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Sample records for ionic polymermetal composite

  1. Mechanoelectric transduction in ionic polymer-metal composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Rashi; Kim, Kwang J.

    2013-03-01

    The ability of ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) to generate current on mechanical deformation, defined as mechanoelectric transduction, can be exploited for design and development of numerous sensors and energy harvesters. However, sensor application of IPMC is currently limited due to the lack of understanding of the transduction mechanism. This paper presents a physics-based mechanoelectric model that takes into account material properties, electrostatic phenomenon, and ion transport in the IPMC. Experimental verification of the model predictions is also reported.

  2. Nanothorn electrodes for ionic polymer-metal composite artificial muscles.

    PubMed

    Palmre, Viljar; Pugal, David; Kim, Kwang J; Leang, Kam K; Asaka, Kinji; Aabloo, Alvo

    2014-01-01

    Ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs) have recently received tremendous interest as soft biomimetic actuators and sensors in various bioengineering and human affinity applications, such as artificial muscles and actuators, aquatic propulsors, robotic end-effectors, and active catheters. Main challenges in developing biomimetic actuators are the attainment of high strain and actuation force at low operating voltage. Here we first report a nanostructured electrode surface design for IPMC comprising platinum nanothorn assemblies with multiple sharp tips. The newly developed actuator with the nanostructured electrodes shows a new way to achieve highly enhanced electromechanical performance over existing flat-surfaced electrodes. We demonstrate that the formation and growth of the nanothorn assemblies at the electrode interface lead to a dramatic improvement (3- to 5-fold increase) in both actuation range and blocking force at low driving voltage (1-3 V). These advances are related to the highly capacitive properties of nanothorn assemblies, increasing significantly the charge transport during the actuation process. PMID:25146561

  3. Nanothorn electrodes for ionic polymer-metal composite artificial muscles

    PubMed Central

    Palmre, Viljar; Pugal, David; Kim, Kwang J.; Leang, Kam K.; Asaka, Kinji; Aabloo, Alvo

    2014-01-01

    Ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs) have recently received tremendous interest as soft biomimetic actuators and sensors in various bioengineering and human affinity applications, such as artificial muscles and actuators, aquatic propulsors, robotic end-effectors, and active catheters. Main challenges in developing biomimetic actuators are the attainment of high strain and actuation force at low operating voltage. Here we first report a nanostructured electrode surface design for IPMC comprising platinum nanothorn assemblies with multiple sharp tips. The newly developed actuator with the nanostructured electrodes shows a new way to achieve highly enhanced electromechanical performance over existing flat-surfaced electrodes. We demonstrate that the formation and growth of the nanothorn assemblies at the electrode interface lead to a dramatic improvement (3- to 5-fold increase) in both actuation range and blocking force at low driving voltage (1–3 V). These advances are related to the highly capacitive properties of nanothorn assemblies, increasing significantly the charge transport during the actuation process. PMID:25146561

  4. Energy harvesting from the tail beating of a carangiform swimmer using ionic polymer-metal composites.

    PubMed

    Cha, Youngsu; Verotti, Matteo; Walcott, Horace; Peterson, Sean D; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we study energy harvesting from the beating of a biomimetic fish tail using ionic polymer-metal composites. The design of the biomimetic tail is based on carangiform swimmers and is specifically inspired by the morphology of the heterocercal tail of thresher sharks. The tail is constituted of a soft silicone matrix molded in the form of the heterocercal tail and reinforced by a steel beam of rectangular cross section. We propose a modeling framework for the underwater vibration of the biomimetic tail, wherein the tail is assimilated to a cantilever beam with rectangular cross section and heterogeneous physical properties. We focus on base excitation in the form of a superimposed rotation about a fixed axis and we consider the regime of moderately large-amplitude vibrations. In this context, the effect of the encompassing fluid is described through a hydrodynamic function, which accounts for inertial, viscous and convective phenomena. The model is validated through experiments in which the base excitation is systematically varied and the motion of selected points on the biomimetic tail tracked in time. The feasibility of harvesting energy from an ionic polymer-metal composite attached to the vibrating structure is experimentally and theoretically assessed. The response of the transducer is described using a black-box model, where the voltage output is controlled by the rate of change of the mean curvature. Experiments are performed to elucidate the impact of the shunting resistance, the frequency of the base excitation and the placement of the ionic polymer-metal composite on energy harvesting from the considered biomimetic tail. PMID:23793023

  5. MEMS-based fabrication of multiple-degree-of-freedom ionic polymer-metal composite actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zheng; Tan, Xiaobo

    2010-04-01

    Ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMC) are soft actuation materials with promising applications in robotics and biomedical devices. In this paper, a MEMS-based approach is presented for monolithic, batch fabrication of IPMC pectoral fin actuators that are capable of complex deformation. Such an actuator consists of multiple, individually controlled IPMC regions that are mechanically coupled through compliant, passive regions. Prototypes of artificial pectoral fins have been fabricated with the proposed method, and sophisticated deformation modes, including bending, twisting, and cupping, have been demonstrated, which shows the promise of the pectoral fin in robotic fish applications.

  6. A bionic eye actuated by ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) artificial muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Min; Li, Yuxiu; He, Qingsong; Song, Linlin; Dai, Zhendong

    2011-04-01

    This research was conducted with the aim of developing an energy-efficient, noiseless, movable bionic eye for use in bionic toys. This novel bionic eye is actuated by an ionic polymer-metal composite actuator. The overall size of the eye was 39 mm in length, 45 mm in width, and 45 mm in thickness. The experimental results revealed such a bionic eye design is feasible. This type of bionic eye is appropriate for use in toys and robots to increase their visual impact.

  7. Focus tunable mirrors made by ionic polymer-metal composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chung-Min; Su, Guo-Dung

    2014-09-01

    In order to meet modern requirement, electronic products are made smaller and thinner. We used deformable mirrors (DMs) in optical systems that can make camera modules thinner and lighter in electronic products. An Ionic-Polymer Metal Composite (IPMC) plays the critical role in our design of deformable mirrors. It has good bending feature and can be driven by low voltage (usually less than 5 volts). Other technologies such as liquid lenses, MEMS deformable mirrors, and liquid crystal lens, all need higher voltage to reach similar optical power of IPMC. After fabrication of IPMC deformable mirrors, we used PDMS on one surface to improve the surface roughness before reflective metal is deposited. Key characteristics of IPMC deformable mirror are demonstrated in the paper. By coating a silver layer on the smoothed IPMC surface, the reflection is up to 90%. From simulation results, the zoom ratio of this module can be expected 1.8 times. Experimentally, the deformable mirror can be changed from flat to 65 diopters (m-1) by only 3 volts. In this paper, we demonstrated a reflective optical zoom module with three mirrors and two deformable mirrors.

  8. A structure model for Ionic Polymer-Metal Composite (IPMC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Longfei; Chen, Hualing; Zhu, Zicai

    2012-04-01

    IPMC was considered as a polyelectrolyte membrane sandwiched between two flat electrodes in most of its theoretical models. However, structural idealization (ignorance of the interface) may lead to problematic predictions; therefore a proper model to characterize IPMC structures is expected for a more sophisticated electrochemistry or deformation theory. This paper proposed a geometrical model for the electroless-plated palladium-electroded IPMC (Pd-IPMC), where it's treated as a composite containing three distinguished layers: upper electrode, interface layer, and the substrate membrane. Especially, fractal dimension was adopted to describe the rough contact surface between the upper electrode and the substrate membrane. And the interface was determined by the volume fraction of the palladium particles. Based on this model, we estimated the elastic modulus of Pd electrode, and the value was found to be far less than Pd metal. Furthermore, we estimated the tensile elastic modulus of Pd-IPMC, the result agrees well with the experimental one, which proved the applicability of the structure model.

  9. NMR study on mechanisms of ionic polymer-metal composites deformation with water content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zicai; Chen, Hualing; Wang, Yongquan; Luo, Bin; Chang, Longfei; Li, Bo; Chen, Luping

    2011-10-01

    Ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs) exhibit a large dynamic bending deformation under exterior electric field. The states and proportions of water within the IPMCs have great effect on the IPMCs deformation properties. This letter investigates the influence of the proportion changes of different types of water on the deformation, which may disclose the working mechanisms of the IPMCs. We give a deformation trend of IPMCs with the reduction of water content firstly. Then by the method of nuclear magnetic resonance, various water types (water bonded to sulfonates, loosely bound water and free water) of IPMCs and their proportions are investigated in the drying process which corresponds to their different deformation states. It is obtained that the deformation properties of IPMCs depend strongly on their water content and the excess free water is responsible for the relaxation deformation.

  10. Multi-physical model of cation and water transport in ionic polymer-metal composite sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zicai; Chang, Longfei; Horiuchi, Tetsuya; Takagi, Kentaro; Aabloo, Alvo; Asaka, Kinji

    2016-03-01

    Ion-migration based electrical potential widely exists not only in natural systems but also in ionic polymer materials. We presented a multi-physical model and investigated the transport process of cation and water of ionic polymer-metal composites based on our thorough understanding on the ionic sensing mechanisms in this paper. The whole transport process was depicted by transport equations concerning convection flux under the total pressure gradient, electrical migration by the built-in electrical field, and the inter-coupling effect between cation and water. With numerical analysis, the influence of critical material parameters, the elastic modulus Ewet, the hydraulic permeability coefficient K, the diffusion coefficient of cation dII and water dWW, and the drag coefficient of water ndW, on the distribution of cation and water was investigated. It was obtained how these parameters correlate to the voltage characteristics (both magnitude and response speed) under a step bending. Additionally, it was found that the effective relative dielectric constant ɛr has little influence on the voltage but is positively correlated to the current. With a series of optimized parameters, the predicted voltage agreed with the experimental results well, which validated our model. Based on our physical model, it was suggested that an ionic polymer sensor can benefit from a higher modulus Ewet, a higher coefficient K and a lower coefficient dII, and a higher constant ɛr.

  11. Highly Enhanced Force Generation of Ionic Polymer-Metal Composite Actuators via Thickness Manipulation.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong Hyuk; Lee, Sung Won; Song, Dae Seok; Jho, Jae Young

    2015-08-01

    On purpose to enhance the generating force of ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) actuators, the thickness of the ion-exchange membrane is manipulated in two different ways. One is grafting poly(styrenesulfonic acid) onto poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) films with varying thickness, and the other is stacking pre-extruded Nafion films to thicker films by pressing at high temperatures. For both groups of the membranes, ionic properties including ion-exchange capacity and ionic conductivity are maintained similarly inside the groups regardless of the thickness. The actuation tests clearly show the increase in generating force with increasing thickness of the IPMCs prepared. It is due to a larger bending stiffness of thicker IPMCs, which is consistent with the predicted result from the cantilever beam model. The increase in force is more remarkable in Nafion-stacked IPMCs, and a thick IPMC lifts a weight of 100 g, which far exceeds the reported values for IPMCs. PMID:26176262

  12. An explicit physics-based model of ionic polymer-metal composite actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugal, David; Kim, Kwang J.; Aabloo, Alvo

    2011-10-01

    The Poisson-Nernst-Planck system of equations is used to simulate the charge dynamics due to ionic current and resulting time-dependent displacement of ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) materials. Measured data show that currents through the polymer of IPMC cause potential gradients on the electrodes. Existing physics based models of IPMC do not explicitly consider how this affects the charge formation near the electrodes and resulting actuation of IPMC. We have developed an explicit physics based model that couples the currents in the polymer to the electric current in the continuous electrodes of IPMC. The coupling is based on the Ramo-Shockley theorem. The circular dependency concept is used to explain how the dependency between the ionic current and the potential drop in the electrodes is calculated and how they affect each other. Simulations were carried out using the finite element method. Calculated potential gradients, electric currents, and tip displacement of IPMC were validated against experimental data. We also show how the model is general in respect to the different types of currents in the polymer and how it can be used in more complicated cases such as 3D simulations.

  13. Blood pressure, pulse rate, and rhythm measurement using ionic polymer-metal composite sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshavarzi, Amid; Shahinpoor, Mohsen; Kim, Kwang J.; Lantz, Jeffrey W.

    1999-05-01

    The need for more enhanced blood pressure (BP), pulse rate and rhythm senors has given rise to the possibility of using ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs) sensors. In this study we propose to use the IPMC sensors to measure systolic and diastolic BP, pulse rate and rhythm. The proposed IPMC sensors take advantage of the endo-ionic mobility within the polymer- metal composite by converting normal and shear load inputs into an induced voltage output across the thickness of the IPMC sensor. The fabricated IPMC sensors are suitable to be installed on the inner surface of a cuff and, therefore, both systolic and diastolic BP, pulse rate, and rhythm can be measured. An added benefit is the ability of measuring 'pulse rhythm' which give a more amplified look at heart irregularities which a typical pulse rate sensor is unable to show. Our data shows IPMC sensors can produce consistent and reliable BP readings, pulse rate, and rhythm. Typically, a linear relationship between applied maximum load and induced maximum voltage was obtained. This result can be easily translated into good BP reading.

  14. Electromechanical model for a self-sensing ionic polymer-metal composite actuating device with patterned surface electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruusamäe, Karl; Brunetto, Paola; Punning, Andres; Kodu, Margus; Jaaniso, Raivo; Graziani, Salvatore; Fortuna, Luigi; Aabloo, Alvo

    2011-12-01

    This paper further discusses a concept of creating a self-sensing ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) actuating device with patterned surface electrodes where the actuator and sensor elements are separated by a grounded shielding electrode. Different patterning methods are discussed and compared in detail; the presented experimental data give an understanding of the qualitative properties of the patterns created. Finally, an electromechanical model of the device is proposed and validated.

  15. Bias-dependent model of the electrical impedance of ionic polymer-metal composites.

    PubMed

    Cha, Youngsu; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2013-02-01

    In this paper, we analyze the charge dynamics of ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs) in response to voltage inputs composed of a large dc bias and a small superimposed time-varying voltage. The IPMC chemoelectrical behavior is described through the modified Poisson-Nernst-Planck framework, in which steric effects are taken into consideration. The physics of charge build-up and mass transfer in the proximity of the high surface electrodes is modeled by schematizing the IPMC as the stacked sequence of five layers, in which the ionomeric membrane is separated from the metal electrodes by two composite layers. The method of matched asymptotic expansions is used to derive a semianalytical solution for the concentration of mobile counterions and the electric potential in the IPMC, which is, in turn, used to establish an equivalent circuit model for the IPMC electrical response. The circuit model consists of the series connection of a resistor and two complex elements, each constituted by the parallel connection of a capacitor and a Warburg impedance. The resistor is associated with ion transport in the ionomeric membrane and is independent of the dc bias. The capacitors and the Warburg impedance idealize charge build-up and mass transfer in the vicinity of the electrodes and their value is controlled by the dc bias. The proposed approach is validated against experimental results on in-house fabricated IPMCs and the accuracy of the equivalent circuit is assessed through comparison with finite element results. PMID:23496522

  16. Ionic Polymer-Metal Composites (IPMCs) as Biomimetic Sensors, Actuators and Artificial Muscles: A Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shahinpoor, M.; Bar-Cohen, Y.; Simpson, J. O.; Smith, J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an introduction to ionic polymer-metal composites and some mathematical modeling pertaining to them. It further discusses a number of recent findings in connection with ion-exchange polymer-metal composites (IPMCS) as biomimetic sensors and actuators. Strips of these composites can undergo large bending and flapping displacement if an electric field is imposed across their thickness. Thus, in this sense they are large motion actuators. Conversely by bending the composite strip, either quasi-statically or dynamically, a voltage is produced across the thickness of the strip. Thus, they are also large motion sensors. The output voltage can be calibrated for a standard size sensor and correlated to the applied loads or stresses. They can be manufactured and cut in any size and shape. In this paper first the sensing capability of these materials is reported. The preliminary results show the existence of a linear relationship between the output voltage and the imposed displacement for almost all cases. Furthermore, the ability of these IPMCs as large motion actuators and robotic manipulators is presented. Several muscle configurations are constructed to demonstrate the capabilities of these IPMC actuators. This paper further identifies key parameters involving the vibrational and resonance characteristics of sensors and actuators made with IPMCS. When the applied signal frequency varies, so does the displacement up to a critical frequency called the resonant frequency where maximum deformation is observed, beyond which the actuator response is diminished. A data acquisition system was used to measure the parameters involved and record the results in real time basis. Also the load characterizations of the IPMCs were measured and it was shown that these actuators exhibit good force to weight characteristics in the presence of low applied voltages. Finally reported are the cryogenic properties of these muscles for potential utilization in an outer space

  17. Characteristics of ionic polymer-metal composite with chemically doped TiO2 particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Youngsoo; Kim, Seong Jun; Kim, Kwang J.; Lee, Deuk Yong

    2011-12-01

    Many studies have investigated techniques to improve the bending performance of ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) actuators, including 'doping' of metal particles in the polymer membrane usually by means of physical processes. This study is mainly focused on the characterization of the physical, electrochemical and electromechanical properties of TiO2-doped ionic polymer membranes and IPMCs prepared by the sol-gel method, which results in a uniform distribution of the particles inside the polymer membrane. X-ray and UV-visible spectra indicate the presence of anatase-TiO2 in the modified membranes. TiO2-doped membranes (0.16 wt%) exhibit the highest level of water uptake. The glass transition temperature of these membranes, measured using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), increases with the increase of the amount of TiO2 in the membrane. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) demonstrated that the storage modulus of dried TiO2-doped ionic polymer membranes increases as the amount of TiO2 in the membrane increases, whereas the storage modulus of hydrated samples is closely related to the level of water uptake. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) shows that the conductivity of TiO2-doped membranes decreases with increasing TiO2 content in spite of an internal resistance drop in the samples. Above all, bending deflection of TiO2-doped IPMC decreased with higher TiO2 content in the membrane while the blocking force of each sample increased with the higher TiO2 content. Additionally, it was determined that the lifetime of IPMC is strongly dependent on the level of water uptake.

  18. Dynamic model of ion and water transport in ionic polymer-metal composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zicai; Chen, Hualing; Chang, Longfei; Li, Bo

    2011-12-01

    In the process of electro-mechanical transduction of ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs), the transport of ion and water molecule plays an important role. In this paper, the theoretical transport models of IPMCs are critically reviewed, with particular emphasis on the recent developments in the latest decade. The models can be divided into three classes, thermodynamics of irreversible process model, frictional model and Nernst-Planck (NP) equation model. To some extent the three models can be transformed into each other, but their differences are also obvious arising from the various mechanisms that considered in different models. The transport of ion and water molecule in IPMCs is compared with that in membrane electrode assembly and electrodialysis membrane to identify and clarify the fundamental transport mechanisms in IPMCs. And an improved transport model is proposed and simplified for numerical analysis. The model considers the convection effect rather than the diffusion as the major transport mechanism, and both the self-diffusion and the electroosmosis drag are accounted for in the water flux equation.

  19. Fused filament 3D printing of ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrico, James D.; Traeden, Nicklaus W.; Aureli, Matteo; Leang, Kam K.

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes a new three-dimensional (3D) fused filament additive manufacturing (AM) technique in which electroactive polymer filament material is used to build soft active 3D structures, layer by layer. Specifically, the unique actuation and sensing properties of ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs) are exploited in 3D printing to create electroactive polymer structures for application in soft robotics and bio-inspired systems. The process begins with extruding a precursor material (non-acid Nafion precursor resin) into a thermoplastic filament for 3D printing. The filament is then used by a custom-designed 3D printer to manufacture the desired soft polymer structures, layer by layer. Since at this stage the 3D-printed samples are not yet electroactive, a chemical functionalization process follows, consisting in hydrolyzing the precursor samples in an aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide and dimethyl sulfoxide. Upon functionalization, metal electrodes are applied on the samples through an electroless plating process, which enables the 3D-printed IPMC structures to be controlled by voltage signals for actuation (or to act as sensors). This innovative AM process is described in detail and the performance of 3D printed IPMC actuators is compared to an IPMC actuator fabricated from commercially available Nafion sheet material. The experimental results show comparable performance between the two types of actuators, demonstrating the potential and feasibility of creating functional 3D-printed IPMCs.

  20. Frequency-weighted feedforward control for dynamic compensation in ionic polymer-metal composite actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Yingfeng; Leang, Kam K.

    2009-12-01

    Ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs) are innovative materials that offer combined sensing and actuating ability in lightweight and flexible package. IPMCs have been exploited in robotics and a wide variety of biomedical devices, for example, as sensors for teleoperation, as actuators for positioning in active endoscopy, as fins for propelling aquatic robots, and as an injector for drug delivery. In the actuation mode, one of the main challenges is precise position control. In particular, IPMC actuators exhibit relaxation behavior and nonlinearities; and at relatively high operating frequencies dynamic effects limit accuracy and positioning bandwidth. A frequency-weighted feedforward controller is designed to account for the IPMC's structural dynamics to enable fast positioning. The control method is applied to a custom-made Nafion-based IPMC actuator. The controller takes into account the magnitude of the control input to avoid generating excessively large voltages which can damage the IPMC actuator. To account for unmodeled effects not captured by the dynamics model, a feedback controller is integrated with the feedforward controller. Experimental results show a significant improvement in the tracking performance when feedforward control is used. For instance, the feedforward controller shows over 75% reduction in the tracking error compared to the case without feedforward compensation. Finally, the integrated feedforward and feedback control system reduces the tracking error to less than 10% for tracking an 18-Hz triangle-like trajectory. Some of the advantages of feedforward control as well as its limitations are also discussed.

  1. Fabrication and reliable implementation of an ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) biaxial bending actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Gil-Yong; Choi, Jung-Oh; Kim, Myeungseon; Ahn, Sung-Hoon

    2011-10-01

    Ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs) are one of the most popular types of electro-active polymer actuator, due to their low electric driving potential, large deformation range, and light weight. IPMCs have been used as actuators or sensors in many areas of biomedical and robotic engineering. In this research, IPMCs were studied as a biaxial bending actuator capable of smart and flexible motion. We designed and fabricated this bending actuator and implemented it to have a reliable actuating motion using a systematic approach. The resulting device was bar shaped with a square cross section and had four insulated electrodes on its surface. By applying different voltages to these four electrodes, a biaxial bending motion can be induced. To construct this actuator, several fabrication processes were considered. We modified the Nafion stacking method, and established a complete sequence of actuator fabrication processes. Using these processes, we were able to fabricate an IPMC biaxial bending actuator with both high actuating force and high flexibility. Several experiments were conducted to investigate and verify the performance of the actuator. The IPMC actuator system was modeled from experimentally measured data, and using this actuator model, a closed-loop proportional integral (PI) controller was designed. Reference position tracking performances of open-loop and closed-loop systems were compared. Finally, circular motion tracking performances of the actuator tip were tested under different rotation frequencies and radii of a reference trajectory circle.

  2. A biomimetic underwater vehicle actuated by waves with ionic polymer-metal composite soft sensors.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qi; Wang, Tianmiao; Kim, Kwang J

    2015-10-01

    The ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) is a soft material based actuator and sensor and has a promising potential in underwater application. This paper describes a hybrid biomimetic underwater vehicle that uses IPMCs as sensors. Propelled by the energy of waves, this underwater vehicle does not need an additional energy source. A physical model based on the hydrodynamics of the vehicle was developed, and simulations were conducted. Using the Poisson-Nernst-Planck system of equations, a physics model for the IPMC sensor was proposed. For this study, experimental apparatus was developed to conduct hydrodynamic experiments for both the underwater vehicle and the IPMC sensors. By comparing the experimental and theoretical results, the speed of the underwater vehicle and the output of the IPMC sensors were well predicted by the theoretical models. A maximum speed of 1.08 × 10(-1) m s(-1) was recorded experimentally at a wave frequency of 1.6 Hz. The peak output voltage of the IPMC sensor was 2.27 × 10(-4) V, recorded at 0.8 Hz. It was found that the speed of the underwater vehicle increased as the wave frequency increased and the IPMC output decreased as the wave frequency increased. Further, the energy harvesting capabilities of the underwater vehicle hosting the IPMCs were tested. A maximum power of 9.50 × 10(-10) W was recorded at 1.6 Hz. PMID:26414228

  3. Application-oriented simplification of actuation mechanism and physical model for ionic polymer-metal composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zicai; Wang, Yanjie; Liu, Yanfa; Asaka, Kinji; Sun, Xiaofei; Chang, Longfei; Lu, Pin

    2016-07-01

    Water containing ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs) show complex deformation properties with water content. In order to develop a simple application-oriented model for engineering application, actuation mechanisms and model equations should be simplified as necessary. Beginning from our previous comprehensive multi-physical model of IPMC actuator, numerical analysis was performed to obtain the main factors influencing the bending deformation and the corresponding simplified model. In this paper, three aspects are mainly concerned. (1) Regarding mass transport process, the diffusion caused by concentration gradient mainly influences the concentrations of cation and water at the two electrode boundaries. (2) By specifying the transport components as hydrated cation and free water in the model, at the cathode, the hydrated cation concentration profile is more flat, whereas the concentrations of both free water and the total water show drastic changes. In general, the two influence the redistribution of cation and water but have little impact on deformation prediction. Thus, they can be ignored in the simplification. (3) An extended osmotic pressure is proposed to cover all eigen stresses simply with an effective osmotic coefficient. Combining with a few other linearized methods, a simplified model has been obtained by sacrificing the prediction precision on the transport process. Furthermore, the improved model has been verified by fitting with IPMC deformation evolved with water content. It shows that the simplified model has the ability to predict the complex deformations of IPMCs.

  4. Hydrodynamic performance of a biomimetic robotic swimmer actuated by ionic polymer-metal composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Qi; Wang, Tiammiao; Liang, Jianhong; Wen, Li

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, we study the thrust performance of a biomimetic robotic swimmer that uses ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) as a flexible actuator in viscous and inertial flow, for a comprehensive understanding of IPMC swimmers at different scales. A hydrodynamic model based on the elongated body theory was developed. Based on image analysis, the parameters of the model were identified and simulation results were obtained. To obtain the hydrodynamic thrust performance of the robotic swimmer, we implemented a novel experimental apparatus. Systematic tests were conducted in the servo towing system to measure the self-propelled speed and thrust efficiency under different actuation of IPMC. The undulatory motions of the IPMC swimmer were identified. Experimental results demonstrated that the theoretical model can accurately predict the speed and thrust efficiency of the robotic swimmer. When the Reynolds number of the robotic swimmer was reduced to approximately 0.1%, its speed and thrust efficiency were reduced by 95.22% and 87.33% respectively. It was concluded that the robotic swimmer has a low speed and thrust efficiency when it swims in a viscous flow. Generally, the thrust performance of the robotic swimmer is determined by the kinematics and Reynolds number. In addition, the optimal actuation frequency for the thrust efficiency is greater in a viscous fluid. These results may contribute to a better understanding of the swimming performance of IPMC actuated swimmers in a distinct flow regime (viscous and inertial regime).

  5. Manufacturing of ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs) that can actuate into complex curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoimenov, Boyko L.; Rossiter, Jonathan M.; Mukai, Toshiharu

    2007-04-01

    Ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMC) are soft actuators with potential applications in the fields of medicine and biologically inspired robotics. Typically, an IPMC bends with approximately constant curvature when voltage is applied to it. More complex shapes were achieved in the past by pre-shaping the actuator or by segmentation and separate actuation of each segment. There are many applications for which fully independent control of each segment of the IPMC is not required and the use of external wiring is objectionable. In this paper we propose two key elements needed to create an IPMC, which can actuate into a complex curve. The first is a connection between adjacent segments, which enables opposite curvature. This can be achieved by reversing the polarity applied on each side of the IPMC, for example by a through-hole connection. The second key element is a variable curvature segment. The segment is designed to bend with any fraction of its full bending ability under given electrical input by changing the overlap of opposite charge electrodes. We demonstrated the usefulness of these key elements in two devices. One is a bi-stable buckled IPMC beam, also used as a building block in a linear actuator device. The other one is an IPMC, actuating into an S-shaped curve with gradually increasing curvature near the ends. The proposed method of manufacturing holds promise for a wide range of new applications of IPMCs, including applications in which IPMCs are used for sensing.

  6. Anisotropic surface roughness enhances the bending response of ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) artificial muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoimenov, Boyko L.; Rossiter, Jonathan M.; Mukai, Toshiharu

    2007-01-01

    Demands from the fields of bio-medical engineering and biologically-inspired robotics motivate a growing interest in actuators with properties similar to biological muscle, including ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMC), the focus of this study. IPMC actuators consist of an ion-conductive polymer membrane, coated with thin metal electrodes on both sides and bend when voltage is applied. Some of the advantages of IPMC actuators are their softness, lack of moving parts, easy miniaturization, light weight and low actuation voltage. When used in bio-mimetic robotic applications, such as a snake-like swimming robot, locomotion speed can be improved by increasing the bending amplitude. However, it cannot be improved much by increasing the driving voltage, because of water electrolysis. To enhance the bending response of IPMCs we created a "preferred" bending direction by anisotropic surface modification. Introduction of anisotropic roughness with grooves across the length of the actuator improved the bending response by a factor of 2.1. Artificially introduced cracks on the electrodes in direction, in which natural cracks form by bending, improved bending response by a factor of 1.6. Anisotropic surface modification is an effective method to enhance the bending response of IPMC actuators and does not compromise their rigidity under loads perpendicular to the bending plane.

  7. Microstructure effects on proton conductivity in EVOH based ionic polymer-metal composites actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Lijun; Li, Lei; Zhang, Yujun

    2007-07-01

    The ionomer of sulfonated ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymers (EVOH) modified by poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) (EVOH-g-SPEG) has been synthesized by the following process, EVOH was grafted by PEG through the Williamson reaction and sulfonic groups were introduced onto the end of PEG side chain by the open ring reaction of 1,3-propane sultone and the hydroxyl groups in EVOH. The crystalline structure and phase images of EVOH-g-SPEG membrane were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscope (AFM), and the ion conductivity is measured by a.c. impedance. XRD indicates that the water in EVOH-g-SPEG membrane region could destroy the membrane crystalline structure and the water absorption membranes are nearly amorphous. AFM phase images of the hydration membranes clearly show the hydrophilic domains, with sizes increasing from 10 to 35 nm as a function of the side chain length and the phase inversion could also be observed when n>=5 (n, numbers of grafting PEG side chain), which was consistent with a rapid increasing in water absorption. The a.c. impedance tests indicate that the comb-like EVOH-g-SPEG grafting with 2 PEG side chain provides the highest ionic conductivity (1.65×10 -3Scm -1). Moreover, the tip displacement and the bending stress of ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMC) prepared by electroless deposition of argentum were gained by electro-deformation tests. Its results show that the tip bending stress increased with the increasing input voltage and reached to its maximum under the applied voltage of 3.6V~4.4V. IPMC based on the EVOH-g-SPEG membrane exhibits higher bending stress with its maximum value of 6.20MPa.

  8. Feasibility study of custom manufacturing methods of ionic polymer-metal composite sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Shelby E.

    The ability to create an ion exchange membrane with any shape or thickness through custom manufacturing techniques is highly desirable in ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) research. This is caused by the poor selection and limited availability of certain thicknesses of commercial ion exchange membranes. The objective of this study is to determine the feasibility of manufacturing custom ion exchange membranes for IPMC sensors. The manufacturing methods used in this study are extrusion, injection molding, and hot pressing. A commercial membrane from Golden Energy Fuel Cells (GEFC) is used as a comparison. After the membranes are fabricated, certain properties of the membranes are tested throughout each processing stage to determine if they are suitable to be developed into IPMCs. The three processing stages are pre-activation, activation (hydrated and dehydrated), and IPMC. It was observed that the stiffness of the membranes increased from pre-activation to activation and decreased from activation to IPMC. A more flexible membrane in an IPMC allows for larger cation displacement within the membrane. The extruded and injection molded membranes showed the most potential with having the lowest stiffness of all the samples; however, they were not able to be made into IPMCs due to repeated membrane failures in the primary plating process. Gas accumulated between the layers that formed in the membranes due to the extrusion and injection molding cooling process during manufacturing. The hot pressed membrane was the only custom manufactured membrane to be fully processed into an IPMC. The hot pressed and GEFC IPMC sensors were operated at 1 Hz, 5 Hz, and 10 Hz frequencies with the GEFC IPMC producing the strongest output voltage signal. While the extruded and injection molded membranes showed potential to become IPMCs with their high water uptake percentage, high ion exchange capacity, and low stiffness, more development is needed within the manufacturing process to make

  9. Ionic polymer-metal composite actuators employing sulfonated poly (styrene-ethylene-butylene-styrene) as ionic-exchange membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuan-Lun; Oh, Il-Kwon; Lu, Jun; Ju, Jin-Hun; Lee, Sun-Woo

    2007-07-01

    There is growing interest in biomimetic motions by employing ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs) as the candidates for the fabrication of artificial muscle. However, the membrane materials currently used in IPMC actuators have been limited to a few commercially available perfluorinated ionic polymers, such as Nafion, and they suffer from several shortcomings among which their high cost presents a major obstacle for wide application. With excellent proton conductivity and high water uptake capacity, commercially available Sulfonated poly (styrene-ethylene-butylene-styrene) (SEBS) of low cost has been investigated for many years as a fuel cell membrane. Herein, we report the preparation of a novel IPMC actuator based on the sulfonated SEBS (SSEBS) membrane. The platinum electrodes of the SEBS actuators were obtained with electroless plating procedure, and the cation exchange with lithium was performed by soaking the composite membranes into a 1.5N LiCl solution. The surface and cross-sectional morphologies of the SSEBS actuators were observed by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which revealed that the platinum layer up to 8µm was deposited on the top and bottom surfaces of the SSEBS membrane. The electromechanical bending responses were investigated under alternating current excitations with various driving frequencies and voltage amplitudes, which showed high electrical strains under sinusoidal signal. The effect of the membrane thickness on the performance of the actuators was also addressed in this presentation. This kind of IPMC has great potentials for the applications in biomimetic sensors and actuators, which can be utilized to mimic the locomotion of fish and insects and can be applied to micro-robots and bio-medical devices as well.

  10. Modeling of electrochemomechanical response of ionic polymer-metal composites with various solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemat-Nasser, Sia; Zamani, Shahram

    2006-09-01

    Ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs) consist of a perfluorinated ionomer membrane (usually Nafion® or Flemion®) plated on both faces with a noble metal such as gold or platinum and neutralized with the necessary amount of counterions that balance the electrical charge of anions that are covalently fixed to the backbone ionomer. IPMCs are electroactive materials with potential applications as soft actuators and sensors. Their electrical-chemical-mechanical response is dependent on the cations used, the nature and the amount of solvent uptake, the morphology of the electrodes, the composition of the backbone ionomer, the geometry and boundary conditions of the composite element, and the magnitude and spatial and temporal variations of the applied potential. Our most recent experimental results show that solvents can have profound effects on the nature of the IPMCs' actuation. For example, we have discovered experimentally that Nafion-based IPMCs in Li+-form show very small back relaxation when hydrated, but extensive back relaxation with all other solvents that we have considered. On the other hand, the same membrane in the K+-form has extensive back relaxation when solvated with water, ethylene glycol, or glycerol, but none with 18-Crown-6. In the present paper, we seek to model the IPMCs' actuation and compare results with the experimental data. The modeling rests on the observation that a sudden application of a step potential (dc) of several volts (1-3V) alters the distribution of cations within the ionomer, forcing cations out of the clusters near the anode and additional cations into the clusters near the cathode. The clusters within a thin boundary layer near the anode are thus depleted of their cations, while cations accumulate in the clusters near the cathode boundary layer. We first seek to determine the spatial and temporal variations of the cation distribution across the thickness of the IPMC for various cations and solvents, using an implicit finite

  11. Effects of Electrode Surface Morphology on the Transduction of Ionic Polymer-Metal Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmre, Viljar

    Ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs) are innovative smart materials that exhibit electromechanical and mechanoelectrical transduction (conversion of electrical input into mechanical deformation and vice versa). Due to low driving voltage (< 5 V) and ability to operate in aqueous environment, IPMCs are attractive for developing soft actuators and sensors for underwater robots and medical devices. This dissertation focuses on investigating the effects of electrode surface morphology in the transduction of Pt and Pd-Pt electrodes-based IPMCs, with the aim to improve the electrode surface design and thereby enhance the transduction performance of the material. Firstly, the synthesis techniques are developed to control and manipulate the surface structure of the mentioned electrodes through the electroless plating process. Using these techniques, IPMCs with different electrode surface structures are fabricated. The changes in the electrode surface morphology and the resulting effects on the material's electromechanical, mechanoelectrical, electrochemical and mechanical properties area examined and analyzed. This study shows that increasing the impregnation-reduction cycles under appropriate conditions leads to the formation and growth of platinum nanoparticles with sharp tips and edges---called Pt nanothorn assemblies---at the polymer-electrode interface. IPMCs designed with such nanostructured Pt electrodes are first to be reported. The experiments demonstrate that the formation and growth of Pt nanothorn assemblies at the electrode interface increases considerably the total transported charge during the transduction, thereby increasing significantly the displacement and blocking force output of IPMC. The improvement of the mentioned electromechanical properties was 3--5 times, depending on the input voltage and frequency used. Also, the peak mechanoelectrically induced voltage increased somewhat, although the overall effect of the surface structure was relatively

  12. Ionic polymer-metal composite actuators obtained from radiation-grafted cation- and anion-exchange membranes.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong Hyuk; Han, Man Jae; Song, Dae Seock; Jho, Jae Young

    2014-12-24

    Two series of ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs), one cationic and one anionic, are designed and prepared from radiation-grafted ion-exchange membranes. Through examination of the properties of the membranes synthesized from the two grafting monomers and the two base polymers, acrylic acid-grafted poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) and quarternized 4-vinylpyridine-grafted poly(ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene) with the appropriate amount of ionic groups are employed for the fabrication of cation and anion IPMCs, respectively. The bending displacement of the cation IPMC is comparable to Nafion-based IPMC under direct- and alternating-current voltage, but back-relaxation is not observed. The actuation performance of the anion IPMC is highly improved over those reported earlier in the literature for the other anion IPMCs. PMID:25420910

  13. Development of electroactive silicate nanocomposites prepared for use as ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs) artificial muscles and sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Jaedo; Lee, Jun-Ho; Choi, Hyuk Ryul; Kim, Hunmo; Jeon, Jaewook; Paquette, Jason; Kim, Kwang J.; Tak, Yong Suk; Xu, Huifang

    2002-07-01

    Nanocomposites are a new class of composites which are typically nanoparticle-filled polymers. One promising kind of nanocomposite is clay-based and polymer-layered silicates nanocomposites because the starting clay materials are naturally abundant and, also, their intercalation chemistry is well understood at the present time. A certain clay, Montmorillonite (MxAl4- xMgx)Si8O20$(OH4 has two-dimensional layers of their crystal structure lattice where the layer thickness is around 1 nm with the lateral dimension of approximately 30 nm to a few microns. These layers organize themselves to form stacks, so-called the Gallery through a van der Walls gap in between them. In this work, Montmorillonite (MMT) was modified by a cationic surfactant so as to lower its surface energy significantly. Such a process gave rise to favorable intercalation of nanoparticles within the galleries. The obtained XRD patterns and TEM images indicate that the silicate layers are completely and uniformly dispersed (nearly exfoliated) in a continuous polymer matrix of Nafion that has been successfully used as a starting material of ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMC's).

  14. A novel discrete adaptive sliding-mode-like control method for ionic polymer-metal composite manipulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhiyong; Hao, Lina; Chen, Wenlin; Li, Zhi; Liu, Liqun

    2013-09-01

    Ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC), also called artificial muscle, is an EAP material which can generate a relatively large deformation with a low driving voltage (generally less than 5 V). Like other EAP materials, IPMC possesses strong nonlinear properties, which can be described as a hybrid of back-relaxation (BR) and hysteresis characteristics, which also vary with water content, environmental temperature and even the usage consumption. Nowadays, many control approaches have been developed to tune the IPMC actuators, among which adaptive methods show a particular striking performance. To deal with IPMCs’ nonlinear problem, this paper represents a robust discrete adaptive inverse (AI) control approach, which employs an on-line identification technique based on the BR operator and Prandtl-Ishlinskii (PI) hysteresis operator hybrid model estimation method. Here the newly formed control approach is called discrete adaptive sliding-mode-like control (DASMLC) due to the similarity of its design method to that of a sliding mode controller. The weighted least mean squares (WLMS) identification method was employed to estimate the hybrid IPMC model because of its advantage of insensitivity to environmental noise. Experiments with the DASMLC approach and a conventional PID controller were carried out to compare and demonstrate the proposed controller’s better performance.

  15. A comparison study of ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs) fabricated with Nafion and other ion exchange membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jiyeon; Palmre, Viljar; Kim, Kwang; Shin, Dongsuk; Kim, Daniel H.; Yim, Woosoon; Bae, Chulsung

    2013-04-01

    Ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs) have been and still are one of the best candidates with great potential to be used as actuators and sensors particularly in bioengineering where the environmental conditions are in an aqueous medium. Each component of an IPMC is important. However, the ion exchange membrane should be more emphasized because it is where ions migrate when electrical stimulation is applied and eventually it produces deformation of the IPMC. So far, the most commonly used ion exchange membrane is Nafion and many studies have been conducted with it for IPMC applications. There are a number of other commercially available ion exchange membranes now, but only a few studies have been done on those membranes to be used in IPMC applications. In this study, four commercially available membranes, (1) Nafion N115 (DuPont), (2) CMI7000S (Membranes International Inc.), (3) F-14100 (fumatech), (4) GEFC-700 (Golden Energy Fuel Cell) were selected and fabricated in IPMCs and their potentials as actuators were examined by conducting various characterizations such as water uptake, ion exchange capacity, SEM, DSC, blocking force and bending displacement.

  16. A comprehensive physics-based model encompassing variable surface resistance and underlying physics of ionic polymer-metal composite actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Qi; Palmre, Viljar; Stalbaum, Tyler; Kim, Kwang J.

    2015-09-01

    The ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) is an emerging smart material in actuation and sensing applications, such as artificial muscles, underwater actuators, and advanced medical devices. However, the effect of the change in surface electrode properties on the actuating of IPMC has not been well studied. To address this problem, we theoretically predict and experimentally investigate the dynamic electro-mechanical response of the IPMC thin-strip actuator. A model of the IPMC actuator is proposed based on the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations for ion transport and charge dynamics in the polymer membrane, while a physical model for the change of surface resistance of the electrodes of the IPMC due to deformation is also incorporated. By incorporating these two models, a complete, dynamic, physics-based model for IPMC actuators is presented. To verify the model, IPMC samples were prepared and experiments were conducted. The results show that the theoretical model can accurately predict the actuating performance of IPMC actuators over a range of dynamic conditions. Additionally, the charge dynamics inside the polymer during the oscillation of the IPMC is presented. It is also shown that the charge at the boundary mainly affects the induced stress of the IPMC. The current study is beneficial for the comprehensive understanding of the surface electrode effect on the performance of IPMC actuators.

  17. Synthesis of nanoscaled platinum particles (NSPP): their role in performance improvement of ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) artificial muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwang J.; Shahinpoor, Mohsen

    2001-07-01

    In this work the synthesis of nano-scaled platinum particles by a chemical reducing technique within an ion-exchange membrane has been performed. It is desirable to gain a fundamental knowledge and understanding of the properties of small nano-scaled platinum particles within ion-exchange membranes, which can affect the performance of Ionic Polymer-Metal Composite (IPMC) artificial muscles. In IPMC artificial muscle applications, the finite size of platinum particles is believed to strongly influence their properties. This might be related to a platinum surface effect originating from the electronic surface states of platinum particles that differ from the bulk states. In order to address this issue, we have attempted to synthesize small platinum particles having different size distributions by using protective agents. Further, we have characterized them as well. For IPMC artificial muscles, the presence of such nano-scale platinum particles minimizes the solvent- leakage from the surface electrodes. This in turn improves their performance dramatically. A successfully fabricated IPMC artificial muscle with nano-Platinum particles has shown a significantly improved force density as much as 100% than that of the conventional IPMC.

  18. Ionic polymer-metal composite actuators based on triple-layered polyelectrolytes composed of individually functionalized layers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jang-Woo; Yoo, Young-Tai; Lee, Jae Yeol

    2014-01-22

    Ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) actuators based on two types of triple-layered Nafion composite membranes were prepared via consecutive solution recasting and electroless plating methods. The triple-layered membranes are composed of a Nafion layer containing an amphiphilic organic molecule (10-camphorsulfonic acid; CSA) in the middle section (for fast and large ion conduction) and two Nafion/modified inorganic composite layers in the outer sections (for large accumulation/retention of mobile ions). For construction of the two types of IPMCs, sulfonated montmorillonite (MMT) and polypyrrole (PPy)-coated alumina fillers were incorporated into the outer layers. Both the triple-layered IPMCs exhibited 42% higher tip displacements at the maximum deflections with a negligible back-relaxation, 50-74% higher blocking forces, and more rapid responses under 3 V dc, compared with conventional single-layered Nafion-IPMCs. Improvements in cyclic displacement under a rectangular voltage input of 3 V at 1 Hz were also made in the triple-layered configurations. Compared with single-layered IPMCs consisting of the identical compositions with the respective outer composite layers, the bending rates and energy efficiencies of both the triple-layered IPMCs were significantly higher, although the blocking forces were a bit lower. These remarkable improvements were attributed to higher capacitances and Young's moduli as well as a more efficient transport of mobile ions and water through the middle layer (Nafion/CSA) and a larger accumulation/retention of the mobile species in the outer functionalized inorganic composite layers. Especially, the triple-layered IPMC with the PPy-modified alumina registered the best actuation performance among all the samples, including a viable actuation even at a low voltage of 1.5 V due to involving efficient redox reactions of PPy with the aid of hygroscopic alumina. PMID:24383744

  19. Modeling of robotic fish propelled by an ionic polymer-metal composite caudal fin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zheng; Shatara, Stephan; Tan, Xiaobo

    2009-03-01

    In this paper, a model is proposed for a biomimetic robotic fish propelled by an ionic polymer metal composite (IPMC) actuator with a rigid passive fin at the end. The model incorporates both IPMC actuation dynamics and the hydrodynamics, and predicts the steady-state speed of the robot under a periodic actuation voltage. Experimental results have shown that the proposed model can predict the fish motion for different tail dimensions. Since its parameters are expressed in terms of physical properties and geometric dimensions, the model is expected to be instrumental in optimal design of the robotic fish.

  20. Characterization and dynamic modeling of ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMC): artificial muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudigonda, Ashwin; Zhu, Jianchao J.

    2006-03-01

    This paper deals with the characterization and dynamic modeling of the behavior of two types of the Ionic Polymer Metal Composite (IPMC) "artificial muscle" materials. Environmental Robots, Inc. (ERI) was the initial vendor and its IPMC products required hydration for optimal performance. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech, VT) subsequently developed their innovative ionic solvent filled IPMCs that obviated hydration. Static tests were conducted to characterize force, displacement and current as a function of applied voltage. Dynamic tests were conducted to observe the frequency response of the material. Fatigue tests were performed on the ERI IPMCs to observe the change in behavior over time. It was found that the VT IPMCs had a bandwidth that was almost half that of the ERI product. However, the obviation of hydration of the VT's IPMC ensured the repeatability of performance and generated increased force densities. A feasibility study is presented to estimate the amount of IPMC materials and power consumption for a biceps exo-muscular assistance device based on the characteristics of the current IPMC materials and a primitive exo-muscular fiber bundle structure.

  1. Efficient active actuation to imitate locomotion of gecko's toes using an ionic polymer-metal composite actuator enhanced by carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Min; He, Qingsong; Yu, Dingshan; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Ji, Aihong; Zhang, Hao; Guo, Ce; Dai, Zhendong

    2012-10-01

    Active actuation of the adhesive pads is important for a gecko-robot climbing on walls. We demonstrate the fabrication of an ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) actuator enhanced with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and its use for actively actuating an adhesive array to imitate the locomotion of gecko's toes. The as-fabricated IPMC actuator doped with CNTs exhibits a maximum blocking force of 3.59 gf driven at a low voltage of 3 V. It can be easily controlled by voltage signals to actuate an artificial gecko's toe to attach and detach from a surface. This will allow active, distributed actuation in a gecko robot.

  2. A cylindrical ionic polymer-metal composite-based robotic catheter platform: modeling, design and control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Siul; Mead, Benjamin; Palmre, Viljar; Kim, Kwang J.; Yim, Woosoon

    2015-01-01

    Ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs) are soft electroactive polymers that have recently gained considerable attention in biomedical engineering as actuators and sensors. This study focuses on modeling, design and control of a cylindrical IPMC actuator with sectored electrodes. The cylindrical IPMC allows for multi-degree of freedom motion and accurate control of the tip location that can be utilized in biomedical active catheter devices. A three-dimensional finite element model is constructed to describe the physics of cylindrical IPMC actuation. The model is implemented to conduct optimization studies that provide conceptual designs that can maximize deflection, force output, and twisting actuation. Also, a cylindrical tube-shaped IPMC is designed and fabricated. This type of IPMC offers the ability to embed a specific tool and accurately control the tool tip location, which is critical in catheter procedures. To effectively utilize the tube-type IPMC, a closed-loop control system is created based on the electromechanical model and tested in different actuation settings. To improve functionality and the user interface the control system is designed to work on a laptop touchpad.

  3. Experimental characterization and modeling of ionic polymer-metal composites as biomimetic actuators, sensors, and artificial muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yongxian

    Ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs) are soft bending actuators and sensors. A typical IPMC consists of a thin perfluorinated ionomer membrane, noble metal electrodes plated on both faces, and is neutralized with the necessary amount of cations. They respond to electric stimulus by generating large bending motions and produce electric signals upon sudden bending deformations. These actuation and sensing responses, which result from the coupled chemo-electro-mechanical interactions at the nano-scale level, depend on the structure of the ionomer, the morphology of the metal electrodes, the nature of the cations, and the degree of the hydration. IPMCs have been considered for potential applications in artificial muscles, robotic systems, medical devices, and other biomimetic applications. A series of systematic experimental characterizations are performed on both Nafion- and Flemion-based IPMCs in various cation forms. Compared with Nafion-based IPMCs, Flemion-based IPMCs with fine dendritic gold electrodes have higher ion-exchange capacity, better surface conductivity, higher hydration capacity, and higher longitudinal stiffness. Flemion-based IPMCs show a greater bending deformation towards the anode without back relaxation under a DC voltage. This displacement towards the anode is linearly related to the charge accumulation at the cathode. In contrast, Nafion-based IPMCs in alkali-metal cations initially have a fast bending towards the anode, followed by a slow relaxation in the opposite direction as charges continue to move towards the cathode boundary layer. Based on the understanding of the factors that affect IPMCs' performance, novel methods to tailor the IPMCs' electro-mechanical responses are developed. By modifying the associated cations, i.e., introducing various single cations (including alkali-metal, alkyl-ammonium, or multivalent metal cations) and cation combinations, diverse actuation behaviors can be obtained and optimized. The actuation motions of

  4. Underwater tracking of a moving dipole source using an artificial lateral line: algorithm and experimental validation with ionic polymer-metal composite flow sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulsadda, Ahmad T.; Tan, Xiaobo

    2013-04-01

    Motivated by the lateral line system of fish, arrays of flow sensors have been proposed as a new sensing modality for underwater robots. Existing studies on such artificial lateral lines (ALLs) have been mostly focused on the localization of a fixed underwater vibrating sphere (dipole source). In this paper we examine the problem of tracking a moving dipole source using an ALL system. Based on an analytical model for the moving dipole-generated flow field, we formulate a nonlinear estimation problem that aims to minimize the error between the measured and model-predicted magnitudes of flow velocities at the sensor sites, which is subsequently solved with the Gauss-Newton scheme. A sliding discrete Fourier transform (SDFT) algorithm is proposed to efficiently compute the evolving signal magnitudes based on the flow velocity measurements. Simulation indicates that it is adequate and more computationally efficient to use only the signal magnitudes corresponding to the dipole vibration frequency. Finally, experiments conducted with an artificial lateral line consisting of six ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) flow sensors demonstrate that the proposed scheme is able to simultaneously locate the moving dipole and estimate its vibration amplitude and traveling speed with small errors.

  5. Ionic Polymer-Metal Composites (IPMCs) with Various Ion Exchange Membranes and Their Potential Use in IPMC Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jiyeon

    Ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs) have been widely studied and drawn great attention for the last several years in robotics and medical fields due to their great potential as actuators, artificial muscles, and more. Each part of an IPMC is important, but the role of ionic exchange membrane should be emphasized because, after all, it is where ions migrate when voltage is applied to produce motion. So far, most researches have been done on IPMCs made with commercially available ionic exchange membranes such as Nafion or Flemion. In this thesis, the research is mainly focused on fabricating IPMCs with several other ionic exchange membranes that are commercially available and characterization of optical, physical, and electromechanical properties of those IPMCs. Five different ion exchange membranes of DuPont (N115), Golden Energy Fuel Cells Inc (GEFC-700)., fuMA Tech (F-14100), Membranes International Inc. (CMI-7000S) and University of Nevada Las Vegas (19-PSU-S1) are the chosen membranes. N115, GEFC-700, and F-14100 have the same structure. CMI-7000S is a reinforced membrane by mixing fibers with the ion exchange membrane. 19-PSU-S1 is a membrane that was made at UNLV for fuel cell application. The physical properties of the ionic exchange membranes were studied by examining water uptake. The thermal analysis also was carried out with Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). Water uptake and ion exchange capacities were measured to confirm the physical properties of IPMCs. The structure of the IPMCs was observed under Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The structures of fabricated IPMCs were observed by SEM and DSC. Capacitance was also measured by drawing impedance curves. Young's modulus (E) was measured to determine the stiffness of each IPMC. Lastly, bending actuation test was carried out to observe the actual performance of each IPMC in water. The water uptake of all IPMCs is less than 40%. 19-PSU-S1 absorbed the most water (35.2 %) and CMI-7000S absorbed

  6. Measurements and macro models of ionomeric polymer-metal composites (IMPC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bao, X.; Bar-Cohen, Y.; Lih, S. S.

    2002-01-01

    The Ionomeric Polymer-Metal Composites (IPMC) as a type of electroactive polymers are attractive actuation materials because of their features of large electrically induced bending, mechanical flexibility, low excitation voltage, low density, and ease of fabrication.

  7. Ionic polymer metal composites: IV. Industrial and medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahinpoor, Mohsen; Kim, Kwang J.

    2005-02-01

    This paper, the last in a series of four review papers to appear in this journal, presents some critical applications using ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs). Industrial and biomedical applications of IPMCs are identified and presented along with brief illustration.

  8. Response Behaviour of a Hydrogen Sensor Based on Ionic Conducting Polymer-metal Interfaces Prepared by the Chemical Reduction Method

    PubMed Central

    Sakthivel, Mariappan; Weppner, Werner

    2006-01-01

    A solid-state amperometric hydrogen sensor based on a protonated Nafion membrane and catalytic active electrode operating at room temperature was fabricated and tested. Ionic conducting polymer-metal electrode interfaces were prepared chemically by using the impregnation-reduction method. The polymer membrane was impregnated with tetra-ammine platinum chloride hydrate and the metal ions were subsequently reduced by using either sodium tetrahydroborate or potassium tetrahydroborate. The hydrogen sensing characteristics with air as reference gas is reported. The sensors were capable of detecting hydrogen concentrations from 10 ppm to 10% in nitrogen. The response time was in the range of 10-30 s and a stable linear current output was observed. The thin Pt films were characterized by XRD, Infrared Spectroscopy, Optical Microscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy and EDAX.

  9. Tailored Composite Polymer-Metal Nanoparticles by Miniemulsion Polymerization and Thiol-ene Functionalization

    PubMed Central

    van Berkel, Kim Y.

    2010-01-01

    A simple and modular synthetic approach, based on miniemulsion polymerization, has been developed for the fabrication of composite polymer-metal nanoparticle materials. The procedure produces well-defined composite structures consisting of gold, silver or MnFe2O4 nanoparticles (∼10 nm in diameter) encapsulated within larger spherical nanoparticles of poly(divinylbenzene) (∼100 nm in diameter). This methodology readily permits the incorporation of multiple metal domains into a single polymeric particle, while still preserving the useful optical and magnetic properties of the metal nanoparticles. The morphology of the composite particles is retained upon increasing the inorganic content, and also upon redispersion in organic solvents. Finally, the ability to tailor the surface chemistry of the composite nanoparticles and incorporate steric stabilizing groups using simple thiol-ene chemistry is demonstrated. PMID:20657708

  10. A multiple-shape memory polymer-metal composite actuator capable of programmable control, creating complex 3D motion of bending, twisting, and oscillation

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Qi; Trabia, Sarah; Stalbaum, Tyler; Palmre, Viljar; Kim, Kwang; Oh, Il-Kwon

    2016-01-01

    Development of biomimetic actuators has been an essential motivation in the study of smart materials. However, few materials are capable of controlling complex twisting and bending deformations simultaneously or separately using a dynamic control system. Here, we report an ionic polymer-metal composite actuator having multiple-shape memory effect, and is able to perform complex motion by two external inputs, electrical and thermal. Prior to the development of this type of actuator, this capability only could be realized with existing actuator technologies by using multiple actuators or another robotic system. This paper introduces a soft multiple-shape-memory polymer-metal composite (MSMPMC) actuator having multiple degrees-of-freedom that demonstrates high maneuverability when controlled by two external inputs, electrical and thermal. These multiple inputs allow for complex motions that are routine in nature, but that would be otherwise difficult to obtain with a single actuator. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this MSMPMC actuator is the first solitary actuator capable of multiple-input control and the resulting deformability and maneuverability. PMID:27080134

  11. A multiple-shape memory polymer-metal composite actuator capable of programmable control, creating complex 3D motion of bending, twisting, and oscillation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qi; Trabia, Sarah; Stalbaum, Tyler; Palmre, Viljar; Kim, Kwang; Oh, Il-Kwon

    2016-01-01

    Development of biomimetic actuators has been an essential motivation in the study of smart materials. However, few materials are capable of controlling complex twisting and bending deformations simultaneously or separately using a dynamic control system. Here, we report an ionic polymer-metal composite actuator having multiple-shape memory effect, and is able to perform complex motion by two external inputs, electrical and thermal. Prior to the development of this type of actuator, this capability only could be realized with existing actuator technologies by using multiple actuators or another robotic system. This paper introduces a soft multiple-shape-memory polymer-metal composite (MSMPMC) actuator having multiple degrees-of-freedom that demonstrates high maneuverability when controlled by two external inputs, electrical and thermal. These multiple inputs allow for complex motions that are routine in nature, but that would be otherwise difficult to obtain with a single actuator. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this MSMPMC actuator is the first solitary actuator capable of multiple-input control and the resulting deformability and maneuverability. PMID:27080134

  12. A multiple-shape memory polymer-metal composite actuator capable of programmable control, creating complex 3D motion of bending, twisting, and oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Qi; Trabia, Sarah; Stalbaum, Tyler; Palmre, Viljar; Kim, Kwang; Oh, Il-Kwon

    2016-04-01

    Development of biomimetic actuators has been an essential motivation in the study of smart materials. However, few materials are capable of controlling complex twisting and bending deformations simultaneously or separately using a dynamic control system. Here, we report an ionic polymer-metal composite actuator having multiple-shape memory effect, and is able to perform complex motion by two external inputs, electrical and thermal. Prior to the development of this type of actuator, this capability only could be realized with existing actuator technologies by using multiple actuators or another robotic system. This paper introduces a soft multiple-shape-memory polymer-metal composite (MSMPMC) actuator having multiple degrees-of-freedom that demonstrates high maneuverability when controlled by two external inputs, electrical and thermal. These multiple inputs allow for complex motions that are routine in nature, but that would be otherwise difficult to obtain with a single actuator. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this MSMPMC actuator is the first solitary actuator capable of multiple-input control and the resulting deformability and maneuverability.

  13. Core-shell and segmented polymer-metal composite nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Lahav, Michal; Weiss, Emily A; Xu, Qiaobing; Whitesides, George M

    2006-09-01

    Composite nanostructures (approximately 200 nm wide and several micrometers long) of metal and polyaniline (PANI) in two new variations of core-shell (PANI-Au) and segmented (Au-PANI and Ni-Au-PANI) architectures were fabricated electrochemically within anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes. Control over the structure of these composites (including the length of the gold shells in the core-shell structures) was accomplished by adjusting the time and rate of electrodeposition and the pH of the solution from which the materials were grown. Exposure of the core-shell structures to oxygen plasma removed the PANI and yielded aligned gold nanotubes. In the segmented structures, a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of thioaniline nucleated the growth of PANI on top of metal nanorods and acted as an adhesion layer between the metal and PANI components. PMID:16968046

  14. Percolation behavior of polymer/metal composites on modification of filler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, M.; Srinivas, V.; Thakur, A. K.

    2014-02-01

    Polymer-metal composites with different fillers, such as nanocrystalline nickel (n-Ni), core shell n-Ni and nickel oxide (NiO)[n-Ni@NiO] were prepared under the same processing conditions with polyvinyledene fluoride matrix. The larger value of critical exponents (s and s') and percolation threshold (fc 0.30) for n-Ni@NiO composites as compared to n-Ni composites (fc 0.07) and a comparable effective dielectric constant (ɛeff 300) with low loss tangent (tan δ 0.1) at 100 Hz in case of percolative n-Ni@NiO composite was observed. The core shell structure [n-Ni@NiO] also shows a very high value of ɛeff 6000 with tan δ 8 at 40 Hz. The results have been explained by using boundary layer capacitor effect and the percolation theory. The difference in fc and critical exponents is attributed to NiO insulating layer that gives rise to different extent of continuumness at fc and have been explained with the help of Swiss cheese model.

  15. Enhanced Nanotribology and Optimal Self-lubrication in Novel Polymer-Metal Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seam, Alisha; Brostow, Witold; Olea-Mejia, Oscar

    2006-10-01

    Cheaper to produce, light-weight polymeric materials with improved micro and nano-scale tribological characteristics ar gradually replacing the heavier metals in gears, cams, ball-bearings, chains, and other critical machine components which operate under high stress, experience substantial sliding friction and wear, and require external lubrication regimes. Application of such high-performance synthetic materials in a whole range of machinery, manufacturing, aerospace and transportation industries would produce far reaching economic, energy conservation and environmental benefits. This paper devises and investigates a novel and previously untested method of developing self-lubricating and wear-resistant polymer based materials (PBMs) by blending a polymer with small proportions of a metallic additive. Tribological experiments establish that as increasing proportions of the metallic additive Iron (Fe) are added to the polymeric base polyethylene (PE), the friction and wear of the resulting composite (PE-Fe) experiences significant decline until an optimal value of 3 to 5 % Iron and then stabilize. Theoretical analysis reveals this phenomenon to likely be a result of the nano-structural formation of a lubricating oxide layer on surface of the polymer-metal composite. Furthermore, the oxide layer prevented significant degradation of the viscoelastic scratch-recovery of the base polymer, even with 10 percent metal additive (Fe) in the composite samples.

  16. The Influence of Pores in Track Etched Membranes and Prepared on their Base Polymer/Metal Composites on their Fracture Strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumirova, V. N.; Bedin, S. A.; Abdurashidova, G. S.; Razumovskaya, I. V.

    The strength of track etched membranes and prepared on their base polymer/metal composites is analysed in point of view of the pores form evolution during the extension and the interaction of elastic mechanical fields on closely positioned pores. The stress-strain curves for track membranes and composites PET/Cu are demonstrated for pore density 1.2×107сm-2 and diameters from 0.06 μm to 2.9 μm

  17. Direct electron transfer of glucose oxidase and biosensing of glucose on hollow sphere-nanostructured conducting polymer/metal oxide composite.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chun Xian; Li, Chang Ming

    2010-10-14

    A hollow sphere-nanostructured conductive polymer/metal oxide composite was synthesized and used to investigate the electrochemical behavior of glucose oxidase, demonstrating a significantly enhanced direct electron transfer ability of glucose oxidase. In particular, the long-standing puzzle of whether enzymatic glucose sensing involves an enzyme direct electron transfer process was studied. The results indicate the mechanism is indeed a glucose oxidase direct electron transfer process with competitive glucose oxidation and oxygen reduction to detect glucose. A glucose biosensor with the glucose oxidase-immobilized nanomaterial was further constructed, demonstrating superior sensitivity and reliability, and providing great potential in clinical applications. PMID:20714592

  18. Reverse adhesion of a gecko-inspired synthetic adhesive switched by an ion-exchange polymer-metal composite actuator.

    PubMed

    Guo, Dong-Jie; Liu, Rui; Cheng, Yu; Zhang, Hao; Zhou, Li-Ming; Fang, Shao-Ming; Elliott, Winston Howard; Tan, Wei

    2015-03-11

    Inspired by how geckos abduct, rotate, and adduct their setal foot toes to adhere to different surfaces, we have developed an artificial muscle material called ion-exchange polymer-metal composite (IPMC), which, as a synthetic adhesive, is capable of changing its adhesion properties. The synthetic adhesive was cast from a Si template through a sticky colloid precursor of poly(methylvinylsiloxane) (PMVS). The PMVS array of setal micropillars had a high density of pillars (3.8 × 10(3) pillars/mm(2)) with a mean diameter of 3 μm and a pore thickness of 10 μm. A graphene oxide monolayer containing Ag globular nanoparticles (GO/Ag NPs) with diameters of 5-30 nm was fabricated and doped in an ion-exchanging Nafion membrane to improve its carrier transfer, water-saving, and ion-exchange capabilities, which thus enhanced the electromechanical response of IPMC. After being attached to PMVS micropillars, IPMC was actuated by square wave inputs at 1.0, 1.5, or 2.0 V to bend back and forth, driving the micropillars to actively grip or release the surface. To determine the adhesion of the micropillars, the normal adsorption and desorption forces were measured as the IPMC drives the setal micropillars to grip and release, respectively. Adhesion results demonstrated that the normal adsorption forces were 5.54-, 14.20-, and 23.13-fold higher than the normal desorption forces under 1.0, 1.5, or 2.0 V, respectively. In addition, shear adhesion or friction increased by 98, 219, and 245%, respectively. Our new technique provides advanced design strategies for reversible gecko-inspired synthetic adhesives, which might be used for spiderman-like wall-climbing devices with unprecedented performance. PMID:25676143

  19. Ionic Vapor Composition in Pyridinium-Based Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Chaban, Vitaly V; Prezhdo, Oleg V

    2016-05-26

    Strong electrostatic interactions in ionic compounds make vaporization a complex process. The gas phase can contain a broad range of ionic clusters, and the cluster composition can differ greatly from that in the liquid phase. Room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) constitute a complicated case due to their ionic nature, asymmetric structure, and a huge versatility of ions and ionic clusters. This work reports vapor-liquid equilibria and vapor compositions of butylpyridinium (BPY) RTILs formed with hexafluorophosphate (PF6), trifluoromethanesulfonate (TF), and bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (TFSI) anions. Unlike inorganic crystals, the pyridinium-based RTILs contain significant percentages of charged clusters in the vapor phase. Ion triplets and ion quadruplets each constitute up to 10% of the vapor phase composition. Triples prevail over quadruples in [BPY][PF6] due to the size difference of the cation and the anion. The percentage of charged ionic clusters in the gas phase is in inverse proportion to the mass of the anion. The largest identified vaporized ionic cluster comprises eight ions, with a formation probability below 1%. Higher temperature fosters formation of larger clusters due to an increase of the saturated vapor density. PMID:27165866

  20. Tailoring the actuation of ionic polymer metal composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemat-Nasser, Sia; Wu, Yongxian

    2006-08-01

    Ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs) are biomimetic actuators and sensors. A typical IPMC consists of a thin perfluorinated ionomer membrane, with noble metal electrodes plated on both faces, and neutralized with the necessary amount of cations. A cantilevered strip of IPMC responds to an electric stimulus by generating large bending motions and, conversely, produces an electric potential upon sudden bending deformations. IPMCs have been considered for potential applications in artificial muscles, robotic systems, and biomedical devices. By examining the underpinning mechanisms responsible for the actuation and the factors that affect IPMC's performance, novel methods to tailor its electro-mechanical response to obtain optimized actuation activities are developed and presented in this paper. By introducing various monovalent or multivalent single cations and cation combinations, diverse actuation behaviors can be obtained and optimal actuation activities can be identified. The experimental measurements show good agreement with the results obtained using the nano-scaled, physics-based model that was introduced by the first author to predict the actuation of IPMCs qualitatively and quantitatively. The bending motion of IPMCs can also be tailored by modifying the time variation of the applied direct or alternating current. We have discovered that the Nafion-based IPMC's initial motion towards the anode can be controlled and ultimately eliminated by applying a linearly increasing electric potential at a suitable rate. For Flemion-based IPMCs, the tip displacement towards the anode is always linearly related to the cation charge accumulation at the cathode. These results have significant bearing on verifying various IPMC actuation models.

  1. Organic polymer-metal nano-composites for opto-electronic sensing of chemicals in agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkisov, Sergey S.; Czarick, Michael; Fairchild, Brian D.; Liang, Yi; Kukhtareva, Tatiana; Curley, Michael J.

