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Sample records for ion propulsion engine

  1. A segmented ion engine design for solar electric propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, John R.

    1992-01-01

    A new ion engine design, called a segmented ion engine, is described which is capable of reducing the required ion source life time for small body rendezvous missions from 18,000 h to about 8,000 h. The use of SAND ion optics for the engine accelerator system makes it possible to substantially reduce the cost of demonstrating the required engine endurance. It is concluded that a flight test of a 5-kW xenon ion propulsion system on the ELITE spacecraft would enormously reduce the cost and risk of using ion propulsion on a planetary vehicle by addressing systems level issues associated with flying a spacecraft radically different from conventional planetary vehicles.

  2. A segmented ion engine design for solar electric propulsion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brophy, John R.

    1992-08-01

    A new ion engine design, called a segmented ion engine, is described which is capable of reducing the required ion source life time for small body rendezvous missions from 18,000 h to about 8,000 h. The use of SAND ion optics for the engine accelerator system makes it possible to substantially reduce the cost of demonstrating the required engine endurance. It is concluded that a flight test of a 5-kW xenon ion propulsion system on the ELITE spacecraft would enormously reduce the cost and risk of using ion propulsion on a planetary vehicle by addressing systems level issues associated with flying a spacecraft radically different from conventional planetary vehicles.

  3. Ion Engine and Tank 6 at Electric Propulsion Lab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    Ion engine and Tank 6 at the Electric Propulsion Laboratory - EPL. This facility is located at the Lewis Research Center, now the John H. Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. The Ion engine is the power system that carried Deep Space 1 on its innerplanetary mission in the late 1990s, but the idea was decades old by that time and much research had already been conducted at Lewis.

  4. Ion engine auxiliary propulsion applications and integration study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zafran, S. (Editor)

    1977-01-01

    The benefits derived from application of the 8-cm mercury electron bombardment ion thruster were assessed. Two specific spacecraft missions were studied. A thruster was tested to provide additional needed information on its efflux characteristics and interactive effects. A Users Manual was then prepared describing how to integrate the thruster for auxiliary propulsion on geosynchronous satellites. By incorporating ion engines on an advanced communications mission, the weight available for added payload increases by about 82 kg (181 lb) for a 100 kg (2200 lb) satellite which otherwise uses electrothermal hydrazine. Ion engines can be integrated into a high performance propulsion module that is compatible with the multimission modular spacecraft and can be used for both geosynchronous and low earth orbit applications. The low disturbance torques introduced by the ion engines permit accurate spacecraft pointing with the payload in operation during thrusting periods. The feasibility of using the thruster's neutralizer assembly for neutralization of differentially charged spacecraft surfaces at geosynchronous altitude was demonstrated during the testing program.

  5. Three-grid accelerator system for an ion propulsion engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, John R. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus is presented for an ion engine comprising a three-grid accelerator system with the decelerator grid biased negative of the beam plasma. This arrangement substantially reduces the charge-exchange ion current reaching the accelerator grid at high tank pressures, which minimizes erosion of the accelerator grid due to charge exchange ion sputtering, known to be the major accelerator grid wear mechanism. An improved method for life testing ion engines is also provided using the disclosed apparatus. In addition, the invention can also be applied in materials processing.

  6. Computer controlled operation of a two-engine xenon ion propulsion system

    SciTech Connect

    Brophy, J.R.

    1987-05-01

    The development and testing of a computer control system for a two-engine xenon ion propulsion module is described. The computer system controls all aspects of the propulsion module operation including: start-up, steady-state operation, throttling and shutdown of the engines; start-up, operation and shutdown of the central neutralizer subsystem; control of the gimbal system for each engine; and operation of the valves in the propellant storage and distribution system. The most important engine control algorithms are described in detail. These control algorithms provide flexibility in the operation and throttling of ion engines which has never before been possible. This flexibility is made possible in large part through the use of flow controllers which maintain the total flow rate of propellant into the engine at the proper level. Data demonstrating the throttle capabilities of the engine and control system are presented. 11 references.

  7. Computer controlled operation of a two-engine xenon ion propulsion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, John R.

    1987-01-01

    The development and testing of a computer control system for a two-engine xenon ion propulsion module is described. The computer system controls all aspects of the propulsion module operation including: start-up, steady-state operation, throttling and shutdown of the engines; start-up, operation and shutdown of the central neutralizer subsystem; control of the gimbal system for each engine; and operation of the valves in the propellant storage and distribution system. The most important engine control algorithms are described in detail. These control algorithms provide flexibility in the operation and throttling of ion engines which has never before been possible. This flexibility is made possible in large part through the use of flow controllers which maintain the total flow rate of propellant into the engine at the proper level. Data demonstrating the throttle capabilities of the engine and control system are presented.

  8. Electric propulsion. [pulsed plasma thruster and electron bombardment ion engine for MSAT attitude control and stationkeeping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    An alternative propulsion subsystem for MSAT is presented which has a potential of reducing the satellite weight by more than 15%. The characteristics of pulsed plasma and ion engines are described and used to estimate of the mass of the propellant and thrusters for attitude control and stationkeeping functions for MSAT. Preliminary estimates indicate that the electric propulsion systems could also replace the large momentum wheels necessary to counteract the solar pressure; however, the fine pointing wheels would be retained. Estimates also show that either electric propulsion system can save approximately 18% to 20% of the initial 4,000 kg mass. The issues that require further experimentation are mentioned.

  9. Ion Beam Propulsion Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Ion Beam Propulsion Study was a joint high-level study between the Applied Physics Laboratory operated by NASA and ASRC Aerospace at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, and Berkeley Scientific, Berkeley, California. The results were promising and suggested that work should continue if future funding becomes available. The application of ion thrusters for spacecraft propulsion is limited to quite modest ion sources with similarly modest ion beam parameters because of the mass penalty associated with the ion source and its power supply system. Also, the ion source technology has not been able to provide very high-power ion beams. Small ion beam propulsion systems were used with considerable success. Ion propulsion systems brought into practice use an onboard ion source to form an energetic ion beam, typically Xe+ ions, as the propellant. Such systems were used for steering and correction of telecommunication satellites and as the main thruster for the Deep Space 1 demonstration mission. In recent years, "giant" ion sources were developed for the controlled-fusion research effort worldwide, with beam parameters many orders of magnitude greater than the tiny ones of conventional space thruster application. The advent of such huge ion beam sources and the need for advanced propulsion systems for exploration of the solar system suggest a fresh look at ion beam propulsion, now with the giant fusion sources in mind.

  10. Ion propulsion cost effectivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zafran, S.; Biess, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    Ion propulsion modules employing 8-cm thrusters and 30-cm thrusters were studied for Multimission Modular Spacecraft (MMS) applications. Recurring and nonrecurring cost elements were generated for these modules. As a result, ion propulsion cost drivers were identified to be Shuttle charges, solar array, power processing, and thruster costs. Cost effective design approaches included short length module configurations, array power sharing, operation at reduced thruster input power, simplified power processing units, and power processor output switching. The MMS mission model employed indicated that nonrecurring costs have to be shared with other programs unless the mission model grows. Extended performance missions exhibited the greatest benefits when compared with monopropellant hydrazine propulsion.

  11. Ion propulsion for communications satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poeschel, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    In a recent study of potential applications for electric propulsion, it was determined that ion propulsion can provide North-South stationkeeping (NSSK) for communication satellites in geosynchronous orbit with appreciably less mass than chemical propulsion. While this finding is not new, the margin of benefit over advanced chemical propulsion technology depends strongly on the ion propulsion system specifications. Full advantage must be taken of the under-utilized stored energy available from the communication satellite's batteries. This paper describes a methodology for evaluating the benefits obtained in using ion propulsion for NSSK, both in terms of the mass reduction and its economic value.

  12. Nuclear propulsion systems engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, W.W.; Neuman, J.E.: Van Haaften, D.H.

    1992-12-31

    The Nuclear Energy for Rocket Vehicle Application (NERVA) program of the 1960`s and early 1970`s was dramatically successful, with no major failures during the entire testing program. This success was due in large part to the successful development of a systems engineering process. Systems engineering, properly implemented, involves all aspects of the system design and operation, and leads to optimization of theentire system: cost, schedule, performance, safety, reliability, function, requirements, etc. The process must be incorporated from the very first and continued to project completion. This paper will discuss major aspects of the NERVA systems engineering effort, and consider the implications for current nuclear propulsion efforts.

  13. Nuclear propulsion systems engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, W.W.; Neuman, J.E.: Van Haaften, D.H.

    1992-01-01

    The Nuclear Energy for Rocket Vehicle Application (NERVA) program of the 1960's and early 1970's was dramatically successful, with no major failures during the entire testing program. This success was due in large part to the successful development of a systems engineering process. Systems engineering, properly implemented, involves all aspects of the system design and operation, and leads to optimization of theentire system: cost, schedule, performance, safety, reliability, function, requirements, etc. The process must be incorporated from the very first and continued to project completion. This paper will discuss major aspects of the NERVA systems engineering effort, and consider the implications for current nuclear propulsion efforts.

  14. Electrostatic propulsion beam divergence effects on spacecraft surfaces, volume 3. [effects of ion engine experiment on subsystems of ATS 6 satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kemp, R. F.; Hall, D. F.; Luedke, E. E.

    1973-01-01

    Tests were conducted to determine the effects of electrostatic propulsion beam divergence effects on spacecraft surfaces. The subjects discussed are: (1) sensitive surfaces on the ATS 6 spacecraft, (2) the cesium ion source and testing facility, (3) cesium ion effects on thermophysical properties, and (4) simulated charge-exchange ion exposure. The compatibility of the ATS 6 ion engine experiment with the engineering subsystems and other experiments aboard the ATS 6 spacecraft was analyzed.

  15. Electromagnetic interference assessment of an ion drive electric propulsion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittlesey, A. C.

    1981-01-01

    An electric propulsion thrust system has the capability of providing a high specific impulse for long duration scientific missions in space. The EMI from the elements of an ion engine was characterized. The compatibility of ion drive electric propulsion systems with typical interplanetary spacecraft engineering was predicted.

  16. Solar-Powered Electric Propulsion Systems: Engineering and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, J. W.; Kerrisk, D. J.

    1966-01-01

    Lightweight, multikilowatt solar power arrays in conjunction with electric propulsion offer potential improvements to space exploration, extending the usefulness of existing launch vehicles to higher-energy missions. Characteristics of solar-powered electric propulsion missions are outlined, and preliminary performance estimates are shown. Spacecraft system engineering is discussed with respect to parametric trade-offs in power and propulsion system design. Relationships between mission performance and propulsion system performance are illustrated. The present state of the art of electric propulsion systems is reviewed and related to the mission requirements identified earlier. The propulsion system design and test requirements for a mission spacecraft are identified and discussed. Although only ion engine systems are currently available, certain plasma propulsion systems offer some advantages in over-all system design. These are identified, and goals are set for plasma-thrustor systems to make them competitive with ion-engine systems for mission applications.

  17. Next-Generation Ion Propulsion Being Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Michael J.; Soulas, George C.; Foster, John E.; Haag, Thomas W.; Pinero, Luis R.; Rawlin, Vincent K.; Doehne, S. Michelle

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center ion-propulsion program addresses the need for high specific-impulse systems and technology across a broad range of mission applications and power levels. One activity is the development of the next-generation ion-propulsion system as a follow-on to the successful Deep Space 1 system. The system is envisioned to incorporate a lightweight ion engine that can operate over 1 to 10 kW, with a 550-kg propellant throughput capacity. The engine concept under development has a 40-cm beam diameter, twice the effective area of the Deep Space 1 engine. It incorporates mechanical features and operating conditions to maximize the design heritage established by the Deep Space 1 engine, while incorporating new technology where warranted to extend the power and throughput capability. Prototype versions of the engine have been fabricated and are under test at NASA, with an engineering model version in manufacturing. Preliminary performance data for the prototype engine have been documented over 1.1- to 7.3-kW input power. At 7.3 kW, the engine efficiency is 0.68, at 3615-sec specific impulse. Critical component temperatures, including those of the discharge cathode assembly and magnets, have been documented and are within established limits, with significant margins relative to the Deep Space 1 engine. The 1- to 10-kW ion thruster approach described here was found to provide the needed power and performance improvement to enable important NASA missions. The Integrated In-Space Transportation Planning (IISTP) studies compared many potential technologies for various NASA, Government, and commercial missions. These studies indicated that a high-power ion propulsion system is the most important technology for development because of its outstanding performance versus perceived development and recurring costs for interplanetary solar electric propulsion missions. One of the best applications of a highpower electric propulsion system was as an integral part

  18. NSTAR Ion Propulsion System Power Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Application Readiness (NSTAR) program, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), is currently developing a high performance, simplified ion propulsion system. This propulsion system, which is throttleable from 0.5- to 2.3-kW output power to the thruster, targets primary propulsion applications for planetary and Earth-space missions and has been baselined as the primary propulsion system for the first New Millennium spacecraft. The NASA Lewis Research Center is responsible for the design and delivery of a breadboard power processing unit (PPU) and an engineering model thruster (EMT) for this system and will manage the contract for the delivery of the flight hardware to JPL. The PPU requirements, which dictate a mass of less than 12 kg with an efficiency of 0.9 or greater at a 2.3-kW output, forced a departure from the state-of-the-art ion thruster PPU design. Several innovations--including dual-use topologies, simplified thruster control, and the use of ferrite magnetic materials--were necessary to meet these requirements.

  19. Ion electric propulsion unit

    DOEpatents

    Light, Max E; Colestock, Patrick L

    2014-01-28

    An electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) thruster is disclosed having a plasma chamber which is electrically biased with a positive voltage. The chamber bias serves to efficiently accelerate and expel the positive ions from the chamber. Electrons follow the exiting ions, serving to provide an electrically neutral exhaust plume. In a further embodiment, a downstream shaping magnetic field serves to further accelerate and/or shape the exhaust plume.

  20. Ion Propulsion Technology Programs at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, M. J.; Oleson, S. R.

    2001-01-01

    As lead center for the agency in electric and ion propulsion, the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is pursuing technology development in ion propulsion for a range of mission applications. The program goal is to develop key technologies for advanced NSTAR-derivative high-power ion propulsion, lightweight low power high-performance ion propulsion, 'micro' ion propulsion, and engine and component technologies for high-power electric propulsion for very ambitious missions. Products include: (1) a 5 kW, 400 kg throughput ion thruster and power processing technology; (2) extremely-lightweight high-efficiency sub-kilowatt ion thruster and power processor; (3) a 1-25 W high-specific impulse ion engine; and (4) engine and component technologies for high-power (30 kW class) ion and Hall engines. Identified applications include outer planetary science missions such as Europa orbiter/lander, Comet Nucleus Sample Return mission, Titan Explorer, Neptune/Triton, Pluto-Kuiper Belt Objects Mission, various second generation interplanetary Micro spacecraft, and the Interstellar Probe Mission. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  1. Ion Engine Test Firing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This image of a xenon ion engine, photographed through a port of the vacuum chamber where it was being tested at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, shows the faint blue glow of charged atoms being emitted from the engine. The ion propulsion engine is the first non-chemical propulsion to be used as the primary means of propelling a spacecraft. The first flight in NASA's New Millennium Program, Deep Space 1 is designed to validate 12 new technologies for scientific space missions of the next century. Ion propulsion was first proposed in the 1950s and NASA performed experiments on this highly efficient propulsion system in the 1960s, but it was not used aboard an American spacecraft until the 1990s. Deep Space 1 was launched in October 1998 as part of NASA's New Millennium Program, which is managed by JPL for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. The California Institute of Technology in Pasadena manages JPL for NASA. The almost imperceptible thrust from the ion propulsion system is equivalent to the pressure exerted by a sheet of paper held in the palm of your hand. The ion engine is very slow to pick up speed, but over the long haul it can deliver 10 times as much thrust per pound of fuel as more traditional rockets. Unlike the fireworks of most chemical rockets using solid or liquid fuels, the ion drive emits only an eerie blue glow as ionized (electrically charged) atoms of xenon are pushed out of the engine. Xenon is the same gas found in photo flash tubes and many lighthouse bulbs.

  2. NEXT Ion Propulsion System Development Status and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Michael J.; Benson, Scott W.

    2008-01-01

    NASA s Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) project is developing next generation ion propulsion technologies to provide future NASA science missions with enhanced mission performance benefit at a low total development cost. The objective of the NEXT project is to advance next generation ion propulsion technology by producing engineering model and prototype model system components, validating these through qualification-level and integrated system testing, and ensuring preparedness for transitioning to flight system development. This paper describes the NEXT ion propulsion system development status, characteristics and performance. A review of mission analyses results conducted to date using the NEXT system is also provided.

  3. Electric propulsion using ion-ion plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aanesland, A.; Meige, A.; Chabert, P.

    2009-04-01

    Recently, we have proposed to use both positive and negative ions for thrust in an electromagnetic space propulsion system. This concept is called PEGASES for Plasma Propulsion with Electronegative GASES and has been patented by the Ecole Polytechnique in France in 2007. The basic idea is to create a stratified plasma with an electron free (ion-ion plasma) region at the periphery of a highly ionized plasma core such that both positive and negative ions can be extracted and accelerated to provide thrust. As the extracted beam is globally neutral there is no need for a downstream neutralizer. The recombination of positive and negative ions is very efficient and will result in a fast recombination downstream of the thruster and hence there is no creation of a plasma plume downstream. The first PEGASES prototype, designed in 2007, has recently been installed in a small vacuum chamber for preliminary tests in our laboratory and the first results have been presented in several conferences. This paper reviews important work that has been used in the process of designing the first PEGASES prototype.

  4. NASA Propulsion Engineering Research Center, Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is the second volume in the 1994 annual report for the NASA Propulsion Engineering Research Center's Sixth Annual Symposium. This conference covered: (1) Combustors and Nozzles; (2) Turbomachinery Aero- and Hydro-dynamics; (3) On-board Propulsion systems; (4) Advanced Propulsion Applications; (5) Vaporization and Combustion; (6) Heat Transfer and Fluid Mechanics; and (7) Atomization and Sprays.

  5. Components of the Solar Thermal Propulsion Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Researchers at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) have designed, fabricated, and tested the first solar thermal engine, a non-chemical rocket engine that produces lower thrust but has better thrust efficiency than a chemical combustion engine. This photograph shows components for the thermal propulsion engine being laid out prior to assembly. MSFC turned to solar thermal propulsion in the early 1990s due to its simplicity, safety, low cost, and commonality with other propulsion systems. As part of MSFC's Space Transportation Directorate, the Propulsion Research Center serves as a national resource for research of advanced, revolutionary propulsion technologies. The mission is to move the Nation's capabilities beyond the confines of conventional chemical propulsion into an era of aircraft-like access to Earth-orbit, rapid travel throughout the solar system, and exploration of interstellar space.

  6. Nuclear electric ion propulsion for three deep space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiravalle, Vincent P.

    2008-03-01

    Nuclear electric ion propulsion is considered for three sample deep space missions starting from a 500 km low Earth orbit encompassing the transfer of a 100 MT payload into a 1500 km orbit around Mars, the rendezvous of a 10 MT payload with the Jovian moon Europa and the rendezvous of a similar payload with Saturn's moon Titan. Near term ion engine and space nuclear reactor technology are assumed. It is shown that nuclear electric ion propulsion offers more than twice the payload for the Mars mission relative to the case when a nuclear thermal rocket is used for the trans-Mars injection maneuver at Earth, and about the same payload advantage relative to the case when solar electric propulsion is used for the Mars heliocentric transfer. For missions to the outer planets nuclear electric ion propulsion increases the payload mass fraction by a factor of two or more compared with high thrust systems that utilize gravity assist trajectories.

  7. NASA Propulsion Engineering Research Center, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    On 8-9 Sep. 1993, the Propulsion Engineering Research Center (PERC) at The Pennsylvania State University held its Fifth Annual Symposium. PERC was initiated in 1988 by a grant from the NASA Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology as a part of the University Space Engineering Research Center (USERC) program; the purpose of the USERC program is to replenish and enhance the capabilities of our Nation's engineering community to meet its future space technology needs. The Centers are designed to advance the state-of-the-art in key space-related engineering disciplines and to promote and support engineering education for the next generation of engineers for the national space program and related commercial space endeavors. Research on the following areas was initiated: liquid, solid, and hybrid chemical propulsion, nuclear propulsion, electrical propulsion, and advanced propulsion concepts.

  8. NASA Propulsion Engineering Research Center, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Over the past year, the Propulsion Engineering Research Center at The Pennsylvania State University continued its progress toward meeting the goals of NASA's University Space Engineering Research Centers (USERC) program. The USERC program was initiated in 1988 by the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology to provide an invigorating force to drive technology advancements in the U.S. space industry. The Propulsion Center's role in this effort is to provide a fundamental basis from which the technology advances in propulsion can be derived. To fulfill this role, an integrated program was developed that focuses research efforts on key technical areas, provides students with a broad education in traditional propulsion-related science and engineering disciplines, and provides minority and other under-represented students with opportunities to take their first step toward professional careers in propulsion engineering. The program is made efficient by incorporating government propulsion laboratories and the U.S. propulsion industry into the program through extensive interactions and research involvement. The Center is comprised of faculty, professional staff, and graduate and undergraduate students working on a broad spectrum of research issues related to propulsion. The Center's research focus encompasses both current and advanced propulsion concepts for space transportation, with a research emphasis on liquid propellant rocket engines. The liquid rocket engine research includes programs in combustion and turbomachinery. Other space transportation modes that are being addressed include anti-matter, electric, nuclear, and solid propellant propulsion. Outside funding supports a significant fraction of Center research, with the major portion of the basic USERC grant being used for graduate student support and recruitment. The remainder of the USERC funds are used to support programs to increase minority student enrollment in engineering, to maintain Center

  9. NASA Propulsion Engineering Research Center, volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-11-01

    Over the past year, the Propulsion Engineering Research Center at The Pennsylvania State University continued its progress toward meeting the goals of NASA's University Space Engineering Research Centers (USERC) program. The USERC program was initiated in 1988 by the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology to provide an invigorating force to drive technology advancements in the U.S. space industry. The Propulsion Center's role in this effort is to provide a fundamental basis from which the technology advances in propulsion can be derived. To fulfill this role, an integrated program was developed that focuses research efforts on key technical areas, provides students with a broad education in traditional propulsion-related science and engineering disciplines, and provides minority and other under-represented students with opportunities to take their first step toward professional careers in propulsion engineering. The program is made efficient by incorporating government propulsion laboratories and the U.S. propulsion industry into the program through extensive interactions and research involvement. The Center is comprised of faculty, professional staff, and graduate and undergraduate students working on a broad spectrum of research issues related to propulsion. The Center's research focus encompasses both current and advanced propulsion concepts for space transportation, with a research emphasis on liquid propellant rocket engines. The liquid rocket engine research includes programs in combustion and turbomachinery. Other space transportation modes that are being addressed include anti-matter, electric, nuclear, and solid propellant propulsion. Outside funding supports a significant fraction of Center research, with the major portion of the basic USERC grant being used for graduate student support and recruitment. The remainder of the USERC funds are used to support programs to increase minority student enrollment in engineering, to maintain Center

  10. Computer Control For Ion Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, John R.

    1989-01-01

    Computer system controls start-up, steady-state operation, throttling, and shutdown of pair of xenon-ion propulsion engines. Controls direction of thrust of each engine through operation of gimbal stepping motors. Controls valves in propellant-storage and propellant-distribution system. Control software establishes and maintains efficient, stable operation over entire range of operating variables, and throttles engines to any point within range. Computer operates power supplies, valves, and flow controllers of two ion engines, ion-neutralizer subsystem, and other equipment. Designed for use in interplanetary flight, system adaptable to industrial use in ion-beam deposition of thin films.

  11. Xenon ion propulsion for orbit transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawlin, V. K.; Patterson, M. J.; Gruber, R. P.

    1990-01-01

    For more than 30 years, NASA has conducted an ion propulsion program which has resulted in several experimental space flight demonstrations and the development of many supporting technologies. Technologies appropriate for geosynchronous stationkeeping, earth-orbit transfer missions, and interplanetary missions are defined and evaluated. The status of critical ion propulsion system elements is reviewed. Electron bombardment ion thrusters for primary propulsion have evolved to operate on xenon in the 5 to 10 kW power range. Thruster efficiencies of 0.7 and specific impulse values of 4000 s were documented. The baseline thruster currently under development by NASA LeRC includes ring-cusp magnetic field plasma containment and dished two-grid ion optics. Based on past experience and demonstrated simplifications, power processors for these thrusters should have approximately 500 parts, a mass of 40 kg, and an efficiency near 0.94. Thrust vector control, via individual thruster gimbals, is a mature technology. High pressure, gaseous xenon propellant storage and control schemes, using flight qualified hardware, result in propellant tankage fractions between 0.1 and 0.2. In-space and ground integration testing has demonstrated that ion propulsion systems can be successfully integrated with their host spacecraft. Ion propulsion system technologies are mature and can significantly enhance and/or enable a variety of missions in the nation's space propulsion program.

  12. NEXT Ion Propulsion System Development Status and Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Michael J.; Benson, Scott W.

    2008-01-01

    NASA s Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) project is developing next generation ion propulsion technologies to provide future NASA science missions with enhanced mission performance benefit at a low total development cost. The objective of the NEXT project is to advance next generation ion propulsion technology by producing engineering model system components, validating these through qualification-level and integrated system testing, and ensuring preparedness for transitioning to flight system development. As NASA s Evolutionary Xenon Thruster technology program completes advanced development activities, it is advantageous to review the existing technology capabilities of the system under development. This paper describes the NEXT ion propulsion system development status, characteristics and performance. A review of mission analyses results conducted to date using the NEXT system is also provided.

  13. Xenon ion propulsion for orbit transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawlin, V. K.; Patterson, M. J.; Gruber, R. P.

    1990-01-01

    The status of critical ion propulsion system elements is reviewed. Electron bombardment ion thrusters for primary propulsion have evolved to operate on xenon in the 5-10 kW power range. Thruster efficiencies of 0.7 and specific impulse values of 4000 s have been documented. The baseline thruster currently under development by NASA LeRC includes ring-cusp magnetic field plasma containment and dished two-grid ion optics. Based on past experience and demonstrated simplifications, power processors for these thrusters should have approximately 500 parts, a mass of 40 kg, and an efficiency near 0.94. Thrust vector control, via individual thruster gimbals, is a mature technology. High pressure, gaseous xenon propellant storage and control schemes, using flight qualified hardware, result in propellant tankage fractions between 0.1 and 0.2. In-space and ground integration testing has demonstrated that ion propulsion systems can be successfully integrated with their host spacecraft.

  14. Gasdynamic Mirror (GDM) Fusion Propulsion Engine Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The Gasdynamic Mirror, or GDM, is an example of a magnetic mirror-based fusion propulsion system. Its design is primarily consisting of a long slender solenoid surrounding a vacuum chamber that contains plasma. The bulk of the fusion plasma is confined by magnetic field generated by a series of toroidal-shaped magnets in the center section of the device. the purpose of the GDM Fusion Propulsion Experiment is to confirm the feasibility of the concept and to demonstrate many of the operational characteristics of a full-size plasma can be confined within the desired physical configuration and still reman stable. This image shows an engineer from Propulsion Research Technologies Division at Marshall Space Flight Center inspecting solenoid magnets-A, an integrate part of the Gasdynamic Mirror Fusion Propulsion Engine Experiment.

  15. Current technology in ion and electrothermal propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finke, R. C.; Murch, C. K.

