates on which a commercial test mix comprised of four dye compounds viz., rhodamine B, fluorescein, naphthol blue black, and fast green FCF, and an extract of the caffeine-containing plant Ilex vomitoria, were spotted and developed. Acquisition of full-scan mass spectra and automated collection of MS/MS product ion spectra while scanning a development lane along the surface of a TLC plate demonstrated the advantages of using an ion trap in this combination. Details of the sampling system, benefits of analyzing a developed lane in both positive ion and negative ion modes, levels of detection while surface scanning, surface scan speed effects, and the utility of three-dimensional data display, are also discussed. PMID:15174184

  13. Size exclusion chromatography for the unambiguous detection of aliphatics in fractions from petroleum vacuum residues, coal liquids, and standard materials, in the presence of aromatics

    SciTech Connect

    Eiman M. Al-Muhareb; Fatma Karaca; Trevor J. Morgan; Alan A. Herod; Ian D. Bull; Rafael Kandiyoti

    2006-05-15

    A method has been developed using size exclusion chromatography (SEC) in heptane eluent that can detect aliphatics unambiguously without fractionation to remove aromatics. Spherical molecules such as colloidal silicas elute at the exclusion limit, while alkanes up to C{sub 50} elute through the porosity of the column. Detection of aliphatics was defined by use of an evaporative light scattering (ELS) detector with the simultaneous absence of UV absorbance at 300 nm. Alkanes smaller than C{sub 12} were not detected because the conditions of operation of the ELS caused their evaporation. All aromatics eluted after the permeation limit of about 25 min and were not detected until well after 45 min by their UV absorbance. The SEC method was applied to petroleum vacuum residues and coal liquids, and their fractions were soluble in pentane or heptane. High-temperature (HT) GC-MS confirmed the presence of alkanes in the pentane- and heptane-soluble fractions of petroleum vacuum residues, but did not elute any of the aromatics known to be present from SEC. Alkanes were examined in pentane-soluble fractions of a coal digest and a low-temperature coal tar; alkanes up to C{sub 40} were detected in the low-temperature tar and, although present in the digest, were masked by aromatics. No alkanes were detected by either SEC or HT GC-MS in fractions from a coal tar pitch. Aromatics in coal liquids and one petroleum residue were also examined by SEC using NMP as eluent and by UV fluorescence spectroscopy. The SEC method will find application to pentane- and heptane-soluble fractions of petroleum liquids and coal liquids where the alkanes are concentrated relative to the more abundant aromatics. 43 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Reversed-phase ion-pair liquid chromatography method for purification of duplex DNA with single base pair resolution

    PubMed Central

    Wysoczynski, Christina L.; Roemer, Sarah C.; Dostal, Vishantie; Barkley, Robert M.; Churchill, Mair E. A.; Malarkey, Christopher S.

    2013-01-01

    Obtaining quantities of highly pure duplex DNA is a bottleneck in the biophysical analysis of protein–DNA complexes. In traditional DNA purification methods, the individual cognate DNA strands are purified separately before annealing to form DNA duplexes. This approach works well for palindromic sequences, in which top and bottom strands are identical and duplex formation is typically complete. However, in cases where the DNA is non-palindromic, excess of single-stranded DNA must be removed through additional purification steps to prevent it from interfering in further experiments. Here we describe and apply a novel reversed-phase ion-pair liquid chromatography purification method for double-stranded DNA ranging in lengths from 17 to 51 bp. Both palindromic and non-palindromic DNA can be readily purified. This method has the unique ability to separate blunt double-stranded DNA from pre-attenuated (n-1, n-2, etc) synthesis products, and from DNA duplexes with single base pair overhangs. Additionally, palindromic DNA sequences with only minor differences in the central spacer sequence of the DNA can be separated, and the purified DNA is suitable for co-crystallization of protein–DNA complexes. Thus, double-stranded ion-pair liquid chromatography is a useful approach for duplex DNA purification for many applications. PMID:24013567

  15. APPLICATION OF GC/ITD (GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/ION TRAP DETECTOR) TO ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The choice of gas chromatography (GC) detectors has expanded rapidly. The necessity for mass spectrometric (MS) characterization of GC effluents stems from the complexity of the matrices associated with environmental samples. There are currently several MS types being used in con...

  16. Analysis of Underivatized Amino Acids in Geological Samples Using Ion-Pairing Liquid Chromatography and Electrospray Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, De-Ling; Beegle, Luther W.; Kanik, Isik

    2008-04-01

    The capability of detecting biomarkers, such as amino acids, in chemically complex field samples is essential to establishing the knowledge required to search for chemical signatures of life in future planetary explorations. However, due to the complexities of in situ investigations, it is important to establish a new analytical scheme that utilizes a minimal amount of sample preparation. This paper reports the feasibility of a novel and sensitive technique, which has been established to quantitate amino acids in terrestrial crust samples directly without derivatization using volatile ion-pairing liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry equipped with an electrospray ionization source. Adequate separation of 20 underivatized amino acids was achieved on a C18 capillary column within 26 min with nonafluoropentanoic acid (NFPA) as ion-pairing reagent. Each amino acid was identified from its retention time as well as from its characteristic parent-to-daughter ion transition. Using tandem mass spectrometry as a detection technique allows co-elution of some amino acids, as it is more specific than traditional spectrophotometric methods. In the present study, terrestrial samples collected from 3 different locations were analyzed for their water-extractable free amino acid contents, following the removal of metal and organic interferences via ion exchange procedures. This is the first time that amino acids in geological samples were directly determined quantitatively without complicated derivatization steps. Depending on the amino acid, the detection limits varied from 0.02 to 5.7 pmol with the use of a 1 ?l sample injection loop.

  17. Estimation of band broadening in size-exclusion chromatography. I. A method based on analyzing narrow standards with a molar mass-sensitive detector.

    PubMed

    Yossen, Mariana M; Vega, Jorge R; Meira, Gregorio R

    2006-09-22

    A method is proposed for estimating the (asymmetrical and non-uniform) band broadening function (BBF) in size-exclusion chromatography (SEC). The following data are required: the molar mass calibration and the concentration- and molar mass chromatograms of a set of narrow standards. In the narrow range of each standard, the BBF is uniform but skewed. Each uniform BBF is estimated through a nonlinear optimization procedure that compares one (of the two) measured chromatograms with its theoretical prediction based on the other chromatogram. The method is validated with numerical examples that simulate the analyses of narrow standards exhibiting log-normal and Poisson weight chain length distributions. The BBF can be assumed of arbitrary shape, or represented by an exponentially-modified Gaussian (EMG). From the uniform BBF estimate, the true polydispersity of the standard can be determined. The global non-uniform BBF is obtained by interpolation between a set of uniform BBFs covering a wide range of elution volumes. PMID:16828786

  18. Analysis of complex phthalic acid based polyesters by the combination of size exclusion chromatography and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Pretorius, Nadine O; Rode, Karsten; Simpson, Jaylin M; Pasch, Harald

    2014-01-15

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was used in conjunction with size exclusion chromatography (SEC) to investigate a model polyester system based on phthalic anhydride-1,2-propylene glycol. The polyesters were synthesized with a 30% molar excess of glycol, with kinetic samples being removed during different intervals of the polyesterification reaction. SEC was used to track the course of the reaction by determining the molecular weight and molecular weight distributions before subsequent off-line coupling with MALDI-TOF MS as a selective detection method to determine the chemical composition, identify the functionality type distributions as well as assist in assigning structural conformations. Mass spectrometry analysis proved to be a highly effective tool to facilitate the identification of the narrowly dispersed fractions obtained from the chromatographic separations as well as serve as a core method to investigate the heterogeneous nature of the bulk kinetic samples. Through the hyphenation of these sophisticated polymer characterization techniques, information on the molecular heterogeneity of the model polyesters, showing a complex variety of possible distributions, was obtained. PMID:24370096

  19. Size-exclusion chromatography-mass spectrometry with m-nitrobenzyl alcohol as post-column additive for direct characterization of size variants of monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chong-Feng; Zang, Li; Weiskopf, Andrew

    2014-06-01

    Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) is commonly used to monitor low molecular weight fragments and aggregates present in recombinant monoclonal antibody (mAb) biopharmaceuticals. It has been previously demonstrated that SEC could be coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) to directly measure the molecular weights of these protein species to aid in their identification. However, the use of certain mobile phase modifiers led to compromised sensitivity in MS detection. In this work, we demonstrate that the use of m-nitrobenzyl alcohol (m-NBA) as a post-column additive in an SEC-MS method is able to improve the ionization of antibody light chain and heavy chain approximately 7-fold and 2-fold, respectively, and thus allows the MS detection of low-abundance size variants present in mAb biopharmaceuticals. Application of the 15-min reducing SEC-UV/MS method enabled the direct identification of size variants present in an IgG1 mAb sample. One high molecular weight species observed under reducing conditions was identified to be a thioether-linked heterodimer of light chain and heavy chain. Multiple lower molecular weight species were found to result from cleavage of the heavy chain at a number of sites throughout the conserved sequence. The reducing SEC-UV/MS method provides a straightforward approach for identification of size variants present in mAb and may be applicable generally to all types of mAb biopharmaceuticals. PMID:24835510

  20. Robust Method Using Online Steric Exclusion Chromatography-Ultraviolet-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry To Investigate Nanoparticle Fate and Behavior in Environmental Samples.

    PubMed

    Al-Sid-Cheikh, Maya; Pédrot, Mathieu; Bouhnik-Le Coz, Martine; Dia, Aline; Davranche, Mélanie; Neaime, Chrystelle; Grasset, Fabien

    2015-10-20

    The foundation of nanoscience is that the properties of materials change as a function of their physical dimensions, and nanotechnology exploits this premise by applying selected property modifications for a specific benefit. However, to investigate the fate and effect of the engineered nanoparticles on toxic metal (TM) mobility, the analytical limitations in a natural environment remain a critical problem to overcome. Recently, a new generation of size exclusion chromatography (SEC) columns developed with spherical silica is available for pore sizes between 5 and 400 nm, allowing the analysis of nanoparticles. In this study, these columns were applied to the analysis of metal-based nanoparticles in environmental and artificial samples. The new method allows quantitative measurements of the interactions among nanoparticles, organic matter, and metals. Moreover, because of the new nanoscale SEC, our method allows the study of these interactions for different size ranges of nanoparticles and weights of organic molecules with a precision of 1.2 × 10(-2) kDa. The method was successfully applied to the study of nanomagnetite spiked in complex matrixes, such as sewage sludge, groundwater, tap water, and different artificial samples containing Leonardite humic acid and different toxic metals (i.e., As, Pb, Th). Finally, our results showed that different types of interactions, such as adsorption, stabilization, and/or destabilization of nanomagnetite could be observed using this new method. PMID:26383030

  1. Analysis of aminoglycoside residues in bovine milk by liquid chromatography electrospray ion trap mass spectrometry after derivatization with phenyl isocyanate.

    PubMed

    Turnipseed, Sherri B; Clark, Susan B; Karbiwnyk, Christine M; Andersen, Wendy C; Miller, Keith E; Madson, Mark R

    2009-05-15

    A derivatization procedure using phenyl isocyanate was adapted to liquid chromatography ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-MS(n)) for confirmation and quantification of aminoglycoside residues in milk. Aminoglycoside residues were extracted from milk with acid and isolated from the matrix with a weak cation exchange solid-phase extraction cartridge. After isolating the compounds from the milk, derivatives of gentamicin, neomycin, and tobramycin were formed by reacting the drugs with phenyl isocyanate in the presence of triethylamine. The analytes were separated using a dilute formic acid/acetonitrile gradient on a reversed-phase LC column. The derivatized compounds were analyzed using positive ion electrospray LC-MS(n) with ion trap detection. Product ion spectra were generated from the derivatized protonated molecules. Specific ion transitions were evaluated for quantitative determination and qualitative confirmation of residues in milk. Using this procedure, residues were qualitatively confirmed in milk samples fortified with gentamicin and neomycin at levels ranging from 15 to 300 ng mL(-1). Gentamicin has four major components that were successfully separated and confirmed independently; for quantitative determination the peak areas from the four analogs were summed. Tobramycin was added as an internal standard for quantitation to mitigate the effects of matrix ion suppression and variable recoveries. Overall recoveries for this method ranged from 80% to 120% with relative standard deviations of less than 25%. The method detection limits are 9.8 ng mL(-1) for NEO and 12.8 ng mL(-1) for total GEN residues. PMID:19345161

  2. Three step purification of C1q by DNA precipitation, ion exchange and lectin affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Rhen, M; Linder, E

    1982-10-01

    The difficulties associated with the isolation of pure C1q in sufficient amounts are reflected by the substantial number of isolation procedures, which are being published. The two major problems are a low yield and contaminating immunoglobulins. In addition, some isolation protocols appear to produce C1q contaminated with an inhibitor (C1q-INH). The present isolation protocol involves precipitation of C1q by DNA, chromatography using Sephadex QAE A 50 followed by Con A affinity chromatography. By this combination of purification steps maximal advantage was taken of the cationic properties and high carbohydrate content of the C1q molecule. The yield was 1-2 mg C1q per 100 ml serum. The isolated C1q was free of any demonstrable contaminants as demonstrated by Ouchterlony double diffusion and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. PMID:6982284

  3. Quantitative analysis of cytokinins in plants by high performance liquid chromatography: electronspray ionization ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weiqi; Gai, Ying; Liu, Shichang; Wang, Renxiao; Jiang, Xiangning

    2010-10-01

    The present paper introduces a highly sensitive and selective method for simultaneous quantification of 12 cytokinins (free form and their conjugates). The method includes a protocol of extraction with methanol/water/formic acid (15/4/1, v/v/v) to the micro-scale samples, pre-purification with solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridges of the extracts, separation with a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and detection by an electrospray ionization ion trap mass spectrometry (ESI-Ion trap-MS) system in a consecutive ion monitoring (CRM) mode at the three stage fragmentation of mass spectrometry (MS(3) ). The lowest detection level of the cytokinins of the method reaches 0.1-2.0 pg with a very wide range of linear regression from 1-512 pg, at the coefficient factors of 0.98-0.99. The feasibility of this method has been proven in the application of the method to the analysis of the trace-amount contents of cytokinins in the micro-scale samples of various types of plant materials, such as aerial parts of rice and poplar leaves etc. 12 endogenous cytokinins had been identified and quantified in the plant tissues, with an acceptable relatively higher recovery rate from 40% to 70%. PMID:20883444

  4. Immobilized palladium(II) ion affinity chromatography for recovery of recombinant proteins with peptide tags containing histidine and cysteine.

    PubMed

    Kikot, Pamela; Polat, Aise; Achilli, Estefania; Fernandez Lahore, Marcelo; Grasselli, Mariano

    2014-11-01

    Fusion of peptide-based tags to recombinant proteins is currently one of the most used tools for protein production. Also, immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) has a huge application in protein purification, especially in research labs. The combination of expression systems of recombinant tagged proteins with this robust chromatographic system has become an efficient and rapid tool to produce milligram-range amounts of proteins. IMAC-Ni(II) columns have become the natural partners of 6xHis-tagged proteins. The Ni(II) ion is considered as the best compromise of selectivity and affinity for purification of a recombinant His-tagged protein. The palladium(II) ion is also able to bind to side chains of amino acids and form ternary complexes with iminodiacetic acid and free amino acids and other sulfur-containing molecules. In this work, we evaluated two different cysteine- and histidine-containing six amino acid tags linked to the N-terminal group of green fluorescent protein (GFP) and studied the adsorption and elution conditions using novel eluents. Both cysteine-containing tagged GFPs were able to bind to IMAC-Pd(II) matrices and eluted successfully using a low concentration of thiourea solution. The IMAC-Ni(II) system reaches less than 20% recovery of the cysteine-containing tagged GFP from a crude homogenate of recombinant Escherichia coli, meanwhile the IMAC-Pd(II) yields a recovery of 45% with a purification factor of 13. PMID:25277090

  5. Determination of the impurity profile of adenosine by means of ion-pair reversed-phase chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kopec, S; Almeling, S; Holzgrabe, U

    2006-12-01

    Production processes of adenosine include condensation of ribose and adenine by means of chemical or biochemical processes, as well as fermentation. Nowadays, adenosine is commonly produced by alkaline hydrolysis of yeast ribonucleic acid, often in the presence of calcium or lead ions, followed by chromatographic separation of the obtained nucleosides adenosine, cytidine, guanosine and uridine. The current Ph. Eur. monograph for adenosine describes a TLC method for determination of related substances that limits the impurities to 1 per cent. To ensure the quality of adenosine, it is proposed to replace the TLC method by a more sensitive and selective HPLC method, in accordance with the current policy for control of impurities as defined by the Ph. Eur. Commission. An HPLC separation system, originally proposed by the USP, using ion-pair reversed-phase chromatography in combination with tetrabutylammonium hydrogen sulphate as an ion-pair reagent, has been examined for its suitability to limit guanosine, inosine, uridine and adenine. This article describes the experiments as regards the choice of the most suitable commercial column to obtain an appropriate separation, the column temperature, the establishment of a relevant system suitability criterion, and the determination of correction factors for the individual impurities. PMID:17691210

  6. Separation of silver ions and starch modified silver nanoparticles using high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet and inductively coupled mass spectrometric detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanley, Traci A.; Saadawi, Ryan; Zhang, Peng; Caruso, Joseph A.; Landero-Figueroa, Julio

    2014-10-01

    The production of commercially available products marketed to contain silver nanoparticles is rapidly increasing. Species-specific toxicity is a phenomenon associated with many elements, including silver, making it imperative to develop a method to identify and quantify the various forms of silver (namely, silver ions vs. silver nanoparticles) possibly present in these products. In this study a method was developed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet (UV-VIS) and inductively coupled mass spectrometric (ICP-MS) detection to separate starch stabilized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and silver ions (Ag+) by cation exchange chromatography with 0.5 M nitric acid mobile phase. The silver nanoparticles and ions were baseline resolved with an ICP-MS response linear over four orders of magnitude, 0.04 mg kg- 1 detection limit, and 90% chromatographic recovery for silver solutions containing ions and starch stabilized silver nanoparticles smaller than 100 nm.

  7. Analysis of particle content of recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 8 vectors by ion-exchange chromatography.

    PubMed

    Lock, Martin; Alvira, Mauricio R; Wilson, James M

    2012-02-01

    Advances in adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene therapy have brought the possibility of commercial manufacturing of AAV vectors one step closer. To realize this prospect, a parallel effort with the goal of ever-increasing sophistication for AAV vector production technology and supporting assays will be required. Among the important release assays for a clinical gene therapy product, those monitoring potentially hazardous contaminants are most critical for patient safety. A prominent contaminant in many AAV vector preparations is vector particles lacking a genome, which can substantially increase the dose of AAV capsid proteins and lead to possible unwanted immunological consequences. Current methods to determine empty particle content suffer from inconsistency, are adversely affected by contaminants, or are not applicable to all serotypes. Here we describe the development of an ion-exchange chromatography-based assay that permits the rapid separation and relative quantification of AAV8 empty and full vector particles through the application of shallow gradients and a strong anion-exchange monolith chromatography medium. PMID:22428980

  8. Detection of anionic energetic material residues in enhanced fingermarks on porous and non-porous surfaces using ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Love, Catherine; Gilchrist, Elizabeth; Smith, Norman; Barron, Leon

    2013-09-10

    The ability to link criminal activity and identity using validated analytical approaches can be of great value to forensic scientists. Herein, the factors affecting the recovery and detection of inorganic and organic energetic material residues within chemically or physically enhanced fingermarks on paper and glass substrates are presented using micro-bore anion exchange chromatography with suppressed conductivity detection. Fingermarks on both surfaces were enhanced using aluminium powder or ninhydrin after spiking with model test mixtures or through contact with black-powder substitutes. A quantitative study of the effects of environmental/method interferences, the sweat matrix, the surface and the enhancement technique on the relative anion recovery of forensically relevant species is presented. It is shown that the analytical method could detect target analytes at the nanogram level even within excesses of enhancement reagents and their reaction products when using solid phase extraction and/or microfiltration. To our knowledge, this work demonstrates for the first time that ion chromatography can detect anions in energetic materials within fingermarks on two very different surfaces, after operational enhancement techniques commonly used by forensic scientists and police have been applied. PMID:23890630

  9. Strong ion-exchange centrifugal partition chromatography as an efficient method for the large-scale purification of glucosinolates.

    PubMed

    Toribio, Alix; Nuzillard, Jean-Marc; Renault, Jean-Hugues

    2007-11-01

    The glucosinolates sinalbin and glucoraphanin were purified by strong ion-exchange displacement centrifugal partition chromatography (SIXCPC). The optimized conditions involved the biphasic solvent system ethyl acetate/n-butanol/water (3:2:5, v/v), the lipophilic anion-exchanger Aliquat 336 (trioctylmethylammonium chloride, 160 and 408 mM) and a sodium iodide solution (80 and 272 mM) as displacer. Amounts as high as 2.4 g of sinalbin and 2.6g of glucoraphanin were obtained in one step in 2.5 and 3.5h respectively, starting from 12 and 25 g of mustard and broccoli seed aqueous extracts, using a laboratory scale CPC column (200 mL inner volume). PMID:17904564

  10. [Rapid determination of alkaloids in tobacco using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with full scan-selected ion monitoring mode].

    PubMed

    Wang, Baoxing; Yang, Shihua; Hou, Ying; Zeng, Xiaoying; Wu, Yi; Xu, Guowang

    2008-05-01

    Simultaneous full scan-selected ion monitoring mode (Scan-SIM) is a new improvement method of data acquisition of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A method of determing alkaloids in tobacco was established by GC-MS with Scan-SIM. Nicotine, nornicotine, anabasine and anatabine were determined with scan mode, and myosmine, nicotyrine, 2,3'-bipyridyl and cotinine were determined with SIM mode. The average recoveries of alkaloids ranged from 94.8% to 98.8%, and the relative standard deviations were less than 6.0% (n = 5). Therefore, it is a simple, rapid, accurate method. Tobacco samples picked in different years were determined using this method, and the results were satisfactory. PMID:18724666

  11. Hand-portable gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometer for the determination of the freshness of fish

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, A. Peter; Harden, Charles S.; Davis, Dennis M.; Shoff, Donald B.; Maswadeh, Waleed M.

    1995-01-01

    A hand-held, portable gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometer (GC-IMS) device was used to detect the presence of volatile amine compounds in the headspace of decomposing fish. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) largely relies on olfactory discrimination with respect to fresh and spoiled, frozen and unfrozen fish. The fish are delivered at ship docks on pallets, and each pallet of fish can range from 30-40 thousand dollars in value. Fresh fish were placed in a teflon bag and the direct headspace was interrogated. In the first three days, only low molecular weight volatile amines were detected. On the fourth day, a number of spectral signatures were observed which indicated the presence of 1,5-diaminopentane, cadaverine. Analyses typically took from 0.5-1 minute.

  12. Liquid chromatography quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry for multiclass screening and identification of lipophilic marine biotoxins in bivalve mollusks.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haiyan; Guo, Mengmeng; Tan, Zhijun; Cheng, Haiyan; Li, Zhaoxin; Zhai, Yuxiu

    2014-09-01

    A liquid chromatography quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry method with fast polarity switching and a scheduled multiple reaction monitoring algorithm mode was developed for multiclass screening and identification of lipophilic marine biotoxins in bivalve molluscs. A major advantage of the method is that it can detect members of all six groups of lipophilic marine biotoxins [okadaic acid (OA), yessotoxins (YTX), azaspiracids (AZA), pectenotoxins (PTX), cyclic imines (CI), and brevetoxins (PbTx)], thereby allowing quantification and high confidence identification from a single liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) injection. An enhanced product ion (EPI) library was constructed after triggered collection of data via information-dependent acquisition (IDA) of EPI spectra from standard samples. A separation method for identifying 17 target toxins in a single analysis within 12min was developed and tested. Different solid phase extraction sorbents, the matrix effect (for oyster, scallop, and mussel samples), and stability of the standards also were evaluated. Matrix-matched calibration was used for quantification of the toxins. The limits of detection were 0.12-13.6?g/kg, and the limits of quantification were 0.39-45.4?g/kg. The method was used to analyze 120 shellfish samples collected from farming areas along the coast of China, and 7% of the samples were found to be contaminated with toxins. The library search identified PbTx-3, YTX, OA, PTX2, AZA1, AZA2, and desmethylspirolide C (SPX1). Overall, the method exhibited excellent sensitivity and reproducibility, and it will have broad applications in the monitoring of lipophilic marine biotoxins. PMID:25086754

  13. DETERMINATION OF A BOUND MUSK XYLENE METABOLITE IN CARP HEMOGLOBIN AS A BIOMARKER OF EXPOSURE BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY MASS SPECTROMETRY USING SELECTED ION MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Musk xylene (MX) is widely used as a fragrance ingredient in commercial toiletries. Identification and quantification of a bound 4-amino-MX (AMX) metabolite was carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), with selected ion monitoring (SIM). Detection of AMX occur...

  14. A Computer-Based Undergraduate Exercise Using Internet-Accessible Simulation Software for the Study of Retention Behavior and Optimization of Separation Conditions in Ion Chromatography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddad, Paul R.; Shaw, Matthew J.; Madden, John E.; Dicinoski, Greg W.

    2004-01-01

    The ability to scan retention data over a wide range of eluent composition opens up the possibility of a computerized selection of the optimal separation conditions. The major characteristics of retention behavior, peak-shape effects and pH effects evident in ion chromatography (IC) using common stationary phases and eluents are illustrated.

  15. Profiling the indole alkaloids in yohimbe bark with ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ion mobility quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-ion mobility- quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-IM-QTOF-MS) method was developed for profiling the indole alkaloids in yohimbe bark. Many indole alkaloids with the yohimbine core structure, plus methylated, oxidized, and reduced speci...

  16. POLAR ORGANIC CHEMICAL INTEGRATIVE SAMPLING AND LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY-ELECTROSPRAY/ION-TRAP MASS SPECTROMETRY FOR ASSESSING SELECTED PRESCRIPTION AND ILLICIT DRUGS IN TREATED SEWAGE EFFLUENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the research presented in this paper is two-fold: (1) to demonstrate the 4 coupling of two state-of-the-art techniques: a time-weighted polar organic integrative sampler (POCIS) and micro-liquid chromatography-electrospray/ion trap mass spectrometry (u-LC-6 ES/ITMS...

  17. Speciation of arsenic(III)/arsenic(V) and selenium(IV)/ selenium(VI) using coupled ion chromatography - hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Simple analytical methods have been developed to speciate inorganic arsenic and selenium in the ppb range using coupled ion chromatography-hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Because of the differences in toxicity and adsorption behavior, determinations of the redox states arsenite A...

  18. Ion-exchange chromatography of a dinucleotide preparation from controlled alkaline hydrolysis of ribonucleic acids

    PubMed Central

    Satoh, Kimihiko; Inoue, Yasuo

    1969-01-01

    With the aim of preparing the 16 possible ribodinucleotides derived from the four principal ribonucleotides, we made a kinetic study to determine the optimum conditions for a partial alkaline hydrolysis of RNA. Satisfactory results were obtained when the hydrolysis of RNA (1g.) in 0·2m-sodium hydroxide (100ml.) at 37° was ceased approx. 10min. after the start of the reaction. The relative yields of the monomer, dimer and trimer fractions were approx. 41:30:15 in E260 units, indicating that the reaction conditions were reasonably close to those required from kinetic considerations. The partial alkaline hydrolysate was chromatographed on a column of DEAE-Sephadex A-25 in the presence of 7m-urea. The dinucleotide fraction thus obtained was subjected to a subsequent chromatography on Dowex 1 (X2) under acidic conditions to separate the mixture according to base composition and base sequence. The results were satisfactory, and most of the 32 dinucleotides [i.e. 16 XpYp(3?) plus 16 XpYp(2?)] were fractionated by this single chromatographic procedure. The present method should be useful for further study of oligonucleotides as a time-saving method for the simultaneous preparation of a variety of dinucleotides. Further, examination of the present chromatographic pattern has provided several empirical criteria useful for the identification of oligonucleotides other than dimers appearing in the elution profile of Dowex 1 (X2) column chromatography under similar conditions. PMID:5810085

  19. Branched polymers characterized by comprehensive two-dimensional separations with fully orthogonal mechanisms: molecular-topology fractionation×size-exclusion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Edam, Rob; Mes, Edwin P C; Meunier, David M; Van Damme, Freddy A; Schoenmakers, Peter J

    2014-10-31

    Polymer separations under non-conventional conditions have been explored to obtain a separation of long-chain branched polymers from linear polymers with identical hydrodynamic size. In separation media with flow-through channels of the same order as the size of the analyte molecules in solution, the separation and the elution order of polymers are strongly affected by the flow rate. At low flow rates, the largest polymers are eluted last. At high flow rates, they are eluted first. By tuning the channel size and flow rate, conditions can be found where separation becomes independent of molar mass or size of linear polymers. Long-chain branched polymers did experience lower migration rates under these conditions and can be separated from linear polymers. This type of separation is referred to as molecular-topology fractionation (MTF) at critical conditions. Separation by comprehensive two-dimensional molecular-topology fractionation and size-exclusion chromatography (MTF×SEC) was used to study the retention characteristics of MTF. Branching selectivity was demonstrated for three- and four-arm "star" polystyrenes of 3-5×10(6)g/mol molar mass. Baseline separation could be obtained between linear polymer, Y-shaped molecules, and X-shaped molecules in a single experiment at constant flow rate. For randomly branched polymers, the branching selectivity inevitably results in an envelope of peaks, because it is not possible to fully resolve the huge numbers of different branched and linear polymers of varying molar mass. It was concluded that MTF involves partial deformation of polymer coils in solution. The increased coil density and resistance to deformation can explain the different retention behavior of branched molecules. PMID:25282310

  20. Size-exclusion chromatography as a stand-alone methodology identifies novel markers in mass spectrometry analyses of plasma-derived vesicles from healthy individuals

    PubMed Central

    de Menezes-Neto, Armando; Sáez, María José Fidalgo; Lozano-Ramos, Inés; Segui-Barber, Joan; Martin-Jaular, Lorena; Ullate, Josep M. Estanyol; Fernandez-Becerra, Carmen; Borrás, Francesc E.; del Portillo, Hernando A.

    2015-01-01

    Plasma-derived vesicles hold a promising potential for use in biomedical applications. Two major challenges, however, hinder their implementation into translational tools: (a) the incomplete characterization of the protein composition of plasma-derived vesicles, in the size range of exosomes, as mass spectrometric analysis of plasma sub-components is recognizably troublesome and (b) the limited reach of vesicle-based studies in settings where the infrastructural demand of ultracentrifugation, the most widely used isolation/purification methodology, is not available. In this study, we have addressed both challenges by carrying-out mass spectrometry (MS) analyses of plasma-derived vesicles, in the size range of exosomes, from healthy donors obtained by 2 alternative methodologies: size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) on sepharose columns and Exo-Spin™. No exosome markers, as opposed to the most abundant plasma proteins, were detected by Exo-Spin™. In contrast, exosomal markers were present in the early fractions of SEC where the most abundant plasma proteins have been largely excluded. Noticeably, after a cross-comparative analysis of all published studies using MS to characterize plasma-derived exosomes from healthy individuals, we also observed a paucity of “classical exosome markers.” Independent of the isolation method, however, we consistently identified 2 proteins, CD5 antigen-like (CD5L) and galectin-3-binding protein (LGALS3BP), whose presence was validated by a bead-exosome FACS assay. Altogether, our results support the use of SEC as a stand-alone methodology to obtain preparations of extracellular vesicles, in the size range of exosomes, from plasma and suggest the use of CD5L and LGALS3BP as more suitable markers of plasma-derived vesicles in MS. PMID:26154623

  1. Effect of anionic ion-pairing reagent hydrophobicity on selectivity of peptide separations by reversed-phase liquid chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Shibue, M.; Mant, C.T.; Hodges, R.S.

    2009-01-01

    Despite the continuing dominance of trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) as the anionic ion-pairing reagent of choice for peptide separations by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), we believe that a step-by-step approach to re-examining the relative efficacy of TFA compared to other ion-pairing reagents is worthwhile, particularly for the design of separation protocols for complex peptide mixtures, e.g., in proteomics applications. Thus, we applied RP-HPLC in the presence of different concentrations of anionic ion-pairing reagents – phosphoric acid, TFA, pentafluoropropionic acid (PFPA) and heptafluorobutyric acid (HFBA) – to a mixture of three groups of four 10-residue peptides, these groups containing peptides of +1, +3 or +5 net charge. Overall separation of the 12-peptide mixture improved with increasing reagent hydrophobicity (phosphate? < TFA? < PFPA? < HFBA?) and/or concentration of the anion, with reagent hydrophobicity having a considerably more pronounced effect than reagent concentration. HFBA, in particular, achieved an excellent separation at a concentration of just 10 mM, whereby the peptides were separated by charged groups (+1 < +3 < +5) and hydrophobicity within these groups. There was an essentially equal effect of reagent hydrophobicity and concentration on each positive charge of the peptides, a useful observation for prediction of the effect of varying counterion concentration hydrophobicity and/or concentration during optimization of peptide purification protocols. Peak widths were greater for the more highly charged peptides, although these could be decreased significantly by raising the acid concentration; concomitantly, peptide resolution increased with increasing concentration of ion-pairing reagent. PMID:16013616

  2. Characterization of diacylglycerol isomers in edible oils using gas chromatography-ion trap electron ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hanjiang; Clegg, Michael S; Shoemaker, Charles F; Wang, Selina C

    2013-08-23

    Verifying the authenticity of edible oils is of international concern. A new quality control standard for olive oil has been proposed that relates the ratio of 1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG) to 1,3-DAG to sensory aspects of olive oil. DAGs and their isomers are difficult to quantitate and characterize by Flame Ionization Gas Chromatography (GC-FID) due to the lack of suitable standards. Mass detectors offer the advantage of providing structural detail to the eluding DAG(s), thus removing ambiguity to the identification of both resolved and unresolved DAGs in GC chromatograms. In this study, a GC Electron Ionization Mass Spectrometry (GC-EI-MS) method was developed to determine the fatty acid composition and molecular structure of trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatized DAGs present in edible oils. Twenty-two species of DAG isomers were identified in refined coconut oil and unrefined olive oil utilizing signature fragment ions, [M-15](+), [M-89](+), [M-RCO2](+), [RCO2+58](+) and [M-RCO2CH2](+). The [M-RCO2CH2](+) ion is considered the key diagnostic ion to distinguish between DAG positional isomers. MS/MS spectra of [M-RCO2](+) and [M-15](+) ions obtained from commercial standards containing both 1,2- and 1,3-DAG isomers were used as a model system to confirm the identification of DAG isomers in natural products. Furthermore, a number of reaction mechanisms are proposed to explain the formation of the most abundant mass fragments of DAGs and their isomers. PMID:23880469

  3. Analysis of water from the Space Shuttle and Mir Space Station by ion chromatography and capillary electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orta, D.; Mudgett, P. D.; Ding, L.; Drybread, M.; Schultz, J. R.; Sauer, R. L.

    1998-01-01

    Drinking water and condensate samples collected from the US Space Shuttle and the Russian Mir Space Station are analyzed routinely at the NASA-Johnson Space Center as part of an ongoing effort to verify water quality and monitor the environment of the spacecraft. Water quality monitoring is particularly important for the Mir water supply because approximately half of the water consumed is recovered from humidity condensate. Drinking water on Shuttle is derived from the fuel cells. Because there is little equipment on board the spacecraft for monitoring the water quality, samples collected by the crew are transported to Earth on Shuttle or Soyuz vehicles, and analyzed exhaustively. As part of the test battery, anions and cations are measured by ion chromatography, and carboxylates and amines by capillary electrophoresis. Analytical data from Shuttle water samples collected before and after several missions, and Mir condensate and potable recovered water samples representing several recent missions are presented and discussed. Results show that Shuttle water is of distilled quality, and Mir recovered water contains various levels of minerals imparted during the recovery processes as designed. Organic ions are rarely detected in potable water samples, but were present in humidity condensate samples.

  4. Single-column method of ion chromatography for the determination of common cations and some transition metals.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Wenfang; Chen, Yongxin; Cui, Hairong; Wu, Feiyan; Zhu, Yan; Fritz, James S

    2006-06-16

    A single-column method for the simultaneous determination of common cations and transition metals in real samples is proposed in this paper. Eleven cations (copper, lithium, sodium, ammonium, potassium, cobalt, nickel, magnesium, calcium, strontium and zinc) were separated and analyzed by means of ion chromatography using an isocratic elution with 2.5 mM methane sulfonic acid and 0.8 mM oxalic acid as mobile phase, IonPac SCS1 (250 mm x 4 mm I.D.) as the separation column and non-suppressed conductor detection. Optimized analytical conditions were further validated in terms of accuracy, precision and total uncertainty and the results showed the reliability of the IC method. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the retention time and peak area were less than 0.04 and 1.30%, respectively. The coefficients of determination for cations ranged from 0.9988 to 1.000. The method developed was successfully applied to determination of cations in samples of beer and bottled mineral water. The spiked recoveries for the cations were 94-106%. The method was applied to beer and beverage without interferences. PMID:16483592

  5. [Study of chemical kinetics between pyrroloquinoline quinine and D-serine in body by ion-pair liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xingqin; Qin, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Jiankang; Cao, Guoxian

    2012-02-01

    As a new neurotransmitter present in the glial cells, D-serine (DSer) plays an important role in central nervous system diseases. Pyrroloquinoline quinine (PQQ) can promote the production of the nerve growth factor and has a protective effect on nerve injuries. The chemical kinetics of PQQ and DSer was studied by determining the free contents of PQQ using ion-pair liquid chromatography (LC), so it can provide important information for the mechanisms of PQQ in the regulation of neurotransmitter. The PQQ and the production of the incubation were separated on an Amethyst C18-P column using tetrabutylammonium bromide as ion-pair reagent. The average recoveries were between 94.2% and 99.3%, and the relative standard deviations were between 1.05% and 2.03%. The average rate constants (K) of PQQ with DSer were 0.032, 0.07 and 0.17 h(-1) at 25, 37 and 50 degrees C, respectively. The average activation energy (E(a)) was 54.7 kJ/mol. The values of half life (t1/2) were 22.0, 9.8 and 3.99 h at 25, 37 and 50 degrees C, respectively. The results showed that PQQ can regulate the balance of DSer in the brain. The method is simple and reliable. PMID:22679836

  6. Ion chromatography-mass spectrometry: a review of recent technologies and applications in forensic and environmental explosives analysis.

    PubMed

    Barron, Leon; Gilchrist, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The development and application of ion chromatography (IC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) is discussed herein for the quantitative determination of low-order explosives-related ionic species in environmental and forensic sample types. Issues relating to environmental explosives contamination and the need for more confirmatory IC-MS based applications in forensic science are examined. In particular, the compatibility of a range of IC separation modes with MS detection is summarised along with the analytical challenges that have been overcome to facilitate determinations at the ng-?g L(-1) level. Observed trends in coupling IC to inductively coupled plasma and electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry form a particular focus. This review also includes a discussion of the relative performance of reported IC-MS methods in comparison to orthogonal ion separation-based, spectrometric and spectroscopic approaches to confirmatory detection of low-order explosives. Finally, some promising areas for future research are highlighted and discussed with respect to potential IC-MS applications. PMID:24331039

  7. Investigation of the preparation and use of low-capacity anion exchangers in single-column ion chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Barron, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    The preparation and uses of strong-base anion exchangers of low capacity are reviewed. A new adaptation of known reactions is presented for the reproducible preparation of Type I anion exchangers of low capacity and it is explored in some detail. The resins are based on the macroreticular copolymer known as XAD-1. It is shown that the same reaction scheme may be used on any porous styrene-divinylbenzene copolymer. Procedures are described for the preparation of twelve other strong-base resins with various structural differences in the quaternary ammonium functional group. These resins are then evaluated to determine the effect of chemical structure on selectivity for a number of common monovalent and divalent anions. It is shown that the structure of the quaternary ammonium ion has a definite effect on selectivity. It is also shown that surface modification can affect selectivity. The implications for single-column ion chromatography are discussed and some examples are given where a change in the chemical structure of the functional group is of practical value in the separation of anions. The factors influencing the choice of an eluent acid are outlined and it is shown that some acids are better than others on the basis on their lack of interaction with the copolymer matrix.

  8. Development Of Ion Chromatography Methods To Support Testing Of The Glycolic Acid Reductant Flowsheet In The Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Wiedenman, B. J.; White, T. L.; Mahannah, R. N.; Best, D. R.; Stone, M. E.; Click, D. R.; Lambert, D. P.; Coleman, C. J.

    2013-10-01

    Ion Chromatography (IC) is the principal analytical method used to support studies of Sludge Reciept and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) chemistry at DWPF. A series of prior analytical ''Round Robin'' (RR) studies included both supernate and sludge samples from SRAT simulant, previously reported as memos, are tabulated in this report.2,3 From these studies it was determined to standardize IC column size to 4 mm diameter, eliminating the capillary column from use. As a follow on test, the DWPF laboratory, the PSAL laboratory, and the AD laboratory participated in the current analytical RR to determine a suite of anions in SRAT simulant by IC, results also are tabulated in this report. The particular goal was to confirm the laboratories ability to measure and quantitate glycolate ion. The target was + or - 20% inter-lab agreement of the analyte averages for the RR. Each of the three laboratories analyzed a batch of 12 samples. For each laboratory, the percent relative standard deviation (%RSD) of the averages on nitrate, glycolate, and oxalate, was 10% or less. The three laboratories all met the goal of 20% relative agreement for nitrate and glycolate. For oxalate, the PSAL laboratory reported an average value that was 20% higher than the average values reported by the DWPF laboratory and the AD laboratory. Because of this wider window of agreement, it was concluded to continue the practice of an additional acid digestion for total oxalate measurement. It should also be noted that large amounts of glycolate in the SRAT samples will have an impact on detection limits of near eluting peaks, namely Fluoride and Formate. A suite of scoping experiments are presented in the report to identify and isolate other potential interlaboratory disceprancies. Specific ion chromatography inter-laboratory method conditions and differences are tabulated. Most differences were minor but there are some temperature control equipment differences that are significant leading to a recommendation of a heated jacket for analytical columns that are remoted for use in radiohoods. A suggested method improvement would be to implement column temperture control at a temperature slightly above ambient to avoid peak shifting due to temperature fluctuations. Temperature control in this manner would improve short and longer term peak retention time stability. An unknown peak was observed during the analysis of glycolic acid and SRAT simulant. The unknown peak was determined to best match diglycolic acid. The development of a method for acetate is summaraized, and no significant amount of acetate was observed in the SRAT products tested. In addition, an alternative Gas Chromatograph (GC) method for glycolate is summarized.

  9. METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF PERCHLORATE ANION IN PLANT AND SOLID MATRICES BY ION CHROMATOGRAPHY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A standardized method for the analysis of perchlorate in plants was developed, based on dry weight, and applied to the analysis of plant organs, foodstuffs, and plant products. The procedure greatly reduced the ionic interferences in water extracts of plant materials. Ion chro...

  10. Concentration of Methylamine and Ethylamine Salts measured by a particle into liquid sampler and Ion Chromatography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A Particle-Into-Liquid Sampler (PILS) and ion chromatographs (ICs) were used to detect the concentration of methylamine salts associated with atmospheric particulate matter reactions in a smog chamber. The smog chamber is located at U.C. Riverside’s College of Engineering Center for Environmental Re...

  11. DETERMINATION OF BROMATE IN DRINKING WATERS BY ION CHROMATOGRAPHY WITH INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRIC DETECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bromate is a disinfection by-product in drinking water, formed during the ozonation of source water containing bromide. An inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer is combined with an ion chromatograph for the analysis of bromate in drinking waters. Three chromatographic colu...

  12. High-resolution determination of {sup 147}Pm in urine using dynamic ion-exchange chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Elchuk, S.; Lucy, C.A.; Burns, K.I.

    1992-10-15

    Ion exchange preconcentration followed by HPLC purification prior to scintillation counting was used to measure the concentration of {sup 147}Pm in urine. the detection limit for this method was found to be 0.1 Bq (3 fg) of {sup 147}Pm in 500 ml of urine.

