Science.gov

Sample records for ionizzanti di bologna

  1. Physical Science in Bologna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragoni, Giorgio; Stojanovic, Ivana

    2013-03-01

    We provide a guide to Bologna, Italy, focusing particularly on sites of interest to physicists. Our first tour is in the city center; it begins in the Piazza Maggiore at the Palazzo d'Accursio, the Basilica di San Petronio, and the Archiginnasio (Old University) and then proceeds to the Two Towers and the Palazzo Poggi, which houses the Astronomical Observatory Museum and other important instrument and art collections; it concludes at the Physics Museum, Department of Physics and Astronomy. Our second tour again begins in the Piazza Maggiore but goes to sites beyond the city center where famous Bolognese physicists and other scientists were born, lived, and are buried. Finally, we point out important museums and other institutions on the outskirts of Bologna.

  2. Humboldt Meets Bologna

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michelsena, Svein

    2010-01-01

    The compatibility between the Humboldtian principles and the Bologna reform programme is essentially contested. The article traces debates on the Humboldtian university and the Bologna process and explores theoretical, methodological and normative aspects of these debates and the relations between the Bologna process and the Humboldtian ideals.…

  3. A bunch of Bologna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padman, Rachel

    2009-08-01

    As your news story "Europe's education experiment" (June pp12-13) reported, the UK government may well view the country as now being compliant with the Bologna process, which aims to create a common European higher-education system. This is because the government persuaded the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) to agree that Bologna recognition should be based on learning outcomes, and then it established the (UK) Framework for Higher Education Qualifications, which purports to demonstrate this compliance. The argument is fundamentally that students in England can accomplish in four (short) years what in other systems requires five (long) ones.

  4. Bologna with Student Eyes, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikkola, Anne, Ed.; Carapinha, Bruno, Ed.; Tuck, Colin, Ed.; MacSithigh, Daithi, Ed.; Aberg, Nina Gustaffson, Ed.; Brus, Sanja, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Bologna with Student Eyes" is a survey published by the National Unions of Students in Europe, based on questionnaires sent to national unions across the continent. The survey gives a broad overview of student union perspectives as to national implementations of Bologna Process Action Lines in the period 2005-2007. It addresses the topics of:…

  5. The Bologna Process in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballarino, Gabriele; Perotti, Loris

    2012-01-01

    Italy was among the promoters of the Bologna Process and the early adopters of the reform. If one looks at its impact on the formal structure of curricula and study programmes, the reform undertaken under the Bologna banner seems to have been one of the major educational reforms ever achieved in Italy. This article describes how the Bologna…

  6. Bologna with Student Eyes 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pall, Allan; Xhomaqi, Brikena; Bartolo, Daniela; Palomares, Fernando Miguel Galan; Kaiser, Florian; Charonis, George-Konstantinos; Ufert, Karina; Malnes, Magnus; Simola, Mari; Jasurek, Miroslav; Maljukov, Monika; Vuksanovic, Nevena; Cincyte, Rasa; Santa, Robert; Primozic, Rok; Moisander, Taina

    2012-01-01

    The Bologna Process is one of the largest endeavours ever undertaken aimed at reforming higher education continent-wide. It has created a framework of measures and policies aiming to foster greater compatibility and comparability of the national systems of higher education across Europe. Despite the impact reforms and change in higher education…

  7. Higher Education and the Bologna Transformations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senashenko, V.

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the Bologna transformations. The Bologna transformations represent a phenomenon that is strictly European, and they are supposed to result in solutions to a number of chiefly economic problems that confront the leading countries of Central Europe. The author discusses the positive and negative consequences of Russia's…

  8. Bologna with Student Eyes. 2007 Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikkola, Anne, Ed.; Carapinha, Bruno, Ed.; Tuck, Colin, Ed.; Sithigh, Daithi Mac, Ed.; Aberg, Nina Gustafsson, Ed.; Brus, Sanja, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    For the third time, ESIB has carried out a survey on the implementation of the Bologna Process. The first survey was in 2003 and the second was in 2005. Between the first two surveys the methodology developed substantially and this survey builds on the principles of the 2005 "Bologna With Student Eyes" report. This new report portrays the…

  9. The Bologna Process and the New Reforms of Russian Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davydov, Iu. S.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the different opinions of specialists on The Bologna Process. The Bologna Process was brought into being by society's transition to a new stage of development, in which education and knowledge are becoming the decisive engines of progress. With the aim of creating a unified educational space, the Bologna Process was begun in…

  10. The Bologna Process: Transforming European Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floud, Roderick

    2006-01-01

    This article describes and discusses the Bologna Process, an agreement among the education ministries and the universities and colleges of 45 European countries to create the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) by 2010. At the core of the agreement is the decision that all higher education institutions in Europe will adopt the three-tiered…

  11. Understanding the Bologna Process for Admissions Officers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxton, Mary; Johnson, Johnny Kent; Nathanson, Gloria; Paver, William; Watkins, Robert

    2009-01-01

    In Spring 2008, senior members of the international admission and credential evaluation community met to deliberate over the admission and placement of Bologna Compliant degree holders into U.S. graduate programs. This group comprised several individuals holding top leadership positions in NAFSA, AACRAO, and closely allied groups involved in…

  12. Bologna, the Netherlands and Information Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boekhorst, Albert K.; Mackenzie Owen, John S.

    2003-01-01

    This paper addresses the development of the department of Information Studies at the Universiteit van Amsterdam over the years and especially the impact of the Bologna Agreement on the content and educational form of the curriculum. It includes both outlines of the programmes as well as reflection on the educational methods. The accreditation…

  13. International Student Mobility and the Bologna Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teichler, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    The Bologna Process is the newest of a chain of activities stimulated by supra-national actors since the 1950s to challenge national borders in higher education in Europe. Now, the ministers in charge of higher education of the individual European countries have agreed to promote a similar cycle-structure of study programmes and programmes based…

  14. The Implementation of the Bologna Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettunen, Juha; Kantola, Mauri

    2006-01-01

    This study identifies the responsibilities of the bodies and institutions involved in the implementation of the Bologna Process. They include the levels of Europe, nations, higher education institutions, departments, degree programmes, teachers and students. The future planning is analysed using the Balanced Scorecard approach designed for the…

  15. Social Issues in the Bologna Process: Who Benefits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyborg, Per

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses social issues in the Bologna process and who benefits from these social issues. The Bologna Declaration did not come out of the blue. It was preceded by the 1998 Sorbonne Declaration, which in turn built on the 1997 Lisbon Recognition Convention. Rather than discussing recognition of exams and degrees, the author takes the…

  16. The Bologna Process between Structural Convergence and Institutional Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunkel, Torsten

    2009-01-01

    The merging of the Bologna and the Copenhagen processes into a single European education area appears appropriate, especially as general, vocational, adult and academic education are to be integrated in a future European Qualification Framework (EQF). This is the backdrop to the following description of the Bologna process, which was originally…

  17. Teacher Perceptions of Bologna Reforms in Armenian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karakhanyan, Susanna; Van Veen, Klaas; Bergen, Theo

    2012-01-01

    The perceptions of the implementation of the Bologna reforms in Armenian higher education were examined in a questionnaire study with 279 university teachers, revealing how eight leading higher education institutions have adapted to the political directive to create alignment with the Bologna principles. The literature on educational change is…

  18. The Bologna Process: Perspectives and Implications for the Russian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telegina, Galina; Schwengel, Hermann

    2012-01-01

    This article draws on the discourses of educational policy in Europe to focus on the implications of the Bologna Process for higher education in Russia. The Bologna Process, as a multi-dimensional discourse involving a variety of social actors, reflects some of the complexities and contradictions of globalisation, in many local cases evoking…

  19. Aspired Convergence, Cherished Diversity: Dealing with the Contradictions of Bologna

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witte, Johanna

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses the inherent tension in the Bologna process between the aim of convergence and the will to maintain the diversity of national higher education (HE) systems, as well as the decentralised and autonomous nature of national policy formulation on Bologna reforms. Starting from an analytical discussion of the concepts of…

  20. The Bologna Process: Inception, "Take Up" and Familiarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neave, Guy; Veiga, Amelia

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the value of the Bologna Process in placing the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) on a solid institutional footing. How far has Bologna contributed to firming up the views academia, management and students have of the EHEA? The article is based on a survey administered across four systems of higher education in 2008. It…

  1. The Bologna Accord: A Model of Cooperation and Coordination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Ross H.; Dunn, John M.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the process of transformation of higher education in Europe in response to the 1999 Bologna Accord. The "action lines" of the Bologna Process are described with particular attention to their influence on higher education in other countries, including the United States. The changes in Europe and the "external dimension"…

  2. Re-Contextualization of the Bologna Process in Lithuania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leisyte, Liudvika; Zelvys, Rimantas; Zenkiene, Lina

    2015-01-01

    The paper explores the implementation of selected Bologna action lines in Lithuanian higher education institutions (HEIs). The study is carried out from an organizational perspective on national re-contextualization, drawing upon sociological institutionalism. The Bologna process is likely to be normatively accepted by institutions in the context…

  3. The Interpretation and Implementation of the Bologna Process in Serbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Despotovic, Miomir

    2011-01-01

    This paper neither attacks nor defends the Bologna Declaration; rather, it attempts a critical assessment of its implementation in Serbia. Review of the available data shows that the higher education system in Serbia is inefficient and in profound need of reform. Analysis of some of the reform processes shows that the Bologna Declaration as a…

  4. [Syphilis in sixteenth-century in Bologna. Health care and social assistance (Part one)].

    PubMed

    Sabbatani, S

    2006-03-01

    Syphilis arrived in Bologna in the summer of 1495, after Fornovo's battle on the Taro where Charles VIII's army, following the invasion of Naples, fought against the anti-French league who faced up to the invaders as they withdrew. It was the battle-weary Bolognesi, prisoners, deserters and probably some prostitutes following the French and mercenary army who introduced the infection into the city. At the beginning of the syphilis epidemic, the disease was very aggressive with particularly visible symptoms and many resulting deaths. Subsequently, contemporaries mention an abatement of this aggressivity in time spans that varied, but in no cases exceeded 60 years. In 1507 Bologna lost its political autonomy, becoming dependent on Rome. This was symptomatic of the upheavals throughout Italy in the sixteenth century. In this situation of economic and institutional crisis the Bolognesi were able to react with decision to the epidemic, re-converting the municipal hospital dedicated to S. Maria dei Guarini during the sixteenth century. This hospital, specializing in treating syphilis, was called "Ospedale di San Giobbe". It was closed in 1798, after the entry of the French army into Bologna. In 1560 the Bolognesi, realising that the most important causes of the spread of syphilis were social degradation, prostitution and poverty, founded another institution for the poor and for the prevention of prostitution. This institution was developed by the Opera dei Mendicanti and provided hospitality during the 1590 famine, in a city of 55,000 inhabitants, for as many as 1400 poor and sick. We also present the cure (guaiac and mercury) that they used at the time against syphilis. In such a difficult historical period beset with political and economic problems, the Bolognesi established two important institutions and showed that social solidarity is a value for the whole population. PMID:16794380

  5. CosmoBolognaLib: C++ libraries for cosmological calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marulli, F.; Veropalumbo, A.; Moresco, M.

    2016-01-01

    We present the CosmoBolognaLib, a large set of Open Source C++ numerical libraries for cosmological calculations. CosmoBolognaLib is a living project aimed at defining a common numerical environment for cosmological investigations of the large-scale structure of the Universe. In particular, one of the primary focuses of this software is to help in handling astronomical catalogues, both real and simulated, measuring one-point, two-point and three-point statistics in configuration space, and performing cosmological analyses. In this paper, we discuss the main features of this software, providing an overview of all the available C++ classes implemented up to now. Both the CosmoBolognaLib and their associated doxygen documentation can be freely downloaded at https://github.com/federicomarulli/CosmoBolognaLib. We provide also some examples to explain how these libraries can be included in either C++ or Python codes.

  6. Assessing effective care in normal labor: the Bologna score.

    PubMed

    Chalmers, B; Porter, R

    2001-06-01

    The intention of the "Bologna score" is to quantify, both in an individual labor and in a wider population, the extent to which labors have been managed as if they are normal as opposed to complicated. In this way it may be possible to assess both attitudes and practices within a maternity service toward the effective care of normal labor. A scoring system for normal labor was proposed at the World Health Organization (Regional Office for Europe) Task Force Meeting on Monitoring and Evaluation of Perinatal Care, held in Bologna in January 2000. This paper describes conceptual development of the scale. Recommendations for future evaluation of the Bologna score's validity and potential include field testing globally, comparison with the Apgar score, and evaluation of the relative weight contributed by each of the five measures comprising the Bologna score. PMID:11380378

  7. The Academy of Science of Bologna and the kidney.

    PubMed

    Bonomini, V; Campieri, C; Zuccoli, M

    1999-01-01

    The Academy of Science of Bologna, founded in 1711, played an important role in the development of medicine. Receiving the heritage of Malpighi's and Morgagni's researches, the academy encouraged nephrological studies, which produced articles published in its journal, the Commentarii. Since the Commentarii were widely distributed all over Europe, the nephrological research practiced in Bologna reached all the main academies of science, in a fruitful circulation of knowledge. The paper presents the nephrological contributions to the Commentarii in the 18th century, thus introducing physicians, like Domenico Galeazzi and Luigi Galvani, who were both professors at the University of Bologna and at the Academy of Science. In their work three main topics can be identified: uroscopy, anatomy of the kidney and renal pathologies. PMID:10213815

  8. Selective Acquiescence, Creative Commitment and Strategic Conformity: Situated National Policy Responses to Bologna

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sin, Cristina; Saunders, Murray

    2014-01-01

    The non-binding nature of the Bologna Declaration and loose policy-making and implementation through the open method of coordination (OMC) have led to varied national responses to the Bologna Process. The OMC has allowed countries room for manoeuvre to interpret Bologna policy and attach different degrees of importance to it. Looking at the…

  9. Normative Influence of the Bologna Process on French-Speaking African Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croche, Sarah; Charlier, Jean-Emile

    2012-01-01

    The Bologna Process experienced a rapidly growing and an unexpected level of support. The authors revisit the key moments of the strategic promotion of the Bologna model and address the issue of the advantages other countries from other continents might gain from lining up with versions of the Bologna model. During the first years, the Process…

  10. The Bologna Process and Its Impact on University-Level Chemical Education in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the Bologna Process, an effort by a consortium of nearly 50 European countries trying to standardize the higher education system in Europe. Starting from a nonbinding agreement (the 1999 Bologna Declaration), the Bologna Process involves a voluntary joint venture for the construction of a European higher education area…

  11. Impact of the Bologna Process on Turkish Higher Education: The Case of Izmir University of Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esen, Oguz; Gürleyen, Isik; Binatli, Ayla Ogus

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on Turkey's experience of the Bologna Process. Its main objective is to contribute to the literature on the impact of Bologna Process on national higher education systems regarding the issue of curricula development. It argues that the Bologna Process has fostered development of transparent and systematic curricula, which…

  12. Bologna Process between Prague and Berlin. Report to the Ministers of Education of the Signatory Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zgaga, Pavel

    In Bologna, Italy, in 1999 a declaration was signed that spelled out the beginnings of a common European Higher Education Area. At a summit in Prague, Czech Republic, in 2001, the idea initiated in Bologna was clearly endorsed. In the successive period from 2001 to 2003, awareness of the importance of the Bologna process and the real need for the…

  13. Student Assessment in Portugal: Academic Practice and Bologna Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sin, Cristina; Manatos, Maria

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates institutional policies and academic practices of student assessment in four Portuguese higher education institutions (HEIs) in the wake of European policy developments driven by the Bologna Process. Specifically, it examines the correspondence between European policy recommendations related to student assessment (promotion…

  14. Developing the European Researcher: "Extended" Professionality within the Bologna Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Since 2003, doctoral education has become a key feature within the remit of the Bologna Process. Perceived as a crucial link between the European Higher Education Area and the European Research Area, it is perceived as the cornerstone upon which will be built Europe's future world-class research excellence. Yet consideration of how European…

  15. The Bologna Process from a Latin American Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunner, Jose Joaquin

    2009-01-01

    Although Latin America's geography, history, and languages might seem a suitable foundation for a Bologna-type process, the development of a common Latin American higher education and research area meets predictable difficulties.The reasons are to be found in the continent's historic and modern institutional patterns. Latin American governments…

  16. The Bologna Process, Globalisation and Engineering Education Developments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uhomoibhi, James O.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on the Bologna Process in the light of globalisation and examine how it affects curriculum and engineering education developments. Design/methodology/approach: The growing need for creative competitiveness and the striving for specific profiles of engineering qualifications that are of high quality…

  17. Problems of Russia's Entry into the Bologna Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobren'kova, Ekaterina Vladimirovna

    2008-01-01

    Accomplishing the tasks spelled out in the 1999 Bologna Declaration requires reforming the structures of higher education in the countries of Europe to bring them into closer harmony, while preserving fundamental values and traditions in education that have been formed in each country. The author discusses fundamental differences between the…

  18. Bologna Network: A New Sociopolitical Area in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croche, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    The project of the Bologna process to create a "European Higher Education Area" (EHEA) has established the necessary conditions for the emergence of a new sociopolitical space of higher education in Europe. This space has become a cooperation/competition area that changes the European and national balance of power: the relations the countries…

  19. Blueprint for Bologna: University of Prishtina and the European Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epp, Juanita Ross; Epp, Walter

    2010-01-01

    Countries hoping to demonstrate an adequate educational infrastructure need a national framework that meets Bologna requirements, a national accreditation agency which sets out the approved framework, and national accreditation processes by which individual institutions can be measured against the standards set by the national accreditation…

  20. The Bologna Process and the European Gain: Africa's Development Demise?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shawa, Lester Brian

    2008-01-01

    The Bologna process is a fundamental restructuring of higher education in Europe, of which the introduction of three cycles: bachelor's, master's and doctorate, in lieu of the traditional long program is the single most important feature. Its objectives are to increase the employability of European citizens and the competitiveness and…

  1. "Running the Gauntlet": The Bologna Process in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattheou, Dimitrios

    2011-01-01

    Greece has not been among the signatory countries that rushed enthusiastically into the implementation of the Bologna process; it has only gradually and grudgingly managed to adopt some of its provisions over the past decade. This paper sheds light on the forces and factors that have put obstacles in its way, including: (1) the epistemological…

  2. E-Assessment within the Bologna Paradigm: Evidence from Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrao, Maria

    2010-01-01

    The Bologna Declaration brought reforms into higher education that imply changes in teaching methods, didactic materials and textbooks, infrastructures and laboratories, etc. Statistics and mathematics are disciplines that traditionally have the worst success rates, particularly in non-mathematics core curricula courses. This research project,…

  3. Bologna--Realising Old or New Ideals of Quality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serrano-Velarde, Kathia; Stensaker, Bjorn

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the meanings of quality in the Humboldtian university ideal and in the Bologna process, especially related to issues of institutional autonomy, academic freedom and the integration of teaching and research. The article gives an overview of current practices associated with quality and quality assurance in Germany and Norway.…

  4. Survey on the Implementation of the Bologna Process in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veiga, Amelia; Amaral, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    For several years Portuguese higher education institutions have been waiting for the legislation framework necessary for the implementation of the Bologna process. Such legislation was passed quite recently (2006) and has resulted in an unexpected flood of proposals presented at very short notice by higher education institutions to the Ministry.…

  5. The Bologna Process and the Czech System of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pol, Milan

    2005-01-01

    The Czech system of education has been through several years of relatively intensive transformation efforts reflecting the international processes of transformation of higher education the Czech Republic joined. The most important external stimulus directing the transformation process is the so-called Bologna process. These complex and…

  6. The links between medical school of Bologna and Ionian Academy.

    PubMed

    Lascaratos, J; Marketos, S

    1989-01-01

    The Ionian Academy, on the British dominion island of Corfu (Kerkyra), was founded in 1824 and his Medical School functioned during two separate periods (1824-1828, 1844-1865). It was the first Greek University. Among the 15 professors of the Academy's Medical School, 12 studied at various Italian universities. In particular, three of them, G. Therianos, Professor of Comparative Anatomy and Experimental Physics, G. Grassetti, Professor of Physiology and S. Arvanitakis, Professor of Pathology and Hygiene, either studied or graduated at the Medical school of Bologna University. Another Bologna graduate, Rokkos Pylarios, was appointed to the chair of Professor in Surgery and Gynecology - though it is not known if he actually took up the position. It is concluded that the Medical School of Bologna, as a centre of original medical study, contributed significantly to the foundation and development of the Ionian Academy. Moreover, the Greek physicians who had studied either at the University of Bologna or at the Ionian Academy, contributed to the renaissance of neohellenic medicine during the 19th century. PMID:11640087

  7. Bologna Process Principles Integrated into Education System of Kazakhstan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nessipbayeva, Olga

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the fulfillment of the parameters of the Bologna Process in the education system of Kazakhstan. The author gives short review of higher education system of the Republic of Kazakhstan with necessary data. And the weaknesses of the system of higher education are identified. Moreover, implementing…

  8. Marcello Malpighi and his academic opponents in Bologna.

    PubMed

    Campieri, Claudio; Persici, Elisa; Stefoni, Sergio

    2004-01-01

    Marcello Malpighi was born in Crevalcore on March 10, 1628 and died in Rome on July 25, 1694. In Bologna he had among his opponents Giovanni Gerolamo Sbaraglia and Paoli Mini who prevented him being appointed to the chair of anatomy. This paper describes the reasons for this long term debate. PMID:15372430

  9. Ukraine and the Bologna Process: A Case Study of the Impact of the Bologna Process on Ukrainian State Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovtun, Olena; Stick, Sheldon

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of a case study exploring perceptions of selected administrators and instructors at a Ukrainian state institution regarding the effectiveness of the Bologna Process at their institution. Data were collected from focus group interviews with five volunteer instructors involved in the implementation process. The…

  10. Bologna Trends 2010: The Implementation of the Bologna Process and a Move towards a "New Global Regionalism"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Observatory on Borderless Higher Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The European University Association, whose members include European higher educations institutions across 46 countries, just published Trends 2010, the sixth in the Trends series, its flagship pan-European report. The principal aim of the 2010 report is to situate and analyse the implementation of the Bologna Process, an initiative to create a…

  11. Setting Policy Agenda for the Social Dimension of the Bologna Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yagci, Yasemin

    2014-01-01

    Since 1999, the Bologna Process has been suggesting a series of reforms relating to structural and normative aspects of higher education, one of which is the social dimension. The social dimension entered into the Bologna Process as an ambiguous action area in 2001 and has remained so in terms of its policy measures. Despite this ambiguity and…

  12. The Impact of the Bologna Reform on the Productivity of Swiss Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agasisti, Tommaso; Bolli, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The Bologna reform aims to enhance several dimensions of the universities' activities, by favouring mobility and mutual recognition of higher education degrees across Europe, with the objective to create a European Higher Education Area. The radical changes induced by the Bologna Process affect universities' productivity both directly…

  13. The Impact of the Bologna Process on Higher Education in Slovakia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laszlo, Bela

    2008-01-01

    "The Bologna process is named after the Bologna Declaration. The primary goal of the accord is the coordination and harmonization of the various European higher education systems without losing their colorful diversity and individual features, thereby making European higher education even more attractive for students and scholars all over the…

  14. Towards 2010 (and Then Beyond)--The Context of the Bologna Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birtwistle, Tim

    2009-01-01

    While 2010 was originally stated as being the end point for the creation of the European Higher Education Area through the Bologna Process, it is in fact a point along the way. The journey from Sorbonne (1998) to Bologna (1999) towards 2010 has seen an expansion of the number of signatory states (from 4 to 29 to 46) and a broadening of the…

  15. The Bologna Process Policy Implementation in Russia and Ukraine: Similarities and Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luchinskaya, Daria; Ovchynnikova, Olena

    2011-01-01

    The recent establishment of the European Higher Education Area and the ongoing monitoring carried out by the Bologna Follow-up Group raises the question: to what extent have the objectives of the Bologna Process been implemented in the varied higher education systems of the 47 signatory states, including the former Soviet Union states? This…

  16. Bologna at the Finish Line: An Account of Ten Years of European Higher Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartolo, Daniela; Bjerke, Christian Hemmestad; Blattler, Andrea; Deca, Ligia; Gielis, Inge; Karlsson, Solvi; Nielsen, Kristine Bak; Pall, Allan; Rytkonen, Petri; Santa, Robert; Szabo, Melinda

    2010-01-01

    The European Students' Union (ESU) has been writing about the student perspective on the Bologna Process since it get formally involved in it. Four editions of the students' independent stocktaking report "Bologna With Student Eyes" between 2003 and 2009 shed light on the perception of those stakeholders, which are probably mostly targeted on the…

  17. Mission Accomplished? Which Mission? The "Bologna Process"--A View from Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Rudder, Helmut

    2010-01-01

    This article does not follow the widespread assumption or even conviction that the Bologna process is the most important reform of higher education in Europe in modern times. Instead it analyses the Bologna process in the context of previous and ongoing programmes, measures and activities by European bodies and national governments aiming at…

  18. The Eagle and the Circle of Gold Stars: Does the Bologna Process Affect US Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookes, Marilyn; Huisman, Jeroen

    2009-01-01

    The Bologna Process is almost at its end and European policy-makers currently reflect on appropriate objectives and policies for the next decade. Given that the Bologna Process is generally seen as an example of unprecedented change in European higher education and that the major overarching objective of the Process was to increase the…

  19. Reflections on the Bologna Process: The Making of an Asia Pacific Higher Education Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chao, Roger Y., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The Brisbane Communiqué's goals and initiatives seem to follow the Bologna Process' normative path towards the creation of a common regional higher education space. However, comparing demography, socio-economics, student mobility, political economy framework and the initiatives undertaken by both the Brisbane Communiqué and the Bologna Process…

  20. Regional Higher Education Reform Initiatives in Africa: A Comparative Analysis with the Bologna Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woldegiorgis, Emnet Tadesse; Jonck, Petronella; Goujon, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Europe's Bologna Process has been identified as a pioneering approach in regional cooperation with respect to the area of higher education. To address the challenges of African higher education, policymakers are recommending regional cooperation that uses the Bologna Process as a model. Based on these recommendations, the African Union Commission…

  1. Managing the Bologna Process at the European Level: Institution and Actor Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazetic, Predrag

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses the work of the Bologna Follow Up Group as the main institution of the Bologna Process and the perceptions of the policy actors involved concerning the character of the process in terms of its functioning in contrast to similar multi-level multi-actor European processes, its modes of communication and consensus seeking, as…

  2. Rethinking Postgraduate Education in Europe: Bologna and Its Implications for Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wastl-Walter, Doris; Wintzer, Jeannine

    2012-01-01

    In the following article, we would first like to present the Bologna Process to create a European Higher Education Area and to show its importance as a framework for higher education in Europe and beyond. Second, we would like to raise questions about the consequences of the Bologna Process for postgraduate education especially for the…

  3. The Emergent European Educational Policies under Scrutiny: The Bologna Process from a Central European Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwiek, Marek

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the Bologna Process and the European Research Area are viewed as the two sides of the same coin: that of the redefinition of the missions of the institution of the university. The Bologna Process is viewed as relatively closed to global developments: as largely inward-looking, focused on European regional problems (and European…

  4. A Different View of the Bologna Process: The Case of Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yagci, Yasemin

    2010-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 20th century, integration with the Western world has been a determining driver of higher education policies, as well as many other policy areas in Turkey. Becoming a signatory country of the Bologna Process in 2001 brought a new impulse to the higher education policies in this direction. The Bologna Process reforms…

  5. The Bologna Process for U.S. Eyes: Re-learning Higher Education in the Age of Convergence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelman, Clifford

    2009-01-01

    The title of this document is a deliberate play on the title of the biennial reports on the progress of Bologna produced by the European Students' Union, "Bologna With Student Eyes." It is a way of paying tribute to student involvement in the Bologna reforms, and marking a parallel student working participation in the state system "Tuning" study…

  6. The Actual (Un)usefulness of the Bologna System in Medical Education

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet; Begic, Edin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Faculty of Medicine, University of Sarajevo has officially started working on 22.11.1944, and is the oldest faculty in the medical field in Bosnia and Herzegovina. At the same time there are two systems of organization of the teaching process, the old system and the Bologna system. Aim: To analyze the implementation of the Bologna system, and making an overview of its justification. Material and methods: Answers from questionnaires from total of 459 students were analyzed (197 who had studied under the old system and 262 who studied under the Bologna system), so total of four generations of the Bologna system. They filled out a questionnaire in which they evaluated the teaching process. Student’s opinion about quality of medical education was measured by modified Lickert scale. Results: Students of old system are older than students of the Bologna process, whose average age is increasing from generation to generation, given the growing number of students who repeat a year. All students of old system repeated an academic year once or several times (p <0.05). Analysis of average grades showed statistically significant difference (p <0.05), where students in the Bologna system had higher averages than students who were studying under the old system. The presence of large number of female students, in both systems is significant (p <0.05). Out of 33 questions about satisfaction of class, 15 were answered with better average grade from students of the Bologna system. A slight improvement in the Bologna system is in terms of the evaluation of the quality of the educational process (teachers, methods, effects). The only significant progress has been proven in terms of rating the degree of computerization of the educational process–general records on enrolled students (old system vs Bologna system–3,44 vs 3,63), record of attendance (3,47 vs 3,73), obtaining certificates (3,08 vs 3,84), method of registration of exam (2,98 vs 3,71), method of practical

  7. Vincenzo Neri and His Legacy in Paris and Bologna.

    PubMed

    Vanone, Federico; Lorusso, Lorenzo; Venturini, Simone

    2016-01-01

    Italian neurologist Vincenzo Neri was able to discover cinematography at the beginning of his career, when in 1908 he went to Paris to learn and improve his clinical background by following neurological cases at La Pitié with Joseph Babinski, who became his teacher and friend. While in Paris, Neri photographed and filmed several patients of famous neurologists, such as Babinski and Pierre Marie. His stills were published in several important French neurological journals and medical texts. He also collaborated with Georges Mendel, who helped Doyen film the first known surgical operation in the history of cinema. In 1910, when he came back to Bologna, he continued in his clinical activities and, for 50 years, slowly developed a huge archive of films, images, and prints of neurological, psychiatric, and orthopedic cases. This archive was extremely helpful to Neri, who especially needed to analyze neurological disorders and to differentiate them from functional conditions in order to understand clinical signs, rules, and mechanisms. PMID:26684423

  8. The Book of the Sick of Santa Maria della Morte in Bologna and the Medical Organization of a Hospital in the Sixteenth-Century.

    PubMed

    Savoia, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    In 2012 a manuscript was rediscovered in the Biblioteca dell'Archiginnasio of Bologna, titled Libro degli infermi dell'Arciconfraternita di S. Maria della Morte. It is the record of incoming patients of one for the main hospitals of the city, devoted exclusively to the sick poor and not just to the poor, called Santa Maria della Morte, compiled by a young student assistant (astante) for the period 1558-1564. I publish here a transcription of a portion of this Libro pertaining to the year 1560. My introduction situates the manuscript within the context of the history of early modern Italian hospitals, describes the organization of the hospital of Santa Maria della Morte based on archival sources of the period, and finally highlights the connections between surgical and anatomical education and the internal organization of the hospital. PMID:27071302

  9. European Education Reform and Its Impact on Curriculum and Admissions: Implications of the Bologna Process on United States Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roper, Steven D.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the European-wide educational reform known as the Bologna Process in order to provide an understanding of the methodology that will be used by European countries to assess course credit hours as well as degree programs. The Bologna Process is culmination of years of educational reform within the European Union (EU) and more…

  10. The Bologna Club: What U.S. Higher Education Can Learn from a Decade of European Reconstruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelman, Clifford

    2008-01-01

    This report examines the efforts of 46 European nations to harmonize (not "standardize") their higher education systems and indicates that the United States higher education system needs to adopt some of the features of the Bologna Process. Based on what can be learned from the Bologna Process, this report makes concrete suggestions for change…

  11. Sodium lactate, sodium diacetate and pediocin: effects and interactions on the thermal inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes on bologna

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects and interactions of temperature (56.3C-60C), sodium lactate (SL; 0-4.8%), sodium diacetate (SD; 0-0.25%) and pediocin (0-10,000 AU) on Listeria monocytogenes inoculated on bologna were studied and a predictive inactivation model was developed. Bologna was manufactured with different SL ...

  12. The Doctorate of the Bologna Process Third Cycle: Mapping the Dimensions and Impact of the European Higher Education Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Susan; Fazey, John; Gonzalez Geraldo, Jose Luis; Trevitt, Chris

    2010-01-01

    The European Union Bologna Process is a significant agent for internationalization of education. Acknowledging fiscal and political drivers, this article shows that Bologna inclusion of the doctoral degree offers potential for enhanced doctoral experience. Interest in transferability of doctoral education across national borders, standardization…

  13. With Bologna in Mind and the Sword in the Hand: The German Bachelor/Master Reform Reconsidered

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mause, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    Since the late 1990s, many European countries have adapted their traditional one-cycle curriculum structure in higher education to the two-cycle structure employed in the Anglo-American world. In the large social science literature dealing with this reform phenomenon, the Bologna Process -- starting with the 1999 Declaration of Bologna -- is…

  14. ISETTA: Service Orientation in the "Bologna Process" of a Large University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vossen, Gottfried; Thies, Gunnar

    With the signing of the "Bologna Declaration" in June 1999 by 29 representatives of the European education ministries, a decision was made to introduce comparable educational structures among European universities based on a. Bachelor-Master system until the year 2010. The process itself, collectively known as the "Bologna process,"1 is now well-underway and has created both administrative as well as technical challenges. The ISETTA project at the University of Muenster in Germany aims at the development of an Integrated Student, Exam, Test, and Teaching Application that properly reflects the changes of the university's internal activities caused by the Bologna process. In this paper, we report on the specific requirements of the project, the approach that has been taken and the current status of ISETTA.

  15. Bologna and Quality Assurance: Progress Made or Pulling the Wrong Cart?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huisman, Jeroen; Westerheijden, Don F.

    2010-01-01

    This contribution looks critically at the achievements regarding the Bologna action line "European cooperation in quality assurance". Much has been realised but most of the visible achievements are at the supranational level: the development of the European Standards and Guidelines, the launch of the European Network of Quality Assurance Agencies,…

  16. Chapter 1: Redefining Short-Cycle Higher Education across Europe--The Challenges of Bologna

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slantcheva-Durst, Snejana

    2010-01-01

    This essay examines the impact of the Bologna Process on the development of short-cycle higher education in Europe, noting that the integration of short-cycle qualifications within the Qualifications Framework for the European Higher Education Area, combined with the critical place allotted to those programs in national lifelong learning…

  17. The Boundaries of Competency within Lisbon and Bologna: The Short-Cycle/Foundation Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brine, Jacqueline

    2008-01-01

    The concept of competency is considered both in relation to the educational competency of the short-cycle student described in the "Dublin Descriptors" of the Bologna Process and in the European Commission's European Qualifications Framework, and in relation to the legal competency that the European Commission has within the field of education and…

  18. Latin American Universities and the Bologna Process: From Commercialisation to the "Tuning" Competencies Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aboites, Hugo

    2010-01-01

    Through the "Tuning-Latin America" competencies project, Latin American universities have been incorporated into the Bologna Process. In 2003 the European Commission approved an initiative of this project for Latin America and began to promote it among ministries, university presidents' organisations and other institutions in Latin America. This…

  19. Focus on Higher Education in Europe 2010: The Impact of the Bologna Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosier, David; Dalferth, Simon; Parveva, Teodora

    2010-01-01

    This 2010 edition of the "Focus" report has been prepared for the European Ministerial Conference in Budapest/Vienna, 11-12 March 2010, that officially launches the European Higher Education Area. The report has been developed as a fully collaborative exercise between the Eurydice Network and the Bologna Follow-up Group (BFUG), with the aim of…

  20. The Open Method of Coordination and the Implementation of the Bologna Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veiga, Amelia; Amaral, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the authors argue that the use of the Open Method of Coordination (OMC) in the implementation of the Bologna process presents coordination problems that do not allow for the full coherence of the results. As the process is quite complex, involving three different levels (European, national and local) and as the final actors in the…

  1. The European Higher Education Area in 2012: Bologna Process Implementation Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosier, David; Horvath, Anna; Kerpanova, Viera; Kocanova, Daniela; Parveva, Teodora; Dalferth, Simon; Orr, Dominic; Mejer, Lene; Reis, Fernando; Rauhvargers, Andrejs

    2012-01-01

    The report, which reflects the framework of the Leuven/Louvain-la-Neuve Communique, is the result of a joint effort by Eurostat, Eurydice as well as by Eurostudent and has been overseen by the Bologna Follow-up Group and more specifically by a working group established by the latter. In line with the specific mission and methodology of the…

  2. The Devil in the Detail: Contradictory National Requirements and Bologna Master Degrees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sin, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    This article compares the national-level requirements for master degree provision in England, Denmark and Portugal following the implementation of the Bologna Process, and ponders upon the reconcilability of these requirements in cross-national initiatives (e.g. joint degrees). In all three countries, master degrees have to comply with the…

  3. Managing the Dynamics of the Bologna Reforms: How Institutional Actors Re-Construct the Policy Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veiga, Amélia; Neave, Guy

    2015-01-01

    How do the constituencies in higher education re-interpret Bologna's function with regard to the European Higher Education Area? This research examines how institutional actors re-construct the policy framework in the light of their own institutional agendas. Drawing on empirical data from a survey of academics, students and administrative and…

  4. The Regional University: Paths of Integration in the Framework of the Bologna Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarev, G.; Martynenko, O.

    2006-01-01

    The development of international systems of education is opening the way to accomplish tasks in the sphere of higher education that are common to the world community. The Bologna Process, in the framework of which the educational systems of Europe are becoming integrated, makes it possible for Russia to make a choice of the forms of its…

  5. The Governance of Higher Education Regionalisation: Comparative Analysis of the Bologna Process and MERCOSUR-Educativo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verger, Antoni; Hermo, Javier Pablo

    2010-01-01

    The article analyses two processes of higher education regionalisation, MERCOSUR-Educativo in Latin America and the Bologna Process in Europe, from a comparative perspective. The comparative analysis is centered on the content and the governance of both processes and, specifically, on the reasons of their uneven evolution and implementation. We…

  6. "Bildung", the Bologna Process and Kierkegaard's Concept of Subjective Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reindal, Solveig M.

    2013-01-01

    The Bologna Framework for higher education has agreed on three "cycle descriptors"--knowledge, skill and general competence--which are to constitute the learning outcomes and credit ranges for the three cycles of higher education: The Bachelor, the Master and the PhD. In connection with the implementations of the national qualification…

  7. Aligning Seminars with Bologna Requirements: Reciprocal Peer Tutoring, the Solo Taxonomy and Deep Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lueg, Rainer; Lueg, Klarissa; Lauridsen, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Changes in public policy, such as the Bologna Process, require students to be equipped with multifunctional competencies to master relevant tasks in unfamiliar situations. Achieving this goal might imply a change in many curricula toward deeper learning. As a didactical means to achieve deep learning results, the authors suggest reciprocal peer…

  8. Music in Higher Education after the Bologna Treaty: Or, in Search of a New Educational Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mota, Graca

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to introduce a critical reflection on the field of music education in higher education, using the Bologna Declaration and the European context as a backdrop. However, the author would like to clarify that she does not intend to develop a thorough comparative analysis of music education in European countries. In fact, this is being…

  9. The Impact of the Bologna Process on Academic Staff in Ukraine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Marta A.; Chapman, David W.; Rumyantseva, Nataliya L.

    2012-01-01

    Academic staff in Ukraine face a convergence of institutional and professional pressures precipitated by a national economic crisis, projected declines in enrolment and dramatic changes to institutional procedures as institutions implement the Bologna Process. This article examines the extent to which these pressures are reshaping the way academic…

  10. Importing Education: Europeanisation and the Bologna Process in Europe's Backyard--The Case of Kazakhstan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tampayeva, Gulnara Y.

    2015-01-01

    This article studies the problem of the implementation of European educational standards in Kazakhstan higher education. This is considered in the frame of post-socialist education, when reforms in several post-Soviet states were undertaken under the Bologna Process. Kazakhstan, as this article argues, is justified for consideration in the frame…

  11. What the Instructors and Administrators of Russia's Higher Educational Institutions Think about the Bologna Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aref'ev, A. L.