    1973-01-01

    The state of the art and projected developmental trends in the fields of ion and electrothermal propulsion systems intended for use in long and complex earth-orbital missions and interplanetary spacecraft missions are reviewed. The characteristics of existing thrust vectoring systems are outlined, together with data on the 5-cm and 8-cm electron bombardment thrusters, the cesium bombardment ion thruster, and the 8-cm, 15-cm, and 30-cm thruster using xenon propellant. The electrothermal ammonia system and the electrothermal hydrazine system are described, and the principles of propulsion system selection are examined.

  16. Propulsion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Air and Space, 1978

    1978-01-01

    An introductory discussion of aircraft propulsion is included along with diagrams and pictures of piston, turbojet, turboprop, turbofan, and jet engines. Also, a table on chemical propulsion is included. (MDR)

  17. 46 CFR 184.620 - Propulsion engine control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Propulsion engine control systems. 184.620 Section 184... Communications Systems § 184.620 Propulsion engine control systems. (a) A vessel must have two independent means of controlling each propulsion engine. Control must be provided for the engine speed, direction...

  18. 46 CFR 121.620 - Propulsion engine control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Propulsion engine control systems. 121.620 Section 121... Propulsion engine control systems. (a) A vessel must have two independent means of controlling each propulsion engine. Control must be provided for the engine speed, direction of shaft rotation, and...

  19. 46 CFR 121.620 - Propulsion engine control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Propulsion engine control systems. 121.620 Section 121... Propulsion engine control systems. (a) A vessel must have two independent means of controlling each propulsion engine. Control must be provided for the engine speed, direction of shaft rotation, and...

  20. 46 CFR 184.620 - Propulsion engine control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Propulsion engine control systems. 184.620 Section 184... Communications Systems § 184.620 Propulsion engine control systems. (a) A vessel must have two independent means of controlling each propulsion engine. Control must be provided for the engine speed, direction...

  1. 46 CFR 121.620 - Propulsion engine control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Propulsion engine control systems. 121.620 Section 121... Propulsion engine control systems. (a) A vessel must have two independent means of controlling each propulsion engine. Control must be provided for the engine speed, direction of shaft rotation, and...

  2. 46 CFR 184.620 - Propulsion engine control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Propulsion engine control systems. 184.620 Section 184... Communications Systems § 184.620 Propulsion engine control systems. (a) A vessel must have two independent means of controlling each propulsion engine. Control must be provided for the engine speed, direction...

  3. 46 CFR 184.620 - Propulsion engine control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Propulsion engine control systems. 184.620 Section 184... Communications Systems § 184.620 Propulsion engine control systems. (a) A vessel must have two independent means of controlling each propulsion engine. Control must be provided for the engine speed, direction...

  4. ARTEMIS orbit raising inflight experience with ion propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Killinger, Rainer; Kukies, Ralf; Surauer, Michael; Tomasetto, Angeo; van Holtz, Leo

    2003-08-01

    To demonstrate and promote North/South station keeping (inclination control) using ion propulsion, ESA on July 12, 2001 onboard Ariane 510 launched its most advanced telecommunication satellite: ARTEMIS. Due to a launcher failure the satellite was injected into a useless too low elliptic orbit. The ARTEMIS mission was salvaged by an Alenia Spazio / Astrium / ESA team at Telespazio (Fucino) using in novel modes to operate the on-board chemical and ion propulsion systems provided by Astrium. Using the chemical propulsion_ system provided by Astrium GmbH - Lampoldshausen - the inital orbit, having an apogee of half the targeted altitude. was quickly upgraded to a safe circular parking orbit at 31000 km altitude. The Liquid Apogee Engine was fired in total 8 times to achieve apogee as well as perigee raising. The final orbit raising to geostationary altitude is being performed by means of the ion propulsion system (IPP) applied in a newly designed spacecraft attitude control mode. Alenia Spazio and Astrium, in close cooperation, quickly redesigned all control and data handling software modules affected since the original spacecraft configuration was designed for inclination control only and not to generate thrust with the ion engines in a direction tangential to the orbit. The flexibility of the IPP system consisting of 4 thruster assemblies, provided in its totality by Astrium including the 2 alignment mechanisms for precision thrust direction control, had proven invaluable. To demonstrate the technologies available in Europe and to enhanced reliability, Astrium implemented two different technologies: a Kaufmann type system (EITA) provided by Astrium Ltd. - Portsmouth; and a Radiofrequency Ion Thruster Assembly (RITA) provided by Astrium GmbH - Ottobrunn. Two ion engines of different technology were mounted side by side on one ITAM (Ion Thruster Alignment Mechanism) provided by Austrian Aerospace. Artemis, after EURECA launched on 31 July 1992 and retrieved on 1 July

  5. The MAUS nuclear space reactor with ion propulsion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainardi, Enrico

    2006-06-01

    MAUS (Moltiplicatore Avanzato Ultracompatto Spaziale) is a nuclear reactor concept design capable to ensure a reliable, long-lasting, low-mass, compact energy supply needed for advanced, future space missions. The exploration of the solar system and the space beyond requires the development of nuclear energy generators for supplying electricity to space-bases, spacecrafts, probes or satellites, as well as for propelling ships in long space missions. For propulsion, the MAUS nuclear reactor could be used to power electric ion drive engines. An ion engine is able to build up to very high velocities, far greater than chemical propulsion systems, but has high power and long service requirements. The MAUS concept is described, together with the ion propulsion engine and together with the reference thermoionic process used to convert the thermal power into electricity. The design work has been performed at the Nuclear Engineering and Energy Conversion Department of the University of Rome "La Sapienza" starting from 1992 on an issue submitted by the Italian Space Agency (ASI), in cooperation with the research laboratories of ENEA.

  6. 46 CFR 121.620 - Propulsion engine control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... propulsion engine. Control must be provided for the engine speed, direction of shaft rotation, and engine... for each engine need not have a second means of controlling each engine. (b) In addition to the... propulsion engine, at the main pilot house control station, which is independent of the engine's...

  7. Marine propulsion internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, P.A.; Bernau, W.A.; Breckenfeld, P.W.; Broughton, G.L.; Karrasch, W.R.

    1992-02-18

    This patent describes an engine. It comprises an engine block having an exterior surface and an interior, a crankshaft extending from the engine block interior, being rotatably supported by the block, and including a first portion extending exteriorly of the engine block surface, having a first radius, and a second portion extending from the first portion in concentric relation thereto and having a second radius less than the first radius so as to define a radially extending shoulder on the first portion, a flywheel including a surface engaging the shoulder, and a central aperture receiving the second portion of the crankshaft and having a third radius less than the first radius and greater than the second radius, and means extending through the flywheel and into the first portion of the crankshaft for securing the flywheel to the crankshaft.

  8. ARTEMIS Orbit Raising Inflight Experience with Ion Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Killinger, Rainer

    2002-01-01

    To demonstrate and promote North/South station keeping (inclination control) using ion propulsion, ESA on July 12, 2001 onboard Ariane 510 launched its most advanced telecommunication satellite: ARTEMIS. Due to a launcher failure the satellite was injected into a useless too low elliptic orbit. The ARTEMIS mission was salvaged by the ALTEL/Astrium/ESA team at Telespazio (Fucino) using in novel modes of operation the on-board chemical and ion propulsion systems provided by Astrium. Using the chemical propulsion system provided by Astrium GmbH - Lampoldshausen - the inital orbit, having an apogee of half the targeted altitude. was quickly upgraded to a safe circular parking orbit at 31000 km altitude. The Liquid Apogee Engine was fired in total 8 times to achieve perigee as well as apogee raising. The final orbit raising to geostationary altitude is being performed by means of the ion propulsion system (IPP) applied in a newly designed spacecraft attitude control mode. Alenia Spazio and Astrium, in close cooperation, quickly redesigned all control and data handling software modules affected since the original spacecraft configuration was designed for inclination control only and not to generate thrust with the ion engines in a direction tangential to the orbit. The flexibility of the IPP system consisting of 4 thruster assemblies, provided in its totality by Astrium including the 2 alignment mechanisms for precision thrust direction control, had proven invaluable. To demonstrate the technologies available in Europe and to enhanced reliability, Astrium implemented two different technologies: a Kaufmann type system (EITA) provided by Astrium Ltd. - Portsmouth, and a Radiofrequency Ion Thruster Assembly (RITA) provided by Astrium GmbH - Ottobrunn. Two ion engines of different technology were mounted side by side on one ITAM (Ion Thruster Alignment Mechanism) provided by Austrian Aerospace. This paper, after a brief description of the ion propulsion system, will

  9. Fusion Propulsion Z-Pinch Engine Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miernik, J.; Statham, G.; Fabisinski, L.; Maples, C. D.; Adams, R.; Polsgrove, T.; Fincher, S.; Cassibry, J.; Cortez, R.; Turner, M.; Percy, T.

    2011-01-01

    Fusion-based nuclear propulsion has the potential to enable fast interplanetary transportation. Due to the great distances between the planets of our solar system and the harmful radiation environment of interplanetary space, high specific impulse (Isp) propulsion in vehicles with high payload mass fractions must be developed to provide practical and safe vehicles for human spaceflight missions. The Z-Pinch dense plasma focus method is a Magneto-Inertial Fusion (MIF) approach that may potentially lead to a small, low cost fusion reactor/engine assembly1. Recent advancements in experimental and theoretical understanding of this concept suggest favorable scaling of fusion power output yield 2. The magnetic field resulting from the large current compresses the plasma to fusion conditions, and this process can be pulsed over short timescales (10(exp -6 sec). This type of plasma formation is widely used in the field of Nuclear Weapons Effects testing in the defense industry, as well as in fusion energy research. A Decade Module 2 (DM2), approx.500 KJ pulsed-power is coming to the RSA Aerophysics Lab managed by UAHuntsville in January, 2012. A Z-Pinch propulsion concept was designed for a vehicle based on a previous fusion vehicle study called "Human Outer Planet Exploration" (HOPE), which used Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) 3 propulsion. The reference mission is the transport of crew and cargo to Mars and back, with a reusable vehicle.

  10. Engineering Challenges in Antiproton Triggered Fusion Propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Cassenti, Brice; Kammash, Terry

    2008-01-21

    During the last decade antiproton triggered fusion propulsion has been investigated as a method for achieving high specific impulse, high thrust in a nuclear pulse propulsion system. In general the antiprotons are injected into a pellet containing fusion fuel with a small amount of fissionable material (i.e., an amount less than the critical mass) where the products from the fission are then used to trigger a fusion reaction. Initial calculations and simulations indicate that if magnetically insulated inertial confinement fusion is used that the pellets should result in a specific impulse of between 100,000 and 300,000 seconds at high thrust. The engineering challenges associated with this propulsion system are significant. For example, the antiprotons must be precisely focused. The pellet must be designed to contain the fission and initial fusion products and this will require strong magnetic fields. The fusion fuel must be contained for a sufficiently long time to effectively release the fusion energy, and the payload must be shielded from the radiation, especially the excess neutrons emitted, in addition to many other particles. We will review the recent progress, possible engineering solutions and the potential performance of these systems.

  11. Propulsion Mechanism of Catalytic Microjet Engines

    PubMed Central

    Fomin, Vladimir M.; Hippler, Markus; Magdanz, Veronika; Soler, Lluís; Sanchez, Samuel; Schmidt, Oliver G.

    2014-01-01

    We describe the propulsion mechanism of the catalytic microjet engines that are fabricated using rolled-up nanotech. Microjets have recently shown numerous potential applications in nanorobotics but currently there is a lack of an accurate theoretical model that describes the origin of the motion as well as the mechanism of self-propulsion. The geometric asymmetry of a tubular microjet leads to the development of a capillary force, which tends to propel a bubble toward the larger opening of the tube. Because of this motion in an asymmetric tube, there emerges a momentum transfer to the fluid. In order to compensate this momentum transfer, a jet force acting on the tube occurs. This force, which is counterbalanced by the linear drag force, enables tube velocities of the order of 100 μm/s. This mechanism provides a fundamental explanation for the development of driving forces that are acting on bubbles in tubular microjets. PMID:25177214

  12. Completely modular thermionic reactor ion propulsion system /trips/.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peelgren, M. L.; Kikin, G. M.; Sawyer, C. D.

    1972-01-01

    Description of a nuclear reactor powered ion propulsion system which is an advanced completely modularized system lending itself to development of prototype and/or flight type components without the need for complete system tests until late in the development program. This modularity is achieved in all of the subsystems and components of the electric propulsion system, including the thermionic fuel elements, the heat rejection subsystem (head pipes), the power conditioning modules, and the ion thrusters. The use of heat pipes for cooling the collectors and as a means of heat transport to the radiator allows early prototype or flight configuration testing of a small module of the heat rejection subsystem as opposed to full scale liquid metal pumps and radiators in a large vacuum chamber. The power conditioner (p/c) is arranged in modules with passive cooling which allows complete prototype testing. The ion engines are typically matched with one or more p/c modules and are the same size for any power level propulsion system of interest.

  13. Gravity-assist engine for space propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergstrom, Arne

    2014-06-01

    As a possible alternative to rockets, the present article describes a new type of engine for space travel, based on the gravity-assist concept for space propulsion. The new engine is to a great extent inspired by the conversion of rotational angular momentum to orbital angular momentum occurring in tidal locking between astronomical bodies. It is also greatly influenced by Minovitch's gravity-assist concept, which has revolutionized modern space technology, and without which the deep-space probes to the outer planets and beyond would not have been possible. Two of the three gravitating bodies in Minovitch's concept are in the gravity-assist engine discussed in this article replaced by an extremely massive ‘springbell' (in principle a spinning dumbbell with a powerful spring) incorporated into the spacecraft itself, and creating a three-body interaction when orbiting around a gravitating body. This makes gravity-assist propulsion possible without having to find suitably aligned astronomical bodies. Detailed numerical simulations are presented, showing how an actual spacecraft can use a ca 10-m diameter springbell engine in order to leave the earth's gravitational field and enter an escape trajectory towards interplanetary destinations.

  14. CFD applications in chemical propulsion engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merkle, Charles L.

    1991-01-01

    The present research is aimed at developing analytical procedures for predicting the performance and stability characteristics of chemical propulsion engines. Specific emphasis is being placed on understanding the physical and chemical processes in the small engines that are used for applications such as spacecraft attitude control and drag make-up. The small thrust sizes of these engines lead to low nozzle Reynolds numbers with thick boundary layers which may even meet at the nozzle centerline. For this reason, the classical high Reynolds number procedures that are commonly used in the industry are inaccurate and of questionable utility for design. A complete analysis capability for the combined viscous and inviscid regions as well as for the subsonic, transonic, and supersonic portions of the flowfield is necessary to estimate performance levels and to enable tradeoff studies during design procedures.

  15. Progress in Technology Validation of the Next Ion Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, Scott W.; Patterson, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    The NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) ion propulsion system has been in advanced technology development under the NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology project. The highest fidelity hardware planned has now been completed by the government/industry team, including a flight prototype model (PM) thruster, an engineering model (EM) power processing unit, EM propellant management assemblies, a breadboard gimbal, and control unit simulators. Subsystem and system level technology validation testing is in progress. To achieve the objective Technology Readiness Level 6, environmental testing is being conducted to qualification levels in ground facilities simulating the space environment. Additional tests have been conducted to characterize the performance range and life capability of the NEXT thruster. This paper presents the status and results of technology validation testing accomplished to date, the validated subsystem and system capabilities, and the plans for completion of this phase of NEXT development.

  16. 40 CFR 87.62 - Test procedure (propulsion engines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test procedure (propulsion engines... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) Definitions. Test Procedures § 87.62 Test procedure (propulsion engines). Link to an amendment published at 77 FR 36386, June 18, 2012. (a)(1) The engine shall be tested in each of...

  17. Technology Readiness of the NEXT Ion Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, Scott W.; Patterson, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    The NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) ion propulsion system has been in advanced technology development under the NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology project. The highest fidelity hardware planned has now been completed by the government/industry team, including: a flight prototype model (PM) thruster, an engineering model (EM) power processing unit, EM propellant management assemblies, a breadboard gimbal, and control unit simulators. Subsystem and system level technology validation testing is in progress. To achieve the objective Technology Readiness Level 6, environmental testing is being conducted to qualification levels in ground facilities simulating the space environment. Additional tests have been conducted to characterize the performance range and life capability of the NEXT thruster. This paper presents the status and results of technology validation testing accomplished to date, the validated subsystem and system capabilities, and the plans for completion of this phase of NEXT development. The next round of competed planetary science mission announcements of opportunity, and directed mission decisions, are anticipated to occur in 2008 and 2009. Progress to date, and the success of on-going technology validation, indicate that the NEXT ion propulsion system will be a primary candidate for mission consideration in these upcoming opportunities.

  18. Plasma simulation in a hybrid ion electric propulsion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jugroot, Manish; Christou, Alex

    2015-04-01

    An exciting possibility for the next generation of satellite technology is the microsatellite. These satellites, ranging from 10-500 kg, can offer advantages in cost, reduced risk, and increased functionality for a variety of missions. For station keeping and control of these satellites, a suitable compact and high efficiency thruster is required. Electrostatic propulsion provides a promising solution for microsatellite thrust due to their high specific impulse. The rare gas propellant is ionized into plasma and generates a beam of high speed ions by electrostatic processes. A concept explored in this work is a hybrid combination of dc ion engines and hall thrusters to overcome space-charge and lifetime limitations of current ion thruster technologies. A multiphysics space and time-dependent formulation was used to investigate and understand the underlying physical phenomena. Several regions and time scales of the plasma have been observed and will be discussed.

  19. 46 CFR 184.620 - Propulsion engine control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 100 GROSS TONS) VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Control and Internal Communications Systems § 184.620 Propulsion engine control systems. (a) A vessel must have two independent means... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Propulsion engine control systems. 184.620 Section...

  20. Simulation Based on Negative ion pair Techniques of Electric propulsion In Satellite Mission Using Chlorine Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakkiyaraj, R.

    R.Bakkiyaraj,Assistant professor,Government college of Engineering ,Bargur,Tamilnadu. *C.Sathiyavel, PG Student and Department of Aeronautical Engineering/Branch of Avionics, PSN college of Engineering and Technology,Tirunelveli,India. Abstract: Ion propulsion rocket system is expected to become popular with the development of ion-ion pair techniques because of their stimulated of low propellant, Design of repulsive between negative ions with low electric power and high efficiency. A Negative ion pair of ion propulsion rocket system is proposed in this work .Negative Ion Based Rocket system consists of three parts 1.ionization chamber 2. Repulsion force and ion accelerator 3. Exhaust of Nozzle. The Negative ions from electro negatively gas are produced by attachment of the gas ,such as chlorine with electron emitted from a Electron gun ionization chamber. The formulate of large stable negative ion is achievable in chlorine gas with respect to electron affinity (∆E). When a neutral chlorine atom in the gaseous form picks up an electron to form a cl- ion, it releases energy of 349 kJ/mol or 3.6 eV/atom. It is said to have an electron affinity of -349 kJ/mol ,the negative sign indicating that energy is released during this process .The distance between negative ions pair is important for the evaluation of the rocket thrust and is also determined by the exhaust velocity of the propellant. The mass flow rate of ions is related to the ion beam current. Accelerate the Negative ions to a high velocity in the thrust vector direction with a significantly intense grids and the exhaust of negative ions through Nozzle. The simulation of the ion propulsion system has been carried out by MATLAB. By comparing the simulation results with the theoretical and previous results, we have found that the proposed method is achieved of thrust value with low electric power for simulating the ion propulsion rocket system

  1. The Ion Propulsion System for the Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, Daniel A.; Santiago, Walter; Kamhawi, Hani; Polk, James E.; Snyder, John Steven; Hofer, Richard R.; Parker, J. Morgan

    2015-01-01

    The Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission is a candidate Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission whose main objectives are to develop and demonstrate a high-power solar electric propulsion capability for the Agency and return an asteroidal mass for rendezvous and characterization in a companion human-crewed mission. The ion propulsion system must be capable of operating over an 8-year time period and processing up to 10,000 kg of xenon propellant. This high-power solar electric propulsion capability, or an extensible derivative of it, has been identified as a critical part of an affordable, beyond-low-Earth-orbit, manned-exploration architecture. Under the NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate the critical electric propulsion and solar array technologies are being developed. The ion propulsion system being co-developed by the NASA Glenn Research Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle is based on the NASA-developed 12.5 kW Hall Effect Rocket with Magnetic Shielding (HERMeS0 thruster and power processing technologies. This paper presents the conceptual design for the ion propulsion system, the status of the NASA in-house thruster and power processing activity, and an update on flight hardware.

  2. Ion Propulsion Development Projects in US: Space Electric Rocket Test I to Deep Space 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovey, James S.; Rawlin, Vincent K.; Patterson, Michael J.

    2001-01-01

    The historical background and characteristics of the experimental flights of ion propulsion systems and the major ground-based technology demonstrations are reviewed. The results of the first successful ion engine flight in 1964, Space Electric Rocket Test (SERT) I, which demonstrated ion beam neutralization, are discussed along with the extended operation of SERT II starting in 1970. These results together with the technologies employed on the early cesium engine flights, the applications technology satellite series, and the ground-test demonstrations, have provided the evolutionary path for the development of xenon ion thruster component technologies, control systems, and power circuit implementations. In the 1997-1999 period, the communication satellite flights using ion engine systems and the Deep Space 1 flight confirmed that these auxiliary and primary propulsion systems have advanced to a high level of flight readiness.

  3. Engineering of the Magnetized Target Fusion Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statham, G.; White, S.; Adams, R. B.; Thio, Y. C. F.; Santarius, J.; Alexander, R.; Chapman, J.; Fincher, S.; Philips, A.; Polsgrove, T.

    2003-01-01

    Engineering details are presented for a magnetized target fusion (MTF) propulsion system designed to support crewed missions to the outer solar system. Basic operation of an MTF propulsion system is introduced. Structural, thermal, radiation-management and electrical design details are presented. The propellant storage and supply system design is also presented. A propulsion system mass estimate and associated performance figures are given. The advantages of helium-3 as a fusion fuel for an advanced MTF system are discussed.

  4. Optimization of Air-Breathing Propulsion Engine Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patnaik, Surya N.; Hopkins, Dale A.

    1997-01-01

    Air-breathing propulsion engines play an important role in the development of both civil and military aircraft Design optimization of such engines can lead to higher power, or more thrust for less fuel consumption. A multimission propulsion engine design can be modeled mathematically as a multivariable global optimization problem, with a sequence of subproblems, which are specific to the mission events defined through Mach number, altitude, and power setting combinations.

  5. Explorations of Psyche and Callisto Enabled by Ion Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenkert, Daniel D.; Landau, Damon F.; Bills, Bruce G.; Elkins-Tanton, Linda T.

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in ion propulsion (specifically solar electric propulsion - SEP) have the potential for dramatically reducing the transportation cost of planetary missions. We examine two representative cases, where these new developments enable missions which, until recently, would have required resouces well beyond those allocated to the Discovery program. The two cases of interest address differentiation of asteroids and large icy satellites

  6. The Ion Propulsion System on NASA's Space Technology 4/Champollion Comet Rendezvous Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, John R.; Garner, Charles E.; Weiss, Jeffery M.

    1999-01-01

    The ST4/Champollion mission is designed to rendezvous with and land on the comet Tempel 1 and return data from the first-ever sampling of a comet surface. Ion propulsion is an enabling technology for this mission. The ion propulsion system on ST4 consists of three ion engines each essentially identical to the single engine that flew on the DS1 spacecraft. The ST4 propulsion system will operate at a maximum input power of 7.5 kW (3.4 times greater than that demonstrated on DS1), will produce a maximum thrust of 276 mN, and will provide a total (Delta)V of 11.4 km/s. To accomplish this the propulsion system will carry 385 kg of xenon. All three engines will be operated simultaneously for the first 168 days of the mission. The nominal mission requires that each engine be capable of processing 118 kg. If one engine fails after 168 days, the remaining two engines can perform the mission, but must be capable of processing 160 kg of xenon, or twice the original thruster design requirement. Detailed analyses of the thruster wear-out failure modes coupled with experience from long-duration engine tests indicate that the thrusters have a high probability of meeting the 160-kg throughput requirement.

  7. 40 CFR 87.62 - Test procedure (propulsion engines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test procedure (propulsion engines... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES Test Procedures for Engine Exhaust Gaseous Emissions (Aircraft and Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.62 Test procedure...

  8. 40 CFR 87.62 - Test procedure (propulsion engines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test procedure (propulsion engines... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES Test Procedures for Engine Exhaust Gaseous Emissions (Aircraft and Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.62 Test procedure...

  9. Engineering of the Magnetized Target Fusion Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statham, G.; White, S.; Adams, R. B.; Thio, Y. C. F.; Santarius, J.; Alexander, R.; Fincher, S.; Polsgrove, T.; Chapman, J.; Philips, A.

    2002-01-01

    Engineering details are presented for a magnetized target fusion (MTF) propulsion system designed to support crewed missions to the outer solar system. Structural, thermal and radiation-management design details are presented. Propellant storage and supply options are also discussed and a propulsion system mass estimate is given.

  10. An overview of the Penn State Propulsion Engineering Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merkle, Charles L.

    1991-01-01

    An overview of the Penn State Propulsion Engineering Research Center is presented. The following subject areas are covered: research objectives and long term perspective of the Center; current status and operational philosophy; and brief description of Center projects (combustion, fluid mechanics and heat transfer, materials compatibility, turbomachinery, and advanced propulsion concepts).

  11. The Ion Propulsion System for the Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, Daniel A.; Santiago, Walter; Kamhawi, Hani; Polk, James E.; Snyder, John Steven; Hofer, Richard; Parker, J. Morgan

    2015-01-01

    The Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission is a candidate Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission whose main objectives are to develop and demonstrate a high-power solar electric propulsion capability for the Agency and return an asteroidal mass for rendezvous and characterization in a subsequent human-crewed mission. The ion propulsion subsystem must be capable of operating over an 8-year time period and processing up to 10,000 kg of xenon propellant. This high-power solar electric propulsion capability, or an extensible derivative of it, has been identified as an enabling element of an affordable beyond low-earth orbit human-crewed exploration architecture. Under the NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate the critical electric propulsion and solar array technologies are being developed. The ion propulsion system for the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle is based on the NASA-developed 12.5 kW Hall Effect Rocket with Magnetic Shielding thruster and power processing technologies. This paper presents the conceptual design for the ion propulsion system, a status on the NASA in-house thruster and power processing is provided, and an update on acquisition for flight provided.

  12. Development Efforts Expanded in Ion Propulsion: Ion Thrusters Developed With Higher Power Levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Michael J.; Rawlin, Vincent K.; Sovey, James S.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center was the major contributor of 2-kW-class ion thruster technology to the Deep Space 1 mission, which was successfully completed in early 2002. Recently, NASA s Office of Space Science awarded approximately $21 million to Glenn to develop higher power xenon ion propulsion systems for large flagship missions such as outer planet explorers and sample return missions. The project, referred to as NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT), is a logical follow-on to the ion propulsion system demonstrated on Deep Space 1. The propulsion system power level for NEXT is expected to be as high as 25 kW, incorporating multiple ion thrusters, each capable of being throttled over a 1- to 6-kW power range. To date, engineering model thrusters have been developed, and performance and plume diagnostics are now being documented. The project team-Glenn, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, General Dynamics, Boeing Electron Dynamic Devices, the Applied Physics Laboratory, the University of Michigan, and Colorado State University-is in the process of developing hardware for a ground demonstration of the NEXT propulsion system, which comprises a xenon feed system, controllers, multiple thrusters, and power processors. The development program also will include life assessments by tests and analyses, single-string tests of ion thrusters and power systems, and finally, multistring thruster system tests in calendar year 2005. In addition, NASA's Office of Space Science selected Glenn to lead the development of a 25-kW xenon thruster to enable NASA to conduct future missions to the outer planets of Jupiter and beyond, under the High Power Electric Propulsion (HiPEP) program. The development of a 100-kW-class ion propulsion system and power conversion systems are critical components to enable future nuclear-electric propulsion systems. In fiscal year 2003, a team composed of Glenn, the Boeing Company, General Dynamics, the Applied Physics Laboratory, the Naval Research

  13. Antiproton powered propulsion with magnetically confined plasma engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapointe, Michael R.