  13. Determination of amine ingredients in cough-cold liquids by reversed-phase ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Halstead, G W

    1982-10-01

    The chromatographic behavior of phenylephrine, codeine, pseudoephedrine, phenylpropanolamine, methoxyphenamine, pheniramine, pyrilamine, dextromethorphan, and chlorpheniramine was examined by reversed-phase, ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography. An isocratic chromatographic system was devised for the analysis of cough-cold liquids containing these amine drugs by optimization of the mobile phase ionic strength, buffer pH, pairing ion concentration, and secondary ion concentration. Quantitative recovery and excellent precision were demonstrated for the simultaneous determination of phenylpropranolamine, dextromethorphan, and chlorpheniramine in a typical formulation. The method was successfully applied to various commercial cough-cold liquids for the analysis of a wide range of amine drugs. PMID:7143206

  14. Combination of Zetaprep mass ion-exchange media and high-performance cation-exchange chromatography for the purification of high-purity monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Jungbauer, A; Unterluggauer, F; Steindl, F; Rüker, F; Katinger, H

    1987-06-26

    A procedure involving diafiltration, mass ion exchange on a QAE Zetaprep disk, gel chromatography and cation-exchange chromatography was used for the purification of mouse monoclonal antibodies from hybridoma culture supernatant. Prior to the separation steps, the starting solution was adjusted to the desired pH and conductivity. Diafiltration was used for this purpose in order to keep the volume constant or even to reduce the volume of sample. A QAE Zetaprep disk was used to remove the main protein contaminants from the culture supernatant. After washing unbound proteins out of the Zetaprep disk, slightly bound protein was eluted with a buffer solution containing 50 mM sodium chloride. The monoclonal antibody was eluted with a solution containing 150 mM sodium chloride. The purity of the eluted antibody was 50%, and was increased to 99% by subsequent high-performance cat-ion-exchange chromatography. The purity was determined by means of sodium-dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and silver staining. The advantage of the two high-performance techniques, mass ion exchange and high-performance cation-exchange chromatography, are the high-flow-rates and the high resolution that can be obtained. These techniques are suitable for the production of injectable therapeutic preparations. PMID:3654824

  15. Miniaturized GC/MS instrumentation for in situ measurements: micro gas chromatography coupled with miniature quadrupole array and paul ion trap mass spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, P.; Chutjian, A.; Darrach, M.; Orient, O.

    2002-01-01

    Miniaturized chemical instrumentation is needed for in situ measurements in planetary exploration and other spaceflight applications where factors such as reduction in payload requirements and enhanced robustness are important. In response to this need, we are 'continuing to develop miniaturized GC/MS instrumentation which combines chemical separations by gas chromatography (GC) with mass spectrometry (MS) to provide positive identification of chemical compounds in complex mixtures of gases, such as those found in the International Space Station's cabin atmosphere. Our design approach utilizes micro gas chromatography components coupled with either a miniature quadrupole mass spectrometer array (QMSA) or compact, high-resolution Paul ion trap.

  16. Highly sensitive determination of iodide by ion chromatography with amperometric detection at a silver-based carbon paste electrode.

    PubMed

    Malongo, Trésor Kimbeni; Patris, Stéphanie; Macours, Pascale; Cotton, Frédéric; Nsangu, Jean; Kauffmann, Jean-Michel

    2008-07-30

    A silver-based solid carbon paste electrode was developed for use as a detector in ion chromatography (IC) for the sensitive determination of iodide in real samples. Micro- and nano-particles of silver were investigated for the fabrication of different electrodes. The iodide assay was based on IC with amperometric detection (IC-AD) at a silver composite electrode polarized at +0.080 V versus Ag/AgCl. Free iodide and organoiodide compounds were studied. The detection process was characterized by studying the redox behavior of iodide ions at both silver and silver composite electrodes by cyclic voltammetry (CV). The presence of iodide ions in solution was found to considerably facilitate metallic silver oxidation, with response currents directly related to iodide concentration. The calibration curve at the selected silver carbon paste electrode was linear in the concentration range comprised between 0.635 microg/L and 63.5 microg/L iodide. The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) for successive injections was below 3% for all iodide standard solutions investigated. The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.47 microg/L (3.7 nmol/L) for an injection volume of 20 microL, i.e. 74 fmol injected. The IC-AD method was successfully applied to the determination of iodide in complex real samples such as table salts, sea products and iodide bound drug compounds. The analytical accuracy was verified by the assay of iodide in milk powder from an iodide certified reference material (CRM) Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) 150. PMID:18585319

  17. Determination of ammonium in a buddingtonite sample by ion-chromatography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klock, P.R.; Lamothe, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    An ion-chromatographic method for the direct determination of ammonium, potassium, and sodium in geologic materials is described. Samples are decomposed with a mixture of hydrofluoric and hydrochloric acids in a sealed polycarbonate bottle heated in a microwave oven. The ion-chromatograph separates the cations and determines them by conductivity measurement. The ammonium concentrations thus determined have been verified by use of an ammonia-specific electrode. A total of 32 analyses of ammonium salts by both techniques showed an average error of -4%, with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 6%. The ammonium concentrations found in a buddingtonite sample had an RSD of 2.2% and their mean agreed with that obtained by the Kjeldahl method. By use of the prescribed dilution of the sample, detection limits of 0.1% can be achieved for all three cations. ?? 1986.

  18. Gas chromatography/ion mobility spectrometry as a hyphenated technique for improved explosives detection and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercado, AL; Marsden, Paul

    1995-01-01

    Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) is currently being successfully applied to the problem of on-line trace detection of plastic and other explosives in airports and other facilities. The methods of sample retrieval primarily consist of batch sampling for particulate residue on a filter card for introduction into the IMS. The sample is desorbed into the IMS using air as the carrier and negative ions of the explosives are detected, some as an adduct with a reagent ion such as Cl(-). Based on studies and tests conducted by different airport authorities, this method seems to work well for low vapor pressure explosives such as RDX and PETN, as well as TNT that are highly adsorptive and can be found in nanogram quantities on contaminated surfaces. Recently, the changing terrorist threat and the adoption of new marking agents for plastic explosives has meant that the sample introduction and analysis capabilities of the IMS must be enhanced in order to keep up with other detector developments. The IMS has sufficient analytical resolution for a few threat compounds but the IMS Plasmogram becomes increasingly more difficult to interpret when the sample mixture gets more complex.

  19. Negative ion chemical ionization gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry of low-dosed and/or polar drugs in plasma.

    PubMed

    Maurer, Hans H; Kraemer, Thomas; Kratzsch, Carsten; Peters, Frank T; Weber, Armin A

    2002-02-01

    In clinical and forensic toxicology, doping control, and therapeutic drug monitoring, specific and sensitive detection and precise quantification of xenobiotics in biosamples are great challenges. Today, mass spectrometry techniques, coupled with gas chromatography or liquid chromatography, are the most powerful methods in analytic toxicology. The pros and cons of electron ionization (EI) and negative ion chemical ionization (NICI) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and of atmospheric pressure chemical ionization liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (APCI-LC-MS) are described for determination of the low-dosed benzodiazepine flunitrazepam and its 7-amino and its nor-metabolite in plasma. In addition, application of NICI-GC-MS is described for sensitive chiral determination of amphetamine derivatives in plasma and application of APCI-LC-MS for screening, library-assisted identification, and validated quantification of oral antidiabetics and for validated quantification of the neuroleptic risperidone and its 9-hydroxy metabolite. These examples show that NICI-GC-MS and LC-MS are powerful tools for determination of low-dosed and/or rather polar drugs or poisons, thus becoming indispensable supplements to classic EI-GC-MS in clinical and forensic toxicology as well as in doping control. PMID:11805732

  20. Capability measurement of size-exclusion chromatography with a light-scattering detection method in a stability study of bevacizumab using the process capability indices.

    PubMed

    Oliva, Alexis; Llabrés, Matías; Fariña, José B

    2014-08-01

    In this study, we investigated if the size-exclusion chromatography coupled with light-scattering and refractive index detection (SEC/LS/RI) method is fitted for its intended purpose and checked if the analytical method is able to provide enough conforming results. For this, the process capability indices Cp, Cpk, and Cpm were computed. The traditional X-chart and moving range (MR) chart were used by the same analyst to monitor the equipment in the laboratory over a 1-year period. For this, a bovine serum albumin (BSA) sample (0.3 mg mL(-1)) with a nominal Mw of 66.4 kDa was analyzed each working day. The results confirmed that the analytical method is in-control and stable. To determine whether the given process meets the present capability requirement and runs under the desired quality conditions, the Pearn and Shu (2003) method based on the lower confidence bound C on Cpm was used. The estimator Cpm was 1.81, and the lower confidence bound C was 1.40. We therefore conclude that the true value of the method capability Cpm is no less than 1.40 with a 95% level of confidence. This result indicates that the method is satisfactory and no stringent precision control is required. The usefulness of this method was applied in the characterization of bevacizumab commercial pharmaceutical preparations stored under different conditions that lead to aggregation. In this case, the computed Cpm index was 0.98 (0.70, 1.26), which indicates that the method does not comply with the specification limits and needs to be revised. The quality improvement effort should: (1) reduce the uncertainty in the absolute Mw determination; (2) either move the process mean closer to the target value or reduce the process variation, i.e. improve the method accuracy (?-T) and precision (?(2)). On this point, the Bayesian posterior distribution of the mean and standard deviation pointed out the need to control the precision but specially accuracy in order to reduce the overall uncertainty of analytical method and thus, the method is capable. PMID:24786652

  1. The analysis of aqueous mixtures using liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, S.

    1999-02-12

    The focus of this dissertation is the use of chromatographic methods coupled with electrospray mass spectrometry (ES-MS) for the determination of both organic and inorganic compounds in aqueous solutions. The combination of liquid chromatography (LC) methods and ES-MS offers one of the foremost methods for determining compounds in complex aqueous solutions. In this work, LC-ES-MS methods are devised using ion exclusion chromatography, reversed phase chromatography, and ion exchange chromatography, as well as capillary electrophoresis (CE). For an aqueous sample, these LC-ES-MS and CE-ES-MS techniques require no sample preparation or analyte derivatization, which makes it possible to observe a wide variety of analytes as they exist in solution. The majority of this work focuses on the use of LC-ES-MS for the determination of unknown products and intermediates formed during electrochemical incineration (ECI), an experimental waste remediation process. This report contains a general introduction to the project and the general conclusions. Four chapters have been removed for separate processing. Titles are: Chapter 2: Determination of small carboxylic acids by ion exclusion chromatography with electrospray mass spectrometry; Chapter 3: Electrochemical incineration of benzoquinone in aqueous media using a quaternary metal oxide electrode in the absence of a soluble supporting electrolyte; Chapter 4: The determination of electrochemical incineration products of 4-chlorophenol by liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry; and Chapter 5: Determination of small carboxylic acids by capillary electrophoresis with electrospray mass spectrometry.

  2. Semiautomated pH gradient ion-exchange chromatography of monoclonal antibody charge variants.

    PubMed

    Talebi, Mohammad; Shellie, Robert A; Hilder, Emily F; Lacher, Nathan A; Haddad, Paul R

    2014-10-01

    A new approach using a chromatography system equipped with isocratic pumps and an electrolytic eluent generator (EG) is introduced, replacing external pH gradient delivery using conventional gradient systems, in which bottled buffers with preadjusted pH are mixed using a gradient pump. The EG is capable of generating high purity base or acid required for online preparation of the buffer at the point of use, utilizing deionized water as the only carrier stream. Typically, the buffer was generated from online titration of a reagent composed of low molecular weight amines. The reagent was delivered isocratically into a static mixing tee, where it was titrated to the required pH with electrolytically generated base or acid. The required pH gradient was thus conveniently generated by electrically controlling the concentration of titrant. Also, since the pH was adjusted at the point of use, this approach offered enhanced throughput in terms of eluent preparation time and labor, and with a more reproducible pH profile. The performance of the system was demonstrated by running pH gradients ranging from pH 8.2 to 10.9 on a polymer monolith cation-exchange column for high throughput profiling of charge heterogeneity of intact, basic therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. A high degree of flexibility in modulating the key parameters of the pH gradient, including the buffer concentration, the pH gradient slope and the operating pH range was demonstrated. This enabled fine-tuning of the separation conditions for each individual antibody in order to enhance the chromatographic resolution. PMID:25199803

  3. Pre-equilibration kinetic size-exclusion chromatography with mass spectrometry detection (peKSEC-MS) for label-free solution-based kinetic analysis of protein-small molecule interactions.

    PubMed

    Bao, Jiayin; Krylova, Svetlana M; Cherney, Leonid T; Le Blanc, J C Yves; Pribil, Patrick; Johnson, Philip E; Wilson, Derek J; Krylov, Sergey N

    2015-02-21

    Here we introduce pre-equilibration kinetic size-exclusion chromatography with mass-spectrometry detection (peKSEC-MS), which is a label-free solution-based kinetic approach for characterizing non-covalent protein-small molecule interactions. In this method, a protein and a small molecule are mixed outside the column and incubated to approach equilibrium. The equilibrium mixture is then introduced into the SEC column to initiate the dissociation process by separating small molecules from the complex inside the column. A numerical model of a 1-dimensional separation was constructed to simulate mass chromatograms of the small molecule for varying rate constants of binding. PMID:25611307

  4. Determination of sulfonic acids and alkylsulfates by ion chromatography in water.

    PubMed

    Bruzzoniti, Maria Concetta; De Carlo, Rosa Maria; Sarzanini, Corrado

    2008-05-15

    A fast ion chromatographic method with suppressed conductivity detection has been developed for the simultaneous determination of methane-, ethane-, 1-propane-, 1-butane-, 1-pentane-, 1-hexane-, 1-heptane-, 1-octane-, 1-nonane-, 1-decane-, 1-dodecane-, dodecylbenzene-, p-toluene-, benzenesulfonic acids, octylsulfate and dodecylsulfate in water samples. Due to the high number of analytes and their heterogeneity, the effect of the mobile phase parameters (NaOH, CH(3)OH and CH(3)CN concentration) on the retention factors has been studied in detail, so achieving, for the first time, the separation among 15 of these analytes by a gradient elution. Detection limits included within 0.06-0.16 microM have been obtained. Interferences from Cl(-), NO(3)(-) and SO(4)(2-), possible anions present in water samples, have been considered and a SPE procedure has been developed for analytes enrichment and matrix removal in a seawater sample. This is the first application of an ion-exchange chromatographic method to a seawater sample for this kind of analytes. PMID:18585139

  5. Ion pair liquid chromatography method for the determination of thiamine (vitamin B1) homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Basiri, Babak; Sutton, James Michael; Hanberry, Bradley S; Zastre, Jason A; Bartlett, Michael G

    2016-01-01

    A new method for reversed phase HPLC determination of thiamine and its major in vivo phosphorylation products, thiamine monophosphate (TMP) and thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), was developed using tetrabutylammonium hydroxide as the ion-pairing agent. The separation was performed on a Phenomenex Kinetex EVO C18 column with a gradient of a phosphate-buffered aqueous solution of the ion-pair reagent and methanol. The duty cycle for the assay was 13 min and pyrithiamine was successfully used as the internal standard for the first time in a thiamine HPLC measurement protocol. Detection of the fluorescence derivatives of the analytes as well as the IS allowed for lower detection limits in order to support biological applications in cell culture models. The linearity, sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and precision of the method were evaluated and met the requirements specified by the US Food and Drug Administration. The calibration curves proved to be linear and the method was validated over the range from 1.0-4000 nm for both cells and the media where complete recovery of the analytes was also achieved. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26120008

  6. Theoretical evaluation of peak capacity improvements by use of liquid chromatography combined with drift tube ion mobility-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Causon, Tim J; Hann, Stephan

    2015-10-16

    In the domain of liquid phase separations, the quality of separation obtainable is most readily gauged by consideration of classical chromatographic peak capacity theory. Column-based multidimensional strategies for liquid chromatography remain the most attractive and practical route for increasing the number of spatially resolved components in order to reduce stress on necessary mass spectrometric detection. However, the stress placed on a chromatographic separation step as a second dimension in a comprehensive online methodology (i.e. online LC×LC) is rather high. As an alternative to online LC×LC combinations, coupling of HPLC with ion mobility spectrometry hyphenated to mass spectrometry (IMS-MS) has emerged as an attractive approach to permit comprehensive sampling of first dimension chromatographic peaks and subsequent introduction to an orthogonal IMS separation prior to measurement of ions by a mass spectrometer. In the present work, utilization of classical peak capacity and ion mobility theory allows theoretical assessment of the potential of two- (LC×IMS-MS) or even three-dimensional (LC×LC×IMS-MS) experimental setups to enhance peak capacity and, therefore, the number of correctly annotated features within the framework of complex, non-targeted analysis problems frequently addressed using HPLC-MS strategies. Theoretical calculations indicate that newly-available drift tube IMS-MS instrumentation can yield peak capacities of between 10 and 40 using nitrogen drift gas for typical non-targeted metabolomic, lipidomic and proteomic applications according to the expected reduced mobilities of components in the respective samples. Theoretically, this approach can significantly improve the overall peak capacity of conventional HPLC-(MS) methodologies to in excess of 10(4) depending upon the column length and gradient time employed. A more elaborate combination of LC×LC×IMS-MS would improve the ion suppression limitation and possibly allow access to theoretically even higher peak capacities, but such a combination may render the IMS separation practically redundant as well as imparting the well-known dilution problems associated with LC×LC. Finally, some predictions for the separation of co-eluted isobaric compounds can also be made by considering the required peak-to-peak resolution for acceptable IMS separation. The here-described theoretical predication approach can be used to aid method development for HPLC×IMS-MS and is also accompanied by some practical considerations that should be contemplated in associated non-targeted analysis workflows. PMID:26372446

  7. Recovering Paleo-Records from Antarctic Ice-Cores by Coupling a Continuous Melting Device and Fast Ion Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Severi, Mirko; Becagli, Silvia; Traversi, Rita; Udisti, Roberto

    2015-11-17

    Recently, the increasing interest in the understanding of global climatic changes and on natural processes related to climate yielded the development and improvement of new analytical methods for the analysis of environmental samples. The determination of trace chemical species is a useful tool in paleoclimatology, and the techniques for the analysis of ice cores have evolved during the past few years from laborious measurements on discrete samples to continuous techniques allowing higher temporal resolution, higher sensitivity and, above all, higher throughput. Two fast ion chromatographic (FIC) methods are presented. The first method was able to measure Cl(-), NO3(-) and SO4(2-) in a melter-based continuous flow system separating the three analytes in just 1 min. The second method (called Ultra-FIC) was able to perform a single chromatographic analysis in just 30 s and the resulting sampling resolution was 1.0 cm with a typical melting rate of 4.0 cm min(-1). Both methods combine the accuracy, precision, and low detection limits of ion chromatography with the enhanced speed and high depth resolution of continuous melting systems. Both methods have been tested and validated with the analysis of several hundred meters of different ice cores. In particular, the Ultra-FIC method was used to reconstruct the high-resolution SO4(2-) profile of the last 10?000 years for the EDML ice core, allowing the counting of the annual layers, which represents a key point in dating these kind of natural archives. PMID:26494022

  8. Analysis of inorganic nitrogen and related anions in high salinity water using ion chromatography with tandem UV and conductivity detectors.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Brian; Gandhi, Jay; Zhang, Chunlong Carl

    2011-09-01

    Over 97% of the Earth's water is high salinity water in the form of gulfs, oceans, and salt lakes. There is an increasing concern for the quality of water in bays, gulfs, oceans, and other natural waters. These waters are affected by many different sources of contamination. The sources are, but not limited to, groundwater run-off of nitrogen containing fertilizer, pesticides, cleaning agents, solid wastes, industrial waters, and many more. The final destinations of these contaminants are rivers, lakes, and bayous that eventually will lead to bays, gulfs, and oceans. Many industries depend on the quality of these waters, such as the fishing industry. In addition to wild marine life, there are large aquariums and fish and shrimp farms that are required to know the quality of the water. However, the ability of these industries to monitor their processes is limited. Most analytical methods do not apply to the analysis of high salinity waters. They are dependent on wet chemistry techniques, spectrophotometers, and flow analyzers. These methods do not have the accuracy, precision, and sensitivity when compared to ion chromatography (IC). Since the inception of IC, it has become a standard practice for determining the content of many different water samples. Many IC methods are limited in the range of analytes that can be detected, as well as the numerous sample sources of which the methods are applicable. The main focus of current IC methods does not include high salinity waters. This research demonstrates an ion chromatographic method that has the ability to determine low level concentrations of inorganic nitrogen and related anions (nitrite-N, nitrate-N, phosphorous-P, sulfate, bromide, chloride, sulfide, fluoride, ammonia, calcium, and magnesium) in a single run using a combination of UV and conductivity detectors. This method is applicable to various waters, and uses both freshwater and high salinity water samples. PMID:21859532

  9. Automated determination of bromide in waters by ion chromatography with an amperometric detector

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pyen, G.S.; Erdmann, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    An automated ion chromatograph, including a program controller, an automatic sampler, an integrator, and an amperometric detector, was used to develop a procedure for the determination of bromide in rain water and many ground waters. Approximately 10 min is required to obtain a chromatogram. The detection limit for bromide is 0.01 mg l-1 and the relative standard deivation is <5% for bromide concentrations between 0.05 and 0.5 mg l-1. Chloride interferes if the chloride-to-bromide ratio is greater than 1 000:1 for a range of 0.01-0.1 mg l-1 bromide; similarly, chloride interferes in the 0.1-1.0 mg l-1 range if the ratio is greater than 5 000:1. In the latter case, a maximum of 2 000 mg l-1 of chloride can be tolerated. Recoveries of known concentrations of bromide added to several samples, ranged from 97 to 110%. ?? 1983.

  10. Diffusion scrubber-ion chromatography for the measurement of trace levels of atmospheric HCl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindgren, Per F.

    A diffusion scrubber-ion chromatographic (DS-IC) instrument has been characterized and employed for the measurement of trace levels of gaseous HCl in the atmosphere. The instrument operates with a temporal resolution of 5 min and the detection limit is estimated to be 5 pptv. Collection efficiencies for HCl with two identical diffusion scrubbers were 28±2% and 20±2%, respectively, at a sampling flow rate of 2 SLPM. Instrument response decreases with increased relative humidity. An equation, correction factor=2.45 × 10 -7 × %r.h 3 + 1.00, is used to correct for the relative humidity dependency. The instrument was tested in ambient air studies by measuring background mixing ratios between 0.02 and 0.5 ppbv at a suburban sampling site. Calibration of the instrument was carried out with a novel source of gaseous HCl based on sublimation of ammonium chloride.

  11. Impurity profiling of etimicin sulfate by liquid chromatography ion-trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yao-zuo; Zhang, Mei; Fan, Xia-Lei; Wang, Guo-Hua; Hu, Chang-Qing; Jin, Shao-hong; Van Schepdael, Ann; Hoogmartens, Jos; Adams, Erwin

    2012-11-01

    A reversed phase (RP)-LC method using a C(18) column resistant to basic pH and an alkaline (pH 10) aqueous mobile phase was developed and coupled to MS with an electrospray ionization (ESI) source in the positive ion mode which provides MS(n) capability. In total, 26 impurities were detected in a commercial sample. The structures of the impurities were proposed based on comparison of their fragmentation patterns with those of the available reference substances, the synthetic route and literature data. Starting material and its residual impurities, intermediates, synthetic by-products and degradation products were the main sources of those impurities. 14 impurities described in this work were newly identified. PMID:22819209

  12. Dynamic ion exchange chromatography for the determination of number of fissions in uranium dioxide fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Cassidy, R.M.; Elchuk, S.; Elliot, N.L.; Green, L.W.; Knight, C.H.; Recoskie, B.M.

    1986-05-01

    The liquid chromatographic determination of the fission monitor /sup 139/La has been examined for the determination of the number of fissions and burnup in UO/sub 2/ fuels. Lanthanum was separated from the fuel and other fission products on a reversed phase dynamically modified with 1-octanesulfonate, and eluted metal ions were detected after an on-line postcolumn reaction with Arsenazo III. The relative standard deviation for lanthanum determinations done over a 2-week period was 0.6%. The agreement between the chromatographic procedure and standard mass spectrometric procedures using /sup 145 +146/Nd as a fission monitor was within approx. 2%; the majority of this 2% difference was attributed to uncertainties in the accepted values for fission yields. The agreement between chromatographic and mass spectrometric procedures for the determination of La in fuel solutions was within approx. 1%. 15 references, 5 figures, 4 tables.

  13. Selective removal of carbon dioxide contained in the effluent from ion chromatography suppressors using a new non-vacuum device.

    PubMed

    Masunaga, Hiroto; Higo, Yuji; Ishii, Mizuo; Maruyama, Noboru; Yamazaki, Shigeo

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, a new CO2 gas removal device optimized to selectively remove CO2 gas contained in the effluent from suppressors used in ion chromatography (IC) under non-vacuum conditions is described. This device consists of a closed vessel equipped with gas permeable tubing (GPT) and a CO2 adsorbent. During operation, the CO2 adsorbent adsorbs CO2 gas in the vessel, creating CO2 partial pressure difference between the inside of the GPT and the vessel. The CO2 gas contained in the effluent being pumped into the GPT is selectively removed from the effluent based on the diffusion of the CO2 associated with the CO2 partial pressure difference. The purpose of this study is to optimize the IC operating conditions with the aim of selectively removing HCO3(-) (CO3(2-)) contained in the effluent and reducing the electrical conductivity of the effluent under non-vacuum conditions. The electrical conductivity of the effluent and the signal intensity of the water dip is decreased by approximately 25 ?S/cm (from 30 to 5 ?S/cm) and by approximately twentieth, respectively, using the optimized CO2 remover. In addition, the anion detection limit achieved in IC instruments with a CO2 remover is on the order of a few ppb. PMID:25817478

  14. Characterization of polysorbate 85, a nonionic surfactant, by liquid chromatography vs. ion mobility separation coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Solak Erdem, Nilüfer; Alawani, Nadrah; Wesdemiotis, Chrys

    2014-01-15

    Liquid chromatography (LC) and ion mobility (IM) separation have been coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS(2)) to characterize a commercially important nonionic surfactant, polysorbate 85. The constituents of this amphiphilic blend contained a sorbitan or isosorbide core that was chain extended with poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and partially esterified at the PEO termini with oleic acid or, to a lesser extent, other fatty acids. Using interactive LC in reverse-phase mode, the oligomers of the surfactant were separated according to their hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity balance. On the other hand, IM spectrometry dispersed the surfactant oligomers by their charge and collision cross section (i.e. size/shape). With either separation method, an increased number of fatty ester groups and/or lack of the polar sorbitan (or isosorbide) core led to higher retention/drift times, enabling the separation of isobaric species or species with superimposed isotope patterns, so that their ester content could be conclusively identified by MS(2). LC-MS and IM-MS permitted the detection of several byproducts besides the major PEO-sorbitan oleate oligomers. LC-MS provides the separation resolution needed for quantitative determination of the degree of esterification. IM-MS, which minimizes analysis time and solvent use, is ideally suitable for a fast, qualitative survey of samples differing in their minor constituents or impurities. PMID:24370095

  15. Determination of arsenic speciation in sulfidic waters by Ion Chromatography Hydride-Generation Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (IC-HG-AFS).

    PubMed

    Keller, Nicole S; Stefánsson, Andri; Sigfússon, Bergur

    2014-10-01

    A method for the analysis of arsenic species in aqueous sulfide samples is presented. The method uses an ion chromatography system connected with a Hydride-Generation Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometer (IC-HG-AFS). With this method inorganic As(III) and As(V) species in water samples can be analyzed, including arsenite (HnAs(III)O3(n-3)), thioarsenite (HnAs(III)S3(n-3)), arsenate (HnAs(V)O4(n-3)), monothioarsenate (HnAs(V)SO3(n-3)), dithioarsenate (HnAs(V)S2O2(n-3)), trithioarsenate (HnAs(V)S3O(n-3)) and tetrathioarsenate (HnAs(V)S4(n-3)). The peak identification and retention times were determined based on standard analysis of the various arsenic compounds. The analytical detection limit was ~1-3 µg L(-1) (LOD), depending on the quality of the baseline. This low detection limit makes this method also applicable to discriminate between waters meeting the drinking water standard of max. 10 µg L(-1) As, and waters that do not meet this standard. The new method was successfully applied for on-site determination of arsenic species in natural sulfidic waters, in which seven species were unambiguously identified. PMID:25059187

  16. The use of ion chromatography for the determination of clean-in-place-200 (CIP-200) detergent traces.

    PubMed

    Resto, Wilfredo; Roque, Joan; Rey, Rosamil; Colón, Héctor; Zayas, José

    2007-01-01

    Anion chromatography with conductivity detection was chosen as the analytical technique for the development of a cleaning validation method for clean-in-place (CIP) detergents. The method was developed and validated for the determination of traces of the detergent CIP-200. It was shown to be linear with a squared correlation coefficient (r(2)) of 0.9999 and the accuracy experiments presented average recoveries of 88.2% (area response factor) from stainless steel surfaces. The repeatability was found to be 1.6% and an intermediate precision of 1.9% across the range. The method was also shown to be sensitive with an average Detection Limit (DL) of 0.23 ppm and a Quantitation Limit (QL) of 0.70 ppm based on the amount of phosphate in the detergent sample. The phosphate signal was well resolved from typical ions encountered in water samples or any other interference presented from swabs and surfaces. The method was applied to cleaning validation samples and proved to be suitable for rapid and reliable quality control. PMID:19690632

  17. The Use of Ion Chromatography for the Determination of Clean-In-Place-200 (CIP-200) Detergent Traces

    PubMed Central

    Resto, Wilfredo; Roque, Joan; Rey, Rosamil; Colón, Héctor; Zayas, José

    2006-01-01

    Anion chromatography with conductivity detection was chosen as the analytical technique for the development of a cleaning validation method for clean-in-place (CIP) detergents. The method was developed and validated for the determination of traces of the detergent CIP-200. It was shown to be linear with a squared correlation coefficient (r2) of 0.9999 and the accuracy experiments presented average recoveries of 88.2% (area response factor) from stainless steel surfaces. The repeatability was found to be 1.6% and an intermediate precision of 1.9% across the range. The method was also shown to be sensitive with an average Detection Limit (DL) of 0.23 ppm and a Quantitation Limit (QL) of 0.70 ppm based on the amount of phosphate in the detergent sample. The phosphate signal was well resolved from typical ions encountered in water samples or any other interference presented from swabs and surfaces. The method was applied to cleaning validation samples and proved to be suitable for rapid and reliable quality control. PMID:19690632

  18. Immobilised metal ion affinity chromatography purification of alcohol dehydrogenase from baker's yeast using an expanded bed adsorption system.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, N A; Kirschner, T; Smith, M P; Hjorth, R; Titchener-Hooker, N J

    1999-04-30

    Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) from solutions of homogenised packed bakers' yeast has been successfully purified using immobilised metal-ion affinity chromatography in an expanded bed. Method scouting carried out using pure ADH solutions loaded onto 5-ml HiTrap columns charged with Zn2+, Ni2+ and Cu2+ and eluted using 0-50 mM EDTA gradient found that charging with Zn2+ gave the highest recovery and the lowest EDTA concentration required for elution. These results were used to develop a protocol for the expanded bed system and further tested using clarified yeast homogenate loaded onto XK16/20 packed beds (approximately 30 ml) packed with Chelating Sepharose FastFlow matrix in order to determine the optimum elution conditions using EDTA. The ADH was found to elute at 5 mM EDTA and the dynamic and total binding capacities of Streamline chelating for ADH were found to be 235 U/ml and 1075 U/ml matrix, respectively. Expanded bed work based on a step EDTA elution protocol demonstrated that ADH could be successfully eluted from unclarified homogenised bakers' yeast diluted to 10 mg/ml total protein content with a recovery of 80-100% that was maintained over five consecutive runs with a vigorous clean-in-place procedure between each run. PMID:10343398

  19. Multiple applications of ion chromatography oligosaccharide fingerprint profiles to solve a variety of sugar and sugar-biofuel industry problems.

    PubMed

    Eggleston, Gillian; Borges, Eduardo

    2015-03-25

    Sugar crops contain a broad variety of carbohydrates used for human consumption and the production of biofuels and bioproducts. Ion chromatography with integrated pulsed amperometric detection (IC-IPAD) can be used to simultaneously detect mono-, di-, and oligosaccharides, oligosaccharide isomers, mannitol, and ethanol in complex matrices from sugar crops. By utilizing a strong NaOH/NaOAc gradient method over 45 min, oligosaccharides of at least 2-12 dp can be detected. Fingerprint IC oligosaccharide profiles are extremely selective, sensitive, and reliable and can detect deterioration product metabolites from as low as 100 colony-forming units/mL lactic acid bacteria. The IC fingerprints can also be used to (i) monitor freeze deterioration, (ii) optimize harvesting methods and cut-to-crush times, (iii) differentiate between white refined sugar from sugar cane and from sugar beets, (iv) verify the activities of carbohydrate enzymes, (v) select yeasts for ethanol fermentations, and (vi) isolate and diagnose infections and processing problems in sugar factories. PMID:25708094

  20. Novel approaches for retention time prediction of oligonucleotides in ion-pair reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Lei, Beilei; Li, Shuyan; Xi, Lili; Li, Jiazhong; Liu, Huanxiang; Yao, Xiaojun

    2009-05-15

    The base sequence autocorrelation (BSA) descriptors were used to describe structures of oligonucleotides and to develop accurate quantitative structure-retention relationship (QSRR) models of oligonucleotides in ion-pair reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Through the combination use of multiple linear regression (MLR) and genetic algorithm (GA), QSRR models were developed at temperatures of 30 degrees C, 40 degrees C, 50 degrees C, 60 degrees C and 80 degrees C, respectively. Satisfactory results were obtained for the single-temperature models (STM). Multi-temperature model (MTM) was also developed that can be used for predicting the retention time at any temperature. The correlation coefficients of retention time prediction for the test set based on the MTM model at 30 degrees C, 40 degrees C, 50 degrees C, 60 degrees C and 80 degrees C were 0.978, 0.982, 0.989, 0.988 and 0.996, respectively. The corresponding absolute average relative deviations (AARD) for the test set at each temperature were all less than 1%. The new strategy of feature representation and multi-temperatures modeling is a very promising tool for QSRR modeling with good predictive ability for predicting retention time of oligonucleotides at multiple temperatures under the studied condition. PMID:19324364

  1. Quantification of four arsenic species in fruit juices by ion-chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Conklin, Sean D; Chen, Peter E

    2012-08-01

    A method using ion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (IC-ICP-MS) for the quantification of arsenic species in fruit juices has been developed and validated. The method is capable of quantifying four anionic arsenic species - arsenite (As(III)), arsenate (As(V)), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) - in the presence of unretained species such as arsenobetaine (AsB). Method validation was based on repeatability, analysis of reference materials, recovery of fortified samples, and determination of detection and quantification limits. The method was tested for use with apple, pear, cranberry, grape (red, white and purple) juices, as well as several juice blends. Limits of detection were 0.35, 0.41, 0.45 and 0.70?µg?kg?¹ for As(III), DMA, MMA and As(V), respectively. Chromatographic recovery was good for most samples (90-107% compared to total arsenic), though recovery for some grape juice samples was lower (67-78%). PMID:22639850

  2. Comparison of segmented flow analysis and ion chromatography for the quantitative characterization of carbohydrates in tobacco products.

    PubMed

    Shifflett, John R; Jones, Lindsey A; Limowski, Edward R; Bezabeh, Dawit Z

    2012-11-28

    Segmented flow analysis (SFA) and ion chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (IC-PAD) are widely used analytical techniques for the analysis of glucose, fructose, and sucrose in tobacco. In the work presented here, 27 cured tobacco leaves and 21 tobacco products were analyzed for sugars using SFA and IC. The results of these analyses demonstrated that both techniques identified the same trends in sugar content across tobacco leaf and tobacco product types. However, comparison of results between techniques was limited by the selectivity of the SFA method, which relies on the specificity of the reaction of p-hydroxybenzoic acid hydrazide (PAHBAH) with glucose and fructose to generate a detectable derivative. Sugar amines and chlorogenic acid, which are found in tobacco, are also known to react with PAHBAH to form a reaction product that interferes with the analysis of fructose and glucose. To mitigate this problem, solid phase extraction (SPE) was used to remove interferences such as sugar amines and chlorogenic acid from sample matrices prior to SFA. A combination of C18 and cation exchange solid phase extraction cartridges was used, and the results from SFA and IC analyses showed significant convergence in the results of both analytical methods. For example, the average difference between the results from the SFA and IC analyses for flue-cured tobacco samples dropped by 73% when the two-step C18/cation exchange resin sample cleanup was used. PMID:23131129

  3. Simple column-switching ion chromatography method for determining eight monosaccharides and oligosaccharides in honeydew and nectar.

    PubMed

    Ni, Chengzhu; Zhu, Binhe; Wang, Nani; Wang, Muhua; Chen, Suqing; Zhang, Jiajie; Zhu, Yan

    2016-03-01

    Honeydew is excreted by aphids as a sweet waste and nectar is floral honey. Honeydew and nectar are complicated samples which consist of various sugars and amino acids. In this work, a simple ion chromatography with column-switching method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of 8 monosaccharides and oligosaccharides in honeydew and nectar. A reversed-phase column was used as a pretreatment column to eliminate organics on-line and sugars were eluted from a collection loop to analytical column by using column-switching technique. This method showed good linearity (r?0.9994) and afforded low limits of detection ranging from 1.55 to 10.17?gL(-1) for all the analytes. Recoveries ranged from 95% to 105% and repeatability results were acceptable with relative standard deviation of less than 3.21% (n=6). This method was successfully applied to quantification of these sugars in honeydew and nectar. These results showed honeydew had much more oligosaccharides than nectar. PMID:26471592

  4. Determination of lincomycin residue in salmon tissues by ion-pair reversed-phase liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Wenhong; Hansen, E.B. Jr.; Thompson, H.C. Jr.

    1996-07-01

    A method is described for detecting and quantitating lincomycin residue in salmon muscle and skin tissues by ion-pair reversed-phase chromatography (LC) with electrochemical detection at +0.9 V. Lincomycin was extracted from tissues by homogenizing with 0.01M KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4} buffer (pH 4.5) and centrifuging the mixture. Water-soluble proteins were precipitated by adding sodium tungstate and sulfuric acid and removed by centrifugation. The buffer extract was then passed through a C{sub 18} solid-phase extraction cartridge. Lincomycin was eluted with 50% acetonitrile in water, and the eluate containing lincomycin was extracted with ethyl acetate. After the solvent had evaporated, the residue was redissolved in mobile phase and analyzed by LC. The method had a limit of detection of 7 ng/g lincomycin for salmon muscle and 24 ng/g for salmon skin. Average recoveries of lincomycin spiked at 50, 100, and 200 ng/g were {ge}85% for salmon muscle and {le}80% for salmon skin. 12 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Direct Separation of Molybdenum from Solid Uranium Matrices Employing Pyrohydrolysis, a Green Separation Method, and Its Determination by Ion Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Vivekchandra G; Thakur, Uday K; Shah, Dipti J; Gupta, Neeraj K; Jeyakumar, Subbiah; Tomar, Bhupendra S; Ramakumar, Karanam L

    2015-11-01

    Pyrohydrolysis is a well-established separation method, and it is being used as a sample preparation method for several materials for further determination of non-metals such as halogens, boron, and sulfur. Analytes are retained in a diluted solution that is suitable for carrying out analysis by several determination techniques and minimizing the use of concentrated reagents. Pyrohydrolysis separation of metals has not been reported yet. The present study demonstrates the pyrohydrolysis separation of Mo as MoO4(2-) from uranium materials and its subsequent determination using ion chromatography coupled with suppressed conductivity detector. With use of TGA and XRD the volatilization behavior of Mo was studied. Important parameters for the pyrohydrolysis method required for the quantitative separation of Mo were evaluated. The precision of the method was better than 5% at 25 ppm of Mo. The accuracy was evaluated by analysis of a CRM (U3O8-ILCE-IV). The method was applied to determine Mo in ammonium diuranate samples, where the conventional methods suffer from the loss of Mo. PMID:26465172

  6. Derivatization Ion Chromatography for the Determination of Monoethanolamine in Presence of Hydrazine in PHWR Steam-Water Circuits

    PubMed Central

    D., Ayushi; Sengupta, Arijit; Kumar, Sangita D.; Kumbhar, A. G.; Venkateswaran, G.

    2011-01-01

    A simple, rapid and accurate method for the determination of monoethanolamine (MEA) in PHWR steam-water circuits has been developed. MEA is added in the feed water to provide protection against corrosion while hydrazine is added to scavenge dissolved oxygen. The quantitative determination of MEA in presence of hydrazine was accomplished using derivatization ion chromatography with conductometric detection in nonsuppressed mode. A Metrosep cation 1-2 analytical column and a Metrosep cartridge were used for cation separation. A mixture of 4?mM tartaric acid, 20% acetone and 0.05?mM HNO3 was used as eluent. Acetone in the mobile phase leads to the formation of different derivatives with MEA and hydrazine. The interferences due Na+ and NH4?+ were eliminated by adopting a simple pretreatment procedure employing OnGuard-H cartridge. The limit of detection limit of MEA was 0.1??g?mL?1 and the relative standard deviation was 2% for the overall method. The recovery of MEA added was in the range 95%–102%. The method was applied to the determination of MEA in steam generator water samples. PMID:21785596

  7. DETERMINATION OF CARBOXYLIC ACIDS BY ION-EXCLUSION CHROMATOGRAPHY WITH NON-SUPPRESSED CONDUCTIVITY AND OPTICAL DETECTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Determination of carboxylic acids using non-suppressed conductivity and UV detections is described. he background conductance of I-octanesulfonic acid, hexane sulfonic acid and sulfuric acid at varying concentrations was determined. sing 0.2 MM I-octanesulfonic acid as a mobile p...

  8. DETERMINATION OF CARBOXYLIC ACIDS BY ION-EXCLUSION CHROMATOGRAPHY WITH NON-SUPPRESSED CONDUCTIVITY AND OPTICAL DETECTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Determination of carboxylic acids using non-suppressed conductivity and UV detections is described. The background conductance of 1-octanesulfonic acid, hexane sulfonic acid and sulfuric acid at varying concentrations was determined. Using 0.2 mM 1-octanesulfonic acid as a mobile...

  9. Analysis of anions in aqueous samples by ion chromatography and capillary electrophoresis. A comparative study of peak modeling and validation criteria.

    PubMed

    Tamisier-Karolak, S L; Le Potier, I; Barlet, O; Czok, M

    1999-08-13

    The object of this study is the comparison of two methods for the quantitative analysis of anions in aqueous samples: ion chromatography with conductimetric detection, and capillary zone electrophoresis with indirect photometric detection. The comparison includes modeling of experimental peaks as well as statistical validation criteria according to the recommendations of the International Conference on Harmonisation. In ion chromatography, peak shapes are Gaussian or exponentially modified Gaussian, and the number of theoretical plates calculated using the appropriate mathematical relations correspond well to those obtained from statistical moments. Peaks in capillary electrophoresis, however, do not follow the same models. A different model, treating the peaks as right angle triangles, has been studied. Equations corresponding to this model permit a good estimation of plate numbers. The statistical validation of these methods includes detection limits, linearity, accuracy and precision. Overall, ion chromatography yields better validation results than capillary electrophoresis. In the latter method the injection mode plays an important role, with voltage injection giving lower detection limits than hydrodynamic injection. PMID:10481986

  10. Determination of plasma mexiletine levels with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and selected-ion monitoring.

    PubMed

    Minnigh, M B; Alvin, J D; Zemaitis, M A

    1994-12-01

    Mexiletine, 1-(2,6-dimethylphenoxy)-2-aminopropane (Mexitil), is an orally effective agent useful in the treatment of serious ventricular arrhythmias. This paper describes a gas chromatographic-mass spectrophotometric assay with selected-ion monitoring for the measurement of plasma or serum mexiletine levels. The drug and internal standard (p-chlorophenylalanine methyl ester) were extracted from plasma into ethyl acetate-hexane-methanol (60:40:1, v/v). After separation and evaporation of the organic phase, the drug and internal standard were derivatized to their pentafluoropropyl derivatives prior to analysis. The reproducibility of the daily standard curve yielded mean inter- and intra-day coefficients of variability from 0.7 to 11.0%. The coefficients of variability for control plasma samples (0.5 and 1.0 micrograms/ml) ranged from 2.6 to 5.0% and the accuracy of the assay was 106 +/- 6 and 100 +/- 5% for the low and high level controls respectively. The limit of quantitation for the assay was 0.1 micrograms/ml. No interfering peaks were detected in any patient samples. This method can be used as a primary analytical method to measure mexiletine plasma levels or can serve as a convenient back-up method to HPLC procedures when contaminating peaks coelute with mexiletine. PMID:7894684

  11. Elution profiles of lanthanides with ?-hydroxyisobutyric acid by ion exchange chromatography using fine resin.

    PubMed

    Trikha, Rahul; Sharma, Bal Krishan; Sabharwal, Kanwal Nain; Prabhu, Krishan

    2015-11-01

    Experiments were carried out using a strong acid cation exchange resin with a particle size of 75-150 ?m, termed as "fine resin" in hydrogen ion form for the elution of individual lanthanides Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, and Dy that are produced as fission products in the spent nuclear fuel and generated in the effluent during reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. Batch experiments were carried out to study the effect of concentration of nitric acid on distribution coefficient. The distribution coefficient values for these individual lanthanides were determined in nitric acid medium in the concentration range of 0.01-4.0 N. Uptake of each individual lanthanide by resin was increased with increased nitric acid concentration from 0.01 to 0.5 N and remained similar from 0.5 to 1.0 N and decreased thereafter up to 4.0 N. Column experiments were also carried out using the same resin to study the parameters like pH of the eluent, flow rate, and resin bed height under isocratic elution conditions for eluting lanthanide elements using ?-hydroxyisobutyric acid as eluent. The results of this study have indicated the possibility for the elution of individual lanthanides. PMID:26333182

  12. Custom-tailored adsorbers: A molecular dynamics study on optimal design of ion exchange chromatography material.

    PubMed

    Lang, Katharina M H; Kittelmann, Jörg; Pilgram, Florian; Osberghaus, Anna; Hubbuch, Jürgen

    2015-09-25

    The performance of functionalized materials, e.g., ion exchange resins, depends on multiple resin characteristics, such as type of ligand, ligand density, the pore accessibility for a molecule, and backbone characteristics. Therefore, the screening and identification process for optimal resin characteristics for separation is very time and material consuming. Previous studies on the influence of resin characteristics have focused on an experimental approach and to a lesser extent on the mechanistic understanding of the adsorption mechanism. In this in silico study, a previously developed molecular dynamics (MD) tool is used, which simulates any given biomolecule on resins with varying ligand densities. We describe a set of simulations and experiments with four proteins and six resins varying in ligand density, and show that simulations and experiments correlate well in a wide range of ligand density. With this new approach simulations can be used as pre-experimental screening for optimal adsorber characteristics, reducing the actual number of screening experiments, which results in a faster and more knowledge-based development of custom-tailored adsorbers. PMID:26319376

  13. DETERMINATION OF FREE CATECHOLAMINES IN URINE BY TANDEM AFFINITY/ION-PAIR CHROMATOGRAPHY AND FLOW INJECTION ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, David H.; Taylor, Jay D.; Barnaby, Omar S.; Hage, David S.