    2013-03-01

    Recent research findings led the team to conclude that a long lasting and inexpensive colorimetric sensor for monitoring ammonia emission from manure in confined animal feeding operations could eventually become feasible. The sensor uses robust method of opto-electronic spectroscopic measurement of the reversible change of the color of a sensitive nano-composite reagent film in response to ammonia. The film is made of a metal (gold, platinum, or palladium) nano-colloid in a polymer matrix with an ammonia-sensitive indicator dye additive. The response of the indicator dye (increase of the optical absorption in the region 550 to 650 nm) is enhanced by the nano-particles (~10 nm in size) in two ways: (a) concentration of the optical field near the nano-particle due to the plasmon resonance; and (b) catalytic acceleration of the chemical reaction of deprotonization of the indicator dye in the presence of ammonia and water vapor. This enhancement helps to make a miniature and rugged sensing element without compromising its sensitivity of less than 1 ppm for the range 0 to 100 ppm. The sensor underwent field tests in commercial broiler farms in Georgia, Alabama, and Arkansas and was compared against a commercial photoacoustic gas analyzer. The sensor output correlated well with the data from the photoacoustic analyzer (correlation coefficient not less than 0.9 and the linear regression slope after calibration close to 1.0) for several weeks of continuous operation. The sources of errors were analyzed and the conclusions on the necessary improvements and the potential use of the proposed device were made.

  2. Modeling and characterization of the mechanoelectric response of ionic polymer metal composite (IPMC) energy harvesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Rashi

    2009-12-01

    Electroactive Polymers (EAPs) have gained momentum in the past few years. An especially promising material, Ionic Polymer-Metal Composite (IPMC), was the subject of the reported research. IPMCs are capable of electromechanical and mechanoelectrical transduction (i.e conversion of energy from one form to another) on application of electric field and mechanical deformation, respectively. There are three key aspects of the research reported in this dissertation: develop a framework on the mechanoelectric model, evaluate the capability of IPMC as energy harvester in natural bender configuration and assess the feasibility of non-conventional configurations including disc shaped IPMC for energy harvesting applications. First of all, a framework on mechanoelectric model based on electrostatic effect and ion transport inside the membrane was developed. The model gives an insight into the mechanoelectric principle in IPMC, along with the role played by different material parameters like Young's modulus, cluster dimension, permittivity and diffusivity. Secondly, IPMC was analyzed for energy harvesting applications. The research demonstrates applicability of IPMC as energy harvester in lower frequency regions (<50 Hz) with an average efficiency of around 2% or less. Instantaneous power output from a 10 mm (width) x 50mm (length) x 0.2mm (thickness) was measured to be around 4 muW. The effect of different parameters in mechanical domain (stiffness and scalability) and electrical domain (electrode property like resistance and capacitance) was studied, both experimentally and through a formulated Grey-box model. Lastly, non-traditional configurations were tested for energy harvesting applications.

  3. Performance improvement of an ionic polymer metal composite actuator by parylene thin film coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seong Jun; Lee, In Taek; Lee, Ho-Young; Hyup Kim, Yong

    2006-12-01

    IPMC (ionic polymer-metal composite) is a kind of ionic EAP (electroactive polymer) which is actuated by the movement of cations combined with water molecules in the polymer. The cations and water molecules move due to the applied voltage on the metal electrodes which are located on both sides of the polymer. However, water contained in the polymer gradually evaporates during the actuation and this reduces the performance of the IPMC actuator. To suppress the water evaporation from the IPMC, waterproof material such as parylene, silicone rubber and other polymers were coated on the surface of the IPMC. The displacement, the force and the lifetime of the actuator were observed by using a laser displacement measurement system and a load cell. The water impermeability of the polymer coating with respect to time was measured on a hot plate. Results showed that the parylene coating effectively suppressed the water loss from the IPMC and enlarged the lifetime of the actuator dramatically. However, it was found that parylene has poor adhesion properties to the metal electrode. To improve the adhesion, plasma treatments of argon (Ar), oxygen (O2) and trifluoromethane (CHF3) were performed on the electrode surface before parylene coating. We evaluated the surface morphology change of the electrode after plasma treatment by SEM (scanning electron microscopy) and AFM (atomic force microscopy). In addition, a tape adhesion test and a peel test were performed for quantitative analysis of adhesion strength between the metal electrode and parylene. It was found that the argon plasma treatment was the most effective to improve the adhesion strength between the metal electrode and parylene.

  4. Effects of Electric Discharge Plasma Treatment on the Thermal Conductivity of Polymer-Metal Nitride/Carbide Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parali, Levent; Kurbanov, Mirza A.; Bayramov, Azad A.; Tatardar, Farida N.; Sultanakhmedova, Ramazanova I.; Xanlar, Huseynova Gulnara

    2015-11-01

    High-density polymer composites with semiconductor or dielectric fillers such as aluminum nitride (AIN), aluminum oxide (Al2O3), titanium carbide (TiC), titanium nitride (TiN), boron nitride (BN), silicon nitride (Si3N4), and titanium carbonitride (TiCN) were prepared by the hot pressing method. Each powder phase of the composites was exposed to an electric discharge plasma process before composite formation. The effects of the electric discharge plasma process and the filler content (volume fraction) on the thermal conductivity, volt-ampere characteristics, thermally stimulated depolarization current, as well as electrical and mechanical strength were investigated. The results of the study indicate that, with increasing filler volume fraction, the thermal conductivity of the samples also increased. Furthermore, the thermal conductivity, and electrophysical and mechanical properties of the high-density polyethylene + 70% BN composite modified using the electric discharge plasma showed improvement when compared with that without electric discharge plasma treatment.

  5. Electrical Impedance of Ionic Polymeric Metal Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leary, S.; Bar-Cohen, Y.

    1999-01-01

    In recent years the use of ionic polymer metal composites such as Nafion-based platinum ionomers have emerged as electroactive polymer materials with great potential for robotics and other applications. An effective activation of these materials requires understanding of their mechanism of operation. Generally, the material needs to be maintained hydrated to assure its electromechanical activity. To allow the control of the response of the material, a study is underway to investigate the electrical response. Particular emphasis is placed on possible electrochemical reactions and deviations from linear dielectric behavior. Currently, efforts are made to determine the necessary drive characteristics of the source to allow low power operation (< or = 1.0 W) of the material as an actuator.

  6. Polymer composites and porous materials prepared by thermally induced phase separation and polymer-metal hybrid methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Joonsung

    The primary objective of this research is to investigate the morphological and mechanical properties of composite materials and porous materials prepared by thermally induced phase separation. High melting crystallizable diluents were mixed with polymers so that the phase separation would be induced by the solidification of the diluents upon cooling. Theoretical phase diagrams were calculated using Flory-Huggins solution thermodynamics which show good agreement with the experimental results. Porous materials were prepared by the extraction of the crystallized diluents after cooling the mixtures (hexamethylbenzene/polyethylene and pyrene/polyethylene). Anisotropic structures show strong dependence on the identity of the diluents and the composition of the mixtures. Anisotropic crystal growth of the diluents was studied in terms of thermodynamics and kinetics using DSC, optical microscopy and SEM. Microstructures of the porous materials were explained in terms of supercooling and dendritic solidification. Dual functionality of the crystallizable diluents for composite materials was evaluated using isotactic polypropylene (iPP) and compatible diluents that crystallize upon cooling. The selected diluents form homogeneous mixtures with iPP at high temperature and lower the viscosity (improved processability), which undergo phase separation upon cooling to form solid particles that function as a toughening agent at room temperature. Tensile properties and morphology of the composites showed that organic crystalline particles have the similar effect as rigid particles to increase toughness; de-wetting between the particle and iPP matrix occurs at the early stage of deformation, followed by unhindered plastic flow that consumes significant amount of fracture energy. The effect of the diluents, however, strongly depends on the identity of the diluents that interact with the iPP during solidification step, which was demonstrated by comparing tetrabromobisphenol-A and

  7. Ionic Polymer-Metal Composites (IPMCs) as dexterous manipulators and tactile sensors for minimally invasive robotic surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahramzadeh, Y.; Shahinpoor, M.

    2012-04-01

    Robot-assisted surgery provides the surgeons with new tools to perform sophisticated surgical operations in a minimally invasive manner. Small robotic end-effectors at the tip of the surgical forceps are the key advantage of robotic surgery over laparoscopic surgery and any improvement on the design of these small robots can significantly improve the overall functionality of the surgical robots. In this sense, novel bio-compatible electro-active polymeric actuators can improve the design and functionality of these robotic end-effectors particularly by introducing smaller and more flexible robotic tools. Here, we introduce the applications of IPMCs as flexible actuators with embedded tactile and force feedback sensors in minimally-invasive robotic surgery. A new design for the robotic manipulation of the organs is presented in which a two dimensional IPMC actuator is replaced with the rigid robotic distal tip. It is shown that with a customized design, IPMC actuators maintain the required dexterity for two-dimensional bending of robotic distal tip. The overall design of the robot could be considered as a hybrid robot with the combination of rigid robotic links and flexible IPMC actuator with two degrees of freedom. On the other hand with the current robotic distal tips, no tactile force feedback is available during surgery and the surgeons rely solely on vision feedback. With the proposed design of actuator, the IPMC based distal tip could be used to deliver force feedback data by using an embedded IPMC tactile sensor. Design considerations, kinematics and chemo-electro-mechanical model of the proposed actuator is presented.

  8. Fabrication and Characterization of a Micromachined Swirl-Shaped Ionic Polymer Metal Composite Actuator with Electrodes Exhibiting Asymmetric Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Guo-Hua; Liu, Kim-Min

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a swirl-shaped microfeatured ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) actuator. A novel micromachining process was developed to fabricate an array of IPMC actuators on a glass substrate and to ensure that no shortcircuits occur between the electrodes of the actuator. We demonstrated a microfluidic scheme in which surface tension was used to construct swirl-shaped planar IPMC devices of microfeature size and investigated the flow velocity of Nafion solutions, which formed the backbone polymer of the actuator, within the microchannel. The unique fabrication process yielded top and bottom electrodes that exhibited asymmetric surface resistance. A tool for measuring surface resistance was developed and used to characterize the resistances of the electrodes for the fabricated IPMC device. The actuator, which featured asymmetric electrode resistance, caused a nonzero-bias current when the device was driven using a zero-bias square wave, and we propose a circuit model to describe this phenomenon. Moreover, we discovered and characterized a bending and rotating motion when the IPMC actuator was driven using a square wave. We observed a strain rate of 14.6% and a displacement of 700 μm in the direction perpendicular to the electrode surfaces during 4.5-V actuation. PMID:24824370

  9. Magnetic field tunable capacitive dielectric:ionic-liquid sandwich composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ye; Bhalla, Amar; Guo, Ruyan

    2016-03-01

    We examined the tunability of the capacitance for GaFeO3-ionic liquid-GaFeO3 composite material by external magnetic and electric field. Up to 1.6 folds of capacitance tunability could be achieved at 957 kHz with voltage 4 V and magnetic field 0.02 T applied. We show that the capacitance enhancement is due to the polarization coupling between dielectric layer and ionic liquid layer.

  10. Polymer/metal nanocomposites for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Zare, Yasser; Shabani, Iman

    2016-03-01

    Polymer/metal nanocomposites consisting of polymer as matrix and metal nanoparticles as nanofiller commonly show several attractive advantages such as electrical, mechanical and optical characteristics. Accordingly, many scientific and industrial communities have focused on polymer/metal nanocomposites in order to develop some new products or substitute the available materials. In the current paper, characteristics and applications of polymer/metal nanocomposites for biomedical applications are extensively explained in several categories including strong and stable materials, conductive devices, sensors and biomedical products. Moreover, some perspective utilizations are suggested for future studies. PMID:26706522

  11. Ionic Vapor Composition in Critical and Supercritical States of Strongly Interacting Ionic Compounds.

    PubMed

    Chaban, Vitaly V; Prezhdo, Oleg V

    2016-05-12

    The critical point, CP (T, P), of the phase diagram quantifies the minimum amount of kinetic energy needed to prevent a substance from existing in a condensed phase. Therefore, the CP is closely related to the properties of the fluid far below the critical temperature. Approaches designed to predict thermophysical properties of a system necessarily aim to provide reliable estimates of the CP. Vice versa, CP estimation is impossible without knowledge of the vapor phase behavior. We report ab initio Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics (BOMD) simulations of sodium and potassium chlorides, NaCl and KCl, at and above their expected CPs. We advance the present knowledge regarding the existence of ionic species in the vapor phase by establishing significant percentages of atomic clusters: 29-30% in NaCl and 34-38% in KCl. A neutral pair of counterions is the most abundant cluster in the ionic vapors (ca. 35% of all vaporized ions exist in this form). Unexpectedly, an appreciable fraction of clusters is charged. The ionic vapor composition is determined by the vapor density, rather than the nature of the alkali ion. The previously suggested CPs of NaCl and KCl appear overestimated, based on the present simulations. The reported results offer essential insights into the ionic fluid properties and assist in development of thermodynamic theories. The ab initio BOMD method has been applied to investigate the vapor phase composition of an ionic fluid for the first time. PMID:27100933

  12. Transports of ionic liquids in ionic polymer conductor network composite actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Liu, Sheng; Lin, Junhong; Wang, Dong; Jain, Vaibhav; Montazami, Reza; Heflin, James R.; Li, Jing; Madsen, Louis; Zhang, Q. M.

    2010-04-01

    We investigate the influence of ionic liquids on the electromechanical performance of Ionic Polymer Conductor Network Composite (IPCNC) bending actuators. Two imidazolium ionic liquids (ILs) with one cation, which is 1-ethyl-3- methylimidazolium ([EMI+]), and two different anions, which are tetrafluoroborate ([BF4-]) and trifluoromethanesulfonate ([Tf-]), are chosen for the study. By combining the time domain electric and electromechanical responses, we developed a new model that describes the ion transports in IPCNC actuators. The time constant of excess cation and anion migration in various composite electrodes are deduced: 6s and 25s in RuO2/Nafion; 7.9s and 36.3s in RuO2/Aquivion; 4.8s and 53s in Au/PAH, respectively. NMR is also applied to provide quantitative measures of self-diffusion coefficients independently for IL anions and cations both in pure ILs and in ILs absorved into ionomers. All the results indicate that the motion of cation, in the studied pure ionic liquids, polymer matrix and conductor network composites, is faster than that of anion. Moreover, the CNC morphology is playing a crucial role in determining the ion transport in the porous electrodes.

  13. Ionic liquid-facilitated preparation of lignocellulosic composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lignocellulosic composites (LCs) were prepared by partially dissolving cotton along with steam exploded Aspen wood and burlap fabric reinforcements utilizing an ionic liquid (IL) solvent. Two methods of preparation were employed. In the first method, a controlled amount of IL was added to preassembl...

  14. Composite mixed oxide ionic and electronic conductors for hydrogen separation

    DOEpatents

    Gopalan, Srikanth; Pal, Uday B.; Karthikeyan, Annamalai; Hengdong, Cui

    2009-09-15

    A mixed ionic and electronic conducting membrane includes a two-phase solid state ceramic composite, wherein the first phase comprises an oxygen ion conductor and the second phase comprises an n-type electronically conductive oxide, wherein the electronically conductive oxide is stable at an oxygen partial pressure as low as 10.sup.-20 atm and has an electronic conductivity of at least 1 S/cm. A hydrogen separation system and related methods using the mixed ionic and electronic conducting membrane are described.

  15. Ionic conduction in polymer composite electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dam, Tapabrata; Tripathy, Satya N.; Paluch, M.; Jena, S.; Pradhan, D. K.

    2016-05-01

    Conductivity and structural relaxation has been explored from modulus and dielectric loss formalisms respectively for a series of polymer composite electrolytes with zirconia as filler. The temperature dependence of conductivity followed Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher (VTF) behavior, which suggested a close correlation between conductivity and the segmental relaxation process in polymer electrolytes. Vogel temperature (T0) plays significant role in ion conduction process in these kind of materials.

  16. Graphene/Ionic liquid composite films and ion exchange.

    PubMed

    Mo, Yufei; Wan, Yunfang; Chau, Alicia; Huang, Fuchuan

    2014-01-01

    Wettability of graphene is adjusted by the formation of various ionic surfaces combining ionic liquid (IL) self-assembly with ion exchange. The functionalized ILs were designed and synthesized with the goal of obtaining adjustable wettability. The wettability of the graphene surface bearing various anions was measured systematically. The effect of solvent systems on ion exchange ratios on the graphene surface has also been investigated. Meanwhile, the mechanical properties of the graphene/IL composite films were investigated on a nanometer scale. The elasticity and adhesion behavior of the thin film was determined with respected to the indentation deformation by colloid probe nanoindentation method. The results indicate that anions played an important role in determining graphene/IL composite film properties. In addition, surface wetting and mechanics can be quantitatively determined according to the counter-anions on the surface. This study might suggest an alternate way for quantity detection of surface ions by surface force. PMID:24970602

  17. Graphene/Ionic Liquid Composite Films and Ion Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Yufei; Wan, Yunfang; Chau, Alicia; Huang, Fuchuan

    2014-06-01

    Wettability of graphene is adjusted by the formation of various ionic surfaces combining ionic liquid (IL) self-assembly with ion exchange. The functionalized ILs were designed and synthesized with the goal of obtaining adjustable wettability. The wettability of the graphene surface bearing various anions was measured systematically. The effect of solvent systems on ion exchange ratios on the graphene surface has also been investigated. Meanwhile, the mechanical properties of the graphene/IL composite films were investigated on a nanometer scale. The elasticity and adhesion behavior of the thin film was determined with respected to the indentation deformation by colloid probe nanoindentation method. The results indicate that anions played an important role in determining graphene/IL composite film properties. In addition, surface wetting and mechanics can be quantitatively determined according to the counter-anions on the surface. This study might suggest an alternate way for quantity detection of surface ions by surface force.

  18. Graphene/Ionic Liquid Composite Films and Ion Exchange

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Yufei; Wan, Yunfang; Chau, Alicia; Huang, Fuchuan

    2014-01-01

    Wettability of graphene is adjusted by the formation of various ionic surfaces combining ionic liquid (IL) self-assembly with ion exchange. The functionalized ILs were designed and synthesized with the goal of obtaining adjustable wettability. The wettability of the graphene surface bearing various anions was measured systematically. The effect of solvent systems on ion exchange ratios on the graphene surface has also been investigated. Meanwhile, the mechanical properties of the graphene/IL composite films were investigated on a nanometer scale. The elasticity and adhesion behavior of the thin film was determined with respected to the indentation deformation by colloid probe nanoindentation method. The results indicate that anions played an important role in determining graphene/IL composite film properties. In addition, surface wetting and mechanics can be quantitatively determined according to the counter-anions on the surface. This study might suggest an alternate way for quantity detection of surface ions by surface force. PMID:24970602

  19. Focus tunable device actuator based on ionic polymer metal composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yi-Wei; Su, Guo-Dung J.

    2015-09-01

    IPMC (Ionic Polymer Metallic Composite) is a kind of electroactive polymer (EAP) which is used as an actuator because of its low driving voltage and small size. The mechanism of IPMC actuator is due to the ionic diffusion when the voltage gradient is applied. In this paper, the complex IPMC fabrication such as Ag-IPMC be further developed in this paper. The comparison of response time and tip bending displacement of Pt-IPMC and Ag-IPMC will also be presented. We also use the optimized IPMC as the lens actuator integrated with curvilinear microlens array, and use the 3D printer to make a simple module and spring stable system. We also used modeling software, ANSYS Workbench, to confirm the effect of spring system. Finally, we successfully drive the lens system in 200μm stroke under 2.5V driving voltage within 1 seconds, and the resonant frequency is approximately 500 Hz.

  20. Phosphonium chloromercurate room temperature ionic liquids of variable composition.

    PubMed

    Metlen, Andreas; Mallick, Bert; Murphy, Richard W; Mudring, Anja-Verena; Rogers, Robin D

    2013-12-16

    The system trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium ([P66614]Cl)/mercury chloride (HgCl2) has been investigated by varying the stoichiometric ratios from 4:1 to 1:2 (25, 50, 75, 100, 150, and 200 mol % HgCl2). All investigated compositions turn out to give rise to ionic liquids (ILs) at room temperature. The prepared ionic liquids offer the possibility to study the structurally and compositionally versatile chloromercurates in a liquid state at low temperatures in the absence of solvents. [P66614]2[HgCl4] is a simple IL with one discrete type of anion, while [P66614]{HgCl3} (with {} indicating a polynuclear arrangement) is an ionic liquid with a variety of polyanionic species, with [Hg2Cl6](2-) apparently being the predominant building block. [P66614]2[Hg3Cl8] and [P66614][Hg2Cl5] appear to be ILs at ambient conditions but lose HgCl2 when heated in a vacuum. For the liquids with the compositions 4:1 and 4:3, more than two discrete ions can be evidenced, namely, [P66614](+), [HgCl4](2-), and Cl(-) and [P66614](+), [HgCl4](2-), and the polynuclear {HgCl3}(-), respectively. The different stoichiometric compositions were characterized by (199)Hg NMR, Raman- and UV-vis spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry, among other techniques, and their densities and viscosities were determined. The [P66614]Cl/HgCl2 system shows similarities to the well-known chloroaluminate ILs (e.g., decrease in viscosity with increasing metal content after addition of more than 0.5 mol of HgCl2/mol [P66614]Cl, increasing density with increasing metal content, and the likely formation of polynuclear/polymeric/polyanionic species) but offer the advantage that they are air and water stable. PMID:24274831

  1. Ionic polymer metal composites with nanoporous carbon electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmre, Viljar; Brandell, Daniel; Mäeorg, Uno; Torop, Janno; Volobujeva, Olga; Punning, Andres; Johanson, Urmas; Aabloo, Alvo

    2010-04-01

    Ionic Polymer Metal Composites (IPMCs) are soft electroactive polymer materials that bend in response to the voltage stimulus (1 - 4 V). They can be used as actuators or sensors. In this paper, we introduce two new highly-porous carbon materials for assembling high specific area electrodes for IPMC actuators and compare their electromechanical performance with recently reported IPMCs based on RuO2 electrodes. We synthesize ionic liquid (Emi-Tf) actuators with either Carbide-Derived Carbon (CDC) (derived from TiC) or coconut shell based activated carbon electrodes. The carbon electrodes are applied onto ionic liquid-swollen Nafion membranes using the direct assembly process. Our results show that actuators assembled with CDC electrodes have the greatest peak-to-peak strain output, reaching up to 20.4 mɛ (equivalent to >2%) at a 2 V actuation signal, exceeding that of the RuO2 electrodes by more than 100%. The electrodes synthesized from TiC-derived carbon also revealed significantly higher maximum strain rate. The differences between the materials are discussed in terms of molecular interactions and mechanisms upon actuation in the different electrodes.

  2. Tridimensional ionic polymer metal composites: optimization of the manufacturing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonomo, C.; Bottino, M.; Brunetto, P.; Di Pasquale, G.; Fortuna, L.; Graziani, S.; Pollicino, A.

    2010-05-01

    Ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs) belong to electroactive polymers (EAPs) and have been suggested for various applications due to their light weight and to the fact that they react mechanically when stimulated by an electrical signal and vice versa. Thick IPMCs (3D-IPMCs) have been fabricated by hot pressing several Nafion® 117 films. Additional post-processes (more cycles of Pt electroless plating and dispersing agents) have been applied to improve the 3D-IPMC performance. The electromechanical response of 3D-IPMCs has been examined by applying electrical signals and measuring the displacement and blocking force produced.

  3. A Novel Ionic Polymer Metal ZnO Composite (IPMZC)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang-Mun; Tiwari, Rashi; Kim, Kwang J.

    2011-01-01

    The presented research introduces a new Ionic Polymer-Metal-ZnO Composite (IPMZC) demonstrating photoluminescence (PL)-quenching on mechanical bending or application of an electric field. The newly fabricated IPMZC integrates the optical properties of ZnO and the electroactive nature of Ionic Polymer Metal Composites (IPMC) to enable a non-contact read-out of IPMC response. The electro-mechano-optical response of the IPMZC was measured by observing the PL spectra under mechanical bending and electrical regimes. The working range was measured to be 375–475 nm. It was noted that the PL-quenching increased proportionally with the increase in curvature and applied field at 384 and 468 nm. The maximum quenching of 53.4% was achieved with the membrane curvature of 78.74/m and 3.01% when electric field (12.5 × 103 V/m) is applied. Coating IPMC with crystalline ZnO was observed to improve IPMC transduction. PMID:22163869

  4. Ionic polymer metal composites with polypyrrole-silver electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cellini, F.; Grillo, A.; Porfiri, M.

    2015-03-01

    Ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs) are a class of soft active materials that are finding increasing application in robotics, environmental sensing, and energy harvesting. In this letter, we demonstrate the fabrication of IPMCs via in-situ photoinduced polymerization of polypyrrole-silver electrodes on an ionomeric membrane. The composition, morphology, and sheet resistance of the electrodes are extensively characterized through a range of experimental techniques. We experimentally investigate IPMC electrochemistry through electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and we propose a modified Randle's model to interpret the impedance spectrum. Finally, we demonstrate in-air dynamic actuation and sensing and assess IPMC performance against more established fabrication methods. Given the simplicity of the process and the short time required for the formation of the electrodes, we envision the application of our technique in the development of a rapid prototyping technology for IPMCs.

  5. Morphological and electromechanical characterization of ionic liquid/Nafion polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Matthew; Leo, Donald

    2005-05-01

    Ionic liquids have shown promise as replacements for water in ionic polymer transducers. Ionic liquids are non-volatile and have a larger electrochemical stability window than water. Therefore, transducers employing ionic liquids can be operated for long periods of time in air and can be actuated with higher voltages. Furthermore, transducers based on ionic liquids do not exhibit the characteristic back relaxation that is common with water-swollen materials. However, the physics of transduction in the ionic liquid-swollen materials is not well understood. In this paper, the morphology of Nafion/ionic liquid composites is characterized using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The electromechanical transduction behavior of the composites is also investigated. For this testing, five different counterions and two ionic liquids are used. The results reveal that both the morphology and transduction performance of the composites is affected by the identity of the ionic liquid, the cation, and the swelling level of ionic liquid within the membrane. Specifically, speed of response is found to be lower for the membranes that were exchanged with the smaller lithium and potassium ions. The response speed is also found to increase with increased content of ionic liquid. Furthermore, for the two ionic liquids studied, the actuators swollen with the less viscous ionic liquid exhibited a slower response. The slower speed of response corresponds to less contrast between the ionically conductive phase and the inert phase of the polymer. This suggests that disruption of the clustered morphology in the ionic liquid-swollen membranes as compared to water-swollen membranes attenuates ion mobility within the polymer. This attenuation is attributed to swelling of the non-conductive phase by the ionic liquids.

  6. Ionic Conduction in Lithium Ion Battery Composite Electrode Governs Cross-sectional Reaction Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Orikasa, Yuki; Gogyo, Yuma; Yamashige, Hisao; Katayama, Misaki; Chen, Kezheng; Mori, Takuya; Yamamoto, Kentaro; Masese, Titus; Inada, Yasuhiro; Ohta, Toshiaki; Siroma, Zyun; Kato, Shiro; Kinoshita, Hajime; Arai, Hajime; Ogumi, Zempachi; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu

    2016-01-01

    Composite electrodes containing active materials, carbon and binder are widely used in lithium-ion batteries. Since the electrode reaction occurs preferentially in regions with lower resistance, reaction distribution can be happened within composite electrodes. We investigate the relationship between the reaction distribution with depth direction and electronic/ionic conductivity in composite electrodes with changing electrode porosities. Two dimensional X-ray absorption spectroscopy shows that the reaction distribution is happened in lower porosity electrodes. Our developed 6-probe method can measure electronic/ionic conductivity in composite electrodes. The ionic conductivity is decreased for lower porosity electrodes, which governs the reaction distribution of composite electrodes and their performances. PMID:27193448

  7. Ionic Conduction in Lithium Ion Battery Composite Electrode Governs Cross-sectional Reaction Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orikasa, Yuki; Gogyo, Yuma; Yamashige, Hisao; Katayama, Misaki; Chen, Kezheng; Mori, Takuya; Yamamoto, Kentaro; Masese, Titus; Inada, Yasuhiro; Ohta, Toshiaki; Siroma, Zyun; Kato, Shiro; Kinoshita, Hajime; Arai, Hajime; Ogumi, Zempachi; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu

    2016-05-01

    Composite electrodes containing active materials, carbon and binder are widely used in lithium-ion batteries. Since the electrode reaction occurs preferentially in regions with lower resistance, reaction distribution can be happened within composite electrodes. We investigate the relationship between the reaction distribution with depth direction and electronic/ionic conductivity in composite electrodes with changing electrode porosities. Two dimensional X-ray absorption spectroscopy shows that the reaction distribution is happened in lower porosity electrodes. Our developed 6-probe method can measure electronic/ionic conductivity in composite electrodes. The ionic conductivity is decreased for lower porosity electrodes, which governs the reaction distribution of composite electrodes and their performances.

  8. Ionic Conduction in Lithium Ion Battery Composite Electrode Governs Cross-sectional Reaction Distribution.

    PubMed

    Orikasa, Yuki; Gogyo, Yuma; Yamashige, Hisao; Katayama, Misaki; Chen, Kezheng; Mori, Takuya; Yamamoto, Kentaro; Masese, Titus; Inada, Yasuhiro; Ohta, Toshiaki; Siroma, Zyun; Kato, Shiro; Kinoshita, Hajime; Arai, Hajime; Ogumi, Zempachi; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu

    2016-01-01

    Composite electrodes containing active materials, carbon and binder are widely used in lithium-ion batteries. Since the electrode reaction occurs preferentially in regions with lower resistance, reaction distribution can be happened within composite electrodes. We investigate the relationship between the reaction distribution with depth direction and electronic/ionic conductivity in composite electrodes with changing electrode porosities. Two dimensional X-ray absorption spectroscopy shows that the reaction distribution is happened in lower porosity electrodes. Our developed 6-probe method can measure electronic/ionic conductivity in composite electrodes. The ionic conductivity is decreased for lower porosity electrodes, which governs the reaction distribution of composite electrodes and their performances. PMID:27193448

  9. Curled actuated shapes of ionic polymer metal composites strips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nardinocchi, Paola; Pezzulla, Matteo

    2013-06-01

    The curled actuated shapes of ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs) are described within a nonlinear physics-based model of IPMC actuators. A key characteristic of the model is the refined, even if black box based, modeling of the relative permittivity of the IPMCs which strongly influences the actuation performances of the IPMC, when voltages higher than 1 V are involved. A varying-along-the-thickness relative permittivity is proposed to take into account the highly heterogeneous layers resulting from electrode deposition, where a charge redistribution occurs. Moreover, the presence of the metal electrodes has been considered as hampering the IPMCs' bending deformations, so reducing the actuation performances of the IPMC. A series of numerical tests have been planned and discussed to show the characteristics of the model; in particular, the model is shown to be strong enough to catch the not monotonic behavior of IPMCs, when back relaxation is manifested.

  10. Ionic Composition and Electron Heating in the Fast Solar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepri, Susan T.; Laming, J. M.

    2006-06-01

    In-situ observations of charge states of fast solar wind ions reveal higher average charges than the coronal hole source regions as derived from spectroscopy, implying that some extra electron heating and ionization must have occurred in the wind acceleration region prior to freeze-in. We present an extensive analysis of Ulysses and ACE charge state data near the boundaries of different coronal holes, and from different regions within coronal holes to compare with the predictions of a model by Laming (2004). In this model, electrons are heated by lower-hybrid waves, which are in turn generated by solar wind ions gyrating in cross-B density gradients. The observed charge states place constraints on the steepness and ubiquity of cross-field density gradients, which may arise as the end-result of MHD turbulent cascade.In this talk we give a brief overview of the subject and highlight our important findings. We find that, in general, oxygen and carbon charge states behave similarly in both equatorial and polar coronal holes. The charge states of both are lower in the coronal holes than in the solar wind, as previously reported by in-situ studies. For heavier ions, such as silicon and iron, there is not an appreciable difference between the ionic composition outside of coronal holes and at different regions inside of coronal holes. This may be due to processes that take place further out in the corona where these heavier ions freeze-in. We find slightly lower ionic charge states in the fast wind that have been previously reported, which reduces the amount of electron heating required. This work is sponsored by grants from the NSF and NASA.

  11. An optimized frequency-dependent multiphysics model for an ionic polymer-metal composite actuator with ethylene glycol as the solvent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caponetto, R.; De Luca, V.; Graziani, S.; Sapuppo, F.

    2013-12-01

    IPMCs are electroactive polymers which can be used both as sensors and as actuators. The modeling of IPMC transducers is an open issue relevant to the development of effective applications. A multiphysics model of IPMC actuators is here implemented. It integrates the description of the electrical, mechanical, chemical and thermal coupled physics domains in a unique solution and, as a novelty, it allows the study in the frequency domain and the comparison with experimental response of the IPMC device. The IPMC white box modeling requires several macro- and microscopic parameters, not always accessible via theoretical approaches or experimentation. This work presents a new model optimization procedure which integrates the Nelder-Mead simplex method with the COMSOL Multiphysics®models. The proposed procedure uses experimental data and fits model simulations to IPMC real behavior for microscopic parameters’ identification. The model is developed for IPMCs with ethylene glycol as the solvent.

  12. Mechanics and electrochemistry of ionic polymer metal composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, Youngsu; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2014-11-01

    Ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs) are electroactive materials composed of a hydrated ionomeric membrane that is sandwiched between noble metal electrodes. Here, we propose a modeling framework to study quasi-static large deformations and electrochemistry of IPMCs. Specifically, IPMC kinematics is described in terms of its mechanical deformation, the concentration of mobile counterions neutralizing the ionomer, and the electric potential. The chemoelectromechanical constitutive behavior is obtained from a Helmholtz free energy density, which accounts for mechanical stretching, ion mixing, and electric polarization. The three-dimensional framework is specialized to plane bending of thin IPMCs. Hence, we propose a structural model, where the moment and the charge stored along the IPMC are computed from the solution of a modified Poisson-Nernst-Planck system, in terms of the through-the-thickness coordinate. For small static deformations, we present a semianalytical solution based on the method of matched asymptotic expansions, which is ultimately used to study IPMC sensing and actuation. We demonstrate that the linearity of IPMC actuation in a broad voltage range could be attributed to the interplay of two competing nonlinear phenomena, associated with Maxwell stress and osmotic pressure. In agreement with experimental observations, our model confirms the possibility of tailoring IPMC actuation by varying the counterion size and the concentration of fixed ions. Finally, the model is successful in predicting the significantly different voltage levels displayed by IPMC sensors and actuators, which are associated with remarkable variations in the ion mixing and polarization energies.

  13. An external disturbance sensor for ionic polymer metal composite actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhtiarpour, Parisa; Parvizi, Amin; Müller, Martin; Shahinpoor, Mohsen; Marti, Othmar; Amirkhani, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Ionic polymer metal composite (IPMC) is a fast-growing type of smart material with a wide range of applications. IPMC has been used extensively as an actuator, but for effective usage, one must add a self-sensing ability to it. Two common self-sensing techniques are mechanical-to-electrical transducer and surface resistance. The first one cannot be used while the actuator is running, and the second one needs a sample modification. In this work, we present a new self-sensing method, which can measure external disturbance in the presence of actuator voltage without any sample modification. The resistance across an IPMC sample follows Ohm’s law at sufficiently high frequency. We exploit the frequency dependency of the resistance across the sample to design the self-sensing method. In this technique a function generator, a lock-in amplifier and an isolation circuit were employed to measure an external impulse or steady disturbance. As implementing this technique does not require any change to the IPMC specimen or electrical connection (hanger), it can be added to any existing electroactive device.

  14. Bio-applications of ionic polymer metal composite transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aw, K. C.; McDaid, A. J.

    2014-07-01

    Traditional robotic actuators have advanced performance which in some aspects can surpass that of humans, however they are lacking when it comes to developing devices which are capable of operating together with humans. Bio-inspired transducers, for example ionic polymer metal composites (IPMC), which have similar properties to human tissue and muscle, demonstrate much future promise as candidates for replacing traditional robotic actuators in medical robotics applications. This paper outlines four biomedical robotics applications, an IPMC stepper motor, an assistive glove exoskeleton/prosthetic hand, a surgical robotic tool and a micromanipulation system. These applications have been developed using mechanical design/modelling techniques with IPMC ‘artificial muscle’ as the actuation system. The systems are designed by first simulating the performance using an IPMC model and dynamic models of the mechanical system; the appropriate advanced adaptive control schemes are then implemented to ensure that the IPMCs operate in the correct manner, robustly over time. This paper serves as an overview of the applications and concludes with some discussion on the future challenges of developing real-world IPMC applications.

  15. [Ionic composition of mollusk cells--evolutionary and ecologic aspects].

    PubMed

    Natochin, Iu V; Berger, V Ia

    1979-01-01

    Marine molluscs exhibit relative constancy in intracellular potassium at the back ground of significant changes in intracellular sodium during acclimation to differen salinities. These changes, which were observed in cells of the adductor muscle and hepa topancreas, result mainly from active extrusion of sodium (possibly, of chloride as well) from the cell at low salinities and accumulation of these ions within the cell during the increase in salinity. Changes in intracellular concentration of sodium and chloride ions serve presumably as one of the main mechanisms of volume stabilization of cells, which together with the amino acid regulation alleviates the hydration of cells at different salinities. The capacity of cells to keep their potassium accounts for the maintenance of Ki/Ko ratio during changes in cellular volume induced by osmotic effects. These data are discussed in relation to two alternative hypotheses of the decreased and close to the present salinity of ocean at the initial stages of formation of the ionic composition of cells. PMID:473987

  16. Molecular composites and polymer blends containing ionic polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsou, Li-Chun

    1997-11-01

    Polymer blends are generally immiscible due to the unfavorable thermodynamics of mixing. By the introduction of ion-dipole interaction, mechanical properties of the PPTA anion/polar polymers (such as PVP, PEO and PPrO) molecular composites have been investigated in relation to their miscibility and microstructural morphology. Optical clarity observed in the glassy PPTA anion/PVP system suggest the presence of miscibility, since the refractive indices between the two components are quite different, nsb{PVP} = 1.509 and nsb{PPTA} = 1.644. In general, the difference greater than 0.01 is sufficient to make blends opaque. DSC measurements, showing a composition dependent Tsb{g} and a melting temperature depression, also indicate the miscibility achieved at the molecular level, about 50-100 A. By using the Hoffman-Weeks plot, a negative Flory-Huggins interaction parameter, chi = -1.10, is obtained for the PPTA anion/PEO molecular composites. An irregular spherulitic pattern and a reduced crystal size suggest that PPTA anion is intimately mixed with the amorphous PEO, both inter- and intra-spherulitically. Molecular composites exhibit not only an enhanced tensile strength and modulus, but also a greater fracture toughness, Ksb{IC}, e.g., an 80% increase at a 2 wt% PPTA anion addition. An enhanced tensile strength associated with a reduced crystallinity suggests that PPTA anion is the major contributor to the superior tensile properties instead of the crystalline phase. Upon addition of PPTA anion to PPrO, a slower relaxation rate and a better thermal stability are observed. Significant enhancement is found when the monovalent K salt is replaced with a divalent Ca salt. The molecular reinforcement achieved via ion-dipole interactions is more effective than the rigid filler effect obtained in the non-ionic PPTA/PPrO blend: e.g., a modulus enhancement of 814% vs. 286%, as compared with the value for PPrO. Two phase systems with microphase separation are developed since many

  17. Boundary layer charge dynamics in ionic liquid-ionic polymer transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Jacob D.; Goulbourne, N. C.

    2011-01-01

    Ionic polymer transducers (IPTs), also known as ionic polymer-metal composites, are soft sensors and actuators which operate through a coupling of microscale chemical, electrical, and mechanical interactions. The use of an ionic liquid as solvent for an IPT has been shown to dramatically increase transducer lifetime in free-air use, while also allowing for higher applied voltages without electrolysis. In this work, we apply Nernst-Planck/Poisson theory to model charge transport in an ionic liquid IPT by considering a certain fraction of the ionic liquid ions as mobile charge carriers, a phenomenon which is unique to ionic liquid IPTs compared to their water-based counterparts. Numerical simulations are performed using the finite element method to examine how the introduction of another pair of mobile ions affects boundary layer charge dynamics, concentration, and charge density distributions in the electric double layer, and the overall charge transferred and current response of the IPT. Due to interactions with the Nafion ionomer, not all of the ionic liquid ions will function as mobile charge carriers; only a certain fraction will exist as "free" ions. The presence of mobile ionic liquid ions in the transducer will increase the overall charge transferred when a voltage is applied, and cause the current in the transducer to decay more slowly. The additional mobile ions also cause the ionic concentration profiles to exhibit a nonlinear dynamic response, characterized by nonmonotonic ionic concentration profiles in space and time. Although the presence of mobile ionic liquid ions increases the overall amount of charge transferred, this additional charge transfer occurs in a somewhat symmetric manner. Therefore, the additional charge transferred due to the ionic liquid ions does not greatly increase the net bending moment of the transducer; in fact, it is possible that ionic liquid ion movement actually decreases the observed bending response. This suggests that an

  18. Electroactive nanostructured polymer actuators fabricated using sulfonated styrenic pentablock copolymer/montmorillonite/ionic liquid nanocomposite membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jang-Woo; Hong, Soon Man; Koo, Chong Min

    2014-08-01

    High-bendable, air-operable ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) actuators composed of electroactive nanostructured middle-block sulfonated styrenic pentablock copolymer (SSPB)/sulfonated montmorillonite (s-MMT) nanocomposite electrolyte membranes with bulky imidazolium ionic liquids (ILs) incorporated were fabricated and their bending actuation performances were evaluated. The SSPB-based IPMC actuators showed larger air-operable bending displacements, higher displacement rates, and higher energy efficiency of actuations without conventional IPMC bottlenecks, including back relaxation and actuation instability during actuation in air, than the Nafion counterpart. Incorporation of s-MMT into the SSPB matrix further enhanced the actuation performance of the IPMC actuators in terms of displacement, displacement rate, and energy efficiency. The remarkably high performance of the SSPB/s-MMT/IL IPMCs was considered to be due to the microphase-separated large ionic domains of the SSPB (the average diameter of the ionic domain: ca. 20 nm) and the role of s-MMT as an ionic bridge between the ionic domains, and the ion pumping effect of the bulky imidazolium cations of the ILs as well. The microphase-separated nanostructure of the composite membranes caused a high dimensional stability upon swelling in the presence of ILs, which effectively preserved the original electrode resistance against swelling, leading to a high actuation performance of IPMC.

  19. High-Strength Composite Fibers from Cellulose-Lignin Blends Regenerated from Ionic Liquid Solution.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yibo; Asaadi, Shirin; Johansson, Leena-Sisko; Ahvenainen, Patrik; Reza, Mehedi; Alekhina, Marina; Rautkari, Lauri; Michud, Anne; Hauru, Lauri; Hummel, Michael; Sixta, Herbert

    2015-12-01

    Composite fibres that contain cellulose and lignin were produced from ionic liquid solutions by dry-jet wet spinning. Eucalyptus dissolving pulp and organosolv/kraft lignin blends in different ratios were dissolved in the ionic liquid 1,5-diazabicyclo[4.3.0]non-5-enium acetate to prepare a spinning dope from which composite fibres were spun successfully. The composite fibres had a high strength with slightly decreasing values for fibres with an increasing share of lignin, which is because of the reduction in crystallinity. The total orientation of composite fibres and SEM images show morphological changes caused by the presence of lignin. The hydrophobic contribution of lignin reduced the vapour adsorption in the fibre. Thermogravimetric analysis curves of the composite fibres reveal the positive effect of the lignin on the carbonisation yield. Finally, the composite fibre was found to be a potential raw material for textile manufacturing and as a precursor for carbon fibre production. PMID:26542190

  20. Molecular composites via ionic interactions and their deformation/fracture properties

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, G.; Chen, W.; Hara, M.

    1995-12-01

    Homogeneous molecular composites have been made from ionic PPTA and PVP, in which a good dispersion of rod molecules is achieved via ion-dipole interactions. Appearance of a single T{sub g} as well as morphological observations by TEM have indicated good dispersion of the rigid-rod PPTA molecules. The deformation mode of the matrix polymer is modified significantly with the addition of rod molecules: while crazing is the only deformation mechanism of PVP, an addition of ionic PPTA molecules into the PVP matrix induces shear deformation. This suggests better fracture properties of these molecular composites. Initial studies have indicated significant enhancement in mechanical properties.

  1. Thermal behavior of ionic electroactive polymer actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punning, Andres; Must, Indrek; Johanson, Urmas; Aabloo, Alvo

    2015-04-01

    The high spatial, temporal, and thermal resolution of the thermal imaging system Optotherm EL InfraSight 320 is used for investigation of the thermal behavior of the ionic electroactive polymer (IEAP) actuators. The resolution of 10-20 pixels in the direction of their thickness is close to the theoretical limit restrained by the infrared light wavelength registered by the imaging system. The videos, recorded with the frame rate of 30 fps, demonstrate showy the propagation of heat along the membrane. The analysis of the thermal images provides the foundation for precise modeling of the IEAP actuators, taking into account the thermally induced mechanical and electrochemical effects. Experiments conducted with the IEAP actuators of different types (ionic polymer-metal composite, carbon-polymer composite, conducting polymer actuators) allow comparing their efficiencies. The experiments show demonstrable, that the IEAPs, used improperly, overheat to the inadmissible temperatures within seconds only. This, in turn, evaporizes the volatile electrolyte, and shortens the life expectancy of the IEAP devices.

  2. Reliability of ionic polymer metallic composite for opto-mechanical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chung-Yi; Su, Guo-Dung J.

    2014-09-01

    Electroactive polymer (EAP) is capable of exhibiting large shape changes in response to electrical stimulation. EAPs can produce large deformation with lower applied voltage for actuation applications. IPMC (Ionic Polymer Metal Composite) is a well-known ionic EAPs. It has numerous attractive advantages, such as low electrical energy consumption and light weight. The mechanism of IPMC actuator is due to the ionic diffusion when the voltage gradient is applied, so that the type of ionic solution has a large impact on the physical properties of IPMC. In this paper, the reliability tests of IPMC with non-aqueous ionic solution are demonstrated. Pt-IPMC with LiOH aqueous solution exhibits the best maximum displacement, but the water in LiOH solution is electrolyzed because of the low electrolysis voltage 1.23 V of water. To improve electrolysis problems and the operation time in the air, proper solvents including high electrolysis voltage and low vapor pressure should be considered. The reliability tests focus on the durability of IPMC in the air. The surface resistance, tip displacement and response time of IPMC are presented. More improvements of IPMC fabrication, such as Ag-IPMC, was developed in this paper.

  3. Transport Properties of Multivalent Cations in Nafion-117 Membrane with Mixed Ionic Composition.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, Sanhita; Agarwal, Chhavi; Goswami, A

    2015-08-20

    The transport characteristics of multivalent cations like Ba(2+) and Eu(3+) have been studied in bi-ionic form of the Nafion-117 membrane. The membranes have been prepared by loading different proportions of H(+)-Ba(2+)/Mg(2+)-Ba(2+)/Ba(2+)-Eu(3+)/H(+)-Eu(3+)/Na(+)-Eu(3+). The cationic compositions of the membranes have been determined from the measured ion exchange isotherms. Results show that the self-diffusion coefficient of Ba(2+) (D(Ba)) in H-Ba/Mg-Ba systems as well as the self-diffusion coefficient of Eu(3+) (D(Eu)) in H-Eu/Na-Eu systems are strongly dependent on the membrane ionic compositions and decreased continuously with increasing concentration of the highly hydrated ions (H(+)/Na(+)/Mg(2+)) in the membrane. Increase in the proportion of H(+)/Na(+)/Mg(2+) ions in the membrane increases the effective charge on the membrane matrix. This causes stronger electrostatic interaction of the less hydrated multivalent ions (Ba(2+)/Eu(3+)) with the membrane matrix charges, which ultimately results in their slower self-diffusion coefficients. The higher the valence, the stronger the electrostatic interaction is with the fixed ionic charges; hence, in general, D(Eu) is affected more as compared to D(Ba). On the basis of the free-volume theory for polymers, the effective interaction potential (Φ) of the Ba(2+) with the fixed ionic sites in the membrane has been calculated and found to be on the order of approximately millivolts. The higher the proportion of hydrated ion in the membrane, the higher the Φ is and the stronger the ion pair formation is with the fixed ionic sites in the membrane. However, in the Ba-Eu system, as the electrostatic interactions of the two ions with the membrane matrix are close, D(Ba) and D(Eu) are independent of the membrane ionic composition. The ionic composition dependence of D(Ba) in the H-Ba system is reflected in the transport rate of Ba(2+), showing the importance of such measurements in understanding the transport

  4. Ionic gel electrolytes composite with SiO2 nanoparticles for quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Liguo; Liu, Taiyang; Wang, Chao

    2016-06-01

    Composite ionic gel electrolytes were facilely prepared by mixing ionic gel electrolytes with SiO2 nanoparticles. The dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) assembled with the composite ionic gel electrolytes exhibit the higher photovoltaic performance and better durability compared to the original DSSCs based on pure ionic gel electrolytes. In particular, the DSSC assembled with the electrolytes containing 0.15 g of SiO2 shows superior J SC (14.4 mA cm-2), V OC (0.67 V), fill factor (0.69) and power conversion efficiency (6.71 %) (measured at AM 1.5, light intensity of 100 mW/cm2). The electrochemical impedance spectra, SEM and conductivity were used to characterize the composite ionic gel electrolytes.

  5. Patchable, flexible heat-sensing hybrid ionic gate nanochannel modified with a wax-composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Kyoung-Yong; Choi, Wook; Roh, Sung-Cheoul; Han, Chang-Soo

    2015-07-01

    Heat-driven ionic gate nanochannels have been recently demonstrated, which exploit temperature-responsive polymer brushes based on wettability. These heat-sensing artificial nanochannels operate in a broad temperature-response boundary and fixed liquid cell environment, thereby experiencing limited system operation in the flat and solid state. Here we have developed a patchable and flexible heat-sensing artificial ionic gate nanochannel, which can operate in the range of the human body temperature. A wax-elastic copolymer, coated onto a commercial nanopore membrane by a controlled-vacuum filtration method, was used for the construction of temperature-responsive nanopores. The robust and flexible nanochannel heat sensor, which is combined with an agarose gel electrolyte, can sustain reversible thermo-responsive ionic gating based on the volumetric work of the wax-composite layers in a selective temperature range. The ionic current is also effectively distinguished in the patchable bandage-type nanochannel for human heat-sensing.Heat-driven ionic gate nanochannels have been recently demonstrated, which exploit temperature-responsive polymer brushes based on wettability. These heat-sensing artificial nanochannels operate in a broad temperature-response boundary and fixed liquid cell environment, thereby experiencing limited system operation in the flat and solid state. Here we have developed a patchable and flexible heat-sensing artificial ionic gate nanochannel, which can operate in the range of the human body temperature. A wax-elastic copolymer, coated onto a commercial nanopore membrane by a controlled-vacuum filtration method, was used for the construction of temperature-responsive nanopores. The robust and flexible nanochannel heat sensor, which is combined with an agarose gel electrolyte, can sustain reversible thermo-responsive ionic gating based on the volumetric work of the wax-composite layers in a selective temperature range. The ionic current is also

  6. Enhanced ionic oxygen flow through mixed ionic-electronic conducting membranes: Directional dependence, composite construction and the partial oxidation of methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerdes, Kirk R.

    Mixed Ionic-Electronic Conducting (MIEC) membranes transport ions and electrons in a crystalline matrix. Ionic transport occurs through MIEC materials in the presence of an applied ionic potential gradient. MIEC membranes form a special class of ionic conductors with primary applications as membrane separators, sensors, and components in solid oxide fuel cells. Current efforts focus on separation of oxygen from air for supply to high temperature reactions. One such reaction is the methane partial oxidation to synthesis gas (CO and H2). Certain MIEC membrane characteristics are required for a methane partial oxidation reactor: (1) the cost of the material must be economical on a tube cost per mol oxygen transported basis; (2) the membrane must be stable in steep oxygen partial pressure gradients and in the presence of reducing gases; (3) the membrane must be stable at temperatures exceeding 800°C without fracturing due to thermal stress. Two mechanisms govern the transport of oxygen through MIEC membranes: surface exchange at the MIEC/gas surface and ionic transport through the MIEC bulk. Most MIEC membranes conduct oxygen with a mixed transport mechanism, i.e., both surface exchange and bulk diffusion affect the total transport. We investigate the relative importance of bulk diffusion versus surface exchange in MIEC tubular and disk membranes made of La0.5Sr0.5Fe 0.8Ga0.2O3-delta. We propose a proof based on the currently accepted transport model for the directional dependence of ionic flow through a tubular MIEC. We qualitatively confirm directional dependence using a novel experimental system. Further, we propose a model for ionic flow in a composite membrane system consisting of a dense, tubular LSFG substrate with a thin, dense layer of SrCox Fe1-xO3-delta applied to the surface(s). Comparisons are made between the performance of the monolithic membrane tube and the layered composite membrane tube. A layered composite tubular membrane is constructed and tested

  7. Durable and water-floatable ionic polymer actuator with hydrophobic and asymmetrically laser-scribed reduced graphene oxide paper electrodes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaehwan; Jeon, Jin-Han; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Lim, Hyuneui; Oh, Il-Kwon

    2014-03-25

    Ionic polymer actuators driven by electrical stimuli have been widely investigated for use in practical applications such as bioinspired robots, sensors, and biomedical devices. However, conventional ionic polymer-metal composite actuators have a serious drawback of poor durability under long-term actuation in open air, mainly because of the leakage of the inner electrolyte and hydrated cations through cracks in the metallic electrodes. Here, we developed a highly durable and water-floatable ionic polymer artificial muscle by employing hydrophobic and asymmetrically laser-scribed reduced graphene oxide paper electrodes (HLrGOP). The highly conductive, flexible, and cost-effective HLrGOP electrodes have asymmetrically smooth hydrophobic outer and rough inner surfaces, resulting in liquid-impermeable and water-floatable functionalities and strong bonding between an ionic polymer and the electrodes. More interestingly, the HLrGOP electrode, which has a unique functionality to prevent the leakage of the vaporized or liquid electrolyte and mobile ions during electrical stimuli, greatly contributes to an exceptionally durable ionic polymer-graphene composite actuator that is a prerequisite for practical applications in active biomedical devices, biomimetic robots, touch-feedback haptic systems, and flexible soft electronics. PMID:24548279

  8. Ionic composition of wet precipitation in the Petra Region, Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Khashman, Omar A.

    2005-11-01

    The results of chemical analysis of precipitation samples collected in Petra between October 2002 and May 2004 are presented. All samples were analyzed for major cations (NH 4+, Na +, K +, Ca 2+ and Mg 2+), major anions (Cl -, NO 3-, HCO 3- and SO 42-), conductivity and pH. The daily sample pH values ranged from 5.71 to 8.15 with an average value of 6.85 ± 0.5. Rainwater quality is characterized by low salinity and neutralized pH. Generally, the pH is high due to dust in the atmosphere, which contains a large fraction of calcite. Factor analysis was used to identify the factors that affect the presence of ions in wet precipitation; these factors permitted the identification of three source groups, namely crustal dust, sea-salt spray and combustion products. In general, the results of the present study suggest that the atmospheric composition in the Petra region is strongly influenced by natural sources rather than anthropogenic sources.

  9. Evaluation of Carbon Composite Overwrap Pressure Vessels Fabricated Using Ionic Liquid Epoxies Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The intent of the work proposed here is to ascertain the viability of ionic liquid (IL) epoxy based carbon fiber composites for use as storage tanks at cryogenic temperatures. This IL epoxy has been specifically developed to address composite cryogenic tank challenges associated with achieving NASA's in-space propulsion and exploration goals. Our initial work showed that an unadulterated ionic liquid (IL) carbon-fiber composite exhibited improved properties over an optimized commercial product at cryogenic temperatures. Subsequent investigative work has significantly improved the IL epoxy and our first carbon-fiber Composite Overwrap Pressure Vessel (COPV) was successfully fabricated. Here additional COPVs, using a further improved IL epoxy, will be fabricated and pressure tested at cryogenic temperatures with the results rigorously analyzed. Investigation of the IL composite for lower pressure liner-less cryogenic tank applications will also be initiated. It is expected that the current Technology Readiness Level (TRL) will be raised from about TRL 3 to TRL 5 where unambiguous predictions for subsequent development/testing can be made.

  10. Fabrication of protic ionic liquid/sulfonated polyimide composite membranes for non-humidified fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung-Yul; Yasuda, Tomohiro; Watanabe, Masayoshi

    We have demonstrated that a protic ionic liquid, diethylmethylammonium trifluoromethanesulfonate ([dema][TfO]) functions as a proton conductor and is suitable for use as an electrolyte in H 2/O 2 fuel cells, which can be operated at temperatures higher than 100 °C under non-humidified conditions. In this study, in order to fabricate a polymer electrolyte fuel cell, matrix polymers for [dema][TfO] are explored and sulfonated polyimides (SPI), in which the sulfonic acid groups are in diethylmethylammonium form, are found to be highly compatible with [dema][TfO]. Polymer electrolyte membranes for non-humidified fuel cells are prepared by the solvent casting method using SPI and [dema][TfO]. The SPI, with an ion exchange capacity of 2.27 meq g -1, can retain four times its own weight of [dema][TfO] and produces uniform, tough, and transparent composite membranes. The composite membranes have good thermal stability (>300 °C) and ionic conductivity (>10 -2 S cm -1 at 120 °C when the [dema][TfO] content is higher than 67 wt%) under anhydrous conditions. In the H 2/O 2 fuel cell operation using a composite membrane without humidification, a current density higher than 240 mA cm -2 is achieved with a maximum power density of 100 mW cm -2 at 80 °C.

  11. Nanostructure and Composition of Tribo-Boundary Films Formed in Ionic Liquid Lubrication

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Jun; Chi, Miaofang; Meyer III, Harry M; Blau, Peter Julian; Dai, Sheng; Luo, Huimin

    2011-01-01

    Since the idea of using ionic liquids (ILs) as lubricants was raised in 2001, many studies have been conducted in this area and results have demonstrated superior lubricating performance for a variety of ionic liquids. It is widely believed that tribochemical reactions occur between the metal surface and the IL during the wear process to form a protective tribo-boundary film on the contact area that reduces friction and wear. However, the study of this critical boundary film has been limited to top surface two-dimensional topography examination and chemical analysis in the literature. A more comprehensive characterization is needed to help understand the film formation process and the lubricating mechanism. This study demonstrated a multi-technique three-dimensional approach to characterize the IL-formed boundary films, including top surface morphology examination, cross section nanostructure characterization, and layered chemical analysis. Characterization was carried out on both ferrous and aluminum surfaces lubricated by an ammonium IL. The focused-ion-beam (FIB) technique enabled TEM/EDS examination on the cross section of the boundary film to provide direct measurement of the film thickness, visualization of the nanostructure, and analysis of composition. In addition, composition-depth profiles were generated using XPS aided by ion-sputtering to reveal the composition change at different levels of the boundary film to investigate the film formation process.

  12. Solvent-mediated plasmon-tuning in a gold nanoparticle-poly(ionic liquid) composite.

    SciTech Connect

    Batra, D.; Seifert, S.; Varela, L.; Firestone, M. A.

    2007-05-01

    The design, synthesis, and characterization of a hierarchically ordered composite whose structure and optical properties can be reversibly switched by adjustment of solvent conditions are described. Solvent-induced swelling and de-swelling is shown to provide control over the internal packing arrangement and hence, optical properties of in situ synthesized metal nanoparticles. Specifically, a gold-nanoparticle-containing ionic-liquid-derived polymer is synthesized in a single step by UV irradiation of a metal-ion-precursor-doped, self-assembled ionic liquid gel, 1-decyl-3-vinylimidazolium chloride. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) studies indicate that in the de-swollen state, the freestanding polymer adopts a perforated lamellar structure. Optical spectroscopy of the dried composite reveals plasmon resonances positioned in the near-IR. Strong particle-particle interactions arise from matrix-promoted formation of aggregated 1D clusters or chains of gold nanoparticles. Upon swelling in alcohol, the composite undergoes a structural conversion to a disordered structure, which is accompanied by a color change from purple to pale pink and a shift in the surface plasmon resonance to 527 nm, consistent with isolated, non-interacting particles. These results demonstrate the far-field tuning of the plasmonic spectrum of gold nanoparticles by solvent-mediated changes in its encapsulating matrix, offering a straightforward, low-cost strategy for the fabrication of nanophotonic materials.

  13. Dental repair material: a resin-modified glass-ionomer bioactive ionic resin-based composite.

    PubMed

    Croll, Theodore P; Berg, Joel H; Donly, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    This report documents treatment and repair of three carious teeth that were restored with a new dental repair material that features the characteristics of both resin-modified glass-ionomer restorative cement (RMGI) and resin-based composite (RBC). The restorative products presented are reported by the manufacturer to be the first bioactive dental materials with an ionic resin matrix, a shock-absorbing resin component, and bioactive fillers that mimic the physical and chemical properties of natural teeth. The restorative material and base/liner, which feature three hardening mechanisms, could prove to be a notable advancement in the adhesive dentistry restorative materials continuum. PMID:25822408

  14. Harvesting energy from a water flow through ionic polymer metal composites' buckling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cellini, Filippo; Cha, Youngsu; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2014-03-01

    This study seeks to investigate the feasibility of energy harvesting from mechanical buckling of ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs) induced by a steady fluid flow. In particular, we propose a harvesting device composed of a paddle wheel, a slider-crank mechanism, and two IPMCs clamped at both their ends. We test the system in a water tunnel to estimate the effects of the flow speed and the shunting resistance on power harvesting. The classical post-buckling theory of inextensible rods is utilized, in conjunction with a black-box model for IPMC sensing, to interpret experimental results.

  15. Ionic liquids in lithium battery electrolytes: Composition versus safety and physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilken, Susanne; Xiong, Shizhao; Scheers, Johan; Jacobsson, Per; Johansson, Patrik

    2015-02-01

    Ionic liquids have been highlighted as non-flammable, environmentally friendly, and suggested as possible solvents in lithium ion battery electrolytes. Here, the application of two ionic liquids from the EMIm-family in a state-of-the-art carbonate solvent based electrolyte is studied with a focus on safety improvement. The impact of the composition on physical and safety related properties is investigated for IL concentrations of additive (∼5 wt%) up to co-solvent concentrations (∼60 wt%). Furthermore, the role of the lithium salt concentration is separately addressed by studying a set of electrolytes at 0.5 M, 1 M, and 2 M LiPF6 concentrations. A large impact on the electrolyte properties is found for the electrolytes containing EMImTFSI and high salt concentrations. The composition 2 M LiPF6 EC:DEC:IL (1:1:3 wt%) is found non-flammable for both choices of ILs added. The macroscopic observations are complemented by a Raman spectroscopy analysis whereby a change in the Li+ solvation is detected for IL concentrations >4.5 mol%.

  16. Nacre-like calcium carbonate controlled by ionic liquid/graphene oxide composite template.

    PubMed

    Yao, Chengli; Xie, Anjian; Shen, Yuhua; Zhu, Jinmiao; Li, Hongying

    2015-06-01

    Nacre-like calcium carbonate nanostructures have been mediated by an ionic liquid (IL)-graphene oxide (GO) composite template. The resultant crystals were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and X-ray powder diffractometry (XRD). The results showed that either 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIM]BF4) or graphene oxide can act as a soft template for calcium carbonate formation with unusual morphologies. Based on the time-dependent morphology changes of calcium carbonate particles, it is concluded that nacre-like calcium carbonate nanostructures can be formed gradually utilizing [BMIM]BF4/GO composite template. During the process of calcium carbonate formation, [BMIM]BF4 acted not only as solvents but also as morphology templates for the fabrication of calcium carbonate materials with nacre-like morphology. Based on the observations, the possible mechanisms were also discussed. PMID:25842135

  17. Ionic composition and greenhouse gases evaluation in Tietê River sediment and mud landfill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La-Scalea, M. A.; Fornaro, A.; Abreu, E. L.; Mendonça, C. A.

    2012-04-01

    There are 39 cities composing the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP) which has grown seven times during the last sixty years, reaching, in 2011, 19.3 million inhabitants. This fact associated with a strong industrial development provoked, among other consequences, a disordered urbanization along the most important river of the region: Tietê. About 100 Km of its 1,150 Km full extension crosses MASP and, during the 60's, Marginal Tietê roadway was constructed, occupying the river banks as access routes. Tietê River was straightened and several landfills were created with its deposit (sediment and mud). EACH-USP (46.50 W, 23.48 S) lies nowadays in one of these areas, where this work has been developed. Therefore, the goal is to evaluate the chemical composition (ionic and gases) and its variability in function of the depth levels using three wells, from 0.60 to 9.0 m of depth. The wells were perforated in September 2011, end of the dry weather. Each well owns a homemade multiport sampling device (HMSD), being possible to push gas and/or water up from 15 available ports. The gases measurements were carried out using a GEM-2000 plus (Landtec) portable analyzer. Aqueous samples containing solid material were taken at each level depth from ports of the HMSD. However, no water was found in some levels. All samples were kept cooled until analysis procedures. After decantation of the solid material, the supernatant liquid was divided in two portions, being its conductivity (Micronal conductimeter) and pH (pH-meter Metrohm 654 with combined glass electrode) measured with the former and ionic analysis with the latter, in which all samples were filtered (Millex 0.22 micrometer pores) before each ionic chromatographic analysis, using Metrohm 850 System, for the ions: sodium, ammonium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, nitrate and sulfate. The first sampling stage was carried out during November and December 2011 in the beginning of rainy season in the mid Spring

  18. Polymeric ionic liquid-plastic crystal composite electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaowei; Zhang, Zhengxi; Li, Sijian; Yang, Li; Hirano, Shin-ichi

    2016-03-01

    In this work, composite polymer electrolytes (CPEs), that is, 80%[(1-x)PIL-(x)SN]-20%LiTFSI, are successfully prepared by using a pyrrolidinium-based polymeric ionic liquid (P(DADMA)TFSI) as a polymer host, succinonitrile (SN) as a plastic crystal, and lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) as a lithium salt. XRD and DSC measurements confirm that the as-obtained CPEs have amorphous structures. The 80%[50%PIL-50%SN]-20%LiTFSI (50% SN) electrolyte reveals a high room temperature ionic conductivity of 5.74 × 10-4 S cm-1, a wide electrochemical window of 5.5 V, as well as good mechanical strength with a Young's modulus of 4.9 MPa. Li/LiFePO4 cells assembled with the 50% SN electrolyte at 0.1C rate can deliver a discharge capacity of about 150 mAh g-1 at 25 °C, with excellent capacity retention. Furthermore, such cells are able to achieve stable discharge capacities of 131.8 and 121.2 mAh g-1 at 0.5C and 1.0C rate, respectively. The impressive findings demonstrate that the electrolyte system prepared in this work has great potential for application in lithium ion batteries.

  19. A microporous silk carbon-ionic liquid composite for the electrochemical sensing of dopamine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Bai, Lu; Zhang, Lingling; Sun, Guangping; Zhang, Xiaowei; Dong, Shaojun

    2016-04-21

    Porous silk carbon (Silk C) was obtained through carbonization and KOH activation of natural silk cocoons. The as-prepared Silk C presented the good characteristics of a large surface area (SBET: 2854.53 m(2) g(-1)) and a high volume of pores (1.54 cm(3) g(-1)) with uniform micropores (2.5 nm) and multiple defects. The metal-free silk carbon-ionic liquid (Silk C-IL) composite, synthesized by modifying Silk C with ionic liquid through non-covalent (π-π) interactions under grinding conditions, was prepared for electrochemical determination of dopamine (DA). The detection limit of DA was 79 nM (S/N = 3) with a linear range from 0.6 μM to 140 μM. Meanwhile, the as-made Silk C-IL/GCE presented good selectivity for DA detection from other possible interferences, such as ascorbic acid, glucose and uric acid. Furthermore, the Silk C-IL/GCE was also successfully used for the detection of DA in fetal bovine serum and dopamine hydrochloride injection samples. PMID:26979477

  20. Robust High-performance Dye-sensitized Solar Cells Based on Ionic Liquid-sulfolane Composite Electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Lau, Genevieve P S; Décoppet, Jean-David; Moehl, Thomas; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M; Grätzel, Michael; Dyson, Paul J

    2015-01-01

    Novel ionic liquid-sulfolane composite electrolytes based on the 1,2,3-triazolium family of ionic liquids were developed for dye-sensitized solar cells. The best performing device exhibited a short-circuit current density of 13.4 mA cm(-2), an open-circuit voltage of 713 mV and a fill factor of 0.65, corresponding to an overall power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.3%. In addition, these devices are highly stable, retaining more than 95% of the initial device PCE after 1000 hours of light- and heat-stress. These composite electrolytes show great promise for industrial application as they allow for a 14.5% improvement in PCE, compared to the solvent-free eutectic ionic liquid electrolyte system, without compromising device stability. PMID:26670595

  1. Robust High-performance Dye-sensitized Solar Cells Based on Ionic Liquid-sulfolane Composite Electrolytes

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Genevieve P. S.; Décoppet, Jean-David; Moehl, Thomas; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M.; Grätzel, Michael; Dyson, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Novel ionic liquid-sulfolane composite electrolytes based on the 1,2,3-triazolium family of ionic liquids were developed for dye-sensitized solar cells. The best performing device exhibited a short-circuit current density of 13.4 mA cm−2, an open-circuit voltage of 713 mV and a fill factor of 0.65, corresponding to an overall power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.3%. In addition, these devices are highly stable, retaining more than 95% of the initial device PCE after 1000 hours of light- and heat-stress. These composite electrolytes show great promise for industrial application as they allow for a 14.5% improvement in PCE, compared to the solvent-free eutectic ionic liquid electrolyte system, without compromising device stability. PMID:26670595

  2. Pulsed laser deposition of polymer-metal nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlenkrich, Felix; Seyffarth, Susanne; Fuchs, Britta; Krebs, Hans-Ulrich

    2011-04-01

    Different polymer-metal nanocomposites, metal clusters on a polymer surface and for the first time also polymer/metal multilayers, were pulsed laser deposited at a wavelength of 248 nm. Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and Bisphenol A dimeth-acrylate (BisDMA), which strongly differ in their hardness of 3 and 180 N/mm 2, respectively, were taken as polymer components. Metals Ag and Cu were chosen because of their different reactivity to polymers. When depositing Ag on PMMA, spherical clusters are formed due to high diffusion and total coalescence. For Cu, much smaller grains with partially elongated shapes occur because of lower diffusivity and incomplete coalescence. Compared to the results on the soft PMMA, the clusters formed on the harder BisDMA are much larger due to higher diffusivity on this underlayer. In PMMA/Cu multilayers, wavy layered structures and buckling is observed due to relaxation of compressive stress in the Cu layers. Smooth Cu layers with higher thicknesses can only be obtained, when the hardness of the polymer is sufficiently high, as in the case of BisDMA/Cu multilayers.