    2009-01-01

    The increasing integration of national educational systems, in particular in Europe, is giving rise to conflict among traditional forms of instruction, curricula, pedagogical norms and values, and firmly established standards of education. The center of this conflict now, which was catalyzed by Russia's joining the Bologna process, consists of the…

  12. The US Response to Bologna: Expanding Knowledge, First Steps of Convergence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelman, Clifford

    2010-01-01

    The roads of incoming information to the US higher education system about the Bologna Process are varied and numerous. They include not only the on-line and traditional trade press, but also conferences of national organisations. Whether anyone remembers much of that information, on the other hand, is an open question, as a limited survey…

  13. The Bologna Process and Higher Education in Mercosur: Regionalization or Europeanization?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Azevedo, Mário Luiz Neves

    2014-01-01

    Over the past two decades regional agreements have become more significant in educational and training. This paper situates and analyses the European Higher Education Area (EHEA), the Bologna Process and the Lisbon Strategy and explores their influence on the integration of higher education systems in Mercosur (the Southern Common Market of…

  14. Looking for Synergies: Education for Sustainable Development and the Bologna Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fadeeva, Zinaida; Galkute, Laima

    2012-01-01

    In defining quality of higher education, competences achieved by graduates are interpreted as essential criteria. There are two political processes in education dealing, among other issues, with competence development: the Bologna Process in European Higher Education Area and a global process--the United Nations (UN) Decade (2005-2014) of…

  15. Higher Romanian Education Post-Bologna: Required Changes, Instruments and Ethical Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrisor, Alexandru-Ionut

    2011-01-01

    In 1999 Romania became part of the Bologna process, focused on the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System, design to increase the compatibility of European universities, ensuring the mobility of students and professors in the context of re-orienting education to the formation of competences continuously adapted to market requirements.…

  16. Bologna through Ontario Eyes: The Case of the Advanced Diploma in Architectural Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Amy D.; Feltham, Mark; Trotter, Lane

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by Ontario's burgeoning interest in postsecondary student mobility, this article examines how elements of Europe's Bologna Process can help bridge the college--university divide of Ontario's postsecondary system. Via discourse analysis of relevant qualification frameworks and program standards, it argues that the current system…

  17. The Bologna Process as a New Public Management Tool in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Štech, Stanislav

    2011-01-01

    This essentially polemical article questions whether the Bologna Process (BP) is necessary (and desirable) in the adaptation of universities to the new social conditions or whether it is a Trojan horse sent out to introduce neo-liberal changes in the field of higher education. First, it addresses the circumstances surrounding the origins of the…

  18. The Bologna Process and Its Impact on Higher Education at Russia's Margins: The Case of Kaliningrad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganzle, Stefan; Meister, Stefan; King, Conrad

    2009-01-01

    Embracing the Russian Federation since 2003, the Bologna process is no longer exclusively confined to western European countries. As early as 1999, Vladimir Putin declared the Russian exclave of Kaliningrad, wedged between Lithuania and Poland, as a potential pilot region for intensified cooperation between Russia and the EU on a number of policy…

  19. The Bologna Process in Higher Education: An Exploratory Case Study in a Russian Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esyutina, Maria; Fearon, Colm; Leatherbarrow, Nicky

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the current article is to discuss the role of the Bologna process in enabling quality of educational change, internationalisation and greater mobility using an example case study of a Russian university. Some discussion is provided to offer insights and inform future research and practice. Design/methodology/approach: The…

  20. "Rationalized Myths" in European Higher Education: The Construction and Diffusion of the Bologna Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schriewer, Jurgen

    2009-01-01

    This article is about the so-called Bologna process and the historically unprecedented diffusion of an abstract model for the restructuring and harmonization of higher education studies and degrees across Europe it has fuelled. This process is interpreted here as a particular example of much larger processes of world-level interconnection and…

  1. Future Challenges in Higher Education--Bologna Experts' Community Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yemini, Miri

    2012-01-01

    This work presents results from systematic analysis of the challenges for the future of higher education in European and neighboring countries as it was extracted from the Bologna experts and Higher Education Reform experts' opinions. Opinions of more than 100 experts from 35 countries were documented and analyzed. Significant differences in the…

  2. The Bologna Process and Its Achievements in Europe 1999-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinalda, Bob

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with the Bologna Process (BP), which since its creation in 1999 has deeply influenced European higher education: What is it? How did it come into being? How far has it come? The BP is both a political phenomenon and a reform taking place in European higher education. As a political phenomenon it consists of a series of…

  3. The Impact of the Bologna Process in Ibero-America: Prospects and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrer, Alejandro Tiana

    2010-01-01

    The Bologna Process is one of the major developments to have taken place in higher education in recent centuries. It has had an impact beyond European borders and repercussions in other parts of the world. Ibero-America has also sat up and taken note, even though scholars agree that there would be difficulties with its direct implementation in the…

  4. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes on bologna sausages by an antimicrobial film containing mustard extract or sinigrin.

    PubMed

    Lara-Lledó, Marta; Olaimat, Amin; Holley, Richard A

    2012-05-01

    The ability of Listeria (L.) monocytogenes to convert glucosinolates into antimicrobial isothiocyanates was investigated. Mustard glucosinolates in pure (sinigrin) or extract forms (sinigrin, oriental; sinalbin, yellow mustard) were used in broth media and in a polyvinyl polyethylene glycol graft copolymer (PPG) packaging film with bologna to examine their value as antimicrobial precursors for the control of L. monocytogenes viability and extension of bologna shelf-life at 4 °C. During broth tests with deodorized (myrosinase-inactivated) mustard extracts (10 d at 20 °C) or with purified sinigrin (21 d at 20 °C) L. monocytogenes was only inhibited when exogenous myrosinase was added. None the less, the organism was able to hydrolyze almost half the pure sinigrin by 21 d in tests without added enzyme. Reductions in sinigrin levels were measured by reversed-phase liquid chromatography, and in the absence of L. monocytogenes or added myrosinase the glucosinolate was stable. When pure sinigrin, oriental or yellow mustard extracts were incorporated in PPG films containing 3, 5 and 6% (w/w) of the corresponding glucosinolate and used to package bologna inoculated with 4 log CFU/g L. monocytogenes, the pathogen became undetectable in bologna packed with the oriental mustard extract at 52 d storage and remained undetectable at 70 d. The yellow mustard extract was less inhibitory and the pure sinigrin was not antimicrobial. L. monocytogenes numbers reached >7 log CFU/g in the film and untreated controls at 17 d storage. At 35 d storage, samples packed with control film contained sufficient numbers of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) (>7 log CFU/g) to be considered spoiled, whereas treatments containing mustard or sinigrin remained <7 log CFU/g LAB for ≤ 70 d. L. monocytogenes played a key role in exerting control over its own viability in bologna by hydrolysis of the glucosinolate in the oriental mustard film, but other antimicrobials in treatments may have contributed. PMID

  5. Gian Domenico Cassini in Bologna and his contributions to the assessment of the planetary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braccesi, A.

    1998-10-01

    G. D. Cassini was hired as a professor of astronomy in Bologna in 1649, at the age of only 24, and left for Paris in 1669, when he was 44. We will outline in this Paper his major contributions to astronomy during those year according to the judgement of the scholars : the demonstration of the physical inequality of the Suns motion using the meridian line he had built in the church of S. Petronio and the discovery of Mars and Jupiter rotation. The first result unequivocally dismissed Aristotles celestial mechanics based on uniform circular motions, pointing to the unity of the terrestrial and celestial worlds; the second contributed to renew the debate on whether the dynamical structure of the planetary system was Ptolemaic or Copernican. In this respect, some recently discovered lessons, which Cassini gave in Bologna in the year 1666, appear enlightening. Excerpts are reported and commented upon.

  6. Impact of different visible light spectra on oxygen absorption and surface discoloration of bologna sausage.

    PubMed

    Böhner, Nadine; Rieblinger, Klaus

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of several visible light spectra in various intensities on the oxygen absorption and surface color of sliced bologna. Sausage samples were stored in a gastight model packaging system and illuminated at 5°C with six single-colored LEDs covering the main part of the visible light spectrum. The initial oxygen level was set at 0.5% in order to simulate common residual oxygen amounts in conventional packaging. The oxygen absorption and the discoloration measured as changes in CIE a*-value were dependent from the applied light intensity. The color stability of bologna was differently affected by light of various wavelengths. The results show that the use of suitable LEDs with specific spectra for display illumination can help to reduce the light induced deterioration of cured sausages in retail markets. PMID:27343458

  7. CosmoBolognaLib: Open source C++ libraries for cosmological calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marulli, Federico; Veropalumbo, Alfonso; Moresco, Michele

    2015-11-01

    CosmoBolognaLib contains numerical libraries for cosmological calculations; written in C++, it is intended to define a common numerical environment for cosmological investigations of the large-scale structure of the Universe. The software aids in handling real and simulated astronomical catalogs by measuring one-point, two-point and three-point statistics in configuration space and performing cosmological analyses. These open source libraries can be included in either C++ or Python codes.

  8. Magnetic resonance for fluids in porous media at the University of Bologna.

    PubMed

    Fantazzini, Paola

    2005-02-01

    The magnetic resonance in porous media (MRPM) community is now a vast community of scientists from all over the world who recognize magnetic resonance as an instrument of choice for the characterization of pore space and of the distribution, diffusion and flow of fluids inside a vast range of different materials. The MRPM conferences are the occasions in which this community gets together, compares notes and grows. The scene was different in 1990, when this series of conferences was promoted at Bologna. I will go briefly over the history of these events, showing the role played by the University of Bologna and in particular by the intuition, ingenuity and passion of Giulio Cesare Borgia. The MRPM work at Bologna began in the mid-1980s. New correlations were found among parameters from NMR relaxation measurements and oil field parameters such as porosity, permeability to fluid flow, irreducible water saturation, residual oil saturation and pore-system surface-to-volume ratio, and fast algorithms were developed to give the different NMR parameters. Interest in valid interpretation of data led to extensive work also on the inversion of multiexponential relaxation data and the effects of inhomogeneous fields from susceptibility differences on distributions of relaxation times. In the last few years, extensive developments were made of combined magnetic resonance imaging and relaxation measurements in different fields. PMID:15833602

  9. The Challenge of Bologna: What United States Higher Education Has to Learn from Europe, and Why It Matters That We Learn It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaston, Paul L.

    2010-01-01

    In 1999, a declaration formalizing "the European process" was signed at and informally named for Europe's oldest university: Bologna. "The Bologna Process" has transformed higher education in Europe. This book is essential reading for anyone concerned about the ability of America's higher education system to position the country for…

  10. To What Extent Does Transnational Communication Drive Cross-National Policy Convergence? The Impact of the Bologna-Process on Domestic Higher Education Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voegtle, Eva M.; Knill, Christoph; Dobbins, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates if transnational communication in the context of the Bologna Process (BP) has led to the convergence of higher education (HE) policies. The country sample includes both Bologna participants and non-participants, for which systematic knowledge about the implications of the BP is absent so far. We investigate study structures…

  11. Effects and interactions of sodium lactate, sodium diacetate, and pediocin on the thermal inactivation of starved cells of Listeria monocytogenes on the surface of bologna

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects and interactions of temperature (56.3-60C) sodium lactate (SL; 0-4.8%), sodium diacetate (SDA; 0-2.5%), and pediocin (0-10,000 AU) on starved Listeria monocytogenes on bologna were investigated. Bologna slices containing SL and SDA in the formulation were dipped in pediocin, surface inoc...

  12. Impact of the Bologna Process and German Higher Education Reforms on Professorial Work and Role Definition at the University of Potsdam: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hairston, Christen Cullum

    2013-01-01

    The Bologna Process and German higher education reforms over the past decade have created significant waves of change at German universities. This case study focuses on the enduring impact of both the Bologna Process and German higher education reforms on how professors experience their work and define their roles during the winter term 2011-12 at…

  13. Women and the practice and teaching of medicine in Bologna in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.

    PubMed

    Logan, Gabriella Berti

    2003-01-01

    When Bologna's political and intellectual elites had control over the university and associated institutions during the eighteenth century, a few women were allowed to participate in medical fields not typically associated with their gender. Laura Bassi could occasionally teach and debate on anatomy at the university, and the practical anatomist Anna Morandi Manzolini could make contributions to the research and teaching of anatomy. With the arrival of the French in Bologna in 1796, the control of the university and associated institutions passed from the local elite to the Ministry of Public Instruction in Milan. This article shows that a few women were awarded degrees in medicine, surgery, and pharmacy from the University of Bologna when the French were in control-however, these women, unlike Bassi and Morandi, were directed to fields deemed appropriate to their gender, such as the training of midwives, or apothecary practice within female institutions. PMID:14523259

  14. LCA of integrated MSW management systems: case study of the Bologna District.

    PubMed

    Buttol, P; Masoni, P; Bonoli, A; Goldoni, S; Belladonna, V; Cavazzuti, C

    2007-01-01

    LCA as a decision-supporting tool in planning integrated municipal solid waste management is not, as yet, widely used in Italy. This paper presents a study concerning the application of the LCA methodology to support the development of the new waste management plan for the Bologna District. The main goal of the study was to show decision-makers at the political level the benefits obtainable with the use of LCA, in terms of the identification and quantification of the potential environmental impacts of different waste management strategies. The integrated waste management system of the Bologna District includes waste collection and transport, sorting, recycling, composting, incineration and landfilling. Three scenarios, referring to 2006 and assuming the presence of 950,000 inhabitants and the production of approximately 566,000 t of waste in the district, have been compared. A detailed model has been developed in order to capture effects related to the waste fraction from separated collection and to the different waste treatments. The discussion of the results has focussed in particular on the greenhouse effect and the acidification potential. On the basis of the results obtained, the analysis of an additional scenario characterised by a further increase in separated collection has been put forward. PMID:17418562

  15. Reforms of the pre-graduate curriculum for medical students: the Bologna process and beyond.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Pierre-André

    2012-01-01

    For several years, all five medical faculties of Switzerland have embarked on a reform of their training curricula for two reasons: first, according to a new federal act issued in 2006 by the administration of the confederation, faculties needed to meet international standards in terms of content and pedagogic approaches; second, all Swiss universities and thus all medical faculties had to adapt the structure of their curriculum to the frame and principles which govern the Bologna process. This process is the result of the Bologna Declaration of June 1999 which proposes and requires a series of reforms to make European Higher Education more compatible and comparable, more competitive and more attractive for Europeans students. The present paper reviews some of the results achieved in the field, focusing on several issues such as the shortage of physicians and primary care practitioners, the importance of public health, community medicine and medical humanities, and the implementation of new training approaches including e-learning and simulation. In the future, faculties should work on several specific challenges such as: students' mobility, the improvement of students' autonomy and critical thinking as well as their generic and specific skills and finally a reflection on how to improve the attractiveness of the academic career, for physicians of both sexes. PMID:23254322

  16. LCA of integrated MSW management systems: Case study of the Bologna District

    SciTech Connect

    Buttol, P. Masoni, P.; Bonoli, A.; Goldoni, S.; Belladonna, V.; Cavazzuti, C.

    2007-07-01

    LCA as a decision-supporting tool in planning integrated municipal solid waste management is not, as yet, widely used in Italy. This paper presents a study concerning the application of the LCA methodology to support the development of the new waste management plan for the Bologna District. The main goal of the study was to show decision-makers at the political level the benefits obtainable with the use of LCA, in terms of the identification and quantification of the potential environmental impacts of different waste management strategies. The integrated waste management system of the Bologna District includes waste collection and transport, sorting, recycling, composting, incineration and landfilling. Three scenarios, referring to 2006 and assuming the presence of 950,000 inhabitants and the production of {approx}566,000 t of waste in the district, have been compared. A detailed model has been developed in order to capture effects related to the waste fraction from separated collection and to the different waste treatments. The discussion of the results has focussed in particular on the greenhouse effect and the acidification potential. On the basis of the results obtained, the analysis of an additional scenario characterised by a further increase in separated collection has been put forward.

  17. Source apportionment of particulate matter in a large city of southeastern Po Valley (Bologna, Italy).

    PubMed

    Tositti, L; Brattich, E; Masiol, M; Baldacci, D; Ceccato, D; Parmeggiani, S; Stracquadanio, M; Zappoli, S

    2014-01-01

    This study reports the results of an experimental research project carried out in Bologna, a midsize town in central Po valley, with the aim at characterizing local aerosol chemistry and tracking the main source emissions of airborne particulate matter. Chemical speciation based upon ions, trace elements, and carbonaceous matter is discussed on the basis of seasonal variation and enrichment factors. For the first time, source apportionment was achieved at this location using two widely used receptor models (principal component analysis/multi-linear regression analysis (PCA/MLRA) and positive matrix factorization (PMF)). Four main aerosol sources were identified by PCA/MLRA and interpreted as: resuspended particulate and a pseudo-marine factor (winter street management), both related to the coarse fraction, plus mixed combustions and secondary aerosol largely associated to traffic and long-lived species typical of the fine fraction. The PMF model resolved six main aerosol sources, interpreted as: mineral dust, road dust, traffic, secondary aerosol, biomass burning and again a pseudo-marine factor. Source apportionment results from both models are in good agreement providing a 30 and a 33% by weight respectively for PCA-MLRA and PMF for the coarse fraction and 70% (PCA-MLRA) and 67% (PMF) for the fine fraction. The episodic influence of Saharan dust transport on PM10 exceedances in Bologna was identified and discussed in term of meteorological framework, composition, and quantitative contribution. PMID:23828727

  18. Making Higher Education More European through Student Mobility? Revisiting EU Initiatives in the Context of the Bologna Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papatsiba, Vassiliki

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on the analysis of student mobility in the EU as a means to stimulate convergence of diverse higher education systems. The argument is based on official texts and other texts of political communication of the European Commission. The following discussion is placed within the current context of the Bologna process and its aim to…

  19. The Bologna Process as a Reform Initiative in Higher Education in the Balkan Countries: The Case of Romania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damian, Radu Mircea

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the Bologna process in Romania. The historical context covers the last years of the communist regime through 1989. From 1990 free elections of university leadership, the foundation of private universities and new democratic legislation, and projects for reforming higher education funded by different sources…

  20. Legal Developments and Problems of the Bologna Process within the European Higher Education Area and European Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cippitani, Roberto; Gatt, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    2010 sees the end of the process of establishing the European Higher Education Area (EHEA). Although not all countries may have achieved all the objectives, many are those countries and universities who have implemented many of the targets set. Within the Bologna Process, there have been many developments such as: European Credit Transfer and…

  1. Pan-European Grading Scales: Lessons from National Systems and the ECTS. The Bologna Process: Retrospect and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karran, Terence

    2005-01-01

    This article assesses the impact of the Bologna Process on the grading schemes of EU member countries. In light of some problems regarding the implementation of the European Credit Transfer system (ECTS), the author proposes further reforms and offers some elements of a unified grading system for European higher education. The author explores the…

  2. Teacher Education Curricula after the Bologna Process--A Comparative Analysis of Written Curricula in Finland and Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakku-Sihvonen, Ritva; Tissari, Varpu; Ots, Aivar; Uusiautti, Satu

    2012-01-01

    During the Bologna process, from 2003 to 2006, degree programmes, including teacher education curricula, were developed in line with the two-tier system--the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) and modularization. The purpose of the present study is to contribute to the development of teacher education profiling measures by…

  3. The Design, Implementation and Evaluation of a Pilot Scheme Adapted to the Bologna Goals at Tertiary Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Purificacion

    2009-01-01

    The Bologna Declaration attempts to reform the structure of the higher education system in forty-six European countries in a convergent way. By 2010, the European space for higher education should be completed. In the 2005-2006 academic year, the University of Murcia, Spain, started promoting initiatives to adapt individual modules and entire…

  4. Bologna in Context: A Horizontal Perspective on the Dynamics of Governance Sites for a Europe of Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gornitzka, Ase

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a horizontal perspective on the dynamics of governance sites currently active for the European of Knowledge and places the Bologna process in this wider European level context. It introduces two dynamics of change in political organisation: (a) institutional differentiation and specialisation and (b) the interaction between…

  5. Higher Education Reform in Germany: How the Aims of the Bologna Process Can Be Simultaneously Supported and Missed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkel, Olaf

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide information about the current reform of higher education in Germany, which can be described as German reading of the Bologna process, about the problems and deficits occurring in this area, and about ways to correct unwelcome developments. Design/methodology/approach: The paper starts with a review…

  6. Towards the Two-Cycle Degree Structure: Bologna, Reform and Path Dependency in German and Norwegian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehm, Barbara M.; Michelsen, Svein; Vabo, Agnete

    2010-01-01

    This article describes and analyses changes made in the organisation of higher education studies in Germany and Norway, following the recommendations of the Bologna Declaration. In both countries, the characteristic modes of university study have been circumscribed by the tradition of Humboldtian values and ideals, albeit to a different extent. On…

  7. State of Play of the Bologna Process in the Tempus Partner Countries (2012). A Tempus Study. Issue 09

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffio, Philippe; Mc Cabe, Roisin; Xhaferri, Elona

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this report is to map, for the second time, the state of play of the higher education reforms in accordance with the Bologna Process in the 27 countries participating in the Tempus programme. The 2010 edition described the situation at that time and concluded that all Tempus Partner Countries are following the process to some extent,…

  8. Design of the Curriculum for a Second-Cycle Course in Civil Engineering in the Context of the Bologna Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavin, K. G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the design of the curriculum for a Master of Engineering programme in civil engineering at University College Dublin. The revised programme was established to meet the requirements of the Bologna process and this paper specifically considers the design of a new, second-cycle master's component of the programme. In addition to…

  9. The Bologna Process as a Hegemonic Tool of Normative Power Europe (NPE): The Case of Chilean and Mexican Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figueroa, Francis Espinoza

    2010-01-01

    The scenario of Latin America in the higher education area, especially in Chile and Mexico, appears to be significantly affected by some European influences. We can see this by examining the implementation of two "hegemonic tools": the Bologna Process and the Tuning Project. This paper argues that if we analyse the European influences as a…

  10. Has the Bologna Process Been Worthwhile? An Analysis of the Learning Society-Adapted Outcome Index through Quantile Regression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez-Sainz, A.; García-Merino, J. D.; Urionabarrenetxea, S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper seeks to discover whether the performance of university students has improved in the wake of the changes in higher education introduced by the Bologna Declaration of 1999 and the construction of the European Higher Education Area. A principal component analysis is used to construct a multi-dimensional performance variable called the…

  11. Changing Meanings of "The Europe of Knowledge" and "Modernizing the University," from Bologna to the "New Lisbon"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Roger

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author shows how the meaning of the phrases "Europe of Knowledge" and "modernization of the University" have changed since the Bologna Declaration. In terms of the former, the Europe of Knowledge is now seen essentially as a regionally based and governed space of innovation, which includes, but is by no means confined to…

  12. Social and Cultural Factors Affecting Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Use during Menopause in Sydney and Bologna

    PubMed Central

    van der Sluijs, Corinne; Lombardo, Flavia L.; Lesi, Grazia; Bensoussan, Alan; Cardini, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Background. Previous surveys found CAM use during menopause to be popular. This paper compares the results from two surveys (Sydney and Bologna) to examine factors that determine the extent and pattern of CAM use to alleviate menopausal symptoms. Methods. Women, aged 45–65 years, who were symptomatic when transitioning through menopause or asymptomatic but taking menopause-specific treatments, were recruited in Sydney (n=1,296) and Bologna (n=1,106) to complete the same voluntary, anonymous, and self-administered questionnaire. The results were reanalysed using stratified analyses to determine similarities and differences. Results. Demographics of the two cohorts differed significantly. CAM was more popular in Sydney. The most significant determinants of CAM use were the use of CAM for other conditions besides menopause and the severity of vasomotor symptoms. Occupational status was a determinant of CAM use amongst Bologna respondents only. In order to relieve symptoms, Australian and Italian women used different CAM modalities whose effectiveness was generally perceived as good. Conclusion. CAM use is popular amongst menopausal women from Sydney and Bologna. Differences in the patterns of CAM use seem to depend on CAM availability and on the educational level and professional status of users. The complex interaction between market, social, and cultural factors of CAM use seems to be more influential on women's choice of CAM than the available evidence of their effectiveness. PMID:24459531

  13. Organizational Culture in the Adoption of the Bologna Process: A Study of Academic Staff at a Ukrainian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Marta A.; Chapman, David W.; Rumyantseva, Nataliya L.

    2013-01-01

    The growing influence of the Bologna Process on higher education around the world has raised concerns about the applicability of this set of reforms in diverse cultural contexts. Ukraine provides an instructive case study highlighting the dynamics occurring at the convergence of the new framework with a state-centred model of higher education. The…

  14. Techniques and methods to guarantee Bologna-conform higher education in GNSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Bologna Declaration is aiming for student-centered, outcome-related, and competence-based teaching. In order to fulfill these demands, deep level learning techniques should be used to meet the needs of adult-compatible and self-determined learning. The presentation will summarize selected case studies carried out in the framework of the lecture course "Introduction into GNSS positioning" of the Geodetic Institute of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Karlsruhe, Germany). The lecture course "Introduction into GNSS positioning" is a compulsory part of the Bachelor study course "Geodesy and Geoinformatics" and also a supplementary module of the Bachelor study course "Geophysics". Within the lecture course, basic knowledge and basic principles of Global Navigation Satellite Systems, like GPS, are imparted. The lecture course was migrated starting from a classically designed geodetic lecture course, which consisted of a well-adapted combination of teacher-centered classroom lectures and practical training (e.g., field exercises). The recent Bologna-conform blended learning concepts supports and motivates students to learn more sustainable using online and classroom learning methods. Therefore, an appropriate combination of - classroom lectures: Students and teacher give lectures - practical training: Students select topics individually - online learning: ILIAS (learning management system) is used as data, result, and communication platform. The framing didactical method is based on the so-called anchored instruction approach. Within this approach, an up-to-date scientific GNSS-related paper dealing with the large-scale geodetic project "Fehmarn Belt Fixed Link" is used as anchor. The students have to read the paper individually in the beginning of the semester. This enables them to realize a lot of not-known GNSS-related facts. Therefore, questions can be formulated. The lecture course deals with these questions, in order to answer them. At the end of the

  15. Microbiological quality of fresh pasta dumplings sold in Bologna and the surrounding district.

    PubMed

    Trovatelli, L D; Schiesser, A; Massa, S; Cesaroni, D; Poda, G

    1988-08-01

    The microbiological quality of fresh pasta dumplings sold in Bologna and the surrounding district was evaluated. A total of 60 lots (300 subsamples) of fresh pasta dumplings, both 'home-made' and manufactured, were analysed for aerobic plate count (APC), coliforms (total and fecal), Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens and Salmonella spp. Thirty one of the 39 lots of 'home-made' pasta were found to exceed APC standards and six lots exceeded S. aureus standards. Five (24%) and six (29%) lots of the manufactured pasta were found to be unsatisfactory as regards APC standards and S. aureus standards respectively. The results obtained indicated that a high percentage of samples had a contamination of fecal origin. No Cl. perfringens or Salmonella spp. were found. PMID:2908612

  16. Chemical characterization of polar organic markers in aerosols in a local area around Bologna, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrogrande, Maria Chiara; Bacco, Dimitri; Rossi, Mauro

    2013-08-01

    The composition and seasonal variations of water-soluble organic compounds, including 18 dicarboxylic acids and 7 sugars, were determined in the atmospheric aerosol in the surroundings of Bologna, Northern Italy, during intensive summer and winter campaigns. In both seasons the most abundant compound is levoglucosan, as the major by-product from biomass burning. The abundances of dicarboxylic acids exhibit a seasonal pattern with higher winter concentrations (mean total concentrations are 60 ng m-3 and 23 ng m-3, in winter and summer, respectively). The distribution profiles and the diagnostic ratios of these markers allowed to estimate the contribution of primary emission sources (power plants, vehicular circulation, biomass burning) associated with secondary constituents from both biogenic and anthropogenic precursors. The distinct seasonal pattern of abundances suggests, overall, the dominant role of secondary formation of particulate organics in summer, and the highest strength of primary emissions in winter.

  17. Music Undergraduates' Usefulness and Importance Expectations: The Bologna Process from an Australian University Perspective.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Dominic G; Davidson, Jane W; Nair, Chenicheri S

    2016-01-01

    The Bologna Process model of higher education has been introduced into some Australian universities since 2008. This model promoted university study through a liberal arts philosophy that advanced a worldview approach at the undergraduate level. The model generalized the student experience and eliminated undergraduate specialization. An interesting situation for music undergraduate study thus arose. Expertise and expert performance research has argued an opposing educational approach, namely: Extensive long-term commitment through focused practical engagement and specialized tuition as prerequisites to achieving musical mastery, especially in performance. Motivation research has shown that the majority of this specialized development in pre-university years would be accessed and reinforced predominantly through private music tuition. Drawing on this contextual literature, commencing university music undergraduates would have expectations of their prospective study founded from two historical influences. The first: How undergraduates had accessed pre-university music tuition. The second: How and in what ways undergraduates' pre-university musical activities were experienced and reinforced. Using usefulness and importance measures, the study observed the expectations of students about to commence music undergraduate studies at three representative Australian university music schools. One of these universities operated the Bologna styled model. No other known Australian study has investigated this implementation for any effects upon music undergraduate expectations. How much commencing music undergraduates would draw on their pre-university music instruction and experiences to predict their usefulness and importance expectations formed the basis for this investigation. Strong relationships between usefulness and importance were found across all units of study. Despite strong correlations across all units of study between usefulness and importance, there was a

  18. Music Undergraduates' Usefulness and Importance Expectations: The Bologna Process from an Australian University Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Dominic G.; Davidson, Jane W.; Nair, Chenicheri S.

    2016-01-01

    The Bologna Process model of higher education has been introduced into some Australian universities since 2008. This model promoted university study through a liberal arts philosophy that advanced a worldview approach at the undergraduate level. The model generalized the student experience and eliminated undergraduate specialization. An interesting situation for music undergraduate study thus arose. Expertise and expert performance research has argued an opposing educational approach, namely: Extensive long-term commitment through focused practical engagement and specialized tuition as prerequisites to achieving musical mastery, especially in performance. Motivation research has shown that the majority of this specialized development in pre-university years would be accessed and reinforced predominantly through private music tuition. Drawing on this contextual literature, commencing university music undergraduates would have expectations of their prospective study founded from two historical influences. The first: How undergraduates had accessed pre-university music tuition. The second: How and in what ways undergraduates' pre-university musical activities were experienced and reinforced. Using usefulness and importance measures, the study observed the expectations of students about to commence music undergraduate studies at three representative Australian university music schools. One of these universities operated the Bologna styled model. No other known Australian study has investigated this implementation for any effects upon music undergraduate expectations. How much commencing music undergraduates would draw on their pre-university music instruction and experiences to predict their usefulness and importance expectations formed the basis for this investigation. Strong relationships between usefulness and importance were found across all units of study. Despite strong correlations across all units of study between usefulness and importance, there was a

  19. Healthy reduced-fat Bologna sausages enriched in ALA and DHA and stabilized with Melissa officinalis extract.

    PubMed

    Berasategi, Izaskun; Navarro-Blasco, Iñigo; Calvo, Maria Isabel; Cavero, Rita Yolanda; Astiasarán, Iciar; Ansorena, Diana

    2014-03-01

    Reduced-energy and reduced-fat Bologna products enriched with ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids were formulated by replacing the pork back-fat by an oil-in-water emulsion containing a mixture of linseed-algae oil stabilized with a lyophilized Melissa officinalis extract. Healthier composition and lipid profile was obtained: 85 kcal/100 g, 3.6% fat, 0.6 g ALA and 0.44 g DHA per 100 g of product and ω-6/ω-3 ratio of 0.4. Technological and sensory problems were not detected in the new formulations. Reformulation did not cause oxidation problems during 32 days of storage under refrigeration. The results suggest that it is possible to obtain reduced-fat Bologna-type sausages rich in ALA and DHA and stabilized with natural antioxidants, applying the appropriate technology without significant effects on the sensory quality, yielding interesting products from a nutritional point of view. PMID:24334039

  20. New astronomy library in Bologna is named after Guido Horn D'Arturo: a forefather of modern telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marra, M.; D'Arturo, G. H.

    2000-04-01

    Some BAA Journal readers with interests in large mirror telescopes may perhaps have read about the tessellated mirror,1 an instrument that, according to the astronomer Luigi Jacchia, was a forefather of the Multiple Mirror Telescope of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory.The tessellated mirror is the most famous contribution to astronomy by Guido Horn D'Arturo (1879-1967), director of Bologna Astronomical Observatory from 1920 to 1949.

  1. Balancing Bologna: opportunities for university teaching that integrates academic and practical learning outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Probst, Lorenz; Pflug, Verena; Brandenburg, Christiane; Guggenberger, Thomas; Mentler, Axel; Wurzinger, Maria

    2014-05-01

    In the course of the Bologna Process, the quality of university teaching has become more prominent in the discourse on higher education. More attention is now paid to didactics and methods and learner-oriented modes of teaching are introduced. The application of knowledge, practical skills and in consequence the employability of university graduates have become requirements for university teaching. Yet, the lecture-style approach still dominates European universities, although empirical evidence confirms that student-centred, interdisciplinary and experiential learning is more effective. Referring to the learning taxonomy introduced by Bloom, we argue that standard approaches rarely move beyond the learning level of comprehension and fail to reach the levels of application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation. Considering the rapid changes and multiple challenges society faces today, responsible practitioners and scientists who can improve the current management of natural resources are urgently needed. Universities are expected to equip their graduates with the necessary skills to reflect and evaluate their actions when addressing 'real world' problems in order to improve impact and relevance of their work. Higher education thus faces the challenge of providing multi-level learning opportunities for students with diverse practical and theoretical learning needs. In this study, we reflect on three cases of university teaching attempting to bridge theory and practice and based on the principles of systemic, problem based learning. The described courses focus on organic farming, rural development and landscape planning and take place in Uganda, Nicaragua and Italy. We show that being part of a real-world community of stakeholders requires hands-on learning and the reflection and evaluation of actions. This prepares students in a more effective and realistic way for their future roles as responsible decision makers in complex social, economic and ecological systems. We

  2. The longitudinal curriculum "social and communicative competencies" within Bologna-reformed undergraduate medical education in Basel

    PubMed Central

    Kiessling, Claudia; Langewitz, Wolf

    2013-01-01

    Background: Within the Bologna reform, a longitudinal curriculum of “social and communicative competencies” (SOKO) was implemented into the new Bachelor-Master structure of undergraduate medical education in Basel (Switzerland). Project description: The aim of the SOKO curriculum is to enable students to use techniques of patient-centred communication to elicit and provide information to patients in order to involve them as informed partners in decision making processes. The SOKO curriculum consists of 57 lessons for the individual student from the first bachelor year to the first master year. Teaching encompasses lectures and small group learning. Didactic methods include role play, video feedback, and consultations with simulated and real patients. Summative assessment takes place in objective structured clinical examinations (OSCE). Conclusion: In Basel, a longitudinal SOKO curriculum based on students’ cumulative learning was successfully implemented. Goals and contents were coordinated with the remaining curriculum and are regularly assessed in OSCEs. At present, most of the workload rests on the shoulders of the department of psychosomatic medicine at the university hospital. For the curriculum to be successful in the long-term, sustainable structures need to be instituted at the medical faculty and the university hospital to guarantee high quality teaching and assessment. PMID:24062811

  3. Palliative Care Training and Research: The Development in Europe and the Bologna Experience

    PubMed Central

    Bolognesi, Deborah; Brighi, Nicole; Muciarelli, Pier-Angelo; Biasco, Guido

    2013-01-01

    Development of palliative care (PC) culture spur the need of proper and formal training. Palliative medicine is not fully recognized as an academic medical discipline due to its humanistic influences, and studies show that physicians declare to be not prepared to provide care and pain management to dying patients. Nowadays, despite leading countries in PC being considered more innovative than other countries,such as Italy, facts show that the achievement of acknowledged discipline went through a long process. In Italy,professionals from about 450 PC units and organizations need to receive a proper and homogeneous training. In Italy, palliative medicine official certification is an undergoing process advocated by a few organizations and in Bologna the Academy of the Sciences of Palliative Medicine operates since 2007 with the defined mission of developing PC culture, also within the University. In order to be as much effective in pursuing its mission, the Academy has strengthened several international cooperation programs and today is leader in PC professional training and research in Italy. The recent law and its feasibility is fastening the process of development of Palliative Care Culture in Italy even if training is not properly regulated and official certification for physician is under evaluation. In Europe, the European Association of Palliative Care is stressing the need for training programs in palliative medicine and the outcomes of the dedicated task force on official certification and specialty in Palliative Medicine will remarkably force policy makers and national councils to officially recognize the discipline. PMID:23766591

  4. Palliative care training and research: the development in europe and the bologna experience.

    PubMed

    Bolognesi, Deborah; Brighi, Nicole; Muciarelli, Pier-Angelo; Biasco, Guido

    2013-01-01

    Development of palliative care (PC) culture spur the need of proper and formal training. Palliative medicine is not fully recognized as an academic medical discipline due to its humanistic influences, and studies show that physicians declare to be not prepared to provide care and pain management to dying patients. Nowadays, despite leading countries in PC being considered more innovative than other countries,such as Italy, facts show that the achievement of acknowledged discipline went through a long process. In Italy,professionals from about 450 PC units and organizations need to receive a proper and homogeneous training. In Italy, palliative medicine official certification is an undergoing process advocated by a few organizations and in Bologna the Academy of the Sciences of Palliative Medicine operates since 2007 with the defined mission of developing PC culture, also within the University. In order to be as much effective in pursuing its mission, the Academy has strengthened several international cooperation programs and today is leader in PC professional training and research in Italy. The recent law and its feasibility is fastening the process of development of Palliative Care Culture in Italy even if training is not properly regulated and official certification for physician is under evaluation. In Europe, the European Association of Palliative Care is stressing the need for training programs in palliative medicine and the outcomes of the dedicated task force on official certification and specialty in Palliative Medicine will remarkably force policy makers and national councils to officially recognize the discipline. PMID:23766591

  5. The Bologna criteria for poor ovarian response: a contemporary critical appraisal.

    PubMed

    Younis, Johnny S; Ben-Ami, Moshe; Ben-Shlomo, Izhar

    2015-01-01

    Postponement of child bearing and maternal age at first pregnancy are on the rise, contributing considerably to an increase in age-related infertility and the demand for assisted reproductive technologies (ART) treatment. This brings to the infertility clinics many women with low ovarian reserve and poor ovarian response (POR) to conventional stimulation. The Bologna criteria were released to standardize the definition of POR and pave the way for the formulation of evidence-based, efficient modalities of treatment for women undergoing IVF-ET. More than four years have passed since the introduction of these criteria and the debate is still ongoing whether a revision is due. Women with POR comprise several sub-groups with diverse baseline distinctiveness, a major issue that has fueled the discussion. Although antral follicle count (AFC) and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), are considered good predictors of ovarian reserve, their threshold values are still not universally standardized. Different definitions for sonographic AFC and diverse assays for AMH are held responsible for this delay in standardization. Adding established risk factors to the criteria will lead to more reliable and reproducible definition of a POR, especially in young women. The original criteria did not address the issue of oocyte quality, and the addition of risk factors may yield specific associations with quality vs. quantity. Patient's age is the best available criterion, although limited, to predict live-birth and presumably oocyte quality. High scale studies to validate these criteria are still missing while recent evidence raises concern regarding over diagnosis. PMID:26577149

  6. Chagas Disease in a Non-endemic Country: A Multidisciplinary Research, Bologna, Italy.

    PubMed

    Di Girolamo, Chiara; Martelli, Giulia; Ciannameo, Anna; Vocale, Caterina; Fini, Marco; Stefanini, Angelo; Landini, Maria Paola; Viale, Pierluigi; Verucchi, Gabriella

    2016-06-01

    Global processes have brought about a substantial change in the epidemiological landscape of Chagas disease, spreading it to non-endemic areas. Italy is the second country in Europe in terms of Latin American migrants and expected infection rate. Given that scenario, the Bologna University Teaching Hospital undertaken a study aimed at providing preliminary data on the prevalence and investigating the knowledge and the subjective perceptions of Chagas disease, migration pathways and other relevant ill-health experiences. A cross-sectional study was undertaken in association with an ethnographic research. Between November 2010 and May 2013 Chagas disease testing was offered to people who attended the hospital and data were collected to investigate the broader socio-demographic and cultural factors. 151 individuals were screened for anti T. cruzi antibodies; 12 of them, 10 Bolivians and 2 Argentinians, were seroreactive, resulting in an overall prevalence of 7.94 %. Both the quantitative and the qualitative analysis revealed a degree of heterogeneity in terms of knowledge and perceptions of the disease as well as of migration pathways. The results are comparable with those reported by previous studies with similar characteristics and highlight the relevance of such public health issue in a non-endemic context. Moreover, the interdisciplinary approach has greatly helped to unveil the complex social and cultural implications of Chagas disease, to explain the subjective ill-health experiences, and to understand the ways in which the broader socio-economic and cultural context affects an intervention and its potential for success or failure. PMID:25935443

  7. Skeletal evidence of tuberculosis in a modern identified human skeletal collection (Certosa cemetery, Bologna, Italy).