    2008-01-01

    Background A system was developed for the simultaneous measurement in urine of free catecholamines (i.e., dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine) and creatinine (i.e., an indicator of urine output and volume). This method was based on the use of tandem affinity/ion-pair HPLC and flow injection analysis. Methods The free catecholamines were extracted directly from urine by using an on-line phenylboronic acid affinity column. The extracted solutes were then separated and measured by ion-pair chromatography followed by amperometric detection. Creatinine was measured by an on-line flow injection analysis system based on the Jaffe reaction, which analyzed creatinine as it eluted non-retained from the phenylboronic acid column. Results Various factors were considered in the design and optimization of the phenylboronic acid column, the tandem affinity/ion-pair HPLC columns and the flow injection analysis system. The total analysis time for the final combined system was approximately 16 min per injection at 1 ml/min. This method was found to have good agreement with the expected results for control urine samples. The limits of detection for 20 ?l samples (S/N = 3.0) were 1.8, 1.0 and 4.3 ?g/l for norepinephrine, epinephrine and dopamine, respectively, while the limit of detection of creatinine was 5.0 mg/l. The linear response of this method extended over a 450 to 930-fold range in concentration for the catecholamines and covered the range of clinical interest. The within-day precision of this method was ±2.0?2.7%. Conclusions The ability of this method to simultaneously monitor both creatinine and other analytes makes this HPLC/FIA system an attractive method for use in monitoring urinary compounds. With this approach it was possible to provide fast results for small volumes of random urine samples that were collected as part of a psychological study. The same method could also be utilized with 12 or 24 h urine specimens. PMID:18773884

  14. Measurement of gas-phase ammonia and amines in air by collection onto an ion exchange resin and analysis by ion chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, M. L.; Perraud, V.; Gomez, A.; Arquero, K. D.; Ezell, M. J.; Finlayson-Pitts, B. J.

    2014-08-01

    Ammonia and amines are common trace gases in the atmosphere and have a variety of both biogenic and anthropogenic sources, with a major contribution coming from agricultural sites. In addition to their malodorous nature, both ammonia and amines have been shown to enhance particle formation from acids such as nitric, sulfuric and methanesulfonic acids, which has implications for visibility, human health and climate. A key component of quantifying the effects of these species on particle formation is accurate gas-phase measurements in both laboratory and field studies. However, these species are notoriously difficult to measure as they are readily taken up on surfaces, including onto glass surfaces from aqueous solution as established in the present studies. We describe here a novel technique for measuring gas-phase ammonia and amines that involves uptake onto a weak cation exchange resin followed by extraction and analysis using ion chromatography. Two variants - one for parts per billion concentrations in air and the second with lower (parts per trillion) detection limits - are described. The latter involves the use of a custom-designed high-pressure cartridge to hold the resin for in-line extraction. These methods avoid the use of sampling lines, which can lead to significant inlet losses of these compounds. They also have the advantages of being relatively simple and inexpensive. The applicability of this technique to ambient air is demonstrated in measurements made near a cattle farm in Chino, CA.

  15. Measurement of gas-phase ammonia and amines in air by collection onto an ion exchange resin and analysis by ion chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, M. L.; Perraud, V.; Gomez, A.; Arquero, K. D.; Ezell, M. J.; Finlayson-Pitts, B. J.

    2014-02-01

    Ammonia and amines are common trace gases in the atmosphere and have a variety of both biogenic and anthropogenic sources, with a major contribution coming from agricultural sites. In addition to their malodorous nature, both ammonia and amines have been shown to enhance particle formation from acids such as nitric, sulfuric and methanesulfonic acids, which has implications for visibility, human health and climate. A key component of quantifying the effects of these species on particle formation is accurate gas-phase measurements in both laboratory and field studies. However, these species are notoriously difficult to measure as they are readily taken up on surfaces, including onto glass surfaces from aqueous solution as established in the present studies. We describe here a novel technique for measuring gas-phase ammonia and amines that involves uptake onto a weak cation exchange resin followed by extraction and analysis using ion chromatography. Two variants, one for ppb concentrations in air and the second with lower (ppt) detection limits, are described. The latter involves the use of a custom-designed high-pressure cartridge to hold the resin for in-line extraction. These methods avoid the use of sampling lines, which can lead to significant inlet losses of these compounds. They also have the advantages of being relatively simple and inexpensive. The applicability of this technique to ambient air is demonstrated in measurements made near a cattle farm in Chino, CA.

  16. Capillary ion chromatography of inorganic anions on octadecyl silica monolith modified with an amphoteric surfactant.

    PubMed

    O Ríordáin, Colmán; Gillespie, Eoin; Connolly, Damian; Nesterenko, Pavel N; Paull, Brett

    2007-02-23

    A reversed-phase monolithic silica based capillary column (Onyx C(18), 150 mm x 0.1 mm) was modified with the amphoteric surfactant, N-dodecyl-N,N-(dimethylammonio)undecanoate (DDMAU) and evaluated for the separation and determination of inorganic anions using on-column capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (C(4)D). The chromatographic performance of the column was evaluated and under optimal conditions separation efficiencies of 56,200 plates per meter or 7025 plates per column (at detection point) were observed (for iodide). Direct plumbing of the capillary column to the micro-injector and on-column detection eliminated extra-column band broadening, thus allowing accurate analysis of van Deemter curves obtained for the monolithic capillary column. The calculated value for the C-term in the obtained van Deemter curve was between 3 and 4 ms for inorganic anions, allowing for the utilisation of relatively high flow rates without significant losses in efficiency. The performance of the C(4)D detector was investigated and compared for detection on an open tubular capillary column and on the modified monolithic silica capillary column. The on-column detection approach did not result in any significant decrease in peak sensitivity for the monolith compared to responses recorded for open tubular capillary columns, and in addition meant the system could be applied to rapid separations by simple variation in apparent column length. The proposed chromatographic system allowed for detection of common anions at sub-ppm level with a 10 nL injection volume. Additionally, on-column detection allowed visualisation of the development of the separation at any point in time and evaluation of the longitudinal uniformity of the ion-exchange coating. PMID:17207491

  17. Quality evaluation of extracted ion chromatograms and chromatographic peaks in liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry-based metabolomics data

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Extracted ion chromatogram (EIC) extraction and chromatographic peak detection are two important processing procedures in liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS)-based metabolomics data analysis. Most commonly, the LC/MS technique employs electrospray ionization as the ionization method. The EICs from LC/MS data are often noisy and contain high background signals. Furthermore, the chromatographic peak quality varies with respect to its location in the chromatogram and most peaks have zigzag shapes. Therefore, there is a critical need to develop effective metrics for quality evaluation of EICs and chromatographic peaks in LC/MS based metabolomics data analysis. Results We investigated a comprehensive set of potential quality evaluation metrics for extracted EICs and detected chromatographic peaks. Specifically, for EIC quality evaluation, we analyzed the mass chromatographic quality index (MCQ index) and propose a novel quality evaluation metric, the EIC-related global zigzag index, which is based on an EIC's first order derivatives. For chromatographic peak quality evaluation, we analyzed and compared six metrics: sharpness, Gaussian similarity, signal-to-noise ratio, peak significance level, triangle peak area similarity ratio and the local peak-related local zigzag index. Conclusions Although the MCQ index is suited for selecting and aligning analyte components, it cannot fairly evaluate EICs with high background signals or those containing only a single peak. Our proposed EIC related global zigzag index is robust enough to evaluate EIC qualities in both scenarios. Of the six peak quality evaluation metrics, the sharpness, peak significance level, and zigzag index outperform the others due to the zigzag nature of LC/MS chromatographic peaks. Furthermore, using several peak quality metrics in combination is more efficient than individual metrics in peak quality evaluation. PMID:25350128

  18. Determination of multiple pharmaceutical classes in surface and ground waters by liquid chromatography-ion trap-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gruji?, Svetlana; Vasiljevi?, Tatjana; Lausevi?, Mila

    2009-06-19

    This paper describes development, optimization and application of analytical method for determination and reliable confirmation of nineteen pharmaceuticals from different therapeutic classes (antibiotics--beta-lactams, cephalosporines, sulfonamides, macrolides and tetracyclines; benzodiazepines; antiepileptics and analgoantipyretics) in surface and ground waters at ng l(-1) levels. Water samples were prepared using solid-phase extraction and extracts were analyzed by liquid chromatography-ion trap-tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization in both positive and negative ionization mode. The efficiency of ten different SPE cartridges to extract diverse compounds from water was tested. The pH-value of the water sample, the volume of elution solvent and the sample volume were optimized. Matrix effect, especially pronounced for cephalexin and metamizole, was eliminated using matrix-matched standards. It was determined that extraction should be performed at pH approximately 7.5, i.e. without pH adjustment, and at pH 3, depending on the analyte. Azithromycin, doxycycline and acetylsalicylic acid must be extracted in acidic environment, whereas extraction of paracetamol, ampicillin, erythromycin and metamizole should be performed without pH adjustment. Repeatability of the method was generally lower than 20%. The estimated limits of detection were in the range from 0.15 to 12.46 ng l(-1). The method was applied to 26 water samples for monitoring of selected drug residues. Results revealed the presence of carbamazepine (80% of water samples), azithromycin (23%), as well as trimethoprim and paracetamol (both 15%). The most striking was the false positive signal of diclofenac in every analyzed water sample. Confirmation of the positive results was performed by repeated injection of the positive sample extracts using confirmatory method with additional transitions. PMID:19426985

  19. Wide-scope screening and quantification of 50 pesticides in wine by liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry combined with liquid chromatography/quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    He, Zeying; Xu, Yaping; Wang, Lu; Peng, Yi; Luo, Ming; Cheng, Haiyan; Liu, Xiaowei

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, a wide scope screening method of pesticides in wine was established using liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF MS) and liquid chromatography/quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-QqLIT MS). Information dependent acquisition (IDA) experiments are used to obtain both MS and MS/MS information for LC-QTOF MS analysis. For LC-QqLIT MS analysis, MS/MS spectra of target pesticides were simultaneously acquired using Enhanced Product Ion (EPI) mode at very low concentrations to increase the confidence in analytical results of multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) by library searching. Method validation was carried out using 50 pesticides commonly used in vineyards. The LOQs, linearity, repeatability were determined and good enough for quantification. The screening and quantification results obtained using LC-QTOF MS and LC-QqLIT MS were compared. Contaminants were screened against libraries containing over 2800 compounds based on accurate mass, isotopic patterns, and MS/MS spectra searching to extend the scope of this methodology to non-target screening. PMID:26593613

  20. Evaluation and application of static headspace-multicapillary column-gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry for complex sample analysis.

    PubMed

    Denawaka, Chamila J; Fowlis, Ian A; Dean, John R

    2014-04-18

    An evaluation of static headspace-multicapillary column-gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry (SHS-MCC-GC-IMS) has been undertaken to assess its applicability for the determination of 32 volatile compounds (VCs). The key experimental variables of sample incubation time and temperature have been evaluated alongside the MCC-GC variables of column polarity, syringe temperature, injection temperature, injection volume, column temperature and carrier gas flow rate coupled with the IMS variables of temperature and drift gas flow rate. This evaluation resulted in six sets of experimental variables being required to separate the 32 VCs. The optimum experimental variables for SHS-MCC-GC-IMS, the retention time and drift time operating parameters were determined; to normalise the operating parameters, the relative drift time and normalised reduced ion mobility for each VC were determined. In addition, a full theoretical explanation is provided on the formation of the monomer, dimer and trimer of a VC. The optimum operating condition for each VC calibration data was obtained alongside limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) values. Typical detection limits ranged from 0.1ng bis(methylthio)methane, ethylbutanoate and (E)-2-nonenal to 472ng isovaleric acid with correlation coefficient (R(2)) data ranging from 0.9793 (for the dimer of octanal) through to 0.9990 (for isobutyric acid). Finally, the developed protocols were applied to the analysis of malodour in sock samples. Initial work involved spiking an inert matrix and sock samples with appropriate concentrations of eight VCs. The average recovery from the inert matrix was 101±18% (n=8), while recoveries from the sock samples were lower, that is, 54±30% (n=8) for sock type 1 and 78±24% (n=6) for sock type 2. Finally, SHS-MCC-GC-IMS was applied to sock malodour in a field trial based on 11 volunteers (mixed gender) over a 3-week period. By applying the SHS-MCC-GC-IMS database, four VCs were identified and quantified: ammonia, dimethyl disulphide, dimethyl trisulphide and butyric acid. A link was identified between the presence of high ammonia and dimethyl disulphide concentrations and a high malodour odour grading, that is, ? 6. Statistical analysis did not find any correlation between the occurrence of dimethyl disulphide and participant gender. PMID:24630058

  1. Fast filtration sampling protocol for mammalian suspension cells tailored for phosphometabolome profiling by capillary ion chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kvitvang, Hans F N; Bruheim, Per

    2015-08-15

    Capillary ion chromatography (capIC) is the premium separation technology for low molecular phosphometabolites and nucleotides in biological extracts. Removal of excessive amounts of salt during sample preparation stages is a prerequisite to enable high quality capIC separation in combination with reproducible and sensitive MS detection. Existing sampling protocols for mammalian cells used for GC-MS and LC-MS metabolic profiling can therefore not be directly applied to capIC separations. Here, the development of a fast filtration sampling protocol for mammalian suspension cells tailored for quantitative profiling of the phosphometabolome on capIC-MS/MS is presented. The whole procedure from sampling the culture to transfer of filter to quenching and extraction solution takes less than 10s. To prevent leakage it is critical that a low vacuum pressure is applied, and satisfactorily reproducibility was only obtained by usage of a vacuum pressure controlling device. A vacuum of 60mbar was optimal for filtration of multiple myeloma Jjn-3 cell cultures through 5?m polyvinylidene (PVDF) filters. A quick deionized water (DI-water) rinse step prior to extraction was tested, and significantly higher metabolite yields were obtained during capIC-MS/MS analyses in this extract compared to extracts prepared by saline and reduced saline (25%) washing steps only. In addition, chromatographic performance was dramatically improved. Thus, it was verified that a quick DI-water rinse is tolerated by the cells and can be included as the final stage during filtration. Over 30 metabolites were quantitated in JJN-3 cell extracts by using the optimized sampling protocol with subsequent capIC-MS/MS analysis, and up to 2 million cells can be used in a single filtration step for the chosen filter and vacuum pressure. The technical set-up is also highly advantageous for microbial metabolome filtration protocols after optimization of vacuum pressure and washing solutions, and the reduced salt content of the extract will also improve the quality of LC-MS analysis due to lower salt adduct ion formation. PMID:26151192

  2. Ion size effects at ionic exclusion from dielectric interfaces and slit nanopores

    E-print Network

    Sahin Buyukdagli; C. V. Achim; T. Ala-Nissila

    2011-06-02

    A previously developed field-theoretic model [R.D. Coalson et al., J. Chem. Phys. 102, 4584 (1995)] that treats core collisions and Coulomb interactions on the same footing is investigated in order to understand ion size effects on the partition of neutral and charged particles at planar interfaces and the ionic selectivity of slit nanopores. We introduce a variational scheme that can go beyond the mean-field (MF) regime and couple in a consistent way pore modified core interactions, steric effects, electrostatic solvation and image-charge forces, and surface charge induced electrostatic potential. We show that in the dilute limit, the MF and the variational theories agree well with MC simulation results, in contrast to a recent RPA method. The partition of charged Yukawa particles at a neutral dielectric interface (e.g air-water or protein-water interface) is investigated. It is shown that as a result of the competition between core collisions that push the ions towards the surface, and repulsive solvation and image forces that exclude them from the interface, a concentration peak of finite size ions sets in close to the dielectric interface. We also characterize the role played by the ion size on the ionic selectivity of neutral slit nanopores. We show that the complex interplay between electrostatic forces, excluded volume effects induced by core collisions and steric effects leads to an unexpected reversal in the ionic selectivity of the pore with varying pore size: while large pores exhibits a higher conductivity for large ions, narrow pores exclude large ions more efficiently than small ones.

  3. Neutral Loss Ion Mapping Experiment Combined with Precursor Mass List and Dynamic Exclusion for Screening Unstable Malonyl Glucoside Conjugates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Min; Zhou, Zhe; Yao, Shuai; Li, Shangrong; Yang, Wenzhi; Jiang, Baohong; Liu, Xuan; Wu, Wanying; Qv, Hua; Guo, De-an

    2015-09-01

    Malonates are one type of the acylation conjugates and found abundantly in ginseng and soybean. Malonyl conjugates of ginsenosides and isoflavone glycosides were often considered as the characteristic components to evaluate various species and different forms of ginseng and soybean products because of their thermal instability. Another famous isoflavonoid-rich leguminous traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), named Puerarin lobata (Gegen), has also been reported to contain malonyl daidzin and malonyl genistin. However, the conjugates were found to present in very low amount and particularly unstable in the negative ion mode scan using LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization (ESI). In order to screen and characterize the malonyl conjugates in Gegen, a specific method was designed and developed combining neutral loss ion mapping (NLIM) experiment and precursor mass list (PL) triggered data dependent acquisition (DDA). Along with the activation of dynamic exclusion (DE), the method was proven to be specific and efficient for searching the malonate derivatives from Gegen. Two samples were examined by the established method. A total of 66 compounds were found, and 43 of them were malonates of isoflavone glycoside. Very few compounds were reported previously in Gegen. The results are helpful to understand the constituents of Gegen with more insight. The study not only provided a method for analyzing the malonyl conjugates from complex matrices but also explored a way to trace other low amount components in TCMs.

  4. Neutral Loss Ion Mapping Experiment Combined with Precursor Mass List and Dynamic Exclusion for Screening Unstable Malonyl Glucoside Conjugates.

    PubMed

    Yang, Min; Zhou, Zhe; Yao, Shuai; Li, Shangrong; Yang, Wenzhi; Jiang, Baohong; Liu, Xuan; Wu, Wanying; Qv, Hua; Guo, De-An

    2016-01-01

    Malonates are one type of the acylation conjugates and found abundantly in ginseng and soybean. Malonyl conjugates of ginsenosides and isoflavone glycosides were often considered as the characteristic components to evaluate various species and different forms of ginseng and soybean products because of their thermal instability. Another famous isoflavonoid-rich leguminous traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), named Puerarin lobata (Gegen), has also been reported to contain malonyl daidzin and malonyl genistin. However, the conjugates were found to present in very low amount and particularly unstable in the negative ion mode scan using LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization (ESI). In order to screen and characterize the malonyl conjugates in Gegen, a specific method was designed and developed combining neutral loss ion mapping (NLIM) experiment and precursor mass list (PL) triggered data dependent acquisition (DDA). Along with the activation of dynamic exclusion (DE), the method was proven to be specific and efficient for searching the malonate derivatives from Gegen. Two samples were examined by the established method. A total of 66 compounds were found, and 43 of them were malonates of isoflavone glycoside. Very few compounds were reported previously in Gegen. The results are helpful to understand the constituents of Gegen with more insight. The study not only provided a method for analyzing the malonyl conjugates from complex matrices but also explored a way to trace other low amount components in TCMs. Graphical Abstract ?. PMID:26334988

  5. Exclusive processes in electron-ion collisions in the dipole formalism

    SciTech Connect

    Cazaroto, E. R.; Navarra, F. S.; Carvalho, F.; Goncalves, V. P.

    2013-03-25

    We compare the predictions of two saturation models for production of vector mesons and of photons in electron-ion collisions. The models considered are the b-CGC and the rcBK. The calculations were made in the kinematical range of the LHeC and of the future eRHIC.

  6. Two-dimensional ion chromatography for the separation of ionic organophosphates generated in thermally decomposed lithium hexafluorophosphate-based lithium ion battery electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Vadim; Grützke, Martin; Weber, Waldemar; Menzel, Jennifer; Wiemers-Meyer, Simon; Winter, Martin; Nowak, Sascha

    2015-08-28

    A two-dimensional ion chromatography (IC/IC) technique with heart-cutting mode for the separation of ionic organophosphates was developed. These analytes are generated during thermal degradation of three different commercially available Selectilyte™ lithium ion battery electrolytes. The composition of the investigated electrolytes is based on 1M lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) dissolved in ethylene carbonate/dimethyl carbonate (50:50wt%, LP30), ethylene carbonate/diethyl carbonate (50:50wt%, LP40) and ethylene carbonate/ethyl methyl carbonate (50:50wt%, LP50). The organophosphates were pre-separated from PF6(-) anion on the low capacity A Supp 4 column, which was eluted with a gradient step containing acetonitrile. The fraction containing analytes was retarded on a pre-concentration column and after that transferred to the high capacity columns, where the separation was performed isocratically. Different stationary phases and eluents were applied on the 2nd dimension for the investigation of retention times, whereas the highly promising results were obtained with a high capacitive A Supp 10 column. The organophosphates generated in LP30 and LP40 electrolytes could be separated by application of an aqueous NaOH eluent providing fast analysis time within 35min. For the separation of the organophosphates of LP50 electrolyte due to its complexity a NaOH eluent containing a mixture of methanol/H2O was necessary. In addition, the developed two dimensional IC method was hyphenated to an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) using aqueous NaOH without organic modifiers. This proof of principle measurement was carried out for future quantitative investigation regarding the concentration of the ionic organophosphates. Furthermore, the chemical stability of several ionic organophosphates in water and acetonitrile at room temperature over a period of 10h was investigated. In both solvents no decomposition of the investigated analytes was observed and therefore water as solvent for dilution of samples was proved as suitable. PMID:26209196

  7. Comparative study of the mesostructure of natural and synthetic polyisoprene by size exclusion chromatography-multi-angle light scattering and asymmetrical flow field flow fractionation-multi-angle light scattering.

    PubMed

    Dubascoux, Stéphane; Thepchalerm, Chalao; Dubreucq, Eric; Wisunthorn, Suwaluk; Vaysse, Laurent; Kiatkamjornwong, Suda; Nakason, Charoen; Bonfils, Frédéric

    2012-02-10

    This paper presents results from the first analyses of the mesostructure of natural rubber (NR) by asymmetrical flow field flow fractionation (AF4). The results are compared with those obtained by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) in terms of average molar masses, radius of gyration and insoluble part (or gel quantity). Comparable results were obtained for the sample not containing gel. Conversely, for samples with gel, significant differences were found due to the presence of microaggregates. Contrary to SEC, AF4 fractionation enables partial fractionation of polyisoprene chains and microaggregates in a single run without preliminary treatment. The results presented here also highlight the special structure (very compact spheres) of microaggregates in NR compared to chemical crosslinked microaggregates in synthetic polyisoprene. The advantages and drawbacks of both techniques for analysing NR samples are also discussed. PMID:22245173

  8. Journal of Chromatography A, 1043 (2004) 249254 Arsenic complexes in the arsenic hyperaccumulator

    E-print Network

    Ma, Lena

    2004-01-01

    Journal of Chromatography A, 1043 (2004) 249­254 Arsenic complexes in the arsenic hyperaccumulator-exchange chromatography­hydride generation­atomic fluorescence spectroscopy and size-exclusion chromatographyIII-tris-thiolate complexes through thiolate bonds by us- ing size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) or electrospray ionization

  9. Characterization of molecular mass ranges of two coal tar distillate fractions (creosote and anthracene oils) and aromatic standards by LD-MS, GC-MS, probe-MS and size-exclusion chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    T.J. Morgan; A. George; P. A'lvarez; M. Millan; A.A. Herod; R. Kandiyoti

    2008-09-15

    Laser-desorption mass spectrometry (LD-MS) method development was undertaken to improve estimates of mass ranges for complex hydrocarbon mixtures. A creosote oil, an anthracene oil, and a mixture of known polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds were examined. The formation of cluster ions was possible without overloading the detector system. These multimer ions overlapped with higher-mass ion signals from the sample. However, careful balancing of sample concentration, laser power, total ion current, and delayed ion extraction appears to show high-mass materials without generating high-mass multimer (artifact) ions. It is possible to suppress the formation of cluster ions by keeping low target concentrations and, consequently, low gas phase concentrations formed by the laser pulse. The principal method used in this work was the fractionation of samples by planar chromatography followed by successive LD-MS analysis of the separated fractions directly from the chromatographic plates. This method separated the more abundant small molecules from the less abundant large molecules to permit the generation of their mass spectra independently, as well as reducing the concentration of sample by spreading over the PC-plate. The technique demonstrably suppressed multimer formation and greatly improved the reproducibility of the spectra. Results showed the presence of molecule ions in the ranges m/z 1000-2000 for the anthracene oil sample and m/z 600-1500 for the creosote oil sample, tailing off to m/z about 5,000. The creosote oil contained significantly less of this high-mass material than the anthracene oil sample, and in both cases, high-mass material was only present in low quantities. The method outlined in the paper appears directly applicable to the characterization of heavier coal and petroleum derived fractions. 44 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Determination of trace labile copper in environmental waters by magnetic nanoparticle solid phase extraction and high-performance chelation ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wei, Z; Sandron, S; Townsend, A T; Nesterenko, P N; Paull, B

    2015-04-01

    Cobalt magnetic nanoparticles surface functionalised with iminodiacetic acid were evaluated as a nano-particulate solid phase extraction absorbent for copper ions (Cu(2+)) from environmental water samples. Using an external magnetic field, the collector nanoparticles could be separated from the aqueous phase, and adsorbed ions simply decomplexed using dilute HNO3. Effects of pH, buffer concentration, sample and sorbent volume, extraction equilibrium time, and interfering ion concentration on extraction efficiency were investigated. Optimal conditions were then applied to the extraction of Cu(2+) ions from natural water samples, prior to their quantitation using high-performance chelation ion chromatography. The limits of detection (LOD) of the combined extraction and chromatographic method were ~0.1 ng ml(-1), based upon a 100-fold preconcentration factor (chromatographic performance; LOD=9.2 ng ml(-1) Cu(2+)), analytical linear range from 20 to 5000 ng mL(-1), and relative standard deviations=4.9% (c=1000 ng ml(-1), n=7). Accuracy and precision of the combined approach was verified using a certified reference standard estuarine water sample (SLEW-2) and comparison of sample determinations with sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Recoveries from the addition of Cu(2+) to impacted estuarine and rain water samples were 103.5% and 108.5%, respectively. Coastal seawater samples, both with and without prior UV irradiation and dissolved organic matter removal were also investigated using the new methodology. The effect of DOM concentration on copper availability was demonstrated. PMID:25640140

  11. Chelation ion chromatography of alkaline earth and transition metals a using monolithic silica column with bonded N-hydroxyethyliminodiacetic acid functional groups.

    PubMed

    McGillicuddy, Nicola; Nesterenko, Ekaterina P; Nesterenko, Pavel N; Jones, Phil; Paull, Brett

    2013-02-01

    A commercially available porous silica monolithic column (Onyx Monolithic Si, 100 mm×4.6 mm I.D.) was 'in-column' covalently functionalised with 2-hydroxyethyliminodiacetic acid (HEIDA) groups, and applied to the simultaneous and rapid separation of alkaline earth and transition metal ions, using high-performance chelation ion chromatography (HPCIC). With a 0.3mM dipicolinic acid (DPA) containing eluent, the baseline separation of various common transition and heavy metal ions and the four alkaline earth metal ions could be achieved in under 14 min with a flow rate of just 0.8 mL/min. Detection was achieved using spectrophotometric detection at 540 nm after post-column reaction (PCR) with 4-(2-pyridylazo)-resorcinol (PAR). Significant effects from variation of eluent nature, concentration and temperature upon selectivity and retention were demonstrated with the new monolithic silica chelating phase. Under optimised conditions (0.165 M LiNO(3) eluent, pH 2.5), peak efficiencies of 54,000, 60,000 and 64,000 N/m, for Zn(2+), Mn(2+) and Cd(2+), respectively, were recorded, far exceeding that previously reported for IDA based chelation ion exchange columns. PMID:23298846

  12. Applying Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Jessie W.; Patev, Paul

    1998-01-01

    Presents three experiments to introduce students to different kinds of chromatography: (1) paper chromatography; (2) gel filtration chromatography; and (3) reverse-phase liquid chromatography. Written in the form of a laboratory manual, explanations of each of the techniques, materials needed, procedures, and a glossary are included. (PVD)

  13. Size exclusion chromatography to gain insight into the complex formation of carrot pectin methylesterase and its inhibitor from kiwi fruit as influenced by thermal and high-pressure processing.

    PubMed

    Jolie, Ruben P; Duvetter, Thomas; Verlinde, Philippe H C J; Van Buggenhout, Sandy; Van Loey, Ann M; Hendrickx, Marc E

    2009-12-01

    A size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) method was implemented to study complex formation between carrot pectin methylesterase (PME) and its inhibitor (PMEI) from kiwi fruit in the context of traditional thermal and novel high-pressure processing. Evidence was gained that both thermal and high-pressure treatments of PME give rise to two distinct enzyme subpopulations: a catalytically active population, eluting from the size exclusion column, and an inactive population, aggregated and excluded from the column. When mixing a partly denatured PME sample with a fixed amount of PMEI, a PME-PMEI complex peak was observed on HPSEC, of which the peak area was highly correlated with the residual enzyme activity of the corresponding PME sample. This observation indicates complex formation to be restricted to the active PME fraction. When an equimolar mixture of PME and PMEI was subjected to either a thermal or a high-pressure treatment, marked differences were observed. At elevated temperature, enzyme and inhibitor remained united and aggregated as a whole, thus gradually disappearing from the elution profile. Conversely, elevated pressure caused the dissociation of the PME-PMEI complexes, followed by a separate action of pressure on enzyme and inhibitor. Remarkably, PMEI appeared to be pressure-resistant when compressed at acidic pH (ca. 4). PMID:19908835

  14. Determination of human insulin and its analogues in human blood using liquid chromatography coupled to ion mobility mass spectrometry (LC-IM-MS).

    PubMed

    Thomas, Andreas; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The qualitative and quantitative determination of insulin from human blood samples is an emerging topic in doping controls as well as in other related disciplines (e.g. forensics). Beside the therapeutic use, insulin represents a prohibited, performance enhancing substance in sports drug testing. In both cases accurate, sensitive, specific, and unambiguous determination of the target peptide is of the utmost importance. The challenges concerning identifying insulins in blood by liquid chromatography coupled to ion mobility mass spectrometry (LC-IM-MS) are detecting the basal concentrations of approximately 0.2?ng/mL and covering the hyperinsulinaemic clamps at?>?3?ng/mL simultaneously using up to 200??L of plasma or serum. This is achieved by immunoaffinity purification of the insulins with magnetic beads and subsequent separation by micro-scale liquid chromatography coupled to ion mobility / high resolution mass spectrometry. The method includes human insulin as well as the synthetic or animal analogues insulin aspart, glulisine, glargine, detemir, lispro, bovine, and porcine insulin. The method validation shows reliable results considering specificity, limit of detection (0.2?ng/mL except for detemir: 0.8?ng/mL), limit of quantification (0.5?ng/mL for human insulin), precision (CV??0.99), recovery, accuracy (>90%), robustness (plasma/serum), and ion suppression. For quantification of human insulin a labelled internal standard ([[(2) H10 ]-Leu(B6,B11,B15,B17) ] - human Insulin) is introduced. By means of the additional ion mobility separation of the different analogues, the chromatographic run time is shortened to 8?min without losing specificity. As proof-of-concept, the procedure was successfully applied to different blood specimens from diabetic patients receiving recombinant synthetic analogues. PMID:25219675

  15. Evaluation of IDA-PEVA hollow fiber membrane metal ion affinity chromatography for purification of a histidine-tagged human proinsulin.

    PubMed

    de Aquino, Luciana Cristina Lins; de Sousa, Heloisa Ribeiro Tunes; Miranda, Everson Alves; Vilela, Luciano; Bueno, Sônia Maria Alves

    2006-04-13

    Inabilities to process particulate material and to allow the use of high flow rates are limitations of conventional chromatography. Membranes have been suggested as matrix for affinity separation due to advantages such as allowing high flow rates and low-pressure drops. This work evaluated the feasibility of using an iminodiacetic acid linked poly(ethylenevinyl alcohol) membrane in the immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) purification of a human proinsulin(His)(6) of an industrial insulin production process. The screening of metal ions showed Ni(2+) as metal with higher selectivity and capacity among the Cu(2+), Ni(2+), Zn(2+) and Co(2+). The membrane showed to be equivalent to conventional chelating beads in terms of selectivity and had a lower capacity (3.68 mg/g versus 12.26 mg/g). The dynamic adsorption capacity for human proinsulin(His)(6) was unaffected by the mode of operation (dead-end and cross-flow filtration). PMID:16531127

  16. Residues from low-order energetic materials: the comparative performance of a range of sampling approaches prior to analysis by ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Szomborg, Katarzyna; Jongekrijg, Fleur; Gilchrist, Elizabeth; Webb, Tony; Wood, Dan; Barron, Leon

    2013-12-10

    A quantitative study of common forensic evidence collection devices for the recovery of low-explosive residues from non-porous glass and plastic is presented herein. Swabbing materials including cotton, rayon, Nomex(®) (poly(isophthaloylchloride/m-phenylenediamine)), Teflon/Teflon-coated fibreglass (polytetrafluoroethylene) and adhesive-coated tapes were used to collect known quantities of up to 14 forensically relevant inorganic and organic anion and cation species from both surfaces. Analysis was performed using two validated ion chromatography methods. This study revealed that all swabs and surfaces contributed highly variable levels of interfering ionic species and that swabbing materials showed variance in the quantities and total number of analytes recovered from both surfaces. Teflon and Nomex(®) materials demonstrated the most promise due to their ability to collect and release analytes into simple extraction solvents as well as displaying relatively low endogenous interference. In parallel, the ability to extract residue directly from both surfaces via the addition of a suitable extraction solvent was investigated instead of swabbing. This work highlights that direct solvent extraction from a surface should be considered as an alternative approach, especially for small areas or objects. To the best of our knowledge, this work represents the most comprehensive study of the efficiencies of sample collection technologies for low-explosive residues prior to analysis by ion chromatography. PMID:24314502

  17. Ultrafiltration by a compacted clay membrane-II. Sodium ion exclusion at various ionic strengths

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanshaw, B.B.; Coplen, T.B.

    1973-01-01

    Several recent laboratory studies and field investigations have indicated that shales and compacted clay minerals behave as semipermeable membranes. One of the properties of semipermeable membranes is to retard or prevent the passage of charged ionic species through the membrane pores while allowing relatively free movement of uncharged species. This phenomenon is termed salt filtering, reverse osmosis, or ultrafiltration. This paper shows how one can proceed from the ion exchange capacity of clay minerals and, by means of Donnan membrane equilibrium concept and the Teorell-Meyer-Siever theory, develop a theory to explain why and to what extent ultrafiltration occurs when solutions of known concentration are forced to flow through a clay membrane. Reasonable agreement between theory and laboratory results were found. The concentration of the ultrafiltrate was always greater than predicted because of uncertainty in values of some parameters in the equations. Ultrafiltration phenomena may be responsible for the formation of some subsurface brines and mineral deposits. The effect should also be taken into consideration in any proposal for subsurface waste emplacement in an environment containing large quantities of clay minerals. ?? 1973.

  18. Quantitation of Phenol Levels in Oil of Wintergreen Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry with Selected Ion Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobel, Robert M.; Ballantine, David S.; Ryzhov, Victor

    2005-01-01

    Industrial application of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis is a powerful technique that could be used to elucidate components of a complex mixture while offering the benefits of high-precision quantitative analysis. The natural wintergreen oil is examined for its phenol concentration to determine the level of refining…

  19. The perchlorate anion is more effective than the trifluoroacetate anion as an ion-pairing reagent for reversed-phase chromatography of peptides

    PubMed Central

    Shibue, M.; Mant, C.T.; Hodges, R.S.

    2009-01-01

    The addition of salts, specifically sodium perchlorate (NaClO4), to mobile phases at acidic pH as ion-pairing reagents for reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) has been generally overlooked. To demonstrate the potential of NaClO4 as an effective anionic ion-pairing reagent, we applied RP-HPLC in the presence of 0–100 mM sodium chloride (NaCl), sodium trifluoroacetate (NaTFA) or NaClO4 to two mixtures of synthetic 18-residue peptides: a mixture of peptides with the same net positive charge (+4) and a mixture of four peptides of +1, +2, +3 and +4 net charge. Interestingly, the effect of increasing NaClO4 concentration on increasing peptide retention times and selectivity changes was more dramatic than that of either NaCl or NaTFA, with the order of increasing anion effectiveness being Cl? ?TFA? < ClO4?. Such effects were more marked when salt addition was applied to eluents containing 10 mM phosphoric acid (H3PO4) compared to 10 mM trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) due to the lesser starting anion hydrophobicity of the former mobile phase (containing the phosphate ion) compared to the latter (containing the TFA? ion). PMID:16013614

  20. Quantification of triacylglycerol regioisomers by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography and ammonia negative ion atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Leskinen, Heidi M; Suomela, Jukka-Pekka; Kallio, Heikki P

    2010-01-01

    The regioisomer composition of triacylglycerols (TAGs) in various vegetable oils was determined with a new liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS method). A direct inlet ammonia negative ion chemical ionization (NICI) MS/MS method was improved by adapting it to LC negative ion (NI) atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) MS/MS system using ammonia as nebulizer gas. The method is based on the preferential formation of [M-H-RCOOH-100](-) ions during collision-induced dissociation by loss of sn-1/3 fatty acids from [M-H](-) ions. Calibration curves were created from nine reference TAGs: Ala/L/L, Gla/L/L, L/L/O, L/O/O, P/O/O, P/P/O, Po/Po/V, Po/Po/O, and C/O/O. The calibration curves were used to quantify the regioisomer compositions of selected TAGs in rapeseed oil, sunflower seed oil, palm oil, black currant seed oil, and sea buckthorn pulp oil. The method discriminates the different regioisomers and the results obtained by this method were in good agreement with previous results. This proves that this new method can be used for the determination of regiospecific distribution of fatty acids in TAGs. PMID:19957298

  1. A modified metal-ion affinity chromatography procedure for the purification of histidine-tagged recombinant proteins expressed in Drosophila S2 cells.

    PubMed

    Lehr, R V; Elefante, L C; Kikly, K K; O'Brien, S P; Kirkpatrick, R B

    2000-08-01

    We have developed a modified method of immobilized metal-ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) that can be used for the purification of histidine-tagged proteins from conditioned medium containing free copper ions. Classical methods of IMAC purification, using resins such as Ni-NTA, have proven inefficient for this type of purification and require multiple steps due to the interference of divalent copper ions with the binding of His-tagged protein to the charged resin. In contrast, this modified IMAC procedure, using chelating Sepharose instead of Ni-NTA, enables efficient purification from copper-containing medium in a single step. This method appears to rely upon a preferential interaction of protein-copper complexes with immobilized chelating resin. We have utilized this method to purify active, His-tagged murine interleukin 12 from the conditioned medium of Drosophila S2 cells coexpressing recombinant p40 and His-tagged p35 subunits and for the purification of the extracellular domain of the erythropoietin receptor. This method should be applicable to the purification of a wide variety of His-tagged fusion proteins expressed in Drosophila cells and in other systems where free metal ions are present. PMID:10910726

  2. Identification of 1-hydroxypyrene glucuronide in tissue of marine polychaete Nereis diversicolor by liquid chromatography/ion trap multiple mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Giessing, Anders M B; Lund, Torben

    2002-01-01

    1-Hydroxypyrene glucuronide is identified as the single major aqueous metabolite of the tetracyclic aromatic hydrocarbon pyrene, in tissue from a deposit-feeding marine polychaete, Nereis diversicolor. Identification was performed using an ion trap mass spectrometer fitted with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) probe and connected to a high-performance liquid chromatography/diode array detector (HPLC/DAD) system. Besides 1-hydroxypyrene, the 339-nm UV trace of tissue samples from pyrene-exposed worms showed only one dominant peak that could be related to pyrene metabolism. Negative APCI-MS of this supposed 1- hydroxypyrene conjugate gave a characteristic signal at m/z 429 corresponding to the molecular ion of 1-hydroxypyrene glucuronide plus eluent adducts ([M - H + 2H(2)O](-)). Fragmentation pathways were studied by isolating the abundant ion at m/z 429 in the ion trap and performing multiple mass spectrometric experiments (MS(n)). The fragmentations observed were consistent with the proposed identification. Two low intensity LC peaks that could be related to pyrene metabolism by their DAD absorption spectra were also present in the 339-nm UV chromatogram of tissue samples. However, these peaks could not be identified by their mass spectra in negative ion mode due to ion suppression by very abundant co-eluting impurities. The present method shows that LC/MS(n) is a fast and useful analytical tool for identification of aqueous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon biotransformation products in samples from relatively small marine invertebrates with limited sample preparation. PMID:12203242

  3. Comparative study of comprehensive gas chromatography-nitrogen chemiluminescence detection and gas chromatography-ion trap-tandem mass spectrometry for determining nicotine and carcinogen organic nitrogen compounds in thirdhand tobacco smoke.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Noelia; Vallecillos, Laura; Lewis, Alastair C; Borrull, Francesc; Marcé, Rosa M; Hamilton, Jacqueline F

    2015-12-24

    Thirdhand tobacco smoke (THS) constitutes a poorly understood pathway of exposure of non-smokers, especially toddlers, to tobacco-related carcinogens. However, to date most of the carcinogens present in tobacco smoke have not been detected in THS and, therefore, the significance of THS health risk is still unknown. In this study, we have compared the performance of two analytical methods - one based on gas chromatography coupled to ion trap mass spectrometry detection (GC-IT-MS) and the other on comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to a nitrogen chemiluminescence detector (GC×GC-NCD) - for simultaneously determining, in settled house dust, the presence of 16 organic nitrogen carcinogens already detected in tobacco smoke. The target compounds included four aromatic amines, two nitrocompounds, eight N-nitrosamines and two tobacco-specific nitrosamines, as well as nicotine as a tobacco marker. Dust samples were extracted using in-cell clean up pressurized liquid extraction with silica as clean up sorbent and ethyl acetate as the organic solvent, with average recovery of 89%. Although GC-IT-MS, using chemical ionization with methanol and tandem MS, performed well, the optimized GC×GC-NCD gave lower limits of detection (from 4 to 22ngg(-1)) and better repeatability and reproducibility a low concentration levels (%RSD<8%) and, therefore, was applicable for determining these different groups of carcinogens without the need for derivatization prior to the GC analysis. The performance of the optimized PLE/GC×GC-NCD method was tested by quantifying the target compounds in house dust samples from smokers' and non-smokers' homes. The median carcinogen compounds detected was 3.8?gg(-1) and 1.1?gg(-1) in smokers' and non-smokers' house dust, respectively. In this study, we have detected highly carcinogenic aromatic amines and nitro compounds for the first time in settled house dust complementing the state of knowledge of THS composition and providing fresh evidence about THS health risks. PMID:26684592

  4. ORIGINAL PAPER Development of a methodology utilizing gas chromatography

    E-print Network

    Mazumder, Asit

    ORIGINAL PAPER Development of a methodology utilizing gas chromatography ion-trap tandem mass chromatography coupled with an ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry detection system (IT-MS/MS) was developed. Four

  5. Study of ion suppression for phenolic compounds in medicinal plant extracts using liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Faccin, H; Viana, C; do Nascimento, P C; Bohrer, D; de Carvalho, L M

    2016-01-01

    A systematic study on the various sources of ion suppression in UHPLC-MS-MS analysis was carried out for 24 phenolic antioxidants in 6 different extracts of medicinal plants from Amazonia. The contributions of matrix effects, mobile-phase additives, analyte co-elution and electric charge competition during ionization to the global ion suppression were evaluated. Herein, the influence of mobile-phase additives on the ionization efficiency was found to be very pronounced, where ion suppression of approximately 90% and ion enhancement effects greater than 400% could be observed. The negative effect caused by the wrong choice of internal standard (IS) on quantitative studies was also evaluated and discussed from the perspective of ion suppression. This work also shows the importance of performing studies with this approach even for very similar matrices, such as varieties of medicinal plants from the same species, because different effects were observed for the same analyte. PMID:26709070

  6. Effect of anionic ion-pairing reagent concentration (1–60 mM) on reversed-phase liquid chromatography elution behaviour of peptides

    PubMed Central

    Shibue, M.; Mant, C.T.; Hodges, R.S.