  3. Synthesis, Experimental Characterization and Parametric Identification of Ionic-Polymer Metal Composite Bending Actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zicai; Li, Huibiao; Chen, Hualing; Zhou, Jinxiong

    2012-03-01

    Ionic polymer metal composite (IPMC) actuator is a sandwiched structure with a thin polyelectrolyte strip or membrane plated with metal electrodes on both sides. Under a low applied voltage the IPMC strip bends toward either electrode depending on its polarity, forming a soft actuator for potential diverse applications. We report in details our methodologies for synthesizing IPMC with high quality electrode morphologies. We describe our experimental setup for measuring the physical and mechanical properties of IPMC. In conjunction with the experimental characterization, we finally present a parameter identification scheme to identify two key parameters for establishing relationship between unbalanced charge density and the associated electrostatic eigenstress, a constitutive law widely used in IPMC literature. The experimental and simulation procedures presented herein pave the avenue for fabrication, characterization and development of novel IPMC-based sensors and actuators.

  4. Position control of ionic polymer metal composite actuator based on neuro-fuzzy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Truong-Thinh; Yang, Young-Soo; Oh, Il-Kwon

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes the application of Neuro-Fuzzy techniques for controlling an IPMC cantilever configuration under water to improve tracking ability for an IPMC actuator. The controller was designed using an Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Controller (ANFC). The measured input data based including the tip-displacements and electrical signals have been recorded for generating the training in the ANFC. These data were used for training the ANFC to adjust the membership functions in the fuzzy control algorithm. The comparison between actual and reference values obtained from the ANFC gave satisfactory results, which showed that Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy algorithm is reliable in controlling IPMC actuator. In addition, experimental results show that the ANFC performed better than the pure fuzzy controller (PFC). Present results show that the current adaptive neuro-fuzzy controller can be successfully applied to the real-time control of the ionic polymer metal composite actuator for which the performance degrades under long-term actuation.

  5. Improved dye-sensitized solar cells by composite ionic liquid electrolyte incorporating layered titanium phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Ping; Lan, Tian; Wang, Wanjun; Wu, Haixia; Yang, Haijun; Guo, Shouwu

    2010-05-15

    We reported a composite electrolyte prepared by incorporating layered {alpha}-titanium phosphate ({alpha}-TiP) into a binary ionic liquid of 1-propyl-3-methylimidazolium iodide (PMII) and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (EmimBF{sub 4}) (volume ratio, 13:7) electrolyte. The addition of {alpha}-TiP markedly improved the photovoltaic properties of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) compared to that without {alpha}-TiP. The enhancement was explained by improved diffusion of tri-iodide (I{sub 3}{sup -}) ions, suppressed electron recombination with I{sub 3}{sup -} in the electrolyte and increased lifetime of electrons in mesoscopic TiO{sub 2} film. (author)

  6. A biomimetic jellyfish robot based on ionic polymer metal composite actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeom, Sung-Weon; Oh, Il-Kwon

    2009-08-01

    A biomimetic jellyfish robot based on ionic polymer metal composite actuators was fabricated and activated to mimic real locomotive behavior with pulse and recovery processes. To imitate the curved shape of the jellyfish, a thermal treatment was applied to obtain a permanent initial deformation of a hemispherical form. The bio-inspired input signal was generated for mimicking real locomotion of the jellyfish. The vertical floating displacement and the thrust force of the biomimetic jellyfish robot under various input signals were measured and compared. The present results show that the bio-inspired electrical input signal with pulse-recovery process generates much higher floating velocity of the biomimetic jellyfish robot in comparison with pure sinusoidal excitations. The curved shape of the IPMC actuator through thermal treatments can be successfully applied to mimic the real biomimetic robots with smooth curves.

  7. Underwater energy harvesting from a turbine hosting ionic polymer metal composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cellini, Filippo; Pounds, Jason; Peterson, Sean D.; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2014-08-01

    In this study, we explore the possibility of energy harvesting from fluid flow through a turbine hosting ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs). Specifically, IPMC harvesters are embedded in the blades of a small-scale vertical axis water turbine to convert flow kinetics into electrical power via low-frequency flow-induced IPMC deformations. An in-house fabricated Savonius-Darrieus hybrid active turbine with three IPMCs is tested in a laboratory water tunnel to estimate the energy harvesting capabilities of the device as a function of the shunting electrical load. The turbine is shown to harvest a few nanowatt from a mean flow of 0.43\\;m\\;{{s}^{-1}} for shunting resistances in the range 100-1000\\;\\Omega . To establish a first understanding of the energy harvesting device, we propose a quasi-static hydroelastic model for the bending of the IPMCs and we utilize a black-box model to study their electromechanical response.

  8. Fabrication, characteristics and electrical model of an ionic polymer metal-carbon nanotube composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Qingsong; Song, Linlin; Yu, Min; Dai, ZhenDong

    2015-07-01

    We develop an ionic polymer metal-carbon nanotube composite (IPMCC) actuator composed of a multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/Nafion membrane sandwiched between two hybrid electrodes, composed of palladium, platinum and MWCNTs. The surface morphology and cross-sectional structure of the metal-carbon nanotube hybrid electrode were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM investigation indicated that the MWCNT layer can adhere very well with the platinum-palladium metal electrode, fill the cracks in the metal surface, and prevent the oxidation of nanoscale platinum particles. These observations show that the surface resistance of the total electrode is retained and the stability of electrode property is maintained. The displacement, blocking force and nonlinear current versus voltage (V-I) characteristics were measured. Compared with an ionic polymer metal composite (IPMC), the IPMCC shows a more stable displacement and blocking force under 1, 1.2 and 2 V at 0.1 Hz, and 2.34-3.29 times higher effective air-operating time under 3 V at 0.1 Hz. It can be observed from the V-I characteristics that the change in shape becomes significant at amplitudes higher than 1.2 V. An equivalent circuit is used to model the nonlinear behavior of the IPMCC, in which the leakage current was taken into account and analyzed. The values of the components in the circuit are estimated and electrical behavior is simulated by using the Pspice software. Compared with the model with no consideration of the leakage current, the simulations obtained by the model considering leakage current showed better agreement with the experimental results. The impressive leakage current (20 mA), which is successfully simulated by the proposed model with the nonlinear circuit, is shown to play an important role in the total current.

  9. Ionic Liquids as Versatile Precursors for Functionalized Porous Carbon and Carbon-Oxide Composite Materials by Confined Carbonization

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Sheng; Wang, Xiqing

    2010-01-01

    Thermolysis of an ionic liquid (IL) gives no char residue, whereas heating the same IL trapped within an oxide framework affords high carbonization yields (see picture). This confinement method allows incorporation of heteroatoms from the parent IL in the final products, for the development of functionalized porous carbon and carbon-oxide composite materials.

  10. Electrochemical energy storage in montmorillonite K10 clay based composite as supercapacitor using ionic liquid electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Sandipan; Pramanik, Atin; Chattopadhyay, Shreyasi; De, Goutam; Mahanty, Sourindra

    2016-02-15

    Exploring new electrode materials is the key to realize high performance energy storage devices for effective utilization of renewable energy. Natural clays with layered structure and high surface area are prospective materials for electrical double layer capacitors (EDLC). In this work, a novel hybrid composite based on acid-leached montmorillonite (K10), multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) and manganese dioxide (MnO2) was prepared and its electrochemical properties were investigated by fabricating two-electrode asymmetric supercapacitor cells against activated carbon (AC) using 1.0M tetraethylammonium tetrafluroborate (Et4NBF4) in acetonitrile (AN) as electrolyte. The asymmetric supercapacitors, capable of operating in a wide potential window of 0.0-2.7V, showed a high energy density of 171Whkg(-1) at a power density of ∼1.98kWkg(-1). Such high EDLC performance could possibly be linked to the acid-base interaction of K10 through its surface hydroxyl groups with the tetraethylammonium cation [(C2H5)4N(+) or TEA(+)] of the ionic liquid electrolyte. Even at a very high power density of 96.4kWkg(-1), the cells could still deliver an energy density of 91.1Whkg(-1) exhibiting an outstanding rate capability. The present study demonstrates for the first time, the excellent potential of clay-based composites for high power energy storage device applications. PMID:26609925

  11. Composition dependent structural organization in trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium chloride ionic liquid-methanol mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Aditya; Sharma, Shobha; Kashyap, Hemant K.

    2015-04-07

    This article reports results from the molecular dynamics simulations on the structural arrangement of the ions and molecules in the mixtures of trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium chloride ([P{sub 666,14}{sup +}][Cl{sup −}]) ionic liquid (IL) and methanol (MeOH) over the entire composition range. Effects of composition on the charge and polarity orderings have been investigated via computation of X-ray scattering structure function, S(q), and by using a partitioning scheme proposed for such multi-component mixtures. Except for the neat methanol liquid, the total S(q) shows two peaks in its intermolecular region for all the mole-fractions. The lowest q peak is dominated primarily by anion-anion, cation-anion, and methanol-anion correlations. Our results signify that the methanol bulk structure, which predominantly has short-distance characteristic correlations and is governed by polar group of methanol, is retained for x{sub IL} ≤ 0.1. Then, the mixture goes through gradual structural changes from methanol-like to the IL-like for 0.1 < x{sub IL} ≤ 0.7. The dipolar interaction between methanol molecules weakens in this range, and the structural landscape of the mixture is steered by strong ion-ion, anion-methanol, and nonpolar interactions. The IL-like structural arrangement is virtually recovered for x{sub IL} > 0.7. At all the compositions studied, while the cation head groups are predominantly solvated by anions and subsequently by methanol molecules, the polar hydroxyl group of methanol is preferentially solvated by the anions. The radial distribution functions of selected pair of atomic species have also confirmed these observations.

  12. Composition dependent structural organization in trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium chloride ionic liquid-methanol mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Aditya; Sharma, Shobha; Kashyap, Hemant K.

    2015-04-01

    This article reports results from the molecular dynamics simulations on the structural arrangement of the ions and molecules in the mixtures of trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium chloride ([P666,14+][Cl-]) ionic liquid (IL) and methanol (MeOH) over the entire composition range. Effects of composition on the charge and polarity orderings have been investigated via computation of X-ray scattering structure function, S(q), and by using a partitioning scheme proposed for such multi-component mixtures. Except for the neat methanol liquid, the total S(q) shows two peaks in its intermolecular region for all the mole-fractions. The lowest q peak is dominated primarily by anion-anion, cation-anion, and methanol-anion correlations. Our results signify that the methanol bulk structure, which predominantly has short-distance characteristic correlations and is governed by polar group of methanol, is retained for xIL ≤ 0.1. Then, the mixture goes through gradual structural changes from methanol-like to the IL-like for 0.1 < xIL ≤ 0.7. The dipolar interaction between methanol molecules weakens in this range, and the structural landscape of the mixture is steered by strong ion-ion, anion-methanol, and nonpolar interactions. The IL-like structural arrangement is virtually recovered for xIL > 0.7. At all the compositions studied, while the cation head groups are predominantly solvated by anions and subsequently by methanol molecules, the polar hydroxyl group of methanol is preferentially solvated by the anions. The radial distribution functions of selected pair of atomic species have also confirmed these observations.

  13. Thin and flexible solid-state organic ionic plastic crystal-polymer nanofibre composite electrolytes for device applications.

    PubMed

    Howlett, Patrick C; Ponzio, Florian; Fang, Jian; Lin, Tong; Jin, Liyu; Iranipour, Nahid; Efthimiadis, Jim

    2013-09-01

    All solid-state organic ionic plastic crystal-polymer nanofibre composite electrolytes are described for the first time. The new composite materials exhibit enhanced conductivity, excellent thermal, mechanical and electrochemical stability and allow the production of optically transparent, free-standing, flexible, thin film electrolytes (10's μms thick) for application in electrochemical devices. Stable cycling of a lithium cell incorporating the new composite electrolyte is demonstrated, including cycling at lower temperatures than previously possible with the pure material. PMID:23753038

  14. Material development of polymer/metal paste for flip-chip attach interconnection technology. Quarterly progress report, December 1, 1995--March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Saraf, R.F.; Roldan, J.M.; Sambucetti, C.J.

    1996-05-01

    In this report on Polymer/Metal Composite (PMC) adhesive the authors describe two aspects of the material that are crucial to its applicability as a viable material for Flip Chip Attach (FCA) technology. They describe the shelf-life of the material at room temperature and its effect on the adhesion. Then they discuss the electrical and mechanical behavior of PMC bond under strain. It is demonstrated that the bond can be subjected to well over 40% strain with insignificant change in its electrical properties.

  15. Electroactive polymeric sensors in hand prostheses: bending response of an ionic polymer metal composite.

    PubMed

    Biddiss, Elaine; Chau, Tom

    2006-07-01

    In stark contrast to the inspiring functionality of the natural hand, limitations of current upper limb prostheses stemming from marginal feedback control, challenges of mechanical design, and lack of sensory capacity, are well-established. This paper provides a critical review of current sensory systems and the potential of a selection of electroactive polymers for sensory applications in hand prostheses. Candidate electroactive polymers are reviewed in terms of their relevant advantages and disadvantages, together with their current implementation in related applications. Empirical analysis of one of the most novel electroactive polymers, ionic polymer metal composites (IPMC), was conducted to demonstrate its potential for prosthetic applications. With linear responses within the operating range typical of hand prostheses, bending angles, and bending rates were accurately measured with 4.4+/-2.5 and 4.8+/-3.5% error, respectively, using the IPMC sensors. With these comparable error rates to traditional resistive bend sensors and a wide range of sensitivities and responses, electroactive polymers offer a promising alternative to more traditional sensory approaches. Their potential role in prosthetics is further heightened by their flexible and formable structure, and their ability to act as both sensors and actuators. PMID:16260170

  16. Ionic composition and mineral equilibria of acidic groundwater on the west coast of Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Sjoestroem, J.

    1993-08-01

    The groundwater chemistry of 14 shallow wells and 10 springs in Halland, southwest Sweden, and precipitation have been studied in trilinear diagrams. Ionic strength and saturation index (SI) for selected minerals have been calculated. Five springwaters have similar chemical composition to that of the precipitation, which indicates surficial and rapidly recharged water. The SI of the groundwaters is out of equilibrium (undersaturated) with respect to primary silicates such as mafic minerals, feldspar, K-mica and chlorite, but in equilibrium with solid SiO{sub 2} (quartz, cristobalite, or chalcedony). The SI shows oversaturation conditions for kaolinite, hydroxy-Al interlayered vermiculite, Na, K, Mg-beidellite, Mg-montmorillonite, and AB-montmorillonite. Concentrations of soluble Al and Si can be governed by Mg, Fe-beidellite, BF-montmorillonite, or Ca-montmorillonite at four springs, and by halloysite at two wells on the coastal plain. For these groundwaters, clay minerals may act as H{sup +} buffers and thus have an influence on pH and toxic Al, i.e., parameters affecting the drinking water quality and environment. The study shows that the soil catena are intensily weathered at the investigated sites. It is further concluded that neither cation exchange nor primary silicate weathering will keep up with buffering the acidic loads into the soils. A general prediction of groundwater quality is presented. 23 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. The entrance system laboratory prototype for an advanced mass and ionic charge composition experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Allegrini, F.; Desai, M. I.; Livi, R.; Livi, S.; McComas, D. J.; Randol, B.

    2009-10-15

    Electrostatic analyzers (ESA) have been used extensively for the characterization of plasmas in a variety of space environments. They vary in shape, geometry, and size and are adapted to the specific particle population to be measured and the configuration of the spacecraft. Their main function is to select the energy per charge of the particles within a passband. An energy-per-charge range larger than that of the passband can be sampled by varying the voltage difference between the ESA electrodes. The voltage sweep takes time and reduces the duty cycle for a particular energy-per-charge passband. Our design approach for an advanced mass and ionic charge composition experiment (AMICCE) has a novel electrostatic analyzer that essentially serves as a spectrograph and selects ions simultaneously over a broad range of energy-per-charge (E/q). Only three voltage settings are required to cover the entire range from {approx}10 to 270 keV/q, thus dramatically increasing the product of the geometric factor times the duty cycle when compared with other instruments. In this paper, we describe the AMICCE concept with particular emphasis on the prototype of the entrance system (ESA and collimator), which we designed, developed, and tested. We also present comparisons of the laboratory results with electrostatic simulations.

  18. Active disturbance rejection control for output force creep characteristics of ionic polymer metal composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Yan; Chen, Yang; Sun, Zhiyong; Hao, Lina; Dong, Jie

    2014-07-01

    Ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs) are a type of electroactive polymer (EAP) that can be used as both sensors and actuators. An IPMC has enormous potential application in the field of biomimetic robotics, medical devices, and so on. However, an IPMC actuator has a great number of disadvantages, such as creep and time-variation, making it vulnerable to external disturbances. In addition, the complex actuation mechanism makes it difficult to model and the demand of the control algorithm is laborious to implement. In this paper, we obtain a creep model of the IPMC by means of model identification based on the method of creep operator linear superposition. Although the mathematical model is not approximate to the IPMC accurate model, it is accurate enough to be used in MATLAB to prove the control algorithm. A controller based on the active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) method is designed to solve the drawbacks previously given. Because the ADRC controller is separate from the mathematical model of the controlled plant, the control algorithm has the ability to complete disturbance estimation and compensation. Some factors, such as all external disturbances, uncertainty factors, the inaccuracy of the identification model and different kinds of IPMCs, have little effect on controlling the output block force of the IPMC. Furthermore, we use the particle swarm optimization algorithm to adjust ADRC parameters so that the IPMC actuator can approach the desired block force with unknown external disturbances. Simulations and experimental examples validate the effectiveness of the ADRC controller.

  19. Enhanced ionic polymer metal composite actuator with porous nafion membrane using zinc oxide particulate leaching method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Sun Yong; Ko, Seong Young; Park, Jong-Oh; Park, Sukho

    2015-03-01

    In this study, to improve the performance of an ionic polymer metal composite (IPMC), we suggest a porous nafion membrane fabricated with the particulate leaching method with zinc oxide and propose an IPMC that uses the porous nafion membrane. To fabricate this membrane, the proper ratio of nafion and zinc oxide powder is dispersed in a solvent. Then the zinc oxide embedded in the nafion membrane is fabricated with a casting method. With the particulate leaching method, the embedded zinc oxide particles are dissolved by an acid solution, and the spaces of the zinc oxide particles changed to pores. Finally, through electroless plating and ion exchange procedures, an IPMC with the porous nafion membrane is fabricated. The proposed IPMC has higher water uptake (WUP) and ion exchange capacity (IEC) and can show better actuation performance compared to the conventional nafion-based IPMC. We also measure the actuation displacement and blocking forces of the proposed IPMC. Compared with the conventional nafion-based IPMC, the proposed IPMC with the porous nafion membrane has increased displacements: about 80% at ac input and about 250% at dc input, and increased blocking force about 130% at dc input.

  20. Thin-film Nanofibrous Composite Membranes Containing Cellulose or Chitin Barrier Layers Fabricated by Ionic Liquids

    SciTech Connect

    H Ma; B Hsiao; B Chu

    2011-12-31

    The barrier layer of high-flux ultrafiltration (UF) thin-film nanofibrous composite (TFNC) membranes for purification of wastewater (e.g., bilge water) have been prepared by using cellulose, chitin, and a cellulose-chitin blend, regenerated from an ionic liquid. The structures and properties of regenerated cellulose, chitin, and a cellulose-chitin blend were analyzed with thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD). The surface morphology, pore size and pore size distribution of TFNC membranes were determined by SEM images and molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) methods. An oil/water emulsion, a model of bilge water, was used as the feed solution, and the permeation flux and rejection ratio of the membranes were investigated. TFNC membranes based on the cellulose-chitin blend exhibited 10 times higher permeation flux when compared with a commercial UF membrane (PAN10, Sepro) with a similar rejection ratio after filtration over a time period of up to 100 h, implying the practical feasibility of such membranes for UF applications.

  1. Investigation of the effects of PWM parameters on ionic polymer metal composite actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cem Yılmaz, Ozgun; Cetin, Levent; Oguz Gurses, Baris; Sen, İbrahim; Ozdemir, Okan; Sarıkanat, Mehmet; Seki, Yoldas; Sever, Kutlay; Akar, Emine; Mermer, Omer

    2014-09-01

    The effects of the PWM excitation signal parameters, such as frequency and magnitude, on the Nafion-based ionic polymer metal composite (IPMC) actuator response were found out. The first set of experiments was designed to observe the actuator response when the actuators were biased with constant DC voltages. These experimental results were exploited to build an experimental data based dynamic model. The model and these results were also used as references to evaluate the experimental results in the proceeding experiments. The second set of experiments was designed to observe the actuator response when the DC square wave signals at different frequencies (0 to 1000 Hz) were applied. The third set of experiments was designed to observe the actuator response when the PWM signals at different magnitudes (6, 8 and 10 V) were applied. It is observed that back relaxation reduces with increasing frequency, but after a certain frequency value, it remains approximately constant. It is seen that the input output relationship of the actuators are linear only for a range of PWM signal magnitudes. The observations in both the PWM frequency and the magnitude experiments indicated that the performance of the Nafion-based IPMC actuator could be improved by selecting a magnitude of PWM signals between 6-8 Volts and by selecting a frequency between 400-1000 Hz.

  2. Application of feedforward dynamics compensation in ionic-polymer metal composite actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Yingfeng; Leang, Kam K.

    2008-03-01

    Ionic-polymer metal composites are innovative materials that offer combined sensing and actuating ability in lightweight and flexible package. As such, they have been exploited in robotics and a wide variety of biomedical devices, for example, as fins for propelling aquatic robots and as an injector for drug delivery. One of the main challenges of IPMC-based actuators is precision control of their movements, especially at high operating speed (frequency) because of dynamic effects. As the frequency increases, the dynamics cause vibration which leads to significant tracking error. A model-based feedforward controller is applied to control the position of a custom-made Nafion-based IPMC actuator. The feedforward controller was designed to account for the linear dynamics, and the feedforward input was computed by considering the magnitude of the input signal and the tracking precision. To account for unmodeled effects not captured by the linear model, a feedback controller was integrated with the feedforward controller. The feedback controller provides robustness. Experimental results show a significant improvement in the tracking performance using feedforward control. In particular, the feedforward controller resulted in over 75% improvement in the tracking error compared to the case without dynamic compensation. Then by adding a proportional-integral feedback controller, the tracking error was less than 10% at 18 Hz scan frequency.

  3. An Ionic-Polymer-Metallic Composite Actuator for Reconfigurable Antennas in Mobile Devices

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yi-Chen; Yu, Chung-Yi; Li, Chung-Min; Liu, Chin-Heng; Chen, Jiun-Peng; Chu, Tah-Hsiung; Su, Guo-Dung John

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a new application of an electro-active-polymer for a radio frequency (RF) switch is presented. We used an ionic polymer metallic composite (IPMC) switch to change the operating frequency of an inverted-F antenna. This switch is light in weight, small in volume, and low in cost. In addition, the IPMC is suitable for mobile devices because of its driving voltage of 3 volts and thickness of 200 μm. The IPMC acts as a normally-on switch to control the operating frequency of a reconfigurable antenna in mobile phones. We experimentally demonstrated by network analysis that the IPMC switch could shift its operating frequency from 1.1 to 2.1 GHz, with return losses of than −10 dB at both frequencies. To minimize electrolysis and maximize the operation time in air, propylene carbonate electrolyte with lithium perchlorate (LiClO4) was applied inside the IPMC. The results showed that when the IPMC was actuated over three months at 3.5 V, the tip displacement fell by less than 10%. Therefore, an IPMC actuator is a promising choice for application to a reconfigurable antenna. PMID:24399156

  4. An ionic-polymer-metallic composite actuator for reconfigurable antennas in mobile devices.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Chen; Yu, Chung-Yi; Li, Chung-Min; Liu, Chin-Heng; Chen, Jiun-Peng; Chu, Tah-Hsiung; Su, Guo-Dung John

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a new application of an electro-active-polymer for a radio frequency (RF) switch is presented. We used an ionic polymer metallic composite (IPMC) switch to change the operating frequency of an inverted-F antenna. This switch is light in weight, small in volume, and low in cost. In addition, the IPMC is suitable for mobile devices because of its driving voltage of 3 volts and thickness of 200 μm. The IPMC acts as a normally-on switch to control the operating frequency of a reconfigurable antenna in mobile phones. We experimentally demonstrated by network analysis that the IPMC switch could shift its operating frequency from 1.1 to 2.1 GHz, with return losses of than -10 dB at both frequencies. To minimize electrolysis and maximize the operation time in air, propylene carbonate electrolyte with lithium perchlorate (LiClO₄) was applied inside the IPMC. The results showed that when the IPMC was actuated over three months at 3.5 V, the tip displacement fell by less than 10%. Therefore, an IPMC actuator is a promising choice for application to a reconfigurable antenna. PMID:24399156

  5. Effect of mass loading on ionic polymer metal composite actuators and sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakthi Swarrup, J.; Ganguli, Ranjan

    2015-04-01

    Ionic polymer metal composites (IPMC) actuator for flapping insect scale wing is advantageous due to its low mass, high deflection and simple actuation mechanism. Some of the factors that affect the actuation of IPMC are the amount of hydration in the polymer membrane and the environmental conditions such as temperature, humidity etc. In structural design, the attachment of wing on the IPMC actuators is an important concern as the attached wing increases the mass of actuators thereby affecting the parameters like displacement, stiffness and resonant frequencies. Such IPMC actuators have to produce sufficient actuation force and frequency to lift and flap the attached wing. Therefore, it is relevant to study the influence of attachment of wing on the actuator parameters (displacement, resonant frequency, block force and stiffness) and performance of the actuators. This paper is divided into two parts; the first part deals with the modeling of the IPMC actuators for its effect on the level of water uptake and temperature using energy based method. The modeling method adapted is validated with the experimental procedure used to actuate the IPMC. The second part deals with the experimental analysis of IPMC actuation at dry, wet and in water conditions. The effect of end mass loading on the performance of 20 Hz, high frequency actuator (HFA) and 8.7 Hz, low frequency IPMC actuators (LFA) and sensors is studied. The IPMC actuators are attached with IPMC flapping wing at its free end and performance analysis on the attached wing is also carried out.

  6. Flow measurement and thrust estimation of a vibrating ionic polymer metal composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, Woojin; Cha, Youngsu; Peterson, Sean D.; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2015-09-01

    Ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs) are an emerging class of soft active materials that are finding growing application as underwater propulsors for miniature biomimetic swimmers. Understanding the hydrodynamics generated by an IPMC vibrating under water is central to the design of such biomimetic swimmers. In this paper, we propose the use of time-resolved particle image velocimetry to detail the fluid kinematics and kinetics in the vicinity of an IPMC vibrating along its fundamental structural mode. The reconstructed pressure field is ultimately used to estimate the thrust produced by the IPMC. The vibration frequency is systematically varied to elucidate the role of the Reynolds number on the flow physics and the thrust production. Experimental results indicate the formation and shedding of vortical structures from the IPMC tip during its vibration. Vorticity shedding is sustained by the pressure gradients along each side of the IPMC, which are most severe in the vicinity of the tip. The mean thrust is found to robustly increase with the Reynolds number, closely following a power law that has been derived from direct three-dimensional numerical simulations. A reduced order distributed model is proposed to describe IPMC underwater vibration and estimate thrust production, offering insight into the physics of underwater propulsion and aiding in the design of IPMC-based propulsors.

  7. Effect of ionic liquid pretreatment on the composition, structure and biogas production of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes).

    PubMed

    Gao, Jing; Chen, Li; Yan, Zongcheng; Wang, Lin

    2013-03-01

    The effect of the pretreatment of water hyacinth with ionic liquid and co-solvent on the lignocellulosic composition, structural change and biogas production was evaluated in this study. The results from regenerated water hyacinth indicate that, the content of the lignocellulosic composition was changed, the crystallinity of the structure was decreased, and the surface became more porous. After the pretreatment with 1-N-butyl-3-methyimidazolium chloride ([Bmim]Cl)/dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) under 120°C for 120min, the cellulose content of regenerated water hyacinth was increased by 27.9%, 49.2% of the lignin was removed, and the biogas yield was increased by 97.6% as compared with unpretreated water hyacinth. The ionic liquids and co-solvents were successfully recovered by forming aqueous biphasic systems with K3PO4. PMID:23186677

  8. Continuum modeling of size effects on the composition and stresses in nanoparticles of ionic solids with application to ceria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haftbaradaran, Hamed; Mossaiby, Farshid

    2016-03-01

    Owing to its broad potential applications, nanostructured ceria has been subject of intense investigation in the past few decades. Experiments have demonstrated that various material properties of the nanostructured ionic solids including ceria vary with the feature size. Here, we present a theoretical study of the size effects on the composition, defect concentrations and stresses in free-standing nanoparticles of nonstoichiometric ionic solids. To this end, a continuum model is developed which accounts for the highly nonlinear coupling between mechanical, chemical and electrical driving forces, and their effects on the thermodynamic equilibrium of the defect species. It is demonstrated that the model, once applied to the case of ceria, predicts size-dependent defect concentrations and surface stresses. It is further shown that the theoretical predictions of the size effects on the composition and lattice parameter are in good agreement with the experimental observations.

  9. Elemental and ionic composition of atmospheric aerosols in the dust storm season in Mongolian Gobi Desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soyol-Erdene, T. O.; Shagjjamba, D.; Hong, S.; Sarangerel, E.; Byambatsogt, K.

    2014-12-01

    TSP (Total Suspended Particulate) PM10 (particle size smaller than 10 μm) and PM2.5 (particle size smaller than 2.5 μm) aerosol samples in the dust storm session in Mongolian Gobi Desert were collected and their water soluble ionic and elemental composition were elaborated in demonstrating the mixing of mineral aerosol with pollution aerosol. During the sampling period (5-15 April, 2014) the dust storm peaked on 14 April, in which the highest concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 were 250.1 and 33.4 respectively. The water soluble anions (SO42-, NO3-, Cl- and HCO3- and PO43-) and cations (Na+, K+, NH4+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and Li+) of the samples were determined by ion chromatograph. Elemental composition for 48 elements determined by using X-ray fluorescence analyzer. For the PM2.5 samples, concentrations of V, Ge, As, Se, Br, Ag, Hg, Tl, Bi were less than instrumental detection limit and Cr, Co, Cu, Nb, Mo, Sb, I, Ba, Ce, Hf, W, Au, Pb were determined only in a few samples. Other elements were observed in most samples. For the PM2.5-10 samples, concentrations of Ge, As, Se, Br, Ag, Hf, Tl were less than instrumental detection limit and V, Co, Nb, Mo, I, Ce, W, Pb were determined only small samples. Others are determined in most samples. Aerosol sources, sources fractions (mineral and pollution), and mixing of aerosols from various sources will be investigated by further data analyses.

  10. Biomimetic robotic Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula Ellis) made with ionic polymer metal composites.

    PubMed

    Shahinpoor, Mohsen

    2011-12-01

    The work described in this paper is a novel design of a robotic Venus flytrap (VFT) (Dionaea muscipula Ellis) by means of ionic polymeric metal composite (IPMC) artificial muscles as distributed nanosensors and nanoactuators. Rapid muscular movements in carnivorous plants, such as VFT, which are triggered by antenna-like sensors (trigger hair), present a golden key to study distributed biomolecular motors. Carnivorous plants, such as VFT, possess built-in intelligence (trigger hairs), as a strategy to capture prey, that can be turned on in a controlled manner. In the case of the VFT, the prey that is lured by the sweet nectar in the VFT pair of jaw-like lobes has to flip and move the trigger hairs, which are colorless, bristle-like and pointed. The dynamically moved trigger hairs then electro-elastically send an electric signal to the internal ions in the lobe to migrate outwardly for the jaw-like lobes to close rapidly to capture the prey. The manner in which the VFT lobes bend inward to capture the prey shows a remarkable similarity with typical IPMCs bending in an electric field. Furthermore, the mechano-electrical sensing characteristics of IPMCs also show a remarkable resemblance to mechano-electrical trigger hairs on the lobes of the VFT. The reader is referred to a number of papers in connection with sensing and actuation of IPMCs in particular. Thus, one can integrate IPMC lobes with a common electrode in the middle of one end of the lobes to act like a spine and use IPMC bristles as trigger finger to sense the intrusion of a fly or insect to send a sensing signal to a solid state relay which then triggers the actuation circuit of the IPMC lobes to rapidly bend toward each other and close. The two lobes, which form the trap, are attached to the midrib common electrode which is conveniently termed the spine. The upper surface of each lobe is dished, and spaced along the free margins of the lobes with some 15-20 prong-like teeth. These are tough and pointed

  11. Simple and mass-produced mechanochemical preparation of graphene nanosheet/polyaniline composite assisted with bifunctional ionic liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xiangjun; Dou, Hui

    2016-05-01

    Graphene nanosheet/polyaniline (GNS/PANI) composite was prepared by a simple and mass-produced mechanochemical method, where the functionalized ionic liquid 1-(3-sulfonic acid) propyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate conducts as not only the dispersant of GNS but also the dopant of PANI. The GNS/PANI composite characterized by Fourier transformation infrared spectra, UV-Vis spectra and X-ray diffraction shows that the resulting PANI in composite is in its doped, conductive emeraldine oxidation state. Scanning electron microscope images reveal that the GNS/PANI composite with PANI uniformly coated on the surface of GNS is randomly stacking. Compared with pure PANI, the GNS/PANI composite has higher electrical conductivity, better thermal stability and electrochemical activity due to the presence of GNS.

  12. Theoretical investigation of ionic effects in actuation and sensing of IPMCs of various geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stalbaum, Tyler; Nelson, Shelby E.; Palmre, Viljar; Kim, Kwang J.

    2015-04-01

    Ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) electromechanical and mechanoelectrical phenomena for rectangular and tube-shaped IPMC devices have been examined through simulation and experimental investigation. There is a specific focus on investigating the anion and cation effects in actuation versus sensing. Simulations were performed using COMSOL Multiphysics 4.3b. Sample IPMCs were fabricated in lab in the desired geometries by techniques described herein. The sample sizes were roughly 1 mm thick and 20-25 mm in length. Actuation and sensor experiments were performed with the samples and compared to simulation results, which exhibit good agreement for voltage and tip displacement measurements. Fundamental differences in the electromechanical and mechanoelectrical transductions of IPMCs are highlighted in the simulation results. These results display the negligible effect of anion motion in actuation as compared to during sensing. In actuation, the cation motion is dominated by an electric potential flux, and the anions move only slightly in accordance with the deformed polymer membrane. In sensing, the electric potential is induced by the ionic migration in the polymer, and both cation and anion concentration variations are of similar magnitudes.

  13. Effects of polymer structure on properties of sulfonated polyimide/protic ionic liquid composite membranes for nonhumidified fuel cell applications.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Tomohiro; Nakamura, Shin-ichiro; Honda, Yoshiyuki; Kinugawa, Kei; Lee, Seung-Yul; Watanabe, Masayoshi

    2012-03-01

    To investigate the effects of polymer structure on the properties of composite membranes including a protic ionic liquid, [dema][TfO] (diethylmethylammonium trifluoromethanesulfonate), for nonhumidified fuel cell applications, we synthesized sulfonated polyimides (SPIs) with different structures as matrix polymers, which have different magnitudes of ion-exchange capacities (IECs), different sequence distributions of ionic groups, and positions of sulfonate groups in the main chain or side chain. Despite having similar IECs, multiblock copolymer SPI and random copolymer SPI having sulfonate groups in the side chain exhibit higher ionic conductivity than random copolymer SPI having sulfonate groups in the main chain, indicating that the flexibility of sulfonic acid groups and the sequence distribution of ionic groups greatly affect the ion conduction. Atomic force microscopy observation revealed that the multiblock copolymer SPI forms more developed phase separation than the others. These results indicate that the flexibility of sulfonic acid groups and the connectivity of the ion conduction channel, which greatly depends on the sequence distribution, affect the ion conduction. PMID:22352958

  14. Polymeric ionic liquid and carbon black composite as a reusable supporting electrolyte: modification of the electrode surface.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Seung Joon; Li, Long-Ji; Zeng, Cheng-Chu; Little, R Daniel

    2015-03-16

    One of the major impediments to using electroorganic synthesis is the need for large amounts of a supporting electrolyte to ensure the passage of charge. Frequently this causes separation and waste problems. To address these issues, a polymeric ionic liquid-Super P carbon black composite has been formulated. The system enables electrolyses to be performed without adding an additional supporting electrolyte, and its efficient recovery and reuse. In addition, the ability of the composite to modify the electrode surface in situ leads to improved kinetics. A practical consequence is that one can decrease catalyst loading without sacrificing efficiency. PMID:25619992

  15. Biomimetic jellyfish-inspired underwater vehicle actuated by ionic polymer metal composite actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najem, Joseph; Sarles, Stephen A.; Akle, Barbar; Leo, Donald J.

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents the design, fabrication, and characterization of a biomimetic jellyfish robot that uses ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs) as flexible actuators for propulsion. The shape and swimming style of this underwater vehicle are based on the Aequorea victoria jellyfish, which has an average swimming speed of 20 mm s-1 and which is known for its high swimming efficiency. The Aequorea victoria is chosen as a model system because both its bell morphology and kinematic properties match the mechanical properties of IPMC actuators. This medusa is characterized by its low swimming frequency, small bell deformation during the contraction phase, and high Froude efficiency. The critical components of the robot include the flexible bell that provides the overall shape and dimensions of the jellyfish, a central hub and a stage used to provide electrical connections and mechanical support to the actuators, eight distinct spars meant to keep the upper part of the bell stationary, and flexible IPMC actuators that extend radially from the central stage. The bell is fabricated from a commercially available heat-shrinkable polymer film to provide increased shape-holding ability and reduced weight. The IPMC actuators constructed for this study demonstrated peak-to-peak strains of ˜0.7% in water across a frequency range of 0.1-1.0 Hz. By tailoring the applied voltage waveform and the flexibility of the bell, the completed robotic jellyfish with four actuators swam at an average speed 0.77 mm s-1 and consumed 0.7 W. When eight actuators were used the average speed increased to 1.5 mm s-1 with a power consumption of 1.14 W.

  16. Composite Electrolytes for Lithium Batteries: Ionic Liquids in APTES Crosslinked Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tigelaar, Dean M.; Meador, Mary Ann B.; Bennett, William R.

    2007-01-01

    Solvent free polymer electrolytes were made consisting of Li(+) and pyrrolidinium salts of trifluoromethanesulfonimide added to a series of hyperbranched poly(ethylene oxide)s (PEO). The polymers were connected by triazine linkages and crosslinked by a sol-gel process to provide mechanical strength. The connecting PEO groups were varied to help understand the effects of polymer structure on electrolyte conductivity in the presence of ionic liquids. Polymers were also made that contain poly(dimethylsiloxane) groups, which provide increased flexibility without interacting with lithium ions. When large amounts of ionic liquid are added, there is little dependence of conductivity on the polymer structure. However, when smaller amounts of ionic liquid are added, the inherent conductivity of the polymer becomes a factor. These electrolytes are more conductive than those made with high molecular weight PEO imbibed with ionic liquids at ambient temperatures, due to the amorphous nature of the polymer.

  17. Applications and Properties of Ionic Liquid- Based Gels and Soft Solid Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voss, Bret Alan McGinness

    2011-12-01

    Solid-liquid composites (gels) have a combination of properties that afford new material applications in which high solute diffusion is desirable. These composites have a soft-solid mechanical integrity and will not flow under gravity, but entrain a liquid matrix (i.e. 60-98 mass %) which allows for high diffusion and high reactivity. Room temperature ionic liquid (RTILs) are molten organic salts with a melting point below room temperature and negligible vapor pressure. If the RTILs are used as the liquid component of a gel, then the gel matrix will not evaporate (unlike other organic solvents) and may be used for long term applications. This thesis research applies RTIL gels for two new applications; carbon dioxide/nitrogen separation and chemical warfare agent (CWA) barrier and decontamination. Separating CO2 from the flue gas of coal and gas fired power-plants is an increasingly economically and environmentally important gas separation. In this first study, RTIL gels are cast in a supported membrane and gas permeability and ideal selectivity are measured. The RTIL matrix has an inherent affinity for CO2 and provides a high diffusion, hence high permeability (i.e. 500-700 barrer). The solidifying component is a low molecular-weight organic gelator (LMOG) which through physical bonding interactions (i.e. hydrogen bonding, pi-pi stacking and van der Walls forces) forms an entangled network which provides mechanical stability (i.e. increase trans-membrane pressure required to expel selective material from the support). In these studies two LMOGs and five RTILs are used to make supported gel membranes and determine gas permeability and temperature dependent trends. The second application for RTIL gels is a decontaminating barrier for CWAs and toxic industrial compounds (TICs). In these studies a layer of RTIL gel is applied on top of a substrate contaminated with a CWA simulant (i.e. chloroethylethylsulfide, CEES). The gel performs well as a barrier, preventing CEES

  18. One-step immobilization of antibodies for α-1-fetoprotein immunosensor based on dialdehyde cellulose/ionic liquid composite.

    PubMed

    Shen, Guangyu; Zhang, Xiangyang; Shen, Youming; Zhang, Songbai; Fang, Li

    2015-02-15

    A novel immunosensor for α-1-fetoprotein based on dialdehyde cellulose/ionic liquid composite film as a matrix has been developed. Microcrystalline cellulose was activated by sodium metaperiodate to produce dialdehyde cellulose. Antibodies can be immobilized on the electrode by a one-step method through covalent bonding of the aldehyde groups of dialdehyde cellulose with the amino groups of antibodies, in which no additional chemical cross-linking step is required. Moreover, ionic liquid added can improve the conductivity of the sensing interface and, therefore, can enhance the electrochemical signal. In this work, α-1-fetoprotein was detected within the range from 0.1 to 60ngml(-1) with a detection limit of 0.07ngml(-1) (signal/noise=3). The proposed immunosensor had good specificity and reproducibility. It was used to determine real samples with satisfactory results. PMID:25286306

  19. Adhesion and progressive delamination of polymer/metal interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Dauskardt, R.H.; Kook, S.Y.; Kirtikar, A.; Ohashi, K.L.

    1997-12-31

    Bonding of metals using polymers has significantly increased in a wide range of modern applications including aerospace structures, microelectronic packages and bio-prosthetic components. The reliability of these structures are profoundly influenced by the interfacial fracture resistance (adhesion) and resistance to progressive debonding of the resulting polymer/metal interfaces. In this study the authors examine such interfacial fracture properties of representative metal/polymer interfaces commonly found in microelectronic and biomedical applications. Specifically, interface fracture mechanics techniques are described to characterize adhesion and progressive debonding behavior under cyclic fatigue loading. Cyclic fatigue debond-growth rates were measured from {approximately}10{sup {minus}10} to 10{sup {minus}6} m/cycle and found to display a power-law dependence on the applied strain energy release rate range, {Delta}G. Fracture toughness test results show that the interfaces typically exhibit resistance-curve behavior, with a plateau interface fracture resistance, G{sub ss}, strongly dependent on the interface morphology and the thickness of the polymer layer. Micromechanisms controlling interfacial adhesion and progressive debonding are discussed in terms of the prevailing deformation mechanisms and related to interface structure and morphology.

  20. Size effect of cubic ZrO2 nanoparticles on ionic conductivity of polyethylene oxide-based composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Arup; Ghoshal, Tandra; Karan, S.; De, S. K.

    2011-08-01

    A solvent free solid composite polymer electrolyte (SCPE) film consisting of high molecular mass polyethylene oxide (PEO) with sodium perchlorate (NaClO4) as electrolytic salt and cubic zirconium oxide (ZrO2) nanoparticles as the filler has been prepared by solution casting technique to influence the transport properties. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirm the formation of the SCPE film, whereas atomic force microscopy reveals the presence of a network of interconnected nanoparticles forming uniform surface feature of relatively low roughness. The highest ionic conductivity (σ = 6.96 × 10-5 S-cm-1) for PEO25 - NaClO4 with 5 wt. % ZrO2 nanoparticles of the smallest size 4.5 nm is an order of magnitude higher than the pure PEO25 - NaClO4 at room temperature. The conductivity enhancement is due to the creation of additional sites and favorable conduction pathways for ionic transport through Lewis acid-base type interactions between the polar surface groups of the ceramic filler and the electrolyte ionic species.

  1. Ionic polymer metal composite actuators employing irradiation-crosslinked sulfonated poly(styrene-ran-ethylene) as ion-exchange membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuanlun; Cheng, Tai-Hong; Xu, Liang; Oh, Il-Kwon

    2009-07-01

    Ionic polymer metal composites (IPMC) are soft polymeric smart materials having large displacement at low voltage in moist environments or water. This type of actuators consists of an ionic membrane and noble metal electrodes plated on both surfaces. The ion-exchange membrane, Nafion, remains as the benchmark for a majority of research and development in IPMC technology. In this research, we employed sulfonated poly(styrene-ran-ethylene) (SPSE) that is crosslinked by UV irradiation as a novel ionic membrane. The crosslinking reaction between polymer matrix and crosslinking agent was proved by FTIR analysis. The sulfonic acid groups were stable during the UV irradiation crosslinking process. Water uptake, ion exchange capacity, and sulfonation degree are characterized for both pure SPSE and crosslinked SPSE membrane. The bending responses of SPSE actuators under both direct current (DC) and alternating current (AC) excitations were investigated. The voltage-current behaviors of the actuators under AC excitations are also measured. Results showed the crosslinked SPSE actuators have better electromechanical performance than that of pure SPSE actuator with regard to tip displacement.

  2. Assessing chemical toxicity of ionic liquids on Vibrio fischeri: Correlation with structure and composition.

    PubMed

    Montalbán, Mercedes G; Hidalgo, Juana M; Collado-González, Mar; Díaz Baños, F Guillermo; Víllora, Gloria

    2016-07-01

    One of the most important properties of ionic liquids is their non-volatility, making them potentially "green" alternatives to volatile organic compounds. However, they are widely soluble in water, meaning that they can be released into aquatic ecosystems and so contribute to water pollution. Nevertheless, although the toxicity of ILs has been widely assessed in the literature, the information is still scarce due to the great number of ionic liquids that have been synthesized. The present work reports the toxicity of twenty-nine imidazolium-, pyridinium- and ammonium-based ionic liquids towards the bioluminescent photobacterium Vibrio fischeri. When the effect of the type of anion, the length of the alkyl chain of the cation, the cation core and the presence of a functionalized side chain in the cation on ionic liquid toxicity were analyzed, the main influence was seen to be exercised by the alkyl chain length. A Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships-based method was used to compare the experimental results with previously estimated values and very good agreement was obtained. A relationship between the toxicity, expressed as Log EC50, and the 1-octanol-water partition coefficient was established. PMID:27139120

  3. Material development of polymer/metal paste for flip-chip attach interconnection technology

    SciTech Connect

    Roldann, J.M.; Saraf, R.F.; Sambucetti, C.J.; Cotte, J.

    1996-11-01

    Upon completion of the second year of this contract, we have delivered the next generation of polymer/metal composite, optimum paste H, to Endicott. We have done preliminary flip-chip type bonding at Universal Instruments, working closely with their personnel to enhance their equipment set and process. We have also shown that a PMC bond can withstand over 40% strain without effecting its electrical and mechanical properties. This resilience of the conductive polymer paste both under electrical and mechanical behavior, is a strong indication of the applicability of the material for Flip Chip Attach to organic laminates. We have also confirmed during this phase of the Contract that the Optimum Paste H can be processed and applied under normal ambient conditions, without special precautions of low temperature or inert atmospheres, a property which sets our system apart from many other commercial pastes. We would also like to remark the achievement of optimized paste properties and how these properties address the mayor issues and requirements for flip attach applications, in Table I and II of this report. Use of the PMC to build interposer for chip-testing. Due to the high electrical conductivity of the PMC, a process was developed to use a thin film layer of the paste applied to a metal cathode of an electrochemical cell, to build fully metallized thru hole arrays containing a given C-4 chip foot print. This array interposers can be used for chip test (known-good-chip) applications. This process will be described in detail at the Year-End Review Meeting in Binghanton.

  4. Intercomparisons of Airborne Measurements of Aerosol Ionic Chemical Composition during TRACE-P and ACE-Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Y.; Weber, R. J.; Maxwell-Meier, K.; Orsini, D. A.; Lee, Y.-N.; Huebert, B. J.; Howell, S. G.; Bertram, T.; Talbot, R. W.

    2003-01-01

    As part of the two field studies, Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P), and the Asian Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACEAsia), the inorganic chemical composition of tropospheric aerosols was measured over the western Pacific from three separate aircraft using various methods. Comparisons are made between the rapid online techniques of the Particle Into Liquid Sampler (PILS) for measurement of a suite of fine particle ionic compounds and a mist chamber (MC/IC) measurement of fine sulfate, and the longer time-integrated filter and multi-orifice impactor (MOI) measurements. Comparisons between identical PILS on two separate aircraft flying in formation showed that they were highly correlated (e.g., sulfate r(sup 2) of 0.95), but were systematically different by 10 +/- 5% (linear regression slope and 95% confidence bounds), and had generally higher concentrations on the aircraft with a low turbulence inlet and shorter inlet-to-instrument transmission tubing. Comparisons of PILS and mist chamber measurements of fine sulfate on two different aircraft during formation flying had an 3 of 0.78 and a relative difference of 39% +/- 5%. MOI ionic data integrated to the PILS upper measurement size of 1.3 pm sampling from separate inlets on the same aircraft showed that for sulfate, PILS and MOI were within 14% +/- 6% and correlated with an r(sup 2) of 0.87. Most ionic compounds were within f 30%, which is in the range of differences reported between PILS and integrated samplers from ground-based comparisons. In many cases, direct intercomparison between the various instruments is difficult due to differences in upper-size detection limits. However, for this study, the results suggest that the fine particle mass composition measured from aircraft agree to within 30-40%.

  5. Force optimization of ionic polymeric platinum composite artificial muscles by means of an orthogonal array manufacturing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, Tariq; Shahinpoor, Mohsen

    1999-05-01

    Ionic polymer platinum composite (IPPC) artificial muscles have been the subject of research activities at AMRI (Artificial Muscle Research Institute) and have been identified as smart intelligent material. The potential for such artificial muscles is so vast that muscles of different enhanced characteristics will be required in the future to accomplish different desired tasks. However the immediate challenges are to identify, control and enhance different desired characteristics of artificial muscles (IPPC). One important milestone that may be regarded, as the most critical one is to enhance force produced by these artificial muscles. Obviously force enhancement if successful may put these artificial muscles into one-to-one competition against the available line of traditional force actuators which fall in the same category. In order to experimentally approach the process of optimizing the force output of ionic polymeric platinum composite (IPPC) artificial muscles, an orthogonal array method was used to identify potential specific manufacturing procedures. These sets of procedures will eventually be helpful to identify the different desired characteristics of manufactured artificial muscles. One manufactured artificial muscles are tested for force outputs, the best ones would then be easily traced back to manufacturing procedure and will be further enhanced up to the desired levels by further refining the underlying manufacturing procedures. The measure chosen for optimization process was basically the force generated by a specific piece of muscle of specific geometry.

  6. Facile synthesis of water-soluble graphene-based composite: Non-covalently functionalized with chitosan-ionic liquid conjugation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pei-Ying; Cheng, Kai-Yu; Zheng, Xiu-Cheng; Liu, Pu; Xu, Xiu-Juan

    2016-05-01

    Chitosan-ionic liquid conjugation (CILC), which was prepared through the reaction of 1-(4-bromobutyl)-3-methylimidazolium bromide (BBMIB) with chitosan, was firstly used to prepare functionalized graphene composite via the chemical reduction of graphene oxide (GO). The obtained water soluble graphene-based composite was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy and so on. CILC-RGO showed excellent dispersion stability in water at the concentration of 2.0 mg/mL, which was stable for several months without any precipitate. This may be ascribed to the electrostatic attraction and π-π interaction between CILC and graphene.

  7. Performance of standard media in toxicological assessments with Daphnia magna: chelators and ionic composition versus metal toxicity.

    PubMed

    Loureiro, Cláudia; Castro, Bruno B; Pereira, Joana Luísa; Gonçalves, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Fully artificial test media can increase reproducibility and standardization in ecotoxicological assessments, but there is still a lack of convergence among ecotoxicology laboratories in aquatic test media with respect to ionic composition, chelators, and organic supplements. We compared the performance of Daphnia magna in three widely-used reconstituted media. The tested media differed in composition: (a) ADaM, an artificial medium based in a synthetic sea salt, with no a priori known chelating properties; (b) ASTM hard water supplemented with algal extract, a semi-artificial medium with unknown chelating properties; and (c) M7, a complex artificial medium containing EDTA as a chelator. All three media were suitable for rearing D. magna (although performance in M7 was suboptimal) and acute EC(50) values for reference substances (3,4-DCA, K(2)Cr(2)O(7)) were similar between media. In acute exposures to Cu and Cd, daphniids were least sensitive when reared in M7, as expected due to metal chelation by EDTA. Daphnia sensitivity to Cd was low in ADaM. Thus, these two media were suboptimal for assessing the toxicity of some metals to D. magna in acute tests. We suggest that both the ionic composition of the medium and the presence of chelators should be taken into account when metal toxicity is concerned. Chronic toxicity profiles for Cu suggested a mild chelating effect of the algal extract in ASTM medium. Still, ASTM hard water persists as one of the most suitable media for acute toxicity assessments of metals and metal-contaminated samples. PMID:21080223

  8. Understanding the role of brine ionic composition on oil recovery by assessment of wettability from colloidal forces.

    PubMed

    Alshakhs, Mohammed J; Kovscek, Anthony R

    2016-07-01

    The impact of injection brine salinity and ionic composition on oil recovery has been an active area of research for the past 25years. Evidence from laboratory studies and field tests suggests that implementing certain modifications to the ionic composition of the injection brine leads to greater oil recovery. The role of salinity modification is attributed to its ability to shift wettability of a rock surface toward water wetness. The amount of trapped oil released depends on the nature of rock, oil, and brine surface interactions. Reservoir rocks exhibit different affinities to fluids. Carbonates show stronger adsorption of oil films as opposed to the strongly water-wet and mixed-wet sandstones. The concentration of divalent ions and total salinity of the injection brine are other important factors to consider. Accordingly, this paper provides a review of laboratory and field studies of the role of brine composition on oil recovery from carbonaceous rock as well as rationalization of results using DLVO (Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey and Overbeek) theory of surface forces. DLVO evaluates the contribution of each component of the oil/brine/rock system to the wettability. Measuring zeta potential of each pair of surfaces by a charged particle suspension method is used to estimate double layer forces, disjoining pressure, and contact-angle. We demonstrate the applicability of the DLVO approach by showing a comprehensive experimental study that investigates the effect of divalent ions in carbonates, and uses disjoining pressure results to rationalize observations from core flooding and direct contact-angle measurements. PMID:26344867

  9. Development of a novel cellulose/duck feather composite fibre regenerated in ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    De Silva, Rasike; Wang, Xungai; Byrne, Nolene

    2016-11-20

    By blending cellulose and duck feather in the common solvent 1-allyl-3-methylimidazoloium chloride, a regenerated composite fibre has been developed with improved fibres over regenerated cellulose fibres (RCF). The mechanical properties of composite fibre was shown to be better than RCF with a 63.7% improvement in tensile strain. Here, we thoroughly characterise the composite fibre and show that the composite fibre has many advantages over RCFs both from a spinning perspective and as a regenerated fibre. PMID:27561478

  10. Preparation and properties of self-reinforced cellulose composite films from Agave microfibrils using an ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Reddy, K Obi; Zhang, Jinming; Zhang, Jun; Rajulu, A Varada

    2014-12-19

    The applications of natural fibers and their microfibrils are increasing rapidly due to their environment benefits, specific strength properties and renewability. In the present work, we successfully extracted cellulose microfibrils from Agave natural fibers by chemical method. The extracted microfibrils were characterized by chemical analysis. The cellulose microfibrils were found to dissolve in an ionic liquid 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (AmimCl) to larger extent along with little quantity of undissolved microfibrils. Using this solution, the self-reinforced regenerated cellulose composite films were prepared. The raw fiber, extracted cellulose microfibrils and regenerated cellulose composite films were characterized by FTIR, (13)C CP-MAS NMR, XRD, TGA and SEM techniques. The average tensile strength, modulus and elongation at break of the self-reinforced cellulose composite films were found to be 135 MPa, 8150 MPa and 3.2%, respectively. The high values of tensile strength and modulus were attributed to the self-reinforcement of Agave fibers in their generated matrix. These self-reinforced cellulose biodegradable composite films prepared from renewable source can find applications in packaging field. PMID:25263924

  11. Design and development of bio-inspired underwater jellyfish like robot using ionic polymer metal composite (IPMC) actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akle, Barbar; Najem, Joseph; Leo, Donald; Blottman, John

    2011-04-01

    This study presents the design and development of an underwater Jellyfish like robot using Ionic Polymer Metal Composites (IPMCs) as propulsion actuators. For this purpose, IPMCs are manufactured in several variations. First the electrode architecture is controlled to optimize the strain, strain rate, and stiffness of the actuator. Second, the incorporated diluents species are varied. The studied diluents are water, formamide, and 1-ethyl-3-methyimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate (EmI-Tf) ionic liquid. A water based IPMC demonstrates a fast strain rate of 1%/s, but small peak strain of 0.3%, and high current of 200mA/cm2, as compared to an IL based IPMC which has a slow strain rate of 0.1%/s, large strain of 3%, and small current of 50mA/cm2. The formamide is proved to be the most powerful with a strain rate of approximately 1%/s, peak strain larger than 5%, and a current of 150mA/cm2. The IL and formamide based samples required encapsulation for shielding the diluents from being dissolved in the surrounding water. Two Jellyfish like robots are developed each with an actuator with different diluents. Several parameters on the robot are optimized, such as the input waveform to the actuators, the shape and material of the belly. The finesse ratio of the shape of the robotic belly is compared with biological jellyfish such as the Aurelia-Aurita..

  12. A fabrication method of unique Nafion® shapes by painting for ionic polymer–metal composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trabia, Sarah; Hwang, Taeseon; Kim, Kwang J.

    2016-08-01

    Ionic polymer–metal composites (IPMC) are useful actuators because of their ability to be fabricated in different shapes and move in various ways. However, producing unique or intricate shapes can be difficult based upon the current fabrication techniques. Presented here is a fabrication method of producing the Nafion® membrane or thin film through a painting method. Using an airbrush, a Nafion water dispersion is sprayed onto an acrylonitrile butadiene styrene surface with a stencil of the desired shape. To verify that this method of fabrication produces a Nafion membrane similar to that which is commercially available, a sample that was made using the painting method and Nafion 117 purchased from DuPont™ were tested for various characteristics and compared. The results show promising similarities. The painted Nafion sample was chemically plated with platinum and compared with a traditional IPMC for its displacement and blocking force capabilities. The painted IPMC sample showed comparable results.

  13. Electrochemical determination of Sudan I in food products using a carbon nanotube-ionic liquid composite modified electrode.

    PubMed

    Liu, Benzhi; Yin, Chuntao; Wang, Min

    2014-01-01

    A sensitive and convenient electrochemical method was developed for the determination of Sudan I using a carbon nanotube-ionic liquid composite modified electrode with the enhancement effect of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). The modified electrode exhibited an obvious electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of Sudan I, and the oxidation peak current significantly increased in the presence of CTAB. The experimental parameters, such as solution pH, concentration of CTAB and accumulation time, were optimised for Sudan I determination. The oxidation peak current showed a linear relationship with the concentration of Sudan I in the range of 3.0 × 10(-8) to 3.1 × 10(-6) mol l(-1), with a detection limit of 8.0 × 10(-9) mol l(-1). The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of Sudan I in food products of ketchup and chilli sauce. PMID:25254422

  14. The role of MgBr2 to enhance the ionic conductivity of PVA/PEDOT:PSS polymer composite

    PubMed Central

    Sheha, Eslam M.; Nasr, Mona M.; El-Mansy, Mabrouk K.

    2014-01-01

    A solid polymer electrolyte system based on poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and poly(3,4-Etylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) complexed with magnesium bromide (MgBr2) salt was prepared using solution cast technique. The ionic conductivity is observed to increase with increasing MgBr2 concentration. The maximum conductivity was found to be 9.89 × 10−6 S/cm for optimum polymer composite film (30 wt.% MgBr2) at room temperature. The increase in the conductivity is attributed to the increase in the number of ions as the salt concentration is increased. This has been proven by dielectric studies. The increase in conductivity is also attributable to the increase in the fraction of amorphous region in the electrolyte films as confirmed by their structural, thermal, electrical and optical properties. PMID:26199746

  15. Intercomparisons of airborne measurements of aerosol ionic chemical composition during TRACE-P and ACE-Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Y.; Weber, R. J.; Maxwell-Meier, K.; Orsini, D. A.; Lee, Y.-N.; Huebert, B. J.; Howell, S. G.; Bertram, T.; Talbot, R. W.; Dibb, J. E.; Scheuer, E.

    2004-08-01

    As part of the two field studies, Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P) and the Asian Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-Asia), the inorganic chemical composition of tropospheric aerosols was measured over the western Pacific from three separate aircraft using various methods. Comparisons are made between the rapid online techniques of the particle into liquid sampler (PILS) for measurement of a suite of fine particle a mist chamber/ion chromatograph (MC/IC) measurement of fine sulfate, and the longer time-integrated filter and micro-orifice impactor (MOI) measurements. Comparisons between identical PILS on two separate aircraft flying in formation showed that they were highly correlated (e.g., sulfate r2 of 0.95), but were systematically different by 10 ± 5% (linear regression slope and 95% confidence bounds), and had generally higher concentrations on the aircraft with a low-turbulence inlet and shorter inlet-to-instrument transmission tubing. Comparisons of PILS and mist chamber measurements of fine sulfate on two different aircraft during formation flying had an r2 of 0.78 and a relative difference of 39% ± 5%. MOI ionic data integrated to the PILS upper measurement size of 1.3 μm sampling from separate inlets on the same aircraft showed that for sulfate, PILS and MOI were within 14% ± 6% and correlated with an r2 of 0.87. Most ionic compounds were within ±30%, which is in the range of differences reported between PILS and integrated samplers from ground-based comparisons. In many cases, direct intercomparison between the various instruments is difficult due to differences in upper-size detection limits. However, for this study, the results suggest that the fine particle mass composition measured from aircraft agree to within 30-40%.

  16. Electro-optical study of chiral nematic liquid crystal/chiral ionic liquid composites with electrically controllable selective reflection characteristics.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wang; Zhang, Lipei; Cao, Hui; Song, Li; Zhao, Haiyan; Yang, Zhou; Cheng, Zihui; Yang, Huai; Guo, Lin

    2010-03-20

    A chiral nematic liquid crystal (N*-LC)/chiral ionic liquid (CIL) composite with unique electro-optical characteristics was prepared and filled into a planar treated cell. When an electric field was applied to the cell, the anions and the cations of CIL moved towards the anode and the cathode of the power supply, respectively, thus forming a density gradient of the chiral groups, which resulted in wideband reflection. By adjusting the intensity of the electric field, the reflection bandwidth can be controlled accurately and reversibly. Moreover, the electric field-induced states can be memorized after the applied electric field is turned off. The reflective properties of the composite are investigated in the visible and near-infrared region, respectively. Additionally, the changes of the reflection bandwidths with the intensity and the applied time of the electric field were also investigated. From scanning electron microscopy (SEM) investigations, the mechanism of the electrically controllable reflection was demonstrated. Potential applications of the composite are related to reflective, color electronic paper (E-paper) and smart reflective windows for the solar light management. PMID:20200740

  17. Nanoporous copper incorporated platinum composites for electrocatalytic reduction of CO2 in ionic liquid BMIMBF4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Qiuju; Liu, Suqin; Wang, Xuanyun; Jin, Ganhua

    2012-04-01

    A three-dimensional porous nanostructure electrode composed of copper skeletons and platinum shells (NPC-Pt) was prepared by electroless plating for the first time. The electrochemical behavior of this electrode for electrocatalytic reduction CO2 in ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazoliumtetrafluoborate (BMIMBF4), had been studied by cyclic voltammogram and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy with a reduction peak at -2.24 V (vs. Ag) which was more positive 180 mV than that obtained on a pure platinum electrode. The electrolyses experiments were carried out in an undivided cell under mild conditions without any toxic solvents, catalysts and supporting electrolytes, affording the dimethyl carbonate in a good yield (81%). In addition, the current for the CO2 reduction at NPC-Pt electrode was stable, with a higher current density and current efficiency (83%). Moreover, current efficiency remained after reusing it for five times.

  18. Implantable polymer/metal thin film structures for the localized treatment of cancer by Joule heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kan-Dapaah, Kwabena; Rahbar, Nima; Theriault, Christian; Soboyejo, Wole

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents an implantable polymer/metal alloy thin film structure for localized post-operative treatment of breast cancer. A combination of experiments and models is used to study the temperature changes due to Joule heating by patterned metallic thin films embedded in poly-dimethylsiloxane. The heat conduction within the device and the surrounding normal/cancerous breast tissue is modeled with three-dimensional finite element method (FEM). The FEM simulations are used to explore the potential effects of device geometry and Joule heating on the temperature distribution and lesion (thermal dose). The FEM model is validated using a gel model that mimics biological media. The predictions are also compared to prior results from in vitro studies and relevant in vivo studies in the literature. The implications of the results are discussed for the potential application of polymer/metal thin film structures in hyperthermic treatment of cancer.

  19. The Use of Nonaqueous Fractionation to Assess the Ionic Composition of the Apoplast during Fruit Ripening.

    PubMed Central

    MacDougall, A. J.; Parker, R.; Selvendran, R. R.

    1995-01-01

    We have examined the possibility that pectin solubilization and cell separation in fruit may be due to organic acids disrupting calcium bridges between pectic polysaccharides. With fruit from a wild tomato (Lycopersicon pimpinellifolium [Dunal]) we demonstrated the validity of a nonaqueous fractionation method to obtain reliable estimates of the ionic content of the apoplast. In unripe fruit no organic acids were associated with the cell wall, which contained 67% of the total calcium and 47% of the magnesium. In ripe fruit 4% of the malate, 10% of the citrate, and 15% of the oxalate were estimated to be in the cell wall, together with 84% of the calcium and 52% of the magnesium. In contrast to the cultivated tomato, we did not find a consistent decrease in the degree of methyl esterification between unripe and ripe fruit, and an overall average of 75% was observed. In the cell walls of ripe fruit the ratio of calcium:magnesium:organic acid:unesterified uronic acid, on the basis of charge, was 15:4:4:16. The use of a computer program to predict the proportions of different ionic species in complex mixtures suggested that in ripe fruit 70% of the unesterified uronic acid would be complexed with calcium. Our results show that organic acids do not accumulate in the cell wall sufficiently to disrupt calcium cross-linking, nor is the calcium removed from the wall into the cell. We therefore conclude that organic acids do not contribute to cell separation during the ripening of tomato fruit. PMID:12228573

  20. Proton dynamics in sulfonated ionic salt composites: Alternative membrane materials for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Almeida, N. E.; Goward, G. R.

    2014-12-01

    Hydrated Nafion, the most prevalent proton exchange membrane utilizes a vehicular mechanism for proton conduction. However, there is an increasing need for such membranes to perform under anhydrous conditions, at high temperatures, which would employ a structural transport mechanism for proton conductivity. Here, several solid-acids are characterized, both as pristine salts, and as polymer composites. Materials of interest include benzimidazolium methanesulfonate (BMSA), imidazolium methanesulfonate (IMSA), and imidazolium trifluoromethanesulfate (IFMS). The proton dynamics of these solid acids are characterized as pure salts, and as composites, embedded into porous Teflon, by solid state NMR. It was determined that spin lattice (T1) relaxation of the composites are systematically lower than that of the pure salt, indicating that local dynamics are enhanced in the composites. Spin-spin relaxation (T2∗) was measured as a function of temperature to determine the activation energy for local mobility for each salt and composite. The activation energy for local proton mobility in each salt decreased after being inserted into porous Teflon. Finally, the long-range ion transport was characterized using impedance spectroscopy. The IFMS-Teflon composite possessed the lowest activation energy for local proton mobility, the highest thermal stability, and the most favorable proton conductivity, among the investigated materials.