    1989-01-01

    The reaction of the matter-antimatter annihilation, with its specific energy being over 250 times the specific energy released in nuclear fusion, is considered as an energy source for spacecraft propulsion. A concept of a magnetically confined pulsed plasma engine is described. In this concept, antiproton beams are injected axially into a pulsed magnetic mirror system, where they annihilate with an initially neutral hydrogen gas; the resulting charge annihilation products transfer energy to the hydrogen propellant, which is then exhausted through one end of the pulsed mirror system to provide thrust. Numerical simulations were developed to calculate the annihilation rate of antiprotons in hydrogen and to follow the resulting ion, muon, and electron/positron number density evolutions.

  14. Antiproton powered propulsion with magnetically confined plasma engines

    SciTech Connect

    Lapointe, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    The reaction of the matter-antimatter annihilation, with its specific energy being over 250 times the specific energy released in nuclear fusion, is considered as an energy source for spacecraft propulsion. A concept of a magnetically confined pulsed plasma engine is described. In this concept, antiproton beams are injected axially into a pulsed magnetic mirror system, where they annihilate with an initially neutral hydrogen gas; the resulting charge annihilation products transfer energy to the hydrogen propellant, which is then exhausted through one end of the pulsed mirror system to provide thrust. Numerical simulations were developed to calculate the annihilation rate of antiprotons in hydrogen and to follow the resulting ion, muon, and electron/positron number density evolutions. 22 refs.

  15. Energy efficient engine: Propulsion system-aircraft integration evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    Flight performance and operating economics of future commercial transports utilizing the energy efficient engine were assessed as well as the probability of meeting NASA's goals for TSFC, DOC, noise, and emissions. Results of the initial propulsion systems aircraft integration evaluation presented include estimates of engine performance, predictions of fuel burns, operating costs of the flight propulsion system installed in seven selected advanced study commercial transports, estimates of noise and emissions, considerations of thrust growth, and the achievement-probability analysis.

  16. Engine cycle design considerations for nuclear thermal propulsion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pelaccio, D.G.; Scheil, C.M.; Collins, J.T. )

    1993-01-20

    A top-level study was performed which addresses nuclear thermal propulsion system engine cycle options and their applicability to support future Space Exploration Initiative manned lunar and Mars missions. Technical and development issues associated with expander, gas generator, and bleed cycle near-term, solid core nuclear thermal propulsion engines are identified and examined. In addition to performance and weight the influence of the engine cycle type on key design selection parameters such as design complexity, reliability, development time, and cost are discussed. Representative engine designs are presented and compared. Their applicability and performance impact on typical near-term lunar and Mars missions are shown.

  17. Advanced electrostatic ion thruster for space propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masek, T. D.; Macpherson, D.; Gelon, W.; Kami, S.; Poeschel, R. L.; Ward, J. W.

    1978-01-01

    The suitability of the baseline 30 cm thruster for future space missions was examined. Preliminary design concepts for several advanced thrusters were developed to assess the potential practical difficulties of a new design. Useful methodologies were produced for assessing both planetary and earth orbit missions. Payload performance as a function of propulsion system technology level and cost sensitivity to propulsion system technology level are among the topics assessed. A 50 cm diameter thruster designed to operate with a beam voltage of about 2400 V is suggested to satisfy most of the requirements of future space missions.

  18. Nuclear electric propulsion mission engineering study. Volume 2: Final report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Results of a mission engineering analysis of nuclear-thermionic electric propulsion spacecraft for unmanned interplanetary and geocentric missions are summarized. Critical technologies associated with the development of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) are assessed, along with the impact of its availability on future space programs. Outer planet and comet rendezvous mission analysis, NEP stage design for geocentric and interplanetary missions, NEP system development cost and unit costs, and technology requirements for NEP stage development are studied.

  19. General Aviation Propulsion (GAP) Program, Turbine Engine System Element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The goal of the General Aviation Propulsion (GAP) Program Turbine Engine System Elements is to conduct a shared resource project to develop an affordable gas turbine engine for use on 4 to 6 place, light aircraft that will lead to revitalization of the general aviation industry in the United States, creating many new, high-quality jobs.

  20. Simulation Based on Ion-Ion Plasma Techniques of Electric propulsion In Mars Mission Using Chlorine Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathiyavel, C.

    Abstract:The recently(Nov-5/2013) launched Mangalyan by the Indian space Research Organization (ISRO) to Mars orbit with Mankalyan contained by small liquid engine(MMH+N2O4).This will take long time to reach the Mars orbit that is around the 9 Months. Bi-Propellant rocket system has good thrust but low specific impulse and velocity. In future we need a rocket with good high specific impulse and high velocity of rocket system, to reduce the trip time to Mars. Electric propulsion rocket system is expected to become popular with the development of ion-ion pair techniques because this needs low propellant, Design thrust range is 1.5 N with high efficiency. An ion - ion pair of Electric propulsion rocket system is proposed in this work. Ion-Ion(positive ion- negative ion) Based Rocket system consists of three parts 1.The negative ionization stage with electro negative propellant 2. Ion-Ion plasma formation and ion accelerator 3. Exhaust of Nozzle. The Negative ions from electro negative gas are produced by adding up the gas, such as chlorine with electron emitted from an Electron gun ionization chamber. The formulate of large stable negative ion is achievable in chlorine gas with respect to electron affinity (∆E). When a neutral chlorine atom in the gaseous form picks up an electron to form a Cl- ion, it releases energy of 3.6eV. The negative ion density becomes several orders of magnitude larger than that of the electrons, hence forming ion-ion (positive ion - negative ion) plasma at the periphery of the discharge. The distance between ion- ions is important for the evaluate the rocket thrust and it also that the distance is determined by the exhaust velocity of the propellant. Accelerate the ion-ion plasma to a high velocity in the thrust vector direction via electron gun and the exhaust of ions through Nozzle. The simulation of the ion propulsion system has been carried out by MATLAB. By comparing the simulation results with the theoretical and previous results, we

  1. CVD Rhenium Engines for Solar-Thermal Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Brian E.; Fortini, Arthur J.; Tuffias, Robert H.; Duffy, Andrew J.; Tucker, Stephen P.

    1999-01-01

    Solar-thermal upper-stage propulsion systems have the potential to provide specific impulse approaching 900 seconds, with 760 seconds already demonstrated in ground testing. Such performance levels offer a 100% increase in payload capability compared to state-of-the-art chemical upper-stage systems, at lower cost. Although alternatives such as electric propulsion offer even greater performance, the 6- to 18- month orbital transfer time is a far greater deviation from the state of the art than the one to two months required for solar propulsion. Rhenium metal is the only material that is capable of withstanding the predicted thermal, mechanical, and chemical environment of a solar-thermal propulsion device. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is the most well-established and cost-effective process for the fabrication of complex rhenium structures. CVD rhenium engines have been successfully constructed for the Air Force ISUS program (bimodal thrust/electricity) and the NASA Shooting Star program (thrust only), as well as under an Air Force SBIR project (thrust only). The bimodal engine represents a more long-term and versatile approach to solar-thermal propulsion, while the thrust-only engines provide a potentially lower weight/lower cost and more near-term replacement for current upper-stage propulsion systems.

  2. The stirling engine for vehicle propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhlman, P.

    1978-01-01

    The performance data of experimental Stirling engines are considered along with questions of exhaust-gas composition, engine noise, engine volume and weight, engine control, and the engine-starting process. The Stirling engine can use practically any liquid or gaseous fuel for its operation. It is found that technically a use of the Stirling engine in motor vehicles is feasible. Economic questions related to an introduction of the Stirling engine are discussed along with possible new developments which could improve the economic situation in favor of a use of Stirling engine.

  3. Performance and Controllability of Pulsed Ion Beam Ablation Propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Yazawa, Masaru; Buttapeng, Chainarong; Harada, Nobuhiro; Suematsu, Hisayuki; Jiang Weihua; Yatsui, Kiyoshi

    2006-05-02

    We propose novel propulsion driven by ablation plasma pressures produced by the irradiation of pulsed ion beams onto a propellant. The ion beam ablation propulsion demonstrates by a thin foil (50 {mu}mt), and the flyer velocity of 7.7 km/s at the ion beam energy density of 2 kJ/cm2 adopted by using the Time-of-flight method is observed numerically and experimentally. We estimate the performance of the ion beam ablation propulsion as specific impulse of 3600 s and impulse bit density of 1700 Ns/m2 obtained from the demonstration results. In the numerical analysis, a one-dimensional hydrodynamic model with ion beam energy depositions is used. The control of the ion beam kinetic energy is only improvement of the performance but also propellant consumption. The spacecraft driven by the ion beam ablation provides high performance efficiency with short-pulsed ion beam irradiation. The numerical results of the advanced model explained latent heat and real gas equation of state agreed well with experimental ones over a wide range of the incident ion beam energy density.

  4. Electromagnetic interference assessment of an ion drive electric propulsion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittlesey, A. C.

    1979-01-01

    The electromagnetic interference (EMI) form elements of an ion drive electric propulsion system was analyzed, and the effects of EMI interaction with a typical interplanetary spacecraft engineering and scientific subsystems were predicted. SEMCAP, a computerized electromagnetic compatibility assessment code, was used to analyze the impact of EMI noise sources on 65 engineering/telemetry circuits and 48 plasma wave and planetary radio astronomy channels measuring over the range of 100 Hz to 40 MHz in a spacecraft of the Voyager type; manual methods were used to evaluate electrostatics, magnetics, and communications effects. Results indicate that some conducted and radiated spectra are in excess of electromagnetic compatibility specification limits; direct design changes may be required for filtering and shielding of thrust system elements. The worst source of broadband radiated noise appears to be the power processor. The magnetic field necessary to thruster operation is equivalent to about 18 amp-sq m per amp of beam current at right angles to the axis caused by the neutralizer/plume loop.

  5. Probabilistic simulation of concurrent engineering of propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Singhal, S. N.

    1993-01-01

    Technology readiness and the available infrastructure is assessed for timely computational simulation of concurrent engineering for propulsion systems. Results for initial coupled multidisciplinary, fabrication-process, and system simulators are presented including uncertainties inherent in various facets of engineering processes. An approach is outlined for computationally formalizing the concurrent engineering process from cradle-to-grave via discipline dedicated workstations linked with a common database.

  6. Propulsion engineering study for small-scale Mars missions

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehead, J.

    1995-09-12

    Rocket propulsion options for small-scale Mars missions are presented and compared, particularly for the terminal landing maneuver and for sample return. Mars landing has a low propulsive {Delta}v requirement on a {approximately}1-minute time scale, but at a high acceleration. High thrust/weight liquid rocket technologies, or advanced pulse-capable solids, developed during the past decade for missile defense, are therefore more appropriate for small Mars landers than are conventional space propulsion technologies. The advanced liquid systems are characterize by compact lightweight thrusters having high chamber pressures and short lifetimes. Blowdown or regulated pressure-fed operation can satisfy the Mars landing requirement, but hardware mass can be reduced by using pumps. Aggressive terminal landing propulsion designs can enable post-landing hop maneuvers for some surface mobility. The Mars sample return mission requires a small high performance launcher having either solid motors or miniature pump-fed engines. Terminal propulsion for 100 kg Mars landers is within the realm of flight-proven thruster designs, but custom tankage is desirable. Landers on a 10 kg scale also are feasible, using technology that has been demonstrated but not previously flown in space. The number of sources and the selection of components are extremely limited on this smallest scale, so some customized hardware is required. A key characteristic of kilogram-scale propulsion is that gas jets are much lighter than liquid thrusters for reaction control. The mass and volume of tanks for inert gas can be eliminated by systems which generate gas as needed from a liquid or a solid, but these have virtually no space flight history. Mars return propulsion is a major engineering challenge; earth launch is the only previously-solved propulsion problem requiring similar or greater performance.

  7. Simulation Based on Ion Propulsion Rocket System with Using Negative ion - Negative Ion Pair Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathiyavel, C.

    2016-07-01

    Ion propulsion rocket system is expected to become popular with the development of ion-ion pair techniques because of their stimulated of low propellant, Design of Thrust range is 1N with low electric power and high efficiency. A Negative ion-Negative ion pair of ion propulsion rocket system is proposed in this work .Negative Ion Based Rocket system consists of three parts 1.ionization chamber 2. Repulsion force and ion accelerator 3. Exhaust of Nozzle. The Negative ions from electro negatively gas are produced by attachment of the gas ,such as chlorine with electron emitted from a Electron gun ionization chamber. The formulate of large stable negative ion is achievable in chlorine gas with respect to electron affinity (∆E). The electron affinity is a measure of the energy change when an electron is added to a neutral atom to form a negative ion. When a neutral chlorine atom in the gaseous form picks up an electron to form a Cl- ion, it releases energy of 349 kJ/mol or 3.6 ev/atom. It is said to have an electron affinity of -349 kJ/mol ,the negative sign indicating that energy is released during this process .The mechanisms of attachment involve the formation of intermediate states. In that reason for , the highly repulsive force created between the same negative ions. The distance between same negative ions is important for the evaluate of the rocket thrust and is also determined by the exhaust velocity of the propellant. The mass flow rate of propellant is achieved by the ratio of total mass of the propellant (Kg) needed for operation to time period(s). Accelerate the Negative ions to a high velocity in the thrust vector direction with a significantly intense Magnetic field and the exhaust of negative ions through Nozzle. The simulation of the ion propulsion system has been carried out by MATLAB. By comparing the simulation results with the theoretical and previous results, we have found that the proposed method is achieved of thrust value with estimated

  8. NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) Ion Propulsion System Information Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pencil, Eirc S.; Benson, Scott W.

    2008-01-01

    This document is a guide to New Frontiers mission proposal teams. The document describes the development and status of the NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) ion propulsion system (IPS) technology, its application to planetary missions, and the process anticipated to transition NEXT to the first flight mission.

  9. SMART-1 ion engine fired successfully

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-10-01

    Close-up view of SMART-1's stationary plasma thruster hi-res Size hi-res: 257 kb Credits: ESA 2002. Illustration by Medialab. Close-up view of SMART-1's stationary plasma thruster Electrons attracted into the discharge chamber collide with xenon atoms from the propellant gas supply, making charged atoms (ions). Current-carrying coils, inside and outside the doughnut-shaped discharge chamber, sustain a magnetic field oriented like the spokes of a wheel. By the Hall effect, ions and electrons swerving in opposite directions in the magnetic field create an electric field. This expels the xenon ions in a propulsive jet. Other emitted electrons then neutralize the xenon, producing the blue jet. Engineers at ESOC, the European Space Agency's control centre in Darmstadt, Germany, sent a command to begin the firing test, which lasted for one hour. This was similar to a trial performed on Earth before SMART-1 was launched. Several months ago, the ion engine, or Solar Electric Primary Propulsion (SEPP) system, had been placed in a vacuum chamber on the ground and its functions and operation were measured. Now in space and in a true vacuum, the ion engine actually worked better than in the test on ground and has nudged SMART-1 a little closer to the Moon. This is the first time that Europe flies an electric primary propulsion in space, and also the first European use of this particular type of ion engine, called a 'Hall-effect' thruster. The SEPP consists of a single ion engine fuelled by xenon gas and powered by solar energy. The ion engine will accelerate SMART-1 very gradually to cause the spacecraft to travel in a series of spiralling orbits - each revolution slightly further away from the Earth - towards the Moon. Once captured by the Moon's gravity, SMART-1 will move into ever-closer orbits of the Moon. As part of one of the overall mission objectives to test this new SEPP technology, the data will now be analysed to see how much acceleration was achieved and how

  10. Ion Drive Propulsion MPP Power Conditioning System without Battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maset, E.; Sanchis-Kilders, E.; Weinberg, A. H.; Ejea, J. Bta.; Ferreres, A.; Blanes, J. M.; Garrigos, A.; Carrasco, J. A.

    2008-09-01

    The research on selecting the Solar Array Regulator topology in case of Electrical Propulsion is still on going in future mission (Mercury orbit, Lunar Exploration, etc) and the power requirements in the range of 8kW up to 14kW will be increased. We will focus on BepiColombo mission, where solar electric propulsion (SEP) is used during the cruise period from Earth to Mercury. The Solar Array (SA) power increases with time and its associated propulsion unit has to take the maximum available power from the SA to use in the ion drive motor in order to reach Mercury within a reasonable time. Because the Ion Thrust is not required in eclipse, a Power System was designed that did not require a Battery and therefore a considerable mass could be saved. This paper describes a solution for the Mercury Transfer Module (MTM) Power Conditioning and Distribution Unit (PCDU) of the Solar Electric Propulsion Module (SEPM). The new conception is a Sequential Switching Shunt Maximum Power Regulator (S3MPR) consisting in a Sequential Switching Shunt Regulator (S3R), to keep the SA voltage at its Maximum Power Point (MPP) followed by a Boost regulator to produce a constant 100V to supply the Electronic Propulsion (EP). The PCU has been verified by means of testing on a scaled-down Power Subsystem of 1kW output power.

  11. 46 CFR 121.620 - Propulsion engine control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Control and Internal Communications Systems § 121.620... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Propulsion engine control systems. 121.620 Section...

  12. ION ROCKET ENGINE

    DOEpatents

    Ehlers, K.W.; Voelker, F. III

    1961-12-19

    A thrust generating engine utilizing cesium vapor as the propellant fuel is designed. The cesium is vaporized by heat and is passed through a heated porous tungsten electrode whereby each cesium atom is fonized. Upon emergfng from the tungsten electrode, the ions are accelerated rearwardly from the rocket through an electric field between the tungsten electrode and an adjacent accelerating electrode grid structure. To avoid creating a large negative charge on the space craft as a result of the expulsion of the positive ions, a source of electrons is disposed adjacent the ion stream to neutralize the cesium atoms following acceleration thereof. (AEC)

  13. Ion beam sputtering in electric propulsion facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovey, James S.; Patterson, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    Experiments were undertaken to determine sputter yields of potential ion beam target materials, to assess the impact of charge exchange on beam diagnostics in large facilities, and to examine material erosion and deposition after a 957 hr test of a 5 kW-class ion thruster. The xenon ion sputter yield of flexible graphite was lower than other graphite forms especially at high angles of incidence. Ion beam charge exchange effects were found to hamper beam probe current collection diagnostics even at pressures from 0.7 to 1.7 mPa. Estimates of the xenon ion beam envelope were made and predictions of the thickness of sputter deposited coatings in the facility were compared with measurements.

  14. Ion beam sputtering in electric propulsion facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovey, James S.; Patterson, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    Experiments were undertaken to determine sputter yields of potential ion beam target materials, to assess the impact of charge exchange on beam diagnostics in large facilities, and to examine material erosion and deposition after a 957-hour test of a 5 kW-class ion thruster. The xenon ion sputter yield of flexible graphite was lower than other graphite forms especialy at high angles of incidence. Ion beam charge exchange effects were found to hamper beam probe current collection diagnostics even at pressures from 0.7 to 1.7 mPa. Estimates of the xenon ion beam envelope were made and predictions of the thickness of sputter deposited coatings in the facility were compared with measurements.

  15. Plasma Propulsion Testing Capabilities at Arnold Engineering Development Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Dawbarn, Albert; Moeller, Trevor

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a series of experiments aimed at quantifying the plasma propulsion testing capabilities of a 12-ft diameter vacuum facility (12V) at USAF-Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC). Vacuum is maintained in the 12V facility by cryogenic panels lining the interior of the chamber. The pumping capability of these panels was shown to be great enough to support plasma thrusters operating at input electrical power >20 kW. In addition, a series of plasma diagnostics inside the chamber allowed for measurement of plasma parameters at different spatial locations, providing information regarding the chamber's effect on the global plasma thruster flowfield. The plasma source used in this experiment was Hall thruster manufactured by Busek Co. The thruster was operated at up to 20 kW steady-state power in both a lower current and higher current mode. The vacuum level in the chamber never rose above 9 x 10(exp -6) torr during the course of testing. Langmuir probes, ion flux probes, and Faraday cups were used to quantify the plasma parameters in the chamber. We present the results of these measurements and estimates of pumping speed based on the background pressure level and thruster propellant mass flow rate.

  16. Structural Requirements for the Space Propulsion Engine Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aggarwal, Pravin K.

    2006-01-01

    In January 2004, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) was given a vision for Space Exploration by President Bush, setting our sight on a bold new path to go back to the Moon, then to Mars and beyond. As NASA gets ready to meet the vision set by President Bush, failures are not an option. Reliability of the propulsion engine systems will play an important role in establishing an overall safe and reliable operation of these new space systems. A new standard, NASA-STD-5012, Strength and Life Assessment for Space Propulsion System Engines, has been developed to provide structural requirements for assessment of the propulsion systems engine. This standard is a complement to the current NASA-wide standard NASA-STD-5001, Structural Design and Test Factors of Safety for Spaceflight Hardware, which excluded the requirement for the engine systems (rotatory structures) along with pressure vessels. As developed, this document builds on the heritage of the multiple industrial standards related to strength and life assessment of the structures. For assuring a safe and reliable operation of a product and/or mission, establishing a set of structural assessment requirements is a key ingredient. Hence, a concentrated effort was made to improve the requirements where there are known lessons learned during the design, test, and operation phases of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) and other engine development programs. Requirements delineated in this standard are also applicable for the reusable and/or human missions. It shall be noted that "reliability of a system cannot be tested and inspected but can only be achieved if it is first designed into a system." Hence, these strength and life assessment requirements for the space propulsion system engines shall be used along with other good engineering practices, requirements, and policies.

  17. Nuclear electric propulsion mission engineering study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Results of a mission engineering analysis of nuclear-thermionic electric propulsion spacecraft for unmanned interplanetary and geocentric missions are summarized. Critical technologies associated with the development of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) are assessed. Outer planet and comet rendezvous mission analysis, NEP stage design for geocentric and interplanetary missions, NEP system development cost and unit costs, and technology requirements for NEP stage development are studied. The NEP stage design provides both inherent reliability and high payload mass capability. The NEP stage and payload integration was found to be compatible with the space shuttle.

  18. Economics of ion propulsion for large space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masek, T. D.; Ward, J. W.; Rawlin, V. K.

    1978-01-01

    This study of advanced electrostatic ion thrusters for space propulsion was initiated to determine the suitability of the baseline 30-cm thruster for future missions and to identify other thruster concepts that would better satisfy mission requirements. The general scope of the study was to review mission requirements, select thruster designs to meet these requirements, assess the associated thruster technology requirements, and recommend short- and long-term technology directions that would support future thruster needs. Preliminary design concepts for several advanced thrusters were developed to assess the potential practical difficulties of a new design. This study produced useful general methodologies for assessing both planetary and earth orbit missions. For planetary missions, the assessment is in terms of payload performance as a function of propulsion system technology level. For earth orbit missions, the assessment is made on the basis of cost (cost sensitivity to propulsion system technology level).

  19. Single ion heat engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, Kilian

    2015-03-01

    An experimental realization of a heat engine with a single ion is presented, which will allow for work extraction even with non-classical thermal reservoirs. To this goal a custom designed linear Paul trap with a single ion performing an Otto cycle is presented. The radial state of the ion is used as the working gas analogous to the gas in a conventional heat engine. The conventional piston is realized by the axial degrees of freedom and the axial motional excitation stores the generated work, just like a conventional fly-wheel. The heat baths can be realized by tailored laser radiation. Alternatively electrical noise can be used to control the state of the ion. The presented system possesses advantageous properties, as the working parameters can be tuned over a broad range and the motional degrees of freedom of the ion can be accurately determined. Dark resonances allow for fast stroboscopic thermometry during the entire working cycle. Monte Carlo simulations are performed to predict the efficiency and the gained work of the working cycle. We have also shown how the equations for the Carnot limit have to be modified if a squeezed thermal reservoir is employed. Furthermore structural phase transitions with laser cooled linear ion crystals are induced verifying the Kibble-Zurek mechanism.

  20. A Synopsis of Ion Propulsion Development Projects in the United States: SERT 1 to Deep Space I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovey, James S.; Rawlin, Vincent K.; Patterson, Michael J.

    1999-01-01

    The historical background and characteristics of the experimental flights of ion propulsion systems and the major ground-based technology demonstrations were reviewed. The results of the first successful ion engine flight in 1964, SERT I which demonstrated ion beam neutralization, are discussed along with the extended operation of SERT II starting in 1970. These results together with the technology employed on the early cesium engine flights. the Applications Technology Satellite (ATS) series, and the ground-test demonstrations, have provided the evolutionary path for the development of xenon ion thruster component technologies, control systems, and power circuit implementations. In the 1997-1999 period, the communication satellite flights using ion engine systems and the Deep Space I flight confirmed that these auxiliary and primary propulsion systems have advanced to a high-level of flight-readiness.

  1. An engineering model 30 cm ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poeschel, R. L.; King, H. J.; Schnelker, D. E.

    1973-01-01

    Thruster development at Hughes Research Laboratories and NASA Lewis Research Center has brought the 30-cm mercury bombardment ion thruster to the state of an engineering model. This thruster has been designed to have sufficient internal strength for direct mounting on gimbals, to weigh 7.3 kg, to operate with a corrected overall efficiency of 71%, and to have 10,000 hours lifetime. Subassemblies, such as the ion optical system, isolators, etc., have been upgraded to meet launch qualification standards. This paper presents a summary of the design specifications and performance characteristics which define the interface between the thruster module and the remainder of the propulsion system.

  2. Nuclear powered Mars cargo transport mission utilizing advanced ion propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Galecki, D.L.; Patterson, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear-powered ion propulsion technology was combined with detailed trajectory analysis to determine propulsion system and trajectory options for an unmanned cargo mission to Mars in support of manned Mars missions. A total of 96 mission scenarios were identified by combining two power levels, two propellants, four values of specific impulse per propellant, three starting altitudes, and two starting velocities. Sixty of these scenarios were selected for a detailed trajectory analysis; a complete propulsion system study was then conducted for 20 of these trajectories. Trip times ranged from 344 days for a xenon propulsion system operating at 300 kW total power and starting from lunar orbit with escape velocity, to 770 days for an argon propulsion system operating at 300 kW total power and starting from nuclear start orbit with circular velocity. Trip times for the 3 MW cases studied ranged from 356 to 413 days. Payload masses ranged from 5700 to 12,300 kg for the 300 kW power level, and from 72,200 to 81,500 kg for the 3 MW power level.

  3. Development of arcjet and ion propulsion for spacecraft stationkeeping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovey, James S.; Curran, Francis M.; Haag, Thomas W.; Patterson, Michael J.; Pencil, Eric J.; Rawlin, Vincent K.; Sankovic, John M.

    1992-01-01

    Near term flight applications of arc jet and ion thruster satellite station-keeping systems as well as development activities in Europe, Japan, and the United States are reviewed. At least two arc jet and three ion propulsion flights are scheduled during the 1992-1995 period. Ground demonstration technology programs are focusing on the development of kW-class hydrazine and ammonia arc jets and xenon ion thrusters. Recent work at NASA LeRC on electric thruster and system integration technologies relating to satellite station keeping and repositioning will also be summarized.

  4. Propulsion Controls, 1979. [air breathing engine control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The state of the art of multivariable engine control is examined in order to determine future needs and problem areas and to establish the appropriate roles of government, industries, and universities in addressing these problems.