    2009-01-01

    The homologous series of volatile perfluorinated acids—trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), pentafluoropropionic acid (PFPA) and heptafluorobutyric acid (HFBA)—continue to be excellent anionic ion-pairing reagents for reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) after more than two decades since their introduction to this field. It was felt that a thorough, step-by-step re-examination of the effects of anionic ion-pairing reagents over a wide concentration range on RP-HPLC peptide elution behaviour is now due, particularly considering the continuing dominance of such reagents for peptide applications. Thus, RP-HPLC was applied over a range of 1–60 mM phosphoric acid, TFA, PFPA and HFBA to two mixtures of 18-residue synthetic peptides containing either the same net positive charge (+4) or varying positive charge (+1, +2, +3, +4). Peptides with the same charge are resolved very similarly independent of the ion-pairing reagent used, although the overall retention times of the peptides increase with increasing hydrophobicity of the anion: phosphate < TFA? < PFPA? < HFBA?. Peptides of differing charge move at differing rates relative to each other depending on concentration of ion-pairing reagents. All four ion-pairing reagents increased peptide retention time with increasing concentration, albeit to different extents, again based on hydrophobicity of the anion, i.e., the more hydrophobic the anion, the greater the increase in peptide retention time at the same reagent concentration. Interestingly, phosphoric acid produced the best separation of the four-peptide mixture (+1 to +4 net charge). In addition, concentrations above 10 mM HFBA produced a reversal of the elution order of the four peptides (+1 < + 2 < + 3 < + 4) compared to the elution order produced by the other three reagents over the entire concentration range (+4 < + 3 < + 2 < + 1). PMID:16013615

  7. Organic solvent and temperature-enhanced ion chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry for the determination of low molecular weight organic and inorganic anions.

    PubMed

    Gilchrist, Elizabeth S; Nesterenko, Pavel N; Smith, Norman W; Barron, Leon P

    2015-03-20

    There has recently been increased interest in coupling ion chromatography (IC) to high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) to enable highly sensitive and selective analysis. Herein, the first comprehensive study focusing on the direct coupling of suppressed IC to HRMS without the need for post-suppressor organic solvent modification is presented. Chromatographic selectivity and added HRMS sensitivity offered by organic solvent-modified IC eluents on a modern hyper-crosslinked polymeric anion-exchange resin (IonPac AS18) are shown using isocratic eluents containing 5-50 mM hydroxide with 0-80% methanol or acetonitrile for a range of low molecular weight anions (<165 Da). Comprehensive experiments on IC thermodynamics over a temperature range between 20-45 °C with the eluent containing up to 60% of acetonitrile or methanol revealed markedly different retention behaviour and selectivity for the selected analytes on the same polymer based ion-exchange resin. Optimised sensitivity with HRMS was achieved with as low as 30-40% organic eluent content. Analytical performance characteristics are presented and compared with other IC-MS based works. This study also presents the first application of IC-HRMS to forensic detection of trace low-order anionic explosive residues in latent human fingermarks. PMID:25732588

  8. Simultaneous characterization of quaternary alkaloids, 8-oxoprotoberberine alkaloids, and a steroid compound in Coscinium fenestratum by liquid chromatography hybrid ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Deevanhxay, Phengxay; Suzuki, Makoto; Maeshibu, Nariaki; Li, He; Tanaka, Ken; Hirose, Sachio

    2009-10-15

    Simultaneous characterization of quaternary alkaloids, 8-oxoprotoberberine alkaloids, and a steroid compound in Coscinium fenestratum was successfully performed by liquid chromatography hybrid ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/IT-TOF MS). A total of 32 compounds, including 2 benzylisoquinoline alkaloids, 3 aporphine alkaloids, 12 quaternary protoberberine alkaloids, 10 8-oxoprotoberberine alkaloids, 3 tetrahydroprotoberberine alkaloids, and a steroid compound were simultaneously separated and characterized by matching the empirical molecular formulae with those published in literature and the multi-stage mass spectrometry (MS(n)) data obtained using structural information from IT, accurate mass measurement obtained from TOF MS, and HPLC separation. A total of 20 compounds, including 4 novel natural products were identified or tentatively identified for the first time from Coscinium fenestratum. In the positive-ion mode, 8-oxoprotoberberines produced [M+H](+) and [M+Na](+); the fragmentation of 8-oxodihydroprotoberberines produced [M+H-*CH(3)](+*), [M+H-*CH(3)-*CH(3)](+), and [M+H-*CH(3)-*CH(3)-CO](+), while 8-oxotetrahydroprotoberberines generated [M+H-*CH(3)](+*), [M+H-*CH(3)-*CH(3)](+), [M+H-*CH(3)-*H](+), and iminium ions from the cleavage of the protoberberine skeleton. The method can be applied for the analysis of 8-oxoberberine and other alkaloids in Coptis japonica, Phellodendron amurense, and other herbal medicines. PMID:19539442

  9. Rapid Quantification of Four Anthocyanins in Red Grape Wine by Hydrophilic Interaction Liquid Chromatography/ Triple Quadrupole Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yongming; Xia, Biqi; Chen, Xiangzhun; Duanmu, Chuansong; Li, Denghao; Han, Chao

    2015-12-01

    The identification and quantification of four anthocyanins (cyanidin-3-O -glucoside, peonidin- 3-O -glucoside, delphinidin-3-O -glucoside, and malvidin-3-O-glucoside) in red grape wine were carried out by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography/triple quadrupole linear ion trap MS (HILIC/QTrap-MS/MS). Samples were diluted directly and separated on a Merck ZIC HILIC column with 20 mM ammonium acetate solution-acetonitrile mobile phase. Quantitative data acquisition was carried out in the multiple reaction monitoring mode. Additional identification and confirmation of target compounds were performed using the enhanced product ion mode of the linear ion trap. The LOQs were in the range 0.05-1.0 ng/mL. The average recoveries were in the range 94.6 to 104.5%. The HILIC/QTrap-MS/MS platform offers the best sensitivity and specificity for characterization and quantitative determination of the four anthocyanins in red grape wines and fulfills the quality criteria for routine laboratory application. PMID:26651575

  10. Mass Spectrometry Parameters Optimization for the 46 Multiclass Pesticides Determination in Strawberries with Gas Chromatography Ion-Trap Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Virgínia C.; Vera, Jose L.; Domingues, Valentina F.; Silva, Luís M. S.; Mateus, Nuno; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2012-12-01

    Multiclass analysis method was optimized in order to analyze pesticides traces by gas chromatography with ion-trap and tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The influence of some analytical parameters on pesticide signal response was explored. Five ion trap mass spectrometry (IT-MS) operating parameters, including isolation time (IT), excitation voltage (EV), excitation time (ET), maximum excitation energy or " q" value (q), and isolation mass window (IMW) were numerically tested in order to maximize the instrument analytical signal response. For this, multiple linear regression was used in data analysis to evaluate the influence of the five parameters on the analytical response in the ion trap mass spectrometer and to predict its response. The assessment of the five parameters based on the regression equations substantially increased the sensitivity of IT-MS/MS in the MS/MS mode. The results obtained show that for most of the pesticides, these parameters have a strong influence on both signal response and detection limit. Using the optimized method, a multiclass pesticide analysis was performed for 46 pesticides in a strawberry matrix. Levels higher than the limit established for strawberries by the European Union were found in some samples.

  11. Determination of MeHg in environmental sample matrices using Hg-thiourea complex ion chromatography with on-line cold vapor generation and atomic fluorescence spectrometric detection.

    PubMed

    Shade, Christopher W; Hudson, Robert J M

    2005-07-01

    A novel system for mercury speciation analysis using high-pressure ion chromatography (IC) has been developed and validated. Its chemistry permits separation of the two most abundant forms of Hg in natural waters, soils, sediments, and biota-monomethyl Hg (CH3Hg+) and mercuric Hg (Hg2+)-on the basis of the difference in charge of their respective thiourea (S=C(NH2)20) complexes. Once separated, both species are converted to Hg0 on-line and quantified by cold-vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CVAFS). A column containing thiol-functionalized silica resin installed in the sample loop of the IC system traps Hg2+ and CH3Hg+ from prepared sample solutions without retaining interfering sample matrix components. The resulting matrix-independent chemistry permits external calibration of the system and a high sample throughput ( approximately 6 samples per hour). The system's accuracy has been validated with environmentally relevant reference materials. Figures of merit for the system, an average precision of approximately 2.5% and an absolute detection limit of <1 pg, are comparable to state-of-the-art gas chromatography approaches for Hg speciation analysis (ethylation/GC-CVAFS) and meet or exceed those of all extant LC systems. Low relative detection limits are attainable through preconcentration onto the thiol resin. PMID:16053099

  12. Direct chemical-analysis of uv laser-ablation products of organic polymers by using selective ion monitoring mode in gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cho, Yirang; Lee, H.W.; Fountain, S.T.; Lubman, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    Trace quantities of laser ablated organic polymers were analyzed by using commercial capillary column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry; the instrument was modified so that the laser ablation products could be introduced into the capillary column directly and the constituents of each peak in the chromatogram were identified by using a mass spectrometer. The present study takes advantage of the selective ion monitoring mode for significantly improving the sensitivity of the mass spectrometer as a detector, which is critical in analyzing the trace quantities and confirming the presence or absence of the species of interest in laser ablated polymers. The initial composition of the laser ablated polymers was obtained by using an electron impact reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer and the possible structure of the fragments observed in the spectra was proposed based on the structure of the polymers.

  13. Comprehensive quantitative analysis of purines and pyrimidines in the human malaria parasite using ion-pairing ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Laourdakis, Christian D.; Merino, Emilio F.; Neilson, Andrew P.; Cassera, Maria B.

    2014-01-01

    Targeted metabolite profiling has aided in the understanding of a variety of biological processes in the malaria parasite as well as in drug discovery. A fast and sensitive analytical method, based on ion-pairing reversed phase ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (IP-RP-UPLC-MS/MS), was optimized for the simultaneous analysis of intracellular levels of 35 purine and pyrimidine nucleobases, nucleosides, and nucleotides. This analytical method allows for chromatographic separation of highly polar metabolites using reverse phase chemistry within 15 minutes. The analytical performance of the method was evaluated and successfully applied to the quantification of purines and pyrimidines in Plasmodium falciparum and its host cell, the human erythrocyte. In addition, this method can be customized to include other related metabolites such as NADPH and NADP, among others. PMID:25089957

  14. Development of an automated method for simultaneous determination of low molecular weight aliphatic amines and ammonia in ambient air by diffusion scrubber coupled to ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Chang, In-Hyoung; Lee, Chong-Geun; Lee, Dong Soo

    2003-11-15

    A method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of low molecular weight aliphatic amines and ammonia in the atmosphere. Analyte gases are collected quantitatively in high-purity deionized water of a planar diffusion scrubber, and the resultant solution is analyzed by ion chromatography. A 1-h cycle analysis could be continuously repeated. The calibrations for the amines are linear between 5 and 500 pptv. The detection limits are a few pptv with RSD of less than 3%. The calibration for ammonia shows severe curvature at high concentrations so that second-order fitting is required for accurate determination. This method was successfully applied to the environmental air analyses. The major amines in the atmosphere were trimethylamine, dimethylamine, and methylamine, and the temporal variations were closely correlated with that of ammonia, implying their identical emission sources. PMID:14615993

  15. Determination of testosterone in plasma from men by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, with high-resolution selected-ion monitoring and metastable peak monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Finlay, E.M.; Gaskell, S.J.

    1981-07-01

    Highly specific methods are described for determining testosterone in plasma or serum from men. Extract fractions obtained by selective isolation procedures are converted to tert-butyldimethylsilyl (TBDMS) oximes/TBDMS ethers or methyl oximes/TBDMS ethers and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in the high-resolution selected-ion monitoring or metastable peak-monitoring modes. (2H3)Testosterone and unlabeled 17-epitestosterone are used as the respective internal standards. When we applied the two procedures to analysis of samples of pooled plasma and serum used for external quality assessment of routine assays, the results agreed well. Interlaboratory values for mean concentrations obtained by routine immunoassays (y) consistently exceeded values obtained by our technique (x), although the values closely correlated (r . 0.997; y . 1.008x + 0.564 nmol/L).

  16. Characterization of Compounds in Psoralea corylifolia Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Diode Array Detection, Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry and Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tan, Guangguo; Yang, Tiehong; Miao, Huayan; Chen, Hao; Chai, Yifeng; Wu, Hong

    2015-10-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD), time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-TOFMS) and quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry (HPLC-QITMS) were used for separation and identification of multi-components in Psoralea corylifolia. Benefiting from combining the accurate mass measurement of HPLC-TOFMS to generate elemental compositions, the complementary multilevel structural information provided by HPLC-QITMS and the characteristic UV spectra obtained from HPLC-DAD, 24 components in P. corylifolia were identified. The five groups of isomers were differentiated based on the fragmentation behaviors in QITMS and UV spectra. It can be concluded that an effective method based on the combination of HPLC-DAD, HPLC-TOFMS and HPLC-QITMS for identification of chemical components in P. corylifolia was established. The results provide essential data for further pharmacological and clinical studies of P. corylifolia and facilitate the rapid quality control of the crude drug. PMID:25903696

  17. Identification and quantitation of pyrethroid pesticide residues in vegetables by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tianwen; Chen, Guonan

    2007-01-01

    A quantitative method consisting of solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization ion trap mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-ITMS) analysis was developed for the identification and quantitation of ten pyrethroid pesticides commonly used in vegetables. The best HPLC separation was achieved using a gradient program of methanol/water mixture. For the vegetable samples, an SPE procedure to clean up the matrices was carried out prior to LC/MS analysis. Under the optimum conditions, the limits of quantification of the pyrethroid pesticides (tetramethrin, allethrin, fenpropathrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, fenvalerate, bioresmethrin, permethrin and bifenthrin) ranged from 0.03 to 0.1 mg kg-1 with relative standard deviations<20%, and the mean recoveries ranged from 69.5 to 102.5%. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the determination of pyrethroids in six vegetables with satisfactory results. PMID:17510928

  18. Neuere Chromatographie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hostettmann, K.

    1983-04-01

    Besides high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) which is now a well-established and currently used technique, several emerging methods for the isolation and separation of natural products are receiving considerable attention. Centrifugal thin-layer chromatography is a very rapid technique, but limited in resolution. Of special interest are the recently developed support-free liquid-liquid chromatography methods such as droplet counter-current chromatography (DCCC) and rotation locular counter-current chromatography (RLCC). This latter method was applied to the separation of the enantiomers of (±)-norephedrine.

  19. Immune complex formation analysed by high-performance size exclusion chromatography (HPLC-SEC) using either 125I-labelled antigen or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection.

    PubMed Central

    Holmskov-Nielsen, U; Jensenius, J C; Erb, K; Husby, S

    1984-01-01

    A physical/immunochemical method has been developed for the analysis of soluble immune complexes. Human serum with high amount of antibody against bovine serum albumin (BSA) was incubated at 37 degrees with a wide range of 125I-labelled BSA and separated according to size by high-performance size exclusion chromatography (HPLC-SEC) on a TSK G 6000 PW column. Fractions were collected onto microplates and analysed either by gamma counting or by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique detecting anti-BSA antibody. The size of the immune complexes were the same when analysed by the two methods. The heaviest immune complexes were seen in moderate antibody excess where the majority of the complexes were eluted in a broad peak around Mr of 7 X 10(6). In large antibody excess the immune complexes eluted at around 3 X 10(6). Around equilibrium two peaks were seen corresponding to 3 X 10(6) and 5 X 10(5). In antigen excess the peak at 3 X 10(6) is diminished and free antigen appears. No changes in the distribution of the complexes were observed when the serum was made 20 mM in EDTA before incubation with BSA. PMID:6423527

  20. Structural modifications of dicationic acetylcholinesterase reactivators studied under ion-pairing mechanism in reversed-phase liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Radulescu, Medeea; Kuca, Kamil; Musilek, Kamil; David, Victor

    2014-11-01

    A study focused on the chromatographic behavior of several acetylcholinesterase reactivators under ion-pairing mechanism is reported. Among these reactivators, dicationic oximes and carbamoyl-based pyridinium congeners were studied, which form ion pairs with alkylsulfonate anions. This mechanism was studied for some major experimental parameters, such as the chain length of the ion-pairing agent added to the aqueous phase, its concentration, temperature, and nature of the organic modifier from mobile phase. Retention data showed one or two possibilities of forming ion pairs and the tautomerism of the studied reactivators, for different pH values of the aqueous component. Double sigmoid shapes were obtained for the studied compounds for the dependence between retention factor and pH, indicating the possibility of one or two tautomeric equilibria: at pH close to 7 these compounds are not stable as dicationic species and they participate in the retention process as nitroso forms, which are not able to form ion pairs with alkylsulfonates. The dependences of the retention factor on the organic modifier content from mobile phase were linear. Two complementary theoretical models were used to explain the functional dependences for the retention data on the experimental parameters. PMID:25141798

  1. Boosting the Detection Potential of Liquid Chromatography-Electron Ionization Mass Spectrometry Using a Ceramic Coated Ion Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magrini, Laura; Famiglini, Giorgio; Palma, Pierangela; Termopoli, Veronica; Cappiello, Achille

    2015-09-01

    Detection of target and non-target substances and their characterization in complex samples is a challenging task. Here we demonstrate that coating the electron ionization (EI) ion source of an LC-MS system with a sol-gel ceramic film can drastically improve the detection of high-molecular weight and high-boiling analytes. A new ion source coated with a ceramic material was developed and tested with a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) with an increasing number of rings. Comparison of the results obtained with those for an uncoated stainless steel (SS) ion source shows a dramatic improvement in the MS signals, with a nearly 40-fold increase of the signal-to-noise ratio. We also demonstrate the ability of the new system to produce excellent chromatographic profiles for hard-to-detect hormones.

  2. Boosting the Detection Potential of Liquid Chromatography-Electron Ionization Mass Spectrometry Using a Ceramic Coated Ion Source.

    PubMed

    Magrini, Laura; Famiglini, Giorgio; Palma, Pierangela; Termopoli, Veronica; Cappiello, Achille

    2016-01-01

    Detection of target and non-target substances and their characterization in complex samples is a challenging task. Here we demonstrate that coating the electron ionization (EI) ion source of an LC-MS system with a sol-gel ceramic film can drastically improve the detection of high-molecular weight and high-boiling analytes. A new ion source coated with a ceramic material was developed and tested with a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) with an increasing number of rings. Comparison of the results obtained with those for an uncoated stainless steel (SS) ion source shows a dramatic improvement in the MS signals, with a nearly 40-fold increase of the signal-to-noise ratio. We also demonstrate the ability of the new system to produce excellent chromatographic profiles for hard-to-detect hormones. Graphical Abstract ?. PMID:26350384

  3. Determination of (dichloromethylene) diphosphonate in physiological fluids by ion-exchange chromatography with phosphorus-selective detection.

    PubMed

    Chester, T L; Lewis, E C; Benedict, J J; Sunberg, R J; Tettenhorst, W C

    1981-09-11

    An analytical method is presented for the determination of (dichloromethylene) disphosphonate (Cl2MDP) in serum and urine. Cl2MDP is isolated from biological samples by adsorption onto precipitated calcium phosphate. Orthophosphate is separated from Cl2MDP by anion-exchange chromatography using AG 1-X8 resin. Detection is accomplished on-line using a flame photometric detector. Potentially interfering condensed phosphates are removed by acid hydrolysis. Sample handling losses are corrected by monitoring the recovery of a [14C] Cl2MDP spike added to the samples. Determinations of Cl2MDP to concentrations as low as 2 mumol/l are possible. Extension of the method to determine other diphosphonates is discussed. PMID:6457843

  4. Determination of trace levels of herbicides and their degradation products in surface and ground waters by gas chromatography/ion-trap mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pereira, W.E.; Rostad, C.E.; Leiker, T.J.

    1990-01-01

    A rapid, specific and highly sensitive method is described for the determination of several commonly used herbicides and their degradation products in surface and ground waters by using gas chromatography/ion-trap mass spectrometry. The compounds included atrazine, and its degradation products desethylatrazine and desisopropylatrazine; Simazine; Cyanazine; Metolachlor; and alachlor and its degradation products, 2-chloro-2', 6'-diethylacetanilide, 2-hydroxy-2', 6'-diethylacetanilide and 2,6-diethylaniline. The method was applied to surface-water samples collected from 16 different stations along the lower Mississippi River and its major tributaries, and ground-water samples beneath a cornfield in central Nebraska. Average recovery of a surrogate herbicide, terbuthylazine, was greater than 99%. Recoveries of the compounds of interest from river water spiked at environmental levels are also presented. Full-scan mass spectra of these compounds were obtained on 1 ng or less of analyte. Data were collected in the full-scan acquisition mode. Quantitation was based on a single characteristic ion for each compound. The detection limit was 60 pg with a signal-to-noise ratio of greater than 10:1.

  5. Dispersive solid phase extraction combined with ion-pair ultra high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for quantification of nucleotides in Lactococcus lactis.

    PubMed

    Magdenoska, Olivera; Martinussen, Jan; Thykaer, Jette; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2013-09-15

    Analysis of intracellular metabolites in bacteria is of utmost importance for systems biology and at the same time analytically challenging due to the large difference in concentrations, multiple negative charges, and high polarity of these compounds. To challenge this, a method based on dispersive solid phase extraction with charcoal and subsequent analysis with ion-pair liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry was established for quantification of intracellular pools of the 28 most important nucleotides. The method can handle extracts where cells leak during the quenching. Using a Phenyl-Hexyl column and tributylamine as volatile ion-pair reagent, sufficient retention and separation was achieved for mono-, di-, and triphosphorylated nucleotides. Stable isotope labeled nucleotides were used as internal standards for some analytes. The method was validated by determination of the recovery, matrix effects, accuracy, linearity, and limit of detection based on spiking of medium blank as well as standard addition to quenched Lactococcus lactis samples. For standard addition experiments, the isotope-labeled standards needed to be added in similar or higher concentrations as the analytes. L. lactis samples had an energy charge of 0.97 ± 0.001 which was consistent with literature, whereas some differences were observed compared with legacy data based on ³³P labeling. PMID:23747533

  6. On-line pretreatment and determination of Pb, Cu and Cd at the microgram l-1 level in drinking water by chelation ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Lu, H; Mou, S; Yan, Y; Tong, S; Riviello, J M

    1998-03-27

    A novel, highly sensitive method for the simultaneous separation and determination of lead, copper, cadmium and other transition metals in drinking water was achieved by on-line sample pretreatment of chelation ion chromatography. Manganese, which coeluted with cadmium, was oxidized to permanganate by ammonium persulfate before injection. Permanganate, with bulk quantity of alkali, alkaline earth metals, iron and aluminum, was eliminated by pyrophosphoric acid-ammonium acetate buffer solution (pH 5.5), while retaining heavy and transition metals on a selective chelating resin (MetPac CC-1 column). Then, they were disabsorbed and transferred to a sulfonated cation exchanger (TMC-1 column). Finally, the concentrated trace metals were separated on a bifunctional ion-exchange column (CS5A) by a concentration gradient of oxalic acid and sodium nitrate eluents, coupled with post-column spectrophotometric detection with 2-[(5-bromo-2-pyridyl)azo]-5-diethylaminophenol (5-Br-PADAP) at 560 nm. The separation and color-development conditions were optimized. The detection limits for the method (signal-to-noise ratio = 3:1) were at or below the microgram l-1 level. The results of drinking water analyses were satisfactory. PMID:9561765

  7. Determination of sulphonated azo dyes in food by ion-pair liquid chromatography with photodiode array and electrospray mass spectrometry detection.

    PubMed

    Fuh, Ming-Ren; Chia, Kan-Jung

    2002-03-11

    An ion-pair liquid chromatography method with on-line photodiode-array and electrospray mass spectrometry detection was developed to determine 10 commonly used sulphonated azo dyes (Tartrazine, Amaranth, New Coccine, Sunset Yellow FCF, Allura Red AC, Ponceau R, Ponceau 3R, Orange I, Orange II and Metanil Yellow) in food. A reversed phase C(18) column with gradient elution was utilized to separate these compounds. Triethylamine was added in the mobile phase as an ion-pair reagent for chromatographic separation. Photodiode-array detection was employed for quantitative determination and electrospray mass spectrometry was used for identification. Good linearity (0.05-10 ppm, r(2)=0.999) and detection limit (<0.01 ppm) were determined with 5 mul injection. In addition, precision and accuracy associated with this newly developed method will be presented. A liquid extraction method was also developed to extract these dyes from different foodstuffs. The application of this method was demonstrated by analyzing sulphonated azo dyes in soft drinks, fruit jam, and salted vegetables. PMID:18968541

  8. Chemical analysis of acidic silicon etch solutions II. Determination of HNO(3), HF, and H(2)SiF(6) by ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Acker, Jörg; Henßge, Antje

    2007-06-15

    The processing of silicon in microelectronics and photovoltaics involves the isotropic chemical etching using HF-HNO(3) mixtures to clean the surface from contaminations, to remove the saw damage, as well as to polish or to texture the wafer surface. Key element of an effective etch process control is the knowledge of the actual etch bath composition in order to maintain a certain etch rate by replenishment of the consumed acids. The present paper describes a methods for the total analysis of the etch bath constituents HF, HNO(3), and H(2)SiF(6) by ion chromatography. First step is the measurement of the total fluoride and nitrate content in the analyte. In a second step, H(2)SiF(6) is precipitated as K(2)SiF(6). After careful filtration of the precipitate, the fluoride concentration in the filtrate is measured and the content of free HF is calculated therefrom. The K(2)SiF(6) is dissolved again and the fluoride content measured and recalculated as H(2)SiF(6). The results obtained with the presented method are discussed with respect to the results from two other, previously published methods, based on a titration using methanolic cyclohexylamine solution as titrant and based on a method using a fluoride ion selective electrode (F-ISE). An evaluation with respect to the needs for an industrial application is given. PMID:19071795

  9. Rapid analysis of trace levels of antibiotic polyether ionophores in surface water by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography with ion trap tandem mass spectrometric detection.

    PubMed

    Cha, J M; Yang, S; Carlson, K H

    2005-02-18

    The occurrence of antibiotics in surface and ground water is an emerging area of interest due to the potential impacts of these compounds on the environment. This paper details a rapid, sensitive and reliable analytical method for the determination of monensin A and B, salinomycin and narasin A in surface water using solid-phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography-ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) with selected reaction monitoring (SRM). Several product ions as sodiated sodium salts for MS-MS detection have been identified and documented with their proposed fragmentation pathways. Statistical analysis for determination of the method detection limit (MDL), accuracy and precision of the method is described. The average recovery of ionophore antibiotics in pristine and wastewater-influenced water was 96.0+/-8.3% and 93.8+/-9.1%, respectively. No matrix effect was seen with the surface water. MDL was between 0.03 and 0.05 microg/L for these antibiotic compounds in the surface water. The accuracy and day-to-day variation of method fell within acceptable ranges. The method is applied to evaluate to the occurrence of these compounds in a small watershed in Northern Colorado. The method verified the presence of trace levels of these antibiotics in urban and agricultural land use dominated sections of the river. PMID:15782964

  10. The simultaneous determination of active ingredients in cough-cold mixtures by isocratic reversed-phase ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Lau, O W; Chan, K; Lau, Y K; Wong, W C

    1989-01-01

    A simple, rapid and accurate method for the simultaneous determination of active ingredients in cough-cold mixtures using isocratic reversed-phase ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography has been developed. It involves the use of an octadecylsilane column as the stationary phase with methanol, water, tetrahydrofuran, phosphoric acid mixtures as mobile phase including sodium dioctylsulphosuccinate as the ion-pair agent. The pH of the mobile phase was adjusted to 4.6 by means of phosphoric acid and ammonium hydroxide solutions. The proposed method involves the simple dilution of the samples with the mobile phase and the addition of metoclopramide hydrochloride as the internal standard. The active ingredients under investigation were chlorpheniramine, codeine, diphenhydramine, ephedrine, ethylmorphine, phenylephrine, phenylpropanolamine and pholcodine, which exist as various combinations in cough-cold mixtures. The optimum composition of the mobile phase and the optimum flow rate were determined and are reported. The method was applied to the determination of active ingredients in seven commercially available cough-cold mixtures. PMID:2577452

  11. Quantitative Phosphoproteome Analysis of Lysophosphatidic Acid Induced Chemotaxis applying Dual-step ¹?O Labeling Coupled with Immobilized Metal-ion Affinity Chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Shi-Jian; Wang, Yingchun; Jacobs, Jon M.; Qian, Weijun; Yang, Feng; Tolmachev, Aleksey V.; Du, Xiuxia; Wang, Wei; Moore, Ronald J.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Waters, Katrina M.; Heibeck, Tyler H.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Camp, David G.; Klemke, Richard L.; Smith, Richard D.

    2008-10-01

    Reversible protein phosphorylation is a central cellular regulatory mechanism in modulating protein activity and propagating signals within cellular pathways and networks. Development of more effective methods for the simultaneous identification of phosphorylation sites and quantification of temporal changes in protein phosphorylation could provide important insights into molecular signaling mechanisms in a variety of different cellular processes. Here we present an integrated quantitative phosphoproteomics approach and its applications for comparative analysis of Cos-7 cells in response to lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) gradient stimulation. The approach combines trypsin-catalyzed 16O/18O labeling plus 16O/18O-methanol esterification labeling for quantitation, a macro- Immobilized Metal-ion Affinity Chromatography trap for phosphopeptide enrichment, and a monolithic capillary column with integrated electrospray emitter. LC separation and MS/MS is followed by neutral loss-dependent MS/MS/MS for phosphopeptide identification using a linear ion trap (LTQ)-FT mass spectrometer and complementary searching algorithms for interpreting MS/MS spectra. Protein phosphorylation involved in various signaling pathways of cell migration were identified and quantified, such as mitogen-activated protein kinase 1, dual-specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2, and dual-specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation regulated kinase 1b, and a number of Rho GTPase-activating proteins. These results demonstrate the efficiency of this quantitative phosphoproteomics approach and its application for rapid discovery of phosphorylation events associated with gradient sensing and cell chemotaxis.

  12. Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography Ion Mobility Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry Characterization of Naphthenic Acids Species from Oil Sands Process-Affected Water.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rongfu; McPhedran, Kerry N; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2015-10-01

    Ultraperformance liquid chromatography ion mobility time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-IM-TOFMS), integrating traveling wave ion mobility spectrometry (TWIMS) with negative electrospray ionization (ESI) mode, was used to achieve two-dimensional (2D) separation (drift vs retention times) of naphthenic acids (NAs). Unprocessed and ozonated commercial NAs were used for method development. Only O2-NAs were found in unprocessed NAs with ozonation creating O3-NAs and O4-NAs. Unprocessed and ozonated oil sands process-affected waters (OSPW) were examined to validate the method for complex matrix NAs. Ozonation increased the x number for Ox-NAs (2 ? x ? 5) and also impacted the -Z number distribution. OSPW extracted using dichloromethane removed the potential for sample matrix impacts and was used for MS/MS NAs characterization. The Ox-NAs (2 ? x ? 6) were identified with O2-NAs separated into three clusters indicating isobaric and isomeric species. MS/MS was used to verify compounds, while also indicating the presence of CH3CH2S- NAs groups. This result may be useful for future studies of sulfur-NAs fate, toxicity, and treatment. Overall, the value-added information provided by UPLC-IM-TOFMS makes it a promising analytical technique for analysis of NAs in complex OSPW samples. Moreover, this methodology can be used for other matrices to investigate relative molecular sizes and to separate complex species (e.g., fatty acids, lipids), making it beneficial for environmental and bioanalytical applications. PMID:26322530

  13. [Determination of free carcinogenic aromatic amines in textiles by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-linear ion trap/orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Ye, Xiwen; Peng, Yan; Niu, Zengyuan; Gao, Yonggang; Luo, Xin; Zou, Li

    2015-04-01

    A method of ultra-performance liquid chromatography-linear ion trap/orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (UPLC-LTQ/Orbitrap MS) was used to determine 24 free carcinogenic aromatic amines in textiles. The main factors influencing the method, including the extraction solvent, the extraction temperature and the extraction time, were optimized. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the analytes were extracted by dichloromethane for 10 min and loaded into a ZORBAX SB-C18 column (150 mm x 2.1 mm, 5 µm) with a gradient elution of methanol and 0.1% aqueous formic acid solution, and finally detected by LTQ/Orbitrap MS. The screening and quantitative analysis were carried out by the accurate mass of quasi-molecular ion and the peak in extracted chromatogram with accurate mass respectively. The correlation coefficients (R2) were higher than 0.99. The recoveries were 87.8%-105.6% with the RSDs were 1.6%-3.4%. The limits of detection were 0.5-1 µg/kg, and the limits of quantification were 1.5-3 µg/kg. The proposed method was applied to 14 textile samples containing spandex. 4,4'-Diaminodiphenylmethane was determined in five samples and the contents were 0.21-25.6 mg/kg. The results indicate that the developed method is a simple, efficient, precise and reliable technique for the determination of free carcinogenic aromatic amines in textiles. PMID:26292407

  14. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry characterisation of milk polar lipids from dairy cows fed different diets.

    PubMed

    Craige Trenerry, V; Akbaridoust, Ghazal; Plozza, Tim; Rochfort, Simone; Wales, William J; Auldist, Martin; Ajlouni, Said

    2013-11-15

    Milk polar lipids are an important class of biologically active species for human health and for improving the physical functionality of food ingredients. Milk polar lipids from 144 multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows fed different diets were analysed using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS(n)). A complex profile of polar lipids, consisting of 7 species of phosphatidylinositol (PI), 12 species of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), 18 species of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and 13 species of sphingomyelin (SM) were identified from the molecular ions and sequential MS(n) fragmentation. Qualitative assessment of the data suggested that different cow diets influenced the relative amounts of a small number of species in the milk samples, e.g. PE 14:0/18:1, PE 18:0/18:1, PC 15:0/18:1, PC 18:0/18:1, SM d18:1/14:0, SM d18:1/15:0, SM d18:1/22:0 and SM d18:1/23:0. PMID:23790938

  15. Analysis of polyaromatic quinones in a complex environmental matrix using gas chromatography ion trap tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mosi, A A; Reimer, K J; Eigendorf, G K

    1997-06-01

    GC/MS and GC/MS/MS in a quadrupole ion trap were used to analyze for anthraquinone, alkyl anthraquinones, benz[a]anthracene-7, 12-dione and 9-fluoranone in a sediment obtained from an aluminum smelter settling pond contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. By standard GC/MS analysis many of these target compounds were either undetectable or their confirmation uncertain because of matrix interferences. Detection and identification were greatly improved by using GC/MS/MS. GC/MS/MS analyses were performed by selecting the molecular ion (M) of a target compound and fragmenting it via collision induced dissocation (CID) to yield product ions corresponding to loss of CO for unsubstituted compounds or CO plus CH(3) for alkylated compounds. The CID conditions were optimized using anthraquinone and 2-methylanthraquinone standards by varying the CID excitation energy and RF storage levels to yield optimum amounts of fragment ions. CID experiments were performed using both resonant and non-resonant wave forms. Although both excitation techniques gave comparable results for the removal of matrix interferences, non-resonant excitation provided more characteristic spectra for the alkylated anthraquinones. Monitoring of secondary fragmentation products, such as M-2CO, provided greater discrimination from matrix interferences than the use of primary fragmentation products, such as M-CO. PMID:18966830

  16. Quantitative analysis of intracellular nucleoside triphosphates and other polar metabolites using ion pair reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianmei; Zhang, Yingtao; Wiegand, Richard; Wang, Jian; Bepler, Gerold; Li, Jing

    2015-12-01

    Simultaneous, quantitative determination of intracellular nucleoside triphosphates and other polar metabolites using liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) represents a bioanalytic challenge because of charged, highly hydrophilic analytes presented at a large concentration range in a complex matrix. In this study, an ion pair LC-MS/MS method using triethylamine (TEA)-hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) ion-pair mobile phase was optimized and validated for simultaneous and unambiguous determination of 8 nucleoside triphosphates (including ATP, CTP, GTP, UTP, dATP, dCTP, dGTP, and dTTP) in cellular samples. Compared to the the less volatile ion-pair reagent, triethylammonium acetate (100mM, pH 7.0), the combination of HFIP (100mM) and TEA (8.6mM) increased the MS signal intensity by about 50-fold, while retaining comparable chromatographic resolution. The isotope-labeled internal standard method was used for the quantitation. Lower limits of quantitation were determined at 0.5nM for CTP, UTP, dATP, dCTP, and dTTP, at 1nM for ATP, and at 5nM for GTP and dGTP. The intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy were within the generally accepted criteria for bioanalytical method validation (<15%). While the present method was validated for the quantitation of intracellular nucleoside triphosphates, it had a broad application potential for quantitative profiling of nucleoside mono- and bi-phosphates as well as other polar, ionic metabolic intermediates (including carbohydrate derivatives, carboxylic acid derivatives, co-acyl A derivatives, fatty acyls, and others) in biological samples. PMID:26551209

  17. Qualitative Metabolome Analysis of Human Cerebrospinal Fluid by 13C-/12C-Isotope Dansylation Labeling Combined with Liquid Chromatography Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Kevin; Bamforth, Fiona; Li, Liang

    2011-02-01

    Metabolome analysis of human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is challenging because of low abundance of metabolites present in a small volume of sample. We describe and apply a sensitive isotope labeling LC-MS technique for qualitative analysis of the CSF metabolome. After a CSF sample is divided into two aliquots, they are labeled by 13C-dansyl and 12C-dansyl chloride, respectively. The differentially labeled aliquots are then mixed and subjected to LC-MS using Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR MS). Dansylation offers significant improvement in the performance of chromatography separation and detection sensitivity. Moreover, peaks detected in the mass spectra can be readily analyzed for ion pair recognition and database search based on accurate mass and/or retention time information. It is shown that about 14,000 features can be detected in a 25-min LC-FTICR MS run of a dansyl-labeled CSF sample, from which about 500 metabolites can be profiled. Results from four CSF samples are compared to gauge the detectability of metabolites by this method. About 261 metabolites are commonly detected in replicate runs of four samples. In total, 1132 unique metabolite ion pairs are detected and 347 pairs (31%) matched with at least one metabolite in the Human Metabolome Database. We also report a dansylation library of 220 standard compounds and, using this library, about 85 metabolites can be positively identified. Among them, 21 metabolites have never been reported to be associated with CSF. These results illustrate that the dansylation LC-FTICR MS method can be used to analyze the CSF metabolome in a more comprehensive manner.

  18. Hydrophilic interaction chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry in the presence of hydrophilic ion-pairing reagents for the separation of nucleosides and nucleotide mono-, di- and triphosphates.

    PubMed

    Mateos-Vivas, María; Rodríguez-Gonzalo, Encarnación; García-Gómez, Diego; Carabias-Martínez, Rita

    2015-10-01

    A fast and efficient method for the simultaneous separation of highly polar compounds, in this case nucleosides and nucleotide mono-, di- and triphosphates, using hydrophilic interaction chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS) is proposed. This new separation method revealed the possibilities of the formation of hydrophilic ion-pairing compounds. Three stationary phases (HILIC XBridge-Amide, HILIC-CoreShell and ZIC-HILIC) were assayed for the separation of 20 target analytes, and a detailed study of the composition of the mobile phase was made using different salts at different concentrations in a organic-rich mobile phase. We report that in order to prevent the adsorption of nucleotides on the LC-MS setup and to enhance their retention on the HILIC stationary phase, a mobile phase containing hexafluoro-2-propanol and different cations should be used. Four cations were evaluated: ammonium, diethylammonium, triethylammonium and tetrabutylammonium. The results revealed the formation of an ionic-association compound between the phosphorylated analytes and the cationic ion-pairing reagents, whose retention increased with the polarity of the cationic ion-pairing reagent. HILIC XBridge-Amide was found to be the most suitable column for the separation of these analytes, and the optimized mobile phase consisted of an ACN/UHQ water mixture (3min of isocratic elution using 82:18%, v/v and then a fast gradient from 18% to 22% of water) with 100mM hexafluoro-2-propanol and 50mM diethylamine (w(w)pH 9-w(s)pH 10). In a total analysis time of 8min, good results were achieved in terms of resolution. Under these optimum conditions, a further comprehensive study of the retention mechanism was carried out. PMID:26341591

  19. [Fast screening of 24 sedative hypnotics illegally added in improving sleep health foods by high performance liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Lu, Li; Gong, Xu; Tan, Li

    2015-03-01

    A fast screening method was established for the simultaneous determination of 24 sedative hypnotics illegally added in improving sleep health foods by high performance liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry (HPLC-IT MS). The method was based on the sonication assisted extraction of the improving sleep health food samples using methanol. The extract was then filtrated with 0.45 µm filter membrane and the filtrate was separated on a Phenomenex Luna C18 column with isocratic elution at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. A binary mobile phase was 0.05% (v/v) formic acid (solvent A)-methanol/acetonitrile (15:25, v/v, solvent B). The electrospray ionization (ESI) source in positive ion mode or negative ion mode was used to scan MS1-MS3 spectra for the 24 sedative hypnotics. The MS2 and MS3 spectra were used for qualitative analysis of samples. The calibration graphs were linear in their concentration ranges with the correlation coefficients (r2) more than 0.999. The limits of detection (LODs) were 4.0-446.6 µg/L. The recoveries for all the drugs in the improving sleep health foods were 88.6%-110.3% with the relative standard deviations no more than 9.8% at three spiked levels. Twenty-seven batches of the improving sleep health foods were tested. Melatonin was found in eighteen batches. The method is fast, specific, sensitive, easy and suitable for fast screening of 24 sedative hypnotics illegally added in improving sleep health foods. PMID:26182467

  20. Characterization of a rapid and reliable method for iodide biomonitoring in serum and urine based on ion chromatography-ICP-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Michalke, Bernhard; Witte, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    An appropriate and controlled supply of thyroid hormones is vital for proper body function. In turn, an appropriate synthesis of T3 and T4 in the thyroid gland is dependent on a sufficient and balanced iodide concentration in blood serum. Due to widespread iodine deficiency or some cases of iodine over exposure, iodide biomonitoring in serum is important and it is that biomonitoring approach being closest to the bioavailable I(-) supply for the thyroid gland. Therefore, this paper describes a biomonitoring method for iodide determination in serum based on ion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (IC-ICP-MS). Since in literature only very few data are available on iodide in serum but many in urine the method is also extended to I(-) monitoring in urine. The method was additionally designed to have short analysis time (8min) for increased sample throughput, good precision in serial measurement (serum: 4.86%; urine: 1.4%), and day-to-day determination (serum: 5.7%; urine: 2.28%), high accuracy (serum: 105%; urine: 101%) and good recovery (serum: 102%; urine: 99%) even in matrix-rich samples at low I(-) concentration. Also, investigations were performed to elucidate whether internal standardization during chromatography, sample preparation for protein-matrix removal or matrix-matched calibration are advantageous for analytical performance. Finally, limits of detection (3?) of 0.12?g/L or 0.05?g/L (serum or urine) and limit of quantification (10?) of 0.39?g/L or 0.17?g/L (serum or urine) were achieved. PMID:24933092

  1. Simultaneous determination of benzene and phenol in heat transfer fluid by head-space gas chromatography hyphenated with ion mobility spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Criado-García, L; Garrido-Delgado, R; Arce, L; López, F; Peón, R; Valcárcel, M

    2015-11-01

    The quantitative determination of some compounds such as benzene and phenol in a complex matrix by ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) can be a difficult task, due to the influence of other components present in the matrix and the chemical properties of both compounds, such as their high volatility and low proton affinity. Monitoring of these compounds in a heat transfer fluid (HTF) is essential to check the correct working of a thermosolar plant and for safety and environmental reasons. Benzene and phenol, among other compounds, are produced when HTF is exposed to high temperatures in continuous cycles and their presence can decrease the efficiency of HTF. For the first time, a headspace module coupled to a gas chromatography column in combination with an IMS (with a tritium ionization source) has been optimized and fully validated to simultaneously quantify benzene and phenol in HTF. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) achieved with the method proposed were 0.011 and 0.038gL(-1) and 0.004 and 0.014gL(-1) for benzene and phenol respectively. The precision of the method was evaluated in terms of repeatability and reproducibility with all values lower than 9.2% and 13.3%, respectively. Results demonstrated that benzene and phenol were generated in the HTF heating process, and its concentration increased with heating time (approximately 483h). The average concentration values for benzene and phenol in degraded HTF samples were not significantly different to values obtained using a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector instrument. Therefore, IMS is a promising technique for in-field quality control of HTF in a thermosolar plant due to its speed, versatility, sensitivity and selectivity to quantify these degradation compounds. PMID:26452912

  2. Selenite-selenate speciation in mine soils and salt solutions: A comparison of atomic absorption spectroscopy and ion chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Sharmasarkar, S.; Vance, G.F.; Cassel-Sharmasarkar, F.