  1. Nanoparticle and Gelation Stabilized Functional Composites of an Ionic Salt in a Hydrophobic Polymer Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Kanyas, Selin; Aydın, Derya; Kizilel, Riza; Demirel, A. Levent; Kizilel, Seda

    2014-01-01

    Polymer composites consisted of small hydrophilic pockets homogeneously dispersed in a hydrophobic polymer matrix are important in many applications where controlled release of the functional agent from the hydrophilic phase is needed. As an example, a release of biomolecules or drugs from therapeutic formulations or release of salt in anti-icing application can be mentioned. Here, we report a method for preparation of such a composite material consisted of small KCOOH salt pockets distributed in the styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) polymer matrix and demonstrate its effectiveness in anti-icing coatings. The mixtures of the aqueous KCOOH and SBS-cyclohexane solutions were firstly stabilized by adding silica nanoparticles to the emulsions and, even more, by gelation of the aqueous phase by agarose. The emulsions were observed in optical microscope to check its stability in time and characterized by rheological measurements. The dry composite materials were obtained via casting the emulsions onto the glass substrates and evaporations of the organic solvent. Composite polymer films were characterized by water contact angle (WCA) measurements. The release of KCOOH salt into water and the freezing delay experiments of water droplets on dry composite films demonstrated their anti-icing properties. It has been concluded that hydrophobic and thermoplastic SBS polymer allows incorporation of the hydrophilic pockets/phases through our technique that opens the possibility for controlled delivering of anti-icing agents from the composite. PMID:24516593

  2. On the structural stability of ionic liquid-IRMOF composites: a computational study.

    PubMed

    Abroshan, Hadi; Kim, Hyung J

    2015-03-01

    The structural stability of isoreticular metal organic frameworks, IRMOF-1 and IRMOF-10, confining ionic liquids (ILs) inside their nano-porous cavities is studied via molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Imidazolium- and pyridinium-based ILs, including BMI(+)PF6(-), BMI(+)Br(-), BMI(+)Tf2N(-), BMI(+)DCA(-), and BuPy(+)Tf2N(-) (BMI(+) = 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium, PF6(-) = hexafluorophosphate, Br(-) = bromide, Tf2N(-) = bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, DCA(-) = dicyanamide, and BuPy(+) = N-butylpyridinium), at different loadings are considered. It is found that both IRMOFs are structurally unstable and deform dramatically from their crystal structure in the presence of ILs. The interactions between the metallic parts of IRMOFs and IL anions play a major role in structural disruption and collapse of these MOFs. Thus elongated anions such as Tf2N(-) and DCA(-) that can interact with two different metal sites tend to lower IRMOF stability compared to spherical anions such as Br(-) and PF6(-). A further analysis via density functional theory (DFT) and ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations lends support to the MD results regarding structural instability of IRMOFs in the presence of ILs. PMID:25649989

  3. Composition of the outermost layer and concentration depth profiles of ammonium nitrate ionic liquid surfaces.

    PubMed

    Ridings, Christiaan; Warr, Gregory G; Andersson, Gunther G

    2012-12-14

    Differences in the surface structure of protic ionic liquids (ILs) with three different cations and a common anion; ethyl-, propyl- and 2-hydroxyethyl- (or ethanol-) ammonium nitrate (EAN, PAN and EtAN, respectively) have been observed by neutral impact collision ion scattering spectroscopy (NICISS) and metastable induced electron spectroscopy/ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (MIES/UPS). NICISS is used to determine the concentration depth profiles of the elements in each IL and it reveals an enrichment of cation alkyl chains of PAN and EtAN in the outermost layer compared to EAN, and a corresponding depletion of nitrate from the outermost layer of the EtAN surface. MIES probes the molecular orbitals of only the species in the outermost layer of a sample and confirms that, while both the anion and the cation are present to some degree at the surface of all three ILs, the cation is enriched to a greater extent at the surface of PAN and EtAN compared to EAN. PMID:23103987

  4. Influence of surfactant-free ionic liquid microemulsions pretreatment on the composition, structure and enzymatic hydrolysis of water hyacinth.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fan; Chen, Li; Wang, Aili; Yan, Zongcheng

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated the pretreatment performance of surfactant-free ionic liquid microemulsions (ILMs) on water hyacinth. Pretreatment effects were evaluated in terms of lignocellulosic composition, structure and enzymatic hydrolysis. Analysis of the regenerated water hyacinth indicated that the content of the lignocellulosic composition changed, and the surface became more porous. After being pretreated with ILM(a) (mass ratio of toluene: ethanol: 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([Emim]Ac)=0.35:0.3:0.35) at 70°C for 12h, the maximum delignification of 63.6% was observed. The cellulose of the water hyacinth was well protected and retained during the pretreatment process. After being enzymatically hydrolyzed for 48 h, the reducing sugar yield of the water hyacinth pretreated with ILM(a) at 70°C for 6 h was 563.7 mg/g, and its hydrolysis yield (86.1%) was nearly four and a half times of that of the untreated one (20.2%). In conclusion, the designed surfactant-free ILMs exhibit promising potential application in biomass pretreatment. PMID:26913644

  5. Physically Gelled Room-Temperature Ionic Liquid-Based Composite Membranes for CO2/N-2 Separation: Effect of Composition and Thickness on Membrane Properties and Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, PT; Voss, BA; Wiesenauer, EF; Gin, DL; Nobe, RD

    2013-07-03

    An aspartame-based, low molecular-weight organic gelator (LMOG) was used to form melt-infused and composite membranes with two different imidazolium-based room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) for CO2 separation from N-2. Previous work demonstrated that LMOGs can gel RTILs at low, loading levels, and this aspartame-based LMOG was selected because it has been reported to gel a large number of RTILs. The imidazolium-based RTILs were used because of their inherent good properties for CO2/light gas separations. Analysis of the resulting bulk RTIL/LMOG physical gels showed that these materials have high sol-gel transition temperatures (ca. 135 degrees C) suitable for flue gas applications. Gas permeabilities and burst pressure measurements of thick, melt infused membranes revealed a trade-off between high CO2 permeabilities and good mechanical stability as a function of the LMOG loading. Defect-free, composite membranes of the gelled RTILs were successfully fabricated by choosing an appropriate porous membrane support (hydrophobic PTFE) using a suitable coating technique (roller coating). The thicknesses of the applied composite gel layers ranged from 10.3 to 20.7 mu m, which represents an order of magnitude decrease in active layer thickness, compared to the original melt-infused gel RTIL membranes.

  6. Dynamic control of osmolality and ionic composition of the xylem sap in two mangrove species.

    PubMed

    López-Portillo, Jorge; Ewers, Frank W; Méndez-Alonzo, Rodrigo; Paredes López, Claudia L; Angeles, Guillermo; Alarcón Jiménez, Ana Luisa; Lara-Domínguez, Ana Laura; Torres Barrera, María Del Carmen

    2014-06-01

    • Premise of the study: Xylem sap osmolality and salinity is a critical unresolved issue in plant function with impacts on transport efficiency, pressure gradients, and living cell turgor pressure, especially for halophytes such as mangrove trees.• Methods: We collected successive xylem vessel sap samples from stems and shoots of Avicennia germinans and Laguncularia racemosa using vacuum and pressure extraction and measured their osmolality. Following a series of extractions with the pressure chamber, we depressurized the shoot and pressurized again after various equilibration periods (minutes to hours) to test for dynamic control of osmolality. Transpiration and final sap osmolality were measured in shoots perfused with deionized water or different seawater dilutions.• Key results: For both species, the sap osmolality values of consecutive samples collected by vacuum extraction were stable and matched those of the initial samples extracted with the pressure chamber. Further extraction of samples with the pressure chamber decreased sap osmolality, suggesting reverse osmosis occurred. However, sap osmolalities increased when longer equilibration periods after sap extraction were allowed. Analysis of expressed sap with HPLC indicated a 1:1 relation between measured osmolality and the osmolality of the inorganic ions in the sap (mainly Na(+), K(+), and Cl(-)), suggesting no contamination by organic compounds. In stems perfused with deionized water, the sap osmolality increased to mimic the native sap osmolality.• Conclusions: Xylem sap osmolality and ionic contents are dynamically adjusted by mangroves and may help modulate turgor pressure, hydraulic conductivity, and water potential, thus being important for mangrove physiology, survival, and distribution. PMID:24907254

  7. Semi-Continuous Measurement of PM2.5 Ionic Composition at Several Rural Locations in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Taehyoung; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Kreidenweis, Sonia M.; Malm, William C.; Collett, Jeffrey L.

    2008-09-01

    To improve understanding of the nature and variability of the ionic fraction of atmospheric fine aerosol particles in non-urban environments, one to two month measurement campaigns were conducted at several rural locations in the United States. Study sites included Yosemite National Park (NP) (July – September 2002), Bondville, Illinois (February 2003), San Gorgonio Wilderness Area, California (April and July 2003), Grand Canyon NP, Arizona (May 2003), Brigantine National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), New Jersey (November 2003), and Great Smoky Mountains NP, Tennessee (July/August 2004). PM2.5 ion composition was measured at 15-minute intervals using a Particle Into Liquid Sampler (PILS) coupled to two ion chromatographs. Comparison of PILS measurements with parallel traditional 24-hr denuder/filter-pack measurements reveal generally good agreement between the two techniques, although PILS measurements of PM2.5 NH4+ appear to be biased slightly low. High-time resolution aerosol concentration measurements provide much better estimates of the range of aerosol concentration levels experienced at these rural locations. Ratios of peak 15-min to 24-hr nitrate concentrations, for example, ranged from 1.7 at Brigantine NWR to 7.0 at the Great Smoky Mountains NP. A strong influence of diurnal upslope/downslope transport patterns was observed on aerosol concentrations at several locations, including Yosemite NP, San Gorgonio Wilderness Area, and Great Smoky Mountains NP, with peak concentrations typically occurring during afternoon upslope transport. High time resolution aerosol composition measurements also provide new insight into relationships between individual aerosol species and the influence of environmental conditions on aerosol composition. Observations at several locations revealed important information about mechanisms of particle nitrate formation. At Yosemite and Grand Canyon NPs, for example, evidence was observed for reaction of nitric acid or its precursors with

  8. Lithium ion conducting PVdF-HFP composite gel electrolytes based on N-methoxyethyl- N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)-imide ionic liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, S.; Quartarone, E.; Mustarelli, P.; Magistris, A.; Fagnoni, M.; Protti, S.; Gerbaldi, C.; Spinella, A.

    Blends of PVdF-HFP and ionic liquids (ILs) are interesting for application as electrolytes in plastic Li batteries. They combine the advantages of the gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) swollen by conventional organic liquid electrolytes with the nonflammability, and high thermal and electrochemical stability of ILs. In this work we prepared and characterized PVdF-HFP composite membranes swollen with a solution of LiTFSI in ether-functionalized pyrrolidinium-imide ionic liquid (PYRA 12O1TFSI). The membranes were filled in with two different types of silica: (i) mesoporous SiO 2 (SBA-15) and (ii) a commercial nano-size one (HiSil™ T700). The ionic conductivity and the electrochemical properties of the gel electrolytes were studied in terms of the nature of the filler. The thermal and the transport properties of the composite membranes are similar. In particular, room temperature ionic conductivities higher than 0.25 mS cm -1 are easily obtained at defined filler contents. However, the mesoporous filler guarantees higher lithium transference numbers, a more stable electrochemical interface and better cycling performances. Contrary to the HiSil™-based membrane, the Li/LiFePO 4 cells with PVdF-HFP/PYRA 12O1TFSI-LiTFSI films containing 10 wt% of SBA-15 show good charge/discharge capacity, columbic efficiency close to unity, and low capacity losses at medium C-rates during 180 cycles.

  9. Direct measurements of non-ionic attraction and nanoscaled lubrication in biomimetic composites from nanofibrillated cellulose and modified carboxymethylated cellulose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olszewska, Anna; Valle-Delgado, Juan José; Nikinmaa, Miika; Laine, Janne; Österberg, Monika

    2013-11-01

    There is a growing interest to design biomimetic self-assembled composite films from renewable resources aimed at a combination of high toughness, strength and stiffness. However, the relationship between interfacial interactions of the components and the mechanical performance of the composite is still poorly understood. In this work we present evidence of the link between mechanical performance of carbohydrate-based composites with nanolubrication and with direct surface forces between the hard and soft domain in the system. Our approach was to use nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) as the major reinforcing domain and to modify it by adsorption of a small amount of soft polyethylene glycol grafted carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC-g-PEG). The effect of the soft polymer on direct normal and friction forces in air between cellulose surfaces was evaluated using colloidal probe microscopy. The fibrillar structure of the NFC thin film affected the frictional behaviour; when decreasing load, the friction between pure cellulose surfaces increased, suggesting partial pull-out of fibrils, a phenomenon not observed for non-fibrillar cellulose substrates. Adsorption of CMC-g-PEG on both surfaces decreased the friction considerably but adhesion was still high. The symmetric system, having both cellulose substrates covered with the polymer, was compared to asymmetric systems where only one surface was covered with the polymer. Furthermore, a free standing composite film was prepared by non-ionic self-assembly of NFC and CMC-g-PEG with 99 : 1 weight-ratio; the mechanical properties of the macroscopic films were related to the nanoscaled interactions between the components. The composition studied showed excellent mechanical properties which do not follow the simple rule of mixture. Thus, a synergy in the direct surface forces and mechanical properties was found. This approach offers a robust path to aid in the efficient design of next generation biomimetic composites.There is a

  10. Improved manufacturing technology for producing porous Nafion for high-performance ionic polymer–metal composite actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Dongxu; Li, Dichen; Wang, Yanjie; Chen, Hualing

    2016-07-01

    The current actuation performance of ionic polymer–metal composites (IPMCs) limits their further application in the aerospace, energy, and optics fields, among others. To overcome this issue, we developed a freeze-drying process to generate Nafion membranes with a porous structure, the characteristics of which were investigated using thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, and water uptake tests. The pores fabricated using the developed freeze-drying process had a diameter of approximately 270 nm, and a porosity of nearly 40.45%. The displacement and the central angle were introduced as variables to evaluate the bending deformation of an IPMC actuator based on the porous Nafion membrane. Compared with conventional actuators, this IPMC actuator showed an increase in displacement of 4963.6% at 2 V, and an increase in central angle of 73.35% at 3 V. Although the blocking forces of this IPMC actuator decreased to some extent, it was confirmed that the integrated actuation performance, which was evaluated using the strain energy density increment, was improved. The performance of the IPMC actuator was enhanced as a result of the porous Nafion structure manufactured using the developed freeze-drying process.

  11. Comparative experimental investigation on the actuation mechanisms of ionic polymer–metal composites with different backbones and water contents

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Zicai; Chang, Longfei; Wang, Yanjie; Chen, Hualing; Asaka, Kinji; Zhao, Hongxia; Li, Dichen

    2014-03-28

    Water-based ionic polymer–metal composites (IPMCs) exhibit complex deformation properties, especially when the water content changes. To explore the general actuation mechanisms, both Nafion and Flemion membranes are used as the polymer backbones. IPMC deformation includes three stages: fast anode deformation, relaxation deformation, and slow anode deformation, which is mainly dependent on the water content and the backbone. When the water content decreases from 21 to 14 wt. %, Nafion–IPMC exhibits a large negative relaxation deformation, zero deformation, a positive relaxation deformation, and a positive steady deformation without relaxation in sequence. Despite the slow anode deformation, Flemion–IPMC also shows a slight relaxation deformation, which disappears when the water content is less than 13 wt. %. The different water states are investigated at different water contents using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The free water, which decreases rapidly at the beginning through evaporation, is proven to be critical for relaxation deformation. For the backbone, indirect evidence from the steady current response is correlated with the slow anode deformation of Flemion-IPMC. The latter is explained by the secondary dissociation of the weak acid group –COOH. Finally, we thoroughly explain not only the three deformations by swelling but also their evolvement with decreasing water content. A fitting model is also presented based on a multi-diffusion equation to reveal the deformation processes more clearly, the results from which are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  12. Ideal CO2/Light Gas Separation Performance of Poly(vinylimidazolium) Membranes and Poly(vinylimidazolium)-Ionic Liquid Composite Films

    SciTech Connect

    Carlisle, TK; Wiesenauer, EF; Nicodemus, GD; Gin, DL; Noble, RD

    2013-01-23

    Six vinyl-based, imidazolium room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) monomers were synthesized and photopolymerized to form dense poly(RTIL) membranes. The effect of polymer backbone (i.e., poly(ethylene), poly(styrene), and poly(acrylate)) and functional cationic substituent (e.g., alkyl, fluoroalkyl, oligo(ethylene glycol), and disiloxane) on ideal CO2/N-2 and CO2/CH4 membrane separation performance was investigated. The vinyl-based poly(RTIL)s were found to be generally less CO2-selective compared to analogous styrene- and acrylate-based poly(RTIL)s. The CO2 permeability of n-hexyl-(69 barrers) and disiloxane- (130 barrers) substituted vinyl-based poly(RTIL)s were found to be exceptionally larger than that of previously studied styrene and acrylate poly(RTIL)s. The CO2 selectivity of oligo(ethylene glycol)-functionalized vinyl poly(RTIL)s was enhanced, and the CO2 permeability was reduced when compared to the n-hexyl-substituted vinyl-based poly(RTIL). Nominal improvement in CO2/CH4 selectivity was observed upon fluorination of the n-hexyl vinyl-based poly(RTIL), with no observed change in CO2 permeability. However, rather dramatic improvements in both CO2 permeability and selectivity were observed upon blending 20 mol % RTIL (emim Tf2N) into the n-hexyl- and disiloxane-functionalized vinyl poly(RTIL)s to form solid liquid composite films.

  13. Experimental and theoretical studies on compositions, structures, and IR and NMR spectra of functionalized protic ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yingna; Yin, Jingmei; Li, Changping; Li, Shenmin; Wang, Ailing; Yang, Guang; Jia, Yingping

    2016-07-20

    The compositions and structures of amine-based functionalized protic ionic liquids (PILs), namely N,N-dimethyl(cyanoethyl)ammonium propionate (DMCEAP) and N,N-dimethyl(hydroxyethyl)ammonium propionate (DMEOAP) have been investigated systematically by IR and (1)H NMR spectroscopy and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Analysis of the IR spectra suggests that both DMCEAP and DMEOAP are composed of neutral and ionized species in the liquid phase, the former one mainly existing in the state of precursor molecules, and the latter mainly as ion-pairs. The ratio of precursor molecules to ion-pairs in the liquid phase depends on the types of precursors, especially the functional groups of cations. (1)H NMR spectra indicate that there is a dynamic equilibrium between the neutral and ionized species, probably due to the formation of some intermediates in the PILs. The DFT calculations have been carried out to reveal the conformation, and obtain the corresponding IR and (1)H NMR spectra of the neutral and ionized species, so that the theoretical support to the experimental results can be provided. The present study will help understand the properties of PILs and provide guidance for further applications of PILs. PMID:27385035

  14. Study on bending behavior of ionic polymer metal composites with various organic solvents and cationic species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Byung K.; Yoo, Youngtai

    2005-05-01

    Ion exchange polymer metal composites (IPMC) are electro-active actuators that show large deformation in the presence of low applied voltage. Perfluorosulfonic acid membrane, Nafion, is one of the most widely studied materials for this purpose. Experimental studies were carried out on the bending behavior of Nafion-based IPMCs containing various solvents and cation species. Various counter cations of sulfonate groups in the membrane were obtained by soaking the composite membrane in aqueous salt solutions. The salts used in ion exchange process include LiOH, NaOH, Cu(NO3)2, Co(NO3)2. Ion-exchange capacity of the IPMC was measured by ICP. In the case of cationic effect the Li-form IPMC demonstrated an immediate and efficient deformation behavior at 1 DC V, while divalent cuprous cation containing IPMC exhibited the larger tip displacement at an elevated electric potential. A threshold electric driving force appears to be required for cations with large hydration and high volume. IPMCs were also prepared by soaking in various transport media. The solutions were prepared by adding 1 mole of NMP, DMF, DMSO, and PEG 200 in water. The feasibility of D2O was also investigated. Addition of organic polar solvents in water decreases the dielectric constant of medium, which subsequently reduces the dissociation of ion pairs. Among the various solutions the heavy water, D2O and DMSO/water (1 Mole/L) mixture demonstrated unusually stable tendency in terms of electrolysis.

  15. Independent control of the shape and composition of ionic nanocrystals through sequential cation exchange reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Luther, Joseph Matthew; Zheng, Haimei; Sadtler, Bryce; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2009-07-06

    Size- and shape-controlled nanocrystal growth is intensely researched for applications including electro-optic, catalytic, and medical devices. Chemical transformations such as cation exchange overcome the limitation of traditional colloidal synthesis, where the nanocrystal shape often reflects the inherent symmetry of the underlying lattice. Here we show that nanocrystals, with established synthetic protocols for high monodispersity, can be templates for independent composition control. Specifically, controlled interconversion between wurtzite CdS, chalcocite Cu2S, and rock salt PbS occurs while preserving the anisotropic dimensions unique to the as-synthesized materials. Sequential exchange reactions between the three sulfide compositions are driven by the disparate solubilites of the metal ion exchange pair in specific coordinating molecules. Starting with CdS, highly anisotropic PbS nanorods are created, which serve as an important material for studying strong 2-dimensional quantum confinement, as well as for optoelectronic applications. Furthermore, interesting nanoheterostructures of CdS|PbS are obtained by precise control over ion insertion and removal.

  16. A study of acidity on PM 2.5 in Hong Kong using online ionic chemical composition measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Jian; Lau, Alexis K. H.; Yu, Jian Zhen

    2011-12-01

    Particle in-situ pH ( pHIS), defined as pH of the aqueous phase on aerosols, is an important factor in influencing aerosol-phase chemistry and uptake of gaseous species by particles. In this study, a continuous system, Particle-into-Liquid System (PILS) coupled with two ion chromatographs, was used to obtain PM 2.5 ionic chemical composition at a time resolution of 30 min at a suburban site in Hong Kong under three different synoptic conditions. The chemical composition data and meteorological parameters (e.g., temperature, relative humidity (RH)) are input into Aerosol Inorganic Model (AIM-III) for estimation of in-situ pH through calculation of H + amount and aerosol liquid water content (LWC). The particle pHIS ranged from -1.87 to 3.12, with an average at -0.03, indicating the PM 2.5 particles in Hong Kong are highly acidic. Unlike particle strong acidity, which was dominated by sulfate concentration, the amount of aerosol liquid water content could significantly influence in-situ particle acidity. Principal factor analysis has identified the equivalent concentration ratio between cations and anions (i.e., R+/-) and RH to be the two most important factors influencing the particle pHIS. pHIS under different synoptic conditions in this study could be well approximated by a single linear regression equation (slope: 0.95, R2: 0.93), i.e., pHIS = 4.94 R+/- + 3.11 RH - 5.70. Such an empirical equation provides a convenient mean in estimating particle in-situ acidity for assessing the role of acid-catalyzed aerosol reactions.

  17. Ionic conductivity of stabilized zirconia networks in compositeSOFC electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Yamahara, Keiji; Sholklapper, Tal Z.; Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco,Steven J.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2004-03-01

    The effective oxygen conductivities in the zirconia networks of porous LSM-YSZ and LSM-SYSZ composites [i.e. La0.85Sr0.15MnO3(Y2O3)0.08(ZrO2)0.92 and La0.85Sr0.15MnO3(c2O3)0.1(Y2O3)0.01(ZrO2)0.89,respectively] were evaluated by an AC impedance technique using specimens in which LSM was removed by hydrochloric acid leaching. The oxygen conductivities of porous YSZ and SYSZ alone followed a Koh-Fortini relationship. LSM-containing zirconia network conductivities were additionally decreased by the presence of the LSM, presumably by increased grain boundary resistances. Constriction resistances were estimated to have a minor effect.

  18. Ionic composition of rainwater at selected sites of Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Tay, Joo Hui; Jaafar, Syakhsiah; Mohd Tahir, Norhayati

    2014-03-01

    A short-term investigation on the chemical composition of rainwater was carried out at five selected sampling stations in Kuantan district, Pahang, Malaysia. Sampling of rainwater was conducted by event basis between September and November 2011. Rainwater samples were collected using polyethylene containers and the parameters measured were cations (sodium, potassium, ammonium, calcium and magnesium) and anions (chlorides, nitrates and sulphates). The average pH value for rainwater samples was 6.0 ± 0.57 in which most of the sampling sites exhibited pH values >5.6. Calcium and sulphate were the most abundant cation and anion, respectively, whilst the concentrations of other major ions varied according to sampling location. PMID:24435136

  19. Influence of the phase behavior on the properties of ionic nanoemulsions prepared by the phase inversion composition method.

    PubMed

    Maestro, Alicia; Solè, Isabel; González, Carmen; Solans, Conxita; Gutiérrez, José M

    2008-11-15

    The low-energy emulsification method phase inversion composition (PIC) was used to prepare O/W nanoemulsions in the W/oleylammonium chloride-oleylamine-C12E10/hexadecane ionic system, where the oleylammonium acted as a cationic surfactant. The results obtained, in terms of phase diagrams and emulsion characteristics, were compared with those obtained in the system W/potassium oleate-oleic acid-C12E10/hexadecane [I. Solè, A. Maestro, C. González, C. Solans, J.M. Gutiérrez, Langmuir 22 (2006) 8326], in which the oleate acted as an anionic surfactant. This study was done in order to extend the application range of the ionic nanoemulsions, not only in anionic systems but also in cationic ones, and in order to deep further into the nanoemulsion formation mechanism. The results show again that to obtain small droplet-sized nanoemulsions it is necessary to cross a direct cubic liquid crystal phase along the emulsification path, and it is also crucial to remain in this phase enough time and to use a proper mixing rate to incorporate all the oil into the liquid crystal. Then, when nanoemulsion forms, the oil is already intimately mixed with all the components, and the nanoemulsification is easier. Structural studies made with both cationic and anionic systems confirmed that the size of the "micelles" that form the cubic phase is the same or slightly smaller than the size of the nanoemulsion droplets obtained, depending on the emulsification path, which seems to point out that the nanoemulsions are formed in both cases by a dilution process of this cubic phase. When further watery solution is added to the cubic liquid crystal, these micelles separate, disrupting the cubic structure, and a small fraction of the surfactant migrates to the water. Moreover, due to the change in pH, the spontaneous curvature increases. Then, the phases in equilibrium are an oil-in-water microemulsion (W(m)) and the oil in excess. However, through this emulsification method, the surfactants can

  20. Lead titanate/cyclic carbonate dependence on ionic conductivity of ferro/acrylate blend polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayaraman, R.; Vickraman, P.; Subramanian, N. M. V.; Justin, A. Simon

    2016-05-01

    Impedance, XRD, DSC and FTIR studies had been carried out for PVdF-co-HFP/LIBETI based system for three plasticizer (EC/DMC) - filler (PbTiO3) weight ratios. The enhanced conductivity 4.18 × 10-5 Scm-1 was noted for 57.5 wt% -7.5 wt% plasticizer - filler. while blending PEMA to PVdF-co-HFP respectively 7.5: 22.5 wt % (3/7), 15 wt%: 15 wt % (5/5) and 22.5wt %: 7.5 wt % (7/3), the improved conductivity was noted for 3/7 ratio 1.22 × 10-5 S cm-1 and its temperature dependence abide Arrhenius behavior. The intensity of peaks in XRD diffractogram registered dominance of lead titanate, from 2θ = 10° to 80° and absence of VdF crystallites (α+β phase) was noted. In DSC studies, the presence of the exotherm events, filler effect was distinctively seen exhibiting recrystallization of VdF crystallites. In blending PEMA, however, no trace of exotherms was found suggestive of PEMA better inhibiting recrystallization. FTIR study confirmed molecular interactions of various constituents in the vibrational band 500 - 1000 cm-1 both in pristine PVdF-co-HFP and PEMA blended composites with reference to C-F stretching, C-H stretching and C=O carbonyl bands.

  1. Development of an ionic-liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method for the determination of antichagasic drugs in human breast milk: Optimization by central composite design.

    PubMed

    Padró, Juan M; Pellegrino Vidal, Rocío B; Echevarria, Romina N; Califano, Alicia N; Reta, Mario R

    2015-05-01

    Chagas disease constitutes a major public health problem in Latin America. Human breast milk is a biological sample of great importance for the analysis of therapeutic drugs, as unwanted exposure through breast milk could result in pharmacological effects in the nursing infant. Thus, the goal of breast milk drug analysis is to inquire to which extent a neonate may be exposed to a drug during lactation. In this work, we developed an analytical technique to quantify benznidazole and nifurtimox (the two antichagasic drugs currently available for medical treatment) in human breast milk, with a simple sample pretreatment followed by an ionic-liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with high-performance liquid chromatography and UV detection. For this technique, the ionic liquid 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate has been used as the "extraction solvent." A central composite design was used to find the optimum values for the significant variables affecting the extraction process: volume of ionic liquid, volume of dispersant solvent, ionic strength, and pH. At the optimum working conditions, the average recoveries were 77.5 and 89.7%, the limits of detection were 0.06 and 0.09 μg/mL and the interday reproducibilities were 6.25 and 5.77% for benznidazole and nifurtimox, respectively. The proposed methodology can be considered sensitive, simple, robust, accurate, and green. PMID:25711461

  2. Semi-continuous measurement of PM 2.5 ionic composition at several rural locations in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Taehyoung; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Kreidenweis, Sonia M.; Malm, William C.; Collett, Jeffrey L.

    To improve understanding of the nature and variability of the ionic fraction of atmospheric fine aerosol particles in non-urban environments, one to two month measurement campaigns were conducted at several rural locations in the United States. Study sites included Yosemite National Park (NP) (July-September 2002), Bondville, Illinois (February 2003), San Gorgonio Wilderness Area, California (April and July 2003), Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona (May 2003), Brigantine National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), New Jersey (November 2003), and Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee (July/August 2004). PM 2.5 ion composition was measured at 15 min intervals using a Particle-Into-Liquid-Sampler (PILS) coupled to two ion chromatographs. Comparisons of PILS measurements with parallel traditional 24 h denuder/filter-pack measurements reveal generally good agreement between the two techniques for major species, although PILS measurements of PM 2.5 NH 4+ are biased low by approximately 4-20%. High time resolution PILS aerosol concentration measurements provide better estimates of the range of aerosol concentrations at the rural locations than the 24 h integrated filter data. Ratios of peak 15 min to 24 h nitrate concentrations, for example, ranged from 1.7 at Brigantine NWR to 7.0 at Great Smoky Mountains NP. A strong influence of diurnal upslope/downslope transport patterns was observed on aerosol concentrations at several locations, including Yosemite NP, San Gorgonio Wilderness Area, and Great Smoky Mountains NP, with peak concentrations typically occurring during afternoon upslope transport. High time resolution aerosol composition measurements also provide new insight into relationships between individual aerosol species and the influence of environmental conditions on aerosol composition. Observations at several locations revealed important information about mechanisms of particle nitrate formation. At Yosemite and Grand Canyon National Parks, for example, evidence

  3. Ionic conductivity and electrochemical characterization of novel microporous composite polymer electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, W.; Siow, K.S.; Gao, Z.; Lee, S.Y.

    1999-12-01

    Composite polymer electrolytes (CPEs) have been prepared by encapsulating electrolyte solutions of inorganic lithium salts dissolved in a plasticizer or mixture of plasticizers such as ethylene carbonate (EC), propylene carbonate (PC), {gamma}-butyrolactone (BL) and dimethyl carbonate (DMC), into porous polymer membranes. These polymer membranes are obtained from microemulsion polymerization of the microemulsion system of acrylonitrile, 4-vinylbenzenesulfonic acid lithium salt, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (as cross-linker), {omega}-methoxy poly(ethyleneoxy){sub 40} undecyl-{alpha}-methacrylate (as surfactant), and water. These CPEs exhibit conductivities of 3.1 x 10{sup {minus}4} to 1.2 x 10{sup {minus}3} S cm{sup {minus}1} at room temperature. The lithium ion transference number, measured using a dc polarization method coupled with ac impedance spectroscopy, is found to be ca. 0.45. Cyclic voltammetry of the CPEs on stainless steel electrodes shows electrochemical stability windows extending up to 3.9, 4.0, and 4.4 V vs. Li{sup +}/Li for CPEs with 1 M LiSO{sub 3}CF{sub 3}/EC-PC (1:1 by volume), 1 M LiBF{sub 4}/BL and 1 M LiClO{sub 4}/EC-DMC (1:1 by volume), respectively. The impedance of the Li/CPE interface for the CPE with 1 M LiClO{sub 4}/EC-DMC under open circuit conditions is found to increase over storage time. Preliminary charge-discharge tests of prototype Li/CPE/LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cells show an initial discharge capacity of ca. 118 mAh g{sup {minus}1} of LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} at a discharge current rate of 0.10 mA cm{sup {minus}2}, and promising cyclability.

  4. Ionic conductivity and the formation of cubic CaH{sub 2} in the LiBH{sub 4}–Ca(BH{sub 4}){sub 2} composite

    SciTech Connect

    Sveinbjörnsson, Dadi; Blanchard, Didier; Myrdal, Jon Steinar Gardarsson; Younesi, Reza; Viskinde, Rasmus; Riktor, Marit Dalseth; Norby, Poul; Vegge, Tejs

    2014-03-15

    LiBH{sub 4}–Ca(BH{sub 4}){sub 2} composites were prepared by ball milling. Their crystal structures and phase composition were investigated using synchrotron X-ray diffraction and Rietveld refinement, and their ionic conductivity was measured using impedance spectroscopy. The materials were found to form a physical mixture. The composites were composed of α-Ca(BH{sub 4}){sub 2}, γ-Ca(BH{sub 4}){sub 2} and orthorhombic LiBH{sub 4}, and the relative phase quantities of the Ca(BH{sub 4}){sub 2} polymorphs varied significantly with LiBH{sub 4} content. The formation of small amounts of orthorhombic CaH{sub 2} and cubic CaH{sub 2} in a CaF{sub 2}-like structure was observed upon heat treatment. Concurrent formation of elemental boron may also occur. The ionic conductivity of the composites was measured using impedance spectroscopy, and was found to be lower than that of ball milled LiBH{sub 4}. Electronic band structure calculations indicate that cubic CaH{sub 2} with hydrogen defects is electronically conducting. Its formation along with the possible precipitation of boron therefore has an effect on the measured conductivity of the LiBH{sub 4}–Ca(BH{sub 4}){sub 2} composites and may increase the risk of an internal short-circuit in the cells. -- Graphical abstract: An Arrhenius plot of the ionic conductivity of the LiBH{sub 4}–Ca(BH{sub 4}){sub 2} composites (red, blue, green). The ionic conductivity of ball milled (gray) and non-milled (black) LiBH{sub 4} is shown for comparison. The filled symbols are measured during heating runs and the empty symbols are measured during subsequent cooling runs. The conductivity of the composites is in all cases higher during cooling, most probably due to the formation of an electronically conducting layer containing defect-rich cubic CaH{sub 2}. Such layer formation could eventually lead to a short circuit in the cell and reveals a general issue of chemical stability that should be attended to in the development of solid

  5. FIB-etching of polymer/metal laminates and its effect on mechanical performance.

    PubMed

    Faber, Enne; Vellinga, Willem P; De Hosson, Jeff T M

    2014-12-01

    This paper investigates the adhesive interface in a polymer/metal (polyethylene terephthalate/steel) laminate that is subjected to uniaxial strain. Cross-sections perpendicular to such interfaces were created with a focused ion beam and imaged with scanning electron microscopy during straining in the electron microscope. During in situ straining, glide steps formed by the steel caused traction at the interface and initiated crazes in the polyethylene terephthalate (PET). These crazes readily propagated along the free surface of the PET layer. Similar crazing has not been previously encountered in laminates that were pre-strained or in numerical calculations. The impact of focused ion beam treatments on mechanical properties of the polymer/metal laminate system was therefore investigated. It was found that mechanical properties such as toughness of PET are dramatically influenced by focused ion beam etching. It was also found that this change in mechanical properties has a different effect on the pre-strained and in situ strained samples. PMID:25381755

  6. Ionic composition of PM2.5 at urban sites of northern Greece: secondary inorganic aerosol formation.

    PubMed

    Voutsa, D; Samara, C; Manoli, E; Lazarou, D; Tzoumaka, P

    2014-04-01

    This study investigates the water-soluble ionic constituents (Na(+), K(+), NH4 (+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Cl(-), NO3 (-), SO4 (2-)) associated to PM2.5 particle fraction at two urban sites in the city of Thessaloniki, northern Greece, an urban traffic site (UT) and urban background site (UB). Ionic constituents represent a significant fraction of PM2.5 mass (29.6 at UT and 41.5 % at UB). The contribution of marine aerosol was low (<1.5 %). Secondary inorganic aerosols (SIA) represent a significant fraction of PM2.5 mass contributing to 26.9 ± 12.4 % and 39.2 ± 13.2 % at UT and UB sites, respectively. Nitrate and sulfate are fully neutralized by ammonium under the existing conditions. The ionic constituents were evaluated in relation to their spatial and temporal variation, their gaseous precursors, meteorological conditions, local and long-range transport. PMID:24363054

  7. Application of Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometry to the Study of Ionic Clusters: Investigation of Cluster Ions with Stable Sizes and Compositions

    PubMed Central

    Ohshimo, Keijiro; Komukai, Tatsuya; Takahashi, Tohru; Norimasa, Naoya; Wu, Jenna Wen Ju; Moriyama, Ryoichi; Koyasu, Kiichirou; Misaizu, Fuminori

    2014-01-01

    Stable cluster sizes and compositions have been investigated for cations and anions of ionic bond clusters such as alkali halides and transition metal oxides by ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IM-MS). Usually structural information of ions can be obtained from collision cross sections determined in IM-MS. In addition, we have found that stable ion sizes or compositions were predominantly produced in a total ion mass spectrum, which was constructed from the IM-MS measurement. These stable species were produced as a result of collision induced dissociations of the ions in a drift cell. We have confirmed this result in the sodium fluoride cluster ions, in which cuboid magic number cluster ions were predominantly observed. Next the stable compositions, which were obtained for the oxide systems of the first row transition metals, Ti, Fe, and Co, are characteristic for each of the metal oxide cluster ions. PMID:26819887

  8. Nanoindentation of functionally graded hybrid polymer/metal thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, J.; Piedade, A. P.

    2013-11-01

    Hybrid functionally graded coatings (2D-FGC) were deposited by magnetron co-sputtering from poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) and AISI 316L stainless steel (316L) targets. The carbon and fluorine content varied from 7.3 to 23.7 at.% and from 0 to 57 at.%, respectively. The surface modification was developed to change the surface of 316L vascular stents in order to improve the biocompatibility of the outmost layer of the metallic biomaterial. In-depth XPS analysis revealed the presence of a graded chemical composition accompanied by the variation of the film structure. These results were complemented by those of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis that highlighted the nanocomposite nature of the coatings. The nanomechanical characterization of 2D-FGC was performed by nanoindentation at several loads on the thin films deposited onto two different steel substrates: 316L and AISI M2. The study allowed establishing 0.7 mN as the load that characterized the coatings without substrate influence. Both hardness and Young modulus decrease with the increase of fluorine content due to the evolution in chemical composition, chemical bonds and structure.

  9. The influence of collagen support and ionic species on the morphology of collagen/hydroxyapatite composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ficai, Anton; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Voicu, Georgeta; Ghitulica, Cristina; Ficai, Denisa

    2010-04-15

    The purpose of this investigation is to study the influence of collagenous supports and ionic species on the precipitation of hydroxyapatite (HA) from aqueous solutions. To this end, we obtained hydroxyapatite by co-precipitation from a solution of calcium hydroxide and sodium dihydrogenophosphate. The formation of HA was studied by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results of this study indicate that the morphology of hydroxyapatite is highly influenced by the support material and the ionic species present. The obtained materials were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  10. Design of an electrolyte composition for stable and rapid charging-discharging of a graphite negative electrode in a bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide-based ionic liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, Yukiko; Yamagata, Masaki; Murakami, Satoshi; Saito, Yasuteru; Higashizaki, Tetsuya; Ishiko, Eriko; Kono, Michiyuki; Ishikawa, Masashi

    2015-04-01

    We evaluate the effects of lithium salt on the charge-discharge performance of a graphite negative electrode in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (EMImFSI) ionic liquid-based electrolytes. Although the graphite negative electrode exhibits good cyclability and rate capability in both 0.43 mol dm-3 LiFSI/EMImFSI and LiTFSI/EMImFSI (TFSI- = bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide) at room temperature, only the LiFSI/EMImFSI system enables the graphite electrode to be operated with sufficient discharge capacity at the low temperature of 0 °C, even though there is no noticeable difference in ionic conductivity, compared with LiTFSI/EMImFSI. Furthermore, a clear difference in the low-temperature behaviors of the two cells composed of EMImFSI with a high-concentration of lithium salts is observed. Additionally, charge-discharge operation of the graphite electrode at C-rate of over 5.0 can be achieved using of the high-concentration LiFSI/EMImFSI electrolyte. Considering the low-temperature characteristics in both high-concentration electrolytes, the stable and rapid charge-discharge operation in the high-concentration LiFSI/EMImFSI is presumably attributed to a suitable electrode/electrolyte interface with low resistivity. These results suggest that optimization of the electrolyte composition can realize safe and high-performance lithium-ion batteries that utilize ionic liquid-based electrolytes.

  11. Determination of nickel in food samples by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy after preconcentration and microextraction based ionic liquids using full factorial and central composite design.

    PubMed

    Zarei, Zohre; Shemirani, Farzaneh

    2012-12-01

    In this research, a microextraction technique based on ionic liquids (ILs) termed in situ solvent formation microextraction (ISFME) was used for determination of nickel in solutions. 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphtol (PAN) was chosen as a complexing agent. After preconcentration, the settled IL-phase was dissolved in 50 μL of ethanol and aspirated into the flame atomic absorption spectrometer (FAAS) using a home-made microsample introduction system. Injection of 50 μL volumes of analyte into an air-acetylene flame provided very sensitive spike-like and reproducible signals. ISFME is based on phase separation phenomenon of ionic liquids in aqueous solutions. This method is simple and rapid for extraction and preconcentration of metal ions from food samples and can be applied for the sample solutions containing very high concentrations of salt. Furthermore, this technique is much safer in comparison with the organic solvent extraction because of using ionic liquid. The effective parameters such as amount of IL, salt effect, concentration of the chelating agent and ion pairing agent were inspected by a full factorial design to identify important parameters and their interactions. Next, a central composite design was applied to obtain optimum point of the important parameters. Under the optimum conditions, the calibration graph was linear over the range of 2 to 80 ng/mL. The limit of detection and relative standard deviation (n= 6) were 0.6 ng/mL and 2%, respectively. PMID:22853633

  12. Effects of glycine and current density on the mechanism of electrodeposition, composition and properties of Ni-Mn films prepared in ionic liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jiacheng; Guo, Xingwu; Wang, Shaohua; Zhang, Zhicheng; Dong, Jie; Peng, Liming; Ding, Wenjiang

    2016-03-01

    The effects of glycine on the mechanism of electrodeposition of Ni-Mn alloy film prepared in ChCl-urea ionic liquid were studied in order to control the composition, microstructure and properties of the film. The cyclic voltammograms revealed that the presence of glycine in the ionic liquid can inhibit the reduction of Ni2+ ions but promote the reduction of Mn2+ ions in the cathodic scan. However, it promoted the dissolution of both Ni and Mn deposits in the ChCl-urea ionic liquids during the reverse scan. Glycine changed the mode of Ni-Mn film growth from Volmer-Weber mode into Stranski-Krastanov mode. The Mn content in the Ni-Mn film increased with the increase of concentration of glycine and current density. The Ni-Mn alloy film with 3.1 at.% Mn exhibited the lowest corrosion current density of 3 × 10-7 A/cm2 compared with other films prepared and exhibited better corrosion resistance than pure Ni film in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution.

  13. Vacuum deposited polymer/metal films for optical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Affinito, J.D.; Martin, P.M.; Gross, M.E.; Coronado, C.; Greenwell, E.

    1995-04-01

    Vacuum deposited Polymer/Silver/Polymer reflectors and Tantalum/Polymer/Aluminum Fabry-Perot interference filters were fabricated in a vacuun web coating operation on polyester substrates with a new, high speed deposition process. Reflectivities were measured in the wavelength range from 0.3 to 0.8{mu}m. This new vacuum processing technique has been shown to be capable of deposition line speeds in excess of 500 linear meters/minute. Central to this technique is a new position process for the high rate deposition of polymer films. This polymer process involves the flash evaporation of an acrylic monomer onto a moving substrate. The monomer is subsequently cured by an electron beam or ultraviolet light. This high speed polymer film deposition process has been named the PML process -- for Polymer Multi-Layer. Also, vacuum deposited, index matched, polymer/CaF{sub 2} composites were fabricated from monomer slurries that were subsequently cured with LTV light. This second technique is called the Liquid Multi-Layer (or LML) process. Each of these polymer processes is compatible with each other and with conventional vacuum deposition processes such as sputtering or evaporation.

  14. Selective sensing of volatile organic compounds using novel conducting polymer-metal nanoparticle hybrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaddiraju, Sreeram; Gleason, Karen K.

    2010-03-01

    Conducting polymer-metal nanoparticle hybrids, fabricated by assembling metal nanoparticles on top of functionalized conducting polymer film surfaces using conjugated linker molecules, enable the selective sensing of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In these conducting polymer-metal nanoparticle hybrids, selectivity is achieved by assembling different metals on the same conducting polymer film. This eliminates the need to develop either different polymers chemistries or device configurations for each specific analyte. In the hybrids, chemisorption of the analyte vapor induces charge redistribution in the metal nanoparticles and changes their work function. The conjugated linker molecule causes this change in the work function of the tethered nanoparticles to affect the electronic states in the underlying conducting polymer film. The result is an easily measurable change in the resistance of the hybrid structure. The fabrication of these sensing elements involved the covalent assembly of nickel (Ni) and palladium (Pd) metal nanoparticles on top of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene-co-thiophene-3-acetic acid), poly(EDOT-co-TAA), films using 4-aminothiophenol linker molecules. The change in resistance of hybrid Pd/poly(EDOT-co-TAA) and Ni/poly(EDOT-co-TAA) hybrid films to acetone and toluene, respectively, is observed to be in proportion to their concentrations. The projected detection limits are 2 and 10 ppm for toluene and acetone, respectively. A negligible response (resistance change) of the Pd/poly(EDOT-co-TAA) films to toluene exposure confirmed its selectivity for detecting acetone. Similarly, lack of response to acetone confirmed the selectivity of the Ni/poly(EDOT-co-TAA) stacks for detecting toluene. It is anticipated that the assembly of other metals such as Ag, Au and Cu on top of poly(EDOT-co-TAA) would provide selectivity for detecting and discriminating other VOCs.

  15. Ionic Blocks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevcik, Richard S.; Gamble, Rex; Martinez, Elizabet; Schultz, Linda D.; Alexander, Susan V.

    2008-01-01

    "Ionic Blocks" is a teaching tool designed to help middle school students visualize the concepts of ions, ionic compounds, and stoichiometry. It can also assist high school students in reviewing their subject mastery. Three dimensional blocks are used to represent cations and anions, with color indicating charge (positive or negative) and size…

  16. Ionic strength and composition govern the elasticity of biological membranes. A study of model DMPC bilayers by force- and transmission IR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Šegota, Suzana; Vojta, Danijela; Pletikapić, Galja; Baranović, Goran

    2015-02-01

    Infrared (IR) spectroscopy was used to quantify the ion mixture effect of seawater (SW), particularly the contribution of Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) as dominant divalent cations, on the thermotropic phase behaviour of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-posphocholine (DMPC) bilayers. The changed character of the main transition at 24 °C from sharp to gradual in films and the 1 °C shift of the main transition temperature in dispersions reflect the interactions of lipid headgroups with the ions in SW. Force spectroscopy was used to quantify the nanomechanical hardness of a DMPC supported lipid bilayer (SLB). Considering the electrostatic and ion binding equilibrium contributions while systematically probing the SLB in various salt solutions, we showed that ionic strength had a decisive influence on its nanomechanics. The mechanical hardness of DMPC SLBs in the liquid crystalline phase linearly increases with the increasing fraction of all ion-bound lipids in a series of monovalent salt solutions. It also linearly increases in the gel phase but almost three times faster (the corresponding slopes are 4.9 nN/100 mM and 13.32 nN/100 mM, respectively). We also showed that in the presence of divalent ions (Ca(2+) and Mg(2+)) the bilayer mechanical hardness was unproportionally increased, and that was accompanied with the decrease of Na(+) ion and increase of Cl(-) ion bound lipids. The underlying process is a cooperative and competitive ion binding in both the gel and the liquid crystalline phase. Bilayer hardness thus turned out to be very sensitive to ionic strength as well as to ionic composition of the surrounding medium. In particular, the indicated correlation helped us to emphasize the colligative properties of SW as a naturally occurring complex ion mixture. PMID:25447291

  17. A novel polythiophene - ionic liquid modified clay composite solid phase microextraction fiber: Preparation, characterization and application to pesticide analysis.

    PubMed

    Pelit, Füsun Okçu; Pelit, Levent; Dizdaş, Tuğberk Nail; Aftafa, Can; Ertaş, Hasan; Yalçınkaya, E E; Türkmen, Hayati; Ertaş, F N

    2015-02-15

    This report comprises the novel usage of polythiophene - ionic liquid modified clay surfaces for solid phase microextraction (SPME) fiber production to improve the analysis of pesticides in fruit juice samples. Montmorillonite (Mmt) clay intercalated with ionic liquids (IL) was co-deposited with polythiophene (PTh) polymer coated electrochemically on an SPME fiber. The surface of the fibers were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Operational parameters effecting the extraction efficiency namely; the sample volume and pH, adsorption temperature and time, desorption temperature and time, stirring rate and salt amount were optimized. In order to reveal the major effects, these eight factors were selected and Plackett-Burman Design was constructed. The significant parameters detected; adsorption and temperature along with the stirring rate, were further investigated by Box-Behnken design. Under optimized conditions, calibration graphs were plotted and detection limits were calculated in the range of 0.002-0.667ng mL(-1). Relative standard deviations were no higher than 18%. Overall results have indicated that this novel PTh-IL-Mmt SPME surface developed by the aid of electrochemical deposition could offer a selective and sensitive head space analysis for the selected pesticide residues. PMID:25622604

  18. A spectroscopic and computational study of Al(III) complexes in sodium cryolite melts: Ionic composition in a wide range of cryolite ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazmutdinov, Renat R.; Zinkicheva, Tamara T.; Vassiliev, Sergey Yu.; Glukhov, Dmitri V.; Tsirlina, Galina A.; Probst, Michael

    2010-04-01

    The structure of sodium cryolite melts was studied using Raman spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations performed at the density functional theory level. The existence of bridged forms in the melts was argued first from the analysis of experimental Raman spectra. In the quantum chemical modelling emphasis was put on the construction of potential energy surfaces describing the formation/dissociation of certain complex species. Effects of the ionic environment were found to play a crucial role in the energetics of model processes. The structure of the simplest possible polymeric forms involving two Al centres linked through F atoms ("dimers") was thoroughly investigated. The calculated equilibrium constants and model Raman spectra yield additional evidence in favour of the dimers. This agrees with a self-consistent analysis of a series of Raman spectra for a wide range of the melt composition.

  19. A spectroscopic and computational study of Al(III) complexes in sodium cryolite melts: ionic composition in a wide range of cryolite ratios.

    PubMed

    Nazmutdinov, Renat R; Zinkicheva, Tamara T; Vassiliev, Sergey Yu; Glukhov, Dmitri V; Tsirlina, Galina A; Probst, Michael

    2010-04-01

    The structure of sodium cryolite melts was studied using Raman spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations performed at the density functional theory level. The existence of bridged forms in the melts was argued first from the analysis of experimental Raman spectra. In the quantum chemical modelling emphasis was put on the construction of potential energy surfaces describing the formation/dissociation of certain complex species. Effects of the ionic environment were found to play a crucial role in the energetics of model processes. The structure of the simplest possible polymeric forms involving two Al centres linked through F atoms ("dimers") was thoroughly investigated. The calculated equilibrium constants and model Raman spectra yield additional evidence in favour of the dimers. This agrees with a self-consistent analysis of a series of Raman spectra for a wide range of the melt composition. PMID:20149721

  20. Electrochemical detection of arsenic(III) completely free from noble metal: Fe3O4 microspheres-room temperature ionic liquid composite showing better performance than gold.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chao; Yu, Xin-Yao; Xiong, Shi-Quan; Liu, Jin-Huai; Huang, Xing-Jiu

    2013-03-01

    In recent decades, electrochemical detection of arsenic(III) has been undergoing revolutionary developments with higher sensitivity and lower detection limit. Despite great success, electrochemical detection of As(III) still depends heavily on noble metals (predominantly Au) in a strong acid condition, thus increasing the cost and hampering the widespread application. Here, we report a disposable platform completely free from noble metals for electrochemical detection of As(III) in drinking water under nearly neutral condition by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry. By combining the high adsorptivity of Fe3O4 microspheres toward As(III) and the advantages of room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL), the Fe3O4-RTIL composite modified screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) showed even better electrochemical performance than commonly used noble metals. Several ionic liquids with different viscosities and surface tensions were found to have a different effect on the voltammetric behavior toward As(III). Under the optimized conditions, the Fe3O4-RTIL composites offered direct detection of As(III) within the desirable range (10 ppb) in drinking water as specified by the World Health Organization (WHO), with a detection limit (3σ method) of 8 × 10(-4) ppb. The obtained sensitivity was 4.91 μA ppb(-1), which is the highest as far as we know. In addition, a possible mechanism for As(III) preconcentration based on adsorption has been proposed and supported by designed experiments. Finally, this platform was successfully applied to analyzing a real sample collected from Inner Mongolia, China. PMID:23374085

  1. Change of electrostatic potential of mean force between two curved surfaces due to different salt composition, ion valence and size under certain ionic strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Shiqi

    2016-02-01

    Change of an electrostatic potential of mean force (EPMF) between two cylindrical rod surfaces with salt composition, ion valence, and ion size at a constant ionic strength of 0.3 M is studied by a classical density functional theory (CDFT) in a primitive model electrolyte solution. Several novel observations are made: (i) strength of a so-called like charge attraction (LCA) reduces in an invariable manner with the salt solution changing from single 2:1 electrolyte to mixture of 2:1 and 1:1 type electrolytes of varying concentration ratios; the change is even over entire range of the composition variation under low surface charge strength, and tends to be insensitive to the composition variation in the presence of the divalent counter-ion, and more and more drastic at a critical point the divalent counter-ion disappears, respectively, as the surface charge strength becomes big enough. (ii) Both monovalent counter-ion and co-ion diameters have only a marginal effect on both the LCA strength and equilibrium distance, and the former "abnormally" affects less than the latter. (iii) Depending on the surface charge strength considered, the divalent counter-ion diameter influences the LCA strength in solution comprised of 2:1 type and 1:1 type electrolytes, monotonously or non-monotonously. All of these findings provide forceful support for a recently proposed hydrogen-bonding style mechanism explaining the LCA.

  2. Enhancement of ionic conductivity of composite membranes for all-solid-state lithium rechargeable batteries incorporating tetragonal Li7La3Zr2O12 into a polyethylene oxide matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jeong-Hee; Lee, Chul-Ho; Yu, Ji-Hyun; Doh, Chil-Hoon; Lee, Sang-Min

    2015-01-01

    The lithium ion conductivities of as-prepared composite membranes consisting of a polyethylene oxide (PEO) matrix with various contents of tetragonal Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) were evaluated, and the optimum composition (52.5% LLZO) was determined by performing AC impedance measurements. The ionic conductivities of the composite membranes pass through a maximum as the LLZO content varies. Therefore, the hybridization of the organic and inorganic components of these membranes results in synergetic effects on their lithium ionic conductivity. In addition, tests of Li/composite membrane/LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 half-cells found that their charge/discharge properties are better than those of a PEO-only membrane and a membrane containing 52.5% Al2O3 instead of LLZO.

  3. Ionic Liquid-Derived Imidazolium Cation Linkers for the Layer-by-Layer Assembly of Polyoxometalate-MWCNT Composite Electrodes with High Power Capability.

    PubMed

    Genovese, Matthew; Lian, Keryn

    2016-07-27

    Imidazolium cations derived from ionic liquids were demonstrated as effective linker molecules for the layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition of polyoxometalates (POMs) to increase the charge storage of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) electrodes. MWCNTs modified with GeMo12O40(4-) (GeMo12) via an imidazolium cation linker demonstrated highly reversible redox reactions and a capacitance of 84 F cm(-3), close to 4 times larger than bare CNT. Compared to CNT-GeMo12 composites fabricated with a conventional polyelectrolyte linker poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride), (PDDA), the imidazolium cations resulted in lower POM loading, but higher conductivity and in turn superior performance at fast charge-discharge conditions. A polymerized imidazolium linker (PIL) was also synthesized based on the ethyl-vinyl-imidazolium monomer. CNT-GeMo12 composites fabricated with this PIL achieved high POM loading comparable to PDDA, while still maintaining the good conductivity and high rate capabilities shown by the monomer imidazolium units. The high conductivity imparted by the PIL is especially valuable for the fabrication of multilayer POM composites. Dual-layer GeMo12 O40(4-)-SiMo12O40(4-) (GeMo12-SiMo12) electrodes built with this PIL demonstrated a combined contribution of the individual POMs resulting in a capacitance of 191 F cm(-3), over nine times larger than bare MWCNT. The PIL dual layer composites also maintained 72% of this capacitance at a fast rate of 2 V s(-1), compared to just over 50% retention for similar electrodes fabricated with PDDA. PMID:27384442

  4. Immunosensor based on electrodeposition of gold-nanoparticles and ionic liquid composite for detection of Salmonella pullorum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Dou, Wenchao; Zhao, Guangying; Chen, Yan

    2014-11-01

    In order to increase the reproducibility and stability of electrochemical immunosensor, which is a key issue for its application and popularization, an accurate and stable immunosensor for rapid detection of Salmonella pullorum (S. pullorum) was proposed in this study. The immunosensor was fabricated by modifying Screen-printed Carbon Electrode (SPCE) with electrodeposited gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), HRP-labeled anti-S. pullorum and ionic liquids (ILs) (AuNP/HRP/IL). AuNPs are electrodeposited on the working electrode surface to increase the amount of antibodies that bind to the electrode and then modified with ILs to protect the antibodies from being inactivated in the test environment and maintain their biological activity and the stability of the detection electrode. The electrochemical characteristics of the stepwise modified electrodes and the detection of S. pullorum were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). As shown in the results of the experiments, AuNPs with unique electrochemical properties as well as biocompatibility characteristics have been proven to be able to strengthen the antibody combination effectively and to increase the electrochemical response signal. In addition, a crucial assessment regarding implementation of stability and reproducibility analysis of a range of immunosensors is provided. We found that application of AuNPs/ILs in the immune modified electrodes showed obvious improvement when compared with other groups. Given their high levels of reproducibility, stability, target specificity and sensitivity, AuNPs and ILs were considered to be excellent elements for electrode modification. PMID:25193438

  5. The ionic transport mechanism and coupling between the ion conduction and segmental relaxation processes of PEO20-LiCF3SO3 based ion conducting polymer clay composites.

    PubMed

    Dam, Tapabrata; Jena, Sidhartha S; Pradhan, Dillip K

    2016-07-20

    A series of ion conducting polymer-clay composites has been prepared using a solution casting technique. Relaxation dynamics and the ionic transport mechanism are systematically studied employing broadband dielectric spectroscopy over a wide frequency and temperature range. Among different phenomenological and theoretical models for ion conduction in disordered ionic conductors, conductivity isotherm spectra are analysed using the modified Almond-West and random free energy barrier model. Conductivity scaling suggests that the ionic transport mechanism is independent of temperature, and a similar inference is also obtained using scaled electrical modulus spectra. DC conductivity along with conductivity and segmental relaxation time following the Vogel-Tammann-Fulcher relationship suggests coupling between the ionic transport and segmental relaxation processes. Electrical modulus and dielectric formalism are used to understand the conductivity and segmental relaxation processes, respectively. The presence of first and second universality in the ionic transport mechanism is discussed using the real part of conductivity spectra and dielectric loss spectra. The crossover between the first and second universality is explained using the Kramer-Krönig approach. The ion diffusion coefficient is investigated using Ratner's classical approach in combination with the modified Stokes-Einstein relationship to correlate the coupled nature of the ion conduction mechanism and polymer segmental motion. PMID:27399598

  6. A novel silica nanotube reinforced ionic incorporated hydroxyapatite composite coating on polypyrrole coated 316L SS for implant application.

    PubMed

    Prem Ananth, K; Joseph Nathanael, A; Jose, Sujin P; Oh, Tae Hwan; Mangalaraj, D

    2016-02-01

    An attempt has been made to deposit a novel smart ion (Sr, Zn, Mg) substituted hydroxyapatite (I-HAp) and silica nanotube (SiNTs) composite coatings on polypyrrole (PPy) coated surgical grade 316L stainless steel (316L SS) to improve its biocompatibility and corrosion resistance. The I-HAp/SiNTS/PPy bilayer coating on 316L SS was prepared by electrophoretic deposition technique. Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) studies were carried out. These results confirmed the significant improvement of the corrosion resistance of the 316L SS alloy by the I-HAp/SiNTs/PPy bilayer composite coating. The adhesion strength and hardness test confirmed the anticipated mechanical properties of the composite. A low contact angle value revealed the hydrophilic nature. Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) was used for the leach out analysis of the samples. Added to this, the bioactivity of the composite was analyzed by observing the apatite formation in the SBF solution for 7, 14, 21 and 28days of incubation. An enhancement of in vitro osteoblast attachment and cell viability was observed, which could lead to the optimistic orthopedic and dental applications. PMID:26652470

  7. Ionic arrest of segmental motion and emergence of spatio-temporal heterogeneity: A fluorescence investigation of (polyethylene glycol + electrolyte) composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guchhait, Biswajit; Biswas, Ranjit

    2013-03-01

    Temperature dependent steady state and time resolved fluorescence measurements have been performed to explore the interaction and dynamics in polymer-electrolyte composite of the following general formula: [0.85 PEG + 0.15{f KNO3+ (1-f) LiNO3}], with f denoting fraction of potassium ion in the 0.15 mol electrolyte present in the medium. Poly(ethylene glycol) with number-averaged molecular weight of 300 (PEG300) has been employed as polymer and C153 as the fluorescent probe. Substantial excitation wavelength dependence of probe fluorescence emission in presence of electrolyte suggests presence of spatial heterogeneity which vanishes either upon raising temperature or removing the electrolyte. This has been interpreted as arising from the cation-induced arrest of polymer segmental motion. Temporal heterogeneity in these composites is manifested via fractional viscosity dependence of average solvation and rotation rates of the dissolved probe. Viscosity decoupling of these rates in composites is found to depend on cation identity and is also reflected via the corresponding activation energies. The degree of decoupling differs between solvation and rotation, inducing an analogy to the observations made in deeply supercooled liquids. In addition, conformity to hydrodynamic predictions is recovered by measuring f dependent solute rotation at higher temperatures. Several complimentary but different experiments are suggested to re-examine the mechanism proposed here, based on the fluorescence results, for the emergence of spatio-temporal heterogeneity in these composites and its disappearance either in the absence of any electrolyte or at higher temperatures.

  8. Preparation and characterization of water-soluble carbon nanotube reinforced Nafion membranes and so-based ionic polymer metal composite actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ru, Jie; Wang, Yanjie; Chang, Longfei; Chen, Hualing; Li, Dichen

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we developed a new kind of ionic polymer metal composite (IPMC) actuator by doping water-soluble sulfonated multi-walled carbon nanotube (sMWCNT) into Nafion matrix to overcome some major drawbacks of traditional IPMCs, such as relatively low bending deformation and carring capacity at low driving voltages. Firstly, sMWCNT was synthesized via diazotization coupling reaction, and then doped into Nafion matrix by casting method. Subsequently, the electrochemical and electromechanical properties of sMWCNT-reinforced Nafion membranes and the corresponding IPMCs were investigated. Finally, the effects of sMWCNT on the performances of IPMCs were evaluated and analyzed systematacially. The results showed that sMWCNT was homogeneously dispersed in Nafion matrix without any entangled structure or obvious agglomeration. The main factors for superior actuation performances, like water-uptake ratio, proton conductivity and elastic modulus, increased significantly. Compared to the pure Nafion IPMC and MWCNT/Nafion IPMC, much superior electrochemical and electromechanical performances were achieved in the sMWCNT/Nafion IPMC, which were attributed to the numerous insertion sites, high surface conductivity and excellent mechanical strength as well as the homogeneous dispersity of the incorporated sMWCNT. Herein, a trace amount of sMWCNT can improve the performances of IPMCs significantly for realistic applications.

  9. Investigation on the Mechanical and Electrical Behavior of a Tuning Fork-Shaped Ionic Polymer Metal Composite Actuator with a Continuous Water Supply Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Guo-Hua; Huang, Wei-Lun

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an innovative tuning fork-shaped ionic polymer metal composite (IPMC) actuator. With an integrated soft strain gauge and water supply mechanism (WSM), the surface strain of the actuator can be sensed in situ, and providing a continuous water supply maintains the water content inside the IPMC for long-term operation in air. The actuator was fabricated using a micromachining technique and plated with a nickel electrode. The device performance was experimentally characterized and compared with an actuator without a WSM. A large displacement of 1.5 mm was achieved for a 6 mm-long prong with 7-V dc actuation applied for 30 s. The measured current was analyzed using an electrochemical model. The results revealed that the faradaic current plays a crucial role during operation, particularly after 10 s. The measured strain confirms both the bending and axial strain generation during the open-and-close motion of the actuator prongs. Most of the water loss during device operation was due to evaporation rather than hydrolysis. The constructed WSM effectively maintained the water content inside the IPMC for long-term continuous operation. PMID:27023549

  10. Investigation on the Mechanical and Electrical Behavior of a Tuning Fork-Shaped Ionic Polymer Metal Composite Actuator with a Continuous Water Supply Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Feng, Guo-Hua; Huang, Wei-Lun

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an innovative tuning fork-shaped ionic polymer metal composite (IPMC) actuator. With an integrated soft strain gauge and water supply mechanism (WSM), the surface strain of the actuator can be sensed in situ, and providing a continuous water supply maintains the water content inside the IPMC for long-term operation in air. The actuator was fabricated using a micromachining technique and plated with a nickel electrode. The device performance was experimentally characterized and compared with an actuator without a WSM. A large displacement of 1.5 mm was achieved for a 6 mm-long prong with 7-V dc actuation applied for 30 s. The measured current was analyzed using an electrochemical model. The results revealed that the faradaic current plays a crucial role during operation, particularly after 10 s. The measured strain confirms both the bending and axial strain generation during the open-and-close motion of the actuator prongs. Most of the water loss during device operation was due to evaporation rather than hydrolysis. The constructed WSM effectively maintained the water content inside the IPMC for long-term continuous operation. PMID:27023549

  11. Sustainable Process for the Preparation of High-Performance Thin-Film Composite Membranes using Ionic Liquids as the Reaction Medium.

    PubMed

    Mariën, Hanne; Bellings, Lotte; Hermans, Sanne; Vankelecom, Ivo F J

    2016-05-23

    A new form of interfacial polymerization to synthesize thin-film composite membranes realizes a more sustainable membrane preparation and improved nanofiltration performance. By introducing an ionic liquid (IL) as the organic reaction phase, the extremely different physicochemical properties to those of commonly used organic solvents influenced the top-layer formation in several beneficial ways. In addition to the elimination of hazardous solvents in the preparation, the m-phenylenediamine (MPD) concentration could be reduced 20-fold, and the use of surfactants and catalysts became redundant. Together with the more complete recycling of the organic phase in the water/IL system, these factors resulted in a 50 % decrease in the mass intensity of the top-layer formation. Moreover, a much thinner top layer with a high ethanol permeance of 0.61 L m(-2)  h(-1)  bar(-1) [99 % Rose Bengal (RB, 1017 Da) retention; 1 bar=0.1 MPa] was formed without the use of any additives. This EtOH permeance is 555 and 161 % higher than that for the conventional interfacial polymerization (without and with additives, respectively). In reverse osmosis, high NaCl retentions of 97 % could be obtained. Finally, the remarkable decrease in the membrane surface roughness indicates the potential for reduced fouling with this new type of membrane. PMID:27116588

  12. Enzyme biosensor for androsterone based on 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase immobilized onto a carbon nanotubes/ionic liquid/NAD+ composite electrode.

