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Sample records for ion mass spectrometer

  1. Ion mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neugebauer, M. (Inventor); Clay, D. R.; Goldstein, B. E.; Goldstein, R.

    1984-01-01

    An ion mass spectrometer is described which detects and indicates the characteristics of ions received over a wide angle, and which indicates the mass to charge ratio, the energy, and the direction of each detected ion. The spectrometer includes a magnetic analyzer having a sector magnet that passes ions received over a wide angle, and an electrostatic analyzer positioned to receive ions passing through the magnetic analyzer. The electrostatic analyzer includes a two dimensional ion sensor at one wall of the analyzer chamber, that senses not only the lengthwise position of the detected ion to indicate its mass to charge ratio, but also detects the ion position along the width of the chamber to indicate the direction in which the ion was traveling.

  2. Mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Dietrich, D.D.; Keville, R.F.

    1995-09-19

    An ion trap is described which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10{sup 9} and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10{sup 4} ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products. 10 figs.

  3. Mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Dietrich, Daniel D.; Keville, Robert F.

    1995-01-01

    An ion trap which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10.sup.9 and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10.sup.4 ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products.

  4. A cometary ion mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelley, E. G.; Simpson, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    The development of flight suitable analyzer units for that part of the GIOTTO Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) experiment designated the High Energy Range Spectrometer (HERS) is discussed. Topics covered include: design of the total ion-optical system for the HERS analyzer; the preparation of the design of analyzing magnet; the evaluation of microchannel plate detectors and associated two-dimensional anode arrays; and the fabrication and evaluation of two flight-suitable units of the complete ion-optical analyzer system including two-dimensional imaging detectors and associated image encoding electronics.

  5. Halo ion trap mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Austin, Daniel E; Wang, Miao; Tolley, Samuel E; Maas, Jeffrey D; Hawkins, Aaron R; Rockwood, Alan L; Tolley, H Dennis; Lee, Edgar D; Lee, Milton L

    2007-04-01

    We describe a novel radio frequency ion trap mass analyzer based on toroidal trapping geometry and microfabrication technology. The device, called the halo ion trap, consists of two parallel ceramic plates, the facing surfaces of which are imprinted with sets of concentric ring electrodes. Radii of the imprinted rings range from 5 to 12 mm, and the spacing between the plates is 4 mm. Unlike conventional ion traps, in which hyperbolic metal electrodes establish equipotential boundary conditions, electric fields in the halo ion trap are established by applying different radio frequency potentials to each ring. The potential on each ring can be independently optimized to provide the best trapping field. The halo ion trap features an open structure, allowing easy access for in situ ionization. The toroidal geometry provides a large trapping and analyzing volume, increasing the number of ions that can be stored and reducing the effects of space-charge on mass analysis. Preliminary mass spectra show resolution (m/Deltam) of 60-75 when the trap is operated at 1.9 MHz and 500 Vp-p. PMID:17335180

  6. Microscale ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Ramsey, J. Michael; Witten, William B.; Kornienko, Oleg

    2002-01-01

    An ion trap for mass spectrometric chemical analysis of ions is delineated. The ion trap includes a central electrode having an aperture; a pair of insulators, each having an aperture; a pair of end cap electrodes, each having an aperture; a first electronic signal source coupled to the central electrode; a second electronic signal source coupled to the end cap electrodes. The central electrode, insulators, and end cap electrodes are united in a sandwich construction where their respective apertures are coaxially aligned and symmetric about an axis to form a partially enclosed cavity having an effective radius r.sub.0 and an effective length 2z.sub.0, wherein r.sub.0 and/or z.sub.0 are less than 1.0 mm, and a ratio z.sub.0 /r.sub.0 is greater than 0.83.

  7. The ion mass spectrometer on Giotto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balsiger, H.; Altwegg, K.; Buehler, F.; Fischer, J.; Geiss, J.; Benson, J.; Hemmerich, P.; Goldstein, B. E.; Goldstein, R.; Neugebauer, M.

    1987-01-01

    The design of the Giotto ion mass spectrometer (IMS) system, its calibration, and the initial flight performance are discussed. The IMS system consists of two sensors: one optimized for the outer coma, the other for the inner coma, with each sensor obtaining complementary information in the region for which it was not optimized. Both sensors feature mass-imaging characteristics, permitting simultaneous measurements of several ion species by means of multi-detector arrays, with resultant mass per charge resolution of not less than 20. In addition to mass per charge, the energy per charge and the elevation and azimuth of the incident ions were measured during the Giotto flight.

  8. Ion mobility spectrometer / mass spectrometer (IMS-MS).

    SciTech Connect

    Hunka Deborah Elaine; Austin, Daniel E.

    2005-07-01

    The use of Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) in the Detection of Contraband Sandia researchers use ion mobility spectrometers for trace chemical detection and analysis in a variety of projects and applications. Products developed in recent years based on IMS-technology include explosives detection personnel portals, the Material Area Access (MAA) checkpoint of the future, an explosives detection vehicle portal, hand-held detection systems such as the Hound and Hound II (all 6400), micro-IMS sensors (1700), ordnance detection (2500), and Fourier Transform IMS technology (8700). The emphasis to date has been on explosives detection, but the detection of chemical agents has also been pursued (8100 and 6400). Combining Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) with Mass Spectrometry (MS) is described. The IMS-MS combination overcomes several limitations present in simple IMS systems. Ion mobility alone is insufficient to identify an unknown chemical agent. Collision cross section, upon which mobility is based, is not sufficiently unique or predictable a priori to be able to make a confident peak assignment unless the compounds present are already identified. Molecular mass, on the other hand, is much more readily interpreted and related to compounds. For a given compound, the molecular mass can be determined using a pocket calculator (or in one's head) while a reasonable value of the cross-section might require hours of computation time. Thus a mass spectrum provides chemical specificity and identity not accessible in the mobility spectrum alone. In addition, several advanced mass spectrometric methods, such as tandem MS, have been extensively developed for the purpose of molecular identification. With an appropriate mass spectrometer connected to an ion mobility spectrometer, these advanced identification methods become available, providing greater characterization capability.

  9. Ion Mobility Spectrometer / Mass Spectrometer (IMS-MS).

    SciTech Connect

    Hunka, Deborah E; Austin, Daniel

    2005-10-01

    The use of Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS)in the Detection of Contraband Sandia researchers use ion mobility spectrometers for trace chemical detection and analysis in a variety of projects and applications. Products developed in recent years based on IMS-technology include explosives detection personnel portals, the Material Area Access (MAA) checkpoint of the future, an explosives detection vehicle portal, hand-held detection systems such as the Hound and Hound II (all 6400), micro-IMS sensors (1700), ordnance detection (2500), and Fourier Transform IMS technology (8700). The emphasis to date has been on explosives detection, but the detection of chemical agents has also been pursued (8100 and 6400).Combining Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) with Mass Spectrometry (MS)The IMS-MS combination overcomes several limitations present in simple IMS systems. Ion mobility alone is insufficient to identify an unknown chemical agent. Collision cross section, upon which mobility is based, is not sufficiently unique or predictable a priori to be able to make a confident peak assignment unless the compounds present are already identified. Molecular mass, on the other hand, is much more readily interpreted and related to compounds. For a given compound, the molecular mass can be determined using a pocket calculator (or in one's head) while a reasonable value of the cross-section might require hours of computation time. Thus a mass spectrum provides chemical specificity and identity not accessible in the mobility spectrum alone. In addition, several advanced mass spectrometric methods, such as tandem MS, have been extensively developed for the purpose of molecular identification. With an appropriate mass spectrometer connected to an ion mobility spectrometer, these advanced identification methods become available, providing greater characterization capability.3 AcronymsIMSion mobility spectrometryMAAMaterial Access AreaMSmass spectrometryoaTOForthogonal acceleration time

  10. An electrostatic autoresonant ion trap mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Ermakov, A. V.; Hinch, B. J.

    2010-01-15

    A new method for ion extraction from an anharmonic electrostatic trap is introduced. Anharmonicity is a common feature of electrostatic traps which can be used for small scale spatial confinement of ions, and this feature is also necessary for autoresonant ion extraction. With the aid of ion trajectory simulations, novel autoresonant trap mass spectrometers (ART-MSs) have been designed based on these very simple principles. A mass resolution {approx}60 is demonstrated for the prototypes discussed here. We report also on the pressure dependencies, and the (mV) rf field strength dependencies of the ART-MS sensitivity. Importantly the new MS designs do not require heavy magnets, tight manufacturing tolerances, introduction of buffer gases, high power rf sources, nor complicated electronics. The designs described here are very inexpensive to implement relative to other instruments, and can be easily miniaturized. Possible applications are discussed.

  11. AFE ion mass spectrometer design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Willie

    1989-01-01

    This final technical report covers the activities engaged in by the University of Texas at Dallas, Center for Space Sciences in conjunction with the NASA Langley Research Center, Systems Engineering Division in design studies directed towards defining a suitable ion mass spectrometer to determine the plasma parameter around the Aeroassisted Flight Experiment vehicle during passage through the earth's upper atmosphere. Additional studies relate to the use of a Langmuir probe to measure windward ion/electron concentrations and temperatures. Selected instrument inlet subsystems were tested in the NASA Ames Arc-Jet Facility.

  12. Interfacing an aspiration ion mobility spectrometer to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Adamov, Alexey; Viidanoja, Jyrki; Kaerpaenoja, Esko; Paakkanen, Heikki; Ketola, Raimo A.; Kostiainen, Risto; Sysoev, Alexey; Kotiaho, Tapio

    2007-04-15

    This article presents the combination of an aspiration-type ion mobility spectrometer with a mass spectrometer. The interface between the aspiration ion mobility spectrometer and the mass spectrometer was designed to allow for quick mounting of the aspiration ion mobility spectrometer onto a Sciex API-300 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. The developed instrumentation is used for gathering fundamental information on aspiration ion mobility spectrometry. Performance of the instrument is demonstrated using 2,6-di-tert-butyl pyridine and dimethyl methylphosphonate.

  13. Proton Transfer Reaction Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Prazeller, Peter; Palmer, Peter T.; Boscaini, Elena; Jobson, B Tom T.; Alexander, M. Lizabeth

    2003-06-11

    Proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry is a relatively new field that has attracted a great deal of interest in the last few years. This technique uses H₃Oþ as a chemical ionization (CI) reagent to measure volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the parts per billion by volume (ppbv) to parts per trillion by volume (pptv) range. Mass spectra acquired with a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) are simple because proton transfer chemical ionization is ‘soft’ and results in little or no fragmentation. Unfortunately, peak identification can still be difficult due to isobaric interferences. A possible solution to this problem is to couple the PTR drift tube to an ion trap mass spectrometer (ITMS). The use of an ITMS is appealing because of its ability to perform MS/MS and possibly distinguish between isomers and other isobars. Additionally, the ITMS duty cycle is much higher than that of a linear quadrupole so faster data acquisition rates are possible that will allow for detection of multiple compounds. Here we present the first results from a proton transfer reaction ion trap mass spectrometer (PTR-ITMS). The aim of this study was to investigate ion injection and storage efficiency of a simple prototype instrument in order to estimate possible detection limits of a second-generation instrument. Using this prototype a detection limit of 100 ppbv was demonstrated. Modifications are suggested that will enable further reduction in detection limits to the low-ppbv to high-pptv range. Furthermore, the applicability of MS/MS in differentiating between isobaric species was determined. MS/MS spectra of the isobaric compounds methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) and methacrolein (MACR) are presented and show fragments of different mass making differentiation possible, even when a mixture of both species is present in the same sample. However, MS/MS spectra of acetone and propanal produce fragments with the same molecular masses but with different intensity ratios

  14. Differentially pumped dual linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, Benjamin C.; Kenttamaa, Hilkka I.

    2015-10-20

    The present disclosure provides a new tandem mass spectrometer and methods of using the same for analyzing charged particles. The differentially pumped dual linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer of the present disclose includes a combination of two linear quadrupole (LQIT) mass spectrometers with differentially pumped vacuum chambers.

  15. Proton Transfer Reaction Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Prazeller, Peter; Palmer, Peter T.; Boscaini, Elena; Jobson, B Tom; Alexander, M. Lizabeth

    2003-07-07

    Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) is a relatively new field that has attracted a great deal of interest in the last several years. This technique uses H3O+ as a chemical ionization (CI) agent for measuring volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the parts per billion by volume (ppbv) - parts per trillion by volume (pptv) range. PTR-MS mass spectra are simple because the ionization method of proton transfer is “soft”, resulting in little or no fragmentation. Unfortunately, the simplicity of the mass spectra can cause problems in peak identification due to isobaric interferences. A possible solution to this problem is to couple the PTR drift tube to an ion trap mass spectrometer (ITMS). ITMS is appealing because of the ability to perform MS/MS and possibly distinguish between isomers and other isobars. Additionally, the ITMS duty cycle is much higher than that of a linear quadrupole so faster data acquisition rates can be realized for detection of multiple compounds. We present here the first results from a Proton Transfer Reaction Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer (PTR-ITMS). The aim of this study was to investigate ion injection and storage efficiency of a simple prototype interface in order to estimate possible detection limits of a second generation instrument. Using this prototype a detection limit of 100 ppbv was demonstrated for the PTR-ITMS. Modifications are suggested that will enable further reduction in detection limits to the low ppbv to pptv range. Furthermore the applicability of MS/MS to differentiate between isobaric species was determined. MS/MS spectra of the isobaric compounds methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) and methacrolein (MACR) are presented and show fragments of different mass making a differentiation possible even when a mixture of both species is present in the same sample. MS/MS spectra of acetone and propanal produce fragments with the same molecular weight but different ratios, allowing quantitative distinction only if one species

  16. THOR Ion Mass Spectrometer instrument - IMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retinò, Alessandro; Kucharek, Harald; Saito, Yoshifumi; Fraenz, Markus; Verdeil, Christophe; Leblanc, Frederic; Techer, Jean-Denis; Jeandet, Alexis; Macri, John; Gaidos, John; Granoff, Mark; Yokota, Shoichiro; Fontaine, Dominique; Berthomier, Matthieu; Delcourt, Dominique; Kistler, Lynn; Galvin, Antoniette; Kasahara, Satoshi; Kronberg, Elena

    2016-04-01

    Turbulence Heating ObserveR (THOR) is the first mission ever flown in space dedicated to plasma turbulence. Specifically, THOR will study how turbulent fluctuations at kinetic scales heat and accelerate particles in different turbulent environments within the near-Earth space. To achieve this goal, THOR payload is being designed to measure electromagnetic fields and particle distribution functions with unprecedented resolution and accuracy. Here we present the Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) instrument that will measure the full three-dimensional distribution functions of near-Earth main ion species (H+, He+, He++ and O+) at high time resolution (~ 150 ms for H+ , ~ 300 ms for He++) with energy resolution down to ~ 10% in the range 10 eV/q to 30 keV/q and angular resolution ~ 10°. Such high time resolution is achieved by mounting multiple sensors around the spacecraft body, in similar fashion to the MMS/FPI instrument. Each sensor combines a top-hat electrostatic analyzer with deflectors at the entrance together with a time-of-flight section to perform mass selection. IMS electronics includes a fast sweeping high voltage board that is required to make measurements at high cadence. Ion detection includes Micro Channel Plates (MCP) combined with Application-Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) for charge amplification, discrimination and time-to-digital conversion (TDC). IMS is being designed to address many of THOR science requirements, in particular ion heating and acceleration by turbulent fluctuations in foreshock, shock and magnetosheath regions. The IMS instrument is being designed and will be built by an international consortium of scientific institutes with main hardware contributions from France, USA, Japan and Germany.

  17. Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer Measurements from Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waite, J. H., Jr.; Niemann, H.; Yelle, R. V.; Kasprzak, W.; Cravens, T.; Luhmann, J.; McNutt, R.; Ip, W.-H.; Gell, D.; Muller-Wordag, I. C. F.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: The Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) aboard the Cassini orbiter has obtained the first in situ composition measurements of the neutral densities of molecular nitrogen, methane, argon, and a host of stable carbon-nitrile compounds in its first flyby of Titan. The bulk composition and thermal structure of the moon s upper atmosphere do not appear to be changed since the Voyager flyby in 1979. However, the more sensitive techniques provided by modern in-situ mass spectrometry also give evidence for large-spatial-scale large-amplitude atmospheric waves in the upper atmosphere and for a plethora of stable carbon-nitrile compounds above 1174 km. Furthermore, they allow the first direct measurements of isotopes of nitrogen, carbon, and argon, which provide interesting clues about the evolution of the atmosphere. The atmosphere was first accreted as ammonia and ammonia ices from the Saturn sub-nebula. Subsequent photochemistry likely converted the atmosphere into molecular nitrogen. The early atmosphere was 1.5 to 5 times more substantial and was lost via escape over the intervening 4.5 billion years due to the reduced gravity associated with the relatively small mass of Titan. Carbon in the form of methane has continued to outgas over time from the interior with much of it being deposited in the form of complex hydrocarbons on the surface and some of it also being lost to space.

  18. Radiation Design of Ion Mass Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sittler, Ed; Cooper, John; Christian, Eric; Moore, Tom; Sturner, Steve; Paschalidis, Nick

    2011-01-01

    In the harsh radiation environment of Jupiter and with the JUpiter ICy moon Explorer (JUICE) mission including two Europa flybys where local intensities are approx. 150 krad/month behind 100 mils of Al shielding, so background from penetrating radiation can be a serious issue for detectors inside an Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS). This can especially be important for minor ion detection designs. Detectors of choice for time-of-flight (TOF) designs are microchannel plates (MCP) and some designs may include solid state detectors (SSD). The standard approach is to use shielding designs so background event rates are low enough that the detector max rates and lifetimes are first not exceeded and then the more stringent requirement that the desired measurement can successfully be made (i.e., desired signal is sufficiently greater than background noise after background subtraction is made). GEANT codes are typically used along with various electronic techniques, but such designs need to know how the detectors will respond to the simulated primary and secondary radiations produced within the instrument. We will be presenting some preliminary measurements made on the response of MCPs to energetic electrons (20 ke V to 1400 ke V) using a Miniature TOF (MTOF) device and the High Energy Facility at Goddard Space Flight Center which has a Van de Graaff accelerator.

  19. Electron source for a mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Dietrich, Daniel D.; Keville, Robert F.

    1995-01-01

    An ion trap which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10.sup.9 and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10.sup.4 ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products.

  20. Electron source for a mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Dietrich, D.D.; Keville, R.F.

    1995-12-19

    An ion trap is described which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10{sup 9} and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10{sup 4} ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products. 10 figs.

  1. Mass spectrometer and methods of increasing dispersion between ion beams

    DOEpatents

    Appelhans, Anthony D.; Olson, John E.; Delmore, James E.

    2006-01-10

    A mass spectrometer includes a magnetic sector configured to separate a plurality of ion beams, and an electrostatic sector configured to receive the plurality of ion beams from the magnetic sector and increase separation between the ion beams, the electrostatic sector being used as a dispersive element following magnetic separation of the plurality of ion beams. Other apparatus and methods are provided.

  2. Compact mass spectrometer for plasma discharge ion analysis

    DOEpatents

    Tuszewski, M.G.

    1997-07-22

    A mass spectrometer and methods are disclosed for mass spectrometry which are useful in characterizing a plasma. This mass spectrometer for determining type and quantity of ions present in a plasma is simple, compact, and inexpensive. It accomplishes mass analysis in a single step, rather than the usual two-step process comprised of ion extraction followed by mass filtering. Ions are captured by a measuring element placed in a plasma and accelerated by a known applied voltage. Captured ions are bent into near-circular orbits by a magnetic field such that they strike a collector, producing an electric current. Ion orbits vary with applied voltage and proton mass ratio of the ions, so that ion species may be identified. Current flow provides an indication of quantity of ions striking the collector. 7 figs.

  3. Compact mass spectrometer for plasma discharge ion analysis

    DOEpatents

    Tuszewski, Michel G.

    1997-01-01

    A mass spectrometer and methods for mass spectrometry which are useful in characterizing a plasma. This mass spectrometer for determining type and quantity of ions present in a plasma is simple, compact, and inexpensive. It accomplishes mass analysis in a single step, rather than the usual two-step process comprised of ion extraction followed by mass filtering. Ions are captured by a measuring element placed in a plasma and accelerated by a known applied voltage. Captured ions are bent into near-circular orbits by a magnetic field such that they strike a collector, producing an electric current. Ion orbits vary with applied voltage and proton mass ratio of the ions, so that ion species may be identified. Current flow provides an indication of quantity of ions striking the collector.

  4. Augmenting Ion Trap Mass Spectrometers Using a Frequency Modulated Drift Tube Ion Mobility Spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Kelsey A; Siems, William F; Clowers, Brian H

    2016-03-15

    Historically, high pressure ion mobility drift tubes have suffered from low ion duty cycles and this problem is magnified when such instrumentation is coupled with ion trap mass spectrometers. To significantly alleviate these issues, we outline the result from coupling an atmospheric pressure, dual-gate drift tube ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) to a linear ion trap mass spectrometer (LIT-MS) via modulation of the ion beam with a linear frequency chirp. The time-domain ion current, once Fourier transformed, reveals a standard ion mobility drift spectrum that corresponds to the standard mode of mobility analysis. By multiplexing the ion beam, it is possible to successfully obtain drift time spectra for an assortment of simple peptide and protein mixtures using an LIT-MS while showing improved signal intensity versus the more common signal averaging technique. Explored here are the effects of maximum injection time, solution concentration, total experiment time, and frequency swept on signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) and resolving power. Increased inject time, concentration, and experiment time all generally led to an improvement in SNR, while a greater frequency swept increases the resolving power at the expense of SNR. Overall, chirp multiplexing of a dual-gate IMS system coupled to an LIT-MS improves ion transmission, lowers analyte detection limits, and improves spectral quality. PMID:26854901

  5. Comet Encke: Meteor metallic ion identification by mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, R. A.; Aikin, A. C.

    1973-01-01

    Positive metallic ions have been measured in the earth's atmosphere between 85 and 120 km, during the period of the beta Taurids meteor shower, which is associated with Comet Encke. The ions originate during and following ablation of extraterrestrial debris by the earth's atmosphere. The enhancement of metal ion density during meteor showers is primary evidence for their extraterrestrial origin. The present results were obtained from a rocket-borne ion mass spectrometer.

  6. MASS SPECTROMETER

    DOEpatents

    White, F.A.

    1960-08-23

    A mass spectrometer is designed with a first adjustable magnetic field for resolving an ion beam into beams of selected masses, a second adjustable magnetic field for further resolving the ion beam from the first field into beams of selected masses, a thin foil disposed in the path of the beam between the first and second magnets to dissociate molecular ions incident thereon, an electrostatic field for further resolving the ion beam from the second field into beams of selected masses, and a detector disposed adjacent to the electrostatic field to receive the ion beam.

  7. Simulating data processing for an Advanced Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Chavarría-Miranda, Daniel; Clowers, Brian H.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Belov, Mikhail E.

    2007-11-03

    We have designed and implemented a Cray XD-1-based sim- ulation of data capture and signal processing for an ad- vanced Ion Mobility mass spectrometer (Hadamard trans- form Ion Mobility). Our simulation is a hybrid application that uses both an FPGA component and a CPU-based soft- ware component to simulate Ion Mobility mass spectrome- try data processing. The FPGA component includes data capture and accumulation, as well as a more sophisticated deconvolution algorithm based on a PNNL-developed en- hancement to standard Hadamard transform Ion Mobility spectrometry. The software portion is in charge of stream- ing data to the FPGA and collecting results. We expect the computational and memory addressing logic of the FPGA component to be portable to an instrument-attached FPGA board that can be interfaced with a Hadamard transform Ion Mobility mass spectrometer.

  8. Design and development of a fast ion mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burch, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    Two Fast Ion Mass Spectrometers (FIMS A and FIMS B) were developed. The design, development, construction, calibration, integration, and flight of these instruments, along with early results from the data analysis efforts are summarized. A medium energy ion mass spectrometer that covers mass velocity space with significantly higher time resolution, improved mass resolution, (particularly for heavier ions), and wider energy range than existing instruments had achieved was completed. The initial design consisted of a dual channel cylindrical electrostatic analyzer followed by a dual channel cylindrical velocity filter. The gain versus count rate characteristics of the high current channel electron multipliers (CEM's), which were chosen for ion detection, revealed a systematic behavior that can be used as a criterion for selection of CEM's for long counting lifetimes.

  9. A retarding ion mass spectrometer for the Dynamics Explorer-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, W.

    1985-01-01

    The Retarding Ion Mass Spectrometer (RIMS) for Dynamics Explorer-1 is an instrument designed to measure the details of the thermal plasma distribution. It combines the ion temperature determining capability of the retarding potential analyzer with the compositional capabilities of the mass spectrometer and adds multiple sensor heads to sample all directions relative to the spacecraft ram direction. This manual provides a functional description of the RIMS, the instrument calibration, and a description of the commands which can be stored in the instrument logic to control its operation.

  10. Linear electronic field time-of-flight ion mass spectrometers

    DOEpatents

    Funsten, Herbert O.

    2010-08-24

    Time-of-flight mass spectrometer comprising a first drift region and a second drift region enclosed within an evacuation chamber; a means of introducing an analyte of interest into the first drift region; a pulsed ionization source which produces molecular ions from said analyte of interest; a first foil positioned between the first drift region and the second drift region, which dissociates said molecular ions into constituent atomic ions and emits secondary electrons; an electrode which produces secondary electrons upon contact with a constituent atomic ion in second drift region; a stop detector comprising a first ion detection region and a second ion detection region; and a timing means connected to the pulsed ionization source, to the first ion detection region, and to the second ion detection region.

  11. Laser desorption in an ion trap mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Eiden, G.C.; Cisper, M.E.; Alexander, M.L.; Hemberger, P.H.; Nogar, N.S.

    1993-02-01

    Laser desorption in a ion-trap mass spectrometer shows significant promise for both qualitative and trace analysis. Several aspects of this methodology are discussed in this work. We previously demonstrated the generation of both negative and positive ions by laser desorption directly within a quadrupole ion trap. In the present work, we explore various combinations of d.c., r.f., and time-varying fields in order to optimize laser generated signals. In addition, we report on the application of this method to analyze samples containing compounds such as amines, metal complexes, carbon clusters, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. In some cases the ability to rapidly switch between positive and negative ion modes provides sufficient specificity to distinguish different compounds of a mixture with a single stage of mass spectrometry. In other experiments, we combined intensity variation studies with tandem mass spectrometry experiments and positive and negative ion detection to further enhance specificity.

  12. Ion mass spectrometer experiment for ISIS-2 spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, John H.

    1987-07-01

    The International Satellite for Ionospheric Studies (ISIS) program of NASA was the longest duration program in NASA history. A number of satellites were flown under this program, the last being called ISIS-2, which was launched on April 1, 1971 and operated successfully for over 13 years. An experiment called the Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) was flown on the ISIS-2 spacecraft. It operated for 10 years providing a large data base of positive ion composition and ion flow velocities along the orbit of the satellite, the latter being circular at 1400 km with a 90 degree inclination. The data were processed and reside in the National Space Sciences Data Center.

  13. Ion mass spectrometer experiment for ISIS-2 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, John H.

    1987-01-01

    The International Satellite for Ionospheric Studies (ISIS) program of NASA was the longest duration program in NASA history. A number of satellites were flown under this program, the last being called ISIS-2, which was launched on April 1, 1971 and operated successfully for over 13 years. An experiment called the Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) was flown on the ISIS-2 spacecraft. It operated for 10 years providing a large data base of positive ion composition and ion flow velocities along the orbit of the satellite, the latter being circular at 1400 km with a 90 degree inclination. The data were processed and reside in the National Space Sciences Data Center.

  14. Linear electric field time-of-flight ion mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Funsten, Herbert O.; Feldman, William C.

    2008-06-10

    A linear electric field ion mass spectrometer having an evacuated enclosure with means for generating a linear electric field located in the evacuated enclosure and means for injecting a sample material into the linear electric field. A source of pulsed ionizing radiation injects ionizing radiation into the linear electric field to ionize atoms or molecules of the sample material, and timing means determine the time elapsed between ionization of atoms or molecules and arrival of an ion out of the ionized atoms or molecules at a predetermined position.

  15. Loss of atomic oxygen in mass spectrometer ion sources.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lake, L. R.; Nier, A. O.

    1973-01-01

    A gas beam consisting of a mixture of atomic and molecular oxygen has been directed at the ion source of a mass spectrometer like those used in sounding rockets for determining the neutral composition of the lower thermosphere. The loss of atomic oxygen on mass spectrometer surfaces was evaluated by flagging the beam in several ways and comparing the experimental results with predicted values. The results obtained suggest that in rocket flights using similar instruments the atomic oxygen densities computed assuming no-loss conditions may be low by a factor of 2.5. Studies made using a beam containing tracer O-18 indicate that carbon dioxide observed when atomic oxygen enters the source is formed in a reaction involving atomic oxygen from the beam and carbon monoxide from the surfaces bombarded.

  16. "Fast Excitation" CID in Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Murrell, J.; Despeyroux, D.; Lammert, Stephen {Steve} A; Stephenson Jr, James {Jim} L; Goeringer, Doug

    2003-01-01

    Collision-induced dissociation (CID) in a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer is usually performed by applying a small amplitude excitation voltage at the same secular frequency as the ion of interest. Here we disclose studies examining the use of large amplitude voltage excitations (applied for short periods of time) to cause fragmentation of the ions of interest. This process has been examined using leucine enkephalin as the model compound and the motion of the ions within the ion trap simulated using ITSIM. The resulting fragmentation information obtained is identical with that observed by conventional resonance excitation CID. ''Fast excitation'' CID deposits (as determined by the intensity ratio of the a{sub 4}/b{sub 4} ion of leucine enkephalin) approximately the same amount of internal energy into an ion as conventional resonance excitation CID where the excitation signal is applied for much longer periods of time. The major difference between the two excitation techniques is the higher rate of excitation (gain in kinetic energy) between successive collisions with helium atoms with ''fast excitation'' CID as opposed to the conventional resonance excitation CID. With conventional resonance excitation CID ions fragment while the excitation voltage is still being applied whereas for ''fast excitation'' CID a higher proportion of the ions fragment in the ion cooling time following the excitation pulse. The fragmentation of the (M + 17H){sup 17+} of horse heart myoglobin is also shown to illustrate the application of ''fast excitation'' CID to proteins.

  17. Miniature Ion Optics Towards a Micro Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhary, Ashish

    This PhD dissertation reports the development of miniature ion optics components of a mass spectrometer (MS) with the ultimate goal to lay the foundation for a compact low-power micromachined MS (microMS) for broad-range chemical analysis. Miniaturization of two specific components a) RF ion traps and b) an ion funnel have been investigated and miniature low-power versions of these components have been developed and demonstrated successfully in lab experiments. Power savings, simpler electronics and packaging schemes required to operate the micro-scale RF cylindrical ion traps have been the key motivation driving this research. Microfabricated cylindrical ion traps (microCITs) and arrays in silicon, silicon-on-insulator and stainless steel substrates have been demonstrated and average power of as low as 55 mW for a low mass range (28 to 136 amu) and mass spectra with better than a unit-mass-resolution have been recorded. For the ion funnel miniaturization effort, simple assembly, small form factor and ease of integration have been emphasized. A simplification of the conventional 3D ion funnel design, called the planar ion funnel, has been developed in a single plate and has been tested to demonstrate ion funneling at medium vacuum levels (1E-5 Torr) using DC voltages and power less than 0.5 W. Miniaturization of these components also enables use of other novel ion optics components, packaging and integration, which will allow a new class of microMS architectures amenable for radical miniaturization.

  18. DETERMINING ION COMPOSITIONS USING AN ACCURATE MASS, TRIPLE QUADRUPOLE MASS SPECTROMETER

    EPA Science Inventory

    For the past decade, we have used double focusing mass spectrometers to determine
    compositions of ions observed in mass spectra produced from compounds introduced by GC
    based on measured exact masses of the ions and their +1 and +2 isotopic profiles arising from atoms of ...

  19. An ion mobility mass spectrometer for investigating photoisomerization and photodissociation of molecular ions

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, B. D.; Coughlan, N. J. A.; Markworth, P. B.; Bieske, E. J.; Continetti, R. E.

    2014-12-15

    An ion mobility mass spectrometry apparatus for investigating the photoisomerization and photodissociation of electrosprayed molecular ions in the gas phase is described. The device consists of a drift tube mobility spectrometer, with access for a laser beam that intercepts the drifting ion packet either coaxially or transversely, followed by a quadrupole mass filter. An ion gate halfway along the drift region allows the instrument to be used as a tandem ion mobility spectrometer, enabling mobility selection of ions prior to irradiation, with the photoisomer ions being separated over the second half of the drift tube. The utility of the device is illustrated with photoisomerization and photodissociation action spectra of carbocyanine molecular cations. The mobility resolution of the device for singly charged ions is typically 80 and it has a mass range of 100-440 Da, with the lower limit determined by the drive frequency for the ion funnels, and the upper limit by the quadrupole mass filter.

  20. Continuous time-of-flight ion mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Funsten, Herbert O.; Feldman, William C.

    2004-10-19

    A continuous time-of-flight mass spectrometer having an evacuated enclosure with means for generating an electric field located in the evacuated enclosure and means for injecting a sample material into the electric field. A source of continuous ionizing radiation injects ionizing radiation into the electric field to ionize atoms or molecules of the sample material, and timing means determine the time elapsed between arrival of a secondary electron out of said ionized atoms or molecules at a first predetermined location and arrival of a sample ion out of said ionized atoms or molecules at a second predetermined location.

  1. 10 K Ring Electrode Trap—Tandem Mass Spectrometer for Infrared Spectroscopy of Mass Selected Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goebbert, Daniel J.; Meijer, Gerard; Asmis, Knut R.

    2009-03-01

    A novel instrumental setup for measuring infrared photodissociation spectra of buffer gas cooled, mass-selected ions is described and tested. It combines a cryogenically cooled, linear radio frequency ion trap with a tandem mass spectrometer, optimally coupling continuous ion sources to pulsed laser experiments. The use of six independently adjustable DC potentials superimposed over the trapping radio frequency field provides control over the ion distribution within, as well as the kinetic energy distribution of the ions extracted from the ion trap. The scheme allows focusing the ions in space and time, such that they can be optimally irradiated by a pulsed, widely tunable infrared photodissociation laser. Ion intensities are monitored with a time-of-flight mass spectrometer mounted orthogonally to the ion trap axis.

  2. Improved ion optics for introduction of ions into a 9.4-T Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yu; Leach, Franklin E.; Kaiser, Nathan K.; Dang, Xibei; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Norheim, Randolph V.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Smith, Richard D.; Marshall, Alan G.

    2015-01-19

    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry provides unparalleled mass accuracy and resolving power.[1],[2] With electrospray ionization (ESI), ions are typically transferred into the mass spectrometer through a skimmer, which serves as a conductance-limiting orifice. However, the skimmer allows only a small fraction of incoming ions to enter the mass spectrometer. An ion funnel, originally developed by Smith and coworkers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)[3-5] provides much more efficient ion focusing and transfer. The large entrance aperture of the ion funnel allows almost all ions emanating from a heated capillary to be efficiently captured and transferred, resulting in nearly lossless transmission.

  3. Light ion mass spectrometer for space-plasma investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reasoner, D. L.; Chappell, C. R.; Fields, S. A.; Lewter, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    Direct satellite measurements and ground-based techniques have given a comprehensive view of the density distribution of the cold plasma population in the earth's magnetosphere. There were, however, no direct measurements of the low-energy plasma mass composition, temperature, density, pitch-angle distribution, or plasma flow velocity. A description is presented of the evolution and development of an instrument, the Light Ion Mass Spectrometer (LIMS), designed to make these low-energy plasma measurements. The instrument was developed for flight on the spacecraft SCA-THA, a satellite to study satellite charging at high altitudes. This satellite, whose primary mission was to study spacecraft-plasma interactions and electrostatic charging, was launched into a near-geosynchronous orbit. The design requirements regarding the instrument are discussed, and attention is given to the calibration procedures, the flight configuration, and some examples of flight data.

  4. Frequency-scanning MALDI linear ion trap mass spectrometer for large biomolecular ion detection.

    PubMed

    Lu, I-Chung; Lin, Jung Lee; Lai, Szu-Hsueh; Chen, Chung-Hsuan

    2011-11-01

    This study presents the first report on the development of a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) linear ion trap mass spectrometer for large biomolecular ion detection by frequency scan. We designed, installed, and tested this radio frequency (RF) scan linear ion trap mass spectrometer and its associated electronics to dramatically extend the mass region to be detected. The RF circuit can be adjusted from 300 to 10 kHz with a set of operation amplifiers. To trap the ions produced by MALDI, a high pressure of helium buffer gas was employed to quench extra kinetic energy of the heavy ions produced by MALDI. The successful detection of the singly charged secretory immunoglobulin A ions indicates that the detectable mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) of this system can reach ~385 000 or beyond. PMID:21932813

  5. SCAPS, a two-dimensional ion detector for mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurimoto, Hisayoshi

    2014-05-01

    Faraday Cup (FC) and electron multiplier (EM) are of the most popular ion detector for mass spectrometer. FC is used for high-count-rate ion measurements and EM can detect from single ion. However, FC is difficult to detect lower intensities less than kilo-cps, and EM loses ion counts higher than Mega-cps. Thus, FC and EM are used complementary each other, but they both belong to zero-dimensional detector. On the other hand, micro channel plate (MCP) is a popular ion signal amplifier with two-dimensional capability, but additional detection system must be attached to detect the amplified signals. Two-dimensional readout for the MCP signals, however, have not achieve the level of FC and EM systems. A stacked CMOS active pixel sensor (SCAPS) has been developed to detect two-dimensional ion variations for a spatial area using semiconductor technology [1-8]. The SCAPS is an integrated type multi-detector, which is different from EM and FC, and is composed of more than 500×500 pixels (micro-detectors) for imaging of cm-area with a pixel of less than 20 µm in square. The SCAPS can be detected from single ion to 100 kilo-count ions per one pixel. Thus, SCAPS can be accumulated up to several giga-count ions for total pixels, i.e. for total imaging area. The SCAPS has been applied to stigmatic ion optics of secondary ion mass spectrometer, as a detector of isotope microscope [9]. The isotope microscope has capabilities of quantitative isotope images of hundred-micrometer area on a sample with sub-micrometer resolution and permil precision, and of two-dimensional mass spectrum on cm-scale of mass dispersion plane of a sector magnet with ten-micrometer resolution. The performance has been applied to two-dimensional isotope spatial distribution for mainly hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen of natural (extra-terrestrial and terrestrial) samples and samples simulated natural processes [e.g. 10-17]. References: [1] Matsumoto, K., et al. (1993) IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 40

  6. Development of a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebert, Joseph Ellis

    Because of its potential to be made portable the quadrupole ion trap (QPIT) is a prime candidate for specialized applications such as atmospheric studies, other field measurements, or measurements anywhere a laboratory instrument would be prohibitively inconvenient. To utilize the QPIT in such ways it is necessary to design and construct custom built instruments. A QPIT mass spectrometer was constructed as the foundation for such future development. Two ionization schemes were employed. Direct electron bombardment was used for in situ ion production, and UV photoionization was used to produce ions external to the trap. Calibration measurements determined that the system performed as theory dictated. It was also demonstrated that the system was capable of sampling the atmosphere and detecting the presence of an atmospheric contaminant. Finally, DC bias foils were invented as a novel approach to mass isolation in the trap. The use of DC bias foils was demonstrated to be an exceptionally easy and inexpensive method of controlling the contents of the QPIT.

  7. Ion Mass Spectrometer for Sporadic-E Rocket Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heelis, R. A.; Earle, G. D.; Pfaff, Robert

    2000-01-01

    NASA grant NAG5-5086 provided funding for the William B. Hanson Center for Space Sciences at the University of Texas at Dallas (UTD) to design, fabricate, calibrate, and ultimately fly two ion mass spectrometer instruments on a pair of sounding rocket payloads. Drs. R.A. Heelis and G.D. Earle from UTD were co-investigators on the project. The principal investigator for both rocket experiments was Dr. Robert Pfaff of the Goddard Space Flight Center. The overall project title was "Rocket/Radar Investigation of Lower Ionospheric Electrodynamics Associated with Intense Mid-Latitude Sporadic-E Layers". This report describes the overall objectives of the project, summarizes the instrument design and flight experiment details, and presents representative data obtained during the flights.

  8. Double focusing ion mass spectrometer of cylindrical symmetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coplan, M. A.; Moore, J. H.; Hoffman, R. A.

    1984-01-01

    A mass spectrometer consisting of an electric sector followed by a magnetic sector is described. The geometry is a cylindrically symmetric generalization of the Mattauch-Herzog spectrometer (1934). With its large annular entrance aperture and a position-sensitive detector, the instrument provides a large geometric factor and 100-percent duty factor, making it appropriate for spacecraft experiments.

  9. Titan's Topside Ionospheric Composition: Cassini Plasma Spectrometer Ion Mass spectrometer Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Hartle, R. E.; Ali, A.; Cooper, J. F.; Lipatov, A. S.; Simpson, D. G.; Sarantos, M.; Chornay, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    In [1] the first quantitative evidence of ionospheric outflows (r > 10,000 km) coming from Titan was given using the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) data for the T9 flyby. Later in [2] similar outflows were shown for T63 and T75. In [3] evidence for ionospheric outflows for T15 was given and [4] showed evidence of outflows for T41. Normally, the CAPS IMS cannot be used to measure Titan's relatively dense ionosphere because the IMS has high sensitivity to measure the more tenuous plasmas of Saturn's magnetosphere and its detectors will experience count rates beyond their maximum allowed rates, therefore the IMS is configured not to measure the ionospheric plasma. But, whenever there are high altitude Titan wake flybys the ion densities are low enough so the CAPS IMS can measure these ionospheric outflows and their corresponding composition characteristic of the topside ionosphere (i.e., composition freezes in above the exobase) using its unique compositional capabilities. For example, the IMS can distinguish against specific ion types such as hydrocarbon, nitrile and water group ions due fragmentation of molecular ions within the instrument (i.e., incident ions strikes ultra-thin carbon foils at 14.6 kV or higher with exiting fragments such C+,0,-, N+,0, O+,0,-1). The other ionospheric instruments only measure the ion mass-per-charge (M/Q), while the CAPS IMS measures both the ion M/Q and its fragments. Specific attention will be given to such ions as NH4+, N+, O+, CH4+, C2H5+, HCNH+ and C3H7+. These results may impose important constraints upon Titan's ionospheric water group, hydrocarbon and nitrile ion chemistry. Are NH4+ ions present as indicated by INMS at 1100 km altitude and/or water group ions? Our work has concentrated on the T15 flyby. Estimates of the NH4+, N+ and O+ abundances presently have upper values < 20% of the total ion density with actual abundances and their uncertainties to be given. [1] Sittler, E.C. Jr., et al

  10. Characterization of the Ion Beam Focusing in a Mass Spectrometer using an IonCCD™ Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Grant E.; Hadjar, Omar; Laskin, Julia

    2011-07-26

    A position sensitive pixel-based detector array, referred to as the IonCCDTM, has been employed to characterize the ion optics and ion beam focusing in a custom built mass spectrometer designed for soft and reactive landing of mass-selected ions onto surfaces. The IonCCDTM was placed at several stages along the path of the ion beam to determine the focusing capabilities of the various ion optics which include an electrodynamic ion funnel, two radiofrequency (RF) only collision quadrupoles, a mass resolving quadrupole, a quadrupole bender, and two Einzel lens assemblies. The focusing capabilities of the RF-only collision quadrupoles and Einzel lenses are demonstrated by large decreases in the diameter of the ion beam. In contrast, the mass resolving quadrupole is shown to significantly defocus the mass-selected ion beam resulting in an expansion of the measured ion beam diameter. Combined with SIMION simulations we demonstrate that the IonCCDTM can identify minor errors in the alignment of charged-particle optics that result in erratic trajectories and significant deflections of the ion beam.. This information can be used to improve the design assembly and maintenance of custom-built mass spectrometry instrumentation.

  11. Characterization of the ion beam focusing in a mass spectrometer using an IonCCD™ detector.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Grant E; Hadjar, Omar; Laskin, Julia

    2011-08-01

    A position sensitive pixel-based detector array, referred to as the IonCCD, has been employed to characterize the ion optics and ion beam focusing in a custom built mass spectrometer designed for soft and reactive landing of mass-selected ions onto surfaces. The IonCCD was placed at several stages along the path of the ion beam to determine the focusing capabilities of the various ion optics, which include an electrodynamic ion funnel, two radiofrequency (rf)-only collision quadrupoles, a mass resolving quadrupole, a quadrupole bender, and two einzel lens assemblies. The focusing capabilities of the rf-only collision quadrupoles and einzel lenses are demonstrated by large decreases in the diameter of the ion beam. In contrast, the mass resolving quadrupole is shown to significantly defocus the mass-selected ion beam resulting in an expansion of the measured ion beam diameter. Combined with SIMION simulations, we demonstrate that the IonCCD can identify minor errors in the alignment of charged-particle optics that result in erratic trajectories and significant deflections of the ion beam. This information may be used to facilitate the design, assembly, and maintenance of custom-built mass spectrometry instrumentation. PMID:21953193

  12. Quadrupole Ion Mass Spectrometer for Masses of 2 to 50 Da

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helms, William; Griffin, Timothy P.; Ottens, Andrew; Harrison, Willard

    2005-01-01

    A customized quadrupole ion-trap mass spectrometer (QITMS) has been built to satisfy a need for a compact, rugged instrument for measuring small concentrations of hydrogen, helium, oxygen, and argon in a nitrogen atmosphere. This QITMS can also be used to perform quantitative analyses of other gases within its molecular-mass range, which is 2 to 50 daltons (Da). (More precisely, it can be used to perform quantitative analysis of gases that, when ionized, are characterized by m/Z ratios between 2 and 50, where m is the mass of an ion in daltons and Z is the number of fundamental electric charges on the ion.

  13. Laser-based studies with an ion-trap mass spectrometer: Ion tomography and analytical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, M. L.; Cisper, M. E.; Hemberger, P. H.; Nogar, N. S.; Williams, J. D.; Syka, J. E. P.

    The iron trap mass spectrometer (ITMS) is an ion storage device which consists of two hyperbolic endcaps and a hyperbolic ring electrode. This forms a trapping cavity having a volume of several cm(sup 3). An RF potential applied to the ring electrode produces a time-varying potential which can be used to trap and/or manipulate ions under controlled conditions. This device has been used in ion trapping studies for a number of years. More recently, a commercial version has been produced and sold which allows for mass-selective ejection of trapped ions, with subsequent detection by an electron multiplier. In this mode, it operates as a compact, high efficiency, high resolution mass spectrometer. The instrument has found applications in GC/MS, in tandem mass spectroscopy and in portable mass spectral analysis. In this manuscript, we present a survey of recent results incorporating laser desorption, ionization, or photodissociation with ITMS. In one instance, we describe the use of laser photodissociation to map the spatial distribution of trapped ions in the ITMS. In this tomographic study, we have parameterized the effects of trapping potential, buffer gas pressure, supplementary RF-potential, and laser intensity. In separate studies, laser desorption was used to generate gas phase ions in the ITMS from a solid probe, by irradiation of both neat and matrix-dissolved samples. The latter experiment produced both high molecular weight ions and significant numbers of negative ions.

  14. Fast neutral beam ion source coupled to a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, N.C.; Limbach, P.A.; Shomo, R.E. II; Marshall, A.G. ); Appelhans, A.D.; Delmore, J.E. )

    1991-11-01

    The coupling of an autoneutralizing SF{sup {minus}}{sub 6} fast ion-beam gun to a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT/ICR) mass spectrometer is described. The fast neutral beam provides for secondary-ion-type FT/ICR mass analysis (e.g., production of abundant pseudomolecular (M+H){sup +} ions) of involatile samples without the need for external ion injection, since ions are formed at the entrance to the ICR ion trap. The design, construction, and testing of the hybrid instrument are described. The feasibility of the experiment (for both broadband and high-resolution FT/ICR positive-ion mass spectra) is demonstrated with {ital tetra}-butylammonium bromide and a Tylenol{sup ( )} sample. The ability to analyze high molecular weight polymers with high mass resolution is demonstrated for Teflon{sup ( )}. All of the advantages of the fast neutral beam ion source previously demonstrated with quadrupole mass analysis are preserved, and the additional advantages of FT/ICR mass analysis (e.g., high mass resolving power, ion trapping) are retained.

  15. Fast neutral beam ion source coupled to a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Nicholas C.; Limbach, Patrick A.; Shomo, Ronald E., II; Marshall, Alan G.; Appelhans, Anthony D.; Delmore, James E.

    1991-11-01

    The coupling of an autoneutralizing SF-6 fast ion-beam gun to a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT/ICR) mass spectrometer is described. The fast neutral beam provides for secondary-ion-type FT/ICR mass analysis [e.g., production of abundant pseudomolecular (M+H)+ ions] of involatile samples without the need for external ion injection, since ions are formed at the entrance to the ICR ion trap. The design, construction, and testing of the hybrid instrument are described. The feasibility of the experiment (for both broadband and high-resolution FT/ICR positive-ion mass spectra) is demonstrated with tetra-butylammonium bromide and a Tylenol■ sample. The ability to analyze high molecular weight polymers with high mass resolution is demonstrated for Teflon■. All of the advantages of the fast neutral beam ion source previously demonstrated with quadrupole mass analysis are preserved, and the additional advantages of FT/ICR mass analysis (e.g., high mass resolving power, ion trapping) are retained.

  16. Composition measurements of the topside ionosphere using a magnetic mass spectrometer, ion mass spectrometer on ISIS-2 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    The ion mass spectrometer (IMS) on the ISIS-II satellite is described; it measures the composition and distribution of positive ions in the earth's ionosphere in the mass range of 1 to 64 atomic mass units. Significant data were received which show a wide variation in ion composition at night near the equator and in the daytime poleward of the plasmapause. It was found that these data enable further study of the polar wind and that the experiment produced timely data during the August, 1972 magnetic storm to show the development of a unique ionosphere above the plasmapause during the period of the storm. The scientific objectives and results of the experiment, the technical description of the instrument, a bibliography with sample papers attached, and a summary of recommendations for further study are presented.

  17. Improved ion optics for introduction of ions into a 9.4-T Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chen, Yu; Leach, Franklin E.; Kaiser, Nathan K.; Dang, Xibei; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Norheim, Randolph V.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Smith, Richard D.; Marshall, Alan G.

    2015-01-19

    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry provides unparalleled mass accuracy and resolving power.[1],[2] With electrospray ionization (ESI), ions are typically transferred into the mass spectrometer through a skimmer, which serves as a conductance-limiting orifice. However, the skimmer allows only a small fraction of incoming ions to enter the mass spectrometer. An ion funnel, originally developed by Smith and coworkers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)[3-5] provides much more efficient ion focusing and transfer. The large entrance aperture of the ion funnel allows almost all ions emanating from a heated capillary to be efficiently captured and transferred, resulting inmore » nearly lossless transmission.« less

  18. Improved ion optics for introduction of ions into a 9.4-T Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Leach, Franklin E; Kaiser, Nathan K; Dang, Xibei; Ibrahim, Yehia M; Norheim, Randolph V; Anderson, Gordon A; Smith, Richard D; Marshall, Alan G

    2015-01-01

    Enhancements to the ion source and transfer optics of our 9.4 T Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) mass spectrometer have resulted in improved ion transmission efficiency for more sensitive mass measurement of complex mixtures at the MS and MS/MS levels. The tube lens/skimmer has been replaced by a dual ion funnel and the following octopole by a quadrupole for reduced ion cloud radial expansion before transmission into a mass-selective quadrupole. The number of ions that reach the ICR cell is increased by an order of magnitude for the funnel/quadrupole relative to the tube lens/skimmer/octopole. PMID:25601704

  19. Fluorescence imaging for visualization of the ion cloud in a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Talbot, Francis O; Sciuto, Stephen V; Jockusch, Rebecca A

    2013-12-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence is used to visualize populations of gaseous ions stored in a quadrupole ion trap (QIT) mass spectrometer. Presented images include the first fluorescence image of molecular ions collected under conditions typically used in mass spectrometry experiments. Under these "normal" mass spectrometry conditions, the radial (r) and axial (z) full-width at half maxima (FWHM) of the detected ion cloud are 615 and 214 μm, respectively, corresponding to ~6% of r0 and ~3% of z0 for the QIT used. The effects on the shape and size of the ion cloud caused by varying the pressure of helium bath gas, the number of trapped ions, and the Mathieu parameter q z are visualized and discussed. When a "tickle voltage" is applied to the exit end-cap electrode, as is done in collisionally activated dissociation, a significant elongation in the axial, but not the radial, dimension of the ion cloud is apparent. Finally, using spectroscopically distinguishable fluorophores of two different m/z values, images are presented that illustrate stratification of the ion cloud; ions of lower m/z (higher qz) are located in the center of the trapping region, effectively excluding higher m/z (lower qz) ions, which form a surrounding layer. Fluorescence images such as those presented here provide a useful reference for better understanding the collective behavior of ions in radio frequency (rf) trapping devices and how phenomena such as collisions and space-charge affect ion distribution. PMID:24092629

  20. Fluorescence Imaging for Visualization of the Ion Cloud in a Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talbot, Francis O.; Sciuto, Stephen V.; Jockusch, Rebecca A.

    2013-12-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence is used to visualize populations of gaseous ions stored in a quadrupole ion trap (QIT) mass spectrometer. Presented images include the first fluorescence image of molecular ions collected under conditions typically used in mass spectrometry experiments. Under these "normal" mass spectrometry conditions, the radial ( r) and axial ( z) full-width at half maxima (FWHM) of the detected ion cloud are 615 and 214 μm, respectively, corresponding to ~6 % of r 0 and ~3 % of z 0 for the QIT used. The effects on the shape and size of the ion cloud caused by varying the pressure of helium bath gas, the number of trapped ions, and the Mathieu parameter q z are visualized and discussed. When a "tickle voltage" is applied to the exit end-cap electrode, as is done in collisionally activated dissociation, a significant elongation in the axial, but not the radial, dimension of the ion cloud is apparent. Finally, using spectroscopically distinguishable fluorophores of two different m/ z values, images are presented that illustrate stratification of the ion cloud; ions of lower m/ z (higher q z ) are located in the center of the trapping region, effectively excluding higher m/ z (lower q z ) ions, which form a surrounding layer. Fluorescence images such as those presented here provide a useful reference for better understanding the collective behavior of ions in radio frequency (rf) trapping devices and how phenomena such as collisions and space-charge affect ion distribution.

  1. Improved Ion Optics for Introduction of Ions into a 9.4 Tesla Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu; Leach, Franklin E.; Kaiser, Nathan K.; Dang, Xibei; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Norheim, Randolph V.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Smith, Richard D.; Marshall, Alan G.

    2014-01-01

    Enhancements to the ion source and transfer optics of our 9.4 T FT-ICR mass spectrometer have resulted in improved ion transmission efficiency for more sensitive mass measurement of complex mixtures at the MS and MS/MS levels. The tube lens/skimmer has been replaced by a dual ion funnel and the following octopole by a quadrupole for reduced ion cloud radial expansion before transmission into a mass-selective quadrupole. The number of ions that reach the ICR cell is increased by an order of magnitude for the funnel/quadrupole relative to the tube lens/skimmer/octopole. PMID:25601704

  2. A compact time-of-flight mass spectrometer for ion source characterization.

    PubMed

    Chen, L; Wan, X; Jin, D Z; Tan, X H; Huang, Z X; Tan, G B

    2015-03-01

    A compact time-of-flight mass spectrometer with overall dimension of about 413 × 250 × 414 mm based on orthogonal injection and angle reflection has been developed for ion source characterization. Configuration and principle of the time-of-flight mass spectrometer are introduced in this paper. The mass resolution is optimized to be about 1690 (FWHM), and the ion energy detection range is tested to be between about 3 and 163 eV with the help of electron impact ion source. High mass resolution and compact configuration make this spectrometer useful to provide a valuable diagnostic for ion spectra fundamental research and study the mass to charge composition of plasma with wide range of parameters. PMID:25832275

  3. A compact time-of-flight mass spectrometer for ion source characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, L. Wan, X.; Jin, D. Z.; Tan, X. H.; Huang, Z. X.; Tan, G. B.

    2015-03-15

    A compact time-of-flight mass spectrometer with overall dimension of about 413 × 250 × 414 mm based on orthogonal injection and angle reflection has been developed for ion source characterization. Configuration and principle of the time-of-flight mass spectrometer are introduced in this paper. The mass resolution is optimized to be about 1690 (FWHM), and the ion energy detection range is tested to be between about 3 and 163 eV with the help of electron impact ion source. High mass resolution and compact configuration make this spectrometer useful to provide a valuable diagnostic for ion spectra fundamental research and study the mass to charge composition of plasma with wide range of parameters.

  4. Frequency-swept detector for ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wronka, J.; Ridge, D. P.

    1982-04-01

    Design, construction, performance, and use of a frequency-swept bridge detector for ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry are described. Special features include characterization and simple automatic correction of phase shift to allow broadband detection. The result is a detection system that may be used either at constant field or constant frequency. Drift-mode operation is simplified in that it may be satisfactorily used without the various signal modulation schemes used in previous detectors. In the trapped mode the detector may be pulsed to control the timing of ion detection. This detector makes it possible to do frequency-swept double resonance experiments which provide spectra of all the product ions of a given reactant ion. Circuit schematics and typical frequency- and field-swept spectra are shown.

  5. Compact Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer with Ion Drifts, Temperatures and Neutral Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paschalidis, Nikolaos

    2016-07-01

    In situ measurements of atmospheric neutral and ion composition and density, temperatures, ion drifts and neutral winds, are in high demand to study the dynamics of the ionosphere-theremosphere-mesosphere system. This paper presents a compact Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) with impended ion drifts and temperature, and neutral winds capability for in situ measurements of ions and neutrals H, He, N, O, N2, O2. The mass resolution M/dM is approximately 10 at an incoming energy range of 0-20eV. The goal is to resolve ion drifts in the range 0 to 3000m/sec with a resolution better than 50m/sec, and neutral winds in the range of 0 to 1000m/sec with similar resolution. For temperatures the goal is to cover a dynamic range of 0 to 5000K. The INMS is based on front end optics for ions and neutrals, pre acceleration, gated time of flight, top hat ESA, MCP detectors and compact electronics. The instrument is redundant for ions and neutrals with the ion and neutral sensor heads on opposite sides and with full electronics in the middle. The ion front end includes RPA for temperature scanning and neutral front end includes angular modulation and thermionic ionization and ion blocking grids. The electronics include fast electric gating, TOF electronics, TOF binning and C&DH digital electronics. The data package includes 400 mass bins each for ions and neutrals and key housekeeping data for instrument health and calibration. The data sampling can be commanded from 0.1 to 10 sec with 1sec nominal setting. The instrument has significant onboard storage capability and a data compression scheme. The mass spectrometer version of the instrument has been flown on the Exocube mission. The instrument occupied 1.5U volume, weighed only 560 g and required nominal power of 1.6W The ExoCube mission was designed to acquire global knowledge of in-situ densities of [H], [He], [O] and H+, He+, O+ in the upper ionosphere and lower exosphere in combination with incoherent scatter radar and

  6. Mass- and energy-analyses of ions from plasma by means of a miniature Thomson spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Sadowski, M. J.; Czaus, K.; Malinowski, K.; Skladnik-Sadowska, E.; Zebrowski, J.

    2009-05-15

    The paper presents an improved version of a miniature mass-spectrometer of the Thomson-type, which has been adopted for ion analysis near the dense plasma region inside a vacuum chamber. Problems connected with the separation of ions from plasma streams are considered. Input diaphragms and pumping systems, needed to ensure good vacuum inside the analyzing region, are described. The application of the miniature Thomson-type analyzer is illustrated by ion parabolas recorded in plasma-focus facility and rod plasma injector experiment. A quantitative analysis of the recorded ion parabolas is presented. Factors influencing accuracy of the ion analysis are discussed and methods of the spectrometer calibration are described.

  7. Mass- and energy-analyses of ions from plasma by means of a miniature Thomson spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadowski, M. J.; Czaus, K.; Malinowski, K.; Skladnik-Sadowska, E.; Zebrowski, J.

    2009-05-01

    The paper presents an improved version of a miniature mass-spectrometer of the Thomson-type, which has been adopted for ion analysis near the dense plasma region inside a vacuum chamber. Problems connected with the separation of ions from plasma streams are considered. Input diaphragms and pumping systems, needed to ensure good vacuum inside the analyzing region, are described. The application of the miniature Thomson-type analyzer is illustrated by ion parabolas recorded in plasma-focus facility and rod plasma injector experiment. A quantitative analysis of the recorded ion parabolas is presented. Factors influencing accuracy of the ion analysis are discussed and methods of the spectrometer calibration are described.

  8. Development and Deployment of Retrofit PolarisQ Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer for Isotope Ratio Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Cyril V.; Whitten, William B.

    2015-11-01

    This report describes Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s (ORNL) FY15 progress in support of National Nuclear Security Administration’s (NNSA) Portable Mass Spectrometer project. A retrofit PolarisQ ion trap mass spectrometer (RPMS) has been assembled from components of two PolarisQ ion trap mass spectrometers used in previous isotope ratio programs. The retrofit mass spectrometer includes a custom Hastelloy vacuum chamber which is about ¼ the size of the standard aluminum vacuum chamber and reduces the instrument weight from the original by nine pounds. In addition, the new vacuum chamber can be independently heated to reduce impurities such as water, which reacts with UF6 to produce HF in the vacuum chamber. The analyzer and all components requiring service are mounted on the chamber lid, facilitating quick and easy replacement of consumable components such as the filament and electron multiplier.

  9. Method for selective detection of explosives in mass spectrometer or ion mobility spectrometer at parts-per-quadrillion level

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, Robert G.; Atkinson, David A.; Clowers, Brian H.

    2015-09-01

    A method for selective detection of volatile and non-volatile explosives in a mass spectrometer or ion mobility spectrometer at a parts-per-quadrillion level without preconcentration is disclosed. The method comprises the steps of ionizing a carrier gas with an ionization source to form reactant ions or reactant adduct ions comprising nitrate ions (NO.sub.3.sup.-); selectively reacting the reactant ions or reactant adduct ions with at least one volatile or non-volatile explosive analyte at a carrier gas pressure of at least about 100 Ton in a reaction region disposed between the ionization source and an ion detector, the reaction region having a length which provides a residence time (tr) for reactant ions therein of at least about 0.10 seconds, wherein the selective reaction yields product ions comprising reactant ions or reactant adduct ions that are selectively bound to the at least one explosive analyte when present therein; and detecting product ions with the ion detector to determine presence or absence of the at least one explosive analyte.

  10. Imaging mass-spectrometer of ions for studying near-planetary plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaisberg, O. L.; Leibov, A. V.; Smirnov, V. N.; Avanov, L. A.; Bertelier, J.-J.; Torcar, K.; Leblan, F.; Babkin, V. F.; Grishin, V. A.; Baumjohann, V.; Escoubet, F.

    2006-05-01

    A numerical model of an ion mass-spectrometer is developed based on the new type of charged-particle analyzer CAMERA suggested previously [1 3]. The spectrometer provides for complete instantaneous imaging of the flux distribution of various ions in a hemisphere. Such a type of the mass-spectrometer is chosen, which allows one to analyze a conelike beam of ions at the exit of the CAMERA. The mathematical model of the CAMERA with this time-of-flight mass-analyzer ensures sufficiently high mass resolution (M/ΔM > 100) at conserved imaging capabilities of the CAMERA. Such an instrument can find a wide application both in magnetospheric studies and in studying various objects of the solar system.

  11. Ion/molecule reactions performed in a miniature cylindrical ion trap mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Riter, Leah S; Meurer, Eduardo C; Handberg, Eric S; Laughlin, Brian C; Chen, Hao; Patterson, Garth E; Eberlin, Marcos N; Cooks, R Graham

    2003-09-01

    A recently constructed miniature mass spectrometer, based on a cylindrical ion trap (CIT) mass analyzer, is used to perform ion/molecule reactions in order to improve selectivity for in situ analysis of explosives and chemical warfare agent simulants. Six different reactions are explored, including several of the Eberlin reaction type (M. N. Eberlin and R. G. Cooks, Org. Mass Spectrom., 1993, 28, 679-687) as well as novel gas-phase Meerwein reactions. The reactions include (1) Eberlin transacetalization of the benzoyl, 2,2-dimethyloximinium, and 2,2-dimethylthiooximinium cations with 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolane to form 2-phenyl-1,3-dioxolanylium cations, 2,2-dimethylamine-1,3-dioxolanylium cations and the 2,2-dimethylamin-1,3-oxathiolanylium cations, respectively; (2) Eberlin reaction of the phosphonium ion CH3P(O)OCH3+, formed from the chemical warfare agent simulant dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), with 1,4-dioxane to yield the 1,3,2-dioxaphospholanium ion, a new characteristic reaction for phosphate ester detection; (3) the novel Meerwein reaction of the ion CH3P(O)OCH3+ with propylene sulfide forming 1,3,2-oxathionylphospholanium ion; (4) the Meerwein reaction of the benzoyl cation with propylene oxide and propylene sulfide to form 4-methyl-2-phenyl-1,3-dioxolane and its thio analog, respectively; (5) ketalization of the benzoyl cation with ethylene glycol to form the 2-phenyl-1,3-dioxolanylium cation; (6) addition/NO2 elimination involving benzonitrile radical cation in reaction with nitrobenzene to form an arylated nitrile, a diagnostic reaction for explosives detection and (7) simple methanol addition to the C7H7+ ion, formed by NO2 loss from the molecular ion of p-nitrotoluene to form an intact adduct. Evidence is provided that these reactions occur to give the products described and their potential analytical utility is discussed. PMID:14529016

  12. A feasibility study of ion implantation techniques for mass spectrometer calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koslin, M. E.; Krycuk, G. A.; Schatz, J. G., Jr.; White, F. A.; Wood, G. M.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental study was undertaken to examine the feasibility of using ion-implanted filaments doped with either an alkali metal or noble gas for in situ recalibration of onboard mass spectrometers during extended space missions. Implants of rubidium and krypton in rhenium ribbon filaments were subsequently tested in a bakeable 60 deg sector mass spectrometer operating in the static mode. Surface ionization and electron impact ion sources were both used, each yielding satisfactory results. The metallic implant with subsequent ionization provided a means of mass scale calibration and determination of system operating parameters, whereas the noble gas thermally desorbed into the system was more suited for partial pressure and sensitivity determinations.