    1996-12-31

    Coal mining activities may enhance bioavailability of selenium (Se) species in soils, which can subsequently cause toxicity and contamination problems. Information on comparative applications of spectroscopy and chromatography for selenite (SeO{sub 3}{sup -2}) - selenate (SeO{sub 4}{sup -2}) speciation in coal mine soils is limited. Aqueous extracts (triplicates) of five soil samples, collected from reclaimed coal mine sites in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, and a set of SeO{sub 3}{sup -2}-SeO{sub 4}{sup -2} salt solutions (0.5, 1, 5, 10 and 25 mg/L., in triplicates) were speciated using atomic absorption spectroscopy with hydride generation (AAS-HG) and in chromatography (IC). The objective of this study was to compare these two methods for Se speciation. The results indicated that AAS-HG was capable of analyzing very low Se concentrations of SO{sub 4}{sup -2} affected chromatographic Se speciation, either by shifting or overlapping Se peaks. For such cases, AAS-HG was more useful than IC. However, IC was capable of speciating aqueous SeO{sub 3}{sup -2} - SeO{sub 4}{sup -2} directly without any sample pretreatment, whereas AAS-HG measured SeO{sub 3}{sup -2} + SeO{sub 4}{sup -2}, and SeO{sub 3}{sup -2} in separate runs and SeO{sub 4}{sup -2} was calculated from the difference, i.e., spectroscopic speciation was an indirect method. For both Se species, AAS-HG and IC data were comparable within the limit of standard deviation, indicating the reliability of both methods for Se speciation. Thus, chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques could be applied to speciate solution Se; however, each had its own analytical limitations. For some of the speciation data there were some discrepancies, which could be due to mutual interconversions between SeO{sub 3}{sup -2} and SeO{sub 4}{sup -2} in the solutions, or integrational error during analysis, or some impurity in the original salts used to prepare the Se solutions.

  3. Screening for anthocyanins using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry with precursor-ion analysis, product-ion analysis, common-neutral-loss analysis, and selected reaction monitoring.

    PubMed

    Tian, Qingguo; Giusti, M Monica; Stoner, Gary D; Schwartz, Steven J

    2005-10-14

    A systematic method for anthocyanin identification using tandems mass spectrometry (MS/MS) coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with photo-diode array detection (PDA) was developed. Scan for the precursor ions of commonly found anthocyanidins (cyanidin, delphinidin, malvidin, pelargonidin, petunidin, and peonidin) using LC/MS/MS on a triple quadrupole instrument allows for the specific determination of each category of anthocyanins. Further characterization of each anthocyanin was performed using MS/MS product-ion analysis, common-neutral-loss analysis, and selected reaction monitoring (SRM). The method was demonstrated for analysis of anthocyanins in black raspberries, red raspberries, highbush blueberries, and grapes (Vitis vinifera). Previous reported anthocyanins in black raspberries and red raspberries are confirmed and characterized. Common-neutral-loss analysis allows for the distinction of anthocyanin glucosides or galactoside and arabinosides in highbush blueberries. Separation and identification of anthocyanin glucosides and galactosides were achieved by LC/MS/MS using SRM. Anthocyanin isomers such as cyanidin sophoroside and 3,5-diglucoside were differentiated by their fragmentation pattern during product-ion analysis. Fifteen anthocyanins (all possible combinations of five anthocyanidins and three sugars) were characterized in highbush blueberries. Pelargonidin 3-glucoside and pelargonidin 3,5-diglucoside were detected and characterized for the first time in grapes. The present approach allows mass spectrometry to be used as a highly selective detector for rapid identification and characterization of anthocyanins and can be used as a sensitive procedure for screening anthocyanins in fruits and vegetables. PMID:16395794

  4. Isolation of Pu-isotopes from environmental samples using ion chromatography for accelerator mass spectrometry and alpha spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chamizo, E; Jiménez-Ramos, M C; Wacker, L; Vioque, I; Calleja, A; García-León, M; García-Tenorio, R

    2008-01-14

    A radiochemical method for the isolation of plutonium-isotopes from environmental samples, based on the use of specific extraction chromatography resins for actinides (TEVA), Eichrom Industries, Inc.), has been set up in our laboratory and optimised for their posterior determination by alpha spectrometry (AS) or accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The proposed radiochemical method has replaced in our lab a well-established one based on the use of a relatively un-specific anion-exchange resin (AG) 1X8, Bio-rad Laboratories, Inc.), because it is clearly less time consuming, reduces the amounts and molarities of acid wastes produced, and reproducibly gives high radiochemical yields. In order to check the reliability of the proposed radiochemical method for the determination of plutonium-isotopes in different environmental matrixes, twin aliquots of a set of samples were prepared with TEVA and with AG 1X8 resins and measured by AS. Some samples prepared with TEVA resins were measured as well by AMS. As it is shown in the text, there is a comfortable agreement between AS and AMS, which adequately validates the method. PMID:18082656

  5. Extraction chromatography: Progress and opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Dietz, M.L.; Horwitz, E.P.; Bond, A.H.

    1997-10-01

    Extraction chromatography provides a simple and effective method for the analytical and preparative-scale separation of a variety of metal ions. Recent advances in extractant design, particularly the development of extractants capable of metal ion recognition or of strong complex formation in highly acidic media, have significantly improved the utility of the technique. Advances in support design, most notably the introduction of functionalized supports to enhance metal ion retention, promise to yield further improvements. Column instability remains a significant obstacle, however, to the process-scale application of extraction chromatography. 79 refs.

  6. Autonomous, waste-free eluent generation and suppression in a single device: electrodialytic eluent reflux for ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Elkin, Kyle R; Riviello, John M

    2014-02-01

    Eluent reflux provides a new approach to suppress and reflux (recover) eluent without the continuous generation of chromatographic waste. The current work utilized a device containing ion exchange membranes at the electrodes, in order to prohibit electrolysis gases from entering the eluent stream. Two resin beds (separated by a membrane stack) were responsible for suppressing incoming eluent and regenerating the suppressed eluent to nearly its original concentration after detection. A greater than expected dilution in the eluent concentration was observed as a result of the minor leakage of potassium ions through the anion membrane stack into the electrode chamber. The incomplete recovery of the eluent was offset by the addition of a three port valve (DRV) to regulate eluent concentration. Over 48 h of continuous operation (192 injections), the device's performance was stable (RSD of 0.21% with the three port valve, compared to RSD 3.73% without). The device was able to operate for up to four weeks using 1L of eluent. Chromatograms showing the reproducibility of the device are presented for anions. PMID:24401425

  7. Separation and detection of ammonia, amines, and alkanolamines with single-column ion chromatography. [Alkylamines, ethanolamine and methyldiethanolamine

    SciTech Connect

    Poulson, R.E.; Borg, H.M.

    1986-03-01

    A single-column ion chromatographic method was developed for separation and detection of aqueous ammonia, C/sub 1/-, C/sub 2/-, and C/sub 3/- alkylamines, ethanolamine, and methyldiethanolamine. A precolumn concentrator was used to take detection of ammonium ion by electrical conductivity to fractional ppB levels and detection of the organic cations to ppB levels. Analysis of ppM ammonia levels in 3 wt % alkanolamine scrubber-type solutions was possible, but resolution of alkylamines was lost. A post-column reaction system for fluorescence detection of primary amine o-phthalaldehyde derivatives with reversed-phase separation allowed amine separation in the presence of large amounts of ammonia. The same system might be used in place of concentration and conductivity for determination of the alkylamine levels. A large variety of oil shale retort by-product waters and one underground coal gasification condensate were screened for alkylamines, but none were detected. 7 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Application of positive ion chemical ionisation and tandem mass spectrometry combined with gas chromatography to the trace level analysis of ethyl carbamate in bread.

    PubMed

    Hamlet, Colin G; Jayaratne, Sanal M; Morrison, Carol

    2005-01-01

    A rapid, sensitive and selective method has been developed and validated for the analysis of the contaminant ethyl carbamate (EC) in bread products at the part-per-billion level. The new procedure uses positive ion chemical ionisation (PICI) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), combined with gas chromatography (GC), on a 'bench-top' triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer. Ammonia was the PICI reagent gas of choice because of its ability to produce abundant [M+H]+ and [M+NH4]+ ions from EC and deuterium-labelled EC (LEC) used as an internal standard. For identification and quantification, selected reaction monitoring (SRM) was used to follow the precursor-to-product ion transitions of m/z 107 --> 90, m/z 107 --> 62 and m/z 90 --> 62 for EC, as well as m/z 112 --> 63 for the LEC internal standard. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.6 and 1.2 microg kg(-1), respectively, and the recovery of the method was 101 +/- 10% at 10 microg kg(-1) and 98 +/- 5% at 100 microg kg(-1). The precision of the method, established under conditions of intermediate reproducibility, did not exceed a relative standard deviation of 7%. The quantitative performance of the new GC/PICI-SRM procedure compared favourably with that of a reference method based on GC/MS and selected ion monitoring (correlation coefficient, r = 0.997). However, the new method had the advantages of reduced sample preparation time, improved sensitivity and unambiguous identification of EC at all concentrations. Application of the new method to the analysis of 50 UK breads showed that levels of EC ranged from 0.6 to 2.3 microg kg(-1) in retail products and from 3.1 to 12.2 microg kg(-1) for breads prepared using domestic breadmaking machines (dry weight basis). Toasting bread in a domestic toaster led to increases of between two- and three-fold in mean EC concentrations. PMID:16015678

  9. Rapid and sensitive gas chromatography ion-trap mass spectrometry method for the determination of tobacco specific N-nitrosamines in secondhand smoke

    SciTech Connect

    SLEIMAN, Mohamad; MADDALENA, Randy L.; GUNDEL, Lara A.; DESTAILLATS, Hugo

    2009-07-01

    Tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) are some of the most potent carcinogens in tobacco and cigarette smoke. Accurate quantification of these chemicals is needed to help assess public health risks. We developed and validated a specific and sensitive method to measure four TSNAs in both the gas- and particle-phase of secondhand smoke (SHS) using gas chromatography and ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry,. A smoking machine in an 18-m3 room-sized chamber generated relevant concentrations of SHS that were actively sampled on Teflon coated fiber glass (TCFG) filters, and passively sampled on cellulose substrates. A simple solid-liquid extraction protocol using methanol as solvent was successfully applied to both filters with high recoveries ranging from 85 to 115percent. Tandem MS parameters were optimized to obtain the best sensitivity in terms of signal to-noise ratio (S/N) for the target compounds. For each TSNA, the major fragmentation pathways as well as ion structures were elucidated and compared with previously published data. The method showed excellent performances with a linear dynamic range between 2 and 1000 ng mL-1, low detection limits (S/N> 3) of 30-300 pg.ml-1 and precision with experimental errors below 10percent for all compounds. Moreover, no interfering peaks were observed indicating a high selectivity of MS/MS without the need for a sample clean up step. The sampling and analysis method provides a sensitive and accurate tool to detect and quantify traces of TSNA in SHS polluted indoor environments.

  10. Rapid screening and confirmation of drugs and toxic compounds in biological specimens using liquid chromatography/ion trap tandem mass spectrometry and automated library search.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hsiu-Chuan; Liu, Ray H; Lin, Dong-Liang; Ho, Hsiu-O

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) technology have provided an opportunity for the development of more specific approaches to achieve the 'screen' and 'confirmation' goals in a single analytical step. For this purpose, this study adapts the electrospray ionization ion trap LC/MS/MS instrumentation (LC/ESI-MS/MS) for the screening and confirmation of over 800 drugs and toxic compounds in biological specimens. Liquid-liquid and solid-phase extraction protocols were coupled to LC/ESI-MS/MS using a 1.8-microm particle size analytical column operated at 50 degrees C. Gradient elution of the analytes was conducted using a solvent system composed of methanol and water containing 0.1% formic acid. Positive-ion ESI-MS/MS spectra and retention times for each of the 800 drugs and toxic compounds were first established using 1-10 microg/mL standard solutions. This spectra and retention time information was then transferred to the library and searched by the identification algorithm for the confirmation of compounds found in test specimens - based on retention time matches and scores of fit, reverse fit, and purity resulting from the searching process. The established method was found highly effective when applied to the analyses of postmortem specimens (blood, urine, and hair) and external proficiency test samples provided by the College of American Pathology (CAP). The development of this approach has significantly improved the efficiency of our routine laboratory operation that was based on a two-step (immunoassay and GC/MS) approach in the past. PMID:19957291

  11. Feasibility of halogen determination in noncombustible inorganic matrices by ion chromatography after a novel volatilization method using microwave-induced combustion.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Rodrigo M; Costa, Vanize C; Hartwig, Carla A; Picoloto, Rochele S; Flores, Erico M M; Duarte, Fabio A; Mesko, Marcia F

    2016-01-15

    A microwave-induced combustion (MIC) system based on the volatilization process was applied for subsequent halogen determination from noncombustible inorganic matrices. Portland cement samples were selected to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method, allowing the subsequent determination of Cl and F by ion chromatography (IC). Samples were mixed with high-purity microcrystalline cellulose, wrapped with a polyethylene film and combusted in quartz closed vessels pressurized with oxygen (20bar). Water and NH4OH (10, 25 or 50mmolL(-1)) were evaluated for Cl and F absorption, but water was selected, using 5min of reflux after volatilization. Final solutions were also suitable for analysis by pontentiometry with ion-selective electrode (ISE) for both analytes, and no difference was found when comparing the results with IC. The accuracy of the proposed method for Cl was evaluated by analysis of certified reference materials (CRMs), and agreement with certified values ranged from 98% to 103%. Results were also compared to those using the procedure recommended by the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) for the determination of total chlorides (C114-13), and no difference was found. Volatilization by MIC using a mixture of cement, cellulose and a biological CRM was carried out in order to evaluate the accuracy for F, and recovery was about 96%. The proposed method allowed suitable limits of detection for Cl and F by IC (99 and 18mgkg(-1), respectively) for routine analysis of cement. Using the proposed method, a relatively low standard deviation (<7%), high throughput (up to eight samples can be processed in less than 30min) and lower generation of laboratory effluents, when compared to the ASTM method, were obtained. Therefore, the method for volatilization of Cl and F by MIC and subsequent determination by IC can be proposed as a suitable alternative for cement analysis. PMID:26592579

  12. An improved flow analysis-ion chromatography method for determination of cationic and anionic species at trace levels in Antarctic ice cores.

    PubMed

    Morganti, Andrea; Becagli, Silvia; Castellano, Emiliano; Severi, Mirko; Traversi, Rita; Udisti, Roberto

    2007-11-12

    A method was developed for the quantitative determination of cations and anions in Antarctic ice cores at microgL(-1) and sub-microgL(-1) levels by ion chromatography (IC), after ultra-clean decontamination procedures. Strict manipulation and decontamination procedures were used in sub-sampling, in order to minimise sample contamination. Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ were determined by 12-min isocratic elution (H2SO4 eluent). Contemporaneously, in a parallel device, F-, MSA (methanesulfonic acid), Cl-, NO3- and SO4(2-) were analysed in a single 12-min run with multiple-step elution using Na2CO3/NaHCO3 as eluent. Melted ice samples were pumped from their still-closed containers (polystyrene accuvettes with polyethylene caps), shared between the two ion chromatographic systems, online filtered (0.45 microm Teflon membrane) and pre-concentrated (anions and cations pre-concentration columns) using a flow analysis system, thus avoiding uptake of contaminants from the laboratory atmosphere. Sensitivity, linear range, reproducibility and detection limit were evaluated for each chemical species. Anion or cation detection limits ranged from 0.01 to 0.15 microgL(-1) by using a relatively small sample volume (1.5 mL). Such values are significantly lower than those reported in literature for almost all the components. These methods were successfully applied to the analysis of cations and anions at trace levels in the Dome C ice core. The composition of the atmospheric aerosol for the last 850 kyr was reconstructed by high-resolution continuous chemical stratigraphies. Concentration trends in the last nine glacial-interglacial climatic cycles were shown and briefly discussed. PMID:17963839

  13. Determination of pesticides associated with suspended sediments in the San Joaquin River, California, USA, using gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergamaschi, B.A.; Baston, D.S.; Crepeau, K.L.; Kuivila, K.M.

    1999-01-01

    An analytical method useful for the quantification of a range of pesticides and pesticide degradation products associated with suspended sediments was developed by testing a variety of extraction and cleanup schemes. The final extraction and cleanup methods chosen for use are suitable for the quantification of the listed pesticides using gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry and the removal of interfering coextractable organic material found in suspended sediments. Methylene chloride extraction followed by Florisil cleanup proved most effective for separation of coextractives from the pesticide analytes. Removal of elemental sulfur was accomplished with tetrabutylammonium hydrogen sulfite. The suitability of the method for the analysis of a variety of pesticides was evaluated, and the method detection limits (MDLs) were determined (0.1-6.0 ng/g dry weight of sediment) for 21 compounds. Recovery of pesticides dried onto natural sediments averaged 63%. Analysis of duplicate San Joaquin River suspended-sediment samples demonstrated the utility of the method for environmental samples with variability between replicate analyses lower than between environmental samples. Eight of 21 pesticides measured were observed at concentrations ranging from the MDL to more than 80 ng/g dry weight of sediment and exhibited significant temporal variability. Sediment-associated pesticides, therefore, may contribute to the transport of pesticides through aquatic systems and should be studied separately from dissolved pesticides.

  14. Fractals for multicyclic synthesis conditions of biopolymers. Examples of oligonucleotide synthesis measured by high-performance capillary electrophoresis and ion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Földes-Papp, Z; Birch-Hirschfeld, E; Eickhoff, H; Baumann, G; Peng, W G; Biber, T; Seydel, R; Kleinschmidt, A K; Seliger, H

    1996-07-19

    We have developed models of patterns for nucleotide chain growth. These patterns are measurable by high-performance capillary electrophoresis and ion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography in crude products of solid-phase synthesized 30mer and 65mer oligodeoxyribonucleotide target sequences N. We introduce mathematical methods for finding characteristic values d(o) and p(o) for constant chemical modes of growth as well as d and p for non-constant chemical modes of growth (d = probability of propagation, p = probability of termination). These methods are employed by presenting the accompanying computer software developed by us in C code, Mathematica R languages, and Fortran. Characteristic values of the parameters d, p, and the target nucleotide length N describe the complete composition of the crude product. From this we have developed the relation 2 - [N/(N - 1)]/Da, measurable(N,d) as a universal quantitative measure for multicyclic synthesis conditions (D, fractal dimension and similarity exponent, respectively). We use this mathematical treatment to compare the efficiency of oligodeoxyribonucleotide syntheses of different target length N on polymer support materials. Further, we analyze selected syntheses of short and long oligodeoxyribonucleotides as well as single-stranded DNA sequences by well-known empirical autocorrelation, fast Fourier transformation, and embedding dimension techniques. PMID:8765856

  15. Application of low-pressure gas chromatography-ion-trap mass spectrometry to the analysis of the essential oil of Turnera diffusa (Ward.) Urb.

    PubMed

    Godoi, Ana F L; Vilegas, Wagner; Godoi, Ricardo H M; Van Vaeck, Luc; Van Grieken, René

    2004-02-20

    Turnera diffusa Willd. var. afrodisiaca (Ward) Urb. (syn. T. aphrodisiaca) belongs to the family of Turneraceae and is an aromatic plant growing wild in the subtropical regions of America and Africa. It is widely used in the traditional medicine as e.g. anti-cough, diuretic, and aphrodisiac agent. This work presents a 3 min chromatographic analysis using low-pressure (LP) gas chromatography (GC)-ion-trap (IT) mass spectrometry (MS). The combination of a deactivated 0.6 m x 0.10 mm i.d., restrictor with a wide-bore CP-Wax 52 capillary column (10 m x 0.53 mm i.d., 1 microm) reduces the analysis time by a factor of 3-7 in comparison to the use of a conventional narrow bore column. Chromatographic conditions have been optimized to achieve the fastest separation with the highest signal/noise ratio in MS detection. These results allow fast and reliable quality control of the essential oil to be achieved. PMID:14971493

  16. Carbohydrate Signatures of Aquatic Macrophytes and Their Dissolved Degradation Products as Determined by a Sensitive High-Performance Ion Chromatography Method

    PubMed Central

    Wicks, Richard J.; Moran, Mary Ann; Pittman, Laura J.; Hodson, Robert E.

    1991-01-01

    The sugar contents of emergent macrophytes from a freshwater lake, a freshwater swamp, and a salt marsh in the southeastern United States were examined together with the dissolved free sugars produced during macrophyte degradation and in natural water samples collected adjacent to macrophyte stands. Simultaneous separation of up to 13 neutral and 2 amino sugars together with 3 uronic acids and muramic acid was achieved by anion-exchange high-performance ion chromatography. As little as 10 pmol or a concentration of 20 nM sugar can be detected by pulsed amperometry, a greater sensitivity for sugar quantification than that of previously reported detection techniques used in conjunction with either gas or liquid chromatographic systems. Optimum conditions for hydrolysis of plant material by using trifluoroacetic acid were determined, and internal standards were used to quantify losses due to matrix effects and solid-phase extraction of samples. Our data demonstrate that ratios of certain indicator sugars in undegraded macrophytes differ significantly from ratios of dissolved free sugars formed during macrophyte degradation, reflecting the complex processes (biological and physical) involved in vascular plant degradation in aquatic ecosystems. Natural water samples collected adjacent to macrophyte beds contained dissolved free sugars at concentrations of 620 nM (lake), 890 nM (freshwater swamp), and 2,300 nM (salt marsh). Sugar signatures of these natural water samples were similar to those of macrophyte degradation products. PMID:16348579

  17. Polar organic chemical integrative sampling and liquid chromatography- electrospray/ion-trap mass spectrometry for assessing selected prescription and illicit drugs in treated sewage effluents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones-Lepp, T. L.; Alvarez, D.A.; Petty, J.D.; Huckins, J.N.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the research presented in this paper was twofold: (1) to demonstrate the coupling of two state-of-the-art techniques: a time-weighted polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) and microliquid chromatography-electrospray/ion-trap mass spectrometry and (2) to assess the ability of these methodologies to detect six drugs (azithromycin, fluoxetine, omeprazole, levothyroxine, methamphetamine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine [MDMA]) in a real-world environment, e.g., waste water effluent. In the effluent from three wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), azithromycin was detected at concentrations ranging from 15 to 66 ng/L, which is equivalent to a total annual release of 1 to 4 kg into receiving waters. Detected and confirmed in the effluent from two WWTPs were two illicit drugs, methamphetamine and MDMA, at 2 and 0.5 ng/L, respectively. Although the ecotoxicologic significance of drugs in environmental matrices, particularly water, has not been closely examined, it can only be surmised that these substances have the potential to adversely affect biota that are continuously exposed to them even at very low levels. The potential for chronic effects on human health is also unknown but of increasing concern because of the multi-use character of water, particularly in densely populated, arid areas.

  18. Simultaneous determination of some dihydroxybenzenesulphonic acid derivatives and their degradation product and main impurity (hydroquinone) by ion-pair liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Tolba, M M

    2014-11-01

    A simple and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated for the determination of calcium dobesilate (DOB) or ethamsylate (ETM) in the presence of their degradation product, hydroquinone (HQ). The analyses were carried out on Promosil C18 column (4.6 mM × 250 mM, 5 µm particle size) using an ion-pair mobile phase consisting of methanol-1.5 mM tetra-butyl ammonium bromide in 0.06 M phosphate buffer (25 : 75, v/v) at pH?6.0 with fluorescence detection at 286/333 nm. Pindolol was used as an internal standard. The proposed method was found to be rectilinear over the concentration ranges of 0.05-0.5 µg/mL for DOB, 0.1-0.8 µg/mL for ETM and 0.005-0.1 µg/mL for HQ. The method was applied for the determination of the studied drugs in different dosage forms and biological fluids. The results of the proposed method were statistically compared with those obtained by the comparison methods revealing no significance differences in the performance of the methods regarding accuracy and precision. Moreover, applying a time-programmed fluorescence technique was valuable for the detection of trace amounts of HQ as an impurity and allowed purity testing of ETM or DOB within the BP pharmacopeial limit (0.1%). PMID:24327536

  19. Qualitative and quantitative characterization of phenolic and diterpenoid constituents in Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza) by comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled with hybrid linear ion trap Orbitrap mass.

    PubMed

    Cao, Ji-Liang; Wei, Jin-Chao; Hu, Yuan-Jia; He, Cheng-Wei; Chen, Mei-Wan; Wan, Jian-Bo; Li, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Danshen is one of the most frequently used traditional Chinese herbs owing to its remarkable and reliable therapeutic effects. Phenolic acids and diterpenoids have proved to be the bioactive substance groups. In order to fully profile its chemical compositions and explore new potential bioactive compounds, a comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography system coupled to DAD detector and hybrid linear ion trap (LTQ) Orbitrap mass spectrometry (LC×LC-DAD-ESI/HRMS/MS(n)) was set up in this study based on the column combination of Hypersil gold CN (150mm×1mm, 3?m) and Accucore C18 (50mm×4.6mm, 2.6?m). Using the optimal segment gradient program, phenolic acids and diterpenoids were separated into two independent groups and a total of 328 peaks were successfully detected on the contour plot of Danshen. By means of the accurate mass and reliable MS(n) data, 102 compounds were identified or tentatively identified and 7 of them were discovered from Danshen for the first time. Moreover, the LC×LC-DAD system was validated for the quantitative analysis of 14 bioactive analytes using the contour plot, exhibiting satisfactory linearity (r?0.9976) and high precision for both peak locating (?1.07%) and peak volume calculating (0.34%-4.11%). The established method could afford powerful separation capability, reliable identification data and accurate quantitative results, which is very suitable for analysis of complex herbal samples. PMID:26687169

  20. Simple and Sensitive Stability-Indicating Ion Chromatography Method for the Determination of Cyclopropylamine in Nevirapine and Moxifloxacin Hydrochloride Drug Substances

    PubMed Central

    Kothapalli, Pavan Kumar S. R.; Khagga, Mukkanti; Mekala, Nageswara Rao; Sigamani, John Prasanna; Vundavilli, Jagadeesh Kumar; Masani, Narendra Kumar; Sharma, Hemant Kumar

    2012-01-01

    A simple and sensitive ion chromatography method has been developed for the determination of cyclopropylamine (CPA) in nevirapine (NEV) and moxifloxacin HCl (MOX) pharmaceutical drug substances. Efficient chromatographic separation was achieved on a Metrosep C4, 5 ?m (250 mm × 4.0 mm) column. The mobile phase consists of 5 mM hydrochloric acid containing 10% (v/v) acetonitrile and was delivered in an isocratic mode at a flow rate of 0.9 mL min?1 at 27°C. A conductometric detector was used for the detection of the analyte. The drug substances were subjected to stress conditions including oxidation, thermal, photolytic and humidity for the evaluation of the stability-indicating nature of the method. The method was validated for specificity, precision, linearity, accuracy and solution stability. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) values are 0.10 ?g mL?1 and 0.37 ?g mL?1 respectively. The linearity range of the method is between 0.37 ?g mL?1 and 1.5 ?g mL?1 and the correlation coefficient is found to be 0.9971. The average recoveries of CPA in NEV and MOX are 97.0% and 98.0%, respectively. PMID:22396905

  1. Simple and sensitive stability-indicating ion chromatography method for the determination of cyclopropylamine in nevirapine and moxifloxacin hydrochloride drug substances.

    PubMed

    Kothapalli, Pavan Kumar S R; Khagga, Mukkanti; Mekala, Nageswara Rao; Sigamani, John Prasanna; Vundavilli, Jagadeesh Kumar; Masani, Narendra Kumar; Sharma, Hemant Kumar

    2012-01-01

    A simple and sensitive ion chromatography method has been developed for the determination of cyclopropylamine (CPA) in nevirapine (NEV) and moxifloxacin HCl (MOX) pharmaceutical drug substances. Efficient chromatographic separation was achieved on a Metrosep C4, 5 ?m (250 mm × 4.0 mm) column. The mobile phase consists of 5 mM hydrochloric acid containing 10% (v/v) acetonitrile and was delivered in an isocratic mode at a flow rate of 0.9 mL min(-1) at 27°C. A conductometric detector was used for the detection of the analyte. The drug substances were subjected to stress conditions including oxidation, thermal, photolytic and humidity for the evaluation of the stability-indicating nature of the method. The method was validated for specificity, precision, linearity, accuracy and solution stability. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) values are 0.10 ?g mL(-1) and 0.37 ?g mL(-1) respectively. The linearity range of the method is between 0.37 ?g mL(-1) and 1.5 ?g mL(-1) and the correlation coefficient is found to be 0.9971. The average recoveries of CPA in NEV and MOX are 97.0% and 98.0%, respectively. PMID:22396905

  2. Determination of the sulfur isotope ratio in carbonyl sulfide using gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry on fragment ions 32S+, 33S+, and 34S+.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Shohei; Toyoda, Akari; Toyoda, Sakae; Ishino, Sakiko; Ueno, Yuichiro; Yoshida, Naohiro

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the sulfur isotopic composition of carbonyl sulfide (OCS), the most abundant atmospheric sulfur species. We present a promising new analytical method for measuring the stable sulfur isotopic compositions (?(33)S, ?(34)S, and ?(33)S) of OCS using nanomole level samples. The direct isotopic analytical technique consists of two parts: a concentration line and online gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-IRMS) using fragmentation ions (32)S(+), (33)S(+), and (34)S(+). The current levels of measurement precision for OCS samples greater than 8 nmol are 0.42‰, 0.62‰, and 0.23‰ for ?(33)S, ?(34)S, and ?(33)S, respectively. These ? and ? values show a slight dependence on the amount of injected OCS for volumes smaller than 8 nmol. The isotope values obtained from the GC-IRMS method were calibrated against those measured by a conventional SF6 method. We report the first measurement of the sulfur isotopic composition of OCS in air collected at Kawasaki, Kanagawa, Japan. The ?(34)S value obtained for OCS (4.9 ± 0.3‰) was lower than the previous estimate of 11‰. When the ?(34)S value for OCS from the atmospheric sample is postulated as the global signal, this finding, coupled with isotopic fractionation for OCS sink reactions in the stratosphere, explains the reported ?(34)S for background stratospheric sulfate. This suggests that OCS is a potentially important source for background (nonepisodic or nonvolcanic) stratospheric sulfate aerosols. PMID:25439590

  3. Soluble arsenic and selenium species in fly ash/organic waste-amended soils using ion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, B.P.; Miller, W.P.

    1999-01-15

    Mixing coal fly ash with an organic waste increases macronutrient content and may make land application of fly ash a viable disposal alternative. However, trace element chemistry of these mixed waste products warrants investigation. Speciation of As and Se in soil solutions of fly ash-, poultry litter- and sewage sludge-amended soils was determined over a 10-day period by ion chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (IC-ICP-MS). Detection limits were 0.031, 0.028, 0.051, 0.161, 0.497, and 0.660 {micro}g L{sup {minus}1} for dimethylarsinate (DMA), As(III), monomethylarsonate (MMA), As(V), Se(IV), and Se(VI), respectively. Arsenic was highly water-soluble from poultry litter and appeared to be predominantly As(V). Arsenic(V) was the predominant species in soil amended with two fly ashes. Application of fly ash/poultry litter mixtures increased As solubility and led to the prevalence of DMA as the major As species. DMA concentrations of these soil solutions decreased rapidly over the sampling period relative to As(V), suggesting that DMA readily underwent mineralization in the soil solution. Se(VI) was the predominant soluble Se species in all treatments indicating rapid oxidation of Se(IV) initially solubilized from the fly ashes.

  4. Detection of fuel release in a nuclear accident: a method for preconcentration and isolation of reactor-borne (239)Np using ion-specific extraction chromatography.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Brett L; Shozugawa, Katsumi; Steinhauser, Georg

    2015-09-01

    Although actinides are the most informative elements with respect to the nature of a nuclear accident, plutonium analysis is complicated by the background created by fallout from atmospheric nuclear explosions. Therefore, we propose (239)Np, a short-lived actinide that emits several ? rays, as a preferred proxy. The aim of this study was to screen ion specific extraction chromatography resins (RE-, TEVA-, UTEVA-, TRU-, and Actinide-Resin) for the highest possible recovery and separation of trace amounts of (239)Np from samples with large activities of fission products such as radiocesium, radioiodine, and, most importantly, radiotellurium, the latter of which causes spectral interference in gamma spectrometry through overlapping peaks with (239)Np. The investigated environmental media for these separations were aqueous solutions simulating rainwater and soil. Spiked samples containing (239)Np and the aforementioned volatile radionuclides were separated through extraction chromatographic columns to ascertain the most effective means of separating (239)Np from other fission products for detection by gamma spectroscopy. We propose a method for nuclear accident preparedness based on the use of Eichrom's RE-Resin. The proposed method was found most effective for isolating (239)Np from interfering radionuclides in both aqueous solution and soil using 8 M HNO3 as the loading solution and H2O as the eluent. The RE-Resin outperforms the more commonly used TEVA-Resin because the TEVA-Resin showed a higher affinity for interfering radiotellurium and radioiodine. PMID:26255661

  5. Ion Torrent-based transcriptional assessment of a Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis equi strain reveals denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography a promising rRNA depletion method.

    PubMed

    Castro, Thiago L P; Seyffert, Nubia; Ramos, Rommel T J; Barbosa, Silvanira; Carvalho, Rodrigo D O; Pinto, Anne Cybelle; Carneiro, Adriana Ribeiro; Silva, Wanderson Marques; Pacheco, Luis G C; Downson, Christopher; Schneider, Maria P C; Miyoshi, Anderson; Azevedo, Vasco; Silva, Artur

    2013-03-01

    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis equi is a Gram-positive pathogenic bacterium which affects a variety of hosts. Besides the great economic losses it causes to horse-breeders, this organism is also known to be an important infectious agent to cattle and buffaloes. As an outcome of the efforts in characterizing the molecular basis of its virulence, several complete genome sequences were made available in recent years, enabling the large-scale assessment of genes throughout distinct isolates. Meanwhile, the RNA-seq stood out as the technology of choice for comprehensive transcriptome studies, which may bring valuable information regarding active genomic regions, despite of the still impeditive associated costs. In an attempt to increase the use of generated reads per instrument run, by effectively eliminating unwanted rRNAs from total RNA samples without relying on any commercially available kits, we applied denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) as an alternative method to assess the transcriptional profile of C. pseudotuberculosis. We have found that the DHPLC depletion method, allied to Ion Torrent sequencing, allows mapping of transcripts in a comprehensive way and identifying novel transcripts when a de novo approach is used. These data encourage us to use DHPLC in future transcriptional evaluations in C. pseudotuberculosis. PMID:23316806

  6. Characterization of 2-methylglyceric acid oligomers in secondary organic aerosol formed from the photooxidation of isoprene using trimethylsilylation and gas chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Szmigielski, Rafal; Surratt, Jason D; Vermeylen, Reinhilde; Szmigielska, Katarzyna; Kroll, Jesse H; Ng, Nga L; Murphy, Shane M; Sorooshian, Armin; Seinfeld, John H; Claeys, Magda

    2007-01-01

    In the present work, we have characterized in detail the chemical structures of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) components that were generated in a smog chamber and result from the photooxidation of isoprene under high-NO(x) conditions typical for a polluted atmosphere. Isoprene high-NO(x) SOA contains 2-methylglyceric acid (2-MG) and oligoester derivatives thereof. Trimethylsilylation, in combination with capillary gas chromatography (GC)/ion trap mass spectrometry (MS) and detailed interpretation of the MS data, allowed structural characterization the polar oxygenated compounds present in isoprene SOA up to 2-MG trimers. GC separation was achieved between 2-MG linear and branched dimers or trimers, as well as between the 2-MG linear dimer and isomeric mono-acetate derivatives thereof. The electron ionization (EI) spectra of the trimethylsilyl derivatives contain a wealth of structural information, including information about the molecular weight (MW), oligoester linkages, terminal carboxylic and hydroxymethyl groups, and esterification sites. Only part of this information can be achieved with a soft ionization technique such as electrospray (ESI) in combination with collision-induced dissociation (CID). The methane chemical ionization (CI) data were used to obtain supporting MW information. Interesting EI spectral differences were observed between the trimethylsilyl derivatives of 2-MG linear and branched dimers or trimers and between 2-MG linear dimer mono-acetate isomers. PMID:17154243

  7. Carboxylated graphene oxide/polyvinyl chloride as solid-phase extraction sorbent combined with ion chromatography for the determination of sulfonamides in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Zhixiong; Li, Gongke; Luo, Zhibin; Liu, Zhe; Shao, Yijuan; He, Wanwen; Deng, Jianchao; Luo, Xingling

    2015-08-12

    A carboxylated graphene oxide/polyvinyl chloride (CGO/PVC) material was prepared as a sorbent for the selective extraction of sulphonamides from complex sample. After being dispersed in buffer solution, sample was transferred into the prefabricated solid-phase extraction (SPE) column, which integrated extraction and cleanup into one single-step. A multi-response optimization based on the Box-Behnken design was used to optimize factors affecting extraction efficiency. Compared with the commonly commercial sorbents including MCX, WCX and C18, CGO/PVC hybrid material had higher extraction selectivity and capacity to sulphonamides. The limits of detection and quantification for seven target compounds were in the range of 3.4-7.1 ?g/L and 11.4-23.7 ?g/L, respectively. The self-assembly SPE cartridge was successfully used to enrich seven analytes in anti-acne cosmetics prior to ion chromatography detection with good recoveries of 87.8-102.0% and relative standard deviations of 1.2-6.4%, implying that this method was suitable for routine analysis of cosmetics. PMID:26320961

  8. Determination of malachite green residues in fish using molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography-linear ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Martínez Bueno, María Jesús; Herrera, Sonia; Uclés, Ana; Agüera, Ana; Hernando, María Dolores; Shimelis, Olga; Rudolfsson, Marcus; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

    2010-04-14

    This paper describes the development of an analytical procedure to determine malachite green (MG) residues in salmon samples using molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) as the extraction and clean-up material, followed by liquid chromatography-linear ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-QqQLIT-MS/MS). MG and two structurally related compounds, crystal violet (CV) and brilliant green (BG) were employed for the selectivity test. The imprinted polymers exhibited high binding affinity for MG, while CV and BG showed less binding capacity: 47% and 34%, respectively. The recovery values of MG in salmon samples fortified with leucomalachite green (LMG) were determined by measuring the amount of MG in the sample, after carrying out the oxidation reaction with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ), which converts the LMG back into chromic-form. The average recovery of MG in spiked salmon muscle over the concentration range 1-100 ng g(-1) was 98% with a relative standard deviation value (R.S.D.) below 12%. The method detection limits (MDLs) obtained for MG, CV, BG and their leuco-metabolites were in the range of 3-20 ng kg(-1) (ppt). PMID:20381689

  9. Method for Detection of Trace Metal and Metalloid Contaminants in Coal-Generated Fuel Gas Using Gas Chromatography/Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Rupp, Erik C.; Granite, Evan J.; Stanko, Dennis C.

    2010-07-15

    There exists an increasing need to develop a reliable method to detect trace contaminants in fuel gas derived from coal gasification. While Hg is subject to current and future regulations, As, Se, and P emissions may eventually be regulated. Sorbents are the most promising technology for the removal of contaminants from coal-derived fuel gas, and it will be important to develop a rapid analytical detection method to ensure complete removal and determine the ideal time for sorbent replacement/regeneration in order to reduce costs. This technical note explores the use of a commercial gas chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry system for the detection of four gaseous trace contaminants in a simulated fuel gas. Quantitative, repeatable detection with limits at ppbv to ppmv levels were obtained for arsine (AsH3), phosphine (PH3), and hydrogen selenide (H2Se), while qualitative detection was observed for mercury. Decreased accuracy and response caused by the primary components of fuel gas were observed.

  10. Effect of photoperiod on the levels of endogenous gibberellins in spinach as measured by combined gas chromatography-selected ion current monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Metzger, J.D.; Zeevaart, J.A.D.

    1980-11-01

    The changes in the levels of five endogenous gibberellins (GAs) in spinach in relation to photoperiodic treatment have been examined by combined gas chromatography-selected ion current monitoring. Long-day treatment caused a 5-fold decline in the level of GA/sub 19/ while the levels of GA/sub 20/ and GA/sub 29/ increased dramatically during the same period. In absolute terms, the level of GA/sub 20/ increased from 0.8 microgram per 100 grams dry weight in short days to 5.5 micrograms per 100 grams dry weight after 14 long days. The levels of GA/sub 17/ and GA/sub 44/ did not change significantly with long-day treatment. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that GA/sub 19/ is converted to GA/sub 20/ and that this conversion is under photoperiodic control. Since stem growth in spinach is correlated with an increase in the level of GA/sub 20/, one major aspect of photoperiodic control of stem growth might be the availability of GA/sub 20/ through regulation of the conversion of GA/sub 19/ to GA/sub 20/.

  11. Stable Chlorine Isotopes and Elemental Chlorine by Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry and Ion Chromatography; Martian Meteorites, Carbonaceous Chondrites and Standard Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, N.; Nyquist, L. E.; Reese, Y.; Shih, C.-Y.; Fujitani, T.; Okano, O.

    2011-01-01

    Recently significantly large mass fractionation of stable chlorine isotopes has been reported for terrestrial and lunar samples [1,2]. In addition, in view of possible early solar system processes [3] and also potential perchlorate-related fluid/microbial activities on the Martian surface [4,5], a large chlorine isotopic fractionation might be expected for some types of planetary materials. Due to analytical difficulties of isotopic and elemental analyses, however, current chlorine analyses for planetary materials are controversial among different laboratories, particularly between IRMS (gas source mass spectrometry) and TIMS (Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry) groups [i.e. 1,6,7] for isotopic analyses, as well as between those doing pyrohydrolysis and other groups [i.e. 6,8]. Additional careful investigations of Cl isotope and elemental abundances are required to confirm real chlorine isotope and elemental variations for planetary materials. We have developed a TIMS technique combined with HF-leaching/ion chromatography at NASA JSC that is applicable to analysis of small amounts of meteoritic and planetary materials. We present here results for several standard rocks and meteorites, including Martian meteorites.

  12. Testing the capability of a polynomial-modified gaussian model in the description and simulation of chromatographic peaks of amlodipine and its impurity in ion-interaction chromatography.

    PubMed

    Colovi?, Jelena; Vemi?, Ana; Kosti?, Na?a; Malenovi?, An?elija; Medenica, Mirjana

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, the capability of a polynomial-modified Gaussian model to relate the peak shape of basic analytes, amlodipine, and its impurity A, with the change of chromatographic conditions was tested. For the accurate simulation of real chromatographic peaks the authors proposed the three-step procedure based on indirect modeling of peak width at 10% of peak height (W0.1), individual values of left-half width (A) and right-half width (B), number of theoretical plates (N), and tailing factor (Tf). The values of retention factors corresponding to the peak beginning (k(B)), peak apex (k(A)), peak ending (k(E)), and peak heights (H0) of the analytes were directly modeled. Then, the investigated experimental domain was divided to acquire a grid of appropriate density, which allowed the subsequent calculation of W0.1, A, B, N, and Tf. On the basis of the predicted results for Tf and N, as well as the defined criteria for the simulation the following conditions were selected: 33% acetonitrile/67% aqueous phase (55 mM perchloric acid, pH 2.2) at 40°C column temperature. Perfect agreement between predicted and experimental values was obtained confirming the ability of polynomial modified Gaussian model and three-step procedure to successfully simulate the real chromatograms in ion-interaction chromatography. PMID:24798430

  13. Determination of TOCl, TOBr and TOI in drinking water by pyrolysis and off-line ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Hua, Guanghui; Reckhow, David A

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the optimum total organic halogen (TOX) protocol for use with ion chromatographic (IC) detection to analyze total organic chlorine (TOCl), bromine (TOBr), and iodine (TOI) in drinking water simultaneously. Two commercial analyzers (one using a pure O2 carrier and one using O2/CO2 mixture) and three commercially available activated carbons (two coconut-based and one bituminous coal-based) were examined in this study. Results showed that the pyrolytic analyzer using pure O2 and off-line IC combined with a standard TOX carbon (coconut-based) achieved the most complete recovery of TOCl, TOBr and TOI for both model compounds and real samples. There was no obvious difference between the two analyzers when used in microcoulometric detection mode. The TOX method is moderately sensitive to nitrate rinse volume. The monohaloacetic acids were partly washed out during sample preparation. This problem was solved by a modified nitrate rinsing solution. PMID:16331442

  14. Matrix Elimination Ion Chromatography Method for the Determination of Trace Levels of Anionic Impurities in High Purity Cesium Iodide

    PubMed Central

    Ayushi; Kumar, Sangita D.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study an ion chromatographic method based on matrix elimination has been developed for the determination of anionic impurities in high purity cesium iodide crystals. The presence of impurities has a detrimental effect on the characteristics of detectors based on cesium iodide crystals. In particular, oxygen-containing anions inhibit the resolving power of scintillators and decrease the optical absorption. The quantitative determination of anions (fluoride, chloride, bromide, nitrate, phosphate, and sulphate) simultaneously in the high-purity cesium iodide crystals has not been carried out before. The large concentration of iodide poses a challenge in the determination of anions (especially phosphate and sulphate); hence, matrix elimination is accomplished by adopting a sample pretreatment technique. The method is validated for linearity, accuracy, and precision. The limit of detection for different anions is in the range of 0.3–3 µg/g, and the relative standard deviation is in the range of 4–6% for the overall method. PMID:22291061

  15. [Simultaneous determination of nine beta-blockers in porcine tissues by ultra-fast liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole/linear ion trap mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongwei; Xu, Hui; Gao, Jianguo; Liang, Chengzhu; Xu, Biao; Geng, Juan; Wang, Fengmei; Zhang, Xiaomei; Cheng, Gang

    2014-06-01

    A highly sensitive method using ultra-fast liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole/linear ion trap mass spectrometry (UFLC-Q/Trap MS) was developed to simultaneously screen and confirm nine beta-blockers (BBs) in porcine tissues (porcine muscle, liver and kidney). The method was used for trace determination of atenolol, pindolol, acebutolol, metoprolol, carazolol, labetalol, bisoprolol, propranolol and penbutolol. The homogenized tissues were hydrolyzed by beta-glucuronidase/aryl sulfatase and extracted with acetonitrile, followed by continuous purification procedures of disperse solid phase extraction (d-SPE) with diatomaceous earth and BondElut cartridge. The ultra-fast chromatographic separation was conducted on a Kinetex C18-XB column (150 mm x 2.1 mm, 2.6 microm) using 0.1% (v/v) formic acid aqueous solution and methanol as mobile phases in gradient elution. The optimized ion transitions were mployed in the mixed-mode of scheduled multiple reaction monitoring (sMRM) -information dependent acquisition (IDA)-enhanced product ion (EPI) scan. Qualification analysis was performed through spectra-matching with on-line lab-built MS/MS library. For quantification stable isotope-labelled analogues of the analytes were used as internal standards. As a result, in porcine liver, kidney and muscle, the nine BBs showed good linearity with all the correlation coefficients (r) more than 0.995 in the range of 0.1-20 microg/L. The limits of quantification (LOQ, S/N > or = 10) were 0.5 kg/kg for all the analytes. The developed method gave average recoveries of 87.5%-111.8% spiked at 0.5, 1.0 and 5.0 microg/kg with the relative standard deviations of 4.0%-12. 5%. The proposed method can be used to screen and confirm the nine BBs in a single run, which makes it effective in surveillance and detection of the BBs residues in porcine tissues. PMID:25269253

  16. Ions

    MedlinePLUS

    An ion is an atom or group of atoms that has an electric charge. Ions with a positive charge are called cations. Ions with a negative charge are called anions. Many normal substances exist in the body as ions. ...