    PubMed

    Mariotti, Valentina; Zuppello, Micol; Pedrosi, Maria Elena; Bettuzzi, Matteo; Brancaccio, Rosa; Peccenini, Eva; Morigi, Maria Pia; Belcastro, Maria Giovanna

    2015-07-01

    The diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in osteoarcheological series relies on the identification of osseous lesions caused by the disease. The study of identified skeletal collections provides the opportunity to investigate the distribution of skeletal lesions in relation to this disease. The aim of this study was to examine the skeletal evidence for TB in late adolescent and adult individuals from the identified human collection of the Certosa cemetery of Bologna (Italy, 19th-20th c.). The sample group consists of 244 individuals (138 males, 106 females) ranging from 17 to 88 years of age. The sample was divided into three groups on the basis of the recorded cause of death: TB (N = 64), pulmonary non-TB (N = 29), and other diseases (N = 151). Skeletal lesions reported to be related to TB were analyzed. The vertebral lesions were classified into three types: enlarged foramina (EnF, vascular foramina with diameter of 3-5 mm), erosions (ER), and other foramina (OtF, cavities of various shapes > 3 mm). A CT scan analysis was also performed on vertebral bodies. Some lesions were seldom present in our sample (e.g., tuberculous arthritis). OtF (23.7%) and subperiosteal new bone formation on ribs (54.2%) are significantly more frequent in the TB group with respect to the other groups. The CT scan analysis showed that the vertebrae of individuals who have died of TB may have internal cavities in the absence of external lesions. These traits represent useful elements in the paleopathological diagnosis of TB. PMID:25727573

  8. Effect of biofilm dryness on the transfer of Listeria monocytogenes biofilms grown on stainless steel to bologna and hard salami.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Andrés; Autio, Wesley R; McLandsborough, Lynne A

    2007-11-01

    Listeria monocytogenes continues to be a major cause of class I food recalls in the United States. Very little is known about its transfer and cross-contamination in processing scenarios. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydration level on L. monocytogenes biofilms grown on stainless steel and its effect on the biofilm transfer to foods. Biofilms were grown on stainless steel in diluted tryptic soy broth 1:20 for 48 h at 32 degrees C. After this, biofilms were equilibrated over saturated salt solutions at 20 degrees C for 24 h (94, 75, 58, and 33% relative humidity; % RH) prior to transferring. Transfer experiments were conducted from inoculated stainless steel to bologna and hard salami at a constant pressure (45 kPa) and time (30 s) with a universal testing machine. The experiment was designed with a factorial design 4 x 2 (biofilms equilibrated at 4% RH and two foods) and duplicated every day, and the whole experiment was repeated nine times. The results were analyzed with an analysis of variance by SAS Statistical Analysis Software. Our results showed that more bacteria were transferred to bologna (mean efficiency of transfer [EOT] = 3.0) than to hard salami (mean EOT = 0.35, P < 0.01). As biofilms became drier, the transfer of Listeria from stainless steel to both foods increased (P < 0.05). The EOT increased from 2 to 3.8 and from 0.2 to 0.51 upon transfer when drying the biofilm for bologna and hard salami, respectively. This study may be an indication that as biofilms were dried, the cell-cell and cell-surface interactions became weaker, and bacterial transfer increased. This phenomenon was enhanced in foods containing higher water activity levels. We hypothesize that this increased in transfer was due to the presence of capillary forces in the food. PMID:18044424

  9. Properties of bologna-type sausages with pork back-fat replaced with pork skin and amorphous cellulose.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Faria, Miriam; Cipriano, Tayssa Martins; da Cruz, Adriano Gomes; Santos, Bibiana Alves Dos; Pollonio, Marise Aparecida Rodrigues; Campagnol, Paulo Cezar Bastianello

    2015-06-01

    Bologna-type sausages were produced with 50% of their pork back-fat content replaced with gels elaborated with different ratios of pork skin, water, and amorphous cellulose (1:1:0, 1:1:0.1, 1:1:0.2, 1:1:0.3, and 1:1:0.4). The impact of such replacement on the physico-chemical characteristics and the consumer sensory profiling was evaluated. The modified treatments had 42% less fat, 18% more protein, and 8% more moisture than the control group. Treatments with amorphous cellulose had a lower cooking loss and higher emulsion stability. High amorphous cellulose content (1:1:0.3 and 1:1:0.4) increased hardness, gumminess, and chewiness. The gel formulated with the ratio of 1:1:0.2 (pork skin: water: amorphous cellulose gel) provided a sensory sensation similar to that provided by fat and allowed products of good acceptance to be obtained. Therefore, a combination of pork skin and amorphous cellulose is useful in improving technological quality and producing healthier and sensory acceptable bologna-type sausages. PMID:25688689

  10. Comparison of Quality of Bologna Sausage Manufactured by Electron Beam or X-Ray Irradiated Ground Pork

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Mee-Hye

    2014-01-01

    Ground lean pork was irradiated by an electron beam or X-rays to compare the effects of two types of radiation generated by a linear accelerator on the quality of Bologna sausage as a model meat product. Raw ground lean pork was vacuum packaged at a thickness of 1.5 cm and irradiated at doses of 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10 kGy by an electron beam (2.5 MeV) or X-rays (5 MeV). Solubility of myofibrillar proteins, bacterial counts, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values were determined for raw meat samples. Bologna sausage was manufactured using the irradiated lean pork, and total bacterial counts, TBARS values, and quality properties (color differences, cooking yield, texture, and palatability) were determined. Irradiation increased the solubility of myofibrillar proteins in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.05). Bacterial contamination of the raw meat was reduced as the absorbed dose increased, and the reduction was the same for both radiation types. Differences were observed only between irradiated and non-irradiated samples (p<0.05). X-ray irradiation may serve as an alternative to gamma irradiation and electron beam irradiation. PMID:26761284

  11. Production of healthier bologna type sausages using pork skin and green banana flour as a fat replacers.

    PubMed

    Alves, Larissa Aparecida Agostinho Dos Santos; Lorenzo, José Manuel; Gonçalves, Carlos Antonio Alvarenga; Santos, Bibiana Alves Dos; Heck, Rosane Teresinha; Cichoski, Alexandre José; Campagnol, Paulo Cezar Bastianello

    2016-11-01

    The effect of pork skin (PS) and green banana flour (GBF) on the physicochemical, technological, microbiological, and sensory properties of Bologna-type sausages was assessed. For this propose, six batches were manufactured: control (formulated with 20% fat) and five treatments replacing 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% of pork-fat by a mixture of PS, water, and GBF (1:2:2). Fat contents significantly (P<0.05) decreased, while moisture, resistant starch and ash levels significantly (P<0.05) increased with the addition of PS and GBF gel. Lower cooking loss and higher emulsion stability (P<0.05) were observed in the modified treatments. No difference was observed between the treatments for the microbiological quality. The substitution of up to 60% fat did not influence (P>0.05) on color (L*, a*, b*, and whiteness), texture parameters, and sensory acceptability. Therefore, healthier Bologna type sausages could be produced by replacing up to 60% of the fat with a mixture of PS, water, and GBF without depreciating product's quality. PMID:27288899

  12. Normal modes of oscillation of the Asinelli and Garisenda towers in Bologna (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morelli, A.; Azzara, R. M.; Cavaliere, A.; Zaccarelli, L.

    2013-12-01

    The Asinelli and Garisenda medieval towers represent the best-know city landmark in Bologna. Asinelli is also known to physics historians for early experiments on free fall of bodies for the first measurements of g (Giovanni Battista Riccioli, ca. 1650) and proof of Earth rotation (Giovanni Battista Guglielmini, 1791). The Two Towers (as they are commonly known) are essentially tall, square cross-section hollow masonry cuboids. Taller Asinelli, built between 1109 and 1119, is 97 m high, with an overhang of 2.2 m, while more seriously leaning Garisenda has an overhang of 3.2 m with a heigth of 48 m. During the summer of 2012 -- in the aftermath of two M≈6 earthquakes occurred in the proximity of the city -- the permanent engineering monitoring system of the towers has been temporarily supplemented by 6 seismometric stations installed at different levels inside the masonry buildings, to study their dynamical response to induced vibrations. We have thus been able to observe and measure the oscillation of the two towers excited by ambient noise, mostly due to city traffic. The two towers show similar behaviour, more clear in taller Asinelli. The first three flexural normal modes of oscillation, and the first torsional mode, can easily be detected. Their frequencies are split because of the asymmetry due to leaning of the tower. This asymmetry produces slightly different frequencies of oscillation in two orthogonal directions, quite consistent with preliminary dynamical modeling. Horizontal particle-motion polarization plots clearly show the cyclic energy transfer between these two degrees of freedom of the system. Oscillations of taller Asinelli influence its close sister, such that the Asinelli spectral signature can also be easily recognized in the motion recorded at the base of Garisenda, overimposed over Garisenda own free oscillations. Horizontal component polarization analysis done simultaneously at the two ground-level stations often point to a nearby common

  13. Blurring Boundaries: How the Bologna Process Changes the Relationship between University and Non-University Higher Education in Germany, the Netherlands and France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witte, Johanna; Van der Wende, Marijk; Huisman, Jeroen

    2008-01-01

    Between 1998 and 2004, the higher education systems of Germany, France and the Netherlands underwent major changes. The changes were framed in the context of the Bologna process, and linked to the reform of degree structure towards a system of undergraduate and graduate cycles. This article investigates how a key feature of these systems was…

  14. Conformity or Confusion? Changing Higher Education Grading Scales as a Part of the Bologna Process: The Cases of Denmark, Norway and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahl, Bettina; Lien, Eirik; Lindberg-Sand, Asa

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the Bologna Process is to make higher education systems across Europe more transparent. It is crucial for this purpose that confusion concerning the characteristics of the systems should be replaced by conformity. But, as we will show, conformity brought about at one level may create confusion at another. The curricular aspect of the…

  15. Effect of lauric acid and nisin-impregnated soy-based films on the growth of Listeria monocytogenes on turkey bologna.

    PubMed

    Dawson, P L; Carl, G D; Acton, J C; Han, I Y

    2002-05-01

    Research in development of antimicrobial packaging applications for further processed meats has become more common with recent outbreaks of contamination of these products. In this present study, lauric acid (8%, wt/wt) and 2.5% pure nisin (4%, wt/wt) were incorporated singly and together into thermally compacted soy films. Biocide-impregnated films were compared to control films containing no biocide for inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes in liquid medium and on turkey bologna surface. L. monocytogenes suspended in 1% peptone medium exposed to control films increased from 106 to 10(9) after 48 h exposure at 22 C. Films with nisin alone suppressed cell numbers 1 log cfu/mL after 2 h but cell numbers increased to 10(8) after 24 and 48 h at 22 C. Films containing lauric acid and nisin completely eliminated detectable cells from a 10(6) culture after 8 h of exposure to the liquid medium (22 C). Refrigerated bologna exposed to control films increased by 0.5 log from 10(6) after 21 d at 4 C. Nisin films reduced cell numbers on turkey bologna from 10(6) to 10(5) after 21 d, as did films containing nisin and lauric acid. Films with lauric acid alone reduced L. monocytogenes culture from 10(6) to < 102 after 48 h and by 1 log on turkey bologna after 21 d. PMID:12033424

  16. ReProTool Version 2.0: Re-Engineering Academic Curriculum Using Learning Outcomes, ECTS and Bologna Process Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pouyioutas, Philippos; Gjermundrod, Harald; Dionysiou, Ioanna

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present ReProTool Version 2.0, a software tool that is used for the European Credit Transfer System (ECTS) and the Bologna Process re-engineering of academic programmes. The tool is the result of an 18 months project (February 2012-July 2013) project, co-financed by the European Regional Development Fund…

  17. State of Play of the Bologna Process in the Tempus Countries of the Southern Mediterranean (2009/2010). A Tempus Study. Issue 03

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffio, Philippe; Heinamaki, Piia; Tchoukaline, Claire Chastang

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to describe and map the current state of play of the Bologna Process in the nine countries of the Southern Mediterranean participating in the Tempus programme. For the last twenty years, the Tempus programme has supported the modernisation of higher education systems in countries neighbouring the EU by financing…

  18. The Impact on Education for Librarianship and Information Studies of the Bologna Process and Related European Commission Programmes--and Some Outstanding Issues in Europe and Beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Ian M.

    2013-01-01

    The Bologna Declaration of 1999 is the basis for continuing reforms in higher education intended to support international mobility in employment within the European Union. This paper describes the standardised structure and nomenclature for courses that have been implemented, together with a credit transfer system, a quality assurance regime, and…

  19. EFFECTS AND INTERACTIONS OF SODIUM LACTATE, SODIUM DIACETATE, AND PEDIOCIN ON THE THERMAL INACTIVATION OF STARVED CELLS OF LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES ON THE SURFACE OF BOLOGNA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects and interactions of sodium lactate, sodium diacetate, and pediocin on the thermal inactivation of starved cells of Listeria monocytogenes on the surface of bologna were investigated. The heating temperatures used in the study were 56.3 to 60 degrees C and the antimicrobials were: sodium ...

  20. Similarities, Divergence, and Incapacity in the Bologna Process Reform Implementation by the Former-Socialist Countries: The Self-Defeat of State Regulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soltys, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative analysis describes the socialist legacy in the governance of higher education within the former Soviet-led member countries that entered the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) between 2001 and 2010. In joining the EHEA these countries signed on for the Bologna Process (BP), but are not members of the European Union. The…

  1. Teaching Biochemistry at Lisbon University--Facing the Challenge of the Bologna Declaration in the 25th Anniversary of the Biochemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farinha, Carlos M.; Freire, Ana Ponces

    2007-01-01

    The biochemistry degree has been taught at Lisbon University for 25 years. Since its creation, the curriculum is characterized for being widely eclectic and multidisciplinary. The adoption of the concepts proposed in Europe by the Declaration of Bologna and incorporation of these ideas at Lisbon University is discussed here for the biochemistry…

  2. Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma is a non-profit institute dedicated to astrophysical research. It was founded in the early nineteenth century, and moved to its present residence, the ancient Villa Mellini, not far from St Peter's Cathedral, in 1935....

  3. Evolution of the Urban Heat Island of the city of Bologna (Italy) in the last 30 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventura, Francesca; Gaspari, Nicola; Piana, Stefano; Rossi Pisa, Paola

    2010-05-01

    The Urban Heat Island (UHI) phenomenon is the air temperature difference between the urban area and the surrounding agricultural area of a city, due to the anthropic activities and different surfaces typical of the town. This phenomenon has been documented for many cities with different population, topography and climate (Chandler, 1962 and Oke, 1982 among the first), and has been quantified in many areas (see as an example for Italy Agnese et al, 2008). Many causes contribute to the UHI, such as different heat capacities of vegetated surfaces as compared to buildings and paving materials; different absorption due to canopy geometry; anthropogenic heat sources and so on. (for example see Camilloni and Barros, 1997) What is not so easy to find in literature is the study of the evolution of this phenomenon with time. UHI could be improved by changes in the town behaviour (increase in car traffic or winter-heating/summer-cooling), reduced by the enlargement of the suburb area, arriving to include the rural meteorological stations, or mitigated by the general growth of air temperature due to global warming. In this work, results from the analysis of two 30 years time series air temperature data are presented. The first data set comes from an agrometeorological station sited in the Botanical garden of the University of Bologna, in the centre of the town (44° 30' 05"N, 11° 21' 18" E). The second agrometeorological station is sited in the experimental farm of the University of Bologna in Cadriano (44° 33' 03" N, 11° 24' 36" E), 9 km from the first and outside of the town boundaries. Both data series range from 1978 to 2007 and are measured by mechanical thermoigrometers. Detailed information about instruments and data treatment are available in Matzneller et al. (2009). Results show an increasing trend in both stations for air maximum (Tmax) and minimum (Tmin) temperatures, more evident in the rural data. The mean UHI is of about 1.3 ± 0.7 °C as an average on the 30

  4. Validation of a 5-log10 reduction of Listeria monocytogenes following simulated commercial processing of Lebanon bologna in a model system.

    PubMed

    Chikthimmah, N; Guyer, R B; Knabel, S J

    2001-06-01

    Recently, numerous product recalls and one devastating outbreak that claimed 21 lives were attributed to Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat meat products. Consequently, the Food Safety and Inspection Service published a federal register notice requiring manufacturers of ready-to-eat meat and poultry products to reassess their hazard analysis and critical control point plans for these products as specified in 9 CFR 417.4(a). Lebanon bologna is a moist, fermented ready-to-eat sausage. Because of undesirable quality changes. Lebanon bologna is often not processed above 48.9 degrees C (120 degrees F). Therefore, the present research was conducted to validate the destruction of L. monocytogenes in Lebanon bologna batter in a model system. During production, fermentation of Lebanon bologna to pH 4.7 alone significantly reduced L. monocytogenes by 2.3 log10 CFU/g of the sausage mix (P < 0.01). Heating the fermented mix to 48.9 degrees C in 10.5 h destroyed at least 7.0 log10 CFU of L. monocytogenes per g of sausage mix. A combination of low pH (5.0 or lower) and high heating temperatures (> or =43.3 degrees C, 115 degrees F) destroyed more than 5 log10 CFU of L. monocytogenes per g of sausage mix during the processing of Lebanon bologna. In conclusion, an existing commercial process, which was validated for destruction of Escherichia coli O157:H7, was also effective for the destruction of more than 5 log10 CFU of L. monocytogenes. PMID:11403142

  5. Effect of green tea or rosemary extract on protein oxidation in Bologna type sausages prepared from oxidatively stressed pork.

    PubMed

    Jongberg, Sisse; Tørngren, Mari Ann; Gunvig, Annemarie; Skibsted, Leif H; Lund, Marianne N

    2013-03-01

    Bologna type sausages were prepared from oxidatively stressed pork (UV-irradiation, 48 h, 5 °C) using a traditional recipe (control) or the same recipe but added green tea extract (500 ppm total phenolic compounds) or rosemary extract (400 ppm total phenolic compounds). Green tea and rosemary extracts protected against formation of TBARS and protein carbonyls. On the contrary, increased thiol loss and a distinct loss of myosin heavy chain and actin due to polymerization by reducible bonds as determined by SDS-page were found by addition of green tea extract. The enhanced protein polymerization was ascribed to the reaction between quinone compounds from the plant extracts and protein thiol groups to yield phenol-mediated protein polymerization. Analysis by ESR spectroscopy revealed increased radical intensities in sausages added plant extracts, which was ascribed to originate from protein-bound phenoxyl radicals, which may protect against other oxidatively induced protein modifications. PMID:23273462

  6. Effect of jabuticaba peel extract on lipid oxidation, microbial stability and sensory properties of Bologna-type sausages during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Patrícia Leal; de Lima, Silvério Nepomuceno; Costa, Luciene Lacerda; de Oliveira, Cintia Cristina; Damasceno, Karina Aparecida; dos Santos, Bibiana Alves; Campagnol, Paulo Cezar Bastianello

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the lipid oxidation and the microbiological and sensory quality of Bologna-type sausages produced with the addition of jabuticaba peel extract (JPE). Instrumental parameters of color (L*, a* and b*), pH, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values, microbiological profile, and sensory properties were determined during 35 days of storage. The addition of JPE had an effect on pH and protected the samples from color changes during storage. However, JPE had no positive effect on microbial stability during storage. Samples produced with 0.5, 0.75, and 1% JPE had significantly lower TBARS values (P<0.05) compared with the control group. The addition of up to 0.5% JPE did not affect sensory quality, but prevented the decrease of sensory acceptance during storage. Therefore, due to its antioxidant effect JPE can be used in Bologna-type sausages in order to improve the oxidative stability during the shelf life. PMID:26156583

  7. [Clinical practice quality in BNC (Bachelor of Nursing Course). Evaluation of students' satisfaction in the Italian Red Cross School of Nursing, University of Bologna].

    PubMed

    Scalorbi, Sandra; Burrai, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    This study is linked to the previous our "UNI EN ISO 9001:2000 quality system. Project and application at BNC (Bachelor of nursing Course), University of Bologna: degree of satisfaction of third year's students". The aim of this study, carried on in 2006, were to find out how satisfied second (n=61) and third years (n=95) nursing bachelor course students, University of Bologna, were with their clinical practice, about each essential element in this kind of learning. The data were collected using a questionnaire purposely made, with 48 items in 9 fields. 279 questionnaires returned ,79 by second year students and 190 by third year students. Results suggest a general satisfaction of students about their clinical practice experiences. Also in this study, the intermediate evaluation, very important in nursing clinical learning, is a critical variable. PMID:18667126

  8. Live Birth and Cumulative Live Birth Rates in Expected Poor Ovarian Responders Defined by the Bologna Criteria Following IVF/ICSI Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Joyce; Lee, Vivian Chi-Yan; Yeung, Tracy Wing-Yee; Li, Raymond Wun-Hang; Ho, Pak-Chung; Ng, Ernest Hung-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the live birth and cumulative live birth rates of expected poor ovarian responders according to the Bologna criteria and to compare their outcomes with those of expected normal responders Design Retrospective analysis Setting University infertility clinic Patients A total of 1,152 subfertile women undergoing their first in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycle Interventions Women were classified into 4 groups according to the Bologna criteria for comparison Main Outcome Measure(s) Live birth and cumulative live birth rates Results Women with expected poor response (POR) had the lowest live birth rate than the other 3 groups (23.8%, p = 0.031). Cumulative live birth rates were significantly lower in those with expected POR than those with expected normal ovarian response (NOR) (35.8% vs 62.8%, p<0.0001). In the subgroup analysis, the cumulative live birth rates in expected PORs were significantly lower in those who had ≤3 oocytes retrieved (18.6% for ≤3 oocytes vs 44.0% for >3 oocytes, p = 0.006) whereas the live birth rates in fresh cycle did not differ (17.8% vs 30.9%, p = 0.108). Conclusion Women who were expected POR according to the Bologna criteria had lower live birth and cumulative live birth than expected NOR but they still can achieve reasonable treatment outcomes and IVF treatment should not be precluded. PMID:25748478

  9. Monte Carlo simulation of neutron backscattering from concrete walls in the dense plasma focus laboratory of Bologna University.

    PubMed

    Frignani, M; Mostacci, D; Rocchi, F; Sumini, M

    2005-01-01

    Between 2001 and 2003 a 3.2 kJ dense plasma focus (DPF) device has been built at the Montecuccolino Laboratory of the Department of Energy, Nuclear and Environmental Control Engineering (DIENCA) of the University of Bologna. A DPF is a pulsed device in which deuterium nuclear fusion reactions can be obtained through the pinching effects of electromagnetic fields upon a dense plasma. The empirical scale law that governs the total D-D neutron yield from a single pulse of a DPF predicts for this machine a figure of approximately 10(7) fast neutrons per shot. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the role of backscattering of neutrons from the concrete walls surrounding the Montecuccolino DPF in total neutron yield measurements. The evaluation is performed by MCNP-5 simulations that are aimed at estimating the neutron spectra at a few points of interest in the laboratory, where neutron detectors will be placed during the experimental campaigns. Spectral information from the simulations is essential because the response of detectors is influenced by neutron energy. Comparisons are made with the simple r(-2) law, which holds for a DPF in infinite vacuum. The results from the simulations will ultimately be used both in the design and optimisation of the neutron detectors and in their final calibration and placement inside the laboratory. PMID:16381750

  10. Tuning research competences for Bologna three cycles in medicine: report of a MEDINE2 European consensus survey.

    PubMed

    Marz, Richard; Dekker, Friedo W; Van Schravendijk, Chris; O'Flynn, Siun; Ross, Michael T

    2013-09-01

    Medical curricula, like healthcare systems and medical practice, have a strong cultural component and vary considerably between countries. Increasing mobility of medical graduates, and increasing pressure to ensure they are all fit for practice, have highlighted an urgent need to establish common ground in learning outcomes at all stages of training. A research-based approach, developed by the Tuning project, was used previously by the MEDINE Thematic Network to gain consensus on core learning outcomes/competences for primary medical degrees ( www.tuning-medicine.com ), but no consensus was reached for learning outcomes relating to research. As part of MEDINE2, a focussed Tuning project was undertaken to explore opinions on more detailed core learning outcomes in research for all three Bologna cycles (Bachelor, Master, and Doctor). Responses from 417 stakeholders, representing 29 European and 13 non-European countries, revealed a relatively high degree of consensus. The findings strongly suggest that these stakeholders think that learning outcomes related both to 'using research' and 'doing research' should be core components of medical curricula in Europe. The challenge now, however, is to promote further local and international discussion on these issues, and to find ways of achieving these competences within the context of already crowded medical curricula. PMID:24101579

  11. Di(hydroxyphenyl)- benzimidazole monomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Di(hydroxyphenyl)benzimidazole monomers were prepared from phenyl-hydroxybenzoate and aromatic bis(o-diamine)s. These monomers were used in the synthesis of soluble polybenzimidazoles. The reaction involved the aromatic nucleophilic displacement of various di(hydroxyphenyl)benzimidazole monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or activated aromatic dinitro compounds in the presence of an alkali metal base. These polymers exhibited lower glass transition temperatures, improved solubility, and better compression moldability over their commercial counterparts.

  12. Normal Mode Analysis of Ambient-Noise Induced Free Oscillations of a Slender Medieval Masonry Tower in Bologna (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morelli, A.; Azzara, R. M.; Cavaliere, A.; Zaccarelli, L.

    2014-12-01

    Analysis of the oscillations of buildings — either excited by earthquakes or by ambient noise — has become an effective tool to evaluate the response of such structures to strong ground motion, and hence to assess their seismic vulnerability. Response to small-amplitude ground motion may also provide crucial information on the elastic and anelastic properties of a structure — essential in the case of historical buildings — and constrain numerical full dynamic structural analyses. We report about an analysis carried out for a tall medieval monumental building in the urban center of the Norther Italian city of Bologna. Seismic monitoring, carried on for six months using field seismic instrumentation, has revealed the response to ambient noise, and has allowed to reconstruct, with high detail, the free oscillation modes of the tower. At 97 meters, the XII-century tower of the Asinelli is the tallest masonry building in Europe, and the most slender. We measured the fundamental, and several higher-order, flexural normal modes of oscillation, as well as the fundamental torsional mode. Asymmetry due to non-coincidence of centers of mass and of stiffness produces slightly different modal frequencies of oscillation in two orthogonal directions, consistently with dynamical modeling. Horizontal particle-motion polarization plots show the cyclic energy transfer between two degrees of freedom of the system. The Asinelli spectral signature can also be easily recognized in the motion recorded at the base of nearby Garisenda. We verify that there is correlation of spectral amplitudes with time of the day — in agreement with expected time-variance of anthropic disturbance —- but also with wind velocity and, intriguingly, with temperature variations inside the buidings. We are using these data to adjust the numerical dynamical models of the buildings, to examine time variations of behavior, and to identify the origin of anthropogenic sources of vibration in view of their

  13. Antimicrobial effects of alginate-based films containing essential oils on Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella typhimurium present in bologna and ham.

    PubMed

    Oussalah, Mounia; Caillet, Stéphane; Salmiéri, Stéphane; Saucier, Linda; Lacroix, Monique

    2007-04-01

    Bologna and ham slices (300 of each) were inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium or Listeria monocytogenes at 10(3) CFU/cm(2). Alginate-based edible films that had been immersed in a 2 or 20% (wt/vol) CaC12 solution and contained 1% (wt/ vol) essential oils of Spanish oregano (O; Corydothymus capitatus), Chinese cinnamon (C; Cinnamomum cassia), or winter savory (S; Satureja montana) were then applied to slices to control pathogen growth. On bologna, C-based films pretreated with 20% CaC12 were the most effective against the growth of Salmonella Typhimurium and L. monocytogenes. L. monocytogenes was the more sensitive bacterium to O-, C-, and S-based films. L. monocytogenes concentrations were below the detection level (<10 CFU/ml) after 5 days of storage on bologna coated with O-, C-, or S-based films pretreated with 20% CaCl2. On ham, a 1.85 log CFU/cm2 reduction of Salmonella Typhimurium (P < 0.05) was found after 5 days of storage with C-based films regardless of the type of pretreatment used (2 or 20% CaC12) or when coated with O-based films pretreated with 20% CaCl2. L. monocytogenes was highly resistant in ham, even in the presence of O-, C-, or S-based films. However, C-based films pretreated with 20% CaCl2 were the most effective against the growth of L. monocytogenes. Evaluation of the availability of active compounds in films revealed a significantly higher release of active compounds in C-based films (P < 0.05) regardless of pretreatment or meat tested (bologna or ham). O-based films had the lowest release level of active compounds. The release of active compounds from O- and S-based films pretreated with 20% CaCl2 was faster than that in the same respective films pretreated with 2% CaCl2 regardless of the meat type. C-based film pretreated by immersion in a 20% CaCl2 solution was most efficient against both pathogens, and migration of active compounds was higher in C-based films than in O- and S-based films. PMID:17477259

  14. Trasforiiazioni Termoelastiche Finite di Solidi Incomprimibili

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Signorini, A.

    Queste lezlioni hanno come direttiva una sintesi di quanto si trova sistematicamente sviluppato in una mia Memoria sulle trasformazioni termoelastiche finite di solidi incomprimibili, in corso di stampa negli Annali di Matematica pura e applicata t. XXXIX ( 1955) pp. 147-201 , Verranno anche esposti, come necessaria premessa, alcuni d ei risultati di due precedenti Memorie degli stessi Annali. Invece, per motivo di brevità, non potrò dare neppure un cenno delle ulteriori ricerche svilup pate dal prof. T. Manacorda in tre recentissimi suoi lavori:

  15. [Planning and application of a valutation methodology in UNI EN ISO 9001:2000 quality system, for the analysis satisfaction level of third-year student University of Bologna, Bachelor of Nursing Course, CRI School of Nursing formative section].

    PubMed

    Bernardi, M G; Scalorbi, Sandra; Burrai, Francesco

    2007-01-01

    The quality of nursing assistance is closely related to the quality of training. In the certification UNI EN ISO 9001:2000 in 2004 of the Bologna nursing school regarding Planning and performance of theoretical-practical nursing training a continual improvement of the product/service is implicit. A method was therefore devised to evaluate the degree of satisfaction in third-year nursing students in Bologna which demonstrated a medium/high level of satisfaction regarding all teaching-related procedures. By monitoring satisfaction levels , it is possible to identify any critical areas and to implement improvement where needed. PMID:17825218

  16. Use of Landsat imagery to detect land cover changes for monitoring soil sealing; case study: Bologna province (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casciere, Rossella; Franci, Francesca; Bitelli, Gabriele

    2014-08-01

    Landsat archives (made accessible by USGS at no charge since 2011) have made available to the scientific community a large amount of satellite multispectral images, providing new opportunities for environmental information, such as the analysis of land use/cover changes, which represent important tools for planning and sustainable land management. Processing a time series images, the creation of land cover maps has been improved in order to analyze phenomena such as the soil sealing. The main topic of this work is in fact the detection of roads and buildings construction or everything that involve soil removing. This subject is highly relevant, given the impact of the phenomenon on land use planning, environmental sustainability, agricultural policies and urban runoff. The analysis, still in progress, has been applied to Bologna Province (Emilia-Romagna Region, Italy) that covers 3703 Km2. This area is strongly urbanized: 8,9% of the total surface is sealed against a national value of 6,7%, with the soil sealing rate which has been defined from recent studies as the fourth Italian value in the 2001/2011 period. Other information available for this territory derive from CORINE Land Cover and Copernicus Projects. In the first one, the minimum mapping unit is 25 ha and the one for change is 5 ha; these values are too large for an accurate detection of the soil sealing dynamics. On the other hand, the Copernicus Project provides an imperviousness layer with a better resolution (20x20 m2), but its maps start from 2006. Therefore, the potential of multispectral remote sensing analysis over large areas and the multitemporal Landsat availability have been combined for a better knowledge about land cover changes. For this work, Landsat 5 and Landsat 8 images have been acquired between 1987 and 2013, according to basic requirements as low cloud cover and a common acquisition season (summer). A supervised pixel-based classification has been performed, with maximum likelihood

  17. Di(2-ethylhexyl)adipate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Di ( 2 - ethylhexyl ) adipate ; CASRN 103 - 23 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Non

  18. The Introduction of Two-Tiered Study Structures in the Context of the Bologna Process: A Theoretical Framework for an International Comparative Study of Change in Higher Education Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witte, Johanna

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a theoretical framework for an encompassing international comparative study of a central aspect of the Bologna process; the introduction of two-tiered study structures (TTSS), often referred to as "Bachelor and Master". The framework is tailored to understand and explain the patterns of TTSS that currently emerge in various…

  19. Policy Borrowing and Transfer, and Policy Convergence: Justifications for the Adoption of the Bologna Process in the CEMAC Region and the Cameroonian Higher Education System through the LMD Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eta, Elizabeth Agbor

    2015-01-01

    The borrowing and transfer of policies, ideas and practices from one system to another may in part explain the convergence of educational systems. Using text documents as research material, this paper examines the adoption and transfer of Bologna Process (BP) ideas in the Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa (CEMAC) and in the…

  20. The "Bestie di Satana" murders.

    PubMed

    Birkhoff, Jutta; Candelli, Chiara; Zeroli, Stefania; La Tegola, Donatella; Carabellese, Felice

    2013-11-01

    In recent years, satanic groups have been responsible for various types and degrees of crimes. We report the case of a number of murders committed in Italy by a group of young people calling themselves the "Bestie di Satana". Forensic psychiatric assessment of the members of a satanic sect charged with the crime revealed that all the young people had a fragile, immature personality, a very low level of education and were socially disadvantaged. The trial of the members of the "Bestie di Satana" sect was concluded with the verdict of deliberate murder, and all the members were given long jail sentences. This report should lead us to explore social and cultural responses to juvenile satanism, statistically shown to be a relatively rare phenomenon but with a high criminal potential. PMID:24117906

  1. Introduzione al Laboratorio di Fisica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciullo, Giuseppe

    La Fisica (dal greco τὰ ϕυσικὰ: le cose naturali) si pone l'obiettivo di descrivere e prevedere il comportamento dei fenomeni naturali, nonché degli apparati e degli strumenti, che hanno reso e rendono la nostra vita più comoda ed efficiente. Tale obiettivo viene perseguito mediante un'attenta osservazione dei fenomeni, con una conseguente schematizzazione dell'osservazione, per fornire una conoscenza della realtà oggettiva, affidabile, verificabile e condivisibile.

  2. Waste flow analysis and life cycle assessment of integrated waste management systems as planning tools: Application to optimise the system of the City of Bologna.

    PubMed

    Tunesi, Simonetta; Baroni, Sergio; Boarini, Sandro

    2016-09-01

    The results of this case study are used to argue that waste management planning should follow a detailed process, adequately confronting the complexity of the waste management problems and the specificity of each urban area and of regional/national situations. To support the development or completion of integrated waste management systems, this article proposes a planning method based on: (1) the detailed analysis of waste flows and (2) the application of a life cycle assessment to compare alternative scenarios and optimise solutions. The evolution of the City of Bologna waste management system is used to show how this approach can be applied to assess which elements improve environmental performance. The assessment of the contribution of each waste management phase in the Bologna integrated waste management system has proven that the changes applied from 2013 to 2017 result in a significant improvement of the environmental performance mainly as a consequence of the optimised integration between materials and energy recovery: Global Warming Potential at 100 years (GWP100) diminishes from 21,949 to -11,169 t CO2-eq y(-1) and abiotic resources depletion from -403 to -520 t antimony-eq. y(-1) This study analyses at great detail the collection phase. Outcomes provide specific operational recommendations to policy makers, showing the: (a) relevance of the choice of the materials forming the bags for 'door to door' collection (for non-recycled low-density polyethylene bags 22 kg CO2-eq (tonne of waste)(-1)); (b) relatively low environmental impacts associated with underground tanks (3.9 kg CO2-eq (tonne of waste)(-1)); (c) relatively low impact of big street containers with respect to plastic bags (2.6 kg CO2-eq. (tonne of waste)(-1)). PMID:27170193

  3. The evolution of midwifery education at the master's level: a study of Swedish midwifery education programmes after the implementation of the Bologna process.

    PubMed

    Hermansson, Evelyn; Mårtensson, Lena B

    2013-08-01

    In Europe, midwifery education has undergone a number of reforms in the past few decades. In several countries, it has shifted from vocational training to academic education. The higher education reform, known as the "Bologna process" aimed to create convergence in higher education among a number of European countries and enhance opportunities for mobility, employment and collaborative research. It also indicated a transparent and easily compared system of academic degrees, generating a new educational system in three cycles. This study explores the implementation of the process in Sweden when the midwifery education was transferred from diploma to postgraduate or master's level. The aim of this study was to analyse how the implementation of the Bologna process in the Swedish higher education system has impacted midwifery education programmes in the country. Descriptive statistics and content analysis were employed to analyse 32 questionnaire responses from teachers and the 2009-2010 curricula and syllabi of 11 postgraduate midwifery education programmes at Swedish universities and university colleges. The results revealed variations among the universities at the major subject into the three disciplines; midwifery, nursing and caring with different conceptualisations, even when the content was identical in the curricula to that of the midwifery professional knowledge base. Implementation of the new reform not only has accelerated the academisation process, but also puts higher demand on the students and requires higher competencies among teachers to involve more evidence-based knowledge, seminars, independent studies and a postgraduate degree project in the major subject. Thus the students earn not only a diploma in midwifery, but also a master's degree in the major subject, which affords the opportunity for an academic career. But still there is a tension between professional and academic education. PMID:23154149

  4. Cyclic di-AMP mediates biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xian; Zhang, Yang; Bai, Guangchun; Zhou, Xuedong; Wu, Hui

    2016-03-01

    Cyclic di-AMP (c-di-AMP) is an emerging second messenger in bacteria. It has been shown to play important roles in bacterial fitness and virulence. However, transduction of c-di-AMP signaling in bacteria and the role of c-di-AMP in biofilm formation are not well understood. The level of c-di-AMP is modulated by activity of di-adenylyl cyclase that produces c-di-AMP and phosphodiesterase (PDE) that degrades c-di-AMP. In this study, we determined that increased c-di-AMP levels by deletion of the pdeA gene coding for a PDE promoted biofilm formation in Streptococcus mutans. Deletion of pdeA upregulated expression of gtfB, the gene coding for a major glucan producing enzyme. Inactivation of gtfB blocked the increased biofilm by the pdeA mutant. Two c-di-AMP binding proteins including CabPA (SMU_1562) and CabPB (SMU_1708) were identified. Interestingly, only CabPA deficiency inhibited both the increased biofilm formation and the upregulated expression of GtfB observed in the pdeA mutant. In addition, CabPA but not CabPB interacted with VicR, a known transcriptional factor that regulates expression of gtfB, suggesting that a signaling link between CabPA and GtfB through VicR. Increased biofilm by the pdeA deficiency also enhanced bacterial colonization of Drosophila in vivo. Taken together, our studies reveal a new role of c-di-AMP in mediating biofilm formation through a CabPA/VicR/GtfB signaling network in S. mutans. PMID:26564551

  5. The Bologna Process Implementation and its Consequent Changes in the Teaching/Learning Model—the Industrial Management and Engineering Degree Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luísa Soares, Ana; Costa, Elga; Ferreira, Luís Pinto

    2009-11-01

    The present paper aims to present a Project included in a diversified programme and consequent implementation of a new Teaching/Learning model adapted to the Industrial Management and Engineering Degree (IMED) of the Management and Industrial Studies School (O'Porto Polytechnic Institute). Owning particular and specific characteristics, this model is based on the graduates' professional profile as well as on the work market dynamics, placing the student in the centre of the Learning Process, in opposition to the `teacher centred' method (as conceived by the Bologna Treat). Diverse in the approach, the model includes differentiating factors when compared to the project based traditional model. Through the development and conception of practical Interdisciplinary Projects, centring knowledges and techniques from the different Industrial Management and Engineering areas, we seek a new way of implementing the `Project Led Education' (PLE) bases, according to the Active Learning paradigm. This teaching/learning model aims to contribute to the Industrial Management and Engineering graduates' formation focused on a high level of performance and professional rectitude, to induce students' enthusiasm and motivation for acquiring scientific and technical knowledge, as well as to satisfy the diverse interest groups' expectations and promote the regional development.

  6. Detection of cyclic di-AMP using a competitive ELISA with a unique pneumococcal cyclic di-AMP binding protein.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Adam J; Zhang, Yang; Metzger, Dennis W; Bai, Guangchun

    2014-12-01

    Cyclic di-AMP (c-di-AMP) is a recently recognized bacterial signaling molecule. In this study, a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the quantification of c-di-AMP was developed using a novel pneumococcal c-di-AMP binding protein (CabP). With this method, c-di-AMP concentrations in biological samples can be quickly and accurately quantified. PMID:25239824

  7. Exclusive e+e-, di-photon and di-jet production at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Terashi, Koji; /Rockefeller U.

    2007-05-01

    Results from studies on exclusive production of electron-position pair, di-photon, and dijet production at CDF in proton-antiproton collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron are presented. THe first observation and cross section measurements of exclusive e{sup +}e{sup -} and di-jet production in hadron-hadron collisions are emphasized.

  8. Sugaring marble in the Monumental Cemetery in Bologna (Italy): characterization of naturally and artificially weathered samples and first results of consolidation by hydroxyapatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sassoni, Enrico; Franzoni, Elisa

    2014-12-01

    The so-called sugaring of marble is a very common degradation phenomenon, affecting both historical monuments and modern buildings, which is originated by environmental temperature fluctuations. Thermal cycles are indeed responsible for micro-cracks formation at the boundaries between calcite grains, so that marble is subjected to granular disintegration and can be reduced to a sugar-like powder of isolated calcite grains by just the pressure of a finger. Since no effective, compatible and durable treatment for sugaring marble consolidation is currently available, in this paper a novel consolidating treatment recently proposed for limestone, based on the formation of hydroxyapatite inside the stone, was investigated for weathered marble. To test the new treatment on suitably decayed marble samples, some naturally sugaring marbles from the Monumental Cemetery in Bologna (Italy, nineteenth century) were firstly characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) measurement. Then, artificially weathered samples were produced by heating fresh Carrara marble samples at 400 °C for 1 h. The effects of artificial weathering were characterized using the same techniques as above, and a very good agreement was found between microstructure and mechanical features of naturally and artificially weathered samples. Then, the hydroxyapatite-based treatment was tested on the so-obtained artificially weathered samples, and the treatment effects were characterized by UPV, MIP and SEM equipped with energy dispersive spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The hydroxyapatite-based treatment exhibited a remarkable ability of restoring marble cohesion and a good compatibility in terms of modifications in pore size distribution, which leads to regard this treatment as a very promising consolidant for weathered marble.

  9. Long-term carcinogenicity bioassays on industrial chemicals and man-made mineral fibers, at the Bentivoglio (BT) laboratories of the Bologna Institute of Oncology: premises, programs, and results

    SciTech Connect

    Maltoni, C.; Minardi, F.; Soffritti, M.; Lefemine, G. )

    1991-09-01

    After having stressed the need of primary prevention in the strategy for cancer control, the crucial role of the long-term carcinogenicity bioassays in providing scientific support to primary prevention has been focused. The state-of-the-art, the present inadequacies, the necessity of implementation, and the perspectives of the long-term carcinogenicity bioassays have been briefly reviewed. The performed and ongoing programs of carcinogenicity bioassays at the Bentivoglio (BT) Laboratories of the Bologna Institute of Oncology have been presented, together with the currently available results on several compounds of industrial and commercial relevance.

  10. Di-leptons at the Bevalac

    SciTech Connect

    Matis, H.S.

    1988-03-01

    Recent results on the production of di-leptons measured by the Di-Lepton-Spectrometer (DLS) collaboration are discussed. Results are reported from observations made on p /plus/ Be collisions with proton beams from 1.0 to 4.9 GeV and on Ca collisions with calcium beams of 1.0 to 2.0 GeV/A. The shape of the distributions are similar to that at higher energies. The low mass cross section appears to be explained by ..pi..-..pi.. annihilation, but detailed calculations are needed to substantiate that hypothesis. (LEN)

  11. Detection of cyclic di-AMP using a competitive ELISA with a unique pneumococcal cyclic di-AMP binding protein

    PubMed Central

    Underwood, Adam J.; Zhang, Yang; Metzger, Dennis W.; Bai, Guangchun

    2014-01-01

    Cyclic di-AMP (c-di-AMP) is a signaling molecule that has been shown to play important roles in bacterial physiology and infections. Currently, c-di-AMP detection and quantification relies mostly on the use of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). In this study, a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the quantification of c-di-AMP was developed, which utilizes a novel pneumococcal c-di-AMP binding protein (CabP) and a newly commercialized c-di-AMP derivative. With this new method, c-di-AMP concentrations in biological samples can be quickly and accurately quantified. Furthermore, this assay is much more efficient than current methods as it requires less overall cost and training while processing many samples at once. Therefore, this assay can be extensively used in research into c-di-AMP signaling. PMID:25239824

  12. URINARY BIOMARKERS OF DI-ISONONYL PHTHALATE IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Commercial di-isononyl phthalate (DiNP) is a mixture of various branched-chain dialkyl phthalates mainly containing ninecarbon alkyl isomers. At high doses in rodents, DiNP is a carcinogen, and a developmental toxicant. After exposure, the diester isomers are de-esterified to for...

  13. 40 CFR 721.1852 - Di-alkyl borane (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Di-alkyl borane (generic). 721.1852... Substances § 721.1852 Di-alkyl borane (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as di-alkyl borane (PMN P-00-1087) is...