  13. High precision electric gate for time-of-flight ion mass spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sittler, Edward C. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A time-of-flight mass spectrometer having a chamber with electrodes to generate an electric field in the chamber and electric gating for allowing ions with a predetermined mass and velocity into the electric field. The design uses a row of very thin parallel aligned wires that are pulsed in sequence so the ion can pass through the gap of two parallel plates, which are biased to prevent passage of the ion. This design by itself can provide a high mass resolution capability and a very precise start pulse for an ion mass spectrometer. Furthermore, the ion will only pass through the chamber if it is within a wire diameter of the first wire when it is pulsed and has the right speed so it is near all other wires when they are pulsed.

  14. Final Report - Ion Production and Transport in Atmospheric Pressure Ion Source Mass Spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Farnsworth, Paul B.; Spencer, Ross L.

    2014-05-14

    This document is the final report on a project that focused in the general theme of atmospheric-pressure ion production and transport for mass spectrometry. Within that general theme there were two main projects: the fundamental study of the transport of elemental ions through the vacuum interface of an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICPMS), and fundamental studies of the ionization mechanisms in ambient desorption/ionization (ADI) sources for molecular mass spectrometry. In both cases the goal was to generate fundamental understanding of key instrumental processes that would lead to the development of instruments that were more sensitive and more consistent in their performance. The emphasis on consistency derives from the need for instruments that have the same sensitivity, regardless of sample type. In the jargon of analytical chemistry, such instruments are said to be free from matrix effects. In the ICPMS work each stage of ion production and of ion transport from the atmospheric pressure to the high-vacuum mass analyzer was studied. Factors controlling ion transport efficiency and consistency were identified at each stage of pressure reduction. In the ADI work the interactions between an electrospray plume and a fluorescent sample on a surface were examined microscopically. A new mechanism for analyte ion production in desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) was proposed. Optical spectroscopy was used to track the production of reactive species in plasmas used as ADI sources. Experiments with mixed-gas plasmas demonstrated that the addition of a small amount of hydrogen to a helium ADI plasma could boost the sensitivity for some analytes by over an order of magnitude.

  15. Ion-retarding lens improves the abundance sensitivity of tandem mass spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, K. A.; Stevens, C. M.

    1969-01-01

    Ion-retarding lens which increases the abundance sensitivity of tandem magnetic-analyzer mass spectrometers measures isotopes of low abundance in mass positions adjacent to isotopes of high abundance. The lens increases the abundance sensitivity for isotopes lying farther from high abundance isotopes than the energy cutoff of the lens.

  16. System for studying a sample of material using a heavy ion induced mass spectrometer source

    DOEpatents

    Fries, D.P.; Browning, J.F.

    1998-07-21

    A heavy ion generator is used with a plasma desorption mass spectrometer to provide an appropriate neutron flux in the direction of a fissionable material in order to desorb and ionize large molecules from the material for mass analysis. The heavy ion generator comprises a fissionable material having a high (n,f) reaction cross section. The heavy ion generator also comprises a pulsed neutron generator that is used to bombard the fissionable material with pulses of neutrons, thereby causing heavy ions to be emitted from the fissionable material. These heavy ions impinge on a material, thereby causing ions to desorb off that material. The ions desorbed off the material pass through a time-of-flight mass analyzer, wherein ions can be measured with masses greater than 25,000 amu. 3 figs.

  17. System for studying a sample of material using a heavy ion induced mass spectrometer source

    DOEpatents

    Fries, David P.; Browning, James F.

    1998-01-01

    A heavy ion generator is used with a plasma desorption mass spectrometer to provide an appropriate neutron flux in the direction of a fissionable material in order to desorb and ionize large molecules from the material for mass analysis. The heavy ion generator comprises a fissionable material having a high n,f reaction cross section. The heavy ion generator also comprises a pulsed neutron generator that is used to bombard the fissionable material with pulses of neutrons, thereby causing heavy ions to be emitted from the fissionable material. These heavy ions impinge on a material, thereby causing ions to desorb off that material. The ions desorbed off the material pass through a time-of-flight mass analyzer, wherein ions can be measured with masses greater than 25,000 amu.

  18. Method for studying a sample of material using a heavy ion induced mass spectrometer source

    DOEpatents

    Fries, David P.; Browning, James F.

    1999-01-01

    A heavy ion generator is used with a plasma desorption mass spectrometer to provide an appropriate neutron flux in the direction of a fissionable material in order to desorb and ionize large molecules from the material for mass analysis. The heavy ion generator comprises a fissionable material having a high n,f reaction cross section. The heavy ion generator also comprises a pulsed neutron generator that is used to bombard the fissionable material with pulses of neutrons, thereby causing heavy ions to be emitted from the fissionable material. These heavy ions impinge on a material, thereby causing ions to desorb off that material. The ions desorbed off the material pass through a time-of-flight mass analyzer, wherein ions can be measured with masses greater than 25,000 amu.

  19. Method for studying a sample of material using a heavy ion induced mass spectrometer source

    DOEpatents

    Fries, D.P.; Browning, J.F.

    1999-02-16

    A heavy ion generator is used with a plasma desorption mass spectrometer to provide an appropriate neutron flux in the direction of a fissionable material in order to desorb and ionize large molecules from the material for mass analysis. The heavy ion generator comprises a fissionable material having a high n,f reaction cross section. The heavy ion generator also comprises a pulsed neutron generator that is used to bombard the fissionable material with pulses of neutrons, thereby causing heavy ions to be emitted from the fissionable material. These heavy ions impinge on a material, thereby causing ions to desorb off that material. The ions desorbed off the material pass through a time-of-flight mass analyzer, wherein ions can be measured with masses greater than 25,000 amu. 3 figs.

  20. Fundamental studies of ion injection and trapping of electrosprayed ions on a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quarmby, Scott Thomas

    The quadrupole ion trap is a highly versatile and sensitive analytical mass spectrometer. Because of the advantages offered by the ion trap, there has been intense interest in coupling it to ionization techniques such as electrospray which form ions externally to the ion trap. In this work, experiments and computer simulations were employed to study the injection of electrosprayed ions into the ion trap of a Finnigan MAT LCQ LC/MS n mass spectrometer. The kinetic energy distribution of the ion beam was characterized and found to be relatively wide, a result of the high pressures from the atmospheric pressure source. One of the most important experimental parameters which affects ion injection efficiency is the RF voltage applied to the ring electrode. A theoretical model was fit to experimental data allowing the optimum RF voltage for trapping a given m/z ion to be predicted. Computer simulations of ion motion were performed to study the effect of various instrumental parameters on trapping efficiency. A commercially available ion optics program, SIMION v6.0, was chosen because it allowed the actual ion trap electrode geometry including endcap holes to be simulated. In contrast to previous computer simulations, SIMION provided the ability to start ions outside the ion trap and to simulate more accurately the injection of externally formed ions. The endcap holes were found to allow the RF field to penetrate out of the ion trap and affect ions as they approached the ion trap. From these simulations, a model for the process by which injected ions are trapped was developed. Using these computer simulations, techniques of improving trapping efficiency were investigated. Most previous techniques perturb ions which are already in the ion trap and therefore cannot be used to accumulate ions; the ability to accumulate ions is a necessity with ionization sources such as electrospray which form ions continuously. One such novel technique for improving trapping efficiency

  1. Development and Evaluation of a Variable-Temperature Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derkits, David; Wiseman, Alex; Snead, Russell F.; Dows, Martina; Harge, Jasmine; Lamp, Jared A.; Gronert, Scott

    2016-02-01

    A new, variable-temperature mass spectrometer system is described. By applying polyimide heating tape to the end-cap electrodes of a Bruker (Bremen, Germany) Esquire ion trap, it is possible to vary the effective temperature of the system between 40 and 100°C. The modification does not impact the operation of the ion trap and the heater can be used for extended periods without degradation of the system. The accuracy of the ion trap temperatures was assessed by examining two gas-phase equilibrium processes with known thermochemistry. In each case, the variable-temperature ion trap provided data that were in good accord with literature data, indicating the effective temperature in the ion trap environment was being successfully modulated by the changes in the set-point temperatures on the end-cap electrodes. The new design offers a convenient and effective way to convert commercial ion trap mass spectrometers into variable-temperature instruments.

  2. Development and Evaluation of a Variable-Temperature Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Derkits, David; Wiseman, Alex; Snead, Russell F; Dows, Martina; Harge, Jasmine; Lamp, Jared A; Gronert, Scott

    2016-02-01

    A new, variable-temperature mass spectrometer system is described. By applying polyimide heating tape to the end-cap electrodes of a Bruker (Bremen, Germany) Esquire ion trap, it is possible to vary the effective temperature of the system between 40 and 100°C. The modification does not impact the operation of the ion trap and the heater can be used for extended periods without degradation of the system. The accuracy of the ion trap temperatures was assessed by examining two gas-phase equilibrium processes with known thermochemistry. In each case, the variable-temperature ion trap provided data that were in good accord with literature data, indicating the effective temperature in the ion trap environment was being successfully modulated by the changes in the set-point temperatures on the end-cap electrodes. The new design offers a convenient and effective way to convert commercial ion trap mass spectrometers into variable-temperature instruments. PMID:26483183

  3. Ion mobility mass spectrometry of proteins in a modified commercial mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thalassinos, K.; Slade, S. E.; Jennings, K. R.; Scrivens, J. H.; Giles, K.; Wildgoose, J.; Hoyes, J.; Bateman, R. H.; Bowers, M. T.

    2004-08-01

    Ion mobility has emerged as an important technique for determining biopolymer conformations in solvent free environments. These experiments have been nearly exclusively performed on home built systems. In this paper we describe modifications to a commercial high performance mass spectrometer, the Waters UK "Ultima" Q-Tof, that allows high sensitivity measurement of peptide and protein cross sections. Arrival time distributions are obtained for a series of peptides (bradykinin, LHRH, substance P, bombesin) and proteins (bovine and equine cytochrome c, myoglobin, [alpha]-lactalbumin) with good agreement found with literature cross sections where available. In complex ATD's, mass spectra can be obtained for each feature confirming assignments. The increased sensitivity of the commercial instrument is retained along with the convenience of the data system, crucial features for analysis of protein misfolding systems.

  4. Instrument manual for the retarding ion mass spectrometer on Dynamics Explorer-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, S. A.; Baugher, C. R.; Chappell, C. R.; Reasoner, D. L.; Hammack, H. D.; Wright, W. W.; Hoffman, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    The retarding ion mass spectrometer (RIMS) for Dynamics Explorer-1 is an instrument designed to measure the details of the thermal plasma distribution. It combines the ion temperature determining capability of the retarding potential analyzer with the compositional capabilities of the mass spectrometer and adds multiple sensor heads to sample all directions relative to the spacecraft ram direction. This manual provides a functional description of the RIMS, the instrument calibration, and a description of the commands which can be stored in the instrument logic to control its operation.

  5. Rocket-borne Ion Mass Spectrometer for the Mesosphere That is Pumped by Rocket Aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sternovsky, Zoltan; Smith, Steven; Robertson, Scott

    The mesospheric region close to the mesopause is populated by electrons, ions and aerosol particles. The number density of aerosol particles may exceed that of the background plasma creating conditions where the free electron density is reduced. Understanding the full charge balance of the region requires the simultaneous detection of electrons, charged aerosol particles and ions. Rocket borne instruments for the measurement of electrons and aerosols are readily available. Mass spectrometers for ions have been flown that were evacuated by cryogenic vacuum pumps with liquid helium or neon. There have not been flights since 1993 because these instruments required expensive deliveries of cryogens and frequent refilling. Advances in (1) aerodynamic modeling, (2) mass spectrometer design, and (3) ion detection technology make possible a new approach to mass spectrometry in the mesosphere in which the spectrometer is pumped by the flow around the rocket. A miniature Rotating Field Mass Analyzer (RFMS) is presented that is suitable for the measurement of ions in from 70 km upward. RFMS has a 2 x 2 x 20 mm3 velocity selection cell and utilizes and advanced ion detector that is capable of single ions operation mode at these altitudes. The instrument is pumped by the aerodynamic effect of the supersonic payload. A prototype version of RFMS is under laboratory testing.

  6. Comet Encke: Meteor metallic ion identification by mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, R. A.; Aikin, A. C.

    1972-01-01

    Metal ions including Na-40(+), Mg-24(+), Si-28(+), K-39(+), Ca-40(+), Sc-45(+), Cr-52(+), Fe-56(+), and Ni-58(+) were detected in the upper atmosphere during the beta Taurids meteor shower. Abundances of these ions relative to Si(+) show agreement in most instances with chondrites. A notable exception is 45(+), which is Sc(+), is 100 times more abundant than neutral scandium found in chondrites.

  7. Comet encke: meteor metallic ion identification by mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, R A; Aikin, A C

    1973-04-20

    Metal ions including 23(+) (Na(+)), 24(+) (Mg(+)) 28(+) (Si(+)), 39(+) (K(+)), 40(+) (Ca(+)), 45(+) (Sc(+)), 52(+) Cr(+)). 56(+) (Fe(+)), and 58(+) (Ni(+)) have been detected in the upper atmosphere during the period of the Beta Taurids meteor shower. The abundances of these ions relative to Si(+) show, agreement in most instances with abundances in chondrites. A notable exception is 45(+), which, if it is Sc(+), is 100 times more abundant than neutral scandium found in chondrites. PMID:17816288

  8. Infrared Multiphoton Dissociation of Peptide Cations in a Dual Pressure Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Myles W.; Smith, Suncerae I.; Ledvina, Aaron R.; Madsen, James A.; Coon, Joshua J.; Schwartz, Jae C.; Stafford, George C.; Brodbelt, Jennifer S.

    2009-01-01

    A dual pressure linear ion trap mass spectrometer was modified to permit infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) in each of the two cells - the first a high pressure cell operated at nominally 5 × 10-3 Torr and the second a low pressure cell operated at nominally 3 × 10-4 Torr. When IRMPD was performed in the high pressure cell, most peptide ions did not undergo significant photodissociation; however, in the low pressure cell peptide cations were efficiently dissociated with less than 25 ms of IR irradiation regardless of charge state. IRMPD of peptide cations allowed the detection of low m/z product ions including the y1 fragments and immonium ions which are not typically observed by ion trap collision induced dissociation (CID). Photodissociation efficiencies of ~100% and MS/MS (tandem mass spectrometry) efficiencies of greater than 60% were observed for both multiply and singly protonated peptides. In general, higher sequence coverage of peptides was obtained using IRMPD over CID. Further, greater than 90% of the product ion current in the IRMPD mass spectra of doubly charged peptide ions was composed of singly charged product ions compared to the CID mass spectra in which the abundances of the multiply and singly charged product ions were equally divided. Highly charged primary product ions also underwent efficient photodissociation to yield singly charged secondary product ions, thus simplifying the IRMPD product ion mass spectra. PMID:19739654

  9. Design of An Improved Miniature Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer for NASA Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swaminathan, Viji K.; Alig, Roger C.

    1997-01-01

    The ion optics of NASA's Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) sensor was simulated with three dimensional models of the open source, the quadrupole deflector, the exit lens system and the quadrupole mass analyzer to design more compact models with lower weight. Comparison of calculated transmission with experimental results shows good agreement. Transmission analyses with varying geometrical parameters and voltages throw light on possible ways of reducing the size of the sensor. Trajectories of ions of mass 1-99 amu were simulated to analyze and optimize transmission. Analysis of open source transmission with varying angle of attack shows that the angular acceptance can be considerably increased by programming the voltages on the ion trap/ collimator. Analysis of transmission sensitivity to voltages and misalignments of the quadrupole deflector rods indicate that increased transmission is possible with a geometrically asymmetrical deflector and a deflector can be designed with much lower sensitivities of transmission. Bringing the disks closer together can decrease the size of the quadrupole deflector and also increase transmission. The exit lens system can be redesigned to be smaller by eliminating at least one electrode entirely without loss of transmission. Ceramic materials were investigated to find suitable candidates for use in the construction of lighter weight mass spectrometer. A high-sensitivity, high-resolution portable gas chromatograph mass spectrometer with a mass range of 2-700 amu has been built and will be commercialized in Phase 3.

  10. DIRECT TRACE ANALYSIS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN AIR USING ION TRAP MASS SPECTROMETERS WITH FILTERED NOISE FIELDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two ion trap mass spectrometers and direct air sampling interfaces are being evaluated in the laboratory for monitoring toxic air pollutants in real time. he mass spectrometers are the large, laboratory-based Finnigan MAT ion trap (ITMS) and the compact, field-deployable Teledyne...

  11. Bennett ion mass spectrometers on the Pioneer Venus Bus and Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, H. A., Jr.; Brinton, H. C.; Wagner, T. C. G.; Blackwell, B. H.; Cordier, G. R.

    1980-01-01

    Identical Bennett radio-frequency ion mass spectrometer instruments on the Pioneer Venus Bus and Orbiter have provided the first in-situ measurements of the detailed composition of the planet's ionosphere. The sensitivity, resolution, and dynamic range are sufficient to provide measurements of the solar-wind-induced bow-shock, the ionopause, and highly structured distributions of up to 16 thermal ion species within the ionosphere. The use of adaptive scan and detection circuits and servo-controlled logic for ion mass and energy analysis permits detection of ion concentrations as low as 5 ions/cu cm and ion flow velocities as large as 9 km/sec for O(+). A variety of commandable modes provides ion sampling rates ranging from 0.1 to 1.6 sec between measurements of a single constituent. A lightweight sensor and electronics housing are features of a compact instrument package.

  12. Evaluation of the ion trap mass spectrometer for potential application in the space station

    SciTech Connect

    Glish, G.L.; McLuckey, S.A.

    1988-04-01

    This report describes preliminary experiments with an ion trap mass spectrometer, which were done to evaluate its potential for use in the environmental monitoring system of the proposed space station. The first section of the report describes various modes of operation of the instrument, discusses some of the present limitations, and discusses some of the potential solutions to these limitations. The next section discusses the experimental results obtained on sixteen compounds with particular emphasis on comparing these data to that expected from a standard mass spectrometer. The last section consists of a conclusion and comments on suggested future work. 16 figs.

  13. High latitude minor ion enhancements: A clue for studies of magnetosphere-atmosphere coupling. [using OGO 6 ion mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, H. A., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Unexpectedly abrupt and pronounced distributions of the thermal molecular ions NO(+), O2(+) and N2(+) were observed at mid and high latitudes by the OGO-6 ion mass spectrometer. These minor ions may reach concentration levels exceeding 1000 ions/cu cm at altitudes as great as 1000 km, suggestive of scale heights well in excess of those inferred from low and mid-latitude measurements, under relatively undisturbed conditions. The high latitude ion enhancements were observed to be narrowly defined in time and space, with molecular ion concentrations changing by as much as an order of magnitude between successive orbits.

  14. Developments of multiplexed and miniature two-dimensional quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Scott A.

    Quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry (QIT MS) is a powerful and commonly-employed method for the specific analysis of mass, composition, and structure of gas-phase ionic chemical species. Useful for a wide variety of tasks, applications of ion traps include environmental monitoring, surface analysis (including depth profiling and imaging), ion thermochemical property elucidation, protein and DNA sequencing, and high-resolution chemical separations (through ion soft-landing). Though the principles of QIT MS have been known for over half a century, innovations in instrumentation and applications continue. As new needs for specific and sensitive chemical analysis arise, so also do new and more efficient analytical devices and methods of analysis. Such a trend is exemplified through the construction of a dual-source QIT mass spectrometer (described herein) capable of multi-source chemical analyses for the purposes of enhanced proteomic sequence coverage and for the strictly-controlled comparison of the structural differences in ion populations generated by different ionization techniques. Furthermore, as mass spectrometry becomes increasingly commonplace outside the bounds of the analytical laboratory, demand for capable researcher equipment is also increasing. Advances in instrument performance, such as can be had through enhanced power efficiency and the enabling of chemical analysis of high mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) species (e.g., proteins), will open new doors to in situ chemical analysis hand-portable mass spectrometers. Hence, research into new mass analyzer designs and methods of fabrication using stereolithography apparatus (SLA) for the purpose of creating enhanced-performance mass spectrometers are accordingly described in the text of this dissertation.

  15. MEMS Fabrication of Micro Cylindrical Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer for CubeSats Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Y.

    2015-10-01

    Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) technology is used to fabricate arrays of micro Cylindrical Ion Traps (μCIT) which are integrated into a miniaturized mass spectrometer (MS). The micro μCITs are built from silicon wafers and requires high machining precision, smooth surface, and high dimensional uniformity across the array for optimum mass spectrometer performance. In order to build these 3D miniature structures several MEMS processing techniques were explored and a process was developed and tested. By using the developed MEMS process, the required μCIT 4 x 4 arrays were fabricated. This included a chip design variation in which mechanical locking pits and posts were machined in the Ring Electrode (RE) chip and End Plate (EP) chips respectively, for self-assembly. The size of the assembled μCIT is only 12 mm x 12 mm x 1.5 mm. It is a key component for the miniature mass spectrometer. The micro cylindrical ion trap mass spectrometer has the advantages of low-power operation, simpler electronics and less-stringent vacuum system requirements. The MEMS batch production capabilities will also greatly lower the cost. It is a promising candidate for CubeSat and nanoSats applications for exploration of chemical distributions in space.

  16. Electronics of an ion trap with integrated time-of-flight mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Christian; Schowalter, Steven J.; Yu, Peter; Hudson, Eric R.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, we reported an ion trap experiment with an integrated time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOFMS) [Phys. Rev. Appl. 2, 034013 (2014)] focussing on the improvement of mass resolution and detection limit due to sample preparation at millikelvin temperatures. The system utilizes a radio-frequency (RF) ion trap with asymmetric drive for storing and manipulating laser-cooled ions and features radial extraction into a compact $275$ mm long TOF drift tube. The mass resolution exceeds $m / \\Delta m = 500$, which provides isotopic resolution over the whole mass range of interest in current experiments and constitutes an improvement of almost an order of magnitude over other implementations. In this manuscript, we discuss the experimental implementation in detail, which is comprised of newly developed drive electronics for generating the required voltages to operate RF trap and TOFMS, as well as control electronics for regulating RF outputs and synchronizing the TOFMS extraction.

  17. Mass Spectrometers in Space!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinckerhoff, William B.

    2012-01-01

    Exploration of our solar system over several decades has benefitted greatly from the sensitive chemical analyses offered by spaceflight mass spectrometers. When dealing with an unknown environment, the broadband detection capabilities of mass analyzers have proven extremely valuable in determining the composition and thereby the basic nature of space environments, including the outer reaches of Earth s atmosphere, interplanetary space, the Moon, and the planets and their satellites. Numerous mass analyzer types, including quadrupole, monopole, sector, ion trap, and time-of-flight have been incorporated in flight instruments and delivered robotically to a variety of planetary environments. All such instruments went through a rigorous process of application-specific development, often including significant miniaturization, testing, and qualification for the space environment. Upcoming missions to Mars and opportunities for missions to Venus, Europa, Saturn, Titan, asteroids, and comets provide new challenges for flight mass spectrometers that push to state of the art in fundamental analytical technique. The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) investigation on the recently-launch Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover mission incorporates a quadrupole analyzer to support direct evolved gas as well as gas chromatograph-based analysis of martian rocks and atmosphere, seeking signs of a past or present habitable environment. A next-generation linear ion trap mass spectrometer, using both electron impact and laser ionization, is being incorporated into the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) instrument, which will be flown to Mars in 2018. These and other mass spectrometers and mission concepts at various stages of development will be described.

  18. Method for calibrating mass spectrometers

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Gordon A [Benton City, WA; Brands, Michael D [Richland, WA; Bruce, James E [Schwenksville, PA; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana [Richland, WA; Smith, Richard D [Richland, WA

    2002-12-24

    A method whereby a mass spectra generated by a mass spectrometer is calibrated by shifting the parameters used by the spectrometer to assign masses to the spectra in a manner which reconciles the signal of ions within the spectra having equal mass but differing charge states, or by reconciling ions having known differences in mass to relative values consistent with those known differences. In this manner, the mass spectrometer is calibrated without the need for standards while allowing the generation of a highly accurate mass spectra by the instrument.

  19. Super-Atmospheric Pressure Ion Sources: Application and Coupling to API Mass Spectrometer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lee Chuin; Rahman, Md. Matiur; Hiraoka, Kenzo

    2014-01-01

    Pressurizing the ionization source to gas pressure greater than atmospheric pressure is a new tactic aimed at further improving the performance of atmospheric pressure ionization (API) sources. In principle, all API sources, such as ESI, APCI and AP-MALDI, can be operated at pressure higher than 1 atm if suitable vacuum interface is available. The gas pressure in the ion source can have different role for different ionization. For example, in the case of ESI, stable electrospray could be sustained for high surface tension liquid (e.g., pure water) under super-atmospheric pressure, owing to the absence of electric discharge. Even for nanoESI, which is known to work well with aqueous solution, its stability and sensitivity were found to be enhanced, particularly in the negative mode when the ion source was pressurized. For the gas phase ionization like APCI, measurement of gaseous compound also showed an increase in ion intensity with the ion source pressure until an optimum pressure at around 4–5 atm. The enhancement was due to the increased collision frequency among reactant ion and analyte that promoted the ion/molecule reaction and a higher intake rate of gas to the mass spectrometer. Because the design of vacuum interface for API instrument is based on the upstream pressure of 1 atm, some coupling aspects need to be considered when connecting the high pressure ion source to the mass spectrometer. Several coupling strategies are discussed in this paper. PMID:26819896

  20. Hybrid quadrupole mass filter/quadrupole ion trap/time-of-flight-mass spectrometer for infrared multiple photon dissociation spectroscopy of mass-selected ions

    SciTech Connect

    Gulyuz, Kerim; Stedwell, Corey N.; Wang Da; Polfer, Nick C.

    2011-05-15

    We present a laboratory-constructed mass spectrometer optimized for recording infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectra of mass-selected ions using a benchtop tunable infrared optical parametric oscillator/amplifier (OPO/A). The instrument is equipped with two ionization sources, an electrospray ionization source, as well as an electron ionization source for troubleshooting. This hybrid mass spectrometer is composed of a quadrupole mass filter for mass selection, a reduced pressure ({approx}10{sup -5} Torr) quadrupole ion trap (QIT) for OPO irradiation, and a reflectron time-of-flight drift tube for detecting the remaining precursor and photofragment ions. A helium gas pulse is introduced into the QIT to temporarily increase the pressure and hence enhance the trapping efficiency of axially injected ions. After a brief pump-down delay, the compact ion cloud is subjected to the focused output from the continuous wave OPO. In a recent study, we implemented this setup in the study of protonated tryptophan, TrpH{sup +}, as well as collision-induced dissociation products of this protonated amino acid [W. K. Mino, Jr., K. Gulyuz, D. Wang, C. N. Stedwell, and N. C. Polfer, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2, 299 (2011)]. Here, we give a more detailed account on the figures of merit of such IRMPD experiments. The appreciable photodissociation yields in these measurements demonstrate that IRMPD spectroscopy of covalently bound ions can be routinely carried out using benchtop OPO setups.

  1. Following the Ions through a Mass Spectrometer with Atmospheric Pressure Interface: Simulation of Complete Ion Trajectories from Ion Source to Mass Analyzer.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaoyu; Ouyang, Zheng

    2016-07-19

    Ion trajectory simulation is an important and useful tool in instrumentation development for mass spectrometry. Accurate simulation of the ion motion through the mass spectrometer with atmospheric pressure ionization source has been extremely challenging, due to the complexity in gas hydrodynamic flow field across a wide pressure range as well as the computational burden. In this study, we developed a method of generating the gas flow field for an entire mass spectrometer with an atmospheric pressure interface. In combination with the electric force, for the first time simulation of ion trajectories from an atmospheric pressure ion source to a mass analyzer in vacuum has been enabled. A stage-by-stage ion repopulation method has also been implemented for the simulation, which helped to avoid an intolerable computational burden for simulations at high pressure regions while it allowed statistically meaningful results obtained for the mass analyzer. It has been demonstrated to be suitable to identify a joint point for combining the high and low pressure fields solved individually. Experimental characterization has also been done to validate the new method for simulation. Good agreement was obtained between simulated and experimental results for ion transfer though an atmospheric pressure interface with a curtain gas. PMID:27340893

  2. Mass spectrometers: instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooks, R. G.; Hoke, S. H., II; Morand, K. L.; Lammert, S. A.

    1992-09-01

    Developments in mass spectrometry instrumentation over the past three years are reviewed. The subject is characterized by an enormous diversity of designs, a high degree of competition between different laboratories working with either different or similar techniques and by extremely rapid progress in improving analytical performance. Instruments can be grouped into genealogical charts based on their physical and conceptual interrelationships. This is illustrated using mass analyzers of different types. The time course of development of particular instrumental concepts is illustrated in terms of the s-curves typical of cell growth. Examples are given of instruments which are at the exponential, linear and mature growth stages. The prime examples used are respectively: (i) hybrid instruments designed to study reactive collisions of ions with surfaces: (ii) the Paul ion trap; and (iii) the triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. In the area of ion/surface collisions, reactive collisions such as hydrogen radical abstraction from the surface by the impinging ion are studied. They are shown to depend upon the chemical nature of the surface through the use of experiments which utilize self-assembled monolayers as surfaces. The internal energy deposited during surface-induced dissociation upon collision with different surfaces in a BEEQ instrument is also discussed. Attention is also given to a second area of emerging instrumentation, namely technology which allows mass spectrometers to be used for on-line monitoring of fluid streams. A summary of recent improvements in the performance of the rapidly developing quadrupole ion trap instrument illustrates this stage of instrument development. Improvements in resolution and mass range and their application to the characterization of biomolecules are described. The interaction of theory with experiment is illustrated through the role of simulations of ion motion in the ion trap. It is emphasized that mature instruments play a

  3. An electrodynamic ion funnel interface for greater sensitivity and higher throughput with linear ion trap mass spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, Jason S.; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D.

    2007-09-01

    An electrospray ionization interface incorporating an electrodynamic ion funnel has been designed and implemented on a linear ion trap mass spectrometer (Thermo Electron, LTQ). We found ion transmission to be greatly improved by replacing the standard capillary-skimmer interface with the capillary-ion funnel interface. An infusion study using a serial dilution of a reserpine solution showed that ion injection (accumulation) times to fill the ion trap at a given automatic gain control (AGC) target value were reduced by ~90% which resulted in an ~10-fold increase in peak intensities. In liquid chromatography tandem MS (LC-MS/MS) experiments performed using a global protein digest sample from the bacterium, Shewanella oneidensis, more peptides and proteins were identified when the ion funnel interface was used in place of the standard interface. This improvement was most pronounced at lower sample concentrations, where extended ion accumulation times are required, resulting in an ~2-fold increase in the number of protein identifications. Implementation of the ion funnel interface on a LTQ Fourier transform (FT) mass spectrometer showed a ~25-50% reduction in spectrum acquisition time. The duty cycle improvement in this case was due to the ion accumulation event contributing a larger portion to the total spectrum acquisition time.

  4. Experimental Characterization of Secular Frequency Scanning in Ion Trap Mass Spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Dalton T.; Pulliam, Christopher J.; Wiley, Joshua S.; Duncan, Jason; Cooks, R. Graham

    2016-07-01

    Secular frequency scanning is implemented and characterized using both a benchtop linear ion trap and a miniature rectilinear ion trap mass spectrometer. Separation of tetraalkylammonium ions and those from a mass calibration mixture and from a pesticide mixture is demonstrated with peak widths approaching unit resolution for optimized conditions using the benchtop ion trap. The effects on the spectra of ion trap operating parameters, including waveform amplitude, scan direction, scan rate, and pressure are explored, and peaks at black holes corresponding to nonlinear (higher-order field) resonance points are investigated. Reverse frequency sweeps (increasing mass) on the Mini 12 are shown to result in significantly higher ion ejection efficiency and superior resolution than forward frequency sweeps that decrement mass. This result is accounted for by the asymmetry in ion energy absorption profiles as a function of AC frequency and the shift in ion secular frequency at higher amplitudes in the trap due to higher order fields. We also found that use of higher AC amplitudes in forward frequency sweeps biases ions toward ejection at points of higher order parametric resonance, despite using only dipolar excitation. Higher AC amplitudes also increase peak width and decrease sensitivity in both forward and reverse frequency sweeps. Higher sensitivity and resolution were obtained at higher trap pressures in the secular frequency scan, in contrast to conventional resonance ejection scans, which showed the opposite trend in resolution on the Mini 12. Mass range is shown to be naturally extended in secular frequency scanning when ejecting ions by sweeping the AC waveform through low frequencies, a method which is similar, but arguably superior, to the more usual method of mass range extension using low q resonance ejection.

  5. Experimental Characterization of Secular Frequency Scanning in Ion Trap Mass Spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Dalton T.; Pulliam, Christopher J.; Wiley, Joshua S.; Duncan, Jason; Cooks, R. Graham

    2016-03-01

    Secular frequency scanning is implemented and characterized using both a benchtop linear ion trap and a miniature rectilinear ion trap mass spectrometer. Separation of tetraalkylammonium ions and those from a mass calibration mixture and from a pesticide mixture is demonstrated with peak widths approaching unit resolution for optimized conditions using the benchtop ion trap. The effects on the spectra of ion trap operating parameters, including waveform amplitude, scan direction, scan rate, and pressure are explored, and peaks at black holes corresponding to nonlinear (higher-order field) resonance points are investigated. Reverse frequency sweeps (increasing mass) on the Mini 12 are shown to result in significantly higher ion ejection efficiency and superior resolution than forward frequency sweeps that decrement mass. This result is accounted for by the asymmetry in ion energy absorption profiles as a function of AC frequency and the shift in ion secular frequency at higher amplitudes in the trap due to higher order fields. We also found that use of higher AC amplitudes in forward frequency sweeps biases ions toward ejection at points of higher order parametric resonance, despite using only dipolar excitation. Higher AC amplitudes also increase peak width and decrease sensitivity in both forward and reverse frequency sweeps. Higher sensitivity and resolution were obtained at higher trap pressures in the secular frequency scan, in contrast to conventional resonance ejection scans, which showed the opposite trend in resolution on the Mini 12. Mass range is shown to be naturally extended in secular frequency scanning when ejecting ions by sweeping the AC waveform through low frequencies, a method which is similar, but arguably superior, to the more usual method of mass range extension using low q resonance ejection.

  6. Experimental Characterization of Secular Frequency Scanning in Ion Trap Mass Spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Dalton T; Pulliam, Christopher J; Wiley, Joshua S; Duncan, Jason; Cooks, R Graham

    2016-07-01

    Secular frequency scanning is implemented and characterized using both a benchtop linear ion trap and a miniature rectilinear ion trap mass spectrometer. Separation of tetraalkylammonium ions and those from a mass calibration mixture and from a pesticide mixture is demonstrated with peak widths approaching unit resolution for optimized conditions using the benchtop ion trap. The effects on the spectra of ion trap operating parameters, including waveform amplitude, scan direction, scan rate, and pressure are explored, and peaks at black holes corresponding to nonlinear (higher-order field) resonance points are investigated. Reverse frequency sweeps (increasing mass) on the Mini 12 are shown to result in significantly higher ion ejection efficiency and superior resolution than forward frequency sweeps that decrement mass. This result is accounted for by the asymmetry in ion energy absorption profiles as a function of AC frequency and the shift in ion secular frequency at higher amplitudes in the trap due to higher order fields. We also found that use of higher AC amplitudes in forward frequency sweeps biases ions toward ejection at points of higher order parametric resonance, despite using only dipolar excitation. Higher AC amplitudes also increase peak width and decrease sensitivity in both forward and reverse frequency sweeps. Higher sensitivity and resolution were obtained at higher trap pressures in the secular frequency scan, in contrast to conventional resonance ejection scans, which showed the opposite trend in resolution on the Mini 12. Mass range is shown to be naturally extended in secular frequency scanning when ejecting ions by sweeping the AC waveform through low frequencies, a method which is similar, but arguably superior, to the more usual method of mass range extension using low q resonance ejection. Graphical Abstract ᅟ. PMID:27032650

  7. Operational Parameters, Considerations, and Design Decisions for Resource-Constrained Ion Trap Mass Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danell, Ryan M.; VanAmerom, Friso H. W.; Pinnick, Veronica; Cotter, Robert J.; Brickerhoff, William; Mahaffy, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Mass spectrometers are increasingly finding applications in new and unique areas, often in situations where key operational resources (i.e. power, weight and size) are limited. One such example is the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA). This instrument is a joint venture between NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA) to develop an ion trap mass spectrometer for chemical analysis on Mars. The constraints on such an instrument are significant as are the performance requirements. While the ideal operating parameters for an ion trap are generally well characterized, methods to maintain analytical performance with limited power and system weight need to be investigated and tested. Methods Experiments have been performed on two custom ion trap mass spectrometers developed as prototypes for the MOMA instrument. This hardware consists of quadrupole ion trap electrodes that are 70% the size of common commercial instrumentation. The trapping RF voltage is created with a custom tank circuit that can be tuned over a range of RF frequencies and is driven using laboratory supplies and amplifiers. The entire instrument is controlled with custom Lab VIEW software that allows a high degree of flexibility in the definition of the scan function defining the ion trap experiment. Ions are typically generated via an internal electron ionization source, however, a laser desorption source is also in development for analysis of larger intact molecules. Preliminary Data The main goals in this work have been to reduce the power required to generate the radio frequency trapping field used in an ion trap mass spectrometer. Generally minimizing the power will also reduce the volume and mass of the electronics to support the instrument. In order to achieve optimum performance, commercial instruments typically utilize RF frequencies in the 1 MHz range. Without much concern for power usage, they simply generate the voltage required to access the mass range of interest. In order to reduce the

  8. Development of an ion trap/multi-turn time-of-flight mass spectrometer with potential- lift.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Kenichi; Nagao, Hirofumi; Toyoda, Michisato

    2009-01-01

    An ion trap/multi-turn time-of-flight (ToF) mass spectrometer with potential-lift has been developed. This system consists of an external ion source, a lens system, an ion trap, a potential-lift, a multi-turn ToF mass spectrometer and a detector. The ion trap consists of hyperbolic electrode cross-sections (Paul trap) and is used as an ion storage device. The potential-lift, which is part of the flight tube, was attached between the ion trap and the multi-turn ToF mass spectrometer. The potential-lift is known to be useful for increasing the kinetic energy of the ions. In order to check the ability of the potential-lift, mass distributions of [(CsI)(n) Cs]+ clusters (n = 1-9) were measured. The relative intensity ratios of the [(CsI)(n)Cs]+ clusters were consistent with the results obtained using other apparatus. To check the properties of the new apparatus, Xe+ isotopes were analyzed using either a linear or multi-turn ToF mass spectrometer. In the linear mode, the mass resolution was 500. In the multi-turn mode, the resolution depended on the number of cycles of the multi-turn ToF mass spectrometer; the mass resolution was 4400 (FWHM) after nine cycles. This new apparatus with a high resolution will be useful for measurements of ion-molecule reactions and photodissociations. PMID:19423910

  9. USING AN ACCURATE MASS, TRIPLE QUADRUPOLE MASS SPECTROMETER AND AN ION CORRELATION PROGRAM TO IDENTIFY COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most compounds are not found in mass spectral libraries and must be identified by other means. Often, compound identities can be deduced from the compositions of the ions in their mass spectra and review of the chemical literature. Confirmation is provided by mass spectra and r...

  10. Imaging and Rapid-Scanning Ion Mass Spectrometer (IRM) for the CASSIOPE e-POP Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yau, Andrew W.; Howarth, Andrew; White, Andrew; Enno, Greg; Amerl, Peter

    2015-06-01

    The imaging and rapid-scanning ion mass spectrometer (IRM) is part of the Enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (e-POP) instrument suite on the Canadian CASSIOPE small satellite. Designed to measure the composition and detailed velocity distributions of ions in the ˜1-100 eV/q range on a non-spinning spacecraft, the IRM sensor consists of a planar entrance aperture, a pair of electrostatic deflectors, a time-of-flight (TOF) gate, a hemispherical electrostatic analyzer, and a micro-channel plate (MCP) detector. The TOF gate measures the transit time of each detected ion inside the sensor. The hemispherical analyzer disperses incident ions by their energy-per-charge and azimuth in the aperture plane onto the detector. The two electrostatic deflectors may be optionally programmed to step through a sequence of deflector voltages, to deflect ions of different incident elevation out of the aperture plane and energy-per-charge into the sensor aperture for sampling. The position and time of arrival of each detected ion at the detector are measured, to produce an image of 2-dimensional (2D), mass-resolved ion velocity distribution up to 100 times per second, or to construct a composite 3D velocity distribution by combining successive images in a deflector voltage sequence. The measured distributions are then used to investigate ion composition, density, drift velocity and temperature in polar ion outflows and related acceleration and transport processes in the topside ionosphere.

  11. Development of analytically capable time-of-flight mass spectrometer with continuous ion introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hárs, György; Dobos, Gábor

    2010-03-01

    The present article describes the results and findings explored in the course of the development of the analytically capable prototype of continuous time-of-flight (CTOF) mass spectrometer. Currently marketed pulsed TOF (PTOF) instruments use ion introduction with a 10 ns or so pulse width, followed by a waiting period roughly 100 μs. Accordingly, the sample is under excitation in 10-4 part of the total measuring time. This very low duty cycle severely limits the sensitivity of the PTOF method. A possible approach to deal with this problem is to use linear sinusoidal dual modulation technique (CTOF) as described in this article. This way the sensitivity of the method is increased, due to the 50% duty cycle of the excitation. All other types of TOF spectrometer use secondary electron multiplier (SEM) for detection, which unfortunately discriminates in amplification in favor of the lighter ions. This discrimination effect is especially undesirable in a mass spectrometric method, which targets high mass range. In CTOF method, SEM is replaced with Faraday cup detector, thus eliminating the mass discrimination effect. Omitting SEM is made possible by the high ion intensity and the very slow ion detection with some hundred hertz detection bandwidth. The electrometer electronics of the Faraday cup detector operates with amplification 1010 V/A. The primary ion beam is highly monoenergetic due to the construction of the ion gun, which made possible to omit any electrostatic mirror configuration for bunching the ions. The measurement is controlled by a personal computer and the intelligent signal generator Type Tabor WW 2571, which uses the direct digital synthesis technique for making arbitrary wave forms. The data are collected by a Labjack interface board, and the fast Fourier transformation is performed by the software. Noble gas mixture has been used to test the analytical capabilities of the prototype setup. Measurement presented proves the results of the mathematical

  12. Development of analytically capable time-of-flight mass spectrometer with continuous ion introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Hars, Gyoergy; Dobos, Gabor

    2010-03-15

    The present article describes the results and findings explored in the course of the development of the analytically capable prototype of continuous time-of-flight (CTOF) mass spectrometer. Currently marketed pulsed TOF (PTOF) instruments use ion introduction with a 10 ns or so pulse width, followed by a waiting period roughly 100 {mu}s. Accordingly, the sample is under excitation in 10{sup -4} part of the total measuring time. This very low duty cycle severely limits the sensitivity of the PTOF method. A possible approach to deal with this problem is to use linear sinusoidal dual modulation technique (CTOF) as described in this article. This way the sensitivity of the method is increased, due to the 50% duty cycle of the excitation. All other types of TOF spectrometer use secondary electron multiplier (SEM) for detection, which unfortunately discriminates in amplification in favor of the lighter ions. This discrimination effect is especially undesirable in a mass spectrometric method, which targets high mass range. In CTOF method, SEM is replaced with Faraday cup detector, thus eliminating the mass discrimination effect. Omitting SEM is made possible by the high ion intensity and the very slow ion detection with some hundred hertz detection bandwidth. The electrometer electronics of the Faraday cup detector operates with amplification 10{sup 10} V/A. The primary ion beam is highly monoenergetic due to the construction of the ion gun, which made possible to omit any electrostatic mirror configuration for bunching the ions. The measurement is controlled by a personal computer and the intelligent signal generator Type Tabor WW 2571, which uses the direct digital synthesis technique for making arbitrary wave forms. The data are collected by a Labjack interface board, and the fast Fourier transformation is performed by the software. Noble gas mixture has been used to test the analytical capabilities of the prototype setup. Measurement presented proves the results of

  13. Ion neutral mass spectrometer results from the first flyby of Titan.

    PubMed

    Waite, J Hunter; Niemann, Hasso; Yelle, Roger V; Kasprzak, Wayne T; Cravens, Thomas E; Luhmann, Janet G; McNutt, Ralph L; Ip, Wing-Huen; Gell, David; De La Haye, Virginie; Müller-Wordag, Ingo; Magee, Brian; Borggren, Nathan; Ledvina, Steve; Fletcher, Greg; Walter, Erin; Miller, Ryan; Scherer, Stefan; Thorpe, Rob; Xu, Jing; Block, Bruce; Arnett, Ken

    2005-05-13

    The Cassini Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) has obtained the first in situ composition measurements of the neutral densities of molecular nitrogen, methane, molecular hydrogen, argon, and a host of stable carbon-nitrile compounds in Titan's upper atmosphere. INMS in situ mass spectrometry has also provided evidence for atmospheric waves in the upper atmosphere and the first direct measurements of isotopes of nitrogen, carbon, and argon, which reveal interesting clues about the evolution of the atmosphere. The bulk composition and thermal structure of the moon's upper atmosphere do not appear to have changed considerably since the Voyager 1 flyby. PMID:15890873

  14. Detections of lunar exospheric ions by the LADEE neutral mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halekas, J. S.; Benna, M.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Elphic, R. C.; Poppe, A. R.; Delory, G. T.

    2015-07-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS), operating in ion mode, provides sensitive detections of ions from the lunar exosphere. By analyzing ion-mode data from the entire mission, utilizing Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun (ARTEMIS) plasma and magnetic field measurements to organize NMS data and eliminate background sources, we identify highly significant detections of lunar ions at mass per charge of 2, 4, 12, 20, 28, 39, and 40, moderately significant detections at 14 and 23, and weak detections at 24, 25, and 36. Unlike many previous observations of Moon-derived ions, an outward pointing viewing geometry ensures that these ions originate from the exosphere, rather than directly from the surface. For species with known neutral distributions, inferred ion production rates appear consistent with expectations for both magnitude and spatial distribution, assuming photoionization as the predominant source mechanism. Unexpected signals at mass per charge 12 and 28 suggest the presence of a significant exospheric population of carbon-bearing molecules.

  15. The Bennett ion-mass spectrometer on Atmosphere Explorer-C and -E.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinton, H. C.; Scott, L. R.; Pharo, M. W., III; Coulson, J. T.

    1973-01-01

    The Bennett spectrometer to be flown on Atmosphere Explorer-C and -E (AE-C and AE-E) is designed to measure, throughout the 120 to 4000-km orbit, the concentrations of all thermal positive ions in the mass range 1 to 72 amu and number density range 5 to 5,000,000 ions per cu cm. To reduce the buildup of ram pressure and facilitate measurements at low altitude, the analyzer is vented, and a multigrid ion-current collector is employed. An extensive command capability permits optimization of instrument parameters for particular measurement objectives; commandable functions include mass-scan range and period, the sensitivity-resolution characteristic of the analyzer, orifice potential, and in-flight calibration.

  16. Incorporation of a Flared Inlet Capillary Tube on a Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer.

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Si; Zhang, Kai; Kaiser, Nathan K.; Bruce, James E.; Prior, David C.; Anderson, Gordon A.

    2006-04-17

    Atmospheric pressure ion sources such as electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric pressure matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (AP-MALDI) are widely used with mass spectrometry for proteomics studies. Other newly developed atmospheric ion sources include desorption electrospray ionization (DESI). For these ionization methods, analyte ions created at atmospheric pressure are transferred to the high vacuum region for mass analysis after several stages of differential pumping. It has been reported that overall charge transmission between the ion source and the first vacuum stage is primarily dependent upon the proximity of the emitter and gas conductance of the interface inlet. We therefore developed an atmospheric pressure interface using flared inlet tubes. This report highlights our results obtained by coupling the customized flared inlet tubes with a Fourier transfer ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICRMS). We have also investigated the new interface with different types of atmospheric pressure ionization methods. For most of the ionization methods we investigated, such as ESI and DESI, increased ion current transmitted from the atmospheric pressure ion source to the first stage vacuum system was observed with the use of our enhanced ion inlet designs. The ion intensity that was detected with the flared inlet tube on a FT-ICRMS was also observed to increase {approx} 2-5 fold using ESI or DESI with the flared tube inlet. Moreover, increased spray tip positional tolerance was observed with implementation of the flared inlet tube. We also include our preliminary results obtained by coupling APMALDI with flared inlet tube in this paper. For AP-MALDI, the measured ion current transferred through the flared inlet tube was about 3 times larger than the ion current through the control non-flared inlet tube.

  17. Reactions of vinyl chloride and methanol in a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer during VOC analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bian, L.; Alley, E.G.; Lynn, B.C. Jr.

    1999-05-01

    A reaction between vinyl chloride and the solvent (methanol) was observed during volatile organic compound (VOC) analysis on a gas chromatograph/quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer (GC/MS). A chromatographic peak at a retention time consistent with vinyl chloride produced a mass spectrum without the characteristic chlorine isotope ions m/z 62 and 64 but instead contained an apparent molecular ion, m/z 58. The m/z 58 ion is not found in the reference spectrum of vinyl chloride. This spectrum was observed when methanol was used as solvent in internal standard, surrogate standard, or analyte solutions. Subsequent VOC standard analysis indicated that the abundance of the m/z 58 ion was directly proportional to the amount of vinyl chloride in the water samples. The correct spectrum for vinyl chloride was observed when no methanol was added. From these experiments, the authors concluded that a reaction was occurring between the vinyl chloride and methanol in the ion trap producing a new species with a molecular ion at m/z 58. When ethanol was used as the solvent for the internal standard solution or surrogate standard, a correct spectrum of vinyl chloride was obtained.

  18. Broadscale resolving power performance of a high precision uniform field ion mobility-mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    May, Jody C; Dodds, James N; Kurulugama, Ruwan T; Stafford, George C; Fjeldsted, John C; McLean, John A

    2015-10-21

    An extensive study of two current ion mobility resolving power theories ("conditional" and "semi-empirical") was undertaken using a recently developed drift tube ion mobility-mass spectrometer. The current study investigates the quantitative agreement between experiment and theory at reduced pressure (4 Torr) for a wide range of initial ion gate widths (100 to 500 μs), and ion mobility values (K0 from 0.50 to 3.0 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)) representing measurements obtained in helium, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide drift gas. Results suggest that the conditional resolving power theory deviates from experimental results for low mobility ions (e.g., high mass analytes) and for initial ion gate widths beyond 200 μs. A semi-empirical resolving power theory provided close-correlation of predicted resolving powers to experimental results across the full range of mobilities and gate widths investigated. Interpreting the results from the semi-empirical theory, the performance of the current instrumentation was found to be highly linear for a wide range of analytes, with optimal resolving powers being accessible for a narrow range of drift fields between 14 and 17 V cm(-1). While developed using singly-charged ion mobility data, preliminary results suggest that the semi-empirical theory has broader applicability to higher-charge state systems. PMID:26191544

  19. Hybrid BEEQ tandem mass spectrometer for the study of ion/surface collision processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winger, B. E.; Laue, H.-J.; Horning, S. R.; Julian, R. K., Jr.; Lammert, S. A.; Riederer, D. E., Jr.; Cooks, R. G.

    1992-12-01

    A hybrid mass spectrometer consisting of a magnetic sector, two electric sectors, and a quadrupole mass filter (BEEQ) has been built for the study of polyatomic ion/surface collision phenomena over the energy range of a few electron volts to several keV. Primary ions are generated by electron ionization or by chemical ionization, and the first two sectors are used to deliver a monoenergetic beam of ions, of a selected mass-to-charge m/z ratio, to a decelerator which sets the desired collision energy. The target, which can be introduced into the system without breaking vacuum, is mounted on a goniometer and situated in an electrically shielded region in the center of a large scattering chamber which contains an electric sector and a quadrupole mass analyzer used for kinetic energy and mass measurements on the ejected ions. These analyzers rotate around the scattering center to allow selection of the scattering angle of ions leaving the surface. Ultimate pressures attainable in the main scattering chamber are below 10-9 Torr allowing molecular targets, such as self-assembled monolayers of alkyl thiols on gold, to be examined without surface contamination. Low-energy (20-100 eV) collisions of polyatomic ions are reported, and examples are given of the effects of collision energy and scattering angle on surface induced dissociation mass spectra. The kinetic energy of the inelastically scattered ions is also measured, and in some cases, the internal energy can be estimated, the two measurements together providing information on energy partitioning associated with surface collisions. For example, it is shown that n-butylbenzene molecular ions of 25 eV colliding with ferrocenyl-terminated self-assembled monolayer surfaces, rebound with 10 eV of recoil energy and 3 eV of internal energy. The remainder of the energy goes into the surface. The capability of the BEEQ instrument to provide data on ion/surface reactive collisions is also illustrated with reactions such as alkyl

  20. Deep Space 1 Encounter With Comet Borrelly: Composition Measurements By The Pepe Ion Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisenfeld, D. B.; Nordholt, J. E.; Wiens, R. C.; Gary, S. P.; Steinberg, J. T.; Pepe Ion Mass Spectrometer Team

    On 22 September 2001 Deep Space One (DS1) successfully encountered Comet Bor- relly at a distance of closest approach of 2171 km. DS1 is, after Giotto, the second spacecraft bearing an ion-mass-resolving instrument to explore the plasma environ- ment of a comet. This mass spectrometer, called the Plasma Experiment for Planetary Exploration (PEPE), is capable of resolving the energy, angle of incidence, and mass composition of a wide range of solar system plasmas. Our preliminary analysis indi- cates that the predominant heavy ions observed during the seven minute interval about closest approach included approximately 63% OH+, 25% H2O+, and 8% CH3+. The ions O+, H3O+, and CH+ are likely present, but at abundances below clear detection. Because H3O+ is collisionally produced from H2O+, the relative absence of H3O+ measured by PEPE is consistent with the much lower activity of Borrelly compared with Halley, where H3O+ was the dominant ion at closest approach. Preliminary anal- ysis also shows a surprisingly high nitrogen to carbon ratio in this cometary plasma. Another new PEPE observation at Borrelly was the non-symmetric character of the water-group ion count rate, which varied approximately as r-3 over much of the /2 inbound approach, but scaled as r-1 on the outbound leg.

  1. The Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer on the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahaffy, Paul R.; Benna, Mehdi; King, Todd; Harpold, Daniel N.; Arvey, Robert; Barciniak, Michael; Bendt, Mirl; Carrigan, Daniel; Errigo, Therese; Holmes, Vincent; Kellogg, James; Jaeger, Ferzan; Raaen, Eric; Tan, Florence

    2014-01-01

    The Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer (NGIMS) of the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution Mission (MAVEN) is designed to measure the composition, structure, and variability of the upper atmosphere of Mars. The NGIMS complements two other instrument packages on the MAVEN spacecraft designed to characterize the neutral upper atmosphere and ionosphere of Mars and the solar wind input to this region of the atmosphere. The combined measurement set is designed to quantify atmosphere escape rates and provide input to models of the evolution of the martian atmosphere. The NGIMS is designed to measure both surface reactive and inert neutral species and ambient ions along the spacecraft track over the 125-500 km altitude region utilizing a dual ion source and a quadrupole analyzer.

  2. Automatic control of the ion-illumination angle in a spark-source mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Conzemius, R J; Svec, H J

    1973-05-01

    Automatic adjustment of only the spark-gap width in a spark-source mass spectrometer does not ensure that optimum conditions of electrode geometry are maintained with respect to the ion-optics system. A device has been developed which simultaneously maintains a constant gap width and also a more constant z-axis ion-illumination angle. This is the first development to utilize ion-optics parameters to adjust the sparking electrodes automatically. The system maintains the electrodes in an optimum configuration such that higher and more constant instrument sensitivity is maintained automatically. In addition, a significant improvement in the precision of instrumental response is demonstrated. It appears that relative isotopic abundances can be determined directly by the spark-source method which are comparable to those obtained in some cases by surface ionization or by electron bombardment. Results are given that support this contention. PMID:18961307

  3. Advanced Ion Mass Spectrometer for Giant Planet Ionospheres, Magnetospheres and Moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sittler, EC; Cooper, JF; Paschalidis, N.; Jones, SL; Rodriguez, M.; Ali, A.; Coplan, MA; Chornay, DJ; Sturner; Bateman, FB; Andre, N.; Fedorov, A.; Wurz, P.

    2015-10-01

    The Advanced Ion Composition Spectrometer (AIMS) has been under development from various NASA sources (NASA LWSID, NASA ASTID, NASA Goddard IRADs) to measure elemental, isotopic, and simple molecular composition abundances of 1 eV/e to 25 keV/e hot ions with wide field-of-view (FOV) in the 1 - 60 amu mass range at mass resolution M/ΔM ≤ 60 over a wide dynamic range of intensities and penetrating radiation background from the inner magnetospheres of Jupiter and Saturn to the outer magnetospheric boundary regions and the upstream solar wind. This instrument will work for both spinning spacecraft and 3-axis stabilized spacecraft with wide field-of-view capability in both cases. It will measure the ion velocity distribution functions (IVDF) for the individual ion species; ion velocity moments of the IVDF will give the fluid parameters (density, flow velocity and temperature) of the individual ion species. Outer planet mission applications are Io Observer, Jupiter Europa Orbiter/Europa Clipper, Enceladus Orbiter, and Uranus Orbiter as described in the decadal survey, but would also be valuable for inclusion on other missions to outer planet destinations such as Saturn- Titan and Neptune-Triton and for future missions to terrestrial planets, Venus and Mars, the Moon, asteroids, and comets, and of course for geospace applications to the Earth.

  4. Triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer for the analysis of small molecules and macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Hopfgartner, Gérard; Varesio, Emmanuel; Tschäppät, Viviane; Grivet, Chantal; Bourgogne, Emmanuel; Leuthold, Luc Alexis

    2004-08-01

    Recently, linear ion traps (LITs) have been combined with quadrupole (Q), time-of-flight (TOF) and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry (MS). LITs can be used either as ion accumulation devices or as commercially available, stand-alone mass spectrometers with MSn capabilities. The combination of triple quadrupole MS with LIT technology in the form of an instrument of configuration QqLIT, using axial ejection, is particularly interesting, because this instrument retains the classical triple quadrupole scan functions such as selected reaction monitoring (SRM), product ion (PI), neutral loss (NL) and precursor ion (PC) while also providing access to sensitive ion trap experiments. For small molecules, quantitative and qualitative analysis can be performed using the same instrument. In addition, for peptide analysis, the enhanced multiply charged (EMC) scan allows an increase in selectivity, while the time-delayed fragmentation (TDF) scan provides additional structural information. Various methods of operating the hybrid instrument are described for the case of the commercial Q TRAP (AB/MDS Sciex) and applications to drug metabolism analysis, quantitative confirmatory analysis, peptides analysis and automated nanoelectrospray (ESI-chip-MS) analysis are discussed. PMID:15329837

  5. A Dual Source Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer for the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer of ExoMars 2018

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brickerhoff, William B.; vanAmerom, F. H. W.; Danell, R. M.; Arevalo, R.; Atanassova, M.; Hovmand, L.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Cotter, R. J.

    2011-01-01

    We present details on the objectives, requirements, design and operational approach of the core mass spectrometer of the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) investigation on the 2018 ExoMars mission. The MOMA mass spectrometer enables the investigation to fulfill its objective of analyzing the chemical composition of organic compounds in solid samples obtained from the near surface of Mars. Two methods of ionization are realized, associated with different modes of MOMA operation, in a single compact ion trap mass spectrometer. The stringent mass and power constraints of the mission have led to features such as low voltage and low frequency RF operation [1] and pulse counting detection.

  6. An electrodynamic ion funnel interface for greater sensitivity and higher throughput with linear ion trap mass spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Page, Jason S.; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D.

    2007-09-01

    An electrospray ionization interface incorporating an electrodynamic ion funnel has been designed and implemented in conjunction with a linear ion trap mass spectrometer (Thermo Electron, LTQ). We found ion transmission to be greatly improved by replacing the standard capillary-skimmer interface with the capillary-ion funnel interface. An infusion study using a serial dilution of a reserpine solution showed that ion injection times to fill the ion trap were reduced by ~90% which resulted in an ~10-fold increase in reported peak intensities. In liquid chromatography (LC)-MS and LC tandem MS (MS/MS) experiments performed using a proteomic sample from the bacterium, Shewanella oneidensis, the ion funnel interface provided an ~7-fold reduction in ion injection (accumulation) times. In a series of LC-MS/MS experiments we found that more dilute S. oneidensis samples provided more peptide and protein identifications when the ion funnel interface was used in place of the standard interface. This improvement was most pronounced at lower sample concentrations, where extended ion accumulation times are required, resulting in an ~2-fold increase in the number of protein identifications. Implementation of the ion funnel interface with a LTQ Fourier transform (FT) MS requiring much greater ion populations resulted in spectrum acquisition times reduced by ~25 to 50%.

  7. Electrospray Ionization/Ion Mobility Spectrometer/Cylindrical Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer System for In-Situ Detection of Organic Compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanik, I.; Johnson, P. V.; Beegle, L. W.; Cooks, R. G.; Laughlin, B. C.; Hill, H. H.

    2003-01-01

    The potential of an Electrospray Ionization/Ion Mobility Spectrometer/Cylindrical Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer (ESI/IMS/CIT-MS) as an analytical instrument for analyzing material extracted from rock and soil samples as part of a suite of instruments on the proposed 2009 Mars Science Lander (MSL) will be demonstrated. This instrument will be able to identify volatile compounds as well as resident organic molecules on the parts-per-billion (ppb) level. Also, it will be able to obtain an inventory of chemical species on the surface of Mars which will result in a better understanding of ongoing surface chemistry. Finally, questions relevant to biological processes will be answered with the complete inventory of surface and near surface organic molecules that the ESI/IMS/CIT is capable of performing.

  8. Update on the Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer measurements during the E21 flyby of Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waite, J. Hunter; Glein, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    We report the ongoing analysis of the Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer data from the last low-altitude, in situ flyby of the Enceladus spacecraft by the Cassini spacecraft (E21). During previous Cassini flybys of Enceladus, the Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) detected counts at mass channel 2 in closed source neutral mode that are attributed to H2. The signal was enhanced at faster flyby velocities as a result of impact-induced chemistry in the antechamber of the instrument, but up to ~15% H2 was still detected consistently during the slowest flybys. At present, it is unclear if this H2 is native to the plume or an artifact of high-speed sampling of the H2O-rich plume. In an attempt to resolve this question, a search for H2 was performed using the open source neutral beam mode of INMS during the E21 flyby, for which the data are being analyzed. We present the status of this analysis. Furthermore,to assist in the interpretation, we have made three theoretical estimates of how much hydrothermal H2 could be present for different geochemical/geophysical scenarios, which will also be presented.

  9. High charge state ions observed with a thermal ion mass spectrometer at the high-altitude polar ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagawa, E.; Watanabe, S.; Watanabe, S.

    The Suprathermal Ion Mass Spectrometer (SMS) on board the AKEBONO satellite has occasionally observed ions with broad mass peak in mass spectrum between amu/q=2 and 3. The SMS is capable to measure a wide range of ion mass (1-64 amu/q) at low energy (E<100 eV) with a good mass resolution (dM/M~0.1). Energy distribution can be measured with RPA section of the instrument below 25 eV, and the energy pass band in this operation mode of instrument is below 100 eV. The events were observed at about 1 Re altitude, and m stly near the polar cuspo region, specifically, collocated with the intense "cusp/mantle" precipitation region (Newell and Meng, 1992) identified with the on-board particle experiment. Following is summary of characteristics of these events; (1) Almost uniform pitch angle distribution. (2) Within the instrument ability, there is no meaningful information about energydistribution. (3) Collocation with the "cusp/mantle" type of ion precipitation (4) The broad mass peak is consistent with high-charge state ions commonly seenin the solar wind such as C +, O7 +, O6 +, and C5 +. However, because the6

  10. Study and evaluation of impulse mass spectrometers for ion analysis in the D and E regions of the ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kendall, B. R.

    1979-01-01

    Theoretical and numerical analyses were made of planar, cylindrical and spherical electrode time-of-flight mass spectrometers in order to optimize their operating conditions. A numerical analysis of potential barrier gating in time-of-flight spectrometers was also made. The results were used in the design of several small mass spectrometers. These were constructed and tested in a laboratory space simulator. Detailed experimental studies of a miniature cylindrical electrode time of flight mass spectrometer and of a miniature hemispherical electrode time of flight mass spectrometer were made. The extremely high sensitivity of these instruments and their ability to operate at D region pressures with an open source make them ideal instruments for D region ion composition measurements.