  5. Hypersonic propulsion. [supersonic combustion ramjet engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beach, H. L., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Research on hydrogen fueled scramjet engines for hypersonic flight is reviewed. Component developments, computational methods, and preliminary ground tests of subscale scramjet engine modules at Mach 4 and 7 are emphasized. Airframe integration, structures, and flow diagnostics are also discussed. It is shown that mixed-mode perpendicular and parallel fuel injection controls heat release over a wide Mach range and the fixed geometry inlet gives good performance over a wide range of Mach numbers.

  6. Combined Experimental and Numerical Investigations into Laser Propulsion Engineering Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenoyer, David Adam

    The RPI pulsed Laser Propulsion (LP) research effort focuses on the future application of launching nano- and micro-satellites (1-10 kg payloads) into Low Earth Orbit (LEO), using a remote Ground Based Laser (GBL) power station to supply the required energy for flight. This research program includes both experimental and numerical studies investigating the propulsive performance of several engine geometries (constituting a lightcraft family). Using the Lumonics twin K-922m TEA pulsed laser system, axial and lateral thrust, C m, Isp, and η measurements were made for these engine geometries, examining the effects of several critical factors including: engine orientation (e.g. lateral and angular offset), laser pulse energy, pulse repetition frequency, pulse duration, propellant type, and engine size-scaling effects. Investigation into the origins of lateral "beam riding" forces was of particular interest. Lateral impulse measurements and high speed Schlieren photography were utilized to provide an understanding of laser beam-riding/propulsive physics. The acquired lightcraft database was used to further develop an existing 7-Degree Of Freedom (DOF) flight dynamics model extensively calibrated against 16 actual trajectories of small scale model lightcraft flown at White Sands Missile Range, NM on a 10 kW pulsed CO2 laser called PLVTS. The full system 7-DOF model is comprised of updated individual aerodynamics, engine, laser beam propagation, variable vehicle inertia, reaction controls system, and dynamics models, integrated to represent all major phenomena in a consistent framework. This flight dynamics model and associated 7-DOF code provide a physics-based predictive tool for basic research investigations into laser launched lightcraft for suborbital and orbital missions. Simulations were performed to demonstrate the flight capabilities of each engine geometry using the updated lightcraft propulsion database, the results of which further demonstrate that autonomous

  7. Investigation of Exoskeletal Engine Propulsion System Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roche, Joseph M.; Palac, Donald T.; Hunter, James E.; Myers, David E.; Snyder, Christopher A.; Kosareo, Daniel N.; McCurdy, David R.; Dougherty, Kevin T.

    2005-01-01

    An innovative approach to gas turbine design involves mounting compressor and turbine blades to an outer rotating shell. Designated the exoskeletal engine, compression (preferable to tension for high-temperature ceramic materials, generally) becomes the dominant blade force. Exoskeletal engine feasibility lies in the structural and mechanical design (as opposed to cycle or aerothermodynamic design), so this study focused on the development and assessment of a structural-mechanical exoskeletal concept using the Rolls-Royce AE3007 regional airliner all-axial turbofan as a baseline. The effort was further limited to the definition of an exoskeletal high-pressure spool concept, where the major structural and thermal challenges are represented. The mass of the high-pressure spool was calculated and compared with the mass of AE3007 engine components. It was found that the exoskeletal engine rotating components can be significantly lighter than the rotating components of a conventional engine. However, bearing technology development is required, since the mass of existing bearing systems would exceed rotating machinery mass savings. It is recommended that once bearing technology is sufficiently advanced, a "clean sheet" preliminary design of an exoskeletal system be accomplished to better quantify the potential for the exoskeletal concept to deliver benefits in mass, structural efficiency, and cycle design flexibility.

  8. Computational simulation for concurrent engineering of aerospace propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Singhal, S. N.

    1993-01-01

    Results are summarized for an investigation to assess the infrastructure available and the technology readiness in order to develop computational simulation methods/software for concurrent engineering. These results demonstrate that development of computational simulation methods for concurrent engineering is timely. Extensive infrastructure, in terms of multi-discipline simulation, component-specific simulation, system simulators, fabrication process simulation, and simulation of uncertainties--fundamental to develop such methods, is available. An approach is recommended which can be used to develop computational simulation methods for concurrent engineering of propulsion systems and systems in general. Benefits and issues needing early attention in the development are outlined.

  9. Computational simulation of concurrent engineering for aerospace propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Singhal, S. N.

    1992-01-01

    Results are summarized of an investigation to assess the infrastructure available and the technology readiness in order to develop computational simulation methods/software for concurrent engineering. These results demonstrate that development of computational simulations methods for concurrent engineering is timely. Extensive infrastructure, in terms of multi-discipline simulation, component-specific simulation, system simulators, fabrication process simulation, and simulation of uncertainties - fundamental in developing such methods, is available. An approach is recommended which can be used to develop computational simulation methods for concurrent engineering for propulsion systems and systems in general. Benefits and facets needing early attention in the development are outlined.

  10. Operating characteristics of a 10 kW xenon ion propulsion module

    SciTech Connect

    Aston, G.; Brophy, J.R.; Garner, C.E.; Pless, L.C.; Owens, A.G.; Toomath, R.L.

    1987-05-01

    Performance testing of a two-engine functional model xenon ion propulsion module is described. Use of highly modified J-series 30 cm ion engines reconfigured for xenon propellant, a computer controlled operating system, and precise flow control system are shown to result in very reliable ion module operation at high input power levels. Ion engine operation at a nominal 4.0 ampere beam current and 30.0 volt discharge gives a specific impulse of 3310 sec, a total engine efficiency of 64.3 percent, and a thrust-to-power ratio of 39.5 mN/kW at an input power level of 5.10 kW. These modified J series ion engines are shown to be capable of throttling over an 8:1 range from a power level of 5.48 kW at 3285 sec to a power level of 0.70 kW at 1856 sec. In addition, complete ion engine performance mapping of important system level parameters such as thrust, specific impulse, efficiency and thrust-to-power ratio are presented. 5 references.

  11. Operating characteristics of a 10 kW xenon ion propulsion module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aston, Graeme; Brophy, John R.; Garner, Charles E.; Pless, Lewis C.; Owens, Allison G.; Toomath, Robert L.

    1987-01-01

    Performance testing of a two-engine functional model xenon ion propulsion module is described. Use of highly modified J-series 30 cm ion engines reconfigured for xenon propellant, a computer controlled operating system, and precise flow control system are shown to result in very reliable ion module operation at high input power levels. Ion engine operation at a nominal 4.0 ampere beam current and 30.0 volt discharge gives a specific impulse of 3310 sec, a total engine efficiency of 64.3 percent, and a thrust-to-power ratio of 39.5 mN/kW at an input power level of 5.10 kW. These modified J series ion engines are shown to be capable of throttling over an 8:1 range from a power level of 5.48 kW at 3285 sec to a power level of 0.70 kW at 1856 sec. In addition, complete ion engine performance mapping of important system level parameters such as thrust, specific impulse, efficiency and thrust-to-power ratio are presented.

  12. Energy Efficient Engine: Flight propulsion system final design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Donald Y.; Stearns, E. Marshall

    1985-01-01

    The Energy Efficient Engine (E3) is a NASA program to create fuel saving technology for future transport engines. The Flight Propulsion System (FPS) is the engine designed to achieve E3 goals. Achieving these goals required aerodynamic, mechanical and system technologies advanced beyond that of current production engines. These technologies were successfully demonstrated in component rigs, a core engine and a turbofan ground test engine. The design and benefits of the FPS are presented. All goals for efficiency, environmental considerations, and economic payoff were met. The FPS has, at maximum cruise, 10.67 km (35,000 ft), M0.8, standard day, a 16.9 percent lower installed specific fuel consumption than a CF6-50C. It provides an 8.6 percent reduction in direct operating cost for a short haul domestic transport and a 16.2 percent reduction for an international long distance transport.

  13. High energy density propulsion systems and small engine dynamometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hays, Thomas

    2009-07-01

    Scope and Method of Study. This study investigates all possible methods of powering small unmanned vehicles, provides reasoning for the propulsion system down select, and covers in detail the design and production of a dynamometer to confirm theoretical energy density calculations for small engines. Initial energy density calculations are based upon manufacturer data, pressure vessel theory, and ideal thermodynamic cycle efficiencies. Engine tests are conducted with a braking type dynamometer for constant load energy density tests, and show true energy densities in excess of 1400 WH/lb of fuel. Findings and Conclusions. Theory predicts lithium polymer, the present unmanned system energy storage device of choice, to have much lower energy densities than other conversion energy sources. Small engines designed for efficiency, instead of maximum power, would provide the most advantageous method for powering small unmanned vehicles because these engines have widely variable power output, loss of mass during flight, and generate rotational power directly. Theoretical predictions for the energy density of small engines has been verified through testing. Tested values up to 1400 WH/lb can be seen under proper operating conditions. The implementation of such a high energy density system will require a significant amount of follow-on design work to enable the engines to tolerate the higher temperatures of lean operation. Suggestions are proposed to enable a reliable, small-engine propulsion system in future work. Performance calculations show that a mature system is capable of month long flight times, and unrefueled circumnavigation of the globe.

  14. Deep Space 1's ion engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center, Florida. - Deep Space 1 is lifted from its work platform, giving a closeup view of the experimental solar-powered ion propulsion engine. The ion propulsion engine is the first non-chemical propulsion to be used as the primary means of propelling a spacecraft. The first flight in NASA's New Millennium Program, Deep Space 1 is designed to validate 12 new technologies for scientific space missions of the next century. Another onboard experiment includes software that tracks celestial bodies so the spacecraft can make its own navigation decisions without the intervention of ground controllers. Deep Space 1 will complete most of its mission objectives within the first two months, but may also do a flyby of a near-Earth asteroid, 1992 KD, in July 1999. Deep Space 1 will be launched aboard a Boeing Delta 7326 rocket from Launch Pad 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, in October. Delta II rockets are medium capacity expendable launch vehicles derived from the Delta family of rockets built and launched since 1960. Since then there have been more than 245 Delta launches.

  15. Engines and innovation: Lewis Laboratory and American propulsion technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, Virginia Parker

    1991-01-01

    This book is an institutional history of the NASA Lewis Research Center, located in Cleveland, Ohio, from 1940, when Congress authorized funding for a third laboratory for the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, through the 1980s. The history of the laboratory is discussed in relation to the development of American propulsion technology, with particular focus on the transition in the 1940s from the use of piston engines in airplanes to jet propulsion and that from air-breathing engines to rocket technology when the National Aeronautics and Space Administration was established in 1958. The personalities and research philosophies of the people who shaped the history of the laboratory are discussed, as is the relationship of Lewis Research Center to the Case Institute of Technology.

  16. Ground test facilities for evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion engines and fuel elements

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, G.C.; Beck, D.F.; Harmon, C.D.; Shipers, L.R.

    1992-08-01

    Interagency panels evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion development options have consistently recognized the need for constructing a major new ground test facility to support fuel element and engine testing. This paper summarizes the requirements, configuration, and design issues of a proposed ground test complex for evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion engines and fuel elements being developed for the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program. 2 refs.

  17. Field evaporation ion source with possible application to electrostatic propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weizer, V. G.

    1971-01-01

    Field evaporation of solid metal electrodes has been proposed as an ion source for an electrostatic propulsion device. The chief advantage over existing ion sources is the prospect of 100 percent fuel utilization efficiency. This advantage arises as a result of the elimination of the need for a gaseous precursor state for propellant ionization. The attainment of required high surface field strengths is achieved through field-induced extrusion of the electrode geometry at elevated temperatures. Contributions of both surface and bulk transport mechanisms are taken into account.

  18. The High Power Electric Propulsion (HiPEP) Ion Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, John E.; Haag, Tom; Patterson, Michael; Williams, George J., Jr.; Sovey, James S.; Carpenter, Christian; Kamhawi, Hani; Malone, Shane; Elliot, Fred

    2004-01-01

    Practical implementation of the proposed Jupiter Icy Moon Orbiter (JIMO) mission, which would require a total delta V of approximately 38 km/s, will require the development of a high power, high specific impulse propulsion system. Initial analyses show that high power gridded ion thrusters could satisfy JIMO mission requirements. A NASA GRC-led team is developing a large area, high specific impulse, nominally 25 kW ion thruster to satisfy both the performance and the lifetime requirements for this proposed mission. The design philosophy and development status as well as a thruster performance assessment are presented.

  19. Engine Power Turbine and Propulsion Pod Arrangement Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robuck, Mark; Zhang, Yiyi

    2014-01-01

    A study has been conducted for NASA Glenn Research Center under contract NNC10BA05B, Task NNC11TA80T to identify beneficial arrangements of the turboshaft engine, transmissions and related systems within the propulsion pod nacelle of NASA's Large Civil Tilt-Rotor 2nd iteration (LCTR2) vehicle. Propulsion pod layouts were used to investigate potential advantages, disadvantages, as well as constraints of various arrangements assuming front or aft shafted engines. Results from previous NASA LCTR2 propulsion system studies and tasks performed by Boeing under NASA contracts are used as the basis for this study. This configuration consists of two Fixed Geometry Variable Speed Power Turbine Engines and related drive and rotor systems (per nacelle) arranged in tilting nacelles near the wing tip. Entry-into-service (EIS) 2035 technology is assumed for both the engine and drive systems. The variable speed rotor system changes from 100 percent speed for hover to 54 percent speed for cruise by the means of a two speed gearbox concept developed under previous NASA contracts. Propulsion and drive system configurations that resulted in minimum vehicle gross weight were identified in previous work and used here. Results reported in this study illustrate that a forward shafted engine has a slight weight benefit over an aft shafted engine for the LCTR2 vehicle. Although the aft shafted engines provide a more controlled and centered CG (between hover and cruise), the length of the long rotor shaft and complicated engine exhaust arrangement outweighed the potential benefits. A Multi-Disciplinary Analysis and Optimization (MDAO) approach for transmission sizing was also explored for this study. This tool offers quick analysis of gear loads, bearing lives, efficiencies, etc., through use of commercially available RomaxDESIGNER software. The goal was to create quick methods to explore various concept models. The output results from RomaxDESIGNER have been successfully linked to Boeing

  20. Characterization of advanced electric propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, P. K.

    1982-01-01

    Characteristic parameters of several advanced electric propulsion systems are evaluated and compared. The propulsion systems studied are mass driver, rail gun, argon MPD thruster, hydrogen free radical thruster and mercury electron bombardment ion engine. Overall, ion engines have somewhat better characteristics as compared to the other electric propulsion systems.

  1. Low-Power Ion Propulsion for Small Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Michael J.; Oleson, Steven R.

    1997-01-01

    Analyses were conducted which indicate that sub kW-class ion thrusters may provide performance benefits for near-Earth space commercial and science missions. Small spacecraft applications with masses ranging from 50 to 500 kg and power levels less than 0.5 kW were considered. To demonstrate the efficacy of propulsion systems of this class, two potential missions were chosen as examples; a geosynchronous north-south station keeping application, and an Earth orbit magnetospheric mapping satellite constellation. Xenon ion propulsion system solutions using small thrusters were evaluated for these missions. A payload mass increase of more than 15% is provided by a 300-W ion system for the north-south station keeping mission. A launch vehicle reduction from four to one results from using the ion thruster for the magnetospheric mapping mission. Typical projected thruster performance over the input power envelope of 100-300 W range from approximately 40% to 54% efficiency and approximately 2000 to 3000 seconds specific impulse. Thruster technologies required to achieve the mission-required performance and lifetime are identified.

  2. Hydrodynamic Efficiency of Ablation Propulsion with Pulsed Ion Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Buttapeng, Chainarong; Yazawa, Masaru; Harada, Nobuhiro; Suematsu, Hisayuki; Jiang Weihua; Yatsui, Kiyoshi

    2006-05-02

    This paper presents the hydrodynamic efficiency of ablation plasma produced by pulsed ion beam on the basis of the ion beam-target interaction. We used a one-dimensional hydrodynamic fluid compressible to study the physics involved namely an ablation acceleration behavior and analyzed it as a rocketlike model in order to investigate its hydrodynamic variables for propulsion applications. These variables were estimated by the concept of ablation driven implosion in terms of ablated mass fraction, implosion efficiency, and hydrodynamic energy conversion. Herein, the energy conversion efficiency of 17.5% was achieved. In addition, the results show maximum energy efficiency of the ablation process (ablation efficiency) of 67% meaning the efficiency with which pulsed ion beam energy-ablation plasma conversion. The effects of ion beam energy deposition depth to hydrodynamic efficiency were briefly discussed. Further, an evaluation of propulsive force with high specific impulse of 4000s, total impulse of 34mN and momentum to energy ratio in the range of {mu}N/W was also analyzed.

  3. Simulation of an advanced techniques of ion propulsion Rocket system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakkiyaraj, R.

    2016-07-01

    The ion propulsion rocket system is expected to become popular with the development of Deuterium,Argon gas and Hexagonal shape Magneto hydrodynamic(MHD) techniques because of the stimulation indirectly generated the power from ionization chamber,design of thrust range is 1.2 N with 40 KW of electric power and high efficiency.The proposed work is the study of MHD power generation through ionization level of Deuterium gas and combination of two gaseous ions(Deuterium gas ions + Argon gas ions) at acceleration stage.IPR consists of three parts 1.Hexagonal shape MHD based power generator through ionization chamber 2.ion accelerator 3.Exhaust of Nozzle.Initially the required energy around 1312 KJ/mol is carrying out the purpose of deuterium gas which is changed to ionization level.The ionized Deuterium gas comes out from RF ionization chamber to nozzle through MHD generator with enhanced velocity then after voltage is generated across the two pairs of electrode in MHD.it will produce thrust value with the help of mixing of Deuterium ion and Argon ion at acceleration position.The simulation of the IPR system has been carried out by MATLAB.By comparing the simulation results with the theoretical and previous results,if reaches that the proposed method is achieved of thrust value with 40KW power for simulating the IPR system.

  4. Development Status of the NSTAR Ion Propulsion System Power Processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamley, John A.; Pinero, Luis R.; Rawlin, Vincent K.; Miller, John R.; Cartier, Kevin C.; Bowers, Glen E.

    1995-01-01

    A 0.5-2.3 kW xenon ion propulsion system is presently being developed under the NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Application Readiness (NSTAR) program. This propulsion system includes a 30 cm diameter xenon ion thruster, a Digital Control Interface Unit, a xenon feed system, and a power processing unit (PPU). The PPU consists of the power supply assemblies which operate the thruster neutralizer, main discharge chamber, and ion optics. Also included are recycle logic and a digital microcontroller. The neutralizer and discharge power supplies employ a dual use configuration which combines the functions of two power supplies into one, significantly simplifying the PPU. Further simplification was realized by implementing a single thruster control loop which regulates the beam current via the discharge current. Continuous throttling is possible over a 0.5-2.3 kW output power range. All three power supplies have been fabricated and tested with resistive loads, and have been combined into a single breadboard unit with the recycle logic and microcontroller. All line and load regulation test results show the power supplies to be within the NSTAR flight PPU specified power output of 1.98 kW. The overall efficiency of the PPU, calculated as the combined efficiencies of the power supplies and controller, at 2.3 kW delivered to resistive loads was 0.90. The component was 6.16 kg. Integration testing of the neutralizer and discharge power supplies with a functional model thruster revealed no issues with discharge ignition or steady state operation.

  5. Energy efficient engine. Flight propulsion system preliminary analysis and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, R. P.

    1979-01-01

    The characteristics of an advanced Flight Propulsion System (FPS) suitable for introduction in the late 1980's to early 1990's, were defined. It was determined that NASA goals for efficiency, environmental considerations, and economics could be met or exceeded with the possible exception of NOx emission. In evaluating the FPS, all aspects were considered including component design, performance, weight, initial cost, maintenance cost, engine-system integration (including nacelle), and aircraft integration considerations. In terms of the NASA goals, the current FPS installed specific fuel consumption was reduced 14.2% from that of the CF6-50C reference engine. When integrated into an advanced, subsonic, study transport, the FPS produced a fuel-burn savings of 15 to 23% and a direct operating cost reduction of 5 to 12% depending on the mission and study-aircraft characteristics relative to the reference engine.

  6. Energy efficient engine: Flight propulsion system preliminary analysis and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, R. P.; Beitler, R. S.; Bobinger, R. O.; Broman, C. L.; Gravitt, R. D.; Heineke, H.; Holloway, P. R.; Klem, J. S.; Nash, D. O.; Ortiz, P.

    1980-01-01

    The characteristics of an advanced flight propulsion system (FPS), suitable for introduction in the late 1980's to early 1990's, was more fully defined. It was determined that all goals for efficiency, environmental considerations, and economics could be met or exceeded with the possible exception of NOx emission. In evaluating the FPS, all aspects were considered including component design, performance, weight, initial cost, maintenance cost, engine system integration (including nacelle), and aircraft integration considerations. The current FPS installed specific fuel consumption was reduced 14.2% from that of the CF6-50C reference engine. When integrated into an advanced, subsonic, study transport, the FPS produced a fuel burn savings of 15 to 23% and a direct operating cost reduction of 5 to 12% depending on the mission and study aircraft characteristics relative to the reference engine.

  7. Completely modular Thermionic Reactor Ion Propulsion System (TRIPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peelgren, M. L.; Kikin, G. M.; Sawyer, C. D.

    1972-01-01

    The nuclear reactor powered ion propulsion system described is an advanced completely modularized system which lends itself to development of prototype and/or flight type components without the need for complete system tests until late in the development program. This modularity is achieved in all of the subsystems and components of the electric propulsion system including (1) the thermionic fuel elements, (2) the heat rejection subsystem (heat pipes), (3) the power conditioning modules, and (4) the ion thrusters. Both flashlight and external fuel type in-core thermionic reactors are considered as the power source. The thermionic fuel elements would be useful over a range of reactor power levels. Electrical heated acceptance testing in their flight configuration is possible for the external fuel case. Nuclear heated testing by sampling methods could be used for acceptance testing of flashlight fuel elements. The use of heat pipes for cooling the collectors and as a means of heat transport to the radiator allows early prototype or flight configuration testing of a small module of the heat rejection subsystem as opposed to full scale liquid metal pumps and radiators in a large vacuum chamber. The power conditioner (p/c) is arranged in modules with passive cooling.

  8. Characterization of in-flight performance of ion propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovey, James S.; Rawlin, Vincent K.

    1993-01-01

    In-flight measurements of ion propulsion performance, ground test calibrations, and diagnostic performance measurements were reviewed. It was found that accelerometers provided the most accurate in-flight thrust measurements compared with four other methods that were surveyed. An experiment has also demonstrated that pre-flight alignment of the thrust vector was sufficiently accurate so that gimbal adjustments and use of attitude control thrusters were not required to counter disturbance torques caused by thrust vector misalignment. The effects of facility background pressure, facility enhanced charge-exchange reactions, and contamination on ground-based performance measurements are also discussed. Vacuum facility pressures for inert-gas ion thruster life tests and flight qualification tests will have to be less than 2 mPa to ensure accurate performance measurements.

  9. NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster: The NEXT Ion Propulsion System for Solar System Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pencil, Eric J.; Benson, Scott W.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA s Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) Ion Propulsion system. The NEXT project is developing a solar electric ion propulsion system. The NEXT project is advancing the capability of ion propulsion to meet NASA robotic science mission needs. The NEXT system is planned to significantly improve performance over the state of the art electric propulsion systems, such as NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Application Readiness (NSTAR). The status of NEXT development is reviewed, including information on the NEXT Thruster, the power processing unit, the propellant management system (PMS), the digital control interface unit, and the gimbal. Block diagrams NEXT system are presented. Also a review of the lessons learned from the Dawn and NSTAR systems is provided. In summary the NEXT project activities through 2007 have brought next-generation ion propulsion technology to a sufficient maturity level.

  10. Mission Benefits of Gridded Ion and Hall Thruster Hybrid Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dankanich, John W.; Polsgrove, Tara

    2006-01-01

    The NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) Project Office has been developing the NEXT gridded ion thruster system and is planning to procure a low power Hall system. The new ion propulsion systems will join NSTAR as NASA's primary electric propulsion system options. Studies have been performed to show mission benefits of each of the stand alone systems. A hybrid ion propulsion system (IPS) can have the advantage of reduced cost, decreased flight time and greater science payload delivery over comparable homogeneous systems. This paper explores possible advantages of combining various thruster options for a single mission.

  11. Civil helicopter propulsion system reliability and engine monitoring technology assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, J. A.; Zuk, J.

    1982-01-01

    A study to reduce operating costs of helicopters, particularly directed at the maintenance of the propulsion subsystem, is presented. The tasks of the study consisted of problem definition refinement, technology solutions, diagnostic system concepts, and emergency power augmentation. Quantifiable benefits (reduced fuel consumption, on-condition engine maintenance, extended drive system overhaul periods, and longer oil change intervals) would increase the initial cost by $43,000, but the benefit of $24.46 per hour would result in breakeven at 1758 hours. Other benefits not capable of being quantified but perhaps more important include improved aircraft avilability due to reduced maintenance time, potential for increased operating limits due to continuous automatic monitoring of gages, and less time and fuel required to make engine power checks. The most important improvement is the on-condition maintenance program, which will require the development of algorithms, equipment, and procedures compatible with all operating environments.

  12. The Case for Intelligent Propulsion Control for Fast Engine Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litt, Jonathan S.; Frederick, Dean K.; Guo, Ten-Huei

    2009-01-01

    Damaged aircraft have occasionally had to rely solely on thrust to maneuver as a consequence of losing hydraulic power needed to operate flight control surfaces. The lack of successful landings in these cases inspired research into more effective methods of utilizing propulsion-only control. That research demonstrated that one of the major contributors to the difficulty in landing is the slow response of the engines as compared to using traditional flight control. To address this, research is being conducted into ways of making the engine more responsive under emergency conditions. This can be achieved by relaxing controller limits, adjusting schedules, and/or redesigning the regulators to increase bandwidth. Any of these methods can enable faster response at the potential expense of engine life and increased likelihood of stall. However, an example sensitivity analysis revealed a complex interaction of the limits and the difficulty in predicting the way to achieve the fastest response. The sensitivity analysis was performed on a realistic engine model, and demonstrated that significantly faster engine response can be achieved compared to standard Bill of Material control. However, the example indicates the need for an intelligent approach to controller limit adjustment in order for the potential to be fulfilled.

  13. A tissue-engineered jellyfish with biomimetic propulsion.

    PubMed

    Nawroth, Janna C; Lee, Hyungsuk; Feinberg, Adam W; Ripplinger, Crystal M; McCain, Megan L; Grosberg, Anna; Dabiri, John O; Parker, Kevin Kit

    2012-08-01

    Reverse engineering of biological form and function requires hierarchical design over several orders of space and time. Recent advances in the mechanistic understanding of biosynthetic compound materials, computer-aided design approaches in molecular synthetic biology 4,5 and traditional soft robotics, and increasing aptitude in generating structural and chemical micro environments that promote cellular self-organization have enhanced the ability to recapitulate such hierarchical architecture in engineered biological systems. Here we combined these capabilities in a systematic design strategy to reverse engineer a muscular pump. We report the construction of a freely swimming jellyfish from chemically dissociated rat tissue and silicone polymer as a proof of concept. The constructs, termed 'medusoids', were designed with computer simulations and experiments to match key determinants of jellyfish propulsion and feeding performance by quantitatively mimicking structural design, stroke kinematics and animal-fluid interactions. The combination of the engineering design algorithm with quantitative benchmarks of physiological performance suggests that our strategy is broadly applicable to reverse engineering of muscular organs or simple life forms that pump to survive. PMID:22820316

  14. A tissue-engineered jellyfish with biomimetic propulsion

    PubMed Central

    Nawroth, Janna C; Lee, Hyungsuk; Feinberg, Adam W; Ripplinger, Crystal M; McCain, Megan L; Grosberg, Anna; Dabiri, John O; Parker, Kevin Kit

    2014-01-01

    Reverse engineering of biological form and function requires hierarchical design over several orders of space and time. Recent advances in the mechanistic understanding of biosynthetic compound materials1–3, computer-aided design approaches in molecular synthetic biology4,5 and traditional soft robotics6,7, and increasing aptitude in generating structural and chemical microenvironments that promote cellular self-organization8–10 have enhanced the ability to recapitulate such hierarchical architecture in engineered biological systems. Here we combined these capabilities in a systematic design strategy to reverse engineer a muscular pump. We report the construction of a freely swimming jellyfish from chemically dissociated rat tissue and silicone polymer as a proof of concept. The constructs, termed ‘medusoids’, were designed with computer simulations and experiments to match key determinants of jellyfish propulsion and feeding performance by quantitatively mimicking structural design, stroke kinematics and animal-fluid interactions. The combination of the engineering design algorithm with quantitative benchmarks of physiological performance suggests that our strategy is broadly applicable to reverse engineering of muscular organs or simple life forms that pump to survive. PMID:22820316

  15. Energy efficient engine flight propulsion system: Aircraft/engine integration evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patt, R. F.