    PubMed

    Mundaca, R A; Moreno-Guzmán, M; Eguílaz, M; Yáñez-Sedeño, P; Pingarrón, J M

    2012-09-15

    A 3α-hydrosteroid biosensor for androsterone determination has been prepared by immobilizing the enzyme 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3α-HSD) in a composite electrode platform constituted of a mixture of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), octylpyridinium hexafluorophosphate (OPPF(6)) ionic liquid and NAD(+) cofactor. This configuration allowed the fast, sensitive and stable electrochemical detection of the NADH generated in the enzyme reaction. All the experimental variables involved in the preparation and performance of the enzyme biosensor were optimized. Amperometry in stirred solutions at +400 mV provided a linear calibration plot for androsterone in the 0.5-10 μM concentration range with a slope value more than 200-times higher than that previously reported. The detection limit achieved was 0.15 μM and a low value of the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (K(app)(M)), 36.0 μM, similar to that reported for the enzyme in solution, was calculated. The 3α-HSD/MWCNTs/OPPF(6)/NAD(+) biosensor provided good results in the determination of androsterone in spiked human serum samples. PMID:22967613

  13. Fabrication and characteristics of a multilayered ionic polymer metal composite based on Nafion/tetraethyl orthosilicate and Nafion/MCNT nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    He, Qing-Song; Yu, Min; Ding, Yan; Dai, Zhen-Dong

    2014-10-01

    Nafion/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (Nafion/MCNT) and Nafion/tetraethyl orthosilicate (Nafion/TEOS) nanocomposites were prepared and used as starting materials in the fabrication of an ionic polymer metal composite (IPMC). Experimental data show that the Nafion/MCNT-based IPMC exhibited a blocking force that is two times higher than that of bare Nafion-based IPMC. This higher blocking force is due to the stable homogeneous dispersions of multiwalled carbon nanotubes as well as to their improved conductivity. Meanwhile, the Nafion/TEOS-based IPMC generated a blocking force that is more than two times higher than that of bare Nafion-based IPMC because of the induced channels and increased water content. In this paper, a novel Nafion membrane containing a primary Nafion/TEOS layer sandwiched between two outer Nafion/MCNT nanocomposite layers was prepared by consecutive casting of liquid solutions. By using the multilayered Nafion membrane, IPMC was carefully fabricated by electroless plating. In addition, the blocking force, displacement, and electric current of the IPMC were measured on the test apparatus. The multilayered IPMC exhibited a significantly improved blocking force of 6.5 gf as well as a long effective air-operating life time. Finally, this multilayered IPMC was successfully used to actuate the robotic fish. PMID:25942807

  14. Ionic Liquid and Silica Sol-Gel Composite Materials Doped with N,N,N ',N '-tetra(n-octyl)diglycolamide for Extraction of La3+ and Ba2+

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Jason R; Dai, Sheng; Yu, Bo; Luo, Huimin

    2012-01-01

    Sol-gel processed silica materials which incorporated ionic liquids and tetraoctyldiglycolamide (TODGA) were prepared and used for extraction of La3+ and Ba2+ from aqueous solution. Imidazolium-based ionic liquids, 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide ([Cnmim][NTf2]) were entrapped in the monolithic composite sorbents. Extraction efficiency was found to be dependent upon both the volume of IL used in the silica matrix, and the alkyl chain length of the IL cation. The silica composite sorbent containing [C8mim][NTf2] exhibited the best extraction efficiency for La3+ and the best separation factor for La3+ / Ba 2+. The results were analyzed by both Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models, and the Freundlich model was found to give better fit.

  15. In vitro detection of superoxide anions released from cancer cells based on potassium-doped carbon nanotubes-ionic liquid composite gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao-Rong; Wang, Bo; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2011-12-01

    A newly developed electrochemical biosensor for the determination of superoxide anions (O2&z.rad;-) released from cancer cells using potassium-doped multi-walled carbon nanotubes (KMWNTs)-1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([BMIM]PF6) ionic liquid composite gels is demonstrated. The KMWNTs-[BMIM]PF6 can electrocatalyze oxygen reduction to generate a strong current signal in neutral solution. Compared with KMWNTs without [BMIM]PF6 or MWNTs-[BMIM]PF6 composites, the KMWNTs-[BMIM]PF6 can enhance the oxygen reduction peak current by 6.2-fold and 2.8-fold, which greatly increases the detection sensitivity of oxygen. Then, O2&z.rad;- biosensors are fabricated by mixing superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the KMWNTs-[BMIM]PF6 gels via monitoring oxygen produced by an enzymic reaction between SOD/O2&z.rad;- without the help of electron mediators. The resulting biosensors show a linear range from 0.04 to 38 μM with a high sensitivity of 98.2 μA mM-1, and a lower detection limit of 0.024 μM. The common interferents such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), ascorbic acid (AA), uric acid (UA), and metabolites of neurotransmitters, do not interfere with the detection of O2&z.rad;-. The proposed biosensor is tested to determine O2&z.rad;-in vitro and from liver cancer and leukemia cells and shows good application potential in biological electrochemistry.

  16. Ionic conductivity in gem-quality single-crystal alkali feldspar from the Eifel: temperature, orientation and composition dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Maanaoui, Hamid; Wilangowski, Fabian; Maheshwari, Aditya; Wiemhöfer, Hans-Dieter; Abart, Rainer; Stolwijk, Nicolaas A.

    2016-05-01

    We measured the ion conductivity of single-crystal alkali feldspar originating from two different locations in the Eifel/Germany, named Volkesfeld and Rockeskyller sanidine and having potassium site fractions C_K of 0.83 and 0.71, respectively. The dc conductivities resulting from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy over the temperature range of 300-900°C show a weak composition dependence but pronounced differences between the b-direction [perp (010)] and c^{*}-direction [perp (001)] of the monoclinic feldspar structure. Conductivity activation energies obtained from the observed linear Arrhenius plots are close to 1.2 eV in all cases, which is closely similar to the activation energies of the ^{22}Na tracer diffusivity in the same crystals. Taking into account literature data on K tracer diffusion and diffusion correlation effects, the present results point to a predominance of the interstitialcy mechanism over the vacancy mechanism in mass and charge transport on the alkali sublattice in potassium-rich alkali feldspar.

  17. Effects of TiO2 addition on ionic conductivity of PVC/PEMA blend based composite polymer electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subban, R. H. Y.; Sukri, Nursyazwani

    2015-08-01

    PVC/PEMA blend based polymer electrolytes with lithium bistrifluoromethane sulfonimide (LiN(CF3SO2)2) and PVC/PEMA/(LiN(CF3SO2)2-TiO2 films were prepared by solution cast technique. The sample containing 35 wt. % LiN(CF3SO2)2 exhibited the highest conductivity of 1.75 × 10-5 Scm-1. The conductivity of the sample increased to 2.12 × 10-5 Scm-1 and 4.61 × 10-5 Scm-1 when 4 wt. % and 10 wt. % of titanium dioxide (TiO2) was added to the sample at 65 wt. % PVC/PEMA-35 wt. % LiN(CF3SO2)2 composition respectively. The low increase in conductivity is attributed to two competing factors: increase in crystallinity as accounted by X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and decrease in glass transition temperature as accounted by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).

  18. Modeling of an ionic polymer metal composite actuator based on an extended Kalman filter trained neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quang Truong, Dinh; Ahn, Kyoung Kwan

    2014-07-01

    An ion polymer metal composite (IPMC) is an electroactive polymer that bends in response to a small applied electric field as a result of mobility of cations in the polymer network and vice versa. This paper presents an innovative and accurate nonlinear black-box model (NBBM) for estimating the bending behavior of IPMC actuators. The model is constructed via a general multilayer perceptron neural network (GMLPNN) integrated with a smart learning mechanism (SLM) that is based on an extended Kalman filter with self-decoupling ability (SDEKF). Here the GMLPNN is built with an ability to autoadjust its structure based on its characteristic vector. Furthermore, by using the SLM based on the SDEKF, the GMLPNN parameters are optimized with small computational effort, and the modeling accuracy is improved. An apparatus employing an IPMC actuator is first set up to investigate the IPMC characteristics and to generate the data for training and validating the model. The advanced NBBM model for the IPMC system is then created with the proper inputs to estimate IPMC tip displacement. Next, the model is optimized using the SLM mechanism with the training data. Finally, the optimized NBBM model is verified with the validating data. A comparison between this model and the previously developed model is also carried out to prove the effectiveness of the proposed modeling technique.

  19. Effects of TiO{sub 2} addition on ionic conductivity of PVC/PEMA blend based composite polymer electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Subban, R. H. Y.; Sukri, Nursyazwani

    2015-08-28

    PVC/PEMA blend based polymer electrolytes with lithium bistrifluoromethane sulfonimide (LiN(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2}){sub 2}) and PVC/PEMA/(LiN(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2}){sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} films were prepared by solution cast technique. The sample containing 35 wt. % LiN(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2}){sub 2} exhibited the highest conductivity of 1.75 × 10{sup −5} Scm{sup −1}. The conductivity of the sample increased to 2.12 × 10{sup −5} Scm{sup −1} and 4.61 × 10{sup −5} Scm{sup −1} when 4 wt. % and 10 wt. % of titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) was added to the sample at 65 wt. % PVC/PEMA-35 wt. % LiN(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2}){sub 2} composition respectively. The low increase in conductivity is attributed to two competing factors: increase in crystallinity as accounted by X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and decrease in glass transition temperature as accounted by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)

  20. Composition and Concentration Gradient Induced Structural Transition from Micelles to Vesicles in the Mixed System of Ionic Liquid-Diclofenac Sodium.

    PubMed

    Singh, Onkar; Kaur, Rajwinder; Aswal, Vinod Kumar; Mahajan, Rakesh Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Catanionic surfactant-hydrotrope mixtures have proven to be a striking alternative to tune microstructures over a wide range of compositions and also to minimize precipitation that is normally observed in catanionic mixtures at an equimolar ratio. These mixtures are supposed to be of great relevance in biological systems when a hydrotrope is a "drug". Keeping this in view, here we report composition- and dilution-induced structural changes in a catanionic mixture comprising ionic liquids (ILs), such as 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (C12mimBr)/1-tetradecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (C14mimBr), and a drug, diclofenac sodium (DFNa), in aqueous solution. The structural changes are probed by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and zeta-potential measurements. SANS data and size distribution curves clearly depict the formation of low curvature structures on going from the cation-rich to anion-rich composition up to a 0.7 mole fraction of DFNa (XDFNa). The amphiphilic nature of DFNa is supposed to alter the surface charge density, which is provoked by its incorporation into resulting aggregates, as confirmed by modified zeta-potential values. The modification of the average packing parameter resulting from the IL and DFNa complexation equilibrium seems to play a vital role in bringing out structural transitions of mixed aggregates. We also focused our attention to study the effect of dilution in concentrations ranging from 100 to 25 mM. At XDFNa = 0.0 and 0.1, the size of prolate ellipsoids decreases on dilution, mimicking classic behavior, but an opposite trend is observed at other XDFNa values. Dilution-induced transformation to larger aggregates is thought to be driven by the release of DFNa molecules from the mixed micelles on account of the critical micelle concentration (cmc) (solubility) mismatch between the two components. The role of other interactions such as cation-π and π-π in stabilizing the mixed aggregates in

  1. Acid generation upon thermal concentration of natural water: The critical water content and the effects of ionic composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulvirenti, April L.; Needham, Karen M.; Adel-Hadadi, Mohamad A.; Marks, Charles R.; Gorman, Jeffrey A.; Shettel, Donald L.; Barkatt, Aaron

    2009-10-01

    Thermal evaporation of a variety of simulated pore waters from the region of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, produced acidic liquids and gases during the final stages of evaporation. Several simulated pore waters were prepared and then thermally distilled in order to collect and analyze fractions of the evolved vapor. In some cases, distillates collected towards the end of the distillation were highly acidic; in other cases the pH of the distillate remained comparatively unchanged during the course of the distillation. The results suggest that the pH values of the later fractions are determined by the initial composition of the water. Acid production stems from the hydrolysis of magnesium ions, especially at near dryness. Near the end of the distillation, magnesium nitrate and magnesium chloride begin to lose water of hydration, greatly accelerating their thermal decomposition to form acid. Acid formation is promoted further when precipitated calcium carbonate is removed. Specifically, calcium chloride-rich pore waters containing moderate (10-20 ppm) levels of magnesium and nitrate and low levels of bicarbonate produced mixtures of nitric and hydrochloric acid, resulting in a precipitous drop in pH to values of 1 or lower after about 95% of the original volume was distilled. Waters with either low or moderate magnesium content coupled with high levels of bicarbonate produced slightly basic fractions (pH 7-9). If calcium was present in excess of bicarbonate, waters containing moderate levels of magnesium produced acid even in the presence of bicarbonate, due to the precipitation of calcium carbonate. Other salts such as halite and anhydrite promote the segregation of acidic vapors from residual basic solids. The concomitant release of wet acid gas has implications for the integrity of the alloys under consideration for containers at the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository. Condensed acid gases at very low pH, especially mixtures of nitric and hydrochloric acid, are

  2. Rain events in an arid environment — Their distribution and ionic and isotopic composition patterns: Makhtesh Ramon Basin, Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nativ, Ronit; Mazor, Emanuel

    1987-01-01

    Forty-six individual rain events and successive fractions of these events were studied with a network of instruments in the arid Makhtesh Ramon Basin, southern Israel, during 1981/1983 Annual rainfall varied from 47 to 107 mm, number of rain events varied from 8 to 20 per year, start of the rainy season varied from September to January, termination of the rainy season varied from March to May and length of the rainy season varied from 4 to 9 months. About 85% of the rain events were recorded at more than one station, indicating an aerial distribution exceeding 20 km. A cliff amount effect was observed — the rain on the cliff (800 m) was 73% more than the rain at the bottom of the Makhtesh (500 m). Dust samples revealed the following soluble ions (in equivalents): Ca 2+ ≫ Mg 2+ > Na + ≫ K + and HCO -3 > Cl - > SO 2-4. The dust also contained CaCl 2. Rain composition of 61 analyzed samples revealed (in equivalents): Ca 2+ > Na + > Mg 2+ ≫ K + and HCO -3 > Cl - > SO 2-4, neutral pH of 7.1-7.6, and presence of CaCl 2. A similar pattern was observed in 54 samples collected during the same period at Sde Boker, 30 km north of the Ramon, thus typifying the Negev Heights. Two distinct sources of dissolved ions were inferred: dust, providing mainly Ca(HCO 3) 2, and cloud-borne sea spray, providing mainly Na +, Mg 2+, Cl - and SO 2-4. A chemical and isotopic effect was observed — the rain of the rainier year contained 34% less dissolved ions and was isotopically lighter in δ 18O by 54% than the rain of the less rainy year. A chemical and isotopic front effect was observed — the first fraction of the individual rain events contained more dissolved ions (32-69%) and was enriched by more δ 18O (31%) than the subsequent rain fractions. The observed rain distribution and chemical isotopic effects are discussed in terms of input sources, evaporation processes and altitude effects. The obtained data define rain and salt inputs into the hydrological systems.

  3. Acid generation upon thermal concentration of natural water: the critical water content and the effects of ionic composition.

    PubMed

    Pulvirenti, April L; Needham, Karen M; Adel-Hadadi, Mohamad A; Marks, Charles R; Gorman, Jeffrey A; Shettel, Donald L; Barkatt, Aaron

    2009-10-13

    Thermal evaporation of a variety of simulated pore waters from the region of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, produced acidic liquids and gases during the final stages of evaporation. Several simulated pore waters were prepared and then thermally distilled in order to collect and analyze fractions of the evolved vapor. In some cases, distillates collected towards the end of the distillation were highly acidic; in other cases the pH of the distillate remained comparatively unchanged during the course of the distillation. The results suggest that the pH values of the later fractions are determined by the initial composition of the water. Acid production stems from the hydrolysis of magnesium ions, especially at near dryness. Near the end of the distillation, magnesium nitrate and magnesium chloride begin to lose water of hydration, greatly accelerating their thermal decomposition to form acid. Acid formation is promoted further when precipitated calcium carbonate is removed. Specifically, calcium chloride-rich pore waters containing moderate (10-20 ppm) levels of magnesium and nitrate and low levels of bicarbonate produced mixtures of nitric and hydrochloric acid, resulting in a precipitous drop in pH to values of 1 or lower after about 95% of the original volume was distilled. Waters with either low or moderate magnesium content coupled with high levels of bicarbonate produced slightly basic fractions (pH 7-9). If calcium was present in excess of bicarbonate, waters containing moderate levels of magnesium produced acid even in the presence of bicarbonate, due to the precipitation of calcium carbonate. Other salts such as halite and anhydrite promote the segregation of acidic vapors from residual basic solids. The concomitant release of wet acid gas has implications for the integrity of the alloys under consideration for containers at the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository. Condensed acid gases at very low pH, especially mixtures of nitric and hydrochloric acid, are

  4. Size distribution and source analysis of ionic compositions of aerosols in polluted periods at Xinken in Pearl River Delta (PRD) of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shang; Hu, Min; Slanina, Sjaak; He, Ling-Yan; Niu, Yu-Wen; Bruegemann, Erika; Gnauk, Thomas; Herrmann, Hartmut

    Size-resolved chemical composition of aerosol was investigated during the PRIDE intensive field campaign in October 2004 at Xinken, at Pearl River Delta (PRD), China. Xinken is a rural/coastal site located south of Guangzhou. Size-segregated particles were sampled using Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactors (MOUDI) in order to characterize regional aerosol pollution. The meteorological conditions during the measurements were stable with low wind speed, high temperature and high RH, leading to high concentrations of fine particles, especially due to secondary components. The average concentrations of PM 1.8 and PM 10 were 51±19 and 84±27 μg m -3, respectively, with a ratio of PM 1.8/PM 10 0.64±0.09, which indicates that fine particles dominated in PM 10. Sulfate, nitrate and ammonium were major ionic components. Aerosol mass size distributions showed either two or three modes. Land-sea circulation brought back aged aerosols to the sampling site leading to an increase of the concentrations of sodium and chloride in aerosols. The "condensation mode" of sulfate, which was formed by gas-to-particle conversion, was in the size range of 0.32-0.56 μm, and the "droplet mode" of sulfate was observed in the size range of 0.56-1.0 or 1.0-1.8 μm. Nitrate was distributed evenly over fine and coarse particles. The analysis of measured and calculated equilibrium constant of NH 4NO 3 indicates that dissociation of NH 4NO 3 in daytime is favored, but that at night ammonium nitrate is stable and constitutes the fine mode nitrate, while the coarse mode nitrate may be formed by the reaction of HNO 3 and sea-salt or soil components. Chemical mass closures showed reasonable agreement.

  5. Electrochemical sensors for the simultaneous determination of zinc, cadmium and lead using a Nafion/ionic liquid/graphene composite modified screen-printed carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Chaiyo, Sudkate; Mehmeti, Eda; Žagar, Kristina; Siangproh, Weena; Chailapakul, Orawon; Kalcher, Kurt

    2016-04-28

    A simple, low cost, and highly sensitive electrochemical sensor, based on a Nafion/ionic liquid/graphene composite modified screen-printed carbon electrode (N/IL/G/SPCE) was developed to determine zinc (Zn(II)), cadmium (Cd(II)), and lead (Pb(II)) simultaneously. This disposable electrode shows excellent conductivity and fast electron transfer kinetics. By in situ plating with a bismuth film (BiF), the developed electrode exhibited well-defined and separate peaks for Zn(II), Cd(II), and Pb(II) by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV). Analytical characteristics of the BiF/N/IL/G/SPCE were explored with calibration curves which were found to be linear for Zn(II), Cd(II), and Pb(II) concentrations over the range from 0.1 to 100.0 ng L(-1). With an accumulation period of 120 s detection limits of 0.09 ng mL(-1), 0.06 ng L(-1) and 0.08 ng L(-1) were obtained for Zn(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II), respectively using the BiF/N/IL/G/SPCE sensor, calculated as 3σ value of the blank. In addition, the developed electrode displayed a good repeatability and reproducibility. The interference from other common ions associated with Zn(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II) detection could be effectively avoided. Finally, the proposed analytical procedure was applied to detect the trace metal ions in drinking water samples with satisfactory results which demonstrates the suitability of the BiF/N/IL/G/SPCE to detect heavy metals in water samples and the results agreed well with those obtained by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. PMID:27046207

  6. Changes to the morphology, structure and properties as a consequence of polyethylene working in a polymer-metal kinematic pair

    SciTech Connect

    Maszybrocka, Joanna; Cybo, Jerzy; Cwajna, Jan

    2009-10-15

    A change is presented of the orientation of lamellar structure, degree of crystallinity, the degree of the spatial arrangement of the structure, micromechanical properties, and the surface morphology and thickness of a plastically deformed upper layer. These changes are the effect of work in a polymer-metal kinematic pair, which have occurred as a result of plastic deformation of polyethylene during its service. It has been shown that, as a result of selecting proper parameters of UHMW polyethylene via the initial draft and electron-beam irradiation, such a structure of the polymer can be obtained, which will enable the above-mentioned changes in morphology and structure to take place during service. This in turn, will allow a reduction of the susceptibility of the polymer to permanent deformation by 3-6 times, and its wear by more than 5 times, compared to the initial material.

  7. 1,2,3-triazolium ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Luebke, David; Nulwala, Hunaid; Tang, Chau

    2014-12-09

    The present invention relates to compositions of matter that are ionic liquids, the compositions comprising substituted 1,2,3-triazolium cations combined with any anion. Compositions of the invention should be useful in the separation of gases and, perhaps, as catalysts for many reactions.

  8. Ionic Liquids Database- (ILThermo)

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 147 Ionic Liquids Database- (ILThermo) (Web, free access)   IUPAC Ionic Liquids Database, ILThermo, is a free web research tool that allows users worldwide to access an up-to-date data collection from the publications on experimental investigations of thermodynamic, and transport properties of ionic liquids as well as binary and ternary mixtures containing ionic liquids.

  9. Ionic composition and nitrate in drainage water from fields fertilized with different nitrogen sources, middle swamp watershed, North Carolina, August 2000-August 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harden, Stephen L.; Spruill, Timothy B.

    2004-01-01

    A study was conducted from August 2000 to August 2001 to characterize the influence of fertilizer use from different nitrogen sources on the quality of drainage water from 11 subsurface tile drains and 7 surface field ditches in a North Carolina Coastal Plain watershed. Agricultural fields receiving commercial fertilizer (conventional sites), swine lagoon effluent (spray sites), and wastewater-treatment plant sludge (sludge site) in the Middle Swamp watershed were investigated. The ionic composition of drainage water in tile drains and ditches varied depending on fertilizer source type. The dominant ions identified in water samples from tile drains and ditches include calcium, magnesium, sodium, chloride, nitrate, and sulfate, with tile drains generally having lower pH, low or no bicarbonates, and higher nitrate and chloride concentrations. Based on fertilizer source type, median nitrate-nitrogen concentrations were significantly higher at spray sites (32.0 milligrams per liter for tiles and 8.2 milligrams per liter for ditches) relative to conventional sites (6.8 milligrams per liter for tiles and 2.7 milligrams per liter for ditches). The median instantaneous nitrate-nitrogen yields also were significantly higher at spray sites (420 grams of nitrogen per hectare per day for tile drains and 15.6 grams of nitrogen per hectare per day for ditches) relative to conventional sites (25 grams of nitrogen per hectare per day for tile drains and 8.1 grams of nitrogen per hectare per day for ditches). The tile drain site where sludge is applied had a median nitrate-nitrogen concentration of 10.5 milligrams per liter and a median instantaneous nitrate-nitrogen yield of 93 grams of nitrogen per hectare per day, which were intermediate to those of the conventional and spray tile drain sites. Results from this study indicate that nitrogen loadings and subsequent edge-of-field nitrate-nitrogen yields through tile drains and ditches were significantly higher at sites receiving

  10. Quantized friction across ionic liquid thin films.

    PubMed

    Smith, Alexander M; Lovelock, Kevin R J; Gosvami, Nitya Nand; Welton, Tom; Perkin, Susan

    2013-10-01

    Ionic liquids - salts in the liquid state under ambient conditions - are of great interest as precision lubricants. Ionic liquids form layered structures at surfaces, yet it is not clear how this nano-structure relates to their lubrication properties. We measured the friction force between atomically smooth solid surfaces across ionic liquid films of controlled thickness in terms of the number of ion layers. Multiple friction-load regimes emerge, each corresponding to a different number of ion layers in the film. In contrast to molecular liquids, the friction coefficients differ for each layer due to their varying composition. PMID:23942943

  11. Electrodeposition in Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qinqin; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Suojiang; Lu, Xingmei; Zhang, Xiangping

    2016-02-01

    Due to their attractive physico-chemical properties, ionic liquids (ILs) are increasingly used as deposition electrolytes. This review summarizes recent advances in electrodeposition in ILs and focuses on its similarities and differences with that in aqueous solutions. The electrodeposition in ILs is divided into direct and template-assisted deposition. We detail the direct deposition of metals, alloys and semiconductors in five types of ILs, including halometallate ILs, air- and water-stable ILs, deep eutectic solvents (DESs), ILs with metal-containing cations, and protic ILs. Template-assisted deposition of nanostructures and macroporous structures in ILs is also presented. The effects of modulating factors such as deposition conditions (current density, current density mode, deposition time, temperature) and electrolyte components (cation, anion, metal salts, additives, water content) on the morphology, compositions, microstructures and properties of the prepared materials are highlighted. PMID:26530378

  12. Superbase-derived protic ionic liquids

    DOEpatents

    Dai, Sheng; Luo, Huimin; Baker, Gary A.

    2013-09-03

    Protic ionic liquids having a composition of formula (A.sup.-)(BH.sup.+) wherein A.sup.- is a conjugate base of an acid HA, and BH.sup.+ is a conjugate acid of a superbase B. In particular embodiments, BH.sup.+ is selected from phosphazenium species and guanidinium species encompassed, respectively, by the general formulas: ##STR00001## The invention is also directed to films and membranes containing these protic ionic liquids, with particular application as proton exchange membranes for fuel cells.

  13. Acidic Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Amarasekara, Ananda S

    2016-05-25

    Ionic liquid with acidic properties is an important branch in the wide ionic liquid field and the aim of this article is to cover all aspects of these acidic ionic liquids, especially focusing on the developments in the last four years. The structural diversity and synthesis of acidic ionic liquids are discussed in the introduction sections of this review. In addition, an unambiguous classification system for various types of acidic ionic liquids is presented in the introduction. The physical properties including acidity, thermo-physical properties, ionic conductivity, spectroscopy, and computational studies on acidic ionic liquids are covered in the next sections. The final section provides a comprehensive review on applications of acidic ionic liquids in a wide array of fields including catalysis, CO2 fixation, ionogel, electrolyte, fuel-cell, membrane, biomass processing, biodiesel synthesis, desulfurization of gasoline/diesel, metal processing, and metal electrodeposition. PMID:27175515

  14. Comparative study of bending characteristics of ionic polymer actuators containing ionic liquids for modeling actuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Kunitomo; Sakamoto, Takumi; Tsuchitani, Shigeki; Asaka, Kinji

    2011-04-01

    Ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs) that can operate in air have recently been developed by incorporating an ionic liquid in ionic polymers. To understand transduction in these composites, it is important to determine the role of the ionic liquid in the ionic polymer (Nafion®), to identify the counter cation, and to investigate the interaction of IPMCs with water vapor in the air. We used Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy to analyze three Nafion® membranes, which were soaked in mixtures of water and an ionic liquid (1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium tetrafluoroborate (EMIBF4), 1-buthyl-3-methyl-imidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMIBF4), and 1-buthyl-3-methyl-imidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIPF6)). The results demonstrate that only cations (EMI+ and BMI+) in the ionic liquids are taken into the Nafion® membranes as counter ions and that the water content of the membranes in air is less than ˜4% that of Nafion® swollen with water. Based on the experimental results, a transduction model is proposed for an IPMC with an ionic liquid. In this model, bending is caused by local swelling due to the volume effect of the bulky counter cations. This model can explain 30-50% of the experimentally observed bending curvature.

  15. Theoretical monomer/cluster model of a polymer/metal interface: poly(methacrylonitrile) on a nickel surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bureau, Christophe; Defranceschi, Mireille; Delhalle, Joseph; Deniau, Guy; Tanguy, Jean; Lecayon, Gérard

    1994-05-01

    A low-energy contribution at 283.6 eV noted in the C1s region of the XPS spectrum of thin films of poly(methacrylonitrile) obtained via cathodic electropolymerization of 2-methyl-2-propenenitrile on nickel surfaces and recent electrochemical impedance measurements are strongly indicative of a chemical bond formed between the first monomer and metallic atoms during the grafting step of the reaction. A model of a carbon/nickel surface bond comprising a saturated monomer of 2-methyl-2-propenenitrile bound to nickel clusters (Ni 3 and Ni 7) is designed to mimic the final state of the reaction of cathodic electropolymerization. Hartree-Fock calculations are performed to obtain optimized geometry parameters. An evaluation of the chemical shift obtained on the XPS spectrum is made by computing the C1s ionization potentials via Koopmans' theorem. In addition, the analysis of the electronic redistribution upon chemisorption brings valuable insights on the precise nature of chemisorption sites as well as on the validity of a cluster/monomer approach to render the present polymer/metal interface.

  16. Development of a novel naphthoic acid ionic liquid and its application in "no-organic solvent microextraction" for determination of triclosan and methyltriclosan in human fluids and the method optimization by central composite design.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Gao, Jiajia; Yu, Nana; Qu, Jingang; Fang, Fang; Wang, Huili; Wang, Mei; Wang, Xuedong

    2016-07-01

    In traditional ionic liquids (ILs)-based microextraction, the hydrophobic and hydrophilic ILs are often used as extractant and disperser, respectively. However, the functional effects of ILs are not utilized in microextraction procedures. Herein, we introduced 1-naphthoic acid into imidazolium ring to synthesize a novel ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium naphthoic acid salt ([C4MIM][NPA]), and its structure was characterized by IR, (1)H NMR and MS. On the basis of its acidic property and lower solubility than common [CnMIM][BF4], it was used as a mixing dispersive solvent with [C4MIM][BF4] in "functionalized ionic liquid-based no organic solvent microextraction (FIL-NOSM)". Utilization of [C4MIM][NPA] in FIL-NOSM procedures has two obvious advantages: (1) it promoted the non-polar environment, increased volume of the sedimented phase, and thus could enhance the extraction recoveries of triclosan (TCS) and methyltriclosan (MTCS) by more than 10%; and (2) because of the acidic property, it can act as a pH modifier, avoiding extra pH adjustment step. By combining single factor optimization and central composite design, the main factors in the FIL-NOSM method were optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the relative recoveries of TCS and MTCS reached up to 98.60-106.09%, and the LODs of them were as low as 0.12-0.15µgL(-1) in plasma and urine samples. In total, this [C4MIM][NPA]-based FIL-NOSM method provided high extraction efficiency, and required less pretreatment time and unutilized any organic solvent. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first application of [C4mim][NPA]-based microextraction method for the simultaneous quantification of trace TCS and MTCS in human fluids. PMID:27154690

  17. An investigation of the structure-property relationships in ionic polymer polymer composites (IP2Cs) manufactured by polymerization in situ of PEDOT/PSS on Nafion®117

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Pasquale, G.; Graziani, S.; Messina, F. G.; Pollicino, A.; Puglisi, R.; Umana, E.

    2014-03-01

    Ionic polymer polymer composites (IP2Cs) are all-organic electroactive polymers (EAPs) that show sensing and actuation capabilities when a deformation or a voltage is applied, respectively. They are fabricated starting from an ionic polymer coated on both sides with a conducting polymer as electrode element. In this work, poly(3,4-ethylendioxytiophene)-poly-(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT/PSS) has been polymerized directly on Nafion®117 membrane and devices have been manufactured varying the polymerization time. Water and ethylene glycol (EG) have been used as solvents. The obtained IP2Cs have been characterized using thermal and mechanical analyses and electromechanically tested. The results have shown that in IP2Cs manufactured by polymerization in situ the PEDOT/PSS layer adheres very strongly on the Nafion®117 film, improving the possibility of rehydrating the devices after use. Moreover, taking into account that the different polymerization times influence the uniformity of the surface of the organic electrode and, consequently, both device stiffness and electrode conductivity, the structure-property relationships of the obtained devices have been investigated. The influence of the different solvents inside the devices has also been studied when IP2Cs have been used as actuators or sensors. Reported results show that it is possible to modulate the performances of IP2Cs by varying some manufacture parameters and the solvent.

  18. Effects of copolymer composition on the formation of ionic species, hydrogen evolution, and free-radical reaction in el-irradiated styrene-butadiene random and block copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Basheer, R.; Dole, M.

    1984-01-01

    Block and random copolymers of butadiene and styrene as well as polybutadiene and polystyrene homopolymers have been investigated with respect to formation of trapped electrons, contribution of ionic species to crosslinking, and hydrogen gas evolution due to el radiation. The decay kinetics of the disubstituted benzyl radical has also been studied. The yields of electron trapping G(e ) are measured. The G(e ) increase linearly with increased polystyrene content in block polymers, while in random copolymer a deviation from a linear relation is observed. The contribution of ionic reactions to crosslinking is about 25-35% of the total crosslinking yield. Hydrogen production in block copolymers is approximately a linear function of the weight-fraction additivity of the yield of hydrogen formation in polystrene and polybutadiene homopolymers. Energy transfer from butadiene units to styrene units in random copolymers resulted in a deviation from such an additivity relation. The decay of the disubstituted benzyl free radical in block copolymers is a second-order reaction. In random copolymer, the decay is best interpreted in terms of equation based on a second-order decay mechanism of a fraction of the free radicals decaying in the presence of other nondecaying free radicals. 24 references, 11 figures, 3 tables.

  19. Cotton fabric finishing with TiO2/SiO2 composite hydrosol based on ionic cross-linking method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Z. J.; Tian, Y. L.; Liu, H. L.; Du, Z. Q.

    2015-01-01

    Cotton fabric was successfully modified by 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (CHTAC), 1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid (BTCA) and TiO2/SiO2 sol. Self-cleaning characteristic was investigated using a Color Measuring & Matching System with 6 h sunlight irradiation. And the stability of TiO2/SiO2 coatings was explored by measuring the washing fastness and wrinkle resistance of treated cotton samples. In addition, whiteness index, crease recovery angle and tensile strength retention (%) of treated samples were evaluated. Moreover, the morphology, structure change and crystallinity of samples were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The results revealed that the samples treated with CHTAC had lower value of whiteness index as compared with original cotton fabric. It was also found that samples treated with BTCA achieved higher crease recovery angle and lower tensile strength. Moreover, the treatment of CHTAC and BTCA had adverse effect on the crystallinity of cotton samples, as treated samples had lower crystallinity in comparison with raw cotton fabrics. Nevertheless, the stability of self-cleaning coatings was better for samples treated with ionic cross-linking treatment (CHTAC + BTCA + TiO2/SiO2) than samples treated with TiO2/SiO2 sol alone. Furthermore, compared with original samples the UV-blocking property of ionic cross-linking treated samples was obviously enhanced.

  20. Ionic nanoparticle networks: development and perspectives in the landscape of ionic liquid based materials.

    PubMed

    Neouze, Marie-Alexandra; Kronstein, Martin; Tielens, Frederik

    2014-09-28

    This feature article gives an overview of the research performed on ionic nanoparticle networks (INNs). These INNs are hybrid materials consisting of inorganic nanoparticles and ionic linkers, such as imidazolium, bisimidazolium or pyridinium. The synthesis and properties of INNs, for catalysis or sensorics, are presented. At each step INN materials are compared to other hybrid materials of similar composition such as ionogels or suspensions of imidazolium modified nanoparticles. PMID:24968952

  1. Construction of a carbon ionic liquid paste electrode based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes-synthesized Schiff base composite for trace electrochemical detection of cadmium.

    PubMed

    Afkhami, Abbas; Khoshsafar, Hosein; Bagheri, Hasan; Madrakian, Tayyebeh

    2014-02-01

    A simple, highly sensitive and selective carbon nanocomposite electrode has been developed for the electrochemical trace determination of cadmium. This sensor was designed by incorporation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and a new synthesized Schiff base into the carbon paste ionic liquid electrode (CPE(IL)) which provides remarkably improved sensitivity and selectivity for the electrochemical stripping assay of Cd(II). The detection limit of the method was found to be 0.08 μg L(-1) (S/N=3) that is lower than the maximum contaminant level of Cd(II) allowed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in standard drinking waters. The proposed electrode exhibits good applicability for monitoring Cd(II) in various real samples. PMID:24411345

  2. Nano composite system based on coumarin derivative-titanium dioxide nanoparticles and ionic liquid: determination of levodopa and carbidopa in human serum and pharmaceutical formulations.

    PubMed

    Mazloum-Ardakani, Mohammad; Khoshroo, Alireza

    2013-10-10

    The combination of coumarin derivative (7-(1,3-dithiolan-2-yl)-9,10-dihydroxy-6H-benzofuro[3,2-c]chromen-6-on), (DC)-titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2) and ionic liquid (IL) yields nanostructured electrochemical sensor, formed a novel kind of structurally uniform and electrocatalytic activity material. This new ionic liquid-TiO2 nanoparticles modified carbon paste electrode (IL-CTP) due to its enhanced conductivity presented very large current response from electroactive substrates. The modified electrode was characterized by different methods including a scanning electron microscope (SEM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and voltammetry. A pair of well-defined quasi reversible redox peaks of coumarin derivative was obtained at the modified carbon paste electrode (DC/IL-CTP) by direct electron transfer between the coumarin derivative and the CP electrode. Dramatically enhanced electrocatalytic activity was exemplified at the DC/IL-CTP electrode, as an electrochemical sensor to study the electro oxidation of levodopa (LD) and carbidopa (CD). Based on differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), the oxidation of LD and CD exhibited the dynamic range between 0.10- 900.0 μM and 20.0-900.0 μM respectively, and the detection limit (3σ) for LD and CD were 41 nM and 0.38 μM, respectively. DPV was used for simultaneous determination of LD and CD at the DC/IL-CTP electrode, and quantitation of LD and CD in some real samples (such as tablets of Parkin-C Fort and Madopar, Sinemet, water, urine, and human blood serum) by the standard addition method. PMID:24070480

  3. Use of ionic liquids as coordination ligands for organometallic catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Li, Zaiwei; Tang, Yongchun; Cheng; Jihong

    2009-11-10

    Aspects of the present invention relate to compositions and methods for the use of ionic liquids with dissolved metal compounds as catalysts for a variety of chemical reactions. Ionic liquids are salts that generally are liquids at room temperature, and are capable of dissolving a many types of compounds that are relatively insoluble in aqueous or organic solvent systems. Specifically, ionic liquids may dissolve metal compounds to produce homogeneous and heterogeneous organometallic catalysts. One industrially-important chemical reaction that may be catalyzed by metal-containing ionic liquid catalysts is the conversion of methane to methanol.

  4. Defect association mediated ionic conductivity of rare earth doped nanoceria: Dependency on ionic radius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anirban, Sk.; Sinha, A.; Bandyopadhyay, S.; Dutta, A.

    2016-05-01

    Rare earth doped nanoceria Ce0.9RE0.1O1.95 (RE = Pr, Nd, Eu and Gd) were prepared through citrate auto-ignition method. The single phase cubic fluorite structure with space group Fm3 ¯m of the compositions were confirmed from Rietveld analysis of XRD data. The particle size of the compositions were in the range 49.77 nm to 66.20 nm. An ionic radius dependent lattice parameter variation was found. The DC conductivity of each composition was evaluated using Random Barrier Model. The conductivity decreased and activation energy increased with increasing ionic radius from Gd to Pr doping due to the size mismatch with host ions and formation of stable defect associate. The formation of different defect associates and their correlation with ionic conductivity has been discussed.

  5. Enhanced electrical transport in ionic liquid dispersed TMAI-PEO solid polymer electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Neha; Rathore, Munesh Dalvi, Anshuman; Kumar, Anil

    2014-04-24

    A polymer composite is prepared by dispersing ionic liquid [Bmim][BF{sub 4}] in Polyethylene oxide-tetra methyl ammonium iodide composite and subsequent microwave treatment. X-ray diffraction patterns confirm the composite nature. To explore possibility of proton conductivity in these films, electrical transport is studied by impedance spectroscopy and DC polarization. It is revealed that addition of ionic liquid in host TMAI-PEO solid polymer electrolyte enhances the conductivity by ∼ 2 orders of magnitude. Polarization measurements suggest that composites are essentially ion conducting in nature. The maximum ionic conductivity is found to be ∼2 × 10{sup −5} for 10 wt % ionic liquid.

  6. Electrochemical immunosensor for ultrasensitive detection of microcystin-LR based on graphene-gold nanocomposite/functional conducting polymer/gold nanoparticle/ionic liquid composite film with electrodeposition.

    PubMed

    Ruiyi, Li; Qianfang, Xia; Zaijun, Li; Xiulan, Sun; Junkang, Liu

    2013-06-15

    The study developed an electrochemical immunosensor for ultrasensitive detection of microcystin-LR in water. Graphene oxide and chloroauric acid were alternately electrodeposited on the surface of glassy carbon electrode for 20 cycles to fabricate graphene-gold nanocomposite. The composite was characterized and its apparent heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (37.28±0.16 cm s (-1)) was estimated by Laviron's model. To immobilize microcystin-LR antibody and improve the electrical conductivity, 2,5-di-(2-thienyl)-1-pyrrole-1-(p-benzoic acid) and chloroauric acid were electrodeposited on the modified electrode in sequence. The ionic liquid was then dropped on the electrode surface and finally microcystin-LR antibody was covalently connected to the conducting polymer film. Experiment showed the electrochemical technique offers control over reaction parameters and excellent repeatability. The graphene-gold nanocomposite and gold nanoparticles enhance electron transfer of Fe(CN)6(3-/4-) to the electrode. The ionic liquid, 1-isobutyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethane-sulfonyl)imide, improves stability of the antibody. The sensor displays good repeatability (RSD=1.2%), sensitive electrochemical response to microcystin-LR in the range of 1.0×10(-16)-8.0×10(-15)M and detection limit of 3.7×10(-17)M (S/N=3). The peak current change of the sensor after and before incubation with 2.0×10(-15)M of microcystin-LR can retain 95% over a 20-weeks storage period. Proposed method presents remarkable improvement of sensitivity, repeatability and stability when compared to present microcystin-LR sensors. It has been successfully applied to the microcystin-LR determination in water samples with a spiked recovery in the range of 96.3-105.8%. PMID:23434759

  7. Plasticizer Influence on Ionic Morphology and Transport in PEO Ionomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Reilly, Michael; Masser, Hanqing; King, Daniel; Painter, Paul; Colby, Ralph; Runt, James; Winey, Karen

    2013-03-01

    Sulfonated poly(ethylene oxide) ionomers have been blended with a miscible, oligomeric poly(ethylene glycol) in order to study the effect of plasticizers on ionomer performance. Plasticizers can increase ionic conductivity in ionomers by depressing the glass transition temperature and dissolving ionic aggregates. In this study, the relative volume fractions of ionic aggregates in various blend compositions is investigated by curve fitting the X-ray scattering aggregate peak. Two fitting parameters are utilized to quantify aggregate composition, peak area and peak position. Fitting results conclude that plasticizer content dilutes and dissolves ionic aggregates, providing higher conducting ion density than comparable neat ionomers. Dielectric relaxation spectroscopy data confirms that ionic conductivity improves with plasticizer content. Similar curve fitting methods were executed for FT-IR signals, and quantification of aggregate structure is compared with X-ray scattering.

  8. Applications of ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Patel, Divia Dinesh; Lee, Jong-Min

    2012-06-01

    Ionic liquids have recently gained popularity in the scientific community owing to their special properties and characteristics. One of the reasons why ionic liquids have been termed "green solvents" is due to their negligible vapour pressure. Their use in electrochemical, biological and metal extraction applications is discussed. Wide research has been carried out for their use in batteries, solar panels, fuel cells, drug deliveries and biomass pretreatments. This work aims to consolidate the various findings from previous works in these areas. PMID:22711528

  9. Ionic Liquid Extractions of Soil Organic Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patti, Antonio; Macfarlane, Douglas; Clarke, Michael

    2010-05-01

    A large range of ionic liquids with the ability to dissolve different classes of natural biopolymers (e.g. cellulose, lignin, protein) have been reported in the literature. These have the potential to isolate different fractions of soil organic matter, thus yielding novel information that is not available through other extraction procedures. The ionic liquids dimethylammonium dimethylcarbamate (DIMCARB), alkylbenzenesulfonate and 1-butyl-3methylimidazolium chloride (Bmim Cl) can solubilise selected components of soil organic matter. Soil extractions with these materials showed that the organic matter recovered showed chemical properties that were consistent with humic substances. These extracts had a slightly different organic composition than the humic acids extracted using the traditional International Humic Substances Society (IHSS) method. The ionic liquids also solubilised some inorganic matter from the soil. Humic acids recovered with alkali were also partially soluble in the ionic liquids. DIMCARB appeared to chemically interfere with organic extract, increasing the level of nitrogen in the sample. It was concluded that the ionic liquid Bmim Cl may function as a useful solvent for SOM, and may be used to recover organic matter of a different character to that obtained with alkali

  10. Rapid Measurements of Aerosol Ionic Composition and 3-10 nm Particle Size Distributions On The NASA P3 To Better Quantify Processes Affecting Aerosols Advected From East Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Rodney J.

    2004-01-01

    The Particle Into Liquid Sample (PILS) was deployed on the NASA P3 for airborne measurements of fine particle ionic chemical composition. The data have been quality assured and reside in the NASA data archive. We have analyzed our data to characterize the sources and atmospheric processing of fine aerosol particles advected from the region during the experiments. Fine particle water-soluble potassium was found to serve as a useful aerosol tracer for biomass smoke. Ratios of PILS potassium to sulfate are used as a means of estimating the percent contribution of biomass burning to fine particle mass in mixed plumes advecting from Asia. The high correlations between K+ and NO3(sup -) and NH4(sup +)' indicated that biomass burning was a significant source of these aerosol compounds in the region. It is noteworthy that the air mass containing the highest concentrations of fine particles recorded in all of ACE-Asia and TRACE-P appeared to be advecting from the Bejing/Tientsin urban region and also had the highest K(+), NO3(sup -) and NH4(sup +) concentrations of both studies. Based on K+/SO4(sup 2-) ratio's, we estimated that the plume was composed of approx. 60% biomass burning emissions, possibly from the use of bio-fuels in the urban regions.

  11. Ionic liquids as novel solvents for ionic polymer transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Matthew D.; Leo, Donald J.

    2004-07-01

    The use of ionic liquids as solvents for ionic polymer (specifically, Nafion) transducers is demonstrated. Ionic liquids are attractive for this application because of their high inherent stability. Ionic liquids are salts that exist as liquids at room temperature and have no measureable vapor pressure. Therefore, the use of ionic liquids as solvents for ionic polymer transducers can eliminate the traditional problem of water evaporation in these devices. Another benefit of the use of ionic liquids in this way is the reduction or elimination of the characteristic back-relaxation common in water-solvated ionic polymer actuators. The results demonstrate that the viscosity of the ionic liquid and the degree to which the ionic liquid swells the membrane are the important physical parameters to consider. Five ionic liquids were studied, based on substituted pyrrolidinium, phosphonium, or imidazolium cations and fluoroanions. Of these five ionic liquids, transduction is demonstrated in three of them and the best results are obtained with 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate ionic liquid. This substance has an electrochemical stability window of 4.1 V, a melting point of -10 °C, and a viscosity of 35-45 cP [19]. Results demonstrate that platinum-plated Nafion transducers solvated with this ionic liquid exhibit sensing and actuation responses and that these transducers are stable in air. Endurance testing of this sample reveals a decrease in the free strain of only 25 % after 250,000 actuation cycles in air.

  12. Metabolite and ionic composition of follicular fluid from different-sized follicles and their relationship to serum concentrations in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Leroy, J L M R; Vanholder, T; Delanghe, J R; Opsomer, G; Van Soom, A; Bols, P E J; de Kruif, A

    2004-02-01

    Metabolic changes in blood serum may be reflected in the biochemical composition of follicular fluid and could indirectly influence oocyte quality. The purpose of this study was to examine the biochemical composition of follicular fluid harvested from different-sized follicles and its relationship with that of blood serum in dairy cattle. Following slaughter, blood samples were collected from dairy cows n=30 and follicular fluid aspirated from three size classes of non-atretic follicles (<4 mm, 6-8 mm and >10 mm diameter). Samples remained independent between cows and between size classes within cows. Serum and follicular fluid samples were assayed using commercial clinical and photometric chemistry assays for ions (sodium, potassium and chloride) and metabolites (glucose, beta-hydroxybutyrate (beta-OHB), lactate, urea, total protein, triglycerides, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and total cholesterol). Results showed that follicular fluid concentrations of glucose, beta-OHB and total cholesterol increased from small to large follicles and decreased for potassium, chloride, lactate, urea and triglycerides. There was a significant concentration gradient for all variables between their levels in serum and follicular fluid (P<0.05). Significant correlations were observed for chloride (r=0.40), glucose (r=0.56), beta-OHB (r=0.85), urea (r=0.95) and total protein (r=0.60) for all three follicle size classes and for triglycerides (r=0.43), NEFA (r=0.50) and total cholesterol (r=0.42) for large follicles (P<0.05). The results from the present study suggest that the oocyte and the granulosa cells of dairy cows grow and mature in a biochemical environment that changes from small to large follicles. Furthermore, the significant correlation between the composition of serum and follicular fluid for the above-mentioned metabolites suggests that metabolic changes in serum levels will be reflected in the follicular fluid and, therefore, may affect the quality of both the

  13. Structure, ionic Conductivity and mobile Carrier Density in Fast Ionic Conducting Chalcogenide Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Wenlong Yao

    2006-12-12

    This thesis consists of six sections. The first section gives the basic research background on the ionic conduction mechanism in glass, polarization in the glass, and the method of determining the mobile carrier density in glass. The proposed work is also included in this section. The second section is a paper that characterizes the structure of MI + M{sub 2}S + (0.1 Ga{sub 2}S{sub 3} + 0.9 GeS{sub 2}) (M = Li, Na, K and Cs) glasses using Raman and IR spectroscopy. Since the ionic radius plays an important role in determining the ionic conductivity in glasses, the glass forming range for the addition of different alkalis into the basic glass forming system 0.1 Ga{sub 2}S{sub 3} + 0.9 GeS{sub 2} was studied. The study found that the change of the alkali radius for the same nominal composition causes significant structure change to the glasses. The third section is a paper that investigates the ionic conductivity of MI + M{sub 2}S + (0.1Ga{sub 2}S{sub 3} + 0.9 GeS{sub 2}) (M = Li, Na, K and Cs) glasses system. Corresponding to the compositional changes in these fast ionic conducting glasses, the ionic conductivity shows changes due to the induced structural changes. The ionic radius effect on the ionic conductivity in these glasses was investigated. The fourth section is a paper that examines the mobile carrier density based upon the measurements of space charge polarization. For the first time, the charge carrier number density in fast ionic conducting chalcogenide glasses was determined. The experimental impedance data were fitted using equivalent circuits and the obtained parameters were used to determine the mobile carrier density. The influence of mobile carrier density and mobility on the ionic conductivity was separated. The fifth section is a paper that studies the structures of low-alkali-content Na{sub 2}S + B{sub 2}S{sub 3} (x {le} 0.2) glasses by neutron and synchrotron x-ray diffraction. Similar results were obtained both in neutron and synchrotron x

  14. NaCl-induced changes in cytosolic free Ca2+ in Arabidopsis thaliana are heterogeneous and modified by external ionic composition.

    PubMed

    Tracy, Frances E; Gilliham, Matthew; Dodd, Antony N; Webb, Alex A R; Tester, Mark

    2008-08-01

    Increases in cytosolic free Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](cyt)) are common to many stress-activated signalling pathways, including the response to saline environments. We have investigated the nature of NaCl-induced [Ca(2+)](cyt) signals in whole Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings using aequorin. We found that NaCl-induced increases in [Ca(2+)](cyt) are heterogeneous and mainly restricted to the root. Both the concentration of NaCl and the composition of the solution bathing the root have profound effects on the magnitude and dynamics of NaCl-induced increases in [Ca(2+)](cyt). Alteration of external K(+) concentration caused changes in the temporal and spatial pattern of [Ca(2+)](cyt) increase, providing evidence for Na(+)-induced Ca(2+) influx across the plasma membrane. The effects of various pharmacological agents on NaCl-induced increases in [Ca(2+)](cyt) indicate that NaCl may induce influx of Ca(2+) through both plasma membrane and intracellular Ca(2+)-permeable channels. Analysis of spatiotemporal [Ca(2+)](cyt) dynamics using photon-counting imaging revealed additional levels of complexity in the [Ca(2+)](cyt) signal that may reflect the oscillatory nature of NaCl-induced changes in single cells. PMID:18419736

  15. Electroplating Using Ionic Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, Andrew P.; Frisch, Gero; Ryder, Karl S.

    2013-07-01

    Electroplating is a key technology in many large-scale industrial applications such as corrosion-resistant and decorative coatings. Issues with current aqueous processes, such as toxicity of reagents and low current efficiencies, can often be overcome by using ionic liquids, and this approach has turned ionometallurgy into a fast-growing area of research. This review outlines the interactions in ionic liquids that are responsible for the advantageous properties of these solvents in electroplating. It summarizes recent research in which these properties have been analyzed or exploited and highlights fundamental issues in research and technology that need to be addressed.

  16. Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemanich, Donald, Ed.

    1974-01-01

    The articles in this special issue of the "Illinois English Bulletin" concern the state of composition instruction at the secondary and college levels. The titles and authors are "Monologues or Dialogues? A Plea for Literacy" by Dr. Alfred J. Lindsey, "Teaching Composition: Curiouser and Curiouser" by Denny Brandon, and "Teaching Writing to High…

  17. Surface exploration of a room-temperature ionic liquid-chitin composite film decorated with electrochemically deposited PdFeNi trimetallic alloy nanoparticles by pattern recognition: an elegant approach to developing a novel biotin biosensor.

    PubMed

    Gholivand, Mohammad-Bagher; Jalalvand, Ali R; Goicoechea, Hector C; Paimard, Giti; Skov, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a novel biosensing system for the determination of biotin (BTN) based on electrodeposition of palladium-iron-nickel (PdFeNi) trimetallic alloy nanoparticles (NPs) onto a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with a room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL)-chitin (Ch) composite film (PdFeNi/ChRTIL/GCE) is established. NPs have a wide range of applications in science and technology and their sizes are often measured using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) or X-ray diffraction. Here, we used a pattern recognition method (digital image processing, DIP) for measuring particle size distributions (PSDs) from scanning electron microscopic (SEM) images in the presence of an uneven background. Different depositions were performed by varying the number of cyclic potential scans (N) during electroreduction step. It was observed that the physicochemical properties of the deposits were correlated to the performance of the PdFeNi/ChRTIL/GCE with respect to BTN assay. The best results were obtained for eight electrodeposition cyclic scans, where small-sized particles (19.54 ± 6.27 nm) with high density (682 particles µm(-2)) were obtained. Under optimized conditions, a linear range from 2.0 to 44.0 × 10(-9) mol L(-1) and a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.6 × 10(-9) mol L(-1) were obtained. The PdFeNi/ChRTIL nanocomposite showed excellent compatibility, enhanced electron transfer kinetics, large electroactive surface area, and was highly sensitive, selective, and stable toward BTN determination. Finally, the PdFeNi/ChRTIL/GCE was satisfactorily applied to the determination of BTN in infant milk powder, liver, and egg yolk samples. PMID:25281100

  18. Fun with Ionic Compounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logerwell, Mollianne G.; Sterling, Donna R.

    2007-01-01

    Ionic bonding is a fundamental topic in high school chemistry, yet it continues to be a concept that students struggle to understand. Even if they understand atomic structure and ion formation, it can be difficult for students to visualize how ions fit together to form compounds. This article describes several engaging activities that help…

  19. Synthesis of ionic liquids

    DOEpatents

    Dai, Sheng; Luo, Huimin

    2011-11-01

    Ionic compounds which are liquids at room temperature are formed by the method of mixing a neutral organic ligand with the salt of a metal cation and its conjugate anion. The liquids are hydrophobic, conductive and stable and have uses as solvents and in electrochemical devices.

  20. Synthesis of ionic liquids

    DOEpatents

    Dai, Sheng [Knoxville, TN; Luo, Huimin [Knoxville, TN

    2008-09-09

    Ionic compounds which are liquids at room temperature are formed by the method of mixing a neutral organic liqand with the salt of a metal cation and its conjugate anion. The liquids are hydrophobic, conductive and stable and have uses as solvents and in electrochemical devices.

  1. Carbenes from ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Hollóczki, Oldamur; Nyulászi, László

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade an explosive development has been observed in the fields of both ionic liquids (ILs) as potential chemically inert solvents with many possible technical applications, and N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) as catalysts with superb performance. Since the cations of many ILs can be deprotonated by strong bases yielding NHCs, this two fields are inherently connected. It has only recently been recognized that some of the commonly used basic anions of the ILs (such as acetate) are able to deprotonate azolium cations. While the resulting NHC could clearly be observed in the vapor phase, in the liquid - where the mutual electrostatic interactions within the ion network stabilize the ion pairs - the neutral NHC cannot be detected by commonly used analytical techniques; however, from these ionic liquids NHCs can be trapped, e.g., by complex formation, or more importantly these ILs can be directly used as catalysts, since the NHC content is sufficiently large for these applications. Apart from imidazole-2-ylidenes, the formation of other highly reactive neutral species ("abnormal carbenes," 2-alkylideneimidazoles, pyridine-ylidenes or pyridinium-ylides) is feasible in highly basic ionic liquids. The cross-fertilizing overlap between the two fields may provide access to a great advance in both areas, and we give an overview here on the results published so far, and also on the remaining possibilities and challenges in the concept of "carbenes from ionic liquids." PMID:23539381

  2. Nonlinear capacitance and electrochemical response of ionic liquid-ionic polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Jacob D.; Goulbourne, N. C.

    2011-04-01

    In this paper we present a physics-based model for the electrochemical response of ionic liquid-ionic polymer transducers (IPTs) and show how the mobile ionic liquid ions influence the charging characteristics and actuation performance of a device. It is assumed that a certain fraction of the ionic liquid ions exist as "free," making for a total of 3 mobile ions. This leads to predictions of distinctly different charging characteristics for ionic liquid versus water-based IPTs, since for the latter there is only a single mobile ion. The large ionic liquid ions are modeled by including steric effects in a set of modified Nernst-Planck/Poisson equations, and the resulting system of equations is solved using the method of matched asymptotic expansions (MAE). The inclusion of steric effects allows for a realistic description of boundary layer composition near actuator operating voltages (~1 V). Analytical expressions for the charge transferred and differential capacitance are derived as a function of the fraction of free ionic liquid ions, influence of steric effects in formation of the electric double layer, and applied voltage. It is shown that the presence of free ionic liquid ions tends to increase the overall amount of charge transferred, and also leads to a nonmonotonic capacitance-voltage curve. We suggest that these results could be used to experimentally identify the extent of free ionic liquid ion movement and to test the validity of the assumptions made in the underlying theory. A comparison with numerical results shows that while the MAE solution procedure gives valid results for capacitance and charge transferred, it cannot predict the dynamic response due to the presence of multiple time scales in the current decay. This is in contrast to previous results in analyzing water-based IPTs, where the MAE solution is in good agreement with numerical results at all times and applied voltages due to the presence of only a single mobile ion. By examining the

  3. Morphology and Ionic Conductivity of Humidity-Responsive Polymerized Ionic Liquid Block Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharick, Sharon; Meek, Kelly; Ye, Yuesheng; Elabd, Yossef A.; Winey, Karen I.

    2014-03-01

    We present the ionic conductivity and morphology of humidity-responsive polymerized ionic liquid block copolymers (PIL BCPs), poly(methyl methacrylate- b-1-[2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl]-3-butylimidazolium-X), where X is a bromide (Br) or hydroxide (OH) anion, as a function of relative humidity (RH), temperature, and PIL composition (ϕPIL) . PIL BCPs were characterized by in situ small-angle X-ray scattering and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. These PIL BCPs have microphase separated morphologies and long-range order increases as ϕPIL increases. Notably, ionic conductivity increases 3 to 4 orders of magnitude when RH increases from 30 to 90 percent. When ϕPIL is greater than 0.37, BCP ionic conductivity approaches or exceeds that of the homopolymer, suggesting that the dynamics in PIL microdomains mimic the homopolymer and long-range order aids ion transport. Moreover, over 60 percent of the BCP is nonconductive without a penalty in ion transport. When ϕPIL is less than 0.37, BCP conductivity is 1 to 2 orders of magnitude less than the homopolymer and non-conductive PMMA segments dominate ion transport, as expected. Ionic conductivities at 80 °C, 90 percent RH, are 7.6 mS/cm for the Br-containing BCP with ϕPIL = 0.53 and 25.0 mS/cm for the OH-containing BCP with ϕPIL = 0.50.

  4. Biocatalytic transformations in ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    van Rantwijk, Fred; Madeira Lau, Rute; Sheldon, Roger A

    2003-03-01

    Room temperature ionic liquids are non-volatile, thermally stable and highly polar; they are also moderately hydrophilic solvents. Here, we discuss their use as reaction media for biocatalysis. Enzymes of widely diverging types are catalytically active in ionic liquids or aqueous biphasic ionic liquid systems. Lipases, in particular, maintain their activity in anhydrous ionic liquid media; the (enantio)selectivity and operational stability are often better than in traditional media. The unconventional solvent properties of ionic liquids have been exploited in biocatalyst recycling and product recovery schemes that are not feasible with traditional solvent systems. PMID:12628370

  5. Dissolving Polymers in Ionic Liquids.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoagland, David; Harner, John

    2009-03-01

    Dissolution and phase behavior of polymers in ionic liquids have been assessed by solution characterization techniques such as intrinsic viscosity and light scattering (static and dynamic). Elevated viscosity proved the greatest obstacle. As yet, whether principles standard to conventional polymer solutions apply to ionic liquid solutions is uncertain, especially for polymers such as polyelectrolytes and hydrophilic block copolymers that may specifically interact with ionic liquid anions or cations. For flexible polyelectrolytes (polymers releasing counterions into high dielectric solvents), characterization in ionic liquids suggests behaviors more typical of neutral polymer. Coil sizes and conformations are approximately the same as in aqueous buffer. Further, several globular proteins dissolve in a hydrophilic ionic liquid with conformations analogous to those in buffer. General principles of solubility, however, remain unclear, making predictions of which polymer dissolves in which ionic liquid difficult; several otherwise intractable polymers (e.g., cellulose, polyvinyl alcohol) dissolve and can be efficiently functionalized in ionic liquids.

  6. Mixed ionic liquids: the case of pyridinium-based fluids.

    PubMed

    Aparicio, Santiago; Atilhan, Mert

    2012-03-01

    We report in this work a combined experimental and computational study on the molecular level structuring of binary ionic liquid mixtures comprising pyridium cations. The effect of anions on liquid structure was analyzed from the mixing (mixture 1) of [b3mpy][BF(4)] and [b3mpy][N(CN)(2)] ionic liquids, in the full composition range, leading to [b3mpy][BF(4)](x)[N(CN)(2)](1-x) mixed ionic liquids. The effect of the length of alkylic chains in cations was studied with mixtures (mixture 2) of [b3mpy][BF(4)] and [o3mpy][BF(4)] ionic liquids, also studied in the full composition range, leading to [b3mpy](x)[o3mpy](1-x)[BF(4)] ionic liquids. Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflection spectra were recorded and analyzed as a function of anionic and cationic composition for the two studied mixture types. Classical molecular dynamics simulations were also performed for mixtures 1 and 2 as a function of anionic and cationic composition. The reported experimental and computational results show that the properties of the studied mixed systems change in an almost linear way, leading to almost ideal mixtures from the thermodynamic viewpoint, and thus pointing to simple dilution effects of the involved ions controlling the mixture properties. PMID:22309042

  7. Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, T.; McCullough, R.L.; Pipes, R.B.

    1986-10-01

    The degree of control over material properties that is typified by hybrid composites is transforming engineering design. In part because homogeneous materials such as metals and alloys do not offer comparable control, specifying a material and designing a component have traditionally taken place separately. As composites begin to replace traditional materials in fields and such as aerospace, component design and the specification of a material are merging and becoming aspects of a single process. The controllable microstructure of a composite allows it to be tailored to match the distribution of stresses to which it will be subject. At the same time components must come to reflect the distinctive nature of composites: their directional properties and the intricate forms they can be given through processes such as injection molding, filament winding and three-dimensional weaving. The complexity inherent in conceiving components and their materials at the same time suggests engineering design will grow increasingly dependent on computers and multidisciplinary teams. Such an approach will harness the full potential of composites for the technologies of the future. 10 figures.

  8. Super ionic conductive glass

    DOEpatents

    Susman, Sherman; Volin, Kenneth J.

    1984-01-01

    An ionically conducting glass for use as a solid electrolyte in a power or secondary cell containing an alkali metal-containing anode and a cathode separated by an alkali metal ion conducting glass having an ionic transference number of unity and the general formula: A.sub.1+x D.sub.2-x/3 Si.sub.x P.sub.3-x O.sub.12-2x/3, wherein A is a network modifier for the glass and is an alkali metal of the anode, D is an intermediate for the glass and is selected from the class consisting of Zr, Ti, Ge, Al, Sb, Be, and Zn and X is in the range of from 2.25 to 3.0. Of the alkali metals, Na and Li are preferred and of the intermediate, Zr, Ti and Ge are preferred.

  9. Super ionic conductive glass

    DOEpatents

    Susman, S.; Volin, K.J.

    Described is an ionically conducting glass for use as a solid electrolyte in a power or secondary cell containing an alkali metal-containing anode and a cathode separated by an alkali metal ion conducting glass having an ionic transference number of unity and the general formula: A/sub 1 + x/D/sub 2-x/3/Si/sub x/P/sub 3 - x/O/sub 12 - 2x/3/, wherein A is a network modifier for the glass and is an alkali metal of the anode, D is an intermediate for the glass and is selected from the class consisting of Zr, Ti, Ge, Al, Sb, Be, and Zn and X is in the range of from 2.25 to 3.0. Of the alkali metals, Na and Li are preferred and of the intermediate, Zr, Ti and Ge are preferred.

  10. Thermodynamic estimation: Ionic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Glasser, Leslie

    2013-10-15

    Thermodynamics establishes equilibrium relations among thermodynamic parameters (“properties”) and delineates the effects of variation of the thermodynamic functions (typically temperature and pressure) on those parameters. However, classical thermodynamics does not provide values for the necessary thermodynamic properties, which must be established by extra-thermodynamic means such as experiment, theoretical calculation, or empirical estimation. While many values may be found in the numerous collected tables in the literature, these are necessarily incomplete because either the experimental measurements have not been made or the materials may be hypothetical. The current paper presents a number of simple and relible estimation methods for thermodynamic properties, principally for ionic materials. The results may also be used as a check for obvious errors in published values. The estimation methods described are typically based on addition of properties of individual ions, or sums of properties of neutral ion groups (such as “double” salts, in the Simple Salt Approximation), or based upon correlations such as with formula unit volumes (Volume-Based Thermodynamics). - Graphical abstract: Thermodynamic properties of ionic materials may be readily estimated by summation of the properties of individual ions, by summation of the properties of ‘double salts’, and by correlation with formula volume. Such estimates may fill gaps in the literature, and may also be used as checks of published values. This simplicity arises from exploitation of the fact that repulsive energy terms are of short range and very similar across materials, while coulombic interactions provide a very large component of the attractive energy in ionic systems. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Estimation methods for thermodynamic properties of ionic materials are introduced. • Methods are based on summation of single ions, multiple salts, and correlations. • Heat capacity, entropy

  11. 3-Methylpiperidinium ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Belhocine, Tayeb; Forsyth, Stewart A; Gunaratne, H Q Nimal; Nieuwenhuyzen, Mark; Nockemann, Peter; Puga, Alberto V; Seddon, Kenneth R; Srinivasan, Geetha; Whiston, Keith

    2015-04-28

    A wide range of room temperature ionic liquids based on the 3-methylpiperdinium cation core were produced from 3-methylpiperidine, which is a derivative of DYTEK® A amine. First, reaction with 1-bromoalkanes or 1-bromoalkoxyalkanes generated the corresponding tertiary amines (Rmβpip, R = alkyl or alkoxyalkyl); further quaternisation reactions with the appropriate methylating agents yielded the quaternary [Rmmβpip]X salts (X(-) = I(-), [CF3CO2](-) or [OTf](-); Tf = -SO2CF3), and [Rmmβpip][NTf2] were prepared by anion metathesis from the corresponding iodides. All [NTf2](-) salts are liquids at room temperature. [Rmmβpip]X (X(-) = I(-), [CF3CO2](-) or [OTf](-)) are low-melting solids when R = alkyl, but room temperature liquids upon introduction of ether functionalities on R. Neither of the 3-methylpiperdinium ionic liquids showed any signs of crystallisation, even well below 0 °C. Some related non-C-substituted piperidinium and pyrrolidinium analogues were prepared and studied for comparison. Crystal structures of 1-hexyl-1,3-dimethylpiperidinium tetraphenylborate, 1-butyl-3-methylpiperidinium bromide, 1-(2-methoxyethyl)-1-methylpiperidinium chloride and 1-(2-methoxyethyl)-1-methylpyrrolidinium bromide are reported. Extensive structural and physical data are collected and compared to literature data, with special emphasis on the systematic study of the cation ring size and/or asymmetry effects on density, viscosity and ionic conductivity, allowing general trends to be outlined. Cyclic voltammetry shows that 3-methylpiperidinium ionic liquids, similarly to azepanium, piperidinium or pyrrolidinium counterparts, are extremely electrochemically stable; the portfolio of useful alternatives for safe and high-performing electrolytes is thus greatly extended. PMID:25669485

  12. Cyclic phosphonium ionic liquids

    PubMed Central

    Mukhlall, Joshua A; Romeo, Alicia R; Gohdo, Masao; Ramati, Sharon; Berman, Marc; Suarez, Sophia N

    2014-01-01

    Summary Ionic liquids (ILs) incorporating cyclic phosphonium cations are a novel category of materials. We report here on the synthesis and characterization of four new cyclic phosphonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide ILs with aliphatic and aromatic pendant groups. In addition to the syntheses of these novel materials, we report on a comparison of their properties with their ammonium congeners. These exemplars are slightly less conductive and have slightly smaller self-diffusion coefficients than their cyclic ammonium congeners. PMID:24605146

  13. The magic of aqueous solutions of ionic liquids: ionic liquids as a powerful class of catanionic hydrotropes†

    PubMed Central

    Cláudio, Ana Filipa M.; Neves, Márcia C.; Shimizu, Karina; Canongia Lopes, José N.; Freire, Mara G.; Coutinho, João A. P.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrotropes are compounds able to enhance the solubility of hydrophobic substances in aqueous media and therefore are widely used in the formulation of drugs, cleaning and personal care products. In this work, it is shown that ionic liquids are a new class of powerful catanionic hydrotropes where both the cation and the anion synergistically contribute to increase the solubility of biomolecules in water. The effects of the ionic liquid chemical structures, their concentration and the temperature on the solubility of two model biomolecules, vanillin and gallic acid were evaluated and compared with the performance of conventional hydrotropes. The solubility of these two biomolecules was studied in the entire composition range, from pure water to pure ionic liquids, and an increase in the solubility of up to 40-fold was observed, confirming the potential of ionic liquids to act as hydrotropes. Using dynamic light scattering, NMR and molecular dynamics simulations, it was possible to infer that the enhanced solubility of the biomolecule in the IL aqueous solutions is related to the formation of ionic-liquid–biomolecules aggregates. Finally, it was demonstrated that hydrotropy induced by ionic liquids can be used to recover solutes from aqueous media by precipitation, simply by using water as an anti-solvent. The results reported here have a significant impact on the understanding of the role of ionic liquid aqueous solutions in the extraction of value-added compounds from biomass as well as in the design of novel processes for their recovery from aqueous media. PMID:26379471

  14. Single layer fuel cell based on a composite of Ce0.8Sm0.2O2-δ-Na2CO3 and a mixed ionic and electronic conductor Sr2Fe1.5Mo0.5O6-δ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xiao; Tian, Li; Li, Jiang; Zhao, Yicheng; Tian, Ye; Li, Yongdan

    2014-03-01

    A new kind of single layer fuel cell (SLFC) based on a composite material of Ce0.8Sm0.2O2-δ (SDC)-Na2CO3 and Sr2Fe1.5Mo0.5O6-δ (SFM) is successfully fabricated and characterized. As a mixed ionic and electronic conductor, SFM provides more reaction areas than the triple phase boundary provided by a simple mixture of ionic conductor and electronic conductor. SDC-Na2CO3 is used to adjust the ratio of ionic and electronic conductivities. The influence of the SFM content on the electrochemical performance of the SLFC is examined. The pellet made of 30 wt.% SFM and 70 wt.% SDC-Na2CO3 exhibits the highest open circuit voltage of 1.05 V and output of 360 mW cm-2 at 750 °C. Besides, by discussing influence factors of the OCV of the cell, the reason why the SLFC can give a similar OCV and output comparing with the conventional three-layer fuel cell, has been explained in detail.