  11. Ultra High Mass Range Mass Spectrometer System

    DOEpatents

    Reilly, Peter T. A. [Knoxville, TN

    2005-12-06

    Applicant's present invention comprises mass spectrometer systems that operate in a mass range from 1 to 10.sup.16 DA. The mass spectrometer system comprising an inlet system comprising an aerodynamic lens system, a reverse jet being a gas flux generated in an annulus moving in a reverse direction and a multipole ion guide; a digital ion trap; and a thermal vaporization/ionization detector system. Applicant's present invention further comprises a quadrupole mass spectrometer system comprising an inlet system having a quadrupole mass filter and a thermal vaporization/ionization detector system. Applicant's present invention further comprises an inlet system for use with a mass spectrometer system, a method for slowing energetic particles using an inlet system. Applicant's present invention also comprises a detector device and a method for detecting high mass charged particles.

  12. Using metal complex ion-molecule reactions in a miniature rectilinear ion trap mass spectrometer to detect chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Graichen, Adam M; Vachet, Richard W

    2013-06-01

    The gas-phase reactions of a series of coordinatively unsaturated [Ni(L)n](y+) complexes, where L is a nitrogen-containing ligand, with chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants in a miniature rectilinear ion trap mass spectrometer were investigated as part of a new approach to detect CWAs. Results show that upon entering the vacuum system via a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) membrane introduction, low concentrations of several CWA simulants, including dipropyl sulfide (simulant for mustard gas), acetonitrile (simulant for the nerve agent tabun), and diethyl phosphite (simulant for nerve agents sarin, soman, tabun, and VX), can react with metal complex ions generated by electrospray ionization (ESI), thereby providing a sensitive means of detecting these compounds. The [Ni(L)n](2+) complexes are found to be particularly reactive with the simulants of mustard gas and tabun, allowing their detection at low parts-per-billion (ppb) levels. These detection limits are well below reported exposure limits for these CWAs, which indicates the applicability of this new approach, and are about two orders of magnitude lower than electron ionization detection limits on the same mass spectrometer. The use of coordinatively unsaturated metal complexes as reagent ions offers the possibility of further tuning the ion-molecule chemistry so that desired compounds can be detected selectively or at even lower concentrations. PMID:23532782

  13. Using Metal Complex Ion-Molecule Reactions in a Miniature Rectilinear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer to Detect Chemical Warfare Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graichen, Adam M.; Vachet, Richard W.

    2013-06-01

    The gas-phase reactions of a series of coordinatively unsaturated [Ni(L)n]y+ complexes, where L is a nitrogen-containing ligand, with chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants in a miniature rectilinear ion trap mass spectrometer were investigated as part of a new approach to detect CWAs. Results show that upon entering the vacuum system via a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) membrane introduction, low concentrations of several CWA simulants, including dipropyl sulfide (simulant for mustard gas), acetonitrile (simulant for the nerve agent tabun), and diethyl phosphite (simulant for nerve agents sarin, soman, tabun, and VX), can react with metal complex ions generated by electrospray ionization (ESI), thereby providing a sensitive means of detecting these compounds. The [Ni(L)n]2+ complexes are found to be particularly reactive with the simulants of mustard gas and tabun, allowing their detection at low parts-per-billion (ppb) levels. These detection limits are well below reported exposure limits for these CWAs, which indicates the applicability of this new approach, and are about two orders of magnitude lower than electron ionization detection limits on the same mass spectrometer. The use of coordinatively unsaturated metal complexes as reagent ions offers the possibility of further tuning the ion-molecule chemistry so that desired compounds can be detected selectively or at even lower concentrations.

  14. Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Eiden, Greg C.

    2005-09-01

    This chapter describes research conducted in a few research groups in the 1990s in which RF quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometers were coupled to a powerful atomic ion source, the inductively coupled plasma used in conventional ICP-MS instruments. Major section titles for this chapter are: RF Quadrupole Ion Traps Features of RF Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometers Selective Ion Trapping methods Inductively Coupled Plasma Source Ion Trap Mass Spectrometers

  15. A differentially pumped dual linear quadrupole ion trap (DLQIT) mass spectrometer: a mass spectrometer capable of MS(n) experiments free from interfering reactions.

    PubMed

    Owen, Benjamin C; Jarrell, Tiffany M; Schwartz, Jae C; Oglesbee, Rob; Carlsen, Mark; Archibold, Enada F; Kenttämaa, Hilkka I

    2013-12-01

    A novel differentially pumped dual linear quadrupole ion trap (DLQIT) mass spectrometer was designed and built to facilitate tandem MS experiments free from interfering reactions. The instrument consists of two differentially pumped Thermo Scientific linear quadrupole ion trap (LQIT) systems that have been connected via an ion transfer octupole encased in a machined manifold. Tandem MS experiments can be performed in the front trap and then the resulting product ions can be transferred via axial ejection into the back trap for further, independent tandem MS experiments in a differentially pumped area. This approach allows the examination of consecutive collision-activated dissociation (CAD) and ion-molecule reactions without unwanted side reactions that often occur when CAD and ion-molecule reactions are examined in the same space. Hence, it greatly facilitates investigations of ion structures. In addition, the overall lower pressure of the DLQIT, as compared to commercial LQIT instruments, results in a reduction of unwanted side reactions with atmospheric contaminants, such as water and oxygen, in CAD and ion-molecule experiments. PMID:24171553

  16. Measuring Transmission Efficiencies Of Mass Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, Santosh K.

    1989-01-01

    Coincidence counts yield absolute efficiencies. System measures mass-dependent transmission efficiencies of mass spectrometers, using coincidence-counting techniques reminiscent of those used for many years in calibration of detectors for subatomic particles. Coincidences between detected ions and electrons producing them counted during operation of mass spectrometer. Under certain assumptions regarding inelastic scattering of electrons, electron/ion-coincidence count is direct measure of transmission efficiency of spectrometer. When fully developed, system compact, portable, and used routinely to calibrate mass spectrometers.

  17. Surface-Induced Dissociation of Ions Produced by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization in a Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Laskin, Julia; Beck, Kenneth M.; Hache, John J.; Futrell, Jean H.

    2004-01-15

    Intermediate pressure matrix assisted laser ionization (MALDI) source was constructed and interfaced with a 6T Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR MS) specially configured for surface-induced dissociation (SID) studies.

  18. High-resolution accurate mass measurements of biomolecules using a new electrospray ionization ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Winger, B E; Hofstadler, S A; Bruce, J E; Udseth, H R; Smith, R D

    1993-07-01

    A novel electrospray ionization/Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer based on a 7-T superconducting magnet was developed for high-resolution accurate mass measurements of large biomolecules. Ions formed at atmospheric pressure using electrospray ionization (ESI) were transmitted (through six differential pumping stages) to the trapped ion cell maintained below 10(-9) torr. The increased pumping speed attainable with cryopumping (> 10(5) L/s) allowed brief pressure excursions to above 10(-4) torr, with greatly enhanced trapping efficiencies and subsequent short pumpdown times, facilitating high-resolution mass measurements. A set of electromechanical shutters were also used to minimize the effect of the directed molecular beam produced by the ES1 source and were open only during ion injection. Coupled with the use of the pulsed-valve gas inlet, the trapped ion cell was generally filled to the space charge limit within 100 ms. The use of 10-25 ms ion injection times allowed mass spectra to be obtained from 4 fmol of bovine insulin (Mr 5734) and ubiquitin (Mr 8565, with resolution sufficient to easily resolve the isotopic envelopes and determine the charge states. The microheterogeneity of the glycoprotein ribonuclease B was examined, giving a measured mass of 14,898.74 Da for the most abundant peak in the isotopic envelope of the normally glycosylated protein (i.e., with five mannose and two N-acetylglucosamine residues (an error of approximately 2 ppm) and an average error of approximately 1 ppm for the higher glycosylated and various H3PO4 adducted forms of the protein. Time-domain signals lasting in excess of 80 s were obtained for smaller proteins, producing, for example, a mass resolution of more than 700,000 for the 4(+) charge state (m/z 1434) of insulin. PMID:24227643

  19. 21 Tesla Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer: A National Resource for Ultrahigh Resolution Mass Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hendrickson, Christopher L; Quinn, John P; Kaiser, Nathan K; Smith, Donald F; Blakney, Greg T; Chen, Tong; Marshall, Alan G; Weisbrod, Chad R; Beu, Steven C

    2015-09-01

    We describe the design and initial performance of the first 21 tesla Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer. The 21 tesla magnet is the highest field superconducting magnet ever used for FT-ICR and features high spatial homogeneity, high temporal stability, and negligible liquid helium consumption. The instrument includes a commercial dual linear quadrupole trap front end that features high sensitivity, precise control of trapped ion number, and collisional and electron transfer dissociation. A third linear quadrupole trap offers high ion capacity and ejection efficiency, and rf quadrupole ion injection optics deliver ions to a novel dynamically harmonized ICR cell. Mass resolving power of 150,000 (m/Δm(50%)) is achieved for bovine serum albumin (66 kDa) for a 0.38 s detection period, and greater than 2,000,000 resolving power is achieved for a 12 s detection period. Externally calibrated broadband mass measurement accuracy is typically less than 150 ppb rms, with resolving power greater than 300,000 at m/z 400 for a 0.76 s detection period. Combined analysis of electron transfer and collisional dissociation spectra results in 68% sequence coverage for carbonic anhydrase. The instrument is part of the NSF High-Field FT-ICR User Facility and is available free of charge to qualified users. PMID:26091892

  20. 21 Tesla Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer: A National Resource for Ultrahigh Resolution Mass Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrickson, Christopher L.; Quinn, John P.; Kaiser, Nathan K.; Smith, Donald F.; Blakney, Greg T.; Chen, Tong; Marshall, Alan G.; Weisbrod, Chad R.; Beu, Steven C.

    2015-09-01

    We describe the design and initial performance of the first 21 tesla Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer. The 21 tesla magnet is the highest field superconducting magnet ever used for FT-ICR and features high spatial homogeneity, high temporal stability, and negligible liquid helium consumption. The instrument includes a commercial dual linear quadrupole trap front end that features high sensitivity, precise control of trapped ion number, and collisional and electron transfer dissociation. A third linear quadrupole trap offers high ion capacity and ejection efficiency, and rf quadrupole ion injection optics deliver ions to a novel dynamically harmonized ICR cell. Mass resolving power of 150,000 ( m/Δm 50% ) is achieved for bovine serum albumin (66 kDa) for a 0.38 s detection period, and greater than 2,000,000 resolving power is achieved for a 12 s detection period. Externally calibrated broadband mass measurement accuracy is typically less than 150 ppb rms, with resolving power greater than 300,000 at m/z 400 for a 0.76 s detection period. Combined analysis of electron transfer and collisional dissociation spectra results in 68% sequence coverage for carbonic anhydrase. The instrument is part of the NSF High-Field FT-ICR User Facility and is available free of charge to qualified users.

  1. Laser-induced fluorescence of Ba+ ions trapped and mass-selected in a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Li, G Z; Vining, B A; Guan, S; Marshall, A G

    1996-01-01

    We present the design and preliminary results from a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) mass spectrometer developed for the direct detection of UV/visible laser-induced fluorescence of trapped, mass-selected, gas-phase ions. A 3 T superconducting magnet and an open-ended multi-section cylindrical Penning trap capture and confine ions created by electron impact or laser desorption. Azimuthal quadrupolar excitation in the presence of ion/neutral collisions cools, axializes and mass selects ions as they fill the trap. A pulsed dye laser pumped by an Nd:YAG laser provides electronic energy excitation. A Brewster window and baffles on each side of the vacuum chamber reduce the scattered light from the excitation laser. Laser-induced fluorescence is collected from mirrors and lenses and directed through a quartz window and fiber-optic bundle to a photomultiplier. The ICR and optical events are controlled by a modular ICR data station and GPIB and RS-232 interfaces. An excitation spectrum is demonstrated for atomic Ba+ ions, and should extend to laser-induced fluorescence of virtually any stable positive or negative gas-phase ions of arbitrary molecular weight: molecular or quasimolecular ions, fragment ions, adduct ions, and ions formed from ion/molecule reactions. PMID:8953788

  2. Solar Wind Compositional Variability and the Need for an Ultra-High Temporal Resolution Mass Spectrometer: Introduction to the Helical Ion Path Spectrometer (HIPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrian, M. L.; Gallagher, D. L.; Sheldon, R. D.; Hamilton, D. C.

    2005-05-01

    Solar wind composition measurements serve as an indicator of the sub-coronal and coronal processes responsible for the formation of these heliospheric features. While current state-of-the-art instrumentation have identified temporal variations in solar wind/CME composition on the order of 10's of minutes, these detections have occurred during relatively quiescent periods when temporal variations of the collective solar wind (including magnetic field variations) occur over periods in excess of the current minimum instrumental duty cycle of 5-minutes. Consequently, the compositional markers of the microphysics responsible for the formation of highly variable solar wind flows and for CME/prominence formation remain overlooked. The development of a novel ultra-high temporal resolution ion mass spectrometer utilizing a helical ion path time-of-flight (TOF) system within a compact, low-mass, low-power instrument has been undertaken in order to address the need for temporally enhanced solar wind composition measurements. The Helical Ion Path Spectrometer (HIPS) is designed specifically to measure solar wind heavy ion plasma from 3He+2 ≤ M/q ≤ Fe+6 and 0.6-20.0 keV/q with an order of magnitude greater geometric factor than current solar wind ion mass spectrometers, and produce 1-10 ms mass spectra with a mass resolution of M/ΔM ~ 200 or greater, all within a duty cycle of ≤ 90-s. The temporal resolution of HIPS is sufficient to probe solar wind and CME spatial/temporal dimensions down to an ion gyroradius in solar wind flow boundaries at 1 AU. We present evidence supporting the need for greater temporal resolution solar wind composition measurement through an overview of solar wind mass spectroscopy results to date, and an introduction to the HIPS mass spectrometer instrument concept.

  3. Investigating ion-surface collisions with a niobium superconducting tunnel junction detector in a time-of-flight mass spectrometer

    PubMed

    Westmacott; Zhong; Frank; Friedrich; Labov; Benner

    2000-01-01

    The performance of an energy sensitive, niobium superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) detector is investigated by measuring the pulse height produced by impacting molecular and atomic ions at different kinetic energies. Ions are produced by laser desorption and matrix-assisted laser desorption in a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Our results show that the STJ detector pulse height decreases for increasing molecular ion mass, passes through a minimum at around 2000 Da, and then increases with increasing mass of molecular ions above 2000 Da. The detector does not show a decline in sensitivity for high mass ions as is observed with microchannel plate ion detectors. These detector plus height measurements are discussed in terms of several physical mechanisms involved in an ion-surface collision. PMID:10775095

  4. Investigating ion-surface collisions with a niobium superconducting tunnel junction detector in a time-of-flight mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Westmacott, G.; Zhong, F.; Frank, M.; Friedrich, S.; Labov, S.; Benner, W.H.

    1999-12-01

    The performance of an energy sensitive, niobium superconducting tunnel junction detector is investigated by measuring the pulse height produced by impacting molecular and atomic ions at different kinetic energies. Ions are produced by laser resorption and matrix-assisted laser desorption in a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Results show that the STJ detector pulse height decreases for increasing molecular ion mass, passes through a minimum at around 2000 Da, and the increases with increasing mass of molecular ions above 2000Da. The detector does not show a decline in sensitivity for high mass ions as is observed with microchannel plate ion detectors. These detector plus height measurements are discussed in terms of several physical mechanisms involved in an ion-surface collision.

  5. Method for calibrating a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Richard D.; Masselon, Christophe D.; Tolmachev, Aleksey

    2003-08-19

    A method for improving the calibration of a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer wherein the frequency spectrum of a sample has been measured and the frequency (f) and intensity (I) of at least three species having known mass to charge (m/z) ratios and one specie having an unknown (m/z) ratio have been identified. The method uses the known (m/z) ratios, frequencies, and intensities at least three species to calculate coefficients A, B, and C, wherein the mass to charge ratio of a least one of the three species (m/z).sub.i is equal to ##EQU1## wherein f.sub.i is the detected frequency of the specie, G(I.sub.i) is a predetermined function of the intensity of the species, and Q is a predetermined exponent. Using the calculated values for A, B, and C, the mass to charge ratio of the unknown specie (m/z).sub.ii is calculated as the sum of ##EQU2## wherein f.sub.ii is the measured frequency of the unknown specie, and (I.sub.ii) is the measured intensity of the unknown specie.

  6. Development of Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometers (INMS) for Heliophysics and Planetary Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sittler, Edward; Paschalidis, Nikolaos; Cooper, John; Zesta, Eftyhia; Ali, Ashraf; Chornay, Dennis; Durachka, David; Brambora, Clifford; Benna, Mehdi; Mahaffy, Paul

    2014-05-01

    Goddard's Geospace Physics Laboratory is developing INMS concepts that can be used for future Geospace missions to the Earth's ionosphere and for future planetary missions to bodies with atmospheres and ionospheres, in collaboration with the Planetary Environments Laboratory. Our group is designing ion mass spectrometers (IMS) for energy-per-charge range 1 V to 50 kV that can be used for solar wind ion composition measurements, the Earth's magnetosphere , lunar orbiters, and planetary magnetospheres. We will focus this presentation in our efforts and results for future CubeSat Missions to the Earth's ionosphere and a High Precision Electric Gate (HPEG) design that can be used with a reflectometer to achieve very high mass resolution capability. The HPEG design has been patented by Goddard with E. C. Sittler Jr. as inventor. The HPEG design allows for miniaturization so it is ideally suited to CubeSat missions. Engineers at Goddard's Instrument Electronics Development Branch have prototyped a pulse generator that can deliver a required train of pulses with ~ ns pulses on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) platform that will allow miniature designs of the HPEG. The burst of pulses can be triggered at MHz rates. We will present initial lab results for a simpler CubeSat design instrument and a more complex version using the HPEG.

  7. First Signal on the Cryogenic Fourier-Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Cheng; Mathur, Raman; Aizikov, Kostantin; O'Connor, Peter B.

    2009-01-01

    The construction and achievement of the first signal on a cryogenic Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR-MS) are reported here, demonstrating proof-of-concept of this new instrument design. Building the FTICR cell into the cold bore of a superconducting magnet provided advantages over conventional warm bore design. At 4.2 K, the vacuum system cryopumps itself, thus removing the requirement for a large bore to achieve the desired pumping speed for maintaining base pressure. Furthermore, because the bore diameter has been reduced, the amount of magnet wire needed to achieve high field and homogeneity was also reduced, greatly decreasing the cost/Tesla of the magnet. The current instrument implements an actively shielded 14-Tesla magnet of vertical design with an external matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) source. The first signal was obtained by detecting the laser desorbed/ionized (LDI) C60+• ions, with the magnet at 7 Tesla, unshimmed, and the preamplifier mounted outside of the vacuum chamber at room temperature. A subsequent experiment done with the magnet at 14 Tesla and properly shimmed produced a C60 spectrum showing ∼350,000 resolving power at m/z ∼720. Increased magnetic field strength improves many FTMS performance parameters simultaneously, particularly mass resolving power and accuracy. PMID:17931882

  8. A Compact Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer for the Exocube Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, S.; Paschalidis, N.; Rodriguez, M.; Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Chornay, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    Demand is high for in situ measurements of atmospheric neutral and ion composition and density, not only for studies of the dynamic ionosphere-theremosphere-mesosphere system but simply to define the steady state background atmospheric conditions. The ExoCube mission is designed to acquire global knowledge of in-situ densities of [H], [He], [O] and [H+], [He+], [O+] in the upper ionosphere and lower exosphere in combination with incoherent scatter radar ground stations distributed in the north polar region. The Heliophysic Division of GSFC has developed a compact Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) for in situ measurements of ions and neutrals H, He, N, O, N2, O2 with M/dM of approximately 10 at an incoming energy range of 0-50eV. The INMS is based on front end optics, post acceleration, gated time of flight, ESA and CEM or MCP detectors. The compact sensor has a dual symmetric configuration with the ion and neutral sensor heads on opposite sides and with full electronics in the middle. The neutral front end optics includes thermionic emission ionization and ion blocking grids, and the ion front end optics includes spacecraft potential compensation grids. The electronics include front end, fast gating, HVPS, ionizer, TOF binning and full bi directional C&DH digital electronics. The data package includes 400 mass bins each for ions and neutrals and key housekeeping data for instrument health and calibration. The data sampling can be commanded as fast as 10 msec per frame (corresponding to ~80 m spatial separation) in burst mode, and has significant onboard storage capability and data compression scheme. Experimental data from instrument testing with both ions and neutrals will be presented. The instrument is successfully integrated in the CubeSat and passed vibration, thermal and shock testing. The ExoCube mission is scheduled to fly in Nov 2014 in a 445 x 670 km polar orbit with the INMS aperture oriented in the ram direction. This miniaturized instrument (1

  9. The Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matheson, E.; Harris, T. J.

    1969-01-01

    Describes the construction and operation of a quadrupole mass spectrometer for experiments in an advanced-teaching laboratory. Discusses the theory of operation of the spectrometer and the factors affecting the resolution. Some examples of mass spectra obtained with this instrument are presented and discussed. (LC)

  10. Continuation of data analysis from the ion mass spectrometer on the ISIS-2 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    The spectrometer measures the composition and number density of the positive ion species in the ionosphere as well as the ion flux normal to the spacecraft trajectory. The measurement of high latitude ionospheric dynamics is reported. Plans for an empirical composition model of the polar ionosphere at 1400 km altitude consisting of maps of the major constituent are also reported.

  11. Miniaturized system of a gas chromatograph coupled with a Paul ion trap mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shortt, B. J.; Darrach, M. R.; Holland, Paul M.; Chutjian, A.

    2005-01-01

    Miniature gas chromatography (GC) and miniature mass spectrometry (MS) instrumentation has been developed to identify and quantify the chemical compounds present in complex mixtures of gases. The design approach utilizes micro-GC components coupled with a Paul quadrupole ion trap (QIT) mass spectrometer. Inherent to the system are high sensitivity, good dynamic range, good QIT resolution, low GC flow-rates to minimize vacuum requirements and the need for consumables; and the use of a modular approach to adapt to volatile organic compounds dissolved in water or present in sediment. Measurements are reported on system response to gaseous species at concentrations varying over four orders of magnitude. The ability of the system to deal with complicated mixtures is demonstrated, and future improvements are discussed. The GC/QIT system described herein has a mass, volume and power that are, conservatively, one-twentieth of those of commercial off-the-shelf systems. Potential applications are to spacecraft cabin-air monitoring, robotic planetary exploration and trace-species detection for residual gas analysis and environmental monitoring.

  12. Development of a Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer (LITMS) Investigation for Future Planetary Surface Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinckerhoff, W.; Danell, R.; Van Ameron, F.; Pinnick, V.; Li, X.; Arevalo, R.; Glavin, D.; Getty, S.; Mahaffy, P.; Chu, P.; Zacny, K.; Rogacki, S.; Grubisic, A.; Cornish, T.

    2014-01-01

    Future surface missions to Mars and other planetary bodies will benefit from continued advances in miniature sensor and sample handling technologies that enable high-performance chemical analyses of natural samples. Fine-scale (approx.1 mm and below) analyses of rock surfaces and interiors, such as exposed on a drill core, will permit (1) the detection of habitability markers including complex organics in association with their original depositional environment, and (2) the characterization of successive layers and gradients that can reveal the time-evolution of those environments. In particular, if broad-based and highly-sensitive mass spectrometry techniques could be brought to such scales, the resulting planetary science capability would be truly powerful. The Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer (LITMS) investigation is designed to conduct fine-scale organic and inorganic analyses of short (approx.5-10 cm) rock cores such as could be acquired by a planetary lander or rover arm-based drill. LITMS combines both pyrolysis/gas chromatograph mass spectrometry (GCMS) of sub-sampled core fines, and laser desorption mass spectrometry (LDMS) of the intact core surface, using a common mass analyzer, enhanced from the design used in the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) instrument on the 2018 ExoMars rover. LITMS additionally features developments based on the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) investigation on MSL and recent NASA-funded prototype efforts in laser mass spectrometry, pyrolysis, and precision subsampling. LITMS brings these combined capabilities to achieve its four measurement objectives: (1) Organics: Broad Survey Detect organic molecules over a wide range of molecular weight, volatility, electronegativity, concentration, and host mineralogy. (2) Organic: Molecular Structure Characterize internal molecular structure to identify individual compounds, and reveal functionalization and processing. (3) Inorganic Host Environment Assess the local chemical

  13. Collisional and electric-field ionization of laser-prepared Rydberg states in an ion trap mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, J.M.; Whitten, W.B.; Goeringer, D.E.; Buckley, B.T.

    1990-01-01

    Rydberg states of rubidium are selectively generated by one and two photon laser excitation in a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer. Collisional and electric-field ionization is investigated in trapping device. CCl{sub 4} is studied as a target for ionization of Rydberg states through electron attachment.

  14. Investigation of Luna-20 soil samples, using a mass spectrometer with a spark-discharge ion source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, N. J.; Ramendik, G. I.; Gronskaia, S. I.; Gubina, I. IA.; Gushchin, V. N.

    1979-01-01

    A method of analyzing soil samples with a mass spectrometer employing a spark-discharge ion source is described, and the effectiveness of the method is demonstrated by applying it to the determination of impurities, in amounts of less than 10 mg, in lunar samples. It is shown that four parts of the Luna-20 lunar highland sample differ in their chemical composition.

  15. DI-aries panoramic energy-mass spectrometer of ions for the Phobos-Grunt project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaisberg, O. L.; Koinash, G. V.; Moiseev, P. P.; Avanov, L. A.; Smirnov, V. N.; Letunovskii, V. V.; Myagkikh, V. D.; Ton'shev, A. K.; Leibov, A. V.; Skalski, A. A.; Berezanskii, D. P.; Gorn, L. S.; Konovalov, A. A.

    2010-10-01

    One of the main goals of the Phobos-Grunt project is to analyze the surface composition of Phobos. Plasma methods of the studies make it possible to complete direct surface studies with measurements of the minor components of the solar wind, which are produced when a material sputtered from the surface of Phobos is ionized. The surface of Phobos is sputtered under the action of solar wind protons, energetic ions, hard solar radiation, and meteorites. In addition to the studies of Phobos, the experiment also includes the study of the interaction between the solar wind and Mars. An energy-mass spectrometer, which makes it possible to measure instantaneously complete unobscured distribution of the flux of different ions in the hemisphere, has been designed based on the new CAMERA analyzer of charged particles proposed previously (Vaisberg et al., 2001, 2005; Vaisberg, 2003). The instrument’s electro-optics model and the results of the numerical and laboratory tests are described in this paper. Such an instrument can be used in magnetospheric studies and to study different objects of the Solar System.

  16. Imaging mass spectrometer with mass tags

    DOEpatents

    Felton, James S.; Wu, Kuang Jen J.; Knize, Mark G.; Kulp, Kristen S.; Gray, Joe W.

    2013-01-29

    A method of analyzing biological material by exposing the biological material to a recognition element, that is coupled to a mass tag element, directing an ion beam of a mass spectrometer to the biological material, interrogating at least one region of interest area from the biological material and producing data, and distributing the data in plots.

  17. Imaging mass spectrometer with mass tags

    DOEpatents

    Felton, James S.; Wu, Kuang Jen; Knize, Mark G.; Kulp, Kristen S.; Gray, Joe W.

    2010-06-01

    A method of analyzing biological material by exposing the biological material to a recognition element, that is coupled to a mass tag element, directing an ion beam of a mass spectrometer to the biological material, interrogating at least one region of interest area from the biological material and producing data, and distributing the data in plots.

  18. Tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-TOF) with a quadratic-field ion mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannakopulos, Anastassios E.; Thomas, Benjamin; Colburn, Alex W.; Reynolds, David J.; Raptakis, Emmanuel N.; Makarov, Alexander A.; Derrick, Peter J.

    2002-05-01

    A tandem time-of-flight (TOF-TOF) mass spectrometer comprised of two ion mirrors is described. The first ion mirror, which is a linear-field, single-stage mirror (MS1) with an intermediate collision cell, has been designed to provide the temporal focus necessary for the second, quadratic-field ion mirror (MS2) to function effectively. Due to the wide energy-range focusing capabilities of the quadratic field employed in the second ion mirror all the fragment ions can be collected in one spectrum without the need to step the reflecting working voltage of the MS2. The size of the active area of the microchannel plate detector used in the preliminary experiments was the limiting factor governing the collection efficiently of fragment ions. The use of the first ion mirror to provide temporal focusing of the precursor ion packet at the first focal point of the quadratic mirror used as the MS2 requires no alteration of the focusing conditions for different masses, in contrast to delayed extraction or postsource pulsed focusing. Precursor ions formed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization were mass-selected with an ion gate located before the collision cell and the fragment ions were mass analyzed using the quadratic-field ion mirror. Experimental results demonstrating effective high-energy collision-induced dissociation of polymer and fullerene molecule-ions are presented.

  19. Detection of explosives as negative ions directly from surfaces using a miniature mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Nathaniel L; Kothari, Sameer; Huang, Guangming; Salazar, Gary; Cooks, R Graham

    2010-06-15

    A miniature mass spectrometer was modified by incorporating a conversion dynode detector system and the appropriate electronics to allow the detection of negatively charged ions. The system was fitted with a discontinuous atmospheric pressure interface to allow external ionization by desorption electrospray ionization (DESI). It was used to identify the explosives 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), 2,4,6-trinitrophenyl-N-methylnitramine (Tetryl), and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocane (HMX) present in trace amounts on surfaces (500 pg/cm(2) to 1 microg/cm(2)) both individually and as components of mixtures. Detection of explosives was demonstrated in the presence of an interfering matrix. A large surface (5 cm x15 cm) on which 1 microg/cm(2) samples of TNT, Tetryl, and HMX had been spotted randomly was interrogated in 22 s in the full scan mode, and signals characteristic of each of the explosives were observed in the DESI mass spectrum. PMID:20496904

  20. A Virtual Research Environment for a Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometer (SIMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedenbeck, M.; Schäfer, L.; Klump, J.; Galkin, A.

    2013-12-01

    Overview: This poster describes the development of a Virtual Research Environment for the Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometer (SIMS) at GFZ Potsdam. Background: Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometers (SIMS) are extremely sensitive instruments for analyzing the surfaces of solid and thin film samples. These instruments are rare, expensive and experienced operators are very highly sought after. As such, measurement time is a precious commodity, until now only accessible to small numbers of researchers. The challenge: The Virtual SIMS Project aims to set up a Virtual Research Environment for the operation of the CAMECA IMS 1280-HR instrument at the GFZ Potsdam. The objective of the VRE is to provide SIMS access not only to researchers locally present in Potsdam but also to scientists working with SIMS cooperation partners in e.g., South Africa, Brazil or India. The requirements: The system should address the complete spectrum of laboratory procedures - from online application for measurement time, to remote access for data acquisition to data archiving for the subsequent publication and for future reuse. The approach: The targeted Virtual SIMS Environment will consist of a: 1. Web Server running the Virtual SIMS website providing general information about the project, lab access proposal forms and calendar for the timing of project related tasks. 2. LIMS Server, responsible for scheduling procedures, data management and, if applicable, accounting and billing. 3. Remote SIMS Tool, devoted to the operation of the experiment within a remote control environment. 4. Publishing System, which supports the publication of results in cooperation with the GFZ Library services. 5. Training Simulator, which offers the opportunity to rehearse experiments and to prepare for possible events such as a power outages or interruptions to broadband services. First results: The SIMS Virtual Research Environment will be mainly based on open source software, the only exception being the CAMECA IMS

  1. Towards the hand-held mass spectrometer: design considerations, simulation, and fabrication of micrometer-scaled cylindrical ion traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blain, Matthew G.; Riter, Leah S.; Cruz, Dolores; Austin, Daniel E.; Wu, Guangxiang; Plass, Wolfgang R.; Cooks, R. Graham

    2004-08-01

    Breakthrough improvements in simplicity and reductions in the size of mass spectrometers are needed for high-consequence fieldable applications, including error-free detection of chemical/biological warfare agents, medical diagnoses, and explosives and contraband discovery. These improvements are most likely to be realized with the reconceptualization of the mass spectrometer, rather than by incremental steps towards miniaturization. Microfabricated arrays of mass analyzers represent such a conceptual advance. A massively parallel array of micrometer-scaled mass analyzers on a chip has the potential to set the performance standard for hand-held sensors due to the inherit selectivity, sensitivity, and universal applicability of mass spectrometry as an analytical method. While the effort to develop a complete micro-MS system must include innovations in ultra-small-scale sample introduction, ion sources, mass analyzers, detectors, and vacuum and power subsystems, the first step towards radical miniaturization lies in the design, fabrication, and characterization of the mass analyzer itself. In this paper we discuss design considerations and results from simulations of ion trapping behavior for a micrometer scale cylindrical ion trap (CIT) mass analyzer (internal radius r0 = 1 [mu]m). We also present a description of the design and microfabrication of a 0.25 cm2 array of 106 one-micrometer CITs, including integrated ion detectors, constructed in tungsten on a silicon substrate.

  2. NEGATIVE ION ELECTROSPRAY OF BROMO- AND CHLORACETIC ACIDS AND AN EVALUATION OF EXACT MASS MEASUREMENTS WITH A BENCH-TOP TIME-OF-FLIGHT MASS SPECTROMETER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The negative ion electrospray mass spectra of six bromo- and chloroacetic acids were measured using two different electrospray interfaces and single quadrupole and bench-top time-of-flight mass spectrometers. With each acid at 50 ug/mL in aqueous methanol at pH 10, the anions ob...

  3. Time of flight mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Ulbricht, Jr., William H.

    1984-01-01

    A time-of-flight mass spectrometer is described in which ions are desorbed from a sample by nuclear fission fragments, such that desorption occurs at the surface of the sample impinged upon by the fission fragments. This configuration allows for the sample to be of any thickness, and eliminates the need for complicated sample preparation.

  4. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer with laser ablation metal ions release detection in the human mouth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kueerova, Hana; Dostalova, Tatjana; Prochazkova, J.

    2002-06-01

    Presence of more dental alloys in oral cavity often causes pathological symptoms. Due to various and multi-faced symptomatology, they tend to be a source of significant problems not only for the patient but also for the dentist. Metal ions released from alloys can cause subjective and objective symptoms in mouth. The aim of this study was detection of metal elements presence in saliva. There were 4 groups of examined persons: with intact teeth (15 individuals) with metallic restorations, pathological currents 5-30 (mu) A, multi-faced subjective symptomatology and uncharacteristic objective diagnosis (32 patients), with metallic restorations and no subjective symptoms (14 persons) and with metallic restorations, without pathological currents and with problems related to galvanism (13 patients). Presence of 14 metal elements was checked by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer with laser ablation. Nd:YAG laser detector was used. There were significant differences in content of silver, gold and mercury between persons with intact teeth and other three groups. There were no differences found between subjects with and without galvanic currents, and presence of subjective and objective symptoms.

  5. A novel double-focusing time-of-flight mass spectrometer for absolute recoil ion cross sections measurements.

    PubMed

    Sigaud, L; de Jesus, V L B; Ferreira, Natalia; Montenegro, E C

    2016-08-01

    In this work, the inclusion of an Einzel-like lens inside the time-of-flight drift tube of a standard mass spectrometer coupled to a gas cell-to study ionization of atoms and molecules by electron impact-is described. Both this lens and a conical collimator are responsible for further focalization of the ions and charged molecular fragments inside the spectrometer, allowing a much better resolution at the time-of-flight spectra, leading to a separation of a single mass-to-charge unit up to 100 a.m.u. The procedure to obtain the overall absolute efficiency of the spectrometer and micro-channel plate detector is also discussed. PMID:27587105

  6. Cyclotrons as mass spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.J.

    1984-04-01

    The principles and design choices for cyclotrons as mass spectrometers are described. They are illustrated by examples of cyclotrons developed by various groups for this purpose. The use of present high energy cyclotrons for mass spectrometry is also described. 28 references, 12 figures.

  7. Compensation of large ion energy spreads by multigap grid reflectors in time-of-flight mass spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilyugin, I. I.

    2016-03-01

    The problem of compensation of the initial ion energy spread by a multigap grid reflector of the time-of-flight mass spectrometer is considered. It is shown mathematically that the problem can be reduced to analysis of properties of catastrophes A n under additional conditions of positive geometrical gaps of the reflector. Examples of design of reflectors corresponding to catastrophes A 2 and A 3 are analyzed. The advantage of a three-gap reflector over a two-gap reflector in the compensation of a large energy spread of ions for the same value of the resolution of the device is demonstrated. The application of the three-gap reflector improves the sensitivity of the time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The results of calculations are confirmed experimentally.

  8. Preparation and in situ Characterization of Surfaces Using Soft-Landing in a Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez, Jormarie; Cooks, Robert G.; Barlow, Stephan E.; Gaspar, Dan J.; Futrell, Jean H.; Laskin, Julia

    2005-06-01

    Mass-selected peptide ions produced by electrospray ionization were deposited onto fluorinated self-assembled monolayer surfaces (FSAM) surfaces by soft-landing using a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR MS) specially designed for studying interactions of large ions with surfaces. Analysis of the modified surface was performed in situ by combining 2 keV Cs+ secondary ion mass spectrometry with FT-ICR detection of the sputtered ions (FT-ICR-SIMS). Regardless of the initial charge state of the precursor ion, the SIMS mass spectra included singly-protonated peptide fragment ions and peaks characteristic of the surfaces in all cases. In some experiments multiply-protonated peptide ions and [M+Au]+ ions were also observed upon SIMS analysis of modified surfaces. For comparison with the in situ analysis of the modified surfaces, ex situ analysis of some of the modified surfaces was performed by 25 kV Ga+ time of flight ? secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). The ex situ analysis demonstrated that a significant number of soft-landed peptide ions remain charged on the surface even when exposed to air for several hours after deposition. Charge retention of soft-landed ions dramatically increases the ion yields obtained during SIMS analysis very sensitive detection of deposited material at less than 1% of monolayer coverage. Accumulation of charged species on the surface undergoes saturation due to Coulomb repulsion between charges at close to 30% coverage. We estimated that close to 1 ng of peptide could be deposited on the spot area of 4 mm2 of the FSAM surface without reaching saturation.

  9. Systematic Comparison of a Two-dimensional Ion Trap and a Three-dimensional Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer in Proteomics*S

    PubMed Central

    Mayya, Viveka; Rezaul, Karim; Cong, Yu-Sheng; Han, David

    2006-01-01

    The utility and advantages of the recently introduced two-dimensional quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer in proteomics over the traditional three-dimensional ion trap mass spectrometer have not been systematically characterized. Here we rigorously compared the performance of these two platforms by using over 100,000 tandem mass spectra acquired with identical complex peptide mixtures and acquisition parameters. Specifically we compared four factors that are critical for a successful proteomic study: 1) the number of proteins identified, 2) sequence coverage or the number of peptides identified for every protein, 3) the data base matching SEQUEST Xcorr and Sp score, and 4) the quality of the fragment ion series of peptides. We found a 4–6-fold increase in the number of peptides and proteins identified on the two-dimensional ion trap mass spectrometer as a direct result of improvement in all the other parameters examined. Interestingly more than 70% of the doubly and triply charged peptides, but not the singly charged peptides, showed better quality of fragmentation spectra on the two-dimensional ion trap. These results highlight specific advantages of the two-dimensional ion trap over the conventional three-dimensional ion traps for protein identification in proteomic experiments. PMID:15608339

  10. Miniaturized Ion Mobility Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaye, William J. (Inventor); Stimac, Robert M. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    By utilizing the combination of a unique electronic ion injection control circuit in conjunction with a particularly designed drift cell construction, the instantly disclosed ion mobility spectrometer achieves increased levels of sensitivity, while achieving significant reductions in size and weight. The instant IMS is of a much simpler and easy to manufacture design, rugged and hermetically sealed, capable of operation at high temperatures to at least 250.degree. C., and is uniquely sensitive, particularly to explosive chemicals.

  11. Development of a New Ion Mobility (Quadrupole) Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Baker, Erin S.; Danielson, William F.; Norheim, Randolph V.; Prior, David C.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Belov, Mikhail E.; Smith, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    A new ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) platform was developed to improve upon the sensitivity and reproducibility of our previous platforms, and further enhance IMS-MS utility for broad ‘pan-omics’ measurements. The new platform incorporated an improved electrospray ionization source and interface for enhanced sensitivity, and providing the basis for further benefits based upon implementation of multiplexed IMS. The ion optics included electrodynamic ion funnels at both the entrance and exit of the IMS, an ion funnel trap for ion injection, and a design in which nearly all ion optics (e.g. drift rings, ion funnels) were fabricated using printed circuit board technology. The IMS resolving power achieved was ~73 for singly-charged ions, very close to the predicted diffusion-limited resolving power (~75). The platform’s performance evaluation (e.g. for proteomics measurements) include LC-IMS-TOF MS datasets for 30 technical replicates for a trypsin digested human serum, and included platform performance in each dimension (LC, IMS and MS) separately. PMID:26185483

  12. Evaluating Multiplexed Quantitative Phosphopeptide Analysis on a Hybrid Quadrupole Mass Filter/Linear Ion Trap/Orbitrap Mass Spectrometer

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    As a driver for many biological processes, phosphorylation remains an area of intense research interest. Advances in multiplexed quantitation utilizing isobaric tags (e.g., TMT and iTRAQ) have the potential to create a new paradigm in quantitative proteomics. New instrumentation and software are propelling these multiplexed workflows forward, which results in more accurate, sensitive, and reproducible quantitation across tens of thousands of phosphopeptides. This study assesses the performance of multiplexed quantitative phosphoproteomics on the Orbitrap Fusion mass spectrometer. Utilizing a two-phosphoproteome model of precursor ion interference, we assessed the accuracy of phosphopeptide quantitation across a variety of experimental approaches. These methods included the use of synchronous precursor selection (SPS) to enhance TMT reporter ion intensity and accuracy. We found that (i) ratio distortion remained a problem for phosphopeptide analysis in multiplexed quantitative workflows, (ii) ratio distortion can be overcome by the use of an SPS-MS3 scan, (iii) interfering ions generally possessed a different charge state than the target precursor, and (iv) selecting only the phosphate neutral loss peak (single notch) for the MS3 scan still provided accurate ratio measurements. Remarkably, these data suggest that the underlying cause of interference may not be due to coeluting and cofragmented peptides but instead from consistent, low level background fragmentation. Finally, as a proof-of-concept 10-plex experiment, we compared phosphopeptide levels from five murine brains to five livers. In total, the SPS-MS3 method quantified 38 247 phosphopeptides, corresponding to 11 000 phosphorylation sites. With 10 measurements recorded for each phosphopeptide, this equates to more than 628 000 binary comparisons collected in less than 48 h. PMID:25521595

  13. Development of a time-of-flight mass spectrometer combined with an ion-attachment method for multicomponent gas analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaya, Kazunari; Takahashi, Karin; Deguchi, Yuri; Sakai, Yasuhiro

    2014-10-01

    We developed a new mass spectrometer that can analyse multicomponent gases without fragmentation. This is essentially a time-of-flight (TOF) mass analyser in which the ion attachment method is used for ionisation. The method using this new device is referred to as “time-of-flight analysis in combination with ion-attachment” (TOFIA). TOFIA has the capability to analyse breath gas in about 10 min using the radio-frequency (RF) ion-guiding method and a multichannel scaler (MCS). The mass resolution of the trial device was unsatisfactory, but the device can be greatly improved in the future. We successfully analysed exhaled breath gases related to diseases, including ammonia, acetone, and isoprene gases. We expect that the TOFIA device developed in this work will contribute significantly to studies on the relationship between breath gas and health.

  14. Observations of plasma dynamics in the coma of P/Halley by the Giotto Ion Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, B. E.; Goldstein, R.; Neugebauer, M.; Fuselier, S. A.; Shelley, E. G.; Balsiger, H.; Kettmann, G.; Ip, W.-H.; Rosenbauer, H.; Schwenn, R.

    1991-01-01

    Observations in the coma of P/Halley by the Giotto Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) are reported. The High Energy Range Spectrometer (HERS) of the IMS obtained measurements of protons and alpha particles from the far upstream region to the near ionopause region and of ions from mass 12 to 32 at distances of about 250,000 to 40,000 km from the nucleus. Plasma parameters from the High Intensity Spectrometer (HIS) of the IMS obtained between 150,000 to 5000 km from the nucleus are also discussed. The distribution functions of water group ions (water group will be used to refer to ions of 16 to 18 m/q, where m is in AMU and q is in unit charges) are observed to be spherically symmetric in velocity space, indicating strong pitch angle scattering. The discontinuity known as the magnetic pile-up boundary (MPB) is apparent only in proton, alpha, and magnetometer data, indicating that it is a tangential discontinuity of solar wind origin. HERS observations show no significant change in the properties of the heavy ions across the MPB. A comparison of the observations to an MHD model is made. The plasma flow directions at all distances greater than 30,000 km from the nucleus are in agreement with MHD calculations. However, despite the agreement in flow direction, within 200,000 km of the nucleus the magnitude of the velocity is lower than predicted by the MHD model and the density is much larger (a factor of 4). Within 30,000 km of the nucleus there are large theoretical differences between the MHD model flow calculations for the plane containing the magnetic field and for the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field. The observations agreed much better with the pattern calculated for the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field. The data obtained by the High Energy Range Spectrometer (HERS) of the IMS that are published herein were provided to the International Halley Watch archive.

  15. A Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer for Quantitative Analysis of Nitrogen-Purged Compartments within the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ottens, Andrew K.; Griffin, Timothy P.; Helms, William R.; Yost, Richard A.; Steinrock, T. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    To enter orbit, the Space Shuttle burns 1.8 million liters of liquid hydrogen combined with 0.8 million liters of liquid oxygen through three rocket engines mounted in the aft. NASA monitors the nitrogen-purged aft compartment for increased levels of hydrogen or oxygen in order to detect and determine the severity of a cryogenic fuel leak. Current monitoring is accomplished with a group of mass spectrometer systems located as much as 400 feet away from the Shuttle. It can take up to 45 seconds for gas to reach the mass spectrometer, which precludes monitoring for leaks in the final moments before liftoff (the orbiter engines are started at T-00:06 seconds). To remedy the situation, NASA is developing a small rugged mass spectrometer to be used as point-sensors around the Space Shuttle. As part of this project, numerous mass analyzer technologies are being investigated. Presented here are the preliminary results for one such technology, quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry (QITMS). A compact QITMS system has been developed in-house at the University of Florida for monitoring trace levels of four primary gases, hydrogen, helium, oxygen, and argon, all in a nitrogen background. Since commercially available QITMS systems are incapable of mass analysis at m/z(exp 2), the home-built system is preferred for the evaluation of QITMS technology.

  16. The Pickup Ion Composition Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, Jason A.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Battel, Steven

    2016-06-01

    Observations of newly ionized atoms that are picked up by the magnetic field in the expanding solar wind contain crucial information about the gas or dust compositions of their origins. The pickup ions (PUIs) are collected by plasma mass spectrometers and analyzed for their density, composition, and velocity distribution. In addition to measurements of PUIs from planetary sources, in situ measurements of interstellar gas have been made possible by spectrometers capable of differentiating between heavy ions of solar and interstellar origin. While important research has been done on these often singly charged ions, the instruments that have detected many of them were designed for the energy range and ionic charge states of the solar wind and energized particle populations, and not for pickup ions. An instrument optimized for the complete energy and time-of-flight characterization of pickup ions will unlock a wealth of data on these hitherto unobserved or unresolved PUI species. The Pickup Ion Composition Spectrometer (PICSpec) is one such instrument and can enable the next generation of pickup ion and isotopic mass composition measurements. By combining a large-gap time-of-flight-energy sensor with a -100 kV high-voltage power supply for ion acceleration, PUIs will not only be above the detection threshold of traditional solid-state energy detectors but also be resolved sufficiently in time of flight that isotopic composition can be determined. This technology will lead to a new generation of space composition instruments, optimized for measurements of both heliospheric and planetary pickup ions.

  17. Lunar and Asteroid Composition Using a Remote Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elphic, R. C.; Funsten, H. O.; Barraclough, B. L.; Mccomas, D. J.; Nordholt, J. E.

    1992-01-01

    Laboratory experiments simulating solar wind sputtering of lunar surface materials have shown that solar wind protons sputter secondary ions in sufficient numbers to be measured from low-altitude lunar orbit. Secondary ions of Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Mn, Ti, and Fe have been observed sputtered from sample simulants of mare and highland soils. While solar wind ions are hundreds of times less efficient than those used in standard secondary ion mass spectrometry, secondary ion fluxes expected at the Moon under normal solar wind conditions range from approximately 10 to greater than 10(exp 4) ions cm(sup -2)s(sup -1), depending on species. These secondary ion fluxes depend both on concentration in the soil and on probability of ionization; yields of easily ionized elements such as K and Na are relatively much greater than those for the more electronegative elements and compounds. Once these ions leave the surface, they are subject to acceleration by local electric and magnetic fields. For typical solar wind conditions, secondary ions can be accelerated to an orbital observing location. The same is true for atmospheric atoms and molecules that are photoionized by solar EUV. The instrument to detect, identify, and map secondary ions sputtered from the lunar surface and photoions arising from the tenuous atmosphere is discussed.

  18. Rapid screening and characterization of drug metabolites using a new quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Hopfgartner, Gérard; Husser, Christophe; Zell, Manfred

    2003-02-01

    The application of a new hybrid RF/DC quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometer to support drug metabolism and pharmacokinetic studies is described. The instrument is based on a quadrupole ion path and is capable of conventional tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) as well as several high-sensitivity ion trap MS scans using the final quadrupole as a linear ion trap. Several pharmaceutical compounds, including trocade, remikiren and tolcapone, were used to evaluate the capabilities of the system with positive and negative turbo ionspray, using either information-dependent data acquisition (IDA) or targeted analysis for the screening, identification and quantification of metabolites. Owing to the MS/MS in-space configuration, quadrupole-like CID spectra with ion trap sensitivity can be obtained without the classical low mass cutoff of 3D ion traps. The system also has MS(3) capability which allows fragmentation cascades to be followed. The combination of constant neutral loss or precursor ion scan with the enhanced product ion scan was found to be very selective for identifying metabolites at the picogram level in very complex matrices. Owing to the very high cycle time and, depending on the mass range, up to eight different MS experiments could be performed simultaneously without compromising chromatographic performance. Targeted product ion analysis was found to be complementary to IDA, in particular for very low concentrations. Comparable sensitivity was found in enhanced product ion scan and selected reaction monitoring modes. The instrument is particularly suitable for both qualitative and quantitative analysis. PMID:12577280

  19. Multiphoton dissociation of electrosprayed megadalton-sized DNA ions in a charge-detection mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Doussineau, Tristan; Paletto, Pierre; Dugourd, Philippe; Antoine, Rodolphe

    2015-01-01

    Charge detection mass spectrometry in combination with a linear electrostatic ion trap coupled to a continuous wavelength infrared CO2 laser has been used to study the multiphoton dissociation of DNA macromolecular ions. Samples, with masses ranging from 2.23 to 31.5 MDa, include single strand circular M13mp18, double strand circular M13mp18, and double strand linear LambdaPhage DNA fragments. Their activation energies for unimolecular dissociation were determined. Activation energy values slightly increase as a function of the molecular weight. The most important result is the difference between the fragmentations observed for hybridized double-strands and dimers of single strands. PMID:25348472

  20. Finnigan ion trap mass spectrometer detection limits and thermal energy analyzer interface status report and present capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Alcaraz, A.; Andresen, B.; Martin, W.

    1990-10-18

    A new Finnigan ion trap mass spectrometer was purchased and installed at LLNL. Over a period of several months the instrument was tested under a variety of conditions utilizing a capillary gas chromatography interface which allowed separated organic compounds to be carried directly into the ion source of the mass spectrometer. This direct interface allowed maximum analytical sensitivity. A variety of critical tests were performed in order to optimize the sensitivity of the system under a variety of analysis conditions. These tests altered the critical time cycles of the ionization, ion trapping, and detection. Various carrier gas pressures were also employed in order to ascertain the overall sensitivity of the instrument. In addition we have also interfaced a thermal energy analyzer (TEA) to the gas chromatograph in order to simultaneously detect volatile nitrogen containing compounds while mass spectral data is being acquired. This is the first application at this laboratory of simultaneous ultra-trace detections while utilizing two orthogonal analytical techniques. In particular, explosive-related compound and/or residues are of interest to the general community in water, soil and gas sampler. In this paper are highlighted a few examples of the analytical power of this new GC-TEA-ITMS technology.

  1. Early Observations of the Upper Atmosphere and Ionosphere of Mars by MAVEN’s Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benna, Mehdi; Mahaffy, Paul R.; Elrod, Meredith

    2015-04-01

    The Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer (NGIMS) of the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) Mission is designed to characterize the source region of escaping atoms in the upper atmosphere and ionosphere of Mars. The NGIMS instrument is a quadrupole analyzer with a mass rang of 2-150 Da. It utilizes a dual ion source in order to measure both surface reactive neutrals (using the Open Source Neutral mode - OSN), inert neutrals (using the Closed Source Neutral mode - CSN), and thermal ions (using the Open Source Ion mode - OSI) at altitudes below 500 km.In the first few months of the MAVEN mission, NGIMS alternated on sequential orbits between measurement sequences that focus on fully characterizing neutral species (using the CSN/OSN modes) and ions (using the CSN/OSI modes). The collected data revealed the substantial structure present in both neutral and ion densities with spatial scales of hundreds of kilometers along the spacecraft track. The data also brought to light the sharp contrast between the day side and night side atmospheric profiles of neutrals and ions in both total density and relative abundance.

  2. A Novel Dual-Pressure Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer Improves the Analysis of Complex Protein Mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Pekar, Tonya; Blethrow, Justin D.; Schwartz, Jae C.; Merrihew, Gennifer E.; MacCoss, Michael J.; Swaney, Danielle L.; Russell, Jason D.; Coon, Joshua J.; Zabrouskov, Vlad

    2009-01-01

    The considerable progress in high throughput proteomics analysis via liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry over the last decade has been fueled to a large degree by continuous improvements in instrumentation. High throughput identification experiments are based on peptide sequencing and are largely accomplished through the use of tandem mass spectrometry, with ion trap and trap-based instruments having become broadly adopted analytical platforms. To satisfy increasingly demanding requirements for depth of characterization and throughput, we present a newly developed dual-pressure linear ion trap mass spectrometer (LTQ Velos) that features increased sensitivity, afforded by a new source design, and demonstrates practical cycle times two times shorter than that of an LTQ XL, while improving or maintaining spectral quality for MS/MS fragmentation spectra. These improvements resulted in a substantial increase in the detection and identification of both proteins and unique peptides from the complex proteome of Caenorhabditis elegans, as compared to existing platforms. The greatly increased ion flux into the mass spectrometer in combination with improved isolation of low-abundance precursor ions resulted in increased detection of low-abundance peptides. These improvements cumulatively resulted in a substantially greater penetration into the baker’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) proteome compared to LTQ XL. Alternatively, faster cycle times on the new instrument allowed for higher throughput for a given depth of proteome analysis, with more peptides and proteins identified in 60 min using an LTQ Velos than in 180 min using an LTQ XL. When mass analysis was carried out with resolution in excess of 25,000 FWHM, it became possible to isotopically resolve a small intact protein and its fragments, opening possibilities for top down experiments. PMID:19689114

  3. Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) Mass Spectrometer Flight Model and Future Ion Trap-Based Planetary Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinckerhoff, W. B.; van Amerom, F. H. W.; Danell, R.; Pinnick, V. T.; Arevalo, R. D., Jr.; Li, X.; Grubisic, A.; Getty, S.; Hovmand, L.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2015-12-01

    The Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) investigation on the 2018 ExoMars rover will examine the chemical composition of samples acquired from depths of up to two meters below the martian surface, where organics may be protected from radiative and oxidative degradation. MOMA combines pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) of bulk powder samples and Mars ambient laser desorption mass spectrometry (LDMS) surface analysis, using a single ion trap MS. This dual source design enables MOMA to detect compounds over a wide range of molecular weights and volatilities. The structure of any detected organics may be further examined using MOMA's tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) mode. The flight model (FM) ion trap sensor and electronics have been assembled under the extremely clean and sterile conditions required by ExoMars, and have met or exceeded all performance specifications during initial functional tests. After Mars ambient thermal cycling and calibration, the FM will be delivered as a subsystem of MOMA to rover integration in mid-2016. There MOMA will join complementary rover instruments such as the Raman and MicrOmega spectrometers designed to analyze common drill samples. Following the MOMA design, linear ion trap mass spectrometer (LITMS)-based instruments are under development for future missions. LITMS adds enhanced capabilities such as precision (point-by-point) analysis of drill cores, negative ion detection, a wider mass range, and higher temperature pyrolysis with precision evolved gas analysis, while remaining highly compact and robust. Each of the capabilities of LITMS has been demonstrated on breadboard hardware. The next phase will realize an end-to-end brassboard at flight scale that will meet stringent technology readiness level (TRL) 6 criteria, indicating readiness for development toward missions to Mars, comets, asteroids, outer solar system moons, and beyond.

  4. Automated transportable mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echo, M. W.

    1981-09-01

    The need was identified for a mass spectrometer (MS) which can be conveniently transported among several facilities for rapid verification of the isotopic composition of special nuclear material. This requirement for a light weight, transportable MS for U and Pu mass analysis was met by deleting the gas chromograph (GC) portions of a Hewlett-Packard Model 5992 Quadrupole GCMS and substituting a vacuum lock sample entry system. A programmable power supply and vacuum gauge were added and circuitry modifications were made to enable use of the supplied software.

  5. A Dual Source Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometer for Direct Comparison of ESI and MALDI Collision Cross Section Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Sundarapandian, Sevugarajan; May, Jody C.; McLean, John A.

    2010-01-01

    In this report, we describe a dual ionization source ion mobility-mass spectrometer (IM-MS) instrument platform for investigations that critically compare ion mobility collision cross section (CCS) measurements obtained from different ionization methods. The instrument incorporates both matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) and nano-electrospray ionization (nESI) sources. The nESI source incorporates a keyhole geometry ion funnel design which facilitates axial ion focusing, accumulation, and generation of short duration (10–30 µs) ion pulses for use with the IM-MS. The IM-MS instrument operation is independent of which ionization source is used. This allows comparisons of collision cross section measurements to be made between both ion sources with minimal differences in the instrumental arrangement. The performance of the nESI ion source is evaluated by measuring the collision cross section values of the charge states of equine cytochrome c (z = 9 to 16) and values are in good agreement (<2% deviation) with those previously reported in the literature. Several charge states (z = 8 to 11) of cytochrome c exhibit multiple cross sectional features in the ion mobility analysis. An analysis of the tryptic peptides of cytochrome c formed by both ESI and MALDI demonstrate that on average, +1 MALDI ions are similar in CCS to +1 ESI ions and are smaller than +2 ESI ions. The ion mobility resolving power with ESI (30–35) is comparable to that obtained by using MALDI (35–40), which suggests that both sources produce sufficiently narrow ion pulses for the measurement to be predominately diffusion rather than gate pulse width limited. PMID:20329759

  6. The charge-energy-mass spectrometer for 0.3-300 keV/e ions on the AMPTE CCE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gloeckler, G.; Ipavich, F. M.; Hamilton, D. C.; Lundgren, R. A.; Studemann, W.; Wilken, B.; Kremser, G.; Hovestadt, D.; Gliem, F.; Rieck, W.

    1985-01-01

    The charge-energy-mass (CHEM) spectrometer on the Charge Composition Explorer (CCE) has the function to measure the energy spectra, pitch-angle distributions, and ionization states of ions in the earth's magnetosphere and magnetosheath in the energy range from 0.3 to 300 keV/charge with a time resolution of less than 1 min. The obtained data will provide essential information on outstanding problems related to ion sources and dynamical processes of space plasmas and of suprathermal ions. A description of the CHEM experiment is given, taking into account the principle of operation, the sensor, the electronics, instrument characteristics, specifications, and requirements. Questions of postlaunch performance are also discussed.

  7. Investigation of hydrogen and helium pumping by sputter ion pumps for Jupiter and outer planets mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, B. W.

    1977-01-01

    The phenomena of ion pumping is reviewed with emphasis on the pumping mechanism for hydrogen and helium. The experimental tests measure the performance of a small, flight proven ion pump which has a nominal four liter/second pumping speed for air. The speed of this pump for hydrogen and helium, and for hydrogen/helium mixes, is presented with particular detail regarding the time dependence. Pump test results are related to anticipated performance of the mass spectrometer by the pumping speeds for the gases to the partial pressure in the ion source. From this analysis, the pump specifications are quantified in terms of mission goals and in terms of observed pumping speeds for the various gases, load levels, and time periods.

  8. Development of portable mass spectrometer with electron cyclotron resonance ion source for detection of chemical warfare agents in air.

    PubMed

    Urabe, Tatsuya; Takahashi, Kazuya; Kitagawa, Michiko; Sato, Takafumi; Kondo, Tomohide; Enomoto, Shuichi; Kidera, Masanori; Seto, Yasuo

    2014-01-01

    A portable mass spectrometer with an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (miniECRIS-MS) was developed. It was used for in situ monitoring of trace amounts of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) in atmospheric air. Instrumental construction and parameters were optimized to realize a fast response, high sensitivity, and a small body size. Three types of CWAs, i.e., phosgene, mustard gas, and hydrogen cyanide were examined to check if the mass spectrometer was able to detect characteristic elements and atomic groups. From the results, it was found that CWAs were effectively ionized in the miniECRIS-MS, and their specific signals could be discerned over the background signals of air. In phosgene, the signals of the 35Cl+ and 37Cl+ ions were clearly observed with high dose-response relationships in the parts-per-billion level, which could lead to the quantitative on-site analysis of CWAs. A parts-per-million level of mustard gas, which was far lower than its lethal dosage (LCt50), was successfully detected with a high signal-stability of the plasma ion source. It was also found that the chemical forms of CWAs ionized in the plasma, i.e., monoatomic ions, fragment ions, and molecular ions, could be detected, thereby enabling the effective identification of the target CWAs. Despite the disadvantages associated with miniaturization, the overall performance (sensitivity and response time) of the miniECRIS-MS in detecting CWAs exceeded those of sector-type ECRIS-MS, showing its potential for on-site detection in the future. PMID:24211802

  9. Automated ambient desorption-ionization platform for surface imaging integrated with a commercial Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Pól, Jaroslav; Vidová, Veronika; Kruppa, Gary; Kobliha, Václav; Novák, Petr; Lemr, Karel; Kotiaho, Tapio; Kostiainen, Risto; Havlícek, Vladimír; Volný, Michael

    2009-10-15

    A fully automated atmospheric pressure ionization platform has been built and coupled with a commercial high-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FTICR-MS) instrument. The outstanding performance of this instrument allowed screening on the basis of exact masses in imaging mode. The main novel aspect was in the integration of the atmospheric pressure ionization imaging into the current software for matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) imaging, which allows the user of this commercial dual-source mass spectrometer to perform MALDI-MS and different ambient MS imaging from the same user interface and to utilize the same software tools. Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) and desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization (DAPPI) were chosen to test the ambient surface imaging capabilities of this new ionization platform. Results of DESI imaging experiments performed on brain tissue sections are in agreement with previous MS imaging reports obtained by DESI imaging, but due to the high resolution and mass accuracy of the FTICR instrument it was possible to resolve several ions at the same nominal mass in the DESI-MS spectra of brain tissue. These isobaric interferences at low resolution are due to the overlap of ions from different lipid classes with different biological relevance. It was demonstrated that with the use of high-resolution MS fast imaging screening of lipids can be achieved without any preseparation steps. DAPPI, which is a relatively new and less developed ambient ionization technique compared to DESI, was used in imaging mode for the first time ever. It showed promise in imaging of phytocompounds from plant leaves, and selective ionization of a sterol lipid was achieved by DAPPI from a brain tissue sample. PMID:19761221

  10. Automated mass spectrometer analysis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuppermann, Aron (Inventor); Dreyer, William J. (Inventor); Giffin, Charles E. (Inventor); Boettger, Heinz G. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    An automated mass spectrometer analysis system is disclosed, in which samples are automatically processed in a sample processor and converted into volatilizable samples, or their characteristic volatilizable derivatives. Each volatilizable sample is sequentially volatilized and analyzed in a double focusing mass spectrometer, whose output is in the form of separate ion beams all of which are simultaneously focused in a focal plane. Each ion beam is indicative of a different sample component or different fragments of one or more sample components and the beam intensity is related to the relative abundance of the sample component. The system includes an electro-optical ion detector which automatically and simultaneously converts the ion beams, first into electron beams which in turn produce a related image which is transferred to the target of a vilicon unit. The latter converts the images into electrical signals which are supplied to a data processor, whose output is a list of the components of the analyzed sample and their abundances. The system is under the control of a master control unit, which in addition to monitoring and controlling various power sources, controls the automatic operation of the system under expected and some unexpected conditions and further protects various critical parts of the system from damage due to particularly abnormal conditions.