  14. BUGJEFF311.BOLIB (JEFF-3.1.1) and BUGENDF70.BOLIB (ENDF/B-VII.0) - Generation Methodology and Preliminary Testing of two ENEA-Bologna Group Cross Section Libraries for LWR Shielding and Pressure Vessel Dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pescarini, Massimo; Sinitsa, Valentin; Orsi, Roberto; Frisoni, Manuela

    2016-02-01

    Two broad-group coupled neutron/photon working cross section libraries in FIDO-ANISN format, dedicated to LWR shielding and pressure vessel dosimetry applications, were generated following the methodology recommended by the US ANSI/ANS-6.1.2-1999 (R2009) standard. These libraries, named BUGJEFF311.BOLIB and BUGENDF70.BOLIB, are respectively based on JEFF-3.1.1 and ENDF/B-VII.0 nuclear data and adopt the same broad-group energy structure (47 n + 20 γ) of the ORNL BUGLE-96 similar library. They were respectively obtained from the ENEA-Bologna VITJEFF311.BOLIB and VITENDF70.BOLIB libraries in AMPX format for nuclear fission applications through problem-dependent cross section collapsing with the ENEA-Bologna 2007 revision of the ORNL SCAMPI nuclear data processing system. Both previous libraries are based on the Bondarenko self-shielding factor method and have the same AMPX format and fine-group energy structure (199 n + 42 γ) as the ORNL VITAMIN-B6 similar library from which BUGLE-96 was obtained at ORNL. A synthesis of a preliminary validation of the cited BUGLE-type libraries, performed through 3D fixed source transport calculations with the ORNL TORT-3.2 SN code, is included. The calculations were dedicated to the PCA-Replica 12/13 and VENUS-3 engineering neutron shielding benchmark experiments, specifically conceived to test the accuracy of nuclear data and transport codes in LWR shielding and radiation damage analyses.

  15. Bologna Guidelines for Diagnosis and Management of Adhesive Small Bowel Obstruction (ASBO): 2010 Evidence-Based Guidelines of the World Society of Emergency Surgery

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is no consensus on diagnosis and management of ASBO. Initial conservative management is usually safe, however proper timing for discontinuing non operative treatment is still controversial. Open surgery or laparoscopy are used without standardized indications. Methods A panel of 13 international experts with interest and background in ASBO and peritoneal diseases, participated in a consensus conference during the 1st International Congress of the World Society of Emergency Surgery and 9th Peritoneum and Surgery Society meeting, in Bologna, July 1-3, 2010, for developing evidence-based recommendations for diagnosis and management of ASBO. Whenever was a lack of high-level evidence, the working group formulated guidelines by obtaining consensus. Recommendations In absence of signs of strangulation and history of persistent vomiting or combined CT scan signs (free fluid, mesenteric oedema, small bowel faeces sign, devascularized bowel) patients with partial ASBO can be managed safely with NOM and tube decompression (either with long or NG) should be attempted. These patients are good candidates for Water Soluble Contrast Medium (WSCM) with both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The appearance of water-soluble contrast in the colon on X-ray within 24 hours from administration predicts resolution. WSCM may be administered either orally or via NGT (50-150 ml) both immediately at admission or after an initial attempt of conservative treatment of 48 hours. The use of WSCM for ASBO is safe and reduces need for surgery, time to resolution and hospital stay. NOM, in absence of signs of strangulation or peritonitis, can be prolonged up to 72 hours. After 72 hours of NOM without resolution surgery is recommended. Patients treated non-operatively have shorter hospital stay, but higher recurrence rate and shorter time to re-admission, although the risk of new surgically treated episodes of ASBO is unchanged. Risk factors for recurrences are age <40 years and

  16. [Valutazione delle guardie di sicurezza privata attraverso la Suicide Probability Scale e la Brief Symptom Inventory].

    PubMed

    Dogan, Bulent; Canturk, Gurol; Canturk, Nergis; Guney, Sevgi; Özcan, Ebru

    2016-01-01

    RIASSUNTO. Scopo. Lo scopo di questo studio è stato quello di investigare l'influenza della probabilità di suicidio, con le sue caratteristiche sociodemografiche, e di procurare i dati per la prevenzione del suicidio tra le guardie di sicurezza privata che lavorano in condizioni di stress, essendo a contatto ininterrottamente con eventi negativi e traumatici di vita durante il loro lavoro. Metodi. Hanno partecipato allo studio 200 guardie di sicurezza privata e 200 persone dell'Università di Ankara. Per raccogliere i dati sono stati utilizzati un questionario riguardante le condizioni sociodemografiche dei partecipanti, la Suicide Probability Scale (SPS) e la Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). Risultati. Genere, stato civile, stipendio, credenze religiose, vivere una situazione di pericolo di vita, passato di tentativi di suicidio, fumare e non avere una malattia cronica hanno causato statisticamente una differenza significativa sui punteggi di SPS tra il gruppo di guardie di sicurezza privata e quello di controllo. In aggiunta, c'è stata una correlazione positiva statisticamente significativa tra i punteggi totali delle sottoscale di SPS e quelli di BSI. Conclusioni. Allo stesso modo degli agenti di polizia e dei gendarmi, le guardie di sicurezza privata sono ad alto rischio di commettere e tentare il suicidio trovandosi in condizioni stressanti di lavoro e anche soffrendo del trauma secondario. È necessario che essi siano consapevoli della propria tendenza al suicidio e avere controlli psichiatrici regolari. PMID:27183512

  17. Di-hadron production at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Anefalos Pereira, Sergio; et. al.,

    2014-10-01

    Semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) has been used extensively in recent years as an important testing ground for QCD. Studies so far have concentrated on better determination of parton distribution functions, distinguishing between the quark and antiquark contributions, and understanding the fragmentation of quarks into hadrons. Hadron pair (di-hadron) SIDIS provides information on the nucleon structure and hadronization dynamics that complement single hadron SIDIS. Di-hadrons allow the study of low- and high-twist distribution functions and Dihadron Fragmentation Functions (DiFF). Together with the twist-2 PDFs ( f1, g1, h1), the Higher Twist (HT) e and hL functions are very interesting because they offer insights into the physics of the largely unexplored quark-gluon correlations, which provide access into the dynamics inside hadrons. The CLAS spectrometer, installed in Hall-B at Jefferson Lab, has collected data using the CEBAF 6 GeV longitudinally polarized electron beam on longitudinally polarized solid NH3 targets. Preliminary results on di-hadron beam-, target- and double-spin asymmetries will be presented.

  18. RTI & DI (Response to Intervention & Differentiated Instruction)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Helene M.

    2014-01-01

    In today's diverse and inclusive classrooms, teachers face the challenge of delivering instruction that is effective and accessible to students with a wide range of needs, abilities, and learning styles. Newly updated for 2014, "RTI & DI: Response to Intervention & Differentiated Instruction," by Helene Hanson, shows teachers how…

  19. Protoisomerization of indigo di- and monoimines.

    PubMed

    Nicholls-Allison, Emma C; Nawn, Graeme; Patrick, Brian O; Hicks, Robin G

    2015-08-11

    Indigo di- and monoimines can be protonated to form stable salts in which the central C=C bond has isomerized from a trans to cis configuration. Deprotonation of these salts regenerates the neutral trans species. The protonation chemistry of indigo is also explored. PMID:26146012

  20. N-Nitroso-di-n-butylamine

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    N - Nitroso - di - n - butylamine ; CASRN 924 - 16 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for

  1. Di (2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Di ( 2 - ethylhexyl ) phthalate ( DEHP ) ; CASRN 117 - 81 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessme

  2. Biopreservation of Fior di Latte cheese.

    PubMed

    Angiolillo, L; Conte, A; Zambrini, A V; Del Nobile, M A

    2014-09-01

    In this study a new biopreservation system consisting of an active sodium alginate coating containing Lactobacillus reuteri applied to Fior di Latte cheese was studied. The final aim was to extend cheese shelf life by the in situ production of reuterin. Experimental trials were carried out with and without glycerol. How the fermentation time could improve the production of reuterin, enabling Fior di Latte shelf life, was also assessed. To this aim, the experimental analyses were conducted in 2 different trials, using 2 different production batches of samples. In the first one, Fior di Latte samples were dipped into the active sodium alginate solution prepared on the same day of their production, whereas in the second trial, samples were dipped into the active solution prepared 48h before their production to allow a proper fermentation of the inoculated microorganism. Microbiological and sensory quality indices were monitored to prove the effectiveness of biopreservation on product quality during storage. In the first trial, the combination of the probiotic microorganism with glycerol improved the microbial quality by 1 d compared with the same active solution without glycerol, whereas the 48-h-fermented active alginate solution (second trial) showed a further improved microbial quality. The application of an active coating enriched with L. reuteri and glycerol to Fior di Latte cheese is an optimal and innovative way to preserve the product and at the same time, with a combination of an optimal fermentation time, to prolong its microbial quality and thus its shelf life. PMID:24952776

  3. Di-codon Usage for Gene Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Minh N.; Ma, Jianmin; Fogel, Gary B.; Rajapakse, Jagath C.

    Classification of genes into biologically related groups facilitates inference of their functions. Codon usage bias has been described previously as a potential feature for gene classification. In this paper, we demonstrate that di-codon usage can further improve classification of genes. By using both codon and di-codon features, we achieve near perfect accuracies for the classification of HLA molecules into major classes and sub-classes. The method is illustrated on 1,841 HLA sequences which are classified into two major classes, HLA-I and HLA-II. Major classes are further classified into sub-groups. A binary SVM using di-codon usage patterns achieved 99.95% accuracy in the classification of HLA genes into major HLA classes; and multi-class SVM achieved accuracy rates of 99.82% and 99.03% for sub-class classification of HLA-I and HLA-II genes, respectively. Furthermore, by combining codon and di-codon usages, the prediction accuracies reached 100%, 99.82%, and 99.84% for HLA major class classification, and for sub-class classification of HLA-I and HLA-II genes, respectively.

  4. Studio delle popolazioni di blazar ad alte energie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasparrini, D.; Giommi, P.

    2008-10-01

    Utilizzando la grande quantita' di dati sui blazar disponibile ad oggi, e' possibile costruire una distribuzione spettrale di energia (SED) media per ciascuna classe di oggetti. Basandosi su un modello SSC, e' inoltre possibile stimare il comportamento di questi oggetti nella banda di energia dei raggi gamma partendo dalle informazioni ottenute da osservazioni in altre bande di energia quali il radio e l'X. Utilizzando le simulazioni sara` possibile prevedere un eventuale cambio di popolazione dominante ad alte energie(oltre 1GeV) rispetto a quanto avviene in banda radio dove domina la popolazione dei FSRQ rispetto ai BL Lac e cercare un'eventuale conferma dagli esperimenti AGILE e GLAST.

  5. Diversity of Cyclic Di-GMP-Binding Proteins and Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Chou, Shan-Ho; Galperin, Michael Y

    2016-01-01

    Cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) synthetases and hydrolases (GGDEF, EAL, and HD-GYP domains) can be readily identified in bacterial genome sequences by using standard bioinformatic tools. In contrast, identification of c-di-GMP receptors remains a difficult task, and the current list of experimentally characterized c-di-GMP-binding proteins is likely incomplete. Several classes of c-di-GMP-binding proteins have been structurally characterized; for some others, the binding sites have been identified; and for several potential c-di-GMP receptors, the binding sites remain to be determined. We present here a comparative structural analysis of c-di-GMP-protein complexes that aims to discern the common themes in the binding mechanisms that allow c-di-GMP receptors to bind it with (sub)micromolar affinities despite the 1,000-fold excess of GTP. The available structures show that most receptors use their Arg and Asp/Glu residues to bind c-di-GMP monomers, dimers, or tetramers with stacked guanine bases. The only exception is the EAL domains that bind c-di-GMP monomers in an extended conformation. We show that in c-di-GMP-binding signature motifs, Arg residues bind to the O-6 and N-7 atoms at the Hoogsteen edge of the guanine base, while Asp/Glu residues bind the N-1 and N-2 atoms at its Watson-Crick edge. In addition, Arg residues participate in stacking interactions with the guanine bases of c-di-GMP and the aromatic rings of Tyr and Phe residues. This may account for the presence of Arg residues in the active sites of every receptor protein that binds stacked c-di-GMP. We also discuss the implications of these structural data for the improved understanding of the c-di-GMP signaling mechanisms. PMID:26055114

  6. Diversity of Cyclic Di-GMP-Binding Proteins and Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) synthetases and hydrolases (GGDEF, EAL, and HD-GYP domains) can be readily identified in bacterial genome sequences by using standard bioinformatic tools. In contrast, identification of c-di-GMP receptors remains a difficult task, and the current list of experimentally characterized c-di-GMP-binding proteins is likely incomplete. Several classes of c-di-GMP-binding proteins have been structurally characterized; for some others, the binding sites have been identified; and for several potential c-di-GMP receptors, the binding sites remain to be determined. We present here a comparative structural analysis of c-di-GMP-protein complexes that aims to discern the common themes in the binding mechanisms that allow c-di-GMP receptors to bind it with (sub)micromolar affinities despite the 1,000-fold excess of GTP. The available structures show that most receptors use their Arg and Asp/Glu residues to bind c-di-GMP monomers, dimers, or tetramers with stacked guanine bases. The only exception is the EAL domains that bind c-di-GMP monomers in an extended conformation. We show that in c-di-GMP-binding signature motifs, Arg residues bind to the O-6 and N-7 atoms at the Hoogsteen edge of the guanine base, while Asp/Glu residues bind the N-1 and N-2 atoms at its Watson-Crick edge. In addition, Arg residues participate in stacking interactions with the guanine bases of c-di-GMP and the aromatic rings of Tyr and Phe residues. This may account for the presence of Arg residues in the active sites of every receptor protein that binds stacked c-di-GMP. We also discuss the implications of these structural data for the improved understanding of the c-di-GMP signaling mechanisms. PMID:26055114

  7. The X-ray view of EROs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brusa, M.; Comastri, A.; Daddi, E.; Cimatti, A.; Vignali, C.

    (1) Dip. Astronomia Bologna University, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna ITALY (2) INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna ITALY (3) ESO - European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei Muenchen Germany (4) INAF - Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-55025 Firenze, Italy (5) Dept. of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802, USA

  8. Sinkhole Geohazard In Deformed Sulphates at Marina di Lesina (Gargano Promontory, Italy): a Combination of Anthropogenic, Lithologic, and Structural Causes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabbianelli, G.; Antonellini, M.; Mancini, F.; Stecchi, F.; Castellarin, A.

    2009-04-01

    , uplift, fracturing, and shearing. This specific structural setting is likely to cause the intense deformation localization of the sulphates ( mainly gypsum) observed in the boreholes drilled around the city. It is well known that the presence of structures, such as fault and fractures, focuses fluid flow and intensifies the dissolution and the karst evolution processes. An alignment of the sinkholes as well as their shape anisotropy, west of the harbour canal, suggests also a strong structural control. Considering the combined effects of a gypsum lithology very sensitive to dissolution and the probable structural localization of faults and fractures in a fault step, it becomes apparent that Marina di Lesina is an area prone to strong karst development. Sinkhole formation and growth can be further enhanced by any anthropogenic activity especially those aimed to control the surface drainage, the infiltration of the water in the subsurface, the height of the watertable or the intrusion of seawater inland. The excavation of the harbour canal, in particular, seems to have enhanced the dissolution process as witnessed by the alignment of the sinkholes with the trend of the canal. The ongoing research of IGRG (Integrated Geosciences Research Group) at the University of Bologna is aimed to characterize the lithologic, structural, hydrologic, and anthropogenic drivers causing karst development, also for minimizing the risk on the urbanizated area and connected to sinkhole-related subsidence and collapse.

  9. Biomaterial based sulphur di oxide gas sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, P. K.; Sarkar, A.

    2013-06-01

    Biomaterials are getting importance in the present research field of sensors. In this present paper performance of biomaterial based gas sensor made of gum Arabica and garlic extract had been studied. Extract of garlic clove with multiple medicinal and chemical utility can be proved to be useful in sensing Sulphur di Oxide gas. On exposure to Sulphur di Oxide gas the material under observation suffers some temporary structural change, which can be observed in form of amplified potentiometric change through simple electronic circuitry. Exploiting this very property a potentiometric gas sensor of faster response and recovery time can be designed. In this work sensing property of the said material has been studied through DC conductance, FTIR spectrum etc.

  10. Exploring the disk accretion in DI Cep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parihar, Padmakar Singh; Shantikumar, N. S.

    The low mass young stellar objects of class-II, popularly known as classical T Tauri stars (CTTS) supposed to be surrounded by thick flared disk and accretes disk material through strong stellar dipolar magnetic field. The disk accretion rate and its variation with time is poorly know. DI Cep is an interesting object, found to have unexpected hump around 5300 Å in the continuum excess emission spectrum, which cannot be explained by current models of YSOs. Over the last six years this object is being spectroscopically as well as photometrically monitored using HCT. The data have been analyzed and modeled using a simple modeling technique developed by us. In this paper, we report for the first time our results related to the disk accretion phenomena in DI Cep.

  11. Di-boson physics at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Goshaw, A.T.; /Duke U.

    2005-07-01

    A summary is presented of recent measurements of di-boson production at the Tevatron. The results from the CDF and D0 experiments are based upon 130-320 pb{sup -1} of p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. The W{gamma}, Z{gamma}, WW, and WZ production properties are compared to Standard Model predictions, and limits extracted for anomalous triple gauge couplings.

  12. [Donatori di Musica: when oncology meets music].

    PubMed

    Graiff, Claudio

    2014-10-01

    Donatori di Musica is a network of musicians - both physicians and volunteers - that was initially founded in 2009 with the aim to set up and coordinate classical music concerts in hospitals. This activity was initially started and led by the Oncology Departments at Carrara and Bolzano Hospitals, where high profile professional musicians make themselves available for concerts in support of Oncological in/out-patients of that specific Hospital. A live classical music performance is a deeply touching experience - particularly for those who live a critical condition like cancer. Main characteristics of Donatori di Musica concerts are: continuity (concerts are part of a regular and non-stopping music season); quality (concerts are held by well-established professional musicians); philanthropic attitude (musicians do not wear a suit and usually chat with patients; they also select an easy-to-listen program; a convivial event is usually organized after the performance with the aim of overcoming distinctions and barriers between physician and patient); no profit: musicians perform for free - travel expenses and/or overnight staying only can be claimed; concerts have free access for patients, their families and hospital staff.Patients and musicians therefore do get in close contact and music is able to merge each other experiences - with patients being treated by the beauty of music and musicians being treated theirselves by patients daily-life feedback. The Donatori di Musica experience is therefore able to help Medicine to retrieve its very first significance - the medical act regain that human and cultural dimension that seems to be abandoned in the last decades in favour of a mere technicism. This is the spirit and the deep significance of Donatori di Musica - «[…] the hope that Music can become a key support to medical treatments in every Oncology department» (by Gian Andrea Lodovici). PMID:25282347

  13. Cyclic Di-AMP Impairs Potassium Uptake Mediated by a Cyclic Di-AMP Binding Protein in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Yinlan; Yang, Jun; Zarrella, Tiffany M.; Zhang, Yang; Metzger, Dennis W.

    2014-01-01

    Cyclic di-AMP (c-di-AMP) has been shown to play important roles as a second messenger in bacterial physiology and infections. However, understanding of how the signal is transduced is still limited. Previously, we have characterized a diadenylate cyclase and two c-di-AMP phosphodiesterases in Streptococcus pneumoniae, a Gram-positive pathogen. In this study, we identified a c-di-AMP binding protein (CabP) in S. pneumoniae using c-di-AMP affinity chromatography. We demonstrated that CabP specifically bound c-di-AMP and that this interaction could not be interrupted by competition with other nucleotides, including ATP, cAMP, AMP, phosphoadenylyl adenosine (pApA), and cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP). By using a bacterial two-hybrid system and genetic mutagenesis, we showed that CabP directly interacted with a potassium transporter (SPD_0076) and that both proteins were required for pneumococcal growth in media with low concentrations of potassium. Interestingly, the interaction between CabP and SPD_0076 and the efficiency of potassium uptake were impaired by elevated c-di-AMP in pneumococci. These results establish a direct c-di-AMP-mediated signaling pathway that regulates pneumococcal potassium uptake. PMID:24272783

  14. Cyclic di-AMP impairs potassium uptake mediated by a cyclic di-AMP binding protein in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yinlan; Yang, Jun; Zarrella, Tiffany M; Zhang, Yang; Metzger, Dennis W; Bai, Guangchun

    2014-02-01

    Cyclic di-AMP (c-di-AMP) has been shown to play important roles as a second messenger in bacterial physiology and infections. However, understanding of how the signal is transduced is still limited. Previously, we have characterized a diadenylate cyclase and two c-di-AMP phosphodiesterases in Streptococcus pneumoniae, a Gram-positive pathogen. In this study, we identified a c-di-AMP binding protein (CabP) in S. pneumoniae using c-di-AMP affinity chromatography. We demonstrated that CabP specifically bound c-di-AMP and that this interaction could not be interrupted by competition with other nucleotides, including ATP, cAMP, AMP, phosphoadenylyl adenosine (pApA), and cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP). By using a bacterial two-hybrid system and genetic mutagenesis, we showed that CabP directly interacted with a potassium transporter (SPD_0076) and that both proteins were required for pneumococcal growth in media with low concentrations of potassium. Interestingly, the interaction between CabP and SPD_0076 and the efficiency of potassium uptake were impaired by elevated c-di-AMP in pneumococci. These results establish a direct c-di-AMP-mediated signaling pathway that regulates pneumococcal potassium uptake. PMID:24272783

  15. Meningococco B: controllo di due focolai epidemici mediante vaccinazione

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Riassunto La problematica di un efficace approccio vaccinale nei confronti del Meningococco B (MenB) è stata superata identificando con la metodica della "reverse vaccinology" alcuni antigeni capaci di indurre una risposta verso la maggior parte dei ceppi di MenB circolanti nel mondo. Il nuovo vaccino MenB a 4 componenti (4CMenB) è stato autorizzato in Europa, Australia e Canada, ed è entrato nei calendari di immunizzazione pediatrica internazionali: Australia, Canada, UK. In Italia, le prime regioni che hanno raccomandato la vaccinazione contro il MenB sono state Basilicata e Puglia. La gestione di epidemie/focolai epidemici richiede la messa in atto di una risposta rapida da parte delle autorità sanitarie nei confronti di una emergenza sanitaria ad elevato impatto, anche emotivo, sulla popolazione, come recentemente dimostrato in due università americane. Alla dichiarazione di focolaio epidemico in atto, in entrambi i contesti si è attivata una procedura per l'uso del vaccino 4CMenB non ancora autorizzato negli USA. È stato così possibile organizzare gli interventi di profilassi attiva nei due campus universitari, adottando il primo impiego su larga scala del nuovo vaccino 4CMenB e conseguendo, in tempi relativamente brevi, elevati tassi di copertura vaccinale. A fronte di circa 14000 studenti immunizzati con almeno una dose, non è stata segnalata alcuna problematica di eventi avversi conseguenti all'immunizzazione; ad oggi non si sono verificati casi nei soggetti che hanno ricevuto il vaccino. Come conseguenza dei due focolai descritti, è oggi in corso la valutazione da parte dell'FDA per l'estensione dell'uso del vaccino 4CMenB negli Stati Uniti negli adolescenti e giovani adulti. PMID:25916017

  16. Absent Aortic Valve in DiGeorge Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bertsch, Elizabeth C; Minturn, Lucy; Gotteiner, Nina L; Ernst, Linda M

    2016-01-01

    A 20-week-old fetus with the 22q11.2 deletion characteristic of DiGeorge syndrome is described with vertebral segmentation abnormalities and complex cardiovascular anomalies including an absent aortic valve. This is only the second known case of absent aortic valve in association with DiGeorge syndrome. We discuss the association of absent aortic valve with other conotruncal defects and the utility of fetal echocardiography in the diagnosis of DiGeorge syndrome. PMID:26230226

  17. DiOlistics: Delivery of Fluorescent Dyes into Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sherazee, Nyssa; Alvarez, Veronica A.

    2013-01-01

    DiOlistic labeling utilizes a particle-mediated delivery system to incorporate dye into cells. Because of its random nature, this technique generates sparse fluorescent labeling which is well suited for the study of neuronal dendritic branching and dendritic spine morphology. DiOlistics is a quick, reliable and nontoxic method that can be used in combination with other techniques such as immunostaining, biolistic DNA transfection, and retrograde tracing. In this article, we describe the methods for diOlistic labeling of neurons from rodent brain slices using DiI and the imaging of neuronal and synaptic morphology using confocal microscopy. PMID:23104356

  18. 40 CFR 721.10325 - Cyclosilazanes, di-Me, Me hydrogen, polymers with di-Me, Me hydrogen silazanes, reaction products...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cyclosilazanes, di-Me, Me hydrogen, polymers with di-Me, Me hydrogen silazanes, reaction products with 3-(triethoxysilyl)-1-propanamine. 721... Substances § 721.10325 Cyclosilazanes, di-Me, Me hydrogen, polymers with di-Me, Me hydrogen...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10325 - Cyclosilazanes, di-Me, Me hydrogen, polymers with di-Me, Me hydrogen silazanes, reaction products...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cyclosilazanes, di-Me, Me hydrogen, polymers with di-Me, Me hydrogen silazanes, reaction products with 3-(triethoxysilyl)-1-propanamine. 721... Substances § 721.10325 Cyclosilazanes, di-Me, Me hydrogen, polymers with di-Me, Me hydrogen...

  20. The cyclic di-nucleotide c-di-AMP is an allosteric regulator of metabolic enzyme function

    PubMed Central

    Precit, Mimi; Delince, Matthieu; Pensinger, Daniel; Huynh, TuAnh Ngoc; Jurado, Ashley R.; Goo, Young Ah; Sadilek, Martin; Iavarone, Anthony T.; Sauer, John-Demian; Tong, Liang; Woodward, Joshua J.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Cyclic di-adenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) is a broadly conserved second messenger required for bacterial growth and infection. However, the molecular mechanisms of c-di-AMP signaling are still poorly understood. Using a chemical proteomics screen for c-di-AMP interacting proteins in the pathogen Listeria monocytogenes, we identified several broadly conserved protein receptors, including the central metabolic enzyme pyruvate carboxylase (LmPC). Biochemical and crystallographic studies of the LmPC-c-di-AMP interaction revealed a previously unrecognized allosteric regulatory site 25 Å from the active site. Mutations in this site disrupted c-di-AMP binding and affected enzyme catalysis of LmPC as well as PC from pathogenic Enterococcus faecalis. C-di-AMP depletion resulted in altered metabolic activity in L. monocytogenes. Correction of this metabolic imbalance rescued bacterial growth, reduced bacterial lysis, and resulted in enhanced bacterial burdens during infection. These findings greatly expand the c-di-AMP signaling repertoire and reveal a central metabolic regulatory role for a cyclic di-nucleotide. PMID:25215494

  1. Efficient heterocyclisation by (di)terpene synthases.

    PubMed

    Mafu, S; Potter, K C; Hillwig, M L; Schulte, S; Criswell, J; Peters, R J

    2015-09-11

    While cyclic ether forming terpene synthases are known, the basis for such heterocyclisation is unclear. Here it is reported that numerous (di)terpene synthases, particularly including the ancestral ent-kaurene synthase, efficiently produce isomers of manoyl oxide from the stereochemically appropriate substrate. Accordingly, such heterocyclisation is easily accomplished by terpene synthases. Indeed, the use of single residue changes to induce production of the appropriate substrate in the upstream active site leads to efficient bifunctional enzymes producing isomers of manoyl oxide, representing novel enzymatic activity. PMID:26214384

  2. DiTour 3.1

    SciTech Connect

    Pelaia II, Thomas A.

    2015-06-30

    There is a need for software that allows a tour guide to present different tracks of slides and then return to the default slide show automatically upon completion. A mobile solution is needed for trade shows. DiTour is an iPad/iPhone app that pulls presentation content from a website, stores it on the device and presents it on a connected display. A tour guide can select a track to present and it will automatically return to the default track after a timeout. It offers a mobile solution which is ideal for trade shows.

  3. Production of aromatics from di- and polyoxygenates

    DOEpatents

    Beck, Taylor; Blank, Brian; Jones, Casey; Woods, Elizabeth; Cortright, Randy

    2016-08-02

    Methods, catalysts, and reactor systems for producing in high yield aromatic chemicals and liquid fuels from a mixture of oxygenates comprising di- and polyoxygenates are disclosed. Also disclosed are methods, catalysts, and reactor systems for producing aromatic chemicals and liquid fuels from oxygenated hydrocarbons such as carbohydrates, sugars, sugar alcohols, sugar degradation products, and the like; and methods, catalysts, and reactor systems for producing the mixture of oxygenates from oxygenated hydrocarbons such as carbohydrates, sugars, sugar alcohols, sugar degradation products, and the like. The disclosed catalysts for preparing the mixture of oxygenates comprise a Ni.sub.nSn.sub.m alloy and a crystalline alumina support.

  4. DiTour 3.1

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2015-06-30

    There is a need for software that allows a tour guide to present different tracks of slides and then return to the default slide show automatically upon completion. A mobile solution is needed for trade shows. DiTour is an iPad/iPhone app that pulls presentation content from a website, stores it on the device and presents it on a connected display. A tour guide can select a track to present and it will automatically return tomore » the default track after a timeout. It offers a mobile solution which is ideal for trade shows.« less

  5. Interdisciplinary investigations in support of project DI-MOD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starks, Scott A.

    1991-01-01

    Interdisciplinary investigations in support of project DI-MOD are discussed. The following subject areas were covered: (1) potential extensions of Project DI-MOD to additional sites in Central America; (2) human migration patterns and their impact on malaria transmission; and (3) an investigation into possible computer-based approaches to the analysis of remotely sensed multispectral data.

  6. 40 CFR 721.1852 - Di-alkyl borane (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Di-alkyl borane (generic). 721.1852 Section 721.1852 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1852 Di-alkyl borane...

  7. Evaluation of novel micronized encapsulated essential oil-containing phosphate and lactate blends for growth inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella on poultry bologna, pork ham, and roast beef ready-to-eat deli loaves.

    PubMed

    Casco, G; Taylor, T M; Alvarado, C

    2015-04-01

    Essential oils and their constituents are reported to possess potent antimicrobial activity, but their use in food processing is limited because of low solubility in aqueous systems and volatilization during processing. Two proprietary noncommercial essential oil-containing phosphate blends were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against Salmonella enterica cocktail (SC)-and Listeria monocytogenes (Lm)-inoculated deli meat products made from pork, poultry, or beef. Four treatments were tested on restructured cured pork ham, emulsified chicken bologna, and restructured beef loaf: nonencapsulated essential oil with phosphate version 1 at 0.45% of final batch (EOV145; chicken and pork, or EEOV245 beef), micronized encapsulated essential oil with phosphate version 2 at 0.60% of final batch (EEOV260), a 2.0% potassium lactate (PL) control, and a negative control (CN) with no applied antimicrobial agent. Compared with the CN, none of the antimicrobial agents (EEOV260, EOV145, PL) successfully limited Lm or SC growth to <2.0 log cycles over 49 days or 35 days of refrigerated storage, respectively. The PL and EEOV260-treated ham loaves did show Lm growth limiting ability of up to 1 log cycle by days 35 and 42. On formed roast beef, the EEOV260 was able to extend the lag phase and inhibited the growth of Lm in the same manner as the PL. For SC-treated samples, the following effects were observed: in poultry bologna treated with EEOV260, a lag-phase extension was observed through 35 days of storage compared with the other samples. For pork deli loaves, the EEOV260 inhibited growth of SC at days 21 and 28 to the same level of efficacy as PL (0.5 log cycle). In roast beef samples, on day 35, the SC growth was inhibited ca. 0.5 log CFU/g by EEOV260 when compared with the CN. In conclusion the EEOV260 can function to replace PL to limit Salmonella and Lm growth in ready-to-eat deli products. Further testing is needed to ensure consumer acceptability. PMID:25836394

  8. Di-photon excess illuminates dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backović, Mihailo; Mariotti, Alberto; Redigolo, Diego

    2016-03-01

    We propose a simplified model of dark matter with a scalar mediator to accommodate the di-photon excess recently observed by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations. Decays of the resonance into dark matter can easily account for a relatively large width of the scalar resonance, while the magnitude of the total width combined with the constraint on dark matter relic density leads to sharp predictions on the parameters of the Dark Sector. Under the assumption of a rather large width, the model predicts a signal consistent with ˜ 300 GeV dark matter particle and ˜ 750 GeV scalar mediator in channels with large missing energy. This prediction is not yet severely bounded by LHC Run I searches and will be accessible at the LHC Run II in the jet plus missing energy channel with more luminosity. Our analysis also considers astro-physical constraints, pointing out that future direct detection experiments will be sensitive to this scenario.

  9. Phosphorylation of serine residue modulates cotton Di19-1 and Di19-2 activities for responding to high salinity stress and abscisic acid signaling

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Li-Xia; Nie, Xiao-Ying; Hu, Rong; Li, Gang; Xu, Wen-Liang; Li, Xue-Bao

    2016-01-01

    Di19 (drought-induced protein 19) family is a novel type of Cys2/His2 zinc-finger proteins. In this study, we demonstrated that cotton Di19-1 and Di19-2 (GhDi19-1/-2) proteins could be phosphorylated in vitro by the calcium-dependent protein kinase (CDPK). Mutation of Ser to Ala in N-terminus of GhDi19-1/-2 led to the altered subcellular localization of the two proteins, but the constitutively activated form (Ser was mutated to Asp) of GhDi19-1/-2 still showed the nuclear localization. GhDi19-1/-2 overexpression transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings displayed the hypersensitivity to high salinity and abscisic acid (ABA). However, Ser site-mutated GhDi19-1(S116A) and GhDi19-2(S114A), and Ser and Thr double sites-mutated GhDi19-1(S/T-A/A) and GhDi19-2(S/T-A/A) transgenic Arabidopsis did not show the salt- and ABA-hypersensitive phenotypes. In contrast, overexpression of Thr site-mutated GhDi19-1(T114A) and GhDi19-2(T112A) in Arabidopsis still resulted in salt- and ABA-hypersensitivity phenotypes, like GhDi19-1/-2 transgenic lines. Overexpression of GhDi19-1/-2 and their constitutively activated forms in Atcpk11 background could recover the salt- and ABA-insensitive phenotype of the mutant. Thus, our results demonstrated that Ser phosphorylation (not Thr phosphorylation) is crucial for functionally activating GhDi19-1/-2 in response to salt stress and ABA signaling during early plant development, and GhDi19-1/-2 proteins may be downstream targets of CDPKs in ABA signal pathway. PMID:26829353

  10. Cyclic di-AMP: another second messenger enters the fray.

    PubMed

    Corrigan, Rebecca M; Gründling, Angelika

    2013-08-01

    Nucleotide signalling molecules contribute to the regulation of cellular pathways in all forms of life. In recent years, the discovery of new signalling molecules in bacteria and archaea, as well as the elucidation of the pathways they regulate, has brought insights into signalling mechanisms not only in bacterial and archaeal cells but also in eukaryotic host cells. Here, we provide an overview of the synthesis and regulation of cyclic di-AMP (c-di-AMP), one of the latest cyclic nucleotide second messengers to be discovered in bacteria. We also discuss the currently known receptor proteins and pathways that are directly or indirectly controlled by c-di-AMP, the domain structure of the enzymes involved in its production and degradation, and the recognition of c-di-AMP by the eukaryotic host. PMID:23812326

  11. ParaDiS-FEM dislocation dynamics simulation code primer

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, M; Hommes, G; Aubry, S; Arsenlis, A

    2011-09-27

    The ParaDiS code is developed to study bulk systems with periodic boundary conditions. When we try to perform discrete dislocation dynamics simulations for finite systems such as thin films or cylinders, the ParaDiS code must be extended. First, dislocations need to be contained inside the finite simulation box; Second, dislocations inside the finite box experience image stresses due to the free surfaces. We have developed in-house FEM subroutines to couple with the ParaDiS code to deal with free surface related issues in the dislocation dynamics simulations. This primer explains how the coupled code was developed, the main changes from the ParaDiS code, and the functions of the new FEM subroutines.

  12. A Filter Binding Assay to Quantify the Association of Cyclic di-GMP to Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Disha; Waters, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    Cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) is a ubiquitous second messenger that regulates many processes in bacteria including biofilm formation, motility, and virulence (Hengge, 2009). Analysis of c-di-GMP binding properties of bacterial proteins is an important step to characterize c-di-GMP signaling pathways. C-di-GMP binds numerous proteins such as transcription factors, enzymes, and multimeric protein complexes (Hickman and Harwood, 2008, Ryjenkov et al., 2006, Weinhouse et al., 1997). The c-di-GMP binding assay described here is a relatively simple and cost effective method to characterize c-di-GMP binding to a protein using [32P]-labeled c-di-GMP. Radiolabeled c-di-GMP is readily synthesized with a purified GGDEF enzyme [such as WspR from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa)] and [a-32P]-GTP (Srivastava et al., 2013). After incubation of the labeled c-di-GMP with the protein of interest in solution, the resulting mixture is filtered through a nitrocellulose protein binding membrane. The amount of labeled c-di-GMP that is retained on the membrane indicates the interaction between the signal and protein. The specificity of c-di-GMP binding can be tested by competing with unlabeled c-di-GMP or other nucleotides such as GTP in the reaction. By examining binding of a fixed protein concentration to increasing concentrations of c-di-GMP, this method is able to determine the dissociation constant of c-di-GMP-protein interaction.

  13. Di-photon resonance and Dark Matter as heavy pions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redi, Michele; Strumia, Alessandro; Tesi, Andrea; Vigiani, Elena

    2016-05-01

    We analyse confining gauge theories where the 750 GeV di-photon resonance is a composite techni-pion that undergoes anomalous decays into SM vectors. These scenarios naturally contain accidentally stable techni-pions Dark Matter candidates. The di-photon resonance can acquire a larger width by decaying into Dark Matter through the CP-violating θ-term of the new gauge theory reproducing the cosmological Dark Matter density as a thermal relic.

  14. Biofilms and Cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) Signaling: Lessons from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Other Bacteria*

    PubMed Central

    Valentini, Martina

    2016-01-01

    The cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) second messenger represents a signaling system that regulates many bacterial behaviors and is of key importance for driving the lifestyle switch between motile loner cells and biofilm formers. This review provides an up-to-date compendium of c-di-GMP pathways connected to biofilm formation, biofilm-associated motilities, and other functionalities in the ubiquitous and opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This bacterium is frequently adopted as a model organism to study bacterial biofilm formation. Importantly, its versatility and adaptation capabilities are linked with a broad range of complex regulatory networks, including a large set of genes involved in c-di-GMP biosynthesis, degradation, and transmission. PMID:27129226

  15. Biofilms and Cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) Signaling: Lessons from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Other Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Valentini, Martina; Filloux, Alain

    2016-06-10

    The cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) second messenger represents a signaling system that regulates many bacterial behaviors and is of key importance for driving the lifestyle switch between motile loner cells and biofilm formers. This review provides an up-to-date compendium of c-di-GMP pathways connected to biofilm formation, biofilm-associated motilities, and other functionalities in the ubiquitous and opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa This bacterium is frequently adopted as a model organism to study bacterial biofilm formation. Importantly, its versatility and adaptation capabilities are linked with a broad range of complex regulatory networks, including a large set of genes involved in c-di-GMP biosynthesis, degradation, and transmission. PMID:27129226

  16. Synthesis, physicochemical, and tribological characterization of S-Di-n-octoxyboron-O,O'-di-n-octyldithiophosphate.

    PubMed

    Shah, Faiz Ullah; Glavatskih, Sergei; Antzutkin, Oleg N

    2009-12-01

    Dialkyldithiophosphates (DTPs) of zinc(II), copper(II), and other metals have been extensively used as multifunctional additives in lubricants to control friction and reduce wear in mechanical systems. Among these DTP compounds, zinc dialkyldithiophosphates (ZnDTPs) are the most common additives extensively used for more than 60 years. These additives form a protective film on steel surfaces and, thus, control friction and reduce wear. However, ZnDTPs contain zinc and large amounts of phosphorus and sulfur, which impair the environment, both directly and indirectly, by adversely affecting the performance of catalytic converters of various automobiles. For this reason, environmental legislation imposes limitations on concentrations of phosphorus, sulfur, and zinc in the lubricants. In this work, we report on zinc-free S-di-n-octoxyboron-O,O'-di-n-octyldithiophosphate (DOB-DTP) lubricant additive with amount of phosphorus and sulfur reduced by half in a molecule as compared with ZnDTPs. DOB-DTP was synthesized by a reaction in two steps under inert nitrogen atmosphere. The final product, a viscous liquid, was characterized by the elemental analysis, FT-IR, multinuclear (1)H, (13)C, (31)P, and (11)B NMR spectroscopy and thermal analyses. Tribological performance of a mineral oil with this new additive was evaluated in comparison with O,O'-di-n-butyl-dithiophosphato-zinc(II) (ZnDTP) using a four-ball tribometer. The surface morphology and the elemental composition of the tribofilms were characterized using scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS). The results show that DOB-DTP has a considerably better antiwear performance and higher stability of the coefficient of friction with time as compared with ZnDTP. Both phosphorus and sulfur were detected by the EDS on the worn steel surfaces at all concentrations of additives in the base oil. PMID:20356164

  17. Teratogenicity of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Shiota, K; Nishimura, H

    1982-01-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) were mixed with diet at graded levels of 0.05, 0.1, 0.2. 0.4 and 1.0 wt-% and given to pregnant ICR mice throughout gestation. Maternal weight gain was suppressed and fetal resorption increased at 0.2, 0.4 and 1.0% levels of DEHP and 1.0% level of DBP. All the implanted ova died early in rats fed 0.4 and 1.0% levels of DEHP. External malformations increased significantly by 0.2% DEHP, and 1.0% DBP showed borderline significance. The major malformations in treated groups were neural tube defects (exencephaly and myeloschisis), suggesting that the phthalic acid esters (PAEs) affect neural tube closure in developing embryos. Treatment with the compounds caused intrauterine growth retardation and delayed ossification with an apparently dose-related response pattern. These results indicate that a high dose of DEHP and DBP might be embryotoxic and teratogenic in mice. The maximum nonembryotoxic doses of PAEs in mice were more than 2000 times the estimated level of human intake through the food chain. Thus it is assumed that the current "normal" exposure level of PAEs dose not pose an imminent threat to human fetal development. PMID:7140698

  18. Optimization of RNA-based c-di-GMP fluorescent sensors through tuning their structural modules.

    PubMed

    Inuzuka, Saki; Matsumura, Shigeyoshi; Ikawa, Yoshiya

    2016-08-01

    Cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) is a second messenger of bacteria and its detection is an important issue in basic and applied microbiology. As c-di-GMP riboswitch ligand-binding domains (aptamer domains) capture c-di-GMP with high affinity and selectivity, they are promising platforms for the development of RNA-based c-di-GMP sensors. We analyzed two previously reported c-di-GMP sensor RNAs derived from the Vc2 riboswitch. We also designed and tested their variants, some of which showed improved properties as RNA-based c-di-GMP sensors. PMID:26968125

  19. Diffractive interference optical analyzer (DiOPTER)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasikumar, Harish; Prasad, Vishnu; Pal, Parama; Varma, Manoj M.