    1980-01-01

    Results of aircraft/engine integration studies conducted on an advanced flight propulsion system are reported. Economic evaluations of the preliminary design are included and indicate that program goals will be met. Installed sfc, DOC, noise, and emissions were evaluated. Aircraft installation considerations and growth were reviewed.

  16. Engine System Model Development for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Karl W.; Simpson, Steven P.

    2006-01-01

    In order to design, analyze, and evaluate conceptual Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) engine systems, an improved NTP design and analysis tool has been developed. The NTP tool utilizes the Rocket Engine Transient Simulation (ROCETS) system tool and many of the routines from the Enabler reactor model found in Nuclear Engine System Simulation (NESS). Improved non-nuclear component models and an external shield model were added to the tool. With the addition of a nearly complete system reliability model, the tool will provide performance, sizing, and reliability data for NERVA-Derived NTP engine systems. A new detailed reactor model is also being developed and will replace Enabler. The new model will allow more flexibility in reactor geometry and include detailed thermal hydraulics and neutronics models. A description of the reactor, component, and reliability models is provided. Another key feature of the modeling process is the use of comprehensive spreadsheets for each engine case. The spreadsheets include individual worksheets for each subsystem with data, plots, and scaled figures, making the output very useful to each engineering discipline. Sample performance and sizing results with the Enabler reactor model are provided including sensitivities. Before selecting an engine design, all figures of merit must be considered including the overall impacts on the vehicle and mission. Evaluations based on key figures of merit of these results and results with the new reactor model will be performed. The impacts of clustering and external shielding will also be addressed. Over time, the reactor model will be upgraded to design and analyze other NTP concepts with CERMET and carbide fuel cores.

  17. Noble gas storage and delivery system for ion propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Back, Dwight Douglas (Inventor); Ramos, Charlie (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A method and system for storing and delivering a noble gas for an ion propulsion system where an adsorbent bearing a noble gas is heated within a storage vessel to desorb the noble gas which is then flowed through a pressure reduction device to a thruster assembly. The pressure and flow is controlled using a flow restrictor and low wattage heater which heats an adsorbent bed containing the noble gas propellant at low pressures. Flow rates of 5-60 sccm can be controlled to within about 0.5% or less and the required input power is generally less than 50 W. This noble gas storage and delivery system and method can be used for earth orbit satellites, and lunar or planetary space missions.

  18. Enabling propulsion materials for high-speed civil transport engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, Joseph R.; Herbell, Thomas P.

    1992-01-01

    NASA Headquarters and LeRC have advocated an Enabling Propulsion Materials Program (EPM) to begin in FY-92. The High Speed Research Phase 1 program which began in FY-90 has focused on the environmental acceptability of a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). Studies by industry, including Boeing, McDonnell Douglas, GE Aircraft Engines, and Pratt & Whitney Aircraft, and in-house studies by NASA concluded that NO(x) emissions and airport noise reduction can only be economically achieved by revolutionary advancements in materials technologies. This is especially true of materials for the propulsion system where the combustor is the key to maintaining low emissions, and the exhaust nozzle is the key to reducing airport noise to an acceptable level. Both of these components will rely on high temperature composite materials that can withstand the conditions imposed by commercial aircraft operations. The proposed EPM program will operate in conjunction with the HSR Phase 1 Program and the planned HSR Phase 2 program slated to start in FY-93. Components and subcomponents developed from advanced materials will be evaluated in the HSR Phase 2 Program.

  19. Key Reliability Drivers of Liquid Propulsion Engines and A Reliability Model for Sensitivity Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Zhao-Feng; Fint, Jeffry A.; Kuck, Frederick M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper is to address the in-flight reliability of a liquid propulsion engine system for a launch vehicle. We first establish a comprehensive list of system and sub-system reliability drivers for any liquid propulsion engine system. We then build a reliability model to parametrically analyze the impact of some reliability parameters. We present sensitivity analysis results for a selected subset of the key reliability drivers using the model. Reliability drivers identified include: number of engines for the liquid propulsion stage, single engine total reliability, engine operation duration, engine thrust size, reusability, engine de-rating or up-rating, engine-out design (including engine-out switching reliability, catastrophic fraction, preventable failure fraction, unnecessary shutdown fraction), propellant specific hazards, engine start and cutoff transient hazards, engine combustion cycles, vehicle and engine interface and interaction hazards, engine health management system, engine modification, engine ground start hold down with launch commit criteria, engine altitude start (1 in. start), Multiple altitude restart (less than 1 restart), component, subsystem and system design, manufacturing/ground operation support/pre and post flight check outs and inspection, extensiveness of the development program. We present some sensitivity analysis results for the following subset of the drivers: number of engines for the propulsion stage, single engine total reliability, engine operation duration, engine de-rating or up-rating requirements, engine-out design, catastrophic fraction, preventable failure fraction, unnecessary shutdown fraction, and engine health management system implementation (basic redlines and more advanced health management systems).

  20. Antiproton powered propulsion with magnetically confined plasma engines

    SciTech Connect

    Lapointe, M.R.

    1989-08-01

    Matter-antimatter annihilation releases more energy per unit mass than any other method of energy production, making it an attractive energy source for spacecraft propulsion. In the magnetically confined plasma engine, antiproton beams are injected axially into a pulsed magnetic mirror system, where they annihilate with an initially neutral hydrogen gas. The resulting charged annihilation products transfer energy to the hydrogen propellant, which is then exhausted through one end of the pulsed mirror system to provide thrust. The calculated energy transfer efficiencies for a low number density (10(14)/cu cm) hydrogen propellant are insufficient to warrant operating the engine in this mode. Efficiencies are improved using moderate propellant number densities (10(16)/cu cm), but the energy transferred to the plasma in a realistic magnetic mirror system is generally limited to less than 2 percent of the initial proton-antiproton annihilation energy. The energy transfer efficiencies are highest for high number density (10(18)/cu cm) propellants, but plasma temperatures are reduced by excessive radiation losses. Low to moderate thrust over a wide range of specific impulse can be generated with moderate propellant number densities, while higher thrust but lower specific impulse may be generated using high propellant number densities. Significant mass will be required to shield the superconducting magnet coils from the high energy gamma radiation emitted by neutral pion decay. The mass of such a radiation shield may dominate the total engine mass, and could severely diminish the performance of antiproton powered engines which utilize magnetic confinement. The problem is compounded in the antiproton powered plasma engine, where lower energy plasma bremsstrahlung radiation may cause shield surface ablation and degradation.

  1. Antiproton powered propulsion with magnetically confined plasma engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapointe, Michael R.

    1989-01-01

    Matter-antimatter annihilation releases more energy per unit mass than any other method of energy production, making it an attractive energy source for spacecraft propulsion. In the magnetically confined plasma engine, antiproton beams are injected axially into a pulsed magnetic mirror system, where they annihilate with an initially neutral hydrogen gas. The resulting charged annihilation products transfer energy to the hydrogen propellant, which is then exhausted through one end of the pulsed mirror system to provide thrust. The calculated energy transfer efficiencies for a low number density (10(14)/cu cm) hydrogen propellant are insufficient to warrant operating the engine in this mode. Efficiencies are improved using moderate propellant number densities (10(16)/cu cm), but the energy transferred to the plasma in a realistic magnetic mirror system is generally limited to less than 2 percent of the initial proton-antiproton annihilation energy. The energy transfer efficiencies are highest for high number density (10(18)/cu cm) propellants, but plasma temperatures are reduced by excessive radiation losses. Low to moderate thrust over a wide range of specific impulse can be generated with moderate propellant number densities, while higher thrust but lower specific impulse may be generated using high propellant number densities. Significant mass will be required to shield the superconducting magnet coils from the high energy gamma radiation emitted by neutral pion decay. The mass of such a radiation shield may dominate the total engine mass, and could severely diminish the performance of antiproton powered engines which utilize magnetic confinement. The problem is compounded in the antiproton powered plasma engine, where lower energy plasma bremsstrahlung radiation may cause shield surface ablation and degradation.

  2. Test bed ion engine development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aston, G.; Deininger, W. D.

    1984-01-01

    A test bed ion (TBI) engine was developed to serve as a tool in exploring the limits of electrostatic ion thruster performance. A description of three key ion engine components, the decoupled extraction and amplified current (DE-AC) accelerator system, field enhanced refractory metal (FERM) hollow cathode and divergent line cusp (DLC) discharge chamber, whose designs and operating philosophies differ markedly from conventional thruster technology is given. Significant program achievements were: (1) high current density DE-AC accelerator system operation at low electric field stress with indicated feasibility of a 60 mA/sq cm argon ion beam; (2) reliable FERM cathode start up times of 1 to 2 secs. and demonstrated 35 ampere emission levels; (3) DLC discharge chamber plasma potentials negative of anode potential; and (4) identification of an efficient high plasma density engine operating mode. Using the performance projections of this program and reasonable estimates of other parameter values, a 1.0 Newton thrust ion engine is identified as a realizable technology goal. Calculations show that such an engine, comparable in beam area to a J series 30 cm thruster, could, operating on Xe or Hg, have thruster efficiencies as high as 0.76 and 0.78 respectively, with a 100 eV/ion discharge loss.

  3. Ion Engine Grid Gap Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soulas, Gerge C.; Frandina, Michael M.

    2004-01-01

    A simple technique for measuring the grid gap of an ion engine s ion optics during startup and steady-state operation was demonstrated with beam extraction. The grid gap at the center of the ion optics assembly was measured with a long distance microscope that was focused onto an alumina pin that protruded through the center accelerator grid aperture and was mechanically attached to the screen grid. This measurement technique was successfully applied to a 30 cm titanium ion optics assembly mounted onto an NSTAR engineering model ion engine. The grid gap and each grid s movement during startup from room temperature to both full and low power were measured. The grid gaps with and without beam extraction were found to be significantly different. The grid gaps at the ion optics center were both significantly smaller than the cold grid gap and different at the two power levels examined. To avoid issues associated with a small grid gap during thruster startup with titanium ion optics, a simple method was to operate the thruster initially without beam extraction to heat the ion optics. Another possible method is to apply high voltage to the grids prior to igniting the discharge because power deposition to the grids from the plasma is lower with beam extraction than without. Further testing would be required to confirm this approach.

  4. Energy Efficient Engine Flight Propulsion System Preliminary Analysis and Design Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bisset, J. W.; Howe, D. C.

    1983-01-01

    The final design and analysis of the flight propulsion system is presented. This system is the conceptual study engine defined to meet the performance, economic and environmental goals established for the Energy Efficient Engine Program. The design effort included a final definition of the engine, major components, internal subsystems, and nacelle. Various analytical representations and results from component technology programs are used to verify aerodynamic and structural design concepts and to predict performance. Specific design goals and specifications, reflecting future commercial aircraft propulsion system requirements for the mid-1980's, are detailed by NASA and used as guidelines during engine definition. Information is also included which details salient results from a separate study to define a turbofan propulsion system, known as the maximum efficiency engine, which reoptimized the advanced fuel saving technologies for improved fuel economy and direct operating costs relative to the flight propulsion system.

  5. Successful completion of a cyclic ground test of a mercury Ion Auxiliary Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francisco, David R.; Low, Charles A., Jr.; Power, John L.

    1988-01-01

    An engineering model Ion Auxiliary Propulsion System (IAPS) 8-cm thruster (S/N 905) has completed a life test at NASA Lewis Research Center. The mercury ion thruster successfully completed and exceeded the test goals of 2557 on/off cycles and 7057 hr of operation at full thrust. The final 1200 cycles and 3600 hr of the life test were conducted using an engineering model of the IAPS power electronics unit (PEU) and breadboard digital controller and interface unit (DCIU). This portion of the test is described in this paper with a charted history of thruster operating parameters and off-normal events. Performance and operating characteristics were constant throughout the test with only minor variations. The engineering model power electronics unit operated without malfunction; the flight software in the digital controller and interface unit was exercised and verified. Post-test inspection of the thruster revealed facility enhanced accelerator grid erosion but overall the thruster was in good condition. It was concluded that the thruster performance was not drastically degraded by time or cycles. Additional cyclic testing is currently under consideration.

  6. Successful completion of a cyclic ground test of a mercury ion auxiliary propulsion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francisco, David R.; Low, Charles A., Jr.; Power, John L.

    1988-01-01

    An engineering model Ion Auxiliary Propulsion System (IAPS) 8-cm thruster (S/N 905) has completed a life test at NASA Lewis Research Center. The mercury ion thruster successfully completed and exceeded the test goals of 2557 on/off cycles and 7057 hr of operation at full thrust. The final 1200 cycles and 3600 hr of the life test were conducted using an engineering model of the IAPS power electronics unit (PEU) and breadboard digital controller and interface unit (DCIU). This portion of the test is described in this paper with a charted history of thruster operating parameters and off-normal events. Performance and operating characteristics were constant throughout the test with only minor variations. The engineering model power electronics unit operated without malfunction; the flight software in the digital controller and interface unit was exercised and verified. Post-test inspection of the thruster revealed facility enhanced accelerator grid erosion but overall the thruster was in good condition. It was concluded that the thruster performance was not drastically degraded by time or cycles. Additional cyclic testing is currently under consideration.

  7. Subsonic flight test evaluation of a propulsion system parameter estimation process for the F100 engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orme, John S.; Gilyard, Glenn B.

    1992-01-01

    An adaptive-performance-seeking control system which optimizes the quasi-steady-state performance of the F-15 propulsion system is discussed. This paper presents flight- and ground-test evaluations of the propulsion system parameter-estimation process used by the performance seeking control system. The estimator consists of a compact propulsion system model and an extended Kalman filter. The extended Kalman filter estimates five engine component deviation parameters from measured inputs. The compact model uses measurements and Kalman-filter estimates as inputs to predict unmeasured propulsion parameters such as net propulsive force and fan stall margin. The ability to track trends and estimate absolute values of propulsion system parameters was demonstrated. For example, thrust stand results show a good correlation especially in trends between the performance seeking control estimated and measured thrust.

  8. Structured system engineering methodologies used to develop a nuclear thermal propulsion engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corban, R.; Wagner, R.

    1993-01-01

    To facilitate the development of a space nuclear thermal propulsion engine for manned flights to Mars, requirements must be established early in the technology development cycle. The long lead times for the acquisition of the engine system and nuclear test facilities demands that the engine system size, performance and safety goals be defined at the earliest possible time. These systems are highly complex and require a large multidisciplinary systems engineering team to develop and track requirements, and to ensure that the as-built system reflects the intent of the mission. A methodology has been devised which uses sophisticated computer tools to effectively develop and interpret functional requirements, and furnish these to the specification level for implementation.

  9. A cyclic ground test of an ion auxiliary propulsion system: Description and operational considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ling, Jerri S.; Kramer, Edward H.

    1988-01-01

    The Ion Auxiliary Propulsion System (IAPS) experiment is designed for launch on an Air Force Space Test Program satellite (NASA-TM-78859; AIAA Paper No. 78-647). The primary objective of the experiment is to flight qualify the 8 cm mercury ion thruster system for stationkeeping applications. Secondary objectives are measuring the interactions between operating ion thruster systems and host spacecraft, and confirming the design performance of the thruster systems. Two complete 8 cm mercury ion thruster subsystems will be flown. One of these will be operated for 2557 on and off cycles and 7057 hours at full thrust. Tests are currently under way in support of the IAPS flight experiment. In this test an IAPS thruster is being operated through a series of startup/run/shut-down cycles which simulate thruster operation during the planned flight experiment. A test facility description and operational considerations of this testing using an engineering model 8 cm thruster (S/N 905) is the subject of this paper. Final results will be published at a later date when the ground test has been concluded.

  10. Electrical Prototype Power Processor for the 30-cm Mercury electric propulsion engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biess, J. J.; Frye, R. J.

    1978-01-01

    An Electrical Prototpye Power Processor has been designed to the latest electrical and performance requirements for a flight-type 30-cm ion engine and includes all the necessary power, command, telemetry and control interfaces for a typical electric propulsion subsystem. The power processor was configured into seven separate mechanical modules that would allow subassembly fabrication, test and integration into a complete power processor unit assembly. The conceptual mechanical packaging of the electrical prototype power processor unit demonstrated the relative location of power, high voltage and control electronic components to minimize electrical interactions and to provide adequate thermal control in a vacuum environment. Thermal control was accomplished with a heat pipe simulator attached to the base of the modules.

  11. Recovering Residual Xenon Propellant for an Ion Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganapathi, Gani; Skakkottai, P.; wu, Jiunn Jeng

    2006-01-01

    Future nuclear-powered Ion-Propulsion- System-propelled spacecraft such as Jupiter Icy Moon Orbiter (JIMO) will carry more than 10,000 kg of xenon propellant. Typically, a small percentage of this propellant cannot be used towards the end of the mission because of the pressure drop requirements for maintaining flow. For large missions such as JIMO, this could easily translate to over 250 kg of unusable xenon. A proposed system, the Xenon Recovery System (XRS), for recovering almost all of the xenon remaining in the tank, would include a cryopump in the form of a condenser/evaporator that would be alternatively cooled by a radiator, then heated electrically. When the pressure of the xenon in the tank falls below 0.7 MPa (100 psia), the previously isolated XRS will be brought online and the gas from the tank would enter the cryopump that is initially cooled to a temperature below saturation temperature of xenon. This causes xenon liquefaction and further cryopumping from the tank till the cryopump is full of liquid xenon. At this point, the cryopump is heated electrically by small heaters (70 to 80 W) to evaporate the liquid that is collected as high-pressure gas (<7 MPa; 1,000 psia) in an intermediate accumulator. Check valves between the tank and the XRS prevent the reverse flow of xenon during the heating cycle. The accumulator serves as the high-pressure source of xenon gas to the Xenon Feed System (XFS) downstream of the XRS. This cycle is repeated till almost all the xenon is recovered. Currently, this system is being baselined for JIMO.

  12. Environmental Testing of the NEXT PM1R Ion Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, John S.; Anderson, John R.; VanNoord, Jonathan L.; Soulas, George C.

    2007-01-01

    The NEXT propulsion system is an advanced ion propulsion system presently under development that is oriented towards robotic exploration of the solar system using solar electric power. The subsystem includes an ion engine, power processing unit, feed system components, and thruster gimbal. The Prototype Model engine PM1 was subjected to qualification-level environmental testing in 2006 to demonstrate compatibility with environments representative of anticipated mission requirements. Although the testing was largely successful, several issues were identified including the fragmentation of potting cement on the discharge and neutralizer cathode heater terminations during vibration which led to abbreviated thermal testing, and generation of particulate contamination from manufacturing processes and engine materials. The engine was reworked to address most of these findings, renamed PM1R, and the environmental test sequence was repeated. Thruster functional testing was performed before and after the vibration and thermal-vacuum tests. Random vibration testing, conducted with the thruster mated to the breadboard gimbal, was executed at 10.0 Grms for 2 min in each of three axes. Thermal-vacuum testing included three thermal cycles from 120 to 215 C with hot engine re-starts. Thruster performance was nominal throughout the test program, with minor variations in a few engine operating parameters likely caused by facility effects. There were no significant changes in engine performance as characterized by engine operating parameters, ion optics performance measurements, and beam current density measurements, indicating no significant changes to the hardware as a result of the environmental testing. The NEXT PM1R engine and the breadboard gimbal were found to be well-designed against environmental requirements based on the results reported herein. The redesigned cathode heater terminations successfully survived the vibration environments. Based on the results of this test

  13. Thermal Environmental Testing of NSTAR Engineering Model Ion Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawlin, Vincent K.; Patterson, Michael J.; Becker, Raymond A.

    1999-01-01

    NASA's New Millenium program will fly a xenon ion propulsion system on the Deep Space 1 Mission. Tests were conducted under NASA's Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Applications Readiness (NSTAR) Program with 3 different engineering model ion thrusters to determine thruster thermal characteristics over the NSTAR operating range in a variety of thermal environments. A liquid nitrogen-cooled shroud was used to cold-soak the thruster to -120 C. Initial tests were performed prior to a mature spacecraft design. Those results and the final, severe, requirements mandated by the spacecraft led to several changes to the basic thermal design. These changes were incorporated into a final design and tested over a wide range of environmental conditions.

  14. In-Flight Operation of the Dawn Ion Propulsion System - The First Nine Months

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garner, Charles E.; Brophy, John R.; Mikes, Steven C.; Raymond, Marc D.

    2008-01-01

    The Dawn mission, part of NASA's Discovery Program, has as its goal the scientific exploration of the two most massive main-belt asteroids, Vesta and Ceres. The Dawn spacecraft was launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station on September 27, 2007 on a Delta-II 7925H-9.5 (Delta-II Heavy) rocket that placed the 1218 kg spacecraft into an Earth-escape trajectory. On-board the spacecraft is an ion propulsion system (IPS) which will provide most of the delta-V needed for heliocentric transfer to Vesta, orbit capture at Vesta, transfer to Vesta science orbits, departure and escape from Vesta, heliocentric transfer to Ceres, orbit capture at Ceres, and transfer to Ceres science orbits. The Dawn ion engine design is based on the design validated on NASA's Deep Space 1 mission. However, because of the very substantial (11 km/s) delta-V requirements for this mission Dawn requires two engines to complete its mission objectives. The power processor units (PPU), digital control and interface units (DCIU) slice boards and the xenon control assembly (XCA) are also based on the DS1 design. The DCIUs and thrust gimbal assemblies (TGA) were developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The spacecraft was provided by Orbital Sciences Corporation, Sterling, Virginia, and the mission is managed by and operated from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Dawn partnered with Germany, Italy and Los Alamos National Laboratory for the science instruments. The mission is led by the principal investigator, Dr. Christopher Russell, from the University of California, Los Angeles. The first 80 days after launch were dedicated to the initial checkout of the spacecraft prior to the initiation of long-term thrusting for the heliocentric transfer to Vesta. The IPS hardware, consisting of three ion thrusters and TGAs, two PPUs and DCIUs, xenon feed system, and spacecraft control software, was investigated extensively. Thrust measurements, roll torque measurements, pointing capabilities, control

  15. Primary propulsion of electrothermal, ion, and chemical systems for space-based radar orbit transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, S.-Y.; Staiger, P. J.

    1985-01-01

    An orbit transfer mission concept has been studied for a Space-Based Radar (SBR) where 40 kW required for radar operation is assumed available for orbit transfer propulsion. Arcjet, pulsed electrothermal (PET), ion, and storable chemical systems are considered for the primary propulsion. Transferring two SBR per shuttle flight to 1112 km/60 deg using eiectrical propulsion systems offers an increased payload at the expense of increased trip time, up to 2000 kg each, which may be critical for survivability. Trade offs between payload mass, transfer time, launch site, inclination, and height of parking orbits are presented.

  16. Primary propulsion of electrothermal, ion and chemical systems for space-based radar orbit transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, S. Y.; Staiger, P. J.

    1985-01-01

    An orbit transfer mission concept has been studied for a Space-Based Radar (SBR) where 40 kW required for radar operation is assumed available for orbit transfer propulsion. Arcjet, pulsed electrothermal (PET), ion, and storable chemical systems are considered for the primary propulsion. Transferring two SBR per shuttle flight to 1112 km/60 deg using electrical propulsion systems offers an increased payload at the expense of increased trip time, up to 2000 kg each, which may be critical for survivability. Trade offs between payload mass, transfer time, launch site, inclination, and height of parking orbits are presented.

  17. Planned flight test of a mercury ion auxiliary propulsion system. II - Integration with host spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, R. M.

    1978-01-01

    This is part II of a three-part paper describing the approved flight test of a mercury ion auxiliary propulsion system. The objectives of the flight test are summarized with reference to user application. The approach to accomplishment is presented as it applies to integrating the propulsion system with the host spacecraft, USAF's STP P80-1. A number of known interface design considerations which affect the propulsion system and the spacecraft are discussed. Finally, analogies are drawn comparing the relationship of the organizations involved with this flight test with those anticipated for future operational missions. Attention is given to the viewpoint of the project office

  18. Solar Thermal Propulsion Optical Figure Measuring and Rocket Engine Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonometti, Joseph

    1997-01-01

    Solar thermal propulsion has been an important area of study for four years at the Propulsion Research Center. Significant resources have been devoted to the development of the UAH Solar Thermal Laboratory that provides unique, high temperature, test capabilities. The facility is fully operational and has successfully conducted a series of solar thruster shell experiments. Although presently dedicated to solar thermal propulsion, the facility has application to a variety of material processing, power generation, environmental clean-up, and other fundamental research studies. Additionally, the UAH Physics Department has joined the Center in support of an in-depth experimental investigation on Solar Thermal Upper Stage (STUS) concentrators. Laboratory space has been dedicated to the concentrator evaluation in the UAH Optics Building which includes a vertical light tunnel. Two, on-going, research efforts are being sponsored through NASA MSFC (Shooting Star Flight Experiment) and the McDonnell Douglas Corporation (Solar Thermal Upper Stage Technology Ground Demonstrator).

  19. Electric propulsion cost estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, B. A.

    1985-01-01

    A parametric cost model for mercury ion propulsion modules is presented. A detailed work breakdown structure is included. Cost estimating relationships were developed for the individual subsystems and the nonhardware items (systems engineering, software, etc.). Solar array and power processor unit (PPU) costs are the significant cost drivers. Simplification of both of these subsystems through applications of advanced technology (lightweight solar arrays and high-efficiency, self-radiating PPUs) can reduce costs. Comparison of the performance and cost of several chemical propulsion systems with the Hg ion module are also presented. For outer-planet missions, advanced solar electric propulsion (ASEP) trip times and O2/H2 propulsion trip times are comparable. A three-year trip time savings over the baselined NTO/MMH propulsion system is possible with ASEP.

  20. System engineering of a nuclear electric propulsion testbed spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, G. E.; Herbert, G. A.

    1993-06-01

    A mission concept aimed at evaluating performance of a Russian Space Nuclear Power System (SNPS) and electric thrusters to be consistent with U.S. safety standards is discussed. Solutions of unique nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) problems optimized for the Nuclear Electric Propulsion Test Program (NEPSTP) are considered. The problems include radiation, thermal management, safety, ground processing concerns of a nuclear payload, the launch of an NEP payload, orbital operations, electromagnetic compatibility, contamination, guidance and control, and a power system. Attention is also given to preliminary spacecraft and mission design developed taking into account all aforementioned problems.