  11. Automated mass spectrometer analysis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boettger, Heinz G. (Inventor); Giffin, Charles E. (Inventor); Dreyer, William J. (Inventor); Kuppermann, Aron (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An automated mass spectrometer analysis system is disclosed, in which samples are automatically processed in a sample processor and converted into volatilizable samples, or their characteristic volatilizable derivatives. Each volatizable sample is sequentially volatilized and analyzed in a double focusing mass spectrometer, whose output is in the form of separate ion beams all of which are simultaneously focused in a focal plane. Each ion beam is indicative of a different sample component or different fragments of one or more sample components and the beam intensity is related to the relative abundance of the sample component. The system includes an electro-optical ion detector which automatically and simultaneously converts the ion beams, first into electron beams which in turn produce a related image which is transferred to the target of a vidicon unit. The latter converts the images into electrical signals which are supplied to a data processor, whose output is a list of the components of the analyzed sample and their abundances. The system is under the control of a master control unit, which in addition to monitoring and controlling various power sources, controls the automatic operation of the system under expected and some unexpected conditions and further protects various critical parts of the system from damage due to particularly abnormal conditions.

  12. First spatial separation of a heavy ion isomeric beam with a multiple-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickel, T.; Plaß, W. R.; Ayet San Andres, S.; Ebert, J.; Geissel, H.; Haettner, E.; Hornung, C.; Miskun, I.; Pietri, S.; Purushothaman, S.; Reiter, M. P.; Rink, A.-K.; Scheidenberger, C.; Weick, H.; Dendooven, P.; Diwisch, M.; Greiner, F.; Heiße, F.; Knöbel, R.; Lippert, W.; Moore, I. D.; Pohjalainen, I.; Prochazka, A.; Ranjan, M.; Takechi, M.; Winfield, J. S.; Xu, X.

    2015-05-01

    211Po ions in the ground and isomeric states were produced via 238U projectile fragmentation at 1000 MeV/u. The 211Po ions were spatially separated in flight from the primary beam and other reaction products by the fragment separator FRS. The ions were energy-bunched, slowed-down and thermalized in a gas-filled cryogenic stopping cell (CSC). They were then extracted from the CSC and injected into a high-resolution multiple-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MR-TOF-MS). The excitation energy of the isomer and, for the first time, the isomeric-to-ground state ratio were determined from the measured mass spectrum. In the subsequent experimental step, the isomers were spatially separated from the ions in the ground state by an ion deflector and finally collected with a silicon detector for decay spectroscopy. This pioneering experimental result opens up unique perspectives for isomer-resolved studies. With this versatile experimental method new isomers with half-lives longer than a few milliseconds can be discovered and their decay properties can be measured with highest sensitivity and selectivity. These experiments can be extended to studies with isomeric beams in nuclear reactions.

  13. New method for comprehensive detection of chemical warfare agents using an electron-cyclotron-resonance ion-source mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Kidera, Masanori; Seto, Yasuo; Takahashi, Kazuya; Enomoto, Shuichi; Kishi, Shintaro; Makita, Mika; Nagamatsu, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Tatsuhiko; Toda, Masayoshi

    2011-03-01

    We developed a detection technology for vapor forms of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) with an element analysis system using an electron cyclotron resonance ion source. After the vapor sample was introduced directly into the ion source, the molecular material was decomposed into elements using electron cyclotron resonance plasma and ionized. The following CWAs and stimulants were examined: diisopropyl fluorophosphonate (DFP), 2-chloroethylethylsulfide (2CEES), cyanogen chloride (CNCl), and hydrogen cyanide (HCN). The type of chemical warfare agents, specifically, whether it was a nerve agent, blister agent, blood agent, or choking agent, could be determined by measuring the quantities of the monatomic ions or CN(+) using mass spectrometry. It was possible to detect gaseous CWAs that could not be detected by a conventional mass spectrometer. The distribution of electron temperature in the plasma could be closely controlled by adjusting the input power of the microwaves used to generate the electron cyclotron resonance plasma, and the target compounds could be detected as molecular ions or fragment ions, enabling identification of the target agents. PMID:21242103

  14. New method for comprehensive detection of chemical warfare agents using an electron-cyclotron-resonance ion-source mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidera, Masanori; Seto, Yasuo; Takahashi, Kazuya; Enomoto, Shuichi; Kishi, Shintaro; Makita, Mika; Nagamatsu, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Tatsuhiko; Toda, Masayoshi

    2011-03-01

    We developed a detection technology for vapor forms of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) with an element analysis system using an electron cyclotron resonance ion source. After the vapor sample was introduced directly into the ion source, the molecular material was decomposed into elements using electron cyclotron resonance plasma and ionized. The following CWAs and stimulants were examined: diisopropyl fluorophosphonate (DFP), 2-chloroethylethylsulfide (2CEES), cyanogen chloride (CNCl), and hydrogen cyanide (HCN). The type of chemical warfare agents, specifically, whether it was a nerve agent, blister agent, blood agent, or choking agent, could be determined by measuring the quantities of the monatomic ions or CN + using mass spectrometry. It was possible to detect gaseous CWAs that could not be detected by a conventional mass spectrometer. The distribution of electron temperature in the plasma could be closely controlled by adjusting the input power of the microwaves used to generate the electron cyclotron resonance plasma, and the target compounds could be detected as molecular ions or fragment ions, enabling identification of the target agents.

  15. Large-Scale Collision Cross-Section Profiling on a Traveling Wave Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lietz, Christopher B.; Yu, Qing; Li, Lingjun

    2014-12-01

    Ion mobility (IM) is a gas-phase electrophoretic method that separates ions according to charge and ion-neutral collision cross-section (CCS). Herein, we attempt to apply a traveling wave (TW) IM polyalanine calibration method to shotgun proteomics and create a large peptide CCS database. Mass spectrometry methods that utilize IM, such as HDMSE, often use high transmission voltages for sensitive analysis. However, polyalanine calibration has only been demonstrated with low voltage transmission used to prevent gas-phase activation. If polyalanine ions change conformation under higher transmission voltages used for HDMSE, the calibration may no longer be valid. Thus, we aimed to characterize the accuracy of calibration and CCS measurement under high transmission voltages on a TW IM instrument using the polyalanine calibration method and found that the additional error was not significant. We also evaluated the potential error introduced by liquid chromatography ( LC)-HDMSE analysis, and found it to be insignificant as well, validating the calibration method. Finally, we demonstrated the utility of building a large-population peptide CCS database by investigating the effects of terminal lysine position, via LysC or LysN digestion, on the formation of two structural sub-families formed by triply charged ions.

  16. Mass spectrometric characterization of a high-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purves, Randy W.; Guevremont, Roger; Day, Stephen; Pipich, Charles W.; Matyjaszczyk, Matthew S.

    1998-12-01

    Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) has become an important method for the detection of many compounds because of its high sensitivity and amenability to miniaturization for field-portable monitoring; applications include detection of narcotics, explosives, and chemical warfare agents. High-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) differs from IMS in that the electric fields are applied using a high-frequency periodic asymmetric waveform, rather than a dc voltage. Furthermore, in FAIMS the compounds are separated by the difference in the mobility of ions at high electric field relative to low field, rather than by compound to compound differences in mobility at low electric field (IMS). We report here the first cylindrical-geometry-FAIMS interface with mass spectrometry (FAIMS-MS) and the MS identification of the peaks observed in a FAIMS compensation voltage (CV) spectrum. Using both an electrometer-based-FAIMS (FAIMS-E) and FAIMS-MS, several variables that affect the sensitivity of ion detection were examined for two (polarity reversed) asymmetric waveforms (modes 1 and 2) each of which yields a unique spectrum. An increase in the dispersion voltage (DV) was found to improve the sensitivity and separation observed in the FAIMS CV spectrum. This increase in sensitivity and the unexpected dissimilarity in modes 1 and 2 suggest that atmospheric pressure ion focusing is occurring in the FAIMS analyzer. The sensitivity and peak locations in the CV spectra were affected by temperature, gas flow rates, operating pressure, and analyte concentration.

  17. Large-scale collision cross-section profiling on a travelling wave ion mobility mass spectrometer

    PubMed Central

    Lietz, Christopher B.; Yu, Qing; Li, Lingjun

    2014-01-01

    Ion mobility (IM) is a gas-phase electrophoretic method that separates ions according to charge and ion-neutral collision cross-section (CCS). Herein, we attempt to apply a travelling wave (TW) IM polyalanine calibration method to shotgun proteomics and create a large peptide CCS database. Mass spectrometry methods that utilize IM, such as HDMSE, often use high transmission voltages for sensitive analysis. However, polyalanine calibration has only been demonstrated with low voltage transmission used to prevent gas-phase activation. If polyalanine ions change conformation under higher transmission voltages used for HDMSE, the calibration may no longer be valid. Thus, we aimed to characterize the accuracy of calibration and CCS measurement under high transmission voltages on a TW IM instrument using the polyalanine calibration method and found that the additional error was not significant. We also evaluated the potential error introduced by liquid chromatography (LC)-HDMSE analysis, and found it to be insignificant as well, validating the calibration method. Finally, we demonstrated the utility of building a large-population peptide CCS database by investigating the effects of terminal lysine position, via LysC or LysN digestion, on the formation of two structural sub-families formed by triply charged ions. PMID:24845359

  18. Performance tests of medium-energy electron analyzer and ion mass spectrometer developed for SPRINT-B/ERG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasahara, S.; Asamura, K.; Takashima, T.; Mitani, T.; Hirahara, M.

    2012-12-01

    We have been developing instruments for the observations of the medium-energy electrons (10-80 keV) and ions (10-180 keV/q) in our coming radiation belt mission SPRINT-B/ERG (Energization and Radiation in Geospace). The mission goal is to understand the radiation belt dynamics during space storms. The medium-energy electron measurement is one of the most important issues in this mission since these electrons generate whistler chorus wave, which is believed to play significant roles in the relativistic electron acceleration and loss during storms. On the other hand, such a measurement has been a challenging issue due to the harsh radiation environment, where penetrating particles and secondary particles result in significant background. Our strategy for enhancing signal-to-noise ratio is to combine an electrostatic analyzer and silicon detectors, which provide energy coincidence for true signals. We tested the performance of such a combination in a laboratory. The energy and angle responses were in conformity with expectations through simulations. In parallel with the electron instrument, we also have been designed and tested a medium-energy ion mass spectrometer. This instrument is comprised of an electrostatic analyzer, time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer, and solid state detectors, hence it can measure energy, mass and charge state of medium-energy ions. It provides significant information of particle flux and pitch angle distribution of ring current core components, which is essential for the understanding of the radiation belt dynamics. In order to mitigate the background noise with moderate shielding (for reducing the mass), we have designed a TOF unit that is especially suitable for the radiation belt observations in terms of the small detection areas (note that the background count rate is less for the smaller detector areas). Through experiments in a laboratory we have confirmed expected performance on TOF profiles expected from numerical simulations.

  19. Photo ion spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, Dieter M.; Young, Charles E.; Pellin, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    A method and apparatus for extracting for quantitative analysis ions of selected atomic components of a sample. A lens system is configured to provide a slowly diminishing field region for a volume containing the selected atomic components, enabling accurate energy analysis of ions generated in the slowly diminishing field region. The lens system also enables focusing on a sample of a charged particle beam, such as an ion beam, along a path length perpendicular to the sample and extraction of the charged particles along a path length also perpendicular to the sample. Improvement of signal to noise ratio is achieved by laser excitation of ions to selected autoionization states before carrying out quantitative analysis. Accurate energy analysis of energetic charged particles is assured by using a preselected resistive thick film configuration disposed on an insulator substrate for generating predetermined electric field boundary conditions to achieve for analysis the required electric field potential. The spectrometer also is applicable in the fields of SIMS, ISS and electron spectroscopy.

  20. Photo ion spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, D.M.; Young, C.E.; Pellin, M.J.

    1989-08-08

    A method and apparatus are described for extracting for quantitative analysis ions of selected atomic components of a sample. A lens system is configured to provide a slowly diminishing field region for a volume containing the selected atomic components, enabling accurate energy analysis of ions generated in the slowly diminishing field region. The lens system also enables focusing on a sample of a charged particle beam, such as an ion beam, along a path length perpendicular to the sample and extraction of the charged particles along a path length also perpendicular to the sample. Improvement of signal to noise ratio is achieved by laser excitation of ions to selected auto-ionization states before carrying out quantitative analysis. Accurate energy analysis of energetic charged particles is assured by using a preselected resistive thick film configuration disposed on an insulator substrate for generating predetermined electric field boundary conditions to achieve for analysis the required electric field potential. The spectrometer also is applicable in the fields of SIMS, ISS and electron spectroscopy. 8 figs.

  1. Identification of epoxide functionalities in protonated monofunctional analytes by using ion/molecule reactions and collision-activated dissociation in different ion trap tandem mass spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Eismin, Ryan J; Fu, Mingkun; Yem, Sonoeun; Widjaja, Fanny; Kenttämaa, Hilkka I

    2012-01-01

    A mass spectrometric method has been delineated for the identification of the epoxide functionalities in unknown monofunctional analytes. This method utilizes gas-phase ion/molecule reactions of protonated analytes with neutral trimethyl borate (TMB) followed by collision-activated dissociation (CAD) in an ion trapping mass spectrometer (tested for a Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance and a linear quadrupole ion trap). The ion/molecule reaction involves proton transfer from the protonated analyte to TMB, followed by addition of the analyte to TMB and elimination of methanol. Based on literature, this reaction allows the general identification of oxygen-containing analytes. Vinyl and phenyl epoxides can be differentiated from other oxygen-containing analytes, including other epoxides, based on the loss of a second methanol molecule upon CAD of the addition/methanol elimination product. The only other analytes found to undergo this elimination are some amides but they also lose O = B-R (R = group bound to carbonyl), which allows their identification. On the other hand, other epoxides can be differentiated from vinyl and phenyl epoxides and from other monofunctional analytes based on the loss of (CH(3)O)(2)BOH or formation of protonated (CH(3)O)(2)BOH upon CAD of the addition/methanol elimination product. For propylene oxide and 2,3-dimethyloxirane, the (CH(3)O)(2)BOH fragment is more basic than the hydrocarbon fragment, and the diagnostic ion (CH(3)O)(2)BOH (2) (+) is formed. These reactions involve opening of the epoxide ring. The only other analytes found to undergo (CH(3)O)(2)BOH elimination are carboxylic acids, but they can be differentiated from the rest based on several published ion/molecule reaction methods. Similar results were obtained in the Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance and linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer. PMID:22002227

  2. Identification of Epoxide Functionalities in Protonated Monofunctional Analytes by Using Ion/Molecule Reactions and Collision-Activated Dissociation in Different Ion Trap Tandem Mass Spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eismin, Ryan J.; Fu, Mingkun; Yem, Sonoeun; Widjaja, Fanny; Kenttämaa, Hilkka I.

    2012-01-01

    A mass spectrometric method has been delineated for the identification of the epoxide functionalities in unknown monofunctional analytes. This method utilizes gas-phase ion/molecule reactions of protonated analytes with neutral trimethyl borate (TMB) followed by collision-activated dissociation (CAD) in an ion trapping mass spectrometer (tested for a Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance and a linear quadrupole ion trap). The ion/molecule reaction involves proton transfer from the protonated analyte to TMB, followed by addition of the analyte to TMB and elimination of methanol. Based on literature, this reaction allows the general identification of oxygen-containing analytes. Vinyl and phenyl epoxides can be differentiated from other oxygen-containing analytes, including other epoxides, based on the loss of a second methanol molecule upon CAD of the addition/methanol elimination product. The only other analytes found to undergo this elimination are some amides but they also lose O = B-R (R = group bound to carbonyl), which allows their identification. On the other hand, other epoxides can be differentiated from vinyl and phenyl epoxides and from other monofunctional analytes based on the loss of (CH3O)2BOH or formation of protonated (CH3O)2BOH upon CAD of the addition/methanol elimination product. For propylene oxide and 2,3-dimethyloxirane, the (CH3O)2BOH fragment is more basic than the hydrocarbon fragment, and the diagnostic ion (CH3O)2BOH{2/+} is formed. These reactions involve opening of the epoxide ring. The only other analytes found to undergo (CH3O)2BOH elimination are carboxylic acids, but they can be differentiated from the rest based on several published ion/molecule reaction methods. Similar results were obtained in the Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance and linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer.

  3. Signal generator exciting an electromagnetic field for ion beam transport to the vacuum chamber of a mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tubol'tsev, Yu. V.; Kogan, V. T.; Bogdanov, A. A.; Chichagov, Yu. V.; Antonov, A. S.

    2015-02-01

    A high-voltage high-frequency signal generator is described that excites an electric field for ion beam transport from an ion source to the vacuum chamber of a mass spectrometer. Excitation signals to the number of two are high-frequency sine-wave out-of-phase signals with the same amplitudes. The amplitude and phase of the signals vary from 20 to 100 V and from 10 kHz to 1 MHz, respectively. The generator also produces a controlled bias voltage in the interval 50-200 V. The frequency and amplitude of the signals, as well as the bias voltage, are computer-controlled via the USB interface.

  4. Giotto-IMS observations of ion flow velocities and temperatures outside the contact surface of Comet Halley. [Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, B. E.; Neugebauer, M.; Balsiger, H.; Drake, J.; Fuselier, S. A.; Goldstein, R.; Ip, WING-H.; Rettenmund, U.; Rosenbauer, H.; Schwenn, R.

    1986-01-01

    Fluid parameters for He(++) ions obtained from the Giotto ion mass spectrometer are presented. Proton densities and velocities and thermal speeds of protons, alpha particles, and heavy ions in the hour before closest approach are discussed. A region of enhanced He(++) ion densities, and velocity, and decreased temperature is observed from 20:26 to 21:45. Sharp decreases in the proton density are observed at 23:30 and at 23:41. There is a relative flow velocity between alpha particles and oxygen ions of 30 km/sec during a period from 22:55 to 23:30; the difference in flow velocity is less than the experimental uncertainities. The flow properties of protons observed during this period are also discussed.

  5. Characterizing the gas phase ion chemistry of an ion trap mobility spectrometry based explosive trace detector using a tandem mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Kozole, Joseph; Tomlinson-Phillips, Jill; Stairs, Jason R; Harper, Jason D; Lukow, Stefan R; Lareau, Richard T; Boudries, Hacene; Lai, Hanh; Brauer, Carolyn S

    2012-09-15

    A commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) ion trap mobility spectrometry (ITMS) based explosive trace detector (ETD) has been interfaced to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (MS/MS) for the purpose of characterizing the gas phase ion chemistry intrinsic to the ITMS instrument. The overall objective of the research is to develop a fundamental understanding of the gas phase ionization processes in the ITMS based ETD to facilitate the advancement of its operational effectiveness as well as guide the development of next generation ETDs. Product ion masses, daughter ion masses, and reduced mobility values measured by the ITMS/MS/MS configuration for a suite of nitro, nitrate, and peroxide containing explosives are reported. Molecular formulas, molecular structures, and ionization pathways for the various product ions are inferred using the mass and mobility data in conjunction with density functional theory. The predominant product ions are identified as follows: [TNT-H](-) for trinitrotoluene (TNT), [RDX+Cl](-) for cyclo-1,3,5-trimethylene-2,4,6-trinitramine (RDX), [NO(3)](-) for ethylene glycol dinitrate (EGDN), [NG+NO(3)](-) for nitroglycerine (NG), [PETN+NO(3)](-) for pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), [HNO(3)+NO(3)](-) for ammonium nitrate (NH(4)NO(3)), [HMTD-NC(3)H(6)O(3)+H+Cl](-) for hexamethylene triperoxide diamine (HMTD), and [(CH(3))(2)CNH(2)](+) for triacetone triperoxide (TATP). The predominant ionization pathways for the formation of the various product ions are determined to include proton abstraction, ion-molecule attachment, autoionization, first-order and multi-order thermolysis, and nucleophilic substitution. The ion trapping scheme in the reaction region of the ITMS instrument is shown to increase predominant ion intensities relative to the secondary ion intensities when compared to non-ion trap operation. PMID:22967626

  6. Matrix-assisted laser desorption using a fast-atom bombardment ion source and a magnetic mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Annan, R S; Köchling, H J; Hill, J A; Biemann, K

    1992-04-01

    A conventional fast-atom bombardment (FAB) ion source was used to achieve matrix-assisted laser desorption (MALD) in a high-mass, double-focusing, magnetic mass spectrometer. The pulsed ion signals generated by irradiation of a mixture of sample and matrix (2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid) with either a XeF excimer laser (353 nm) or a nitrogen laser (337 nm) were recorded with a focal-plane detector. A resolution (full-width at half maximum) of 4500 was achieved at m/z 1347.7 (the peptide substance P), 2500 for CsI cluster ions at m/z 10,005.7, and 1250 for the isotope cluster of the small protein cytochrome c (horse) [M+H]+ = m/z 12,360 (average). Sensitivity is demonstrated with 11 fmol of substance P. A survey scan is taken to locate the m/z of the sample molecular ion. The segment that contains the sample can then be integrated for a longer time to produce a better signal-to-noise ratio. In addition to higher sensitivity and lower matrix interference, the advantage of MALD over FAB is the former's lower susceptibility to the presence of salts, and competition between hydrophobic and hydrophilic components of a mixture. This feature is demonstrated by the complete MALD spectrum of a crude partial tryptic digest of sperm-whale apomyoglobin, containing 24 peptides, representing the entire sequence of this protein. PMID:1373978

  7. A quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer for in-situ UHV analyses on Earth and other planetary environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, S. E.; Madzunkov, S. M.; Simcic, J.; Farley, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    The JPL quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer presents an exceptional opportunity for combining cutting edge terrestrial geochemical research with the next generation of extraterrestrial science. The QIT is a small mass spectrometer that filters particles of different mass by electron ionization and subsequent separation with a quadrupole RF field. The latest version is capable of achieving very high resolution (R > 1000) without an increase in power consumption through the addition of a dipole RF to augment the primary quadrupole field. Crucially, we demonstrate the ability to achieve this resolution with high sensitivity (> 1014 cps/Torr), and at UHV without the addition of a cooling gas. In this mode, the high sensitivity and extremely low background allow the measurement of a large number of species in very small samples. Most laboratory instruments are too heavy, large, and energy-intensive to fly on spacecraft in their optimal forms. As a result, instruments for spaceflight have traditionally been heavily-modified versions of terrestrial instruments, designed to be lighter, smaller, and more efficient than their terrestrial counterparts, at the expense of analytical capabilities. The JPL QIT, in contrast, weighs less than 1 kg, is only a few cm in size, and consumes less than 30W. Only the accompanying UHV system and supporting electronics must be extensively redesigned for spaceflight, and NASA already possesses pumps capable of fulfilling this need. The opportunity for parallel development for terrestrial and extraterrestrial labs and the capability of direct comparison between planetary science and terrestrial geochemistry will benefit both fields.

  8. Analysis of environmental contaminates in hair using an ion trap mass spectrometer with a filtered noise field waveboard

    SciTech Connect

    Alcaraz, A.; Hulsey, S.S.; Frantz, C.E.; Andresen, B.D.

    1994-12-31

    A variety of methods have been established using mass spectrometry (MS) for the analysis of chemicals in hair. Much of this past work has been focused on the detection of drugs of abuse. Human hair has been analyzed either directly by probe distillation (DIP) with some preliminary clean-up using HPLC or solid phase extraction (SPE). However, established drug analysis methods do not apply for the detection of some environmental contaminates. In this study, the authors selected 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and malathion as the target compounds. In addition two types of hair samples were analyzed: (1) human hair fortified with either TNT or malathion and (2) hair from mice who ingested the same analytes. The analytical method was DIP-EI-MS/MS with an ion trap mass spectrometer equipped with a filtered noise field wave board.

  9. Photo ion spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, D.M.; Young, C.E.; Pellin, M.J.

    1989-12-26

    A charged particle spectrometer is described for performing ultrasensitive quantitative analysis of selected atomic components removed from a sample. Significant improvements in performing energy and angular refocusing spectroscopy are accomplished by means of a two dimensional structure for generating predetermined electromagnetic field boundary conditions. Both resonance and non-resonance ionization of selected neutral atomic components allow accumulation of increased chemical information. A multiplexed operation between a SIMS mode and a neutral atomic component ionization mode with EARTOF analysis enables comparison of chemical information from secondary ions and neutral atomic components removed from the sample. An electronic system is described for switching high level signals, such as SIMS signals, directly to a transient recorder and through a charge amplifier to the transient recorder for a low level signal pulse counting mode, such as for a neutral atomic component ionization mode. 12 figs.

  10. Photo ion spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, Dieter M.; Young, Charles E.; Pellin, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    A charged particle spectrometer for performing ultrasensitive quantitative analysis of selected atomic components removed from a sample. Significant improvements in performing energy and angular refocusing spectroscopy are accomplished by means of a two dimensional structure for generating predetermined electromagnetic field boundary conditions. Both resonance and non-resonance ionization of selected neutral atomic components allow accumulation of increased chemical information. A multiplexed operation between a SIMS mode and a neutral atomic component ionization mode with EARTOF analysis enables comparison of chemical information from secondary ions and neutral atomic components removed from the sample. An electronic system is described for switching high level signals, such as SIMS signals, directly to a transient recorder and through a charge amplifier to the transient recorder for a low level signal pulse counting mode, such as for a neutral atomic component ionization mode.

  11. High-resolving mass spectrographs and spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wollnik, Hermann

    2015-11-01

    Discussed are different types of high resolving mass spectrographs and spectrometers. In detail outlined are (1) magnetic and electric sector field mass spectrographs, which are the oldest systems, (2) Penning Trap mass spectrographs and spectrometers, which have achieved very high mass-resolving powers, but are technically demanding (3) time-of-flight mass spectrographs using high energy ions passing through accelerator rings, which have also achieved very high mass-resolving powers and are equally technically demanding, (4) linear time-of-flight mass spectrographs, which have become the most versatile mass analyzers for low energy ions, while the even higher performing multi-pass systems have only started to be used, (5) orbitraps, which also have achieved remarkably high mass-resolving powers for low energy ions.

  12. Differentiation of regioisomeric aromatic ketocarboxylic acids by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization CAD tandem mass spectrometry in a linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Amundson, Lucas M.; Owen, Ben C.; Gallardo, Vanessa A.; Habicht, S. C.; Fu, M.; Shea, R. C.; Mossman, A. B.; Kenttämaa, Hilkka I.

    2011-01-01

    Positive-mode atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry (APCI-MS n ) was tested for the differentiation of regioisomeric aromatic ketocarboxylic acids. Each analyte forms exclusively an abundant protonated molecule upon ionization via positive-mode APCI in a commercial linear quadrupole ion trap (LQIT) mass spectrometer. Energy-resolved collision-activated dissociation (CAD) experiments carried out on the protonated analytes revealed fragmentation patterns that varied based on the location of the functional groups. Unambiguous differentiation between the regioisomers was achieved in each case by observing different fragmentation patterns, different relative abundances of ion-molecule reaction products, or different relative abundances of fragment ions formed at different collision energies. The mechanisms of some of the reactions were examined by H/D exchange reactions and molecular orbital calculations.

  13. Differentiation of Regioisomeric Aromatic Ketocarboxylic Acids by Positive Mode Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Collision-Activated Dissociation Tandem Mass Spectrometry in a Linear Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amundson, Lucas M.; Owen, Benjamin C.; Gallardo, Vanessa A.; Habicht, Steven C.; Fu, Mingkun; Shea, Ryan C.; Mossman, Allen B.; Kenttämaa, Hilkka I.

    2011-04-01

    Positive-mode atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry (APCI-MS n ) was tested for the differentiation of regioisomeric aromatic ketocarboxylic acids. Each analyte forms exclusively an abundant protonated molecule upon ionization via positive-mode APCI in a commercial linear quadrupole ion trap (LQIT) mass spectrometer. Energy-resolved collision-activated dissociation (CAD) experiments carried out on the protonated analytes revealed fragmentation patterns that varied based on the location of the functional groups. Unambiguous differentiation between the regioisomers was achieved in each case by observing different fragmentation patterns, different relative abundances of ion-molecule reaction products, or different relative abundances of fragment ions formed at different collision energies. The mechanisms of some of the reactions were examined by H/D exchange reactions and molecular orbital calculations.

  14. Comprehensive Lipidome Analysis by Shotgun Lipidomics on a Hybrid Quadrupole-Orbitrap-Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Reinaldo; Pauling, Josch Konstantin; Sokol, Elena; Hannibal-Bach, Hans Kristian; Ejsing, Christer S.

    2015-01-01

    Here we report on the application of a novel shotgun lipidomics platform featuring an Orbitrap Fusion mass spectrometer equipped with an automated nanoelectrospray ion source. To assess the performance of the platform for in-depth lipidome analysis, we evaluated various instrument parameters, including its high resolution power unsurpassed by any other contemporary Orbitrap instrumentation, its dynamic quantification range and its efficacy for in-depth structural characterization of molecular lipid species by quadrupole-based higher-energy collisional dissociation (HCD), and ion trap-based resonant-excitation collision-induced dissociation (CID). This evaluation demonstrated that FTMS analysis with a resolution setting of 450,000 allows distinguishing isotopes from different lipid species and features a linear dynamic quantification range of at least four orders of magnitude. Evaluation of fragmentation analysis demonstrated that combined use of HCD and CID yields complementary fragment ions of molecular lipid species. To support global lipidome analysis, we designed a method, termed MSALL, featuring high resolution FTMS analysis for lipid quantification, and FTMS2 analysis using both HCD and CID and ITMS3 analysis utilizing dual CID for in-depth structural characterization of molecular glycerophospholipid species. The performance of the MSALL method was benchmarked in a comparative analysis of mouse cerebellum and hippocampus. This analysis demonstrated extensive lipidome quantification covering 311 lipid species encompassing 20 lipid classes, and identification of 202 distinct molecular glycerophospholipid species when applying a novel high confidence filtering strategy. The work presented here validates the performance of the Orbitrap Fusion mass spectrometer for in-depth lipidome analysis.

  15. Observations of plasma dynamics in the coma of P/Halley by the Giotto ion mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, B. E.; Goldstein, R.; Neugebauer, M.; Fuselier, S. A.; Shelley, E. G.; Balsiger, H.; Kettmann, G.; Ip, W.-H.; Rosenbauer, H.; Schwenn, R.

    1992-01-01

    The paper reports observations of plasma dynamics in the coma of P/Halley by the Giotto ion mass spectrometer. Measurements of protons and alpha particles from the far upstream region to the near ionopause region and of ions of mass 12-32 at distances of about 250,000 to 40,000 km from the nucleus are presented. The discontinuity known as the magnetic pileup boundary (MPB) is apparent only in proton, alpha particle, and magnetometer data, indicating that it is a tangential discontinuity of solar wind origin. No significant change is found in the properties of the heavy ions across the MPB. The issue of whether a cometopause was unambiguously observed at Comet Halley is discussed; it is concluded that the observations do not convincingly support the idea of a boundary due to internal cometary processes. A comparison of the observations to MHD models is made. The plasma flow directions at all distances greater than 30,000 km from the nucleus are in agreement with MHD calculations.

  16. Activated Ion ETD Performed in a Modified Collision Cell on a Hybrid QLT-Oribtrap Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledvina, Aaron R.; Rose, Christopher M.; McAlister, Graeme C.; Syka, John E. P.; Westphall, Michael S.; Griep-Raming, Jens; Schwartz, Jae C.; Coon, Joshua J.

    2013-11-01

    We describe the implementation and characterization of activated ion electron transfer dissociation (AI-ETD) on a hybrid QLT-Orbitrap mass spectrometer. AI-ETD was performed using a collision cell that was modified to enable ETD reactions, in addition to normal collisional activation. The instrument manifold was modified to enable irradiation of ions along the axis of this modified cell with IR photons from a CO2 laser. Laser power settings were optimized for both charge (z) and mass to charge ( m/z) and the instrument control firmware was updated to allow for automated adjustments to the level of irradiation. This implementation of AI-ETD yielded 1.6-fold more unique identifications than ETD in an nLC-MS/MS analysis of tryptic yeast peptides. Furthermore, we investigated the application of AI-ETD on large scale analysis of phosphopeptides, where laser power aids ETD, but can produce b- and y-type ions because of the phosphoryl moiety's high IR adsorption. nLC-MS/MS analysis of phosphopeptides derived from human embryonic stem cells using AI-ETD yielded 2.4-fold more unique identifications than ETD alone, demonstrating a promising advance in ETD sequencing of PTM containing peptides.

  17. Secondary ion mass spectrometers (SIMS) for calcium isotope measurements as an application to biological samples

    SciTech Connect

    Craven, S.M.; Hoenigman, J.R.; Moddeman, W.E.

    1981-11-20

    The potential use of secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) to analyze biological samples for calcium isotopes is discussed. Comparison of UTI and Extranuclear based quadrupole systems is made on the basis of the analysis of CaO and calcium metal. The Extranuclear quadrupole based system is superior in resolution and sensitivity to the UTI system and is recommended. For determination of calcium isotopes to within an accuracy of a few percent a high resolution quadrupole, such as the Extranuclear, and signal averaging capability are required. Charge neutralization will be mandated for calcium oxide, calcium nitrate, or calcium oxalate. SIMS is not capable of the high precision and high accuracy results possible by thermal ionization methods, but where faster analysis is desirable with an accuracy of a few percent, SIMS is a viable alternative.

  18. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometers (SIMS) for calcium isotope measurements as an application to biological samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craven, S. M.; Hoenigman, J. R.; Moddeman, W. E.

    1981-11-01

    The potential use of secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) to analyze biological samples for calcium isotopes is discussed. Comparison of UTI and Extranuclear based quadrupole systems is made on the basis of the analysis of CaO and calcium metal. The Extranuclear quadrupole based system is superior in resolution and sensitivity to the UTI system and is recommended. For determination of calcium isotopes to within an accuracy of a few percent a high resolution quadrupole, such as the Extranuclear, and signal averaging capability are required. Charge neutralization will be mandated for calcium oxide, calcium nitrate, or calcium oxalate. SIMS is not capable of the high precision and high accuracy results possible by thermal ionization methods, but where faster analysis is desirable with an accuracy of a few percent, SIMS is a viable alternative.

  19. Maximizing Ion Transmission from Atmospheric Pressure into the Vacuum of Mass Spectrometers with a Novel Electrospray Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krutchinsky, Andrew N.; Padovan, Júlio C.; Cohen, Herbert; Chait, Brian T.

    2015-04-01

    We have discovered that an electrode containing a conical channel with a small angular divergence can transmit into the vacuum almost 100% of an electrospray ion current produced at atmospheric pressure. Our first implementation of such a conical duct, which we term "ConDuct," uses a conductive plastic pipette tip containing an approximately 1.6° divergent channel at its entrance. We observed that the beam formed by the ConDuct electrode has a very low divergence (less than 1°) and persists for long distances in vacuum. Intrigued by these properties, we incorporated this electrode into a novel atmosphere-to-vacuum ion transmission interface, and devised a technique for evaluating its performance relative to the commercial reference interfaces that contain heated metal capillaries. We determined that our new interface transmits at least 400 times more ions than the commercial Thermo LCQ DECA XP atmosphere-to-vacuum interface and 2 to 3 times more than the commercial interface in the Thermo Velos Orbitrap and the Q Exactive mass spectrometers. We conclude that it might be possible to optimize the properties of the transmitted ions further by manufacturing ConDuct inlet electrodes from metal rather than conductive plastic and by determining the optimum angle of channel divergence and channel length.

  20. Maximizing Ion Transmission from Atmospheric Pressure into the Vacuum of Mass Spectrometers with a Novel Electrospray Interface

    PubMed Central

    Krutchinsky, Andrew N.; Padovan, Júlio C.; Cohen, Herbert; Chait, Brian T.

    2015-01-01

    We have discovered that an electrode containing a conical channel with a small angular divergence can transmit into the vacuum almost 100% of an electrospray ion current produced at atmospheric pressure. Our first implementation of such a conical duct, which we term “ConDuct”, uses a conductive plastic pipette tip containing a ≈1.6° divergent channel at its entrance. We observed that the beam formed by the ConDuct electrode has a very low divergence (< 1°) and persisted for long distances in vacuum. Intrigued by these properties, we incorporated this electrode into a novel atmosphere-to-vacuum ion transmission interface, and devised a technique for evaluating its performance relative to commercial reference interfaces that contain heated metal capillaries. We determined that our new interface transmits at least 400 times more ions than the commercial Thermo LCQ DECA XP atmosphere-to-vacuum interface and 2–3 times more than the commercial interface in the Thermo Velos Orbitrap and the Q Exactive mass spectrometers. We conclude that it might be possible to optimize the properties of the transmitted ions further by manufacturing ConDuct inlet electrodes from metal rather than conductive plastic and by determining the optimum angle of channel divergence and channel length. PMID:25588722

  1. Lunar orbital mass spectrometer experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lord, W. P.

    1971-01-01

    The design, development, manufacture, test and calibration of five lunar orbital mass spectrometers with the four associated ground support equipment test sets are discussed. A mass spectrometer was installed in the Apollo 15 and one in the Apollo 16 Scientific Instrument Module within the Service Module. The Apollo 15 mass spectrometer was operated with collection of 38 hours of mass spectra data during lunar orbit and 50 hours of data were collected during transearth coast. The Apollo 16 mass spectrometer was operated with collection of 76 hours of mass spectra data during lunar orbit. However, the Apollo 16 mass spectrometer was ejected into lunar orbit upon malfunction of spacecraft boom system just prior to transearth insection and no transearth coast data was possible.

  2. A thermosphere composition measurement using a quadrupole mass spectrometer with a side energy focussing quasi-open ion source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niemann, H. B.; Spencer, N. W.; Schmitt, G. A.

    1971-01-01

    The atomic oxygen concentration in the altitude range 130 to 240 km was determined through the use of a quadrupole spectrometer with a strongly focussing ion source. The instrument is used in the Thermosphere Probe in a manner that greatly increases the proportion of measured oxygen ions that have not experienced a surface collision and permits quantitative evaluation of surface recombination and thermalization effects which inevitably enter all spectrometer determinations. The data obtained strengthen the concept that consideration of surface effects is significant in quantifying spectrometer measurements of reactive gases, and tend to be in agreement with von Zahn's recent results.

  3. Organic chemistry in Titan's upper atmosphere and its astrobiological consequences: I. Views towards Cassini plasma spectrometer (CAPS) and ion neutral mass spectrometer (INMS) experiments in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, A.; Sittler, E. C.; Chornay, D.; Rowe, B. R.; Puzzarini, C.

    2015-05-01

    The discovery of carbocations and carbanions by Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) and the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) instruments onboard the Cassini spacecraft in Titan's upper atmosphere is truly amazing for astrochemists and astrobiologists. In this paper we identify the reaction mechanisms for the growth of the complex macromolecules observed by the CAPS Ion Beam Spectrometer (IBS) and Electron Spectrometer (ELS). This identification is based on a recently published paper (Ali et al., 2013. Planet. Space Sci. 87, 96) which emphasizes the role of Olah's nonclassical carbonium ion chemistry in the synthesis of the organic molecules observed in Titan's thermosphere and ionosphere by INMS. The main conclusion of that work was the demonstration of the presence of the cyclopropenyl cation - the simplest Huckel's aromatic molecule - and its cyclic methyl derivatives in Titan's atmosphere at high altitudes. In this study, we present the transition from simple aromatic molecules to the complex ortho-bridged bi- and tri-cyclic hydrocarbons, e.g., CH2+ mono-substituted naphthalene and phenanthrene, as well as the ortho- and peri-bridged tri-cyclic aromatic ring, e.g., perinaphthenyl cation. These rings could further grow into tetra-cyclic and the higher order ring polymers in Titan's upper atmosphere. Contrary to the pre-Cassini observations, the nitrogen chemistry of Titan's upper atmosphere is found to be extremely rich. A variety of N-containing hydrocarbons including the N-heterocycles where a CH group in the polycyclic rings mentioned above is replaced by an N atom, e.g., CH2+ substituted derivative of quinoline (benzopyridine), are found to be dominant in Titan's upper atmosphere. The mechanisms for the formation of complex molecular anions are discussed as well. It is proposed that many closed-shell complex carbocations after their formation first, in Titan's upper atmosphere, undergo the kinetics of electron recombination to form open-shell neutral

  4. Relative Concentration of He+ in the Inner Magnetosphere as Observed by the DE 1 Retarding Ion Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craven, P. D.; Gallagher, D. L.; Comfort, R. H.

    1997-01-01

    With Observations from the retarding ion mass spectrometer on the Dynamics Explorer I from 1981 through 1984, we examine the He(+) to H(+) density ratios as a function of altitude, latitude, season, local time, geomagnetic and solar activity. We find that the ratios are primarily a function of geocentric distance and the solar EUV input. The ratio of the densities, when plotted as a function of geocentric distance, decrease by an order of magnitude from 1 to 4.5 R(sub E). After the He(+) to H(+) density ratios are adjusted for the dependence on radial distance, they decrease nonlinearly by a factor of 5 as the solar EUV proxy varies from about 250 to about 70. When the mean variations with both these parameters are removed, the ratios appear to have no dependence on geomagnetic activity and weak dependence on local time or season, geomagnetic latitude, and L shell.

  5. Unambiguous characterization of analytical markers in complex, seized opiate samples using an enhanced ion mobility trace detector-mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Liuni, Peter; Romanov, Vladimir; Binette, Marie-Josée; Zaknoun, Hafid; Tam, Maggie; Pilon, Pierre; Hendrikse, Jan; Wilson, Derek J

    2014-11-01

    Ion mobility spectroscopy (IMS)-based trace-compound detectors (TCDs) are powerful and widely implemented tools for the detection of illicit substances. They combine high sensitivity, reproducibility, rapid analysis time, and resistance to dirt with an acceptable false alarm rate. The analytical specificity of TCD-IMS instruments for a given analyte depends strongly on a detailed knowledge of the ion chemistry involved, as well as the ability to translate this knowledge into field-robust analytical methods. In this work, we introduce an enhanced hybrid TCD-IMS/mass spectrometer (TCD-IMS/MS) that combines the strengths of ion-mobility-based target compound detection with unambiguous identification by tandem MS. Building on earlier efforts along these lines (Kozole et al., Anal. Chem. 2011, 83, 8596-8603), the current instrument is capable of positive and negative-mode analyses with tightly controlled gating between the IMS and MS modules and direct measurement of ion mobility profiles. We demonstrate the unique capabilities of this instrument using four samples of opium seized by the Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA), consisting of a mixture of opioid alkaloids and other naturally occurring compounds typically found in these samples. Although many analytical methods have been developed for analyzing naturally occurring opiates, this is the first detailed ion mobility study on seized opium samples. This work demonstrates all available analytical modes for the new IMS-MS system including "single-gate", "dual-gate", MS/MS, and precursor ion scan methods. Using a combination of these modes, we unambiguously identify all signals in the IMS spectra, including previously uncharacterized minor peaks arising from compounds that are common in raw opium. PMID:25302672

  6. High-Resolution Mass Spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Alan G.; Hendrickson, Christopher L.

    2008-07-01

    Over the past decade, mass spectrometry has been revolutionized by access to instruments of increasingly high mass-resolving power. For small molecules up to ˜400 Da (e.g., drugs, metabolites, and various natural organic mixtures ranging from foods to petroleum), it is possible to determine elemental compositions (CcHhNnOoSsPp…) of thousands of chemical components simultaneously from accurate mass measurements (the same can be done up to 1000 Da if additional information is included). At higher mass, it becomes possible to identify proteins (including posttranslational modifications) from proteolytic peptides, as well as lipids, glycoconjugates, and other biological components. At even higher mass (˜100,000 Da or higher), it is possible to characterize posttranslational modifications of intact proteins and to map the binding surfaces of large biomolecule complexes. Here we review the principles and techniques of the highest-resolution analytical mass spectrometers (time-of-flight and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance and orbitrap mass analyzers) and describe some representative high-resolution applications.

  7. A Distonic Radical-Ion for Detection of Traces of Adventitious Molecular Oxygen (O2) in Collision Gases Used in Tandem Mass Spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jariwala, Freneil B.; Hibbs, John A.; Weisbecker, Carl S.; Ressler, John; Khade, Rahul L.; Zhang, Yong; Attygalle, Athula B.

    2014-09-01

    We describe a diagnostic ion that enables rapid semiquantitative evaluation of the degree of oxygen contamination in the collision gases used in tandem mass spectrometers. Upon collision-induced dissociation (CID), the m/z 359 positive ion generated from the analgesic etoricoxib undergoes a facile loss of a methyl sulfone radical [•SO2(CH3); 79-Da] to produce a distonic radical cation of m/z 280. The product-ion spectrum of this m/z 280 ion, recorded under low-energy activation on tandem-in-space QqQ or QqTof mass spectrometers using nitrogen from a generator as the collision gas, or tandem-in-time ion-trap (LCQ, LTQ) mass spectrometers using purified helium as the buffer gas, showed two unexpected peaks at m/z 312 and 295. This enigmatic m/z 312 ion, which bears a mass-to-charge ratio higher than that of the precursor ion, represented an addition of molecular oxygen (O2) to the precursor ion. The exceptional affinity of the m/z 280 radical cation towards oxygen was deployed to develop a method to determine the oxygen content in collision gases.

  8. Ion Composition of Comet 19P/Borrelly as Measured by the PEPE Ion Mass Spectrometer on DS1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordholt, J. E.; Reisenfeld, D. B.; Wiens, R. C.; Gary, P.

    2002-12-01

    Cometary compositions are of great interest because they hold important clues to the formation of the outer solar system, and to the sources of volatiles in the solar system, including the terrestrial planets. In order to understand the primordial compositions of cometary nuclei, it is important to also understand their evolution, as many of the comets most accessible to spacecraft are highly evolved. It is also important to understand the ion and neutral chemistry that occurs in the coma surrounding the nucleus if the coma ion composition is to be used to determine the original composition of the nucleus. Deep Space One (DS1) was only the second spacecraft, after Giotto, to use an ion mass-resolving instrument to explore cometary coma compositions in-situ, which it did during the flyby of Comet Borrelly on September 22, 2001. Borrelly is significantly more evolved than Halley. In addition, the encounter occurred at a significantly greater distance from the sun (1.36 AU vs 0.9 AU for Giotto at Halley). The Plasma Experiment for Planetary Exploration (PEPE) on board DS1 was capable of resolving electron and ion energy, angle of incidence, and ion mass composition. The PEPE ion data from the seven minutes surrounding closest approach (2171 km) have been extensively analyzed. The instrument response was modeled using SIMION and TRIM codes for all of the major species through 20 AMU plus CO (at its operating voltage PEPE was very insensitive to heavier molecules). Chi-squared minimization analysis is being carried out to determine the best fit and the uncertainties. Preliminary results for the predominant heavy ions are OH+ at (72 +/- 9)% of the total water-group ion density, H2O+ at (25 +/- 7)%, CH3+ at (5 +/- 3)%, and O+ at (4 +/- 5)%. Uncertainties are quoted at the 90% confidence level. Comparison with reported Halley compositions from Giotto shows that Borrelly clearly has a lower H3O+ abundance (< 9%), consistent with a more evolved comet. The presence of

  9. Massive positive and negative ions in the wake of a jet aircraft: Detection by a novel aircraft-based large ion mass spectrometer (LIOMAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlfrom, K.-H.; Eichkorn, S.; Arnold, F.; Schulte, P.

    2000-12-01

    Negative and positive chemiions (CI) were measured by an aircraft-based large ion mass spectrometer (LIOMAS) in the wake of a jet aircraft (ATTAS) at an altitude of 8 km and at plume ages between 0.6 and 6.2s. CI mass distributions were measured for mass numbers m up to 8500 atomic mass units, and additionally total fractional CI abundances fM for CI with m > 8500 were obtained. Very massive CI were observed even when nearly sulfur free jet fuel was burnt in the ATTAS engines (fuel sulfur content FSC = 2mg/kg). This indicates that a CI growth process was operative which did not involve sulfur, but more likely low volatility organic compounds (LVOC). However, when fuel with an FSC = 118mg/kg was used a significant additional negative CI growth was observed which must be due to sulfur-bearing molecules, probably sulfuric acid which is formed by oxidation of fuel sulfur. Use of the fuel with higher FSC did not change the size distribution of positive ions significantly. For both FSC the negative ions had a larger mean m compared to the positive ions.

  10. On-Line Desalting of Crude Oil in the Source Region of a Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanthamontri, C. Ken; Stopford, Andrew P.; Snowdon, Ryan W.; Oldenburg, Thomas B. P.; Larter, Stephen R.

    2014-08-01

    The presence of dissolved metal ions in waters associated with crude oils has many negative implications for the transport, processing, and refining of petroleum. In addition, mass spectrometric analysis of sodium containing crude oil samples suffers from ionization suppression, unwanted adduct formation, and an increase in the complexity of data analysis. Here, we describe a method for the reduction/elimination of these adverse effects by modification of the source region gas-inlet system of a 12 T Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer. Several acids were examined as part of this study, with the most suitable for on-line desalting found to have both high vapor pressure and low pKa; 12.1 M HCl showed the strongest desalting effect for crude oil samples with a sodium removal index (SRI) of 88%-100% ± 7% for the NaOS compound class. In comparison, a SRI of only 38% ± 9% was observed for a H2O/toluene solution-phase extraction of Oil 1. These results clearly demonstrate the increased efficacy of pseudo-vapor phase desalting with the additional advantages that initial sample solution conditions are preserved and no sample preparation is required prior to analysis.

  11. Action spectroscopy of SrCl{sup +} using an integrated ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Puri, Prateek Schowalter, Steven J.; Hudson, Eric R.; Kotochigova, Svetlana; Petrov, Alexander

    2014-07-07

    The photodissociation cross-section of SrCl{sup +} is measured in the spectral range of 36 000–46 000 cm{sup −1} using a modular time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS). By irradiating a sample of trapped SrCl{sup +} molecular ions with a pulsed dye laser, X{sup 1}Σ{sup +} state molecular ions are electronically excited to the repulsive wall of the A{sup 1}Π state, resulting in dissociation. Using the TOF-MS, the product fragments are detected and the photodissociation cross-section is determined for a broad range of photon energies. Detailed ab initio calculations of the SrCl{sup +} molecular potentials and spectroscopic constants are also performed and are found to be in good agreement with experiment. The spectroscopic constants for SrCl{sup +} are also compared to those of another alkaline earth halogen, BaCl{sup +}, in order to highlight structural differences between the two molecular ions. This work represents the first spectroscopy and ab initio calculations of SrCl{sup +}.

  12. Evaluation of a sheathless capillary electrophoresis/electrospray ionization interface on an ion trap mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Kriger, M.S.; Cook, K.D.; Ramsey, R.S.

    1994-12-31

    The use of small diameter fused silica capillaries has proven advantageous in several electrospray (ES) mass spectrometric (MS) applications. Enhanced sensitivity and reduced background provide very low limits of detection. Prompted by these findings, the authors have developed an improved capillary electrophoresis (CE)/ES interface and evaluated its performance on a quadrupole ion trap MS using specially prepared fused silica capillary columns. The capillary tip is tapered, then gold-coated using a proprietary process that provides physical and chemical stability. (This process will be described in a subsequent publication, following determination of its patent status by the University of Tennessee Research Corporation). Tapering focuses the electric field, enabling electrospray of highly conductive aqueous solutions prior to the onset of a corona discharge. These capillaries have been used for CE/ES without a sheath solvent, thus avoiding dilution and increased background. The gold coating is not removed from the capillary by application and removal of cellophane adhesive tape, demonstrating excellent physical adhesion. Microscopic inspection has revealed that the coating remains uncompromised when sonicated in water, methanol, ethanol, propanol, acetic acid buffer (10 mM; pH 3.5), concentrated HCl (12.1 M), or potassium hydroxide (1 M). The coating did not survive sonication in aqua regia or piranha solution (30% H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} 1:4).

  13. Evaluation of Small Mass Spectrometer Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arkin, C. Richard; Griffin, Timothy P.; Ottens, Andrew K.; Diaz, Jorge A.; Follistein, Duke W.; Adams, Fredrick W.; Helms, William R.; Voska, N. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Various mass analyzer systems were evaluated. Several systems show promise, including the Stanford Research Systems RGA-100, Inficon XPR-2, the University of Florida's Ion Trap, and the Compact Double Focus Mass Spectrometer. Areas that need improvement are the response time, recovery time, system volume, and system weight. Future work will investigate techniques to improve systems and will evaluate engineering challenges.

  14. Structurally diagnostic ion-molecule reactions and collisionally activated dissociation of 1,4-benzodiazepines in a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    McCarley, T D; Brodbelt, J

    1993-09-01

    The ion-molecule reactions of various 1,4-benzodiazepines and dimethyl ether ions were studied with a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer. The methoxymethylene ions of dimethyl ether selectively react with 3-hydroxy-1,4-benzodiazepines (temazepam, oxazepam) to form (M+13)+ adducts by methylene substitution, and they react with 1,4-benzodiazepines that do not have hydroxyl substituents (diazepam, nordiazepam, nitrazepam) to form (M+15)+ adduct by a simple methyl cation transfer. These adducts are formed by elimination of methanol or formaldehyde, respectively, from (M+CH2OCH3)+ precursor ions. Ion-molecule reactions of model compounds with dimethyl ether ions suggest that the reactive site in the formation of (M+15)+ adducts is the imine functional group of the 1,4-benzodiazepines, while the reactive site for formation of (M+13)+ adducts involves a functional group interaction between the hydroxyl and carbonyl functional groups. Fragmentation induced by chemical ionization and collisionally activated dissociation provides further structural information for the differentiation of 1,4-benzodiazepines. Also, the gas-phase basicities of diazepam and temazepam have been estimated by bracketing techniques to be between 220.7 and 222.2 kcal/mol. PMID:8238931

  15. Rapid discrimination of bacteria using a miniature mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Pulliam, Christopher J; Wei, Pu; Snyder, Dalton T; Wang, Xiao; Ouyang, Zheng; Pielak, Rafal M; Graham Cooks, R

    2016-03-01

    Bacteria colonies were analyzed using paper spray ionization coupled with a portable mass spectrometer. The spectra were averaged and processed using multivariate analysis to discriminate between different species of bacteria based on their unique phospholipid profiles. Full scan mass spectra and product ion MS/MS data were compared to those recorded using a benchtop linear ion trap mass spectrometer. PMID:26844973

  16. Akebono/Suprathermal Mass Spectrometer observations of low-energy ion outflow: Dependence on magnetic activity and solar wind conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cully, C. M.; Donovan, E. F.; Yau, A. W.; Arkos, G. G.

    2003-02-01

    We present observations by the Suprathermal Mass Spectrometer (SMS) on Akebono (EXOS-D) of ion outflow in the energy range from <1 to ˜70 eV. These observations cover a unique region of phase space and present an opportunity to "tie together" observations from disparate satellites. Variation of the total hemispheric O+ and H+ outflow rates with solar radio flux (monitored by the Penticton F10.7 index), with geomagnetic activity (monitored by the Kp index), and with solar wind parameters is discussed. Comparisons of F10.7 and Kp trends to results from Polar and Dynamics Explorer-1 (DE-1) lead us to conclude that flows of H+ in this low energy range are entirely sufficient to account for higher-energy flows at higher altitudes. On the other hand, we infer a substantial amount of O+ at energies above 70 eV. Both H+ and O+ outflow rates in this range exhibit a strong correlation with the solar wind kinetic pressure, the solar wind electric field, and the variability in the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) in the hour preceding. While these factors are also associated with increased geomagnetic activity (Kp), a separate, Kp-independent effect is also found, showing a correlation of ion outflow with solar wind density and an anticorrelation with solar wind velocity.

  17. Detection of cw-related species in complex aerosol particles deposited on surfaces with an ion trap-based aerosol mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, William A; Reilly, Pete; Whitten, William B

    2007-01-01

    A new type of aerosol mass spectrometer was developed by minimal modification of an existing commercial ion trap to analyze the semivolatile components of aerosols in real time. An aerodynamic lens-based inlet system created a well-collimated particle beam that impacted into the heated ionization volume of the commercial ion trap mass spectrometer. The semivolatile components of the aerosols were thermally vaporized and ionized by electron impact or chemical ionization in the source. The nascent ions were extracted and injected into the ion trap for mass analysis. The utility of this instrument was demonstrated by identifying semivolatile analytes in complex aerosols. This study is part of an ongoing effort to develop methods for identifying chemical species related to CW agent exposure. Our efforts focused on detection of CW-related species doped on omnipresent aerosols such as house dust particles vacuumed from various surfaces found in any office building. The doped aerosols were sampled directly into the inlet of our mass spectrometer from the vacuumed particle stream. The semivolatile analytes were deposited on house dust and identified by positive ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry up to 2.5 h after deposition. Our results suggest that the observed semivolatile species may have been chemisorbed on some of the particle surfaces in submonolayer concentrations and may remain hours after deposition. This research suggests that identification of trace CW agent-related species should be feasible by this technique.

  18. An energy-filtering device coupled to a quadrupole mass spectrometer for soft-landing molecular ions on surfaces with controlled energy

    SciTech Connect

    Bodin, A.; Laloo, R.; Abeilhou, P.; Guiraud, L.; Gauthier, S.; Martrou, D.

    2013-09-15

    We have developed an energy-filtering device coupled to a quadrupole mass spectrometer to deposit ionized molecules on surfaces with controlled energy in ultra high vacuum environment. Extensive numerical simulations as well as direct measurements show that the ion beam flying out of a quadrupole exhibits a high-energy tail decreasing slowly up to several hundred eV. This energy distribution renders impossible any direct soft-landing deposition of molecular ions. To remove this high-energy tail by energy filtering, a 127° electrostatic sector and a specific triplet lenses were designed and added after the last quadrupole of a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. The results obtained with this energy-filtering device show clearly the elimination of the high-energy tail. The ion beam that impinges on the sample surface satisfies now the soft-landing criterion for molecular ions, opening new research opportunities in the numerous scientific domains involving charges adsorbed on insulating surfaces.

  19. Quantitative analysis of sphingolipids for lipidomics using triple quadrupole and quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometers[S

    PubMed Central

    Shaner, Rebecca L.; Allegood, Jeremy C.; Park, Hyejung; Wang, Elaine; Kelly, Samuel; Haynes, Christopher A.; Sullards, M. Cameron; Merrill, Alfred H.

    2009-01-01

    Sphingolipids are a highly diverse category of bioactive compounds. This article describes methods that have been validated for the extraction, liquid chromatographic (LC) separation, identification and quantitation of sphingolipids by electrospray ionization, tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) using triple quadrupole (QQQ, API 3000) and quadrupole-linear-ion trap (API 4000 QTrap, operating in QQQ mode) mass spectrometers. Advantages of the QTrap included: greater sensitivity, similar ionization efficiencies for sphingolipids with ceramide versus dihydroceramide backbones, and the ability to identify the ceramide backbone of sphingomyelins using a pseudo-MS3 protocol. Compounds that can be readily quantified using an internal standard cocktail developed by the LIPID MAPS Consortium are: sphingoid bases and sphingoid base 1-phosphates, more complex species such as ceramides, ceramide 1-phosphates, sphingomyelins, mono- and di-hexosylceramides, and these complex sphingolipids with dihydroceramide backbones. With minor modifications, glucosylceramides and galactosylceramides can be distinguished, and more complex species such as sulfatides can also be quantified, when the internal standards are available. JLR LC ESI-MS/MS can be utilized to quantify a large number of structural and signaling sphingolipids using commercially available internal standards. The application of these methods is illustrated with RAW264.7 cells, a mouse macrophage cell line. These methods should be useful for a wide range of focused (sphingo)lipidomic investigations. PMID:19036716

  20. Hydrolysis of VX on concrete: rate of degradation by direct surface interrogation using an ion trap secondary ion mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Groenewold, Gary S; Williams, John M; Appelhans, Anthony D; Gresham, Garold L; Olson, John E; Jeffery, Mark T; Rowland, Brad

    2002-11-15

    The nerve agent VX (O-ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate) is lethal at very low levels of exposure, which can occur by dermal contact with contaminated surfaces. Hence, behavior of VX in contact with common urban or industrial surfaces is a subject of acute interest. In the present study, VX was found to undergo complete degradation when in contact with concrete surfaces. The degradation was directly interrogated at submonolayer concentrations by periodically performing secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analyses after exposure of the concrete to VX. The abundance of the [VX + H]+ ion in the SIMS spectra was observed to decrease in an exponential fashion, consistent with first-order or pseudo-first-order behavior. This phenomenon enabled the rate constant to be determined at 0.005 min(-1) at 25 degrees C, which corresponds to a half-life of about 3 h on the concrete surface. The decrease in [VX + H]+ was accompanied by an increase in the abundance of the principal degradation product diisopropylaminoethanethiol (DESH), which arises by cleavage of the P-S bond. Degradation to form DESH is accompanied by the formation of ethyl methylphosphonic acid, which is observable only in the negative ion spectrum. A second degradation product was also implicated, which corresponded to a diisopropylvinylamine isomer (perhaps N,N-diisopropyl aziridinium) that arose via cleavage of the S-C bond. No evidence was observed for the formation of the toxic S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothioic acid. The degradation rate constants were measured at four different temperatures (24-50 degrees C), which resulted in a linear Arrhenius relationship and an activation energy of 52 kJ mol(-1). This value agrees with previous values observed for VX hydrolysis in alkaline solutions, which suggests that the degradation of submonolayer VX is dominated by alkaline hydrolysis within the adventitious water film on the concrete surface. PMID:12487301

  1. Hydrolysis of VX on Concrete: Rate of Degradation by Direct Surface Interrogation using an Ion Trap Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Groenewold, Gary Steven; Appelhans, Anthony David; Gresham, Garold Linn; Olson, John Eric; Rowland, B.; Williams, j.; Jeffery, M. T.

    2002-09-01

    The nerve agent VX (O-ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate) is lethal at very low levels of exposure, which can occur by dermal contact with contaminated surfaces. Hence, behavior of VX in contact with common urban or industrial surfaces is a subject of acute interest. In the present study, VX was found to undergo complete degradation when in contact with concrete surfaces. The degradation was directly interrogated at submonolayer concentrations by periodically performing secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analyses after exposure of the concrete to VX. The abundance of the [VX + H]+ ion in the SIMS spectra was observed to decrease in an exponential fashion, consistent with first-order or pseudo-first-order behavior. This phenomenon enabled the rate constant to be determined at 0.005 min-1 at 25 C, which corresponds to a half-life of about 3 h on the concrete surface. The decrease in [VX + H]+ was accompanied by an increase in the abundance of the principal degradation product diisopropylaminoethanethiol (DESH), which arises by cleavage of the P-S bond. Degradation to form DESH is accompanied by the formation of ethyl methylphosphonic acid, which is observable only in the negative ion spectrum. A second degradation product was also implicated, which corresponded to a diisopropylvinylamine isomer (perhaps N,N-diisopropyl aziridinium) that arose via cleavage of the S-C bond. No evidence was observed for the formation of the toxic S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothioic acid. The degradation rate constants were measured at four different temperatures (24-50 C), which resulted in a linear Arrhenius relationship and an activation energy of 52 kJ mol-1. This value agrees with previous values observed for VX hydrolysis in alkaline solutions, which suggests that the degradation of submonolayer VX is dominated by alkaline hydrolysis within the adventitious water film on the concrete surface.

  2. On-line capillary electrophoresis/microelectrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry using an ion trap storage/time-of-flight mass spectrometer with SWIFT technology.

    PubMed

    Jin, X; Kim, J; Parus, S; Lubman, D M; Zand, R

    1999-08-15

    The development of a system capable of the speed required for on-line capillary electrophoresis-tandem mass spectrometry (CE-MS/MS) of tryptic digests is described. The ion trap storage/reflectron time-of-flight (IT/reTOF) mass spectrometer is used as a nonscanning detector for rapid CE separation, where the peptides are ionized on-line using electrospray ionization (ESI). The ESI produced ions are stored in the ion trap and dc pulse injected into the reTOF-MS at a rate sufficient to maintain the separation achieved by CE. Using methodology generated by software and hardware developed in our lab, we can produce SWIFT (Stored Waveform Inverse Fourier Transform) ion isolation and TICKLE activation/fragmentation voltage waveforms to generate MS/MS at a rate as high as 10 Hz so that the MS/MS spectra can be optimized on even a 1-2 s eluting peak. In CE separations performed on tryptic digests of dogfish myelin basic protein (MBP) where eluting peaks 4-8 s wide are observed, it is demonstrated that an acquisition rate of 4 Hz provides > 20 spectra/peak and is more than sufficient to provide optimized MS/MS spectra of each of the eluting peaks in the electropherogram. The detailed structural analysis of dogfish MBP including several posttranslational modifications using CE-MS and CE-MS/MS is demonstrated using this method with < 10 fmol of material consumed. PMID:10464485

  3. Miniature quadrupole mass spectrometer array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, Ara (Inventor); Hecht, Michael H. (Inventor); Orient, Otto J. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a minature quadrupole mass spectrometer array for the separation of ions, comprising a first pair of parallel, planar, nonmagnetic conducting rods each having an axis of symmetry, a second pair of planar, nonmagnetic conducting rods each having an axis of symmetry parallel to said first pair of rods and disposed such that a line perpendicular to each of said first axes of symmetry and a line perpendicular to each of said second axes of symmetry bisect each other and form a generally 90 degree angle. A nonconductive top positioning plate is positioned generally perpendicular to the first and second pairs of rods and has an aperture for ion entrance along an axis equidistant from each axis of symmetry of each of the parallel rods, a nonconductive bottom positioning plate is generally parallel to the top positioning plate and has an aperture for ion exit centered on an axis equidistant from each axis of symmetry of each of the parallel rods, means for maintaining a direct current voltage between the first and second pairs of rods, and means for applying a radio frequency voltage to the first and second pairs of rods.