  17. Identification and analysis of low molecular weight dissolved organic carbon in subglacial basal ice ecosystems by ion chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, E. C.; Wadham, J. L.; Lis, G. P.; Tranter, M.; Pickard, A. E.; Stibal, M.; Dewsbury, P.; Fitzsimons, S.

    2015-08-01

    Glacial runoff is an important source of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) for downstream heterotrophic activity, despite the low overall DOC concentrations. This is because of the abundance of bioavailable, low molecular weight (LMW) DOC species. However, the provenance and character of LMW-DOC is not fully understood. We investigated the abundance and composition of DOC in subglacial environments via a molecular level DOC analysis of basal ice, which forms by water/sediment freeze-on to the glacier sole. Spectrofluorometry and a novel ion chromatographic method, which has been little utilised in glacial science for LMW-DOC determinations, were employed to identify and quantify the major LMW fractions (free amino acids, carbohydrates and carboxylic acids) in basal ice from four glaciers, each with a different basal debris type. Basal ice from Joyce Glacier (Antarctica) was unique in that 98 % of the LMW-DOC was derived from the extremely diverse FAA pool, comprising 14 FAAs. LMW-DOC concentrations in basal ice were dependent on the bioavailability of the overridden organic carbon (OC), which in turn, was influenced by the type of overridden material. Mean LMW-DOC concentrations in basal ice from Russell Glacier (Greenland), Finsterwalderbreen (Svalbard) and Engabreen (Norway) were low (0-417 nM C), attributed to the relatively refractory nature of the OC in the overridden paleosols and bedrock. In contrast, mean LMW-DOC concentrations were an order of magnitude higher (4430 nM C) in basal ice from Joyce Glacier, a reflection of the high bioavailability of the overridden lacustrine material (>17 % of the sediment OC comprised extractable carbohydrates, a proxy for bioavailable OC). We find that the overridden material may act as a direct (via abiotic leaching) and indirect (via microbial cycling) source of DOC to the subglacial environment and provides a range of LMW-DOC compounds that may stimulate microbial activity in wet sediments in current subglacial environments.

  18. The use of ion chromatography-dc plasma atomic emission spectrometry for the speciation of trace metals

    SciTech Connect

    Urasa, I.T.

    1991-09-20

    The original objects of this research program were: to interface d.c. plasma atomic emission spectrometer with an ion chromatograph; to characterize and optimize the combined systems for application in the speciation of metals in aqueous solutions; to use this system in the study of the solution chemistry of various metals; and to find ways in which the measurement sensitivity of the method can be enhanced, thereby allowing the detection of metal species at low ppb concentration levels. This approach has been used to study the chemistry of and speciate several elements in solution including: arsenic, chromium, iron, manganese, nickel phosphorus, platinum, selenium, and vanadium. During the course of this research, we have found that the solution chemistry of the elements studied and the speciation data obtained can vary considerably depending on the solution, and the chromatographic conditions employed. The speciation of chromium, iron, and vanadium was found to be highly influenced by the acidity of the sample. The element selective nature of the d.c. plasma detector allows these changes to be monitored, thereby providing quantitative information on the new moieties formed. New approaches are being developed including the use of chelating ligands as preconcentration agents for purposes of reducing further the detection limits of the elements of interest and to improve the overall element speciation scheme. New thrusts are being directed towards the employment of post-column derivatization method coupled with colorimetric measurements to detect and quantify metal species eluting from the chromatographic column. The influence of sample acidity on these investigations will be carefully evaluated. These new thrusts are described in the accompanying Project Renewal Proposal.

  19. Nano-fabricated size exclusion chromatograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svehla, D.; Feldman, S.; Feldman, J.; Grunthaner, F.; Shakkottai, P.; Castillo, L. del; White, V.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a nano-fabricated size exclusion chromatograph (nSEC) based on the principle that molecules traveling through amicrocolumn containing nano-fabricated features will have characteristic elution times that directly correlate to molecular weight. Compared to conventional size exclusion chromatography, the nSEC offers greater control over the size exclusion process; mass fabrication; integration of the separation column with associated valves, pumps, and detectors; and dramatic reductions in instrument mass and power requirements.

  20. Simultaneous determination of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in tannery wastewater using low pressure ion chromatography combined with flow injection spectrophotometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shujuan; Zhang, Xinshen; Yu, Lingyun; Wang, Li; Li, Hui

    2012-03-01

    Trivalent and hexavalent chromium have been successfully separated and determined using low pressure ion chromatography combined with flow injection spectrophotometric analysis (LPIC-FIA). A column packed with crosslinking starch microspheres was used for on-line separation of Cr(III) from Cr(VI) in a flow-injection system because of its absorptive effect on Cr(III). To determine the concentration of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in samples, we used 3.0 mmol/L nitric acid to elute adsorbed Cr(III) from the column and then used ceric sulfate-sulfuric acid as oxidant to convert all Cr(III) into Cr(VI). Then, Cr(VI) directly came from the samples and Cr(VI) came from Cr(III) successively formed a amaranthine complex with diphenycarbazide and the complex shows a maximum absorption at 530 nm. Analytical parameters including the concentration of eluent and oxidant solution, oxidizing temperature, length of oxidizing reaction coil, reaction coil and injection coil, interfering effects, etc., were optimized. The limit of detection was 1.25 ?g/L for Cr(VI) and 3.76 ?g/L for Cr(III). The linear relationship between absorption with the concentration of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) was 0.001-1.000 mg/L and 0.030-1.000 mg/L with correlation coefficients of 0.9995 and 0.9994, respectively. The relative standard deviation of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) was 1.21% and 1.66%, respectively (n = 10). Major cations and anions did not show any interference. We validated this method through certified reference materials and through measuring the recovery in tannery wastewater.

  1. Targeted Metabolomic Analysis of Head and Neck Cancer Cells Using High Performance Ion Chromatography Coupled with a Q Exactive HF Mass Spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shen; Wang, Junhua; Ji, Eoon Hye; Christison, Terri; Lopez, Linda; Huang, Yingying

    2015-06-16

    In this study, we have demonstrated a targeted metabolomics method for analysis of cancer cells, based on high-performance ion chromatography (IC) separation, Q Exactive HF MS for high-resolution and accurate-mass (HR/AM) measurement and the use of stable isotope-labeled internal standards for absolute quantitation. Our method offers great technical advantages for metabolite analysis, including exquisite sensitivity, high speed and reproducibility, and wide dynamic range. The high-performance IC provided fast separation of cellular metabolites within 20 min and excellent resolving power for polar molecules including many isobaric metabolites. The IC/Q Exactive HF MS achieved wide dynamic ranges of 5 orders of magnitude for six targeted metabolites, pyruvate, succinic acid, malic acid, citric acid, fumaric acid, and alpha-ketoglutaric acid, with R(2) ? 0.99. Using this platform, metabolites can be simultaneously quantified from low fmol/?L to nmol/?L levels in cellular samples. The high flow rate IC at 380 ?L/min has shown excellent reproducibility for a large set of samples (150 injections), with minimal variations of retention time (SD < ± 0.03 min). In addition, the IC-MS-based approach acquires targeted and global metabolomic data in a same analytical run, and the use of stable isotope-labeled standards facilitates accurate quantitation of targeted metabolites in large-scale metabolomics analysis. This metabolomics approach has been successfully applied to analysis of targeted metabolites in head and neck cancer cells as well as cancer stem-like cells (CSCs), and the findings indicate that the metabolic phenotypes may be distinct between high and low invasive head and neck cancer cells and between CSCs and non-SCCs. PMID:25973679

  2. Determination of N,N-dimethyltryptamine in beverages consumed in religious practices by headspace solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gaujac, Alain; Dempster, Nicola; Navickiene, Sandro; Brandt, Simon D; de Andrade, Jailson Bittencourt

    2013-03-15

    A novel analytical approach combining solid-phase microextraction (SPME)/gas chromatography ion trap mass spectrometry (GC-IT-MS) was developed for the detection and quantification N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), a powerful psychoactive indole alkaloid present in a variety of South American indigenous beverages, such as ayahuasca and vinho da jurema. These particular plant products, often used within a religious context, are increasingly consumed throughout the world following an expansion of religious groups and the availability of plant material over the Internet and high street shops. The method described in the present study included the use of SPME in headspace mode combined GC-IT-MS and included the optimization of the SPME procedure using multivariate techniques. The method was performed with a polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB) fiber in headspace mode (70 min at 60 °C) which resulted in good precision (RSD<8.6%) and accuracy values (71-109%). Detection and quantification limits obtained for DMT were 0.78 and 9.5 mg L(-1), respectively and good linearity (1.56-300 mg L(-1), r(2)=0.9975) was also observed. In addition, the proposed method showed good robustness and allowed for the minimization of sample manipulation. Five jurema beverage samples were prepared in the laboratory in order to study the impact of temperature, pH and ethanol on the ability to extract DMT into solution. The developed method was then applied to the analysis of twelve real ayahuasca and vinho da jurema samples, obtained from Brazilian religious groups, which revealed DMT concentration levels between 0.10 and 1.81 g L(-1). PMID:23598143

  3. Determination of Fe(II) and Fe(III) in small samples by microbore ion chromatography and photometric, atomic absorption spectrometry and total-reflection X-ray fluorescence detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinner, T.; Hoffmann, P.; Ortner, H. M.

    1993-02-01

    Iron(II) and iron(III) are determined after separation on an ion Chromatographie column by various detection systems. "On-line" detection was achieved by the use of a photometer with a flow cell of 0.8 ?l; for "off-line" detection, graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry or total-reflection X-ray fluorescence were used. The applicability of the methods is shown for standard solutions and atmospheric samples. As a typical result, 50 ?g/l of iron can be determined in a 10 ?l sample with a nucrobore ion chromatograph-photometer and atomic absorption system and 40 ?g/l of iron in a microbore ion chromatograph-total-reflection X-ray fluorescence combination.

  4. Gas Chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Michael C.; Peterson, Devin G.; Reineccius, Gary A.

    The first publication on gas chromatography (GC) was in 1952 (1), while the first commercial instruments were manufactured in 1956. James and Martin (1) separated fatty acids by GC, collected the column effluent, and titrated the individual fatty acids for quantitation. GC has advanced greatly since that early work and is now considered to be a mature field that is approaching theoretical limitations.

  5. Gas chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Willett, J.

    1987-01-01

    This book includes discussions of chemical equilibria, the properties of solutions and gases, the structures of molecules and how they attract one another. It assumes basic knowledge of chemistry and electricity. This book also provides a basic understanding of gas chromatography in a flexible format.

  6. Methods of analysis by the U. S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory - determination of organonitrogen herbicides in water by solid-phase extraction and capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with selected-ion monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sandstrom, Mark W.; Wydoski, Duane S.; Schroeder, Michael P.; Zamboni, Jana L.; Foreman, William T.

    1992-01-01

    A method for the isolation of organonitrogen herbicides from natural water samples using solid-phase extraction and analysis by capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with selected-ion monitoring is described. Water samples are filtered to remove suspended particulate matter and then are pumped through disposable solid-phase extraction cartridges containing octadecyl-bonded porous silica to remove the herbicides. The cartridges are dried using carbon dioxide, and adsorbed herbicides are removed from the cartridges by elution with 1.8 milliliters of hexaneisopropanol (3:1). Extracts of the eluants are analyzed by capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with selected-ion monitoring of at least three characteristic ions. The method detection limits are dependent on sample matrix and each particular herbicide. The method detection limits, based on a 100-milliliter sample size, range from 0.02 to 0.25 microgram per liter. Recoveries averaged 80 to 115 percent for the 23 herbicides and 2 metabolites in 1 reagent-water and 2 natural-water samples fortified at levels of 0.2 and 2.0 micrograms per liter.

  7. This-layer chromatography/electrospray ionization triple-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry system: analysis of rhodamine dyes separated on reversed-phase C8 plates

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, Michael J; Kertesz, Vilmos; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2005-01-01

    The direct analysis of separated rhodamine dyes on reversed-phase C{sub 8} thin-layer chromatography plates using a surface sampling/electrospray emitter probe coupled with a triple-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer is presented. This report represents continuing work to advance the performance metrics and utility of this basic surface sampling electrospray mass spectrometry system for the analysis of thin-layer chromatography plates. Experimental results examining the role of sampling probe spray end configuration on liquid aspiration rate and gas-phase ion signal generated are discussed. The detection figures-of-merit afforded by full-scan, automated product ion and selected reaction monitoring modes of operation were examined. The effect of different eluting solvents on mass spectrum signal levels with the reversed-phase C{sub 8} plate was investigated. The combined effect of eluting solvent flow-rate and development lane surface scan rate on preservation of chromatographic resolution was also studied. Analysis of chromatographically separated red pen ink extracts from eight different pens using selected reaction monitoring demonstrated the potential of this surface sampling electrospray mass spectrometry system for targeted compound analysis with real samples.

  8. Determination of free sulfites (SO3-2) in dried fruits processed with sulfur dioxide by ion chromatography through anion exchange column and conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    Liao, Benjamin S; Sram, Jacqueline C; Files, Darin J

    2013-01-01

    A simple and effective anion ion chromatography (IC) method with anion exchange column and conductivity detector has been developed to determine free sulfites (SO3-2) in dried fruits processed with sulfur dioxide. No oxidation agent, such as hydrogen peroxide, is used to convert sulfites to sulfates for IC analysis. In addition, no stabilizing agent, such as formaldehyde, fructose or EDTA, is required during the sample extraction. This method uses aqueous 0.2 N NaOH as the solvent for standard preparation and sample extraction. The sulfites, either prepared from standard sodium sulfite powder or extracted from food samples, are presumed to be unbound SO3-2 in aqueous 0.2 N NaOH (pH > 13), because the bound sulfites in the sample matrix are released at pH > 10. In this study, sulfites in the standard solutions were stable at room temperature (i.e., 15-25 degrees C) for up to 12 days. The lowest standard of the linear calibration curve is set at 1.59 microg/mL SO3-2 (equivalent to 6.36 microg/g sample with no dilution) for analysis of processed dried fruits that would contain high levels (>1000 microg/g) of sulfites. As a consequence, this method typically requires significant dilution of the sample extract. Samples are prepared with a simple procedure of sample compositing, extraction with aqueous 0.2 N NaOH, centrifugation, dilution as needed, and filtration prior to IC. The sulfites in these sample extracts are stable at room temperature for up to 20 h. Using anion IC, the sulfites are eluted under isocratic conditions with 10 mM aqueous sodium carbonate solution as the mobile phase passing through an anion exchange column. The sulfites are easily separated, with an analysis run time of 18 min, regardless of the dried fruit matrix. Recoveries from samples spiked with sodium sulfites were demonstrated to be between 81 and 105% for five different fruit matrixes (apricot, golden grape, white peach, fig, and mango). Overall, this method is simple to perform and effective for the determination of high levels of sulfites in dried fruits. PMID:24282955

  9. Simultaneous determination of 18 preservative residues in vegetables by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole/linear ion trap mass spectrometry using a dispersive-SPE procedure.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xue; Cao, Shurui; Li, Xianliang; Tang, Bobin; Ding, Xiaowen; Xi, Cunxian; Hu, Jiangtao; Chen, Zhiqiong

    2015-05-01

    A new method combining dispersive-solid phase purification procedure with ultra high performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole/linear ion trap mass spectrometry was developed for simultaneous determination of 18 preservative residues in vegetables. The new method not only had the advantages of dispersive-solid phase purification procedure such as high recoveries, easy operation, rapid analysis, little solvent usage and wide analysis range of preservatives, but also had the advantages of ultra high performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole/linear ion trap mass spectrometry to be operated in positive mode and negative mode simultaneously. The method was validated for the following representative matrices: radish (tuber), tomato (eggplant fruit), cabbage (leafy), cowpea (bean), cucumber (melon) and so on. Samples were extracted with hexane-ethyl acetate (1:2, v/v), and then detected by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole/linear ion trap mass spectrometry after being cleaned up with dispersive-solid phase purification procedure. Significant matrix effects were compensated by using the matrix-matched calibration curves. 18 preservatives showed good linearity over the range of 5.0-100.0 ?g/L with correlation coefficients of 0.9904-1.000. The limits of detections were in the range of 0.04-4.16 ?g/kg and the limits of quantity were in the range of 0.13-13.85 ?g/kg. The recoveries of 18 preservatives ranged from 76.0% to 120.0% with the spiked levels of 2, 4 and 10 ?g/kg into homogenized vegetables, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranged from 0.3% to 14.8%. Compared with the reported literatures, the method is more rapid, simple, highly sensitive, reliable and can meet testing requirements of 18 preservative residues in vegetables. PMID:25797719

  10. Gas chromatography with tandem differential mobility spectrometry of fatty acid alkyl esters and the selective detection of methyl linolenate in biodiesels by dual-stage ion filtering.

    PubMed

    Pasupuleti, D; Pierce, K; Eiceman, G A

    2015-11-20

    Alkyl esters of fatty acids (FAAEs) with carbon numbers from 8 to 20 formed protonated monomers and proton bound dimers through atmospheric pressure chemical ionization reactions and these gas ions were characterized for their field dependent mobility coefficients using differential mobility spectrometry (DMS). Separation of ion peaks with a vapor modifier was achieved for ions with masses of 317-1033Da though the differences in these coefficients and the resolution of ion peaks decreased proportionally with increased ion mass. Differences in dispersion curves were sufficient to isolate ions from specific FAAEs in the effluent of a gas chromatograph by dual stage ion filtering using a tandem DMS detector. Methyl linolenate was isolated from nearby eluting methyl oleate, methyl stearate and methyl linoleate within analysis times of 10s without measureable complications from charge suppression in the ion source or leakage in filtering of ions with close proximity of dispersion behavior. PMID:26427321

  11. Nanoscopic exclusion between Rad51 and 53BP1 after ion irradiation in human HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Reindl, Judith; Drexler, Guido A; Girst, Stefanie; Greubel, Christoph; Siebenwirth, Christian; Drexler, Sophie E; Dollinger, Günther; Friedl, Anna A

    2015-12-01

    Many proteins involved in detection, signalling and repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) accumulate in large number in the vicinity of DSB sites, forming so called foci. Emerging evidence suggests that these foci are sub-divided in structural or functional domains. We use stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy to investigate localization of mediator protein 53BP1 and recombination factor Rad51 after irradiation of cells with low linear energy transfer (LET) protons or high LET carbon ions. With a resolution better than 100 nm, STED microscopy and image analysis using a newly developed analyzing algorithm, the reduced product of the differences from the mean, allowed us to demonstrate that with both irradiation types Rad51 occupies spherical regions of about 200 nm diameter. These foci locate within larger 53BP1 accumulations in regions of local 53BP1 depletion, similar to what has been described for the localization of Brca1, CtIP and RPA. Furthermore, localization relative to 53BP1 and size of Rad51 foci was not different after irradiation with low and high LET radiation. As expected, 53BP1 foci induced by low LET irradiation mostly contained one Rad51 focal structure, while after high LET irradiation, most foci contained >1 Rad51 accumulation. PMID:26595336

  12. Nanoscopic exclusion between Rad51 and 53BP1 after ion irradiation in human HeLa cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reindl, Judith; Drexler, Guido A.; Girst, Stefanie; Greubel, Christoph; Siebenwirth, Christian; Drexler, Sophie E.; Dollinger, Günther; Friedl, Anna A.

    2015-12-01

    Many proteins involved in detection, signalling and repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) accumulate in large number in the vicinity of DSB sites, forming so called foci. Emerging evidence suggests that these foci are sub-divided in structural or functional domains. We use stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy to investigate localization of mediator protein 53BP1 and recombination factor Rad51 after irradiation of cells with low linear energy transfer (LET) protons or high LET carbon ions. With a resolution better than 100 nm, STED microscopy and image analysis using a newly developed analyzing algorithm, the reduced product of the differences from the mean, allowed us to demonstrate that with both irradiation types Rad51 occupies spherical regions of about 200 nm diameter. These foci locate within larger 53BP1 accumulations in regions of local 53BP1 depletion, similar to what has been described for the localization of Brca1, CtIP and RPA. Furthermore, localization relative to 53BP1 and size of Rad51 foci was not different after irradiation with low and high LET radiation. As expected, 53BP1 foci induced by low LET irradiation mostly contained one Rad51 focal structure, while after high LET irradiation, most foci contained >1 Rad51 accumulation.

  13. Multiple reaction monitoring-ion pair finder: a systematic approach to transform nontargeted mode to pseudotargeted mode for metabolomics study based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ping; Dai, Weidong; Yin, Peiyuan; Zeng, Zhongda; Kong, Hongwei; Zhou, Lina; Wang, Xiaolin; Chen, Shili; Lu, Xin; Xu, Guowang

    2015-01-01

    Pseudotargeted metabolic profiling is a novel strategy combining the advantages of both targeted and untargeted methods. The strategy obtains metabolites and their product ions from quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-TOF) MS by information-dependent acquisition (IDA) and then picks targeted ion pairs and measures them on a triple-quadrupole MS by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The picking of ion pairs from thousands of candidates is the most time-consuming step of the pseudotargeted strategy. Herein, a systematic and automated approach and software (MRM-Ion Pair Finder) were developed to acquire characteristic MRM ion pairs by precursor ions alignment, MS(2) spectrum extraction and reduction, characteristic product ion selection, and ion fusion. To test the reliability of the approach, a mixture of 15 metabolite standards was first analyzed; the representative ion pairs were correctly picked out. Then, pooled serum samples were further studied, and the results were confirmed by the manual selection. Finally, a comparison with a commercial peak alignment software was performed, and a good characteristic ion coverage of metabolites was obtained. As a proof of concept, the proposed approach was applied to a metabolomics study of liver cancer; 854 metabolite ion pairs were defined in the positive ion mode from serum. Our approach provides a high throughput method which is reliable to acquire MRM ion pairs for pseudotargeted metabolomics with improved metabolite coverage and facilitate more reliable biomarkers discoveries. PMID:25884293

  14. Characterization and Purification of Supramolecular Metal Complexes Using Gel-Permeation Chromatography

    E-print Network

    -Permeation Chromatography Christopher R. Graves, Melissa L. Merlau, Gregory A. Morris, Shih-Sheng Sun, SonBinh T. Nguyen Received July 25, 2003 Gel-permeation chromatography (GPC) has been used to analyze transition of the high symmetry and compositional similarity of the possible products. Size-exclusion chromatography

  15. Gas Chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Michael C.

    Gas chromatography (GC) has many applications in the analysis of food products. GC has been used for the determination of fatty acids, triglycerides, cholesterol, gases, water, alcohols, pesticides, flavor compounds, and many more. While GC has been used for other food components such as sugars, oligosaccharides, amino acids, peptides, and vitamins, these substances are more suited to analysis by high performance liquid chromatography. GC is ideally suited to the analysis of volatile substances that are thermally stable. Substances such as pesticides and flavor compounds that meet these criteria can be isolated from a food and directly injected into the GC. For compounds that are thermally unstable, too low in volatility, or yield poor chromatographic separation due to polarity, a derivatization step must be done before GC analysis. The two parts of the experiment described here include the analysis of alcohols that requires no derivatization step, and the analysis of fatty acids which requires derivatization. The experiments specify the use of capillary columns, but the first experiment includes conditions for a packed column.

  16. A NEW SW-846 METHOD FOR THE ANALYSIS OF TOXAPHENE AND TOXAPHENE CONGENERS IN SOLID AND AQUEOUS SAMPLES USING GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY / NEGATIVE ION MASS SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    US EPA SW-846 methods have typically relied on dual column gas chromatography coupled with electron capture detection (GC-ECD) for analysis of low concentrations of organochlorine pesticides, including toxaphene, in environmental samples. Toxaphene is one of the most widely appl...

  17. A multi-residue method for pesticides analysis in green coffee beans using gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry in selective ion monitoring mode.

    PubMed

    Pizzutti, Ionara R; de Kok, Andre; Dickow Cardoso, Carmem; Reichert, Bárbara; de Kroon, Marijke; Wind, Wouter; Weber Righi, Laís; Caiel da Silva, Rosselei

    2012-08-17

    In this study, a new gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method, using the very selective negative chemical ionization (NCI) mode, was developed and applied in combination with a modified acetonitrile-based extraction method (QuEChERS) for the analysis of a large number of pesticide residues (51 pesticides, including isomers and degradation products) in green coffee beans. A previously developed integrated sample homogenization and extraction method for both pesticides and mycotoxins analysis was used. An homogeneous slurry of green milled coffee beans and water (ratio 1:4, w/w) was prepared and extracted with acetonitrile/acetic acid (1%), followed by magnesium sulfate addition for phase separation. Aliquots from this extract could be used directly for LC-MS/MS analysis of mycotoxins and LC-amenable pesticides. For GC-MS analysis, a further clean-up was necessary. C18- and PSA-bonded silica were tested as dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) sorbents, separate and as a mixture, and the best results were obtained using C18-bonded silica. For the optimal sensitivity and selectivity, GC-MS detection in the NCI-selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode had to be used to allow the fast analysis of the difficult coffee bean matrix. The validation was performed by analyzing recovery samples at three different spike concentrations, 10, 20 and 50 ?g kg(-1), with 6 replicates (n=6) at each concentration. Linearity (r(2)) of calibration curves, estimated instrument and method limits of detection and limits of quantification (LOD(i), LOD(m), LOQ(i) and LOQ(m), respectively), accuracy (as recovery %), precision (as RSD%) and matrix effects (%) were determined for each individual pesticide. From the 51 analytes (42 parent pesticides, 4 isomers and 5 degradation products) determined by GC-MS (NCI-SIM), approximately 76% showed average recoveries between 70-120% and 75% and RSD ? 20% at the lowest spike concentration of 10 ?g kg(-1), the target method LOQ. For the spike concentrations of 20 and 50 ?g kg(-1), the recoveries and RSDs were even better. The validated LOQ(m) was 10, 20 and 50 ?g kg(-1) for respectively 33, 3 and 6 of the analytes studied. For five compounds, the European Union method performance requirements for the validation of a quantitative method (average recoveries between 70-120% and repeatability RSD ? 20%) were not achieved and 4 problematic pesticides (captan, captafol, folpet and dicofol) could not be detected as their parent compound, but only via their degradation products. Although the matrix effect (matrix-enhanced detector response) was high for all pesticides studied, the matrix interference was minimal, due to the high selectivity obtained with the GC-NCI-MS detection. Matrix-matched calibration for applying the method in routine analysis is recommended for reliable quantitative results. PMID:22771261

  18. Reversed-Phase Ion-Pair Liquid Chromatography Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Separation, Sequencing and Mapping of Sites of Base Modification of Isomeric Oligonucleotide Adducts using Monolithic Column

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vaneet K; Glick, James; Vouros, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In this manuscript, an efficient high resolution reversed phase - ion pairing- liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (RP-IP-LC-MS/MS) method for separation of isomeric modified oligonucleotides using a polymeric (styrene-divinylbenzene) monolithic capillary column is presented. The effects of different ion pairing reagents (IPR), their concentration, mobile phase additives and conditions were evaluated towards achieving the highest possible resolution and chromatographic separation of isomeric oligonucleotides. Ion pairing reagents and mobile phase conditions were evaluated using as model N-acetylaminofluorene [AAF] adducted ss- oligonucleotides (CCC CGA GCA ATC TCA AT). The optimized mobile phase conditions were then applied for the mapping of sites of base modification of AAF adducted 15 base pair oligonucleotide fragments containing codon 135 of the p53 gene and for profiling a complex synthetic oligonucleotide mixture. The optimized method utilizes a monolithic poly(styrene-divinylbenzene) capillary column, triethylammonium bicarbonate as ion pairing reagent and methanol as organic modifier to perform IP-RPLC-ESI-MS/MS separation. The results show that the method is simultaneously applicable not only to oligonucleotide fragments adducted separately by different carcinogens but also to the analysis of multiple adducts in the same oligonucleotide fragment in a single experiment. The method presents itself as a tool for the identification, characterization and mapping of oligonucleotide adducts as biomarkers for DNA damage from carcinogens. PMID:22652552

  19. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; determination of pesticides in water by C-18 solid-phase extraction and capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with selected-ion monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zaugg, Steven D.; Sandstrom, Mark W.; Smith, Steven G.; Fehlberg, Kevin M.

    1995-01-01

    A method for the isolation of 41 pesticides and pesticide metabolites in natural-water samples using C-18 solid-phase extraction and determination by capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with selected-ion monitoring is described. Water samples are filtered to remove suspended particulate matter and then are pumped through disposable solid-phase extraction columns containing octadecyl-bonded porous silica to extract the pesticides. The columns are dried using carbon dioxide or nitrogen gas, and adsorbed pesticides are removed from the columns by elution with 3.0 milliliters of hexane-isopropanol (3:1). Extracted pesticides are determined by capillary- column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with selected-ion monitoring of three characteristic ions. The upper concentration limit is 4 micrograms per liter (g/L) for most pesticides, with the exception of widely used corn herbicides--atrazine, alachlor, cyanazine, and metolachlor--which have upper concentration limits of 20 g/L. Single- operator method detection limits in reagent-water samples range from 0.001 to 0.018 g/L. Average short-term single-operator precision in reagent- water samples is 7 percent at the 0.1- and 1.0-g/L levels and 8 percent at the 0.01-g/L level. Mean recoveries in reagent-water samples are 73 percent at the 0.1- and 1.0-g/L levels and 83 percent at the 0.01-g/L level. The estimated holding time for pesticides after extraction on the solid-phase extraction columns was 7 days. An optional on-site extraction procedure allows for samples to be collected and processed at remote sites where it is difficult to ship samples to the laboratory within the recommended pre-extraction holding time.

  20. Journal of Chromatography, 553 (1991) 93-99 Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Amsterdam

    E-print Network

    Miksik, Ivan

    1991-01-01

    Journal of Chromatography, 553 (1991) 93-99 Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Amsterdam CHROMSYMP and determined by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography using a gradient system with sodium and isodesmosine, conventional ion-exchange chromatography [l-3], thin-layer chromatography [4,5] and immuno- assay

  1. Journal of Chromatography A, 1116 (2006) 193203 Determination of acidic drugs and caffeine in municipal

    E-print Network

    Mazumder, Asit

    2006-01-01

    Journal of Chromatography A, 1116 (2006) 193­203 Determination of acidic drugs and caffeine in municipal wastewaters and receiving waters by gas chromatography­ion trap tandem mass spectrometry Sergei S directly. A method of gas chromatography­ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (IT­MS/MS) for analysis

  2. Journal of Chromatography B, 782 (2002) 343351 www.elsevier.com/locate/chromb

    E-print Network

    Clemmer, David E.

    2002-01-01

    Journal of Chromatography B, 782 (2002) 343­351 www.elsevier.com/locate/chromb Development of high-throughput liquid chromatography injected ion mobility quadrupole time-of-flight techniques for analysis of complex chromatography (LC), ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) and tandem mass spectrometry is described for the analysis

  3. Analysis of Triacylglycerol and Fatty Acid Isomers by Low-Temperature Silver-Ion High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Acetonitrile in Hexane as Solvent: Limitations of the Methodology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Silver ion HPLC (Ag HPLC), utilizing columns containing silver ions bonded to a silica substrate and acetonitrile in hexane as solvent, has proven to be a powerful technology for the analysis of geometric (cis or trans) or positional fatty acids, fatty acid ester (primarily methyl ester; FAME), or t...

  4. Simultaneous Quantitation of Indole 3-Acetic Acid and Abscisic Acid in Small Samples of Plant Tissue by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry/Selected Ion Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Vine, John H.; Noiton, Dominique; Plummer, Julie A.; Baleriola-Lucas, Cristina; Mullins, Michael G.

    1987-01-01

    Indole 3-acetic acid (IAA) was analyzed in apple, orange, and prune tissue by GC-MS by monitoring the protonated molecular ion of its methyl ester at mass to charge ratio (m/z) 190 together with the major fragment ion at m/z 130 and the corresponding ions from the methyl esters of either [2H4]IAA (m/z 194, 134) or [2H5]IAA (m/z 195, 135). Abscisic acid (ABA) was analyzed by monitoring the major fragment ions of its methyl ester at m/z 261 and m/z 247 and the corresponding ions from the methyl ester of [2H3]ABA (m/z 264, 250). Detection limits for IAA and ABA were 1 and 10 picograms, respectively using standards and 1 nanogram per gram dry weight for both phytohormones in plant tissue. PMID:16665713

  5. Simple and novel screening assay of natural antioxidants for Cu(II) ion/adrenaline-mediated oxidation of N-terminal amyloid beta by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Koichi; Kaneko, Madoka; Hino, Tomoaki; Oka, Hisao

    2010-09-01

    In the present study, a novel assay for screening inhibitors of Cu(II) ion/adrenaline-mediated oxidative modification of N-terminal amyloid beta (Abeta) peptides was developed using liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (LC/MS). The physiological condition of Cu(II) ion/adrenaline in buffer (pH 7.4) at 37 degrees C for 90 min revealed a specific modification of N-terminal Abeta peptides, such as Abeta1-6, Abeta1-40, and Abeta1-42, using trypsin digestion and LC/MS detection of the modified Abeta peptide. When this oxidative modification of the shorter N-terminal Abeta1-6 was subjected to LC/MS, single charged ions from native peptide ([M+H]+, m/z 774) were observed at m/z 729 and 685, corresponding to a decrease in mass of 45 and 89 Da, respectively, as compared with the original peptide. To determine the effect of specific antioxidants, a screening assay to find inhibitors of Cu(II) ion/adrenaline-mediated oxidation was developed based on the response ratio of m/z 685 to 774. LC/MS detection of the modified peptides allowed us to identify antioxidants that inhibit oxidative modification of Abeta1-6 model peptide. The oxidative modification of Abeta1-6 was inhibited by curcumin but not an isoflavone or catechin mixture or saponin or capsaicin, revealing a clear difference between antioxidants that inhibit oxidative modification and other antioxidants. This novel assay may allow for the identification of antioxidants that protect against oxidative modification of Abeta and other proteins related to oxidative stress by adrenaline and Cu(II) ions under normal physiologic conditions. PMID:20707367

  6. High-resolution twin-ion metabolite extraction (HiTIME) mass spectrometry: nontargeted detection of unknown drug metabolites by isotope labeling, liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, and automated high-performance computing.

    PubMed

    Leeming, Michael G; Isaac, Andrew P; Pope, Bernard J; Cranswick, Noel; Wright, Christine E; Ziogas, James; O'Hair, Richard A J; Donald, William A

    2015-04-21

    The metabolic fate of a compound can often determine the success of a new drug lead. Thus, significant effort is directed toward identifying the metabolites formed from a given molecule. Here, an automated and nontargeted procedure is introduced for detecting drug metabolites without authentic metabolite standards via the use of stable isotope labeling, liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS), and high-performance computing. LC/MS of blood plasma extracts from rats that were administered a 1:1 mixture of acetaminophen (APAP) and (13)C6-APAP resulted in mass spectra that contained "twin" ions for drug metabolites that were not detected in control spectra (i.e., no APAP administered). Because of the development of a program (high-resolution twin-ion metabolite extraction; HiTIME) that can identify twin-ions in high-resolution mass spectra without centroiding (i.e., reduction of mass spectral peaks to single data points), 9 doublets corresponding to APAP metabolites were identified. This is nearly twice that obtained by use of existing programs that make use of centroiding to reduce computational cost under these conditions with a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer. By a manual search for all reported APAP metabolite ions, no additional twin-ion signals were assigned. These data indicate that all the major metabolites of APAP and multiple low-abundance metabolites (e.g., acetaminophen hydroxy- and methoxysulfate) that are rarely reported were detected. This methodology can be used to detect drug metabolites without prior knowledge of their identity. HiTIME is freely available from https://github.com/bjpop/HiTIME . PMID:25818563

  7. Multi-mycotoxin Analysis of Finished Grain and Nut Products Using Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Positive Electrospray Ionization-Quadrupole Orbital Ion Trap High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chia-Ding; Wong, Jon W; Zhang, Kai; Yang, Paul; Wittenberg, James B; Trucksess, Mary W; Hayward, Douglas G; Lee, Nathaniel S; Chang, James S

    2015-09-23

    Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography using positive electrospray ionization and quadrupole orbital ion trap high-resolution mass spectrometry was evaluated for analyzing mycotoxins in finished cereal and nut products. Optimizing the orbital ion trap mass analyzer in full-scan mode using mycotoxin-fortified matrix extracts gave mass accuracies, ?M, of < ± 2.0 ppm at 70,000 full width at half maximum (FWHM) mass resolution (RFWHM). The limits of quantitation were matrix- and mycotoxin-dependent, ranging from 0.02 to 11.6 ?g/kg. Mean recoveries and standard deviations for mycotoxins from acetonitrile/water extraction at their relevant fortification levels were 91 ± 10, 94 ± 10, 98 ± 12, 91 ± 13, 99 ± 15, and 93 ± 17% for corn, rice, wheat, almond, peanut, and pistachio, respectively. Nineteen mycotoxins with concentrations ranging from 0.3 (aflatoxin B1 in peanut and almond) to 1175 ?g/kg (fumonisin B1 in corn flour) were found in 35 of the 70 commercial grain and nut samples surveyed. Mycotoxins could be identified at ?M < ± 5 ppm by identifying the precursor and product ions in full-scan MS and data-dependent MS/MS modes. This method demonstrates a new analytical approach for monitoring mycotoxins in finished grain and nut products. PMID:25531669

  8. Authentication of pineapple (Ananas comosus [L.] Merr.) fruit maturity stages by quantitative analysis of ?- and ?-lactones using headspace solid-phase microextraction and chirospecific gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-SIM-MS).

    PubMed

    Steingass, Christof B; Langen, Johannes; Carle, Reinhold; Schmarr, Hans-Georg

    2015-02-01

    Headspace solid phase microextraction and chirospecific gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in selected ion monitoring mode (HS-SPME-GC-SIM-MS) allowed quantitative determination of ?-lactones (?-C8, ?-C10) and ?-lactones (?-C6, ?-C8, ?-C10). A stable isotope dilution assay (SIDA) with d7-?-decalactone as internal standard was used for quantitative analysis of pineapple lactones that was performed at three progressing post-harvest stages of fully ripe air-freighted and green-ripe sea-freighted fruits, covering the relevant shelf-life of the fruits. Fresh pineapples harvested at full maturity were characterised by ?-C6 of high enantiomeric purity remaining stable during the whole post-harvest period. In contrast, the enantiomeric purity of ?-C6 significantly decreased during post-harvest storage of sea-freighted pineapples. The biogenetical background and the potential of chirospecific analysis of lactones for authentication and quality evaluation of fresh pineapple fruits are discussed. PMID:25172740

  9. Determination and temperature effects of lidocaine (lignocaine) hydrochloride, epinephrine, methylparaben, 2,6-dimethylaniline, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid in USP lidocaine injection by ion-pair reversed-phase high pressure liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.J.

    1981-05-01

    USP Lidocaine injection was assayed using ion-pair high pressure liquid chromatography with an octylsilane (RP-8) reversed-phase column packing and a mobile phase consisting of D-10-camphorsulfonic acid/methanol/acetic acid/water. The effect of temperature was investigated to determine the optimum temperature for separating the drug components and their degradation products. Lidocaine (lignocaine) hydrochloride, epinephrine, methylparaben, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid were separated at 50 degrees C. 2,6-Dimethylaniline was separated from lidocaine at 15 degrees C. An aliquot of the sample was injected directly into the liquid chromatograph, and after separation the compounds were quantitated by their spectrophotometric response at 254 nm (lidocaine) or 280 nm (lidocaine plus epinephrine).

  10. Characterization and quantitative analysis of phenylpropanoid amides in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and hybrid ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Song, Yue-Lin; Zhang, Jing; Huang, Zheng; Huo, Hui-Xia; Zheng, Jiao; Zhang, Qian; Zhao, Yun-Fang; Li, Jun; Tu, Peng-Fei

    2015-04-01

    Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is a famous edible and medicinal plant. Despite being widely cultivated and used, data on certain parts other than the fruit are limited. The present study focused on the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the chemical constituents, particularly phenylpropanoid amides (PAs), in eggplant. The mass fragmentation patterns of PAs were proposed using seven authentic compounds with the assistance of a hybrid ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Thirty-seven compounds (27 PAs and 10 others) were detected and plausibly assigned in the different parts of eggplant. Afterward, a reliable method based on liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection was developed, validated, and applied for the simultaneous determination of seven PAs and three caffeoylquinic acids in 17 batches of eggplant roots with satisfactory accuracy, precision, and reproducibility, which could not only provide global chemical insight of eggplant but also offer a reliable tool for quality control. PMID:25796999

  11. Imaging partons in exclusive scattering processes

    E-print Network

    Markus Diehl

    2012-09-20

    The spatial distribution of partons in the proton can be probed in suitable exclusive scattering processes. I report on recent performance estimates for parton imaging at a proposed Electron-Ion Collider.

  12. Chemical Profiling of Re-Du-Ning Injection by Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Electrospray Ionization Tandem Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry through the Screening of Diagnostic Ions in MSE Mode

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhenzhong; Geng, Jianliang; Dai, Yi; Xiao, Wei; Yao, Xinsheng

    2015-01-01

    The broad applications and mechanism explorations of traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions (TCMPs) require a clear understanding of TCMP chemical constituents. In the present study, we describe an efficient and universally applicable analytical approach based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization tandem quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-Q/TOF-MS) with the MSE (E denotes collision energy) data acquisition mode, which allowed the rapid separation and reliable determination of TCMP chemical constituents. By monitoring diagnostic ions in the high energy function of MSE, target peaks of analogous compounds in TCMPs could be rapidly screened and identified. “Re-Du-Ning” injection (RDN), a eutherapeutic traditional Chinese medicine injection (TCMI) that has been widely used to reduce fever caused by viral infections in clinical practice, was studied as an example. In total, 90 compounds, including five new iridoids and one new sesquiterpene, were identified or tentatively characterized by accurate mass measurements within 5 ppm error. This analysis was accompanied by MS fragmentation and reference standard comparison analyses. Furthermore, the herbal sources of these compounds were unambiguously confirmed by comparing the extracted ion chromatograms (EICs) of RDN and ingredient herbal extracts. Our work provides a certain foundation for further studies of RDN. Moreover, the analytical approach developed herein has proven to be generally applicable for profiling the chemical constituents in TCMPs and other complicated mixtures. PMID:25875968

  13. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the determination of macrocyclic lactones in milk by liquid chromatography with diode array detection and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Campillo, Natalia; Viñas, Pilar; Férez-Melgarejo, Gema; Hernández-Córdoba, Manuel

    2013-03-22

    Eprinomectin (EPRI), abamectin (ABA), doramectin (DOR), moxidectin (MOX) and ivermectin (IVM) were determined in milk samples using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) and liquid chromatography with diode array detection (LC-DAD) coupled to atmospheric pressure chemical ionization in negative ion mode ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry (APCI-IT-MS/MS). Milk proteins were removed by precipitation with trichloroacetic acid and the analytes were preconcentrated using 2mL of acetonitrile containing 200?L of chloroform as extraction mixture. The effect of several parameters for the liquid-liquid microextraction efficiency was evaluated. Standard additions method was used for quantification purposes, the correlation coefficients were better than 0.9970 in all cases and the quantification limits ranged from 1.0 to 4.7ngg(-1) and from 0.1 to 2.4ngg(-1) when using DAD and MS, respectively. The DLLME-LC-APCI-IT-MS/MS optimized method was successfully applied to different milk samples and none of the studied analytes was detected in the samples studied. The recoveries for milk samples spiked at concentration levels ranging between 0.5 and 50ngg(-1), depending on the compound, were between 89.5 and 105%, with relative standard deviations lower than 9% (n=135). Simplicity, rapidity and reliability are important advantages of the proposed method, while the sample preparation step can be regarded as environmentally friendly. PMID:23415139

  14. Unequivocal Enantiomeric Identification and Analysis of 10 Chiral Pesticides in Fruit and Vegetables by QuEChERS Method Combined With Liquid Chromatography-Quadruple/Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry Determination.