  15. Solid polymer electrolyte compositions

    DOEpatents

    Garbe, James E.; Atanasoski, Radoslav; Hamrock, Steven J.; Le, Dinh Ba

    2001-01-01

    An electrolyte composition is featured that includes a solid, ionically conductive polymer, organically modified oxide particles that include organic groups covalently bonded to the oxide particles, and an alkali metal salt. The electrolyte composition is free of lithiated zeolite. The invention also features cells that incorporate the electrolyte composition.

  16. Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, John G.

    The Composites market is arguably the most challenging and profitable market for phenolic resins aside from electronics. The variety of products and processes encountered creates the challenges, and the demand for high performance in critical operations brings value. Phenolic composite materials are rendered into a wide range of components to supply a diverse and fragmented commercial base that includes customers in aerospace (Space Shuttle), aircraft (interiors and brakes), mass transit (interiors), defense (blast protection), marine, mine ducting, off-shore (ducts and grating) and infrastructure (architectural) to name a few. For example, phenolic resin is a critical adhesive in the manufacture of honeycomb sandwich panels. Various solvent and water based resins are described along with resin characteristics and the role of metal ions for enhanced thermal stability of the resin used to coat the honeycomb. Featured new developments include pultrusion of phenolic grating, success in RTM/VARTM fabricated parts, new ballistic developments for military vehicles and high char yield carbon-carbon composites along with many others. Additionally, global regional market resin volumes and sales are presented and compared with other thermosetting resin systems.

  17. VOC and HAP recovery using ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Michael R. Milota : Kaichang Li

    2007-05-29

    During the manufacture of wood composites, paper, and to a lesser extent, lumber, large amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as terpenes, formaldehyde, and methanol are emitted to air. Some of these compounds are hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). The air pollutants produced in the forest products industry are difficult to manage because the concentrations are very low. Presently, regenerative thermal oxidizers (RTOs and RCOs) are commonly used for the destruction of VOCs and HAPs. RTOs consume large amounts of natural gas to heat air and moisture. The combustion of natural gas generates increased CO2 and NOx, which have negative implications for global warming and air quality. The aforementioned problems are addressed by an absorption system containing a room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) as an absorbent. RTILs are salts, but are in liquid states at room temperature. RTILs, an emerging technology, are receiving much attention as replacements for organic solvents in industrial processes with significant cost and environmental benefits. Some of these processes include organic synthesis, extraction, and metal deposition. RTILs would be excellent absorbents for exhausts from wood products facilities because of their unique properties: no measurable vapor pressure, high solubility of wide range of organic compounds, thermal stability to 200°C (almost 400°F), and immisciblity with water. Room temperature ionic liquids were tested as possible absorbents. Four were imidizolium-based and were eight phosphonium-based. The imidizolium-based ionic liquids proved to be unstable at the conditions tested and in the presence of water. The phosphonium-based ionic liquids were stable. Most were good absorbents; however, cleaning the contaminates from the ionic liquids was problematic. This was overcome with a higher temperature (120°C) than originally proposed and a very low pressure (1 kPa. Absorption trials were conducted with tetradecy

  18. Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, M.; Nosewicz, S.; Pietrzak, K.; Rojek, J.; Strojny-Nędza, A.; Mackiewicz, S.; Dutkiewicz, J.

    2014-11-01

    It is commonly known that the properties of sintered materials are strongly related to technological conditions of the densification process. This paper shows the sintering behavior of a NiAl-Al2O3 composite, and its individual components sintered separately. Each kind of material was processed via the powder metallurgy route (hot pressing). The progress of sintering at different stages of the process was tested. Changes in the microstructure were examined using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Metal-ceramics interface was clean and no additional phases were detected. Correlation between the microstructure, density, and mechanical properties of the sintered materials was analyzed. The values of elastic constants of NiAl/Al2O3 were close to intermetallic ones due to the volume content of the NiAl phase particularly at low densities, where small alumina particles had no impact on the composite's stiffness. The influence of the external pressure of 30 MPa seemed crucial for obtaining satisfactory stiffness for three kinds of the studied materials which were characterized by a high dense microstructure with a low number of isolated spherical pores.

  19. Ionic liquids, electrolyte solutions including the ionic liquids, and energy storage devices including the ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Gering, Kevin L.; Harrup, Mason K.; Rollins, Harry W.

    2015-12-08

    An ionic liquid including a phosphazene compound that has a plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units and at least one pendant group bonded to each phosphorus atom of the plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units. One pendant group of the at least one pendant group comprises a positively charged pendant group. Additional embodiments of ionic liquids are disclosed, as are electrolyte solutions and energy storage devices including the embodiments of the ionic liquid.

  20. Thallium Transfer from Hydrochloric Acid Media into Pure Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Tereshatov, Evgeny E; Boltoeva, Maria Yu; Mazan, Valerie; Volia, Merinda F; Folden, Charles M

    2016-03-10

    Pure hydrophobic ionic liquids are known to extract metallic species from aqueous solutions. In this work we have systematically investigated thallium (Tl) extraction from aqueous hydrochloric acid (HCl) solutions into six pure fluorinated ionic liquids, namely imidazolium- and pyrrolidinium-based ionic liquids with bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide and bis(fluorosulfonyl)-imide anions. The dependence of the Tl extraction efficiency on the structure and composition of the ionic liquid ions, metal oxidation state, and initial metal and aqueous acid concentrations have been studied. Tl concentrations were on the order of picomolar (analyzed using radioactive tracers) and millimolar (analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry). The extraction of the cationic thallium species Tl(+) is higher for ionic liquids with more hydrophilic cations, while for the TlX(z)(3-z) anionic species (where X = Cl(-) and/or Br(-)), the extraction efficiency is greater for ionic liquids with more hydrophobic cations. The highest distribution value of Tl(III) was approximately 2000. An improved mathematical model based on ion exchange and ion pair formation mechanisms has been developed to describe the coextraction of two different anionic species, and the relative contributions of each mechanism have been determined. PMID:26769597

  1. Ion Transport in Nanostructured Block Copolymer/Ionic Liquid Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoarfrost, Megan Lane

    Incorporating an ionic liquid into one block copolymer microphase provides a platform for combining the outstanding electrochemical properties of ionic liquids with a number of favorable attributes provided by block copolymers. In particular, block copolymers thermodynamically self-assemble into well-ordered nanostructures, which can be engineered to provide a durable mechanical scaffold and template the ionic liquid into continuous ion-conducting nanochannels. Understanding how the addition of an ionic liquid affects the thermodynamic self-assembly of block copolymers, and how the confinement of ionic liquids to block copolymer nanodomains affects their ion-conducting properties is essential for predictable structure-property control. The lyotropic phase behavior of block copolymer/ionic liquid mixtures is shown to be reminiscent of mixtures of block copolymers with selective molecular solvents. A variety of ordered microstructures corresponding to lamellae, hexagonally close-packed cylinders, body-centered cubic, and face-centered cubic oriented micelles are observed in a model system composed of mixtures of imidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([Im][TFSI]) and poly(styrene- b-2-vinyl pyridine) (PS-b-P2VP). In contrast to block copolymer/molecular solvent mixtures, the interfacial area occupied by each PS-b-P2VP chain decreases upon the addition of [Im][TFSI], indicating a considerable increase in the effective segregation strength of the PS-b-P2VP copolymer with ionic liquid addition. The relationship between membrane structure and ionic conductivity is illuminated through the development of scaling relationships that describe the ionic conductivity of block copolymer/ionic liquid mixtures as a function of membrane composition and temperature. It is shown that the dominant variable influencing conductivity is the overall volume fraction of ionic liquid in the mixture, which means there

  2. Pycnonuclear reaction rates for binary ionic mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ichimaru, S.; Ogata, S.; Van Horn, H. M.

    1992-01-01

    Through a combination of compositional scaling arguments and examinations of Monte Carlo simulation results for the interparticle separations in binary-ionic mixture (BIM) solids, we have derived parameterized expressions for the BIM pycnonuclear rates as generalizations of those in one-component solids obtained previously by Salpeter and Van Horn and by Ogata et al. We have thereby discovered a catalyzing effect of the heavier elements, which enhances the rates of reactions among the lighter elements when the charge ratio exceeds a critical value of approximately 2.3.

  3. Preparation of AgX (X = Cl, I) nanoparticles using ionic liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodil, Eva; Aldous, Leigh; Hardacre, Christopher; Lagunas, M. Cristina

    2008-03-01

    Nanoparticles of silver halides have been prepared by mixing silver halide powder with a single liquid phase consisting of an ionic liquid, isooctane, n-decanol and water. Much higher nanoparticle concentrations may be formed with ionic liquids using this new simple method than are found with conventionally applied surfactants. This method also emphasizes the applicability of ionic liquids as versatile components in microemulsions and as solvents for the synthesis of nanomaterials. The effect on the nanoparticles of changing the composition of the liquid mixtures and the nature of the ionic liquid is analysed. High nanoparticle concentrations were only found with chloride based ionic liquids, indicating the importance of the ionic liquid anion in the mechanism of the reaction.

  4. Glass ceramic ionic conductor materials and method of making

    SciTech Connect

    Badzioch, S.

    1985-03-26

    Solid, crystalline glass ceramic compositions which are useful as ionic conductor materials, especially for use as solid electrolytes in high temperature, high energy density storage batteries. The glass ceramics are derived from sodium or calcium borates containing one or more metal halide, preferably the chlorides and bromides of the metals from Group 2 to 8 of the Periodic Table of the Elements.

  5. High performance batteries with carbon nanomaterials and ionic liquids

    DOEpatents

    Lu, Wen

    2012-08-07

    The present invention is directed to lithium-ion batteries in general and more particularly to lithium-ion batteries based on aligned graphene ribbon anodes, V.sub.2O.sub.5 graphene ribbon composite cathodes, and ionic liquid electrolytes. The lithium-ion batteries have excellent performance metrics of cell voltages, energy densities, and power densities.

  6. Enzyme catalysis in ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Kragl, Udo; Eckstein, Marrit; Kaftzik, Nicole

    2002-12-01

    Ionic liquids offer new possibilities for the application of solvent engineering to biocatalytic reactions. Although in many cases ionic liquids have simply been used to replace organic solvents, they have often led to improved process performance. Unlike conventional organic solvents, ionic liquids possess no vapor pressure, are able to dissolve many compounds, and can be used to form two-phase systems with many solvents. To date, reactions involving lipases have benefited most from the use of ionic liquids, but the use of ionic liquids with other enzymes and in whole-cell processes has also been described. In some cases, remarkable results with respect to yield, (enantio)selectivity or enzyme stability were observed. PMID:12482515

  7. Extending the applicability of the Goldschmidt tolerance factor to arbitrary ionic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Toyoto; Takagi, Shigeyuki; Deledda, Stefano; Hauback, Bjørn C.; Orimo, Shin-Ichi

    2016-04-01

    Crystal structure determination is essential for characterizing materials and their properties, and can be facilitated by various tools and indicators. For instance, the Goldschmidt tolerance factor (T) for perovskite compounds is acknowledged for evaluating crystal structures in terms of the ionic packing. However, its applicability is limited to perovskite compounds. Here, we report on extending the applicability of T to ionic compounds with arbitrary ionic arrangements and compositions. By focussing on the occupancy of constituent spherical ions in the crystal structure, we define the ionic filling fraction (IFF), which is obtained from the volumes of crystal structure and constituent ions. Ionic compounds, including perovskites, are arranged linearly by the IFF, providing consistent results with T. The linearity guides towards finding suitable unit cell and composition, thus tackling the main obstacle for determining new crystal structures. We demonstrate the utility of the IFF by solving the structure of three hydrides with new crystal structures.

  8. Extending the applicability of the Goldschmidt tolerance factor to arbitrary ionic compounds

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Toyoto; Takagi, Shigeyuki; Deledda, Stefano; Hauback, Bjørn C.; Orimo, Shin-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Crystal structure determination is essential for characterizing materials and their properties, and can be facilitated by various tools and indicators. For instance, the Goldschmidt tolerance factor (T) for perovskite compounds is acknowledged for evaluating crystal structures in terms of the ionic packing. However, its applicability is limited to perovskite compounds. Here, we report on extending the applicability of T to ionic compounds with arbitrary ionic arrangements and compositions. By focussing on the occupancy of constituent spherical ions in the crystal structure, we define the ionic filling fraction (IFF), which is obtained from the volumes of crystal structure and constituent ions. Ionic compounds, including perovskites, are arranged linearly by the IFF, providing consistent results with T. The linearity guides towards finding suitable unit cell and composition, thus tackling the main obstacle for determining new crystal structures. We demonstrate the utility of the IFF by solving the structure of three hydrides with new crystal structures. PMID:27032978

  9. Thermostable cellulases, and mutants thereof, capable of hydrolyzing cellulose in ionic liquid

    DOEpatents

    Sapra, Rajat; Datta, Supratim; Chen, Zhiwei; Holmes, Bradley M.; Simmons, Blake A.; Blanch, Harvey W.

    2016-04-26

    The present invention provides for a composition comprising an ionic liquid and a thermostable cellulose, and a method of hydrolyzing a cellulose, comprising: (a) providing a composition comprising a solution comprising an ionic liquid and a cellulose, and (b) introducing a thermostable cellulase to the solution, such that the cellulose is hydrolyzed by the cellulase. The present invention also provides for a Thermatoga maritima thermostable cellulase mutant with increased cellulase activity.

  10. Wettability by Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongliang; Jiang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) have become particularly attractive recently because they have demonstrated themselves to be important construction units in the broad fields of chemistry and materials science, from catalysis and synthesis to analysis and electrochemistry, from functional fluids to clean energy, from nanotechnology to functional materials. One of the greatest issues that determines the performance of ILs is the wettability of correlated surfaces. In this concept article, the key developments and issues in IL wettability are surveyed, including the electrowetting of ILs in gas-liquid-solid systems and liquid-liquid-solid systems, ILs as useful probe fluids, the superwettability of Ils, and future directions in IL wettability. This should generate extensive interest in the field and encourage more scientists to engage in this area to tackle its scientific challenges. PMID:26619157

  11. Noble metal ionic catalysts.

    PubMed

    Hegde, M S; Madras, Giridhar; Patil, K C

    2009-06-16

    Because of growing environmental concerns and increasingly stringent regulations governing auto emissions, new more efficient exhaust catalysts are needed to reduce the amount of pollutants released from internal combustion engines. To accomplish this goal, the major pollutants in exhaust-CO, NO(x), and unburned hydrocarbons-need to be fully converted to CO(2), N(2), and H(2)O. Most exhaust catalysts contain nanocrystalline noble metals (Pt, Pd, Rh) dispersed on oxide supports such as Al(2)O(3) or SiO(2) promoted by CeO(2). However, in conventional catalysts, only the surface atoms of the noble metal particles serve as adsorption sites, and even in 4-6 nm metal particles, only 1/4 to 1/5 of the total noble metal atoms are utilized for catalytic conversion. The complete dispersion of noble metals can be achieved only as ions within an oxide support. In this Account, we describe a novel solution to this dispersion problem: a new solution combustion method for synthesizing dispersed noble metal ionic catalysts. We have synthesized nanocrystalline, single-phase Ce(1-x)M(x)O(2-delta) and Ce(1-x-y)Ti(y)M(x)O(2-delta) (M = Pt, Pd, Rh; x = 0.01-0.02, delta approximately x, y = 0.15-0.25) oxides in fluorite structure. In these oxide catalysts, Pt(2+), Pd(2+), or Rh(3+) ions are substituted only to the extent of 1-2% of Ce(4+) ion. Lower-valent noble metal ion substitution in CeO(2) creates oxygen vacancies. Reducing molecules (CO, H(2), NH(3)) are adsorbed onto electron-deficient noble metal ions, while oxidizing (O(2), NO) molecules are absorbed onto electron-rich oxide ion vacancy sites. The rates of CO and hydrocarbon oxidation and NO(x) reduction (with >80% N(2) selectivity) are 15-30 times higher in the presence of these ionic catalysts than when the same amount of noble metal loaded on an oxide support is used. Catalysts with palladium ion dispersed in CeO(2) or Ce(1-x)Ti(x)O(2) were far superior to Pt or Rh ionic catalysts. Therefore, we have demonstrated that the

  12. A New Class of Ionic Liquids: Anion Amphiprotic Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Treskow, Marcel; Pitawala, Jagath; Arenz, Sven; Matic, Aleksandar; Johansson, Patrik

    2012-08-16

    We here present a new class of protic ionic liquids, anion amphiprotic ionic liquids (AAILs). These materials are protonation equilibrium free protic ionic liquids and interesting in their own right by not following the classical Brønsted acid-base neutralization concept. Due to the very simple synthesis route applied and their stable basic chemistry, we believe in a potential use for manifold applications. This is supported by the combination of practical material properties, foremost, a general intrinsic stability versus reversal of the formation reaction toward neutral species, broad liquidus ranges, long-term thermal stabilities, high conductivities, protic characteristics, and a general stability versus water. PMID:26295756

  13. Design and Evaluation of Ionic Liquids as Novel CO2 Absorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Edward Maginn

    2007-07-15

    This is the final report for project DE-FG26-04NT42122 'Design and Evaluation of Ionic Liquids as Novel CO{sub 2} Absorbents'. The objective of this 'breakthrough concepts' project was to investigate the feasibility of using ionic liquids for post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture and obtain a fundamental understanding of the solubility of CO{sub 2} and other components present in flue gas in ionic liquids. Our plan was to obtain information on how composition and structure of ionic liquid molecules affected solubility and other important physical properties via two major efforts: synthesis and experimental measurements and molecular simulation. We also planned to perform preliminary systems modeling study to assess the economic viability of a process based on ionic liquids. We accomplished all the milestones and tasks specified in the original proposal. Specifically, we carried out extensive quantum and classical atomistic-level simulations of a range of ionic liquids. These calculations provided detailed information on how the chemical composition of ionic liquids affects physical properties. We also learned important factors that govern CO{sub 2} solubility. Using this information, we synthesized or acquired 33 new ionic liquids. Many of these had never been made before. We carried out preliminary tests on all of these compounds, and more extensive tests on those that looked most promising for CO{sub 2} capture. We measured CO{sub 2} solubility in ten of these ionic liquids. Through our efforts, we developed an ionic liquid that has a CO{sub 2} solubility 2.6 times greater than the 'best' ionic liquid available to us at the start of the project. Moreover, we demonstrated that SO{sub 2} is also extremely soluble in ionic liquids, opening up the possibility of using ionic liquids to remove both SO{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} from flue gas. In collaboration with Trimeric Inc., a preliminary systems analysis was conducted and the results used to help identify physical

  14. Ionic Liquid Crystals: Versatile Materials.

    PubMed

    Goossens, Karel; Lava, Kathleen; Bielawski, Christopher W; Binnemans, Koen

    2016-04-27

    This Review covers the recent developments (2005-2015) in the design, synthesis, characterization, and application of thermotropic ionic liquid crystals. It was designed to give a comprehensive overview of the "state-of-the-art" in the field. The discussion is focused on low molar mass and dendrimeric thermotropic ionic mesogens, as well as selected metal-containing compounds (metallomesogens), but some references to polymeric and/or lyotropic ionic liquid crystals and particularly to ionic liquids will also be provided. Although zwitterionic and mesoionic mesogens are also treated to some extent, emphasis will be directed toward liquid-crystalline materials consisting of organic cations and organic/inorganic anions that are not covalently bound but interact via electrostatic and other noncovalent interactions. PMID:27088310

  15. Special Report: Solid Ionic Conductors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriver, Duward F.; Farrington, Gregory C.

    1985-01-01

    Solid ionic conductors are unusual materials that may find valuable applications in devices ranging from high-energy density batteries to lasers. The nature of these materials and their potential uses are discussed. (JN)

  16. Nonlinear ionic pulses along microtubules.

    PubMed

    Sekulić, D L; Satarić, B M; Tuszynski, J A; Satarić, M V

    2011-05-01

    Microtubules are cylindrically shaped cytoskeletal biopolymers that are essential for cell motility, cell division and intracellular trafficking. Here, we investigate their polyelectrolyte character that plays a very important role in ionic transport throughout the intra-cellular environment. The model we propose demonstrates an essentially nonlinear behavior of ionic currents which are guided by microtubules. These features are primarily due to the dynamics of tubulin C-terminal tails which are extended out of the surface of the microtubule cylinder. We also demonstrate that the origin of nonlinearity stems from the nonlinear capacitance of each tubulin dimer. This brings about conditions required for the creation and propagation of solitonic ionic waves along the microtubule axis. We conclude that a microtubule plays the role of a biological nonlinear transmission line for ionic currents. These currents might be of particular significance in cell division and possibly also in cognitive processes taking place in nerve cells. PMID:21604102

  17. Novel approaches to ionic chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Dasgupta, P.K.

    1990-11-01

    Research during this reporting period, continued on ionic chromatography. Major progress has been made towards on-line on-demand generation of ultrapure chemicals by electrochemical means. The concentration of the generated material is governed electrochemically.

  18. Synthesis, characterization and applications of ionic supramolecular assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xinrong

    Supramolecular ionic assemblies not only provide alternatives to conventional polymers, but also introduce unique and interesting functions for the design of "smart" polymeric assemblies for use in a number of fields due to their programmable and reversible properties. Research in the area has led to an understanding of the connection between molecular contributions and macroscopic properties, as well as a range of applications from material processing/manufacuturing to energy transfer and storage. To this end, we have developed a library of charged building blocks based on ionic liquids to create functional supramolecular ionic assemblies. The polymeric ionic assemblies prepared from a di-phosphonium and poly (acrylic acid) were first studied and found to have the potential to be utilized as "smart" materials due to their ability to reversibly respond to stimuli such as temperature and pressure. With the interest of elucidating the molecular contributions to the bulk macroscopic material properties, six supramolecular assemblies were sequentially characterized in terms of thermal, rheological and X-ray studies. The effect of side alkyl chain was found to dramatically change the material properties. A second type of supramolecular assembly was investigated based on a poly-phosphonium ionic liquid, which was complexed with a number of carboxylic acids. The material properties were easily manipulated from a sticky fiber to a brittle solid by changing the composition of the carboxylic acid. A crosslinked supramolecular assembly combining ionic interactions and weak covalent bonds, specifically disulfide bonds, was next designed and characterized. The network properties could be switched between "on and off" using mild conditions. The polymeric ionic networks and their building block ionic liquids are also of interest as safe electrolytes in energy storage devices due to their non-flammability, non-volatility, etc. We have identified one ionic liquid with superior

  19. Ionic Liquid Epoxy Resin Monomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paley, Mark S. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Ionic liquid epoxide monomers capable of reacting with cross-linking agents to form polymers with high tensile and adhesive strengths. Ionic liquid epoxide monomers comprising at least one bis(glycidyl) N-substituted nitrogen heterocyclic cation are made from nitrogen heterocycles corresponding to the bis(glycidyl) N-substituted nitrogen heterocyclic cations by a method involving a non-nucleophilic anion, an alkali metal cation, epichlorohydrin, and a strong base.

  20. Hydrophobic ionic liquids

    DOEpatents

    Koch, V.R.; Nanjundiah, C.; Carlin, R.T.

    1998-10-27

    Ionic liquids having improved properties for application in non-aqueous batteries, electrochemical capacitors, electroplating, catalysis and chemical separations are disclosed. Exemplary compounds have one of the following formulas shown in a diagram wherein R{sub 1}, R{sub 2}, R{sub 3}, R{sub 4}, R{sub 5}, and R{sub 6} are either H; F; separate alkyl groups of from 1 to 4 carbon atoms, respectively, or joined together to constitute a unitary alkylene radical of from 2 to 4 carbon atoms forming a ring structure converging on N; or separate phenyl groups; and wherein the alkyl groups, alkylene radicals or phenyl groups may be substituted with electron withdrawing groups, preferably F-, Cl-, CF{sub 3}-, SF{sub 5}-, CF{sub 3}S-, (CF{sub 3}){sub 2}CHS- or (CF{sub 3}){sub 3}CS-; and X{sup {minus}} is a non-Lewis acid-containing polyatomic anion having a van der Waals volume exceeding 100 {angstrom}{sup 3}. 4 figs.

  1. Hydrophobic ionic liquids

    DOEpatents

    Koch, Victor R.; Nanjundiah, Chenniah; Carlin, Richard T.

    1998-01-01

    Ionic liquids having improved properties for application in non-aqueous batteries, electrochemical capacitors, electroplating, catalysis and chemical separations are disclosed. Exemplary compounds have one of the following formulas: ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, and R.sub.6 are either H; F; separate alkyl groups of from 1 to 4 carbon atoms, respectively, or joined together to constitute a unitary alkylene radical of from 2 to 4 carbon atoms forming a ring structure converging on N; or separate phenyl groups; and wherein the alkyl groups, alkylene radicals or phenyl groups may be substituted with electron withdrawing groups, preferably F--, Cl--, CF.sub.3 --, SF.sub.5 --, CF.sub.3 S--, (CF.sub.3).sub.2 CHS-- or (CF.sub.3).sub.3 CS--; and X.sup.- is a non-Lewis acid-containing polyatomic anion having a van der Waals volume exceeding 100 .ANG..sup.3.

  2. Preparation of porous aromatic framework/ionic liquid hybrid composite coated solid-phase microextraction fibers and their application in the determination of organochlorine pesticides combined with GC-ECD detection.

    PubMed

    Wu, Mingxue; Chen, Gang; Liu, Ping; Zhou, Weihong; Jia, Qiong

    2016-01-01

    A novel hybrid material incorporating porous aromatic frameworks and an ionic liquid, 1-(triethoxy silyl)propyl-3-aminopropyl imidazole hexafluorophosphate, was prepared as solid-phase microextraction coating and employed for the extraction of organochlorine pesticides. Combining the advantages of porous aromatic frameworks and an ionic liquid, the fiber exhibited a high adsorption capacity for organochlorine pesticides. Under optimized experimental conditions, enhancement factors of 247-1696 were obtained with good linearity in the range of 1-500 μg L(-1). The detection limits and quantification limits were determined to be in the range of 0.11-0.29 μg L(-1) and 0.35-0.93 μg L(-1). The relative standard deviations for six replicates of organochlorine pesticides were in the range of 4.4%-7.2% and 5.7%-10.1% for one fiber and fiber-to-fiber, respectively. By coupling with a gas chromatography-electron capture detector, the novel fiber was successfully used for the determination of organochlorine pesticides in juice and milk samples with recoveries of 76.1%-121.3%. PMID:26579991

  3. Influence of ionic association, transport properties, and solvation on the catalytic hydrogenation of 1,3-cyclohexadiene in ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Podgoršek, Ajda; Salas, Gorka; Campbell, Paul S; Santini, Catherine C; Pádua, Agílio A H; Costa Gomes, Margarida F; Fenet, Bernard; Chauvin, Yves

    2011-10-27

    The influence of the nature of two different ionic liquids, namely 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, [C(1)C(4)Im][NTf(2)], and 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, [C(1)C(1)C(4)Im][NTf(2)], on the catalytic hydrogenation of 1,3-cyclohexadiene with [Rh(COD)(PPh(3))(2)][NTf(2)] (COD = 1,5-cyclooctadiene) was studied. Initially, the effect of different concentrations of 1,3-cyclohexadiene on the molecular interactions and on the structure in two ionic liquids was investigated by NMR and by molecular dynamic simulations. It was found that in both ionic liquids 1,3-cyclohexadiene is solvated preferentially in the lipophilic regions. Furthermore, the higher solubility of 1,3-cyclohexadiene in [C(1)C(4)Im][NTf(2)] and the smaller positive values of the excess molar enthalpy of mixing for the 1,3-cyclohexadiene + [C(1)C(4)Im][NTf(2)] system in comparison with 1,3-cyclohexadiene + [C(1)C(1)C(4)Im][NTf(2)] indicate more favorable interactions between 1,3-cyclohexadiene and the C(1)C(4)Im(+) cation than with the C(1)C(1)C(4)Im(+) cation. Subsequently, diffusivity and conductivity measurements of the 1,3-cyclohexadiene + ionic liquid mixtures at different compositions allowed a characterization of mass and charge transport in the media and access to the ionicity of ionic liquids in the mixture. From the dependence of the ratio between molar conductivity and the conductivity inferred from NMR diffusion measurements, Λ(imp)/Λ(NMR), on concentration of 1,3-cyclohexadiene in the ionic liquid mixture, it was found that increasing the amount of 1,3-cyclohexadiene leads to a decrease in the ionicity of the medium. Finally, the reactivity of the catalytic hydrogenation of 1,3-cyclohexadiene using [Rh(COD)(PPh(3))(2)][NTf(2)] performed in [C(1)C(4)Im][NTf(2)] at different compositions of 1,3-cyclohexadiene and in [C(1)C(1)C(4)Im][NTf(2)] at one composition was related linearly to the viscosity, hence the reaction rate is

  4. Protic ionic liquids based on the dimeric and oligomeric anions: [(AcO)xH(x-1)]-.

    PubMed

    Johansson, K M; Izgorodina, E I; Forsyth, M; MacFarlane, D R; Seddon, K R

    2008-05-28

    We describe a fluidity and conductivity study as a function of composition in N-methylpyrrolidine-acetic acid mixtures. The simple 1 : 1 acid-base mixture appears to form an ionic liquid, but its degree of ionicity is quite low and such liquids are better thought of as poorly dissociated mixtures of acid and base. The composition consisting of 3 moles acetic acid and 1 mole N-methylpyrrolidine is shown to form the highest ionicity mixture in this binary due to the presence of oligomeric anionic species [(AcO)(x)H(x-1)](-) stabilised by hydrogen bonds. These oligomeric species, being weaker bases than the acetate anion, shift the proton transfer equilibrium towards formation of ionic species, thus generating a higher degree of ionicity than is present at the 1 : 1 composition. A Walden plot analysis, thermogravimetric behaviour and proton NMR data, as well as ab initio calculations of the oligomeric species, all support this conclusion. PMID:18473045

  5. Discovering less toxic ionic liquids by using the Microtox® toxicity test.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Fernández, F J; Bayo, J; Pérez de los Ríos, A; Vicente, M A; Bernal, F J; Quesada-Medina, J

    2015-06-01

    New Microtox® toxicity data of 16 ionic liquids of different cationic and anionic composition were determined. The ionic liquids 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium trifluoromethanesulfonate, [BMPyr(+)][TFO(-)], 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium chloride, [BMPyr(+)][Cl(-)], hydroxypropylmethylimidazolium fluoroacetate, [HOPMIM(+)][FCH2COO(-)], and hydroxypropylmethylimidazolium glycolate [HOPMIM(+)][glycolate(-)] were found to be less toxic than conventional organic solvent such as chloroform or toluene, accoding the Microtox® toxicity assays. The toxicity of pyrrolidinium cation was lower than the imidazolium and pyridinium ones. It was found that the inclusion of an hydroxyl group in the alkyl chain length of the cation also reduce the toxicity of the ionic liquid. To sum up, the Microtox® toxicity assays can be used as screening tool to easily determined the toxicity of a wide range of ionic liquids and the toxicity data obtained could allow the obtention of structure-toxicity relationships to design less toxic ionic liquids. PMID:25748519

  6. Dual Ionic and Organic Nature of Ionic Liquids

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Rui; Wang, Yanting

    2016-01-01

    Inherited the advantages of inorganic salts and organic solvents, ionic liquids (ILs) exhibit many superior properties allowing them promising green solvents for the future. Although it has been widely acknowledged that the unique features of ILs originate from their dual ionic and organic nature, its microscopic physical origin still remains blurry. In this work, by comparing the ion/molecule cage structures obtained from molecular dynamics simulations for seven prototypic liquids—a molten inorganic salt, four ILs, a strongly polar organic solvent, and a weakly polar organic solvent, we have revealed that the depth of the cage energy landscape characterizes the ionic nature of ILs, whereas the slope and curvature of its mimimum determine the organic nature of ILs. This finding advances our understanding of ILs and thus will help their efficient utilization as well as the systematic design of novel functionalized ILs. PMID:26782660

  7. Dual Ionic and Organic Nature of Ionic Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Rui; Wang, Yanting

    2016-01-01

    Inherited the advantages of inorganic salts and organic solvents, ionic liquids (ILs) exhibit many superior properties allowing them promising green solvents for the future. Although it has been widely acknowledged that the unique features of ILs originate from their dual ionic and organic nature, its microscopic physical origin still remains blurry. In this work, by comparing the ion/molecule cage structures obtained from molecular dynamics simulations for seven prototypic liquids—a molten inorganic salt, four ILs, a strongly polar organic solvent, and a weakly polar organic solvent, we have revealed that the depth of the cage energy landscape characterizes the ionic nature of ILs, whereas the slope and curvature of its mimimum determine the organic nature of ILs. This finding advances our understanding of ILs and thus will help their efficient utilization as well as the systematic design of novel functionalized ILs.

  8. Dual Ionic and Organic Nature of Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Shi, Rui; Wang, Yanting

    2016-01-01

    Inherited the advantages of inorganic salts and organic solvents, ionic liquids (ILs) exhibit many superior properties allowing them promising green solvents for the future. Although it has been widely acknowledged that the unique features of ILs originate from their dual ionic and organic nature, its microscopic physical origin still remains blurry. In this work, by comparing the ion/molecule cage structures obtained from molecular dynamics simulations for seven prototypic liquids--a molten inorganic salt, four ILs, a strongly polar organic solvent, and a weakly polar organic solvent, we have revealed that the depth of the cage energy landscape characterizes the ionic nature of ILs, whereas the slope and curvature of its mimimum determine the organic nature of ILs. This finding advances our understanding of ILs and thus will help their efficient utilization as well as the systematic design of novel functionalized ILs. PMID:26782660

  9. Ionic liquid nanostructure enables alcohol self assembly.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Thomas; Hayes, Robert; Imberti, Silvia; Warr, Gregory G; Atkin, Rob

    2016-05-14

    Weakly structured solutions are formed from mixtures of one or more amphiphiles and a polar solvent (usually water), and often contain additional organic components. They contain solvophobic aggregates or association structures with incomplete segregation of components, which leads to a poorly defined interfacial region and significant contact between the solvent and aggregated hydrocarbon groups. The length scales, polydispersity, complexity and ill-defined structures in weakly structured solutions makes them difficult to probe experimentally, and obscures understanding of their formation and stability. In this work we probe the nanostructure of homogenous binary mixtures of the ionic liquid (IL) propylammonium nitrate (PAN) and octanol as a function of composition using neutron diffraction and atomistic empirical potential structure refinement (EPSR) fits. These experiments reveal why octanol forms weakly structured aggregates in PAN but not in water, the mechanism by which PAN stabilises the octanol assemblies, and how the aggregate morphologies evolve with octanol concentration. This new understanding provides insight into the general stabilisation mechanisms and structural features of weakly structured mixtures, and reveals new pathways for identifying molecular or ionic liquids that are likely to facilitate aggregation of non-traditional amphiphiles. PMID:27102801

  10. Ionic Graphitization of Ultrathin Films of Ionic Compounds.

    PubMed

    Kvashnin, A G; Pashkin, E Y; Yakobson, B I; Sorokin, P B

    2016-07-21

    On the basis of ab initio density functional calculations, we performed a comprehensive investigation of the general graphitization tendency in rocksalt-type structures. In this paper, we determine the critical slab thickness for a range of ionic cubic crystal systems, below which a spontaneous conversion from a cubic to a layered graphitic-like structure occurs. This conversion is driven by surface energy reduction. Using only fundamental parameters of the compounds such as the Allen electronegativity and ionic radius of the metal atom, we also develop an analytical relation to estimate the critical number of layers. PMID:27333810

  11. Ionic conductivity and transport properties of poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene)-based solid polymer electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abreha, Merhawi; Subrahmanyam, A. R.; Siva Kumar, J.

    2016-08-01

    Polymer electrolytes containing poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP) and various concentrations of lithium triflate were prepared to determine the optimal polymer-salt composition for maximum ionic conductivity. Complex formation was ascertained from X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies. The conductivity measurements reveal that the ionic conductivity of the polymer electrolytes containing various salt concentrations increases with temperature and obeys the Arrhenius rule. It is found that the electrolyte containing 25 wt.% of lithium triflate exhibits the highest room temperature conductivity. Moreover, Ionic transference measurements show predominance of ionic motion.

  12. Electrolyte compositions for lithium ion batteries

    DOEpatents

    Sun, Xiao-Guang; Dai, Sheng; Liao, Chen

    2016-03-29

    The invention is directed in a first aspect to an ionic liquid of the general formula Y.sup.+Z.sup.-, wherein Y.sup.+ is a positively-charged component of the ionic liquid and Z.sup.- is a negatively-charged component of the ionic liquid, wherein Z.sup.- is a boron-containing anion of the following formula: ##STR00001## The invention is also directed to electrolyte compositions in which the boron-containing ionic liquid Y.sup.+Z.sup.- is incorporated into a lithium ion battery electrolyte, with or without admixture with another ionic liquid Y.sup.+X.sup.- and/or non-ionic solvent and/or non-ionic solvent additive.

  13. Development of ionic polymer actuator arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Guilly, Marie

    Ionic polymer metal composites (IPMC) are bending type actuators which are soft, and show large deformation at low voltage. This work explored the creation of IPMC actuator arrays to take advantage of the unique features of IPMCs, in applications such as pump and valve arrays for micro-fluidic devices, microwave switch arrays etc. In the design of the arrays, the concept of integration is key, to make the actuator array reliable, compact and scalable. The arrays are created as a single physical part, by electrode patterning on the ionic polymer and material engineering. Gold chemical plating was used to create the flexible electrodes with large capacitance on Flemion and Nafion. Patterning was done with masks created in various ways. Nafion, because of its high flexibility, can be made into diaphragm actuators with very good dynamic properties. Flemion in cantilever mode was found to generate large forces without relaxation, a key feature for the design of IPMC switches and valves. A new electrode fabrication technique was developed based on plasma polymerization on an amine monomer on the membrane and subsequent self assembly of Au colloids. A 14-micron thick Flemion sample with 10 layers of 13nm diameter Au colloids showed actuation at +/-1.5V. The demonstration of actuation of IPMC with self-assembled electrodes is a milestone for the future application of IPMC to MEMS. Finally the actuation mechanisms of Nafion and Flemion were modeled. Two dominant contributions in the actuation of IPMC were considered: electro-osmosis, and equilibrium volume which can change upon cation redistribution. A large volume transition upon pH change was observed for Flemion, whereas Nafion proved indifferent to pH. It is proposed that Flemion is generally weakly ionized and has many ionic groups in acid form. Upon cation redistribution, this structure is perturbed and the ionization increases at the cathode side because of the increase in sodium concentration, leading to an increase

  14. Buffered chlorogallate(III) ionic liquids and electrodeposition of gallium films.

    PubMed

    Seddon, Kenneth R; Srinivasan, Geetha; Swadźba-Kwaśny, Małgorzata; Wilson, Anthony R

    2013-04-01

    Buffering of Lewis acidic chlorometallate ionic liquids is a useful tool to modify their properties for electrochemical and catalytic applications. Lewis acidic chlorogallate(iii) ionic liquids containing the 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium cation, buffered with sodium chloride, were studied using (71)Ga NMR spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. All the studied Lewis acidic compositions (0.50 < χGaCl3 ≤ 0.75) could be buffered to mild or moderate acidity, but not to neutrality. Electrodeposition of gallium from such buffered systems was possible, yielding deposits of improved morphology over the unbuffered ionic liquids, due to the constant melt composition maintained by the buffer. These findings were in a stark contrast with older studies on chloroaluminate(iii) ionic liquids buffered with sodium chloride. PMID:23420108

  15. Properties of the Nafion membrane impregnated with hydroxyl ammonium based ionic liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garaev, Valeriy; Kleperis, Janis; Pavlovica, Sanita; Vaivars, Guntars

    2012-08-01

    In this work, the Nafion 112 membrane impregnated with nine various hydroxyl ammonium based ionic liquids have been investigated. The used ionic liquids were combined from hydroxyl ammonium cations (2-hydroxyethylammonium/HEA, bis(2- hydroxyethyl)ammonium/BHEA, tris(2-hydroxyethyl)ammonium/THEA) and carboxylate anions (formate, acetate, lactate). The membranes are characterized by conductivity and thermal stability measurements. It was found, that almost all composites have 10 times higher ion conductivity than a pure Nafion 112 at 90 °C in ambient environment due to the higher thermal stability. The thermal stability of Nafion membrane was increased by all studied nine ionic liquids. In this work, only biodegradable ionic liquids were used for composite preparation.

  16. Ionic Aggregation and Microphase Separation in Sulfonated Polyester Multiblock Copolymers and Ionomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Reilly, Michael; Tudryn, Gregory; Colby, Ralph; Winey, Karen

    2011-03-01

    Polyethylene oxide (PEO) has been copolymerized with polytetramethylene oxide (PTMO) using a sulfonated phthalate ionic linker between blocks. The product is a linear multiblock copolymer, which is neutralized with lithium and sodium. We used X-ray scattering to investigate the morphology from 25°C to 200°C. The results show that this copolymer exhibits three distinct morphology characteristics. First, microphase separation exists between the PEO and PTMO phases. Second, ionic aggregates occur in the PEO microdomains. Finally, the appearance of better defined ionic aggregates occurs in the PTMO microdomains. Ion aggregation and microphase separation are studied as functions of temperature and copolymer molar composition. DRS analysis confirms that ionic aggregation is independent of copolymer composition.

  17. Understanding positive and negative deviations in polarity of ionic liquid mixtures by pseudo-solvent approach.

    PubMed

    Beniwal, Vijay; Kumar, Anil

    2016-08-24

    Physico-chemical properties of liquid mixtures in general display large deviations from linear behaviour, arising out of complex specific and non-specific intermolecular interactions. The polarity of liquid mixtures displaying large positive and negative deviations can be minimized and linear mixing can be achieved in liquids using a pseudo-solvent methodology. The work described herein is designed to investigate the influence of different physical parameters on the linear pseudo-solvent composition in ionic liquid mixtures. For this purpose, we have determined the deviations from linearity, ΔE values (defined as given by ) for binary mixtures of a variety of ionic liquids, including two molecular solvents, DMSO and formamide. Firstly, the investigations were carried out in three 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium cation based aprotic ionic liquids and the roles of anionic structure and hydrogen bond acceptor basicities (β values) of the ionic liquids were determined. The influence of the cationic structure, i.e., the hydrogen bond donor acidity (α values) and non-associative nature of the ionic liquids, was determined using C2-methylated analogs, 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium cation based ionic liquids. The role of the protic nature of ionic liquids was studied in two protic ionic liquids, viz., 1-methylimidazolium formate and 1-methylimidazolium acetate. The effects of the temperature, pseudo-solvent structure and solvatochromic probe structure on the ΔE values were also explored. PMID:27523572

  18. Lithium ion conducting ionic electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, C.A.; Xu, K.; Liu, C.

    1996-01-16

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described which has exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100 C or lower, including room temperature. It comprises molten lithium salts or salt mixtures in which a small amount of an anionic polymer lithium salt is dissolved to stabilize the liquid against recrystallization. Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which has good chemical and electrochemical stability, is described. This presents an attractive alternative to conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes which are not cationic conductors. 4 figs.

  19. Lithium ion conducting ionic electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, C. Austen; Xu, Kang; Liu, Changle

    1996-01-01

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described which has exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature. It comprises molten lithium salts or salt mixtures in which a small amount of an anionic polymer lithium salt is dissolved to stabilize the liquid against recrystallization. Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which has good chemical and electrochemical stability, is described. This presents an attractive alternative to conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes which are not cationic conductors.

  20. Ionic Liquids and Cellulose: Dissolution, Chemical Modification and Preparation of New Cellulosic Materials

    PubMed Central

    Isik, Mehmet; Sardon, Haritz; Mecerreyes, David

    2014-01-01

    Due to its abundance and a wide range of beneficial physical and chemical properties, cellulose has become very popular in order to produce materials for various applications. This review summarizes the recent advances in the development of new cellulose materials and technologies using ionic liquids. Dissolution of cellulose in ionic liquids has been used to develop new processing technologies, cellulose functionalization methods and new cellulose materials including blends, composites, fibers and ion gels. PMID:25000264

  1. Ionic conductivity studies of gel polyelectrolyte based on ionic liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, E. H.; Lim, S. A.; Park, J. H.; Kim, D. W.; Macfarlane, D. R.

    Novel lithium polyelectrolyte-ionic liquids have been prepared and characterized of their properties. Poly(lithium 2-acrylamido-2-methyl propanesulfonate) (PAMPSLi) and its copolymer with N-vinyl formamide (VF) also has been prepared as a copolymer. 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tricyanomethanide (emImTCM) and N, N-dimethyl- N-propyl- N-butyl ammonium tricyanomethanide (N 1134TCM) which are chosen because of the same with the anion of ionic liquid were prepared. The ionic conductivity of copolymer system (PAMPSLi/PVF/emImTCM: 5.43 × 10 -3 S cm -1 at 25 °C) exhibits about over four times higher than that of homopolymer system (PAMPSLi/emImTCM: 1.28 × 10 -3 S cm -1 at 25 °C). Introduction of vinyl formamide into the copolymer type can increase the dissociation of the lithium cations from the polymer backbone. The ionic conductivity of copolymer with emImTCM (PAMPSLi/PVF/emImTCM) exhibits the higher conductivity than that of PAMPSLi/PVF/N 1134TCM (2.48 × 10 -3 S cm -1). Because of using the polymerizable anion it is seen to maintain high flexibility of imidazolium cation effectively to exhibit the higher conductivity. And also the viscosity of emImTCM (19.56 cP) is lower than that of N 1134TCM (28.61 cP). Low viscosity leads to a fast rate of diffusion of redox species.

  2. Triphilic Ionic-Liquid Mixtures: Fluorinated and Non-fluorinated Aprotic Ionic-Liquid Mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Hollóczki, Oldamur; Macchiagodena, Marina; Weber, Henry; Thomas, Martin; Brehm, Martin; Stark, Annegret; Russina, Olga; Triolo, Alessandro; Kirchner, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    We present here the possibility of forming triphilic mixtures from alkyl- and fluoroalkylimidazolium ionic liquids, thus, macroscopically homogeneous mixtures for which instead of the often observed two domains—polar and nonpolar—three stable microphases are present: polar, lipophilic, and fluorous ones. The fluorinated side chains of the cations indeed self-associate and form domains that are segregated from those of the polar and alkyl domains. To enable miscibility, despite the generally preferred macroscopic separation between fluorous and alkyl moieties, the importance of strong hydrogen bonding is shown. As the long-range structure in the alkyl and fluoroalkyl domains is dependent on the composition of the liquid, we propose that the heterogeneous, triphilic structure can be easily tuned by the molar ratio of the components. We believe that further development may allow the design of switchable, smart liquids that change their properties in a predictable way according to their composition or even their environment. PMID:26305804

  3. Triphilic Ionic-Liquid Mixtures: Fluorinated and Non-fluorinated Aprotic Ionic-Liquid Mixtures.

    PubMed

    Hollóczki, Oldamur; Macchiagodena, Marina; Weber, Henry; Thomas, Martin; Brehm, Martin; Stark, Annegret; Russina, Olga; Triolo, Alessandro; Kirchner, Barbara

    2015-10-26

    We present here the possibility of forming triphilic mixtures from alkyl- and fluoroalkylimidazolium ionic liquids, thus, macroscopically homogeneous mixtures for which instead of the often observed two domains-polar and nonpolar-three stable microphases are present: polar, lipophilic, and fluorous ones. The fluorinated side chains of the cations indeed self-associate and form domains that are segregated from those of the polar and alkyl domains. To enable miscibility, despite the generally preferred macroscopic separation between fluorous and alkyl moieties, the importance of strong hydrogen bonding is shown. As the long-range structure in the alkyl and fluoroalkyl domains is dependent on the composition of the liquid, we propose that the heterogeneous, triphilic structure can be easily tuned by the molar ratio of the components. We believe that further development may allow the design of switchable, smart liquids that change their properties in a predictable way according to their composition or even their environment. PMID:26305804

  4. Nanoparticle enhanced ionic liquid heat transfer fluids

    DOEpatents

    Fox, Elise B.; Visser, Ann E.; Bridges, Nicholas J.; Gray, Joshua R.; Garcia-Diaz, Brenda L.

    2014-08-12

    A heat transfer fluid created from nanoparticles that are dispersed into an ionic liquid is provided. Small volumes of nanoparticles are created from e.g., metals or metal oxides and/or alloys of such materials are dispersed into ionic liquids to create a heat transfer fluid. The nanoparticles can be dispersed directly into the ionic liquid during nanoparticle formation or the nanoparticles can be formed and then, in a subsequent step, dispersed into the ionic liquid using e.g., agitation.

  5. Ionic transport and electrical relaxation in glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moynihan, C. T.; Barkatt, A.

    1987-09-01

    The basic purpose of the work described was to achieve extensive and quantitative understanding of ionic transport processes in melts and glasses by means of a combination of experimental measurements and theoretical modeling. Two major subjects of the study were the mechanism of dielectric relaxation in ionically conducting glasses and the large retardation of ionic transport in mixed alkali systems.

  6. The hype with ionic liquids as solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunz, Werner; Häckl, Katharina

    2016-09-01

    In this mini review, we give our personal opinion about the present state of the art concerning Ionic Liquids, proposed as alternative solvents. In particular, we consider their different drawbacks and disadvantages and discuss the critical aspects of the research of Ionic Liquids as solvents. Finally, we point out some aspects on potentially promising Ionic Liquid solvents.

  7. High-flux ionic diodes, ionic transistors and ionic amplifiers based on external ion concentration polarization by an ion exchange membrane: a new scalable ionic circuit platform.

    PubMed

    Sun, Gongchen; Senapati, Satyajyoti; Chang, Hsueh-Chia

    2016-04-01

    A microfluidic ion exchange membrane hybrid chip is fabricated using polymer-based, lithography-free methods to achieve ionic diode, transistor and amplifier functionalities with the same four-terminal design. The high ionic flux (>100 μA) feature of the chip can enable a scalable integrated ionic circuit platform for micro-total-analytical systems. PMID:26960551

  8. Application of Ionic Liquids in Hydrometallurgy

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jesik; Jung, Yeojin; Kusumah, Priyandi; Lee, Jinyoung; Kwon, Kyungjung; Lee, Churl Kyoung

    2014-01-01

    Ionic liquids, low temperature molten salts, have various advantages manifesting themselves as durable and environmentally friendly solvents. Their application is expanding into various fields including hydrometallurgy due to their unique properties such as non-volatility, inflammability, low toxicity, good ionic conductivity, and wide electrochemical potential window. This paper reviews previous literatures and our recent results adopting ionic liquids in extraction, synthesis and processing of metals with an emphasis on the electrolysis of active/light, rare earth, and platinum group metals. Because the research and development of ionic liquids in this area are still emerging, various, more fundamental approaches are expected to popularize ionic liquids in the metal manufacturing industry. PMID:25177864

  9. Application of ionic liquids in hydrometallurgy.

    PubMed

    Park, Jesik; Jung, Yeojin; Kusumah, Priyandi; Lee, Jinyoung; Kwon, Kyungjung; Lee, Churl Kyoung

    2014-01-01

    Ionic liquids, low temperature molten salts, have various advantages manifesting themselves as durable and environmentally friendly solvents. Their application is expanding into various fields including hydrometallurgy due to their unique properties such as non-volatility, inflammability, low toxicity, good ionic conductivity, and wide electrochemical potential window. This paper reviews previous literatures and our recent results adopting ionic liquids in extraction, synthesis and processing of metals with an emphasis on the electrolysis of active/light, rare earth, and platinum group metals. Because the research and development of ionic liquids in this area are still emerging, various, more fundamental approaches are expected to popularize ionic liquids in the metal manufacturing industry. PMID:25177864

  10. Observation of ionic Coulomb blockade in nanopores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jiandong; Liu, Ke; Graf, Michael; Dumcenco, Dumitru; Kis, Andras; di Ventra, Massimiliano; Radenovic, Aleksandra

    2016-08-01

    Emergent behaviour from electron-transport properties is routinely observed in systems with dimensions approaching the nanoscale. However, analogous mesoscopic behaviour resulting from ionic transport has so far not been observed, most probably because of bottlenecks in the controlled fabrication of subnanometre nanopores for use in nanofluidics. Here, we report measurements of ionic transport through a single subnanometre pore junction, and the observation of ionic Coulomb blockade: the ionic counterpart of the electronic Coulomb blockade observed for quantum dots. Our findings demonstrate that nanoscopic, atomically thin pores allow for the exploration of phenomena in ionic transport, and suggest that nanopores may also further our understanding of transport through biological ion channels.

  11. Studies on the dissolution of glucose in ionic liquids and extraction using the antisolvent method.

    PubMed

    Hassan, El-Sayed R E; Mutelet, Fabrice; Pontvianne, Steve; Moïse, Jean-Charles

    2013-03-19

    Biomass, the fibrous material derived from plant cell walls, is a potentially clean and renewable nonfood feedstock for liquid fuel and chemical production in future biorefineries. The capability of ionic liquids to act as selective solvents and catalysts for biomass processing has already been proven. Thus, they are considered as an alternative to conventional solvents. Nevertheless, phase equilibria with biomass derived compounds is still lacking in the literature. To overcome the lack of experimental data on phase equilibria of biomass carbohydrates in ionic liquids, the solubility of d-glucose in four ionic liquids was measured within a temperature range from 283 to 373 K. Solubility data were successfully correlated with local composition thermodynamic models such as NRTL and UNIQUAC. In this work, the possibility of extracting glucose from these ionic liquids using the antisolvent method has been also evaluated. The parameters affecting the extraction process are the ionic liquid type, ethanol/ionic liquid ratio, temperature, water content, and time. Results indicate that ethanol can be successfully used as an antisolvent to separate glucose from ionic liquids. PMID:23398175

  12. Accelerated materials design of fast oxygen ionic conductors based on first principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xingfeng; Mo, Yifei

    Over the past decades, significant research efforts have been dedicated to seeking fast oxygen ion conductor materials, which have important technological applications in electrochemical devices such as solid oxide fuel cells, oxygen separation membranes, and sensors. Recently, Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 (NBT) was reported as a new family of fast oxygen ionic conductor. We will present our first principles computation study aims to understand the O diffusion mechanisms in the NBT material and to design this material with enhanced oxygen ionic conductivity. Using the NBT materials as an example, we demonstrate the computation capability to evaluate the phase stability, chemical stability, and ionic diffusion of the ionic conductor materials. We reveal the effects of local atomistic configurations and dopants on oxygen diffusion and identify the intrinsic limiting factors in increasing the ionic conductivity of the NBT materials. Novel doping strategies were predicted and demonstrated by the first principles calculations. In particular, the K doped NBT compound achieved good phase stability and an order of magnitude increase in oxygen ionic conductivity of up to 0.1 S cm-1 at 900 K compared to the experimental Mg doped compositions. Our results provide new avenues for the future design of the NBT materials and demonstrate the accelerated design of new ionic conductor materials based on first principles techniques. This computation methodology and workflow can be applied to the materials design of any (e.g. Li +, Na +) fast ion-conducting materials.

  13. Evaporation from an ionic liquid emulsion.

    PubMed

    Friberg, Stig E

    2007-03-15

    The conditions during evaporation in a liquid crystal-in-ionic liquid microemulsion (LC/microEm) were estimated using the phase diagram of the system. The equations for selected tie lines were established and the coordinates calculated for the sites, at which the evaporation lines crossed the tie lines. These values combined with the coordinates for the phases connecting the tie lines were used to calculate the amounts and the composition of the fractions of the two phases present in the emulsion during the evaporation. One of the emulsion phases was a lamellar liquid crystal and high energy emulsification would lead to the liquid crystal being disrupted to form vesicles. Such a system tenders a unique opportunity to study the interaction between vesicles and normal micelles, which gradually change to inverse micelles over bi-continuous structures. The amount of vesicles in the liquid phase versus the fraction liquid crystal was calculated for two extreme cases of vesicle core size and shell thickness. The limit of evaporation while retaining the vesicle structure was calculated for emulsions of different original compositions assuming the minimum continuous liquid phase to be 50% of the emulsion. PMID:17207810

  14. Externally Wetted Ionic Liquid Thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozano, P.; Martinez-Sanchez, M.; Lopez-Urdiales, J. M.

    2004-10-01

    This paper presents initial developments of an electric propulsion system based on ionic liquid ion sources (ILIS). Propellants are ionic liquids, which are organic salts with two important characteristics; they remain in the liquid state at room temperature and have negligible vapor pressure, thus allowing their use in vacuum. The working principles of ILIS are similar to those of liquid metal ion sources (LMIS), in which a Taylor cone is electrostatically formed at the tip of an externally wetted needle while ions are emitted directly from its apex. ILIS have the advantage of being able to produce negative ions that have similar masses than their positive counterparts with similar current levels. This opens up the possibility of achieving plume electrical neutrality without electron emitters. The possible multiplexing of these emitters is discussed in terms of achievable thrust density for applications other than micro-propulsion.

  15. Quantized ionic conductance in nanopores

    SciTech Connect

    Zwolak, Michael; Lagerqvist, Johan; Di Ventra, Massimilliano

    2009-01-01

    Ionic transport in nanopores is a fundamentally and technologically important problem in view of its ubiquitous occurrence in biological processes and its impact on DNA sequencing applications. Using microscopic calculations, we show that ion transport may exhibit strong non-liDearities as a function of the pore radius reminiscent of the conductance quantization steps as a function of the transverse cross section of quantum point contacts. In the present case, however, conductance steps originate from the break up of the hydration layers that form around ions in aqueous solution. Once in the pore, the water molecules form wavelike structures due to multiple scattering at the surface of the pore walls and interference with the radial waves around the ion. We discuss these effects as well as the conditions under which the step-like features in the ionic conductance should be experimentally observable.

  16. Simulation of Ionic Aggregation and Ion Dynamics in Model Ionomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frischknecht, Amalie L.

    2012-02-01

    Ionomers, polymers containing a small fraction of covalently bound ionic groups, are of interest as possible electrolytes in batteries. A single-ion conducting polymer electrolyte would be safer and have higher efficiency than the currently-used liquid electrolytes. However, to date ionomeric materials do not have sufficiently high conductivities for practical application. This is most likely because the ions tend to form aggregates, leading to slow ion transport. A key question is therefore how molecular structure affects the ionic aggregation and ion dynamics. To probe these structure-property relationships, we have performed molecular simulations of a set of recently synthesized poly(ethylene-co-acrylic acid) copolymers and ionomers, with a focus on the morphology of the ionic aggregates. The ionomers have a precise, constant spacing of charged groups, making them ideal for direct comparisons with simulations. Ab initio calculations give insight into the expected coordination of cations with fragments of the ionomers. All-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the ionomer melt show aggregation of the ionic groups into extended string-like clusters. An extensive set of coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations extend the results to longer times and larger length scales. The structure factors calculated from the MD simulations compare favorably with x-ray scattering data. Furthermore, the simulations give a detailed picture of the sizes, shapes, and composition of the ionic aggregates, and how they depend on polymer architecture. Implications for ion transport will be discussed. [Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  17. Ionic Liquids to Replace Hydrazine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koelfgen, Syri; Sims, Joe; Forton, Melissa; Allan, Barry; Rogers, Robin; Shamshina, Julia

    2011-01-01

    A method for developing safe, easy-to-handle propellants has been developed based upon ionic liquids (ILs) or their eutectic mixtures. An IL is a binary combination of a typically organic cation and anion, which generally produces an ionic salt with a melting point below 100 deg C. Many ILs have melting points near, or even below, room temperature (room temperature ionic liquids, RTILs). More importantly, a number of ILs have a positive enthalpy of formation. This means the thermal energy released during decomposition reactions makes energetic ILs ideal for use as propellants. In this specific work, to date, a baseline set of energetic ILs has been identified, synthesized, and characterized. Many of the ILs in this set have excellent performance potential in their own right. In all, ten ILs were characterized for their enthalpy of formation, density, melting point, glass transition point (if applicable), and decomposition temperature. Enthalpy of formation was measured using a microcalorimeter designed specifically to test milligram amounts of energetic materials. Of the ten ILs characterized, five offer higher Isp performance than hydrazine, ranging between 10 and 113 seconds higher than the state-of-the-art propellant. To achieve this level of performance, the energetic cations 4- amino-l,2,4-triazolium and 3-amino-1,2,4-triazolium were paired with various anions in the nitrate, dicyanamide, chloride, and 3-nitro-l,2,4-triazole families. Protonation, alkylation, and butylation synthesis routes were used for creation of the different salts.

  18. Revealing ionic motion molecular solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurzo, I.; Zahn, D. R. T.

    2006-01-01

    Thin films of mixed valence semiconductor copper-tetracyano-quinodimethane (Cu-TCNQ) and small molecule tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato)aluminum (Alq3) were investigated by current-voltage (I-V) and admittance (C-V,G-V) techniques in single-layer configuration with different combinations of electrodes. The predicted hysteresis of I-V curves and nearly constant loss (NCL) could be observed for both materials. When cycling devices between negative and positive biases, slowly decaying ionic transient currents interfere with steady-state currents and point to unidirectional motions of the ionic species with subsequent redox reaction at one of the electrodes. Plotting the frequency f dependence of the equivalent parallel capacitance at zero bias as log10 C(0) versus log10(f), the dielectric behavior of Cu-TCNQ and Alq3 complies with the effective-medium model for NCL in ionic conductors [J. R. Macdonald J. Appl. Phys. 94, 558 (2003)]. It also holds for a similar plot of the equivalent parallel zero-bias conductance G(0). The nature of the revealed mobile ions is discussed with emphasis on their sources.

  19. Water Mediates Recognition of DNA Sequence via Ionic Current Blockade in a Biological Nanopore.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Swati; Yoo, Jejoong; Aksimentiev, Aleksei

    2016-04-26

    Electric field-driven translocation of DNA strands through biological nanopores has been shown to produce blockades of the nanopore ionic current that depend on the nucleotide composition of the strands. Coupling a biological nanopore MspA to a DNA processing enzyme has made DNA sequencing via measurement of ionic current blockades possible. Nevertheless, the physical mechanism enabling the DNA sequence readout has remained undetermined. Here, we report the results of all-atom molecular dynamics simulations that elucidated the physical mechanism of ionic current blockades in the biological nanopore MspA. We find that the amount of water displaced from the nanopore by the DNA strand determines the nanopore ionic current, whereas the steric and base-stacking properties of the DNA nucleotides determine the amount of water displaced. Unexpectedly, we find the effective force on DNA in MspA to undergo large fluctuations, which may produce insertion errors in the DNA sequence readout. PMID:27054820

  20. Cathodoluminescence insights into the ionic disorder of photocatalytic anatase films

    SciTech Connect

    Pezzotti, Giuseppe; Zhu Wenliang; Leto, Andrea; Battiston, Simone; Minella, Marco

    2012-05-15

    The nature of ionic disorder and the effect of structural defects on the photocatalytic function of anatase are revisited in the light of direct experimental evidence retrieved on the molecular scale by cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy. CL spectra, collected on different types of photocatalytically efficient or inefficient anatase films, embodied a composite optical response of electron-compensating majority types of ionic disorder in the anatase lattice. This paper describes the dual experimental output obtained by systematically monitoring optically active off-stoichiometry sites, as follows: (i) quantitative analyses of film stoichiometry including the interactions of different lattice-defect populations; and (ii) stability/evolution of off-stoichiometry sites upon post-fabrication annealing cycles and their effects on the photocatalytic activity of the films. CL experiments provided us with direct access to the structural state of the defective anatase lattice, thus unfolding some missing detail about the complex physicochemical interactions behind its photocatalytic efficiency.

  1. Carbon films produced from ionic liquid carbon precursors

    DOEpatents

    Dai, Sheng; Luo, Huimin; Lee, Je Seung

    2013-11-05

    The invention is directed to a method for producing a film of porous carbon, the method comprising carbonizing a film of an ionic liquid, wherein the ionic liquid has the general formula (X.sup.+a).sub.x(Y.sup.-b).sub.y, wherein the variables a and b are, independently, non-zero integers, and the subscript variables x and y are, independently, non-zero integers, such that ax=by, and at least one of X.sup.+ and Y.sup.- possesses at least one carbon-nitrogen unsaturated bond. The invention is also directed to a composition comprising a porous carbon film possessing a nitrogen content of at least 10 atom %.

  2. Mass and Charge Transport in the Polymer-Ionic-Liquid System PEO-EMImI: From Ionic-Liquid-in-Polymer to Polymer-in-Ionic-Liquid Electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Kösters, Johannes; Schönhoff, Monika; Stolwijk, Nicolaas A

    2015-04-30

    Conventional polymer electrolytes based on inorganic salts are commonly characterized and utilized over a small salt-poor composition range because of phase transitions accompanied by loss of ion conductivity at high salt concentrations. By contrast, well-chosen polymer-ionic-liquid (IL) systems offer the possibility to vary the IL content from the IL-in-polymer to the polymer-in-IL domain. We have investigated the temperature-dependent ionic conductivity in PEOyEMImI systems consisting of poly(ethylene oxide) complexed with 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium iodide for y = EO/IL ratios ranging from 0.6 to 60 and compared diffusivity data with that arising from (1)H pulsed-field-gradient nuclear magnetic resonance for EMIm and (125)I radiotracer diffusion for iodine. Surprisingly, the diffusivity of cations and anions vary at most by 50% at fixed temperatures over the entire composition range. The much larger changes in the charge diffusivity Dσ relate to ion pairing exhibiting a minimum near the intermediate composition y = 10. Altogether, the results are relevant to application in dye-sensitized solar cells and show that a high ion density is crucial to enhance the iodine transport capacity. PMID:25848686

  3. Radiation Chemistry and Photochemistry of Ionic Liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Wishart, J.F.; Takahaski, K.