  4. Miniature quadrupole mass spectrometer array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, Ara (Inventor); Hecht, Michael H. (Inventor); Orient, Otto J. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a minature quadrupole mass spectrometer array for the separation of ions, comprising a first pair of parallel, planar, nonmagnetic conducting rods each having an axis of symmetry, a second pair of planar, nonmagnetic conducting rods each having an axis of symmetry parallel to said first pair of rods and disposed such that a line perpendicular to each of said first axes of symmetry and a line perpendicular to each of said second axes of symmetry bisect each other and form a generally 90 degree angle. A nonconductive top positioning plate is positioned generally perpendicular to the first and second pairs of rods and has an aperture for ion entrance along an axis equidistant from each axis of symmetry of each of the parallel rods, a nonconductive bottom positioning plate is generally parallel to the top positioning plate and has an aperture for ion exit centered on an axis equidistant from each axis of symmetry of each of the parallel rods, means for maintaining a direct current voltage between the first and second pairs of rods, and means for applying a radio frequency voltage to the first and second pairs of rods.

  5. A Tuning Method for Electrically Compensated Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer Traps

    PubMed Central

    Brustkern, Adam M.; Rempel, Don L.; Gross, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    We describe a method for tuning electrically compensated ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) traps by tracking the observed cyclotron frequency of an ion cloud at different oscillation mode amplitudes. Although we have used this method to tune the compensation voltages of a custom-built electrically compensated trap, the approach is applicable to other designs that incorporate electrical compensation. To evaluate the effectiveness of tuning, we examined the frequency shift as a function of cyclotron orbit size at different z-mode oscillation amplitudes. The cyclotron frequencies varied by ~ 12 ppm for ions with low z-mode oscillation amplitudes compared to those with high z-mode amplitudes. This frequency difference decreased to ~1 ppm by one iteration of trap tuning. PMID:20060743

  6. Construction and operation of parallel electric and magnetic field spectrometers for mass/energy resolved multi-ion charge exchange diagnostics on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Medley, S.S.; Roquemore, A.L.

    1998-07-01

    A novel charge exchange spectrometer using a dee-shaped region of parallel electric and magnetic fields was developed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory for neutral particle diagnostics on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). The E{parallel}B spectrometer has an energy range of 0.5{le}Athinsp(amu)Ethinsp(keV){le}600 and provides mass-resolved energy spectra of H{sup +}, D{sup +}, and T{sup +} (or {sup 3}He{sup +}) ion species simultaneously during a single discharge. The detector plane exhibits parallel rows of analyzed ions, each row containing the energy dispersed ions of a given mass-to-charge ratio. The detector consists of a large area microchannel plate (MCP) which is provided with three rectangular, semicontinuous active area strips, one coinciding with each of the mass rows for detection of H{sup +}, D{sup +}, and T{sup +} (or {sup 3}He{sup +}) and each mass row has 75 energy channels. To suppress spurious signals attending operation of the plate in the magnetic fringe field of the spectrometer, the MCP was housed in a double-walled iron shield with a wire mesh ion entrance window. Using an accelerator neutron generator, the MCP neutron detection efficiency was measured to be 1.7{times}10{sup {minus}3} and 6.4{times}10{sup {minus}3}thinspcounts/neutron/cm{sup 2} for 2.5 MeV-DD and 14 MeV-DT neutrons, respectively. The design and calibration of the spectrometer are described in detail, including the effect of MCP exposure to tritium, and results obtained during high performance D{endash}D operation on TFTR are presented to illustrate the performance of the E{parallel}B spectrometer. The spectrometers were not used during D{endash}T plasma operation due to the cost of providing the required radiation shielding. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. Method for increasing the dynamic range of mass spectrometers

    DOEpatents

    Belov, Mikhail; Smith, Richard D.; Udseth, Harold R.

    2004-09-07

    A method for enhancing the dynamic range of a mass spectrometer by first passing a sample of ions through the mass spectrometer having a quadrupole ion filter, whereupon the intensities of the mass spectrum of the sample are measured. From the mass spectrum, ions within this sample are then identified for subsequent ejection. As further sampling introduces more ions into the mass spectrometer, the appropriate rf voltages are applied to a quadrupole ion filter, thereby selectively ejecting the undesired ions previously identified. In this manner, the desired ions may be collected for longer periods of time in an ion trap, thus allowing better collection and subsequent analysis of the desired ions. The ion trap used for accumulation may be the same ion trap used for mass analysis, in which case the mass analysis is performed directly, or it may be an intermediate trap. In the case where collection is an intermediate trap, the desired ions are accumulated in the intermediate trap, and then transferred to a separate mass analyzer. The present invention finds particular utility where the mass analysis is performed in an ion trap mass spectrometer or a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer.

  8. Data Reduction and Analysis of Pioneer Venus Orbital Ion Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cloutier, Paul A.

    1996-01-01

    Research was carried out on developing a flow field interaction model for both the dayside and nightside ionosphere of Venus. Specific topics related to the dayside ionosphere included: (1) wave particle mechanisms at the ionopause, (2) structure and dynamics of the Venus ionopause and Ionosphere, and (3) flows and fields in the Venus Ionosphere. The structure and dynamics of ion troughs was also studied in the nightside ionosphere of Venus.

  9. A Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer for Quantitative Analysis of Nitrogen-Purged Compartments within the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ottens, Andrew K.; Griffin, Timothy P.; Helms, William R.; Yost, Richard A.; Steinrock, T. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    To enter orbit the Space Shuttle burns 1.8 million liters of liquid hydrogen combined with 0.8 million liters of liquid oxygen through three rocket engines mounted in the aft. NASA monitors the nitrogen-purged aft compartment for increased levels of hydrogen or oxygen in order to detect and determine the severity of a cryogenic fuel leak. Current monitoring is accomplished with a group of mass spectrometer systems located as much as 400 feet away from the shuttle. It can take up to 45 seconds for gas to reach the mass spectrometer, which precludes monitoring for leaks in the final moments before liftoff (the orbiter engines are started at T-00:06 seconds). To remedy the situation, NASA is developing a small rugged mass spectrometer to be used as point-sources around the Space Shuttle.

  10. The development of an Omegratron plasma ion mass spectrometer for Alcator C-Mod

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, E.E. Jr.

    1993-05-01

    A new diagnostic device, the Omegatron Probe, has been developed to investigate relative impurity levels and impurity charge state distribution in the Alcator C-Mod Tokamak edge plasma. The Omegatron probe consists of two principal components, a ``front-end`` of independently biased grids, arranged in a gridded energy analyzer fashion and a large collection cavity. Particles enter the probe in a thin ``ribbon`` through a knife-edge slit. The grids provide a means to measure and control the parallel energy distribution of the ions. In the collection cavity, an oscillating electric field is applied perpendicularly to the ambient magnetic field. Ions whose cyclotron frequencies are resonant with this electric field oscillation will gain perpendicular energy and be collected. In this way, the probe can be operated in two modes: first, by fixing the potentials on the grids and sweeping frequencies to obtain a `` Z/m spectrum`` of ion species and second, by fixing the frequency and sweeping the grid potentials to obtain the distribution function of an individual impurity species. The Omegatron probe performed successfully in tests on a Hollow Cathode Discharge (HCD) linear plasma column. It obtained measurements of T{sub e} {approx} 5 eV, T{sub i} (H{sup +}) {approx} 2.0 {plus_minus} 0.2 eV, n{sub 0} {approx} 9 {times} 10{sup 15} m{sup {minus}3}, RMS potential fluctuation levels of {approximately} 0.5 {plus_minus} 0.05 {plus_minus} T{sub e}, and obtained ``Z/m`` spectra for the plasma ions (H{sup +}, H{sub 2}{sup +}, He{sup +}). Additional experiments confirmed the theoretical scalings of the f/{delta}f resolution with the applied electric field and magnetic field strengths. The instrument yielded an absolute level of resolution, f/{delta}f, of approximately 2.5 to 3 times the theoretical values. Finally, the results from the HCD are used to project operation on Alcator C-Mod.

  11. Conductive carbon filled polymeric electrodes: novel ion optical elements for time-of-flight mass spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Appel, Matthew F; van der Veer, Wytze E; Benter, Thorsten

    2002-10-01

    A new technique employing conductive polymeric electrodes for the generation of linear electric fields is proposed and validated. A hollow cylinder comprised of DuPont's Vespel SP-22, a polymer loaded with conductive carbon particles, is used to enhance the performance of a hybrid reflectron compared to a conventional dual stage gridless reflectron composed of discrete metal ring electrodes. Both devices have comparable physical dimensions and nearly identical ion optical properties. Instrumental resolution measurements are used to validate this novel design. PMID:12387322

  12. A Low-Noise, Wideband Preamplifier for a Fourier-Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Raman; Knepper, Ronald W.; O'Connor, Peter B.

    2009-01-01

    FTMS performance parameters such as limits of detection, dynamic range, sensitivity, and even mass accuracy and resolution can be greatly improved by enhancing its detection circuit. An extended investigation of significant design considerations for optimal signal-to-noise ratio in an FTMS detection circuit are presented. A low noise amplifier for an FTMS is developed based on the discussed design rules. The amplifier has a gain of ≈ 3500 and a bandwidth of 10 kHz - 1 MHz corresponding to m/z range of 100 Da to 10 kDa (at 7 Tesla). The performance of the amplifier was tested on a MALDI-FTMS, and has demonstrated a 25-fold reduction in noise in a mass spectrum of C60 compared to that of a commercial amplifier. PMID:18029195

  13. He Bulge Detection by MAVEN Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer (NGIMS) in the Upper Atmosphere of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elrod, Meredith; Bougher, Stephen; Benna, Mehdi; Yelle, Roger; Jakosky, Bruce; Bell, Jared; Mahaffy, Paul; Stone, Shane

    2016-07-01

    Studies of the Venusian atmospheres have demonstrated enhanced He densities at high latitudes and on the night-side detections. To determine if Mars has a similar enhanced He 'bulge' in the same region, we compared several periapsis passes from night to dayside. The first six weeks of the MAVEN prime mission had periapsis at high latitudes on the night-side, followed by the next three months at mid latitudes on the dayside moving to low latitudes on the night-side. In addition to its normal orbit, which has a periapsis of approximately 150 km, MAVEN conducts a few deep dip orbits where the spacecraft has a periapsis closer to 125km. The first deep dip was at dusk at mid latitudes, the second at noon at the equator, with the third going from dawn to night in the southern hemisphere. Initial analysis of the Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer (NGIMS) closed source data from all orbits with good pointing revealed an enhanced He density on the night-side orbits and a decreased He density on the dayside. This enhancement of He demonstrates a bulge at Mars that will continue to be explored over the course of the mission.

  14. Compact hydrogen/helium isotope mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Funsten, Herbert O.; McComas, David J.; Scime, Earl E.

    1996-01-01

    The compact hydrogen and helium isotope mass spectrometer of the present invention combines low mass-resolution ion mass spectrometry and beam-foil interaction technology to unambiguously detect and quantify deuterium (D), tritium (T), hydrogen molecule (H.sub.2, HD, D.sub.2, HT, DT, and T.sub.2), .sup.3 He, and .sup.4 He concentrations and concentration variations. The spectrometer provides real-time, high sensitivity, and high accuracy measurements. Currently, no fieldable D or molecular speciation detectors exist. Furthermore, the present spectrometer has a significant advantage over traditional T detectors: no confusion of the measurements by other beta-emitters, and complete separation of atomic and molecular species of equivalent atomic mass (e.g., HD and .sup.3 He).

  15. The TFTR E Parallel B Spectrometer for Mass and Energy Resolved Multi-Ion Charge Exchange Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    A.L. Roquemore; S.S. Medley

    1998-01-01

    The Charge Exchange Neutral Analyzer diagnostic for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor was designed to measure the energy distributions of both the thermal ions and the supra thermal populations arising from neutral-beam injection and ion cyclotron radio-frequency heating. These measurements yield the plasma ion temperature, as well as several other plasma parameters necessary to provide an understanding of the plasma condition and the performance of the auxiliary heating methods. For this application, a novel charge-exchange spectrometer using a dee-shaped region of parallel electric and magnetic fields was developed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The design and performance of this spectrometer is described in detail, including the effects of exposure of the microchannel plate detector to magnetic fields, neutrons, and tritium.

  16. Classical trajectories and RRKM modeling of collisional excitation and dissociation of benzylammonium and tert-butyl benzylammonium ions in a quadrupole-hexapole-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Knyazev, Vadim D; Stein, Stephen E

    2010-03-01

    Collision-induced dissociation of the benzylammonium and the 4-tert-butyl benzylammonium ions was studied experimentally in an electrospray ionization quadrupole-hexapole-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer. Ion fragmentation efficiencies were determined as functions of the kinetic energy of ions and the collider gas (argon) pressure. A theoretical Monte Carlo model of ion collisional excitation, scattering, and decomposition was developed. The model includes simulation of the trajectories of the parent and the product ions flight through the hexapole collision cell, quasiclassical trajectory modeling of collisional activation and scattering of ions, and Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM) modeling of the parent ion decomposition. The results of modeling demonstrate a general agreement between calculations and experiment. Calculated values of ion fragmentation efficiency are sensitive to initial vibrational excitation of ions, scattering of product ions from the collision cell, and distribution of initial ion velocities orthogonal to the axis of the collision cell. Three critical parameters of the model were adjusted to reproduce the experimental data on the dissociation of the benzylammonium ion: reaction enthalpy and initial internal and translational temperatures of the ions. Subsequent application of the model to decomposition of the t-butyl benzylammonium ion required adjustment of the internal ion temperature only. Energy distribution functions obtained in modeling depend on the average numbers of collisions between the ion and the atoms of the collider gas and, in general, have non-Boltzmann shapes. PMID:20060316

  17. Extending the isotopically resolved mass range of Orbitrap mass spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Jared B; Brodbelt, Jennifer S

    2013-09-01

    The routine analysis of large biomolecules (greater than 30 kDa) has been a challenge for Orbitrap mass spectrometers due to the relatively high kinetic energy of ions entering and within the Orbitrap mass analyzer. This characteristic results in rapid signal decay for large biomolecules due to energetic collisions with background gas molecules. Here, we report a method to significantly enhance the analysis of large biomolecules in an Orbitrap mass spectrometer. The combination of reduced C-trap and higher energy collisional dissociation (HCD) cell bath gas pressures, using helium as the bath gas and trapping ions in the HCD cell prior to mass analysis, greatly increased sensitivity and reduced signal decay for large protein ions. As a result, isotopic resolution of monoclonal immunoglobulin G was achieved, and we have established a new high-mass record for which accurate mass measurement and isotopic resolution have been achieved. PMID:23909473

  18. MEMS mass spectrometers: the next wave of miniaturization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syms, Richard R. A.; Wright, Steven

    2016-02-01

    This paper reviews mass spectrometers based on micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology. The MEMS approach to integration is first briefly described, and the difficulties of miniaturizing mass spectrometers are outlined. MEMS components for ionization and mass filtering are then reviewed, together with additional components for ion detection, vacuum pressure measurement and pumping. Mass spectrometer systems containing MEMS sub-components are then described, applications for miniaturized and portable systems are discussed, and challenges and opportunities are presented.

  19. Method of multiplexed analysis using ion mobility spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Belov, Mikhail E.; Smith, Richard D.

    2009-06-02

    A method for analyzing analytes from a sample introduced into a Spectrometer by generating a pseudo random sequence of a modulation bins, organizing each modulation bin as a series of submodulation bins, thereby forming an extended pseudo random sequence of submodulation bins, releasing the analytes in a series of analyte packets into a Spectrometer, thereby generating an unknown original ion signal vector, detecting the analytes at a detector, and characterizing the sample using the plurality of analyte signal subvectors. The method is advantageously applied to an Ion Mobility Spectrometer, and an Ion Mobility Spectrometer interfaced with a Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer.

  20. Mass spectrometers and atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunton, D. E.; Trzcinski, E.; Cross, J. B.; Spangler, L. H.; Hoffbauer, M. H.; Archuleta, F. H.; Visentine, J. T.

    1987-01-01

    The likely role of atmospheric atomic oxygen in the recession of spacecraft surfaces and in the shuttle glow has revived interest in the accurate measurement of atomic oxygen densities in the upper atmosphere. The Air Force Geophysics Laboratory is supplying a quadrupole mass spectrometer for a materials interactions flight experiment being planned by the Johnson Space Center. The mass spectrometer will measure the flux of oxygen on test materials and will also identify the products of surface reactions. The instrument will be calibrated at a new facility for producing high energy beams of atomic oxygen at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The plans for these calibration experiments are summarized.

  1. DETERMINATION OF ION AND NEUTRAL LOSS COMPOSITIONS AND DECONVOLUTION OF PRODUCT ION MASS SPECTRA USING AN ORTHOGONAL ACCELERATION, TIME-OF-FLIGHT MASS SPECTROMETER AND AN ION CORRELATION PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exact masses of monoisotopic ions and the relative isotopic abundances (RIAs) of ions greater in mass by 1 and 2 Da than the monoisotopic ion are independent and complementary physical properties useful for istinguishing among ion compositions possible for a given nominal mass. U...

  2. New design for a time-of-flight mass spectrometer with a liquid beam laser desorption ion source for the analysis of biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charvat, A.; Lugovoj, E.; Faubel, M.; Abel, B.

    2004-05-01

    We describe a novel liquid beam mass spectrometer, based on a recently discovered nanosecond laser desorption phenomenon, [W. Kleinekofort, J. Avdiev, and B. Brutschy, Int. J. Mass Ion. Processes 152, 135 (1996)] which allows the liquid-to-vacuum transfer, and subsequent mass analysis of pre-existing ions and ionic associates from liquid microjets of aqueous solutions. The goal of our novel technical approach is to establish a system with good mass resolution that implements improvements on critical components that make the system more reliable and easier to operate. For laser desorption pulsed dye-laser difference frequency mixing is used that provides tunable infrared light near the absorption maximum of liquid water around 3 μm. Different types of liquid beam glass nozzles (convergent capillary and aperture plate nozzles) are investigated and characterized. Starting from theoretical considerations of hydrodynamic drag forces on micrometer size droplets in supersonic rarefied gas flows we succeeded in capturing efficiently the liquid beam in a liquid beam recycling trap operating at the vapor pressure of liquid water. For improving the pollution resistance, the liquid jet high vacuum ion source region is spatially separated from the reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS) working behind a gate valve in an ultrahigh vacuum environment. A simple (simulation optimized) ion optics is employed for the ion transfer from the source to the high vacuum region. This new feature is also mostly responsible for the improved mass resolution. With the present tandem-TOF-MS setup a resolution of m/Δm≈1800 for the low and m/Δm≈700 in the high mass region has been obtained for several biomolecules of different mass and complexity (amino acids, insulin, and cytochrome c).

  3. Highly charged ion secondary ion mass spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Hamza, Alex V.; Schenkel, Thomas; Barnes, Alan V.; Schneider, Dieter H.

    2001-01-01

    A secondary ion mass spectrometer using slow, highly charged ions produced in an electron beam ion trap permits ultra-sensitive surface analysis and high spatial resolution simultaneously. The spectrometer comprises an ion source producing a primary ion beam of highly charged ions that are directed at a target surface, a mass analyzer, and a microchannel plate detector of secondary ions that are sputtered from the target surface after interaction with the primary beam. The unusually high secondary ion yield permits the use of coincidence counting, in which the secondary ion stops are detected in coincidence with a particular secondary ion. The association of specific molecular species can be correlated. The unique multiple secondary nature of the highly charged ion interaction enables this new analytical technique.

  4. Long-term variation of the polar wind velocity and its implication for the ion acceleration process: Akebono/suprathermal ion mass spectrometer observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Takumi; Yau, Andrew W.; Watanabe, Shigeto; Yamada, Manabu; Sagawa, Eiichi

    2004-09-01

    We present the solar activity dependence and seasonal variation of H+ and O+ polar wind velocity profiles observed by the suprathermal ion mass spectrometer (SMS) on Akebono. These observations spanned a solar cycle and covered a wide range of altitudes and invariant latitudes (ILAT) in the polar ionosphere and a variety of geomagnetic activity conditions from 1500 km to 8500 km altitude and from the poleward edge of the ionospheric trough (˜60° ILAT) to the polar cap (>85° ILAT). At low (high) altitudes below (above) 4000 km, the increase of the averaged H+ and O+ ion velocities with altitude was larger (smaller) at solar minimum than at solar maximum. For example, the averaged H+ velocity on the dayside at 4000 km altitude was approximately 8 km s-1 at low solar activity but ˜5 km s-1 at high activity. This suggests that the averaged polar wind velocity correlates differently with solar activity and the dominant acceleration process may be different at low and high altitudes, respectively. For both H+ and O+ the observed ion velocity at high altitude was largest in the summer under essentially all magnetic and solar activity conditions. The O+ velocity at high altitude (>4000 km) was significant and largest in the summer at solar maximum, when the solar energy input into the polar cap was largest; theoretically, the velocity of O+ ions in the polar wind is expected to be negligible below 10,000 km. We consider geophysical processes that may contribute to the observed velocities and their solar activity and seasonal dependences, including the possible contributions of photoelectrons and elevated electron temperatures to the ambipolar electric field that drives the polar wind.

  5. Energetics, kinetics and dynamics of decaying metastable ions studied with a high-resolution three-sector field mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matt-Leubner, S.; Feil, S.; Gluch, K.; Fedor, J.; Stamatovic, A.; Echt, O.; Scheier, P.; Becker, K.; Märk, T. D.

    2005-05-01

    Mass spectrometric analysis of metastable decay reactions is devoted to the measurements of the kinetic energy release distribution (KERD) for the decay of singly charged rare gas dimer ions Xe_{2}^{ + } and Kr_{2}^{ + } , the doubly charged acetylene parent ion C_{2}H_{2^{ 2+ }} and the singly and doubly charged SF6 fragment ions, like for example SF_{3}^{ + } , SF_{3}^{ 2 + } and SF_{4}^{ 2 + } . The KERDs are obtained either from high-resolution mass analysed ion kinetic energy spectra or the measurement of ion beam profiles using a specially improved mass spectrometric system. Due to the high energy resolution measurements and theoretical studies based on ab initio calculations of potential energy curves it is possible to assign the reaction products of the rare gas dimer decays to electronic transitions in the excited parent ion. The C_{2}H_{2^{ 2 + }} and also the SF_{4}^{ 2 + } ions are investigated because of obscurities in the production of their fragment ions. The unusual shape of the SF_{3}^{ + } ionization cross section indicates that at sufficiently high electron energies the fragmentation channel of doubly charged SF_{4}^{ 2 + } contributes significantly to the ion yield. Additional measurements of the corresponding appearance energies confirm the existence of this second production channel.

  6. Evaluation of drift gas selection in complex sample analyses using a high performance drift tube ion mobility-QTOF mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Kurulugama, Ruwan T; Darland, Ed; Kuhlmann, Frank; Stafford, George; Fjeldsted, John

    2015-10-21

    A recently developed uniform-field high resolution ion mobility (IM) quadrupole time of flight (Q-TOF) mass spectrometer is used for evaluating the utility of alternate drift gases for complex sample analyses. This study provides collision cross section comparison for 275 total pesticides including structural isomers in nitrogen, helium, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide and sulfur hexafluoride drift gases. Furthermore, a set of small molecules and Agilent tune mix compounds were used to study the trends in experimentally derived collision cross section values in argon and the alternate drift gases. Two isomeric trisaccharides, melezitose and raffinose, were used to evaluate the effect of the drift gasses for mobility separation. The hybrid ion mobility Q-TOF mass analyzer used in this study consists of a low pressure uniform field drift tube apparatus coupled to a high resolution Q-TOF mass spectrometer. Conventionally, low pressure ion mobility instruments are operated using helium drift gas to obtain optimal structural information and collision cross-section (CCS) values that compare to theoretical CCS values. The instrument employed in this study uses nitrogen as the standard drift gas but also allows the utility of alternate drift gases for improved structural analysis and selectivity under certain conditions. The use of alternate drift gases with a wide range of polarizabilities allows the evaluation of mobility separation power in terms of induced dipole interactions between the drift gas and the analyte ions. PMID:26178817

  7. A Thomson-type mass and energy spectrometer for characterizing ion energy distributions in a coaxial plasma gun operating in a gas-puff mode

    SciTech Connect

    Rieker, G. B.; Poehlmann, F. R.; Cappelli, M. A.

    2013-07-15

    Measurements of ion energy distribution are performed in the accelerated plasma of a coaxial electromagnetic plasma gun operating in a gas-puff mode at relatively low discharge energy (900 J) and discharge potential (4 kV). The measurements are made using a Thomson-type mass and energy spectrometer with a gated microchannel plate and phosphor screen as the ion sensor. The parabolic ion trajectories are captured from the sensor screen with an intensified charge-coupled detector camera. The spectrometer was designed and calibrated using the Geant4 toolkit, accounting for the effects on the ion trajectories of spatial non-uniformities in the spectrometer magnetic and electric fields. Results for hydrogen gas puffs indicate the existence of a class of accelerated protons with energies well above the coaxial discharge potential (up to 24 keV). The Thomson analyzer confirms the presence of impurities of copper and iron, also of relatively high energies, which are likely erosion or sputter products from plasma-electrode interactions.

  8. A Thomson-type mass and energy spectrometer for characterizing ion energy distributions in a coaxial plasma gun operating in a gas-puff mode.

    PubMed

    Rieker, G B; Poehlmann, F R; Cappelli, M A

    2013-07-01

    Measurements of ion energy distribution are performed in the accelerated plasma of a coaxial electromagnetic plasma gun operating in a gas-puff mode at relatively low discharge energy (900 J) and discharge potential (4 kV). The measurements are made using a Thomson-type mass and energy spectrometer with a gated microchannel plate and phosphor screen as the ion sensor. The parabolic ion trajectories are captured from the sensor screen with an intensified charge-coupled detector camera. The spectrometer was designed and calibrated using the Geant4 toolkit, accounting for the effects on the ion trajectories of spatial non-uniformities in the spectrometer magnetic and electric fields. Results for hydrogen gas puffs indicate the existence of a class of accelerated protons with energies well above the coaxial discharge potential (up to 24 keV). The Thomson analyzer confirms the presence of impurities of copper and iron, also of relatively high energies, which are likely erosion or sputter products from plasma-electrode interactions. PMID:23983449

  9. A Thomson-type mass and energy spectrometer for characterizing ion energy distributions in a coaxial plasma gun operating in a gas-puff mode

    PubMed Central

    Rieker, G. B.; Poehlmann, F. R.; Cappelli, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of ion energy distribution are performed in the accelerated plasma of a coaxial electromagnetic plasma gun operating in a gas-puff mode at relatively low discharge energy (900 J) and discharge potential (4 kV). The measurements are made using a Thomson-type mass and energy spectrometer with a gated microchannel plate and phosphor screen as the ion sensor. The parabolic ion trajectories are captured from the sensor screen with an intensified charge-coupled detector camera. The spectrometer was designed and calibrated using the Geant4 toolkit, accounting for the effects on the ion trajectories of spatial non-uniformities in the spectrometer magnetic and electric fields. Results for hydrogen gas puffs indicate the existence of a class of accelerated protons with energies well above the coaxial discharge potential (up to 24 keV). The Thomson analyzer confirms the presence of impurities of copper and iron, also of relatively high energies, which are likely erosion or sputter products from plasma-electrode interactions. PMID:23983449

  10. A Thomson-type mass and energy spectrometer for characterizing ion energy distributions in a coaxial plasma gun operating in a gas-puff mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieker, G. B.; Poehlmann, F. R.; Cappelli, M. A.

    2013-07-01

    Measurements of ion energy distribution are performed in the accelerated plasma of a coaxial electromagnetic plasma gun operating in a gas-puff mode at relatively low discharge energy (900 J) and discharge potential (4 kV). The measurements are made using a Thomson-type mass and energy spectrometer with a gated microchannel plate and phosphor screen as the ion sensor. The parabolic ion trajectories are captured from the sensor screen with an intensified charge-coupled detector camera. The spectrometer was designed and calibrated using the Geant4 toolkit, accounting for the effects on the ion trajectories of spatial non-uniformities in the spectrometer magnetic and electric fields. Results for hydrogen gas puffs indicate the existence of a class of accelerated protons with energies well above the coaxial discharge potential (up to 24 keV). The Thomson analyzer confirms the presence of impurities of copper and iron, also of relatively high energies, which are likely erosion or sputter products from plasma-electrode interactions.

  11. Miniaturized GC/MS instrumentation for in situ measurements: micro gas chromatography coupled with miniature quadrupole array and paul ion trap mass spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, P.; Chutjian, A.; Darrach, M.; Orient, O.

    2002-01-01

    Miniaturized chemical instrumentation is needed for in situ measurements in planetary exploration and other spaceflight applications where factors such as reduction in payload requirements and enhanced robustness are important. In response to this need, we are 'continuing to develop miniaturized GC/MS instrumentation which combines chemical separations by gas chromatography (GC) with mass spectrometry (MS) to provide positive identification of chemical compounds in complex mixtures of gases, such as those found in the International Space Station's cabin atmosphere. Our design approach utilizes micro gas chromatography components coupled with either a miniature quadrupole mass spectrometer array (QMSA) or compact, high-resolution Paul ion trap.

  12. Screening for DNA adducts by data-dependent constant neutral loss-triple stage mass spectrometry with a linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Bessette, Erin E; Goodenough, Angela K; Langouët, Sophie; Yasa, Isil; Kozekov, Ivan D; Spivack, Simon D; Turesky, Robert J

    2009-01-15

    A two-dimensional linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer (LIT/MS) was employed to simultaneously screen for DNA adducts of environmental, dietary, and endogenous genotoxicants, by data-dependent constant neutral loss scanning followed by triple-stage mass spectrometry (CNL-MS3). The loss of the deoxyribose (dR) from the protonated DNA adducts ([M + H - 116]+) in the MS/MS scan mode triggered the acquisition of MS3 product ion spectra of the aglycone adducts [BH2]+. Five DNA adducts of the tobacco carcinogen 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP) were detected in human hepatocytes treated with 4-ABP, and three DNA adducts of the cooked-meat carcinogen 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) were identified in the livers of rats exposed to MeIQx, by the CNL-MS3 scan mode. Buccal cell DNA from tobacco smokers was screened for DNA adducts of various classes of carcinogens in tobacco smoke including 4-ABP, 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AalphaC), and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP); the cooked-meat carcinogens MeIQx, AalphaC, and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylmidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP); and the lipid peroxidation products acrolein (AC) and trans-4-hydroxynonenal (HNE). The CNL-MS3 scanning technique can be used to simultaneously screen for multiple DNA adducts derived from different classes of carcinogens, at levels of adduct modification approaching 1 adduct per 108 unmodified DNA bases, when 10 microg of DNA is employed for the assay. PMID:19086795

  13. A high efficiency thermal ionization source adapted to mass spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Chamberlin, E.P.; Olivares, J.A.

    1994-07-01

    The high-temperature ion source used on the isotope separators at Los Alamos is unsuitable for mass spectrometry use, because it is bulky, expensive to fabricate, requires careful assembly, etc. A modified source was designed, using the following objectives: reduced number of parts and complexity, one-piece crucible, modular construction, little or no water cooling. The source is shown mounted on a quadrupole mass spectrometer; the ion beam is matched into a sector-type mass spectrometer.

  14. Development of a miniaturized multi-turn time-of-flight mass spectrometer with a pulsed fast atom bombardment ion source.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Hirofumi; Miki, Shinichi; Toyoda, Michisato

    2014-01-01

    A miniaturized multi-turn time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer with a pulsed fast atom bombardment (FAB) ion source (FAB-MULTUM) has been designed and constructed in order to overcome the drawbacks associated with magnetic sector type instruments utilizing a FAB ion source such as size and weight. This instrument consists of a pulsed FAB ion source, a multi-turn TOF mass spectrometer, a detector, vacuum system, and electronic circuits. The size and weight of the system are less than H520 mm x L580 mm x W230 mm and 45 kg (including vacuum pumps and electronic circuits). The achieved resolving power and mass accuracy of this instrument were > 25000 and about 1 ppm, respectively, which are equivalent to those of magnetic sector type instruments, although the size and weight are much smaller than those of magnetic sector type instruments. The experimental results led us to the conclusion that this instrument enables accurate mass measurements and is a powerful tool for the confirmation of synthesized compounds. PMID:24892292

  15. Cassini Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer data in Titan's upper atmosphere and exosphere: Observation of a suprathermal corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Haye, V.; Waite, J. H.; Johnson, R. E.; Yelle, R. V.; Cravens, T. E.; Luhmann, J. G.; Kasprzak, W. T.; Gell, D. A.; Magee, B.; Leblanc, F.; Michael, M.; Jurac, S.; Robertson, I. P.

    2007-07-01

    The neutral nitrogen and methane measurements made by Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer during Cassini flybys TA, TB, and T5 in Titan's upper atmosphere and exosphere are presented. Large horizontal variations are observed in the total density, recorded to be twice as large during TA as during T5. Comparison between the atmospheric and exospheric data show evidence for the presence of a significant population of suprathermal molecules. Using a diffusion model to simultaneously fit the N2 and CH4 density profiles below 1500 km, the atmospheric structure parameters are determined, taking into account recent changes in the calibration parameters. The best fits are obtained for isothermal profiles with values 152.8 ± 4.6 K for TA, 149.0 ± 9.2 K for TB, and 157.4 ± 4.9 K for T5, suggesting a temperature ≃5 K warmer at night than at dusk, a trend opposite to that determined by solar-driven models. Using standard exospheric theory and a Maxwellian exobase distribution, a temperature of 20 to 70 K higher would be necessary to fit the TA, TB, and egress-T5 data above 1500 km. The suprathermal component of the corona was fit with various exobase energy distributions, using a method based on the Liouville theorem. This gave a density of suprathermals at the exobase of 4.4 ± 5.1 × 105 cm-3 and 1.1 ± 0.9 × 105 cm-3, and an energy deposition rate at the exobase of 1.1 ± 0.9 × 102 eV cm-3 s-1 and 3.9 ± 3.5 × 101 eV cm-3 s-1 for the hot N2 and CH4 populations, respectively. The energy deposition rate allowed us to roughly estimate escape rates for nitrogen of ≃7.7 ± 7.1 × 107 N cm-2 s-1 and for methane of ≃2.8 ± 2.1 × 107 CH4 cm-2 s-1. Interestingly, no suprathermal component was observed in the ingress-T5 data.

  16. Miniature Ion-Array Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Frank T.

    2006-01-01

    A figure is shown that depicts a proposed miniature ion-mobility spectrometer that would share many features of design and operation of the instrument described in another article. The main differences between that instrument and this one would lie in the configuration and mode of operation of the filter and detector electrodes. A filter electrode and detector electrodes would be located along the sides of a drift tube downstream from the accelerator electrode. These electrodes would apply a combination of (1) a transverse AC electric field that would effect differential transverse dispersal of ions and (2) a transverse DC electric field that would drive the dispersed ions toward the detector electrodes at different distances along the drift tube. The electric current collected by each detector electrode would be a measure of the current, and thus of the abundance of the species of ions impinging on that electrode. The currents collected by all the detector electrodes could be measured simultaneously to obtain continuous readings of abundances of species. The downstream momentum of accelerated ions would be maintained through neutralization on the electrodes; the momentum of the resulting neutral atoms would serve to expel gases from spectrometer, without need for a pump.

  17. Portable gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Andresen, Brian D.; Eckels, Joel D.; Kimmons, James F.; Myers, David W.

    1996-01-01

    A gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) for use as a field portable organic chemical analysis instrument. The GC-MS is designed to be contained in a standard size suitcase, weighs less than 70 pounds, and requires less than 600 watts of electrical power at peak power (all systems on). The GC-MS includes: a conduction heated, forced air cooled small bore capillary gas chromatograph, a small injector assembly, a self-contained ion/sorption pump vacuum system, a hydrogen supply, a dual computer system used to control the hardware and acquire spectrum data, and operational software used to control the pumping system and the gas chromatograph. This instrument incorporates a modified commercial quadrupole mass spectrometer to achieve the instrument sensitivity and mass resolution characteristic of laboratory bench top units.

  18. Portable gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Andresen, B.D.; Eckels, J.D.; Kimmons, J.F.; Myers, D.W.

    1996-06-11

    A gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) is described for use as a field portable organic chemical analysis instrument. The GC-MS is designed to be contained in a standard size suitcase, weighs less than 70 pounds, and requires less than 600 watts of electrical power at peak power (all systems on). The GC-MS includes: a conduction heated, forced air cooled small bore capillary gas chromatograph, a small injector assembly, a self-contained ion/sorption pump vacuum system, a hydrogen supply, a dual computer system used to control the hardware and acquire spectrum data, and operational software used to control the pumping system and the gas chromatograph. This instrument incorporates a modified commercial quadrupole mass spectrometer to achieve the instrument sensitivity and mass resolution characteristic of laboratory bench top units. 4 figs.

  19. Portable gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Andresen, B.D.; Eckels, J.D.; Kimmins, J.F.; Myers, D.W.

    1994-12-31

    A gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) for use as a field portable organic chemical analysis instrument. The GC-MS is designed to be contained in a standard size suitcase, weighs less than 70 pounds, and requires less than 600 watts of electrical power at peak power (all systems on). The GC-MS includes: a conduction heated, forced air cooled small bore capillary gas chromatograph, a small injector assembly, a self-contained ion/sorption pump vacuum system, a hydrogen supply, a dual computer system used to control the hardware and acquire spectrum data, and operational software used to control the pumping system and the gas chromatograph. This instrument incorporates a modified commercial quadrupole mass spectrometer to achieve the instrument sensitivity and mass resolution characteristic of laboratory bench top units.

  20. Multiphoton Dissociation of Electrosprayed MegaDalton-Sized DNA Ions in a Charge-Detection Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doussineau, Tristan; Paletto, Pierre; Dugourd, Philippe; Antoine, Rodolphe

    2015-01-01

    Charge detection mass spectrometry in combination with a linear electrostatic ion trap coupled to a continuous wavelength infrared CO2 laser has been used to study the multiphoton dissociation of DNA macromolecular ions. Samples, with masses ranging from 2.23 to 31.5 MDa, include single strand circular M13mp18, double strand circular M13mp18, and double strand linear LambdaPhage DNA fragments. Their activation energies for unimolecular dissociation were determined. Activation energy values slightly increase as a function of the molecular weight. The most important result is the difference between the fragmentations observed for hybridized double-strands and dimers of single strands.

  1. Imaging MS Methodology for More Chemical Information in Less Data Acquisition Time Utilizing a Hybrid Linear Ion Trap-Orbitrap Mass Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Perdian, D. C.; Lee, Young Jin

    2010-11-15

    A novel mass spectrometric imaging method is developed to reduce the data acquisition time and provide rich chemical information using a hybrid linear ion trap-orbitrap mass spectrometer. In this method, the linear ion trap and orbitrap are used in tandem to reduce the acquisition time by incorporating multiple linear ion trap scans during an orbitrap scan utilizing a spiral raster step plate movement. The data acquisition time was decreased by 43-49% in the current experiment compared to that of orbitrap-only scans; however, 75% or more time could be saved for higher mass resolution and with a higher repetition rate laser. Using this approach, a high spatial resolution of 10 {micro}m was maintained at ion trap imaging, while orbitrap spectra were acquired at a lower spatial resolution, 20-40 {micro}m, all with far less data acquisition time. Furthermore, various MS imaging methods were developed by interspersing MS/MS and MSn ion trap scans during orbitrap scans to provide more analytical information on the sample. This method was applied to differentiate and localize structural isomers of several flavonol glycosides from an Arabidopsis flower petal in which MS/MS, MSn, ion trap, and orbitrap images were all acquired in a single data acquisition.

  2. Autonomously Calibrating a Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Seungwon; Bornstein, Benjamin J.

    2009-01-01

    A computer program autonomously manages the calibration of a quadrupole ion mass spectrometer intended for use in monitoring concentrations and changes in concentrations of organic chemicals in the cabin air of the International Space Station. The instrument parameters calibrated include the voltage on a channel electron multiplier, a discriminator threshold, and an ionizer current. Calibration is achieved by analyzing the mass spectrum obtained while sweeping the parameter ranges in a heuristic procedure, developed by mass spectrometer experts, that involves detection of changes in signal trends that humans can easily recognize but cannot necessarily be straightforwardly codified in an algorithm. The procedure includes calculation of signal-to-noise ratios, signal-increase rates, and background-noise-increase rates; finding signal peaks; and identifying peak patterns. The software provides for several recovery-from-error scenarios and error-handling schemes. The software detects trace amounts of contaminant gases in the mass spectrometer and notifies associated command- and-data-handling software to schedule a cleaning. Furthermore, the software autonomously analyzes the mass spectrum to determine whether the parameters of a radio-frequency ramp waveform are set properly so that the peaks of the mass spectrum are at expected locations.

  3. Direct and Sensitive Detection of CWA Simulants by Active Capillary Plasma Ionization Coupled to a Handheld Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Jan-Christoph; Etter, Raphael; Schaer, Martin; Siegenthaler, Peter; Zenobi, Renato

    2016-07-01

    An active capillary plasma ionization (ACI) source was coupled to a handheld mass spectrometer (Mini 10.5; Aston Labs, West Lafayette, IN, USA) and applied to the direct gas-phase detection and quantification of chemical warfare agent (CWA) related chemicals. Complementing the discontinuous atmospheric pressure interface (DAPI) of the Mini 10.5 mass spectrometer with an additional membrane pump, a quasi-continuous sample introduction through the ACI source was achieved. Nerve agent simulants (three dialkyl alkylphosphonates, a dialkyl phosporamidate, and the pesticide dichlorvos) were detected at low gas-phase concentrations with limits of detection ranging from 1.0 μg/m3 to 6.3 μg/m3. Our results demonstrate a sensitivity enhancement for portable MS-instrumentation by using an ACI source, enabling direct, quantitative measurements of volatile organic compounds. Due to its high sensitivity, selectivity, low power consumption (<80 W) and weight (<13 kg), this instrumentation has the potential for direct on-site CWA detection as required by military or civil protection.

  4. Direct and Sensitive Detection of CWA Simulants by Active Capillary Plasma Ionization Coupled to a Handheld Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Jan-Christoph; Etter, Raphael; Schaer, Martin; Siegenthaler, Peter; Zenobi, Renato

    2016-03-01

    An active capillary plasma ionization (ACI) source was coupled to a handheld mass spectrometer (Mini 10.5; Aston Labs, West Lafayette, IN, USA) and applied to the direct gas-phase detection and quantification of chemical warfare agent (CWA) related chemicals. Complementing the discontinuous atmospheric pressure interface (DAPI) of the Mini 10.5 mass spectrometer with an additional membrane pump, a quasi-continuous sample introduction through the ACI source was achieved. Nerve agent simulants (three dialkyl alkylphosphonates, a dialkyl phosporamidate, and the pesticide dichlorvos) were detected at low gas-phase concentrations with limits of detection ranging from 1.0 μg/m3 to 6.3 μg/m3. Our results demonstrate a sensitivity enhancement for portable MS-instrumentation by using an ACI source, enabling direct, quantitative measurements of volatile organic compounds. Due to its high sensitivity, selectivity, low power consumption (<80 W) and weight (<13 kg), this instrumentation has the potential for direct on-site CWA detection as required by military or civil protection.

  5. Direct and Sensitive Detection of CWA Simulants by Active Capillary Plasma Ionization Coupled to a Handheld Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Jan-Christoph; Etter, Raphael; Schaer, Martin; Siegenthaler, Peter; Zenobi, Renato

    2016-07-01

    An active capillary plasma ionization (ACI) source was coupled to a handheld mass spectrometer (Mini 10.5; Aston Labs, West Lafayette, IN, USA) and applied to the direct gas-phase detection and quantification of chemical warfare agent (CWA) related chemicals. Complementing the discontinuous atmospheric pressure interface (DAPI) of the Mini 10.5 mass spectrometer with an additional membrane pump, a quasi-continuous sample introduction through the ACI source was achieved. Nerve agent simulants (three dialkyl alkylphosphonates, a dialkyl phosporamidate, and the pesticide dichlorvos) were detected at low gas-phase concentrations with limits of detection ranging from 1.0 μg/m(3) to 6.3 μg/m(3). Our results demonstrate a sensitivity enhancement for portable MS-instrumentation by using an ACI source, enabling direct, quantitative measurements of volatile organic compounds. Due to its high sensitivity, selectivity, low power consumption (<80 W) and weight (<13 kg), this instrumentation has the potential for direct on-site CWA detection as required by military or civil protection. Graphical Abstract ᅟ. PMID:27020924

  6. Miniature Ion-Mobility Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Frank T.

    2006-01-01

    The figure depicts a proposed miniature ion-mobility spectrometer that would be fabricated by micromachining. Unlike prior ion-mobility spectrometers, the proposed instrument would not be based on a time-of-flight principle and, consequently, would not have some of the disadvantageous characteristics of prior time-of-flight ion-mobility spectrometers. For example, one of these characteristics is the need for a bulky carrier-gas-feeding subsystem that includes a shutter gate to provide short pulses of gas in order to generate short pulses of ions. For another example, there is need for a complex device to generate pulses of ions from the pulses of gas and the device is capable of ionizing only a fraction of the incoming gas molecules; these characteristics preclude miniaturization. In contrast, the proposed instrument would not require a carrier-gas-feeding subsystem and would include a simple, highly compact device that would ionize all the molecules passing through it. The ionization device in the proposed instrument would be a 0.1-micron-thick dielectric membrane with metal electrodes on both sides. Small conical holes would be micromachined through the membrane and electrodes. An electric potential of the order of a volt applied between the membrane electrodes would give rise to an electric field of the order of several megavolts per meter in the submicron gap between the electrodes. An electric field of this magnitude would be sufficient to ionize all the molecules that enter the holes. Ionization (but not avalanche arcing) would occur because the distance between the ionizing electrodes would be less than the mean free path of gas molecules at the operating pressure of instrument. An accelerating grid would be located inside the instrument, downstream from the ionizing membrane. The electric potential applied to this grid would be negative relative to the potential on the inside electrode of the ionizing membrane and would be of a magnitude sufficient to

  7. Advanced Mass Spectrometers for Hydrogen Isotope Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Chastagner, P.

    2001-08-01

    This report is a summary of the results of a joint Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) - Savannah River Plant (SRP) ''Hydrogen Isotope Mass Spectrometer Evaluation Program''. The program was undertaken to evaluate two prototype hydrogen isotope mass spectrometers and obtain sufficient data to permit SRP personnel to specify the mass spectrometers to replace obsolete instruments.

  8. Infrared irradiation in the collision cell of a hybrid tandem quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometer for declustering and cleaning of nanoelectrosprayed protein complex ions.

    PubMed

    El-Faramawy, Ayman; Guo, Yuzhu; Verkerk, Udo H; Thomson, Bruce A; Siu, K W Michael

    2010-12-01

    Herein we report the performance of a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometer with an improved designed for coaxial infrared laser introduction for the characterization and dissociation of large protein complex ions and their aggregates formed under nanoelectrospray ionization. The major improvement from the original design (Raspopov, S. A.; El-Faramawy, A.; Thomson, B. A.; Siu, K. W. M. Anal. Chem. 2006, 78, 4572-4577) involves the use of a hollow silica waveguide and physical isolation of the infrared laser. Large model protein complex ions and their aggregates examined include alcohol dehydrogenase, avidin, GroEL, and others. Gentle heating of these complexes with the infrared laser facilitated declustering and resulted in better resolved mass spectral peaks and more accurate molecular-weight measurements. PMID:21062028

  9. Structure of the martian ionosphere as revealed by the Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer during the first two years of the MAVEN mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benna, Mehdi; Yelle, Roger; Grebowsky, Joseph; Fox, Jane L.; Mahaffy, Paul

    2016-07-01

    We report the results of the observations of the ionosphere of Mars by the Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer (NGIMS). These observations were conducted during the first two years of the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution mission (MAVEN), which also cover a full Martian year. The NGIMS observations revealed the spatial and temporal structures in the density distributions of major and several minor ion species (H_2^+, H_3^+, He^+, O_2^+, C^+, CH^+, N^+, NH^+, O^+, OH^+, H_2O^+, H_3O^+, N_2^+/CO^+, CO^+/HOC^+/N_2H^+, NO^+, HNO^+, O_2^+, HO_2^+, Ar^+, ArH^+, CO_2^+, and OCOH^+). Dusk/dawn and day/night asymmetries in the density distributions were also observed for nearly all ion species. Additionally, NGIMS revealed the presence of a persistent metal layer below 140 km. This layer was accessible for measurement during the MAVEN's "deep-dip" campaigns.

  10. Performance of the Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer for the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) Investigation on the 2018 Exomars Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arevalo, Ricardo, Jr.; Brinckerhoff, William B.; Pinnick, Veronica T.; van Amerom, Friso H. W.; Danell, Ryan M.; Li, Xiang; Getty, Stephanie; Hovmand, Lars; Atanassova, Martina; Mahaffy, Paul R.; Chu, Zhiping; Goesmann, Fred; Steininger, Harald

    2014-01-01

    The 2018 ExoMars rover mission includes the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) investigation. MOMA will examine the chemical composition of samples acquired from depths of up to two meters below the martian surface, where organics may be protected from degradation derived from cosmic radiation and/or oxidative chemical reactions. When combined with the complement of instruments in the rover's Pasteur Payload, MOMA has the potential to reveal the presence of a wide range of organics preserved in a variety of mineralogical environments, and to begin to understand the structural character and potential origin of those compounds. The MOMA investigation is led by the Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research (MPS) with the mass spectrometer subsystem provided by NASA GSFC. MOMA's linear ion trap mass spectrometer (ITMS) is designed to analyze molecular composition of: (i) gas evolved from pyrolyzed powder samples and separated in a gas chromatograph; and, (ii) ions directly desorbed from crushed solid samples at Mars ambient pressure, as enabled by a pulsed UV laser system, fast-actuating aperture valve and capillary ion inlet. Breadboard ITMS and associated electronics have been advanced to high end-to-end fidelity in preparation for flight hardware delivery to Germany in 2015.

  11. Dithranol as a Matrix for Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Imaging on a Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer

    PubMed Central

    Le, Cuong H.; Han, Jun; Borchers, Christoph H.

    2013-01-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) determines the spatial localization and distribution patterns of compounds on the surface of a tissue section, mainly using MALDI (matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization)-based analytical techniques. New matrices for small-molecule MSI, which can improve the analysis of low-molecular weight (MW) compounds, are needed. These matrices should provide increased analyte signals while decreasing MALDI background signals. In addition, the use of ultrahigh-resolution instruments, such as Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometers, has the ability to resolve analyte signals from matrix signals, and this can partially overcome many problems associated with the background originating from the MALDI matrix. The reduction in the intensities of the metastable matrix clusters by FTICR MS can also help to overcome some of the interferences associated with matrix peaks on other instruments. High-resolution instruments such as the FTICR mass spectrometers are advantageous as they can produce distribution patterns of many compounds simultaneously while still providing confidence in chemical identifications. Dithranol (DT; 1,8-dihydroxy-9,10-dihydroanthracen-9-one) has previously been reported as a MALDI matrix for tissue imaging. In this work, a protocol for the use of DT for MALDI imaging of endogenous lipids from the surfaces of mammalian tissue sections, by positive-ion MALDI-MS, on an ultrahigh-resolution hybrid quadrupole FTICR instrument has been provided. PMID:24300588

  12. Dithranol as a matrix for matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging on a fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Le, Cuong H; Han, Jun; Borchers, Christoph H

    2013-01-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) determines the spatial localization and distribution patterns of compounds on the surface of a tissue section, mainly using MALDI (matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization)-based analytical techniques. New matrices for small-molecule MSI, which can improve the analysis of low-molecular weight (MW) compounds, are needed. These matrices should provide increased analyte signals while decreasing MALDI background signals. In addition, the use of ultrahigh-resolution instruments, such as Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometers, has the ability to resolve analyte signals from matrix signals, and this can partially overcome many problems associated with the background originating from the MALDI matrix. The reduction in the intensities of the metastable matrix clusters by FTICR MS can also help to overcome some of the interferences associated with matrix peaks on other instruments. High-resolution instruments such as the FTICR mass spectrometers are advantageous as they can produce distribution patterns of many compounds simultaneously while still providing confidence in chemical identifications. Dithranol (DT; 1,8-dihydroxy-9,10-dihydroanthracen-9-one) has previously been reported as a MALDI matrix for tissue imaging. In this work, a protocol for the use of DT for MALDI imaging of endogenous lipids from the surfaces of mammalian tissue sections, by positive-ion MALDI-MS, on an ultrahigh-resolution hybrid quadrupole FTICR instrument has been provided. PMID:24300588

  13. Automated mass spectrometer grows up

    SciTech Connect

    McInteer, B.B.; Montoya, J.G.; Stark, E.E.

    1984-01-01

    In 1980 we reported the development of an automated mass spectrometer for large scale batches of samples enriched in nitrogen-15 as ammonium salts. Since that time significant technical progress has been made in the instrument. Perhaps more significantly, administrative and institutional changes have permitted the entire effort to be transferred to the private sector from its original base at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. This has ensured the continuance of a needed service to the international scientific community as revealed by a development project at a national laboratory, and is an excellent example of beneficial technology transfer to private industry.

  14. Direct analysis of volatile organic compounds in human breath using a miniaturized cylindrical ion trap mass spectrometer with a membrane inlet.

    PubMed

    Riter, Leah S; Laughlin, Brian C; Nikolaev, Eugene; Cooks, R Graham

    2002-01-01

    Membrane introduction mass spectrometry (MIMS) coupled to a miniature mass spectrometer equipped with a cylindrical ion trap (CIT) analyzer was used to monitor the flavor components, 3-phenyl-2-propenal and methyl salicylate, found in cinnamon and wintergreen candies, respectively, directly from human breath. The poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) membrane was operated in a trap-and-release mode, where the temperature of the membrane was cycled during the experiments, which permitted temporal resolution of the two compounds of interest, facilitating their observation in the complex sample. Under these thermally driven conditions, the 10-90% rise times for both compounds are similar (15 s for methyl salicylate, 17 s for 3-phenyl-2-propenal), but the difference in diffusivity means that the signal for 3-phenyl-2-propenal is delayed and the 10% point occurs 6 s later than that for wintergreen. Additional specificity needed for complex samples was gained by using tandem mass spectrometry. PMID:12478583

  15. Conformational ordering of biomolecules in the gas phase: nitrogen collision cross sections measured on a prototype high resolution drift tube ion mobility-mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    May, Jody C; Goodwin, Cody R; Lareau, Nichole M; Leaptrot, Katrina L; Morris, Caleb B; Kurulugama, Ruwan T; Mordehai, Alex; Klein, Christian; Barry, William; Darland, Ed; Overney, Gregor; Imatani, Kenneth; Stafford, George C; Fjeldsted, John C; McLean, John A

    2014-02-18

    Ion mobility-mass spectrometry measurements which describe the gas-phase scaling of molecular size and mass are of both fundamental and pragmatic utility. Fundamentally, such measurements expand our understanding of intrinsic intramolecular folding forces in the absence of solvent. Practically, reproducible transport properties, such as gas-phase collision cross-section (CCS), are analytically useful metrics for identification and characterization purposes. Here, we report 594 CCS values obtained in nitrogen drift gas on an electrostatic drift tube ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IM-MS) instrument. The instrument platform is a newly developed prototype incorporating a uniform-field drift tube bracketed by electrodynamic ion funnels and coupled to a high resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The CCS values reported here are of high experimental precision (±0.5% or better) and represent four chemically distinct classes of molecules (quaternary ammonium salts, lipids, peptides, and carbohydrates), which enables structural comparisons to be made between molecules of different chemical compositions for the rapid "omni-omic" characterization of complex biological samples. Comparisons made between helium and nitrogen-derived CCS measurements demonstrate that nitrogen CCS values are systematically larger than helium values; however, general separation trends between chemical classes are retained regardless of the drift gas. These results underscore that, for the highest CCS accuracy, care must be exercised when utilizing helium-derived CCS values to calibrate measurements obtained in nitrogen, as is the common practice in the field. PMID:24446877

  16. Conformational Ordering of Biomolecules in the Gas Phase: Nitrogen Collision Cross Sections Measured on a Prototype High Resolution Drift Tube Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Ion mobility-mass spectrometry measurements which describe the gas-phase scaling of molecular size and mass are of both fundamental and pragmatic utility. Fundamentally, such measurements expand our understanding of intrinsic intramolecular folding forces in the absence of solvent. Practically, reproducible transport properties, such as gas-phase collision cross-section (CCS), are analytically useful metrics for identification and characterization purposes. Here, we report 594 CCS values obtained in nitrogen drift gas on an electrostatic drift tube ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IM-MS) instrument. The instrument platform is a newly developed prototype incorporating a uniform-field drift tube bracketed by electrodynamic ion funnels and coupled to a high resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The CCS values reported here are of high experimental precision (±0.5% or better) and represent four chemically distinct classes of molecules (quaternary ammonium salts, lipids, peptides, and carbohydrates), which enables structural comparisons to be made between molecules of different chemical compositions for the rapid “omni-omic” characterization of complex biological samples. Comparisons made between helium and nitrogen-derived CCS measurements demonstrate that nitrogen CCS values are systematically larger than helium values; however, general separation trends between chemical classes are retained regardless of the drift gas. These results underscore that, for the highest CCS accuracy, care must be exercised when utilizing helium-derived CCS values to calibrate measurements obtained in nitrogen, as is the common practice in the field. PMID:24446877

  17. Evaluation of Nickel and Chromium Ion Release During Fixed Orthodontic Treatment Using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer: An In Vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Rabindra S; Khanna, Bharti; Pasha, Azam; Vinay, K; Narayan, Anjali; Chaitra, K

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fixed orthodontic appliances with the use of stainless steel brackets and archwires made of nitinol have a corrosive potential in the oral environment. Nickel and chromium ions released from these appliances act as allergens apart from being cytotoxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic in smaller quantities in the range of nanograms. This study was done to evaluate the release of nickel and chromium ions from orthodontic appliances in the oral cavity using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). Materials and Methods: Saliva samples from 30 orthodontic patients undergoing treatment with 0.022″ MBT mechanotherapy were collected prior to commencement of treatment, after initial aligning wires and after 10-12 months of treatment. Salivary nickel and chromium ion concentration was measured in parts per billion (ppb) using ICP-MS. Results: Mean, standard deviation and range were computed for the concentrations of ions obtained. Results analyzed using ANOVA indicated a statistically significant increase of 10.35 ppb in nickel ion concentration and 33.53 ppb in chromium ion concentration after initial alignment. The ionic concentration at the end of 10-12 months of treatment showed a statistically significant increase in of 17.92 ppb for chromium and a statistically insignificant decrease in nickel ion concentration by 1.58 ppb. Pearson’s correlation coefficient showed a positive correlation for an increase in nickel concentration after aligning, but not at the end of 10-12 months. A positive correlation was seen for an increase in chromium ion concentration at both time intervals. Conclusion: Nickel and chromium ion concentration in saliva even though below the recommended daily allowance should not be ignored in light of the new knowledge regarding effects of these ions at the molecular level and the allergic potential. Careful and detailed medical history of allergy is essential. Nickel free alternatives should form an essential part of an

  18. Development of a compact electron ion coincidence analyzer using a coaxially symmetric mirror electron energy analyzer and a miniature polar-angle-resolved time-of-flight ion mass spectrometer with four concentric anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Eiichi; Nambu, Akira; Mase, Kazuhiko; Isari, Kouji; Tanaka, Kenichiro; Mori, Masanobu; Okudaira, Koji K.; Ueno, Nobuo

    2009-04-15

    A compact electron ion coincidence (EICO) analyzer that uses a coaxially symmetric mirror electron energy analyzer and a miniature polar-angle-resolved time-of-flight ion mass spectrometer with four concentric anodes was developed for surface science and surface analysis. The apparatus is especially useful in the study of ion desorption stimulated by an Auger process because information on the mass, yield, desorption polar angle, and kinetic energy of ions can be obtained for the selected core-ionization-final-states or the selected Auger-final-states. The analyzer can be used also for analysis of the configuration of specific surface molecules because the desorption polar angles reflect the direction of surface bonds. The EICO analyzer was evaluated by measuring polar-angle-resolved-ion yield spectra and coincidence spectra of Auger-electron and polar-angle-resolved H{sup +} from condensed water.

  19. AN ION CORRELATION PROGRAM FOR DECONVOLUTING COMPOSITE MASS SPECTRA ACQUIRED USING A DIRECT SURFACE IONIZATION SOURCE INTERFACED TO A TIME-OF-FLIGHT MASS SPECTROMETER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The rapid sampling provided by the DART in ambient air will allow rapid delineation of areas of dispersed chemicals after natural or man-made disasters. Exact masses and RIAs of dimer, precursor, and product ions measured by the oa-TOFMS entered dinto the Ion Correlation Program...

  20. Ion mobility-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kanu, Abu B; Dwivedi, Prabha; Tam, Maggie; Matz, Laura; Hill, Herbert H

    2008-01-01

    This review article compares and contrasts various types of ion mobility-mass spectrometers available today and describes their advantages for application to a wide range of analytes. Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS), when coupled with mass spectrometry, offers value-added data not possible from mass spectra alone. Separation of isomers, isobars, and conformers; reduction of chemical noise; and measurement of ion size are possible with the addition of ion mobility cells to mass spectrometers. In addition, structurally similar ions and ions of the same charge state can be separated into families of ions which appear along a unique mass-mobility correlation line. This review describes the four methods of ion mobility separation currently used with mass spectrometry. They are (1) drift-time ion mobility spectrometry (DTIMS), (2) aspiration ion mobility spectrometry (AIMS), (3) differential-mobility spectrometry (DMS) which is also called field-asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) and (4) traveling-wave ion mobility spectrometry (TWIMS). DTIMS provides the highest IMS resolving power and is the only IMS method which can directly measure collision cross-sections. AIMS is a low resolution mobility separation method but can monitor ions in a continuous manner. DMS and FAIMS offer continuous-ion monitoring capability as well as orthogonal ion mobility separation in which high-separation selectivity can be achieved. TWIMS is a novel method of IMS with a low resolving power but has good sensitivity and is well intergrated into a commercial mass spectrometer. One hundred and sixty references on ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IMMS) are provided. PMID:18200615

  1. Detection of Amines and Ammonia with an Ambient Pressure Mass Spectrometer using a Corona Discharge Ion Source, in an Urban Atmosphere and in a Teflon Film Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, M.; Hanson, D. R.; Grieves, C.; Ortega, J. V.

    2015-12-01

    Amines and ammonia are an important group of molecules that can greatly affect atmospheric particle formation that can go on to impact cloud formation and their scattering of thermal and solar radiation, and as a result human health and ecosystems. In this study, an Ambient Pressure Mass Spectrometer (AmPMS) that is selective and sensitive to molecules with a high proton affinity, such as amines, was coupled with a newly built corona discharge ion source. AmPMS was used to monitor many different nitrogenous compound that are found in an urban atmosphere (July 2015, Minneapolis), down to the single digit pmol/mol level. Simultaneous to this, a proton transfer mass spectrometer also sampled the atmosphere through an inlet within 20 m of the AmPMS inlet. In another set of studies, a similar AmPMS was attached to a large Teflon film chamber at the Atmospheric Chemistry Division at NCAR (August 2015, Boulder). Exploratory studies are planned on the sticking of amines to the chamber walls as well as oxidizing the amine and monitoring products. Depending on the success of these studies, results will be presented on the reversability of amine partitioning and mass balance for these species in the chamber.

  2. Comparative performance of double-focus and quadrupole mass spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, S. K.

    1972-01-01

    Light-weight flight type double focus and quadruple mass spectrometer models were compared. Data cover size, weight, and power sensitivity required to achieve same resolution sensitivity at given mass number. Comparison was made using mathematical relationships. Analysis was confined to equal ion source area sensitivity variations not more than 40% over mass range.

  3. Monte Carlo/RRKM/classical trajectories modeling of collisional excitation and dissociation of n-butylbenzene ion in multipole collision cells of tandem mass spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Knyazev, Vadim D; Stein, Stephen E

    2010-06-10

    The two-channel reaction of collision-induced dissociation (CID) of the n-butylbenzene cation under the conditions of multipole collision cells of tandem mass spectrometers was studied computationally. The results were compared with the experimental data from earlier CID studies. The Monte Carlo method used includes simulation of the trajectories of flight of the parent (n-C(4)H(9)C(6)H(5)(+)) and the product (C(7)H(7)(+) and C(7)H(8)(+)) ions in the electromagnetic field of multipole ion guides and collision cells, classical trajectory modeling of collisional activation and scattering of ions, and RRKM modeling of the parent ion decomposition. Experimental information on the energy dependences of the rates of the n-butylbenzene cation dissociation via two channels was used to create an RRKM model of the reaction. Effects of uncertainties in the critical parameters of the model of the reaction and the collision cells on the results of calculations were evaluated and shown to be minor. The results of modeling demonstrate a good agreement with experiment, providing support for the applied computational method in general and the use of classical trajectory modeling of collisional activation of ions in particular. PMID:20481494

  4. An online ultra-high sensitivity Proton-transfer-reaction mass-spectrometer combined with switchable reagent ion capability (PTR + SRI - MS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, A.; Haidacher, S.; Hanel, G.; Hartungen, E.; Herbig, J.; Märk, L.; Schottkowsky, R.; Seehauser, H.; Sulzer, P.; Märk, T. D.