  1. Current Density Measurements of an Annular-Geometry Ion Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shastry, Rohit; Patterson, Michael J.; Herman, Daniel A.; Foster, John E.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of the annular-geometry ion engine, or AGI-Engine, has been shown to have many potential benefits when scaling electric propulsion technologies to higher power. However, the necessary asymmetric location of the discharge cathode away from thruster centerline could potentially lead to non-uniformities in the discharge not present in conventional geometry ion thrusters. In an effort to characterize the degree of this potential nonuniformity, a number of current density measurements were taken on a breadboard AGI-Engine. Fourteen button probes were used to measure the ion current density of the discharge along a perforated electrode that replaced the ion optics during conditions of simulated beam extraction. Three Faraday probes spaced apart in the vertical direction were also used in a separate test to interrogate the plume of the AGI-Engine during true beam extraction. It was determined that both the discharge and the plume of the AGI-Engine are highly uniform, with variations under most conditions limited to 10% of the average current density in the discharge and 5% of the average current density in the plume. Beam flatness parameter measured 30 mm from the ion optics ranged from 0.85 0.95, and overall uniformity was shown to generally increase with increasing discharge and beam currents. These measurements indicate that the plasma is highly uniform despite the asymmetric location of the discharge cathode.

  2. Current Density Measurements of an Annular-Geometry Ion Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shastry, Rohit; Patterson, Michael J.; Herman, Daniel A.; Foster, John E.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of the annular-geometry ion engine, or AGI-Engine, has been shown to have many potential benefits when scaling electric propulsion technologies to higher power. However, the necessary asymmetric location of the discharge cathode away from thruster centerline could potentially lead to non-uniformities in the discharge not present in conventional geometry ion thrusters. In an effort to characterize the degree of this potential non-uniformity, a number of current density measurements were taken on a breadboard AGI-Engine. Fourteen button probes were used to measure the ion current density of the discharge along a perforated electrode that replaced the ion optics during conditions of simulated beam extraction. Three Faraday probes spaced apart in the vertical direction were also used in a separate test to interrogate the plume of the AGI-Engine during true beam extraction. It was determined that both the discharge and the plume of the AGI-Engine are highly uniform, with variations under most conditions limited to +/-10% of the average current density in the discharge and +/-5% of the average current density in the plume. Beam flatness parameter measured 30 mm from the ion optics ranged from 0.85 - 0.95, and overall uniformity was shown to generally increase with increasing discharge and beam currents. These measurements indicate that the plasma is highly uniform despite the asymmetric location of the discharge cathode.

  3. Deep Space 1 Using its Ion Engine (Artist's Concept)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    NASA's New Millennium Deep Space 1 spacecraft approaching the comet 19P/Borrelly. With its primary mission to serve as a technology demonstrator--testing ion propulsion and 11 other advanced technologies--successfully completed in September 1999, Deep Space 1 is now headed for a risky, exciting rendezvous with Comet Borrelly. NASA extended the mission, taking advantage of the ion propulsion and other systems to target the daring encounter with the comet in September 2001. Once a sci-fi dream, the ion propulsion engine has powered the spacecraft for over 12,000 hours. Another onboard experiment includes software that tracks celestial bodies so the spacecraft can make its own navigation decisions without the intervention of ground controllers. The first flight in NASA's New Millennium Program, Deep Space 1 was launched October 24, 1998 aboard a Boeing Delta 7326 rocket from Cape Canaveral Air Station, FL. Deep Space 1 successfully completed and exceeded its mission objectives in July 1999 and flew by a near-Earth asteroid, Braille (1992 KD), in September 1999.

  4. 14 CFR 34.62 - Test procedure (propulsion engines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Test Procedures for Engine Exhaust Gaseous Emissions (Aircraft and Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.62 Test...

  5. 14 CFR 34.62 - Test procedure (propulsion engines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Test Procedures for Engine Exhaust Gaseous Emissions (Aircraft and Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.62 Test...

  6. 14 CFR 34.62 - Test procedure (propulsion engines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Test Procedures for Engine Exhaust Gaseous Emissions (Aircraft and Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.62 Test...

  7. Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coating Development for Advanced Propulsion Engine Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.; Fox, Dennis S.

    2008-01-01

    Ceramic thermal and environmental barrier coatings (TEBCs) are used in gas turbine engines to protect engine hot-section components in the harsh combustion environments, and extend component lifetimes. Advanced TEBCs that have significantly lower thermal conductivity, better thermal stability and higher toughness than current coatings will be beneficial for future low emission and high performance propulsion engine systems. In this paper, ceramic coating design and testing considerations will be described for turbine engine high temperature and high-heat-flux applications. Thermal barrier coatings for metallic turbine airfoils and thermal/environmental barrier coatings for SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) components for future supersonic aircraft propulsion engines will be emphasized. Further coating capability and durability improvements for the engine hot-section component applications can be expected by utilizing advanced modeling and design tools.

  8. Extending Ion Engine Technology to NEXT and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Domonkos, Matthew T.; Patterson, Michael J.; Foster, John E.; Rawlin, Vince K.; Soulas, George C.; Sovey, James S.; Kovaleski, Scott D.; Roman, Robert F.; Williams, George J., Jr.; Lyons, Valerie J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Extending ion engine technology beyond the current state-of-the art primary interplanetary electric propulsion system, the 2.3-kW NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Technology and Applications Readiness (NSTAR) system, will require thrusters with improved propellant throughput and total impulse capability. Many of the design choices that culminated in the NSTAR thrusters must be revisited, and their application to next generation ion engine technology must be evaluated. The concept of derating, which was successfully employed in NSTAR, has been applied to the 40 cm NASA Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) currently under development at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). At 5-kW, NEXT operates with the same average beam current density as NSTAR, and at 10-kW, the peak beam current density is only ten percent greater than NSTAR. The result is that similar Ion optics technology is expected to yield comparable lifetime. Thick-accelerator- grid ion optics are also being tested to realize additional lifetime benefits. A 40-A discharge cathode is being developed for NEXT based on scaling the NSTAR design. Nevertheless, the experiences of the NSTAR ground tests and the thruster on the Deep Space One spacecraft indicate that the discharge cathode wear must be studied experimentally and theoretically to ensure that it meets the lifetime requirements. Although NEXT is in its infancy, investigations have already begun to examine possible modifications to engine design for even higher-power and higher-specific impulse engines. Ion optics using alternate materials such as titanium, graphite, or carbon-carbon composite are currently being investigated due to their low sputter yields at high voltage. To avoid the difficulties encountered using electrodes at high-currents, the use of a microwave-based ion thruster is under investigation for potential high-power ion thruster systems requiring long lifetimes. Additionally, alternative propellants are being considered for applications

  9. Subsonic flight test evaluation of a propulsion system parameter estimation process for the F100 engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orme, John S.; Gilyard, Glenn B.

    1992-01-01

    Integrated engine-airframe optimal control technology may significantly improve aircraft performance. This technology requires a reliable and accurate parameter estimator to predict unmeasured variables. To develop this technology base, NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility (Edwards, CA), McDonnell Aircraft Company (St. Louis, MO), and Pratt & Whitney (West Palm Beach, FL) have developed and flight-tested an adaptive performance seeking control system which optimizes the quasi-steady-state performance of the F-15 propulsion system. This paper presents flight and ground test evaluations of the propulsion system parameter estimation process used by the performance seeking control system. The estimator consists of a compact propulsion system model and an extended Kalman filter. The extended Laman filter estimates five engine component deviation parameters from measured inputs. The compact model uses measurements and Kalman-filter estimates as inputs to predict unmeasured propulsion parameters such as net propulsive force and fan stall margin. The ability to track trends and estimate absolute values of propulsion system parameters was demonstrated. For example, thrust stand results show a good correlation, especially in trends, between the performance seeking control estimated and measured thrust.

  10. Environmental Testing of the NEXT PM1 Ion Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Synder, John S.; Anderson, John R.; VanNoord, Jonathan L.; Soulas, George C.

    2008-01-01

    The NEXT propulsion system is an advanced ion propulsion system presently under development that is oriented towards robotic exploration of the solar system using solar electric power. The Prototype Model engine PM1 was subjected to qualification-level environmental testing to demonstrate compatibility with environments representative of anticipated mission requirements. Random vibration testing, conducted with the thruster mated to the breadboard gimbal, was executed at 10.0 Grms for 2 minutes in each of three axes. Thermal-vacuum testing included a deep cold soak of the engine to temperatures of -168 C and thermal cycling from -120 to 203 C. Although the testing was largely successful, several issues were identified including the fragmentation of potting cement on the discharge and neutralizer cathode heater terminations during vibration which led to abbreviated thermal testing, and generation of particulate contamination from manufacturing processes and engine materials. Thruster performance was nominal throughout the test program, with minor variations in some engine operating parameters likely caused by facility effects. In general, the NEXT PM1 engine and the breadboard gimbal were found to be well-designed against environmental requirements based on the results reported herein. After resolution of the findings from this test program the hardware environmental qualification program can proceed with confidence.

  11. A review and forecast of engine system research at the Army Propulsion Directorate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bobula, George A.

    1989-01-01

    An account is given of the development status and achievements to date of the U.S. Army Propulsion Directorate's Small Turbine Engine Research (STER) programs, which are experimental investigations of the physics of entire engine systems from the viewpoints of component interactions and/or system dynamics. STER efforts are oriented toward the evaluation of complete turboshaft engine advanced concepts and are conducted at the ECRL-2 indoor, sea-level engine test facility. Attention is given to the results obtained by STER experiments concerned with IR-suppressing engine exhausts, a ceramic turbine-blade shroud, an active shaft-vibration control system, and a ceramic-matrix combustor liner.

  12. A Study on Aircraft Engine Control Systems for Integrated Flight and Propulsion Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamane, Hideaki; Matsunaga, Yasushi; Kusakawa, Takeshi

    A flyable FADEC system engineering model incorporating Integrated Flight and Propulsion Control (IFPC) concept is developed for a highly maneuverable aircraft and a fighter-class engine. An overview of the FADEC system and functional assignments for its components such as the Engine Control Unit (ECU) and the Integrated Control Unit (ICU) are described. Overall system reliability analysis, convex analysis and multivariable controller design for the engine, fault detection/redundancy management, and response characteristics of a fuel system are addressed. The engine control performance of the FADEC is demonstrated by hardware-in-the-loop simulation for fast acceleration and thrust transient characteristics.

  13. Performance and optimization of a derated ion thruster for auxiliary propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Michael J.; Foster, John E.

    1991-01-01

    The characteristics and implications of use of a derated ion thruster for north-south stationkeeping (NSSK) propulsion are discussed. A derated thruster is a 30 cm diameter primary propulsion ion thruster operated at highly throttled conditions appropriate to NSSK functions. The performance characteristics of a 30 cm ion thruster are presented, emphasizing throttled operation at low specific impulse and high thrust-to-power ratio. Performance data and component erosion are compared to other NSSK ion thrusters. Operations benefits derived from the performance advantages of the derated approach are examined assuming an INTELSAt 7-type spacecraft. Minimum ground test facility pumping capabilities required to maintain facility enhanced accelerator grid erosion at acceptable levels in a lifetest are quantified as a function of thruster operating condition. Approaches to reducing the derated thruster mass and volume are also discussed.

  14. Cryogenic upper stage propulsion: RL10 and derivative engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, James R.

    1991-01-01

    The capabilities and characteristics of the RL10 rocket engine are examined. The engine model history is presented. The RL10 derivatives are also outlined. The presentation is represented by viewgraphs.

  15. With and Without Post-Burning Solar Thermal Rocket Engines: Three New Chances for Space Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz Haro, Mercedes; Navarro Vásquez, Ricardo M.

    2002-01-01

    This report studies and compares Solar Thermal Rocket Engines (STRE) with and without post-burning. In a STRE hydrogen is expelled at very high speeds after been heated up to 3000 K thanks to the concentrator-receiver system. In Solar Rocket Engines with Post-Burning (STREPB), this hydrogen is burnt inside a especial combustion chamber where the oxygen is introduced. In this paper the addition of another fuel, LiH, will be also studied. The simple STRE gives higher values for specific impulse than the other two cases. While these values for this configuration go to more than 1000 s, the STREPB reaches around 650 s for hydrogen temperatures of 1500 K. The solution using H2-LiH- O2 gives around 520 s at only 800 K. The consecution of a high temperature is linked to an increase of concentrator's accuracy and mass. For the expedient value of oxidizer-to-fuel ratio the difference of more than 500 K is enough to enable a reduction higher than 50% of the concentrator's area and mass. The calculations for obtained thrust can be approach by means of several thermodynamic equations. It will be less for the STRE, so the use of Post-Burning will be better for missions requiring higher thrust. These figures locate STRE and STREPB between Liquid Rocket Engines' high thrust, which reduce trip time, and the Ion Accelerating Rockets' high specific impulse, which increase the admitted payload's mass. This paper will also compare this kind of propulsion with existing ones by means of Tsiolkovsky equation, V = I spLn M 0 / M p to estimate its possibilities for different manoeuvres as orbit transfers and interplanetary missions.

  16. Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coatings for Advanced Propulsion Engine Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming; Miller, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    Ceramic thermal and environmental barrier coatings (TEBCs) are used in gas turbine engines to protect engine hot-section components in the harsh combustion environments, and extend component lifetimes. For future high performance engines, the development of advanced ceramic barrier coating systems will allow these coatings to be used to simultaneously increase engine operating temperature and reduce cooling requirements, thereby leading to significant improvements in engine power density and efficiency. In order to meet future engine performance and reliability requirements, the coating systems must be designed with increased high temperature stability, lower thermal conductivity, and improved thermal stress and erosion resistance. In this paper, ceramic coating design and testing considerations will be described for high temperature and high-heat-flux engine applications in hot corrosion and oxidation, erosion, and combustion water vapor environments. Further coating performance and life improvements will be expected by utilizing advanced coating architecture design, composition optimization, and improved processing techniques, in conjunction with modeling and design tools.

  17. Advanced supersonic propulsion study, phases 3 and 4. [variable cycle engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allan, R. D.; Joy, W.

    1977-01-01

    An evaluation of various advanced propulsion concepts for supersonic cruise aircraft resulted in the identification of the double-bypass variable cycle engine as the most promising concept. This engine design utilizes special variable geometry components and an annular exhaust nozzle to provide high take-off thrust and low jet noise. The engine also provides good performance at both supersonic cruise and subsonic cruise. Emission characteristics are excellent. The advanced technology double-bypass variable cycle engine offers an improvement in aircraft range performance relative to earlier supersonic jet engine designs and yet at a lower level of engine noise. Research and technology programs required in certain design areas for this engine concept to realize its potential benefits include refined parametric analysis of selected variable cycle engines, screening of additional unconventional concepts, and engine preliminary design studies. Required critical technology programs are summarized.

  18. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1045 - Duty Cycles for Propulsion Marine Engines

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Speed terms are defined in 40 CFR part 1065. Percent speed values are relative to maximum test speed. 2... 40 CFR part 1065. Percent speed values are relative to maximum test speed. 2 Advance from one mode to...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND...

  19. FJ44 Turbofan Engine Test at NASA Glenn Research Center's Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauer, Joel T.; McAllister, Joseph; Loew, Raymond A.; Sutliff, Daniel L.; Harley, Thomas C.

    2009-01-01

    A Williams International FJ44-3A 3000-lb thrust class turbofan engine was tested in the NASA Glenn Research Center s Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory. This report presents the test set-up and documents the test conditions. Farfield directivity, in-duct unsteady pressures, duct mode data, and phased-array data were taken and are reported separately.

  20. Propulsion technology needs for advanced space transportation systems. [orbit maneuvering engine (space shuttle), space shuttle boosters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    Plans are formulated for chemical propulsion technology programs to meet the needs of advanced space transportation systems from 1980 to the year 2000. The many possible vehicle applications are reviewed and cataloged to isolate the common threads of primary propulsion technology that satisfies near term requirements in the first decade and at the same time establish the technology groundwork for various potential far term applications in the second decade. Thrust classes of primary propulsion engines that are apparent include: (1) 5,000 to 30,000 pounds thrust for upper stages and space maneuvering; and (2) large booster engines of over 250,000 pounds thrust. Major classes of propulsion systems and the important subdivisions of each class are identified. The relative importance of each class is discussed in terms of the number of potential applications, the likelihood of that application materializing, and the criticality of the technology needed. Specific technology programs are described and scheduled to fulfill the anticipated primary propulsion technology requirements.

  1. A method to estimate weight and dimensions of small aircraft propulsion gas turbine engines: User's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, P. L.

    1982-01-01

    The weight and major envelope dimensions of small aircraft propulsion gas turbine engines are estimated. The computerized method, called WATE-S (Weight Analysis of Turbine Engines-Small) is a derivative of the WATE-2 computer code. WATE-S determines the weight of each major component in the engine including compressors, burners, turbines, heat exchangers, nozzles, propellers, and accessories. A preliminary design approach is used where the stress levels, maximum pressures and temperatures, material properties, geometry, stage loading, hub/tip radius ratio, and mechanical overspeed are used to determine the component weights and dimensions. The accuracy of the method is generally better than + or - 10 percent as verified by analysis of four small aircraft propulsion gas turbine engines.

  2. Turbojet-type engines for the airbreathing propulsion of reusable winged launchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duparcq, J. L.; Hermant, E.; Scherrer, D.

    Combined propulsion systems for hypersonic application have become new challenges for industrial and research organizations. In France, SNECMA and SEP, which have just joined together for a common effort on hypersonics within Hyperspace, and ONERA have been involved, under CNES (French space agency) contracts, in the assessment of new propulsion concepts for reusable winged launchers (SSTO or TSTO). As potential solutions for the airbreathing propulsion, some turbojet-type engines are presented: —the twin spool turbojet or turbofan with reheat —the turbojet with reheat —the twin-duct turbojet ramjet —the precooled turbojet with reheat. All these engines have been sized for a flight Mach number under seven with a cryogenic fuel (liquid hydrogen). Mainly due to total temperature and pressure encountered along the trajectory, the systems will have to withstand severe physical constraints. Coupled with performance and size requirements, like specific thrust and maximum air capture area, these operating conditions have been taken into account in order to select each engine cycle and technical arrangement. Performance and mass criteria make it possible to compare these systems and to emphasize their distinctive features among the propulsion concepts envisioned for the future reusable winged launchers (including airbreathing combined engines under study in France). The first step of the final selection, leading to the best adaptation between the engine and the vehicle, will then be tackled. This will be particularly enhanced by the analysis of potential advantages or technical difficulties, like thrust-to-weight ratio or needs of variable geometry and heat exchangers. The twin-duct turbojet ramjet, for example, is probably one of the best candidates for the first stages of propulsion of a reusable winged launcher.

  3. Quiet Clean Short-Haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE) Over-The-Wing (OTW) propulsion system test report. Volume 2: Aerodynamics and performance. [engine performance tests to define propulsion system performance on turbofan engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The design and testing of the over the wing engine, a high bypass, geared turbofan engine, are discussed. The propulsion system performance is examined for uninstalled performance and installed performance. The fan aerodynamic performance and the D nozzle and reverser thrust performance are evaluated.

  4. A Lunar-Based Spacecraft Propulsion Concept - The Ion Beam Sail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Ian G.; Lane, John E.; Youngquist, Robert C.

    2006-01-01

    We describe a concept for spacecraft propulsion by means of an energetic ion beam, with the ion source fixed at the spacecraft starting point (e.g., a lunar-based ion beam generator) and not onboard the vessel. This approach avoids the substantial mass penalty associated with the onboard ion source and power supply hardware, and vastly more energetic ion beam systems can be entertained. We estimate the ion beam parameters required for various scenarios, and consider some of the constraints limiting the concept. We find that the "ion beam sail' approach can be viable and attractive for journey distances not too great, for example within the Earth-Moon system, and could potentially provide support for journeys to the inner planets.

  5. The convertible engine: A dual-mode propulsion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcardle, Jack G.

    1988-01-01

    A variable inlet guide vane (VIGV) convertible engine that could be used to power future high-speed rotorcraft was tested on an outdoor stand. The engine ran stably and smoothly in the turbofan, turboshaft, and dual (combined fan and shaft) power modes. In the turbofan mode with the VIGV open, fuel consumption was comparable to that of a conventional turbofan engine. In the turboshaft mode with the VIGV closed, fuel consumption was higher than that of present turboshaft engines because power was wasted in churning fan-tip air flow. In dynamic performance tests with a specially built digital engine control and using a waterbrake dynamometer for shaft load, the engine responded effectively to large steps in thrust command and shaft torque. Previous mission analyses of a conceptual X-wing rotorcraft capable of 400-knot cruise speed were revised to account for more fan-tip churning power loss that was originally estimated. The calculations confirm that using convertible engines rather than separate life and cruise engines would result in a smaller, lighter craft with lower fuel use and direct operating cost.

  6. Operationally Efficient Propulsion System Study (OEPSS) Data Book. Volume 8; Integrated Booster Propulsion Module (BPM) Engine Start Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kemp, Victoria R.

    1992-01-01

    A fluid-dynamic, digital-transient computer model of an integrated, parallel propulsion system was developed for the CDC mainframe and the SUN workstation computers. Since all STME component designs were used for the integrated system, computer subroutines were written characterizing the performance and geometry of all the components used in the system, including the manifolds. Three transient analysis reports were completed. The first report evaluated the feasibility of integrated engine systems in regards to the start and cutoff transient behavior. The second report evaluated turbopump out and combined thrust chamber/turbopump out conditions. The third report presented sensitivity study results in staggered gas generator spin start and in pump performance characteristics.

  7. Integrated flight/propulsion control - Adaptive engine control system mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yonke, W. A.; Terrell, L. A.; Meyers, L. P.

    1985-01-01

    The adaptive engine control system mode (ADECS) which is developed and tested on an F-15 aircraft with PW1128 engines, using the NASA sponsored highly integrated digital electronic control program, is examined. The operation of the ADECS mode, as well as the basic control logic, the avionic architecture, and the airframe/engine interface are described. By increasing engine pressure ratio (EPR) additional thrust is obtained at intermediate power and above. To modulate the amount of EPR uptrim and to prevent engine stall, information from the flight control system is used. The performance benefits, anticipated from control integration are shown for a range of flight conditions and power settings. It is found that at higher altitudes, the ADECS mode can increase thrust as much as 12 percent, which is used for improved acceleration, improved turn rate, or sustained turn angle.

  8. A new generation of high performance engines for spacecraft propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, Sanders D.; Schoenman, Leonard

    1991-01-01

    Experimental data validating advanced engine designs at three thrust levels (5, 15, and 100 lbF) is presented. All of the three engine designs considered employ a Moog bipropellant torque motor valve, platelet injector design, and iridium-lined rhenium combustion chamber. Attention is focused on the performance, robustness, duration, and flexibility characteristics of the engines. It is noted that the 5- and 15-lbF thrust engines can deliver a steady state specific impulse in excess of 310 lbF-sec/lbm at an area ratio of 150:1, while the 150-lbF thrust engines deliver a steady state specific impulse of 320 lbF-sec/lbm at an area ratio of 250:1. The hot-fire test results reveal specific impulse improvements of 15 to 25 sec over conventional fuel film cooled columbium chamber designs while operating at maximum chamber temperatures.

  9. The systems engineering upgrade intiative at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Ross M.

    2005-01-01

    JPL is implementing an initiative to significantly upgrade our systems engineering capabilities. This Systems Engineering Upgrade Initiative [SUI] has been authorized by the highest level technical management body of JPL and is sponsored with internal funds. The SUI objective is to upgrade system engineering at JPL to a level that is world class, professional and efficient compared to the FY04/05 baseline. JPL system engineering, along with the other engineering disciplines, is intended to support optimum designs; controlled and efficient implementations; and high quality, reliable, cost effective products. SUI technical activities are categorized into those dealing with people, process and tools. The purpose of this paper is to describe the rationale, objectives/plans and current status of the JPL SUI.

  10. Validation of an Integrated Airframe and Turbofan Engine Simulation for Evaluation of Propulsion Control Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litt, Jonathan S.; Sowers, T Shane; Liu, Yuan; Owen, A. Karl; Guo, Ten-Huei

    2015-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has developed independent airframe and engine models that have been integrated into a single real-time aircraft simulation for piloted evaluation of propulsion control algorithms. In order to have confidence in the results of these evaluations, the integrated simulation must be validated to demonstrate that its behavior is realistic and that it meets the appropriate Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) certification requirements for aircraft. The paper describes the test procedures and results, demonstrating that the integrated simulation generally meets the FAA requirements and is thus a valid testbed for evaluation of propulsion control modes.

  11. Design and Development of the MITEE-B Bi-Modal Nuclear Propulsion Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paniagua, John C.; Powell, James R.; Maise, George

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies of compact, ultra-lightweight high performance nuclear thermal propulsion engines have concentrated on systems that only deliver high thrust. However, many potential missions also require substantial amounts of electric power. Studies of a new, very compact and lightweight bi-modal nuclear engine that provides both high propulsive thrust and high electric power for planetary science missions are described. The design is a modification of the MITEE nuclear thermal engine concept that provided only high propulsive thrust. In the new design, MITEE-B, separate closed cooling circuits are incorporated into the reactor, which transfers useful amounts of thermal energy to a small power conversion system that generates continuous electric power over the full life of the mission, even when the engine is not delivering propulsive thrust. Two versions of the MITEE-B design are described and analyzed. Version 1 generates 1 kW(e) of continuous power for control of the spacecraft, sensors, data transmission, etc. This power level eliminates the need for RTG's on missions to the outer planets, and allowing considerably greater operational capability for the spacecraft. This, plus its high thrust and high specific impulse propulsive capabilities, makes MITEE-B very attractive for such missions. In Version 2, of MITEE-B, a total of 20 kW(e) is generated, enabling the use of electric propulsion. The combination of high open cycle propulsion thrust (20,000 Newtons) with a specific impulse of ~1000 seconds for short impulse burns, and long term (months to years), electric propulsion greatly increases MITEE's ΔV capability. Version 2 of MITEE-B also enables the production and replenishment of H2 propellant using in-situ resources, such as electrolysis of water from the ice sheet on Europa and other Jovian moons. This capability would greatly increase the ΔV available for certain planetary science missions. The modifications to the MITEE multiple pressure tube

  12. Advanced Supersonic Technology Study: Engine Program Summary. Supersonic Propulsion: 1971 to 1976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krebs, J. N.

    1976-01-01

    Sustained supersonic cruise propulsion systems for military applications are studied. The J79-5 in the Mach 2 B-58; YJ93 in the Mach 3.0 B-70 and the current F101 in the B-1, are all examples of military propulsion systems and airplanes operated at sustained supersonic cruise speeds. The Mach 2.7 B2707 transport powered by GE4 turbojet engines was the only non-military, sustained supersonic cruise vehicle intended for commercial passenger service.

  13. The 8-CM ion thruster characterization. [mercury ion engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessel, F. J.; Williamson, W. S.

    1983-01-01

    The performance capabilities of the 8 cm diameter mercury ion thruster were increased by modifying the thruster operating parameters and component hardware. The initial performance levels, representative of the Hughes/NASA Lewis Research Center Ion Auxiliary Propulsion Subsystem (IAPS) thruster, were raised from the baseline values of thrust, T = 5 mN, and specific impulse, I sub sp = 2,900s, to thrust, T = 25 mN and specific impulse, I sub sp = 4,300 s. Performance characteristics including estmates of the erosion rates of various component surfaces are presented.

  14. Propulsion System and Orbit Maneuver Integration in CubeSats: Trajectory Control Strategies Using Micro Ion Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, Jennifer; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The Propulsion System and Orbit Maneuver Integration in CubeSats project aims to solve the challenges of integrating a micro electric propulsion system on a CubeSat in order to perform orbital maneuvers and control attitude. This represents a fundamentally new capability for CubeSats, which typically do not contain propulsion systems and cannot maneuver far beyond their initial orbits.