    2010-12-01

    As our understanding of ionic liquids and their tunable properties has grown, it is possible to see many opportunities for ionic liquids to contribute to the sustainable use of energy. The potential safety and environmental benefits of ionic liquids, as compared to conventional solvents, have attracted interest in their use as processing media for the nuclear fuel cycle. Therefore, an understanding of the interactions of ionizing radiation and photons with ionic liquids is strongly needed. However, the radiation chemistry of ionic liquids is still a relatively unexplored topic although there has been a significant increase in the number of researchers in the field recently. This article provides a brief introduction to ionic liquids and their interesting properties, and recent advances in the radiation chemistry and photochemistry of ionic liquids. In this article, we will mainly focus on excess electron dynamics and radical reaction dynamics. Because solvation dynamics processes in ionic liquids are much slower than in molecular solvents, one of the distinguishing characteristics is that pre-solvated electrons play an important role in ionic liquid radiolysis. It will be also shown that the reaction dynamics of radical ions is significantly different from that observed in molecular solvents because of the Coulombic screening effects and electrostatic interactions in ionic liquids.

  4. Ionic and viscoelastic mechanisms of a bucky-gel actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruusamäe, Karl; Sugino, Takushi; Asaka, Kinji

    2015-07-01

    Ionic electromechanically active polymers (IEAPs) are considered attractive candidates for soft, miniature, and lightweight actuators. The bucky-gel actuator is a carbonaceous subtype of IEAP that due to its structure (i.e. two highly porous electrodes sandwiching a thin ion-permeable electrolyte layer) and composition (i.e. being composed of soft porous polymer, carbon nanotubes, and ionic liquid) is very similar to an electric double-layer capacitor. In response to the voltage applied between the electrodes of a bucky-gel actuator, the laminar structure bends. The time domain behavior exhibits, however, a phenomenon called the back-relaxation, i.e., after some time the direction of bending is reversed even though voltage remains constant. In spite of the working mechanism of IEAP actuators being generally attributed to the transport of ions within the soft multilayer system, the specific details remain unclear. A so-called two-carrier model proposes that the bending and subsequent back-relaxation are caused by the relocation of two ionic species having different mobilities as they enter and exit the electrode layers. By adopting the two-carrier model for bucky-gel actuators, we see very good agreement between the mathematical representation and the experimental data of the electromechanical behavior. Furthermore, since the bucky-gel actuator is viscoelastic, we propose to use the time domain response of a blocking force as the key parameter related to the inner ionic mechanism. We also introduce a method to estimate the viscoelastic creep compliance function from the time domain responses for curvature and blocking force. This analysis includes four types of bucky-gel actuators of varying composition and structure.

  5. Ionic, XRD, dielectric and cyclic voltammetry studies on PVdF-co-HFP / MMT clay intercalated LiN(C2F5SO2)2 based composite electrolyte for Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vickraman, P.; Purushothaman, K.; SankaraSubramanian, N.

    2014-04-01

    The composition dependence of plasticizer, (EC/DMC)(70-x(wt%)) and LiBETIx(wt%) salt for fixed contents on PVdF-co-HFP(25wt%)/surface modified(SM)-octadecylamine MMT(ODA-MMT) nanoclay(5wt%) host matrix by varying its compositions x=1.5, 3.0, 4.5, 6.0 wt% prepared via solution casting technique has been investigated by A.C. Impedance, Dielectric, XRD, and cyclic voltammetry(CV) studies. The enhanced conductivity 2.1×10-5 S/cm at 300C is observed for (EC/DMC)(70-6)wt%/LiBETI(x=6)wt%. The XRD at 2θ=20.9° confirms β-phase formation, and CV studies on membranes show cyclability and reversibility. The dielectric studies show increase in dielectric constant and dielectric loss with decrease in frequency is attributed to high contribution of charge accumulation at the electrode-electrolyte interface.

  6. Ionic liquid-functionalized mesoporous sorbents and their use in the capture of polluting gases

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Jong Suk; Koros, William J.; Bhuwania, Nitesh; Hillesheim, Patrick C.; Dai, Sheng

    2016-01-12

    A composite structure for capturing a gaseous electrophilic species, the composite structure comprising mesoporous refractory sorbent particles on which an ionic liquid is covalently attached, wherein said ionic liquid includes an accessible functional group that is capable of binding to said gaseous electrophilic species. In particular embodiments, the mesoporous sorbent particles are contained within refractory hollow fibers. Also described is a method for capturing a gaseous electrophilic species by use of the above-described composite structure, wherein the gaseous electrophilic species is contacted with the composite structure. In particular embodiments thereof, cooling water is passed through the refractory hollow fibers containing the IL-functionalized sorbent particles in order to facilitate capture of the gaseous electrophilic species, and then steam is passed through the refractory hollow fibers to facilitate release of the gaseous electrophilic species such that the composite structure can be re-used to capture additional gas.

  7. Charge transport in confined ionic liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangoro, Joshua; Iacob, Ciprian; Kipnusu, Wycliffe; Kremer, Friedrich

    2011-03-01

    Charge transport and glassy dynamics in neat and polymerized ionic liquids confined in nanoporous silica are investigated in a wide frequency and temperature ranges by a combination of Broadband Dielectric Spectroscopy and Pulsed Field Gradient Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (PFG NMR). By applying the Einstein-Smoluchowski relations to the dielectric spectra, diffusion coefficients are obtained in quantitative agreement with independent PFG NMR. The impact of geometrical confinement as well as the pore wall-ionic liquid interactions on the overall ionic mobility is explored for diverse categories of ionic liquids. The results are discussed within the framework of dynamic glass transition assisted charge transport in ionic liquids. Financial support from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft under the DFG SPP 1191 Priority Program on Ionic Liquids is gratefully acknowledged.

  8. Enzyme catalysis with small ionic liquid quantities.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Fabian; Mutschler, Julien; Zufferey, Daniel

    2011-04-01

    Enzyme catalysis with minimal ionic liquid quantities improves reaction rates, stereoselectivity and enables solvent-free processing. In particular the widely used lipases combine well with many ionic liquids. Demonstrated applications are racemate separation, esterification and glycerolysis. Minimal solvent processing is also an alternative to sluggish solvent-free catalysis. The method allows simplified down-stream processing, as only traces of ionic liquids have to be removed. PMID:21107639

  9. Early Events in Ionic Liquid Radiation Chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Wishart, J.F.; Cook, A.; Rimmer, R.D.; Gohdo, M.

    2010-09-14

    Ionic liquids are interesting and useful materials whose solvation time scales are up to thousands of times longer than in conventional solvents. The extended lifetimes of pre-solvated electrons and other energetic species in ionic liquids has profound consequences for the radiolytic product distributions and reactivity patterns. We use a newly developed, multiplexed variation of pulse-probe spectroscopy to measure the kinetics of the early dynamical and reactive events in ionic liquids.

  10. Mechanically-tunable composite filter at low frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeland, Sara; Amirkhizi, Alireza V.; Nemat-Nasser, Sia

    2010-04-01

    Previous studies into the possibility of a plasmonic medium of a coiled conductor array in air have shown promise. This work serves to evaluate the possibility of creating a mechanically-tunable composite filter at low frequencies. Copper springs were created with varying starting pitches using a coil winder. These springs were then embedded into a flexible host polymer. The mechanical and electromagnetic properties of each spring design were predicted and tested. Two horn antennas were used to characterize the overall electromagnetic (EM) properties of the composite. The pitch of each spring was increased mechanically through application of force to the entire polymermetal composite at equal intervals, with an EM test completed at each step. Using an Agilent 8510C Vector Network Analyzer (VNA), the frequency spectrum within the microwave range was scanned. Relative amplitude and phase measurements were taken at equal frequency and pitch steps. With no polymer surrounding the springs, plasmon turn-on frequencies were observed to span the microwave bands as the pitch of the springs were increased. Similar results are expected with the springs embedded in a polymeric matrix. These results suggest a method of creating a mechanically-tunable composite filter for use at low frequencies.

  11. Membrane separation of ionic liquid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Campos, Daniel; Feiring, Andrew Edward; Majumdar, Sudipto; Nemser, Stuart

    2015-09-01

    A membrane separation process using a highly fluorinated polymer membrane that selectively permeates water of an aqueous ionic liquid solution to provide dry ionic liquid. Preferably the polymer is a polymer that includes polymerized perfluoro-2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxole (PDD). The process is also capable of removing small molecular compounds such as organic solvents that can be present in the solution. This membrane separation process is suitable for drying the aqueous ionic liquid byproduct from precipitating solutions of biomass dissolved in ionic liquid, and is thus instrumental to providing usable lignocellulosic products for energy consumption and other industrial uses in an environmentally benign manner.

  12. Solid composite electrolytes for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Kumar, Binod; Scanlon, Jr., Lawrence G.

    2000-01-01

    Solid composite electrolytes are provided for use in lithium batteries which exhibit moderate to high ionic conductivity at ambient temperatures and low activation energies. In one embodiment, a ceramic-ceramic composite electrolyte is provided containing lithium nitride and lithium phosphate. The ceramic-ceramic composite is also preferably annealed and exhibits an activation energy of about 0.1 eV.

  13. Ionic self-assembly affords mesoporous ionic networks by crosslinking linear polyviologens with polyoxometalate clusters.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guojian; Hou, Wei; Li, Jing; Wang, Xiaochen; Zhou, Yu; Wang, Jun

    2016-03-21

    Ionic-bonded mesoporous ionic networks were prepared by the ionic self-assembly of polyoxometalate (POM) clusters with linear cationic polyviologens in water. The POM-enriched PMIN-2(V) possesses a high surface area up to 120 m(2) g(-1), exhibiting superior non-noble metal heterogeneous catalytic performance in the ambient aerobic selective oxidation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural. PMID:26898883

  14. Quantized ionic conductance in nanopores.

    PubMed

    Zwolak, Michael; Lagerqvist, Johan; Di Ventra, Massimiliano

    2009-09-18

    Ionic transport in nanopores is a fundamentally and technologically important problem in view of its occurrence in biological processes and its impact on novel DNA sequencing applications. Using molecular dynamics simulations we show that ion transport may exhibit strong nonlinearities as a function of the pore radius reminiscent of the conductance quantization steps as a function of the transverse cross section of quantum point contacts. In the present case, however, conductance steps originate from the break up of the hydration layers that form around ions in aqueous solution. We discuss this phenomenon and the conditions under which it should be experimentally observable. PMID:19792463

  15. Characteristics and Influence of Biosmoke on the Fine-Particle Ionic Composition Measured in Asian Outflow during the Transport and Chemical Evolution Over the Pacific (TRACE-P) Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Y.; Weber, R. J.; Lee, Y.-N.; Orsini, D. A.; Maxwell-Meier, K.; Thornton, D. C.; Bandy, A. R.; Clarke, A. D.; Blake, D. R.; Sachse, G. W.

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the sources, prevalence, and fine-particle inorganic composition of biosmoke over the western Pacific Ocean between 24 February and 10 April 2001. The analysis is based on highly time-resolved airborne measurements of gaseous and fine- particle inorganic chemical composition made during the NASA Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P) experiment. At latitudes below approximately 25 deg. N, relatively pure biomass burning plumes of enhanced fine-particle potassium, nitrate, ammonium, light-absorbing aerosols, and CO concentrations were observed in plumes that back trajectories and satellite fire map data suggest originated from biomass burning in southeast Asia. Fine-particle water-soluble potassium (K+) is confirmed to be a unique biosmoke tracer, and its prevalence throughout the experiment indicates that approximately 20% of the TRACE-P Asian outflow plumes were influenced, to some extent, by biomass or biofuel burning emissions. At latitudes above 25 deg. N, highly mixed urban/industrial and biosmoke plumes, indicated by SO(sup 2, sub 4) and K+, were observed in 5 out of 53 plumes. Most plumes were found in the Yellow Sea and generally were associated with much higher fine-particle loadings than plumes lacking a biosmoke influence. The air mass back trajectories of these mixed plumes generally pass through the latitude range of between 34 deg. and 40 deg. N on the eastern China coast, a region that includes the large urban centers of Beijing and Tianjin. A lack of biomass burning emissions based on fire maps and high correlations between K+ and pollution tracers (e.g., S(sup 2, sub 4) suggest biofuel sources. Ratios of fine-particle potassium to sulfate are used to provide an estimate of relative contributions of biosmoke emissions to the mixed Asian plumes. The ratio is highly correlated with fine-particle volume (r(sup 2) = 0.85) and predicts that for the most polluted plume encounter in TRACE-P, approximately 60% of the

  16. Crosslinked ionic polysaccharides for stimuli-sensitive drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen; Blanco-Fernandez, Barbara; Puga, Ana M; Concheiro, Angel

    2013-08-01

    Polysaccharides are gaining increasing attention as components of stimuli-responsive drug delivery systems, particularly since they can be obtained in a well characterized and reproducible way from the natural sources. Ionic polysaccharides can be readily crosslinked to render hydrogel networks sensitive to a variety of internal and external variables, and thus suitable for switching drug release on-off through diverse mechanisms. Hybrids, composites and grafted polymers can reinforce the responsiveness and widen the range of stimuli to which polysaccharide-based systems can respond. This review analyzes the state of the art of crosslinked ionic polysaccharides as components of delivery systems that can regulate drug release as a function of changes in pH, ion nature and concentration, electric and magnetic field intensity, light wavelength, temperature, redox potential, and certain molecules (enzymes, illness markers, and so on). Examples of specific applications are provided. The information compiled demonstrates that crosslinked networks of ionic polysaccharides are suitable building blocks for developing advanced externally activated and feed-back modulated drug delivery systems. PMID:23639519

  17. Novel polymer electrolytes based on gelatin and ionic liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leones, Rita; Sentanin, F.; Rodrigues, Luísa C.; Ferreira, Rute A. S.; Marrucho, Isabel M.; Esperança, José M. S. S.; Pawlicka, Agnieszka; Carlos, Luís D.; Manuela Silva, M.

    2012-12-01

    This study describes the results of the characterization of polymer electrolytes using gelatin matrix doped with europium triflate and/or different ionic liquids. Samples of solvent-free electrolytes were prepared and characterized by ionic conductivity measurements, thermal analysis, electrochemical stability, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Electrolyte samples are thermally stable up to approximately 220 °C. All the materials synthesized are totally amorphous. The room temperature conductivity maximum of this electrolyte system is based on ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, (C2mim)(OAc) (1.18 × 10-4 S cm-1 at 30 °C). The electrochemical stability domain of all samples is about 2.0 V versus Li/Li+. This new series of materials represents a promising alternative in polymer electrolytes research field. The preliminary studies carried out with electrochromic devices (ECDs) incorporating optimized compositions have confirmed that these materials may perform as satisfactory multifunctional component layers in the field of "smart windows". This new materials, will open a land of promising applications in many areas: optics, energy, medicine for example as membranes and separation devices, ECD-based devices, sensors, etc.

  18. Ionic effects on spindle adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Husmark, I.; Ottoson, D.

    1971-01-01

    1. Effects of changes in ionic environment on the receptor potential were studied in isolated frog spindle. Particular attention was focused on the action of potassium removal on the early adaptive decline of the response. 2. Removal of potassium caused a reduction and final disappearance of the dynamic overshoot of the receptor potential. The static phase of the response was also reduced although to less extent. The repolarization phase of the response following release of phasic or maintained stretch was greatly prolonged. 3. Increased potassium concentration caused a reduction of the response, but did not change its general time course. The amount of reduction was related to the potassium concentration. 4. Removal of sodium caused a marked diminution of the response, the static phase being in general more affected than the dynamic phase. 5. It is suggested that the effects of potassium removal are caused by a delay in sodium inactivation and a partial depolarization of the endings. It is concluded that the greater part of the early adaptation of the spindle proper may be attributed to ionic mechanisms in the transducer membrane. PMID:4256546

  19. Ionic liquid tunes microemulsion curvature.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liping; Bauduin, Pierre; Zemb, Thomas; Eastoe, Julian; Hao, Jingcheng

    2009-02-17

    Middle-phase microemulsions formed from cationic dioctadecyldimethylammonium chloride (DODMAC), anionic sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS), n-butanol, and n-heptane were studied. An ionic liquid (IL), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([bmim][BF4]), was employed as the electrolyte in the aqueous media instead of inorganic salts usually used in microemulsion formulation. Studies have been carried out as a function of the concentrations of [bmim][BF4], n-butanol, total surfactant (cDODMAC+SDS), and temperature on the phase behavior and the ultralow interfacial tensions in which the anionic component is present in excess in the catanionic film. Ultralow interfacial tension measurements confirmed the formation of middle-phase microemulsions and the necessary conditions for stabilizing middle-phase microemulsions. Electrical conductivity, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments were also performed, indicating that the typical heptane domain size has an average radius of 360 A and the ionic liquid induces softening of the charged catanionic film. Most interestingly, the IL concentration (cIL) is shown to act as an effective interfacial curvature-control parameter, representing a new approach to tuning the formulation of microemulsions and emulsions. The results expand the potential uses of ILs but also point to the design of new ILs that may achieve superefficient control over interfacial and self-assembly systems. PMID:19161325

  20. Liquid-Mercury-Supported Langmuir Films of Ionic Liquids: Isotherms, Structure, and Time Evolution.

    PubMed

    Elfassy, Eitan; Mastai, Yitzhak; Pontoni, Diego; Deutsch, Moshe

    2016-04-01

    Ionic liquids have been intensively developed for the last few decades and are now used in a wide range of applications, from electrochemistry to catalysis and nanotechnology. Many of these applications involve ionic liquid interfaces with other liquids and solids, the subnanometric experimental study of which is highly demanding, and has been little studied to date. We present here a study of mercury-supported Langmuir films of imidazolium-based ionic liquids by surface tensiometry and X-ray reflectivity. The charge-delocalized ionic liquids studied here exhibit no 2D lateral order but show diffuse surface-normal electron density profiles exhibiting gradual mercury penetration into the ionic liquid film, and surface-normal structure evolution over a period of hours. The effect of increasing the nonpolar alkyl chain length was also investigated. The results obtained provide insights into the interactions between these ionic liquids and liquid mercury and about the time evolution of the structure and composition of their interface. PMID:26963651

  1. Electrochemically active species and multielectron processes in ionic melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapoval, Viktor I.; Solov'ev, Veniamin V.; Malyshev, Viktor V.

    2001-02-01

    The model concepts for the mechanisms of formation of electrochemically active species and multielectron processes in ionic nitrate-, carbonate-, boron- and titanium-containing fluoride melts are generalised. The fundamental importance of the acid-base properties of a melt in the mechanism of formation of electrochemically active species is shown for nitrate- and carbonate-containing melts. This fact is confirmed by electrochemical measurements and by calculations of force constants for oxyanions. The optimum form of electrochemically active species has been established; their reduction abilities depend on the cationic composition of a melt, the adsorption properties of the electrode surface and the electric field strength. The bibliography includes 218 references.

  2. Useful halophilic, thermostable and ionic liquids tolerant cellulases

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Tao; Datta, Supratim; Simmons, Blake A.; Rubin, Edward M.

    2016-06-28

    The present invention provides for an isolated or recombinant polypeptide comprising an amino acid sequence having at least 70% identity with the amino acid sequence of a Halorhabdus utahensis cellulase, such as Hu-CBH1, wherein said amino acid sequence has a halophilic thermostable and/or thermophilic cellobiohydrolase (CBH) activity. In some embodiments, the polypeptide has a CBH activity that is resistant to up to about 20% of ionic liquids. The present invention also provides for compositions comprising and methods using the isolated or recombinant polypeptide.

  3. Small Molecule-Assisted Exfoliation of Layered Zirconium Phosphate Nanoplatelets by Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Xia, Fangqing; Yong, Huaisong; Han, Xiao; Sun, Dazhi

    2016-12-01

    Exfoliation of layered inorganic nanomaterials into single-layered sheets has been widely interested in materials chemistry and composite fabrication. Here, we report the exfoliation of layered zirconium phosphate nanoplatelets by using small molecule intercalating agents in ionic liquids, which opens a new platform for fabricating single-layered inorganic materials from synthetic layered compounds. PMID:27460596

  4. Reversible and Non-Reactive Cellulose Separations from Ionic Liquid Mixtures with Compressed Carbon Dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Minnick, David L.; Scurto, Aaron M.

    2016-01-01

    A novel physical (non-reactive) separation of cellulose from an ionic liquid (IL) / cosolvent mixture by compressed carbon dioxide is presented. The precipitation is completely reversible and rapid within small changes of pressure i.e. liquid phase CO2 composition. High pressure phase equilibrium, high pressure NMR, and solid state NMR have been utilized to understand the separation phenomena. PMID:26159829

  5. Small Molecule-Assisted Exfoliation of Layered Zirconium Phosphate Nanoplatelets by Ionic Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Fangqing; Yong, Huaisong; Han, Xiao; Sun, Dazhi

    2016-07-01

    Exfoliation of layered inorganic nanomaterials into single-layered sheets has been widely interested in materials chemistry and composite fabrication. Here, we report the exfoliation of layered zirconium phosphate nanoplatelets by using small molecule intercalating agents in ionic liquids, which opens a new platform for fabricating single-layered inorganic materials from synthetic layered compounds.

  6. An Alternative to the Ionic Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, R. T.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the "coordinated polymeric model," which yields more accurate energy calculations than the "ionic model" for compounds which exhibit considerable covalency. The dichotomy between ionic and covalent bonding is thus largely broken down for solids which are nonmolecular in the crystalline state. (MLH)

  7. Ionic liquid-in-oil microemulsions.

    PubMed

    Eastoe, Julian; Gold, Sarah; Rogers, Sarah E; Paul, Alison; Welton, Tom; Heenan, Richard K; Grillo, Isabelle

    2005-05-25

    Phase stability and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) data show that surfactant-stabilized nanodomains of a typical ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [bmim][BF4]) may be dispersed by the nonionic surfactant Triton-X100 in cyclohexane. Analyses of these SANS data are consistent with the formation of ionic liquid-in-oil microemulsion droplets. PMID:15898765

  8. Engineered microorganisms having resistance to ionic liquids

    DOEpatents

    Ruegg, Thomas Lawrence; Thelen, Michael P.

    2016-03-22

    The present invention provides for a method of genetically modifying microorganisms to enhance resistance to ionic liquids, host cells genetically modified in accordance with the methods, and methods of using the host cells in a reaction comprising biomass that has been pretreated with ionic liquids.

  9. Responses of proteins to different ionic environment are linearly interrelated.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Luisa A; Madeira, Pedro P; Uversky, Alexey V; Uversky, Vladimir N; Zaslavsky, Boris Y

    2015-03-27

    Protein partitioning in aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) is widely used as a convenient, inexpensive, and readily scaled-up separation technique. Protein partition behavior in ATPS is known to be readily manipulated by ionic composition. However, the available data on the effects of salts and buffer concentrations on protein partitioning are very limited. To fill this gap, partitioning of 15 proteins was examined in dextran-poly(ethylene glycol) ATPSs with different salt additives (Na2SO4, NaClO4, NaSCN, CsCl) in 0.11 M sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7.4. This analysis reveals that there is a linear relationship between the logarithms of the protein partition coefficients determined in the presence of different salts. This relationship suggests that the protein response to ionic environment is determined by the protein structure and type and concentrations of the ions present. Analysis of the differences between protein structures (described in terms of proteins responses to different salts) and that of cytochrome c chosen as a reference showed that the peculiarities of the protein surface structure and B-factor used as a measure of the protein flexibility are the determining parameters. Our results provide better insight into the use of different salts in manipulating protein partitioning in aqueous two-phase systems. These data also demonstrate that the protein responses to different ionic environments are interrelated and are determined by the structural peculiarities of protein surface. It is suggested that changes in ionic microenvironment of proteins may regulate protein transport and behavior in biological systems. PMID:25708470

  10. Solid State Ionics: from Michael Faraday to green energy—the European dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funke, Klaus

    2013-08-01

    Solid State Ionics has its roots essentially in Europe. First foundations were laid by Michael Faraday who discovered the solid electrolytes Ag2S and PbF2 and coined terms such as cation and anion, electrode and electrolyte. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, the main lines of development toward Solid State Ionics, pursued in Europe, concerned the linear laws of transport, structural analysis, disorder and entropy and the electrochemical storage and conversion of energy. Fundamental contributions were then made by Walther Nernst, who derived the Nernst equation and detected ionic conduction in heterovalently doped zirconia, which he utilized in his Nernst lamp. Another big step forward was the discovery of the extraordinary properties of alpha silver iodide in 1914. In the late 1920s and early 1930s, the concept of point defects was established by Yakov Il'ich Frenkel, Walter Schottky and Carl Wagner, including the development of point-defect thermodynamics by Schottky and Wagner. In terms of point defects, ionic (and electronic) transport in ionic crystals became easy to visualize. In an ‘evolving scheme of materials science’, point disorder precedes structural disorder, as displayed by the AgI-type solid electrolytes (and other ionic crystals), by ion-conducting glasses, polymer electrolytes and nano-composites. During the last few decades, much progress has been made in finding and investigating novel solid electrolytes and in using them for the preservation of our environment, in particular in advanced solid state battery systems, fuel cells and sensors. Since 1972, international conferences have been held in the field of Solid State Ionics, and the International Society for Solid State Ionics was founded at one of them, held at Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany, in 1987.

  11. Lithium-Air and ionic Liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Kellar, Michael

    2015-09-01

    The final portion of this project was accomplished at Sandia National Labs, Livermore, with the overall goal being to optimize lithium-air cells with an ionic liquid electrolyte. Both of these are potential future routes for lithium-ion technology. Lithiumair presents the advantage of higher gravimetric energy density, and ionic liquids present the advantage of greater hydrophobicity and much lower volatility, along with a larger window of electrochemical stability. Ionic liquids however have several drawbacks for the battery industry. Currently they are not as cost effective as many organic solvents. Additionally, because of the added viscosity of ionic interactions compared to the typical dipole interactions of a solvent, the ionic conductivity is lower than for common organic solvents.

  12. Ionic liquid incorporating thiosalicylate for metal removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilfred, Cecilia Devi; Mustafa, Fadwa Babiker; Romeli, Fatimah Julia

    2012-09-01

    Ionic liquids are a class of organic molten salts "designer solvents" that are composed totally of anions (inorganic and organic polyatomic) and organic cations. The replacement of volatile organic solvents from a separation process is of utmost importance since the use of a large excess of these solvents is hazardous and creates ecological problem. The new method for metal ion extraction is by using task-specific ionic liquids such as ionic liquids which incorporate thiosalicylate functionality. This paper looks at producing a new cluster of ionic liquids which incorporates thiosalicylate with pyridinium cation. Its thermophysical properties such as density and viscosity in single and binary mixtures are studied. The ionic liquids' capability in metal removal processes is evaluated.

  13. Nanocellulose electroconductive composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Zhijun; Phillips, Glyn O.; Yang, Guang

    2013-03-01

    Cellulose-based electroconductive composites can be prepared by combining conducting electroactive materials with hydrophilic biocompatible cellulose. Inorganic nanoparticles, such as metal ions and oxides, carbon nanotubes, graphene and graphene oxide, conducting polymers, and ionic liquids (through doping, blending or coating) can be introduced into the cellulose matrix. Such composites can form a biocompatible interface for microelectronic devices, and provide a biocompatible matrix or scaffold for electrically stimulated drug release devices, implantable biosensors, and neuronal prostheses. Here the benefits of combining conventional and bacterial cellulose with these electroactive composites are described and future applications are considered.

  14. Desert dust deposition on Mt. Elbrus, Caucasus Mountains, Russia in 2009-2012 as recorded in snow and shallow ice core: high-resolution "provenancing", transport patterns, physical properties and soluble ionic composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutuzov, S.; Shahgedanova, M.; Mikhalenko, V.; Lavrentiev, I.; Kemp, S.

    2013-04-01

    A record of dust deposition events between 2009 and 2012 on Mt. Elbrus, Caucasus Mountains derived from a snow pit and a shallow ice core is presented for the first time for this region. A combination of isotopic analysis, SEVIRI red-green-blue composite imagery, MODIS atmospheric optical depth fields derived using the Deep Blue algorithm, air mass trajectories derived using the HYSPLIT model and analysis of meteorological data enabled identification of dust source regions with high temporal (hours) and spatial (cf. 20-100 km) resolution. Seventeen dust deposition events were detected; fourteen occurred in March-June, one in February and two in October. Four events originated in the Sahara, predominantly in north-eastern Libya and eastern Algeria. Thirteen events originated in the Middle East, in the Syrian Desert and northern Mesopotamia, from a mixture of natural and anthropogenic sources. Dust transportation from Sahara was associated with vigorous Saharan depressions, strong surface winds in the source region and mid-tropospheric south-westerly flow with daily winds speeds of 20-30 m s-1 at 700 hPa level and, although these events were less frequent, they resulted in higher dust concentrations in snow. Dust transportation from the Middle East was associated with weaker depressions forming over the source region, high pressure centered over or extending towards the Caspian Sea and a weaker southerly or south-easterly flow towards the Caucasus Mountains with daily wind speeds of 12-18 m s-1 at 700 hPa level. Higher concentrations of nitrates and ammonium characterise dust from the Middle East deposited on Mt. Elbrus in 2009 indicating contribution of anthropogenic sources. The modal values of particle size distributions ranged between 1.98 μm and 4.16 μm. Most samples were characterised by modal values of 2.0-2.8 μm with an average of 2.6 μm and there was no significant difference between dust from the Sahara and the Middle East.

  15. Ionic homeostasis in brain conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Cuomo, Ornella; Vinciguerra, Antonio; Cerullo, Pierpaolo; Anzilotti, Serenella; Brancaccio, Paola; Bilo, Leonilda; Scorziello, Antonella; Molinaro, Pasquale; Di Renzo, Gianfranco; Pignataro, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Most of the current focus on developing neuroprotective therapies is aimed at preventing neuronal death. However, these approaches have not been successful despite many years of clinical trials mainly because the numerous side effects observed in humans and absent in animals used at preclinical level. Recently, the research in this field aims to overcome this problem by developing strategies which induce, mimic, or boost endogenous protective responses and thus do not interfere with physiological neurotransmission. Preconditioning is a protective strategy in which a subliminal stimulus is applied before a subsequent harmful stimulus, thus inducing a state of tolerance in which the injury inflicted by the challenge is mitigated. Tolerance may be observed in ischemia, seizure, and infection. Since it requires protein synthesis, it confers delayed and temporary neuroprotection, taking hours to develop, with a pick at 1–3 days. A new promising approach for neuroprotection derives from post-conditioning, in which neuroprotection is achieved by a modified reperfusion subsequent to a prolonged ischemic episode. Many pathways have been proposed as plausible mechanisms to explain the neuroprotection offered by preconditioning and post-conditioning. Although the mechanisms through which these two endogenous protective strategies exert their effects are not yet fully understood, recent evidence highlights that the maintenance of ionic homeostasis plays a key role in propagating these neuroprotective phenomena. The present article will review the role of protein transporters and ionic channels involved in the control of ionic homeostasis in the neuroprotective effect of ischemic preconditioning and post-conditioning in adult brain, with particular regards to the Na+/Ca2+ exchangers (NCX), the plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase (PMCA), the Na+/H+ exchange (NHE), the Na+/K+/2Cl− cotransport (NKCC) and the acid-sensing cation channels (ASIC). Ischemic stroke is the third leading

  16. Actinide chemistry in ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Takao, Koichiro; Bell, Thomas James; Ikeda, Yasuhisa

    2013-04-01

    This Forum Article provides an overview of the reported studies on the actinide chemistry in ionic liquids (ILs) with a particular focus on several fundamental chemical aspects: (i) complex formation, (ii) electrochemistry, and (iii) extraction behavior. The majority of investigations have been dedicated to uranium, especially for the 6+ oxidation state (UO2(2+)), because the chemistry of uranium in ordinary solvents has been well investigated and uranium is the most abundant element in the actual nuclear fuel cycles. Other actinides such as thorium, neptunium, plutonium, americium, and curiumm, although less studied, are also of importance in fully understanding the nuclear fuel engineering process and the safe geological disposal of radioactive wastes. PMID:22873132

  17. Lipid Biomembrane in Ionic Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Brian; Jing, Benxin; Shah, Jindal; Maginn, Ed; Zhu, Y. Elaine; Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Team

    2014-03-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) have been recently explored as new ``green'' chemicals in several chemical and biomedical processes. In our pursuit of understanding their toxicities towards aquatic and terrestrial organisms, we have examined the IL interaction with lipid bilayers as model cell membranes. Experimentally by fluorescence microscopy, we have directly observed the disruption of lipid bilayer by added ILs. Depending on the concentration, alkyl chain length, and anion hydrophobicity of ILs, the interaction of ILs with lipid bilayers leads to the formation of micelles, fibrils, and multi-lamellar vesicles for IL-lipid complexes. By MD computer simulations, we have confirmed the insertion of ILs into lipid bilayers to modify the spatial organization of lipids in the membrane. The combined experimental and simulation results correlate well with the bioassay results of IL-induced suppression in bacteria growth, thereby suggesting a possible mechanism behind the IL toxicity. National Science Foundation, Center for Research Computing at Notre Dame.

  18. Infrared spectroscopy of ionic clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Price, J.M. . Dept. of Chemistry Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA )

    1990-11-01

    This thesis describes new experiments wherein the infrared vibrational predissociation spectra of a number of mass-selected ionic cluster systems have been obtained and analyzed in the 2600 to 4000 cm{sup {minus}1} region. The species studied include: the hydrated hydronium ions, H{sub 3}O{sup +} (H{sub 2}O){sub 3 {minus}10}, ammoniated ammonium ions, NH{sub 4}{sup +}(NH{sub 3}){sub 1 {minus}10} and cluster ions involving both water and ammonia around an ammonium ion core, (mixed clusters) NH{sub 4}{sup +}(NH{sub 3}){sub n}(H{sub 2}O){sub m} (n+m=4). In each case, the spectra reveal well resolved structures that can be assigned to transitions arising from the vibrational motions of both the ion core of the clusters and the surrounding neutral solvent molecules. 154 refs., 19 figs., 8 tabs.

  19. Ceramic-silicide composites

    SciTech Connect

    Petrovic, J.J.

    1998-12-01

    The area of ceramic-silicide composites represents a merging of structural ceramics and structural silicides. Such ceramic-silicide composites can possess the desirable characteristics of both classes of compounds. Important structural ceramics are materials such as Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, SiC, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and ZrO{sub 2}, which possess covalent, ionic, or mixed covalent-ionic atomic bonding. An important structural silicide is MoSi{sub 2}, which possesses mixed covalent-metallic bonding. The arena of ceramic-silicide composites encompasses both composites where the structural silicide is the matrix and the structural ceramic is the reinforcement, and composites where the structural ceramic is the matrix and the structural silicide is the reinforcement. In the former area, MoSi{sub 2}-SiC, MoSi{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2}, and MoSi{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites are discussed. In the latter area, Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}-MoSi{sub 2} composites are described.

  20. Ionic liquids for rechargeable lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Salminen, Justin; Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Kerr, John; Prausnitz,John; Newman, John

    2005-09-29

    We have investigated possible anticipated advantages of ionic-liquid electrolytes for use in lithium-ion batteries. Thermal stabilities and phase behavior were studied by thermal gravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. The ionic liquids studied include various imidazoliumTFSI systems, pyrrolidiniumTFSI, BMIMPF{sub 6}, BMIMBF{sub 4}, and BMIMTf. Thermal stabilities were measured for neat ionic liquids and for BMIMBF{sub 4}-LiBF{sub 4}, BMIMTf-LiTf, BMIMTFSI-LiTFSI mixtures. Conductivities have been measured for various ionic-liquid lithium-salt systems. We show the development of interfacial impedance in a Li|BMIMBF{sub 4} + LiBF{sub 4}|Li cell and we report results from cycling experiments for a Li|BMIMBF{sub 4} + 1 mol/kg LIBF{sub 4}|C cell. The interfacial resistance increases with time and the ionic liquid reacts with the lithium electrode. As expected, imidazolium-based ionic liquids react with lithium electrodes. We seek new ionic liquids that have better chemical stabilities.

  1. Stimulus responsive drug release from polymer gel.. Controlled release of ionic drug from polyampholyte gel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutani, Kouichi; Kaetsu, Isao; Uchida, Kumao; Matsubara, Yoshio

    2002-07-01

    2-(Dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate or Methacryloyloxyethyltrimethylammonium chloride as a cationic monomer was copolymerized by UV with anionic monomer such as acrylic acid (AAc), into a polyampholyte. The pH responsive swelling behaviour and the pH and electro-responsive drug release functions of polyampholyte were investigated. The result showed that a copolymer of cation rich composition swelled at acidic condition, and shrank at alkaline condition. On the other hand, an anion rich copolymer showed a reverse phenomenon. Polyampholyte proved to interact with an ionic drug both by ionic binding and physical adsorption.

  2. Ionic liquid enabled FeS2 for high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Evans, Tyler; Piper, Daniela Molina; Kim, Seul Cham; Han, Sang Sub; Bhat, Vinay; Oh, Kyu Hwan; Lee, Se-Hee

    2014-11-19

    High-energy-density FeS2 cathodes en-abled by a bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (TFSI-) anion-based room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) electrolyte are demonstrated. A TFSI-based ionic liquid (IL) significantly mitigates polysulfide dissolution, and therefore the parasitic redox shuttle mechanism, that plagues sulfur-based electrode chemistries. FeS2 stabilization with a TFSI(-) -based IL results in one of the highest energy density cathodes, 542 W h kg(-1) (normalized to cathode composite mass), reported to date. PMID:25236752

  3. Thin metal film-polymer composite for efficient optoacoustic generation (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Taehwa; Guo, L. Jay

    2016-03-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) conversion of metal film absorbers is known to be inefficient because of their low thermal expansion and high light reflectance, as compared to polymeric materials containing light absorbing fillers. Specifically, the PA signal for metal films is typically an order of magnitude lower than those for PDMS-based composites consisting of carbon materials such as carbon blacks, carbon nanotubes, and carbon fibers. However, the carbon-PDMS composites have several disadvantages, e.g., difficulty in controlling film thickness, aggregation of the carbon fillers, and poor patternablility. To overcome these issues and achieve comparable PA amplitudes, a polymer-metal film composite was developed consisting of a thin metal absorber and adjacent transparent polymer layers. The proposed structure shows efficient PA conversion. The measured PA amplitude of the metal film composite is an order of magnitude higher than that of metal-only samples, and comparable to those of the carbon-PDMS composites. The enhanced PA conversion is accomplished by using metal film of a few tens of nanometers, which greatly facilitates heat transfer from the metal film to the surrounding polymers. Moreover, integrating the metal film composite with a photonic cavity can compensate light absorption loss of the thinner metal film. Theoretical and experimental analysis is conducted for understanding the mechanism behind such improvement. This strategy could be implemented for spatial PA signal patterns, especially for deep tissue PA imaging of implants or image-guiding tools. Furthermore, this approach also provides a guideline for designing photoacoustic transmitters and contrast agents.

  4. Development of HVOF Sprayed Erosion/Oxidation Resistant Coatings for Composite Structural Components in Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivosevic, M.; Twardowski, T.; Kalidindi, S.; Knight, R.; Sutter, J.; Kim, D. Y.

    1990-01-01

    Thermally sprayed coatings are being studied and developed as methods of enabling lightweight composites to be used more extensively as structural components in propulsion applications in order to reduce costs and improve efficiency through weight reductions. The primary goal of this work is the development of functionally graded material [FGM] polymer/metal matrix composite coatings to provide improved erosion/oxidation resistance to polyimide-based polymer matrix composite [PMC] substrates. The goal is to grade the coating composition from pure polyimide, similar to the PMC substrate matrix on one side, to 100% WC-Co on the other. Both step-wise and continuous gradation of the loading of the WC-Co reinforcing phase are being investigated, Details of the coating parameter development will be presented, specifically the high velocity oxy-fuel [HVOF] combustion spraying of pure PMR-I1 matrix material and layers of various composition PMR-II/WC-Co blends onto steel and PMR-15 composite substrates. Results of the HVOF process optimization, microstructural characterization, and analysis will be presented. The sprayed coatings were evaluated using standard metallographic techniques - optical and scanning electron microscopy [SEMI. An SEM + electron dispersive spectroscopy [EDS] technique has also been used to confirm retention of the PMR-I1 component. Results of peel/butt adhesion testing to determine adhesion will also be presented.

  5. Development of HVOF Sprayed Erosion/Oxidation Resistant Coatings for Composite Structural Components in Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, R.; Ivosevic, M.; Twardowski, T. E.; Kalidindi, S. R.; Sutter, James K.; Kim, D. Y.; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Thermally sprayed coatings are being studied and developed as methods of enabling lightweight composites to be used more extensively as structural components in propulsion applications in order to reduce costs and improve efficiency through weight reductions. The primary goal of this work is the development of functionally graded material [FGM] polymer/metal matrix composite coatings to provide improved erosion/oxidation resistance to polyimide-based polymer matrix composite [PMC] substrates. The goal is to grade the coating composition from pure polyimide, similar to the PMC substrate matrix on one side, to 100 % WC-Co on the other. Both step-wise and continuous gradation of the loading of the WC-Co reinforcing phase are being investigated. Details of the coating parameter development will be presented, specifically the high velocity oxy-fuel [HVOF] combustion spraying of pure PMR-11 matrix material and layers of various composition PMR-II/WC-Co blends onto steel and PMR-15 composite substrates. Results of the HVOF process optimization, microstructural characterization, and analysis will be presented. The sprayed coatings were evaluated using standard metallographic techniques - optical and scanning electron microscopy [SEM]. An SEM + electron dispersive spectroscopy [EDS] technique has also been used to confirm retention of the PMR-II component. Results of peel/butt adhesion testing to determine adhesion will also be presented.

  6. Weighing the surface charge of an ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Hjalmarsson, Nicklas; Wallinder, Daniel; Glavatskih, Sergei; Atkin, Rob; Aastrup, Teodor; Rutland, Mark W

    2015-10-14

    Electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance has been used to measure changes in the composition of the capacitive electrical double layer for 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tris(pentafluoroethyl)-trifluorophosphate, an ionic liquid, in contact with a gold electrode surface as a function of potential. The mass difference between the cation and anion means that the technique can effectively "weigh" the surface charge accurately with high temporal resolution. This reveals quantitatively how changing the potential alters the ratio of cations and anions associated with the electrode surface, and thus the charge per unit area, as well as the kinetics associated with these interfacial processes. The measurements reveal that it is diffusion of co-ions into the interfacial region rather than expulsion of counterions that controls the relaxation. The measured potential dependent double layer capacitance experimentally validates recent theoretical predictions for counterion overscreening (low potentials) and crowding (high potentials) at electrode surfaces. This new capacity to quantitatively measure ion composition is critical for ionic liquid applications ranging from batteries, capacitors and electrodeposition through to boundary layer structure in tribology, and more broadly provides new insight into interfacial processes in concentrated electrolyte solutions. PMID:26370450

  7. Ionic liquid lubrication at electrified interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Lingling; Huang, Wei; Wang, Xiaolei

    2016-06-01

    The lubrication performances of ionic liquids at electrified interfaces have been investigated by using a reciprocating sliding tribometer. Experimental results indicated that the lubricity of the confined ionic liquids was markedly affected by the application of external electric field and strong interface electric field strength could result in high friction. The influence was more pronounced for the ionic liquid with a shorter alkyl side chain in particular. The main reason of the friction increment might be ascribed to the electrically influenced surface adsorption where the charged ions were structured to form robust and ordered layers.

  8. Defect Interactions and Ionic Transport in Scandia Stabilized Zirconia

    SciTech Connect

    Devanathan, Ramaswami; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Gale, Julian D.

    2009-06-24

    Atomistic simulation has been used to study ionic transport in scandia-stabilized zirconia, as well as scandia and yttria-co-doped zirconia, as a function of temperature and composition. The oxygen diffusion coefficient shows a peak at a composition of 6 mole % Sc2O3. Oxygen vacancies prefer to be second nearest neighbours to yttrium ions, but have little preference between first and second neighbour positions with respect to scandium ions. The Sc-O bond length is about 2.17 Å compared to 2.28 Å for the Y-O bond. Oxygen migration between cation tetrahedra is impeded less effectively by Sc-Sc edges than by Y-Y edges. A neutral cluster of two scandium ions with an oxygen vacancy in the common first neighbour position has a binding energy of -0.56 eV. The formation of such clusters may contribute to conductivity degradation of stabilized zirconia at elevated temperature.

  9. Electrochromic switching in ionically self-assembled nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janik, Jerzy A.; Heflin, James R.; Marciu, Daniela; Miller, Michael B.; Wang, Hong; Gibson, Harry W.; Davis, Rick M.

    2001-11-01

    Ionically self-assembled monolayers (ISAMs), fabricated by alternate adsorption of cationic and anionic components, yield exceptionally homogeneous thin films with sub- nanometer control of the thickness and relative special location of the component materials. Using organic electrochromic materials such as polyaniline, we report studies of electrochromic responses in ISAM films. Reversible changes in the absorption spectrum are observed with the application of voltages on the order of 1.0 V. Measurements are made using both liquid electrolytes and in all-solid state devices incorporating solid polyelectrolytes such as poly(2-acylamido 2-methyl propane sulfonic acid) (PAMPS). Due to the precise nanometer scale control of thickness and composition of the electrochromic composite system, switching times faster than 50 ms have been demonstrated.

  10. Gelatin-Pectin Composite Films from Polyion Complex Hydrogels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Composite films from gelatin and low-methoxyl pectin were prepared by either ionic complexation or covalent cross-linking. The ionic interactions between positively charged gelatin and negatively charged pectin produced physically reversible hydrogels. The resultant homogeneous gels had improved mec...

  11. Alkaline ionic liquids applied in supported ionic liquid catalyst for selective hydrogenation of citral to citronellal

    PubMed Central

    Salminen, Eero; Virtanen, Pasi; Mikkola, Jyri-Pekka

    2014-01-01

    The challenge in preparation of ionic liquids containing a strong alkaline anion is to identify a suitable cation which can tolerate the harsh conditions induced by the anion. In this study, a commercial quaternary ammonium compound (quat) benzalkonium [ADBA] (alkyldimethylbenzylammonium) was used as a cation in the synthesis of different alkaline ionic liquids. In fact, the precursor, benzalkonium chloride, is a mixture of alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chlorides of various alkyl chain lengths and is commonly used in the formulation of various antiseptic products. The prepared ionic liquids were utilized as Supported Ionic Liquid Catalysts (SILCAs). Typically, a SILCA contains metal nanoparticles, enzymes, or metal complexes in an ionic liquid layer which is immobilized on a solid carrier material such as an active carbon cloth (ACC). The catalysts were applied in the selective hydrogenation of citral to citronellal which is an important perfumery chemical. Interestingly, 70% molar yield toward citronellal was achieved over a catalyst containing the alkaline ionic liquid benzalkonium methoxide. PMID:24790972

  12. Alkaline ionic liquids applied in supported ionic liquid catalyst for selective hydrogenation of citral to citronellal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salminen, Eero; Virtanen, Pasi; Mikkola, Jyri-Pekka

    2014-02-01

    The challenge in preparation of ionic liquids containing a strong alkaline anion is to identify a suitable cation which can tolerate the harsh conditions induced by the anion. In this study, a commercial quaternary ammonium compound (quat) benzalkonium [ADBA] (alkyldimethylbenzylammonium) was used as a cation in the synthesis of different alkaline ionic liquids. In fact, the precursor, benzalkonium chloride, is a mixture of alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chlorides of various alkyl chain lengths and is commonly used in the formulation of various antiseptic products. The prepared ionic liquids were utilized as Supported Ionic Liquid Catalysts (SILCAs). Typically, a SILCA contains metal nanoparticles, enzymes or metal complexes in an ionic liquid layer which is immobilized on a solid carrier material such as an active carbon cloth (ACC). The catalysts were applied in the selective hydrogenation of citral to citronellal which is an important perfumery chemical. Interestingly, 70 % molar yield towards citronellal was achieved over a catalyst containing the alkaline ionic liquid benzalkonium methoxide.

  13. Alkaline ionic liquids applied in supported ionic liquid catalyst for selective hydrogenation of citral to citronellal.

    PubMed

    Salminen, Eero; Virtanen, Pasi; Mikkola, Jyri-Pekka

    2014-01-01

    The challenge in preparation of ionic liquids containing a strong alkaline anion is to identify a suitable cation which can tolerate the harsh conditions induced by the anion. In this study, a commercial quaternary ammonium compound (quat) benzalkonium [ADBA] (alkyldimethylbenzylammonium) was used as a cation in the synthesis of different alkaline ionic liquids. In fact, the precursor, benzalkonium chloride, is a mixture of alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chlorides of various alkyl chain lengths and is commonly used in the formulation of various antiseptic products. The prepared ionic liquids were utilized as Supported Ionic Liquid Catalysts (SILCAs). Typically, a SILCA contains metal nanoparticles, enzymes, or metal complexes in an ionic liquid layer which is immobilized on a solid carrier material such as an active carbon cloth (ACC). The catalysts were applied in the selective hydrogenation of citral to citronellal which is an important perfumery chemical. Interestingly, 70% molar yield toward citronellal was achieved over a catalyst containing the alkaline ionic liquid benzalkonium methoxide. PMID:24790972

  14. Synthesis of tin nanocrystals in room temperature ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Le Vot, Steven; Dambournet, Damien; Groult, Henri; Ngo, Anh-tu; Petit, Christophe; Rizzi, Cécile; Salzemann, Caroline; Sirieix-Plenet, Juliette; Borkiewicz, Olaf J; Raymundo-Piñero, Encarnación; Gaillon, Laurent

    2014-12-28

    The aim of this work was to investigate the synthesis of tin nanoparticles (NPs) or tin/carbon composites, in room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs), that could be used as structured anode materials for Li-ion batteries. An innovative route for the synthesis of Sn nanoparticles in such media is successfully developed. Compositions, structures, sizes and morphologies of NPs were characterized by high-energy X-ray diffraction (HEXRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Our findings indicated that (i) metallic tetragonal β-Sn was obtained and (ii) the particle size could be tailored by tuning the nature of the RTILs, leading to nano-sized spherical particles with a diameter ranging from 3 to 10 nm depending on synthesis conditions. In order to investigate carbon composite materials for Li-ion batteries, Sn nanoparticles were successfully deposited on the surface of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). Moreover, electrochemical properties have been studied in relation to a structural study of the nanocomposites. The poor electrochemical performances as a negative electrode in Li-ion batteries is due to a significant amount of RTIL trapped within the pores of the nanotubes as revealed by XPS investigations. This dramatically affected the gravimetric capacity of the composites and limited the diffusion of lithium. The findings of this work however offer valuable insights into the exciting possibilities for synthesis of novel nano-sized particles and/or alloys (e.g. Sn-Cu, Sn-Co, Sn-Ni, etc.) and the importance of carbon morphology in metal pulverization during the alloying/dealloying process as well as prevention of ionic liquid trapping. PMID:25352309

  15. Solid state electrochemical composite

    SciTech Connect

    Visco, Steven J.; Jacobson, Craig P.; DeJonghe, Lutgard C.

    2009-06-30

    Provided is a composite electrochemical device fabricated from highly electronically conductive materials such as metals, metal alloys, or electronically conductive ceramics. The electronic conductivity of the electrode substrate is maximized. The invention allows for an electrode with high electronic conductivity and sufficient catalytic activity to achieve high power density in ionic (electrochemical) devices such as fuel cells and electrolytic gas separation systems including oxygen generation system.

  16. Charge trapping in imidazolium ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Shkrob, Ilya A; Wishart, James F

    2009-04-23

    Room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs) are a promising class of solvents for applications ranging from photovoltaics to solvent extractions. Some of these applications involve the exposure of the ILs to ionizing radiation, which stimulates interest in their radiation and photo- chemistry. In the case of ILs consisting of 1,3-dialkylimidazolium cations and hydrophobic anions, ionization, charge transfer and redox reactions yield charge-trapped species thought to be radicals resulting from neutralization of the constituent ions. Using computational chemistry methods and the recent results on electron spin resonance (ESR) and transient absorption spectroscopy of the ionized ILs, we argue that electron localization in the imidazolium ILs yields a gauche dimer radical cation with the elongated C(2)-C(2) bond. This species is shown to absorb in the near-infrared and the visible regions and accounts for the observed ESR spectra. We suggest that the excess electron in these aromatic ILs is localized as such a dimeric ion, and consider the chemical implications of this attribution. We also suggest that three-electron N-N bonding with the formation of a dimer radical anion occurs for amide anions, such as dicyanamide, when the parent anion traps holes; steric hindrance prevents the analogous reaction for bis(triflyl)amide anion. For another anion of practical importance, bis(oxalato)borate, a pathway involving the elimination of CO(2) is suggested. Together, these results indicate the unanticipated tendency of the ILs to localize primary charges as radical ions as opposed to neutral radicals. Thus, it appears that secondary chemistry in the ionized ILs may be dominated by radical ion reactions, similarly to the previously studied conventional organic liquids, depending on the composition of the IL. PMID:19323543

  17. Millimeter thick ionic polymer membrane-based IPMCs with bimetallic Pd-Pt electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmre, Viljar; Kim, Sung Jun; Kim, Kwang

    2011-04-01

    Ionic polymer metal composites (IPMC) are a low-voltage driven Electroactive Polymers (EAP) that can be used as actuators or sensors. This paper presents a comparative study of millimeter thick ionic polymer membrane-based IPMCs with high-performance Pd-Pt electrodes and conventional Pt electrodes. IPMCs assembled with different electrodes are characterized in terms of electromechanical, -chemical and mechanolelectrical properties. The SEM and energy dispersive X-ray (EDS) analysis are used to investigate the distribution of deposited electrode metals in the cross-section of Pd-Pt IPMCs. The study shows that IPMCs assembled with millimeter thick ionic polymer membranes and bimetallic Pd-Pt electrodes are superior in mechanoelectrical sensing and, also, show considerably higher blocking forces compared to the conventional type of IPMCs. Blocking forces more than 30 grams are measured under 4V DC. However, the actuation response is slower than conventional IPMCs having approximately 0.2-0.3 mm thickness.

  18. The effect of ionic liquid electrolyte concentrations in dye sensitized solar cell using gel electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujiarti, H.; Arsyad, W. S.; Wulandari, P.; Hidayat, R.

    2014-09-01

    Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs) have received much attention because of some advantages, such as using environment-friendly materials and requiring less high-tech equipment. Commonly DSSCs are built using conventional electrolyte solution, which is prone to electrolyte leakage and low stability. In this paper, we present the characteristics of DSSCs using gel electrolyte, which was made of ionic liquid and hybrid polymer gel, and the effect of ionic liquid concentration on their characteristics. The hybrid composite polymer was composed of siloxane and ethylene glycol polymer networks. Their working performances were investigated by the current-voltage (J-V) characterizations and small ac impedance measurements, which are correlated with the concentrations of ionic liquid electrolyte. The experimental results showed that cell working performance slightly decreased but the solution leakage problem was eliminated.

  19. The Preparation and Characterization of Poly(m-phenyleneisophthalamide) Fibers Using Ionic Liquids

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Tingting; Wang, Huaping; Zhang, Yumei; Wang, Biao; Jiang, Jianming

    2007-01-01

    A process to produce fibers from Poly(m-phenyleneisophthalamide)(PMIA) solution in an ionic liquid via wet-spinning technology are described. The spinning process was investigated on a small laboratory scale. Ionic liquid spinning solutions were first prepared for PMIA fibers, followed by wet spinning. In the course of this research, the physical properties of the PMIA fibers were estimated. We studied the dependence of the mechanical properties of the obtained PMIA fibers on the composition of the coagulation bath, and on the choice of solvent in spinning solution. The morphology of the fibers from ionic liquid and traditional DMAc solvents via wet-spinning process were observed by scanning electrical microscopy(SEM). The differences of morphologies and properties of the PMIA fibers obtained from two different solvents are discussed.

  20. Communication: Dimensionality of the ionic conduction pathways in glass and the mixed-alkali effect.

    PubMed

    Novy, Melissa; Avila-Paredes, Hugo; Kim, Sangtae; Sen, Sabyasachi

    2015-12-28

    A revised empirical relationship between the power law exponent of ac conductivity dispersion and the dimensionality of the ionic conduction pathway is established on the basis of electrical impedance spectroscopic (EIS) measurements on crystalline ionic conductors. These results imply that the "universal" ac conductivity dispersion observed in glassy solids is associated with ionic transport along fractal pathways. EIS measurements on single-alkali glasses indicate that the dimensionality of this pathway D is ∼2.5, while in mixed-alkali glasses, D is lower and goes through a minimum value of ∼2.2 when the concentrations of the two alkalis become equal. D and σ display similar variation with alkali composition, thus suggesting a topological origin of the mixed-alkali effect. PMID:26723583

  1. Composition of energetic particles from solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrard, T. L.; Stone, E. C.

    1994-01-01

    We present a model for composition of heavy ions in the Solar Energetic Particles (SEP). The SEP composition in a typical large solar particle event reflects the composition of the Sun, with adjustments due to fractionation effects which depend on the First Ionization Potential (FIP) of the ion and on the ratio of ionic charge to mass (Q/M). Flare-to flare variations in composition are represented by parameters describing these fractionation effects and the distributions of these parameters are presented.

  2. Stability of Ionic Colloidal Crystals (ICCs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maskaly, Garry R.; Garcia, R. Edwin; Carter, W. Craig; Chiang, Yet-Ming

    2003-03-01

    Ionic colloidal crystals (ICCs) are here defined as ordered multicomponent colloids formed by attractive electrostatic interactions. Compared to previous approaches to colloidal crystallization, the ICC approach holds the potential for self-assembly of a wide range of structures not easily accessible by other methods. In this work, the colloid-chemical conditions under which ICCs are stable have been theoretically analyzed. A model is presented in which two dimensionless parameters are found to fully characterize an ICC system. We calculate the Madelung constant for ICCs of several classical ionic crystal structures as a function of these two parameters, and discuss the parallels between the ICC Madelung constants and the classical ionic case. Experimentally accessible regions of surface charge, particle sizes, salt concentration, and temperature where ionic colloidal crystallization should be possible are identified.

  3. Phosphonium-based ionic liquids and uses

    SciTech Connect

    Del Sesto, Rico E; Koppisch, Andrew T; Lovejoy, Katherine S; Purdy, Geraldine M

    2014-12-30

    Phosphonium-based room temperature ionic liquids ("RTILs") were prepared. They were used as matrices for Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry and also for preparing samples of dyes for analysis.

  4. Ionic liquid polyoxometalates as light emitting materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz-acosta, Denisse; Del Sesto, Rico E; Scott, Brian; Bennett, Bryan L; Purdy, Geraldine M; Muenchausen, Ross E; Mc Kigney, Edward; Gilbertson, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The low melting point, negligible vapor pressure, good solubility, and thermal and chemical stability make ionic liquids useful materials for a wide variety of applications. Polyoxometalates are early transition metal oxygen clusters that can be synthesized in many different sizes and with a variety of heterometals. The most attractive feature of POMs is that their physical properties, in particular electrical, magnetic, and optical properties, can be easily modified following known procedures. It has been shown that POMs can exhibit cooperative properties, as superconductivity and energy transfer. POM ionic liquids can be obtained by selecting the appropliate cation. Different alkyl ammonium and alkyl phosphonium salts are being used to produce new POM ionic liquids together with organic or inorganic luminescent centers to design light emitting materials. Ammonium and phosphonium cations with activated, polymerizable groups are being used to further polymerize the ionic liquid into transparent, solid materials with high metal density.

  5. Thermodynamics and micro heterogeneity of ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Margarida F Costa; Lopes, J N Canongia; Padua, A A H

    2010-01-01

    The high degree of organisation in the fluid phase of room-temperature ionic liquids has major consequences on their macroscopic properties, namely on their behaviour as solvents. This nanoscale self-organisation is the result of an interplay between two types of interaction in the liquid phase - Coulomb and van der Waals - that eventually leads to the formation of medium-range structures and the recognition of some ionic liquids as composed of a high-charge density, cohesive network permeated by low-charge density regions.In this chapter, the structure of the ionic liquids will be explored and some of their consequences to the properties of ionic liquids analyzed. PMID:21107797

  6. Ionic conductors for solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Krumpelt, Michael; Bloom, Ira D.; Pullockaran, Jose D.; Myles, Kevin M.

    1993-01-01

    An electrolyte that operates at temperatures ranging from 600.degree. C. to 800.degree. C. is provided. The electrolyte conducts charge ionically as well as electronically. The ionic conductors include molecular framework structures having planes or channels large enough to transport oxides or hydrated protons and having net-positive or net-negative charges. Representative molecular framework structures include substituted aluminum phosphates, orthosilicates, silicoaluminates, cordierites, apatites, sodalites, and hollandites.

  7. Ionic conductors for solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Krumpelt, M.; Bloom, I.D.; Pullockaran, J.D.; Myles, K.M.

    1991-12-31

    An electrolyte that operates at temperatures ranging from 600{degree}C to 800{degree}C is discussed. The electrolyte conducts charge ionically as well as electronically. The ionic conductors include molecular framework structures having planes or channels large enough to transport oxides or hydrated protons and having net-positive or net-negative charges. Representative molecular framework structures include substituted aluminum phosphates, orthosilicates, silicoaluminates, cordierites, apatites, sodalites, and hollandites.

  8. Fast Ignition and Sustained Combustion of Ionic Liquids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joshi, Prakash B. (Inventor); Piper, Lawrence G. (Inventor); Oakes, David B. (Inventor); Sabourin, Justin L. (Inventor); Hicks, Adam J. (Inventor); Green, B. David (Inventor); Tsinberg, Anait (Inventor); Dokhan, Allan (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A catalyst free method of igniting an ionic liquid is provided. The method can include mixing a liquid hypergol with a HAN (Hydroxylammonium nitrate)-based ionic liquid to ignite the HAN-based ionic liquid in the absence of a catalyst. The HAN-based ionic liquid and the liquid hypergol can be injected into a combustion chamber. The HAN-based ionic liquid and the liquid hypergol can impinge upon a stagnation plate positioned at top portion of the combustion chamber.

  9. Catalytic reactions in ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Sheldon, R

    2001-12-01

    The chemical industry is under considerable pressure to replace many of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are currently used as solvents in organic synthesis. The toxic and/or hazardous properties of many solvents, notably chlorinated hydrocarbons, combined with serious environmental issues, such as atmospheric emissions and contamination of aqueous effluents is making their use prohibitive. This is an important driving force in the quest for novel reaction media. Curzons and coworkers, for example, recently noted that rigorous management of solvent use is likely to result in the greatest improvement towards greener processes for the manufacture of pharmaceutical intermediates. The current emphasis on novel reaction media is also motivated by the need for efficient methods for recycling homogeneous catalysts. The key to waste minimisation in chemicals manufacture is the widespread substitution of classical 'stoichiometric' syntheses by atom efficient, catalytic alternatives. In the context of homogeneous catalysis, efficient recycling of the catalyst is a conditio sine qua non for economically and environmentally attractive processes. Motivated by one or both of the above issues much attention has been devoted to homogeneous catalysis in aqueous biphasic and fluorous biphasic systems as well as in supercritical carbon dioxide. Similarly, the use of ionic liquids as novel reaction media may offer a convenient solution to both the solvent emission and the catalyst recycling problem. PMID:12239988

  10. Counterion condensation and ionic conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penafiel, L. Miguel; Litovitz, Theodore A.

    1992-02-01

    The occurrence of counterion condensation is demonstrated through measurements of the incremental ionic conductivity of pH buffered Na polyacrylate solutions. pH values were selected to allow variation of the charge density parameter ξ in the range between 0.4 and 2.8, that is, across ξ=1, the theoretical critical level for counterion condensation. The results show two regions where the incremental conductivity, ΔσP, varies differently with ξ. For ξ<1.3, ΔσP remains relatively constant. A sharp drop in ΔσP is observed between ξ=1.3 and ξ=1.7 corresponding to the onset of counterion condensation. It is suggested that this discontinuity reflects a drastic change in the polyion mobility caused by a structural rearrangement of the macromolecule. For ξ≳1.7, ΔσP decreases with approximately constant slope. This latter behavior agrees qualitatively but not quantitatively with the prediction of the counterion condensation model.

  11. Anomalous Wien Effects in Supercooled Ionic Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patro, L. N.; Burghaus, O.; Roling, B.

    2016-05-01

    We have measured conductivity spectra of several supercooled monocationic and dicationic ionic liquids in the nonlinear regime by applying ac electric fields with large amplitudes up to about 180 kV /cm . Thereby, higher harmonic ac currents up to the 7th order were detected. Our results point to the existence of anomalous Wien effects in supercooled ionic liquids. Most ionic liquids studied here exhibit a conductivity-viscosity relation, which is close to the predictions of the Nernst-Einstein and Stokes-Einstein equations, as observed for classical strong electrolytes like KCl. These "strong" ionic liquids show a much stronger nonlinearity of the conductivity than classical strong electrolytes. On the other hand, the conductivity-viscosity relation of the ionic liquid [P6 ,6 ,6 ,14][Cl ] points to ion association effects. This "weak" ionic liquid shows a strength of the nonlinear effect, which is comparable to classical weak electrolytes. However, the nonlinearity increases quadratically with the field. We suggest that a theory for explaining these anomalies will have to go beyond the level of Coulomb lattice gas models.

  12. Anomalous Wien Effects in Supercooled Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Patro, L N; Burghaus, O; Roling, B

    2016-05-01

    We have measured conductivity spectra of several supercooled monocationic and dicationic ionic liquids in the nonlinear regime by applying ac electric fields with large amplitudes up to about 180  kV/cm. Thereby, higher harmonic ac currents up to the 7th order were detected. Our results point to the existence of anomalous Wien effects in supercooled ionic liquids. Most ionic liquids studied here exhibit a conductivity-viscosity relation, which is close to the predictions of the Nernst-Einstein and Stokes-Einstein equations, as observed for classical strong electrolytes like KCl. These "strong" ionic liquids show a much stronger nonlinearity of the conductivity than classical strong electrolytes. On the other hand, the conductivity-viscosity relation of the ionic liquid [P_{6,6,6,14}][Cl] points to ion association effects. This "weak" ionic liquid shows a strength of the nonlinear effect, which is comparable to classical weak electrolytes. However, the nonlinearity increases quadratically with the field. We suggest that a theory for explaining these anomalies will have to go beyond the level of Coulomb lattice gas models. PMID:27203333

  13. Influence of the Ionic Liquid Type on the Gel Polymer Electrolytes Properties.

    PubMed

    Tafur, Juan P; Santos, Florencio; Romero, Antonio J Fernández

    2015-01-01

    Gel Polymer Electrolytes (GPEs) composed by ZnTf₂ salt, poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP), and different ionic liquids are synthesized using n-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) as solvent. Three different imidazolium-based ionic liquids containing diverse cations and anions have been explored. Structural and electrical properties of the GPEs varying the ZnTf₂ concentration are analyzed by ATR-FTIR, DSC, TG, and cyclic voltammetry. Free salt IL-GPEs present distinct behavior because they are influenced by the different IL cations and anions composition. However, inclusion of ZnTf₂ salt inside the polymers provide GPEs with very similar characteristics, pointing out that ionic transport properties are principally caused by Zn(2+) and triflate movement. Whatever the IL used, the presence of NMP solvent inside the polymer's matrix turns out to be a key factor for improving the Zn(2+) transport inside the GPE due to the interaction between Zn(2+) cations and carbonyl groups of the NMP. High values of ionic conductivity, low activation energy values, and good voltammetric reversibility obtained regardless of the ionic liquid used enable these GPEs to be applied in Zn batteries. Capacities of 110-120 mAh·g(-1) have been obtained for Zn/IL-GPE/MnO₂ batteries discharged at -1 mA·cm(-2). PMID:26610580

  14. Influence of the Ionic Liquid Type on the Gel Polymer Electrolytes Properties

    PubMed Central

    Tafur, Juan P.; Santos, Florencio; Fernández Romero, Antonio J.

    2015-01-01

    Gel Polymer Electrolytes (GPEs) composed by ZnTf2 salt, poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP), and different ionic liquids are synthesized using n-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) as solvent. Three different imidazolium-based ionic liquids containing diverse cations and anions have been explored. Structural and electrical properties of the GPEs varying the ZnTf2 concentration are analyzed by ATR-FTIR, DSC, TG, and cyclic voltammetry. Free salt IL-GPEs present distinct behavior because they are influenced by the different IL cations and anions composition. However, inclusion of ZnTf2 salt inside the polymers provide GPEs with very similar characteristics, pointing out that ionic transport properties are principally caused by Zn2+ and triflate movement. Whatever the IL used, the presence of NMP solvent inside the polymer’s matrix turns out to be a key factor for improving the Zn2+ transport inside the GPE due to the interaction between Zn2+ cations and carbonyl groups of the NMP. High values of ionic conductivity, low activation energy values, and good voltammetric reversibility obtained regardless of the ionic liquid used enable these GPEs to be applied in Zn batteries. Capacities of 110–120 mAh·g−1 have been obtained for Zn/IL-GPE/MnO2 batteries discharged at −1 mA·cm−2. PMID:26610580

  15. Facile green synthesis of silver doped fluor-hydroxyapatite/β-cyclodextrin nanocomposite in the dual acting fluorine-containing ionic liquid medium for bone substitute applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jegatheeswaran, S.; Selvam, S.; Sri Ramkumar, V.; Sundrarajan, M.