    2009-09-01

    Proton-transfer-reaction mass-spectrometry (PTR-MS) developed in the 1990s is used today in a wide range of scientific and technical fields. PTR-MS allows for real-time, online determination of absolute concentrations of volatile (organic) compounds (VOCs) in air with high sensitivity (into the low pptv range) and a fast response time (in the 40-100 ms time regime). Most PTR-MS instruments employed so far use an ion source consisting of a hollow cathode (HC) discharge in water vapour which provides an intense source of proton donor H3O+ ions. As the use of other ions, e.g. NO+ and O2+, can be useful for the identification of VOCs and for the detection of VOCs with proton affinities (PA) below that of H2O, selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) with mass selected ions has been applied in these instances. SIFT-MS suffers, however, from at least two orders lower reagent ion counts rates and therefore SIFT-MS suffers from lower sensitivity than PTR-MS. Here we report the development of a PTR-MS instrument using a modified HC ion source and drift tube design, which allows for the easy and fast switching between H3O+, NO+ and O2+ ions produced in high purity and in large quantities in this source. This instrument is capable of measuring low concentrations (with detection limits approaching the ppqv regime) of VOCs using any of the three reagent ions investigated in this study. Therefore this instrument combines the advantages of the PTR-MS technology (the superior sensitivity) with those of SIFT-MS (detection of VOCs with PAs smaller than that of the water molecule and the capability to distinguish between isomeric compounds). We will first discuss the setup of this new PTR+SRI-MS mass spectrometer instrument, its performance for aromates, aldehydes and ketones (with a sensitivity of up to nearly 1000 cps/ppbv and a detection limit of about several 100 ppqv) and finally give some examples concerning the ability to distinguish structural isomeric compounds.

  5. Rapid screening and characterization of drug metabolites using multiple ion monitoring dependent product ion scan and postacquisition data mining on a hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Yao, Ming; Ma, Li; Duchoslav, Eva; Zhu, Mingshe

    2009-06-01

    Multiple ion monitoring (MIM)-dependent acquisition with a triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometer (Q-trap) was previously developed for drug metabolite profiling. In the analysis, multiple predicted metabolite ions are monitored in both Q1 and Q3 regardless of their fragmentations. The collision energy in Q2 is set to a low value to minimize fragmentation. Once an expected metabolite is detected by MIM, enhanced product ion (EPI) spectral acquisition of the metabolite is triggered. To analyze in vitro metabolites, MIM-EPI retains the sensitivity and selectivity similar to that of multiple reaction monitoring (MRM)-EPI in the analysis of in vitro metabolites. Here we present an improved approach utilizing MIM-EPI for data acquisition and multiple data mining techniques for detection of metabolite ions and recovery of their MS/MS spectra. The postacquisition data processing tools included extracted ion chromatographic analysis, product ion filtering and neutral loss filtering. The effectiveness of this approach was evaluated by analyzing oxidative metabolites of indinavir and glutathione (GSH) conjugates of clozapine and 4-ethylphenol in liver microsome incubations. Results showed that the MIM-EPI-based data mining approach allowed for comprehensive detection of metabolites based on predicted protonated molecules, product ions or neutral losses without predetermination of the parent drug MS/MS spectra. Additionally, it enabled metabolite detection and MS/MS acquisition in a single injection. This approach is potentially useful in high-throughout screening of metabolic soft spots and reactive metabolites at the drug discovery stage. PMID:19418486

  6. Characterization of chemical constituents in Rhodiola Crenulate by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (HPLC-FT-ICR MS).

    PubMed

    Han, Fei; Li, Yanting; Mao, Xinjuan; Xu, Rui; Yin, Ran

    2016-05-01

    In this work, an approach using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array detection and Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (HPLC-FT-ICR MS) for the identification and profiling of chemical constituents in Rhodiola crenulata was developed for the first time. The chromatographic separation was achieved on an Inertsil ODS-3 column (150 mm × 4.6 mm,3 µm) using a gradient elution program, and the detection was performed on a Bruker Solarix 7.0 T mass spectrometer equipped with electrospray ionization source in both positive and negative modes. Under the optimized conditions, a total of 48 chemical compounds, including 26 alcohols and their glycosides, 12 flavonoids and their glycosides, 5 flavanols and gallic acid derivatives, 4 organic acids and 1 cyanogenic glycoside were identified or tentatively characterized. The results indicated that the developed HPLC-FT-ICR MS method with ultra-high sensitivity and resolution is suitable for identifying and characterizing the chemical constituents in R. crenulata. And it provides a helpful chemical basis for further research on R. crenulata. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27194521

  7. Lens system for a photo ion spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, D.M.; Young, C.E.; Pellin, M.J.

    1990-11-27

    A lens system in a photo ion spectrometer for manipulating a primary ion beam and ionized atomic component is disclosed. The atomic components are removed from a sample by a primary ion beam using the lens system, and the ions are extracted for analysis. The lens system further includes ionization resistant coatings for protecting the lens system. 8 figs.

  8. Lens system for a photo ion spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, Dieter M.; Young, Charles E.; Pellin, Michael J.

    1990-01-01

    A lens system in a photo ion spectrometer for manipulating a primary ion beam and ionized atomic component. The atomic components are removed from a sample by a primary ion beam using the lens system, and the ions are extracted for analysis. The lens system further includes ionization resistant coatings for protecting the lens system.

  9. Metabolism of nitazoxanide in rats, pigs, and chickens: Application of liquid chromatography coupled to hybrid linear ion trap/Orbitrap mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xianhui; Guo, Chunna; Chen, Zhangliu; Liu, Yahong; He, Limin; Zeng, Zhenling; Yan, Chaoqun; Pan, Guangfang; Li, Shuaipeng

    2015-09-01

    Nitazoxanide (NTZ) is a nitrothiazole benzamide compound with a broad activity spectrum against parasites, Gram-positive and Gram-negative anaerobic bacteria, and viruses. In this study, hybrid linear ion trap/Orbitrap mass spectrometer providing a high mass resolution and accuracy was used to investigate the metabolism of NTZ in rats, pigs, and chickens. The results revealed that acetylation and glucuronidation were the main metabolic pathways in rats and pigs, whereas acetylation and sulfation were the major metabolic pathways in chickens, which indicated interspecies variations in drug metabolism and elimination. With the accurate mass data and the characteristic MS(n) product ions, we identified six metabolites in which tizoxanide and hydroxylated tizoxanide were phase I metabolites and tizoxanide glucuronide, tizoxanide glucose, tizoxanide sulfate and hydroxyl tizoxanide sulfate were phase II metabolites. Hydroxylated tizoxanide and tizoxanide glucose were identified for the first time. All the comprehensive data were provided to make out the metabolism of NTZ in rats, pigs and chickens more clearly. PMID:26231678

  10. Combined electron capture and infrared multiphoton dissociation for multistage MS/MS in a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Håkansson, Kristina; Chalmers, Michael J; Quinn, John P; McFarland, Melinda A; Hendrickson, Christopher L; Marshall, Alan G

    2003-07-01

    We have mounted a permanent on-axis dispenser cathode electron source inside the magnet bore of a 9.4-T Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. This configuration allows electron capture dissociation (ECD) to be performed reliably on a millisecond time scale. We have also implemented an off-axis laser geometry that enables simultaneous access to ECD and infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD). Optimum performance of both fragmentation techniques is maintained. The analytical utility of performing either ECD or IRMPD on a given precursor ion population is demonstrated by structural characterization of several posttranslationally modified peptides: IRMPD of phosphorylated peptides results in few backbone (b- and y-type) cleavages, and product ion spectra are dominated by neutral loss of H3PO4. In contrast, ECD provides significantly more backbone (c- and z*-type) cleavages without loss of H3PO4. For N-glycosylated tryptic peptides, IRMPD causes extensive cleavage of the glycosidic bonds, providing structural information about the glycans. ECD cleaves all backbone bonds (except the N-terminal side of proline) in a 3-kDa glycopeptide with no saccharide loss. However, only a charge-reduced radical species and some side chain losses are observed following ECD of a 5-kDa glycopeptide from the same protein. An MS3 experiment involving IR laser irradiation of the charge-reduced species formed by electron capture results in extensive dissociation into c- and z-type fragment ions. Mass-selective external ion accumulation is essential for the structural characterization of these low-abundance (modified) peptides. PMID:12964777

  11. Compact time-of-flight mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Belov, A.S.; Kubalov, S.A.; Kuzik, V.F.; Yakushev, V.P.

    1986-02-01

    This paper describes a time-of-flight mass spectrometer developed for measuring the parameters of a pulsed hydrogen beam. The duration of an electron-beam current pulse in the ionizer of the mass spectrometer can be varied within 2-20 usec, the pulse electron current is 0.6 mA, and the electron energy is 250 eV. The time resolution of the mass spectrometer is determined by the repetition period of the electron-beam current pulses and is 40 usec. The mass spectrometer has 100% transmission in the direction of motion of molecular-beam particles. The dimension of the mass spectrometer is 7 cm in this direction. The mass resolution is sufficient for determination of the composition of the hydrogen beam.

  12. The Variability of HCN in Titan’s Upper Atmosphere as Implied by the Cassini Ion-Neutral Mass Spectrometer Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, J.; Cao, Y.-T.; Lavvas, P. P.; Koskinen, T. T.

    2016-07-01

    HCN is an important constituent in Titan’s upper atmosphere, serving as the main coolant in the local energy budget. In this study, we derive the HCN abundance at the altitude range of 960–1400 km, combining the Ion-Neutral Mass Spectrometer data acquired during a large number of Cassini flybys with Titan. Typically, the HCN abundance declines modestly with increasing altitude and flattens to a near constant level above 1200 km. The data reveal a tendency for dayside depletion of HCN, which is clearly visible below 1000 km but weakens with increasing altitude. Despite the absence of convincing anti-correlation between HCN volume mixing ratio and neutral temperature, we argue that the variability in HCN abundance makes an important contribution to the large temperature variability observed in Titan’s upper atmosphere.

  13. Millimeter-Scale PIG Source for Miniature Mass Spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babapour Ghadikolaee, Mohammad Reza

    2012-12-01

    A new millimeter-scale penning ion generator (PIG) ion source has been developed for miniature mass spectrometers. The cathode is a 40 mm diameter × 2 mm long stainless steel cylinder with a hole of 4 mm, the anode with a hole of 12.6 mm and a length of 6.4 mm is made in stainless steel, and the ion emission hole size on the anticathode is 5 mm. Several microamperes of H+ ions can be extracted with less than 10 W discharge power consumption. The PIG ion source is shown to have advantages of long lifetime under high-pressure operation and low power consumption. The ion source is being designed and investigated for use in miniature mass spectrometer; however this ion source is thoroughly described so that it can be easily implemented by other researchers for other applications.

  14. A Mass Spectrometer Simulator in Your Computer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagnon, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Introduced to study components of ionized gas, the mass spectrometer has evolved into a highly accurate device now used in many undergraduate and research laboratories. Unfortunately, despite their importance in the formation of future scientists, mass spectrometers remain beyond the financial reach of many high schools and colleges. As a result,…

  15. Experimental investigations of the internal energy of molecules evaporated via laser-induced acoustic desorption into a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Shea, Ryan C; Petzold, Christopher J; Liu, Ji-Ang; Kenttämaa, Hilkka I

    2007-03-01

    The internal energy of neutral gas-phase organic and biomolecules, evaporated by means of laser-induced acoustic desorption (LIAD) into a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer, was investigated through several experimental approaches. The desorbed molecules were demonstrated not to undergo degradation during the desorption process by collecting LIAD-evaporated molecules and subjecting them to analysis by electrospray ionization/quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry. Previously established gas-phase basicity values were remeasured for LIAD-evaporated organic molecules and biomolecules with the use of the bracketing method. No endothermic reactions were observed. The remeasured basicity values are in close agreement with the values reported in the literature. The amount of internal energy deposited during LIAD is concluded to be less than a few kilocalories per mole. Chemical ionization with a series of proton-transfer reagents was employed to obtain a breakdown curve for a protonated dipeptide, Val-Pro, evaporated by LIAD. Comparison of this breakdown curve with a previously published analogous curve obtained by using substrate-assisted laser desorption (SALD) to evaporate the peptide suggests that the molecules evaporated via LIAD have a similar internal energy as those evaporated via SALD. PMID:17263513

  16. A microelectromechanical systems-enabled, miniature triple quadrupole mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Wright, Steven; Malcolm, Andrew; Wright, Christopher; O'Prey, Shane; Crichton, Edward; Dash, Neil; Moseley, Richard W; Zaczek, Wojciech; Edwards, Peter; Fussell, Richard J; Syms, Richard R A

    2015-03-17

    Miniaturized mass spectrometers are becoming increasingly capable, enabling the development of many novel field and laboratory applications. However, to date, triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometers, the workhorses of quantitative analysis, have not been significantly reduced in size. Here, the basis of a field-deployable triple quadrupole is described. The key development is a highly miniaturized ion optical assembly in which a sequence of six microengineered components is employed to generate ions at atmospheric pressure, provide a vacuum interface, effect ion guiding, and perform fragmentation and mass analysis. Despite its small dimensions, the collision cell efficiently fragments precursor ions and yields product ion spectra that are very similar to those recorded using conventional instruments. The miniature triple quadrupole has been used to detect thiabendazole, a common pesticide, in apples at a level of 10 ng/g. PMID:25708099

  17. Panoramic imaging mass-spectrometer for planetary studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaisberg, O.; Berthelier, J.; Torkar, K.; Leblanc, F.; Escoubet, P.; Woch, J.; Baumjohann, W.; Avanov, L.; Burch, J.; McComas, D.; Delcourt, D.; Wurz, P.; Grishin, V.; Smirnov, V.; Babkin, V.; Szego, K.

    2004-12-01

    Plasma diagnostics can provide extremely useful information for solar system studies. Neutral and ion sputtering from the surface leads to the formation of neutral and ion exospheres with compositions that reflect the surface composition modified by ionization and transport processes around the body. Measurements of ion composition and velocity distributions provide important information about surface composition and its recycling. Plasma measurements from low altitude spacecraft and landers on planetary bodies without atmospheres can be used to map the surface composition, while spectrometers onboard spacecraft orbiting planets with atmosphere are used for study of planetary losses, mass-exchange with the solar wind, and the long-term evolution of their environment. To perform reliable measurements of planetary plasmas a complete 3-dimensional velocity distributions of various ion species is necessary. In addition, if fast measurements of the major ion species are the main goal of plasma physics studies, precise measurements of the minor ion composition are often essential to unveil important properties of the atmosphere or the surface. Therefore ion mass spectrometers for solar system missions require both the capability of making fast measurements of the 3D-velocity distribution of ions and high mass resolution for detailed composition studies. We describe a novel type of miniature panoramic ion mass-spectrometer suitable for making such 3-dimensional measurements of ion components with high mass resolution. The feeding electron optics of our plasma analyzer (CAMERA) allows for fast measurements within an instantaneous 2p field of view, which has no gaps and can be accomplished on either stabilized or rotating spacecraft, or landers. It is followed by a time-of-flight mass-spectrometer that retains imaging capabilities of the feeding optics and provides mass-resolution M/ΔM in excess of 100. Our spectrometer also provides flexible control of the energy

  18. Laboratory automation of a quadrupole mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, J. M.

    1983-12-01

    Efforts directed toward interfacing an LSI II bus of a PDP 11/23 desktop computer with a quadrupole mass spectrometer for the purpose of providing a convenient system whereby mass spectral data, of the products of thermal decomposition, may be rapidly acquired and processed under programmed conditions are described. The versatility and operations of the quadrupole mass spectrometer are discussed as well as the procedure for configurating the LSI II bus of the PDP 11/23 desktop computer for interfacing with the quadrupole mass spectrometer system. Data from the mass filter and other units of the spectrometer are digitally transferred to the computer whereupon mass spectral data and related data are generated.

  19. Laboratory Automation of a Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Efforts directed toward interfacing an LSI II bus of a PDP 11/23 desktop computer with a quadrupole mass spectrometer for the purpose of providing a convenient system whereby mass spectral data, of the products of thermal decomposition, may be rapidly acquired and processed under programmed conditions are described. The versatility and operations of the quadrupole mass spectrometer are discussed as well as the procedure for configurating the LSI II bus of the PDP 11/23 desktop computer for interfacing with the quadrupole mass spectrometer system. Data from the mass filter and other units of the spectrometer are digitally transferred to the computer whereupon mass spectral data and related data are generated.

  20. Miniature Focusing Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanik, Isik; Srivastava, Santosh

    2005-01-01

    An improved miniature time-of-flight mass spectrometer has been developed in a continuing effort to minimize the sizes, weights, power demands, and costs of mass spectrometers for such diverse applications as measurement of concentrations of pollutants in the atmosphere, detecting poisonous gases in mines, and analyzing exhaust gases of automobiles. Advantageous characteristics of this mass spectrometer include the following: It is simple and rugged. Relative to prior mass spectrometers, it is inexpensive to build. There is no need for precise alignment of its components. Its mass range is practically unlimited Relative to prior mass spectrometers, it offers high sensitivity (ability to measure relative concentrations as small as parts per billion). Its resolution is one dalton (one atomic mass unit). An entire mass spectrum is recorded in a single pulse. (In a conventional mass spectrometer, a spectrum is recorded mass by mass.) The data-acquisition process takes only seconds. It is a lightweight, low-power, portable instrument. Although time-of-flight mass spectrometers (TOF-MSs) have been miniaturized previously, their performances have not been completely satisfactory. An inherent adverse effect of miniaturization of a TOF-MS is a loss of resolution caused by reduction of the length of its flight tube. In the present improved TOF-MS, the adverse effect of shortening the flight tube is counteracted by (1) using charged-particle optics to constrain ion trajectories to the flight-tube axis while (2) reducing ion velocities to increase ion flight times. In the present improved TOF-MS, a stream of gas is generated by use of a hypodermic needle. The stream of gas is crossed by an energy-selected, pulsed beam of electrons (see Figure 1). The ions generated by impingement of the electrons on the gas atoms are then focused by three cylindrical electrostatic lenses, which constitute a segmented flight tube. After traveling along the flight tube, the ions enter a charged

  1. Flow injection of liquid samples to a mass spectrometer with ionization under vacuum conditions: a combined ion source for single-photon and electron impact ionization.

    PubMed

    Schepler, Claudia; Sklorz, Martin; Passig, Johannes; Famiglini, Giorgio; Cappiello, Achille; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2013-09-01

    Electrospray ionization (ESI), atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI), and atmospheric pressure photo-ionization (APPI) are the most important techniques for the ionization of liquid samples. However, working under atmospheric pressure conditions, all these techniques involve some chemical rather than purely physical processes, and therefore, side reactions often yield to matrix-dependent ionization efficiencies. Here, a system is presented that combines both soft single-photon ionization (SPI) and hard 70 eV electron impact ionization (EI) of dissolved compounds under vacuum conditions. A quadrupole mass spectrometer was modified to enable direct EI, a technique developed by Cappiello et al. to obtain library-searchable EI mass spectra as well as soft SPI mass spectra of sample solutions. An electron beam-pumped rare gas excimer lamp working at 126 nm was used as well as a focusable vacuum UV light source for single-photon ionization. Both techniques, EI and SPI, were applied successfully for flow injection experiments providing library-matchable EI fragment mass spectra and soft SPI mass spectra, showing dominant signals for the molecular ion. Four model compounds were analyzed: hexadecane, propofol, chlorpropham, and eugenol, with detection limits in the picomolar range. This novel combination of EI and SPI promises great analytical benefits, thanks to the possibility of combining database alignment for EI data and molecular mass information provided by SPI. Possible applications for the presented ionization technology system are a matrix-effect-free detection and a rapid screening of different complex mixtures without time-consuming sample preparation or separation techniques (e.g., for analysis of reaction solutions in combinatorial chemistry) or a switchable hard (EI) and soft (SPI) MS method as detection step for liquid chromatography. PMID:23812882

  2. The PNL high-transmission three-stage mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoffels, J. J.; Ells, D. R.; Bond, L. A.; Freedman, P. A.; Tattersall, B. N.; Lagergren, C. R.

    1992-12-01

    We have constructed a three-stage isotope-ratio mass spectrometer of unique ion-optical design that achieves high ion transmission efficiency and high abundance sensitivity. The spectrometer has tandem 90 deg deflection magnets with boundaries 18 deg off normal. The magnet drift lengths are 1.48 times the 27-cm radius of deflection. This extended geometry gives a mass dispersion equivalent to a 40-cm-radius magnet with normal boundaries. The first magnet renders the ion beam parallel in the vertical plane and provides a focus in the horizontal plane of mass dispersion. The second magnet brings the beam to a stigmatic focus. This novel ion-optical design gives 100 percent transmission without the need for intermediate focusing lenses. It also provides a 16 percent increase in mass resolution over the traditional tandem geometry with normal magnet boundaries. Complete transmission of ions is maintained through a third-stage cylindrical electric sector of 38-cm radius, which provides increased isotope-abundance sensitivity. The isotope-abundance sensitivity of the new mass spectrometer is an order of magnitude better than similar instruments with normal magnet boundaries. This is because the vertical focusing of the ion beam prevents ion scattering from the top and bottom of the flight tube. The measured values of the isotope-abundance sensitivity one-half mass unit away from the rhenium ion peaks at masses 185 and 187 are M - 1/2 = (6.5 +/- 0.5)(10)(exp -10) and M + 1/2 = (3.1 +/- 0.8)(10)(exp -10). By extrapolation, the uranium isotope-abundance sensitivity is M - 1 = 1(10)(exp -10). Construction of the instrument was facilitated by using standard commercial mass spectrometer components.

  3. Assessment of the ion-trap mass spectrometer for routine qualitative and quantitative analysis of drugs of abuse extracted from urine.

    PubMed

    Vorce, S P; Sklerov, J H; Kalasinsky, K S

    2000-10-01

    The ion-trap mass spectrometer (MS) has been available as a detector for gas chromatography (GC) for nearly two decades. However, it still occupies a minor role in forensic toxicology drug-testing laboratories. Quadrupole MS instruments make up the majority of GC detectors used in drug confirmation. This work addresses the use of these two MS detectors, comparing the ion ratio precision and quantitative accuracy for the analysis of different classes of abused drugs extracted from urine. Urine specimens were prepared at five concentrations each for amphetamine (AMP), methamphetamine (METH), benzoylecgonine (BZE), delta9-carboxy-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THCCOOH), phencyclidine (PCP), morphine (MOR), codeine (COD), and 6-acetylmorphine (6-AM). Concentration ranges for AMP, METH, BZE, delta9-THCCOOH, PCP, MOR, COD, and 6-AM were 50-2500, 50-5000, 15-800, 1.5-65, 1-250, 500-32000, 250-21000, and 1.5-118 ng/mL, respectively. Sample extracts were injected into a GC-quadrupole MS operating in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode and a GC-ion-trap MS operating in either selected ion storage (SIS) or full scan (FS) mode. Precision was assessed by the evaluation of five ion ratios for n = 15 injections at each concentration using a single-point calibration. Precision measurements for SIM ion ratios provided coefficients of variation (CV) between 2.6 and 9.8% for all drugs. By comparison, the SIS and FS data yielded CV ranges of 4.0-12.8% and 4.0-11.2%, respectively. The total ion ratio failure rates were 0.2% (SIM), 0.7% (SIS), and 1.2% (FS) for the eight drugs analyzed. Overall, the SIS mode produced stable, comparable mean ratios over the concentration ranges examined, but had greater variance within batch runs. Examination of postmortem and quality-control samples produced forensically accurate quantitation by SIS when compared to SIM. Furthermore, sensitivity of FS was equivalent to SIM for all compounds examined except for 6-AM. PMID:11043665

  4. Mass spectrometer vacuum housing and pumping system

    DOEpatents

    Coutts, G.W.; Bushman, J.F.; Alger, T.W.

    1996-07-23

    A vacuum housing and pumping system is described for a portable gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS). The vacuum housing section of the system has minimum weight for portability while designed and constructed to utilize metal gasket sealed stainless steel to be compatible with high vacuum operation. The vacuum pumping section of the system consists of a sorption (getter) pump to remove atmospheric leakage and outgassing contaminants as well as the gas chromatograph carrier gas (hydrogen) and an ion pump to remove the argon from atmospheric leaks. The overall GC/MS system has broad application to contaminants, hazardous materials, illegal drugs, pollution monitoring, etc., as well as for use by chemical weapon treaty verification teams, due to the light weight and portability thereof. 7 figs.

  5. Mass spectrometer vacuum housing and pumping system

    DOEpatents

    Coutts, Gerald W.; Bushman, John F.; Alger, Terry W.

    1996-01-01

    A vacuum housing and pumping system for a portable gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS). The vacuum housing section of the system has minimum weight for portability while designed and constructed to utilize metal gasket sealed stainless steel to be compatible with high vacuum operation. The vacuum pumping section of the system consists of a sorption (getter) pump to remove atmospheric leakage and outgassing contaminants as well as the gas chromatograph carrier gas (hydrogen) and an ion pump to remove the argon from atmospheric leaks. The overall GC/MS system has broad application to contaminants, hazardous materials, illegal drugs, pollution monitoring, etc., as well as for use by chemical weapon treaty verification teams, due to the light weight and portability thereof.

  6. Spectrometer for cluster ion beam induced luminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Ryuto, H. Sakata, A.; Takeuchi, M.; Takaoka, G. H.; Musumeci, F.

    2015-02-15

    A spectrometer to detect the ultra-weak luminescence originated by the collision of cluster ions on the surfaces of solid materials was constructed. This spectrometer consists of 11 photomultipliers with band-pass interference filters that can detect the luminescence within the wavelength ranging from 300 to 700 nm and of a photomultiplier without filter. The calibration of the detection system was performed using the photons emitted from a strontium aluminate fluorescent tape and from a high temperature tungsten filament. Preliminary measurements show the ability of this spectrometer to detect the cluster ion beam induced luminescence.

  7. Gas sampling system for a mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, Charles E; Ladner, Edward P

    2003-12-30

    The present invention relates generally to a gas sampling system, and specifically to a gas sampling system for transporting a hazardous process gas to a remotely located mass spectrometer. The gas sampling system includes a capillary tube having a predetermined capillary length and capillary diameter in communication with the supply of process gas and the mass spectrometer, a flexible tube surrounding and coaxial with the capillary tube intermediate the supply of process gas and the mass spectrometer, a heat transfer tube surrounding and coaxial with the capillary tube, and a heating device in communication the heat transfer tube for substantially preventing condensation of the process gas within the capillary tube.

  8. On-line measurements of α-pinene ozonolysis products using an atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation ion-trap mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warscheid, Bettina; Hoffmann, Thorsten

    An on-line technique to investigate complex organic oxidation reactions in environmental chamber experiments is presented. The method is based on the direct introduction of the chamber air into an atmospheric pressure ion source of a commercial ion-trap mass spectrometer. To demonstrate the analytical potential of the method (atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation/mass spectrometry, APCI/MS), the ozonolysis of α-pinene was investigated in a series of experiments performed in various sized reaction chambers at atmospheric pressure and 296 K in synthetic air. Investigations were focussed on the influence of the water vapour concentration on the formation of the predominant oxidation product, pinonaldehyde, derived from the α-pinene/ozone reaction. Quantification of pinonaldehyde was achieved by conducting a standard addition technique. The molar yield of pinonaldehyde was found to depend strongly on the actual water vapour concentration between <1 and 80% relative humidity. Starting with an average yield of 0.23±0.05 at dry conditions, pinonaldehyde formation was approximately doubled by reaching a yield of 0.53±0.05 at a relative humidity of around 60%. Furthermore, the formation mechanism of pinonaldehyde was investigated in greater detail using isotopically labelled water. Applying on-line APCI/MS, pinonaldehyde formation under incorporation of 18O was observed, strongly supporting the reaction of the stabilised Criegee radical with water in the gas phase as suggested by Alvarado et al. (Journal of Geophysical Research 103 (1998) 25541-25551). Furthermore, the mass spectra recorded on-line were used to perform a semi-quantitative estimation of the decomposition pathway of the primary ozonide, indicating a branching ratio of 0.35/0.65.

  9. Application and field test of a mobile thermal desorption - single photon ionization - ion trap mass spectrometer (TD-SPI-ITMS) for trace detection of security relevant substances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schramm, Elisabeth; Heindl, Thomas; Hölzer, Jasper; McNeish, Alexander; Puetz, Michael; Ries, Hermann; Schall, Patricia; Schulte-Ladbeck, Rasmus; Schultze, Rainer; Sklorz, Martin; Spieker, Gerd; Trebbe, Roman; Ulrich, Andreas; Wieser, Jochen; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2009-05-01

    The objective of this accomplished project funded by the German BMBF was to develop a single photon ionization ion trap mass spectrometer (SPI-ITMS) for detection of security relevant substances in complex matrices at low concentrations. The advantage of such a soft ionization technique is a reduction of target ion fragmentation allowing identification of signals from complex matrices and enabling MS/MS capability. To obtain low detection limits, the applied photon energy has to be below the ionization potential (IP) of the bulk matrix components. Therefore, photon energies between 8 eV (155 nm) and 12 eV (103 nm) are necessary which was achieved with newly developed electron beam excimer lamps (EBEL). They generate light at different wavelengths depending on the selected rare gas emitting wavelengths adapted to the analyzed substances. So, e.g. with a krypton-EBEL with 8.4 eV photon energy most narcotics can be ionized without notable fragmentation. Due to their higher IPs, EBEL with higher photon energy have to be used for most explosives. Very low false-positive and false-negative rates have been achieved using MS/MS studies. First field tests of a demonstrator provided the proof of principle.

  10. Fast scan control for deflection type mass spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeager, P. R.; Gaetano, G.; Hughes, D. B. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A high speed scan device is reported that allows most any scanning sector mass spectrometer to measure preselected gases at a very high sampling rate. The device generates a rapidly changing staircase output which is applied to the accelerator of the spectrometer and it also generates defocusing pulses that are applied to one of the deflecting plates of the spectrometer which when shorted to ground deflects the ion beam away from the collector. A defocusing pulse occurs each time there is a change in the staircase output.

  11. Mass spectrometry and inhomogeneous ion optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, F. A.

    1973-01-01

    Work done in several areas to advance the state of the art of magnetic mass spectrometers is described. The calculations and data necessary for the design of inhomogeneous field mass spectrometers, and the calculation of ion trajectories through such fields are presented. The development and testing of solid state ion detection devices providing the capability of counting single ions is discussed. New techniques in the preparation and operation of thermal-ionization ion sources are described. Data obtained on the concentrations of copper in rainfall and uranium in air samples using the improved thermal ionization techniques are presented. The design of a closed system static mass spectrometer for isotopic analyses is discussed. A summary of instrumental aspects of a four-stage mass spectrometer comprising two electrostatic and two 90 deg. magnetic lenses with a 122-cm radius used to study the interaction of ions with solids is presented.

  12. Mass Spectrometer for Airborne Micro-Organisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, M. P.; Friedlander, S. K.

    1986-01-01

    Bacteria and other micro-organisms identified continously with aid of new technique for producing samples for mass spectrometer. Technique generates aerosol of organisms and feeds to spectrometer. Given species of organism produces characteristic set of peaks in mass spectrum and thereby identified. Technique useful for monitoring bacterial makeup in environmental studies and in places where cleanliness is essential, such as hospital operating rooms, breweries, and pharmaceutical plants.

  13. Ion mobility spectrometer with virtual aperture grid

    DOEpatents

    Pfeifer, Kent B.; Rumpf, Arthur N.

    2010-11-23

    An ion mobility spectrometer does not require a physical aperture grid to prevent premature ion detector response. The last electrodes adjacent to the ion collector (typically the last four or five) have an electrode pitch that is less than the width of the ion swarm and each of the adjacent electrodes is connected to a source of free charge, thereby providing a virtual aperture grid at the end of the drift region that shields the ion collector from the mirror current of the approaching ion swarm. The virtual aperture grid is less complex in assembly and function and is less sensitive to vibrations than the physical aperture grid.

  14. Measuring Gas-Phase Basicities of Amino Acids Using an Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer: A Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunderlin, Lee S.; Ryzhov, Victor; Keller, Lanea M. M.; Gaillard, Elizabeth R.

    2005-01-01

    An experiment is performed to measure the relative gas-phase basicities of a series of five amino acids to compare the results to literature values. The experiments use the kinetic method for deriving ion thermochemistry and allow students to perform accurate measurements of thermodynamics in a relatively short time.

  15. UTILITY OF THREE TYPES OF MASS SPECTROMETERS FOR DETERMINING ELEMENTAL COMPOSITIONS OF IONS FORMED FROM CHROMATOGRAPHICALLY SEPARATED COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sponsor Referee: Douglas F. Barofsky, Oregon State University Concentration factors of 1000 and more reveal dozens of compounds in extracts of water supplies. Library mass spectra for most of these compounds are not available, and alternative means of identification are needed. D...

  16. Direct peel monitoring of xenobiotics in fruit by direct analysis in real time coupled to a linear quadrupole ion trap-orbitrap mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Farré, Marinella; Picó, Yolanda; Barceló, Damià

    2013-03-01

    Study of xenobiotics present in fruit peel by exposing it (without any pretreatment) to direct analysis in real time coupled to a high-resolution orbitrap mass spectrometer (DART-HRMS) is reported for the first time. Variables such as DART gas heater temperature and pressure, source-to-MS distance, and sample velocity are investigated. The analysis of one sample by DART-MS lasts ca. 1 min, and the benefits of both high-resolution and tandem mass spectrometry to elucidate nontarget or unknown compounds are combined. Identification of postharvest fungicides, antioxidants, and sugars in fruit peel is performed in the positive ion mode. A possible elemental formula is suggested for marker components. The lowest imazalil concentration that could be detected by this system is 1 ng (equivalent to a concentration of ca. 300 μg kg(-1)), which is well below the maximum residue limit. For oranges and apples, direct peel exposition demonstrated good interday precision (within 20% for any concentration) and proper linearity (R(2) ≥ 0.99), with a dynamic range from 1 to 2500 ng for apple. A comparison of the results obtained using the direct peel screening DART-based method is made with those obtained by DART analysis of solvent extracts, as well as those obtained analyzing these extracts by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography orbitrap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Orbitrap). The results are in good agreement. Thus, the proposed method proves to be quantitatively accurate with indisputable identification specificity. As an independent method, the approach of direct scanning of peel is of high interest and of potential future within food analysis to guarantee safety, quality, and authenticity. PMID:23356415

  17. Panoramic imaging mass-spectrometer for planetary studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaisberg, O.; Berthelier, J.-J.; Torkar, K.; Leblanc, F.; Woch, J.; Avanov, L.; Skalski, A.; Delcourt, D.; Smirnov, V.; Koinash, G.

    Plasma diagnostics can provide extremely useful information for solar system studies. Neutral and ion sputtering from the surface leads to the formation of neutral and ion exospheres with compositions that reflect the surface composition modified by ionization and transport processes around the body. Measurements of ion composition and velocity distributions provide important information about surface composition and its recycling. Plasma measurements from low altitude spacecraft and landers on planetary bodies without atmospheres can be used to map the surface composition, while spectrometers onboard spacecraft orbiting planets with atmosphere are used for study of planetary losses, mass-exchange with the solar wind, and the long-term evolution of their environment. To perform reliable measurements of planetary plasmas a complete 3-dimensional velocity distributions of various ion species is necessary. In addition, if fast measurements of the major ion species are the main goal of plasma physics studies, precise measurements of the minor ion composition are often essential to unveil important properties of the atmosphere or the surface. Therefore ion mass spectrometers for solar system missions require both the capability of making fast measurements of the 3D-velocity distribution of ions and high mass resolution for detailed composition studies. We describe a novel type of miniature panoramic ion mass-spectrometer suitable for making such 3-dimensional measurements of ion components with high mass resolution. The feeding electron optics of our plasma analyzer (CAMERA) allows for fast measurements within an instantaneous 2π field of view, which has no gaps and can be accomplished on either stabilized or rotating spacecraft, or landers. It is followed by a time-of-flight mass-spectrometer that retains imaging capabilities of the feeding optics and provides mass-resolution M/?M in excess of 100. Our spectrometer also provides flexible control of the energy

  18. A magnetic-bottle multi-electron-ion coincidence spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, Akitaka; Fushitani, Mizuho; Tseng, Chien-Ming; Hikosaka, Yasumasa; Eland, John H. D.; Hishikawa, Akiyoshi

    2011-10-01

    A novel multi-electron-ion coincidence spectrometer developed on the basis of a 1.5 m-long magnetic-bottle electron spectrometer is presented. Electrons are guided by an inhomogeneous magnetic field to a detector at the end of the flight tube, while a set of optics is used to extract counterpart ions to the same detector, by a pulsed inhomogeneous electric field. This setup allows ion detection with high mass resolution, without impairing the high collection efficiency for electrons. The performance of the coincidence spectrometer was tested with double ionization of carbon disulfide, CS2 → CS_2^{2+} + e- + e-, in ultrashort intense laser fields (2.8 × 1013 W/cm2, 280 fs, 1030 nm) to clarify the electron correlation below the rescattering threshold.

  19. A magnetic-bottle multi-electron-ion coincidence spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Akitaka; Fushitani, Mizuho; Tseng, Chien-Ming; Hikosaka, Yasumasa; Eland, John H D; Hishikawa, Akiyoshi

    2011-10-01

    A novel multi-electron-ion coincidence spectrometer developed on the basis of a 1.5 m-long magnetic-bottle electron spectrometer is presented. Electrons are guided by an inhomogeneous magnetic field to a detector at the end of the flight tube, while a set of optics is used to extract counterpart ions to the same detector, by a pulsed inhomogeneous electric field. This setup allows ion detection with high mass resolution, without impairing the high collection efficiency for electrons. The performance of the coincidence spectrometer was tested with double ionization of carbon disulfide, CS(2) → CS(2)(2+) + e(-) + e(-), in ultrashort intense laser fields (2.8 × 10(13) W/cm(2), 280 fs, 1030 nm) to clarify the electron correlation below the rescattering threshold. PMID:22047278

  20. A magnetic-bottle multi-electron-ion coincidence spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuda, Akitaka; Hishikawa, Akiyoshi; Fushitani, Mizuho; Tseng, Chien-Ming; Hikosaka, Yasumasa; Eland, John H. D.

    2011-10-15

    A novel multi-electron-ion coincidence spectrometer developed on the basis of a 1.5 m-long magnetic-bottle electron spectrometer is presented. Electrons are guided by an inhomogeneous magnetic field to a detector at the end of the flight tube, while a set of optics is used to extract counterpart ions to the same detector, by a pulsed inhomogeneous electric field. This setup allows ion detection with high mass resolution, without impairing the high collection efficiency for electrons. The performance of the coincidence spectrometer was tested with double ionization of carbon disulfide, CS{sub 2} {yields} CS{sub 2}{sup 2+} + e{sup -} + e{sup -}, in ultrashort intense laser fields (2.8 x 10{sup 13} W/cm{sup 2}, 280 fs, 1030 nm) to clarify the electron correlation below the rescattering threshold.

  1. Differential Mobility Spectrometer with Spatial Ion Detector and Methods Related Thereto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duong, Tuan A. (Inventor); Kanik, Isik (Inventor); Duong, Vu A. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Differential mobility spectrometer with spatial ion detector and methods related thereto are disclosed. The use of one or more spatial detector within differential mobility spectrometry can provide for the identification and separation of ions with similar mobility and mass.

  2. Combined liquid chromatograph/mass spectrometer for involatile biological samples.

    PubMed

    Blakley, C R; Carmody, J C; Vestal, M L

    1980-09-01

    A new liquid chromatograph/mass spectrometer has been developed in our laboratory for application to analysis of biological molecules of extremely low volatility. Oxyhydrogen flames rapidly vaporize the total liquid-chromatographic effluent, and molecular and particle beam techniques are used to efficiently transfer the sample to the ionization source of the mass spectrometer. This new instrument is comparable in cost and complexity to a combined gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer, but extends the capabilities of combined chromatography/mass spectrometry to a broad range of compounds not previously accessible. We are currently testing biologically significant samples with this instrument, using reversed-phase liquid-chromatographic separation and both positive and negative ion chemical-ionization mass spectrometry. Results have been obtained from mixtures of nucleic acid components--bases, nucleosides, and nucleotides--and from amino acids, peptides, saccharides, fatty acids, vitamins, and antibiotics. In all cases investigated to date, ions indicative of molecular mass are obtained in at least one of the operating modes available. Detection limits are typically in the 1-10 ng range for full mass scans (about 80-600 amu); sub-nanogram quantities are usually detectable with single-ion monitoring. PMID:7408175

  3. Rapid screening and characterization of drug metabolites using a multiple ion monitoring-dependent MS/MS acquisition method on a hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Yao, Ming; Ma, Li; Humphreys, W Griffith; Zhu, Mingshe

    2008-10-01

    A novel LC/MS/MS method that uses multiple ion monitoring (MIM) as a survey scan to trigger the acquisition of enhanced product ions (EPI) on a hybrid quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometer (Q TRAP) was developed for drug metabolite identification. In the MIM experiment, multiple predicted metabolite ions were monitored in both Q1 and Q3. The collision energy in Q2 was set to a low value to minimize fragmentation. Results from analyzing ritonavir metabolites in rat hepatocytes demonstrate that MIM-EPI was capable of targeting a larger number of metabolites regardless of their fragmentation and retained sensitivity and duty cycle similar to multiple reaction monitoring (MRM)-EPI. MIM-based scanning methods were shown to be particularly useful in several applications. First, MIM-EPI enabled the sensitive detection and MS/MS acquisition of up to 100 predicted metabolites. Second, MIM-MRM-EPI was better than MRM-EPI in the analysis of metabolites that undergo either predictable or unpredictable fragmentation pathways. Finally, a combination of MIM-EPI and full-scan MS (EMS), as an alternative to EMS-EPI, was well suited for routine in vitro metabolite profiling. Overall, MIM-EPI significantly enhanced the metabolite identification capability of the hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap LC/MS. PMID:18416441

  4. Glow discharge electron impact ionization source for miniature mass spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Gao, Liang; Song, Qingyu; Noll, Robert J; Duncan, Jason; Cooks, R Graham; Ouyang, Zheng

    2007-05-01

    A glow discharge electron impact ionization (GDEI) source was developed for operation using air as the support gas. An alternative to the use of thermoemission from a resistively heated filament electron source for miniature mass spectrometers, the GDEI source is shown to have advantages of long lifetime under high-pressure operation and low power consumption. The GDEI source was characterized using our laboratory's handheld mass spectrometer, the Mini 10. The effects of the discharge voltage and pressure were investigated. Design considerations are illustrated with calculations. Performance is demonstrated in a set of experimental tests. The results show that the low power requirements, mechanical ruggedness, and quality of the data produced using the small glow discharge ion source make it well-suited for use with a portable handheld mass spectrometer. PMID:17441220

  5. Apparatus and method for characterizing the transmission efficiency of a mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivasytava, Santash (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    An electron/ion coincidence technique is employed to characterize the absolute mass dependent transmission efficiency of mass spectrometers. The technique is not dependent upon the partial pressure of the sample beam or the ionization cross sections of calibrant gases.

  6. ELECTRONICS UPGRADE OF HIGH RESOLUTION MASS SPECTROMETERS

    SciTech Connect

    Mcintosh, J; Joe Cordaro, J

    2008-03-10

    High resolution mass spectrometers are specialized systems that allow researchers to determine the exact mass of samples to four significant digits by using magnetic and electronic sector mass analyzers. Many of the systems in use today at research laboratories and universities were designed and built more than two decades ago. The manufacturers of these systems have abandoned the support for some of the mass spectrometers and parts to power and control them have become scarce or obsolete. The Savannah River National Laboratory has been involved in the upgrade of the electronics and software for these legacy machines. The Electronics Upgrade of High Resolution Mass Spectrometers consists of assembling high-end commercial instrumentation from reputable manufacturers with a minimal amount of customization to replace the electronics for the older systems. By taking advantage of advances in instrumentation, precise magnet control can be achieved using high resolution current sources and continuous feedback from a high resolution hall-effect probe. The custom equipment include a precision voltage divider/summing amplifier chassis, high voltage power supply chassis and a chassis for controlling the voltage emission for the mass spectrometer source tube. The upgrade package is versatile enough to interface with valve control, vacuum and other instrumentation. Instrument communication is via a combination of Ethernet and traditional IEEE-488 GPIB protocols. The system software upgrades include precision control, feedback and spectral waveform analysis tools.

  7. A high resolving power ion selector for post-source decay measurements in a reflecting time-of-flight mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Piyadasa, C K; Håkansson, P; Ariyaratne, T R; Barofsky, D F

    1998-01-01

    An electrostatic deflector has been designed and constructed that can be used in a reflecting time-of-flight mass spectrometer for either single-deflector or dual-deflector velocity selection in post-source decay measurements. The deflector consists of an interleaved set of parallel deflection electrodes as in a Loeb/Cravath/Bradbury device, but thin metal ribbon instead of wire is used for the deflection electrodes. The time for reversing the electric field, which depends on various factors such as the electronics for pulsing the voltage and the time constant of a particular electrode geometry, is about 19 ns for the deflectors used in this study. By properly timing the reversal of the electric field, the time-window for ion transmission can be made substantially less than the switching time of each individual deflector. In conjunction with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization, the single-deflector's resolving power and transmission are robust with respect to laser fluence, i.e. they remain high even when the fluence is raised well above threshold. By contrast the operational features of the dual-deflector gate offer more versatility in locating and sizing the selection window. Operating the ion selector in a single-deflector mode, we have achieved a resolving power of approximately 710 full width at half maximum (FWHM) for different isotopes of protonated, sodiated, and potassiated substance-P (m/z 1348.6, 1370.6 and 1386.6 respectively; 10.073 keV). Operating it in the dual-deflector mode under two different sets of conditions, we have succeeded in obtaining resolving powers of approximately 1100 (FWHM) for protonated substance-P (m/z 1348.6; 10.8 keV) and approximately 5200 (FWHM) for an isotopomer of PEG 6000 (approximately m/z 6000; 10.04 keV). This accomplishment implies that high-resolution ion selection can be coupled to post-source decay analyses. PMID:9853381

  8. Dynamics Explorer 1, retarding ion mass spectrometer summary spectrograms: 82/001 to 82/109 spin-time spectrograms for H(+), He(+), O(+), N(+), O(++), M/Z=2, and molecular ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Retarding Ion Mass Spectrometer (RIMS) experiment onboard the Dynamics Explorer 1 (DE 1) satellite was designed to perform energy and mass-per-change analysis on low-energy ions (less than 50 eV) with mass/charge ratios ranging from 1 to 40 amu/Z. The DE 1 satellite, carrying the RIMS experiment, was launched into an elliptical polar orbit on August 3, 1981. The approximate 7.5 hour orbit has perigee of 675 km altitude and apogee of 24,875 km altitude. This document, and those that follow in this series, contains summary RIMS data spectrograms for each orbit for which RIMS data are available. The RIMS instrument began returning science data on day 280 of 1981 and continued to return usable data until the end of the DE mission in March 1991. It should be noted that studies of the RIMS data set should be conducted only with a thorough awareness of the material described in the introduction section presented here, or in collaboration with a scientist familiar with RIMS data analysis.

  9. Dynamics Explorer 1, retarding ion mass spectrometer summary spectrograms: 81/280 to 81/365 spin-time spectrograms for H(+), He(+), O(+), N(+), O(++), M/Z=2, and molecular ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Retarding Ion Mass Spectrometer (RIMS) experiment onboard the Dynamics Explorer 1 (DE 1) satellite was designed to perform energy and mass-per-charge analysis on low-energy ions (less than 50 eV) with mass/charge ratios ranging from 1 to 40 amu/Z. The DE 1 satellite, carrying the RIMS experiment, was launched into an elliptical polar orbit on August 3, 1981. The approximately 7.5 hour orbit has perigee of 675 km altitude and apogee of 24,875 km altitude. This document, as well as those that follow in this series, contains summary RIMS data spectrograms for each orbit for which RIMS data are available. The RIMS instrument began returning science data on day 280 of 1981 and continued to return usable data until the end of the DE mission in March 1991. It should be noted that studies of the RIMS data set should be conducted only with a thorough awareness of the material described in the introduction section presented here, or in collaboration with a scientist familiar with RIMS data analysis.

  10. Dynamics Explorer 1, retarding ion mass spectrometer summary spectrograms-82/230 to 82/265 spin-time spectrograms for H(+), He(+), O(+), N(+), O(++), M/Z = 2, and molecular ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The retarding ion mass spectrometer (RIMS) experiment onboard the Dynamics Explorer 1 (DE 1) satellite was designed to perform energy and mass-per-charge analysis on low-energy ions (less than 50 eV) with mass/charge ratios ranging from 1 to 40 amu/Z. the DE 1 satellite, carrying the RIMS experiment, was launched into an elliptical polar orbit on August 3, 1981. The approximately 7.5 hour orbit has perigee of 675 km altitude and apogee of 24,875 km altitude. This document and those that follow in this series, contain summary RIMS data spectrograms for each orbit for which RIMS data are available. The RIMS instrument began returning science data on day 280 of 1981 and continued to return usable data until the end of the DE mission in March 1991. It should be noted that studies of the RIMS data set should be conducted only with a thorough awareness of the material described in the introduction section presented here, or in collaboration with a scientist familiar with RIMS data analysis.

  11. Dynamics Explorer 1, retarding ion mass spectrometer summary spectrograms-82/110 to 82/229 spin-time spectrograms for H(+), He(+), O(+), N(+), O(++), M/Z = 2, and molecular ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The retarding ion mass spectrometer (RIMS) experiment onboard the Dynamics Explorer 1 (DE 1) satellite was designed to perform energy and mass-per-charge analysis on low-energy ions (less than 50 eV) with mass/charge ratios ranging from 1 to 40 amu/Z. The DE 1 satellite, carrying the RIMS experiment, was launched into an elliptical polar orbit on August 3, 1981. The approximately 7.5 hour orbit has perigee of 675 km altitude and apogee of 24,875 km altitude. this document and those that following in this series, contains summary RIMS data spectrograms for each orbit for which RIMS data are available. The RIMS instrument began returning science data on day 280 of 1981 and continued to return usable data until the end of the DE mission in March 1991. It should be noted that studies of the RIMS data set should be conducted only with a thorough awareness of the material described in the introduction section presented here, or in collaboration with a scientist familiar with RIMS data analysis.

  12. Design and Characterization of a High-power Laser-induced Acoustic Desorption (LIAD) Probe Coupled with a Fourier-transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer

    PubMed Central

    Shea, Ryan C.; Habicht, Steven C.; Vaughn, Weldon E.; Kenttämaa, Hilkka I.

    2008-01-01

    We report here the construction and characterization of a high-power laser-induced acoustic desorption (LIAD) probe designed for Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometers to facilitate analysis of non-volatile, thermally labile compounds. This “next generation” LIAD probe offers significant improvements in sensitivity and desorption efficiency for analytes with larger molecular weights via the use of higher laser irradiances. Unlike the previous probes which utilized a power limiting optical fiber to transmit the laser pulses through the probe, this probe employs a set of mirrors and a focusing lens. At the end of the probe, the energy from the laser pulses propagates through a thin metal foil as an acoustic wave, resulting in desorption of neutral molecules from the opposite side of the foil. Following desorption, the molecules can be ionized by electron impact or chemical ionization. Almost an order of magnitude greater power density (up to 5.0 × 109 W/cm2) is achievable on the backside of the foil with the high-power LIAD probe compared to the earlier LIAD probes (maximum power density ~9.0 × 108 W/cm2). The use of higher laser irradiances is demonstrated not to cause fragmentation of the analyte. The use of higher laser irradiances increases sensitivity since it results in the evaporation of a greater number of molecules per laser pulse. Measurement of the average velocities of LIAD evaporated molecules demonstrates that higher laser irradiances do not correlate with higher velocities of the gaseous analyte molecules. PMID:17319645

  13. Mass measurements with a Penning trap mass spectrometer at ISOLDE

    SciTech Connect

    Bollen, G.; Ames, F.; Schark, E.; Audi, G.; Lunney, D.; Saint Simon, M. de; Beck, D.; Herfurth, F.; Kluge, H.-J.; Kohl, A.; Schwarz, S.; Moore, R. B.; Szerypo, J.

    1998-12-21

    Penning trap mass measurements on radioactive isotopes are performed with the ISOLTRAP mass spectrometer at ISOLDE/CERN. In the last years the applicability of the spectrometer has been considerably extended. The most recent measurements were carried out on isotopes of rare earth elements and on isotopes with Z=80-85. An accuracy of {delta}m/m{approx_equal}1{center_dot}10{sup -7} was achieved.

  14. Characteristics and performance of several mass spectrometer residual gas analyzers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultzman, W. W.

    1974-01-01

    The operation and properties of various mass-spectrometer residual gas analyzers for use in vacuum measurements were analyzed in terms of efficiencies of ion extraction, ion separation and transmission, and ion collection. Types of instruments studied were magnetic sector, omegatron, quadrupole, and monopole. Experimental results presented include absolute sensitivity to argon, relative sensitivity to 10 gases, and cracking patterns for these gases. It is shown that the properties are strongly dependent on instrument range, resolution, and the particular voltages, currents, or field intensities used to control the instrument.

  15. A miniature mass spectrometer for hydrazine detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houseman, J.; Sinha, M. P.

    2003-01-01

    A Miniature Mass Spectrometer (MMS) with a focal plane (Mattauch-Herzog) geometry has been developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The MMS has the potential to meet the NASA requirements of 10 parts per billion sensitivity for Hydrazine detection, as well as the requirements for instant response, portability, and low maintenance.

  16. Miniature Mass Spectrometers on Space and Planetary Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinckerhoff, William

    2008-01-01

    Space flight mass spectrometers contribute our understanding of the origin and evolution of our solar system and even of life itself. This fundamental role has motivated increasing interest in miniature mass spectrometry for planetary missions. Several remarkable new instruments are en route or under development to investigate the composition of planetary bodies such as Mars and comets. For instance, the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) suite on the 2009 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission includes a quadrupole mass spectrometer with a sophisticated gas processing system as well as pyrolysis and chemical derivatization protocols for solid samples. Future missions will require even lighter, lower power, and yet more capable mass spectrometers, particularly to analyze samples in situ on planetary surfaces. We have been developing laser-based mass spectrometers for elemental and organic/molecular analysis of rock, ice, or fine particle samples. These typically use time-of-flight (TOF) mass analyzers, which are readily miniaturized and can detect both atomic species and complex organics that occur in a variety of planetary materials. For example, nonvolatile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and kerogen-like macromolecular carbon are found in some carbonaceous meteorites, which derived from asteroid parent bodies. A single focused laser pulse is able to volatilize and ionize some of these compounds for direct TOF analysis. While this is possible without any sample preparation or contact, sensitivity and quantitative performance can improve significantly with some sample handling. As such we have also been examining robotic mechanisms and protocols to accompany space flight mass spectrometers. In addition, sensors in early development may significantly improve these capabilities, via use of techniques such as switchable polarity, ambient pressure, or resonant ionization; tandem mass spectrometry (TOF or ion trap); and chemical imaging.

  17. Interface for liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Andresen, Brian D.; Fought, Eric R.

    1989-01-01

    A moving belt interface for real-time, high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC)/mass spectrometer (MS) analysis which strips away the HPLC solvent as it emerges from the end of the HPLC column and leaves a residue suitable for mass-spectral analysis. The interface includes a portable, stand-alone apparatus having a plural stage vacuum station, a continuous ribbon or belt, a drive train magnetically coupled to an external drive motor, a calibrated HPLC delivery system, a heated probe tip and means located adjacent the probe tip for direct ionization of the residue on the belt. The interface is also capable of being readily adapted to fit any mass spectrometer.

  18. Interface for liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Andresen, B.D.; Fought, E.R.

    1989-09-19

    A moving belt interface is described for real-time, high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC)/mass spectrometer (MS) analysis which strips away the HPLC solvent as it emerges from the end of the HPLC column and leaves a residue suitable for mass-spectral analysis. The interface includes a portable, stand-alone apparatus having a plural stage vacuum station, a continuous ribbon or belt, a drive train magnetically coupled to an external drive motor, a calibrated HPLC delivery system, a heated probe tip and means located adjacent the probe tip for direct ionization of the residue on the belt. The interface is also capable of being readily adapted to fit any mass spectrometer. 8 figs.

  19. High-efficiency electron ionizer for a mass spectrometer array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, Ara (Inventor); Darrach, Murray R. (Inventor); Orient, Otto J. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides an improved electron ionizer for use in a quadrupole mass spectrometer. The improved electron ionizer includes a repeller plate that ejects sample atoms or molecules, an ionizer chamber, a cathode that emits an electron beam into the ionizer chamber, an exit opening for excess electrons to escape, at least one shim plate to collimate said electron beam, extraction apertures, and a plurality of lens elements for focusing the extracted ions onto entrance apertures.

  20. A high-resolution scanning microprobe matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization ion source for imaging analysis on an ion trap/Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Koestler, Martin; Kirsch, Dieter; Hester, Alfons; Leisner, Arne; Guenther, Sabine; Spengler, Bernhard

    2008-10-01

    A new scanning microprobe matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (SMALDI) ion source for high spatial resolution has been developed for linear ion trap and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS). The source is fully compatible with commercial ion trap flanges (such as the LTQ series, Thermo Fisher Scientific). The source is designed for atmospheric pressure (AP) operation but is also suitable for mid-pressure operation. The AP mode is especially useful for investigating volatile compounds. The source can be interchanged with other ion sources within a minute when operated in the AP mode. Combining high-lateral resolution MALDI imaging with high mass resolution and high mass accuracy mass spectrometry, available in the FT-ICR mode, provides a new quality of analytical information, e.g. from biological samples. First results obtained with the new ion source demonstrate a maximum lateral resolution of 0.6 by 0.5 microm. Depending on the limit of detection of the chosen mass analyzer, however, the size of the focus had to be enlarged to a diameter of up to 8 microm in the FT-ICR mode, in order to create enough ions for detection. Mass spectra acquired for analytical imaging were obtained from single laser pulses per pixel in all the experiments. This mode allows us to investigate biological thin sections with desorption focus diameters in the micrometer range, known to cause complete evaporation of material under the laser focus with a very limited number of laser pulses. As a first example, peptide samples deposited in microstructures were investigated with the new setup. A high quality and validity of the acquired images were obtained in the ion trap mode due to the low limit of detection. High mass resolution and accuracy but poorer image quality were obtained in the ICR mode due to the lower detection sensitivity of the ICR detector. PMID:18819119

  1. Ion mobility spectrometers and methods for ion mobility spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Dahl, David A; Scott, Jill R; Appelhans, Anthony D; McJunkin, Timothy R; Olson, John E

    2009-04-14

    An ion mobility spectrometer may include an inner electrode and an outer electrode arranged so that at least a portion of the outer electrode surrounds at least a portion of the inner electrode and defines a drift space therebetween. The inner and outer electrodes are electrically insulated from one another so that a non-linear electric field is created in the drift space when an electric potential is placed on the inner and outer electrodes. An ion source operatively associated with the ion mobility spectrometer releases ions to the drift space defined between the inner and outer electrodes. A detector operatively associated with at least a portion of the outer electrode detects ions from the drift space.

  2. Miniature micromachined quadrupole mass spectrometer array and method of making the same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, Ara (Inventor); Hecht, Michael (Inventor); Orient, Otto (Inventor); Wiberg, Dean (Inventor); Brennen, Reid A. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a quadrupole mass spectrometer and an ion filter for use in the quadrupole mass spectrometer. The ion filter includes a thin patterned layer including a two-dimensional array of poles forming one or more quadrupoles. The patterned layer design permits the use of very short poles and with a very dense spacing of the poles, so that the ion filter may be made very small. Also provided is a method for making the ion filter and the quadrupole mass spectrometer. The method involves forming the patterned layer of the ion filter in such a way that as the poles of the patterned layer are formed, they have the relative positioning and aligrnent for use in a final quadrupole mass spectrometer device.

  3. Miniature micromachined quadrupole mass spectrometer array and method of making the same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, Ara (Inventor); Hecht, Michael (Inventor); Orient, Otto (Inventor); Wiberg, Dean (Inventor); Brennen, Reid A. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a quadrupole mass spectrometer and an ion filter for use in the quadrupole mass spectrometer. The ion filter includes a thin patterned layer including a two-dimensional array of poles forming one or more quadrupoles. The patterned layer design permits the use of very short poles and with a very dense spacing of the poles, so that the ion filter may be made very small. Also provided is a method for making the ion filter and the quadrupole mass spectrometer. The method involves forming the patterned layer of the ion filter in such a way that as the poles of the patterned layer are formed, they have the relative positioning and alignment for use in a final quadrupole mass spectrometer device.

  4. Miniature micromachined quadrupole mass spectrometer array and method of making the same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, Ara (Inventor); Hecht, Michael (Inventor); Orient, Otto (Inventor); Wiberg, Dean (Inventor); Brennen, Reid A. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides a quadrupole mass spectrometer and an ion filter for use in the quadrupole mass spectrometer. The ion filter includes a thin patterned layer including a two-dimensional array of poles forming one or more quadrupoles. The patterned layer design permits the use of very short poles and with a very dense spacing of the poles, so that the ion filter may be made very small. Also provided is a method for making the ion filter and the quadrupole mass spectrometer. The method involves forming the patterned layer of the ion filter in such a way that as the poles of the patterned layer are formed, they have the relative positioning and alignment for use in a final quadrupole mass spectrometer device.

  5. Miniature micromachined quadrupole mass spectrometer array and method of making the same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, Ara (Inventor); Fuerstenau, Stephen D. (Inventor); Orient, Otto J. (Inventor); Yee, Karl Y. (Inventor); Rice, John T. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides a quadrupole mass spectrometer and an ion filter, or pole array, for use in the quadrupole mass spectrometer. The ion filter includes a thin patterned layer including a two-dimensional array of poles forming one or more quadrupoles. The patterned layer design permits the use of very short poles and with a very dense spacing of the poles, so that the ion filter may be made very small. Also provided is a method for making the ion filter and the quadrupole mass spectrometer. The method involves forming the patterned layer of the ion filter in such a way that as the poles of the patterned layer are formed, they have the relative positioning and alignment for use in a final quadrupole mass spectrometer device.

  6. Miniature micromachined quadrupole mass spectrometer array and method of making the same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, Ara (Inventor); Fuerstenau, Stephen D. (Inventor); Orient, Otto J. (Inventor); Yee, Karl Y. (Inventor); Rice, John T. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a quadrupole mass spectrometer and an ion filter, or pole array, for use in the quadrupole mass spectrometer. The ion filter includes a thin patterned layer including a two-dimensional array of poles forming one or more quadrupoles. The patterned layer design permits the use of very short poles and with a very dense spacing of the poles, so that the ion filter may be made very small. Also provided is a method for making the ion filter and the quadrupole mass spectrometer. The method involves forming the patterned layer of the ion filter in such a way that as the poles of the patterned layer are formed, they have the relative positioning and alignment for use in a final quadrupole mass spectrometer device.

  7. Miniature micromachined quadrupole mass spectrometer array and method of making the same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, Ara (Inventor); Fuerstenau, Stephen D. (Inventor); Orient, Otto J. (Inventor); Yee, Karl Y. (Inventor); Rice, John T. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention provides a quadrupole mass spectrometer and an ion filter, or pole array, for use in the quadrupole mass spectrometer. The ion filter includes a thin patterned layer including a two-dimensional array of poles forming one or more quadrupoles. The patterned layer design permits the use of very short poles and with a very dense spacing of the poles, so that the ion filter may be made very small. Also provided is a method for making the ion filter and the quadrupole mass spectrometer. The method involves forming the patterned layer of the ion filter in such a way that as the poles of the patterned layer are formed, they have the relative positioning and alignment for use in a final quadrupole mass spectrometer device.

  8. 21 CFR 862.2860 - Mass spectrometer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mass spectrometer for clinical use. 862.2860... Instruments § 862.2860 Mass spectrometer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A mass spectrometer for... by means of an electrical and magnetic field according to their mass. (b) Classification. Class...

  9. 21 CFR 862.2860 - Mass spectrometer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mass spectrometer for clinical use. 862.2860... Instruments § 862.2860 Mass spectrometer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A mass spectrometer for... by means of an electrical and magnetic field according to their mass. (b) Classification. Class...

  10. 21 CFR 862.2860 - Mass spectrometer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mass spectrometer for clinical use. 862.2860... Instruments § 862.2860 Mass spectrometer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A mass spectrometer for... by means of an electrical and magnetic field according to their mass. (b) Classification. Class...

  11. 21 CFR 862.2860 - Mass spectrometer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mass spectrometer for clinical use. 862.2860... Instruments § 862.2860 Mass spectrometer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A mass spectrometer for... by means of an electrical and magnetic field according to their mass. (b) Classification. Class...

  12. 21 CFR 862.2860 - Mass spectrometer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mass spectrometer for clinical use. 862.2860... Instruments § 862.2860 Mass spectrometer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A mass spectrometer for... by means of an electrical and magnetic field according to their mass. (b) Classification. Class...

  13. Evaluation of Small Mass Spectrometer Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arkin, C. Richard; Griffin, Timothy P.; Ottens, Andrew K.; Diaz, Jorge A.; Follistein, Duke W.; Adams, Fredrick W.; Helms, William R.; Voska, N. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This work is aimed at understanding the aspects of designing a miniature mass spectrometer (MS) system. A multitude of commercial and government sectors, such as the military, environmental agencies and industrial manufacturers of semiconductors, refrigerants, and petroleum products, would find a small, portable, rugged and reliable MS system beneficial. Several types of small MS systems are evaluated and discussed, including linear quadrupole, quadrupole ion trap, time of flight and sector. The performance of each system in terms of accuracy, precision, limits of detection, response time, recovery time, scan rate, volume and weight is assessed. A performance scale is setup to rank each systems and an overall performance score is given to each system. All experiments involved the analysis of hydrogen, helium, oxygen and argon in a nitrogen background with the concentrations of the components of interest ranging from 0-5000 part-per-million (ppm). The relative accuracies of the systems vary from < 1% to approx. 40% with an average below 10%. Relative precisions varied from 1% to 20%, with an average below 5%. The detection limits had a large distribution, ranging from 0.2 to 170 ppm. The systems had a diverse response time ranging from 4 s to 210 s as did the recovery time with a 6 s to 210 s distribution. Most instruments had scan times near, 1 s, however one instrument exceeded 13 s. System weights varied from 9 to 52 kg and sizes from 15 x 10(exp 3)cu cm to 110 x 10(exp 3) cu cm.