  15. High Pressure Regenerative Turbine Engine: 21st Century Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lear, W. E.; Laganelli, A. L.; Senick, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A novel semi-closed cycle gas turbine engine was demonstrated and was found to meet the program goals. The proof-of-principle test of the High Pressure Regenerative Turbine Engine produced data that agreed well with models, enabling more confidence in designing future prototypes based on this concept. Emission levels were significantly reduced as predicted as a natural attribute of this power cycle. Engine testing over a portion of the operating range allowed verification of predicted power increases compared to the baseline.

  16. Design of a multivariable integrated control for a supersonic propulsion system. [variable stream control engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beattie, E. C.

    1980-01-01

    An inlet/engine/nozzle integrated control mode for the propulsion system of an advanced supersonic commercial aircraft was studied. Results show that integration of these control functions can result in both operational and performance benefits for the propulsion system. For example, this integrated control mode may make it possible to minimize the use of inlet bypass doors for shock position control. This may be of benefit to the aircraft as a result of minimizing: (1) bypass bleed drag effects; (2) perturbations to the aircraft resulting from the side thrust effect of the bypass bleeds; and (3) potential unstarts of the inlet. A conceptual integrated control mode was developed which makes use of many cross coupling paths between inlet and engine control variables and inlet and engine sensed variables. A multivariable control design technique based upon linear quadratic regulator theory was applied to designing the feedback gains for this control to allow a simulation evaluation of the benefits of the integrated control mode.

  17. Engineered plasma interactions for geomagnetic propulsion of ultra small satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Jeremy A.; Boerner, Jeremiah J.; Hughes, Thomas P.; Bennett, Guy R.

    2013-05-01

    Previous astrophysical studies have explained the orbital dynamics of particles that acquire a high electrostatic charge. In low Earth orbit, the charge collected by a microscopic particle or an ultra-small, low-mass satellite interacts with the geomagnetic field to induce the Lorentz force which, in the ideal case, may be exploited as a form of propellantless propulsion. Efficient mechanisms for negative and positive electrostatic charging of a so-called attosatellite are proposed considering material, geometry, and emission interactions with the ionosphere's neutral plasma with characteristic Debye length. A novel model-based plasma physics study was undertaken to optimize the positive charge mechanism quantified by the system charge-to-mass ratio. In the context of the practical system design considered, a positive charge-to-mass ratio on the order of 1.9x10-9 C/kg is possible with maximum spacecraft potential equal to the sum of the kinetic energy of electrons from active field emission (+43V) and less than +5V from passive elements. The maximum positive potential is less than what is possible with negative electrostatic charging due to differences in thermal velocity and number density of electronic and ionic species. These insights are the foundation of a practical system design.

  18. Ice Crystal Icing Engine Testing in the NASA Glenn Research Center's Propulsion Systems Laboratory: Altitude Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) conducted a full scale ice crystal icing turbofan engine test using an obsolete Allied Signal ALF502-R5 engine in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) at NASA Glenn Research Center. The test article used was the exact engine that experienced a loss of power event after the ingestion of ice crystals while operating at high altitude during a 1997 Honeywell flight test campaign investigating the turbofan engine ice crystal icing phenomena. The test plan included test points conducted at the known flight test campaign field event pressure altitude and at various pressure altitudes ranging from low to high throughout the engine operating envelope. The test article experienced a loss of power event at each of the altitudes tested. For each pressure altitude test point conducted the ambient static temperature was predicted using a NASA engine icing risk computer model for the given ambient static pressure while maintaining the engine speed.

  19. A Brief Review of the Need for Robust Smart Wireless Sensor Systems for Future Propulsion Systems, Distributed Engine Controls, and Propulsion Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Behbahani, Alireza

    2012-01-01

    Smart Sensor Systems with wireless capability operational in high temperature, harsh environments are a significant component in enabling future propulsion systems to meet a range of increasingly demanding requirements. These propulsion systems must incorporate technology that will monitor engine component conditions, analyze the incoming data, and modify operating parameters to optimize propulsion system operations. This paper discusses the motivation towards the development of high temperature, smart wireless sensor systems that include sensors, electronics, wireless communication, and power. The challenges associated with the use of traditional wired sensor systems will be reviewed and potential advantages of Smart Sensor Systems will be discussed. A brief review of potential applications for wireless smart sensor networks and their potential impact on propulsion system operation, with emphasis on Distributed Engine Control and Propulsion Health Management, will be given. A specific example related to the development of high temperature Smart Sensor Systems based on silicon carbide electronics will be discussed. It is concluded that the development of a range of robust smart wireless sensor systems are a foundation for future development of intelligent propulsion systems with enhanced capabilities.

  20. Mathematical model of marine diesel engine simulator for a new methodology of self propulsion tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izzuddin, Nur; Sunarsih, Priyanto, Agoes

    2015-05-01

    As a vessel operates in the open seas, a marine diesel engine simulator whose engine rotation is controlled to transmit through propeller shaft is a new methodology for the self propulsion tests to track the fuel saving in a real time. Considering the circumstance, this paper presents the real time of marine diesel engine simulator system to track the real performance of a ship through a computer-simulated model. A mathematical model of marine diesel engine and the propeller are used in the simulation to estimate fuel rate, engine rotating speed, thrust and torque of the propeller thus achieve the target vessel's speed. The input and output are a real time control system of fuel saving rate and propeller rotating speed representing the marine diesel engine characteristics. The self-propulsion tests in calm waters were conducted using a vessel model to validate the marine diesel engine simulator. The simulator then was used to evaluate the fuel saving by employing a new mathematical model of turbochargers for the marine diesel engine simulator. The control system developed will be beneficial for users as to analyze different condition of vessel's speed to obtain better characteristics and hence optimize the fuel saving rate.

  1. Mathematical model of marine diesel engine simulator for a new methodology of self propulsion tests

    SciTech Connect

    Izzuddin, Nur; Sunarsih,; Priyanto, Agoes

    2015-05-15

    As a vessel operates in the open seas, a marine diesel engine simulator whose engine rotation is controlled to transmit through propeller shaft is a new methodology for the self propulsion tests to track the fuel saving in a real time. Considering the circumstance, this paper presents the real time of marine diesel engine simulator system to track the real performance of a ship through a computer-simulated model. A mathematical model of marine diesel engine and the propeller are used in the simulation to estimate fuel rate, engine rotating speed, thrust and torque of the propeller thus achieve the target vessel’s speed. The input and output are a real time control system of fuel saving rate and propeller rotating speed representing the marine diesel engine characteristics. The self-propulsion tests in calm waters were conducted using a vessel model to validate the marine diesel engine simulator. The simulator then was used to evaluate the fuel saving by employing a new mathematical model of turbochargers for the marine diesel engine simulator. The control system developed will be beneficial for users as to analyze different condition of vessel’s speed to obtain better characteristics and hence optimize the fuel saving rate.

  2. An airline study of advanced technology requirements for advanced high speed commercial engines. 3: Propulsion system requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sallee, G. P.

    1973-01-01

    The advanced technology requirements for an advanced high speed commercial transport engine are presented. The results of the phase 3 effort cover the requirements and objectives for future aircraft propulsion systems. These requirements reflect the results of the Task 1 and 2 efforts and serve as a baseline for future evaluations, specification development efforts, contract/purchase agreements, and operational plans for future subsonic commercial engines. This report is divided into five major sections: (1) management objectives for commercial propulsion systems, (2) performance requirements for commercial transport propulsion systems, (3) design criteria for future transport engines, (4) design requirements for powerplant packages, and (5) testing.

  3. Assessments of Hollow Cathode Wear in the Xenon Ion Propulsion System (XIPs(c)) by Numerical Analyses and Wear Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Goebel, Dan M.; Polk, James E.

    2008-01-01

    The standard approach presently followed by NASA to qualify electric propulsion for the required mission throughput has been based largely on life tests, which can be costly and time consuming. Revised electric propulsion lifequalification approaches are being formulated that combine analytical and/or computational methods with (shorter-duration) wear tests. As a model case, a wear test is being performed at JPL to assess the lifetime of the discharge hollow cathode in the Xenon Ion Propulsion System (XIPS(c)), a 25-cm ion engine developed by L-3 Communications Electron Technologies, Inc. for commercial applications. Wear and plasma data accumulated throughout this life-assessment program are being used to validate the existing 2-D hollow cathode code OrCa2D. We find that the OrCa2D steady-state solution predicts very well the time-averaged plasma data and the keeper voltage after 5500 hrs of operation in high-power mode. When the wave motion that occurs naturally in these devices is accounted for, based on an estimate of the maximum wave amplitude, the molybdenum-keeper erosion profile observed in the XIPS(c) discharge cathode is also reproduced within a factor of two of the observation. When the same model is applied to predict the erosion of a tantalum keeper we find that erosion is reduced by more than two orders of magnitude compared to the molybdenum keeper due the significantly lower sputtering yield of tantalum. A tantalum keeper would therefore allow keeper lifetimes that greatly exceed the present requirements for deep-space robotic missions considered by NASA. Moreover, such large reduction of the erosion renders the largest uncertainties in the models, which are associated with the wave amplitude estimates and the electron transport model, negligible.

  4. Energy efficient engine flight propulsion system preliminary analysis and design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, W. B.

    1979-01-01

    A flight propulsion system preliminary design was established that meets the program goals of at least a 12 percent reduction in thrust specific fuel consumption, at least a five percent reduction in direct operating cost, and one-half the performance deterioration rate of the most efficient current commercial engines. The engine provides a high probability of meeting the 1978 noise rule goal. Smoke and gaseous emissions defined by the EPA proposed standards for engines newly certified after 1 January 1981 are met with the exception of NOx, despite incorporation of all known NOx reduction technology.

  5. Energy efficient engine: Flight propulsion system final design and analysis. Report, November 1978-August 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, D.Y.; Stearns, E.M.

    1985-08-01

    The Energy Efficient Engine (E3) is a NASA program to create fuel saving technology for future transport engines. The Flight Propulsion System (FPS) is the engine designed to achieve E3 goals. Achieving these goals required aerodynamic, mechanical and system technologies advanced beyond that of current production engines. These technologies were successfully demonstrated in component rigs, a core engine and a turbofan ground test engine. The design and benefits of the FPS are presented. All goals for efficiency, environmental considerations, and economic payoff were met. The FPS has, at maximum cruise, 10.67 km (35,000 ft), M0.8, standard day, a 16.9 percent lower installed specific fuel consumption than a CF6-50C. It provides an 8.6 percent reduction in direct operating cost for a short haul domestic transport and a 16.2 percent reduction for an international long distance transport.

  6. An update of engine system research at the Army Propulsion Directorate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bobula, George A.

    1990-01-01

    The Small Turboshaft Engine Research (STER) program provides a vehicle for evaluating the application of emerging technologies to Army turboshaft engine systems and to investigate related phenomena. Capitalizing on the resources at hand, in the form of both the NASA facilities and the Army personnel, the program goal of developing a physical understanding of engine system dynamics and/or system interactions is being realized. STER entries investigate concepts and components developed both in-house and out-of-house. Emphasis is placed upon evaluations which evolved from on-going basic research and advanced development programs. Army aviation program managers are also encouraged to make use of STER resources, both people and facilities. The STER personnel have established their reputations as experts in the fields of engine system experimental evaluations and engine system related phenomena. The STER facility has STER program provides the Army aviation community the opportunity to perform system level investigations, and then to offer the findings to the entire engine community for their consideration in next generation propulsion systems. In this way results of the fundamental research being conducted to meet small turboshaft engine technology challenges expeditiously find their way into that next generation of propulsion systems.

  7. An update of engine system research at the Army Propulsion Directorate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bobula, George A.

    1990-01-01

    The Small Turboshaft Engine Research (STER) program provides a vehicle for evaluating the application of emerging technologies to Army turboshaft engine systems and to investigate related phenomena. Capitalizing on the resources at hand, in the form of both the NASA facilities and the Army personnel, the program goal of developing a physical understanding of engine system dynamics and/or system interactions is being realized. STER entries investigate concepts and components developed both in-house and out-of-house. Emphasis is placed upon evaluations which have evolved from on-going basic research and advanced development programs. Army aviation program managers are also encouraged to make use of STER resources, both people and facilities. The STER personnel have established their reputations as experts in the fields of engine system experimental evaluations and engine system related phenomena. The STER facility has demonstrated its utility in both research and development programs. The STER program provides the Army aviation community the opportunity to perform system level investigations, and then to offer the findings to the entire engine community for their consideration in next generation propulsion systems. In this way results of the fundamental research being conducted to meet small turboshaft engine technology challenges expeditiously find their way into that next generation of propulsion systems.

  8. Efficient space propulsion engines based on laser ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Phipps, C.R.

    1993-08-01

    Recent results have shown laser momentum transfer coefficients C{sub m} as large as 700 dynes/J from visible and near-infrared laser pulses with heterogeneous targets. Using inexpensive target materials, it is now possible to deliver a 1-tonne satellite from LEO to GEO in 21 days using a 10-kW onboard laser ablation engine, or to maintain several 1-tonne GEO satellites on station from Earth indefinitely using a laser with 100-W average power.

  9. Performance Evaluation of the T6 Ion Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, John Steven; Goebel, Dan M.; Hofer, Richard R.; Polk, James E.; Wallace, Neil C.; Simpson, Huw

    2010-01-01

    The T6 ion engine is a 22-cm diameter, 4.5-kW Kaufman-type ion thruster produced by QinetiQ, Ltd., and is baselined for the European Space Agency BepiColombo mission to Mercury and is being qualified under ESA sponsorship for the extended range AlphaBus communications satellite platform. The heritage of the T6 includes the T5 ion thruster now successfully operating on the ESA GOCE spacecraft. As a part of the T6 development program, an engineering model thruster was subjected to a suite of performance tests and plume diagnostics at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The engine was mounted on a thrust stand and operated over its nominal throttle range of 2.5 to 4.5 kW. In addition to the typical electrical and flow measurements, an E x B mass analyzer, scanning Faraday probe, thrust vector probe, and several near-field probes were utilized. Thrust, beam divergence, double ion content, and thrust vector movement were all measured at four separate throttle points. The engine performance agreed well with published data on this thruster. At full power the T6 produced 143 mN of thrust at a specific impulse of 4120 seconds and an efficiency of 64%; optimization of the neutralizer for lower flow rates increased the specific impulse to 4300 seconds and the efficiency to nearly 66%. Measured beam divergence was less than, and double ion content was greater than, the ring-cusp-design NSTAR thruster that has flown on NASA missions. The measured thrust vector offset depended slightly on throttle level and was found to increase with time as the thruster approached thermal equilibrium.

  10. Photographic documentation of the High Power Engine Propulsion HiPEP after a duration test. Also ph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Photographic documentation of the High Power Engine Propulsion HiPEP after a duration test. Also photographed are the instrumentation and installation articles to reveal post test conditions such as corrosion and pitting.

  11. A Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation of a Large Commercial Aircraft Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeCastro, Jonathan A.; Litt, Jonathan S.; Frederick, Dean K.

    2008-01-01

    A simulation of a commercial engine has been developed in a graphical environment to meet the increasing need across the controls and health management community for a common research and development platform. This paper describes the Commercial Modular Aero Propulsion System Simulation (C-MAPSS), which is representative of a 90,000-lb thrust class two spool, high bypass ratio commercial turbofan engine. A control law resembling the state-of-the-art on board modern aircraft engines is included, consisting of a fan-speed control loop supplemented by relevant engine limit protection regulator loops. The objective of this paper is to provide a top-down overview of the complete engine simulation package.

  12. A Study on Aircraft Engine Control Systems for Integrated Flight and Propulsion Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamane, Hideaki; Matsunaga, Yasushi; Kusakawa, Takeshi; Yasui, Hisako

    The Integrated Flight and Propulsion Control (IFPC) for a highly maneuverable aircraft and a fighter-class engine with pitch/yaw thrust vectoring is described. Of the two IFPC functions the aircraft maneuver control utilizes the thrust vectoring based on aerodynamic control surfaces/thrust vectoring control allocation specified by the Integrated Control Unit (ICU) of a FADEC (Full Authority Digital Electronic Control) system. On the other hand in the Performance Seeking Control (PSC) the ICU identifies engine's various characteristic changes, optimizes manipulated variables and finally adjusts engine control parameters in cooperation with the Engine Control Unit (ECU). It is shown by hardware-in-the-loop simulation that the thrust vectoring can enhance aircraft maneuverability/agility and that the PSC can improve engine performance parameters such as SFC (specific fuel consumption), thrust and gas temperature.

  13. The Power Control Unit for the Propulsion Engine of GOCE Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tato, C.; Palencia, J.; de La Cruz, F.

    2004-10-01

    The IPCU Unit is in charge of controlling and monitoring the Ion Propulsion Assembly (Proportional Xenon Flow Assembly, PXFA, and Ion Thruster Assembly, ITA) belonging the DFACS (Drag Free Attitude Control System). Being the controlling function of the Propulsion Assembly, this unit involves the driving of the power supplies powering the propulsion system as well as the SW controlling all these power supplies (commanding the thruster and PXFA functions and monitoring the relevant parameters). The IPCU architecture involves two separate main functions. First one is the controlling electronics including an ERC32 uprocessor and a Mil-Bus I/F (based on the 1553B standard). The second main function, being the most challenging one, is the power controlling and supplying function. The PCU (Power Control Unit) faces three main aspects: eleven power converters driving the IPA (Ion Propulsion Assembly), the high voltage (1200 V) grounding concept used to refer five of these power converters, and an AC Bus distributing and powering all these power converters. This architecture concept makes the IPCU a challenging Unit in two main aspects: - the high voltage (1200 V) grounding system used for some important part of the electronics inside the Unit - the achieved performances. The IPCU measured functionality for the initial breadboard test bench showed the high performances expected. For a thrust range going from 0.6 to 20 mN the achieved performances in noise, linearity (0.9 %), and maximum error (< 2 %) with respect the commanded thrust meet the expectances for this innovative and demanding unit.

  14. Advanced propulsion engine assessment based on a cermet reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsley, Randy C.

    1993-01-01

    A preferred Pratt & Whitney conceptual Nuclear Thermal Rocket Engine (NTRE) has been designed based on the fundamental NASA priorities of safety, reliability, cost, and performance. The basic philosophy underlying the design of the XNR2000 is the utilization of the most reliable form of ultrahigh temperature nuclear fuel and development of a core configuration which is optimized for uniform power distribution, operational flexibility, power maneuverability, weight, and robustness. The P&W NTRE system employs a fast spectrum, cermet fueled reactor configured in an expander cycle to ensure maximum operational safety. The cermet fuel form provides retention of fuel and fission products as well as high strength. A high level of confidence is provided by benchmark analysis and independent evaluations.

  15. Electrode erosion in steady-state electric propulsion engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pivirotto, Thomas J.; Deininger, William D.

    1988-01-01

    The anode and cathode of a 30 kW class arcjet engine were sectioned and analyzed. This arcjet was operated for a total time of 573 hr at power levels between 25 and 30 kW with ammonia at flow rates of 0.25 and 0.27 gm/s. The accumulated run time was sufficient to clearly establish erosion patterns and their causes. The type of electron emission from various parts of the cathode surface was made clear by scanning electron microscope analysis. A scanning electron microscope was used to study recrystallization on the hot anode surface. These electrodes were made of 2 percent thoriated tungsten and the surface thorium content and gradient perpendicular to the surfaces was determined by quantitative microprobe analysis. The results of this material analysis on the electrodes and recommendations for improving electrode operational life time are presented.

  16. Advanced propulsion engine assessment based on a cermet reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsley, Randy C.

    A preferred Pratt & Whitney conceptual Nuclear Thermal Rocket Engine (NTRE) has been designed based on the fundamental NASA priorities of safety, reliability, cost, and performance. The basic philosophy underlying the design of the XNR2000 is the utilization of the most reliable form of ultrahigh temperature nuclear fuel and development of a core configuration which is optimized for uniform power distribution, operational flexibility, power maneuverability, weight, and robustness. The P&W NTRE system employs a fast spectrum, cermet fueled reactor configured in an expander cycle to ensure maximum operational safety. The cermet fuel form provides retention of fuel and fission products as well as high strength. A high level of confidence is provided by benchmark analysis and independent evaluations.

  17. In-Flight Operation of the Dawn Ion Propulsion System: Status at One Year from the Vesta Rendezvous

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garner, Charles E.; Rayman, Marc D.

    2010-01-01

    The Dawn mission, part of NASA's Discovery Program, has as its goal the scientific exploration of the two most massive main-belt asteroids, Vesta and Ceres. The Dawn spacecraft was launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station on September 27, 2007 on a Delta-II 7925H-9.5 (Delta-II Heavy) rocket that placed the 1218 kg spacecraft into an Earth-escape trajectory. On-board the spacecraft is an ion propulsion system (IPS) developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory which will provide most of the delta V needed for heliocentric transfer to Vesta, orbit capture at Vesta, transfer among Vesta science orbits, departure and escape from Vesta, heliocentric transfer to Ceres, orbit capture at Ceres, and transfer among Ceres science orbits. The Dawn ion thruster [I thought we only called it a thruster. Both terms are used in the paper, but I think a replacement of every occurrence of "engine" with "thruster" would be clearer.] design is based on the design validated on NASA's Deep Space 1 (DS1) mission. However, because of the very substantial (11 km/s) delta V requirements for this mission Dawn requires two engines to complete its mission objectives. The power processor units (PPU), digital control and interface units (DCIU) slice boards and the xenon control assembly (XCA) are derivatives of the components used on DS1. The DCIUs and thrust gimbal assemblies (TGA) were developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The spacecraft was provided by Orbital Sciences Corporation, Sterling, Virginia, and the mission is managed by and operated from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Dawn partnered with Germany, Italy and Los Alamos National Laboratory for the science instruments. The mission is led by the principal investigator, Dr. Christopher Russell, from the University of California, Los Angeles. The first 80 days after launch were dedicated to the initial checkout of the spacecraft followed by cruise to Mars. Cruise thrusting leading to a Mars gravity assist began on December 17

  18. Z-Pinch Magneto-Inertial Fusion Propulsion Engine Design Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miernik, Janie H.; Statham, Geoffrey; Adams, Robert B.; Polsgrove, Tara; Fincher, Sharon; Fabisinski, Leo; Maples, C. Dauphne; Percy, Thomas K.; Cortez, Ross J.; Cassibry, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Fusion-based nuclear propulsion has the potential to enable fast interplanetary transportation. Due to the great distances between the planets of our solar system and the harmful radiation environment of interplanetary space, high specific impulse (Isp) propulsion in vehicles with high payload mass fractions must be developed to provide practical and safe vehicles for human spaceflight missions. Magneto-Inertial Fusion (MIF) is an approach which has been shown to potentially lead to a low cost, small fusion reactor/engine assembly (1). The Z-Pinch dense plasma focus method is an MIF concept in which a column of gas is compressed to thermonuclear conditions by an estimated axial current of approximately 100 MA. Recent advancements in experiments and the theoretical understanding of this concept suggest favorable scaling of fusion power output yield as I(sup 4) (2). The magnetic field resulting from the large current compresses the plasma to fusion conditions, and this is repeated over short timescales (10(exp -6) sec). This plasma formation is widely used in the field of Nuclear Weapons Effects (NWE) testing in the defense industry, as well as in fusion energy research. There is a wealth of literature characterizing Z-Pinch physics and existing models (3-5). In order to be useful in engineering analysis, a simplified Z-Pinch fusion thermodynamic model was developed to determine the quantity of plasma, plasma temperature, rate of expansion, energy production, etc. to calculate the parameters that characterize a propulsion system. The amount of nuclear fuel per pulse, mixture ratio of the D-T and nozzle liner propellant, and assumptions about the efficiency of the engine, enabled the sizing of the propulsion system and resulted in an estimate of the thrust and Isp of a Z-Pinch fusion propulsion system for the concept vehicle. MIF requires a magnetic nozzle to contain and direct the nuclear pulses, as well as a robust structure and radiation shielding. The structure

  19. Structural integrity and durability for Space Shuttle main engine and future reusable space propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsik, S. J.; Gawrylowicz, H. T.

    1986-01-01

    NASA is conducting a program which will establish a technology base for the orderly evolution of reusable space propulsion systems. As part of that program, NASA initiated a Structural Integrity and Durability effort for advanced high-pressure oxygen-hydrogen rocket engine technology. That effort focuses on the development of: (1) accurate analytical models to describe flow fields; aerothermodynamic loads; structural responses; and fatigue/fracture, from which life prediction codes can be evolved; and (2) advanced instrumentation with capabilities to verify the codes in an SSME-like environment as well as the potential for future use as diagnostic sensors for real-time condition monitoring of critical engine components.

  20. Viewgraph description of Penn State's Propulsion Engineering Research Center: Activity highlights and future plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merkle, Charles L.

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs are presented that describe the progress and status of Penn State's Propulsion Engineering Research Center. The Center was established in Jul. 1988 by a grant from NASA's University Space Engineering Research Centers Program. After two and one-half years of operation, some 16 faculty are participating, and the Center is supporting 39 graduate students plus 18 undergraduates. In reviewing the Center's status, long-term plans and goals are reviewed and then the present status of the Center and the highlights and accomplishments of the past year are summarized. An overview of plans for the upcoming year are presented.

  1. Energy efficient engine: Flight propulsion system, preliminary analysis and design update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, E. M.

    1982-01-01

    The preliminary design of General Electric's Energy Efficient Engine (E3) was reported in detail in 1980. Since then, the design has been refined and the components have been rig-tested. The changes which have occurred in the engine and a reassessment of the economic payoff are presented in this report. All goals for efficiency, environmental considerations, and economic payoff are being met. The E3 Flight Propulsion System has 14.9% lower sfc than a CF6-50C. It provides a 7.1% reduction in direct operating cost for a short haul domestic transport and 14.5% reduction for an international long distance transport.

  2. Drag and Propulsive Characteristics of Air-Cooled Engine-Nacelle Installations for Large Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverstein, Abe; Wilson, Herbert A , Jr

    1942-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the NACA full-scale wind tunnel to determine the drag and the propulsive efficiency of nacelle-propeller arrangements for a large range of nacelle sizes. In contrast with usual tests with a single nacelle, these tests were conducted with nacelle-propeller installations on a large model of a four-engine airplane. Data are presented on the first part of the investigation, covering seven nacelle arrangements with nacelle diameters from 0.53 to 1.5 times the wing thickness. These ratios are similar to those occurring on airplanes weighing from about 20 to 100 tons. The results show the drag, the propulsive efficiency, and the over-all efficiency of the various nacelle arrangements as functions of the nacelle size, the propeller position, and the airplane lift coefficient. The effect of the nacelles on the aerodynamic characteristics of the model is shown for both propeller-removed and propeller-operating conditions.

  3. Upper-stage space shuttle propulsion by means of separate scramjet and rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franciscus, L. C.; Allen, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    A preliminary mission study of a reusable vehicle from staging to orbit indicates payload advantages for a dual-propulsion system consisting of separate scramjet and rocket engines. In the analysis the scramjet operated continuously and the initiation of rocket operation was varied. For a stage weight of 500,000 lb the payload was 10.4 percent of stage weight or 70 percent greater than that of a comparable all-rocket-powered stage. When compared with a reusable two-state rocket vehicle having 50,000 lb payload, the use of the dual propulsion system for the second stage resulted in significant decreases in lift-off weight and empty weight, indicating possible lower hardware costs.

  4. Performance Evaluation of the NEXT Ion Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soulas, George C.; Domonkos, Matthew T.; Patterson, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    The performance test results of three NEXT ion engines are presented. These ion engines exhibited peak specific impulse and thrust efficiency ranges of 4060 4090 s and 0.68 0.69, respectively, at the full power point of the NEXT throttle table. The performance of the ion engines satisfied all project requirements. Beam flatness parameters were significantly improved over the NSTAR ion engine, which is expected to improve accelerator grid service life. The results of engine inlet pressure and temperature measurements are also presented. Maximum main plenum, cathode, and neutralizer pressures were 12,000 Pa, 3110 Pa, and 8540 Pa, respectively, at the full power point of the NEXT throttle table. Main plenum and cathode inlet pressures required about 6 hours to increase to steady-state, while the neutralizer required only about 0.5 hour. Steady-state engine operating temperature ranges throughout the power throttling range examined were 179 303 C for the discharge chamber magnet rings and 132 213 C for the ion optics mounting ring.