    2016-03-01

    This report demonstrates a method for high-resolution refractometric measurements using, what we have termed as, a Diffractive Interference Optical Analyzer (DiOpter). The setup consists of a laser, polarizer, a transparent diffraction grating and Si-photodetectors. The sensor is based on the differential response of diffracted orders to bulk refractive index changes. In these setups, the differential read-out of the diffracted orders suppresses signal drifts and enables time-resolved determination of refractive index changes in the sample cell. A remarkable feature of this device is that under appropriate conditions, the measurement sensitivity of the sensor can be enhanced by more than two orders of magnitude due to interference between multiply reflected diffracted orders. A noise-equivalent limit of detection (LoD) of 6x10-7 RIU was achieved in glass. This work focuses on devices with integrated sample well, made on low-cost PDMS. As the detection methodology is experimentally straightforward, it can be used across a wide array of applications, ranging from detecting changes in surface adsorbates via binding reactions to estimating refractive index (and hence concentration) variations in bulk samples. An exciting prospect of this technique is the potential integration of this device to smartphones using a simple interface based on transmission mode configuration. In a transmission configuration, we were able to achieve an LoD of 4x10-4 RIU which is sufficient to explore several applications in food quality testing and related fields. We are envisioning the future of this platform as a personal handheld optical analyzer for applications ranging from environmental sensing to healthcare and quality testing of food products.

  20. The helicase DDX41 recognizes the bacterial secondary messengers cyclic di-GMP and cyclic di-AMP to activate a type I interferon immune response.

    PubMed

    Parvatiyar, Kislay; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Teles, Rosane M; Ouyang, Songying; Jiang, Yan; Iyer, Shankar S; Zaver, Shivam A; Schenk, Mirjam; Zeng, Shang; Zhong, Wenwan; Liu, Zhi-Jie; Modlin, Robert L; Liu, Yong-jun; Cheng, Genhong

    2012-12-01

    The induction of type I interferons by the bacterial secondary messengers cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) or cyclic di-AMP (c-di-AMP) is dependent on a signaling axis that involves the adaptor STING, the kinase TBK1 and the transcription factor IRF3. Here we identified the heliase DDX41 as a pattern-recognition receptor (PRR) that sensed both c-di-GMP and c-di-AMP. DDX41 specifically and directly interacted with c-di-GMP. Knockdown of DDX41 via short hairpin RNA in mouse or human cells inhibited the induction of genes encoding molecules involved in the innate immune response and resulted in defective activation of STING, TBK1 and IRF3 in response to c-di-GMP or c-di-AMP. Our results suggest a mechanism whereby c-di-GMP and c-di-AMP are detected by DDX41, which forms a complex with STING to signal to TBK1-IRF3 and activate the interferon response. PMID:23142775

  1. Genotoxicity of di-butyl-phthalate and di-iso-butyl-phthalate in human lymphocytes and mucosal cells.

    PubMed

    Kleinsasser, N H; Wallner, B C; Kastenbauer, E R; Weissacher, H; Harréus, U A

    2001-01-01

    The genotoxicity of phthalates, widely used plasticizers, has been shown previously for di-butyl-phthalate (DBP) and di-iso-butyl-phthalate (DBP) in human mucosal cells of the upper aerodigestive tract in a previous study using the Comet assay. Furthermore, higher genotoxic sensitivities of patients with squamous cell carcinomas of either the larynx or the oropharynx compared to non-tumor patients were described. Other authors have demonstrated DNA damage by a different phthalate in human lymphocytes. It was the aim of the present study to determine whether there is a correlation between the genotoxic sensitivities to DBP and its isomer DiBP in either mucosal cells or lymphocytes. The single-cell microgel electrophoresis assay (Comet assay) was applied to detect DNA strand breaks in human epithelial cells of the upper aerodigestive tract (n=132 specimens). Human mucosa was harvested from the oropharynx in non-tumor patients and patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the oropharynx. Laryngeal mucosa of patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas was harvested as well. Peripheral lymphocytes (n=49 specimens) were separated from peripheral blood. Xenobiotics investigated were DBP, DiBP, and N'methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) as positive control, respectively. For statistical analysis, the SPSS correlation analysis according to Pearson and the Wilcoxon test were performed. Genotoxicity was found for DBP and DiBP in epithelial cells and lymphocytes (P<0.001). MNNG caused severe DNA damage. In analyzing DBP and DiBP results, genotoxic impacts in mucosal cells showed an intermediate correlation (r=0.570). Correlation in lymphocytes was the same (r=0.570). Phthalates have been investigated as a potential health hazard for a variety of reasons, including possible xenoestrogenic impact, peroxisome proliferation, and membrane destabilization. The present investigation suggests a correlated DNA-damaging impact of DBP and DiBP in human mucosal cells and in

  2. Mixing of di-neutron components in {sup 8}He

    SciTech Connect

    Itagaki, N.; Ito, M.; Arai, K.; Aoyama, S.; Kokalova, Tz.

    2008-07-15

    The mixing of di-neutron components in {sup 8}He is studied. The ground state of {sup 8}He corresponds to the sub-closed-shell configuration of the spin-orbit favored orbits (p{sub 3/2}) for the neutrons, and the shell-model-like configuration is considered to be dominant. However, {sup 8}He is a drip-line nucleus with a two-neutron separation energy of 2.1 MeV, and the di-neutron configuration, which is a characteristic feature of the weakly bound systems, mixes in the ground state. The motion of four neutrons around the {sup 4}He core is solved by superposing the wave functions of antisymmetrized molecular dynamics. The mixing of di-neutron configurations is estimated by coupling the THSR (Tohsaki-Horiuchi-Schuck-Roepke) wave function, which successfully describes the {alpha}-condensed state of light nuclei.

  3. A case of DiGeorge syndrome in Georgia.

    PubMed

    Chikovani, M; Kutubidze, T; Khvedeliani, N; Pagava, K

    2011-04-01

    Patient 6 - year- old boy, with history of recurrent otitis, cleft palate, was admitted to the hospital for fever, abdominal pain; He had high ESR,CRP, low T lymphocytes, VSD. Peritoneal fluid was positive for pseudomona aeroginoza. Diagnosis of DiGeorge syndrome was confirmed by further genetical study. Immune deficiencies should be considered when infections are severe, persistent resistant to standard treatment, or caused by opportunistic organisms. Treatments can often correct many of the critical and immediate problems associated with DiGeorge syndrome such as heart defects, calcium defects, poor immune system functions and cleft palate. People who had poor immune function as children due to small or missing thymus, may have an increased risk of autoimmune disorders, such as a rheumatoid arthritis and Graves disease. Because DiGeorge syndrome can result in so many disorders, a number of specialists should be involved in diagnosing specific conditions, recommending treatments and providing care. PMID:21617283

  4. Bis(2,3-di-chloro-phen-yl) di-sulfide.

    PubMed

    Osorio-Yáñez, Rebeca Nayely; Crisóstomo-Lucas, Carmela; Santacruz-Juárez, Ericka; Reyes-Martínez, Reyna; Morales-Morales, David

    2014-05-01

    The title compound, C12H6Cl4S2, features an S-S bond [2.0252 (8) Å] that bridges two 2,3-di-chloro-phenyl rings with a C-S-S-C torsion angle of 88.35 (11)°. The benzene rings are normal one to the other with a dihedral angle of 89.83 (11)°. The crystal structure features inter-molecular Cl⋯Cl [3.4763 (11) Å] and π-π stacking inter-actions [centroid-centroid distances = 3.696 (1) and 3.641 (2) Å]. Intra-molecular C-H⋯S inter-actions are also observed. PMID:24860342

  5. Analysis of lustred ceramics of the Galleria Regionale di Palazzo Bellomo di Siracusa, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Politi, Giuseppe; Bouquillon, Anne; Aucouturier, Marc; Gueli, Anna; Troja, Sebastiano Olindo; Vella, Carmela; Pacheco, Claire; Pichon, Laurent; Moignard, Brice; Lemasson, Quentin

    2014-07-01

    Several fragments of lustred pottery coming from the collection of the Galleria Regionale di Palazzo Bellomo and excavated in Siracusa, were studied through non-invasive ion beam techniques in the Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France in Paris. Up to now only aesthetic and stylistic analysis were available for these objects, and their provenances and dating were unknown or uncertain; moreover, the question concerning a possible local production was still debated. Compositions of pottery and glazed parts were thus obtained by Particle Induced X-ray Emission analysis, while the depth distribution of element of the lustre was analyzed by the Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry technique. The obtained results provided important information on possible origin and production period of the objects.

  6. Luminescence properties of dysprosium doped di-calcium di-aluminium silicate phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Geetanjali; Brahme, Nameeta; Sharma, Ravi; Bisen, D. P.; Sao, Sanjay K.; Tigga, Shalinta

    2016-08-01

    A Dysprosium doped di-calcium di-aluminium silicate phosphor emitting long-lasting white light was prepared and investigated. Phosphors were synthesized by combustion-assisted method. The effect of doping concentration on the crystal structure and luminescence properties of Ca2Al2SiO7:Dy3+ phosphors were investigated. The phase structure, surface morphology, particle size, elemental analysis was analyzed by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) techniques. X-ray diffraction (XRD) profiles showed that all peaks could be attributed to the tetragonal Ca2Al2SiO7 phase when the sample was annealed at 1100 °C. The increase in TL intensity indicates that the concentration of traps increases with UV irradiation. Under the UV-excitation, the Thermoluminescence (TL) emission spectra of Ca2Al2SiO7:Dy3+ phosphor shows the characteristic emission of Dy3+ peaking at 484 nm (blue), 583 nm (yellow) and 680 nm (red), originating from the transitions of 4F9/2 → 6H15/2, 4F9/2 → 6H13/2 and 4F9/2 → 6H11/2. Photoluminescence (PL) decay has also reported and it indicates that Ca2Al2SiO7:Dy3+ phosphor contains fast decay and slow decay process. The peak of Mechanoluminescence (ML) intensity increases linearly with increasing impact velocity of the moving piston. The possible mechanism of Thermoluminescence (TL), Photoluminescence (PL) and Mechanoluminescence (ML) of this white light emitting long lasting phosphor is also investigated.

  7. Carbon dioxide emissions from Specchio di Venere, Pantelleria, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paz, Mariana P. Jácome; Inguaggiato, Salvatore; Taran, Yuri; Vita, Fabio; Pecoraino, Giovanella

    2016-04-01

    We have mapped the diffuse CO2 efflux from the Specchio di Venere Lake area using the accumulation chamber method. We calculated a CO2 emission of 43 ± 5 t day-1 for the area studied, accounting for both diffuse degassing from soil and bubbling through the lake. We also present data on the water composition of Specchio di Venere Lake, the Polla 3 spring, and Liuzza well. On the basis of water chemistry, two physical-chemical processes, evaporation and mineral precipitation of carbonate species, are invoked to explain the CO2 degassing for the lake area.

  8. Target Search & Selection for the DI/EPOXI Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grebow, Daniel J.; Bhaskaran, Shyam; Chesley, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    Upon completion of the Hartley 2 flyby in November 2010, the Deep Impact (DI) spacecraft resided in a solar orbit without possibility for gravity assist with any large body. Conservative estimates of remaining fuel were enough to provide only an 18 m/s impulse on the spacecraft. We present our method and results of our systematic scan of potential small body encounters for DI, and our criteria to narrow the selection to the asteroid 2002 GT as the target flyby body. The mission profile has two deterministic maneuvers to achieve the encounter, the first of which executed on November 25, 2011.

  9. Target Search and Selection for the DI/EPOXI Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grebow, Daniel J.; Bhaskaran, Shyam; Chesley, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    Upon completion of the Hartley 2 flyby in November 2010, the Deep Impact (DI) spacecraft resided in a solar orbit without possibility for gravity assist with any large body. Conservative estimates of remaining fuel were enough to provide only an 18 m/s impulse on the spacecraft. We present our method and results of our systematic scan of potential small body encounters for DI, and our criteria to narrow the selection to the asteroid 2002 GT as the target flyby body. The mission profile has two deterministic maneuvers to achieve the encounter, the first of which executed on November 25, 2011.

  10. [I costi farmacologici della terapia di conversione con farmaci biologici nel carcinoma del colon-retto con metastasi epatiche].

    PubMed

    Giuliani, Jacopo; Bonetti, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    Riassunto. Lo scopo di questo studio è quello di valutare i costi dei farmaci (con particolare riferimento alle terapie con farmaci biologici) utilizzati nella terapia di conversione in una popolazione non selezionata di pazienti affetti da carcinoma del colon-retto in stadio avanzato, al fine di ottenere una resezione epatica R0. In questa rassegna sono stati selezionati i report completi e gli aggiornamenti di tutti gli studi clinici randomizzati (di fase II e fase III) che confrontassero almeno 2 regimi di terapia con farmaci biologici in prima linea in pazienti affetti da carcinoma del colon-retto in stadio avanzato di malattia. I costi dei farmaci sono stati ricavati dalla nostra Farmacia Ospedaliera e sono espressi in euro (€). Il nostro studio inizia con la valutazione di 683 abstract. 48 tria sono stati considerati adeguati per una successiva analisi. Una valutazione più approfondita ha portato all'esclusione di 37 trial, lasciando alla valutazione finale 11 studi clinici randomizzati (3 trial di fase II, per un totale di 522 pazienti, e 8 studi di fase III, per un totale di 7191 pazienti). I costi dei farmaci utilizzati nella terapia di conversione aumentano con la sostituzione del 5-fluorouracile con la capecitabina e, in misura maggiore, con l'introduzione degli agenti biologici. In questo lavoro sono presentati due punti chiave. Primo, i costi degli agenti farmacologici utilizzati nei regimi di prima linea a base di agenti biologici più comunemente utilizzati nel trattamento del carcinoma del colon-retto in stadio avanzato sono molto variabili. Secondo, i dati di efficacia dei regimi pubblicati, in termini di tassi di resezione, dipendono dalla selezione dei pazienti, dalle caratteristiche del tumore e dal tipo di schema di terapia. PMID:27571559

  11. 40 CFR 721.2094 - N,N′-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino chlorotriazine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false N,Nâ²-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2094 N,N′-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino chlorotriazine. (a) Chemical... as N,N′-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino chlorotriazine (PMN P-93-1369) is subject to reporting...

  12. 40 CFR 721.2094 - N,N′-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino chlorotriazine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false N,Nâ²-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2094 N,N′-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino chlorotriazine. (a) Chemical... as N,N′-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino chlorotriazine (PMN P-93-1369) is subject to reporting...

  13. 40 CFR 721.2094 - N,N′-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino chlorotriazine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false N,Nâ²-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2094 N,N′-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino chlorotriazine. (a) Chemical... as N,N′-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino chlorotriazine (PMN P-93-1369) is subject to reporting...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10261 - Oxime, di-Me silane (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oxime, di-Me silane (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10261 Oxime, di-Me silane (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as oxime, di-Me silane (PMN...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10261 - Oxime, di-Me silane (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Oxime, di-Me silane (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10261 Oxime, di-Me silane (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as oxime, di-Me silane (PMN...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10261 - Oxime, di-Me silane (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Oxime, di-Me silane (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10261 Oxime, di-Me silane (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as oxime, di-Me silane (PMN...

  17. Integrated methodologies for the 3d survey and the structural monitoring of industrial archaeology: the case of the Casalecchio di Reno Dyke, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitelli, Gabriele; Girelli, Valentina A.; Vittuari, Luca; Zanutta, Antonio

    2010-05-01

    The concept of "Industrial Archaeology" was introduced in the 1950s in England in order to consider the branch of Archaeology that, in integration with engineering, architecture and economics, studies the industrial past, with the purpose of document, protect and exploite the industrial-cultural heritage. The systematic study of this kind of structures and artefacts need a wide range approach, that starts from the investigation about the object historic fonts until its complete qualitative and quantitative description, also considering the characteristics of the surrounding territory. This task often needs the integration of different survey techniques for data capturing and processing, in order to perform the 3D modeling and to analize the structural deformations of manufactured articles. The paper presents the surveying and monitoring activities on the important structure of the Casalecchio di Reno dyke, near Bologna. The first historic notes on the dyke are very old; they are dated back to the I millenium A. D. and report the news of a wooden barrage of the Reno canal. The construction of the actual structure is in the period 1360-1367 and suffered during the centuries numerous interventions and restores. The surveying activities on the dyke were realized in 2005-2006 and 2009 and involved different techniques (classical topography, high precision geometric levelling, range-based method by terrestrial laser scanning, digital photogrammetry, thermal imagery) integrated together in a unique local reference system, in order to study the stability and the movements of the structure in a established period of time and to realize a 3D model. Together with detail surveys on the single parts of the structure, an analysis at a larger territorial scale was performed by aerial photogrammetry, either using current imagery and historical data. The topographic measurements with traditional differential techniques have achieved a very high level precision and the realized

  18. PLCs, DI, & RTI: A Tapestry for School Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoehr, Judy; Banks, Maria; Allen, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Rather than buying individual books about professional learning communities (PLCs), differentiated instruction (DI), and Response to Intervention (RTI), invest wisely in one resource that synthesizes all three. The text uses a tapestry analogy to weave together these critical topics to form a comprehensive framework for achieving continuous school…

  19. 10 Tips for Turning DI Theory into Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ducey, Melissa N.; Key, Shirley

    2009-01-01

    At the core of differentiated instruction (DI) is the belief that because all children are different, their learning needs and abilities are different, and therefore must be approached differently. Differentiating instruction allows teachers to meet the students where they are academically and bring them forward. Although one continues to grow in…

  20. 21 CFR 178.3940 - Tetraethylene glycol di-(2-ethylhexoate).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tetraethylene glycol di-(2-ethylhexoate). 178.3940 Section 178.3940 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADJUVANTS, PRODUCTION AIDS, AND SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants...

  1. "DI Days:" Differentiating Instruction through Student Choice. Classroom Tips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Donald J.

    2011-01-01

    To better meet the needs of the author's high school students, who have a variety of abilities, interests and engagement levels, he often differentiates instruction through the use of "DI Days." On these days, students use a choice board to select from a wide range of activities offered in learning centers. Each center offers content-focused…

  2. URINARY METABOLITES OF DI-N-OCTYL PHTHALATE IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) is a plasticizer used in polyvinyl chloride plastics, cellulose esters, and polystyrene resins. The metabolism of DnOP results in the hydrolysis of one ester linkage to produce mono-n-octyl phthalate (MnOP), which subsequently metabolizes to form oxida...

  3. TOXICOLOGY OF MONO- AND DI-ALKYLTIN CHLORIDES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mono- and di-alkyltin chlorides are reactive compounds used in the production of stabilizers for polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics, primarily used for water distribution pipes. Health effects data were compiled or developed by the manufacturers for the EPA's HPV Challenge progra...

  4. TOXICOLOGY OF MONO- AND DI-ALKYLTIN CHLORIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mono- and di-alkyltin chlorides are reactive compounds used in the production of stabilizers for polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics, primarily used for water distribution pipes. Health effects data were compiled or developed by the manufacturers for the EPA's HPV Challenge progra...

  5. Di-hadron fragmentation and mapping of the nucleon structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisano, Silvia; Radici, Marco

    2016-06-01

    The fragmentation of a colored parton directly into a pair of colorless hadrons is a non-perturbative mechanism that offers important insights into the nucleon structure. Di-hadron fragmentation functions can be extracted from semi-inclusive electron-positron annihilation data. They also appear in observables describing the semi-inclusive production of two hadrons in deep-inelastic scattering of leptons off nucleons or in hadron-hadron collisions. When a target nucleon is transversely polarized, a specific chiral-odd di-hadron fragmentation function can be used as the analyzer of the net density of transversely polarized quarks in a transversely polarized nucleon, the so-called transversity distribution. The latter can be extracted through suitable single-spin asymmetries in the framework of collinear factorization, thus in a much simpler framework with respect to the traditional one in single-hadron fragmentation. At subleading twist, the same chiral-odd di-hadron fragmentation function provides the cleanest access to the poorly known twist-3 parton distribution e( x) , which is intimately related to the mechanism of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking in QCD. When sensitive to details of transverse-momentum dynamics of partons, the di-hadron fragmentation functions for a longitudinally polarized quark can be connected to the longitudinal jet handedness to explore possible effects due to CP -violation of the QCD vacuum. In this review, we outline the formalism of di-hadron fragmentation functions, we discuss different observables where they appear and we present measurements and future worldwide plans.

  6. The Bologna Process and Private Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dima, Ana-Maria

    2009-01-01

    Privatisation in higher education is not a new phenomenon for Western European countries. Authors like Geiger (1986), Levy (2008) and Altbach (1999) made challenging predictions in the 1970s and early 1980s that the private sector would inexorably diminish in size and significance. These predictions were triggered by globalisation and the…

  7. Bologna 2010. The Moment of Truth?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veiga, Amelia

    2012-01-01

    Government policies are central factors shaping the environment of higher education institutions. European governments have included in their higher education political strategies the principal goal of implementing the European Higher Education Area (EHEA). The perceptions that key actors of higher education institutions (HEIs) have about…

  8. Employability Deconstructed: Perceptions of Bologna Stakeholders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sin, Cristina; Neave, Guy

    2016-01-01

    The paper analyses employability as a floating signifier--a construct that accommodates different and often contending meanings. A preliminary analysis of scholarly literature identifies two opposed interpretations of employability--an individual responsibility versus a comprehensive context-aware construct. These are subsequently applied to the…

  9. Di-n-butyl Phthalate (DNBP) and Diisobutyl Phthalate (DiBP) Metabolism in a Human Volunteer after Single Oral Doses [Journal Article

    EPA Science Inventory

    An individual (male, 36 years, 87 kg) ingested two separate doses of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) at a rate of ~60 µg/kg. Key monoester and oxidized metabolites were identified and quantified in urine continuously collected until 48 hours post dos...

  10. URINARY AND AMNIOTIC FLUID LEVELS OF PHTHALATE MONOESTERS IN RATS AFTER THE ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF DI(2-ETHYLHEXYL) PHTHALATE AND DI-N-BUTYL PHTHALATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two studies were designed to examine amniotic fluid and maternal urine concentrations of the di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolite mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) and the di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) metabolite monobutyl phthalate (MBP) after administration of DEHP and D...

  11. c-di-GMP and its Effects on Biofilm Formation and Dispersion: a Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Review.

    PubMed

    Ha, Dae-Gon; O'Toole, George A

    2015-04-01

    Since its initial discovery as an allosteric factor regulating cellulose biosynthesis in Gluconacetobacter xylinus, the list of functional outputs regulated by c-di-GMP has grown. We have focused this article on one of these c-di-GMP-regulated processes, namely, biofilm formation in the organism Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The majority of diguanylate cyclases and phosphodiesterases encoded in the P. aeruginosa genome still remain uncharacterized; thus, there is still a great deal to be learned about the link between c-di-GMP and biofilm formation in this microbe. In particular, while a number of c-di-GMP metabolizing enzymes have been identified that participate in reversible and irreversible attachment and biofilm maturation, there is a still a significant knowledge gap regarding the c-di-GMP output systems in this organism. Even for the well-characterized Pel system, where c-di-GMP-mediated transcriptional regulation is now well documented, how binding of c-di-GMP by PelD stimulates Pel production is not understood in any detail. Similarly, c-di-GMP-mediated control of swimming, swarming and twitching also remains to be elucidated. Thus, despite terrific advances in our understanding of P. aeruginosa biofilm formation and the role of c-di-GMP in this process since the last version of this book (indeed there was no chapter on c-di-GMP!) there is still much to learn. PMID:26104694

  12. Revised Photometric Elements of the Eclipsing Binary Di-Pegasi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mardirossian, F.; Predolin, F.; Giuricin, G.

    1980-11-01

    Using Wood's (1972) model we have analyzed Binnendijk's (1973) two-colour photoelectric observations - as yet unsolved - of the eclipsing binary DI Peg and the photoelectric lightcurves published by Rucin'ski (1967). Our photoelectric elements, though still in favour of a semidetached configuration considerably differ from Ruciński's previous solution. The F4 primary is accompanied by a fainter and smaller (probably late G) cooler star, which fills its Roche lobe for our photometric mass ratio q = 0.3. The absolute elements of DI Peg, tentatively estimated by assuming for the primary a mass of 1.4 Msun, reveal that the secondary appears to be clearly undermassive for its temperature, size and luminosity, like common mass-exchange cooler remnants of Algol-type binaries.

  13. Thymus Transplantation in Complete DiGeorge Anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Markert, M. Louise; Devlin, Blythe H.; Chinn, Ivan; McCarthy, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Complete DiGeorge anomaly is characterized by athymia, congenital heart disease and hypoparathyroidism. This congenital disease is fatal by age 2 years unless immune reconstitution is successful. There are multiple underlying syndromes associated with complete DiGeorge anomaly including 22q11 hemizygosity in approximately 50%, CHARGE association in approximately 25%, and diabetic embryopathy in approximately 15%. Approximately one third of patients present with rash and lymphadenopathy associated with oligoclonal “host” T cells. This condition resembles Omenn syndrome. Immunosuppression is necessary to control the oligoclonal T cells. The results of thymus transplantation are reported for a series of 50 patients, 36 of whom survive. The survivors develop naïve T cells and a diverse T cell repertoire. PMID:19066739

  14. Enhanced di-Higgs production through light colored scalars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kribs, Graham D.; Martin, Adam

    2012-11-01

    We demonstrate enhanced di-Higgs production at the LHC in the presence of modifications of the effective couplings of Higgs to gluons from new, light, colored scalars. While our results apply to an arbitrary set of colored scalars, we illustrate the effects with a real color octet scalar—a simple, experimentally viable model involving a light (≃125-300GeV) colored scalar. Given the recent LHC results, we consider two distinct scenarios: First, if the Higgs is indeed near 125 GeV, we show that the di-Higgs cross section could be up to nearly 103 times the Standard Model rate for particular octet couplings and masses. This is potentially observable in single Higgs production modes, such as pp→hh→γγbb¯ as well as pp→hh→τ+τ-bb¯ where a small fraction of the γγ or τ+τ- events near the putative Higgs invariant mass peak contain also a bb¯ resonance consistent with the Higgs mass. Second, if the Higgs is not at 125 GeV (and what the LHC has observed is an impostor), we show that the same parameter region where singly-produced Higgs production can be suppressed below current LHC limits, for a heavier Higgs mass, also simultaneously predicts substantially enhanced di-Higgs production. We point out several characteristic signals of di-Higgs production with a heavier Higgs boson, such as pp→hh→W+W-W+W-, which could use same-sign dileptons or trileptons plus missing energy to uncover evidence.

  15. [Dr Lorenzo Dojmi di Delupis- the "Leopard" from Vis].

    PubMed

    Jamnicki Dojmi, Mirko

    2011-01-01

    Dr Lorenzo Dojmi di Delupis (1845-1927) was a descendant of a respectful aristocratic family from Vis. His father was Peter Dojmi di Delupis (1809-1886), an attorney, a moderate pro-Italian autonomist, and a mayor of Vis, and his mother was Margherita Siminati. As soon as he graduated from the Medical University of Graz in 1870, he joined the Ottoman army as a physician for a two-year journey in which he reached as far as Baghdad and Basra. He left notes about this dramatic, juvenile adventure in his diaries. In 1878, he married a Viennese girl Maria Neidl and brought her home to Vis, where he got a position of municipal doctor. He had an extraordinary diagnosing acuity, great sympathy for patients, and was always willing to help, which is why he was adored by all the people of Vis, whether they agreed with his autonomist ideas or not, and soon became "the father of Vis". He was the first to warn of leprosy in Dalmatia, when he diagnosed two cases in Vis. Beside medicine and politics, he was also a passionate botanist. He was the first to seed palms in Vis and to grow a palm nursery with his agronomist son Peter Dojmi, for the whole of Dalmatia. He also tried breeding ostriches and growing Mexican coffee. He funded a small meteorological station in Vis, and planned to open a health resort with professor Schröter from Vienna. Even though Lorenzo Dojmi di Delupis held the great Italian culture very dear, his vocation as a physician and humanist inclination never let him burn with the fervour of a political extremist. Thanks to his psychophysical stability, he overcame numerous difficulties in life and retained faith in people. All these traits evoke Prince Salina, the leading character of the renowned novel Il gattopardo (The Leopard) by Giuseppe Tomasi di Lampedusa, which is why the author has so entitled this article "The Gattopardo of Vis". PMID:22292541

  16. Doppler images of DI Piscium during 2004-2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindborg, M.; Hackman, T.; Mantere, M. J.; Korhonen, H.; Ilyin, I.; Kochukhov, O.; Piskunov, N.

    2014-02-01

    Aims: DI Psc (HD 217352) is a Li-rich, rapidly rotating single K giant. We set out to study the spot configuration and activity level by calculating surface temperature maps of the star. Methods: We apply the Doppler imaging method on high-resolution optical spectroscopy obtained during 2004-2006. Results: In July-August 2004, no clear spot structures were visible, but the spot coverage increased in July 2005, and cool spots emerged, especially at intermediate latitudes. Later on in September 2006, the spot coverage increased and cool spots were visible on both sides of the equator. However, the map of 2006 suffers from bad phase coverage, meaning it is not possible to draw definite conclusions on the spot locations during that season. Conclusions: Compared with earlier Doppler maps of DI Psc and temperature maps obtained for other late-type stars with similar rotation rates, DI Psc seems to be in a low activity state especially during the observing season of July-August 2004. During the 2005 and 2006 observing seasons, the spot activity seen in the spectral line profiles and inferred from Doppler images increases, and the temperature contrast in our last map is more comparable to what was reported in an earlier study. Therefore, it can be concluded that the spot activity level of the star is variable over time. However, the present and previous Doppler images form too short a time series to draw conclusions about a possible activity cycle in DI Psc. Based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias.

  17. Activity on a Li-rich giant: DI Psc revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriskovics, Levente; Kővári, Zsolt; Vida, Krisztián; Oláh, Katalin

    2014-08-01

    We present a new Doppler imaging study for the Li-rich single K-giant DI Psc. Surface temperature maps are reconstructed for two subsequent rotation cycles. From the time evolution of the spot distribution antisolar-type differential rotation pattern is revealed. We show marks of non-uniform Li-abundance as well. The possible connection between the current evolutionary phase of the star and its magnetic activity is briefly discussed.

  18. DiGeorge syndrome with vertebral and rib dysplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Puno-Cocuzza, C.; David, K.; Kogekar, N.

    1994-09-01

    DiGeorge syndrome results from defect in the development of the third and fourth pharyngeal pouches, and is characterized by conotruncal heart defects, aplasia or hypoplasia of thymus and parathyroid glands resulting in immune deficiency and hypocalcemia. Other associated abnormalities include renal, thyroid and diaphragmatic defects, oral clefting, etc. Etiologically, it is heterogeneous, with a microdeletion of 22q11 present in over 80% of cases. Our patient was born following a pregnancy complicated by insulin dependent gestational diabetes. There was truncus arteriosus type 2, absense of thymic shadow on CXR with severe deficiency of T cell function, and persistent hypocalcemia with low parathormone. Right kidney was absent. Dysplastic ribs including fused and bifid ribs were noted. Hypoplastic vertebrae and hemivertebrae were present through thoracic and lumbar regions. Chromosome analysis was normal, and metaphase FISH analysis with probe N25 representing locus D22S75 did not show any deletion of 22q11.2. The skeletal findings similar to these have not been previously reported in association with DiGeorge syndrome to our knowledge. Vertebral and rib abnormalities are known to occur with pregestational maternal diabetes. Maternal diabetes has also been suggested to be a possible etiology in a very small proportion of DiGeorge syndrome cases. It is possible that these findings occured together on account of gestational maternal diabetes in our case.

  19. Mono- and di-cationic hydrido boron compounds.

    PubMed

    Ghadwal, Rajendra S; Schürmann, Christian J; Andrada, Diego M; Frenking, Gernot

    2015-08-28

    Brønsted acid HNTf2 (Tf = SO2CF3) mediated dehydrogenative hydride abstraction from (L(1))BH3 () and (L(2))BH3 () (L(1) = IPrCH2 = 1,3-(2,6-di-isopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-methylidene (); L(2) = SIPrCH2 = 1,3-(2,6-di-isopropylphenyl)imidazolidin-2-methylidiene ()) affords thermally stable hydride bridged mono-cationic hydrido boron compounds [{(L(1))BH2}2(μ-H)](NTf2) () and [{(L(2))BH2}2(μ-H)](NTf2) (). Furthermore, hydride abstraction yields di-cationic hydrido boron compounds [{(L(1))BH}2(μ-H)2](NTf2)2 () and [{(L(2))BH}2(μ-H)2](NTf2)2 (). Unique cationic boron compounds with CH2BH2(μ-H)BH2CH2 ( and ) and CH2BH(μ-H)2BHCH2 ( and ) moieties feature a 3c-2e bond and have been fully characterized. Interesting electronic and structural features of compounds are analysed using spectroscopic, crystallographic, and computational methods. PMID:26200103

  20. Complexation of di-amides of dipicolinic acid with neodymium

    SciTech Connect

    Lapka, J.L.; Paulenova, A.

    2013-07-01

    Di-amides have undergone significant studies as possible ligands for use in the partitioning of trivalent minor actinides and lanthanides. The binding affinities of three isomeric ligands with neodymium in acetonitrile solution have been investigated. The stability constants of the metal-ligand complexes formed between different isomers of N,N'-diethyl-N,N'- ditolyl-di-picolinamide (EtTDPA) and trivalent neodymium in acetonitrile have been determined by spectrophotometric and calorimetric methods. Each isomer of EtTDPA has been found to be capable of forming three complexes with trivalent neodymium, Nd(EtTDPA), Nd(EtTDPA){sub 2}, and Nd(EtTDPA){sub 3}. Values from spectrophotometric and calorimetric titrations are within reasonable agreement with each other. The order of stability constants for each metal:ligand complex decreases in the order Et(m)TDPA > Et(p)TDPA > Et(o)TDPA. The obtained values are comparable to other di-amidic ligands obtained under similar system conditions and mirror previously obtained solvent extraction data for EtTDPA at low ionic strengths. (authors.

  1. Di(hydroxyphenyl)- 1,2,4-triazole monomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Wolf, Peter (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    The di(hydroxyphenyl)- 1,2,4-triazole monomers were first synthesized by reacting bis (4-hydroxyphenyl) hydrazide with aniline hydrochloride at 250 C in the melt and also by reacting 1,3 or 1,4-bis- (4-hydroxyphenyl)- phenylene- dihydrazide with 2 moles of aniline hydrochloride in the melt. Purification of the di(hydroxyphenyl)- 1,2,4-triazole monomers was accomplished by recrystallization. Poly (1,2,4-triazoles) (PT) were prepared by the aromatic nucleophilic displacement reaction of di(hydroxyphenyl)- 1,2,4-triazole monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or activated aromatic dinitro compounds. The reactions were carried out in polar aprotic solvents such as sulfolane or diphenylsulfone using alkali metal bases such as potassium carbonate at elevated temperatures under nitrogen. This synthetic route has provided high molecular weight PT of new chemical structure, is economically and synthetically more favorable than other routes, and allows for facile chemical structure variation due to the availability of a large variety of activated aromatic dihalides.

  2. Crystal structure of [N,N'-bis-(4-methyl-phen-yl)-1,2-di-phenyl-ethane-1,2-di-imine-κ(2) N,N']di-chlorido-palladium(II) methanol monosolvate.

    PubMed

    Peñaloza, Alfredo; Fronczek, Frank R; Isovitsch, Ralph

    2015-09-01

    The title compound, [PdCl2(C28H24N2)]·CH3OH, was pre-pared from the reaction of PdCl2(DMSO)2 (DMSO is di-methyl sulfoxide) and N,N'-bis-(4-methyl-phen-yl)-1,2-di-phenyl-ethane-1,2-di-imine in methanol. The chelating di-imine core of the title compound deviates slightly from planarity, with an N-C-C-N torsion angle of 5.3 (3)°. Delocalization in the di-imine core is indicated by N-C and C-C bonds that are, respectively, longer and shorter than those found in related nonchelating di-imines. The distorted square-planar coordination environment around the Pd(II) atom is manifested as bond angles that are smaller and larger than 90°, and palladacycle torsion angles of -173.22 (16) and 167.06 (16)°. These deviations are attributed to the small bite angle of 79.13 (8)° of the di-imine chelate. The crystal packing exhibits weak inter-molecular hydrogen-bonding inter-actions involving aromatic H atoms, Cl atoms and inter-calated methanol solvent mol-ecules, defining layers parallel to (010). PMID:26396867

  3. An Essential Poison: Synthesis and Degradation of Cyclic Di-AMP in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Gundlach, Jan; Mehne, Felix M. P.; Herzberg, Christina; Kampf, Jan; Valerius, Oliver; Kaever, Volkhard

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gram-positive bacteria synthesize the second messenger cyclic di-AMP (c-di-AMP) to control cell wall and potassium homeostasis and to secure the integrity of their DNA. In the firmicutes, c-di-AMP is essential for growth. The model organism Bacillus subtilis encodes three diadenylate cyclases and two potential phosphodiesterases to produce and degrade c-di-AMP, respectively. Among the three cyclases, CdaA is conserved in nearly all firmicutes, and this enzyme seems to be responsible for the c-di-AMP that is required for cell wall homeostasis. Here, we demonstrate that CdaA localizes to the membrane and forms a complex with the regulatory protein CdaR and the glucosamine-6-phosphate mutase GlmM. Interestingly, cdaA, cdaR, and glmM form a gene cluster that is conserved throughout the firmicutes. This conserved arrangement and the observed interaction between the three proteins suggest a functional relationship. Our data suggest that GlmM and GlmS are involved in the control of c-di-AMP synthesis. These enzymes convert glutamine and fructose-6-phosphate to glutamate and glucosamine-1-phosphate. c-di-AMP synthesis is enhanced if the cells are grown in the presence of glutamate compared to that in glutamine-grown cells. Thus, the quality of the nitrogen source is an important signal for c-di-AMP production. In the analysis of c-di-AMP-degrading phosphodiesterases, we observed that both phosphodiesterases, GdpP and PgpH (previously known as YqfF), contribute to the degradation of the second messenger. Accumulation of c-di-AMP in a gdpP pgpH double mutant is toxic for the cells, and the cells respond to this accumulation by inactivation of the diadenylate cyclase CdaA. IMPORTANCE Bacteria use second messengers for signal transduction. Cyclic di-AMP (c-di-AMP) is the only second messenger known so far that is essential for a large group of bacteria. We have studied the regulation of c-di-AMP synthesis and the role of the phosphodiesterases that degrade this second

  4. Application of Synthetic Peptide Arrays To Uncover Cyclic Di-GMP Binding Motifs

    PubMed Central

    Düvel, Juliane; Bense, Sarina; Möller, Stefan; Bertinetti, Daniela; Schwede, Frank; Morr, Michael; Eckweiler, Denitsa; Genieser, Hans-Gottfried; Jänsch, Lothar; Herberg, Friedrich W.; Frank, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT High levels of the universal bacterial second messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) promote the establishment of surface-attached growth in many bacteria. Not only can c-di-GMP bind to nucleic acids and directly control gene expression, but it also binds to a diverse array of proteins of specialized functions and orchestrates their activity. Since its development in the early 1990s, the synthetic peptide array technique has become a powerful tool for high-throughput approaches and was successfully applied to investigate the binding specificity of protein-ligand interactions. In this study, we used peptide arrays to uncover the c-di-GMP binding site of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa protein (PA3740) that was isolated in a chemical proteomics approach. PA3740 was shown to bind c-di-GMP with a high affinity, and peptide arrays uncovered LKKALKKQTNLR to be a putative c-di-GMP binding motif. Most interestingly, different from the previously identified c-di-GMP binding motif of the PilZ domain (RXXXR) or the I site of diguanylate cyclases (RXXD), two leucine residues and a glutamine residue and not the charged amino acids provided the key residues of the binding sequence. Those three amino acids are highly conserved across PA3740 homologs, and their singular exchange to alanine reduced c-di-GMP binding within the full-length protein. IMPORTANCE In many bacterial pathogens the universal bacterial second messenger c-di-GMP governs the switch from the planktonic, motile mode of growth to the sessile, biofilm mode of growth. Bacteria adapt their intracellular c-di-GMP levels to a variety of environmental challenges. Several classes of c-di-GMP binding proteins have been structurally characterized, and diverse c-di-GMP binding domains have been identified. Nevertheless, for several c-di-GMP receptors, the binding motif remains to be determined. Here we show that the use of a synthetic peptide array allowed the identification of a c-di-GMP binding motif of a putative c-di

  5. STING ligand c-di-GMP improves cancer vaccination against metastatic breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Dinesh; Quispe-Tintaya, Wilber; Jahangir, Arthee; Asafu-Adjei, Denise; Ramos, Ilyssa; Sintim, Herman O.; Zhou, Jie; Hayakawa, Yoshihiro; Karaolis, David K.R.; Gravekamp, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Cancer vaccination may be our best and most benign option for preventing or treating metastatic cancer. However, breakthroughs are hampered by immune suppression in the tumor microenvironment (TME). In this study, we analyzed whether cyclic di-guanylate (c-di-GMP), a ligand for stimulator of interferon genes (STING), could overcome immune suppression and improve vaccination against metastatic breast cancer. Mice with metastatic breast cancer (4T1 model) were therapeutically immunized with an attenuated Listeria monocytogenes (LM)-based vaccine, expressing tumor-associated antigen Mage-b (LM-Mb), followed by multiple low doses of c-di-GMP (0.01 nmol). This resulted in a striking and near elimination of all metastases. Experiments revealed that c-di-GMP targets myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) and tumor cells. Low doses of c-di-GMP significantly increased the production of IL-12 by MDSCs, in correlation with improved T-cell responses to Mage-b, while high dose of c-di-GMP (range 15–150 nmol) activated caspase-3 in the 4T1 tumor cells and killed the tumor cells directly. Based on these results we tested one administration of high dose c-di-GMP (150 nmol) followed by repeated administrations of low dose c-di-GMP (0.01 nmol) in the 4T1 model, and found equal efficacy compared to the combination of LM-Mb and c-di-GMP. This correlated with a mechanism of improved CD8 T-cell responses to tumor-associated antigens (TAA) Mage-b and Survivin, most likely through cross-presentation of these TAAs from c-di-GMP-killed 4T1 tumor cells, and through c-di-GMP-activated TAA-specific T cells. Our results demonstrate that activation of STING-dependent pathways by c-di-GMP is highly attractive for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:24913717