  14. IDENTIFICATION OF MICROCYSTIN TOXINS FROM A STRAIN OF MICROCYSTIS AERUGINOSA BY LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY INTRODUCTION INTO A HYBRID LINEAR ION TRAP-FOURIER TRANSFORM ION CYCLOTRON RESONANCE MASS SPECTROMETER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The cyclic heptapeptide microcystin toxins produced by a strain of Microcystis aeruginosa that has not been investigated previously were separated by liquid chromatography and identified by high-accuracy m/z measurements of their [M + H]+ ions and the fragment i...

  15. Development of an Accelerator Mass Spectrometer based on a Cyclotron

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dogyun; Bhang, Hyeongchan; Kim, Jongwon

    2011-12-13

    An accelerator mass spectrometer based on a cyclotron has been developed, and a prototype of the injection beam line has been constructed. Mass resolution of the cyclotron is designed to be over 4000. A sawtooth RF buncher in the beam line and a flat-topping RF system for the cyclotron were utilized to enhance beam transmission efficiency, which is a primary factor for improvement compared to previous cyclotron mass spectrometers. The injection beam line comprises an ion source, Einzel lens, RF buncher, 90 deg. dipole magnet and a slit box containing beam diagnostic devices. A carbon beam was measured at the location of the slit box, and beam phase spaces will be measured. The design of a cyclotron magnet was done, and orbit tracking was carried out using cyclotron optics codes. A scheme of radial injection was chosen to place a beam on the equilibrium orbit of the cyclotron. The injection scheme will be optimized after the beam measurements are completed.

  16. Analysis of solid uranium samples using a small mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahr, Michael S.; Abney, Kent D.; Olivares, José A.

    2001-07-01

    A mass spectrometer for isotopic analysis of solid uranium samples has been constructed and evaluated. This system employs the fluorinating agent chlorine trifluoride (ClF 3) to convert solid uranium samples into their volatile uranium hexafluorides (UF 6). The majority of unwanted gaseous byproducts and remaining ClF 3 are removed from the sample vessel by condensing the UF 6 and then pumping away the unwanted gases. The UF 6 gas is then introduced into a quadrupole mass spectrometer and ionized by electron impact ionization. The doubly charged bare metal uranium ion (U 2+) is used to determine the U 235/U 238 isotopic ratio. Precision and accuracy for several isotopic standards were found to be better than 12%, without further calibration of the system. The analysis can be completed in 25 min from sample loading, to UF 6 reaction, to mass spectral analysis. The method is amenable to uranium solid matrices, and other actinides.

  17. A Mass Spectrometer Simulator in Your Computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, Michel

    2012-12-01

    Introduced to study components of ionized gas, the mass spectrometer has evolved into a highly accurate device now used in many undergraduate and research laboratories. Unfortunately, despite their importance in the formation of future scientists, mass spectrometers remain beyond the financial reach of many high schools and colleges. As a result, it is not possible for instructors to take full advantage of this equipment. Therefore, to facilitate accessibility to this tool, we have developed a realistic computer-based simulator. Using this software, students are able to practice their ability to identify the components of the original gas, thereby gaining a better understanding of the underlying physical laws. The software is available as a free download.

  18. Delta-Doped CCDs as Detector Arrays in Mass Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikzad, Shouleh; Jones, Todd; Jewell, April; Sinha, Mahadeva

    2007-01-01

    In a conventional mass spectrometer, charged particles (ions) are dispersed through a magnetic sector onto an MCP at an output (focal) plane. In the MCP, the impinging charged particles excite electron cascades that afford signal gain. Electrons leaving the MCP can be read out by any of a variety of means; most commonly, they are post-accelerated onto a solid-state detector array, wherein the electron pulses are converted to photons, which, in turn, are converted to measurable electric-current pulses by photodetectors. Each step in the conversion from the impinging charged particles to the output 26 NASA Tech Briefs, February 2007 current pulses reduces spatial resolution and increases noise, thereby reducing the overall sensitivity and performance of the mass spectrometer. Hence, it would be preferable to make a direct measurement of the spatial distribution of charged particles impinging on the focal plane. The utility of delta-doped CCDs as detectors of charged particles was reported in two articles in NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 22, No. 7 (July 1998): "Delta-Doped CCDs as Low-Energy-Particle Detectors" (NPO-20178) on page 48 and "Delta- Doped CCDs for Measuring Energies of Positive Ions" (NPO-20253) on page 50. In the present developmental miniature mass spectrometers, the above mentioned miniaturization and performance advantages contributed by the use of delta-doped CCDs are combined with the advantages afforded by the Mattauch-Herzog design. The Mattauch- Herzog design is a double-focusing spectrometer design involving an electric and a magnetic sector, where the ions of different masses are spatially separated along the focal plane of magnetic sector. A delta-doped CCD at the focal plane measures the signals of all the charged-particle species simultaneously at high sensitivity and high resolution, thereby nearly instantaneously providing a complete, high-quality mass spectrum. The simultaneous nature of the measurement of ions stands in contrast to that of a

  19. New perspectives in laser analytics: Resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization in a Paul ion trap combined with a time-of-flight mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisling, Peter; Heger, Hans Jörg; Michaelis, Walfried; Weitkamp, Claus; Zobel, Harald

    1995-04-01

    A new laser analytical device has been developed that is based on resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization in the very center of a radio-frequency quadrupole ion trap. Applications in speciation anlaysis of biological and enviromental samples and in materials science will all benefit from laser-optical selectivity in the resonance excitation process, combined with mass-spectropic sensivity which is further enhanced by the ion accumulation and storage capability.

  20. Pioneer Venus large probe neutral mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, J.

    1982-01-01

    The deuterium hydrogen abundance ratio in the Venus atmosphere was measured while the inlets to the Pioneer Venus large probe mass spectrometer were coated with sulfuric acid from Venus' clouds. The ratio is (1.6 + or - 0.2) x 10 to the minus two power. It was found that the 100 fold enrichment of deuterium means that Venus outgassed at least 0.3% of a terrestrial ocean and possibly more.

  1. Capillary zone electrophoresis-mass spectrometer interface

    DOEpatents

    D'Silva, Arthur

    1996-08-06

    A device for providing equal electrical potential between two loci unconnected by solid or liquid electrical conducts is provided. The device comprises a first electrical conducting terminal, a second electrical conducting terminal connected to the first terminal by a rigid dielectric structure, and an electrically conducting gas contacting the first and second terminals. This device is particularly suitable for application in the electrospray ionization interface between a capillary zone electrophoresis apparatus and a mass spectrometer.

  2. Capillary zone electrophoresis-mass spectrometer interface

    DOEpatents

    D`Silva, A.

    1996-08-06

    A device for providing equal electrical potential between two loci unconnected by solid or liquid electrical conductors is provided. The device comprises a first electrical conducting terminal, a second electrical conducting terminal connected to the first terminal by a rigid dielectric structure, and an electrically conducting gas contacting the first and second terminals. This device is particularly suitable for application in the electrospray ionization interface between a capillary zone electrophoresis apparatus and a mass spectrometer. 1 fig.

  3. Expert overseer for mass spectrometer system

    DOEpatents

    Filby, Evan E.; Rankin, Richard A.

    1991-01-01

    An expert overseer for the operation and real-time management of a mass spectrometer and associated laboratory equipment. The overseer is a computer-based expert diagnostic system implemented on a computer separate from the dedicated computer used to control the mass spectrometer and produce the analysis results. An interface links the overseer to components of the mass spectrometer, components of the laboratory support system, and the dedicated control computer. Periodically, the overseer polls these devices and as well as itself. These data are fed into an expert portion of the system for real-time evaluation. A knowledge base used for the evaluation includes both heuristic rules and precise operation parameters. The overseer also compares current readings to a long-term database to detect any developing trends using a combination of statistical and heuristic rules to evaluate the results. The overseer has the capability to alert lab personnel whenever questionable readings or trends are observed and provide a background review of the problem and suggest root causes and potential solutions, or appropriate additional tests that could be performed. The overseer can change the sequence or frequency of the polling to respond to an observation in the current data.

  4. Mechanism of Formation of the Major Estradiol Product Ions Following Collisional Activation of the Molecular Anion in a Tandem Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wooding, Kerry M.; Barkley, Robert M.; Hankin, Joseph A.; Johnson, Christopher A.; Bradford, Andrew P.; Santoro, Nanette; Murphy, Robert C.

    2013-10-01

    The importance of the mass spectral product ion structure is highlighted in quantitative assays, which typically use multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), and in the discovery of novel metabolites. Estradiol is an important sex steroid whose quantitation and metabolite identification using tandem mass spectrometry has been widely employed in numerous clinical studies. Negative electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry of estradiol (E2) results in several product ions, including the abundant m/z 183 and 169. Although m/z 183 is one of the most abundant product ions used in many quantitative assays, the structure of m/z 183 has not been rigorously examined. We suggest a structure for m/z 183 and a mechanism of formation consistent with collision induced dissociation (CID) of E2 and several stable isotopes ([D4]-E2, [13C6]-E2, and [D1]-E2). An additional product ion from E2, namely m/z 169, has also been examined. MS3 experiments indicated that both m/z 183 and m/z 169 originate from only E2 [M - H]- m/z 271. These ions, m/z 183 and m/z 169, were also present in the collision induced decomposition mass spectra of other prominent estrogens, estrone (E1) and estriol (E3), indicating that these two product ions could be used to elucidate the estrogenic origin of novel metabolites. We propose two fragmentation schemes to explain the CID data and suggest a structure of m/z 183 and m/z 169 consistent with several isotopic variants and high resolution mass spectrometric measurements.

  5. Silicon Microleaks for Inlets of Mass Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harpold, Dan; Hasso, Niemann; Jamieson, Brian G.; Lynch, Bernard A.

    2009-01-01

    Microleaks for inlets of mass spectrometers used to analyze atmospheric gases can be fabricated in silicon wafers by means of photolithography, etching, and other techniques that are commonly used in the manufacture of integrated circuits and microelectromechanical systems. The microleaks serve to limit the flows of the gases into the mass-spectrometer vacuums to specified very small flow rates consistent with the capacities of the spectrometer vacuum pumps. There is a need to be able to precisely tailor the dimensions of each microleak so as to tailor its conductance to a precise low value. (As used here, "conductance" signifies the ratio between the rate of flow in the leak and the pressure drop from the upstream to the downstream end of the leak.) To date, microleaks have been made, variously, of crimped metal tubes, pulled glass tubes, or frits. Crimped-metal and pulled-glass-tube microleaks cannot readily be fabricated repeatably to precise dimensions and are susceptible to clogging with droplets or particles. Frits tend to be differentially chemically reactive with various gas constituents and, hence, to distort the gas mixtures to be analyzed. The present approach involving microfabrication in silicon largely overcomes the disadvantages of the prior approaches.

  6. Seven Channel Multi-collector Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony D. Appelhans

    2008-07-01

    A new magnetic sector mass spectrometer that utilizes seven full-sized discrete dynode electron multipliers operating simultaneously has been designed, constructed and is in preliminary testing. The instrument utilizes a newly developed ion dispersion lens that enables the mass dispersed individual isotope beams to be separated sufficiently (35 mm) to allow a full-sized discrete dynode pulse counting multiplier to be used for each beam. The ion dispersion lens is a two element electrostatic 90 degree sector device that causes the beam-to-beam dispersion to increase faster than the intra-beam dispersion. Each multiplier is contained in an isolated case with a deflector/condenser lens at the entrance. A 9-sample filament cartridge is mounted on a micro-manipulator two-axis stage that enables adjustment of the filament position with 10 micron resolution within the ion lens. Results of initial testing with actinides will be presented.

  7. Design and operational characteristics of a cast steel mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Blantocas, Gene Q.; Ramos, Henry J.; Wada, Motoi

    2004-09-01

    A cast steel magnetic sector mass analyzer is developed for studies of hydrogen and helium ion beams generated by a gas discharge compact ion source. The optimum induced magnetic flux density of 3500 G made it possible to scan the whole spectrum of hydrogen and helium ion species. Analysis of beam characteristics shows that the mass spectrometer sensitivity, and resolving power are approximately inversely proportional. The resolution is enhanced at higher pressures and lower current discharges. In contrast, the instrument sensitivity increased at higher current discharges and decreased at higher pressures. Calculations of the ultimate resolving power with reference to analyzer dimensions yield a numerical value of 30. System anomaly in the form of spherical aberrations was also analyzed using the paraxial beam envelope equation. Beam divergence is most significant at high discharge conditions where angular spread reaches an upper limit of 8.6 deg.

  8. Mass measurements on radioactive isotopes with a Penning trap mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Bollen, G.; Ames, F.; Schark, E.; Audi, G.; Lunney, D.; Saint Simon, M. de; Beck, D.; Herfurth, F.; Kluge, H.-J.; Kohl, A.; Schwarz, S.; Moore, R. B.; Szerypo, J.

    1999-01-15

    Penning trap mass measurements on short-lived isotopes are performed with the ISOLTRAP mass spectrometer at the radioactive beam facility ISOLDE/CERN. In the last years the applicability of the spectrometer has been considerably extended by the installation of an RFQ trap ion beam buncher and a new cooler Penning trap, which is operated as an isobar separator. These improvements allowed for the first time measurements on isotopes of rare earth elements and on isotopes with Z=80-85. In all cases an accuracy of {delta}m/m{approx_equal}1{center_dot}10{sup -7} was achieved.

  9. Study of a micro chamber quadrupole mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Jinchan; Zhang Xiaobing; Mao Fuming; Xiao Mei; Cui Yunkang; Engelsen, Daniel den; Lei Wei

    2008-03-15

    The design of a micro chamber quadrupole mass spectrometer (MCQMS) having a small total volume of only 20 cm{sup 3}, including Faraday cup ion detector and ion source, is described. This MCQMS can resist a vacuum baking temperature of 400-500 deg. C. The quadrupole elements with a hyperbolic surface are made of a ceramic material and coated with a thin metal layer. The quadrupole mass filter has a field radius of 3 mm and a length of 100 mm. Prototypes of this new MCQMS can detect a minimum partial pressure of 10{sup -8} Pa, have a peak width of {delta}M=1 at 10% peak height from mass number 1 to 60, and show an excellent long-term stability. The new MCQMS is intended to be used in residual gas analyses of electron devices during a mutual pumping and baking process.

  10. The Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer for the Huygens Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemann, H. B.; Atreya, S. K.; Bauer, S. J.; Biemann, K.; Block, B.; Carignan, G. R.; Donahue, T. M.; Frost, R. L.; Gautier, D.; Haberman, J. A.; Harpold, D.; Hunten, D. M.; Israel, G.; Lunine, J. I.; Mauersberger, K.; Owen, T. C.; Raulin, F.; Richards, J. E.; Way, S. H.

    2002-07-01

    The Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) on the Huygens Probe will measure the chemical composition of Titan's atmosphere from 170 km altitude (˜1 hPa) to the surface (˜1500 hPa) and determine the isotope ratios of the major gaseous constituents. The GCMS will also analyze gas samples from the Aerosol Collector Pyrolyser (ACP) and may be able to investigate the composition (including isotope ratios) of several candidate surface materials. The GCMS is a quadrupole mass filter with a secondary electron multiplier detection system and a gas sampling system providing continuous direct atmospheric composition measurements and batch sampling through three gas chromatographic (GC) columns. The mass spectrometer employs five ion sources sequentially feeding the mass analyzer. Three ion sources serve as detectors for the GC columns and two are dedicated to direct atmosphere sampling and ACP gas sampling respectively. The instrument is also equipped with a chemical scrubber cell for noble gas analysis and a sample enrichment cell for selective measurement of high boiling point carbon containing constituents. The mass range is 2 to 141 Dalton and the nominal detection threshold is at a mixing ratio of 10- 8. The data rate available from the Probe system is 885 bit/s. The weight of the instrument is 17.3 kg and the energy required for warm up and 150 minutes of operation is 110 Watt-hours.

  11. The Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer for the Huygens Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemann, H. B.; Atreya, S. K.; Bauer, S. J.; Biemann, K.; Block, B.; Carignan, G. R.; Donahue, T. M.; Frost, R. L.; Gautier, D.; Haberman, J. A.; Harpold, D.; Hunten, D. M.; Israel, G.; Lunine, J. I.; Mauersberger, K.; Owen, T. C.; Raulin, F.; Richards, J. E.; Way, S. H.

    2002-07-01

    The Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) on the Huygens Probe will measure the chemical composition of Titan's atmosphere from 170 km altitude (~1 hPa) to the surface (~1500 hPa) and determine the isotope ratios of the major gaseous constituents. The GCMS will also analyze gas samples from the Aerosol Collector Pyrolyser (ACP) and may be able to investigate the composition (including isotope ratios) of several candidate surface materials. The GCMS is a quadrupole mass filter with a secondary electron multiplier detection system and a gas sampling system providing continuous direct atmospheric composition measurements and batch sampling through three gas chromatographic (GC) columns. The mass spectrometer employs five ion sources sequentially feeding the mass analyzer. Three ion sources serve as detectors for the GC columns and two are dedicated to direct atmosphere sampling and ACP gas sampling respectively. The instrument is also equipped with a chemical scrubber cell for noble gas analysis and a sample enrichment cell for selective measurement of high boiling point carbon containing constituents. The mass range is 2 to 141 Dalton and the nominal detection threshold is at a mixing ratio of 10- 8. The data rate available from the Probe system is 885 bit/s. The weight of the instrument is 17.3 kg and the energy required for warm up and 150 minutes of operation is 110 Watt-hours.

  12. Accurate mass determination of short-lived isotopes by a tandem Penning-trap mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Stolzenberg, H.; Becker, S.; Bollen, G.; Kern, F.; Kluge, H.; Otto, T.; Savard, G.; Schweikhard, L. ); Audi, G. ); Moore, R.B. ); The ISOLDE Collaboration

    1990-12-17

    A mass spectrometer consisting of two Penning traps has been set up for short-lived isotopes at the on-line mass separator ISOLDE at CERN. The ion beam is collected and cooled in the first trap. After delivery to the second trap, high-accuracy direct mass measurements are made by determining the cyclotron frequency of the stored ions. Measurements have been performed for {sup 118}Cs--{sup 137}Cs. A resolving power of over 10{sup 6} and an accuracy of 1.4{times}10{sup {minus}7} have been achieved, corresponding to about 20 keV.

  13. Water Mass Map from Neutron Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    December 8, 2003

    This map shows the estimated lower limit of the water content of the upper meter of Martian soil. The estimates are derived from the hydrogen abundance measured by the neutron spectrometer component of the gamma ray spectrometer suite on NASA's Mars Odyssey spacecraft.

    The highest water-mass fractions, exceeding 30 percent to well over 60 percent, are in the polar regions, beyond about 60 degrees latitude north or south. Farther from the poles, significant concentrations are in the area bound in longitude by minus 10 degrees to 50 degrees and in latitude by 30 degrees south to 40 degrees north, and in an area to the south and west of Olympus Mons (30 degrees to 0 degrees south latitude and minus 135 degrees to 110 degrees longitude).

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for the NASA Office of Space Science in Washington. Investigators at Arizona State University in Tempe, the University of Arizona in Tucson and NASA's Johnson Space Center, Houston, operate the science instruments. The gamma-ray spectrometer was provided by the University of Arizona in collaboration with the Russian Aviation and Space Agency, which provided the high-energy neutron detector, and the Los Alamos National Laboratories, New Mexico, which provided the neutron spectrometer. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL.

  14. Resolution of nuclear ground and isomeric states by a Penning trap mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Bollen, G.; Kluge, H.; Koenig, M.; Otto, T.; Savard, G.; Stolzenberg, H. ); Moore, R.B.; Rouleau, G. ); Audi, G. )

    1992-12-01

    Ground and isomeric states of a nucleus have been resolved for the first time by mass spectrometry. Measurements on [sup 78]Rb[sup [ital m],][ital g] and [sup 84]Rb[sup [ital m],][ital g] were performed using a tandem Penning trap mass spectrometer on-line with the isotope separator ISOLDE/CERN. The effects of ion-ion interaction were investigated for two ion species differing in mass and stored simultaneously in the trap.

  15. Comprehensive characterization of the in vitro and in vivo metabolites of geniposide in rats using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Li, Yun; Cai, Wei; Cai, Qian; Che, Yanyun; Zhao, Baosheng; Zhang, Jiayu

    2016-01-01

    1. Geniposide (genipin 1-O-glucose), one of the major bioactive constituents isolated from Fructus Gardeniae, possesses many biological activities. In this study, an efficient strategy was developed using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometer (UPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap) to profile the in vitro and in vivo metabolic patterns of geniposide in rat liver microsomes (RLMs), plasma, urine, and various tissues. And post-acquisition data-mining methods including extracted ion chromatogram (EIC), multiple mass defect filters (MMDF), fragment ion searching (FISh), and isotope pattern filtering (IPF) were adopted to characterize the known and unknown metabolites. 2. A total of 33 metabolites were detected and interpreted according to accurate mass measurement, diagnostic fragment ions, relevant drug biotransformation knowledge, and bibliography data. Among them, 17 metabolites were detected in the plasma, 31 metabolites were identified in the urine, six metabolites could be found in rat heart, 12 in liver, three in spleen, six in lung, 12 in kidney, six in brain, and four in RLMs. 3. A series of corresponding reactions such as hydrolysis, hydroxylation, taurine conjugation, hydrogenation, decarboxylation, demethylation, sulfate conjugation, cysteine S-conjugation, glucosylation, and their composite reactions were all discovered. 4. The results could provide comprehensive insights and guidance for elucidation of side effect mechanism and safety monitoring as well as for rational formulation design in drug delivery system. The newly discovered geniposide metabolites could be targets for future metabolism studies on the important chemical constituents from herbal medicines. PMID:26330181

  16. Atmospheric pressure sample inlet for mass spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dheandhanoo, Seksan; Ciotti, Ralph J.; Ketkar, Suhas N.

    2000-12-01

    An inlet for a mass spectrometer has been developed for direct sampling of gases over a wide range of pressure (1-760 Torr). The sample inlet is composed of two small orifices that form a pressure reduction region. These orifices are used to limit the flow of sample gas into the mass spectrometer. The pressure inside the pressure reduction region is regulated by a needle valve and a vacuum pump. The flow of gas through the orifices is viscous. The inlet is made of stainless steel and operated at high temperature to prevent surface adsorption and corrosion. Its adaptability to a wide range of pressures is very useful for monitoring process gases during manufacturing processes of microelectronic devices. This inlet can be used for effluent gas analysis at 760 Torr as well as for in situ monitoring of the semiconductor equipment at pressures less than 5 Torr. The inlet provides a fast response to changes in the constituents of gas samples without memory effects. The sample inlet has been tested extensively in the laboratory as well as in field environments.

  17. Miniature Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potember, Richard S.

    1999-01-01

    Major advances must occur to protect astronauts from prolonged periods in near-zero gravity and high radiation associated with extended space travel. The dangers of living in space must be thoroughly understood and methods developed to reverse those effects that cannot be avoided. Six of the seven research teams established by the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) are studying biomedical factors for prolonged space travel to deliver effective countermeasures. To develop effective countermeasures, each of these teams require identification of and quantitation of complex pharmacological, hormonal, and growth factor compounds (biomarkers) in humans and in experimental animals to develop an in-depth knowledge of the physiological changes associated with space travel. At present, identification of each biomarker requires a separate protocol. Many of these procedures are complicated and the identification of each biomarker requires a separate protocol and associated laboratory equipment. To carry all of this equipment and chemicals on a spacecraft would require a complex clinical laboratory; and it would occupy much of the astronauts time. What is needed is a small, efficient, broadband medical diagnostic instrument to rapidly identify important biomarkers for human space exploration. The Miniature Time-Of- Flight Mass Spectrometer Project in the Technology Development Team is developing a small, high resolution, time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOFMS) to quantitatively measure biomarkers for human space exploration. Virtues of the JHU/APL TOFMS technologies reside in the promise for a small (less than one cubic ft), lightweight (less than 5 kg), low-power (less than 50 watts), rugged device that can be used continuously with advanced signal processing diagnostics. To date, the JHU/APL program has demonstrated mass capability from under 100 to beyond 10,000 atomic mass units (amu) in a very small, low power prototype for biological analysis. Further

  18. A compact E × B filter: A multi-collector cycloidal focusing mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Blase, Ryan C; Miller, Greg; Westlake, Joseph; Brockwell, Tim; Ostrom, Nathaniel; Ostrom, Peggy H; Waite, J Hunter

    2015-10-01

    A compact E × B mass spectrometer is presented. The mass spectrometer presented is termed a "perfect focus" mass spectrometer as the resolution of the device is independent of both the initial direction and energy of the ions (spatial and energy independent). The mass spectrometer is small in size (∼10.7 in.(3)) and weight (∼2 kg), making it an attractive candidate for portability when using small, permanent magnets. A multi-collector Faraday cup design allows for the detection of multiple ion beams in discrete collectors simultaneously; providing the opportunity for isotope ratio monitoring. The mass resolution of the device is around 400 through narrow collector slits and the sensitivity of the device follows expected theoretical calculations of the ion current produced in the electron impact ion source. Example mass spectra obtained from the cycloidal focusing mass spectrometer are presented as well as information on mass discrimination based on instrumental parameters and isotope ratio monitoring of certain ion signals in separate Faraday cups. PMID:26520982

  19. A compact E × B filter: A multi-collector cycloidal focusing mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Blase, Ryan C. Miller, Greg; Brockwell, Tim; Waite, J. Hunter; Westlake, Joseph; Ostrom, Nathaniel; Ostrom, Peggy H.

    2015-10-15

    A compact E × B mass spectrometer is presented. The mass spectrometer presented is termed a “perfect focus” mass spectrometer as the resolution of the device is independent of both the initial direction and energy of the ions (spatial and energy independent). The mass spectrometer is small in size (∼10.7 in.{sup 3}) and weight (∼2 kg), making it an attractive candidate for portability when using small, permanent magnets. A multi-collector Faraday cup design allows for the detection of multiple ion beams in discrete collectors simultaneously; providing the opportunity for isotope ratio monitoring. The mass resolution of the device is around 400 through narrow collector slits and the sensitivity of the device follows expected theoretical calculations of the ion current produced in the electron impact ion source. Example mass spectra obtained from the cycloidal focusing mass spectrometer are presented as well as information on mass discrimination based on instrumental parameters and isotope ratio monitoring of certain ion signals in separate Faraday cups.

  20. A compact E × B filter: A multi-collector cycloidal focusing mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blase, Ryan C.; Miller, Greg; Westlake, Joseph; Brockwell, Tim; Ostrom, Nathaniel; Ostrom, Peggy H.; Waite, J. Hunter

    2015-10-01

    A compact E × B mass spectrometer is presented. The mass spectrometer presented is termed a "perfect focus" mass spectrometer as the resolution of the device is independent of both the initial direction and energy of the ions (spatial and energy independent). The mass spectrometer is small in size (˜10.7 in.3) and weight (˜2 kg), making it an attractive candidate for portability when using small, permanent magnets. A multi-collector Faraday cup design allows for the detection of multiple ion beams in discrete collectors simultaneously; providing the opportunity for isotope ratio monitoring. The mass resolution of the device is around 400 through narrow collector slits and the sensitivity of the device follows expected theoretical calculations of the ion current produced in the electron impact ion source. Example mass spectra obtained from the cycloidal focusing mass spectrometer are presented as well as information on mass discrimination based on instrumental parameters and isotope ratio monitoring of certain ion signals in separate Faraday cups.

  1. A high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer utilizing hydronium ions (H3O+ ToF-CIMS) for measurements of volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Bin; Koss, Abigail; Warneke, Carsten; Gilman, Jessica B.; Lerner, Brian M.; Stark, Harald; de Gouw, Joost A.

    2016-07-01

    Proton transfer reactions between hydronium ions (H3O+) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) provide a fast and highly sensitive technique for VOC measurements, leading to extensive use of proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) in atmospheric research. Based on the same ionization approach, we describe the development of a high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (ToF-CIMS) utilizing H3O+ as the reagent ion. The new H3O+ ToF-CIMS has sensitivities of 100-1000 cps ppb-1 (ion counts per second per part-per-billion mixing ratio of VOC) and detection limits of 20-600 ppt at 3σ for a 1 s integration time for simultaneous measurements of many VOC species of atmospheric relevance. The ToF analyzer with mass resolution (m/Δm) of up to 6000 allows the separation of isobaric masses, as shown in previous studies using similar ToF-MS. While radio frequency (RF)-only quadrupole ion guides provide better overall ion transmission than ion lens system, low-mass cutoff of RF-only quadrupole causes H3O+ ions to be transmitted less efficiently than heavier masses, which leads to unusual humidity dependence of reagent ions and difficulty obtaining a humidity-independent parameter for normalization. The humidity dependence of the instrument was characterized for various VOC species and the behaviors for different species can be explained by compound-specific properties that affect the ion chemistry (e.g., proton affinity and dipole moment). The new H3O+ ToF-CIMS was successfully deployed on the NOAA WP-3D research aircraft for the SONGNEX campaign in spring of 2015. The measured mixing ratios of several aromatics from the H3O+ ToF-CIMS agreed within ±10 % with independent gas chromatography measurements from whole air samples. Initial results from the SONGNEX measurements demonstrate that the H3O+ ToF-CIMS data set will be valuable for the identification and characterization of emissions from various sources, investigation of secondary

  2. Development of a new corona discharge based ion source for high resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer to measure gaseous H2SO4 and aerosol sulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Yang, Dongsen; Ma, Yan; Chen, Mindong; Cheng, Jin; Li, Shizheng; Wang, Ming

    2015-10-01

    A new corona discharge (CD) based ion source was developed for a commercial high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (HRToF-CIMS) (Aerodyne Research Inc.) to measure both gaseous sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and aerosol sulfate after thermal desorption. Nitrate core ions (NO3-) were used as reagent ions and were generated by a negative discharge in zero air followed by addition of excess nitrogen dioxide (NO2) to convert primary ions and hydroxyl radicals (OH) into NO3- ions and nitric acid (HNO3). The CD-HRToF-CIMS showed no detectable interference from hundreds parts per billion by volume (ppbv) of sulfur dioxide (SO2). Unlike the atmospheric pressure ionization (API) ToF-CIMS, the CD ion source was integrated onto the ion-molecule reaction (IMR) chamber and which made it possible to measure aerosol sulfate by coupling to a filter inlet for gases and aerosols (FIGAERO). Moreover, compared with a quadrupole-based mass spectrometer, the desired HSO4- signal was detected by its exact mass of m/z 96.960, which was well resolved from the potential interferences of HCO3-ṡ(H2O)2 (m/z 97.014) and O-ṡH2OṡHNO3 (m/z 97.002). In this work, using laboratory-generated standards the CD-HRToF-CIMS was demonstrated to be able to detect as low as 3.1 × 105 molecules cm-3 gaseous H2SO4 and 0.5 μg m-3 ammonium sulfate based on 10-s integration time and two times of the baseline noise. The CD ion source had the advantages of low cost and a simple but robust structure. Since the system was non-radioactive and did not require corrosive HNO3 gas, it can be readily field deployed. The CD-HRToF-CIMS can be a powerful tool for both field and laboratory studies of aerosol formation mechanism and the chemical processes that were critical to understand the evolution of aerosols in the atmosphere.

  3. A tandem time-of-flight spectrometer for negative-ion/positive-ion coincidence measurements with soft x-ray excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strâhlman, Christian; Sankari, Rami; Kivimäki, Antti; Richter, Robert; Coreno, Marcello; Nyholm, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    We present a newly constructed spectrometer for negative-ion/positive-ion coincidence spectroscopy of gaseous samples. The instrument consists of two time-of-flight ion spectrometers and a magnetic momentum filter for deflection of electrons. The instrument can measure double and triple coincidences between mass-resolved negative and positive ions with high detection efficiency. First results include identification of several negative-ion/positive-ion coincidence channels following inner-shell photoexcitation of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6).

  4. A tandem time-of-flight spectrometer for negative-ion/positive-ion coincidence measurements with soft x-ray excitation.

    PubMed

    Stråhlman, Christian; Sankari, Rami; Kivimäki, Antti; Richter, Robert; Coreno, Marcello; Nyholm, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    We present a newly constructed spectrometer for negative-ion/positive-ion coincidence spectroscopy of gaseous samples. The instrument consists of two time-of-flight ion spectrometers and a magnetic momentum filter for deflection of electrons. The instrument can measure double and triple coincidences between mass-resolved negative and positive ions with high detection efficiency. First results include identification of several negative-ion/positive-ion coincidence channels following inner-shell photoexcitation of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). PMID:26827311

  5. A computer controlled mass spectrometer system for investigating the decomposition of non-metallic materials under atmospheric conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    A PDP 11/23 quadrupole mass spectrometer system was coupled to a nondiscriminating gas inlet system permitting gases at atmospheric pressure to be admitted into a high vacuum chamber containing the ion source of the mass spectrometer without separation of the gaseous components. The resolution of related software problems has resulted in a convenient computer-mass spectrometer system capable of generating masses, relative intensities and related data on the gaseous products resulting from the atmospheric thermal decomposition of nonmetallic materials.

  6. Low-Pressure, Field-Ionizing Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Frank; Smith, Steven

    2009-01-01

    A small mass spectrometer utilizing a miniature field ionization source is now undergoing development. It is designed for use in a variety of applications in which there are requirements for a lightweight, low-power-consumption instrument that can analyze the masses of a wide variety of molecules and ions. The device can operate without need for a high-vacuum, carrier-gas feed radioactive ionizing source, or thermal ionizer. This mass spectrometer can operate either in the natural vacuum of outer space or on Earth at any ambient pressure below 50 torr (below about 6.7 kPa) - a partial vacuum that can easily be reached by use of a small sampling pump. This mass spectrometer also has a large dynamic range - from singly charged small gas ions to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fragments larger than 104 atomic mass units - with sensitivity adequate for detecting some molecules and ions at relative abundances of less than one part per billion. This instrument (see figure) includes a field ionizer integrated with a rotating-field mass spectrometer (RFMS). The field ionizer effects ionization of a type characterized as "soft" in the art because it does not fragment molecules or initiate avalanche arcing. What makes the "soft" ionization mode possible is that the distance between the ionizing electrodes is less than mean free path for ions at the maximum anticipated operating pressure, so that the ionizer always operates on the non-breakdown side of the applicable Paschen curve (a standard plot of breakdown potential on the ordinate and pressure electrode separation on the abscissa). The field ionizer in this instrument is fabricated by micromachining a submicron-thick membrane out of an electrically nonconductive substrate, coating the membrane on both sides to form electrodes, then micromachining small holes through the electrodes and membrane. Because of the submicron electrode separation, even a potential of only 1 V applied between the electrodes gives rise to an electric

  7. The gated electrostatic mass spectrometer (GEMS): definition and preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Herrero, Federico A; Jones, Hollis H; Lee, Jeffrey G

    2008-10-01

    GEMS is a new type of time-of-flight mass spectrometer based on an electrostatic energy analyzer. Mass resolution equals the energy analyzer kinetic energy resolution, which is set by its slit size. In GEMS, monochromatic ions enter the entrance slit at random times, and the gated ion deflection produced by the electrostatic field in the analyzer rejects ions that are inside the analyzer at gate onset, detecting those entering the analyzer after gate onset. This provides mass separation while overcoming the temporal and spatial spread problems typical of TOF applications. Paradoxically, GEMS works because all ion masses follow identical trajectories. GEMS is easily multiplied into two-dimensional arrays to increase sensitivity in space applications, requires relatively low voltages, and uses only a few electrical connections. Thus, it is easy to package GEMS as a small, low-power instrument for applications in harsh environments. A disadvantage of GEMS is that its output is the integral of the TOF spectrum and the derivative of the raw data must be taken, a procedure that is likely to add noise. A version of GEMS detecting un-deflected ions (u-GEMS) has been tested to demonstrate the time-integrated feature of the raw data but without the benefit of energy analysis. This paper describes GEMS implemented with the small deflection energy analyzer (SDEA), a compact version of the parallel plate energy analyzer. SDEA is described both analytically and with ion trajectory simulations using the ion trajectory simulation software SIMION; the results are then used to describe GEMS and compute its performance. PMID:18718764

  8. Performance characteristics of an automated gas chromatograph-ion trap mass spectrometer system used for the 1995 Southern Oxidants Study field investigation in Nashville, Tennessee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daughtrey, E. Hunter; Adams, Jeffrey R.; Oliver, Karen D.; Kronmiller, Keith G.; McClenny, William A.

    1998-09-01

    A trailer-deployed automated gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (autoGC-MS) system capable of making continuous hourly measurements was used to determine volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in ambient air at New Hendersonville, Tennessee, and Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, in 1995. The system configuration, including the autoGC-MS, trailer and transfer line, siting, and sampling plan and schedule, is described. The autoGC-MS system employs a pair of matched sorbent traps to allow simultaneous sampling and desorption. Desorption is followed by Stirling engine cryofocusing and subsequent GC separation and mass spectral identification and quantification. Quality control measurements described include evaluating precision and accuracy of replicate analyses of independently supplied audit and round-robin canisters and determining the completeness of the data sets taken in Tennessee. Data quality objectives for precision (±10%) and accuracy (±20%) of 10- to 20-ppbv audit canisters and a completeness of >75% data capture were met. Quality assurance measures used in reviewing the data set include retention time stability, calibration checks, frequency distribution checks, and checks of the mass spectra. Special procedures and tests were used to minimize sorbent trap artifacts, to verify the quality of a standard prepared in our laboratory, and to prove the integrity of the insulated, heated transfer line. A rigorous determination of total system blank concentration levels using humidified scientific air spiked with ozone allowed estimation of method detection limits, ranging from 0.01 to 1.0 ppb C, for most of the 100 target compounds, which were a composite list of the target compounds for the Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Station network, those for Environmental Protection Agency method TO-14, and selected oxygenated VOCs.

  9. Identification of metabolites of gardenin A in rats by combination of high-performance liquid chromatography with linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometer based on multiple data processing techniques.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiayu; Wang, Fang; Cai, Wei; Zhang, Qian; Liu, Ying; Li, Yun; Liu, Rongrong; Cao, Guangshang

    2015-03-01

    Gardenin A is one of the less abundant hydroxylated polymethoxyflavonoids (OH-PMFs) in nature, and has many potential significant health benefits. In the present study, an efficient strategy was established using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometer to profile the in vivo metabolic fate of gardenin A in rat plasma and various tissues. First, an online LC-MS(n) data acquisition method was developed to trace all the probable metabolites. Second, a combination of offline data processing methods including extracted ion chromatography and multiple mass defect filters was employed to screen the common and uncommon metabolites from the background noise and endogenous components. Finally, structures of the metabolites were elucidated based on an accurate mass measurement, the diagnostic product ions of PMFs, and relevant drug biotransformation knowledge. Based on the proposed strategy, a total of 26 metabolites were observed and characterized. The results indicate that some biotransformations, such as methylation, demethoxylation, demethylation, glucuronide conjugation, sulfate conjugation and their composite reactions, have been discovered for OH-PMFs. Moreover, some diagnostic biotransformation pathways are summarized. Overall, this study gives us a first insight into the in vivo metabolism of gardenin A. The study also provides a practical strategy for rapidly screening and identifying metabolites, which can be widely applied for the other biotransformations. PMID:25041995

  10. Operation of a microchannel plate counting system in a mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, D. M.; Mauersberger, K.

    1985-01-01

    A multiplier detector system has been developed as part of a mass spectrometer in an ion counting mode. During its operation ions striking a microchannel plate release pulses of electrons which are accelerated to a phosphor layer. The resulting flash of light is carried by a fiber-optic bundle to a photodiode array. The detector simultaneously counts ions throughout a mass spectrum covering more than 30 amu. It extends the mass spectrometer's operation toward low count rates for trace gas analysis. Each mass peak can be independently measured at count rates between 0.1 and 1000 counts/s. Higher rates on a few peaks do not blind the entire detector. The detector's capabilities have been demonstrated by measuring Kr and Xe isotopes in air at natural abundances. The mass spectrometer, detector, and readout electronics are sufficiently compact to permit use in a balloon-borne experiment.

  11. Toward an Intelligent Ion Mobility Spectrometer (IMS)

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy R. McJunkin; Jill R. Scott; Carla J. Miller

    2003-07-01

    The ultimate goal is to design and build a very smart ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) that can operate autonomously. To accomplish this, software capable of interpreting spectra so that it can be used in control loops for data interpretation as well as adjusting instrument parameters is being developed. Fuzzy logic and fuzzy numbers are used in this IMS spectra classification scheme. Fuzzy logic provides a straight forward method for developing a classification/detection system, whenever rules for classifying the spectra can be described linguistically. Instead of using 'max' and 'min' values, the product of the truth values is used to determine class membership. Using the product allows rule-bases that utilize the AND function to allow each condition to discount truth value in determining membership, while rule-bases with an OR function are allowed to accumulate membership. Fuzzy numbers allow encapsulation of the uncertainties due to ion mobility peak widths as well as measured instrumental parameters, such as pressure and temperature. Associating a peak with a value of uncertainty, in addition to making adjustments to the mobility calculation based on variations in measured parameters, enables unexpected shifts to be more reliably detected and accounted for; thereby, reducing the opportunity for 'false negative' results. The measure of uncertainty is anticipated to serve the additional purpose of diagnosing the operational conditions of the IMS instrument.

  12. Micro mass spectrometer on a chip.

    SciTech Connect

    Cruz, Dolores Y.; Blain, Matthew Glenn; Fleming, James Grant

    2005-11-01

    The design, simulation, fabrication, packaging, electrical characterization and testing analysis of a microfabricated a cylindrical ion trap ({mu}CIT) array is presented. Several versions of microfabricated cylindrical ion traps were designed and fabricated. The final design of the individual trap array element consisted of two end cap electrodes, one ring electrode, and a detector plate, fabricated in seven tungsten metal layers by molding tungsten around silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}) features. Each layer of tungsten is then polished back in damascene fashion. The SiO{sub 2} was removed using a standard release processes to realize a free-hung structure. Five different sized traps were fabricated with inner radii of 1, 1.5, 2, 5 and 10 {micro}m and heights ranging from 3-24 {micro}m. Simulations examined the effects of ion and neutral temperature, the pressure and nature of cooling gas, ion mass, trap voltage and frequency, space-charge, fabrication defects, and other parameters on the ability of micrometer-sized traps to store ions. The electrical characteristics of the ion trap arrays were determined. The capacitance was 2-500 pF for the various sized traps and arrays. The resistance was in the order of 1-2 {Omega}. The inductance of the arrays was calculated to be 10-1500 pH, depending on the trap and array sizes. The ion traps' field emission characteristics were assessed. It was determined that the traps could be operated up to 125 V while maintaining field emission currents below 1 x 10{sup -15} A. The testing focused on using the 5-{micro}m CITs to trap toluene (C{sub 7}H{sub 8}). Ion ejection from the traps was induced by termination of the RF voltage applied to the ring electrode and current measured on the collector electrode suggested trapping of ions in 1-10% of the traps. Improvements to the to the design of the traps were defined to minimize voltage drop to the substrate, thereby increasing trapping voltage applied to the ring electrode, and to allow

  13. Subcellular-level resolution MALDI-MS imaging of maize leaf metabolites by MALDI-linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Korte, Andrew R.; Yandeau-Nelson, Marna D.; Nikolau, Basil J.; Lee, Young Jin

    2015-01-25

    A significant limiting factor in achieving high spatial resolution for matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) imaging is the size of the laser spot at the sample surface. We present modifications to the beam-delivery optics of a commercial MALDI-linear ion trap-Orbitrap instrument, incorporating an external Nd:YAG laser, beam-shaping optics, and an aspheric focusing lens, to reduce the minimum laser spot size from ~50 μm for the commercial configuration down to ~9 μm for the modified configuration. This improved system was applied for MALDI-MS imaging of cross sections of juvenile maize leaves at 5-μm spatial resolution using an oversampling method. There are a variety of different metabolites including amino acids, glycerolipids, and defense-related compounds were imaged at a spatial resolution well below the size of a single cell. Such images provide unprecedented insights into the metabolism associated with the different tissue types of the maize leaf, which is known to asymmetrically distribute the reactions of C4 photosynthesis among the mesophyll and bundle sheath cell types. The metabolite ion images correlate with the optical images that reveal the structures of the different tissues, and previously known and newly revealed asymmetric metabolic features are observed.

  14. Quantitative and qualitative profiling of endocannabinoids in human plasma using a triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer with liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Aurélien; Hopfgartner, Gérard; Giroud, Christian; Staub, Christian

    2009-03-01

    Owing to the large implication of endocannabinoids (ECs) in many physiological and pathophysiological processes, a rapid liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometric assay (LC/ESI-QqQ(LIT)) was developed for the detection and characterization of anandamide (AEA), 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG), virodhamine (VA), noladin ether (2-AGE), and N-arachidonoyl dopamine (NADA) in human plasma. The ECs were extracted from 500 microL of plasma by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and separated by using an XTerra C18 MS column (50 x 3.0 mm i.d., 3.5 microm) with gradient elution. The mobile phase was composed of a mixture of acetonitrile, water, and formic acid (0.1%). For confirmatory analysis, an information-dependent acquisition (IDA) experiment was performed with selected reaction monitoring (SRM) as survey scan and enhanced product ion (EPI) as dependent scan. The assay was found to be linear in the concentration range of 0.1-5 ng/mL for AEA, 0.3-5 ng/mL for VA, 2-AGE, and NADA and 1-20 ng/mL for 2-AG using a 0.5 mL aliquot of plasma. Repeatability and intermediate precision were found less than 15% over the tested concentration ranges. The developed method thus provided the rapid, highly sensitive and highly selective requirement for assess quantitation, and identification of ECs in plasma. PMID:19170046

  15. Subcellular-level resolution MALDI-MS imaging of maize leaf metabolites by MALDI-linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometer

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Korte, Andrew R.; Yandeau-Nelson, Marna D.; Nikolau, Basil J.; Lee, Young Jin

    2015-01-25

    A significant limiting factor in achieving high spatial resolution for matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) imaging is the size of the laser spot at the sample surface. We present modifications to the beam-delivery optics of a commercial MALDI-linear ion trap-Orbitrap instrument, incorporating an external Nd:YAG laser, beam-shaping optics, and an aspheric focusing lens, to reduce the minimum laser spot size from ~50 μm for the commercial configuration down to ~9 μm for the modified configuration. This improved system was applied for MALDI-MS imaging of cross sections of juvenile maize leaves at 5-μm spatial resolution using an oversampling method. Theremore » are a variety of different metabolites including amino acids, glycerolipids, and defense-related compounds were imaged at a spatial resolution well below the size of a single cell. Such images provide unprecedented insights into the metabolism associated with the different tissue types of the maize leaf, which is known to asymmetrically distribute the reactions of C4 photosynthesis among the mesophyll and bundle sheath cell types. The metabolite ion images correlate with the optical images that reveal the structures of the different tissues, and previously known and newly revealed asymmetric metabolic features are observed.« less

  16. A New Multi Collector Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appelhans, A. D.; Olson, J. E.; Ward, M. B.; Dahl, D. A.

    2007-12-01

    With the goal of improving the sensitivity of isotope ratio measurements, particularly for actinides, a new magnetic sector mass spectrometer that utilizes up to seven full-sized discrete dynode electron multipliers operating simultaneously has been designed, constructed and is in the early stages of testing. The design is based on a newly developed ion dispersion lens that enables the mass dispersed individual isotope beams to be separated by 35 mm; this allows a full-sized discrete dynode pulse counting multiplier to be used for each beam. The ion dispersion lens (US patents 6,297,501 and pending) is a two element electrostatic 90 degree sector device that causes the beam-to-beam dispersion to increase faster than the intra-beam dispersion. Each of the multipliers is housed in an isolated case and is equipped with a deflector/condenser lens at the entrance to optimize pulse generation. The instrument includes a 9-sample filament cartridge mounted on a micro-manipulator X-Y stage that enables adjustment of the filament position with 10 micron resolution within the ion lens. Initial testing has shown that the instrument is performing as predicted by the ion optics model of the design.

  17. Quantitative determination of carbonaceous particle mixing state in Paris using single particle mass spectrometer and aerosol mass spectrometer measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Healy, R. M.; Sciare, J.; Poulain, L.; Crippa, M.; Wiedensohler, A.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Baltensperger, U.; Sarda-Estève, R.; McGuire, M. L.; Jeong, C.-H.; McGillicuddy, E.; O'Connor, I. P.; Sodeau, J. R.; Evans, G. J.; Wenger, J. C.

    2013-04-01

    Single particle mixing state information can be a powerful tool for assessing the relative impact of local and regional sources of ambient particulate matter in urban environments. However, quantitative mixing state data are challenging to obtain using single particle mass spectrometers. In this study, the quantitative chemical composition of carbonaceous single particles has been estimated using an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) as part of the MEGAPOLI 2010 winter campaign in Paris, France. Relative peak areas of marker ions for elemental carbon (EC), organic aerosol (OA), ammonium, nitrate, sulphate and potassium were compared with concurrent measurements from an Aerodyne high resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS), a thermal/optical OCEC analyser and a particle into liquid sampler coupled with ion chromatography (PILS-IC). ATOFMS-derived mass concentrations reproduced the variability of these species well (R2 = 0.67-0.78), and ten discrete mixing states for carbonaceous particles were identified and quantified. Potassium content was used to identify particles associated with biomass combustion. The chemical mixing state of HR-ToF-AMS organic aerosol factors, resolved using positive matrix factorization, was also investigated through comparison with the ATOFMS dataset. The results indicate that hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) detected in Paris is associated with two EC-rich mixing states which differ in their relative sulphate content, while fresh biomass burning OA (BBOA) is associated with two mixing states which differ significantly in their OA/EC ratios. Aged biomass burning OA (OOA2-BBOA) was found to be significantly internally mixed with nitrate, while secondary, oxidized OA (OOA) was associated with five particle mixing states, each exhibiting different relative secondary inorganic ion content. Externally mixed secondary organic aerosol was not observed. These findings demonstrate the heterogeneity of primary and

  18. Quantitative determination of carbonaceous particle mixing state in Paris using single-particle mass spectrometer and aerosol mass spectrometer measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Healy, R. M.; Sciare, J.; Poulain, L.; Crippa, M.; Wiedensohler, A.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Baltensperger, U.; Sarda-Estève, R.; McGuire, M. L.; Jeong, C.-H.; McGillicuddy, E.; O'Connor, I. P.; Sodeau, J. R.; Evans, G. J.; Wenger, J. C.

    2013-09-01

    Single-particle mixing state information can be a powerful tool for assessing the relative impact of local and regional sources of ambient particulate matter in urban environments. However, quantitative mixing state data are challenging to obtain using single-particle mass spectrometers. In this study, the quantitative chemical composition of carbonaceous single particles has been determined using an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) as part of the MEGAPOLI 2010 winter campaign in Paris, France. Relative peak areas of marker ions for elemental carbon (EC), organic aerosol (OA), ammonium, nitrate, sulfate and potassium were compared with concurrent measurements from an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS), a thermal-optical OCEC analyser and a particle into liquid sampler coupled with ion chromatography (PILS-IC). ATOFMS-derived estimated mass concentrations reproduced the variability of these species well (R2 = 0.67-0.78), and 10 discrete mixing states for carbonaceous particles were identified and quantified. The chemical mixing state of HR-ToF-AMS organic aerosol factors, resolved using positive matrix factorisation, was also investigated through comparison with the ATOFMS dataset. The results indicate that hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) detected in Paris is associated with two EC-rich mixing states which differ in their relative sulfate content, while fresh biomass burning OA (BBOA) is associated with two mixing states which differ significantly in their OA / EC ratios. Aged biomass burning OA (OOA2-BBOA) was found to be significantly internally mixed with nitrate, while secondary, oxidised OA (OOA) was associated with five particle mixing states, each exhibiting different relative secondary inorganic ion content. Externally mixed secondary organic aerosol was not observed. These findings demonstrate the range of primary and secondary organic aerosol mixing states in Paris. Examination of the temporal

  19. Recent Advances in Water Analysis with Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacAskill, John A.; Tsikata, Edem

    2014-01-01

    We report on progress made in developing a water sampling system for detection and analysis of volatile organic compounds in water with a gas chromatograph mass spectrometer (GCMS). Two approaches are described herein. The first approach uses a custom water pre-concentrator for performing trap and purge of VOCs from water. The second approach uses a custom micro-volume, split-splitless injector that is compatible with air and water. These water sampling systems will enable a single GC-based instrument to analyze air and water samples for VOC content. As reduced mass, volume, and power is crucial for long-duration, manned space-exploration, these water sampling systems will demonstrate the ability of a GCMS to monitor both air and water quality of the astronaut environment, thereby reducing the amount of required instrumentation for long duration habitation. Laboratory prototypes of these water sampling systems have been constructed and tested with a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer as well as a thermal conductivity detector. Presented herein are details of these water sampling system with preliminary test results.

  20. Studies on reducing the scale of a double focusing mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, D.M.; Gregg, H.R.; Andresen, B.D.

    1993-05-01

    Several groups have developed miniaturized sector mass spectrometers with the goal of remote sensing in confined spaces or portability. However, these achievements have been overshadowed by more successful development of man-portable quadrupole and ion trap mass spectrometers. Despite these accomplishments the development of a reduced-scale sector mass spectrometer remains attractive as a potentially low-cost, robust instrument requiring very simple electronics and low power. Previous studies on miniaturizing sector instruments include the use of a Mattauch-Herzog design for a portable mass spectrograph weighing less than 10 kg. Other work has included the use of a Nier-Johnson design in spacecraft-mountable gas chromatography mass spectrometers for the Viking spacecraft as well as miniature sector-based MS/MS instrument. Although theory for designing an optimized system with high resolution and mass accuracy is well understood, such specifications have not yet been achieved in a miniaturized instrument. To proceed further toward the development of a miniaturized sector mass spectrometer, experiments were conducted to understand and optimize a practical, yet nonideal instrument configuration. The sector mass spectrometer studied in this work is similar to the ones developed for the Viking project, but was further modified to be low cost, simple and robust. Characteristics of this instrument that highlight its simplicity include the use of a modified Varian leak detector ion source, source ion optics that use one extraction voltage, and an unshunted fixed nonhomogeneous magnetic sector. The effects of these design simplifications on ion trajectory were studied by manipulating the ion beam along with the magnetic sector position. This latter feature served as an aid to study ion focusing amidst fringing fields as well as nonhomogeneous forces and permitted empirical realignment of the instrument.

  1. Multi-collector Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer -- Operational Performance Report

    SciTech Connect

    Appelhans, Anthony D; Olson, John E; Watrous, Matthew G; Ward, Michael B.; Dahl, David A.

    2010-12-01

    This report describes the operational testing of a new magnetic sector mass spectrometer that utilizes seven full-sized discrete dynode electron multipliers operating simultaneously. The instrument includes a newly developed ion dispersion lens that enables the mass dispersed individual isotope beams to be separated sufficiently to allow a full-sized discrete dynode pulse counting multiplier to be used to measure each isotope beam. The performance of the instrument was measured using SRM 996 (244Pu spike) at loadings of 2.4 and 12 fg on resin beads and with SRM 4350B Columbia River Sediment samples. The measured limit of detection (3s) for 240Pu was 3.4 attograms for SRM 996. The limit of quantitation (LOQ), defined as 10 s, was 11.2 attograms. The measured concentration of 239Pu in the CRS standard was 152 ± 6 fg/g.

  2. Noise reduction in negative-ion quadrupole mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Chastagner, Philippe

    1993-01-01

    A quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) system having an ion source, quadrupole mass filter, and ion collector/recorder system. A weak, transverse magnetic field and an electron collector are disposed between the quadrupole and ion collector. When operated in negative ion mode, the ion source produces a beam of primarily negatively-charged particles from a sample, including electrons as well as ions. The beam passes through the quadrupole and enters the magnetic field, where the electrons are deflected away from the beam path to the electron collector. The negative ions pass undeflected to the ion collector where they are detected and recorded as a mass spectrum.

  3. Noise reduction in negative-ion quadrupole mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Chastagner, P.

    1993-04-20

    A quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) system is described having an ion source, quadrupole mass filter, and ion collector/recorder system. A weak, transverse magnetic field and an electron collector are disposed between the quadrupole and ion collector. When operated in negative ion mode, the ion source produces a beam of primarily negatively-charged particles from a sample, including electrons as well as ions. The beam passes through the quadrupole and enters the magnetic field, where the electrons are deflected away from the beam path to the electron collector. The negative ions pass undeflected to the ion collector where they are detected and recorded as a mass spectrum.

  4. Identification of oxidized organic atmospheric species during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) using a novel Ion Mobility Time-of-Flight Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (IMS-ToF-CIMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krechmer, J.; Canagaratna, M.; Kimmel, J.; Junninen, H.; Knochenmuss, R.; Cubison, M.; Massoli, P.; Stark, H.; Jayne, J. T.; Surratt, J. D.; Jimenez, J. L.; Worsnop, D. R.

    2013-12-01

    We present results from the field deployment of a novel Ion Mobility Time-of-flight Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (CI-IMS-TOF) during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS). IMS-TOF is a 2-dimensional analysis method, which separates gas-phase ions by mobility prior to determination of mass-to-charge ratio by mass spectrometry. Ion mobility is a unique physical property that is determined by the collisional cross section of an ion. Because mobility depends on size and shape, the IMS measurement is able to resolve isomers and isobaric compounds. Additionally, trends in IMS-TOF data space can be used to identify relationships between ions, such as common functionality or polymeric series. During SOAS we interfaced the IMS-TOF to a nitrate ion (NO3-) chemical ionization source that enables the selective ionization of highly oxidized gas phase species (those having a high O:C ratio) through clustering with the reagent ion. Highly oxidized products of terpenes and isoprene are important secondary organic aerosol precursors (SOA) that play an uncertain but important role in particle-phase chemistry. We present several case studies of atmospheric events during SOAS that exhibited elevated concentrations of sulfuric acid and/or organics. These events exhibited a rise in particle number and provide an opportunity to examine the role that organic species may have in local atmospheric new particle formation events. We also present the results from the field deployment and subsequent laboratory studies utilizing a Potential Aerosol Mass (PAM) flow reactor as the inlet for the CI-IMS-TOF. The reactor draws in ambient air and exposes it to high concentrations of the OH radical, created by photolysis O3 in the presence of water. The highly oxidized products are then sampled directly by the CI-IMS-TOF. We performed several experiments including placing pine and deciduous plants directly in front of the reactor opening and observed large increases in the number and

  5. Quadrupole mass spectrometer driver with higher signal levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, Ara (Inventor); Aalami, Dean (Inventor); Darrach, Murray (Inventor); Orient, Otto (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    Driving a quadrapole mass spectrometer includes obtaining an air core transformer with a primary and a secondary, matching the secondary to the mass spectrometer, and driving the primary based on first and second voltage levels. Driving of the primary is via an isolating stage that minimizes low level drive signal coupling.

  6. Operation of an E parallel B end-loss ion spectrometer on the Tara tandem mirror

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, J.A.; Horne, S.F.; Irby, J.H.; Post, R.S.; Sevillano, E.; Foote, J.H.

    1988-08-01

    An E parallel B end-loss ion spectrometer from the Livermore TMX-U tandem mirror experiment was installed on Tara for high-resolution ion spectroscopy. This diagnostic contains parallel electric and magnetic fields, separating the masses and energies of the ions over 128 collector plates. The ion energy distribution nominally yields confining potentials and parallel ion temperatures. Additional experiments have diagnosed the resonance position of the central cell ion cyclotron heating, rf enhanced losses of high-energy sloshing ions in the axicell (''plug''), and observation of MHD instabilities at higher time resolution (20 kHz).

  7. Progress at the Penning Trap Mass Spectrometer ``THe-Trap''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoecker, Martin; Eronen, Tommi; Ketter, Jochen; Streubel, Sebastian; Blaum, Klaus; van Dyck, Robert S.

    2012-03-01

    In 2008, the ``University of Washington Penning-Trap Mass Spectrometer'' (UW-PTMS), originally designed and built by the Van Dyck group, was moved to the Max-Planck-Insitute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg, Germany. It was set up in a dedicated laboratory that meets both the radiation-safety requirements, and the environment-stabilization demands for a high-precision measurement of the tritium/helium-3 mass ratio. Our goal is to measure this mass ratio with a relative uncertainty of 10-11, which would be more than an order of magnitude better than the previous best measurement. It would decrease the uncertainty in the tritium beta decay Q-value (an important parameter in the ongoing search for the neutrino mass by experiments such as KATRIN) by the same factor. In order to emphasize the specialization of our experiment with regard to Tritium and ^3Helium, it was renamed to ``THe-Trap''. THe-Trap features a double Penning-trap for rapid ion exchange, an external ion source to minimize trap contamination, a novel Zener-based voltage source, and active as well as passive stabilization of temperature, pressure and the magnetic field of the superconducting magnet. An overview of the project and a report on the recent progress will be given.

  8. Open-split interface for mass spectrometers

    DOEpatents

    Diehl, John W.

    1991-01-01

    An open-split interface includes a connector body having four leg members projecting therefrom within a single plane, the first and third legs being coaxial and the second and fourth legs being coaxial. A tubular aperture extends through the first and third legs and a second tubular aperture extends through the second and fourth legs, connecting at a juncture within the center of the connector body. A fifth leg projects from the connector body and has a third tubular aperture extending therethrough to the juncture of the first and second tubular apertures. A capillary column extends from a gas chromatograph into the third leg with its end adjacent the juncture. A flow restrictor tube extends from a mass spectrometer through the first tubular aperture in the first and third legs and into the capillary columnm end, so as to project beyond the end of the third leg within the capillary column. An annular gap between the tube and column allows excess effluent to pass to the juncture. A pair of short capillary columns extend from separate detectors into the second tubular aperture in the second and fourth legs, and are oriented with their ends spaced slightly from the first capillary column end. A sweep flow tube is mounted in the fifth leg so as to supply a helium sweep flow to the juncture.

  9. Mass spectrometer experiments for the European space probe Giotto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, G.

    The Particulate Impact Analyzer (PIA) and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS) experiments to be carried on board the Giotto cometary probe are presented. The NMS is designed to determine the chemical composition of gases and ions in the coma of Halley's Comet based on the ue of two spectrometers: an electrostatic parallel-plate analyzer, and a similar analyzer coupled with a magnetic analyzer with double-focusing geometry. The sensor structure consists of a monolithic multi-rib milled body with integral fixation points, with provisions for electromagnetic and thermal isolation, and dust protection. The PIA is intended for the measurement of the physical and chemical characteristics of cometary dust particles. It is based on an instrument comprising an entrance baffle and shutter unit, a target unit at which the dust is ionized, a light flash detector marking the flash of ionization, an acceleration grid sending the ions into the time-of-flight unit, and a multiplier unit for recording the time of flight spectrum. A microprocessor-based electronics system housed in a separate case next to the sensor performs tasks of power supply, signal processing, data processing and flow control.

  10. Quantification of Biogenic and Anthropogenic Hydrocarbons using a Commercial Gas Chromatograph - Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer at a Ground Site near Fort McKay, AB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokarek, T. W.; Osthoff, H. D.

    2014-12-01

    The extraction of fossil fuels from the Alberta oil sands has been the focus of considerable attention due to its association with sizeable emissions of a variety of atmospheric pollutants, the magnitude and impacts of which are currently poorly constrained by observations. In order to more reliably estimate the magnitude and impact of these emissions, an intensive air quality measurement campaign, called "Fort McMurray Oil Sands Strategic Investigation of Local Sources" (FOSSILS), was conducted in the summer of 2013 as part of the Alberta-Canada joint oil sands monitoring program (JOSM) to identify and quantify emissions and their transformations from the Alberta oil sands. The challenge is that the region is surrounded by boreal forest, which provides a substantial background of biogenic hydrocarbons during summer. In this presentation, measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at the AMS13 ground site near Fort McKay, Alberta, from Aug 17 to Sept 6, 2013 using a commercial Griffin 450 gas chromatograph equipped with ion trap mass spectrometric detection and Tenax preconcentration are described. The combination of retention information and electron impact mass spectral data allowed unambiguous identification and quantification of the major biogenic monoterpenes, e.g., α and β-pinene, limonene, camphene, and 3Δ-carene, and of many anthropogenically derived hydrocarbons. Mixing ratios of biogenic hydrocarbons varied with time of day, temperature, and solar radiation, with maxima typically occurring at night, rationalized by nocturnal mixing heights and low mixing ratios of the nocturnal oxidants ozone (O3) and the nitrate radical (NO3). In contrast, mixing ratios of anthropogenic VOCs, e.g., benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and o-, p-, and m-xylene (BTEX), strongly depended on meteorological conditions, i.e., local wind direction. During episodes with high BTEX abundance, many additional high molecular weight hydrocarbons were observed which were not

  11. Time-of-flight direct recoil ion scattering spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Krauss, A.R.; Gruen, D.M.; Lamich, G.J.