    2016-05-01

    A novel green route has approached for the synthesis of silver doped fluor-hydroxyapatite/β-cyclodextrin composite by the assistance of fluorine-based ionic liquid. The selected [BMIM]BF4 ionic liquid for this work plays a dual role as fluoride source and templating agent. It helps to improve the crystalline structures and the shape of the composites. The crystallinity, surface morphology, topographical studies of the synthesized composite were validated. The XRD results of the composite show typical Ag reflection peaks at 38.1°, 44.2° and 63.4°. The ionic liquid assisted composite displayed the hexagonal shaped HA particles, which are surrounded by spherical nano-Ag particles and these particles are uniformly dispersed in the β-cyclodextrin matrix in both horizontal and cross sections from surface morphology observations. The Ionic liquid assisted silver doped fluor-hydroxyapatite/β-cyclodextrin composite exhibited very good antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumonia and Serratia liquefaciens pathogens. The antibacterial proficiencies were established using Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopic developed biofilms images and bacterial growth curve analysis. The cytotoxicity results of the ionic liquid assisted composite analyzed by cell proliferation in vitro studies using human osteosarcoma cell line (MG-63) and this study has shown excellent biocompatibility.

  16. Effect of protic ionic liquid and surfactant structure on partitioning of polyoxyethylene non-ionic surfactants.

    PubMed

    Topolnicki, Inga L; FitzGerald, Paul A; Atkin, Rob; Warr, Gregory G

    2014-08-25

    The partitioning constants and Gibbs free energies of transfer of poly(oxyethylene) n-alkyl ethers between dodecane and the protic ionic liquids (ILs) ethylammonium nitrate (EAN) and propylammonium nitrate (PAN) are determined. EAN and PAN have a sponge-like nanostructure that consists of interpenetrating charged and apolar domains. This study reveals that the ILs solvate the hydrophobic and hydrophilic parts of the amphiphiles differently. The ethoxy groups are dissolved in the polar region of both ILs by means of hydrogen bonds. The environment is remarkably water-like and, as in water, the solubility of the ethoxy groups in EAN decreases on warming, which underscores the critical role of the IL hydrogen-bond network for solubility. In contrast, amphiphile alkyl chains are not preferentially solvated by the charged or uncharged regions of the ILs. Rather, they experience an average IL composition and, as a result, partitioning from dodecane into the IL increases as the cation alkyl chain is lengthened from ethyl to propyl, because the IL apolar volume fraction increases. Together, these results show that surfactant dissolution in ILs is related to structural compatibility between the head or tail group and the IL nanostructure. Thus, these partitioning studies reveal parameters for the effective molecular design of surfactants in ILs. PMID:24862589

  17. Nanostructure of the Ionic Liquid-Graphite Stern Layer.

    PubMed

    Elbourne, Aaron; McDonald, Samila; Voïchovsky, Kislon; Endres, Frank; Warr, Gregory G; Atkin, Rob

    2015-07-28

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are attractive solvents for devices such as lithium ion batteries and capacitors, but their uptake is limited, partially because their Stern layer nanostructure is poorly understood compared to molecular solvents. Here, in situ amplitude-modulated atomic force microscopy has been used to reveal the Stern layer nanostructure of the 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (EMIm TFSI)-HOPG (highly ordered pyrolytic graphite) interface with molecular resolution. The effect of applied surface potential and added 0.1 wt/wt % Li TFSI or EMIm Cl on ion arrangements is probed between ±1 V. For pure EMIm TFSI at open-circuit potential, well-defined rows are present on the surface formed by an anion-cation-cation-anion (A-C-C-A) unit cell adsorbed with like ions adjacent. As the surface potential is changed, the relative concentrations of cations and anions in the Stern layer respond, and markedly different lateral ion arrangements ensue. The changes in Stern layer structure at positive and negative potentials are not symmetrical due to the different surface affinities and packing constraints of cations and anions. For potentials outside ±0.4 V, images are featureless because the compositional variation within the layer is too small for the AFM tip to detect. This suggests that the Stern layer is highly enriched in either cations or anions (depending on the potential) oriented upright to the surface plane. When Li(+) or Cl(-) is present, some Stern layer ionic liquid cations or anions (respectively) are displaced, producing starkly different structures. The Stern layer structures elucidated here significantly enhance our understanding of the ionic liquid electrical double layer. PMID:26051040

  18. Ionic liquids--an overview.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Harry Donald Brooke

    2011-01-01

    A virtually unprecedented exponential burst of activity resulted following the publication, in 1998, of an article by Michael Freeman (Freemantle, M. Chemical & Engineering News, 1998, March 30, 32), which speculated on the role and contribution that ionic liquids (ILs) might make in the future on the development of clean technology. Up until that time only a handful of researchers were routinely engaged in the study of ILs but frenzied activity followed that continues until the present day. Scientists from all disciplines related to Chemistry have now embarked on studies, including theoreticians who are immersed in the aim of improving the "designer role" so that they can tailor ILs to deliver specified properties. This article, whilst not in any sense attempting to be exhaustive, highlights the main features which characterise ILs, presenting these in a form readily assimilated by newcomers to this area of research. An extensive glossary is featured in this article as well as a chronological list which charts the major areas of development. What follows consists of a number of sections briefly describing the role of lLs as solvents, hypergolic fuels, their use in some electrochemical devices such as solar cells and lithium batteries and their use in polymerisation reactions, followed by a concise summary of some of the other roles that they are capable of playing. The role of empirical, volume-based thermodynamics procedures, as well as large scale computational studies on ILs is also highlighted. These developments which are described are remarkable in that they have been achieved in less than a decade and a half although knowledge of these materials has existed for much longer. PMID:22026149

  19. Ionic motion in crystalline cryolite.

    PubMed

    Foy, Lindsay; Madden, Paul A

    2006-08-10

    The character of the ion dynamics in crystalline cryolite, Na(3)AlF(6), a model double perovskite-structured mineral, has been examined in computer simulations using a polarizable ionic potential obtained by force-fitting to ab initio electronic structure calculations. NMR studies, and conductivity measurements, have indicated a high degree of mobility, in both Na(+) ion diffusion and reorientation of the AlF(6) octahedral units. The simulations reproduce the low-temperature (tilted) crystal structure and the existence of a transition to a cubic structure at elevated temperatures, in agreement with diffraction measurements, though the calculated transition temperature is too low. The reorientational dynamics of the AlF(6) octahedra is shown to consist of a hopping motion between the various tilted positions of the low-temperature form, even above the transition temperature. The rate of reorientation estimated by extrapolation to the temperature régime of the NMR measurements is consistent with the experimental data. In addition, we report a novel cooperative "tilt-swapping" motion of the differently tilted sublattices, just below the transition temperature. The perfect crystals show no Na(+) diffusion, in apparent disagreement with observation. We argue, following previous analyses of the cryolite phase diagram, that the diffusion observed in the experimental studies is a consequence of defects that are intrinsic to the thermodynamically stable form of cryolite. By introducing defects into the simulation cell, we obtain diffusion rates that are consistent with the NMR and conductivity measurements. Finally, we demonstrate a link between diffusion of the Na(+) ions and the reorientation of AlF(6) units, though the correlation between the two is not very strong. PMID:16884249

  20. Ultrafast dynamics of pyrrolidinium cation ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Shirota, Hideaki; Funston, Alison M; Wishart, James F; Castner, Edward W

    2005-05-01

    We have investigated the ultrafast molecular dynamics of five pyrrolidinium cation room temperature ionic liquids using femtosecond optical heterodyne-detected Raman-induced Kerr effect spectroscopy. The ionic liquids studied are N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide P14+/NTf2-), N-methoxyethyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide P1EOE+/NTf2-), N-ethoxyethyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide P1EOE+/NTf2-), N-ethoxyethyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bromide P1EOE+, and N-ethoxyethyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium dicyanoamide P1EOE+/DCA-). For comparing dynamics among the five ionic liquids, we categorize the ionic liquids into two groups. One group of liquids comprises the three pyrrolidinium cations P14+, P1EOM+, and P1EOE+ paired with the NTf2- anion. The other group of liquids consists of the P1EOE+ cation paired with each of the three anions NTf2-, Br-, and DCA-. The overdamped relaxation for time scales longer than 2 ps has been fit by a triexponential function for each of the five pyrrolidinium ionic liquids. The fast ( approximately 2 ps) and intermediate (approximately 20 ps) relaxation time constants vary little among these five ionic liquids. However, the slow relaxation time constant correlates with the viscosity. Thus, the Kerr spectra in the range from 0 to 750 cm(-1) are quite similar for the group of three pyrrolidinium ionic liquids paired with the NTf2- anion. The intermolecular vibrational line shapes between 0 and 150 cm(-1) are fit to a multimode Brownian oscillator model; adequate fits required at least three modes to be included in the line shape. PMID:15918734

  1. Ultrafast dynamics of pyrrolidinium cation ionic liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirota, Hideaki; Funston, Alison M.; Wishart, James F.; Castner, Edward W.

    2005-05-01

    We have investigated the ultrafast molecular dynamics of five pyrrolidinium cation room temperature ionic liquids using femtosecond optical heterodyne-detected Raman-induced Kerr effect spectroscopy. The ionic liquids studied are N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide P14+/NTf2-), N-methoxyethyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide P1EOE+/NTf2-), N-ethoxyethyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide P1EOE+/NTf2-), N-ethoxyethyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bromideP1EOE+, and N-ethoxyethyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium dicyanoamide P1EOE+/DCA-). For comparing dynamics among the five ionic liquids, we categorize the ionic liquids into two groups. One group of liquids comprises the three pyrrolidinium cations P14+, P1EOM+, and P1EOE+ paired with the NTf2- anion. The other group of liquids consists of the P1EOE+ cation paired with each of the three anions NTf2-,Br-, and DCA-. The overdamped relaxation for time scales longer than 2 ps has been fit by a triexponential function for each of the five pyrrolidinium ionic liquids. The fast (˜2ps) and intermediate (˜20ps) relaxation time constants vary little among these five ionic liquids. However, the slow relaxation time constant correlates with the viscosity. Thus, the Kerr spectra in the range from 0 to 750cm-1 are quite similar for the group of three pyrrolidinium ionic liquids paired with the NTf2- anion. The intermolecular vibrational line shapes between 0 and 150cm-1 are fit to a multimode Brownian oscillator model; adequate fits required at least three modes to be included in the line shape.

  2. Ionic liquids behave as dilute electrolyte solutions

    PubMed Central

    Gebbie, Matthew A.; Valtiner, Markus; Banquy, Xavier; Fox, Eric T.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Israelachvili, Jacob N.

    2013-01-01

    We combine direct surface force measurements with thermodynamic arguments to demonstrate that pure ionic liquids are expected to behave as dilute weak electrolyte solutions, with typical effective dissociated ion concentrations of less than 0.1% at room temperature. We performed equilibrium force–distance measurements across the common ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([C4mim][NTf2]) using a surface forces apparatus with in situ electrochemical control and quantitatively modeled these measurements using the van der Waals and electrostatic double-layer forces of the Derjaguin–Landau–Verwey–Overbeek theory with an additive repulsive steric (entropic) ion–surface binding force. Our results indicate that ionic liquids screen charged surfaces through the formation of both bound (Stern) and diffuse electric double layers, where the diffuse double layer is comprised of effectively dissociated ionic liquid ions. Additionally, we used the energetics of thermally dissociating ions in a dielectric medium to quantitatively predict the equilibrium for the effective dissociation reaction of [C4mim][NTf2] ions, in excellent agreement with the measured Debye length. Our results clearly demonstrate that, outside of the bound double layer, most of the ions in [C4mim][NTf2] are not effectively dissociated and thus do not contribute to electrostatic screening. We also provide a general, molecular-scale framework for designing ionic liquids with significantly increased dissociated charge densities via judiciously balancing ion pair interactions with bulk dielectric properties. Our results clear up several inconsistencies that have hampered scientific progress in this important area and guide the rational design of unique, high–free-ion density ionic liquids and ionic liquid blends. PMID:23716690

  3. Nonhumidified intermediate temperature fuel cells using protic ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Yul; Ogawa, Atsushi; Kanno, Michihiro; Nakamoto, Hirofumi; Yasuda, Tomohiro; Watanabe, Masayoshi

    2010-07-21

    In this paper, the characterization of a protic ionic liquid, diethylmethylammonium trifluoromethanesulfonate ([dema][TfO]), as a proton conductor for a fuel cell and the fabrication of a membrane-type fuel cell system using [dema][TfO] under nonhumidified conditions at intermediate temperatures are described in detail. In terms of physicochemical and electrochemical properties, [dema][TfO] exhibits high activity for fuel cell electrode reactions (i.e., the hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR)) at a Pt electrode, and the open circuit voltage (OCV) of a liquid fuel cell is 1.03 V at 150 degrees C, as has reported in ref 27. However, diethylmethylammonium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)amide ([dema][NTf(2)]) has relatively low HOR and ORR activity, and thus, the OCV is ca. 0.7 V, although [dema][NTf(2)] and [dema][TfO] have an identical cation ([dema]) and similar thermal and bulk-transport properties. Proton conduction occurs mainly via the vehicle mechanism in [dema][TfO] and the proton transference number (t(+)) is 0.5-0.6. This relatively low t(+) appears to be more disadvantageous for a proton conductor than for other electrolytes such as hydrated sulfonated polymer electrolyte membranes (t(+) = 1.0). However, fast proton-exchange reactions occur between ammonium cations and amines in a model compound. This indicates that the proton-exchange mechanism contributes to the fuel cell system under operation, where deprotonated amines are continuously generated by the cathodic reaction, and that polarization of the cell is avoided. Six-membered sulfonated polyimides in the diethylmethylammonium form exhibit excellent compatibility with [dema][TfO]. The composite membranes can be obtained up to a [dema][TfO] content of 80 wt % and exhibit good thermal stability, high ionic conductivity, and mechanical strength and gas permeation comparable to those of hydrated Nafion. H(2)/O(2) fuel cells prepared using the composite membranes can

  4. Solid State Ionic Materials - Proceedings of the 4th Asian Conference on Solid State Ionics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdari, B. V. R.; Yahaya, M.; Talib, I. A.; Salleh, M. M.

    1994-07-01

    The Table of Contents for the full book PDF is as follows: * Preface * I. INVITED PAPERS * Diffusion of Cations and Anions in Solid Electrolytes * Silver Ion Conductors in the Crystalline State * NMR Studies of Superionic Conductors * Hall Effect and Thermoelectric Power in High Tc Hg-Ba-Ca-Cu-O Ceramics * Solid Electrolyte Materials Prepared by Sol-Gel Chemistry * Preparation of Proton-Conducting Gel Films and their Application to Electrochromic Devices * Thin Film Fuel Cells * Zirconia based Solid Oxide Ion Conductors in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells * The Influence of Anion Substitution on Some Phosphate-based Ion Conducting Glasses * Lithium Intercalation in Carbon Electrodes and its Relevance in Rocking Chair Batteries * Chemical Sensors using Proton Conducting Ceramics * NMR/NQR Studies of Y-Ba-Cu-O Superconductors * Silver Molybdate Glasses and Battery Systems * New Highly Conducting Polymer Ionics and their Application in Electrochemical Devices * Study of Li Electrokinetics on Oligomeric Electrolytes using Microelectrodes * Calculation of Conductivity for Mixed-Phase Electrolytes PEO-MX-Immiscible Additive by Means of Effective Medium Theory * II. CONTRIBUTED PAPERS * Phase Relationship and Electrical Conductivity of Sr-V-O System with Vanadium Suboxide * Amorphous Li+ Ionic Conductors in Li2SO4-Li2O-P2O5 System * Fast Ion Transport in KCl-Al2O3 Composites * The Effect of the Second Phase Precipitation on the Ionic Conductivity of Zr0.85Mg0.15O1.85 * Conductivity Measurements and Phase Relationships in CaCl2-CaHCl Solid Electrolyte * Relationships Between Crystal Structure and Sodium Ion Conductivity in Na7Fe4(AsO4)6 and Na3Al2(AsO4)3 * Electrical Conductivity and Solubility Limit of Ti4+ Ion in Na1+x TiyZr2-ySixP3-xO12 System * Study on Sodium Fast Ion Conductors of Na1+3xAlxTi2-xSi2xP3-2xO12 System * Influences of Zirconia on the Properties of β''-Alumina Ceramics * Decay of Luminescence from Cr3+ Ions in β-Alumina * Lithium Ion Conductivity in the Li4XO4-Li2

  5. Solid State Ionic Materials - Proceedings of the 4th Asian Conference on Solid State Ionics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdari, B. V. R.; Yahaya, M.; Talib, I. A.; Salleh, M. M.

    1994-07-01

    The Table of Contents for the full book PDF is as follows: * Preface * I. INVITED PAPERS * Diffusion of Cations and Anions in Solid Electrolytes * Silver Ion Conductors in the Crystalline State * NMR Studies of Superionic Conductors * Hall Effect and Thermoelectric Power in High Tc Hg-Ba-Ca-Cu-O Ceramics * Solid Electrolyte Materials Prepared by Sol-Gel Chemistry * Preparation of Proton-Conducting Gel Films and their Application to Electrochromic Devices * Thin Film Fuel Cells * Zirconia based Solid Oxide Ion Conductors in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells * The Influence of Anion Substitution on Some Phosphate-based Ion Conducting Glasses * Lithium Intercalation in Carbon Electrodes and its Relevance in Rocking Chair Batteries * Chemical Sensors using Proton Conducting Ceramics * NMR/NQR Studies of Y-Ba-Cu-O Superconductors * Silver Molybdate Glasses and Battery Systems * New Highly Conducting Polymer Ionics and their Application in Electrochemical Devices * Study of Li Electrokinetics on Oligomeric Electrolytes using Microelectrodes * Calculation of Conductivity for Mixed-Phase Electrolytes PEO-MX-Immiscible Additive by Means of Effective Medium Theory * II. CONTRIBUTED PAPERS * Phase Relationship and Electrical Conductivity of Sr-V-O System with Vanadium Suboxide * Amorphous Li+ Ionic Conductors in Li2SO4-Li2O-P2O5 System * Fast Ion Transport in KCl-Al2O3 Composites * The Effect of the Second Phase Precipitation on the Ionic Conductivity of Zr0.85Mg0.15O1.85 * Conductivity Measurements and Phase Relationships in CaCl2-CaHCl Solid Electrolyte * Relationships Between Crystal Structure and Sodium Ion Conductivity in Na7Fe4(AsO4)6 and Na3Al2(AsO4)3 * Electrical Conductivity and Solubility Limit of Ti4+ Ion in Na1+x TiyZr2-ySixP3-xO12 System * Study on Sodium Fast Ion Conductors of Na1+3xAlxTi2-xSi2xP3-2xO12 System * Influences of Zirconia on the Properties of β''-Alumina Ceramics * Decay of Luminescence from Cr3+ Ions in β-Alumina * Lithium Ion Conductivity in the Li4XO4-Li2

  6. Alkali oxide-tantalum, niobium and antimony oxide ionic conductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, R. S.; Brower, W. S.; Parker, H. S.; Minor, D. B.; Waring, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    The phase equilibrium relations of four systems were investigated in detail. These consisted of sodium and potassium antimonates with antimony oxide and tantalum and niobium oxide with rubidium oxide as far as the ratio 4Rb2O:llB2O5 (B=Nb, Ta). The ternary system NaSbO3-Sb2O4-NaF was investigated extensively to determine the actual composition of the body centered cubic sodium antimonate. Various other binary and ternary oxide systems involving alkali oxides were examined in lesser detail. The phases synthesized were screened by ion exchange methods to determine mobility of the mobility of the alkali ion within the niobium, tantalum or antimony oxide (fluoride) structural framework. Five structure types warranted further investigation; these structure types are (1) hexagonal tungsten bronze (HTB), (2) pyrochlore, (3) the hybrid HTB-pyrochlore hexagonal ordered phases, (4) body centered cubic antimonates and (5) 2K2O:3Nb2O5. Although all of these phases exhibit good ion exchange properties only the pyrochlore was prepared with Na(+) ions as an equilibrium phase and as a low porosity ceramic. Sb(+3) in the channel interferes with ionic conductivity in this case, although relatively good ionic conductivity was found for the metastable Na(+) ion exchanged analogs of RbTa2O5F and KTaWO6 pyrochlore phases.

  7. Concentration Fluctuations and Capacitive Response in Dense Ionic Solutions.

    PubMed

    Uralcan, Betul; Aksay, Ilhan A; Debenedetti, Pablo G; Limmer, David T

    2016-07-01

    We use molecular dynamics simulations in a constant potential ensemble to study the effects of solution composition on the electrochemical response of a double layer capacitor. We find that the capacitance first increases with ion concentration following its expected ideal solution behavior but decreases upon approaching a pure ionic liquid in agreement with recent experimental observations. The nonmonotonic behavior of the capacitance as a function of ion concentration results from the competition between the independent motion of solvated ions in the dilute regime and solvation fluctuations in the concentrated regime. Mirroring the capacitance, we find that the characteristic decay length of charge density correlations away from the electrode is also nonmonotonic. The correlation length first decreases with ion concentration as a result of better electrostatic screening but increases with ion concentration as a result of enhanced steric interactions. When charge fluctuations induced by correlated ion-solvent fluctuations are large relative to those induced by the pure ionic liquid, such capacitive behavior is expected to be generic. PMID:27259040

  8. High energy density interpenetrating networks from ionic networks and silicone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Liyun; Madsen, Frederikke B.; Hvilsted, Søren; Skov, Anne L.

    2015-04-01

    The energy density of dielectric elastomers (DEs) is sought increased for better exploitation of the DE technology since an increased energy density means that the driving voltage for a certain strain can be lowered in actuation mode or alternatively that more energy can be harvested in generator mode. One way to increase the energy density is to increase dielectric permittivity of the elastomer. A novel silicone elastomer system with high dielectric permittivity was prepared through the development of interpenetrating networks from ionically assembled silicone polymers and covalently crosslinked silicones. The system has many degrees of freedom since the ionic network is formed from two polymers (amine and carboxylic acid functional, respectively) of which the chain lengths can be varied, as well as the covalent silicone elastomer with many degrees of freedom arising from amongst many the varying content of silica particles. A parameter study is performed to elucidate which compositions are most favorable for the use as dielectric elastomers. The elastomers were furthermore shown to be self-repairing upon electrical breakdown.

  9. Ionic liquid biodegradability depends on specific wastewater microbial consortia.

    PubMed

    Docherty, Kathryn M; Aiello, Steven W; Buehler, Barbara K; Jones, Stuart E; Szymczyna, Blair R; Walker, Katherine A

    2015-10-01

    Complete biodegradation of a newly-synthesized chemical in a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) eliminates the potential for novel environmental pollutants. However, differences within- and between-WWTP microbial communities may alter expectations for biodegradation. WWTP communities can also serve as a source of unique consortia that, when enriched, can metabolize chemicals that tend to resist degradation, but are otherwise promising green alternatives. We tested the biodegradability of three ionic liquids (ILs): 1-octyl-3-methylpyridinium bromide (OMP), 1-butyl-3-methylpyridinium bromide (BMP) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIM). We performed tests using communities from two WWTPs at three time points. Site-specific and temporal variation both influenced community composition, which impacted the success of OMP biodegradability. Neither BMP nor BMIM degraded in any test, suggesting that these ILs are unlikely to be removed by traditional treatment. Following standard biodegradation assays, we enriched for three consortia that were capable of quickly degrading OMP, BMP and BMIM. Our results indicate WWTPs are not functionally redundant with regard to biodegradation of specific ionic liquids. However, consortia can be enriched to degrade chemicals that fail biodegradability assays. This information can be used to prepare pre-treatment procedures and prevent environmental release of novel pollutants. PMID:25985304

  10. Water Contaminant Mitigation in Ionic Liquid Propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conroy, David; Ziemer, John

    2009-01-01

    Appropriate system and operational requirements are needed in order to ensure mission success without unnecessary cost. Purity requirements applied to thruster propellants may flow down to materials and operations as well as the propellant preparation itself. Colloid electrospray thrusters function by applying a large potential to a room temperature liquid propellant (such as an ionic liquid), inducing formation of a Taylor cone. Ions and droplets are ejected from the Taylor cone and accelerated through a strong electric field. Electrospray thrusters are highly efficient, precise, scaleable, and demonstrate low thrust noise. Ionic liquid propellants have excellent properties for use as electrospray propellants, but can be hampered by impurities, owing to their solvent capabilities. Of foremost concern is the water content, which can result from exposure to atmosphere. Even hydrophobic ionic liquids have been shown to absorb water from the air. In order to mitigate the risks of bubble formation in feed systems caused by water content of the ionic liquid propellant, physical properties of the ionic liquid EMI-Im are analyzed. The effects of surface tension, material wetting, physisorption, and geometric details of the flow manifold and electrospray emitters are explored. Results are compared to laboratory test data.

  11. Electroosmotic flow hysteresis for dissimilar ionic solutions.

    PubMed

    Lim, An Eng; Lim, Chun Yee; Lam, Yee Cheong

    2015-03-01

    Electroosmotic flow (EOF) with two or more fluids is commonly encountered in various microfluidics applications. However, no investigation has hitherto been conducted to investigate the hysteretic or flow direction-dependent behavior during the displacement flow of solutions with dissimilar ionic species. In this investigation, electroosmotic displacement flow involving dissimilar ionic solutions was studied experimentally through a current monitoring method and numerically through finite element simulations. The flow hysteresis can be characterized by the turning and displacement times; turning time refers to the abrupt gradient change of current-time curve while displacement time is the time for one solution to completely displace the other solution. Both experimental and simulation results illustrate that the turning and displacement times for a particular solution pair can be directional-dependent, indicating that the flow conditions in the microchannel are not the same in the two different flow directions. The mechanics of EOF hysteresis was elucidated through the theoretical model which includes the ionic mobility of each species, a major governing parameter. Two distinct mechanics have been identified as the causes for the EOF hysteresis involving dissimilar ionic solutions: the widening/sharpening effect of interfacial region between the two solutions and the difference in ion concentration distributions (and thus average zeta potentials) in different flow directions. The outcome of this investigation contributes to the fundamental understanding of flow behavior in microfluidic systems involving solution pair with dissimilar ionic species. PMID:25945139

  12. Electroosmotic flow hysteresis for dissimilar ionic solutions

    PubMed Central

    Lim, An Eng; Lam, Yee Cheong

    2015-01-01

    Electroosmotic flow (EOF) with two or more fluids is commonly encountered in various microfluidics applications. However, no investigation has hitherto been conducted to investigate the hysteretic or flow direction-dependent behavior during the displacement flow of solutions with dissimilar ionic species. In this investigation, electroosmotic displacement flow involving dissimilar ionic solutions was studied experimentally through a current monitoring method and numerically through finite element simulations. The flow hysteresis can be characterized by the turning and displacement times; turning time refers to the abrupt gradient change of current-time curve while displacement time is the time for one solution to completely displace the other solution. Both experimental and simulation results illustrate that the turning and displacement times for a particular solution pair can be directional-dependent, indicating that the flow conditions in the microchannel are not the same in the two different flow directions. The mechanics of EOF hysteresis was elucidated through the theoretical model which includes the ionic mobility of each species, a major governing parameter. Two distinct mechanics have been identified as the causes for the EOF hysteresis involving dissimilar ionic solutions: the widening/sharpening effect of interfacial region between the two solutions and the difference in ion concentration distributions (and thus average zeta potentials) in different flow directions. The outcome of this investigation contributes to the fundamental understanding of flow behavior in microfluidic systems involving solution pair with dissimilar ionic species. PMID:25945139

  13. Solvent effects by ionic liquid-water mixtures on the heterogeneous hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass with solid catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prosser, Jacob H.

    Ionic liquids are novel solvents proposed as alternatives for the liquid phase catalysis of lignocellulosic biomass because these can molecularly dissolve lignocellulose to high concentrations. However, solvent effects caused by ionic liquids for this application, such as how they shift the kinetics and equilibrium of lignocellulose conversion relative to other solvents, as well as if these change the nature of catalysts used and inhibit catalytic activity or unfavorably alter catalytic selectivity have not been rigorously considered. Additionally, many issues associated with the use of ionic liquids as solvents in lignocellulose conversion arise. Firstly, most ionic liquids readily undergo liquid phase thermal degradation at moderately low temperatures relevant for catalysis. Secondly, solvothermal degradation of solid catalytic materials by ILs can occur and is something not widely evaluated. Furthermore, the catalytic nature of many commonly used catalysts is altered through ion exchange between ionizable surface groups and ionic liquid ions. To understand how hydrophilic imidazolium-based ionic liquids influence the hydrolysis of lignocellulose, I examine with the aid of spectroscopic ellipsometry, UV-Vis spectrophotometry, high performance liquid chromatography, reflectance-small angle x-ray scattering, and powder x-ray diffraction the: (1) thermal degradation of a 1,2,3-trialkylimidzaolium ionic liquid; (2) solvothermal stability of mesoporous silica and gamma-alumina catalytsts; (3) behavior of the hydrolysis reaction of a lignin model compound in 1,2,3-trialkylimidzaolium ionic liquid-water mixtures; and (4) this same reaction catalyzed by gamma-alumina. From my investigations, I discover that: (1) water is able to diminish the thermal degradation of imidazolium ionic liquids when its composition is above about 35 mol% in these mixtures, an effect I propose is from two different mechanisms; (2) mesoporous silica and gamma-alumina are solvothermally stable

  14. Water-in-ionic liquid microemulsion formation in solvent mixture of aprotic and protic imidazolium-based ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Kusano, Takumi; Fujii, Kenta; Hashimoto, Kei; Shibayama, Mitsuhiro

    2014-10-14

    We report that water-in-ionic liquid microemulsions (MEs) are stably formed in an organic solvent-free system, i.e., a mixture of aprotic (aIL) and protic (pIL) imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs) containing the anionic surfactant dioctyl sulfosuccinate sodium salt (AOT). Structural investigations using dynamic light, small-angle X-ray, and small-angle neutron scatterings were performed for MEs formed in mixtures of aprotic 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium ([C8mIm(+)]) and protic 1-alkylimidazolium ([CnImH(+)], n = 4 or 8) IL with a common anion, bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide ([TFSA(-)]). It was found that the ME structure strongly depends on the mixing composition of the aIL/pIL in the medium. The ME size appreciably increases with increasing pIL content in both [C8mIm(+)][TFSA(-)]/[C8ImH(+)][TFSA(-)] and [C8mIm(+)][TFSA(-)]/[C4ImH(+)][TFSA(-)] mixtures. The size is larger for the n = 8 system than that for the n = 4 system. These results indicate that the shell part of MEs is composed of both AOT and pIL cation, and the ME size can be tuned by pIL content in the aIL/pIL mixtures. PMID:25226398

  15. Application of multiwalled carbon nanotubes/ionic liquid modified electrode for amperometric determination of sulfadiazine.

    PubMed

    Hong, Xiaoping; Zhu, Yan; Ma, Jingying

    2012-12-01

    A highly sensitive amperometric sulfadiazine sensor based on coating multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and N-octyl-pyridinium-hexafluorophosphate (OPPF(6)) ionic liquid composite on a glassy carbon (GC) electrode is described. The MWCNTs/OPPF(6) composite contributed new properties to electrochemical sensors by combining the advantages of both ionic liquids and MWCNTs. Compared with bare GC electrode, the electrocatalytic activity of MWCNTs/OPPF(6) generated a greatly improved electrochemical detection of sulfadiazine including low oxidation potential, high current responses, and good anti-fouling performance. The oxidation peak currents of sulfadiazine obtained on the MWCNTs/OPPF(6) coated GC electrode were proportional to the concentration of sulfadiazine within the range of 3.3-35.4 μM with a detection limit of 0.21 μM. PMID:21953836

  16. Individual SWCNT based ionic field effect transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Pei; He, Jin; Park, Jae Hyun; Krstic, Predrag; Lindsay, Stuart

    2011-03-01

    Here we report that the ionic current through a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) can be effectively gated by a perpendicular electrical field from a top gate electrode, working as ionic field effect transistor. Both our experiment and simulation confirms that the electroosmotic current (EOF) is the main component in the ionic current through the SWCNT and is responsible for the gating effect. We also studied the gating efficiency as a function of solution concentration and pH and demonstrated that the device can work effectively in the physiological relevant condition. This work opens the door to use CNT based nanofluidics for ion and molecule manipulation. This work was supported by the DNA Sequencing Technology Program of the National Human Genome Research Institute (1RC2HG005625-01, 1R21HG004770-01), Arizona Technology Enterprises and the Biodesign Institute.

  17. Enzyme activity in dialkyl phosphate ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Marie F; Li, Luen-Luen; Handley-Pendleton, Jocelyn M; van der Lelie, Daniel; Dunn, John J; Wishart, James F

    2011-12-01

    The activity of four metagenomic enzymes and an enzyme cloned from the straw mushroom, Volvariella volvacea were studied in the following ionic liquids, 1,3-dimethylimidazolium dimethyl phosphate, [mmim][dmp], 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethyl phosphate, [emim][dmp], 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethyl phosphate, [emim][dep] and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, [emim][OAc]. Activity was determined by analyzing the hydrolysis of para-nitrobenzene carbohydrate derivatives. In general, the enzymes were most active in the dimethyl phosphate ionic liquids, followed by acetate. Generally speaking, activity decreased sharply for concentrations of [emim][dep] above 10% v/v, while the other ionic liquids showed less impact on activity up to 20% v/v. PMID:22001053

  18. Selective Ionic Transport Pathways in Phosphorene.

    PubMed

    Nie, Anmin; Cheng, Yingchun; Ning, Shoucong; Foroozan, Tara; Yasaei, Poya; Li, Wen; Song, Boao; Yuan, Yifei; Chen, Lin; Salehi-Khojin, Amin; Mashayek, Farzad; Shahbazian-Yassar, Reza

    2016-04-13

    Despite many theoretical predictions indicating exceptionally low energy barriers of ionic transport in phosphorene, the ionic transport pathways in this two-dimensional (2D) material has not been experimentally demonstrated. Here, using in situ aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and density functional theory, we studied sodium ion transport in phosphorene. Our high-resolution TEM imaging complemented by electron energy loss spectroscopy demonstrates a precise description of anisotropic sodium ions migration along the [100] direction in phosphorene. This work also provides new insight into the effect of surface and the edge sites on the transport properties of phosphorene. According to our observation, the sodium ion transport is preferred in zigzag edge rather than the armchair edge. The use of this highly selective ionic transport property may endow phosphorene with new functionalities for novel chemical device applications. PMID:26986876

  19. Enzyme activity in dialkyl phosphate ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, M.F.; Dunn, J.; Li, L.-L.; Handley-Pendleton, J. M.; van der lelie, D.; Wishart, J. F.

    2011-12-01

    The activity of four metagenomic enzymes and an enzyme cloned from the straw mushroom, Volvariellavolvacea were studied in the following ionic liquids, 1,3-dimethylimidazolium dimethyl phosphate, [mmim][dmp], 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethyl phosphate, [emim][dmp], 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethyl phosphate, [emim][dep] and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, [emim][OAc]. Activity was determined by analyzing the hydrolysis of para-nitrobenzene carbohydrate derivatives. In general, the enzymes were most active in the dimethyl phosphate ionic liquids, followed by acetate. Generally speaking, activity decreased sharply for concentrations of [emim][dep] above 10% v/v, while the other ionic liquids showed less impact on activity up to 20% v/v.

  20. Key Developments in Ionic Liquid Crystals

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez Fernandez, Alexandra; Kouwer, Paul H. J.

    2016-01-01

    Ionic liquid crystals are materials that combine the classes of liquid crystals and ionic liquids. The first one is based on the multi-billion-dollar flat panel display industry, whilst the latter quickly developed in the past decades into a family of highly-tunable non-volatile solvents. The combination yields materials with a unique set of properties, but also with many challenges ahead. In this review, we provide an overview of the key concepts in ionic liquid crystals, particularly from a molecular perspective. What are the important molecular parameters that determine the phase behavior? How should they be introduced into the molecules? Finally, which other tools does one have to realize specific properties in the material? PMID:27196890

  1. Desulfurization of oxidized diesel using ionic liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilfred, Cecilia D.; Salleh, M. Zulhaziman M.; Mutalib, M. I. Abdul

    2014-10-01

    The extraction of oxidized sulfur compounds from diesel were carried out using ten types of ionic liquids consisting of different cation and anion i.e. 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazoium thiocyanate, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazoium dicyanamide, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazoliumhexafluorophosphate, 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate, trioctylmethylammonium chloride, 1-propionitrile-3-butylimidazolium thiocyanate, 1-propionitrile-3-butylimidazolium dicyanamide and 1-butyl-6-methylquinolinium dicyanamide. The oxidation of diesel was successfully done using phosphotungstic acid as the catalyst, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as the oxidant and trioctylmethylammonium chloride as the phase transfer agent. The oxidation of diesel changes the sulfur compounds into sulfone which increases its polarity and enhances the ionic liquid's extraction performance. Result showed that ionic liquid [C4mquin][N(CN)2] performed the highest sulfur removal (91% at 1:5 diesel:IL ratio) compared to the others.

  2. Low severity coal conversion by ionic hydrogenation

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, J.W.; Maioriello, J.; Cheng, J.C.

    1990-08-17

    The work accomplished in this project will be reported in two parts. Part one will focus on the development of catalytic ionic hydrogenation reactions utilizing a transition metal-H{sub 2} complex as the hydride donor and BF{sub 3}:H{sub 2}O as proton donor. This part reports the results of prelimiary work leading to the development of a new catalytic ionic hydrogenation system (MeCN){sub 2}PtCl{sub 2}/H{sub 2}/BF{sub 3}: H{sub 2}O. The results from some of this work have been published and the paper is included as the appendix. The second part focuses on the newly developed catalytic and other well characterized ionic hydrogenation reactions applied to lignites (Beulah-Zap), sub-bitumiuous (Wyodak), and bituminous coals (Pittsburgh {number sign}8). 19 refs., 10 tabs.

  3. Thermoreversible (Ionic-Liquid-Based) Aqueous Biphasic Systems

    PubMed Central

    Passos, Helena; Luís, Andreia; Coutinho, João A. P.; Freire, Mara G.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to induce reversible phase transitions between homogeneous solutions and biphasic liquid-liquid systems, at pre-defined and suitable operating temperatures, is of crucial relevance in the design of separation processes. Ionic-liquid-based aqueous biphasic systems (IL-based ABS) have demonstrated superior performance as alternative extraction platforms, and their thermoreversible behaviour is here disclosed by the use of protic ILs. The applicability of the temperature-induced phase switching is further demonstrated with the complete extraction of two value-added proteins, achieved in a single-step. It is shown that these temperature-induced mono(bi)phasic systems are significantly more versatile than classical liquid-liquid systems which are constrained by their critical temperatures. IL-based ABS allow to work in a wide range of temperatures and compositions which can be tailored to fit the requirements of a given separation process. PMID:26843320

  4. Low velocity ion stopping in binary ionic mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Tashev, Bekbolat; Baimbetov, Fazylkhan; Deutsch, Claude; Fromy, Patrice

    2008-10-15

    Attention is focused on the low ion velocity stopping mechanisms in multicomponent and dense target plasmas built of quasiclassical electron fluids neutralizing binary ionic mixtures, such as, deuterium-tritium of current fusion interest, proton-heliumlike iron in the solar interior or proton-helium ions considered in planetology, as well as other mixtures of fiducial concern in the heavy ion beam production of warm dense matter at Bragg peak conditions. The target plasma is taken in a multicomponent dielectric formulation a la Fried-Conte. The occurrence of projectile ion velocities (so-called critical) for which target electron slowing down equals that of given target ion components is also considered. The corresponding multiquadrature computations, albeit rather heavy, can be monitored analytical through a very compact code operating a PC cluster. Slowing down results are systematically scanned with respect to target temperature and electron density, as well as ion composition.

  5. Thermoreversible (Ionic-Liquid-Based) Aqueous Biphasic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passos, Helena; Luís, Andreia; Coutinho, João A. P.; Freire, Mara G.

    2016-02-01

    The ability to induce reversible phase transitions between homogeneous solutions and biphasic liquid-liquid systems, at pre-defined and suitable operating temperatures, is of crucial relevance in the design of separation processes. Ionic-liquid-based aqueous biphasic systems (IL-based ABS) have demonstrated superior performance as alternative extraction platforms, and their thermoreversible behaviour is here disclosed by the use of protic ILs. The applicability of the temperature-induced phase switching is further demonstrated with the complete extraction of two value-added proteins, achieved in a single-step. It is shown that these temperature-induced mono(bi)phasic systems are significantly more versatile than classical liquid-liquid systems which are constrained by their critical temperatures. IL-based ABS allow to work in a wide range of temperatures and compositions which can be tailored to fit the requirements of a given separation process.

  6. Ionic conductivity and dielectric permittivity of PEO-LiClO{sub 4} solid polymer electrolyte plasticized with propylene carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Das, S.; Ghosh, A.

    2015-02-15

    We have studied ionic conductivity and dielectric permittivity of PEO-LiClO{sub 4} solid polymer electrolyte plasticized with propylene carbonate. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction studies confirm minimum volume fraction of crystalline phase for the polymer electrolyte with 40 wt. % propylene carbonate. The ionic conductivity exhibits a maximum for the same composition. The temperature dependence of the ionic conductivity has been well interpreted using Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher equation. Ion-ion interactions in the polymer electrolytes have been studied using Raman spectra and the concentrations of free ions, ion-pairs and ion-aggregates have been determined. The ionic conductivity increases due to the increase of free ions with the increase of propylene carbonate content. But for higher content of propylene carbonate, the ionic conductivity decreases due to the increase of concentrations of ion-pairs and ion-aggregates. To get further insights into the ion dynamics, the experimental data for the complex dielectric permittivity have been studied using Havriliak–Negami function. The variation of relaxation time with temperature obtained from this formalism follows Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher equation similar to the ionic conductivity.

  7. Electric dipole moments (EDM) of ionic atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshima, Sachiko

    2010-03-01

    Recent investigations show that the second-order perturbation calculations of electric dipole moments (EDM) from the finite nuclear size as well as the relativistic effects are all canceled out by the third-order perturbation effects and that this is due to electron screening. To derive the nucleon EDM from the nucleus, we propose to measure the EDM of an ionic system. In this case, it is shown that the nucleon EDM can survive by the reduction factor of 1/Z for the ionic system with one electron stripped off.

  8. Unravelling nanoconfined films of ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Alpha A.; Vella, Dominic; Goriely, Alain; Perkin, Susan

    2014-09-07

    The confinement of an ionic liquid between charged solid surfaces is treated using an exactly solvable 1D Coulomb gas model. The theory highlights the importance of two dimensionless parameters: the fugacity of the ionic liquid, and the electrostatic interaction energy of ions at closest approach, in determining how the disjoining pressure exerted on the walls depends on the geometrical confinement. Our theory reveals that thermodynamic fluctuations play a vital role in the “squeezing out” of charged layers as the confinement is increased. The model shows good qualitative agreement with previous experimental data, with all parameters independently estimated without fitting.

  9. Electric dipole moments (EDM) of ionic atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Oshima, Sachiko

    2010-03-15

    Recent investigations show that the second-order perturbation calculations of electric dipole moments (EDM) from the finite nuclear size as well as the relativistic effects are all canceled out by the third-order perturbation effects and that this is due to electron screening. To derive the nucleon EDM from the nucleus, we propose to measure the EDM of an ionic system. In this case, it is shown that the nucleon EDM can survive by the reduction factor of 1/Z for the ionic system with one electron stripped off.

  10. Ionic solutes impact collagen scaffold bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Pawelec, K M; Husmann, A; Wardale, R J; Best, S M; Cameron, R E

    2015-02-01

    The structure of ice-templated collagen scaffolds is sensitive to many factors. By adding 0.5 wt% of sodium chloride or sucrose to collagen slurries, scaffold structure could be tuned through changes in ice growth kinetics and interactions of the solute and collagen. With ionic solutes (sodium chloride) the entanglements of the collagen molecule decreased, leading to fibrous scaffolds with increased pore size and decreased attachment of chondrocytes. With non-ionic solutes (sucrose) ice growth was slowed, leading to significantly reduced pore size and up-regulated cell attachment. This highlights the large changes in structure and biological function stimulated by solutes in ice-templating systems. PMID:25649518

  11. Ionic-Liquid Induced Changes in Cellulose Structure Associated with Enhanced Biomass Hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Samayam, Indira P.; Hanson, B. Leif; Langan, Paul; Schall, Constance A.

    2011-11-07

    The effects of varying ionic liquid pretreatment parameters on various sources of lignocellulosic biomass have been studied using X-ray powder diffraction, X-ray fiber diffraction, and compositional analysis. Comparative enzymatic hydrolysis and sugar analysis were used to relate the observed changes in cellulose structure to biomass digestibility. In this study, the factor most clearly associated with enhanced biomass hydrolysis is the conversion of cellulose fibers from the cellulose I to the cellulose II crystal phase.

  12. Synergistic Effects Between Phosphonium-Alkylphosphate Ionic Liquids and Zinc Dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) as Lubricant Additives

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Qu, Jun; Barnhill, William C.; Luo, Huimin; Meyer, III, Harry M.; Leonard, Donovan N.; Landauer, Alexander K.; Kheireddin, Bassem; Gao, Hong; Papke, Brian L; Dai, Sheng

    2015-07-14

    Unique synergistic effects between phosphonium-alkylphosphate ionic liquids and zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) are discovered when used together as lubricant additives, resulting in significant friction and wear reduction along with distinct tribofilm composition and mechanical properties. The synergism is attributed to the 30-70× higher-than-nominal concentrations of hypothetical new compounds (via anion exchange between IL and ZDDP) on the fluid surface/interface.

  13. Advanced two-photon photolithography for patterning of transparent, electrically conductive ionic liquid-polymer nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhtina, Natalia A.; MacKinnon, Neil; Korvink, Jan G.

    2016-04-01

    A key challenge in micro- and nanotechnology is the direct patterning of functional structures. For example, it is highly desirable to possess the ability to create three-dimensional (3D), conductive, and optically transparent structures. Efforts in this direction have, to date, yielded less than optimal results since the polymer composites had low optical transparency over the visible range, were only slightly conductive, or incompatible with high resolution structuring. We have previously presented the novel cross-linkable, conductive, highly transparent composite material based on a photoresist (IP-L 780, OrmoComp, or SU-8) and the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide. Material patterning by conventional and two-photon photolithography has been demonstrated as proof-of-concept. Aiming to increase the resolution and to extend the spectrum of exciting applications we continued our research into identifying new ionic liquid - polymer composites. In this paper, we report the precise 3D single-step structuring of optically transparent and electrically conductive ionic liquid - polymer nanostructures with the highest spatial resolution (down to 150 nm) achieved to date. This was achieved via the development of novel cross-linkable composite based on the photoresist IP-G 780 and the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide. The successful combination of the developed material with the advanced direct laser writing technique enabled the time- and cost-saving direct manufacturing of transparent, electrically conductive components. We believe that the excellent characteristics of the structured material will open a wider range of exciting applications.

  14. Ionic liquid induced changes in cellulose structure associated with enhanced biomass hydrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Samayam, Indira P; Hanson, B Leif; Langan, Paul; Schall, Constance A

    2011-01-01

    The effects of varying ionic liquid pretreatment parameters on various sources of lignocellulosic biomass have been studied using X-ray powder diffraction, X-ray fiber diffraction and compositional analysis. Comparative enzymatic hydrolysis and sugar analysis were used to relate the observed changes in cellulose structure to biomass digestibility. In this study the factor most clearly associated with enhanced biomass hydrolysis is the conversion of cellulose fibers from the cellulose I to the cellulose II crystal phase. PMID:21740062

  15. Ionic liquid-mediated synthesis of meso-scale porous lanthanum-transition-metal perovskites with high CO oxidation performance

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Hanfeng; Zhang, Pengfei; Qiao, Zhen-An; Zhang, Jinshui; Zhu, Huiyuan; Chen, Jihua; Chen, Yinfei; Dai, Sheng

    2015-02-19

    Lanthanum-transition-metal perovskites with robust meso-scale porous frameworks (meso-LaMO3) are synthesized through use of ionic liquids. The resultant samples demonstrate a rather high activity for CO oxidation, by taking advantage of unique nanostructure-derived benefits. This synthesis strategy opens up a new opportunity for preparing functional mesoporous complex oxides of various compositions.

  16. Ionic liquid-mediated synthesis of meso-scale porous lanthanum-transition-metal perovskites with high CO oxidation performance

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lu, Hanfeng; Zhang, Pengfei; Qiao, Zhen-An; Zhang, Jinshui; Zhu, Huiyuan; Chen, Jihua; Chen, Yinfei; Dai, Sheng

    2015-02-19

    Lanthanum-transition-metal perovskites with robust meso-scale porous frameworks (meso-LaMO3) are synthesized through use of ionic liquids. The resultant samples demonstrate a rather high activity for CO oxidation, by taking advantage of unique nanostructure-derived benefits. This synthesis strategy opens up a new opportunity for preparing functional mesoporous complex oxides of various compositions.

  17. Poly(ionic liquid)/Ionic Liquid Ion-Gels with High "Free" Ionic Liquid Content: Platform Membrane Materials for CO2/Light Gas Separations.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Matthew G; Gin, Douglas L; Noble, Richard D

    2016-04-19

    -films (ca. 100-nm-thick active layer). Traditional polymeric membrane materials are limited by a trade-off between permeability and selectivity empirically described by the "Robeson upper bound"-placing the desired membrane properties beyond reach. Therefore, the investigation of advanced and composite materials that can overcome the limitations of traditional polymeric materials is the focus of significant academic and industrial research. In particular, there has been substantial work on ionic-liquid (IL)-based materials due to their gas transport properties. This review provides an overview of our collaborative work on developing poly(ionic liquid)/ionic liquid (PIL/IL) ion-gel membrane technology. We detail developmental work on the preparation of PIL/IL composites and describe how this chemical technology was adapted to allow the roll-to-roll processing and preparation of membranes with defect-free active layers ca. 100 nm thick, CO2 permeances of over 6000 GPU, and CO2/N2 selectivity of ≥20-properties with the potential to reduce the cost of CO2 removal from coal-fired power plant flue gas to ca. $15 per ton of CO2 captured. Additionally, we examine the materials developments that have produced advanced PIL/IL composite membranes. These advancements include cross-linked PIL/IL blends, step-growth PIL/IL networks with facilitated transport groups, and PIL/IL composites with microporous additives for CO2/CH4 separations. PMID:27046045

  18. Elucidation of the effect of ionic liquid pretreatment on rice husk via structural analyses

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In the present study, three ionic liquids, namely 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM]Cl), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([EMIM]OAc), and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethyl phosphate ([EMIM]DEP), were used to partially dissolve rice husk, after which the cellulose were regenerated by the addition of water. The aim of the investigation is to examine the implications of the ionic liquid pretreatments on rice husk composition and structure. Results From the attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform-infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results, the regenerated cellulose were more amorphous, less crystalline, and possessed higher structural disruption compared with untreated rice husk. The major component of regenerated cellulose from [BMIM]Cl and [EMIM]DEP pretreatments was cellulose-rich material, while cellulose regenerated from [EMIM]OAc was a matrix of cellulose and lignin. Cellulose regenerated from ionic pretreatments could be saccharified via enzymatic hydrolysis, and resulted in relatively high reducing sugars yields, whereas enzymatic hydrolysis of untreated rice husk did not yield reducing sugars. Rice husk residues generated from the ionic liquid pretreatments had similar chemical composition and amorphousity to that of untreated rice husk, but with varying extent of surface disruption and swelling. Conclusions The structural architecture of the regenerated cellulose and rice husk residues showed that they could be used for subsequent fermentation or derivation of cellulosic compounds. Therefore, ionic liquid pretreatment is an alternative in the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass in addition to the conventional chemical pretreatments. PMID:22958710

  19. EXPEDITIOUS SYNTHESIS OF IONIC LIQUIDS USING ULTRASOUND AND MICROWAVE IRRADIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmentally friendlier preparations of ionic liquids have been developed that proceed expeditiously under the influence of microwave or ultrasound irradiation conditions using neat reactants, alkylimidazoles and alkyl halides. A number of useful ionic liquids have been prepar...

  20. A Combined Experimental and Molecular Dynamics Study of Iodide-Based Ionic Liquid and Water Mixtures.

    PubMed

    Nickerson, Stella D; Nofen, Elizabeth M; Chen, Haobo; Ngan, Miranda; Shindel, Benjamin; Yu, Hongyu; Dai, Lenore L

    2015-07-16

    Iodide-based ionic liquids have been widely employed as iodide sources in electrolytes for applications utilizing the triiodide/iodide redox couple. While adding a low-viscosity solvent such as water to ionic liquids can greatly enhance their usefulness, mixtures of highly viscous iodide-containing ILs with water have never been studied. This paper investigates, for the first time, mixtures of water and the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium iodide ([BMIM][I]) through a combined experimental and molecular dynamics study. The density, melting point, viscosity, and conductivity of these mixtures were measured by experiment. The composition region below 50% water by mole was found to differ dramatically from the region above 50% water, with trends in density and melting point differing before and after that point. Water was found to have a profound effect on viscosity and conductivity of the IL, and the effect of hydrogen bonding was discussed. Molecular dynamics simulations representing the same mixture compositions were performed. Molecular ordering was observed, as were changes in this ordering corresponding to water content. Molecular ordering was related to the experimentally measured mixture properties, providing a possible explanation for the two distinct composition regions identified by experiment. PMID:26090562

  1. Lithium-sulphur battery with activated carbon cloth-sulphur cathode and ionic liquid as electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swiderska-Mocek, Agnieszka; Rudnicka, Ewelina

    2015-01-01

    In this study a binder-free activated carbon cloth-sulphur (ACC-S) composite cathode is presented. Such a cathode was obtained using the impregnating technique of microporous activated carbon cloth with elemental melted sulphur. The surface morphology of an activated carbon cloth-sulphur electrode was studied using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), which was equipped with an EDX spectroscopy attachment. Electrochemical properties of the ACC-S composite cathode was tested in an ionic liquid electrolyte consisting of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulphonyl)imide (EtMeImNTf2) and bis(trifluoromethanesulphonyl)imide (LiNTf2). The ACC-sulphur cathode working together with lithium anode was tested with the use of cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge/discharge cycles and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The capacity and cyclic stability of the ACC-S composite cathode were much better than those for the sulphur cathode (a mixture of sulphur from graphene nanoplatelets and carbon black) tested in the same ionic liquid electrolyte. The ACC-sulphur cathode showed good cyclability and coulombic efficiency (99%) with the ionic liquid electrolyte. The reversible capacity of the ACC-S|electrolyte|Li cell was ca. 830 mAh g-1 after 50 cycles.

  2. Control of nanoscale friction on gold in an ionic liquid by a potential-dependent ionic lubricant layer.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, James; Hausen, Florian; Hayes, Robert; Webber, Grant B; Endres, Frank; Rutland, Mark W; Bennewitz, Roland; Atkin, Rob

    2012-10-12

    The lubricating properties of an ionic liquid on gold surfaces can be controlled through application of an electric potential to the sliding contact. A nanotribology approach has been used to study the frictional behavior of 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium tris(pentafluoroethyl) trifluorophosphate ([Py(1,4)]FAP) confined between silica colloid probes or sharp silica tips and a Au(111) substrate using atomic force microscopy. Friction forces vary with potential because the composition of a confined ion layer between the two surfaces changes from cation-enriched (at negative potentials) to anion-enriched (at positive potentials). This offers a new approach to tuning frictional forces reversibly at the molecular level without changing the substrates, employing a self-replenishing boundary lubricant of low vapor pressure. PMID:23102330

  3. Control of Nanoscale Friction on Gold in an Ionic Liquid by a Potential-Dependent Ionic Lubricant Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, James; Hausen, Florian; Hayes, Robert; Webber, Grant B.; Endres, Frank; Rutland, Mark W.; Bennewitz, Roland; Atkin, Rob

    2012-10-01

    The lubricating properties of an ionic liquid on gold surfaces can be controlled through application of an electric potential to the sliding contact. A nanotribology approach has been used to study the frictional behavior of 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium tris(pentafluoroethyl) trifluorophosphate ([Py1,4]FAP) confined between silica colloid probes or sharp silica tips and a Au(111) substrate using atomic force microscopy. Friction forces vary with potential because the composition of a confined ion layer between the two surfaces changes from cation-enriched (at negative potentials) to anion-enriched (at positive potentials). This offers a new approach to tuning frictional forces reversibly at the molecular level without changing the substrates, employing a self-replenishing boundary lubricant of low vapor pressure.

  4. Application of Ionic Liquids in Amperometric Gas Sensors.

    PubMed

    Gębicki, Jacek; Kloskowski, Adam; Chrzanowski, Wojciech; Stepnowski, Piotr; Namiesnik, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of available literature data on metrological parameters of the amperometric gas sensors containing ionic liquids as an electrolyte. Four mechanism types of signal generation in amperometric sensors with ionic liquid are described. Moreover, this article describes the influence of selected physico-chemical properties of the ionic liquids on the metrological parameters of these sensors. Some metrological parameters are also compared for amperometric sensors with GDE and SPE electrodes and with ionic liquids for selected analytes. PMID:25830724

  5. Ionic liquid containing hydroxamate and N-alkyl sulfamate ions

    DOEpatents

    Friesen, Cody A.; Wolfe, Derek; Johnson, Paul Bryan

    2016-03-15

    Embodiments of the invention are related to ionic liquids and more specifically to ionic liquids used in electrochemical metal-air cells in which the ionic liquid includes a cation and an anion selected from hydroxamate and/or N-alkyl sulfamate anions.

  6. Synthesis of electroactive ionic liquids for flow battery applications

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Travis Mark; Ingersoll, David; Staiger, Chad; Pratt, Harry

    2015-09-01

    The present disclosure is directed to synthesizing metal ionic liquids with transition metal coordination cations, where such metal ionic liquids can be used in a flow battery. A cation of a metal ionic liquid includes a transition metal and a ligand coordinated to the transition metal.

  7. Neuroendocrine control of ionic balance in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Kwong, Raymond W M; Kumai, Yusuke; Perry, Steve F

    2016-08-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an emerging model for integrative physiological research. In this mini-review, we discuss recent advances in the neuroendocrine control of ionic balance in this species, and identify current knowledge gaps and issues that would benefit from further investigation. Zebrafish inhabit a hypo-ionic environment and therefore are challenged by a continual loss of ions to the water. To maintain ionic homeostasis, they must actively take up ions from the water and reduce passive ion loss. The adult gill or the skin of larvae are the primary sites of ionic regulation. Current models for the uptake of major ions in zebrafish incorporate at least three types of ion transporting cells (also called ionocytes); H(+)-ATPase-rich cells for Na(+) uptake, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase-rich cells for Ca(2+) uptake, and Na(+)/Cl(-)-cotransporter expressing cells for both Na(+) and Cl(-) uptake. The precise molecular mechanisms regulating the paracellular loss of ions remain largely unknown. However, epithelial tight junction proteins, including claudins, are thought to play a critical role in reducing ion losses to the surrounding water. Using the zebrafish model, several key neuroendocrine factors were identified as regulators of epithelial ion movement, including the catecholamines (adrenaline and noradrenaline), cortisol, the renin-angiotensin system, parathyroid hormone and prolactin. Increasing evidence also suggests that gasotransmitters, such as H2S, are involved in regulating ion uptake. PMID:27179885

  8. Water dynamics at neutral and ionic interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Fenn, Emily E.; Wong, Daryl B.; Fayer, M. D.

    2009-01-01

    The orientational dynamics of water at a neutral surfactant reverse micelle interface are measured with ultrafast infrared spectroscopy of the hydroxyl stretch, and the results are compared to orientational relaxation of water interacting with an ionic interface. The comparison provides insights into the influence of a neutral vs. ionic interface on hydrogen bond dynamics. Measurements are made and analyzed for large nonionic surfactant Igepal CO-520reverse micelles (water nanopool with a 9-nm diameter). The results are compared with those from a previous study of reverse micelles of the same size formed with the ionic surfactant Aerosol-OT (AOT). The results demonstrate that the orientational relaxation times for interfacial water molecules in the two types of reverse micelles are very similar (13 ps for Igepal and 18 ps for AOT) and are significantly slower than that of bulk water (2.6 ps). The comparison of water orientational relaxation at neutral and ionic interfaces shows that the presence of an interface plays the dominant role in determining the hydrogen bond dynamics, whereas the chemical nature of the interface plays a secondary role. PMID:19706895

  9. Highly compressed ammonia forms an ionic crystal.

    PubMed

    Pickard, Chris J; Needs, R J

    2008-10-01

    Ammonia is an important compound with many uses, such as in the manufacture of fertilizers, explosives and pharmaceuticals. As an archetypal hydrogen-bonded system, the properties of ammonia under pressure are of fundamental interest, and compressed ammonia has a significant role in planetary physics. We predict new high-pressure crystalline phases of ammonia (NH(3)) through a computational search based on first-principles density-functional-theory calculations. Ammonia is known to form hydrogen-bonded solids, but we predict that at higher pressures it will form ammonium amide ionic solids consisting of alternate layers of NH(4)(+) and NH(2)(-) ions. These ionic phases are predicted to be stable over a wide range of pressures readily obtainable in laboratory experiments. The occurrence of ionic phases is rationalized in terms of the relative ease of forming ammonium and amide ions from ammonia molecules, and the volume reduction on doing so. We also predict that the ionic bonding cannot be sustained under extreme compression and that, at pressures beyond the reach of current static-loading experiments, ammonia will return to hydrogen-bonded structures consisting of neutral NH(3) molecules. PMID:18724375

  10. Solvation and Reaction in Ionic Liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Maroncelli, Mark

    2015-01-15

    The long-range goal of our DOE-sponsored research is to obtain a fundamental understanding of solvation effects on photo-induced charge transfer and related processes. Much of the focus during the past funding period has been on studies of ionic liquids and on characterizing various reactions with which to probe the nature of this interesting new solvent medium.

  11. Ionic Association Ion-Selective Electrode Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emara, Mostafa M.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Describes an experiment that, using a commercially available solid-state selective electrode in conjunction with a pH-meter, determines the stability constants of sodium sulfate while varying the ionic strength of the media using sodium chloride. Detailed reproducible procedures of both the measurements and calculations are described. (BT)

  12. Ionic liquid based multifunctional double network gel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Kumkum; Higashihara, Tomoya; Arafune, Hiroyuki; Kamijo, Toshio; Morinaga, Takashi; Sato, Takaya; Furukawa, Hidemitsu

    2015-04-01

    Gels are a promising class of soft and wet materials with diverse application in tissue engineering and bio-medical purpose. In order to accelerate the development of gels, it is required to synthesize multi-functional gels of high mechanical strength, ultra low surface friction and suitable elastic modulus with a variety of methods and new materials. Among many types of gel ionic gel made from ionic liquids (ILs) could be used for diverse applications in electrochemical devices and in the field of tribology. IL, a promising materials for lubrication, is a salt with a melting point lower than 100 °C. As a lubricant, ILs are characterized by an extremely low vapor pressure, high thermal stability and high ion conductivity. In this work a novel approach of making double network DN ionic gel using IL has been made utilizing photo polymerization process. A hydrophobic monomer Methyl methacrylate (MMA) has been used as a first network and a hydrophobic IL monomer, N,N-diethyl-N-(2-mthacryloylethyl)-N-methylammonium bistrifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (DEMM-TFSI) has been used as a second network using photo initiator benzophenon and crosslinker triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA). The resulting DN ionic gel shows transparency, flexibility, high thermal stability, good mechanical toughness and low friction coefficient value which can be a potential candidate as a gel slider in different mechanical devices and can open a new area in the field of gel tribology.

  13. Cellulose regeneration and spinnability from ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Hauru, Lauri K J; Hummel, Michael; Nieminen, Kaarlo; Michud, Anne; Sixta, Herbert

    2016-02-01

    Ionic liquid solutions of cellulose or dopes can be spun into Lyocell-type textile fibers by dry-jet wet spinning. An extruded dope is drawn over an air gap into water, where the water hydrates the ionic liquid and cellulose is regenerated. Spinnability studies have concentrated on the deformation and failure modes in the air gap and thus the rheology of the unhydrated spinning dope. Herein, a breach in the bath, another failure mode, is discussed. Dopes are prepared from the good spinning solvents NMMO·H2O and [DBNH]OAc and the poor spinning solvents [emim]OAc and [TMGH]OAc. The diffusion constants for water diffusing inwards and for ionic liquid diffusing outwards the emerging filament are measured offline. The resiliences and strengths of cellulose-ionic liquid solutions with different hydration stoichiometries are measured by means of rheometry. By calculating the diffusion dynamics, the resilience distribution of the forming filament is simulated. Gel strength distribution accounts for the tendency of [emim]OAc dopes to undergo a telescope-type breach, whereas the gelatinous solution state of [TMGH]OAc dopes accounts for their poor spinnability. PMID:26660047

  14. Carbon dioxide in ionic liquid microemulsions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianling; Han, Buxing; Li, Jianshen; Zhao, Yueju; Yang, Guanying

    2011-10-10

    Tailor-made emulsion: a CO(2) -in-ionic-liquid microemulsion was produced for the first time. The CO(2)-swollen micelles are "tunable" because the micellar size can be easily adjusted by changing the pressure of CO(2). The microemulsion has potential applications in materials synthesis, chemical reactions, and extraction. PMID:21898733

  15. High H- ionic conductivity in barium hydride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbraeken, Maarten C.; Cheung, Chaksum; Suard, Emmanuelle; Irvine, John T. S.

    2015-01-01

    With hydrogen being seen as a key renewable energy vector, the search for materials exhibiting fast hydrogen transport becomes ever more important. Not only do hydrogen storage materials require high mobility of hydrogen in the solid state, but the efficiency of electrochemical devices is also largely determined by fast ionic transport. Although the heavy alkaline-earth hydrides are of limited interest for their hydrogen storage potential, owing to low gravimetric densities, their ionic nature may prove useful in new electrochemical applications, especially as an ionically conducting electrolyte material. Here we show that barium hydride shows fast pure ionic transport of hydride ions (H-) in the high-temperature, high-symmetry phase. Although some conductivity studies have been reported on related materials previously, the nature of the charge carriers has not been determined. BaH2 gives rise to hydride ion conductivity of 0.2 S cm-1 at 630 °C. This is an order of magnitude larger than that of state-of-the-art proton-conducting perovskites or oxide ion conductors at this temperature. These results suggest that the alkaline-earth hydrides form an important new family of materials, with potential use in a number of applications, such as separation membranes, electrochemical reactors and so on.

  16. Reactions of Starch in Ionic Liquids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We found that starches are found to be soluble at 80 ºC in ionic liquids such as 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIMCl) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide (BMIMdca) in concentration up to 10% (w/w). Higher concentrations of biopolymers in these novel solvents resulted in solutions w...

  17. Esterification of Starch in Ionic Liquids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We shall discuss the use of various ionic liquids in the preparation of starch esters. Starch was reacted with vinyl acetate in different 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium (bmim) salts as solvents in an effort to produce starches with different acetylation patterns. Overall degree of substitution (DS) w...

  18. Mixed ionic and electronic conductivity in polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Shriver, D.F.

    1991-06-01

    New polymer films were synthesized that are mixed ionic-electronic conductors. Preliminary ion transport measurements have been made on these materials in the reduced state where electronic conductivity is negligible. We also have made preliminary measurements of switching times for these materials. Theoretical studies have been performed ion pairing in insulating and electronically conducting films.

  19. Ionic electrostatic excitations along biological membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradi, Afshin

    2011-02-01

    A theoretical analysis of ionic electrostatic excitations of a charged biological membrane is presented within the framework of the fluid theory for surface ions inside and outside the cell, in conjunction with the Poisson's equation. General expressions of dispersion relations are obtained for electrostatic oscillations of intrinsic cellular with different shapes and symmetries.

  20. Conductivity of ionic liquid-derived polymers with internal gold nanoparticle conduits.

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.; Cummins, M. D.; Willing, G. A.; Firestone, M. A.; Materials Science Division; Univ. of Louisville

    2009-01-01

    The transport properties of self-supporting Au nanoparticle-ionic liquid-derived polymer composites were characterized. Topographic AFM images confirm the perforated lamellar composite architecture determined by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and further show that the in situ synthesized Au nanoparticles are localized within the hydrophilic (water) domains of the structure. At low Au nanoparticle content, the images reveal incomplete packing of spherical particles (i.e., voids) within these columns. The confinement and organization of the Au nanoparticles within the hydrophilic columns give rise to a large manifold of optical resonances in the near-IR region. The bulk composite conductivity, R{sub b}, was determined by ac electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) for samples prepared with increasing Au{sup 3+} content over a frequency range of 10 Hz to 1 MHz. A 100-fold increase was observed in the bulk conductivity at room temperature for composites prepared with the highest amount of Au{sup 3+} (1.58 {+-} 0.065 {micro}mol) versus the no Au composite, with the former reaching a value of 1.3 x 10{sup -4} S cm{sup -1} at 25 C. The temperature dependence of the conductivity recorded over this range was well-modeled by the Arrhenius equation. EIS studies on samples containing the highest Au nanoparticle content over a broader range of frequencies (2 x 10{sup -2} Hz to 5 x 10{sup 5} Hz) identified a low frequency component ascribed to electronic conduction. Electronic conduction due to aggregated Au nanoparticles was further confirmed by dc conductivity measurements. This work identifies a nanostructured composite that exhibits both ionic transport through the polymeric ionic liquid and electronic conduction from the organized encapsulated columns of Au nanoparticles.