  6. Mono-(3-carboxypropyl) phthalate, a metabolite of di-n-octyl phthalate.

    PubMed

    Calafat, Antonia M; Silva, Manori J; Reidy, John A; Earl Gray, L; Samandar, Ella; Preau, James L; Herbert, Arnetra R; Needham, Larry L

    2006-02-01

    Di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) is found as a component of mixed C6-C10 linear-chain phthalates used as plasticizers in various polyvinyl chloride applications, including flooring and carpet tiles. Following exposure and absorption, DnOP is metabolized to its hydrolytic monoester, mono-n-octyl phthalate (MnOP), and other oxidative products. The urinary levels of one of these oxidative metabolites, mono-(3-carboxypropyl) phthalate (MCPP), were about 560-fold higher than MnOP in Sprague-Dawley rats dosed with DnOP by gavage. Furthermore, MCPP was also found in the urine of rats dosed with di-isooctyl phthalate (DiOP), di-isononyl phthalate (DiNP), di-isodecyl phthalate (DiDP), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), although at concentrations considerably lower than in rats given similar concentrations of DnOP. The comparatively much higher urinary concentrations of MCPP than of the hydrolytic monoesters of the high-molecular-weight phthalates DiOP, DiNP, and DiDP in the exposed rats suggest that these monoesters may be poor biomarkers of exposure to their precursor phthalates and may explain the relatively low frequency of detection of these monoester metabolites in human populations. MCPP and MnOP were also measured in 267 human urine samples. The frequent detection and higher urinary concentrations of MCPP than MnOP suggest that exposure to DnOP might be higher than previously thought based on the measurements of MnOP alone. However, because MCPP is also a minor metabolite of DBP and other phthalates in rats, and the metabolism of phthalates in rodents and humans may differ, additional data on the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination of MCPP are needed to completely understand the extent of human exposure to DnOP from the urinary concentrations of MCPP. PMID:16263692

  7. Cyclic Di-GMP Riboswitch-Regulated Type IV Pili Contribute to Aggregation of Clostridium difficile

    PubMed Central

    Bordeleau, Eric; Purcell, Erin B.; Lafontaine, Daniel A.; Fortier, Louis-Charles; Tamayo, Rita

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic Gram-positive bacterium that causes intestinal infections with symptoms ranging from mild diarrhea to fulminant colitis. Cyclic diguanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) is a bacterial second messenger that typically regulates the switch from motile, free-living to sessile and multicellular behaviors in Gram-negative bacteria. Increased intracellular c-di-GMP concentration in C. difficile was recently shown to reduce flagellar motility and to increase cell aggregation. In this work, we investigated the role of the primary type IV pilus (T4P) locus in c-di-GMP-dependent cell aggregation. Inactivation of two T4P genes, pilA1 (CD3513) and pilB1 (CD3512), abolished pilus formation and significantly reduced cell aggregation under high c-di-GMP conditions. pilA1 is preceded by a putative c-di-GMP riboswitch, predicted to be transcriptionally active upon c-di-GMP binding. Consistent with our prediction, high intracellular c-di-GMP concentration increased transcript levels of T4P genes. In addition, single-round in vitro transcription assays confirmed that transcription downstream of the predicted transcription terminator was dose dependent and specific to c-di-GMP binding to the riboswitch aptamer. These results support a model in which T4P gene transcription is upregulated by c-di-GMP as a result of its binding to an upstream transcriptionally activating riboswitch, promoting cell aggregation in C. difficile. PMID:25512308

  8. Structural basis of ligand binding by a c-di-GMP riboswitch.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kathryn D; Lipchock, Sarah V; Ames, Tyler D; Wang, Jimin; Breaker, Ronald R; Strobel, Scott A

    2009-12-01

    The second messenger signaling molecule bis-(3'-5')-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) regulates many processes in bacteria, including motility, pathogenesis and biofilm formation. c-di-GMP-binding riboswitches are important downstream targets in this signaling pathway. Here we report the crystal structure, at 2.7 A resolution, of a c-di-GMP riboswitch aptamer from Vibrio cholerae bound to c-di-GMP, showing that the ligand binds within a three-helix junction that involves base-pairing and extensive base-stacking. The symmetric c-di-GMP is recognized asymmetrically with respect to both the bases and the backbone. A mutant aptamer was engineered that preferentially binds the candidate signaling molecule c-di-AMP over c-di-GMP. Kinetic and structural data suggest that genetic regulation by the c-di-GMP riboswitch is kinetically controlled and that gene expression is modulated through the stabilization of a previously unidentified P1 helix, illustrating a direct mechanism for c-di-GMP signaling. PMID:19898477

  9. In vitro selection of allosteric ribozymes that sense the bacterial second messenger c-di-GMP.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Kazuhiro; Gu, Hongzhou; Breaker, Ronald R

    2014-01-01

    Recently, a number of study have shown the ligand-dependent allosteric ribozymes can be harnessed as biosensors, high-throughput screening, and agents for the control of gene expression in vivo, called artificial riboswitches. In this chapter, we describe how in vitro selection can be used to create an allosteric ribozyme that senses bacterial second messenger cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP). A hammerhead ribozyme was joined to a natural c-di-GMP class I riboswitch aptamer via communication modules. Both c-di-GMP-activating and -inhibiting ribozyme can be obtained by this approach. PMID:24549622

  10. Structural Basis of Ligand Binding by a C-di-GMP Riboswitch

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.; Lipchock, S; Ames, T; Wang, J; Breaker, R; Strobel, S

    2009-01-01

    The second messenger signaling molecule bis-(3{prime}-5{prime})-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) regulates many processes in bacteria, including motility, pathogenesis and biofilm formation. c-di-GMP-binding riboswitches are important downstream targets in this signaling pathway. Here we report the crystal structure, at 2.7 {angstrom} resolution, of a c-di-GMP riboswitch aptamer from Vibrio cholerae bound to c-di-GMP, showing that the ligand binds within a three-helix junction that involves base-pairing and extensive base-stacking. The symmetric c-di-GMP is recognized asymmetrically with respect to both the bases and the backbone. A mutant aptamer was engineered that preferentially binds the candidate signaling molecule c-di-AMP over c-di-GMP. Kinetic and structural data suggest that genetic regulation by the c-di-GMP riboswitch is kinetically controlled and that gene expression is modulated through the stabilization of a previously unidentified P1 helix, illustrating a direct mechanism for c-di-GMP signaling.

  11. Stimulation of innate immunity by in vivo cyclic di-GMP synthesis using adenovirus.

    PubMed

    Koestler, Benjamin J; Seregin, Sergey S; Rastall, David P W; Aldhamen, Yasser A; Godbehere, Sarah; Amalfitano, Andrea; Waters, Christopher M

    2014-11-01

    The bacterial second messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) stimulates inflammation by initiating innate immune cell recruitment and triggering the release of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. These properties make c-di-GMP a promising candidate for use as a vaccine adjuvant, and numerous studies have demonstrated that administration of purified c-di-GMP with different antigens increases protection against infection in animal models. Here, we have developed a novel approach to produce c-di-GMP inside host cells as an adjuvant to exploit a host-pathogen interaction and initiate an innate immune response. We have demonstrated that c-di-GMP can be synthesized in vivo by transducing a diguanylate cyclase (DGC) gene into mammalian cells using an adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) vector. Expression of DGC led to the production of c-di-GMP in vitro and in vivo, and this was able to alter proinflammatory gene expression in murine tissues and increase the secretion of numerous cytokines and chemokines when administered to animals. Furthermore, coexpression of DGC modestly increased T-cell responses to a Clostridium difficile antigen expressed from an adenovirus vaccine, although no significant differences in antibody titers were observed. This adenovirus c-di-GMP delivery system offers a novel method to administer c-di-GMP as an adjuvant to stimulate innate immunity during vaccination. PMID:25230938

  12. The Dusty View of DI from ESO Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehnhardt, H.; Ageorges, N.; Bagnulo, S.; Barrera, L.; Bonev, T.; Hainaut, O.; Jehin, E.; Käufl, H. U.; Kerber, F.; Locurto, G.; Manfroid, J.; Marco, O.; Pantin, E.; Pompei, E.; Rauer, H.; Saviane, I.; Selman, F.; Sterken, C.; Tozzi, G. P.; Weiler, M.

    Around the time of the impact of NASA's Deep Impact (DI) mission at comet 9P/Tempel 1, in total 6 telescopes with altogether 7 different instruments, located at the La Silla (LSO) and Paranal (VLT) Observatories of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) in Chile, were used to characterize the dust properties before and after the event. The ejecta cloud expanded at an average speed of about 200 ms-1during the first hours after the event. It reached stagnation distance of 25000 km about 3 days after impact. The pre-impact dust jet and fan activity (`porcupine' pattern) remained undisturbed after impact. In our measurements the jet activity can be traced to a few 100 km nucleus distance. In total 9 comastructures are identified which may originate from at least 4 regions of enhanced dust emission on the nucleus - one of this region may in fact be multiple. No obvious signatures of a new active region created by DI are found. The overall dust production during the impact compares to about 5-10 h of normal activity. The global expansion geometry of the DI cloud is compatible with a majority of dust grains in the micron size range. Indications exist for asymmetric brightness and colour distributions of the dust in the ejecta cloud. The dust temperature rose from about 280-290 K before to 330 K one day after the event and fell to pre-impact level the day thereafter. The dust reflected sunlight was found to be linearly polarized at about 7.5% in the visible and near-IR, at constant level within about 4000 km from the nucleus. No circular polarization of the dust is detected.

  13. Functional Analysis of a c-di-AMP-specific Phosphodiesterase MsPDE from Mycobacterium smegmatis

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Qing; Luo, Yunchao; Zheng, Cao; Yin, Kang; Ali, Maria Kanwal; Li, Xinfeng; He, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic di‑AMP (c-di-AMP) is a second signaling molecule involved in the regulation of bacterial physiological processes and interaction between pathogen and host. However, the regulatory network mediated by c-di-AMP in Mycobacterium remains obscure. In M. smegmatis, a diadenylate cyclase (DAC) was reported recently, but there is still no investigation on c-di-AMP phosphodiesterase (PDE). Here, we provide a systematic study on signaling mechanism of c-di-AMP PDE in M. smegmatis. Based on our enzymatic analysis, MsPDE (MSMEG_2630), which contained a DHH-DHHA1 domain, displayed a 200-fold higher hydrolytic efficiency (kcat/Km) to c-di-AMP than to c-di-GMP. MsPDE was capable of converting c-di-AMP to pApA and AMP, and hydrolyzing pApA to AMP. Site-directed mutations in DHH and DHHA1 revealed that DHH domain was critical for the phosphodiesterase activity. To explore the regulatory role of c-di-AMP in vivo, we constructed the mspde mutant (Δmspde) and found that deficiency of MsPDE significantly enhanced intracellular C12-C20 fatty acid accumulation. Deficiency of DAC in many bacteria results in cell death. However, we acquired the M. smegmatis strain with DAC gene disrupted (ΔmsdisA) by homologous recombination approach. Deletion of msdisA reduced bacterial C12-C20 fatty acids production but scarcely affected bacterial survival. We also provided evidences that superfluous c-di-AMP in M. smegmatis could lead to abnormal colonial morphology. Collectively, our results indicate that MsPDE is a functional c-di-AMP-specific phosphodiesterase both in vitro and in vivo. Our study also expands the regulatory network mediated by c-di-AMP in M. smegmatis. PMID:26078723

  14. Occurrence of Cyclic di-GMP-Modulating Output Domains in Cyanobacteria: an Illuminating Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Agostoni, Marco; Koestler, Benjamin J.; Waters, Christopher M.; Williams, Barry L.; Montgomery, Beronda L.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Microorganisms use a variety of metabolites to respond to external stimuli, including second messengers that amplify primary signals and elicit biochemical changes in a cell. Levels of the second messenger cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP) are regulated by a variety of environmental stimuli and play a critical role in regulating cellular processes such as biofilm formation and cellular motility. Cyclic di-GMP signaling systems have been largely characterized in pathogenic bacteria; however, proteins that can impact the synthesis or degradation of c-di-GMP are prominent in cyanobacterial species and yet remain largely underexplored. In cyanobacteria, many putative c-di-GMP synthesis or degradation domains are found in genes that also harbor light-responsive signal input domains, suggesting that light is an important signal for altering c-di-GMP homeostasis. Indeed, c-di-GMP-associated domains are often the second most common output domain in photoreceptors—outnumbered only by a histidine kinase output domain. Cyanobacteria differ from other bacteria regarding the number and types of photoreceptor domains associated with c-di-GMP domains. Due to the widespread distribution of c-di-GMP domains in cyanobacteria, we investigated the evolutionary origin of a subset of genes. Phylogenetic analyses showed that c-di-GMP signaling systems were present early in cyanobacteria and c-di-GMP genes were both vertically and horizontally inherited during their evolution. Finally, we compared intracellular levels of c-di-GMP in two cyanobacterial species under different light qualities, confirming that light is an important factor for regulating this second messenger in vivo. PMID:23943760

  15. C-E1 fusion protein synthesized by rubella virus DI RNAs maintained during serial passage

    SciTech Connect

    Tzeng, W.-P.; Frey, Teryl K. . E-mail: tfrey@gsu.edu

    2006-12-20

    Rubella virus (RUB) replicons are derivatives of the RUB infectious cDNA clone that retain the nonstructural open reading frame (NS-ORF) that encodes the replicase proteins but not the structural protein ORF (SP-ORF) that encodes the virion proteins. RUB defective interfering (DI) RNAs contain deletions within the SP-ORF and thus resemble replicons. DI RNAs often retain the 5' end of the capsid protein (C) gene that has been shown to modulate virus-specific RNA synthesis. However, when replicons either with or without the C gene were passaged serially in the presence of wt RUB as a source of the virion proteins, it was found that neither replicon was maintained and DI RNAs were generated. The majority DI RNA species contained in-frame deletions in the SP-ORF leading to a fusion between the 5' end of the C gene and the 3' end of the E1 glycoprotein gene. DI infectious cDNA clones were constructed and transcripts from these DI infectious cDNA clones were maintained during serial passage with wt RUB. The C-E1 fusion protein encoded by the DI RNAs was synthesized and was required for maintenance of the DI RNA during serial passage. This is the first report of a functional novel gene product resulting from deletion during DI RNA generation. Thus far, the role of the C-E1 fusion protein in maintenance of DI RNAs during serial passage remained elusive as it was found that the fusion protein diminished rather than enhanced DI RNA synthesis and was not incorporated into virus particles.

  16. Synthesis and study of conjugated polymers containing Di- or Triphenylamine

    SciTech Connect

    Sukwattanasinitt, M.

    1996-06-21

    This thesis consists of two separate parts. The first part addresses the synthesis and study of conjugated polymers containing di- or triphenylamine. Two types of polymers: linear polymers and dendrimers, were synthesized. The polymers were characterized by NMR, IR, UV, GPC, TGA and DSC. Electronic and optical properties of the polymers were studied through the conductivity measurements and excitation- emission spectra. the second part of this thesis deals with a reaction of electron-rich acetylenes with TCNE. The discovery of the reaction from charge transfer complex studies and the investigation of this reaction on various electron-rich acetylenes are presented.

  17. Line plotting program using DI-3000/Grafmaker routines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poppen, William A., Jr.; Smith-Taylor, Rudeen

    1986-01-01

    A line plotting program has been developed using the DI-3000 graphics libraries and incorporates Grafmaker subroutines. The program allows multiple lines on a frame and multiple frames per run. Options such as automatic scaling, linear or single-cycle log graphs, and plot text such as titles, legends and axis labels are incorporated in the program. Greek and other fonts can be used in the plot text as well as upper and lower case text. Plot inputs are specified through a control file. The program also allows display of multiple independent data sets on a single graph.

  18. The Hydrolysis of Di-Isopropyl Methylphosphonate in Ground Water

    SciTech Connect

    Sega, G.A., Tomkins, B.A., Griest, W.H., Bayne, C.K.

    1997-12-31

    Di-isopropyl methylphosphonate (DIMP) is a byproduct from the manufacture of the nerve agent Sarin. The persistence of DIMP in the ground water is an important question in evaluating the potential environmental impacts of DIMP contamination. The half-life of DIMP in ground water at 10 deg C was estimated to be 500 years with a 95% confidence interval of 447 to 559 years from measurements of the hydrolysis rates at temperatures between 70 to 98 deg C.Extrapolation of the kinetics to 10 deg C used the Arrhenius equation, and calculation of the half-life assumed first-order kinetics. Inorganic phosphate was not detected.

  19. Gelling Mechanism of Aluminum Di-Soaps in Oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaorong; Rackaitis, Mindaugas

    2009-03-01

    This work demonstrates that aluminum di-soaps form nano-sized spherical micelles in the oils and that the aggregation of these micelles forms a network that gives rise to a gel formation -- thereby refuting a long-held belief that the gel formation was the result of linear polymeric chains of aluminum association. The discovery of such aluminum nano-particles could expand application of these materials to new technologies because these materials are chemically inert, odorless and nontoxic, and have been widely used in greases, paints, gels, cosmetics, drugs and foods.

  20. Sonar investigations in the Laghi di Monticchio (Mt. Vúlture, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Ralph B.

    Sonar profiles across the Lago Grande and Lago Piccolo di Monticchio (two lakes in southern Italy, 20 km S of Melfi) were recorded to get knowledge on the lake basins an their surface prior coring. The combination of echo-graph data with digital landscape modelling was suitable for the detection and interpretation of complex structures of the lake bottom. The interpretation of the model shows the distortion of an old continuous sedimentation by younger tectonic events. The presence of terraces above and below the present-day lake level are interpreted as response to paleoclimatic fluctuations and human activities.

  1. RATE CONSTANTS FOR THE REACTIONS OF OH RADICALS AND CL ATOMS WITH DI-N-PROPYL ETHER AND DI-N-BUTYL ETHER AND THEIR DEUTERATED ANALOGS. (R825252)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using relative rate methods, rate constants for the gas-phase reactions of OH radicals and Cl atoms with di-n-propyl ether, di-n-propyl ether-d14, di-n-butyl ether and di-n-butyl ether-d18 have been measured at 296 ? 2 K and atmos...

  2. Crystal structure of 9,10-bis-(1,3-di-thiol-2-yl-idene)-9,10-di-hydro-anthracene.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yi; Lee, Semin; Bertke, Jeffery A; Moore, Jeffrey S

    2015-12-01

    The crystal structure of the well-studied 9,10-bis-(1,3-di-thiol-2-yl-idene)-9,10-di-hydro-anthracene mol-ecule, C20H12S4, (I), also known as exTTF, is reported. The mol-ecular structure of (I) consists of a di-hydro-anthracene moiety with two 1,3-di-thiol-2-yl-idene substituents. This is a saddle-shaped mol-ecule, which inter-acts with a close neighbor through various π-π and C-H⋯π contacts to form a 'dimer'. These 'dimers' inter-act through a series of C-H⋯S and C-H⋯π contacts to construct a complex three-dimensional extended structure. PMID:26870408

  3. New compatible solutes related to Di-myo-inositol-phosphate in members of the order Thermotogales.

    PubMed Central

    Martins, L O; Carreto, L S; Da Costa, M S; Santos, H

    1996-01-01

    The accumulation of intracellular organic solutes was examined in six species of the order Thermotogales by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The newly discovered compounds di-2-O-beta-mannosyl-di-myo-inositol-1,1'(3,3')-phosphate and di-myo-inositol-1,3'-phosphate were identified in Thermotoga maritima and Thermotoga neapolitana. In the latter species, at the optimum temperature and salinity the organic solute pool was composed of di-myo-inositol-1,1'(3,3')-phosphate, beta-glutamate, and alpha-glutamate in addition to di-myo-inositol-1,3'-phosphate and di-2-O-beta-mannosyl-di-myo-inositol-1,1'(3,3')-phosphate. The concentrations of the last two solutes increased dramatically at supraoptimal growth temperatures, whereas beta-glutamate increased mainly in response to a salinity stress. Nevertheless, di-myo-inositol-1,1'(3,3')-phosphate was the major compatible solute at salinities above the optimum for growth. The amino acids alpha-glutamate and proline were identified under optimum growth conditions in Thermosipho africanus, and beta-mannosylglycerate, trehalose, and glycine betaine were detected in Petrotoga miotherma. Organic solutes were not detected, under optimum growth conditions, in Thermotoga thermarum and Fervidobacterium islandicum, which have a low salt requirement or none. PMID:8824608

  4. c-di-GMP induction of Dictyostelium cell death requires the polyketide DIF-1

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yu; Luciani, Marie-Françoise; Giusti, Corinne; Golstein, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Cell death in the model organism Dictyostelium, as studied in monolayers in vitro, can be induced by the polyketide DIF-1 or by the cyclical dinucleotide c-di-GMP. c-di-GMP, a universal bacterial second messenger, can trigger innate immunity in bacterially infected animal cells and is involved in developmental cell death in Dictyostelium. We show here that c-di-GMP was not sufficient to induce cell death in Dictyostelium cell monolayers. Unexpectedly, it also required the DIF-1 polyketide. The latter could be exogenous, as revealed by a telling synergy between c-di-GMP and DIF-1. The required DIF-1 polyketide could also be endogenous, as shown by the inability of c-di-GMP to induce cell death in Dictyostelium HMX44A cells and DH1 cells upon pharmacological or genetic inhibition of DIF-1 biosynthesis. In these cases, c-di-GMP–induced cell death was rescued by complementation with exogenous DIF-1. Taken together, these results demonstrated that c-di-GMP could trigger cell death in Dictyostelium only in the presence of the DIF-1 polyketide or its metabolites. This identified another element of control to this cell death and perhaps also to c-di-GMP effects in other situations and organisms. PMID:25518941

  5. Cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) regulates Vibrio cholerae biofilm formation

    PubMed Central

    Tischler, Anna D.; Camilli, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Summary While studying virulence gene regulation in Vibrio cholerae during infection of the host small intestine, we identified VieA as a two-component response regulator that contributes to activating expression of cholera toxin. Here we report that VieA represses transcription of Vibrio exopolysaccharide synthesis (vps) genes involved in biofilm formation by a mechanism independent of its phosphorelay and DNA-binding activities. VieA controls the intracellular concentration of the cyclic nucleotide second messenger cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) using an EAL domain that functions as a c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase. Two-dimensional thin layer chromatography of nucleotide extracts confirmed that VieA reduces the concentration of c-di-GMP, opposing the action of c-di-GMP synthetase proteins. Expression of unrelated V. cholerae c-di-GMP synthetase or phosphodiesterae proteins also modulated c-di-GMP concentration and vps gene expression. We propose that c-di-GMP synthetase and phosphodiesterase domain-containing proteins contribute to regulating biofilm formation by controlling c-di-GMP concentration. PMID:15255898

  6. 40 CFR 721.2094 - N,N′-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino chlorotriazine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false N,Nâ²-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2094 N,N′-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino chlorotriazine. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified...

  7. 21 CFR 178.2550 - 4-Hydroxymethyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... SANITIZERS Antioxidants and Stabilizers § 178.2550 4-Hydroxymethyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol. 4-Hydroxymethyl-2,6-di-tert-butyl-phenol may be safely used as an antioxidant in articles intended for use in contact... solidification point of 140°-141 °C. (b) The concentration of the additive and any other permitted...

  8. 21 CFR 178.2550 - 4-Hydroxymethyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SANITIZERS Antioxidants and Stabilizers § 178.2550 4-Hydroxymethyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol. 4-Hydroxymethyl-2,6-di-tert-butyl-phenol may be safely used as an antioxidant in articles intended for use in contact... solidification point of 140°-141 °C. (b) The concentration of the additive and any other permitted...

  9. 40 CFR 721.2094 - N,N′-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino chlorotriazine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false N,Nâ²-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2094 N,N′-di(alkyl heteromonocycle)amino chlorotriazine. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10208 - Amines, di-C11-14-isoalkyl, C13-rich.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amines, di-C11-14-isoalkyl, C13-rich... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10208 Amines, di-C11-14-isoalkyl, C13-rich. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amines,...

  11. The cyclic-di-GMP signaling pathway in the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Elizabeth A.; Sultan, Syed Z.; Motaleb, Md. A.

    2014-01-01

    In nature, the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi cycles between the unrelated environments of the Ixodes tick vector and mammalian host. In order to survive transmission between hosts, B. burgdorferi must be able to not only detect changes in its environment, but also rapidly and appropriately respond to these changes. One manner in which this obligate parasite regulates and adapts to its changing environment is through cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP) signaling. c-di-GMP has been shown to be instrumental in orchestrating the adaptation of B. burgdorferi to the tick environment. B. burgdorferi possesses only one set of c-di-GMP-metabolizing genes (one diguanylate cyclase and two distinct phosphodiesterases) and one c-di-GMP-binding PilZ-domain protein designated as PlzA. While studies in the realm of c-di-GMP signaling in B. burgdorferi have exploded in the last few years, there are still many more questions than answers. Elucidation of the importance of c-di-GMP signaling to B. burgdorferi may lead to the identification of mechanisms that are critical for the survival of B. burgdorferi in the tick phase of the enzootic cycle as well as potentially delineate a role (if any) c-di-GMP may play in the transmission and virulence of B. burgdorferi during the enzootic cycle, thereby enabling the development of effective drugs for the prevention and/or treatment of Lyme disease. PMID:24822172

  12. Progress in high performance DI-BSCCO wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, M.; Ayai, N.; Fujikami, J.; Kobayashi, S.; Yamazaki, K.; Yamade, S.; Ishida, T.; Kato, T.; Hayashi, K.; Sato, K.; Hata, R.; Iihara, J.; Yamaguchi, K.; Kumakura, H.; Kitaguchi, H.; Osamura, K.; Shimoyama, J.

    2008-03-01

    The high performances of Dynamically Innovative BSCCO (DI-BSCCO) wire have been reviewed. Critical current (Ic) has reached 210 A (77 K and self-field), which is equivalent 500 A per 10 mm width, by total optimization of whole manufacturing process including Controlled Over Pressure (CT-OP) sintering. The further higher Ic value will be available on preferable oxide filaments with the improved c-axis orientation of Bi2223 grains, the minimized non-superconducting phases, and so on. The Ic of long length wires has been reached 203 A of 42 m 180 A of 1,400 m. Ic in the magnetic field at low temperature has showed great improvements in comparison with the past 150 A class wire. The mechanical performances has been improved due to the densification of the Bi2223 filaments up to 100% by CT-OP process, moreover have been dynamically improved by reinforcement with stainless steel tapes or brass tapes. These results can enable DI-BSCCO wire to be applied for the cryogenic applications such as motors, magnets, cables and so on.

  13. Critical cleaning agents for Di-2-ethylhexyl sebacate.

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, Mya; Archuleta, Kim M.

    2013-08-01

    It is required that Di-2-ethylhexyl Sebacate oil, also commonly known as Dioctyl Sebacate oil, be thoroughly removed from certain metals, in this case stainless steel parts with narrow, enclosed spaces. Dioctyl Sebacate oil is a synthetic oil with a low compressibility. As such, it is ideally used for high pressure calibrations. The current method to remove the Dioctyl Sebacate from stainless steel parts with narrow, enclosed spaces is a labor-intensive, multi-step process, including a detergent clean, a deionized (DI) water rinse, and several solvent rinses, to achieve a nonvolatile residue of0.04 mg per 50 mL rinse effluent. This study was undertaken to determine a superior detergent/solvent cleaning method for the oil to reduce cleaning time and/or the amount of detergent/solvent used. It was determined that while some detergent clean the oil off the metal better than the current procedure, using only solvents obtained the best result. In addition, it can be inferred, based on elevated temperature test results, that raising the temperature of the oil-contaminated stainless steel parts to approximately 50%C2%B0C will provide for improved cleaning efficacy.

  14. Secreted Cyclic Di-GMP Induces Stalk Cell Differentiation in the Eukaryote Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi-hui; Schaap, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    Cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) is currently recognized as the most widely used intracellular signal molecule in prokaryotes, but roles in eukaryotes were only recently discovered. In the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, c-di-GMP, produced by a prokaryote-type diguanylate cyclase, induces the differentiation of stalk cells, thereby enabling the formation of spore-bearing fruiting bodies. In this review, we summarize the currently known mechanisms that control the major life cycle transitions of Dictyostelium and focus particularly on the role of c-di-GMP in stalk formation. Stalk cell differentiation has characteristics of autophagic cell death, a process that also occurs in higher eukaryotes. We discuss the respective roles of c-di-GMP and of another signal molecule, differentiation-inducing factor 1, in autophagic cell death in vitro and in stalk formation in vivo. PMID:26013485

  15. Secreted Cyclic Di-GMP Induces Stalk Cell Differentiation in the Eukaryote Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhi-hui

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) is currently recognized as the most widely used intracellular signal molecule in prokaryotes, but roles in eukaryotes were only recently discovered. In the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, c-di-GMP, produced by a prokaryote-type diguanylate cyclase, induces the differentiation of stalk cells, thereby enabling the formation of spore-bearing fruiting bodies. In this review, we summarize the currently known mechanisms that control the major life cycle transitions of Dictyostelium and focus particularly on the role of c-di-GMP in stalk formation. Stalk cell differentiation has characteristics of autophagic cell death, a process that also occurs in higher eukaryotes. We discuss the respective roles of c-di-GMP and of another signal molecule, differentiation-inducing factor 1, in autophagic cell death in vitro and in stalk formation in vivo. PMID:26013485

  16. An Extended Cyclic Di-GMP Network in the Predatory Bacterium Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus

    PubMed Central

    Rotem, Or; Nesper, Jutta; Borovok, Ilya; Gorovits, Rena; Kolot, Mikhail; Pasternak, Zohar; Shin, Irina; Glatter, Timo; Pietrokovski, Shmuel; Jenal, Urs

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Over the course of the last 3 decades the role of the second messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) as a master regulator of bacterial physiology was determined. Although the control over c-di-GMP levels via synthesis and breakdown and the allosteric regulation of c-di-GMP over receptor proteins (effectors) and riboswitches have been extensively studied, relatively few effectors have been identified and most are of unknown functions. The obligate predatory bacterium Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus has a peculiar dimorphic life cycle, in which a phenotypic transition from a free-living attack phase (AP) to a sessile, intracellular predatory growth phase (GP) is tightly regulated by specific c-di-GMP diguanylate cyclases. B. bacteriovorus also bears one of the largest complement of defined effectors, almost none of known functions, suggesting that additional proteins may be involved in c-di-GMP signaling. In order to uncover novel c-di-GMP effectors, a c-di-GMP capture-compound mass-spectroscopy experiment was performed on wild-type AP and host-independent (HI) mutant cultures, the latter serving as a proxy for wild-type GP cells. Eighty-four proteins were identified as candidate c-di-GMP binders. Of these proteins, 65 did not include any recognized c-di-GMP binding site, and 3 carried known unorthodox binding sites. Putative functions could be assigned to 59 proteins. These proteins are included in metabolic pathways, regulatory circuits, cell transport, and motility, thereby creating a potentially large c-di-GMP network. False candidate effectors may include members of protein complexes, as well as proteins binding nucleotides or other cofactors that were, respectively, carried over or unspecifically interacted with the capture compound during the pulldown. Of the 84 candidates, 62 were found to specifically bind the c-di-GMP capture compound in AP or in HI cultures, suggesting c-di-GMP control over the whole-cell cycle of the bacterium. High affinity and

  17. Cyclic Di-GMP modulates the disease progression of Erwinia amylovora.

    PubMed

    Edmunds, Adam C; Castiblanco, Luisa F; Sundin, George W; Waters, Christopher M

    2013-05-01

    The second messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) is a nearly ubiquitous intracellular signal molecule known to regulate various cellular processes, including biofilm formation, motility, and virulence. The intracellular concentration of c-di-GMP is inversely governed by diguanylate cyclase (DGC) enzymes and phosphodiesterase (PDE) enzymes, which synthesize and degrade c-di-GMP, respectively. The role of c-di-GMP in the plant pathogen and causal agent of fire blight disease Erwinia amylovora has not been studied previously. Here we demonstrate that three of the five predicted DGC genes in E. amylovora (edc genes, for Erwinia diguanylate cyclase), edcA, edcC, and edcE, are active diguanylate cyclases. We show that c-di-GMP positively regulates the secretion of the main exopolysaccharide in E. amylovora, amylovoran, leading to increased biofilm formation, and negatively regulates flagellar swimming motility. Although amylovoran secretion and biofilm formation are important for the colonization of plant xylem tissues and the development of systemic infections, deletion of the two biofilm-promoting DGCs increased tissue necrosis in an immature-pear infection assay and an apple shoot infection model, suggesting that c-di-GMP negatively regulates virulence. In addition, c-di-GMP inhibited the expression of hrpA, a gene encoding the major structural component of the type III secretion pilus. Our results are the first to describe a role for c-di-GMP in E. amylovora and suggest that downregulation of motility and type III secretion by c-di-GMP during infection plays a key role in the coordination of pathogenesis. PMID:23475975

  18. Coordinated Cyclic-Di-GMP Repression of Salmonella Motility through YcgR and Cellulose

    PubMed Central

    Zorraquino, Violeta; García, Begoña; Latasa, Cristina; Echeverz, Maite; Toledo-Arana, Alejandro; Valle, Jaione

    2013-01-01

    Cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) is a secondary messenger that controls a variety of cellular processes, including the switch between a biofilm and a planktonic bacterial lifestyle. This nucleotide binds to cellular effectors in order to exert its regulatory functions. In Salmonella, two proteins, BcsA and YcgR, both of them containing a c-di-GMP binding PilZ domain, are the only known c-di-GMP receptors. BcsA, upon c-di-GMP binding, synthesizes cellulose, the main exopolysaccharide of the biofilm matrix. YcgR is dedicated to c-di-GMP-dependent inhibition of motility through its interaction with flagellar motor proteins. However, previous evidences indicate that in the absence of YcgR, there is still an additional element that mediates motility impairment under high c-di-GMP levels. Here we have uncovered that cellulose per se is the factor that further promotes inhibition of bacterial motility once high c-di-GMP contents drive the activation of a sessile lifestyle. Inactivation of different genes of the bcsABZC operon, mutation of the conserved residues in the RxxxR motif of the BcsA PilZ domain, or degradation of the cellulose produced by BcsA rescued the motility defect of ΔycgR strains in which high c-di-GMP levels were reached through the overexpression of diguanylate cyclases. High c-di-GMP levels provoked cellulose accumulation around cells that impeded flagellar rotation, probably by means of steric hindrance, without affecting flagellum gene expression, exportation, or assembly. Our results highlight the relevance of cellulose in Salmonella lifestyle switching as an architectural element that is both essential for biofilm development and required, in collaboration with YcgR, for complete motility inhibition. PMID:23161026

  19. Cyclic Di-GMP Modulates the Disease Progression of Erwinia amylovora

    PubMed Central

    Edmunds, Adam C.; Castiblanco, Luisa F.; Sundin, George W.

    2013-01-01

    The second messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) is a nearly ubiquitous intracellular signal molecule known to regulate various cellular processes, including biofilm formation, motility, and virulence. The intracellular concentration of c-di-GMP is inversely governed by diguanylate cyclase (DGC) enzymes and phosphodiesterase (PDE) enzymes, which synthesize and degrade c-di-GMP, respectively. The role of c-di-GMP in the plant pathogen and causal agent of fire blight disease Erwinia amylovora has not been studied previously. Here we demonstrate that three of the five predicted DGC genes in E. amylovora (edc genes, for Erwinia diguanylate cyclase), edcA, edcC, and edcE, are active diguanylate cyclases. We show that c-di-GMP positively regulates the secretion of the main exopolysaccharide in E. amylovora, amylovoran, leading to increased biofilm formation, and negatively regulates flagellar swimming motility. Although amylovoran secretion and biofilm formation are important for the colonization of plant xylem tissues and the development of systemic infections, deletion of the two biofilm-promoting DGCs increased tissue necrosis in an immature-pear infection assay and an apple shoot infection model, suggesting that c-di-GMP negatively regulates virulence. In addition, c-di-GMP inhibited the expression of hrpA, a gene encoding the major structural component of the type III secretion pilus. Our results are the first to describe a role for c-di-GMP in E. amylovora and suggest that downregulation of motility and type III secretion by c-di-GMP during infection plays a key role in the coordination of pathogenesis. PMID:23475975

  20. Enhanced healing of full-thickness burn wounds using di-rhamnolipid

    PubMed Central

    Stipcevic, Tamara; Piljac, Ante; Piljac, Goran

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the properties of di-rhamnolipid [α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1–2)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-3-hydroxydecanoyl-3-hydroxydecanoic acid, also referred to as di-rhamnolipid BAC-3] relating to the process of cutaneous wound healing. Di-rhamnolipid was prepared in a eucerin ointment and applied topically on full-thickness burn wounds in normal Sprague–Dawley rats covering 5% of the total body surface area. The rate of wound closure was measured over the period of 45 days. The collagen content was evaluated microscopically, by performing densitometric analysis on Verhoeff’s stained histopathological slides of wound biopsies taken at the end of 45th day of di-rhamnolipid treatment. Di-rhamnolipid toxicity was assessed with the subcutaneous multi-dose study in Swiss–Webster mice. The treatment of full-thickness-burn wounds with topical 0.1% di-rhamnolipid accelerated the closure of wounds on day 21 of the treatment by 32% compared to the control ( p < 0.05). On day 35, the wounds closed in all animals-treated with 0.1% di-rhamnolipid ointment while some rats in the control group had open wounds on days 35 and even 45. Histologic comparisons have shown that di-rhamnolipid significantly decreased collagen content in burn wounds (47.5%, p < 0.05) as compared to the vehicle-treated (control) wounds. Di-rhamnolipid was well-tolerated. The results of this study raise the possibility of potential efficacy of di-rhamnolipid in accelerating normal wound healing and perhaps in overcoming defects associated with healing failure in chronic wounds. PMID:16380213

  1. Cyclic di-GMP: the First 25 Years of a Universal Bacterial Second Messenger

    PubMed Central

    Galperin, Michael Y.; Gomelsky, Mark

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Twenty-five years have passed since the discovery of cyclic dimeric (3′→5′) GMP (cyclic di-GMP or c-di-GMP). From the relative obscurity of an allosteric activator of a bacterial cellulose synthase, c-di-GMP has emerged as one of the most common and important bacterial second messengers. Cyclic di-GMP has been shown to regulate biofilm formation, motility, virulence, the cell cycle, differentiation, and other processes. Most c-di-GMP-dependent signaling pathways control the ability of bacteria to interact with abiotic surfaces or with other bacterial and eukaryotic cells. Cyclic di-GMP plays key roles in lifestyle changes of many bacteria, including transition from the motile to the sessile state, which aids in the establishment of multicellular biofilm communities, and from the virulent state in acute infections to the less virulent but more resilient state characteristic of chronic infectious diseases. From a practical standpoint, modulating c-di-GMP signaling pathways in bacteria could represent a new way of controlling formation and dispersal of biofilms in medical and industrial settings. Cyclic di-GMP participates in interkingdom signaling. It is recognized by mammalian immune systems as a uniquely bacterial molecule and therefore is considered a promising vaccine adjuvant. The purpose of this review is not to overview the whole body of data in the burgeoning field of c-di-GMP-dependent signaling. Instead, we provide a historic perspective on the development of the field, emphasize common trends, and illustrate them with the best available examples. We also identify unresolved questions and highlight new directions in c-di-GMP research that will give us a deeper understanding of this truly universal bacterial second messenger. PMID:23471616

  2. Chronic toxicity of di-n-butyl and di-n-octyl phthalate to Daphnia magna and the fathead minnow

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, J.F.; Whitmore, D.K.

    1985-01-01

    The toxicities of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DOP) were assessed by measuring the effect of exposure to these compounds on the fecundity of Daphnia magna and on the hatching and survival of the early life stages of the fathead minnow Pimephales promelas. For D. magna, exposure to 1.8 mg/L DBP or 1.0 mg/L DOP caused a significant reduction in reproduction. Doses of 0.56 mg/L DBP or 0.32 mg/L DOP had no significant effect in decreasing reproduction. Survival of fathead minnow embryos was decreased by exposure to 1.8 mg/L DBP; none of the embryos exposed to this dose hatched successfully. Hatching and larval survival were affected by exposure to 1.0 mg/L DBP, but not to 0.56 mg/L. Exposure to DOP did not affect survival of either early embryos or larvae of the fathead minnow at doses up to 10 mg/L (the highest dose tested). Hatching of the embryos was significantly decreased at 10 mg/L, but not at 3.2 mg/L DOP. 26 references, 4 figures, 11 tables.

  3. 9 CFR 319.180 - Frankfurter, frank, furter, hotdog, weiner, vienna, bologna, garlic bologna, knockwurst, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the curing agents in accordance with a regulation permitting that use in this subchapter or in 9 CFR chapter III, subchapter E, or in 21 CFR chapter I, subchapter A or subchapter B. They may or may not be... ingredients in accordance with a regulation permitting that use in this subchapter or in 9 CFR chapter...

  4. 9 CFR 319.180 - Frankfurter, frank, furter, hotdog, weiner, vienna, bologna, garlic bologna, knockwurst, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the curing agents in accordance with a regulation permitting that use in this subchapter or in 9 CFR Chapter III, Subchapter E, or in 21 CFR Chapter I, Subchapter A or Subchapter B. They may or may not be... ingredients in accordance with a regulation permitting that use in this subchapter or in 9 CFR Chapter...

  5. 9 CFR 319.180 - Frankfurter, frank, furter, hotdog, weiner, vienna, bologna, garlic bologna, knockwurst, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the curing agents in accordance with a regulation permitting that use in this subchapter or in 9 CFR chapter III, subchapter E, or in 21 CFR chapter I, subchapter A or subchapter B. They may or may not be... ingredients in accordance with a regulation permitting that use in this subchapter or in 9 CFR chapter...

  6. 9 CFR 319.180 - Frankfurter, frank, furter, hotdog, weiner, vienna, bologna, garlic bologna, knockwurst, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the curing agents in accordance with a regulation permitting that use in this subchapter or in 9 CFR Chapter III, Subchapter E, or in 21 CFR Chapter I, Subchapter A or Subchapter B. They may or may not be... ingredients in accordance with a regulation permitting that use in this subchapter or in 9 CFR Chapter...