    PubMed

    He, Zeying; Peng, Yi; Wang, Lu; Luo, Ming; Liu, Xiaowei

    2015-12-01

    In this research, 10 chiral pesticides in fruits and vegetables were simultaneously determined using chiral liquid chromatography triple quadrupole-linear ion trap hybrid mass spectrometry (LC-QqLIT). The QuEChERS method was applied for sample preparation, and an enhanced product ion (EPI) scan was used to acquire tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) spectra for the library search. Parameters including limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), linearity, relative standard deviation (RSD), and matrix effects were evaluated in five representative matrices (strawberry, leek, cowpea, tomato, and eggplant). Good linearity with coefficient of determination (r(2) ) ?0.997 was obtained for all 20 enantiomers in these five matrices over the range from 1.0 to 250?µg?L(-1) . All the recoveries at 5 and 50?µg?kg(-1) (n?=?5) ranged between 70% and 120% with RSD below 20%, indicating satisfactory precision. The LOQ for the enantiomers ranged between 0.05 and 1?µg?kg(-1) . Based on the proposed method, 135 commonly consumed fruits and vegetables taken from markets in Guizhou province, China, were analyzed. Enantioselective degradation for the selected chiral pesticides was observed in most of the positive samples. Chirality 27:958-964, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26392120

  15. SILVER-ION HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY: SAMPLE SIZE AND SOLVENT EFFECTS ON THE RESOLUTION, RETENTION AND PREPARATIVE SEPARATION OF FATTY ACID METHYL ESTERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Silver ion HPLC (Ag-HPLC) has been utilized to separate a variety of unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) by configuration, location, or number of olefinic or acetylenic bonds. Most separations have been in the analytical range, with sample sizes of 0.5 to 150 µg. The application of Chrompa...

  16. A strategy for comprehensive identification of sequential constituents using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometer, application study on chlorogenic acids in Flos Lonicerae Japonicae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jia-Yu; Wang, Zi-Jian; Li, Yun; Liu, Ying; Cai, Wei; Li, Chen; Lu, Jian-Qiu; Qiao, Yan-Jiang

    2016-01-15

    The analytical methodologies for evaluation of multi-component system in traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) have been inadequate or unacceptable. As a result, the unclarity of multi-component hinders the sufficient interpretation of their bioactivities. In this paper, an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with linear ion trap-Orbitrap (UPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap)-based strategy focused on the comprehensive identification of TCM sequential constituents was developed. The strategy was characterized by molecular design, multiple ion monitoring (MIM), targeted database hits and mass spectral trees similarity filter (MTSF), and even more isomerism discrimination. It was successfully applied in the HRMS data-acquisition and processing of chlorogenic acids (CGAs) in Flos Lonicerae Japonicae (FLJ), and a total of 115 chromatographic peaks attributed to 18 categories were characterized, allowing a comprehensive revelation of CGAs in FLJ for the first time. This demonstrated that MIM based on molecular design could improve the efficiency to trigger MS/MS fragmentation reactions. Targeted database hits and MTSF searching greatly facilitated the processing of extremely large information data. Besides, the introduction of diagnostic product ions (DPIs) discrimination, ClogP analysis, and molecular simulation, raised the efficiency and accuracy to characterize sequential constituents especially position and geometric isomers. In conclusion, the results expanded our understanding on CGAs in FLJ, and the strategy could be exemplary for future research on the comprehensive identification of sequential constituents in TCMs. Meanwhile, it may propose a novel idea for analyzing sequential constituents, and is promising for quality control and evaluation of TCMs. PMID:26592571

  17. High-performance liquid chromatography/high-resolution multiple stage tandem mass spectrometry using negative-ion-mode hydroxide-doped electrospray ionization for the characterization of lignin degradation products.

    PubMed

    Owen, Benjamin C; Haupert, Laura J; Jarrell, Tiffany M; Marcum, Christopher L; Parsell, Trenton H; Abu-Omar, Mahdi M; Bozell, Joseph J; Black, Stuart K; Kenttämaa, Hilkka I

    2012-07-17

    In the search for a replacement for fossil fuel and the valuable chemicals currently obtained from crude oil, lignocellulosic biomass has become a promising candidate as an alternative biorenewable source for crude oil. Hence, many research efforts focus on the extraction, degradation, and catalytic transformation of lignin, hemicellulose, and cellulose. Unfortunately, these processes result in the production of very complex mixtures. Further, while methods have been developed for the analysis of mixtures of oligosaccharides, this is not true for the complex mixtures generated upon degradation of lignin. For example, high-performance liquid chromatography/multiple stage tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS(n)), a tool proven to be invaluable in the analysis of complex mixtures derived from many other biopolymers, such as proteins and DNA, has not been implemented for lignin degradation products. In this study, we have developed an HPLC separation method for lignin degradation products that is amenable to negative-ion-mode electrospray ionization (ESI doped with NaOH), the best method identified thus far for ionization of lignin-related model compounds without fragmentation. The separated and ionized compounds are then analyzed by MS(3) experiments to obtain detailed structural information while simultaneously performing high-resolution measurements to determine their elemental compositions in the two parts of a commercial linear quadrupole ion trap/Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. A lignin degradation product mixture was analyzed using this method, and molecular structures were proposed for some components. This methodology significantly improves the ability to analyze complex product mixtures that result from degraded lignin. PMID:22746183

  18. Chromatography: concepts and contrasts

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    As the author states in the Preface, this text attempts to provide a unified approach to chromatography (hence the title) by way of contrasting similarities and differences between gas chromatography (GC), column liquid chromatography (LC), and thin-layer chromatography (TLC). This book is also said to be pitched at an elementary level, suitable for most newcomers to the field (e.g., advanced undergraduates and beginning graduate students in the academic world, as well as bench-level chemists in industry).

  19. High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    E-print Network

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    HPLC - 1 High Performance Liquid Chromatography HPLC MEASUREMENT OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN CIGARETTE SMOKE Last updated: June 17, 2014 #12;HPLC - 2 High Performance Liquid Chromatography identify as many PAH as possible in cigarette smoke using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC

  20. Gas Chromatography -Mass Spectrometry

    E-print Network

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    GCMS - 1 Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry GC-MS ANALYSIS OF ETHANOL AND BENZENE IN GASOLINE Last updated: June 17, 2014 #12;GCMS - 2 Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry GC-MS ANALYSIS). The goal of this experiment is to separate the components in a sample of gasoline using Gas Chromatography

  1. Metal Affinity Chromatography (MAC)

    E-print Network

    Lebendiker, Mario

    Fractogel® Metal Affinity Chromatography (MAC) Resins and Cartridges Tools for His·Tag® Fusion-MACTM Cartridges #12;2 Novagen · Fractogel Metal Affinity Chromatography (MAC) Resins Ni-MACTM , Co-MACTM and u-MACTM Metal Affinity Chromatography (MAC) Resins and Cartridges HI Ni2+ Ni2+ Ni2+ HISHISHI SHISHISHIS Ni2

  2. Speciation of inositol phosphates in lake sediments by ion-exchange chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, and 31P NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Paraskova, Julia V; Jørgensen, Charlotte; Reitzel, Kasper; Pettersson, Jean; Rydin, Emil; Sjöberg, Per J R

    2015-03-01

    A method for the detection and speciation of inositol phosphates (InsP(n)) in sediment samples was tested, utilizing oxalate-oxalic acid extraction followed by determination by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) using electrospray ionization (ESI) in negative mode. The chromatographic separation was carried out using water and ammonium bicarbonate as mobile phase in gradient mode. Data acquisition under MS/MS was attained by multiple reaction monitoring. The technique provided a sensitive and selective detection of InsP(n) in sediment samples. Several forms of InsP(n) in the oxalate-oxalic acid extracted sediment were identified. InsP6 was the dominating form constituting 0.250 mg P/g DW (dry weight); InsP5 and InsP4 constituted 0.045 and 0.014 mg P/g DW, respectively. The detection limit of the LC-ESI-MS/MS method was 0.03 ?M InsP(n), which is superior to the currently used method for the identification of InsP(n), (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31)P NMR). Additionally sample handling time was significantly reduced. PMID:25649303

  3. Simultaneous determination of 11 fluorescent whitening agents in food-contact paper and board by ion-pairing high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Dingguo; Chen, Lisong; Fu, Wusheng; Qiu, Hanquan

    2015-02-01

    4,4'-Diaminostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid based fluorescent whitening agents (DSD-FWAs) are prohibited in food-contact paper and board in many countries. In this work, a reliable high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 11 common DSD-FWAs in paper material. Sample preparation and extraction as well as chromatographic separation of multicomponent DSD-FWAs were successfully optimized. DSD-FWAs in prepared samples were ultrasonically extracted with acetonitrile/water/triethylamine (40:60:1, v/v/v), separated on the C(18) column with the mobile phase containing tetrabutylammonium bromide, and then detected by a fluorescence detector. The limits of detection were 0.12-0.24 mg/kg, and the calibration curves showed the linear correlation (R(2) ? 0.9994) within the range of 8.0-100 ng/mL, which was equivalent to the range of 0.80-10 mg/kg in the sample. The average recoveries and the RSDs were 81-106% and 2-9% at two fortification levels (1.0 and 5.0 mg/kg) in paper bowls, respectively. The successful determination of 11 DSD-FWAs in food-contact paper and board obtained from local markets indicated that the newly developed method was rapid, accurate, and highly selective. PMID:25492053

  4. An efficient method for purification of nonspecific lipid transfer protein-1 from rice seeds using kiwifruit actinidin proteolysis and ion exchange chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ghobadi, Sirous; Yousefi, Fakhroddin; Khademi, Fatemeh; Padidar, Samira; Mostafaie, Ali

    2012-11-01

    Plant nonspecific lipid transfer proteins are small basic proteins that transport phospholipids between membranes and are subdivided into two subfamilies, nsLTP(1) (9 kDa) and nsLTP(2) (7 kDa). LTPs have potential application in the defense reactions against pathogens and the drug delivery systems. Many efforts have been made for purification of different nsLTPs from various plants; however, most of them used successive purification procedures. We have developed a relatively simple and efficient method for the purification of rice nsLTP(1), based on the proteolytic activity of kiwifruit actinidin on the rice seed extract and one-step chromatographic procedure on a CM-Sepharose column. The purity of protein was determined by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The isolated LTP(1) migrated as a homogenous polypeptide with molecular mass of 9 kDa that confirms the efficiency of actinidin on the digestion of major contaminations present in the rice seed extract without any harmful effect on the LTP(1). The advantages of using proteolytic activity of actinidin in purifying rice LTP(1) includes the reduced separation time allowing the purification of LTP(1) in one-step chromatographic procedure, low costing, high efficiency, and the relative simplicity of the method. PMID:22987614

  5. Application of ion exchange and extraction chromatography to the separation of actinium from proton-irradiated thorium metal for analytical purposes.

    PubMed

    Radchenko, V; Engle, J W; Wilson, J J; Maassen, J R; Nortier, F M; Taylor, W A; Birnbaum, E R; Hudston, L A; John, K D; Fassbender, M E

    2015-02-01

    Actinium-225 (t1/2=9.92d) is an ?-emitting radionuclide with nuclear properties well-suited for use in targeted alpha therapy (TAT), a powerful treatment method for malignant tumors. Actinium-225 can also be utilized as a generator for (213)Bi (t1/2 45.6 min), which is another valuable candidate for TAT. Actinium-225 can be produced via proton irradiation of thorium metal; however, long-lived (227)Ac (t1/2=21.8a, 99% ?(-), 1% ?) is co-produced during this process and will impact the quality of the final product. Thus, accurate assays are needed to determine the (225)Ac/(227)Ac ratio, which is dependent on beam energy, irradiation time and target design. Accurate actinium assays, in turn, require efficient separation of actinium isotopes from both the Th matrix and highly radioactive activation by-products, especially radiolanthanides formed from proton-induced fission. In this study, we introduce a novel, selective chromatographic technique for the recovery and purification of actinium isotopes from irradiated Th matrices. A two-step sequence of cation exchange and extraction chromatography was implemented. Radiolanthanides were quantitatively removed from Ac, and no non-Ac radionuclidic impurities were detected in the final Ac fraction. An (225)Ac spike added prior to separation was recovered at ? 98%, and Ac decontamination from Th was found to be ? 10(6). The purified actinium fraction allowed for highly accurate (227)Ac determination at analytical scales, i.e., at (227)Ac activities of 1-100 kBq (27 nCi to 2.7 ?Ci). PMID:25596759

  6. Ligand-exchange chromatography of alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Murgia, E; Walton, H F

    1975-02-12

    Alkaloids are separated by liquid chromatography on resins having functional carboxyl groups combined with copper (II) ions. The eluent is aqueous alcohol containing ammonia. Some resins retain alkaloids much better than others. Alkaloids studied included morphine, codeine, strychnine, atropine, papaverine, narcotine, cocaine, quinine, cinchonine and methadone. PMID:1150768

  7. Integrated Chemical and Microorganism Monitoring of Air Using Gas Chromatography/Ion Mobility Spectometry: Toward an Expanded-Use Volatile Organic Analyzer (VOA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eiceman, G. A.

    1999-01-01

    The work described in this research program originated with the choice by NASA of an ion mobility spectrometer for air quality monitoring on-board the international spacestation. Though the gas chromatograph-ion mobility spectrometer analyzer known as VOA met or exceeded expectations, limitations in the basic understanding of response and the utilization of foundational principles into usable technology was considered unacceptable. In this research program, a comprehensive model for the origins of mobility spectra was proposed, tested and verified. The principles considered responsible for the appearance of mobility spectra have now been elucidated through this project. This understanding has been applied in automated identification of mobility spectra using neural networks and routine procedures for this now exist. Finally, the limitation on linear range has been shown to be a technical limitation and not a fundamental limitation so that a hardware component was crafted to extend the linear range of a mobility spectrometer by 10X. This project has led to one Ph.D. dissertation and one MS thesis. In addition, over ten public presentations at professional meetings and six journal publications have resulted from this program of research. The findings are so plentiful that total analysis of the findings may require four to six years or more. The findings confirm that the decision to use VOA was sound and that the chemical and physical principles of mobility spectrometry are both understandable and predictable.

  8. Metabolism of nitazoxanide in rats, pigs, and chickens: Application of liquid chromatography coupled to hybrid linear ion trap/Orbitrap mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xianhui; Guo, Chunna; Chen, Zhangliu; Liu, Yahong; He, Limin; Zeng, Zhenling; Yan, Chaoqun; Pan, Guangfang; Li, Shuaipeng

    2015-09-01

    Nitazoxanide (NTZ) is a nitrothiazole benzamide compound with a broad activity spectrum against parasites, Gram-positive and Gram-negative anaerobic bacteria, and viruses. In this study, hybrid linear ion trap/Orbitrap mass spectrometer providing a high mass resolution and accuracy was used to investigate the metabolism of NTZ in rats, pigs, and chickens. The results revealed that acetylation and glucuronidation were the main metabolic pathways in rats and pigs, whereas acetylation and sulfation were the major metabolic pathways in chickens, which indicated interspecies variations in drug metabolism and elimination. With the accurate mass data and the characteristic MS(n) product ions, we identified six metabolites in which tizoxanide and hydroxylated tizoxanide were phase I metabolites and tizoxanide glucuronide, tizoxanide glucose, tizoxanide sulfate and hydroxyl tizoxanide sulfate were phase II metabolites. Hydroxylated tizoxanide and tizoxanide glucose were identified for the first time. All the comprehensive data were provided to make out the metabolism of NTZ in rats, pigs and chickens more clearly. PMID:26231678

  9. Methods development for separation of inorganic anions, organic acids and bases, and neutral organic compounds by ion chromatography and capillary electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Li, J.

    1999-04-01

    A novel anion-exchange resin containing three amine groups was prepared by reaction of a chloromethylated polystyrene-divinylbenzene (PS-DVB) resin with diethylenetriamine. After being protonated by contact with an aqueous acid, this resin can be used for ion chromatographic separation of anions. The charge on the resins can be varied from +1 to +3 by changing the mobile phase pH. The selectivity of the new ion exchangers for various inorganic anions was quite different from that of conventional anion exchangers. The performance of this new anion exchanger was studied by changing the pH and the concentration of the eluent, and several different eluents were used with some common anions as testing analytes. Conductivity detection and UV-visible detection were applied to detect the anions after separation. The new resin can also be used for HPLC separation of neutral organic compounds. Alkylphenols and alkylbenzenes were separated with this new polymeric resin, and excellent separations were obtained under simple conditions. This report contains Chapter 1: General introduction and Chapter 6: General conclusions.

  10. Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry characterization of the steroidal saponins of Dioscorea panthaica Prain et Burkill and its application for accelerating the isolation and structural elucidation of steroidal saponins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weihao; Zhao, Ye; Jing, Wenguang; Zhang, Jun; Xiao, Hui; Zha, Qin; Liu, An

    2015-03-01

    Dioscorea panthaica is a traditional Chinese medicinal herb used in the treatment of various physiological conditions, including cardiovascular disease, gastropathy and hypertension. Steroidal saponins (SS) are the main active ingredients of this herb and have effects on myocardial ischemia and cancer. The phytochemical evaluation of SS is both time-consuming and laborious, and the isolation and structural determination steps can be especially demanding. For this reason, the development of new methods to accelerate the processes involved in the identification, isolation and structural elucidation of SS is highly desirable. In this study, a new ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-IT/MS(n)) method has been developed for the identification of the SS in D. panthaica Prain et Burkill. Notably, the current method can distinguish between spirostanol and furostanol-type compounds based on the fragmentation patterns observed by electrospray ionization-ion trap mass spectrometry (ESI-IT/MS(n)) analysis. UHPLC-IT/MS(n) was used to conduct a detailed investigation of the number, structural class and order of the sugar moieties in the sugar chains of the SS present in D. panthaica. The established fragmentation features were used to analyze the compounds found in the 65% ethanol fraction of the water extracts of D. panthaica. Twenty-three SS were identified, including 11 potential new compounds and six groups of isomers. Two of these newly identified SS were selected as representative examples, and their chemical structures were confirmed by (1)H and (13)C NMR analyses. This newly developed UHPLC-IT/MS(n) method therefore allowed for the efficient identification, isolation and structural determination of the SS in D. panthaica. PMID:25575790

  11. Hydrophilic Nb??-immobilized magnetic core-shell microsphere--A novel immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography material for highly selective enrichment of phosphopeptides.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xueni; Liu, Xiaodan; Feng, Jianan; Li, Yan; Deng, Chunhui; Duan, Gengli

    2015-06-23

    Rapid and selective enrichment of phosphopeptides from complex biological samples is essential and challenging in phosphorylated proteomics. In this work, for the first time, niobium ions were directly immobilized on the surface of polydopamine-coated magnetic microspheres through a facile and effective synthetic route. The Fe3O4@polydopamine-Nb(5+) (denoted as Fe3O4@PD-Nb(5+)) microspheres possess merits of high hydrophilicity and good biological compatibility, and demonstrated low limit of detection (2 fmol). The selectivity was also basically satisfactory (?-casein:BSA=1:500) to capture phosphopeptides. They were also successfully applied for enrichment of phosphopeptides from real biological samples such as human serum and nonfat milk. Compared with Fe3O4@PD-Ti(4+) microspheres, the Fe3O4@PD-Nb(5+) microspheres exhibit superior selectivity to multi-phosphorylated peptides, and thus may be complementary to the conventional IMAC materials. PMID:26092339

  12. Use of high pressure liquid chromatography in the study of liquid lubricant oxidation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morales, W.

    1982-01-01

    The general principles of classical liquid chromatography and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) are reviewed, and their advantages and disadvantages are compared. Several chromatographic techniques are reviewed, and the analysis of a C-ether liquid lubricant by each technique is illustrated. An analysis by size exclusion chromatography of an ester lubricant, which had been degraded using a micro-oxidation apparatus, is illustrated to show how HPLC can be used in the study of high-temperature lubricant degradation.

  13. Determination of nanogram per liter concentrations of volatile organic compounds in water by capillary gas chromatography and selected ion monitoring mass spectrometry and its use to define groundwater flow directions in Edwards Aquifer, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buszka, P.M.; Rose, D.L.; Ozuna, G.B.; Groschen, G.E.

    1995-01-01

    A method has been developed to measure nanogram per liter amounts of selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including dichlorodifluoromethane, trichlorofluoromethane, cis-1,2-dichloroethene, trichloroethene, tetrachloroethene, and the isomers of dichlorobenzene in water. The method uses purge-and-trap techniques on a 100 mL sample, gas chromatography with a megabore capillary column, and electron impact, selected ion monitoring mass spectrometry. Minimum detection levels for these compounds ranged from 1 to 4 ng/L in water. Recoveries from organic-free distilled water and natural groundwater ranged from 70.5% for dichlorodifluoromethane to 107.8% for 1,4-dichlorobenzene. Precision was generally best for cis-1,2-dichloroethene, tetrachloroethene, and the dichlorobenzene isomers and worst for dichlorodifluoromethane and trichlorofluoromethane. Blank data indicated persistent, trace-level introduction of dichlorodifluoromethane, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, and tetrachloroemene to samples during storage and shipment at concentrations less than the method reporting limits. The largest concentrations of the selected VOCs in 27 water samples from the Edwards aquifer near San Antonio, TX, were from confined-zone wells near an abandoned landfill. The results defined a zone of water with no detectable VOCs in nearly all of the aquifer west of San Antonio and from part of the confined zone beneath San Antonio.

  14. Rapid and simple determination of acrylamide in conventional cereal-based foods and potato chips through conversion to 3-[bis(trifluoroethanoyl)amino]-3-oxopropyl trifluoroacetate by gas chromatography coupled with electron capture and ion trap mass spectrometry detectors.

    PubMed

    Russo, Mario Vincenzo; Avino, Pasquale; Centola, Angela; Notardonato, Ivan; Cinelli, Giuseppe

    2014-03-01

    A new, simple, rapid and fully validated method based on gas chromatography coupled with Electron capture and ion trap mass spectrometry detectors (GC-ECD and GC-IT/MS) is presented for quantitative analysis of acrylamide contaminant in conventional cereal-based foods and potato chips. Before analysis acrylamide was efficiently derivatized with trifluoroacetic anhydride, the effects of temperature, reaction time and catalyst on the acylation reaction were evaluated. Chromatographic analysis was performed on SE-54 capillary column; good retention and peak response of the acrylamide derivative achieved under the optimal conditions. The analytical method has been fully validated by assessment of the following parameters: LODs and LOQs (1 and 25ngg(-1) by GC-ECD and 2 and 36ngg(-1) by GC-IT/MS, with a Relative Standard Deviations <4 and <6, respectively), linearity (R(2) above 0.981 in the range 0.005-50?gg(-1)) and extraction recovery (ranging between 91% and 99%, RSD below 4.0, for acrylamide spiked at levels of 1, 20, 50 and 100ngg(-1)). Furthermore, the method proposed requires no clean-up step of the acrylamide derivative to be performed prior to injection. The developed method has been successfully applied to determine acrylamide in different commercial cereal-based foods (including French fries and potato chips). PMID:24176333

  15. Chemometrics for comprehensive analysis of nucleobases, nucleosides, and nucleotides in Siraitiae Fructus by hydrophilic interaction ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple-quadrupole linear ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guisheng; Wang, Mengyue; Xu, Renjie; Li, Xiao-Bo

    2015-10-01

    A rapid and sensitive hydrophilic interaction ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple-quadrupole linear ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry method was validated for the simultaneous determination of 20 nucleobases, nucleosides, and nucleotides (within 3.5 min), and then was employed to test the functional food of Luo-Han-Guo samples. The analysis showed that the Luo-Han-Guo was rich in guanosine and uridine, but contained trace levels of the other target compounds. Chemometrics methods were employed to identify 40 batches of Luo-Han-Guo samples from different cultivated forms, regions and varieties. Unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis were used to classify Luo-Han-Guo samples based on the level of the 20 target compounds, and the supervised learning method of counter propagation artificial neural network was utilized to further separate clusters and validate the established model. As a result, the samples could be clustered into three primary groups, in which correlation with cultivated varieties was observed. The present strategy could be applied to the investigation of other edible plants containing nucleobases, nucleosides, or nucleotides. PMID:26249158

  16. Determination of sulfonamide antibiotics and metabolites in liver, muscle and kidney samples by pressurized liquid extraction or ultrasound-assisted extraction followed by liquid chromatography-quadrupole linear ion trap-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-QqLIT-MS/MS).

    PubMed

    Hoff, Rodrigo Barcellos; Pizzolato, Tânia Mara; Peralba, Maria do Carmo Ruaro; Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Barceló, Damià

    2015-03-01

    Sulfonamides are widely used in human and veterinary medicine. The presence of sulfonamides residues in food is an issue of great concern. Throughout the present work, a method for the targeted analysis of 16 sulfonamides and metabolites residue in liver of several species has been developed and validated. Extraction and clean-up has been statistically optimized using central composite design experiments. Two extraction methods have been developed, validated and compared: i) pressurized liquid extraction, in which samples were defatted with hexane and subsequently extracted with acetonitrile and ii) ultrasound-assisted extraction with acetonitrile and further liquid-liquid extraction with hexane. Extracts have been analyzed by liquid chromatography-quadrupole linear ion trap-tandem mass spectrometry. Validation procedure has been based on the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC and included the assessment of parameters such as decision limit (CC?), detection capability (CC?), sensitivity, selectivity, accuracy and precision. Method?s performance has been satisfactory, with CC? values within the range of 111.2-161.4 µg kg(-1), limits of detection of 10 µg kg(-1) and accuracy values around 100% for all compounds. PMID:25618734

  17. A simple quantitative method analysing amikacin, gentamicin, and vancomycin levels in human newborn plasma using ion-pair liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry and its applicability to a clinical study.

    PubMed

    Bijleveld, Yuma; de Haan, Timo; Toersche, Jan; Jorjani, Sona; van der Lee, Johanna; Groenendaal, Floris; Dijk, Peter; van Heijst, Arno; Gavilanes, Antonio W D; de Jonge, Rogier; Dijkman, Koen P; van Straaten, Henrica; Rijken, Monique; Zonnenberg, Inge; Cools, Filip; Nuytemans, Debbie; Mathôt, Ron

    2014-03-01

    Neuroprotective controlled therapeutic hypothermia is the standard of care for newborns suffering perinatal asphyxia. Antibiotic drugs, such as amikacin, gentamicin, and vancomycin are frequently administered during controlled hypothermia, which possibly alters their pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) profiles. In order to examine this effect an LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous quantification of amikacin, the major gentamicin components (gentamicin C, C1a and C2), and vancomycin in plasma was developed. In 25?L plasma proteins were precipitated with trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and detection of the components was achieved using ion-pair reversed phase chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The chromatographic runtime was 7.5min per sample. Calibration standards were prepared over a range of 0.3-50mgL(-1) for amikacin and gentamicin and 1.0-100mgL(-1) for vancomycin. At LLOQ accuracy was between 103 and 120% and imprecision was less than 19%. For concentrations above LLOQ accuracy ranged from 98% to 102% and imprecision was less than 6%. Process efficiency, ionization efficiency, and recovery were acceptable. Samples and stock solutions were stable during the time periods and at the different temperatures examined. The applicability of the method was shown by analysing plasma samples from 3 neonatal patients. The developed method allows accurate and precise simultaneous quantification of amikacin, gentamicin, and vancomycin in a small volume (25?L) of plasma. PMID:24548921

  18. Detection of reactive metabolites using isotope-labeled glutathione trapping and simultaneous neutral loss and precursor ion scanning with ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography triple quadruple mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ke; Huang, Lingyi; van Breemen, Richard B

    2015-04-01

    Metabolic activation of drugs to electrophilic species is responsible for over 60% of black box warnings and drug withdrawals from the market place in the United States. Reactive metabolite trapping using glutathione (GSH) and analysis using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) or HPLC with high resolution mass spectrometry (mass defect filtering) have enabled screening for metabolic activation to become routine during drug development. However, current MS-based approaches cannot detect all GSH conjugates present in complex mixtures, especially those present in extracts of botanical dietary supplements. To overcome these limitations, a fast triple quadrupole mass spectrometer-based approach was developed that can detect positively and negatively charged GSH conjugates in a single analysis without the need for advanced knowledge of the elemental compositions of potential conjugates and while avoiding false positives. This approach utilized UHPLC instead of HPLC to shorten separation time and enhance sensitivity, incorporated stable-isotope labeled GSH to avoid false positives, and used fast polarity switching electrospray MS/MS to detect GSH conjugates that form positive and/or negative ions. The general new method was then used to test the licorice dietary supplement Glycyrrhiza glabra, which was found to form multiple GSH conjugates upon metabolic activation. Among the GSH conjugates found in the licorice assay were conjugates with isoliquiritigenin and glabridin, which is an irreversible inhibitor of cytochrome P450 enzymes. PMID:25774910

  19. Prediction of Protein Retention Times in Anion-Exchange Chromatography Systems Using Support Vector Regression

    E-print Network

    Mitchell, John E.

    Prediction of Protein Retention Times in Anion-Exchange Chromatography Systems Using Support Vector-exchange chromatography systems. Topological, subdivided surface area, and TAE (Transferable Atom Equivalent) electron for virtual high-throughput screening (VHTS). I. INTRODUCTION Ion-Exchange Chromatography (IEC) is a widely

  20. Determination of metals in soils and sewage sludges by ion chromatography and the effect of cropping systems on metal adsorption by soils

    SciTech Connect

    Basta, N.T.

    1989-01-01

    An accurate and precise ion chromatographic (IC) method for determination of total Cu, Ni, and Zn in soils was developed. The metals in soil digests were extracted with dithizone in CHCl{sub 3}, and the metal-dithizonate complexes were digested with HNO{sub 3} before injection into the IC system. After separation on HPIC-CS5 column, the metals were determined by measuring the absorbance of metal complexes formed by postcolumn reaction with 4-(2-pyridylazo) resorcinol (PAR) at 520 nm. The results by this IC method agreed closely with those obtained by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AA). Comparison of results of total Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn with those obtained by AA showed that this method was accurate and precise for determination of metals in sewage sludges. The effect of cropping systems on adsorption of metals by soils was studied for two long-term rotation experiments, each having three crop rotations (continuous corn (CCCC), corn-soybean-corn-soybean, and corn-oats-meadow-meadow) and treatments with (+N) and without (O N) ammoniacal fertilizer. Results for soils under CCC rotations (+N) showed lower metal adsorption than those under CCCC (O N) and other crop rotations, which showed similar metal adsorption. Comparison of results obtained after adjusting the soil-solution pH with those for unadjusted solution pH showed that differences in metal adsorption by these soils were due to solution pH. Plots of the logarithm of the metal distribution coefficient (log K{sub d}) vs. pH suggested competition of protons with metal ions for exchange sites. In general, proton coefficient values (H{sup +}/M{sup 2+} ratios) followed the sequence: Pb > Cu > Cd = Ni = Zn. Calculated H{sup +}/M{sup 2+} ratios of <2 (ranging from 0.288 to 1.45) were obtained.

  1. Chromatography resin support

    DOEpatents

    Dobos, James G. (North Augusta, SC)

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method of using an improved chromatography resin support is disclosed. The chromatography support platform is provided by a stainless steel hollow cylinder adapted for being inserted into a chromatography column. An exterior wall of the stainless steel cylinder defines a groove for carrying therein an "O"-ring. The upper surface of the stainless steel column is covered by a fine stainless steel mesh welded to the edges of the stainless steel cylinder. When placed upon a receiving ledge defined within a chromatography column, the "O"-ring provides a fluid tight seal with the inner edge wall of the chromatography cylinder. The stainless steel mesh supports the chromatography matrix and provides a back flushable support which is economical and simple to construct.

  2. Self-regenerating column chromatography

    DOEpatents

    Park, W.K.

    1995-05-30

    The present invention provides a process for treating both cations and anions by using a self-regenerating, multi-ionic exchange resin column system which requires no separate regeneration steps. The process involves alternating ion-exchange chromatography for cations and anions in a multi-ionic exchange column packed with a mixture of cation and anion exchange resins. The multi-ionic mixed-charge resin column works as a multi-function column, capable of independently processing either cationic or anionic exchange, or simultaneously processing both cationic and anionic exchanges. The major advantage offered by the alternating multi-function ion exchange process is the self-regeneration of the resins.

  3. Self-regenerating column chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Woo K.

    1994-12-31

    The present invention provides a process for treating both cations and anions by using a self-regenerating, multi-ionic exchange resin column system which requires no separate regeneration steps. The process involves alternation ion-exchange chromatography for cations and anions in a multi-ionic exchange column packed with a mixture of cation and anion exchange resins. The multi-ionic mixed-charge resin column works as a multifunction column, capable of independently processing either cationic or anionic exchange, or simultaneously processing both cationic and anionic exchanges. The major advantage offered by the alternating multifunction ion exchange process is the self-regeneration of the resins. Applications are to separation of nitrogen and sulfur isotopes.

  4. Performance characteristics of sequential separation and quantification of lead-210 and polonium-210 by ion exchange chromatography and nuclear spectrometric measurements.

    PubMed

    El Afifi, E M; Borai, E H

    2006-01-01

    A selective separation and quantitative determination procedure for 210Pb and 210Po in various environmental matrices from different sources such as IAEA-326 soil, phosphate rocks (PR), and phosphogypsum (PG) was developed. The tested samples were digested sequentially using concentrated mineral acids (HF, HNO3) by a programmable high-pressure microwave digestion system. The sample solution was loaded onto a preconditioned ion exchange column (Sr-resin) for chromatographic separation. Polonium-210 was eluted by 6 M HNO3 then spontaneously deposited onto polished silver discs to be measured using low-background alpha spectrometry. Lead-210 was sequentially eluted using 6 M HCl solution, precipitated as lead oxalate, dissolved in HNO3 solution, and mixed with scintillation cocktail to be measured by liquid scintillation counting (LSC). Performance of the developed procedure was tested using a reference soil (IAEA-326), with recommended isotope values, that was used as a quality control to assess separation and quantification efficiency (recovery %). The minimum detectable activities of 210Pb and 210Po were found to be 24 and 0.28 Bq kg(-1) for the measurements using LSC and alpha spectrometry, respectively. The recoveries (%) of 210Pb and 210Po were found to be 80 and 60%, respectively. To test the validity of the proposed LSC method, a comparative study was performed by measuring 210Pb activity concentration in test samples by nondestructive gamma-ray spectrometry. PMID:16510701

  5. Characterisation of nicotine and related compounds using electrospray ionisation with ion trap mass spectrometry and with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and their detection by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Thomas J; Ramachandran, V N; McGuigan, Alex; Hopps, Jason; Smyth, W Franklin

    2007-01-01

    Electrospray ionisation ion trap mass spectrometry (ESI-MS(n)) has been used to study the fragmentation patterns of nicotine and nine of its related compounds. From this study certain characteristic fragmentations are apparent with generally the pyrrolidine or piperidine ring being subject to chemical modifications. The structures of the product ions proposed for the ESI-MS(n) study have been supported by results from electrospray ionisation quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-QTOF-MS). Compounds with pyrrolidine and piperidine rings that possess an unsubstituted N atom have been shown to lose NH(3) at the MS(2) stage. Those compounds with N-methyl groups lose CH(3)NH(2) at the MS(2) stage. The loss of NH(3) or CH(3)NH(2) leaves the corresponding rings opened and this is followed by ring closure at the pyridine-2 carbon atom. Mono-N-oxides fragment in a similar way but the di-N-oxide can also fragment by cleavage of the bond between the pyridine and pyrrolidine rings. Cotinine also can undergo cleavage of this bond between the rings. This data therefore provides useful information on how substituents and the nature of the non-pyridine ring can affect the fragmentation patterns of nicotine and its related compounds. This information can be used in the characterisation of these compounds by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS) which results in the separation of nicotine and its related compounds with limits of detection (LODs) ranging from 15 to 105 ng/mL. The use of LC/ESI-MS to study nicotine-containing samples resulted in the simultaneous and unambiguous identification of seven of the compounds discussed in this paper: cotinine identified at retention time 12.5 min (with its [M+H](+) ion at m/z 177), nornicotine 16.0 min (m/z 149), anatabine 18.0 min (m/z 161), myosmine 18.5 min (m/z 147), anabasine 20.4 min (m/z 163), nicotine 22.2 min (m/z 163), and nicotyrine 31.4 min (m/z 159). For quality control of nicotine replacement therapy products, these nicotine impurities can be readily identified and determined at levels up to 0.3% for single impurities and up to 1.0% for total impurities. PMID:17245795

  6. Concurrency: Mutual Exclusion and

    E-print Network

    Mikulas, Szabolcs

    Chapter 5 Concurrency: Mutual Exclusion and Synchronization Operating Systems: Internals and Design · Data incoherency · Deadlock: processes are "frozen" because of mutual dependency on each other Regions Mutual exclusion using critical regions #12;Mutual exclusion Critical region: part of the program

  7. Fun with Paper Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Dava; Hounshell, Paul B.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses paper chromatographic techniques and provides examples of typical classroom activities. Includes description of retardation values obtained during chromatography exercises and suggests using them for math lessons. (JN)

  8. Ion-pair chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (IPC-ICP-MS) as a method for thiomolybdate speciation in natural waters.

    PubMed

    Lohmayer, Regina; Reithmaier, Gloria Maria Susanne; Bura-Naki?, Elvira; Planer-Friedrich, Britta

    2015-03-17

    Molybdenum precipitates preferentially under reducing conditions; therefore, its occurrence in sediment records is used as an indicator of paleoredox conditions. Although thiomolybdates (MoO4-xSx(2-) with x = 1-4) supposedly are necessary intermediates in the process of molybdenum precipitation under anoxic conditions, there is no information about their abundance in natural environments, because of a lack of element-specific methods with sufficiently low detection limits. Here, we optimized ion-pair chromatographic separation for coupling to an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry detector (IPC-ICP-MS). 2-Propanol (10%-25% gradient) replaced the previously used acetonitrile (25%-75%) as the solvent, to reduce the carbon load into the plasma. In synthetic solutions, formation of thiomolybdates was found to occur spontaneously in the presence of excess sulfide and the degree of thiolation was highest at pH 7. Excess hydroxyl led to a transformation of thiomolybdates to molybdate. Under acidic to neutral conditions, precipitation of molybdenum and hydrolysis of tetrathiomolybdate were observed. Flash-freezing was found to be suitable to stabilize tetrathiomolybdate, with <4% transformation over more than two months. High ionic strengths matrices (>2 mM) negatively affected the detection of molybdate, which eluted mainly in the dead volume, but had no negative effect on higher thiolated molybdates. Detection limits were ?10 nM. With the newly developed IPC-ICP-MS method, thiomolybdates were found to form spontaneously in euxinic marine waters after adding a molybdate spike and occur naturally in sulfidic geothermal waters. PMID:25707674

  9. [Determination of trace BrO3- and Br- in Chinese patent drugs, waters and beverages by ion chromatography coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Li, Ji-chao; Wang, Xiao-yan; Ouyang, Li; Zeng, Jing; Yan, Lai-lai; Chen, Shun-zong; Wu, Yan-wen; Wang, Jing-yu

    2010-11-01

    In the present study, a method for determination of BrO3- and Br- using ion chromatograghy coupling with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (IC-ICP-MS) was developed. BrO3- and Br- were separated on a Hamilton PRP X-100 (150 x 4.1 mm, 10 microm) column guarding with a On-guard II RP (4 x 50 mm) column with 10 mmol x L(-1) NH4NO3 eluent solution at 2 mL x min(-1). By using 200 microL sample loop, the detection limits for BrO3- and Br were 0.35 and 0.36 microg x L(-1), respectively. BrO3- had good linearity in the range 4.8-160.0 ng x L(-1). The standard solution linear equation was y = 250.31x-45.43, and R2 = 0.9999. Br had good linearity in the range 4.2-140.0 ng x L(-1). The standard solution linear equation was y = 186.84x-127.10, and R2 = 0.9994. Recoveries of spiked samples were 98.9%-109.5% and 97.4%-106.1%, respectively. The samples included various kinds of Chinese patent drugs, waters, and beverages. Among them, 14 bottled drinking waters and 2 kinds of tap waters were found containing BrO-, while other samples were under BrO3- detection limit. Br- was detected in all samples. PMID:21284200

  10. The use of ion chromatography-dc plasma atomic emission spectrometry for the speciation of trace metals. Annual performance report, February 1, 1989--January 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Urasa, I.T.

    1991-09-20

    The original objects of this research program were: to interface d.c. plasma atomic emission spectrometer with an ion chromatograph; to characterize and optimize the combined systems for application in the speciation of metals in aqueous solutions; to use this system in the study of the solution chemistry of various metals; and to find ways in which the measurement sensitivity of the method can be enhanced, thereby allowing the detection of metal species at low ppb concentration levels. This approach has been used to study the chemistry of and speciate several elements in solution including: arsenic, chromium, iron, manganese, nickel phosphorus, platinum, selenium, and vanadium. During the course of this research, we have found that the solution chemistry of the elements studied and the speciation data obtained can vary considerably depending on the solution, and the chromatographic conditions employed. The speciation of chromium, iron, and vanadium was found to be highly influenced by the acidity of the sample. The element selective nature of the d.c. plasma detector allows these changes to be monitored, thereby providing quantitative information on the new moieties formed. New approaches are being developed including the use of chelating ligands as preconcentration agents for purposes of reducing further the detection limits of the elements of interest and to improve the overall element speciation scheme. New thrusts are being directed towards the employment of post-column derivatization method coupled with colorimetric measurements to detect and quantify metal species eluting from the chromatographic column. The influence of sample acidity on these investigations will be carefully evaluated. These new thrusts are described in the accompanying Project Renewal Proposal.

  11. Charge heterogeneity profiling of monoclonal antibodies using low ionic strength ion-exchange chromatography and well-controlled pH gradients on monolithic columns.

    PubMed

    Talebi, Mohammad; Nordborg, Anna; Gaspar, Andras; Lacher, Nathan A; Wang, Qian; He, Xiaoping Z; Haddad, Paul R; Hilder, Emily F

    2013-11-22

    In this work, the suitability of employing shallow pH gradients generated using single component buffer systems as eluents through cation-exchange (CEX) monolithic columns is demonstrated for the high-resolution separation of monoclonal antibody (mAb) charge variants in three different biopharmaceuticals. A useful selection of small molecule buffer species is described that can be used within very narrow pH ranges (typically 1 pH unit) defined by their buffer capacity for producing controlled and smooth pH profiles when used together with porous polymer monoliths. Using very low ionic strength eluents also enabled direct coupling with electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry. The results obtained by the developed pH gradient approach for the separation of closely related antibody species appear to be consistent with those obtained by imaged capillary isoelectric focusing (iCE) in terms of both resolution and separation profile. Both determinants of resolution, i.e., peak compression and peak separation contribute to the gains in resolution, evidently through the Donnan potential effect, which is increased by decreasing the eluent concentration, and also through the way electrostatic charges are distributed on the protein surface. Retention mechanisms based on the trends observed in retention of proteins at pH values higher than the electrophoretic pI are also discussed using applicable theories. Employing monolithic ion-exchangers is shown to enable fast method development, short analysis time, and high sample throughput owing to the accelerated mass transport of the monolithic media. The possibility of short analysis time, typically less than 15 min, and high sample throughput is extremely useful in the assessment of charge-based changes to the mAb products, such as during manufacturing or storage. PMID:24011724

  12. The use of ion mobility spectrometry and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for the detection of illicit drugs on clandestine records

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donnelly, Brian; Jourdan, Thomas; Fetterolf, Dean D.; Beasley, James O., II

    1995-01-01

    Illicit drug distribution has over the past decade grown tremendously from simple 'drug pushing' where drugs were distributed from poorly organized individuals to today's well organized and well financed drug cartels. This change to a more 'corporate-like' atmosphere has resulted in a greater use of record keeping to monitor the profits generated. The use of record keeping by drug distributors is not restricted to high level drug smugglers but is used at all levels within the distribution network. Dealers at all levels including street dealers are generally 'fronted', given on consignment quantities of drugs that they in turn sell to customers, thereby requiring the need for records to keep track of drug sales versus liabilities. These records because of their illicit nature are often encrypted to hide the fact that they are indeed records of drug transactions. The creation of a handwritten notation concerning a drug transaction is normally brought on because of a purchase or sale. In a sale, this is commonly accomplished through a consignment, or the designation of a quantity to a customer to whom that amount has been 'fronted'. Because this activity generates a debt, it follows that an accounting for payments made, as well as new transactions completed, is only logical. One of the most common means of representing these is through an 'accounting flow', in which payments are subtracted from a running balance while new sales are added to it. The examination of illicit drug records has been the key to the prosecution of numerous federal, state, and local drug cases for a number of years. The Document Section of the FBI Laboratory, through its Racketeering Records Analysis Unit (RRAU), has been involved in such analytical efforts since 1983. Detailed analytical research brought about an evolution in the systematic approach utilized in the RRAU since that time. The close proximity of the drugs to the records often results in trace drug evidence being transferred to the records. The detection of trace drug residue on surfaces by ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) is well documented in literature. The following procedure will deal primarily with the newer techniques of trace drug analysis and drug record analysis developed by the Chemistry/Toxicology Unit of the FBI Laboratory since the more traditional techniques of latent finger print analysis and document analysis are well known.