    1994-09-13

    A time-of-flight direct recoil and ion scattering spectrometer beam line is disclosed. The beam line includes an ion source which injects ions into pulse deflection regions and separated by a drift space. A final optics stage includes an ion lens and deflection plate assembly. The ion pulse length and pulse interval are determined by computerized adjustment of the timing between the voltage pulses applied to the pulsed deflection regions. 23 figs.

  12. Time-of-flight direct recoil ion scattering spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Krauss, Alan R.; Gruen, Dieter M.; Lamich, George J.

    1994-01-01

    A time of flight direct recoil and ion scattering spectrometer beam line (10). The beam line (10) includes an ion source (12) which injects ions into pulse deflection regions (14) and (16) separated by a drift space (18). A final optics stage includes an ion lens and deflection plate assembly (22). The ion pulse length and pulse interval are determined by computerized adjustment of the timing between the voltage pulses applied to the pulsed deflection regions (14) and (16).

  13. Experimental Investigations of the Internal Energy of Molecules Evaporated via Laser-induced Acoustic Desorption into a Fourier-transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer (LIAD/FT-ICR)

    PubMed Central

    Shea, Ryan C.; Petzold, Christopher J.; Liu, Ji-ang; Kenttämaa, Hilkka I.

    2008-01-01

    The internal energy of neutral gas-phase organic and biomolecules, evaporated by means of laser-induced acoustic desorption (LIAD) into a Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR), was investigated through several experimental approaches. The desorbed molecules were demonstrated not to undergo degradation during the desorption process by collecting LIAD-evaporated molecules and subjecting them to analysis by electrospray ionization/quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry. Previously established gas-phase basicity (GB) values were remeasured for LIAD-evaporated organic molecules and biomolecules with the use of the bracketing method. No endothermic reactions were observed. The remeasured basicity values are in close agreement with the values reported in the literature. The amount of internal energy deposited during LIAD is concluded to be less than a few kcal/mol. Chemical ionization with a series of proton transfer reagents was employed to obtain a breakdown curve for a protonated dipeptide, val-pro, evaporated by LIAD. Comparison of this breakdown curve with a previously published analogous curve obtained by using substrate-assisted laser desorption (SALD) to evaporate the peptide suggests that the molecules evaporated via LIAD have less internal energy than those evaporated via SALD. PMID:17263513

  14. SIEMENS ADVANCED QUANTRA FTICR MASS SPECTROMETER FOR ULTRA HIGH RESOLUTION AT LOW MASS

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, W; Laura Tovo, L

    2008-07-08

    The Siemens Advanced Quantra Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometer was evaluated as an alternative instrument to large double focusing mass spectrometers for gas analysis. High resolution mass spectrometers capable of resolving the common mass isomers of the hydrogen isotopes are used to provide data for accurate loading of reservoirs and to monitor separation of tritium, deuterium, and helium. Conventional double focusing magnetic sector instruments have a resolution that is limited to about 5000. The Siemens FTICR instrument achieves resolution beyond 400,000 and could possibly resolve the tritium ion from the helium-3 ion, which differ by the weight of an electron, 0.00549 amu. Working with Y-12 and LANL, SRNL requested Siemens to modify their commercial Quantra system for low mass analysis. To achieve the required performance, Siemens had to increase the available waveform operating frequency from 5 MHz to 40 MHz and completely redesign the control electronics and software. However, they were able to use the previous ion trap, magnet, passive pump, and piezo-electric pulsed inlet valve design. NNSA invested $1M in this project and acquired four systems, two for Y-12 and one each for SRNL and LANL. Siemens claimed a $10M investment in the Quantra systems. The new Siemens Advanced Quantra demonstrated phenomenal resolution in the low mass range. Resolution greater than 400,000 was achieved for mass 2. The new spectrometer had a useful working mass range to 500 Daltons. However, experiments found that a continuous single scan from low mass to high was not possible. Two useful working ranges were established covering masses 1 to 6 and masses 12 to 500 for our studies. A compromise performance condition enabled masses 1 to 45 to be surveyed. The instrument was found to have a dynamic range of about three orders of magnitude and quantitative analysis is expected to be limited to around 5 percent without using complex fitting algorithms

  15. Rotary turret and reusable specimen holder for mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Banar, Joseph C.; Perrin, Richard E.; Ostrenga, Raymond A.

    1988-01-01

    A sample holder for use in a mass spectrometer is provided for heating a sample to discharge ions through an electrostatic field which focuses and accelerates the ions for analysis. Individual specimen holders form a plurality of filaments for heating the sample materials for ion emission. Mounting devices hold the plurality of filaments at regular spaced apart angles in a closed configuration adjacent the electrostatic field elements. A substantially solid ceramic turret is provided with a plurality of electrical contacts which engage the individual holder means for energizing the filaments and forming a corresponding plurality of radially facing, axially extending first conductive surfaces. A substantially solid stationary turret bearing member is mounted about the rotating turret with a plurality of radially biased second electrical conductive surfaces, mounted to electrically contact facing ones of the plurality of radially facing first conductive surfaces. The assembly provides a large thermal mass for thermal stability and large electrical contact areas for repeatable, stable power input for heating the sample materials. An improved sample holder is also provided having a ceramic body portion for removably engaging conductive wires. The conductive wires are compatible with a selected filament element and the sample material to be analyzed.

  16. A mass spectrometer based explosives trace detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilkov, Andrey; Jorabchi, Kaveh; Hanold, Karl; Syage, Jack A.

    2011-05-01

    In this paper we describe the application of mass spectrometry (MS) to the detection of trace explosives. We begin by reviewing the issue of explosives trace detection (ETD) and describe the method of mass spectrometry (MS) as an alternative to existing technologies. Effective security screening devices must be accurate (high detection and low false positive rate), fast and cost effective (upfront and operating costs). Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) is the most commonly deployed method for ETD devices. Its advantages are compact size and relatively low price. For applications requiring a handheld detector, IMS is an excellent choice. For applications that are more stationary (e.g., checkpoint and alternatives to IMS are available. MS is recognized for its superior performance with regard to sensitivity and specificity, which translate to lower false negative and false positive rates. In almost all applications outside of security where accurate chemical analysis is needed, MS is usually the method of choice and is often referred to as the gold standard for chemical analysis. There are many review articles and proceedings that describe detection technologies for explosives. 1,2,3,4 Here we compare MS and IMS and identify the strengths and weaknesses of each method. - Mass spectrometry (MS): MS offers high levels of sensitivity and specificity compared to other technologies for chemical detection. Its traditional disadvantages have been high cost and complexity. Over the last few years, however, the economics have greatly improved and MS is now capable of routine and automated operation. Here we compare MS and IMS and identify the strengths and weaknesses of each method. - Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS): 5 MS-ETD Screening System IMS is similar in concept to MS except that the ions are dispersed by gas-phase viscosity and not by molecular weight. The main advantage of IMS is that it does not use a vacuum system, which greatly reduces the size, cost, and complexity

  17. A new approach to mass spectrometer measurements of thermospheric density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melfi, L. T., Jr.; Brock, F. J.; Brown, C. A., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The gas sampling problem in satellite and high velocity probes was investigated by applying the theory of a drifting Maxwellian gas. A lens system using a free stream ion source was developed and experimentally evaluated over the pressure range of 0.00001 to 0.01 N/m sq (approx. 10 to the minus 7th power to 0.0001 torr). The source has high beam transparency, which minimizes gas-surface collisions within, or near, the ionization volume. It is shown that for high ion energy (60 eV), the extracted ion beam has an on-axis energy spread of less than 4 eV, and that 90 percent of the ions are within 2.5 deg of the beam axis. It is concluded that the molecular beam mass spectrometer concept, developed for gas density measurements in the upper atmosphere, substantially reduces gas-surface scattering and gas-surface reactions in the sample, and preserves the integrity of the gas sample during the analysis process. Studies show that both the Scout and Delta launch vehicles have adequate volume, control, velocity, and data acquisition capability necessary to obtain thermospheric number density in real time.

  18. The open-source neutral-mass spectrometer on Atmosphere Explorer-C, -D, and -E.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nier, A. O.; Potter, W. E.; Hickman, D. R.; Mauersberger, K.

    1973-01-01

    The open-source mass spectrometer will be used to obtain the number densities of the neutral atmospheric gases in the mass range 1 to 48 amu at the satellite location. The ion source has been designed to allow gas particles to enter the ionizing region with the minimum practicable number of prior collisions with surfaces. This design minimizes the loss of atomic oxygen and other reactive species due to reactions with the walls of the ion source. The principal features of the open-source spectrometer and the laboratory calibration system are discussed.

  19. AUTOMATED DETERMINATION OF PRECURSOR ION, PRODUCT ION, AND NEUTRAL LOSS COMPOSITIONS AND DECONVOLUTION OF COMPOSITE MASS SPECTRA USING ION CORRELATION BASED ON EXACT MASSES AND RELATIVE ISOTOPIC ABUNDANCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    After a dispersive event, rapid determination of elemental compositions of ions in mass spectra is essential for tentatively identifying compounds. A Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART)® ion source interfaced to a JEOL AccuTOF® mass spectrometer provided exact masses accurate to ...

  20. Biotransformation and metabolic profile of buddleoside with human intestinal microflora by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled to hybrid linear ion trap/orbitrap mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Tao, Jin-Hua; Duan, Jin-Ao; Jiang, Shu; Qian, Yi-Yun; Qian, Da-Wei

    2016-07-01

    Buddleoside (also known as linarin) as the major flavonoid in Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat., has been reported to possess a wide range of pharmacological activities. The human intestinal microbiota might have an important impact on drug metabolism and ultimately on the drug oral bioavailability. However, the interaction of the buddleoside with human intestinal bacteria remains unknown. In this study, the conversion of buddleoside by different bacteria from human feces was firstly investigated. A reliable, sensitive and rapid analytical method, ultra performance liquid chromatography was established and successfully applied to investigate the metabolites and metabolic profile of buddleoside by human intestinal bacteria. Among the isolated bacteria, four strains including Escherichia sp. 4, Escherichia sp. 34, Enterococcus sp. 45 and Bacillus sp. 46 showed more powerful conversion capability. Based on the accurate mass data and the characteristic MS(n) product ions, the parent and six metabolites were detected and tentatively identified compared with blank samples. The metabolites were produced by four main metabolic pathways including deglycosylation, acetylation, methylation and hydroxylation. Buddleoside could be firstly converted to its aglycon acacetin (M2) by the majority of the isolated intestinal bacteria. Subsequently, M2 was further metabolize to its methylated (M3), acetylated (M4), hydroxylated (M5) and hydrogenated product (M6). However, acacetin-7-glucosid (M1) was obtained only from the minor bacterial samples like Bacillus sp. 46. To further explain the metabolism of buddleoside, the β-d-glucosidase and α-l-rhamnosidase activities of four strains were analyzed. Bacillus sp. 46 could only produce α-l-rhamnosidase, while the other three strains showed two kinds of enzyme activities. Furthermore, the activities of α-l-rhamnosidase and β-d-glucosidase reached the highest level at 12-18h and 10-12h, respectively. The metabolic routes and metabolites

  1. Mass spectrometer having a derivatized sample presentation apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, Randall W.

    2000-07-25

    A mass spectrometer having a derivatized sample presentation apparatus is provided. The sample presentation apparatus has a complex bound to the surface of the sample presentation apparatus. This complex includes a molecule which may chemically modify a biomolecule.

  2. Analysis of secondary organic aerosol using a Micro-Orifice Volatilization Impactor (MOVI) coupled to an ion trap mass spectrometer with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI-IT/MS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brueggemann, M.; Vogel, A.; Hoffmann, T.

    2012-04-01

    We describe the development and characterization of a Micro-Orifice Volatilization Impactor (MOVI) which is coupled to an ion trap mass spectrometer with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI-IT/MS), and its application in laboratory and field measurements. The MOVI-APCI-IT/MS allows the quantification of organic acids and other oxidation products of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in secondary organic aerosols (SOA) on a semi-continuous basis. Furthermore, the vapor pressure and saturation concentration of the particle components can be estimated. The MOVI was first described in 2010 by Yatavelli and Thornton (Yatavelli and Thornton, 2010). It is a single stage, multi-nozzle impactor with 100 nozzles, each having a diameter of 150 μm. At a flow-rate of 10 L·min-1 air is drawn through the MOVI and particles are collected on a deposition plate. The cut-point diameter (d50, diameter of 50% collection efficiency) is at 130 nm. A low pressure-drop of only 5.3% of atmospheric pressure behind the nozzles allows collecting not only low-volatile but even semi-volatile compounds, which are an important part of SOA. After collecting particles hydrocarbon-free synthetic air is led over the collection surface into the APCI-IT/MS and the collection surface is heated up to 120 ° C in less than 200 s, volatilizing the sampled SOA. The vaporized compounds are transferred into the ion source and subsequently analyzed by mass spectrometry. Due to the soft ionization at atmospheric pressure the obtained mass spectra show only low fragmentations and can easily be interpreted. In laboratory experiments the MOVI-APCI-IT/MS was used for the chemical analysis of SOA generated from α-pinene-ozonolysis in a smog chamber. The limit of detection was found at 7.3 ng for pinic acid. The vapor pressure log p0 and the saturation concentration C25* for pinic acid were calculated from the desorption temperature using the method presented by Faulhaber et al. (Faulhaber et al., 2009

  3. Ion mobility spectrometer for online monitoring of trace compounds1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, F.; Xie, Z.; Schmidt, H.; Sielemann, S.; Baumbach, J. I.

    2002-10-01

    The principle, character and developments of the instrumentation of ion mobility spectrometry are reviewed. The application of ion mobility spectrometers in monitoring chemical warfare agents, explosives, drugs, environmental hazardous compounds and industrial process control are discussed. Process applications with respect to miniaturization of the instrument are presented.

  4. Laser desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometer DNA analyzer. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.H.W.; Martin, S.A.

    1997-02-01

    The objective of this project is the development of a laser desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometer DNA analyzer which can be broadly used for biomedical research. Tasks include: pulsed ion extraction to improve resolution; two-component matrices to enhance ionization; and solid phase DNA purification.

  5. Field-deployed underwater mass spectrometers for investigations of transient chemical systems.

    PubMed

    Kibelka, Gottfried P G; Timothy Short, R; Toler, Strawn K; Edkins, John E; Byrne, Robert H

    2004-11-15

    The mass spectrometer developments and underwater deployments described in this work are directed toward observations of important reactive and influential inorganic and organic chemicals. Mass spectrometer systems for measurement of dissolved gases and volatile hydrocarbons were created by coupling a membrane analyte-introduction system with linear quadrupole and ion trap mass analyzers. For molecular masses up to 100amu, the in situ quadrupole system has detection limits on the order of 1-5ppb. For masses up to approximately 300amu, the underwater ion trap system detects many volatile hydrocarbons at concentrations below 1ppb. Both instruments can function autonomously or via interactive communications from a remote control site. Continuous operations can be sustained for up to approximately 12 days. Deployments have initially involved shallow water proof-of-concept operations at depths less than 30m. Future modifications are planned that will allow operational depths to 200m. PMID:18969697

  6. Spacecraft Applications of Compact Optical and Mass Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davinic, N. M.; Nagel, D. J.

    1995-01-01

    Optical spectrometers, and mass spectrometers to a lesser extent, have a long and rich history of use aboard spacecraft. Space mission applications include deep space science spacecraft, earth orbiting satellites, atmospheric probes, and surface landers, rovers, and penetrators. The large size of capable instruments limited their use to large, expensive spacecraft. Because of the novel application of micro-fabrication technologies, compact optical and mass spectrometers are now available. The new compact devices are especially attractive for spacecraft because of their small mass and volume, as well as their low power consumption. Dispersive optical multi-channel analyzers which cover the 0.4-1.1 micrometer wavelength are now commercially available in packages as small as 3 x 6 x 18 mm exclusive of drive and recording electronics. Mass spectrometers as small as 3 x 3 mm, again without electronics, are under development. A variety of compact optical and mass spectrometers are reviewed in this paper. A number of past space applications are described, along with some upcoming opportunities that are likely candidate missions to fly this new class of compact spectrometers.

  7. Development of an advanced spacecraft tandem mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drew, Russell C.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to apply current advanced technology in electronics and materials to the development of a miniaturized Tandem Mass Spectrometer that would have the potential for future development into a package suitable for spacecraft use. The mass spectrometer to be used as a basis for the tandem instrument would be a magnetic sector instrument, of Nier-Johnson configuration, as used on the Viking Mars Lander mission. This instrument configuration would then be matched with a suitable second stage MS to provide the benefits of tandem MS operation for rapid identification of unknown organic compounds. This tandem instrument is configured with a newly designed GC system to aid in separation of complex mixtures prior to MS analysis. A number of important results were achieved in the course of this project. Among them were the development of a miniaturized GC subsystem, with a unique desorber-injector, fully temperature feedback controlled oven with powered cooling for rapid reset to ambient conditions, a unique combination inlet system to the MS that provides for both membrane sampling and direct capillary column sample transfer, a compact and ruggedized alignment configuration for the MS, an improved ion source design for increased sensitivity, and a simple, rugged tandem MS configuration that is particularly adaptable to spacecraft use because of its low power and low vacuum pumping requirements. The potential applications of this research include use in manned spacecraft like the space station as a real-time detection and warning device for the presence of potentially harmful trace contaminants of the spacecraft atmosphere, use as an analytical device for evaluating samples collected on the Moon or a planetary surface, or even use in connection with monitoring potentially hazardous conditions that may exist in terrestrial locations such as launch pads, environmental test chambers or other sensitive areas. Commercial development of the technology

  8. New engineering design, instrument modeling, and data analysis techniques for spaceborne mass spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershman, Daniel J.

    This work describes technological innovations that can be used to improve upon space-borne mass spectrometers (MS), enabling breakthrough science and the development of the next-generation of sensors. Emphasis is placed on the two classes of MS with the strongest spaceflight heritage: quadrupole mass spectrometers (QMS) and time-of-flight mass spectrometers (TOF-MS). For the QMS, higher order auxiliary excitation techniques are modeled and implemented for the first time for both commercial and spaceflight-like sensors. These techniques, through modest modification of instrument electronics, are shown to significantly improve upon the maximum attainable mass resolution, sensitivity, ion rejection efficiency, and stability of measured mass spectra. For the TOF-MS, a complete analysis of instrument noise sources is conducted, and a mathematical framework for instrument measurements is developed. Such a framework results in an end-to-end forward modeling of instrument noise, dataset signal-to-noise estimation, and noise event removal algorithms. The developed noise processing techniques are applied to the Fast Imaging Plasma Spectrometer (FIPS) instrument on the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft to enable the first ever mapping of the spatial distribution of heavy ions at Mercury, the first in situ measurements of solar wind heavy ion non-thermal properties in the inner heliosphere, as well as the first in situ measurements made inside of Earth's orbit of ionized helium originating from interstellar space.

  9. Ion-molecule adduct formation in tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Alechaga, Élida; Moyano, Encarnación; Galceran, Maria Teresa

    2016-02-01

    Nowadays most LC-MS methods rely on tandem mass spectrometry not only for quantitation and confirmation of compounds by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), but also for the identification of unknowns from their product ion spectra. However, gas-phase reactions between charged and neutral species inside the mass analyzer can occur, yielding product ions at m/z values higher than that of the precursor ion, or at m/z values difficult to explain by logical losses, which complicate mass spectral interpretation. In this work, the formation of adduct ions in the mass analyzer was studied using several mass spectrometers with different mass analyzers (ion trap, triple quadrupole, and quadrupole-Orbitrap). Heterocyclic amines (AαC, MeAαC, Trp-P-1, and Trp-P-2), photo-initiators (BP and THBP), and pharmaceuticals (phenacetin and levamisole) were selected as model compounds and infused in LCQ Classic, TSQ Quantum Ultra AM, and Q-Exactive Orbitrap (ThermoFisher Scientific) mass spectrometers using electrospray as ionization method. The generation of ion-molecule adducts depended on the compound and also on the instrument employed. Adducts with neutral organic solvents (methanol and acetonitrile) were only observed in the ion trap instrument (LCQ Classic), because of the ionization source on-axis configuration and the lack of gas-phase barriers, which allowed inertial entrance of the neutrals into the analyzer. Adduct formation (only with water) in the triple quadrupole instruments was less abundant than in the ion trap and quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometers, because of the lower residence time of the reactive product ions in the mass analyzer. The moisture level of the CID and/or damper gas had a great effect in beam-like mass analyzers such as triple quadrupole, but not in trap-like mass analyzers, probably because of the long residence time that allowed adduct formation even with very low concentrations of water inside the mass spectrometer. PMID:26700446

  10. High-throughput mass-directed parallel purification incorporating a multiplexed single quadrupole mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Xu, Rongda; Wang, Tao; Isbell, John; Cai, Zhe; Sykes, Christopher; Brailsford, Andrew; Kassel, Daniel B

    2002-07-01

    We report on the development of a parallel HPLC/MS purification system incorporating an indexed (i.e., multiplexed) ion source. In the method described, each of the flow streams from a parallel array of HPLC columns is directed toward the multiplexed (MUX) ion source and sampled in a time-dependent, parallel manner. A visual basic application has been developed and monitors in real-time the extracted ion current from each sprayer channel. Mass-directed fraction collection is initiated into a parallel array of fraction collectors specific for each of the spray channels. In the first embodiment of this technique, we report on a four-column semipreparative parallel LC/MS system incorporating MUX detection. In this parallel LC/MS application (in which sample loads between 1 and 10 mg on-column are typically made), no cross talk was observed. Ion signals from each of the channels were found reproducible over 192 injections, with interchannel signal variations between 11 and 17%. The visual basic fraction collection application permits preset individual start collection and end collection thresholds for each channel, thereby compensating for the slight variation in signal between sprayers. By incorporating postfraction collector UV detection, we have been able to optimize the valve-triggering delay time with precut transfer tubing between the mass spectrometer and fraction collectors and achieve recoveries greater than 80%. Examples of the MUX-guided, mass-directed fraction purification of both standards and real library reaction mixtures are presented within. PMID:12141664

  11. Single-stage accelerator mass spectrometer radiocarbon-interference identification and positive-ionisation characterisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcken, K. M.; Freeman, S. P. H. T.; Xu, S.; Dougans, A.

    2013-01-01

    A single-stage accelerator mass spectrometer (SSAMS) is a good alternative to conventional spectrometers based on tandem electrostatic acceleration for radiocarbon measurement and permits experimentation with both negative and positive carbon ions. However, such 14C AMS of either polarity ions is limited by an interference. In the case of anion acceleration we have newly determined this to be summed 13C and 16O by improvising an additional Wien filter on our SSAMS deck. Also, 14C AMS might be improved by removing its dependency on negative-ionisation in a sputter ion source. This requires negative-ionisation of sample atoms elsewhere to suppress the 14N interference, which we accomplish by transmitting initially positive ions through a thin membrane. The ionisation dependence on ion-energy is found to be consistent with previous experimentation with vapours and thicker foils.

  12. Fragmentation energy index for universalization of fragmentation energy in ion trap mass spectrometers for the analysis of chemical weapon convention related chemicals by atmospheric pressure ionization-tandem mass spectrometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Palit, Meehir; Mallard, Gary

    2009-04-01

    The use of mass spectra generated at 70 eV in electron ionization (EI) as a universal standard for EI has helped in the generation of searchable library databases and had a profound influence on the analytical applications of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), similarly for liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), suggesting a novel method to normalize the collisional energy for the universalization of fragmentation energy for the analysis of Chemical Weapon Convention (CWC)-related chemicals by atmospheric pressure ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (API-MS(n)) using three-dimensional (3D) ion trap instruments. For normalizing fragmentation energy a "fragmentation energy index" (FEI) is proposed which is an arbitrary scale based on the fact of specific MS/MS fragmentation obtained at different collisional energies for the reference chemicals which are not CWC scheduled compounds. FEI 6 for the generation of an MS(n) library-searchable mass spectral database is recommended. PMID:19331429

  13. Are Identical Twins, Truly Identical? A Comparison of Mass Spectra Recorded by "Identical" Mass Spectrometers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shappirio, M.; Chornay, D.; Sittler, E. C.; Black, R.; Goldstein, R.; McComas, D. J.; Young, D. T.; Funsten, H. O.; McCabe, K.; Nordholt, J. E.; Thomsen, M. F.; Reisenfeld, D.

    2005-05-01

    When the time of flight (TOF) Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) for the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) instrument was launched, the prototype model was upgraded to be identical to the flight model electro-optically and electronically. The primary goal of the upgrade was to have an instrument which could be tested in the laboratory to help analyze and interpret the data being returned from Cassini IMS measurements at Saturn for its four year tour and after a seven year journey. Since launch the prototype model has been used to test the instruments response to a wide variety of ion beam masses, energies, fluxes and compositions, many of which could not be covered during ground calibration of the flight instrument. This testing broadened our understanding of how IMS works and responds beyond what was accomplished before launch. However, when making comparisons between calibration data taken with the flight and the prototype units using beams with the same composition and energy, some systematic differences have been observed. In particular the mass spectra generated by the prototype appear to have a shift in the TOF from that of the flight instrument, the size of which depends on both the energy and mass of the incident ion. The differences will be discussed with particular reference to potential causes. This information is important for understanding the complications in calibrating and comparing the results from instruments that are assumed to function identically, in particular as applied to future constellation missions with instrument of identical design. It may also be useful to others designing similar TOF instruments.

  14. Ion source for high-precision mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Todd, Peter J.; McKown, Henry S.; Smith, David H.

    1984-01-01

    The invention is directed to a method for increasing the precision of positive-ion relative abundance measurements conducted in a sector mass spectrometer having an ion source for directing a beam of positive ions onto a collimating slit. The method comprises incorporating in the source an electrostatic lens assembly for providing a positive-ion beam of circular cross section for collimation by the slit.

  15. Ion source for high-precision mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Todd, P.J.; McKown, H.S.; Smith, D.H.

    1982-04-26

    The invention is directed to a method for increasing the precision of positive-ion relative abundance measurements conducted in a sector mass spectrometer having an ion source for directing a beam of positive ions onto a collimating slit. The method comprises incorporating in the source an electrostatic lens assembly for providing a positive-ion beam of circular cross section for collimation by the slit. 2 figures, 3 tables.

  16. Ion mobility spectrometer using frequency-domain separation

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Stephen J.; Butler, Michael A.; Frye, Gregory C.; Schubert, W. Kent

    1998-01-01

    An apparatus and method is provided for separating and analyzing chemical species in an ion mobility spectrometer using a frequency-domain technique wherein the ions generated from the chemical species are selectively transported through an ion flow channel having a moving electrical potential therein. The moving electrical potential allows the ions to be selected according to ion mobility, with certain of the ions being transported to an ion detector and other of the ions being effectively discriminated against. The apparatus and method have applications for sensitive chemical detection and analysis for monitoring of exhaust gases, hazardous waste sites, industrial processes, aerospace systems, non-proliferation, and treaty verification. The apparatus can be formed as a microelectromechanical device (i.e. a micromachine).

  17. Ion mobility spectrometer using frequency-domain separation

    DOEpatents

    Martin, S.J.; Butler, M.A.; Frye, G.C.; Schubert, W.K.

    1998-08-04

    An apparatus and method are provided for separating and analyzing chemical species in an ion mobility spectrometer using a frequency-domain technique wherein the ions generated from the chemical species are selectively transported through an ion flow channel having a moving electrical potential therein. The moving electrical potential allows the ions to be selected according to ion mobility, with certain of the ions being transported to an ion detector and other of the ions being effectively discriminated against. The apparatus and method have applications for sensitive chemical detection and analysis for monitoring of exhaust gases, hazardous waste sites, industrial processes, aerospace systems, non-proliferation, and treaty verification. The apparatus can be formed as a microelectromechanical device (i.e. a micromachine). 6 figs.

  18. Development of a high vacuum sample preparation system for helium mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, P.; Das, N. K.; Mallik, C.; Bhandari, R. K.

    2012-11-01

    A high vacuum sample preparation system for the 3He/4He ratio mass spectrometer (Helix SFT) has been developed to remove all the gaseous constituents excluding helium from the field gases. The sample preparation system comprises of turbo molecular pump, ion pump, zirconium getter, pipettes and vacuum gauges with controller. All these are fitted with cylindrical SS chamber using all metal valves. The field samples are initially treated with activated charcoal trap immersed in liquid nitrogen to cutoff major impurities and moisture present in the sample gas. A sample of 5 ml is collected out of this stage at a pressure of 10-2 mbar. This sample is subsequently purified at a reduced pressure of 10-7 mbar before it is injected into the ion source of the mass spectrometer. The sample pressure was maintained below 10-7 mbar with turbo molecular vacuum pumps and ion pumps. The sample gas passes through several getter elements and a cold finger with the help of manual high vacuum valves before it is fed to the mass spectrometer. Thus the high vacuum sample preparation system introduces completely clean, dry and refined helium sample to the mass spectrometer for best possible analysis of isotopic ratio of helium.

  19. EXTENDING THE USEFUL LIFE OF OLDER MASS SPECTROMETERS

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, S.; Cordaro, J.; Holland, M.; Jones, V.

    2010-06-17

    Thermal ionization and gas mass spectrometers are widely used across the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex and contractor laboratories. These instruments support critical missions, where high reliability and low measurement uncertainty are essential. A growing number of these mass spectrometers are significantly older than their original design life. The reality is that manufacturers have declared many of the instrument models obsolete, with direct replacement parts and service no longer available. Some of these obsolete models do not have a next generation, commercially available replacement. Today's budget conscious economy demands for the use of creative funds management. Therefore, the ability to refurbish (or upgrade) these valuable analytical tools and extending their useful life is a cost effective option. The Savannah River Site (SRS) has the proven expertise to breathe new life into older mass spectrometers, at a significant cost savings compared to the purchase and installation of new instruments. A twenty-seven year old Finnigan MAT-261{trademark} Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometer (TIMS), located at the SRS F/H Area Production Support Laboratory, has been successfully refurbished. Engineers from the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) fabricated and installed the new electronics. These engineers also provide continued instrument maintenance services. With electronic component drawings being DOE Property, other DOE Complex laboratories have the option to extend the life of their aged Mass Spectrometers.

  20. A global thermospheric model based on mass spectrometer and incoherent scatter data MSIS. II - Composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedin, A. E.; Reber, C. A.; Newton, G. P.; Spencer, N. W.; Brinton, H. C.; Mayr, H. G.; Potter, W. E.

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of O, He, and Ar from neutral gas mass spectrometers on four satellites (Ogo 6, San Marco 3, Aeros A, and AEC-C) and inferred oxygen and hydrogen densities from an ion mass spectrometer on AE-C have been combined with a neutral temperature and nitrogen density model to produce a global model of thermospheric composition in terms of inferred variations at 120 km. The data set covers the time period from mid-1969 to mid-1975. The MSIS (mass spectrometer and incoherent scatter data) model is compared with the Ogo 6 model (Hedin et al., 1974). Ar variations at 120 km tend to be in phase with temperature variations and inverse to the He, O, and H variations.

  1. Sample introducing apparatus and sample modules for mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, Cyril V.; Wise, Marcus B.

    1993-01-01

    An apparatus for introducing gaseous samples from a wide range of environmental matrices into a mass spectrometer for analysis of the samples is described. Several sample preparing modules including a real-time air monitoring module, a soil/liquid purge module, and a thermal desorption module are individually and rapidly attachable to the sample introducing apparatus for supplying gaseous samples to the mass spectrometer. The sample-introducing apparatus uses a capillary column for conveying the gaseous samples into the mass spectrometer and is provided with an open/split interface in communication with the capillary and a sample archiving port through which at least about 90 percent of the gaseous sample in a mixture with an inert gas that was introduced into the sample introducing apparatus is separated from a minor portion of the mixture entering the capillary discharged from the sample introducing apparatus.

  2. Sample introducing apparatus and sample modules for mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, C.V.; Wise, M.B.

    1993-12-21

    An apparatus for introducing gaseous samples from a wide range of environmental matrices into a mass spectrometer for analysis of the samples is described. Several sample preparing modules including a real-time air monitoring module, a soil/liquid purge module, and a thermal desorption module are individually and rapidly attachable to the sample introducing apparatus for supplying gaseous samples to the mass spectrometer. The sample-introducing apparatus uses a capillary column for conveying the gaseous samples into the mass spectrometer and is provided with an open/split interface in communication with the capillary and a sample archiving port through which at least about 90 percent of the gaseous sample in a mixture with an inert gas that was introduced into the sample introducing apparatus is separated from a minor portion of the mixture entering the capillary discharged from the sample introducing apparatus. 5 figures.

  3. Mass spectrometer with electron source for reducing space charge effects in sample beam

    DOEpatents

    Houk, Robert S.; Praphairaksit, Narong

    2003-10-14

    A mass spectrometer includes an ion source which generates a beam including positive ions, a sampling interface which extracts a portion of the beam from the ion source to form a sample beam that travels along a path and has an excess of positive ions over at least part of the path, thereby causing space charge effects to occur in the sample beam due to the excess of positive ions in the sample beam, an electron source which adds electrons to the sample beam to reduce space charge repulsion between the positive ions in the sample beam, thereby reducing the space charge effects in the sample beam and producing a sample beam having reduced space charge effects, and a mass analyzer which analyzes the sample beam having reduced space charge effects.

  4. A Novel 9.4 Tesla FTICR Mass Spectrometer with Improved Sensitivity, Mass Resolution, and Mass Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Nathan K.; Quinn, John P.; Blakney, Gregory T.; Hendrickson, Christopher L.; Marshall, Alan G.

    2011-08-01

    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometry provides unparalleled mass measurement accuracy and resolving power. However, propagation of the technique into new analytical fields requires continued advances in instrument speed and sensitivity. Here, we describe a substantial redesign of our custom-built 9.4 tesla FTICR mass spectrometer that improves sensitivity, acquisition speed, and provides an optimized platform for future instrumentation development. The instrument was designed around custom vacuum chambers for improved ion optical alignment, minimized distance from the external ion trap to magnetic field center, and high conductance for effective differential pumping. The length of the transfer optics is 30% shorter than the prior system, for reduced time-of-flight mass discrimination and increased ion transmission and trapping efficiency at the ICR cell. The ICR cell, electrical vacuum feedthroughs, and cabling have been improved to reduce the detection circuit capacitance (and improve detection sensitivity) 2-fold. The design simplifies access to the ICR cell, and the modular vacuum flange accommodates new ICR cell technology, including linearized excitation, high surface area detection, and tunable electrostatic trapping potential.

  5. Development of a dedicated isotope mass spectrometer for the noninvasive diagnostics of humans infected with Helicobacter Pylori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blashenkov, N. M.; Sheshenya, E. S.; Solov'ev, S. M.; Gall', L. N.; Sachenko, V. M.; Zarutskii, I. V.; Gall', N. R.

    2013-06-01

    A dedicated isotope mass spectrometer for the noninvasive diagnostics of humans infected with Helicobacter Pylori using the isotope respiratory test is developed. A low-aberration mass analyzer is calculated, an input system that makes it possible to eliminate the memory effects is developed, and a small-size ion detector is constructed. The mass spectrometer is created, and the tests are performed. The measurement accuracy of the 13C/12C and 16O/18O isotope ratios are 1.7 and 2.2‰, respectively. Preliminary medical tests show that the spectrometer can be employed for the desired diagnostics.

  6. Global model of longitude/UT variations in thermospheric composition and temperature based on mass spectrometer data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedin, A. E.; Reber, C. A.; Spencer, N. W.; Brinton, H. C.; Kayser, D. C.

    1979-01-01

    Measurements of N2, O, He, and Ar densities from neutral gas mass spectrometers on four satellites and inferred O2 and H densities from an ion mass spectrometer have been combined to produce a model of longitude/UT variations in thermospheric neutral composition and temperature. The longitude/UT model is an extension of the mass spectrometer-incoherent scatter thermospheric model (Hedin et al., 1977) and uses spherical harmonic terms dependent on geographic latitude, longitude, and UT. The combined longitude and UT variations reflect the influence of the geomagnetic field but indicate that the variations may not simply be represented in magnetic coordinates.

  7. A specialized isotope mass spectrometer for noninvasive diagnostics of Helicobacter pylori infection in human beings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blashenkov, N. M.; Sheshenya, E. S.; Solov'ev, S. M.; Sachenko, V. D.; Gall, L. N.; Zarutskii, I. V.; Gall, N. R.

    2013-05-01

    A specialized isotope mass spectrometer for noninvasive diagnostics of Helicobacter pylori infection in human beings based on the carbon-13 isotope breath test has been designed and constructed. Important stages of the work included (i) calculating a low-aberration mass analyzer, (ii) manufacturing and testing special gas inlet system, and (iii) creating a small-size collector of ions. The proposed instrument ensures 13C/12C isotopic ratio measurement to within 1.7‰ (pro mille) accuracy, which corresponds to requirements for a diagnostic tool. Preliminary medical testing showed that the mass spectrometer is applicable to practical diagnostics. The instrument is also capable of measuring isotopic ratios of other light elements, including N, O, B (for BF2+ ions), Ar, Cl, and S.

  8. Development and characterization of a multiple-coincidence ion-momentum imaging spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laksman, J.; Céolin, D.; Mânsson, E. P.; Sorensen, S. L.; Gisselbrecht, M.

    2013-12-01

    The design and performance of a high-resolution momentum-imaging spectrometer for ions which is optimized for experiments using synchrotron radiation is presented. High collection efficiency is achieved by a focusing electrostatic lens; a long drift tube improves mass resolution and a position-sensitive detector enables measurement of the transverse momentum of ions. The optimisation of the lens for particle momentum measurement at the highest resolution is described. We discuss the overall performance of the spectrometer and present examples demonstrating the momentum resolution for both kinetics and for angular measurements in molecular fragmentation for carbon monoxide and fullerenes. Examples are presented that confirm that complete space-time focussing is possible for a two-field three-dimensional imaging spectrometer.

  9. Development and characterization of a multiple-coincidence ion-momentum imaging spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Laksman, J; Céolin, D; Månsson, E P; Sorensen, S L; Gisselbrecht, M

    2013-12-01

    The design and performance of a high-resolution momentum-imaging spectrometer for ions which is optimized for experiments using synchrotron radiation is presented. High collection efficiency is achieved by a focusing electrostatic lens; a long drift tube improves mass resolution and a position-sensitive detector enables measurement of the transverse momentum of ions. The optimisation of the lens for particle momentum measurement at the highest resolution is described. We discuss the overall performance of the spectrometer and present examples demonstrating the momentum resolution for both kinetics and for angular measurements in molecular fragmentation for carbon monoxide and fullerenes. Examples are presented that confirm that complete space-time focussing is possible for a two-field three-dimensional imaging spectrometer. PMID:24387426

  10. Development and characterization of a multiple-coincidence ion-momentum imaging spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Laksman, J.; Céolin, D.; Månsson, E. P.; Sorensen, S. L.; Gisselbrecht, M.

    2013-12-15

    The design and performance of a high-resolution momentum-imaging spectrometer for ions which is optimized for experiments using synchrotron radiation is presented. High collection efficiency is achieved by a focusing electrostatic lens; a long drift tube improves mass resolution and a position-sensitive detector enables measurement of the transverse momentum of ions. The optimisation of the lens for particle momentum measurement at the highest resolution is described. We discuss the overall performance of the spectrometer and present examples demonstrating the momentum resolution for both kinetics and for angular measurements in molecular fragmentation for carbon monoxide and fullerenes. Examples are presented that confirm that complete space-time focussing is possible for a two-field three-dimensional imaging spectrometer.

  11. Signal processing for ION mobility spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, S.; Hinton, M.; Turner, R.

    1995-01-01

    Signal processing techniques for systems based upon Ion Mobility Spectrometry will be discussed in the light of 10 years of experience in the design of real-time IMS. Among the topics to be covered are compensation techniques for variations in the number density of the gas - the use of an internal standard (a reference peak) or pressure and temperature sensors. Sources of noise and methods for noise reduction will be discussed together with resolution limitations and the ability of deconvolution techniques to improve resolving power. The use of neural networks (either by themselves or as a component part of a processing system) will be reviewed.

  12. A Carbon Nano Tube electron impact ionisation source for low-power, compact spacecraft mass spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheridan, S.; Bardwell, M. W.; Morse, A. D.; Morgan, G. H.

    2012-04-01

    A novel ionisation source which uses commercially available Carbon Nano Tube devices is demonstrated as a replacement for a filament based ionisation source in an ion trap mass spectrometer. The carbon nanotube ion source electron emission was characterised and exhibited typical emission of 30 ± 1.7 μA with an applied voltage differential of 300 V between the carbon nanotube tips and the extraction grid. The ion source was tested for longevity and operated under a condition of continuous emission for a period of 44 h; there was an observed reduction in emission current of 26.5% during operation. Spectra were generated by installing the ion source into a Finnigan Mat ITD700 ion trap mass spectrometer; the spectra recorded showed all of the characteristic m/z peaks from m/z 69 to m/z 219. Perfluorotributylamine spectra were collected and averaged contiguously for a period of 48 h with no significant signal loss or peak mass allocation shift. The low power requirements and low mass of this novel ionisation source are considered be of great value to future space missions where mass spectrometric technology will be employed.

  13. A simple photoionization scheme for characterizing electron and ion spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wituschek, A.; von Vangerow, J.; Grzesiak, J.; Stienkemeier, F.; Mudrich, M.

    2016-08-01

    We present a simple diode laser-based photoionization scheme for generating electrons and ions with well-defined spatial and energetic (≲2 eV) structures. This scheme can easily be implemented in ion or electron imaging spectrometers for the purpose of off-line characterization and calibration. The low laser power ˜1 mW needed from a passively stabilized diode laser and the low flux of potassium atoms in an effusive beam make our scheme a versatile source of ions and electrons for applications in research and education.

  14. A simple photoionization scheme for characterizing electron and ion spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Wituschek, A; von Vangerow, J; Grzesiak, J; Stienkemeier, F; Mudrich, M

    2016-08-01

    We present a simple diode laser-based photoionization scheme for generating electrons and ions with well-defined spatial and energetic (≲2 eV) structures. This scheme can easily be implemented in ion or electron imaging spectrometers for the purpose of off-line characterization and calibration. The low laser power ∼1 mW needed from a passively stabilized diode laser and the low flux of potassium atoms in an effusive beam make our scheme a versatile source of ions and electrons for applications in research and education. PMID:27587098

  15. Relativistic heavy ion fragmentation at HISS (Heavy Ion Spectrometer System)

    SciTech Connect

    Tull, C.E.

    1990-10-01

    An experiment was conducted at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to measure projectile fragmentation of relativistic heavy ions. Charge identification was obtained by the use of a Cerenkov Hodoscope operating above the threshold for total internal reflection, while velocity measurement was performed by use of a second set of Cerenkov radiators operating at the threshold for total internal reflection. Charge and mass resolution for the system was {sigma}{sub Z} = 0.2 e and {sigma}{sub A} = 0.2 u. Measurements of the elemental and isotopic production cross sections for the fragmentation of {sup 40}Ar at 1.65{center dot}A GeV have been compared with an Abrasion-Ablation Model based on the evaporation computer code GEMINI. The model proves to be an accurate predictor of the cross sections for fragments between Chlorine and Boron. The measured cross section were reproduced using simple geometry with charge dispersions induced by zero-point vibrations of the giant dipole resonance for the prompt abrasion stage, and injecting an excitation energy spectrum based on a final state interaction with scaling factor E{sub fsi} = 38.8 MeV/c. Measurement of the longitudinal momentum distribution widths for projectile fragments are consistent with previous experiment and can be interpreted as reflecting the Fermi momentum distribution in the initial projectile nucleus. Measurement of the transverse momentum indicate an additional, unexplained dependence of the reduced momentum widths on fragment mass. This dependence has the same sign and similar slope to previously measured fragments of {sup 139}La, and to predictions based on phase-space constraints on the final state of the system.

  16. Performance of the rebuilt SUERC single-stage accelerator mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanks, Richard P.; Ascough, Philippa L.; Dougans, Andrew; Gallacher, Paul; Gulliver, Pauline; Rood, Dylan H.; Xu, Sheng; Freeman, Stewart P. H. T.

    2015-10-01

    The SUERC bipolar single-stage accelerator mass spectrometer (SSAMS) has been dismantled and rebuilt to accommodate an additional rotatable pre-accelerator electrostatic spherical analyser (ESA) and a second ion source injector. This is for the attachment of an experimental positive-ion electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source in addition to a Cs-sputter source. The ESA significantly suppresses oxygen interference to radiocarbon detection, and remaining measurement interference is now thought to be from 13C injected as 13CH molecule scattering off the plates of a second original pre-detector ESA.

  17. A five-collector system for the simultaneous measurement of argon isotope ratios in a static mass spectrometer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stacey, J.S.; Sherrill, N.D.; Dalrymple, G.B.; Lanphere, M.A.; Carpenter, N.V.

    1981-01-01

    A system is described that utilizes five separate Faraday-cup collector assemblies, aligned along the focal plane of a mass spectrometer, to collect simultaneous argon ion beams at masses 36-40. Each collector has its own electrometer amplifier and analog-to-digital measuring channel, the outputs of which are processed by a minicomputer that also controls the mass spectrometer. The mass spectrometer utilizes a 90?? sector magnetic analyzer with a radius of 23 cm, in which some degree of z-direction focussing is provided for all the ion beams by the fringe field of the magnet. Simultaneous measurement of the ion beams helps to eliminate mass-spectrometer memory as a significant source of measurement error during an analysis. Isotope ratios stabilize between 7 and 9 s after sample admission into the spectrometer, and thereafter changes in the measured ratios are linear, typically to within ??0.02%. Thus the multi-collector arrangement permits very short extrapolation times for computation of initial ratios, and also provides the advantages of simultaneous measurement of the ion currents in that errors due to variations in ion beam intensity are minimized. A complete analysis takes less than 10 min, so that sample throughput can be greatly enhanced. In this instrument, the factor limiting analytical precision now lies in short-term apparent variations in the interchannel calibration factors. ?? 1981.

  18. Pulsed-gas glow discharge for ultrahigh mass resolution measurements with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, C.H.; Eyler, J.R.; Barshick, C.M.; Wronka, J.; Laukien, F.H.

    1996-02-01

    A new pulsed-gas glow discharge (GD) source has been developed for use with an external ion source Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometer. With pulsed argon gas introduction into the GD source, the gas load and pressure in the mass analyzer region were greatly reduced; this resulted in improved mass resolution. Mass resolution of greater than 145000 (fwhm) has been achieved for Cu{sup +} ions from a brass sample, the highest reported for any type of GD mass spectrometer. The pulsed-gas GD source promises analytical usefulness for ultrahigh resolution measurements in GD mass spectrometry. 16 refs., 3 figs.

  19. A composition analyzer for microparticles using a spark ion source. [using time of flight spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auer, S. O.; Berg, O. E.

    1975-01-01

    Iron microparticles were fired onto a capacitor-type microparticle detector which responded to an impact with a spark discharge. Ion currents were extracted from the spark and analyzed in a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The mass spectra showed the element of both detector and particle materials. The total extracted ion currents was typically 10A within a period of 100ns, indicating very efficient vaporization of the particle and ionization of the vapor. Potential applications include research on cosmic dust, atmospheric aerosols and cloud droplets, particles ejected by rocket or jet engines, by machining processes, or by nuclear bomb explosions.

  20. Dual Source Mass Spectrometer and Sample Handling System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Cornish, T. J.; Cheng, A. F.; Niemann, H. B.; Harpold, D. N.; Gorevan, S. P.; Rafeek, S.; Yucht, D.

    2002-01-01

    We present details of a miniature integrated time-of-flight mass spectrometer and sample handling system under development to address some of the needs for in situ sample analysis on landed missions. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  1. The History of Planetary Exploration Using Mass Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahaffy, Paul R.

    2012-01-01

    At the Planetary Probe Workshop Dr. Paul Mahaffy will give a tutorial on the history of planetary exploration using mass spectrometers. He will give an introduction to the problems and solutions that arise in making in situ measurements at planetary targets using this instrument class.

  2. Identification of Ions Generated by Ultrashort Laser Pulses using Thomson Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oishi, Yuji; Nayuki, Takuya; Fujii, Takashi; Nemoto, Koshichi; Kayoiji, Tsutomu; Horioka, Kazuhiko; Okano, Yasuaki; Hironaka, Yoichiro; Nakamura, Kazutaka G.; Kondo, Ken-ichi

    2002-10-01

    Fast ions generated by irradiation of laser pulses of width 55 fs, intensity 8.6 × 1018 W/cm2 on 5 μ m thickness copper film were measured by use of a Thomson mass spectrometer. From the spectgram, ions ejected from the target surface which was opposite side of the laser irradiation were determined to be protons. Copper ions were not observed. From the enegy measurements using Mylar filter method, the maximum proton energy was estimated more than 650 keV.

  3. Negative thermal ion mass spectrometry of osmium, rhenium, and iridium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creaser, R. A.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a technique for obtaining, in a conventional surface ionization mass spectrometer, intense ion beams of negatively charged oxides of Os, Re, and Ir by thermal ionization. It is shown that the principal ion species of these ions are OsO3(-), ReO4(-), and IrO2(-), respectively. For Re-187/Os-187 studies, this technique offers the advantage of isotopic analyses without prior chemical separation of Re from Os.

  4. Laser Induced-Plasma Ion Mass Spectrometry for Characterization of Lunar and Planetary Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiens, R. C.; Blacic, J. D.; Cremers, D. A.; Ritzau, S. M.; Nordholt, J. E.; Funsten, H. O.

    1999-03-01

    LIMS is being developed to perform isotopic and elemental analysis of lunar and planetary surfaces at standoff distances. It uses an advanced ion mass spectrometer to obtain mass and energy spectra from the ionized plume produced by a laser.

  5. A Segmented Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, S. K.; Iga, I.; Rao, M. V. V. S.

    1995-01-01

    The present paper describes the design of a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOFMS) in which the single flight tube of a conventional TOFMS has been replaced by several cylindrical electrostatic lenses in tandem. By a judicious choice of voltages on these lenses, an improved TOFMS has been realized which has a superior mass and energy resolution, shorter flight lengths, excellent signal-to-noise ratio and less stringent requirements on the bias voltages.

  6. Ion mobility spectrometer, spectrometer analyte detection and identification verification system, and method

    DOEpatents

    Atkinson, David A.

    2002-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for ion mobility spectrometry and analyte detection and identification verification system are disclosed. The apparatus is configured to be used in an ion mobility spectrometer and includes a plurality of reactant reservoirs configured to contain a plurality of reactants which can be reacted with the sample to form adducts having varying ion mobilities. A carrier fluid, such as air or nitrogen, is used to carry the sample into the spectrometer. The plurality of reactants are configured to be selectively added to the carrier stream by use inlet and outlet manifolds in communication with the reagent reservoirs, the reservoirs being selectively isolatable by valves. The invention further includes a spectrometer having the reagent system described. In the method, a first reactant is used with the sample. Following a positive result, a second reactant is used to determine whether a predicted response occurs. The occurrence of the second predicted response tends to verify the existence of a component of interest within the sample. A third reactant can also be used to provide further verification of the existence of a component of interest. A library can be established of known responses of compounds of interest with various reactants and the results of a specific multi-reactant survey of a sample can be compared against the library to determine whether a component detected in the sample is likely to be a specific component of interest.

  7. High mass accuracy and high mass resolving power FT-ICR secondary ion mass spectrometry for biological tissue imaging.

    PubMed

    Smith, Donald F; Kiss, Andras; Leach, Franklin E; Robinson, Errol W; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana; Heeren, Ron M A

    2013-07-01

    Biological tissue imaging by secondary ion mass spectrometry has seen rapid development with the commercial availability of polyatomic primary ion sources. Endogenous lipids and other small bio-molecules can now be routinely mapped on the sub-micrometer scale. Such experiments are typically performed on time-of-flight mass spectrometers for high sensitivity and high repetition rate imaging. However, such mass analyzers lack the mass resolving power to ensure separation of isobaric ions and the mass accuracy for elemental formula assignment based on exact mass measurement. We have recently reported a secondary ion mass spectrometer with the combination of a C60 primary ion gun with a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR MS) for high mass resolving power, high mass measurement accuracy, and tandem mass spectrometry capabilities. In this work, high specificity and high sensitivity secondary ion FT-ICR MS was applied to chemical imaging of biological tissue. An entire rat brain tissue was measured with 150 μm spatial resolution (75 μm primary ion spot size) with mass resolving power (m/Δm(50%)) of 67,500 (at m/z 750) and root-mean-square measurement accuracy less than two parts-per-million for intact phospholipids, small molecules and fragments. For the first time, ultra-high mass resolving power SIMS has been demonstrated, with m/Δm(50%) > 3,000,000. Higher spatial resolution capabilities of the platform were tested at a spatial resolution of 20 μm. The results represent order of magnitude improvements in mass resolving power and mass measurement accuracy for SIMS imaging and the promise of the platform for ultra-high mass resolving power and high spatial resolution imaging. PMID:23685962

  8. High Mass Accuracy and High Mass Resolving Power FT-ICR Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry for Biological Tissue Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Donald F.; Kiss, Andras; Leach, Franklin E.; Robinson, Errol W.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Heeren, Ronald M.

    2013-07-01

    Biological tissue imaging by secondary ion mass spectrometry has seen rapid development with the commercial availability of polyatomic primary ion sources. Endogenous lipids and other small bio-molecules can now be routinely mapped on the micrometer scale. Such experiments are typically performed on time-of-flight mass spectrometers for high sensitivity and high repetition rate imaging. However, such mass analyzers lack the mass resolving power to ensure separation of isobaric ions and the mass accuracy for exact mass elemental formula assignment. We have recently reported a secondary ion mass spectrometer with the combination of a C60 primary ion gun with a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR MS) for high mass resolving power, high mass measurement accuracy and tandem mass spectrometry capabilities. In this work, high specificity and high sensitivity secondary ion FT-ICR MS was applied to chemical imaging of biological tissue. An entire rat brain tissue was measured with 150 μm spatial resolution (75 μm primary ion spot size) with mass resolving power (m/Δm50%) of 67,500 (at m/z 750) and root-mean-square measurement accuracy less than two parts-per-million for intact phospholipids, small molecules and fragments. For the first time, ultra-high mass resolving power SIMS has been demonstrated, with m/Δm50% > 3,000,000. Higher spatial resolution capabilities of the platform were tested at a spatial resolution of 20 μm. The results represent order of magnitude improvements in mass resolving power and mass measurement accuracy for SIMS imaging and the promise of the platform for ultra-high mass resolving power and high spatial resolution imaging.

  9. Dual mode ion mobility spectrometer and method for ion mobility spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Jill R [Idaho Falls, ID; Dahl, David A [Idaho Falls, ID; Miller, Carla J [Idaho Falls, ID; Tremblay, Paul L [Idaho Falls, ID; McJunkin, Timothy R [Idaho Falls, ID

    2007-08-21

    Ion mobility spectrometer apparatus may include an ion interface that is operable to hold positive and negative ions and to simultaneously release positive and negative ions through respective positive and negative ion ports. A first drift chamber is operatively associated with the positive ion port of the ion interface and encloses an electric field therein. A first ion detector operatively associated with the first drift chamber detects positive ions from the first drift chamber. A second drift chamber is operatively associated with the negative ion port of the ion interface and encloses an electric field therein. A second ion detector operatively associated with the second drift chamber detects negative ions from said second drift chamber.

  10. Atomic oxygen-metal surface studies as applied to mass spectrometer measurements of upper planetary atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sjolander, G. W.

    1976-01-01

    The problem of atomic oxygen loss in mass spectrometer ion sources can be reduced to an understanding of the possible surface interactions between oxygen atoms and the metal surface of the ion source. Results are presented for an experimental study in which an atomic oxygen beam apparatus and a mass spectrometer were used to measure the oxygen atom reflection, recombination, general surface reaction, and occlusion probabilities on six different engineering surfaces as a function of atomic oxygen exposure. The materials studied are gold, Nichrome V, aluminum, titanium, silver, and platinum. The variation in measured reflection probability seems to occur with metals that form oxides, Nichrome V being stable in terms of reflection stability. Recombination is observed an all surfaces except aluminum and platinum. Variation in the complete set of measurements in a single experiment is the result of varying surface conditions.

  11. A new mass spectrometer system for investigating laser-induced vaporization phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lincoln, K. A.

    1974-01-01

    A laser has been combined with a mass spectrometer in a new configuration developed for studies of high-temperature materials. A vacuum-lock, solid-sample inlet is mounted at one end of a cylindrical, high-vacuum chamber one meter in length with a nude ion-source, time-of-flight mass spectrometer at the opposite end. The samples are positioned along the axis of the chamber at distances up to one meter from the ion source, and their surfaces are vaporized by a pulsed laser beam entering via windows on one side of the chamber. The instrumentation along with its capabilities is described, and results from laser-induced vaporization of several graphites are presented.

  12. Probe Heating Method for the Analysis of Solid Samples Using a Portable Mass Spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Kumano, Shun; Sugiyama, Masuyuki; Yamada, Masuyoshi; Nishimura, Kazushige; Hasegawa, Hideki; Morokuma, Hidetoshi; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Hashimoto, Yuichiro

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported on the development of a portable mass spectrometer for the onsite screening of illicit drugs, but our previous sampling system could only be used for liquid samples. In this study, we report on an attempt to develop a probe heating method that also permits solid samples to be analyzed using a portable mass spectrometer. An aluminum rod is used as the sampling probe. The powdered sample is affixed to the sampling probe or a droplet of sample solution is placed on the tip of the probe and dried. The probe is then placed on a heater to vaporize the sample. The vapor is then introduced into the portable mass spectrometer and analyzed. With the heater temperature set to 130°C, the developed system detected 1 ng of methamphetamine, 1 ng of amphetamine, 3 ng of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, 1 ng of 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, and 0.3 ng of cocaine. Even from mixtures consisting of clove powder and methamphetamine powder, methamphetamine ions were detected by tandem mass spectrometry. The developed probe heating method provides a simple method for the analysis of solid samples. A portable mass spectrometer incorporating this method would thus be useful for the onsite screening of illicit drugs. PMID:26819909

  13. Probe Heating Method for the Analysis of Solid Samples Using a Portable Mass Spectrometer

    PubMed Central

    Kumano, Shun; Sugiyama, Masuyuki; Yamada, Masuyoshi; Nishimura, Kazushige; Hasegawa, Hideki; Morokuma, Hidetoshi; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Hashimoto, Yuichiro

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported on the development of a portable mass spectrometer for the onsite screening of illicit drugs, but our previous sampling system could only be used for liquid samples. In this study, we report on an attempt to develop a probe heating method that also permits solid samples to be analyzed using a portable mass spectrometer. An aluminum rod is used as the sampling probe. The powdered sample is affixed to the sampling probe or a droplet of sample solution is placed on the tip of the probe and dried. The probe is then placed on a heater to vaporize the sample. The vapor is then introduced into the portable mass spectrometer and analyzed. With the heater temperature set to 130°C, the developed system detected 1 ng of methamphetamine, 1 ng of amphetamine, 3 ng of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, 1 ng of 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, and 0.3 ng of cocaine. Even from mixtures consisting of clove powder and methamphetamine powder, methamphetamine ions were detected by tandem mass spectrometry. The developed probe heating method provides a simple method for the analysis of solid samples. A portable mass spectrometer incorporating this method would thus be useful for the onsite screening of illicit drugs. PMID:26819909

  14. Development of an Atmospheric Pressure Ionization Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A commercial atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometer (APIMS) was purchased from EXTREL Mass Spectrometry, Inc. (Pittsburgh, PA). Our research objectives were to adapt this instrument and develop techniques for real-time determinations of the concentrations of trace species in the atmosphere. The prototype instrument is capable of making high frequency measurements with no sample preconcentrations. Isotopically labeled standards are used as an internal standard to obtain high precision and to compensate for changes in instrument sensitivity and analyte losses in the sampling manifold as described by Bandy and coworkers. The prototype instrument is capable of being deployed on NASA C130, Electra, P3, and DC8 aircraft. After purchasing and taking delivery by June 1994, we assembled the mass spectrometer, data acquisition, and manifold flow control instrumentation in electronic racks and performed tests.

  15. Halley comet dust particle classification according to the data obtained by mass spectrometer Puma-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dikov, Yu. P.; Evlanov, E. N.; Fomenkova, M. N.; Mukhin, L. M.; Nazarov, M. A.; Prilutsky, O. F.; Sagdeev, R. Z.; Zubkov, B. V.

    Nonzero mode spectra of the dust component of Comet Halley obtained by the dust particle impact mass-spectrometer, Puma-1, on Vega, are used to examine the origin of the mineral phase. The element compositions of 511 cometary particles are studied, using data on ions of Na, Ca, C, H, N, S, Si, Mg, Fe, Cr, and Al. The results are used to determine the mineral composition of the dust of Comet Halley.

  16. Fundamental studies of MALDI with an orthogonal TOF mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Hui

    The interaction between the matrix and analyte molecules are studied with a high resolution MALDI imaging technique in an orthogonal-injection time of flight (TOF) mass spectrometer. The analyte incorporation and distribution patterns have been clearly demonstrated. Purified protein analytes were found to be homogeneously incorporated in large single crystals of DHB and sinapinic acid matrices, with no evidence for preferred crystal faces. Segregation of some species was observed and appeared to correlate with analyte hydrophobicity, and to a lesser extent analyte mass or mobility. Similar segregation phenomena were observed with confocal laser scanning microscopy of the same analytes labeled with fluorescent dyes in 2,5-DHB single crystals. The above investigations may shed some light on optimizing sample preparation with different matrices. The influence of incident laser parameters on sensitivity in MALDI has been investigated using orthogonal-injection TOF instruments. A qualitative comparison was first made between the beam profiles obtained with a N 2 laser and a Nd:YAG laser using 2-m long optical fibers. The N 2 laser gives better sensitivity, consistent with a more uniform fluence distribution and therefore better coverage of the N2 laser profile. Most of the difference disappears when a 30-m long fiber is used or when the fibers are twisted during irradiation to smooth out the fluence distribution. In more systematic measurements, the total integrated ion yield from a single spot (a measure of sensitivity) was found to increase rapidly with fluence to a maximum, and then saturate or decrease slightly. Thus, the optimum sensitivity is achieved at high fluence. For a fluence near threshold, the integrated yield has a steep (cubic) dependence on the spot size, but the yield saturates at higher fluence for smaller spots. The area dependence is much weaker (close to linear) for fluence values above saturation, with the result that the highest integrated yields

  17. Note: A novel dual-channel time-of-flight mass spectrometer for photoelectron imaging spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Qin Zhengbo; Wu Xia; Tang Zichao

    2013-06-15

    A novel dual-channel time-of-flight mass spectrometer (D-TOFMS) has been designed to select anions in the photoelectron imaging measurements. In this instrument, the radiation laser can be triggered precisely to overlap with the selected ion cloud at the first-order space focusing plane. Compared with that of the conventional single channel TOFMS, the in situ mass selection performance of D-TOFMS is significantly improved. Preliminary experiment results are presented for the mass-selected photodetachment spectrum of F{sup -} to demonstrate the capability of the instrument.

  18. High sensitivity pulse-counting mass spectrometer system for noble gas analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hohenberg, C. M.

    1980-01-01

    A pulse-counting mass spectrometer is described which is comprised of a new ion source of cylindrical geometry, with exceptional optical properties (the Baur source), a dual focal plane externally adjustable collector slits, and a 17-stage Allen-type electron multiplier, all housed in a metal 21 cm radius, 90 deg magnetic sector flight tube. Mass discrimination of the instrument is less than 1 per mil per mass unit; the optical transmission is more than 90%; the source sensitivity (Faraday collection) is 4 ma/torr at 250 micron emission; and the abundance sensitivity is 30,000.

  19. Electron-Induced Dissociation of Peptides in a Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer Retrofitted with an Electromagnetostatic Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voinov, Valery G.; Bennett, Samuel E.; Barofsky, Douglas F.

    2015-05-01

    Dissociation of peptides induced by interaction with (free) electrons (electron-induced dissociation, EID) at electron energies ranging from near 0 to >30 eV was carried out using a radio-frequency-free electromagnetostatic (EMS) cell retrofitted into a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. The product-ion mass spectra exhibited EID originating from electronically excited even-electron precursor ions, reduced radical cations formed by capture of low-energy electrons, and oxidized radical cations produced by interaction with high-energy electrons. The spectra demonstrate, within the limits of the triple quadrupole's resolving power, that high-energy EID product-ion spectra produced with an EMS cell exhibit essentially the same qualitative structural information, i.e., amino acid side-chain (SC) losses and backbone cleavages, as observed in high-energy EID spectra produced with a Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer. The levels of fragmentation efficiency evident in the product-ion spectra recorded in this study, as was the case for those recorded in earlier studies with FT ICR mass spectrometers, is currently at the margin of analytical utility. Given that this shortcoming can be remedied, EMS cells incorporated into QqQ or QqTOF mass spectrometers could make tandem high-energy EID mass spectrometry more widely accessible for analysis of peptides, small singly charged molecules, pharmaceuticals, and clinical samples.

  20. Ion and electron detector for use in an ICR spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntress, W. T. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A detector for detecting ions and/or electrons present in a resonance cell of an ICR spectrometer is disclosed. The detector which operates on the Q-meter principle is driven by an external rf oscillator capable of providing rf frequencies up to about 15MHz at an adjustable low rf signal level, e.g., below 20mV. The detector is connected across the resonance of the cell to detect ions by detecting their cyclotron frequency. Electrons are detectable by connecting the detector across the cell's trapping plates and thereby detect the electrons' trapping motion, the frequency of which is in the megahertz range.