  7. 9 CFR 319.180 - Frankfurter, frank, furter, hotdog, weiner, vienna, bologna, garlic bologna, knockwurst, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the curing agents in accordance with a regulation permitting that use in this subchapter or in 9 CFR chapter III, subchapter E, or in 21 CFR chapter I, subchapter A or subchapter B. They may or may not be... ingredients in accordance with a regulation permitting that use in this subchapter or in 9 CFR chapter...

  8. Second Messenger Signaling in Bacillus subtilis: Accumulation of Cyclic di-AMP Inhibits Biofilm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Gundlach, Jan; Rath, Hermann; Herzberg, Christina; Mäder, Ulrike; Stülke, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    The Gram-positive model organism Bacillus subtilis produces the essential second messenger signaling nucleotide cyclic di-AMP. In B. subtilis and other bacteria, c-di-AMP has been implicated in diverse functions such as control of metabolism, cell division and cell wall synthesis, and potassium transport. To enhance our understanding of the multiple functions of this second messenger, we have studied the consequences of c-di-AMP accumulation at a global level by a transcriptome analysis. C-di-AMP accumulation affected the expression of about 700 genes, among them the two major operons required for biofilm formation. The expression of both operons was severely reduced both in the laboratory and a non-domesticated strain upon accumulation of c-di-AMP. In excellent agreement, the corresponding strain was unable to form complex colonies. In B. subtilis, the transcription factor SinR controls the expression of biofilm genes by binding to their promoter regions resulting in transcription repression. Inactivation of the sinR gene restored biofilm formation even at high intracellular c-di-AMP concentrations suggesting that the second messenger acts upstream of SinR in the signal transduction pathway. As c-di-AMP accumulation did not affect the intracellular levels of SinR, we conclude that the nucleotide affects the activity of SinR. PMID:27252699

  9. Second Messenger Signaling in Bacillus subtilis: Accumulation of Cyclic di-AMP Inhibits Biofilm Formation.

    PubMed

    Gundlach, Jan; Rath, Hermann; Herzberg, Christina; Mäder, Ulrike; Stülke, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    The Gram-positive model organism Bacillus subtilis produces the essential second messenger signaling nucleotide cyclic di-AMP. In B. subtilis and other bacteria, c-di-AMP has been implicated in diverse functions such as control of metabolism, cell division and cell wall synthesis, and potassium transport. To enhance our understanding of the multiple functions of this second messenger, we have studied the consequences of c-di-AMP accumulation at a global level by a transcriptome analysis. C-di-AMP accumulation affected the expression of about 700 genes, among them the two major operons required for biofilm formation. The expression of both operons was severely reduced both in the laboratory and a non-domesticated strain upon accumulation of c-di-AMP. In excellent agreement, the corresponding strain was unable to form complex colonies. In B. subtilis, the transcription factor SinR controls the expression of biofilm genes by binding to their promoter regions resulting in transcription repression. Inactivation of the sinR gene restored biofilm formation even at high intracellular c-di-AMP concentrations suggesting that the second messenger acts upstream of SinR in the signal transduction pathway. As c-di-AMP accumulation did not affect the intracellular levels of SinR, we conclude that the nucleotide affects the activity of SinR. PMID:27252699

  10. New insights into Legionella pneumophila biofilm regulation by c-di-GMP signaling.

    PubMed

    Pécastaings, Sophie; Allombert, Julie; Lajoie, Barbora; Doublet, Patricia; Roques, Christine; Vianney, Anne

    2016-09-01

    The waterborne pathogen Legionella pneumophila grows as a biofilm, freely or inside amoebae. Cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP), a bacterial second messenger frequently implicated in biofilm formation, is synthesized and degraded by diguanylate cyclases (DGCs) and phosphodiesterases (PDEs), respectively. To characterize the c-di-GMP-metabolizing enzymes involved in L. pneumophila biofilm regulation, the consequences on biofilm formation and the c-di-GMP concentration of each corresponding gene inactivation were assessed in the Lens strain. The results showed that one DGC and two PDEs enhance different aspects of biofilm formation, while two proteins with dual activity (DGC/PDE) inhibit biofilm growth. Surprisingly, only two mutants exhibited a change in global c-di-GMP concentration. This study highlights that specific c-di-GMP pathways control L. pneumophila biofilm formation, most likely via temporary and/or local modulation of c-di-GMP concentration. Furthermore, Lpl1054 DGC is required to enable the formation a dense biofilm in response to nitric oxide, a signal for biofilm dispersion in many other species. PMID:27494738

  11. Crystal structure of a c-di-AMP riboswitch reveals an internally pseudo-dimeric RNA.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christopher P; Ferré-D'Amaré, Adrian R

    2014-11-18

    Cyclic diadenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) is a second messenger that is essential for growth and homeostasis in bacteria. A recently discovered c-di-AMP-responsive riboswitch controls the expression of genes in a variety of bacteria, including important pathogens. To elucidate the molecular basis for specific binding of c-di-AMP by a gene-regulatory mRNA domain, we have determined the co-crystal structure of this riboswitch. Unexpectedly, the structure reveals an internally pseudo-symmetric RNA in which two similar three-helix-junction elements associate head-to-tail, creating a trough that cradles two c-di-AMP molecules making quasi-equivalent contacts with the riboswitch. The riboswitch selectively binds c-di-AMP and discriminates exquisitely against other cyclic dinucleotides, such as c-di-GMP and cyclic-AMP-GMP, via interactions with both the backbone and bases of its cognate second messenger. Small-angle X-ray scattering experiments indicate that global folding of the riboswitch is induced by the two bound cyclic dinucleotides, which bridge the two symmetric three-helix domains. This structural reorganization likely couples c-di-AMP binding to gene expression. PMID:25271255

  12. Crystal structure of a c-di-AMP riboswitch reveals an internally pseudo-dimeric RNA

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Christopher P; Ferré-D'Amaré, Adrian R

    2014-01-01

    Cyclic diadenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) is a second messenger that is essential for growth and homeostasis in bacteria. A recently discovered c-di-AMP-responsive riboswitch controls the expression of genes in a variety of bacteria, including important pathogens. To elucidate the molecular basis for specific binding of c-di-AMP by a gene-regulatory mRNA domain, we have determined the co-crystal structure of this riboswitch. Unexpectedly, the structure reveals an internally pseudo-symmetric RNA in which two similar three-helix-junction elements associate head-to-tail, creating a trough that cradles two c-di-AMP molecules making quasi-equivalent contacts with the riboswitch. The riboswitch selectively binds c-di-AMP and discriminates exquisitely against other cyclic dinucleotides, such as c-di-GMP and cyclic-AMP-GMP, via interactions with both the backbone and bases of its cognate second messenger. Small-angle X-ray scattering experiments indicate that global folding of the riboswitch is induced by the two bound cyclic dinucleotides, which bridge the two symmetric three-helix domains. This structural reorganization likely couples c-di-AMP binding to gene expression. PMID:25271255

  13. Hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic activity of Triphalādi granules in mice

    PubMed Central

    Gunjal, Ankush; Walunj, Manisha; Aghera, Hetal; Nariya, Mukesh; Goyal, Mandip R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Triphalādi kvātha is well known herbal Ayurvedic formulation used in Prameha (~type 2 diabetes mellitus). In the present study, kvātha was converted into granules and assessed for its hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic effects in albino mice. Materials and Methods: Triphalādi granules (650 mg/kg, p.o.) were administered in normal albino mice for assessment of hypoglycemic activity. Anti-hyperglycemic activity of Triphalādi granules was assessed in glucose (5 g/kg, p.o.) solution overloaded mice. The blood sugar level (BSL) was measured with the help of one touch easy glucometer. Results: Triphalādi granules produced significant decrease in blood glucose level after one hour in comparison to initial values while decreasing BSL by 27.92% in comparison to control group in normal albino mice. In hyperglycemic study, Triphalādi granules produced significant decrease the BSL after 2 hr. of administration compared to control group. Conclusion: Triphalādi granules have significant hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic activity in mice with minimal effect on BSL below normal range. The studies suggest the potential role of Triphalādi granules as an alternative adjuvant therapy in diabetic individuals for the control of the blood glucose level. PMID:27621517

  14. Aqueous infrared carboxylate absorbances: Aliphatic di-acids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cabaniss, S.E.; Leenheer, J.A.; McVey, I.F.

    1998-01-01

    Aqueous attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectra of 18 aliphatic di-carboxylic acids are reported as a function of pH. The spectra show isosbestic points and intensity changes which indicate that Beer's law is obeyed, and peak frequencies lie within previously reported ranges for aqueous carboxylates and pure carboxylic acids. Intensity sharing from the symmetric carboxylate stretch is evident in many cases, so that bands which are nominally due to alkyl groups show increased intensity at higher pH. The asymmetric stretch of the HA- species is linearly related to the microscopic acidity constant of the H2A species, with ??pK 2 intervening atoms). The results suggest that aqueous ATR-FTIR may be able to estimate 'intrinsic' pKa values of carboxylic acids, in addition to providing quantitative estimates of ionization. ?? 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Is an axizilla possible for di-photon resonance?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jihn E.

    2016-04-01

    Heavy axion-like particles, called axizillas, are simple extensions of the standard model (SM). An axizilla is required not to couple to the quarks, leptons, and Brout-Englert-Higgs doublets of the SM, but couple to the gauge anomalies of the W±, Z and photon. It is possible to have its branching ratios (BRs) to two photons greater than 10 % and to two Z's less than 10 %. To have a (production cross section) ṡ (BR to di-photons) at a 10-38 cm2 level, a TeV scale heavy quark Q is required for the gluon-quark fusion process. The decay of Q to axizilla plus quark, and the subsequent decay of the axizilla to two photons can be fitted at the required level of 10-38 cm2.

  16. Taming of 3,4-Di(nitramino)furazan.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yongxing; Zhang, Jiaheng; Mitchell, Lauren A; Parrish, Damon A; Shreeve, Jean'ne M

    2015-12-30

    Highly energetic 3,4-di(nitramino)furazan (1, DNAF) was synthesized and confirmed structurally by using single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Its highly sensitive nature can be attributed to the shortage of hydrogen-bonding interactions and an interactive nitro chain in the crystal structure. In order to stabilize this structure, a series of corresponding nitrogen-rich salts (3-10) has been prepared and fully characterized. Among these energetic materials, dihydrazinium 3,4-dinitraminofurazanate (5) exhibits a very promising detonation performance (νD = 9849 m s(-1); P = 40.9 GPa) and is one of the most powerful explosives to date. To ensure the practical applications of 5, rather than preparing the salts of 1 through acid-base reactions, an alternative route through the nitration of N-ethoxycarbonyl-protected 3,4-diaminofurazan and aqueous alkaline workup was developed. PMID:26669520

  17. Progress in performance of DI-BSCCO family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayai, N.; Kobayashi, S.; Kikuchi, M.; Ishida, T.; Fujikami, J.; Yamazaki, K.; Yamade, S.; Tatamidani, K.; Hayashi, K.; Sato, K.; Kitaguchi, H.; Kumakura, H.; Osamura, K.; Shimoyama, J.; Kamijyo, H.; Fukumoto, Y.

    2008-09-01

    DI-BSCCO, the commercial BSCCO tapes produced by Sumitomo Electric with the controlled-overpressure sintering technique, has been progressing in the performance for increasing expansion of high temperature superconducting applications. Type H as the most common product has recorded 218 A as the highest critical current in 77 K, self-field, which is corresponding to 500 A per 1 cm width. Now it can provide both long-length and uniform high critical current up to 180 A as commercial products. Type S offers high overall critical current density similar to Type H and half cross-sectional area and the narrower width around 2.5 mm. It gives low price and compact size as a benefit to the applications operated with the relatively smaller current. Type AC offers low AC loss which is produced by application of the narrow width similar to Type S and twisted multi-filaments. All the products have achieved long-length more than 1 km and uniform critical currents over the entire length of the tapes. Mechanical toughness comes from metallic tape lamination technique applicable to all DI-BSCCO family as an optional extra. A 3-ply tape of one Type H and two thin stainless steel tapes provides high rated tensile stress more than 300 MPa and high current density more than 13 kA/cm 2 in 77 K. Alternative brass or copper laminated tape brings about lower electric resistance under overload current. It is possible to produce an order-made tape under consultation, which exhibits excellent manifold abilities on critical current, AC property as well as mechanical properties.

  18. Integration of the Second Messenger c-di-GMP into the Chemotactic Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Matthew H.; Bible, Amber N.; Fang, Xin; Gooding, Jessica R.; Campagna, Shawn R.; Gomelsky, Mark; Alexandre, Gladys

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Elevated intracellular levels of the bacterial second messenger c-di-GMP are known to suppress motility and promote sessility. Bacterial chemotaxis guides motile cells in gradients of attractants and repellents over broad concentration ranges, thus allowing bacteria to quickly adapt to changes in their surroundings. Here, we describe a chemotaxis receptor that enhances, as opposed to suppresses, motility in response to temporary increases in intracellular c-di-GMP. Azospirillum brasilense’s preferred metabolism is adapted to microaerophily, and these motile cells quickly navigate to zones of low oxygen concentration by aerotaxis. We observed that changes in oxygen concentration result in rapid changes in intracellular c-di-GMP levels. The aerotaxis and chemotaxis receptor, Tlp1, binds c-di-GMP via its C-terminal PilZ domain and promotes persistent motility by increasing swimming velocity and decreasing swimming reversal frequency, which helps A. brasilense reach low-oxygen zones. If c-di-GMP levels remain high for extended periods, A. brasilense forms nonmotile clumps or biofilms on abiotic surfaces. These results suggest that association of increased c-di-GMP levels with sessility is correct on a long-term scale, while in the short-term c-di-GMP may actually promote, as opposed to suppress, motility. Our data suggest that sensing c-di-GMP by Tlp1 functions similar to methylation-based adaptation. Numerous chemotaxis receptors contain C-terminal PilZ domains or other sensory domains, suggesting that intracellular c-di-GMP as well as additional stimuli can be used to modulate adaptation of bacterial chemotaxis receptors. PMID:23512960

  19. Association of exposure to di-2-ethylhexylphthalate replacements with increased blood pressure in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Trasande, Leonardo; Attina, Teresa M

    2015-08-01

    Phthalates are environmental chemicals widely used in consumer and personal care products. In this study, we examined associations of urinary phthalates with blood pressure, triglycerides, and lipoproteins in children and adolescents, performing a cross-sectional analysis of a subsample of US children 6 to 19 years of age who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between the years 2009 and 2012. We quantified exposure to common environmental phthalates, with a focus on the dietary contaminant di-2-ethylhexylphthalate and 2 increasingly used replacements, di-isononyl phthalate and di-isodecyl phthalate, based on micromolar concentration of urinary metabolites. We assessed descriptive, univariate, and multivariable associations with blood pressure and lipids. Controlling for an array of sociodemographic and behavioral factors, as well as diet and body mass, metabolites of di-2-ethylhexylphthalate, di-isononyl phthalate, and di-isodecyl phthalate were associated with higher age-, sex- and height-standardized blood pressure. For each log unit increase in di-isodecyl phthalate metabolites, a 0.105 standard deviation unit increase in systolic blood pressure z score was identified (P=0.004); for di-isononyl phthalate metabolites, a 0.113 standard deviation unit increment was identified (P=0.008). For di-2-ethylhexylphthalate metabolites, a 0.103 standard deviation unit increment (P=0.013) was detected. Metabolites of low molecular weight phthalates commonly found in cosmetics and personal care products showed an association with blood pressure (≥90th percentile) in univariate analysis, but this was no longer significant in our full multivariable model, suggesting specificity. Phthalate metabolites were not associated with triglycerides or high-density lipoproteins. Further, longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these associations and to assess opportunities for intervention. PMID:26156503

  20. Cyclic di-GMP-dependent Signaling Pathways in the Pathogenic Firmicute Listeria monocytogenes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Li-Hong; Köseoğlu, Volkan K.; Güvener, Zehra T.; Myers-Morales, Tanya; Reed, Joseph M.; D'Orazio, Sarah E. F.; Miller, Kurt W.; Gomelsky, Mark

    2014-01-01

    We characterized key components and major targets of the c-di-GMP signaling pathways in the foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes, identified a new c-di-GMP-inducible exopolysaccharide responsible for motility inhibition, cell aggregation, and enhanced tolerance to disinfectants and desiccation, and provided first insights into the role of c-di-GMP signaling in listerial virulence. Genome-wide genetic and biochemical analyses of c-di-GMP signaling pathways revealed that L. monocytogenes has three GGDEF domain proteins, DgcA (Lmo1911), DgcB (Lmo1912) and DgcC (Lmo2174), that possess diguanylate cyclase activity, and three EAL domain proteins, PdeB (Lmo0131), PdeC (Lmo1914) and PdeD (Lmo0111), that possess c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase activity. Deletion of all phosphodiesterase genes (ΔpdeB/C/D) or expression of a heterologous diguanylate cyclase stimulated production of a previously unknown exopolysaccharide. The synthesis of this exopolysaccharide was attributed to the pssA-E (lmo0527-0531) gene cluster. The last gene of the cluster encodes the fourth listerial GGDEF domain protein, PssE, that functions as an I-site c-di-GMP receptor essential for exopolysaccharide synthesis. The c-di-GMP-inducible exopolysaccharide causes cell aggregation in minimal medium and impairs bacterial migration in semi-solid agar, however, it does not promote biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces. The exopolysaccharide also greatly enhances bacterial tolerance to commonly used disinfectants as well as desiccation, which may contribute to survival of L. monocytogenes on contaminated food products and in food-processing facilities. The exopolysaccharide and another, as yet unknown c-di-GMP-dependent target, drastically decrease listerial invasiveness in enterocytes in vitro, and lower pathogen load in the liver and gallbladder of mice infected via an oral route, which suggests that elevated c-di-GMP levels play an overall negative role in listerial virulence. PMID:25101646

  1. Cytotoxic Activity and Apoptosis-Inducing Potential of Di-spiropyrrolidino and Di-spiropyrrolizidino Oxindole Andrographolide Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Hazra, Abhijit; Naskar, Subhendu; Nandy, Abhishek; Munda, Rudra Narayan; Das, Subhadip; Chatterjee, Nabanita; Mondal, Nirup Bikash; Banerjee, Sukdeb; Saha, Krishna Das

    2013-01-01

    Anticancer role of andrographolide is well documented. To find novel potent derivatives with improved cytotoxicity than andrographolide on cancer cells, two series of di-spiropyrrolidino- and di-spiropyrrolizidino oxindole andrographolide derivatives prepared by cyclo-addition of azomethine ylide along with sarcosine or proline (viz. sarcosine and proline series respectively) and substitution of different functional groups (-CH3, -OCH3 and halogens) were examined for their cytotoxic effect on a panel of six human cancer cell lines (colorectal carcinoma HCT116 cells, pancreatic carcinoma MiaPaCa-2 cells, hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells, cervical carcinoma HeLa cells, lung carcinoma A549 and melanoma A375 cells). Except halogen substituted derivatives of proline series (viz. CY2, CY14 and CY15 for Br, Cl and I substitution respectively), none of the other derivatives showed improved cytotoxicity than andrographolide in the cancer cell lines examined. Order of cytotoxicity of the potent compounds is CY2>CY14>CY15>andrographolide. Higher toxicity was observed in HCT116, MiaPaCa-2 and HepG2 cells. CY2, induced death of HCT116 (GI50 10.5), MiaPaCa-2 (GI50 11.2) and HepG2 (GI50 16.6) cells were associated with cell rounding, nuclear fragmentation and increased percentage of apoptotic cells, cell cycle arrest at G1 phase, ROS generation, and involvement of mitochondrial pathway. Upregulation of Bax, Bad, p53, caspases-3,-9 and cleaved PARP; downregulation of Bcl-2, cytosolic NF-κB p65, PI3K and p-Akt; translocation of P53/P21, NF-κB p65 were seen in CY2 treated HCT116 cells. Thus, three halogenated di-spiropyrrolizidino oxindole derivatives of andrographolide are found to be more cytotoxic than andrographolide in some cancer cells. The most potent derivative, CY2 induced death of the cancer cells involves ROS dependent mitochondrial pathway like andrographolide. PMID:23472133

  2. Cyclic Di-GMP Regulates Type IV Pilus-Dependent Motility in Myxococcus xanthus

    PubMed Central

    Skotnicka, Dorota; Petters, Tobias; Heering, Jan; Hoppert, Michael; Kaever, Volkhard

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The nucleotide-based second messenger bis-(3′-5′)-cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP) is involved in regulating a plethora of processes in bacteria that are typically associated with lifestyle changes. Myxococcus xanthus undergoes major lifestyle changes in response to nutrient availability, with the formation of spreading colonies in the presence of nutrients and spore-filled fruiting bodies in the absence of nutrients. Here, we investigated the function of c-di-GMP in M. xanthus and show that this bacterium synthesizes c-di-GMP during growth. Manipulation of the c-di-GMP level by expression of either an active, heterologous diguanylate cyclase or an active, heterologous phosphodiesterase correlated with defects in type IV pilus (T4P)-dependent motility, whereas gliding motility was unaffected. An increased level of c-di-GMP correlated with reduced transcription of the pilA gene (which encodes the major pilin of T4P), reduced the assembly of T4P, and altered cell agglutination, whereas a decreased c-di-GMP level correlated with altered cell agglutination. The systematic inactivation of the 24 genes in M. xanthus encoding proteins containing GGDEF, EAL, or HD-GYP domains, which are associated with c-di-GMP synthesis, degradation, or binding, identified three genes encoding proteins important for T4P-dependent motility, whereas all mutants had normal gliding motility. Purified DmxA had diguanylate cyclase activity, whereas the hybrid histidine protein kinases TmoK and SgmT, each of which contains a GGDEF domain, did not have diguanylate cyclase activity. These results demonstrate that c-di-GMP is important for T4P-dependent motility in M. xanthus. IMPORTANCE We provide the first direct evidence that M. xanthus synthesizes c-di-GMP and demonstrate that c-di-GMP is important for T4P-dependent motility, whereas we did not obtain evidence that c-di-GMP regulates gliding motility. The data presented uncovered a novel mechanism for regulation of T4P

  3. Crystal structures of di-chlorido-palladium(II), -platinum(II) and -rhodium(III) complexes containing 8-(di-phenyl-phosphan-yl)quinoline.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takayoshi; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Fujiki, Masayuki; Hashimoto, Akira; Takagi, Hideo D

    2015-05-01

    The crystal structures of di-chlorido-palladium(II), -platinum(II) and -rhodium(III) complexes containing 8-(di-phenyl-phosphan-yl)quinoline, (SP-4)-[PdCl2(C21H16NP)], (1) [systematic name: di-chlor-ido-(8-di-phenyl-phosphanyl-quinoline)-palladium(II)], (SP-4)-[PtCl2(C21H16NP)]·CH2Cl2, (2) [systematic name: di-chlorido-(8-di-phenyl-phos-phanyl-quinoline)-platinum(II) dichlorometh-ane monosolvate], and (OC-6-32)-[RhCl2(C21H16NP)2]PF6·0.5CH2Cl2·0.5CH3OH, (3) [systematic name: cis-di-chlor-ido-bis-(8-di-phenyl-phosphanyl-quinoline)-rhodium(III) hexa-fluorido-phos-phate di-chloro-methane/-methanol hemisolvate] are reported. In these complexes, the phosphanyl-quinoline acts as a bidentate ligand, forming a planar asymmetrical five-membered chelate ring. The palladium(II) and platinum(II) complex mol-ecules in (1) and (2), respectively, show a typical square-planar coordination geometry and form a dimeric structure through an inter-molecular π-π stacking inter-action between the quinolyl rings. The centroid-centroid distances between the stacked six-membered rings in (1) and (2) are 3.633 (2) and 3.644 (2) Å, respectively. The cationic rhodium(III) complex in (3) has a cis(Cl),cis(P),cis(N) (OC-6-32) configuration of the ligands, in which two kinds of intra-molecular π-π stacking inter-actions are observed: between the quinolyl and phenyl rings and between two phenyl rings, the centroid-centroid distances being 3.458 (2) and 3.717 (2) Å, respectively. The PF6 (-) anion in (3) is rotationally disordered, the site occupancies of each F atom being 0.613 (14) and 0.387 (14). The CH2Cl2 and CH3OH solvent mol-ecules are also disordered and equal site occupancies of 0.5 are assumed. PMID:25995852

  4. Exposure to di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate and bisphenol A through infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Cirillo, Teresa; Latini, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Maria Antonietta; Dipaola, Lucia; Fasano, Evelina; Esposito, Francesco; Scognamiglio, Gelsomina; Francesco, Fabio Di; Cobellis, Luigi

    2015-04-01

    Phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) are ubiquitous contaminants identified as endocrine disruptors. Phthalates are worldwide used as plasticizers, in particular to improve the mechanical properties of polymers such as polyvinyl chloride. Because they are not chemically bound to the polymer, they tend to leach out with time and use. Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) are the two most common phthalates. BPA is an estrogenic compound used to manufacture polycarbonate containers for food and drink, including baby bottles. It can migrate from container into foods, especially at elevated temperatures. Diet is a predominant source of exposure for phthalates and BPA, especially for infants. The aim of this study was to test the presence of DEHP, DnBP, and BPA in infant formulas. DEHP, DnBP, and BPA concentrations were measured in 22 liquid and 28 powder milks by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection and high performance liquid chromatography with fluorimetric detection, respectively. DEHP concentrations in our samples were between 0.005 and 5.088 μg/g (median 0.906 μg/g), DnBP concentrations were between 0.008 and 1.297 μg/g (median 0.053 μg/g), and BPA concentrations were between 0.003 and 0.375 μg/g (median 0.015 μg/g). Concentrations of the investigated contaminants in liquid and powder milks were not significantly different, even though samples were packed in different types of containers. These data point out potential hazards for infants fed with baby formulas. Contamination seems more related to the production of formulas than to a release from containers. PMID:25730646

  5. Cyclic dinucleotide (c-di-GMP, c-di-AMP, and cGAMP) signalings have come of age to be inhibited by small molecules.

    PubMed

    Opoku-Temeng, Clement; Zhou, Jie; Zheng, Yue; Su, Jianmei; Sintim, Herman O

    2016-08-01

    Bacteria utilize nucleotide-based second messengers to regulate a myriad of physiological processes. Cyclic dinucleotides have emerged as central regulators of bacterial physiology, controlling processes ranging from cell wall homeostasis to virulence production, and so far over thousands of manuscripts have provided biological insights into c-di-NMP signaling. The development of small molecule inhibitors of c-di-NMP signaling has significantly lagged behind. Recent developments in assays that allow for high-throughput screening of inhibitors suggest that the time is right for a concerted effort to identify inhibitors of these fascinating second messengers. Herein, we review c-di-NMP signaling and small molecules that have been developed to inhibit cyclic dinucleotide-related enzymes. PMID:27339003

  6. c-di-AMP recognition by Staphylococcus aureus PstA.

    PubMed

    Müller, Martina; Hopfner, Karl-Peter; Witte, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic-di-AMP (c-di-AMP) is a bacterial secondary messenger involved in various processes, including sensing of DNA-integrity, cell wall metabolism and potassium transport. A number of c-di-AMP receptor proteins have recently been identified in Staphylococcus aureus. One of them - PstA - possesses a ferredoxin-like fold and is structurally related to the class of PII signal-transduction proteins. PII proteins are involved in a large number of pathways, most of them associated with nitrogen metabolism. In this study we describe the mode of c-di-AMP binding and subsequent structural changes of S. aureus PstA. An altered architecture in PstA compared to canonical PII proteins results in differences in ligand coordination. PMID:25435171

  7. DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF DI- AND TETRACHLOROETHANE AND DICHLOROPROPANE IN EMBRYO CULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF DI- AND TETRACHLOROETHANE AND DICHLOROPROPANE IN EMBRYO CULTURE. JE Andrews, H Nichols, and ES Hunter. Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, USEPA, RTP, NC.

    Disinfection of drinking water with chlorine results in numerous chlorinated byprodu...

  8. The oxidation of 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yohe, G.R.; Dunbar, J.E.; Pedrotti, R.L.; Scheidt, F.M.; Lee, F.G.H.; Smith, E.C.

    1956-01-01

    The products formed in the oxidation of 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol with oxygen and sodium hydroxide at about 100?? are 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, trimethylacetic acid, an acidic compound C14H22O3, and probably 2,6-di-tert-butylbenzoquinone (which was actually isolated in the similar oxidation of the above-named benzaldehyde), in addition to compounds previously reported. Some of the properties of C14H22O3 are given, and the oxidation of it to 2,3-di-tert-butylsuccinic anhydride is described, but assignment of structure is reserved pending the completion of more experimental work.

  9. DECHLORINATION ACTIVITY (CROSS-ACCLIMATION) OF FRESHWATER SEDIMENTS ADAPTED TO MONO- AND DI-CHLOROPHENOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The reductive dechlorination of chlorophenols (CPs) in sediment slurries (10% solids) adapted to dechlorinate mono- and di-CPs (DCP) was investigated to define the regiospecificity of the dechlorination reaction. nadapted sediment slurries amended with various ortho-substituted C...

  10. Expression and Genetic Activation of Cyclic Di-GMP-Specific Phosphodiesterases in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Reinders, Alberto; Hee, Chee-Seng; Ozaki, Shogo; Mazur, Adam; Boehm, Alex; Schirmer, Tilman

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Intracellular levels of the bacterial second messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) are controlled by antagonistic activities of diguanylate cyclases and phosphodiesterases. The phosphodiesterase PdeH was identified as a key regulator of motility in Escherichia coli, while deletions of any of the other 12 genes encoding potential phosphodiesterases did not interfere with motility. To analyze the roles of E. coli phosphodiesterases, we demonstrated that most of these proteins are expressed under laboratory conditions. We next isolated suppressor mutations in six phosphodiesterase genes, which reinstate motility in the absence of PdeH by reducing cellular levels of c-di-GMP. Expression of all mutant alleles also led to a reduction of biofilm formation. Thus, all of these proteins are bona fide phosphodiesterases that are capable of interfering with different c-di-GMP-responsive output systems by affecting the global c-di-GMP pool. This argues that E. coli possesses several phosphodiesterases that are inactive under laboratory conditions because they lack appropriate input signals. Finally, one of these phosphodiesterases, PdeL, was studied in more detail. We demonstrated that this protein acts as a transcription factor to control its own expression. Motile suppressor alleles led to a strong increase of PdeL activity and elevated pdeL transcription, suggesting that enzymatic activity and transcriptional control are coupled. In agreement with this, we showed that overall cellular levels of c-di-GMP control pdeL transcription and that this control depends on PdeL itself. We thus propose that PdeL acts both as an enzyme and as a c-di-GMP sensor to couple transcriptional activity to the c-di-GMP status of the cell. IMPORTANCE Most bacteria possess multiple diguanylate cyclases and phosphodiesterases. Genetic studies have proposed that these enzymes show signaling specificity by contributing to distinct cellular processes without much cross talk. Thus, spatial

  11. BrlR from Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a c-di-GMP-responsive transcription factor

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Jacob R.; Liao, Julie; Schurr, Michael J.; Sauer, Karin

    2014-01-01

    The transcriptional regulator BrlR is a member of the MerR family of multidrug transport activators that contributes to the high-level drug tolerance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. While MerR regulators are known to activate both the expression of multidrug efflux pump genes and their own transcription upon inducer-binding, little is known about BrlR activation. We demonstrate using promoter reporter strains, in vivo and in vitro DNA-binding assays combined with 5’RACE, that BrlR binds to its own promoter, likely via a MerR-like palindromic sequence. Unlike known MerR multidrug transport activators, BrlR and brlR expression are not activated by multidrug transporter substrates. Instead, BrlR-DNA binding was enhanced by the secondary messenger c-di-GMP. In addition to enhanced BrlR-DNA binding, c-di-GMP levels contributed to PbrlR promoter activity in initial attached cells with elevated c-di-GMP levels correlating with increased expression of brlR. While not harboring amino acid motifs resembling previously defined c-di-GMP-binding domains, BrlR was found to bind c-di-GMP in vitro at a ratio of one c-di-GMP per two BrlR. Crosslinking assays confirmed dimer formation to be enhanced in the presence of elevated c-di-GMP levels. Our findings demonstrate BrlR to be an unusual MerR-family member in that BrlR function and expression require the secondary messenger c-di-GMP. PMID:24612375

  12. Hyperpigmentation mechanism of methyl 3,5-di-caffeoylquinate through activation of p38 and MITF induction of tyrosinase.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyo Jung; Kim, Jin Sook; Woo, Je-Tae; Lee, Ik-Soo; Cha, Byung-Yoon

    2015-07-01

    Methyl 3,5-di-caffeoylquinate (3,5-diCQM) has been used for the treatment of various diseases in oriental medicine, but its effect on melanogenesis has not been reported yet. In this study, the molecular mechanism of 3,5-diCQM-induced melanogenesis was investigated. It was found that 3,5-diCQM induced synthesis of melanin pigments in murine B16F10 melanoma cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Treatment of cells with 3,5-diCQM for 48 h increased extracellular and intracellular melanin production and tyrosinase activity. The expressions of tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP1), and TRP2 were up-regulated in a dose-dependent manner 48 h after 3,5-diCQM treatment. Western blot analysis showed that 3,5-diCQM increased the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and cAMP responsive element binding as well as the expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor. In addition, 3,5-diCQM-stimulated cAMP production, and 3,5-diCQM-induced tyrosinase activity and melanin synthesis were attenuated by H89, a protein kinase A inhibitor. These results suggested that 3,5-diCQM-mediated activation of the p38 pathway may represent a novel approach for an effective therapy for vitiligo and hair graying. PMID:26018825

  13. An HD-domain phosphodiesterase mediates cooperative hydrolysis of c-di-AMP to affect bacterial growth and virulence

    PubMed Central

    Huynh, TuAnh Ngoc; Luo, Shukun; Pensinger, Daniel; Sauer, John-Demian; Tong, Liang; Woodward, Joshua J.

    2015-01-01

    The nucleotide cyclic di-3′,5′- adenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) was recently identified as an essential and widespread second messenger in bacterial signaling. Among c-di-AMP–producing bacteria, altered nucleotide levels result in several physiological defects and attenuated virulence. Thus, a detailed molecular understanding of c-di-AMP metabolism is of both fundamental and practical interest. Currently, c-di-AMP degradation is recognized solely among DHH-DHHA1 domain-containing phosphodiesterases. Using chemical proteomics, we identified the Listeria monocytogenes protein PgpH as a molecular target of c-di-AMP. Biochemical and structural studies revealed that the PgpH His-Asp (HD) domain bound c-di-AMP with high affinity and specifically hydrolyzed this nucleotide to 5′-pApA. PgpH hydrolysis activity was inhibited by ppGpp, indicating a cross-talk between c-di-AMP signaling and the stringent response. Genetic analyses supported coordinated regulation of c-di-AMP levels in and out of the host. Intriguingly, a L. monocytogenes mutant that lacks c-di-AMP phosphodiesterases exhibited elevated c-di-AMP levels, hyperinduced a host type-I IFN response, and was significantly attenuated for infection. Furthermore, PgpH homologs, which belong to the 7TMR-HD family, are widespread among hundreds of c-di-AMP synthesizing microorganisms. Thus, PgpH represents a broadly conserved class of c-di-AMP phosphodiesterase with possibly other physiological functions in this crucial signaling network. PMID:25583510

  14. Structural insights into recognition of c-di-AMP by the ydaO riboswitch.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ang; Serganov, Alexander

    2014-09-01

    Bacterial second messenger cyclic di-AMP (c-di-AMP) is implicated in signaling DNA damage and cell wall stress through interactions with several protein receptors and a widespread ydaO-type riboswitch. We report the crystal structures of c-di-AMP riboswitches from Thermoanaerobacter pseudethanolicus and Thermovirga lienii determined at ∼3.0-Å resolution. In both species, the RNA adopts an unforeseen 'square'-shaped pseudosymmetrical architecture that features two three-way junctions, a turn and a pseudoknot, positioned in the square corners. Uncharacteristically for riboswitches, the structure is stapled by two ligand molecules that span the interior of the structure and employ similar noncanonical interactions for RNA recognition. Mutations in either ligand-binding site negatively affect c-di-AMP binding, suggesting that the riboswitch-triggered genetic response requires contribution of both ligands. Our data provide what are to our knowledge the first insights into specific sensing of c-di-AMP and a molecular mechanism underlying the common c-di-AMP-dependent control of essential cellular processes in bacteria. PMID:25086507

  15. Cyclic-di-GMP signalling regulates motility and biofilm formation in Bordetella bronchiseptica

    PubMed Central

    Sisti, Federico; Ha, Dae-Gon; O'Toole, George A.; Hozbor, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    The signalling molecule bis-(3′–5′)-cyclic-dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) is a central regulator of diverse cellular functions, including motility, biofilm formation, cell cycle progression and virulence, in bacteria. Multiple diguanylate cyclase and phosphodiesterase-domain-containing proteins (GGDEF and EAL/HD-GYP, respectively) modulate the levels of the second messenger c-di-GMP to transmit signals and obtain such specific cellular responses. In the genus Bordetella this c-di-GMP network is poorly studied. In this work, we evaluated the expression of two phenotypes in Bordetella bronchiseptica regulated by c-di-GMP, biofilm formation and motility, under the influence of ectopic expression of Pseudomonas aeruginosa proteins with EAL or GGDEF domains that regulates the c-di-GMP level. In agreement with previous reports for other bacteria, we observed that B. bronchiseptica is able to form biofilm and reduce its motility only when GGDEF domain protein is expressed. Moreover we identify a GGDEF domain protein (BB3576) with diguanylate cyclase activity that participates in motility and biofilm regulation in B. bronchiseptica. These results demonstrate for the first time, to our knowledge, the presence of c-di-GMP regulatory signalling in B. bronchiseptica. PMID:23475948

  16. Structural Basis for c-di-GMP-Mediated Inside-Out Signaling Controlling Periplasmic Proteolysis

    PubMed Central

    Madden, Dean R.; O'Toole, George A.; Sondermann, Holger

    2011-01-01

    The bacterial second messenger bis-(3′–5′) cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) has emerged as a central regulator for biofilm formation. Increased cellular c-di-GMP levels lead to stable cell attachment, which in Pseudomonas fluorescens requires the transmembrane receptor LapD. LapD exhibits a conserved and widely used modular architecture containing a HAMP domain and degenerate diguanylate cyclase and phosphodiesterase domains. c-di-GMP binding to the LapD degenerate phosphodiesterase domain is communicated via the HAMP relay to the periplasmic domain, triggering sequestration of the protease LapG, thus preventing cleavage of the surface adhesin LapA. Here, we elucidate the molecular mechanism of autoinhibition and activation of LapD based on structure–function analyses and crystal structures of the entire periplasmic domain and the intracellular signaling unit in two different states. In the absence of c-di-GMP, the intracellular module assumes an inactive conformation. Binding of c-di-GMP to the phosphodiesterase domain disrupts the inactive state, permitting the formation of a trans-subunit dimer interface between adjacent phosphodiesterase domains via interactions conserved in c-di-GMP-degrading enzymes. Efficient mechanical coupling of the conformational changes across the membrane is realized through an extensively domain-swapped, unique periplasmic fold. Our structural and functional analyses identified a conserved system for the regulation of periplasmic proteases in a wide variety of bacteria, including many free-living and pathogenic species. PMID:21304926

  17. Bacterial Signal Transduction by Cyclic Di-GMP and Other Nucleotide Second Messengers

    PubMed Central

    Gründling, Angelika; Jenal, Urs; Ryan, Robert; Yildiz, Fitnat

    2015-01-01

    The first International Symposium on c-Di-GMP Signaling in Bacteria (22 to 25 March 2015, Harnack-Haus, Berlin, Germany) brought together 131 molecular microbiologists from 17 countries to discuss recent progress in our knowledge of bacterial nucleotide second messenger signaling. While the focus was on signal input, synthesis, degradation, and the striking diversity of the modes of action of the current second messenger paradigm, i.e., cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP), “classics” like cAMP and (p)ppGpp were also presented, in novel facets, and more recent “newcomers,” such as c-di-AMP and c-AMP-GMP, made an impressive appearance. A number of clear trends emerged during the 30 talks, on the 71 posters, and in the lively discussions, including (i) c-di-GMP control of the activities of various ATPases and phosphorylation cascades, (ii) extensive cross talk between c-di-GMP and other nucleotide second messenger signaling pathways, and (iii) a stunning number of novel effectors for nucleotide second messengers that surprisingly include some long-known master regulators of developmental pathways. Overall, the conference made it amply clear that second messenger signaling is currently one of the most dynamic fields within molecular microbiology, with major impacts in research fields ranging from human health to microbial ecology. PMID:26055111

  18. Cyclic di-GMP signalling in the virulence and environmental adaptation of Xanthomonas campestris.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Robert P; Fouhy, Yvonne; Lucey, Jean F; Jiang, Bo-Le; He, Yong-Qiang; Feng, Jia-Xun; Tang, Ji-Liang; Dow, J Maxwell

    2007-01-01

    Cyclic di-GMP is a second messenger with a role in regulation of a range of cellular functions in diverse bacteria including the virulence of pathogens. Cellular levels of cyclic di-GMP are controlled through synthesis, catalysed by the GGDEF protein domain, and degradation by EAL or HD-GYP domains. Here we report a comprehensive study of cyclic di-GMP signalling in bacterial disease in which we examine the contribution of all proteins with GGDEF, EAL or HD-GYP domains to virulence and virulence factor production in the phytopathogen Xanthomonas campestris pathovar campestris (Xcc). Genes with significant roles in virulence to plants included those encoding proteins whose probable function is in cyclic-di-GMP synthesis as well as others (including the HD-GYP domain regulator RpfG) implicated in cyclic di-GMP degradation. Furthermore, RpfG controlled expression of a subset of these genes. A partially overlapping set of elements controlled the production of virulence factors in vitro. Other GGDEF-EAL domain proteins had no effect on virulence factor synthesis but did influence motility. These findings indicate the existence of a regulatory network that may allow Xcc to integrate information from diverse environmental inputs to modulate virulence factor synthesis as well as of cyclic di-GMP signalling systems dedicated to other specific tasks. PMID:17241199

  19. Identification of ligand analogues that control c-di-GMP riboswitches.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Kazuhiro; Gu, Hongzhou; Sudarsan, Narasimhan; Hayakawa, Yoshihiro; Hyodo, Mamoru; Breaker, Ronald R

    2012-08-17

    Riboswitches for the bacterial second messenger c-di-GMP control the expression of genes involved in numerous cellular processes such as virulence, competence, biofilm formation, and flagella synthesis. Therefore, the two known c-di-GMP riboswitch classes represent promising targets for developing novel modulators of bacterial physiology. Here, we examine the binding characteristics of circular and linear c-di-GMP analogues for representatives of both class I and II c-di-GMP riboswitches derived from the pathogenic bacterium Vibrio choleae (class I) and Clostridium difficile (class II). Some compounds exhibit values for apparent dissociation constant (K(D)) below 1 μM and associate with riboswitch RNAs during transcription with a speed that is sufficient to influence riboswitch function. These findings are consistent with the published structural models for these riboswitches and suggest that large modifications at various positions on the ligand can be made to create novel compounds that target c-di-GMP riboswitches. Moreover, we demonstrate the potential of an engineered allosteric ribozyme for the rapid screening of chemical libraries for compounds that bind c-di-GMP riboswitches. PMID:22646696

  20. Bacterial Signal Transduction by Cyclic Di-GMP and Other Nucleotide Second Messengers.

    PubMed

    Hengge, Regine; Gründling, Angelika; Jenal, Urs; Ryan, Robert; Yildiz, Fitnat

    2016-01-01

    The first International Symposium on c-Di-GMP Signaling in Bacteria (22 to 25 March 2015, Harnack-Haus, Berlin, Germany)brought together 131 molecular microbiologists from 17 countries to discuss recent progress in our knowledge of bacterial nucleotide second messenger signaling. While the focus was on signal input, synthesis, degradation, and the striking diversity of the modes of action of the current second messenger paradigm, i.e., cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP), “classics” like cAMP and (p)ppGpp were also presented, in novel facets, and more recent “newcomers,” such as c-di-AMP and c-AMP-GMP, made an impressive appearance. A number of clear trends emerged during the 30 talks, on the 71 posters, and in the lively discussions, including (i)c-di-GMP control of the activities of various ATPases and phosphorylation cascades, (ii) extensive cross talk between c-di-GMP and other nucleotide second messenger signaling pathways, and (iii) a stunning number of novel effectors for nucleotide second messengers that surprisingly include some long-known master regulators of developmental pathways. Overall, the conference made it amply clear that second messenger signaling is currently one of the most dynamic fields within molecular microbiology,with major impacts in research fields ranging from human health to microbial ecology. PMID:26055111

  1. Recent development of drastically innovative BSCCO wire (DI-BISCCO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, M.; Kato, T.; Ohkura, K.; Ayai, N.; Fujikami, J.; Fujino, K.; Kobayashi, S.; Ueno, E.; Yamazaki, K.; Yamade, S.; Hayashi, K.; Sato, K.; Nagai, T.; Matsui, Y.