  5. Ion Channel Engineering: Perspectives and Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Subramanyam, Prakash; Colecraft, Henry M.

    2014-01-01

    Ion channels facilitate the passive movement of ions down an electrochemical gradient and across lipid bilayers in cells. This phenomenon is essential for life, and underlies many critical homeostatic processes in cells. Ion channels are diverse and differ with respect to how they open and close (gating), and their ionic conductance/selectivity (permeation). Fundamental understanding of ion channel structure-function mechanisms, their physiological roles, how their dysfunction leads to disease, their utility as biosensors, and development of novel molecules to modulate their activity are important and active research frontiers. In this review, we focus on ion-channel engineering approaches that have been applied to investigate these aspects of ion channel function, with a major emphasis on voltage-gated ion channels. PMID:25205552

  6. Electrostatic propulsion using C60 molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leifer, Stephanie D.; Rapp, Donald; Saunders, Winston A.

    1992-01-01

    An evaluation is made of the potential benefits of C60 molecules as a basis for ion propulsion. Because C60 is storable, its use may result in a larger usable propellant fraction than previous methods of cluster ion propulsion. C60 may also relax such engineering constraints as grid spacing, which restrict the performance of noble gas ion propulsion. The behavior of C60 in a plasma discharge environment, as well as various electron impact cross sections of the molecule, will greatly afftect the feasibility of the concept.

  7. Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion Engine Cycle Analysis for Hybrid-Wing-Body Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Felder, James L.; Kim, Hyun Dae; Brown, Gerald V.

    2009-01-01

    Meeting NASA's N+3 goals requires a fundamental shift in approach to aircraft and engine design. Material and design improvements allow higher pressure and higher temperature core engines which improve the thermal efficiency. Propulsive efficiency, the other half of the overall efficiency equation, however, is largely determined by the fan pressure ratio (FPR). Lower FPR increases propulsive efficiency, but also dramatically reduces fan shaft speed through the combination of larger diameter fans and reduced fan tip speed limits. The result is that below an FPR of 1.5 the maximum fan shaft speed makes direct drive turbines problematic. However, it is the low pressure ratio fans that allow the improvement in propulsive efficiency which, along with improvements in thermal efficiency in the core, contributes strongly to meeting the N+3 goals for fuel burn reduction. The lower fan exhaust velocities resulting from lower FPRs are also key to meeting the aircraft noise goals. Adding a gear box to the standard turbofan engine allows acceptable turbine speeds to be maintained. However, development of a 50,000+ hp gearbox required by fans in a large twin engine transport aircraft presents an extreme technical challenge, therefore another approach is needed. This paper presents a propulsion system which transmits power from the turbine to the fan electrically rather than mechanically. Recent and anticipated advances in high temperature superconducting generators, motors, and power lines offer the possibility that such devices can be used to transmit turbine power in aircraft without an excessive weight penalty. Moving to such a power transmission system does more than provide better matching between fan and turbine shaft speeds. The relative ease with which electrical power can be distributed throughout the aircraft opens up numerous other possibilities for new aircraft and propulsion configurations and modes of operation. This paper discusses a number of these new

  8. Autonomous Propulsion System Technology Being Developed to Optimize Engine Performance Throughout the Lifecycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litt, Jonathan S.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of the Autonomous Propulsion System Technology (APST) project is to reduce pilot workload under both normal and anomalous conditions. Ongoing work under APST develops and leverages technologies that provide autonomous engine monitoring, diagnosing, and controller adaptation functions, resulting in an integrated suite of algorithms that maintain the propulsion system's performance and safety throughout its life. Engine-to-engine performance variation occurs among new engines because of manufacturing tolerances and assembly practices. As an engine wears, the performance changes as operability limits are reached. In addition to these normal phenomena, other unanticipated events such as sensor failures, bird ingestion, or component faults may occur, affecting pilot workload as well as compromising safety. APST will adapt the controller as necessary to achieve optimal performance for a normal aging engine, and the safety net of APST algorithms will examine and interpret data from a variety of onboard sources to detect, isolate, and if possible, accommodate faults. Situations that cannot be accommodated within the faulted engine itself will be referred to a higher level vehicle management system. This system will have the authority to redistribute the faulted engine's functionality among other engines, or to replan the mission based on this new engine health information. Work is currently underway in the areas of adaptive control to compensate for engine degradation due to aging, data fusion for diagnostics and prognostics of specific sensor and component faults, and foreign object ingestion detection. In addition, a framework is being defined for integrating all the components of APST into a unified system. A multivariable, adaptive, multimode control algorithm has been developed that accommodates degradation-induced thrust disturbances during throttle transients. The baseline controller of the engine model currently being investigated has multiple control

  9. EMC tests on the RITA Ion Propulsion Assembly for the ARTEMIS satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, H.; Kukies, R.; Bassner, H.

    1992-07-01

    Objectives and results of EMC tests performed on the RITA Ion Propulsion Assembly to demonstrate its compatibility with the requirements of ARTEMIS are discussed. The tested configuration included the RIT 10 thruster, neutralizer, RF generator, power supply and control unit, and electrical ground support equipment. Test results show that the RIT 10 thruster fulfils the EMC requirements for radiated emission in the critical frequency ranges (L/S/KU bands). The emitted E- and H-fields are not expected to disturb the satellite electronics, and no special shielding or other measures to protect the antennas are needed.

  10. Noiseless propulsion for swimming robotic structures using polyelectrolyte ion-exchange membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mojarrad, Mehran; Shahinpoor, Mohsen

    1996-02-01

    In this paper a NafionTM polyelectrolyte ion-exchange membrane (IEM) was used as a propulsion fin for robotic swimming structures such as a boat or fish-like object swimming in water or aqueous medium. The Nafion membrane was chemically plated with platinum. The resulting membrane was cut in a strip to resemble a fish-like caudal fin for propulsion. A small function generator circuit was designed and built to produce approximately plus or minus 2.0 V amplitude square wave at varying frequency up to 50 Hz. The circuit board was mounted on a buoyant styrofoam shaped like a boat or a tadpole. The fin was attached to the rear of the boat. By setting the signal frequency to the desired value and thereby setting the frequency of bending oscillation of the membrane, a proportional forward propulsion speed could be obtained. The speed was then measured using a high speed camera. Several theoretical hydrodynamic models were then presented to characterize speed-frequency of the forward motion using available theories on biological fish motion. The results were compared to experimental data which showed close agreement. It turned out that the forward speed of the object was directly proportional to the product of frequency and amplitude of the fin oscillation as in biological fishes. This relation was further simplified by keeping the voltage constant and therefore amplitude of the oscillation. The proportionality constant could be measured for a known geometry of the fin-boat assembly and reactivity of the Nafion membrane used. The system as a whole presented an autonomous robotic swimming structure with frequency modulated propulsion to investigate application of polyelectrolyte hydrogel membranes and their effect on hydrodynamic behavior of an undulating swimming object. As in fishes the thrust force of the robot was generated by evolution of vortices on the sides of the undulating fin. For a constant forward speed, this thrust is equal to the drag force due to geometry

  11. Plasma Surface Interactions and Life-Limiting Phenomena in Ion Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polk, James

    2000-10-01

    Ion propulsion is entering an age of application in NASA's planetary program as a key technology being demonstrated on Deep Space 1 (DS1). The single ion thruster on DS1 propelled it to an encounter with the asteroid Braille in July 1999 and is now used to provide the Delta-V for a flyby of the comet Borrelly in 2001. It will deliver a total Delta-V of 4.5 km/s to the 486 kg spacecraft in this mission while consuming less than 81 kg of xenon. With this demonstration, ion propulsion is now being considered for a range of future planetary missions. The high specific impulse capability of ion thrusters makes it possible to perform demanding outer planet and sample return missions with smaller, less expensive launch vehicles and shorter trip times. However, the low thrust levels that ion engines provide necessitate long burn times, typically thousands of hours per engine. Many of the potential failure modes that limit ion engine life are driven by plasma-surface interactions. The experimental characterization of wear processes from ground testing and current theoretical understanding of the erosion mechanisms will be discussed in this presentation.

  12. Quiet Clean Short-haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE) preliminary under the wing flight propulsion system analysis report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, D. F.

    1976-01-01

    The preliminary design and installation of high bypass, geared turbofan engine with a composite nacelle forming the propulsion system for a short haul passenger aircraft are described. The technology required for externally blown flap aircraft with under the wing (UTW) propulsion system installations for introduction into passenger service in the mid 1980's is included. The design, fabrication, and testing of this UTW experimental engine containing the required technology items for low noise, fuel economy, with composite structure for reduced weight and digital engine control are provided.

  13. Flyer Acceleration by Pulsed Ion Beam Ablation and Application for Space Propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Harada, Nobuhiro; Buttapeng, Chainarong; Yazawa, Masaru; Kashine, Kenji; Jiang Weihua; Yatsui, Kiyoshi

    2004-02-04

    Flyer acceleration by ablation plasma pressure produced by irradiation of intense pulsed ion beam has been studied. Acceleration process including expansion of ablation plasma was simulated based on fluid model. And interaction between incident pulsed ion beam and a flyer target was considered as accounting stopping power of it. In experiments, we used ETIGO-II intense pulsed ion beam generator with two kinds of diodes; 1) Magnetically Insulated Diode (MID, power densities of <100 J/cm2) and 2) Spherical-focused Plasma Focus Diode (SPFD, power densities of up to 4.3 kJ/cm2). Numerical results of accelerated flyer velocity agreed well with measured one over wide range of incident ion beam energy density. Flyer velocity of 5.6 km/s and ablation plasma pressure of 15 GPa was demonstrated by the present experiments. Acceleration of double-layer target consists of gold/aluminum was studied. For adequate layer thickness, such a flyer target could be much more accelerated than a single layer. Effect of waveform of ion beam was also examined. Parabolic waveform could accelerate more efficiently than rectangular waveform. Applicability of ablation propulsion was discussed. Specific impulse of 7000{approx}8000 seconds and time averaged thrust of up to 5000{approx}6000N can be expected. Their values can be controllable by changing power density of incident ion beam and pulse duration.

  14. Integrated Design and Engineering Analysis (IDEA) Environment - Propulsion Related Module Development and Vehicle Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamhawi, Hilmi N.

    2013-01-01

    This report documents the work performed during the period from May 2011 - October 2012 on the Integrated Design and Engineering Analysis (IDEA) environment. IDEA is a collaborative environment based on an object-oriented, multidisciplinary, distributed framework using the Adaptive Modeling Language (AML). This report will focus on describing the work done in the areas of: (1) Integrating propulsion data (turbines, rockets, and scramjets) in the system, and using the data to perform trajectory analysis; (2) Developing a parametric packaging strategy for a hypersonic air breathing vehicles allowing for tank resizing when multiple fuels and/or oxidizer are part of the configuration; and (3) Vehicle scaling and closure strategies.

  15. Quiet Clean Short-haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE) preliminary over-the-wing flight propulsion system analysis report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, D. F.

    1977-01-01

    The preliminary design of the over-the-wing flight propulsion system installation and nacelle component and systems design features of a short-haul, powered lift aircraft are presented. Economic studies are also presented and show that high bypass, low pressure ratio turbofan engines have the potential of providing an economical propulsion system for achieving the very quiet aircraft noise level of 95 EPNdB on a 152.4 m sideline.

  16. Graphene engineering by neon ion beams

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Iberi, Vighter; Ievlev, Anton V.; Vlassiouk, Ivan; Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Joy, David C.; Rondinone, Adam J.; Belianinov, Alex; Ovchinnikova, Olga S.

    2016-02-18

    Achieving the ultimate limits of materials and device performance necessitates the engineering of matter with atomic, molecular, and mesoscale fidelity. While common for organic and macromolecular chemistry, these capabilities are virtually absent for 2D materials. In contrast to the undesired effect of ion implantation from focused ion beam (FIB) lithography with gallium ions, and proximity effects in standard e-beam lithography techniques, the shorter mean free path and interaction volumes of helium and neon ions offer a new route for clean, resist free nanofabrication. Furthermore, with the advent of scanning helium ion microscopy, maskless He+ and Ne+ beam lithography of graphenemore » based nanoelectronics is coming to the forefront. Here, we will discuss the use of energetic Ne ions in engineering graphene devices and explore the mechanical, electromechanical and chemical properties of the ion-milled devices using scanning probe microscopy (SPM). By using SPM-based techniques such as band excitation (BE) force modulation microscopy, Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) and Raman spectroscopy, we demonstrate that the mechanical, electrical and optical properties of the exact same devices can be quantitatively extracted. Additionally, the effect of defects inherent in ion beam direct-write lithography, on the overall performance of the fabricated devices is elucidated.« less

  17. Use of Soft Computing Technologies for a Qualitative and Reliable Engine Control System for Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trevino, Luis; Brown, Terry; Crumbley, R. T. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The problem to be addressed in this paper is to explore how the use of Soft Computing Technologies (SCT) could be employed to improve overall vehicle system safety, reliability, and rocket engine performance by development of a qualitative and reliable engine control system (QRECS). Specifically, this will be addressed by enhancing rocket engine control using SCT, innovative data mining tools, and sound software engineering practices used in Marshall's Flight Software Group (FSG). The principle goals for addressing the issue of quality are to improve software management, software development time, software maintenance, processor execution, fault tolerance and mitigation, and nonlinear control in power level transitions. The intent is not to discuss any shortcomings of existing engine control methodologies, but to provide alternative design choices for control, implementation, performance, and sustaining engineering, all relative to addressing the issue of reliability. The approaches outlined in this paper will require knowledge in the fields of rocket engine propulsion (system level), software engineering for embedded flight software systems, and soft computing technologies (i.e., neural networks, fuzzy logic, data mining, and Bayesian belief networks); some of which are briefed in this paper. For this effort, the targeted demonstration rocket engine testbed is the MC-1 engine (formerly FASTRAC) which is simulated with hardware and software in the Marshall Avionics & Software Testbed (MAST) laboratory that currently resides at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, building 4476, and is managed by the Avionics Department. A brief plan of action for design, development, implementation, and testing a Phase One effort for QRECS is given, along with expected results. Phase One will focus on development of a Smart Start Engine Module and a Mainstage Engine Module for proper engine start and mainstage engine operations. The overall intent is to demonstrate that by

  18. In-Flight Operation of the Dawn Ion Propulsion System Through Start of the Vesta Cruise Phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garner, Charles E.; Rayman, Marc D.; Brophy, John R.

    2009-01-01

    The Dawn mission, part of NASA's Discovery Program, has as its goal the scientific exploration of the two most massive main-belt asteroids, Vesta and Ceres. The Dawn spacecraft was launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station on September 27, 2007 on a Delta-II 7925H-9.5 (Delta-II Heavy) rocket that placed the 1218 kg spacecraft into an Earth-escape trajectory. On-board the spacecraft is an ion propulsion system (IPS) which will provide most of the delta V needed for heliocentric transfer to Vesta, orbit capture at Vesta, transfer to Vesta science orbits, departure and escape from Vesta, heliocentric transfer to Ceres, orbit capture at Ceres, and transfer to Ceres science orbits. The Dawn ion design is based on the design validated on NASA's Deep Space 1 (DS1) mission. However, because of the very substantial (11 km/s) delta V requirements for this mission Dawn requires two engines to complete its mission objectives. The power processor units (PPU), digital control and interface units (DCIU) slice boards and the xenon control assembly (XCA) are derivatives of the components used on DS1. The DCIUs and thrust gimbal assemblies (TGA) were developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The spacecraft was provided by Orbital Sciences Corporation, Sterling, Virginia, and the mission is managed by and operated from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Dawn partnered with Germany, Italy and Los Alamos National Laboratory for the science instruments. The mission is led by the principal investigator, Dr. Christopher Russell, from the University of California, Los Angeles. The first 80 days after launch were dedicated to the initial checkout of the spacecraft followed by cruise to Mars. Cruise thrusting leading to a Mars gravity assist began on December 17, 2007 and was successfully concluded as planned on October 31, 2008. During this time period the Dawn IPS was operated mostly at full power for approximately 6500 hours, consumed 71.7 kg of xenon and delivered approximately 1.8 km

  19. A One Dimensional, Time Dependent Inlet/Engine Numerical Simulation for Aircraft Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrard, Doug; Davis, Milt, Jr.; Cole, Gary

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) and the Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) have developed a closely coupled computer simulation system that provides a one dimensional, high frequency inlet/engine numerical simulation for aircraft propulsion systems. The simulation system, operating under the LeRC-developed Application Portable Parallel Library (APPL), closely coupled a supersonic inlet with a gas turbine engine. The supersonic inlet was modeled using the Large Perturbation Inlet (LAPIN) computer code, and the gas turbine engine was modeled using the Aerodynamic Turbine Engine Code (ATEC). Both LAPIN and ATEC provide a one dimensional, compressible, time dependent flow solution by solving the one dimensional Euler equations for the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy. Source terms are used to model features such as bleed flows, turbomachinery component characteristics, and inlet subsonic spillage while unstarted. High frequency events, such as compressor surge and inlet unstart, can be simulated with a high degree of fidelity. The simulation system was exercised using a supersonic inlet with sixty percent of the supersonic area contraction occurring internally, and a GE J85-13 turbojet engine.

  20. Convert Ten Foot Environmental Test Chamber into an Ion Engine Test Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanVelzer, Paul

    2006-01-01

    The 10 Foot Space Simulator at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory has been used for the last 40 years to test numerous spacecraft, including the Ranger series, several Mariner class, among many others and finally, the Spirit and Opportunity Mars Rovers. The request was made to convert this facility to an Ion Engine test facility, with a possible long term life test. The Ion engine was to propel the Prometheus spacecraft to Jupiter's moons. This paper discusses the challenges that were met, both from a procedural and physical standpoint. The converted facility must operate unattended, support a 30 Kw Ion Engine, operate economically, and be easily converted back to former operation as a spacecraft test facility.

  1. Dynamic Temperature and Pressure Measurements in the Core of a Propulsion Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, Bill; Gordon, Grant; Hultgren, Lennart S.

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic temperature and pressure measurements were made in the core of a TECH977 propulsion engine as part of a NASA funded investigation into indirect combustion noise. Dynamic temperature measurements were made in the combustor, the inter-turbine duct, and the mixer using ten two-wire thermocouple probes. Internal dynamic pressure measurements were made at the same locations using piezoresistive transducers installed in semi-infinite coils. Measurements were acquired at four steady state operating conditions covering the range of aircraft approach power settings. Fluctuating gas temperature spectra were computed from the thermocouple probe voltage measurements using a compensation procedure that was developed under previous NASA test programs. A database of simultaneously acquired dynamic temperature and dynamic pressure measurements was produced. Spectral and cross-spectral analyses were conducted to explore the characteristics of the temperature and pressure fluctuations inside the engine, with a particular focus on attempting to identify the presence of indirect combustion noise.

  2. Ice Crystal Icing Engine Testing in the NASA Glenn Research Center's Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL): Altitude Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration conducted a full scale ice crystal icing turbofan engine test in the NASA Glenn Research Centers Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) Facility in February 2013. Honeywell Engines supplied the test article, an obsolete, unmodified Lycoming ALF502-R5 turbofan engine serial number LF01 that experienced an un-commanded loss of thrust event while operating at certain high altitude ice crystal icing conditions. These known conditions were duplicated in the PSL for this testing.

  3. Solar Thermal Propulsion Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Harnessing the Sun's energy through Solar Thermal Propulsion will propel vehicles through space by significantly reducing weight, complexity, and cost while boosting performance over current conventional upper stages. Another solar powered system, solar electric propulsion, demonstrates ion propulsion is suitable for long duration missions. Pictured is an artist's concept of space flight using solar thermal propulsion.

  4. Development of a miniature microwave electron cyclotron resonance plasma ion thruster for exospheric micro-propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Dey, Indranuj; Toyoda, Yuji; Yamamoto, Naoji; Nakashima, Hideki

    2015-12-15

    A miniature microwave electron cyclotron resonance plasma source [(discharge diameter)/(microwave cutoff diameter) < 0.3] has been developed at Kyushu University to be used as an ion thruster in micro-propulsion applications in the exosphere. The discharge source uses both radial and axial magnetostatic field confinement to facilitate electron cyclotron resonance and increase the electron dwell time in the volume, thereby enhancing plasma production efficiency. Performance of the ion thruster is studied at 3 microwave frequencies (1.2 GHz, 1.6 GHz, and 2.45 GHz), for low input powers (<15 W) and small xenon mass flow rates (<40 μg/s), by experimentally measuring the extracted ion beam current through a potential difference of ≅1200 V. The discharge geometry is found to operate most efficiently at an input microwave frequency of 1.6 GHz. At this frequency, for an input power of 8 W, and propellant (xenon) mass flow rate of 21 μg/s, 13.7 mA of ion beam current is obtained, equivalent to an calculated thrust of 0.74 mN.

  5. Development of a miniature microwave electron cyclotron resonance plasma ion thruster for exospheric micro-propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Indranuj; Toyoda, Yuji; Yamamoto, Naoji; Nakashima, Hideki

    2015-12-01

    A miniature microwave electron cyclotron resonance plasma source [(discharge diameter)/(microwave cutoff diameter) < 0.3] has been developed at Kyushu University to be used as an ion thruster in micro-propulsion applications in the exosphere. The discharge source uses both radial and axial magnetostatic field confinement to facilitate electron cyclotron resonance and increase the electron dwell time in the volume, thereby enhancing plasma production efficiency. Performance of the ion thruster is studied at 3 microwave frequencies (1.2 GHz, 1.6 GHz, and 2.45 GHz), for low input powers (<15 W) and small xenon mass flow rates (<40 μg/s), by experimentally measuring the extracted ion beam current through a potential difference of ≅1200 V. The discharge geometry is found to operate most efficiently at an input microwave frequency of 1.6 GHz. At this frequency, for an input power of 8 W, and propellant (xenon) mass flow rate of 21 μg/s, 13.7 mA of ion beam current is obtained, equivalent to an calculated thrust of 0.74 mN.

  6. Development of a miniature microwave electron cyclotron resonance plasma ion thruster for exospheric micro-propulsion.

    PubMed

    Dey, Indranuj; Toyoda, Yuji; Yamamoto, Naoji; Nakashima, Hideki

    2015-12-01

    A miniature microwave electron cyclotron resonance plasma source [(discharge diameter)/(microwave cutoff diameter) < 0.3] has been developed at Kyushu University to be used as an ion thruster in micro-propulsion applications in the exosphere. The discharge source uses both radial and axial magnetostatic field confinement to facilitate electron cyclotron resonance and increase the electron dwell time in the volume, thereby enhancing plasma production efficiency. Performance of the ion thruster is studied at 3 microwave frequencies (1.2 GHz, 1.6 GHz, and 2.45 GHz), for low input powers (<15 W) and small xenon mass flow rates (<40 μg/s), by experimentally measuring the extracted ion beam current through a potential difference of ≅1200 V. The discharge geometry is found to operate most efficiently at an input microwave frequency of 1.6 GHz. At this frequency, for an input power of 8 W, and propellant (xenon) mass flow rate of 21 μg/s, 13.7 mA of ion beam current is obtained, equivalent to an calculated thrust of 0.74 mN. PMID:26724025

  7. Diagnostic system design for the Ion Auxiliary Propulsion System /IAPS/ - Flight test of two 8 cm mercury ion thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurst, E. B.; Thomas, G. Z.

    1981-01-01

    The experimental design of a Diagnostic Subsystem (DSS) as part of an Ion Auxiliary Propulsion System (IAPS) to be flown on P80-1 spacecraft in May 1983, is discussed. The DSS is composed of several detectors measuring thruster efflux, material deposition and spacecraft potential relative to the local space plasma in the vicinity of two 8 cm mercury ion thrusters. The detectors consist of two QCM units measuring frequency in the range of two to 65 KHz. Nine solar cell arrays have the capability of measuring current and voltage from 0-600 mA and 0-0.9 V. Seven ion collectors can measure ion currents with bias voltages of 0, 25, 55 and 96 V. The potential probe can measure current at 16 different commandible levels varying from one to 5 K microamperes within a voltage range of -25 to 175 V. The analysis of the ground-based data indicates that the hardware is qualified for flight, with the detectors and electronic units having passed all functional and environmental tests. Block diagrams are given and the functional parameters of the different design configurations are described.

  8. Advanced Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisbee, Robert H.

    1996-01-01

    system with a low initial development and infrastructure cost and a high operating cost. Note however that this has resulted in a 'Catch 22' standoff between the need for large initial investment that is amortized over many launches to reduce costs, and the limited number of launches possible at today's launch costs. Some examples of missions enabled (either in cost or capability) by advanced propulsion include long-life station-keeping or micro-spacecraft applications using electric propulsion or BMDO-derived micro-thrusters, low-cost orbit raising (LEO to GEO or Lunar orbit) using electric propulsion, robotic planetary missions using aerobraking or electric propulsion, piloted Mars missions using aerobraking and/or propellant production from Martian resources, very fast (100-day round-trip) piloted Mars missions using fission or fusion propulsion, and, finally, interstellar missions using fusion, antimatter, or beamed energy. The NASA Advanced Propulsion Technology program at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is aimed at assessing the feasibility of a range of near-term to far term advanced propulsion technologies that have the potential to reduce costs and/or enable future space activities. The program includes cooperative modeling and research activities between JPL and various universities and industry; and directly supported independent research at universities and industry. The cooperative program consists of mission studies, research and development of ion engine technology using C60 (Buckminsterfullerene) propellant, and research and development of lithium-propellant Lorentz-force accelerator (LFA) engine technology. The university/industry-supported research includes modeling and proof-of-concept experiments in advanced, high-lsp, long-life electric propulsion, and in fusion propulsion.

  9. Planetary Science Enabled by High Power Ion Propulsion Systems from NASA's Prometheus Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, John

    2004-11-01

    NASA's Prometheus program seeks to develop new generations of spacecraft nuclear-power and ion propulsion systems for applications to future planetary missions. The Science Definition Team for the first mission in the Prometheus series, the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO), has defined science objectives for in-situ orbital exploration of the icy Galilean moons (Europa, Ganymede, Callisto) and the Jovian magnetosphere along with remote observations of Jupiter's atmosphere and aurorae, the volcanic moon Io, and other elements of the Jovian system. Important to this forum is that JIMO power and propulsion systems will need to be designed to minimize magnetic, radio, neutral gas, and plasma backgrounds that might otherwise interfere with achievement of mission science objectives. Another potential Prometheus mission of high science interest would be an extended tour of primitive bodies in the solar system, including asteroids, Jupiter family comets, Centaurs, and Kuiper Belt Objects (KBO). The final landed phase of this mission might include an active keplerian experiment for detectable (via downlink radio doppler shift) acceleration of a small kilometer-size Centaur or KBO object, likely the satellite of a larger object observable from Earth. This would have obvious application to testing of mitigation techniques for Earth impact hazards.

  10. Interface requirements for electric propulsion power processing equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biess, J. J.; Schoenfeld, A. D.; Goldin, D. S.; Shank, J. H.

    1973-01-01

    Power processor interfaces, internal functions, and design techniques established for the 30-cm ion engine power processor are discussed. The interfaces include the ion engine interface, the spacecraft interface, source/load interactions, protection, and optimization criteria. In the analysis, particular attention is given to the interaction and protection aspects. A breadbord system designed and built for the 30-cm ion engine is discussed which will be used as an engineering tool to establish guidelines for electric propulsion systems.