  13. The Effects of the Pauli Exclusion Principle in Determining the Ionization Energies of the Helium Atom and Helium-Like Ions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deeney, F. A.; O'Leary, J. P.

    2012-01-01

    For helium and helium-like ions, we have examined the differences between the values of the ionization energies as calculated from the Bohr theory and those measured in experiments. We find that these differences vary linearly with the atomic number of the system. Using this result, we show how the Bohr model for single-electron systems may be…

  14. Refolding and simultaneous purification of recombinant human proinsulin from inclusion bodies on protein-folding liquid-chromatography columns.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jie; Zhou, Huifang; Yang, Yicong; Li, Weimin; Wan, Yi; Wang, Lili

    2015-05-01

    Protein-folding liquid chromatography (PFLC) is an effective and scalable method for protein renaturation with simultaneous purification. However, it has been a challenge to fully refold inclusion bodies in a PFLC column. In this work, refolding with simultaneous purification of recombinant human proinsulin (rhPI) from inclusion bodies from Escherichia coli were investigated using the surface of stationary phases in immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) and high-performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC). The results indicated that both the ligand structure on the surface of the stationary phase and the composition of the mobile phase (elution buffer) influenced refolding of rhPI. Under optimized chromatographic conditions, the mass recoveries of IMAC column and HPSEC column were 77.8 and 56.8% with purifies of 97.6 and 93.7%, respectively. These results also indicated that the IMAC column fails to refold rhPI, and the HPSEC column enables efficient refolding of rhPI with a low-urea gradient-elution method. The refolded rhPI was characterized by circular dichroism spectroscopy. The molecular weight of the converted human insulin was further confirmed with SDS-18% PAGE, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/ Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and the biological activity assay by HP-RPLC. PMID:25378200

  15. Advanced proteomic liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Fang; Smith, Richard D.; Shen, Yufeng

    2012-10-26

    Liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry is the predominant platform used to analyze proteomics samples consisting of large numbers of proteins and their proteolytic products (e.g., truncated polypeptides) and spanning a wide range of relative concentrations. This review provides an overview of advanced capillary liquid chromatography techniques and methodologies that greatly improve separation resolving power and proteomics analysis coverage, sensitivity, and throughput.

  16. Column Liquid Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majors, Ronald E.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Reviews literature covering developments of column liquid chromatography during 1982-83. Areas considered include: books and reviews; general theory; columns; instrumentation; detectors; automation and data handling; multidimensional chromatographic and column switching techniques; liquid-solid chromatography; normal bonded-phase, reversed-phase,…

  17. Speciation of As(III) and As(V) in water and sediment using reverse-phase ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography-neutron activation analysis (HPLC-NAA).

    PubMed

    Tulasi, Delali; Adotey, Dennis; Affum, Andrews; Carboo, Derick; Serfor-Armah, Yaw

    2013-10-01

    Total As content and the As species distribution in water and sediments from the Kwabrafo stream, a major water body draining the Obuasi gold mining community in southwestern Ghana, have been investigated. Total As content was determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Ion-pair reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography-neutron activation analysis (HPLC-NAA) was used for speciation of As species. Solid phase extraction with phosphate buffer was used to extract soluble As species from lyophilized sediment. The mass balance after phosphate extraction of soluble As species in sediment varied from 89 to 96 %. Compositionally appropriate reference material International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)-Lake Sediment (SL)-1 was used to check the validity of INAA method for total As determination. The measured values are in good agreement with the IAEA recommended value and also within the 95 % confidence interval. The accuracy of the measurement in terms of relative deviation from the IAEA recommended value was ±0.83 %. "In-house" prepared As(III) and As(V) standards were used to validate the HPLC-INAA method used for the As species determination. Total As concentration in the water samples ranged from 1.15 to 9.20 mg/L. As(III) species in water varied from 0.13 to 0.7 mg/L, while As(V) species varied from 0.79 to 3.85 mg/L. Total As content in sediment ranged from 2,134 to 3,596 mg/kg dry mass. The levels of As(III) and As(V) species in the sediment ranges from 138 to 506 mg/kg dry mass and 156 to 385 mg/kg dry mass, respectively. PMID:23494192

  18. Analysis of ketamine and norketamine in urine by automatic solid-phase extraction (SPE) and positive ion chemical ionization-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (PCI-GC-MS).

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-mi; Lee, Ju-seon; Choi, Sang-kil; Lim, Mi-ae; Chung, Hee-sun

    2008-01-30

    Ketamine (KT) is widely abused for hallucination and also misused as a "date-rape" drug in recent years. An analytical method using positive ion chemical ionization-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (PCI-GC-MS) with an automatic solid-phase extraction (SPE) apparatus was studied for the determination of KT and its major metabolite, norketamine (NK), in urine. Six ketamine suspected urine samples were provided by the police. For the research of KT metabolism, KT was administered to SD rats by i.p. at a single dose of 5, 10 and 20mg/kg, respectively, and urine samples were collected 24, 48 and 72 h after administration. For the detection of KT and NK, urine samples were extracted on an automatic SPE apparatus (RapidTrace, Zymark) with mixed mode type cartridge, Drug-Clean (200 mg, Alltech). The identification of KT and NK was by PCI-GC-MS. m/z238 (M+1), 220 for KT, m/z 224 (M+1), 207 for NK and m/z307 (M+1) for Cocaine-D(3) as internal standard were extracted from the full-scan mass spectrum and the underlined ions were used for quantitation. Extracted calibration curves were linear from 50 to 1000 ng/mL for KT and NK with correlation coefficients exceeding 0.99. The limit of detection (LOD) was 25 ng/mL for KT and NK. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) was 50 ng/mL for KT and NK. The recoveries of KT and NK at three different concentrations (86, 430 and 860 ng/mL) were 53.1 to 79.7% and 45.7 to 83.0%, respectively. The intra- and inter-day run precisions (CV) for KT and NK were less than 15.0%, and the accuracies (bias) for KT and NK were also less than 15% at the three different concentration levels (86, 430 and 860 ng/mL). The analytical method was also applied to real six KT suspected urine specimens and KT administered rat urines, and the concentrations of KT and NK were determined. Dehydronorketamine (DHNK) was also confirmed in these urine samples, however the concentration of DHNK was not calculated. SPE is simple, and needs less organic solvent than liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), and PCI-GC-MS can offer both qualitative and quantitative information for urinalysis of KT in forensic analysis. PMID:17553643

  19. Determination of the triterpene glycosides in sea cucumbers by liquid chromatography with evaporative light scattering and mass spectrometry detection.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Wang, Yuanhong; Zhang, Ran; Jiang, Tifngfu; Lv, Zhihua

    2015-04-01

    Holothurian triterpene glycosides possess various kinds of biological activities, including antifungal, cytotoxic, hemolytic, cytostatic, and immunomodulatory effects. In this study, a rapid extraction method of triterpene glycosides from sea cucumbers using a small column of C18 solid phase was first developed. Furthermore, a novel high-performance liquid chromatography method coupled with evaporative light scattering detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry was established for the determination of each triterpene glycosides from different sea cucumbers. Simultaneous separation of all kind of triterpene glycoside were achieved on a C18 column. A gradient of aqueous acetonitrile was applied, and the method was validated. The liquid chromatography method was applied to the online mass detection to identify the triterpene glycosides in the purified extraction of eight kinds of pulverized sea cucumber from the market of Qingdao, China. The negative mode of [M-H](-)/[M-Na](-) exclusively shown signals corresponding to the triterpene glycosides previously reported and the MS(2) product ions of those ions indicate the specific structure of each triterpene glycoside. PMID:25604752

  20. Ballistic protons in incoherent exclusive vector meson production as a measure of rare parton fluctuations at an electron-ion collider

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lappi, T.; Venugopalan, R.; Mantysaari, H.

    2015-02-25

    We argue that the proton multiplicities measured in Roman pot detectors at an electron ion collider can be used to determine centrality classes in incoherent diffractive scattering. Incoherent diffraction probes the fluctuations in the interaction strengths of multi-parton Fock states in the nuclear wavefunctions. In particular, the saturation scale that characterizes this multi-parton dynamics is significantly larger in central events relative to minimum bias events. As an application, we examine the centrality dependence of incoherent diffractive vector meson production. We identify an observable which is simultaneously very sensitive to centrality triggered parton fluctuations and insensitive to details of the model.

  1. Displacement Phenomena in Lectin Affinity Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Cho, Wonryeon

    2015-10-01

    The work described here examines displacement phenomena that play a role in lectin affinity chromatography and their potential to impact reproducibility. This was achieved using Lycopersicon esculentum lectin (LEL), a lectin widely used in monitoring cancer. Four small identical LEL columns were coupled in series to form a single affinity chromatography system with the last in the series connected to an absorbance detector. The serial affinity column set (SACS) was then loaded with human plasma proteins. At the completion of loading, the column set was disassembled, the four columns were eluted individually, the captured proteins were trypsin digested, the peptides were deglycosylated with PNGase F, and the parent proteins were identified through mass spectral analyses. Significantly different sets of glycoproteins were selected by each column, some proteins appearing to be exclusively bound to the first column while others were bound further along in the series. Clearly, sample displacement chromatography (SDC) occurs. Glycoproteins were bound at different places in the column train, identifying the presence of glycoforms with different affinity on a single glycoprotein. It is not possible to see these phenomena in the single column mode of chromatography. Moreover, low abundance proteins were enriched, which facilitates detection. The great advantage of this method is that it differentiates between glycoproteins on the basis of their binding affinity. Displacement phenomena are concluded to be a significant component of the separation mechanism in heavily loaded lectin affinity chromatography columns. This further suggests that care must be exercised in sample loading of lectin columns to prevent analyte displacement with nonretained proteins. PMID:26348026

  2. Gas chromatography in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akapo, S. O.; Dimandja, J. M.; Kojiro, D. R.; Valentin, J. R.; Carle, G. C.

    1999-01-01

    Gas chromatography has proven to be a very useful analytical technique for in situ analysis of extraterrestrial environments as demonstrated by its successful operation on spacecraft missions to Mars and Venus. The technique is also one of the six scientific instruments aboard the Huygens probe to explore Titan's atmosphere and surface. A review of gas chromatography in previous space missions and some recent developments in the current environment of fiscal constraints and payload size limitations are presented.

  3. Ion-Exchange Chromatography of Proteins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, G.; Phillips, D.

    1976-01-01

    Describes the separation of proteins from bovine serum and egg-white using carboxymethyl cellulose, Vistec C1. Explains the preparative work that is essential before the technique can be employed. (GS)

  4. Analysis of Cereal Starches by High Performance Size Exclusion Chromatography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starch has unique physicochemical characteristics among carbohydrates. Most starch granules are a mixture of two sugar polymers: a highly branched polysaccharide named amylopectin, and a basically linear polysaccharide named amylose. The objective of this study was to develop a simple, one-step and ...

  5. Improved Characterization of Sorghum Tannins Using Size-Exclusion Chromatography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tannins are large polyphenolic polymers consisting of flavan-3-ol subunits that are deposited in the pigmented testa layer of sorghum kernels. Tannins have been characterized in several different species of plants using a multitude of techniques. Most of the methods are very time and resource consum...

  6. Enhanced Detection of Low-Abundance Host Cell Protein Impurities in High-Purity Monoclonal Antibodies Down to 1 ppm Using Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry Coupled with Multidimensional Liquid Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Doneanu, Catalin E; Anderson, Malcolm; Williams, Brad J; Lauber, Matthew A; Chakraborty, Asish; Chen, Weibin

    2015-10-20

    The enormous dynamic range of proteinaceous species present in protein biotherapeutics poses a significant challenge for current mass spectrometry (MS)-based methods to detect low-abundance HCP impurities. Previously, an HCP assay based on two-dimensional chromatographic separation (high pH/low pH) coupled to high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) mass spectrometry and developed in the author's laboratory has been shown to achieve a detection limit of about 50 ppm (parts per milion) for the identification and quantification of HCPs present in monoclonal antibodies following Protein A purification.1 To improve the HCP detection limit we have explored the utility of several new analytical techniques for HCP analysis and thereby developed an improved liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) methodology for enhanced detection of HCPs. The new method includes (1) the use of a new charge-surface-modified (CSH) C18 stationary phase to mitigate the challenges of column saturation, peak tailing, and distortion that are commonly observed in the HCP analysis; (2) the incorporation of traveling-wave ion mobility (TWIM) separation of coeluting peptide precursors, and (3) the improvement of fragmentation efficiency of low-abundance HCP peptides by correlating the collision energy used for precursor fragmentation with their mobility drift time. As a result of these improvements, the detection limit of the new methodology was greatly improved, and HCPs present at a concentration as low as 1 ppm (1 ng HCP/mg mAb) were successfully identified and quantified. The newly developed method was applied to analyze two high-purity mAbs (NIST mAb and Infliximab) expressed in a murine cell line. For both samples, low-abundance HCPs (down to 1 ppm) were confidently identified, and the identities of the HCPs were further confirmed by targeted MS/MS experiments. In addition, the performance of the assay was evaluated by an interlaboratory study in which three independent laboratories performed the same HCP assay on the mAb sample. The reproducibility of this assay is also discussed. PMID:26266576

  7. High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talcott, Stephen

    High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has many applications in food chemistry. Food components that have been analyzed with HPLC include organic acids, vitamins, amino acids, sugars, nitrosamines, certain pesticides, metabolites, fatty acids, aflatoxins, pigments, and certain food additives. Unlike gas chromatography, it is not necessary for the compound being analyzed to be volatile. It is necessary, however, for the compounds to have some solubility in the mobile phase. It is important that the solubilized samples for injection be free from all particulate matter, so centrifugation and filtration are common procedures. Also, solid-phase extraction is used commonly in sample preparation to remove interfering compounds from the sample matrix prior to HPLC analysis.

  8. Extending Paper Chromatography Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finson, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    One of the "good old" standard activities middle school students seem to enjoy is paper chromatography. The procedures and materials needed are relatively simple and the results can be colorful. All too often, the activity ends just after these colorful results are obtained, cutting short the potential it holds for some further inquiry. With some…

  9. Potential of multisyringe chromatography for the on-line monitoring of the photocatalytic degradation of antituberculosis drugs in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Guevara-Almaraz, E; Hinojosa-Reyes, L; Caballero-Quintero, A; Ruiz-Ruiz, E; Hernández-Ramírez, A; Guzmán-Mar, J L

    2015-02-01

    In this study, a multisyringe chromatography system (MSC) using a C18 monolithic column was proposed for the on-line monitoring of the photocatalytic degradation of isoniazid (INH, 10 mg L(-1)) and pyrazinamide (PYRA, 5mgL(-1)) mixtures in aqueous solution using a small sample volume (200 ?L) with an on-line filtration device in a fully automated approach. During the photocatalytic oxidation using TiO2 or ZnO semiconductor materials, total organic carbon (TOC) and the formed intermediates were analyzed off-line using ion chromatography, ion exclusion HPLC, and ESI-MS/MS. The results showed that TiO2 exhibits a better photocatalytic activity than ZnO under UV irradiation (365 nm) for the degradation of INH and PYRA mixtures, generating 97% and 92% degradation, respectively. The optimal oxidation conditions were identified as pH 7 and 1.0 g L(-1) of TiO2 as catalyst. The mineralization of the initial organic compounds was confirmed by the regular decrease in TOC, which indicated 63% mineralization, and the quantitative release of nitrate and nitrite ions, which represent 33% of the nitrogen in these compounds. The major intermediates of INH degradation included isonicotinamide, isonicotinic acid, and pyridine, while the ESI-MS/MS analysis of PYRA aqueous solution after photocatalytic treatment showed the formation of pyrazin-2-ylmethanol, pyrazin-2-ol, and pyrazine. Three low-molecular weight compounds, acetamide, acetic acid and formic acid, were detected during INH and PYRA decomposition. PYRA was more resistant to photocatalytic degradation due to the presence of the pyrazine ring, which provides greater stability against OH attack. PMID:25434276

  10. New methods and materials for solid phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Dumont, P.J.

    1996-04-23

    This paper describes methods for solid phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The following are described: Effects of Resin Sulfonation on the Retention of Polar Organic Compounds in Solid Phase Extraction; Ion-Chromatographic Separation of Alkali Metals In Non-Aqueous Solvents; Cation-Exchange Chromatography in Non-Aqueous Solvents; and Silicalite As a Stationary Phase For HPLC.

  11. Central Exclusive Dijet Production

    SciTech Connect

    Dechambre, A.; Cudell, J. R.; Ivanov, I. P.; Hernandez, O.

    2008-08-29

    The ingredients of central exclusive production cross section include large perturbative corrections and soft quantities that must be parametrized and fitted to data. In this talk, we summarize the results of a study of the uncertainties coming from these ingredients, in the case of exclusive dijet production.

  12. Sub-10-Minute Characterization of an Ultrahigh Molar Mass Polymer by Multi-detector Hydrodynamic Chromatography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molar mass averages, distributions, and architectural information of polymers are routinely obtained using size-exclusion chromatography (SEC). It has previously been shown that ultrahigh molar mass polymers may experience degradation during SEC analysis, leading to inaccurate molar mass averages a...

  13. Urinary Succinylacetone Analysis by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS).

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongjie; Yu, Chunli

    2016-01-01

    Succinylacetone (SA) is used for the diagnosis and monitoring of patients with tyrosinemia type I (Tyr I). SA is exclusively elevated in blood and urine of patients with Tyr I. As urinary SA concentration is much higher than blood, SA is usually tested in urine samples. Urinary SA quantitation by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is described in this chapter. The urine sample in the amount of 1 ?mol creatinine is used for testing. 3,4,5,6,7-(13)C5-succinylacetone ((13)C5-SA) is used as an internal standard (IS). SA and (13)C5-SA are oximated and extracted from urine with organic solvents, and then derivatized to form trimethylsilane (TMS) derivatives. TMS derivatives of SA and (13)C5-SA are detected and quantified by GC-MS using selective ion monitoring (SIM). The assay is linear from 0.05 to 450 mmol/mol creatinine to cover the broad range of urinary SA concentrations. PMID:26602140

  14. [Separation and identification of beta-casein from Chinese human milk by ion exchange chromatography-matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight/time of flight mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu; Ren, Haowei; Liu, Biao; Liu, Ning; Li, Meng; Wang, Dongmao

    2013-05-01

    The selective precipitation of whole casein from skimmed milk was achieved by the addition of calcium salt under acidic pH. The effects of pH, centrifugal force and final concentration of CaCl2 on the separation of casein were studied by measuring the purity of final products using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The results showed that casein with the highest purity could be obtained with the pH of 4.3, the centrifugal force of 10 400 g and the final concentration of CaCl2 of 60 mmol/L. The casein was processed with DEAE anion exchange chromatography and three peaks were obtained. Then the third peak (peak III) was identified with Western-Blot method and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight/time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS). The identification of Western-Blot showed that peak III can combine with the specificity of human milk beta-casein antibody, and it is proved to be human milk beta-casein. The fingerprints of peak III were nalyzed by Mascot searching, and the sequence coverage was 50%, further supporting it is human milk beta-casein. In conclusion, an effective method to obtain human milk beta-casein from milk samples through DEAE anion exchange chromatography was established, and it is suitable for the proteomics research requirements of the beta-casein from human milk. PMID:24010341

  15. Spiral Countercurrent Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Yoichiro; Knight, Martha; Finn, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    For many years, high-speed countercurrent chromatography conducted in open tubing coils has been widely used for the separation of natural and synthetic compounds. In this method, the retention of the stationary phase is solely provided by the Archimedean screw effect by rotating the coiled column in the centrifugal force field. However, the system fails to retain enough of the stationary phase for polar solvent systems such as the aqueous–aqueous polymer phase systems. To address this problem, the geometry of the coiled channel was modified to a spiral configuration so that the system could utilize the radially acting centrifugal force. This successfully improved the retention of the stationary phase. Two different types of spiral columns were fabricated: the spiral disk assembly, made by stacking multiple plastic disks with single or four interwoven spiral channels connected in series, and the spiral tube assembly, made by inserting the tetrafluoroethylene tubing into a spiral frame (spiral tube support). The capabilities of these column assemblies were successfully demonstrated by separations of peptides and proteins with polar two-phase solvent systems whose stationary phases had not been well retained in the earlier multilayer coil separation column for high-speed countercurrent chromatography. PMID:23833207

  16. When Does a Correct Mutual Exclusion Algorithm Guarantee Mutual Exclusion?

    E-print Network

    Borgs, Christian

    When Does a Correct Mutual Exclusion Algorithm Guarantee Mutual Exclusion? Leslie Lamport, Sharon Perl, William Weihl 23 November 1998 revised 23 Mar 2000 Dijkstra introduced mutual exclusion for an N critical section" [1]. This requirement, which we call true mutual exclusion, is still the standard

  17. When Does a Correct Mutual Exclusion Algorithm Guarantee Mutual Exclusion?

    E-print Network

    Borgs, Christian

    When Does a Correct Mutual Exclusion Algorithm Guarantee Mutual Exclusion? Leslie Lamport, Sharon Perl, William Weihl 23 November 1998 revised 23 Mar 2000 Dijkstra introduced mutual exclusion for an N critical section'' [1]. This requirement, which we call true mutual exclusion, is still the standard

  18. Integration of magnetic solid phase fishing and off-line two-dimensional high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-mass spectrometry for screening and identification of human serum albumin binders from Radix Astragali.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuping; Nie, Mingkun; Shi, Shuyun; You, Qingping; Guo, Junfang; Liu, Liangliang

    2014-03-01

    Radix Astragali is one of the most popular traditional medicinal herb and healthy dietary supplement. Isoflavonoids and astragalosides are the main bioactive ingredients. However, the systematic bioactive component analysis is inadequate so far. Then a facile method based on Fe3O4@SiO2-human serum albumin (Fe3O4@SiO2-HSA) magnetic solid phase fishing integrated with two-dimensional high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-mass spectrometry (2D HPLC-DAD-MS(n)) was developed to fish out and identify HSA binders from Radix Astragali. The immobilized HSA displayed a high stability with 96.2% retained after ten consecutive cycles. 2D HPLC system (size exclusion chromatography×reversed phase chromatography, SEC×RP) were developed and optimised. Forty-seven bioactive compounds including thirty-four isoflavonoids and thirteen astragalosides were screened and identified or tentatively deduced based on their retention time, ultraviolet (UV), accurate molecular weight and diagnostic fragment ions. The results indicated that the integrated method could be widely applied for systematical fishing and identification of bioactive compounds, especially for low-abundance and overlapped compounds, from complex mixtures. PMID:24176313

  19. The rhetoric of exclusion 

    E-print Network

    Moriarty, Thomas Ashley

    1994-01-01

    This thesis examines the rhetoric of exclusion as it appeared in the context of the womens suffrage debate, the desegregation movement, and the recent battle over gays in the military. Using Toulmin I s system for modelling arguments, it shows...

  20. Phosphopeptide Enrichment by Immobilized Metal Affinity Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Thingholm, Tine E; Larsen, Martin R

    2016-01-01

    Immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) has been the method of choice for phosphopeptide enrichment prior to mass spectrometric analysis for many years and it is still used extensively in many laboratories. Using the affinity of negatively charged phosphate groups towards positively charged metal ions such as Fe(3+), Ga(3+), Al(3+), Zr(4+), and Ti(4+) has made it possible to enrich phosphorylated peptides from peptide samples. However, the selectivity of most of the metal ions is limited, when working with highly complex samples, e.g., whole-cell extracts, resulting in contamination from nonspecific binding of non-phosphorylated peptides. This problem is mainly caused by highly acidic peptides that also share high binding affinity towards these metal ions. By lowering the pH of the loading buffer nonspecific binding can be reduced significantly, however with the risk of reducing specific binding capacity. After binding, the enriched phosphopeptides are released from the metal ions using alkaline buffers of pH 10-11, EDTA, or phosphate-containing buffers.Here we describe a protocol for IMAC using Fe(3+) for phosphopeptide enrichment. The principles are illustrated on a semi-complex peptide mixture. PMID:26584922

  1. Fralin Life Science Institute COLUMN CHROMATOGRAPHY KIT

    E-print Network

    Hopkins, William A.

    1 Fralin Life Science Institute COLUMN CHROMATOGRAPHY KIT INFORMATION MANUAL Kristi DeCourcy Fralin ............................................................................................. 3 Column chromatography kit contents ....................................................... 3 Introduction to the column chromatography kit ........................................ 4 INTRODUCTION

  2. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuhs, Bradley L.; Rounds, Mary Ann

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) developed during the 1960s as a direct offshoot of classic column liquid chromatography through improvements in the technology of columns and instrumental components (pumps, injection valves, and detectors). Originally, HPLC was the acronym for high-pressure liquid chromatography, reflecting the high operating pressures generated by early columns. By the late 1970s, however, high-performance liquid chromatography had become the preferred term, emphasizing the effective separations achieved. In fact, newer columns and packing materials offer high performance at moderate pressure (although still high pressure relative to gravity-flow liquid chromatography). HPLC can be applied to the analysis of any compound with solubility in a liquid that can be used as the mobile phase. Although most frequently employed as an analytical technique, HPLC also may be used in the preparative mode.

  3. A multi-residue method for the analysis of pesticides and pesticide degradates in water using HLB solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hladik, M.L.; Smalling, K.L.; Kuivila, K.M.

    2008-01-01

    A method was developed for the analysis of over 60 pesticides and degradates in water by HLB solid-phase extraction and gas-chromatography/mass spectrometry. Method recoveries and detection limits were determined using two surface waters with different dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations. In the lower DOC water, recoveries and detection limits were 80%-108% and 1-12 ng/L, respectively. In the higher DOC water, the detection limits were slightly higher (1-15 ng/L). Additionally, surface water samples from four sites were analyzed and 14 pesticides were detected with concentrations ranging from 4 to 1,200 ng/L. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  4. Dielectrokinetic chromatography devices

    DOEpatents

    Chirica, Gabriela S; Fiechtner, Gregory J; Singh, Anup K

    2014-12-16

    Disclosed herein are methods and devices for dielectrokinetic chromatography. As disclosed, the devices comprise microchannels having at least one perturber which produces a non-uniformity in a field spanning the width of the microchannel. The interaction of the field non-uniformity with a perturber produces a secondary flow which competes with a primary flow. By decreasing the size of the perturber the secondary flow becomes significant for particles/analytes in the nanometer-size range. Depending on the nature of a particle/analyte present in the fluid and its interaction with the primary flow and the secondary flow, the analyte may be retained or redirected. The composition of the primary flow can be varied to affect the magnitude of primary and/or secondary flows on the particles/analytes and thereby separate and concentrate it from other particles/analytes.

  5. Multiplex gas chromatography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valentin, Jose R.

    1990-01-01

    The principles of the multiplex gas chromatography (GC) technique, which is a possible candidate for chemical analysis of planetary atmospheres, are discussed. Particular attention is given to the chemical modulators developed by present investigators for multiplex GC, namely, the thermal-desorption, thermal-decomposition, and catalytic modulators, as well as to mechanical modulators. The basic technique of multiplex GC using chemical modulators and a mechanical modulator is demonstrated. It is shown that, with the chemical modulators, only one gas stream consisting of the carrier in combination with the components is being analyzed, resulting in a simplified instrument that requires relatively few consumables. The mechanical modulator demonstrated a direct application of multiplex GC for the analysis of gases in atmosphere of Titan at very low pressures.

  6. Pressurized continuous chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Canon, R.M.; Begovich, J.M.; Sisson, W.G.

    1980-04-01

    A pressurized continuous annular chromatograph has been developed for preparative separations. This device utilizes a slowly rotating annular bed of sorbent material, fixed multiple feed points, and fixed withdrawal locations. Most of our investigations have been performed with a 28-cm-diam column, but a larger model is being designed and constructed. The separation of copper, nickel, and cobalt components from a carbonate solution has been studied in detail. This solution simulates the leach liquor from the Caron process for recovering nickel and cobalt from laterite ores. Use of continuous gradient elution has been demonstrated. Recent studies have investigated several separations, including that of zirconium and hafnium (necessary for the production of zirconium for use in nuclear reactors), on a preparative scale. This system, because of its continuous feed and product withdrawal, its adaptability to large-scale operations, and its ability to separate many components, is expected to make chromatography a more competitive process in the industrial sector.

  7. Suitability of magnetic particle immunoassay for the analysis of PBDEs in Hawaiian freshwater fish and crabs in comparison with gas chromatography/electron capture detection-ion trap mass spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A gas chromatograph/electron capture detector-ion trap mass spectrometer (GC/ECD-ITMS) was used for the determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in freshwater fish and crabs. The samples were also analyzed with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). GC/ECD-ITMS results showed...

  8. Detection of thiodiglycol and its sulfoxide and sulfone analogues in environmental waters by high performance liquid chromatography. Final report, January-October 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Bossle, P.C.; Ellzy, M.W.; Martin, J.J.

    1993-06-01

    2,2'-Thiodiethanol (thiodiglycol) (TDG), the major hydrolytic breakdown product of mustard gas (bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide), is oxidized gradually in water to its sulfoxide analogue 2,2'-sulfinyldiethanol (TDGO). In the presence of sunlight, further oxidation is then thought to occur with the formation of the sulfone analogue 2,2'-sulfonyldiethanol (TDGO2). A new high performance liquid chromatography method is described to directly separate and quantitate trace amounts of TDG, TDGO, and TDGO2 in surface water and seawater. Separations in this study were carried out on an ion-exclusion column using an isocratic mobile phase consisting of 100 mM perchloric acid. Detection and quantitation of TDG, TDGO, and TDGO2 were by ultraviolet (208 nM) and pulsed amperometric detection. Using a platinum working electrode, the sampling, cleaning, and regenerating potentials were 0.3, 1.25, and -0.10V, respectively. Detection limits for TDG, TDGO, and TDGO2 were in the 40-80 ng range.... Mustard gas, 2,2'-Sulfinyldiethanol, Thiodiglycol, Thiodiglycol sulfoxide 2,2'-Thiodiethanol, Thiodiglycol sulfone, 2,2'-Sulfonyldiethanol, Pulsed amperometric detection, High Performance Liquid Chromatography(HPLC).

  9. Matrix-Assisted Ionization-Ion Mobility Spectrometry-Mass Spectrometry: Selective Analysis of a Europium-PEG Complex in a Crude Mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Joshua L.; Lutomski, Corinne A.; El-Baba, Tarick J.; Siriwardena-Mahanama, Buddhima N.; Weidner, Steffen M.; Falkenhagen, Jana; Allen, Matthew J.; Trimpin, Sarah

    2015-10-01

    The analytical utility of a new and simple to use ionization method, matrix-assisted ionization (MAI), coupled with ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) and mass spectrometry (MS) is used to characterize a 2-armed europium(III)-containing poly(ethylene glycol) (Eu-PEG) complex directly from a crude sample. MAI was used with the matrix 1,2-dicyanobenzene, which affords low chemical background relative to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) and electrospray ionization (ESI). MAI provides high ion abundance of desired products in comparison to ESI and MALDI. Inductively coupled plasma-MS measurements were used to estimate a maximum of 10% of the crude sample by mass was the 2-arm Eu-PEG complex, supporting evidence of selective ionization of Eu-PEG complexes using the new MAI matrix, 1,2-dicyanobenzene. Multiply charged ions formed in MAI enhance the IMS gas-phase separation, especially relative to the singly charged ions observed with MALDI. Individual components are cleanly separated and readily identified, allowing characterization of the 2-arm Eu-PEG conjugate from a mixture of the 1-arm Eu-PEG complex and unreacted starting materials. Size-exclusion chromatography, liquid chromatography at critical conditions, MALDI-MS, ESI-MS, and ESI-IMS-MS had difficulties with this analysis, or failed.

  10. Simultaneous concentration and purification through gradient deformation chromatography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Velayudhan, A.; Hendrickson, R. L.; Ladisch, M. R.; Mitchell, C. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    Mobile-phase additives, commonly used to modulate absorbate retention in gradient elution chromatography, are usually assumed to be either linearly retained or unretained. Previous theoretical work from our laboratory has shown that these modulators, such as salts in ion-exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography and organic modifiers in reversed-phase chromatography, can absorb nonlinearly, giving rise to gradient deformation. Consequently, adsorbate peaks that elute in the vicinity of the head of the deformed gradient may exhibit unusual shapes, form shoulders, and/or be concentrated. These effects for a reversed-phase sorbent with aqueous acetonitrile (ACN) as the modulator are verified experimentally. Gradient deformation is demonstrated experimentally and agrees with simulations based on ACN isotherm parameters that are independently determined from batch equilibrium studies using the layer model. Unusual absorbate peak shapes were found experimentally for single-component injections of phenylalanine, similar to those calculated by the simulations. A binary mixture of tryptophan and phenylalanine is used to demonstrate simultaneous concentration and separation, again in agreement with simulations. The possibility of gradient deformation in ion-exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography is discussed.

  11. Ultra(high)-pressure liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-time-of-flight-ion mobility-high definition mass spectrometry for the rapid identification and structural characterization of flavonoid glycosides from cauliflower waste.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Gerard Bryan; Raes, Katleen; Coelus, Sofie; Struijs, Karin; Smagghe, Guy; Van Camp, John

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a strategy for the detection and structural elucidation of flavonoid glycosides from a complex matrix in a single chromatographic run using U(H)PLC-ESI-IMS-HDMS/MS(E) is presented. This system operates using alternative low and high energy voltages that is able to perform the task of conventional MS/MS in a data-independent way without re-injection of the sample, which saves analytical time. Also, ion mobility separation (IMS) was employed as an additional separation technique for compounds that are co-eluting after U(H)PLC separation. First, the fragmentation of flavonoid standards were analyzed and criteria was set for structural elucidation of flavonoids in a plant extract. Based on retention times, UV spectra, exact mass, and MS fragment characteristics, such as abundances of daughter ions and the presence of radical ions ([Y0-H](-)), a total 19 flavonoid glycosides, of which 8 non-acylated and 11 acylated, were detected and structurally characterized in a cauliflower waste extract. Kaempferol and quercetin were the main aglycones detected while sinapic and ferulic acid were the main phenolic acids. C-glycosides were also found although their structure could not be elucidated. The proposed method can be used as a rapid screening test for flavonoid identification and for routine analysis of plant extracts, such as these derived from cauliflower waste. The study also confirms that agroindustrial wastes, such as cauliflower leaves, could be seen as a valuable source of different bioactive phenolic compounds. PMID:24280615

  12. Insights into chromatographic separation using core-shell metal-organic frameworks: Size exclusion and polarity effects.

    PubMed

    Qin, Weiwei; Silvestre, Martin E; Kirschhöfer, Frank; Brenner-Weiss, Gerald; Franzreb, Matthias

    2015-09-11

    Porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) [Cu3(BTC)2(H2O)3]n (also known as HKUST-1; BTC, benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid) were synthesized as homogeneous shell onto carboxyl functionalized magnetic microparticles through a liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) process. The as-synthesized core-shell HKUST-1 magnetic microparticles composites were characterized by XRD and SEM, and used as stationary phase in high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The effects of the unique properties of MOFs onto the chromatographic performance are demonstrated by the experiments. First, remarkable separation of pyridine and bipyridine is achieved, although both molecules show a strong interaction between the Cu-ions in HKUST-1 and the nitrogen atoms in their heterocyles. The difference can be explained due to size exclusion of bipyridine from the well defined pore structure of crystalline HKUST-1. Second, the enormous variety of possible interactions of sample molecules with the metal ions and linkers within MOFs allows for specifically tailored solid phases for challenging separation tasks. For example, baseline separation of three chloroaniline (CLA) isomers tested can be achieved without the need for gradient elution modes. Along with the experimental HPLC runs, in-depth modelling with a recently developed chromatography modelling software (ChromX) was applied and proofs the software to be a powerful tool for exploring the separation potential of thin MOF films. The pore diffusivity of pyridine and CLA isomers within HKUST-1 are found to be around 2.3×10(-15)m(2)s(-1). While the affinity of HKUST-1 to the tested molecules strongly differs, the maximum capacities are in the same range, with 0.37molL(-1) for pyridine and 0.23molL(-1) for CLA isomers, corresponding to 4.0 and 2.5 molecules per MOF unit cell, respectively. PMID:26277028

  13. Comparison of no gas and He/H 2 cell modes used for reduction of isobaric interferences in selenium speciation by ion chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, ZuLiang; Wang, Weihong; Mallavarapu, Megharaj; Naidu, Ravendra

    2008-01-01

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) used for the detection of most common selenium isotopes 78Se (23.8%, abundance) and 80Se (49.6%, abundance) is interfered in the presence of 38Ar 40Ar + and 40Ar 40Ar + in argon (Ar) gas. To address this issue, ICP-MS with an octopole reaction system (ORS) was explored for the detection of selenite and selenate, which was separated by anion-exchange chromatography. Results indicate that it was possible to detect 78Se using no collusion gas, while to detect 80Se a H 2 as the collusion/reaction gas was recommended since the background and noise were significantly reduced using H 2 as the gas. The selenium speciation interested was separated on a new column (G3154/101A, Agilent technologies) within 5 min using a mobile phase containing 10 mM NH 4H 2PO 4 and 20 mM NH 4NO 3 at pH 6.5. Linear plots were obtained in a concentration range of 1-200 ?g/L with detection limits less than of 0.4 ?g/L for 80Se (IV) and 0.6 ?g/L for 80Se (VI) using H 2 as the reaction gas. Finally, the proposed method was used in the determination of selenium in water and soil.

  14. Novel approaches to ionic chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Dasgupta, P.K.

    1990-11-01

    Research during this reporting period, continued on ionic chromatography. Major progress has been made towards on-line on-demand generation of ultrapure chemicals by electrochemical means. The concentration of the generated material is governed electrochemically.

  15. Data for ion and seed dependent fibril assembly of a spidroin core domain

    PubMed Central

    Humenik, Martin; Smith, Andrew M.; Arndt, Sina; Scheibel, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This data article includes size exclusion chromatography data of soluble eADF4(C16), an engineered spider silk variant based on the core domain sequence of the natural dragline silk protein ADF4 of Araneus diadematus, in combination with light scattering; the protein is monomeric before assembly. The assembled mature fibrils were visualized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Sonicated fibrils were used as seeds to by-pass the nucleation lag phase in eADF4(C16) assembly. We also provide data on the sedimentation kinetics of spider silk in the presence of different NaCl concentrations revealing very slow protein aggregation in comparison to the fast assembly triggered by phosphate ions published previously [1]. Experiments in the Data article represent supporting material for our work published recently [1], which described the assembly mechanism of recombinant eADF4(C16) fibrils. PMID:26322321

  16. Data for ion and seed dependent fibril assembly of a spidroin core domain.

    PubMed

    Humenik, Martin; Smith, Andrew M; Arndt, Sina; Scheibel, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    This data article includes size exclusion chromatography data of soluble eADF4(C16), an engineered spider silk variant based on the core domain sequence of the natural dragline silk protein ADF4 of Araneus diadematus, in combination with light scattering; the protein is monomeric before assembly. The assembled mature fibrils were visualized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Sonicated fibrils were used as seeds to by-pass the nucleation lag phase in eADF4(C16) assembly. We also provide data on the sedimentation kinetics of spider silk in the presence of different NaCl concentrations revealing very slow protein aggregation in comparison to the fast assembly triggered by phosphate ions published previously [1]. Experiments in the Data article represent supporting material for our work published recently [1], which described the assembly mechanism of recombinant eADF4(C16) fibrils. PMID:26322321

  17. Characterization of cross-linked cellulosic ion-exchange adsorbents: 1. Structural properties.

    PubMed

    Angelo, James M; Cvetkovic, Aleksandar; Gantier, Rene; Lenhoff, Abraham M

    2013-12-01

    The structural characteristics of the HyperCel family of cellulosic ion-exchange materials (Pall Corporation) were assessed using methods to gauge the pore dimensions and the effect of ionic strength on intraparticle architecture. Inverse size exclusion chromatography (ISEC) was applied to the S and STAR AX HyperCel derivatives. The theoretical analysis yielded an average pore radius for each material of about 5nm, with a particularly narrow pore-size distribution. Electron microscopy techniques were used to visualize the particle structure and relate it to macroscopic experimental data. Microscopy of Q and STAR AX HyperCel anion exchangers presented some qualitative differences in pore structure that can be attributed to the derivatization using conventional quaternary ammonium and salt-tolerant ligands, respectively. Finally, the effect of ionic strength was studied through the use of salt breakthrough experiments to determine to what extent Donnan exclusion plays a role in restricting the accessible pore volume for small ions. It was determined that Donnan effects were prevalent at total ionic strengths (TIS) less than 150mM, suggesting the presence of a ligand-containing partitioning volume within the pore space. PMID:24188996

  18. Inclusive and Exclusive |Vub|

    SciTech Connect

    Petrella, Antonio; /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara

    2011-11-17

    The current status of the determinations of CKM matrix element |V{sub ub}| via exclusive and inclusive charmless semileptonic B decays is reviewed. The large datasets collected at the B-Factories, and the increased precision of theoretical calculations have allowed an improvement in the determination of |V{sub ub}|. However, there are still significant uncertainties. In the exclusive approach, the most precise measurement of the pion channel branching ratio is obtained by an untagged analysis. This very good precision can be reached by tagged analyses with more data. The problem with exclusive decays is that the strong hadron dynamics can not be calculated from first principles and the determination of the form factor has to rely on light-cone sum rules or lattice QCD calculations. The current data samples allow a comparison of different FF models with data distributions. With further developments on lattice calculations, the theoretical error should shrink to reach the experimental one. The inclusive approach still provides the most precise |V{sub ub}| determinations. With new theoretical calculations, the mild (2.5{sigma}) discrepancy with respect to the |V{sub ub}| value determined from the global UT fit has been reduced. As in the exclusive approach, theoretical uncertainties represent the limiting factor to the precision of the measurement. Reducing the theoretical uncertainties to a level comparable with the statistical error is challenging. New measurements in semileptonic decays of charm mesons could increase the confidence in theoretical calculations and related uncertainties.

  19. Simultaneous quantification of poly-dispersed anionic, amphoteric and nonionic surfactants in simulated wastewater samples using C18 high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole ion-trap mass spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Lanfang H.; Garland, Jay L.; Johnson, Jodie V.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a guantitative method for direct and simultaneous determination of three frequently encountered surfactants, amphoteric (cocoamphoacetate, CAA), anionic (sodium laureth sulfate, SLES), and nonionic (alcohol ethoxylate, AE) using a reversed-phase C18 HPLC coupled with an ESI ion-trap mass spectrometer (MS). Chemical composition, ionization characteristics and fragmentation pathways of the surfactants are presented. Positive ESI was effective for all three surfactants in agueous methanol buffered with ammonium acetate. The method enables rapid determinations in small sample volumes containing inorganic salts (up to 3.5 g L(-1)) and multiple classes of surfactants with high specificity by applying surfactant specific tandem mass spectrometric strategies. It has dynamic linear ranges of 2-60, 1.5-40, 0.8-56 mg L(-1) with R2 egual or greater than 0.999, 0.98 and 0.999 (10 microL injection) for CAA, SLES, and AE, respectively.

  20. Separation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans, non-ortho/mono/di/tri/tetra-ortho-polychlorinated biphenyls, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers groups of compounds prior to their determination with large volume injection gas chromatography-Quadrupole ion storage tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Roszko, Marek; Szymczyk, Krystyna; J?drzejczak, Renata

    2013-10-17

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are important environmental contaminants. Their maximum legally allowable levels in food and environment are in the low pg g(-1) range. Therefore some highly selective and sensitive analytical methods must be used to determine them. Prior to final determination by GC/MS the cleaned-up samples have to be split into some fractions in view of large differences in concentrations of various analytes and existence of numerous chromatographic co-elutions (which in any case cannot be fully avoided). The aim of this study was to: (i) develop a robust, time-saving analytical method to isolate, clean-up and fractionate PCBs, PBDEs and PCDD/Fs prior to their determination with gas chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry; (ii) assess method performance using laboratory validation data and some certified reference materials; (iii) use the developed method to assess PCB/PBDE/PCDD/F levels in samples of commercially available food. A combination of alumina, florisil, modified silica gel and two carbon columns were used for sample cleanup and fractionation. Separate fractions containing dioxins/furans, PBDE, non-ortho, mono-ortho and di-/tri-/tetra-ortho PCBs were obtained. The method statistical parameters were compatible with 1883/2006 EC Regulation (80-120%, RSD below 15%). The method performance was successfully used to evaluation of some real life food samples. PMID:24091378