    2006-10-01

    Up to this day, Ag-sheathed Bi2223 superconducting wires have been widely investigated and the long wires about 1000 m have been produced by using powder-in-tube (PIT) method on a commercial basis in the various facilities or companies. Although the wires are used for some applications such as HTS cables, magnets, motor and so on, the Bi2223 wires not only require much more improvements of the superconducting properties such as critical current, mechanical properties, but also longer and more uniform wires. Recently, the performances of Bi2223 wires have been drastically improved by using Controlled Over Pressure (CT-OP) sintering process. CT-OP process increased critical current (Ic) by more than 60% at 77 K and self field and improved the mechanical strength by more than 70%. The maximum Ic was increased up to 166 A. These drastic improvements were caused by the higher density of Bi2223 filament up to almost 100% and better connectivity of the Bi2223 grains. The dense structure of the Bi2223 filaments prevents the ballooning phenomenon which is caused by the gasification of the trapped liquid nitrogen during temperature rise. Additionally, higher uniformity and higher production yield of long length wire were also achieved by exterminating defects during sintering. These high performance levels in CT-OP wires have contributed commercial level applications. We call as Drastically Innovative BSCCO (DI-BSCCO).

  2. Skin permeation and metabolism of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP).

    PubMed

    Hopf, N B; Berthet, A; Vernez, D; Langard, E; Spring, P; Gaudin, R

    2014-01-01

    Phthalates are suspected to be endocrine disruptors. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is assumed to have low dermal absorption; however, previous in vitro skin permeation studies have shown large permeation differences. Our aims were to determine DEHP permeation parameters and assess extent of skin DEHP metabolism among workers highly exposed to these lipophilic, low volatile substances. Surgically removed skin from patients undergoing abdominoplasty was immediately dermatomed (800 μm) and mounted on flow-through diffusion cells (1.77 cm(2)) operating at 32°C with cell culture media (aqueous solution) as the reservoir liquid. The cells were dosed either with neat DEHP or emulsified in aqueous solution (166 μg/ml). Samples were analysed by HPLC-MS/MS. DEHP permeated human viable skin only as the metabolite MEHP (100%) after 8h of exposure. Human skin was able to further oxidize MEHP to 5-oxo-MEHP. Neat DEHP applied to the skin hardly permeated skin while the aqueous solution readily permeated skin measured in both cases as concentration of MEHP in the receptor liquid. DEHP pass through human skin, detected as MEHP only when emulsified in aqueous solution, and to a far lesser degree when applied neat to the skin. Using results from older in vitro skin permeation studies with non-viable skin may underestimate skin exposures. Our results are in overall agreement with newer phthalate skin permeation studies. PMID:24140552

  3. Francium sources at Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro: Design and performance

    SciTech Connect

    Stancari, G.; Veronesi, S.; Corradi, L.; Atutov, S.N.; Calabrese, R.; Dainelli, A.; Mariotti, E.; Moi, L.; Sanguinetti, S.; Tomassetti, L.

    2006-03-15

    A facility for the production of radioactive francium is operating at the laboratories of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) in Legnaro, Italy. The goal is to collect a cold sample of radioactive atoms in a magneto-optical trap for studies in atomic, nuclear, and particle physics. Production of francium is achieved via the fusion-evaporation reaction {sup 197}Au({sup 18}O,kn){sup 215-k}Fr generated by a {approx}100-MeV {sup 18}O{sup 6+} beam on a thick gold target. The production target is heated to {approx}1200 K and kept at a potential of +3 kV to enhance Fr diffusion and surface desorption. Average production rates are 0.7x10{sup 6} ions/s for {sup 210}Fr with a primary beam flux of 10{sup 12} particles/s, with peaks of 2x10{sup 6} ions/s. Details are given on the design and construction of the production targets and on the measurements that characterize their performance.

  4. Mono-, Di-, or Trimorphism in Black Sea Ammonia sp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altenbach, Alexander V.; Bassler, Barbara

    2014-05-01

    For the genus Ammonia, the size of proloculi was considered one of the valuable taxonomic landmarks, although it may split in first alternating generations. We analysed 140 living (stained) tests of Ammonia sp. from the outer shelf of the Black Sea, collected from 5 stations on a depth gradient (138 to 206 m water depth). Samples were treated by standard technologies, such as live staining, wet sieving, volume detection, counts, and measures by light microscopy. The size of the proloculi was detected, extended by biometric characterisations of 11 measures, 5 qualitative characters, and 4 numerical ratios. Surprisingly, the multitude of test parameters allows the definition of either one highly variable taxon, or several species, or either di- or trimorphism, exclusively resulting from the definition of 'decisive' or 'neglectable' parameters, or parameter subsets. We followed the general taxonomic definition for the species of the genera, and applied, discussed and rejected published criteria considered as taxonomically important. Surprisingly, in result none of the species described hitherto fully correlates with the morphological roundup observed. It is a new species. This conclusion mainly results from the balance of all morphologies, and not from the selection of an ultimate subset.

  5. Forward di-jet production in dilute-dense collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petreska, E.; Kotko, P.; Kutak, K.; Marquet, C.; Sapeta, S.; van Hameren, A.

    2016-03-01

    We derive a factorization formula for forward production of two jets in dilutedense collisions that is valid for an arbitrary value of the momentum imbalance of the jets, kt. This generalizes the transverse momentum dependent (TMD) factorization formula that has been derived before by Dominguez et al. Their formula is valid only for small values of the transverse momentum of the small-x gluon from the target; it has kt dependent TMD gluon distributions, but on-shell hard matrix elements. We extend the TMD formula to all ranges of kt by including off-shell matrix elements. We also add finite Nc corrections. The new formula encompasses both, the TMD factorization for small kt on the order of the saturation scale, and the High Energy Factorization (HEF) for large kt on the order of the momentum of the jets. The TMD and HEF factorizations can be derived from the Color Glass Condensate (CGC) formula for forward di-jet production in the appropriate limits. We show explicitly the equivalence of HEF and CGC in the dilute target approximation.

  6. Biotransformation of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate by rainbow trout

    SciTech Connect

    Barron, M.G.; Hayton, W.L.

    1995-05-01

    The biotransformation of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) was studied in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) following intravascular administration. Methyl-esterified metabolites were identified using rodent-derived standards and non-linear gradient elution HPLC; metabolites were confirmed by gas chromatography. Similarities between the biotransformation of DEHP by rainbow trout and mammalian species included (a) mono-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) appeared to be the obligatory first step in DEHP metabolism; (b) the phthalate ring was not oxidized; (c) phthalic acid was a minor metabolite; and (d) several metabolites contained multiple oxidations of the 2-ethylhexyl moiety of MEHP. No metabolites unique to rainbow trout were identified. However, fewer oxidized metabolites were identified in rainbow trout than in mammalian species, possibly due to limited mitochondrial metabolism of MEHP in rainbow trout. The amount of biliary MEHP glucuronide after intravascular administration of DEHP was substantially less than reported in rainbow trout exposed to DEHP via the water. Results confirmed that DEHP metabolism in rainbow trout proceeds by initial rapid formation of MEHP, followed by excretion or extensive oxidation by microsomal P450.

  7. 3,6-diHydroxyflavone/bovine serum albumin interaction in cyclodextrin medium: Absorption and emission monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voicescu, Mariana; Bandula, Rodica

    2015-03-01

    Photophysical properties of a bioactive flavonol which can be used as a model for polyhydroxylated natural flavonols, 3,6-diHydroxyflavone (3,6-diHF) in cyclodextrins (CDs)/bovine serum albumin (BSA) systems have been studied by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. The influence of CDs nature and of the different molar ratios BSA/CDs on the fluorescent characteristics of 3,6-diHF, and on the excited - state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) process were studied. Quantitative information on the interaction between 3,6-diHF and BSA in CDs medium, were estimated. The influence of temperature (25-60 °C range) on the intrinsic fluorescence of BSA in 3,6-diHF/BSA/CDs systems, was investigated. The results are discussed with relevance to 3,6-diHF as a potential sensitive fluorescence probe in the systems of biological interest.

  8. [Relationship between geopolitical political structure and distribution of dao-di herbs in frontier provinces of China].

    PubMed

    Peng, Hua-Sheng; Hao, Jin-Da; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2013-09-01

    Dao-di herbs have both natural and humanistic attribute. Geopolitical political structure of Northeast, Mongolian, Xinjiang, Tibet, Yunnan and Guangxi provinces form frontier inland of China were summarized in this paper. The relationship between distribution of the Dao-di herbs and geopolitical political structure in above-mentioned provinces were described. In a strict sense, humanistic attribute of Dao-di herbs belonged to medical culture of Han Nationality. Distribution range of Dao-di herbs was determined by sphere of influence of central plains dynasty. Development of Dao-di herbs in the frontier inland area was unbalanced. The relationship between distribution of Dao-di herbs and geopolitical political structure proofed that natural attribute and humanistic attribute were inseparable. Recognition of this relationship is helpful to understand and develop genuine medicinal materials in frontier provinces. PMID:24380321

  9. Crystal structure of creatininium 5-(2,4-di-nitro-phen-yl)-1,3-di-methyl-barbiturate monohydrate: a potential anti-convulsant agent.

    PubMed

    Poornima Devi, Ponnusamy; Kalaivani, Doraisamyraja

    2016-05-01

    In the anion of the title hydrated mol-ecular salt, C4H8N3O(+)·C12H9N4O7 (-)·H2O [systematic name: 2-amino-1-methyl-4-oxo-4,5-di-hydro-1H-imidazol-3-ium 5-(2,4-di-nitro-phen-yl)-1,3-dimethyl-2,6-dioxo-1,2,3,6-tetra-hydro-pyrimidin-4-olate monohydrate], the 2,4-di-nitro-phenyl ring is inclined to the mean plane of the pyrimidine ring [r.m.s. deviation = 0.37 Å] by 43.24 (8)°. The five-membered ring of the creatininium cation (2-amino-1-methyl-4-oxo-4,5-di-hydro-1H-imidazol-3-ium) is essentially planar with an r.m.s. deviation of 0.015 Å. In the crystal, the anions and cations are linked via N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming sheets parallel to the ab plane. The sheets are linked via O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds involving the water mol-ecule, forming a three-dimensional framework. Within the framework, there are C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds present. The title mol-ecular salt displays anti-convulsant and hypnotic activities. PMID:27308003

  10. 40 CFR 721.10325 - Cyclosilazanes, di-Me, Me hydrogen, polymers with di-Me, Me hydrogen silazanes, reaction products...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., reaction products with 3-(triethoxysilyl)-1-propanamine. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses..., polymers with di-Me, Me hydrogen silazanes, reaction products with 3-(triethoxysilyl)-1-propanamine. 721... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific...

  11. A jack of all trades: the multiple roles of the unique essential second messenger cyclic di-AMP.

    PubMed

    Commichau, Fabian M; Dickmanns, Achim; Gundlach, Jan; Ficner, Ralf; Stülke, Jörg

    2015-07-01

    Second messengers are key components of many signal transduction pathways. In addition to cyclic AMP, ppGpp and cyclic di-GMP, many bacteria use also cyclic di-AMP as a second messenger. This molecule is synthesized by distinct classes of diadenylate cyclases and degraded by phosphodiesterases. The control of the intracellular c-di-AMP pool is very important since both a lack of this molecule and its accumulation can inhibit growth of the bacteria. In many firmicutes, c-di-AMP is essential, making it the only known essential second messenger. Cyclic di-AMP is implicated in a variety of functions in the cell, including cell wall metabolism, potassium homeostasis, DNA repair and the control of gene expression. To understand the molecular mechanisms behind these functions, targets of c-di-AMP have been identified and characterized. Interestingly, c-di-AMP can bind both proteins and RNA molecules. Several proteins that interact with c-di-AMP are required to control the intracellular potassium concentration. In Bacillus subtilis, c-di-AMP also binds a riboswitch that controls the expression of a potassium transporter. Thus, c-di-AMP is the only known second messenger that controls a biological process by interacting with both a protein and the riboswitch that regulates its expression. Moreover, in Listeria monocytogenes c-di-AMP controls the activity of pyruvate carboxylase, an enzyme that is required to replenish the citric acid cycle. Here, we review the components of the c-di-AMP signaling system. PMID:25869574

  12. DhhP, a cyclic di-AMP phosphodiesterase of Borrelia burgdorferi, is essential for cell growth and virulence.

    PubMed

    Ye, Meiping; Zhang, Jun-Jie; Fang, Xin; Lawlis, Gavin B; Troxell, Bryan; Zhou, Yan; Gomelsky, Mark; Lou, Yongliang; Yang, X Frank

    2014-05-01

    Cyclic di-AMP (c-di-AMP) is a recently discovered second messenger in bacteria. Most of work on c-di-AMP signaling has been done in Gram-positive bacteria, firmicutes, and actinobacteria, where c-di-AMP signaling pathways affect potassium transport, cell wall structure, and antibiotic resistance. Little is known about c-di-AMP signaling in other bacteria. Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, is a spirochete that has a Gram-negative dual membrane. In this study, we demonstrated that B. burgdorferi BB0619, a DHH-DHHA1 domain protein (herein designated DhhP), functions as c-di-AMP phosphodiesterase. Recombinant DhhP hydrolyzed c-di-AMP to pApA in a Mn(2+)- or Mg(2+)-dependent manner. In contrast to c-di-AMP phosphodiesterases reported thus far, DhhP appears to be essential for B. burgdorferi growth both in vitro and in the mammalian host. Inactivation of the chromosomal dhhP gene could be achieved only in the presence of a plasmid-encoded inducible dhhP gene. The conditional dhhP mutant had a dramatic increase in intracellular c-di-AMP level in comparison to the isogenic wild-type strain. Unlike what has been observed in Gram-positive bacteria, elevated cellular c-di-AMP in B. burgdorferi did not result in an increased resistance to β-lactamase antibiotics, suggesting that c-di-AMP's functions in spirochetes differ from those in Gram-positive bacteria. In addition, the dhhP mutant was defective in induction of the σ(S) factor, RpoS, and the RpoS-dependent outer membrane virulence factor OspC, which uncovers an important role of c-di-AMP in B. burgdorferi virulence. PMID:24566626

  13. DhhP, a Cyclic di-AMP Phosphodiesterase of Borrelia burgdorferi, Is Essential for Cell Growth and Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Meiping; Zhang, Jun-Jie; Fang, Xin; Lawlis, Gavin B.; Troxell, Bryan; Zhou, Yan; Gomelsky, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Cyclic di-AMP (c-di-AMP) is a recently discovered second messenger in bacteria. Most of work on c-di-AMP signaling has been done in Gram-positive bacteria, firmicutes, and actinobacteria, where c-di-AMP signaling pathways affect potassium transport, cell wall structure, and antibiotic resistance. Little is known about c-di-AMP signaling in other bacteria. Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, is a spirochete that has a Gram-negative dual membrane. In this study, we demonstrated that B. burgdorferi BB0619, a DHH-DHHA1 domain protein (herein designated DhhP), functions as c-di-AMP phosphodiesterase. Recombinant DhhP hydrolyzed c-di-AMP to pApA in a Mn2+- or Mg2+-dependent manner. In contrast to c-di-AMP phosphodiesterases reported thus far, DhhP appears to be essential for B. burgdorferi growth both in vitro and in the mammalian host. Inactivation of the chromosomal dhhP gene could be achieved only in the presence of a plasmid-encoded inducible dhhP gene. The conditional dhhP mutant had a dramatic increase in intracellular c-di-AMP level in comparison to the isogenic wild-type strain. Unlike what has been observed in Gram-positive bacteria, elevated cellular c-di-AMP in B. burgdorferi did not result in an increased resistance to β-lactamase antibiotics, suggesting that c-di-AMP's functions in spirochetes differ from those in Gram-positive bacteria. In addition, the dhhP mutant was defective in induction of the σS factor, RpoS, and the RpoS-dependent outer membrane virulence factor OspC, which uncovers an important role of c-di-AMP in B. burgdorferi virulence. PMID:24566626

  14. Nuclease-resistant c-di-AMP derivatives that differentially recognize RNA and protein receptors

    PubMed Central

    Meehan, Robert E.; Torgerson, Chad D.; Gaffney, Barbara L.; Jones, Roger A.; Strobel, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    The ability of bacteria to sense environmental cues and adapt is essential for their survival. The use of second-messenger signaling molecules to translate these cues into a physiological response is a common mechanism employed by bacteria. The second messenger 3’-5’-cyclic diadenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) has been linked to a diverse set of biological processes involved in maintaining cell viability and homeostasis, as well as pathogenicity. A complex network of both protein and RNA receptors inside the cell activate specific pathways and mediate phenotypic outputs in response to c-di-AMP. Structural analysis of these RNA and protein receptors has revealed the different recognition elements employed by these effectors to bind the same small molecule. Herein, using a series of c-di-AMP analogs, we probed the interactions made with a riboswitch and a phosphodiesterase protein to identify the features important for c-di-AMP binding and recognition. We found that the ydaO riboswitch binds c-di-AMP in two discrete sites with near identical affinity and a Hill coefficient of 1.6. The ydaO riboswitch distinguishes between c-di-AMP and structurally related second messengers by discriminating against an amine at the C2 position, more than a carbonyl at the C6 position. We also identified phosphate-modified analogs that bind both the ydaO RNA and GdpP protein with high affinity, while symmetrically-modified ribose analogs exhibited a substantial decrease in ydaO affinity, but retained high affinity for GdpP. These ligand modifications resulted in increased resistance to enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis by the GdpP enzyme. Together, these data suggest that these c-di-AMP analogs could be useful as chemical tools to specifically target subsections of the second-messenger signaling pathways. PMID:26789423

  15. Pyrosequencing with di-base addition for single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping.

    PubMed

    Pu, Dan; Mao, Chengguang; Cui, Lunbiao; Shi, Zhiyang; Xiao, Pengfeng

    2016-05-01

    We develop color code-based pyrosequencing with di-base addition for analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). When a di-base is added into the polymerization, one or several two-color code(s) containing the type and the number of incorporated nucleotides will be produced. The code information obtained in a single run is useful to genotype SNPs as each allelic variant will give a specific pattern compared to the two other variants. Special care has to be taken while designing the di-base dispensation order. Here, we present a detailed protocol for establishing sequence-specific di-base addition to avoid nonsynchronous extension at the SNP sites. By using this technology, as few as 50 copies of DNA templates were accurately sequenced. Higher signals were produced and thus a relatively lower sample amount was required. Furthermore, the read length of per flow was increased, making simultaneous identification of multiple SNPs in a single sequencing run possible. Validation of the method was performed by using templates with two SNPs covering 37 bp and with three SNPs covering 58 bp as well as 82 bp. These SNPs were successfully genotyped by using only a sequencing primer in a single PCR/sequencing run. Our results demonstrated that this technology could be potentially developed into a powerful methodology to accurately determine SNPs so as to diagnose clinical settings. Graphical Abstract Conventional pyrosequencing adds one base (A, G, C, or T) at a time to determine the SNP site (left). Pyrosequencing with di-base addition adds di-base AG, AC, AT, CT, GC or GT at a time to determine the SNP site (right). Higher signals at SNP site will be produced due to the addition of di-bases. PMID:26935928

  16. Nuclease-Resistant c-di-AMP Derivatives That Differentially Recognize RNA and Protein Receptors.

    PubMed

    Meehan, Robert E; Torgerson, Chad D; Gaffney, Barbara L; Jones, Roger A; Strobel, Scott A

    2016-02-16

    The ability of bacteria to sense environmental cues and adapt is essential for their survival. The use of second-messenger signaling molecules to translate these cues into a physiological response is a common mechanism employed by bacteria. The second messenger 3'-5'-cyclic diadenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) has been linked to a diverse set of biological processes involved in maintaining cell viability and homeostasis, as well as pathogenicity. A complex network of both protein and RNA receptors inside the cell activates specific pathways and mediates phenotypic outputs in response to c-di-AMP. Structural analysis of these RNA and protein receptors has revealed the different recognition elements employed by these effectors to bind the same small molecule. Herein, using a series of c-di-AMP analogues, we probed the interactions made with a riboswitch and a phosphodiesterase protein to identify the features important for c-di-AMP binding and recognition. We found that the ydaO riboswitch binds c-di-AMP in two discrete sites with near identical affinity and a Hill coefficient of 1.6. The ydaO riboswitch distinguishes between c-di-AMP and structurally related second messengers by discriminating against an amine at the C2 position more than a carbonyl at the C6 position. We also identified phosphate-modified analogues that bind both the ydaO RNA and GdpP protein with high affinity, whereas symmetrically modified ribose analogues exhibited a substantial decrease in ydaO affinity but retained high affinity for GdpP. These ligand modifications resulted in increased resistance to enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis by the GdpP enzyme. Together, these data suggest that these c-di-AMP analogues could be useful as chemical tools to specifically target subsections of second-messenger signaling pathways. PMID:26789423

  17. A minimalist biosensor: Quantitation of cyclic di-GMP using the conformational change of a riboswitch aptamer

    PubMed Central

    Kellenberger, Colleen A; Sales-Lee, Jade; Pan, Yuchen; Gassaway, Madalee M; Herr, Amy E; Hammond, Ming C

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) is a second messenger that is important in regulating bacterial physiology and behavior, including motility and virulence. Many questions remain about the role and regulation of this signaling molecule, but current methods of detection are limited by either modest sensitivity or requirements for extensive sample purification. We have taken advantage of a natural, high affinity receptor of c-di-GMP, the Vc2 riboswitch aptamer, to develop a sensitive and rapid electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) for c-di-GMP quantitation that required minimal engineering of the RNA. PMID:26114964

  18. Nucleotide binding by the widespread high-affinity cyclic di-GMP receptor MshEN domain.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Chuan; Chin, Ko-Hsin; Tu, Zhi-Le; He, Jin; Jones, Christopher J; Sanchez, David Zamorano; Yildiz, Fitnat H; Galperin, Michael Y; Chou, Shan-Ho

    2016-01-01

    C-di-GMP is a bacterial second messenger regulating various cellular functions. Many bacteria contain c-di-GMP-metabolizing enzymes but lack known c-di-GMP receptors. Recently, two MshE-type ATPases associated with bacterial type II secretion system and type IV pilus formation were shown to specifically bind c-di-GMP. Here we report crystal structure of the MshE N-terminal domain (MshEN1-145) from Vibrio cholerae in complex with c-di-GMP at a 1.37 Å resolution. This structure reveals a unique c-di-GMP-binding mode, featuring a tandem array of two highly conserved binding motifs, each comprising a 24-residue sequence RLGxx(L/V/I)(L/V/I)xxG(L/V/I)(L/V/I)xxxxLxxxLxxQ that binds half of the c-di-GMP molecule, primarily through hydrophobic interactions. Mutating these highly conserved residues markedly reduces c-di-GMP binding and biofilm formation by V. cholerae. This c-di-GMP-binding motif is present in diverse bacterial proteins exhibiting binding affinities ranging from 0.5 μM to as low as 14 nM. The MshEN domain contains the longest nucleotide-binding motif reported to date. PMID:27578558

  19. Boosted di-boson from a mixed heavy stop

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Diptimoy

    2013-12-01

    The lighter mass eigenstate ($\\widetilde{t}_1$) of the two top squarks, the scalar superpartners of the top quark, is extremely difficult to discover if it is almost degenerate with the lightest neutralino ($\\widetilde{\\chi}_1^0$), the lightest and stable supersymmetric particle in the R-parity conserving supersymmetry. The current experimental bound on $\\widetilde{t}_1$ mass in this scenario stands only around 200 GeV. For such a light $\\widetilde{t}_1$, the heavier top squark ($\\widetilde{t}_2$) can also be around the TeV scale. Moreover, the high value of the higgs ($h$) mass prefers the left and right handed top squarks to be highly mixed allowing the possibility of a considerable branching ratio for $\\widetilde{t}_2 \\to \\widetilde{t}_1 h$ and $\\widetilde{t}_2 \\to \\widetilde{t}_1 Z$. In this paper, we explore the above possibility together with the pair production of $\\widetilde{t}_2$ $\\widetilde{t}_2^*$ giving rise to the spectacular di-boson + missing transverse energy final state. For an approximately 1 TeV $\\widetilde{t}_2$ and a few hundred GeV $\\widetilde{t}_1$ the final state particles can be moderately boosted which encourages us to propose a novel search strategy employing the jet substructure technique to tag the boosted $h$ and $Z$. The reconstruction of the $h$ and $Z$ momenta also allows us to construct the stransverse mass $M_{T2}$ providing an additional efficient handle to fight the backgrounds. We show that a 4--5$\\sigma$ signal can be observed at the 14 TeV LHC for $\\sim$ 1 TeV $\\widetilde{t}_2$ with 100 fb$^{-1}$ integrated luminosity.

  20. DiMES divertor erosion experiments on DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Whyte, D.G.; Brooks, J.N.; Wong, C.P.C.; West, W.P.; Bastasz, R.; Wampler, W.R.; Rubinstein, J.

    1996-06-01

    The DiMES (Divertor Material Evaluation Studies) mechanism allows insertion of material samples to the lower divertor floor of the DIII-D tokamak. The main purpose of these studies is to measure erosion rates and redeposition mechanisms under tokamak divertor plasma conditions in order to obtain a physical understanding of the erosion/redeposition processes and to determine its implications for fusion power plant plasma facing components. Thin metal films of Be, W, V, and Mo, were deposited on a Si depth-marked graphite sample and exposed to the steady-state outer strike point on DIII-D. A variety of surface analysis techniques are used to determine the erosion/redeposition of the metals and the carbon after 5--15 seconds of exposure. These short exposure times ensure controlled exposure conditions and the extensive array of DIII-D divertor diagnostics provide a well characterized plasma for modeling efforts. Erosion rates and redeposition lengths are found to decrease with the atomic number of the metallic species, as expected. Under these conditions, the peak net erosion rate for carbon is {approximately} 4 nm/s, with the erosion following the ion flux profile. Comparisons of the measured carbon erosion with REDEP code calculations show good agreement for both the absolute net erosion rate and its spatial variation. Measured erosion rates of the metals are smaller than predicted for sputtering from a bare metal surface, apparently due to effects of carbon deposition on the metal surface. Visible spectroscopic measurements of singly ionized Be have determined that the erosion process reaches steady-state during the exposure.

  1. Systematic Identification of Cyclic-di-GMP Binding Proteins in Vibrio cholerae Reveals a Novel Class of Cyclic-di-GMP-Binding ATPases Associated with Type II Secretion Systems.

    PubMed

    Roelofs, Kevin G; Jones, Christopher J; Helman, Sarah R; Shang, Xiaoran; Orr, Mona W; Goodson, Jonathan R; Galperin, Michael Y; Yildiz, Fitnat H; Lee, Vincent T

    2015-10-01

    Cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP) is a ubiquitous bacterial signaling molecule that regulates a variety of complex processes through a diverse set of c-di-GMP receptor proteins. We have utilized a systematic approach to identify c-di-GMP receptors from the pathogen Vibrio cholerae using the Differential Radial Capillary Action of Ligand Assay (DRaCALA). The DRaCALA screen identified a majority of known c-di-GMP binding proteins in V. cholerae and revealed a novel c-di-GMP binding protein, MshE (VC0405), an ATPase associated with the mannose sensitive hemagglutinin (MSHA) type IV pilus. The known c-di-GMP binding proteins identified by DRaCALA include diguanylate cyclases, phosphodiesterases, PilZ domain proteins and transcription factors VpsT and VpsR, indicating that the DRaCALA-based screen of open reading frame libraries is a feasible approach to uncover novel receptors of small molecule ligands. Since MshE lacks the canonical c-di-GMP-binding motifs, a truncation analysis was utilized to locate the c-di-GMP binding activity to the N-terminal T2SSE_N domain. Alignment of MshE homologs revealed candidate conserved residues responsible for c-di-GMP binding. Site-directed mutagenesis of these candidate residues revealed that the Arg9 residue is required for c-di-GMP binding. The ability of c-di-GMP binding to MshE to regulate MSHA dependent processes was evaluated. The R9A allele, in contrast to the wild type MshE, was unable to complement the ΔmshE mutant for the production of extracellular MshA to the cell surface, reduction in flagella swimming motility, attachment to surfaces and formation of biofilms. Testing homologs of MshE for binding to c-di-GMP identified the type II secretion ATPase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA14_29490) as a c-di-GMP receptor, indicating that type II secretion and type IV pili are both regulated by c-di-GMP. PMID:26506097

  2. Systematic Identification of Cyclic-di-GMP Binding Proteins in Vibrio cholerae Reveals a Novel Class of Cyclic-di-GMP-Binding ATPases Associated with Type II Secretion Systems

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Xiaoran; Orr, Mona W.; Goodson, Jonathan R.; Galperin, Michael Y.; Yildiz, Fitnat H.; Lee, Vincent T.

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP) is a ubiquitous bacterial signaling molecule that regulates a variety of complex processes through a diverse set of c-di-GMP receptor proteins. We have utilized a systematic approach to identify c-di-GMP receptors from the pathogen Vibrio cholerae using the Differential Radial Capillary Action of Ligand Assay (DRaCALA). The DRaCALA screen identified a majority of known c-di-GMP binding proteins in V. cholerae and revealed a novel c-di-GMP binding protein, MshE (VC0405), an ATPase associated with the mannose sensitive hemagglutinin (MSHA) type IV pilus. The known c-di-GMP binding proteins identified by DRaCALA include diguanylate cyclases, phosphodiesterases, PilZ domain proteins and transcription factors VpsT and VpsR, indicating that the DRaCALA-based screen of open reading frame libraries is a feasible approach to uncover novel receptors of small molecule ligands. Since MshE lacks the canonical c-di-GMP-binding motifs, a truncation analysis was utilized to locate the c-di-GMP binding activity to the N-terminal T2SSE_N domain. Alignment of MshE homologs revealed candidate conserved residues responsible for c-di-GMP binding. Site-directed mutagenesis of these candidate residues revealed that the Arg9 residue is required for c-di-GMP binding. The ability of c-di-GMP binding to MshE to regulate MSHA dependent processes was evaluated. The R9A allele, in contrast to the wild type MshE, was unable to complement the ΔmshE mutant for the production of extracellular MshA to the cell surface, reduction in flagella swimming motility, attachment to surfaces and formation of biofilms. Testing homologs of MshE for binding to c-di-GMP identified the type II secretion ATPase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA14_29490) as a c-di-GMP receptor, indicating that type II secretion and type IV pili are both regulated by c-di-GMP. PMID:26506097

  3. Studying distributed cognition of simulation-based team training with DiCoT.

    PubMed

    Rybing, Jonas; Nilsson, Heléne; Jonson, Carl-Oscar; Bang, Magnus

    2016-03-01

    Health care organizations employ simulation-based team training (SBTT) to improve skill, communication and coordination in a broad range of critical care contexts. Quantitative approaches, such as team performance measurements, are predominantly used to measure SBTTs effectiveness. However, a practical evaluation method that examines how this approach supports cognition and teamwork is missing. We have applied Distributed Cognition for Teamwork (DiCoT), a method for analysing cognition and collaboration aspects of work settings, with the purpose of assessing the methodology's usefulness for evaluating SBTTs. In a case study, we observed and analysed four Emergo Train System® simulation exercises where medical professionals trained emergency response routines. The study suggests that DiCoT is an applicable and learnable tool for determining key distributed cognition attributes of SBTTs that are of importance for the simulation validity of training environments. Moreover, we discuss and exemplify how DiCoT supports design of SBTTs with a focus on transfer and validity characteristics. Practitioner Summary: In this study, we have evaluated a method to assess simulation-based team training environments from a cognitive ergonomics perspective. Using a case study, we analysed Distributed Cognition for Teamwork (DiCoT) by applying it to the Emergo Train System®. We conclude that DiCoT is useful for SBTT evaluation and simulator (re)design. PMID:26275026

  4. Indirect constraints on the scalar di-photon resonance at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goertz, Florian; Kamenik, Jernej F.; Katz, Andrey; Nardecchia, Marco

    2016-05-01

    Motivated by the tantalizing excesses recently reported in the di-photon invariant mass spectrum at the LHC, we scrutinize some implications of scalar di-photon resonances in high energy proton-proton collisions. In particular, indications of a large width impose several challenges for model building. We show how calculability and unitarity considerations severely limit possible perturbative realizations of such a signal and propose a simple criterion that can be adapted to any renormalizable model. Furthermore, we discuss correlations between a di-photon excess and precision observables, including the anomalous magnetic and electric dipole moments of quarks and leptons, neutral meson oscillations and radiative flavor changing neutral current mediated decays of heavy leptons and hadrons. We find that existing searches and measurements significantly constrain the possibilities for a scalar resonance decaying into final states involving Standard Model fermions. We propose future search strategies which could elucidate some remaining currently unconstrained decay channels and discuss possible correlations between the di-photon excess and several recently reported flavor anomalies, showing that the latter can be addressed in a new incarnation of a gauged U(1)' model, with the di-photon resonance being the physical remnant of the U(1)'-breaking field.

  5. Tetrameric c-di-GMP Mediates Effective Transcription Factor Dimerization to Control Streptomyces Development

    PubMed Central

    Tschowri, Natalia; Schumacher, Maria A.; Schlimpert, Susan; Chinnam, Naga babu; Findlay, Kim C.; Brennan, Richard G.; Buttner, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The cyclic dinucleotide c-di-GMP is a signaling molecule with diverse functions in cellular physiology. Here, we report that c-di-GMP can assemble into a tetramer that mediates the effective dimerization of a transcription factor, BldD, which controls the progression of multicellular differentiation in sporulating actinomycete bacteria. BldD represses expression of sporulation genes during vegetative growth in a manner that depends on c-di-GMP-mediated dimerization. Structural and biochemical analyses show that tetrameric c-di-GMP links two subunits of BldD through their C-terminal domains, which are otherwise separated by ∼10 Å and thus cannot effect dimerization directly. Binding of the c-di-GMP tetramer by BldD is selective and requires a bipartite RXD-X8-RXXD signature. The findings indicate a unique mechanism of protein dimerization and the ability of nucleotide signaling molecules to assume alternative oligomeric states to effect different functions. PMID:25171413

  6. MOZ regulates the Tbx1 locus, and Moz mutation partially phenocopies DiGeorge syndrome.

    PubMed

    Voss, Anne K; Vanyai, Hannah K; Collin, Caitlin; Dixon, Mathew P; McLennan, Tamara J; Sheikh, Bilal N; Scambler, Peter; Thomas, Tim

    2012-09-11

    DiGeorge syndrome, caused by a 22q11 microdeletion or mutation of the TBX1 gene, varies in severity greatly, even among monozygotic twins. Epigenetic phenomena have been invoked to explain phenotypic differences in individuals of identical genetic composition, although specific chromatin modifications relevant to DiGeorge syndrome are elusive. Here we show that lack of the histone acetyltransferase MOZ (MYST3/KAT6A) phenocopies DiGeorge syndrome, and the MOZ complex occupies the Tbx1 locus, promoting its expression and histone 3 lysine 9 acetylation. Importantly, DiGeorge syndrome-like anomalies are present in mice with homozygous mutation of Moz and in heterozygous Moz mutants when combined with Tbx1 haploinsufficiency or oversupply of retinoic acid. Conversely, a Tbx1 transgene rescues the heart phenotype in Moz mutants. Our data reveal a molecular mechanism for a specific chromatin modification of the Tbx1 locus intersecting with an environmental determinant, modeling variability in DiGeorge syndrome. PMID:22921202

  7. ANALYSIS OF SPIN-ORBIT MISALIGNMENT IN THE ECLIPSING BINARY DI HERCULIS

    SciTech Connect

    Philippov, Alexander A.; Rafikov, Roman R.

    2013-05-10

    The eclipsing binary DI Herculis (DI Her) is known to exhibit anomalously slow apsidal precession below the rate predicted by general relativity. Recent measurements of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect indicate that stellar spins in DI Her are almost orthogonal to the orbital angular momentum, which explains the anomalous precession in agreement with the earlier theoretical suggestion by Shakura. However, these measurements yield only projections of the spin-orbit angles onto the sky plane, leaving the spin projection onto our line of sight unconstrained. Here we describe a method for determining the full three-dimensional spin orientation of the binary components relying on the use of the gravity-darkening effect, which is significant for the rapidly rotating stars in DI Her. Gravity darkening gives rise to a nonuniform brightness distribution over the stellar surface, the pattern of which depends on the stellar spin orientation. Using archival photometric data obtained during multiple eclipses over several decades, we are able to constrain the unknown spin angles in DI Her with this method, finding that the spin axes of both stars lie close to the plane of the sky. Our procedure fully accounts for the precession of stellar spins over the long time span of observations.

  8. Suspected acute hemolytic transfusion reaction mediated by anti-Di(a).

    PubMed

    Bennett, Ashwini; Boyapati, Ray K; Hong, Frank S

    2015-01-01

    Anti-Di(a) can mediate hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn, but it is unclear if it can cause hemolytic transfusion reactions (HTRs). To date, there has only been one report of a possible immediate HTR attributed to anti-Di(a). Our case report details an immediate HTR due to anti-Di(a) in a patient with pre-existing liver failure. This reaction triggered multi-organ failure, and the patient subsequently died. This case also highlights the importance of considering HTRs even when routine antibody screening has been unremarkable, particularly when electronic crossmatch is used, because of the potential for an alloantibody against a low-prevalence antigen. PMID:27187197

  9. Supramolecular Hydrogels from Self-Assembly of di-Fmoc-L-lysine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashemnejad, Seyed Meysam; Naas, Kinsey; Kundu, Santanu

    Mechanical properties and nanostructure of a supramolecular hydrogel formed by self-assembly of di-fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl-lysine (di-Fmoc-L-lysine) are reported here. Hydrogels were prepared by solvent switch technique in which water was added to a solution of di-Fmoc-L-lysine in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Mechanical properties of the gels were investigated using shear and cavitation rheology. The gels display strain-softening behavior at moderate strain values. Morphological investigations of the samples were conducted using FTIR and CD spectroscopy, electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Self-assembled fibers with lateral dimensions ranging from 10 to 50 nm were captured in microscopy studies. FTIR results indicate β-sheet-like conformation of the peptides in the hydrogel.

  10. Thyratron characteristics under high di/dt and high-repetition-rate operation

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, D.; Hill, J.; Kan, T.

    1981-05-11

    Power conditioning systems for high peak and average power, high repetition rate discharge excited lasers involve operation of modulator components in unconventional regimes. Reliable operation of switches and energy storage elements under high voltage and high di/dt conditions is a pacing item for laser development at the present time. To test and evaluate these components a Modulator Component Test Facility (MCTF) was constructed. The MCTF consists of a command charge system, energy storage capacitors, thyratron switch with inverse thyratron protection, and a resistive load. The modulator has initially been operated at voltages up to 60 kV at 600 Hz. Voltage, current, and calorimetric diagnostics are provided for major modulator components. Measurements of thyratron characteristics under high di/dt operation are presented. Commutation energy loss and di/dt have been measured as functions of the tube hydrogen pressure.

  11. The First Case Report in Italy of Di George Syndrome Detected by Noninvasive Prenatal Testing

    PubMed Central

    Rapacchia, Giuseppina; Lapucci, Cristina; Pittalis, Maria Carla; Youssef, Aly; Farina, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Panorama Plus (Natera), a single-nucleotide polymorphism- (SNP-) based approach that relies on the identification of maternal and fetal allele distributions, allows the detection of common aneuploidies and also incorporates a panel of 5 microdeletions including Di George syndrome. We report here the first case of Di George syndrome detected by NIPT in Italy; blood was drawn at 12 weeks' gestation. The patient had an amniocentesis to confirm the diagnosis by MLPA (multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification) and an ultrasound aimed to detect the features associated with the syndrome. A right aortic arch and suspect of thymus atrophy were detected, but not other severe malformations typical of the disease. The patient terminated the pregnancy at 17 weeks. NIPT allowed an early screening of Di George syndrome. As the patient was at low risk, it is likely that an ultrasound would have missed the condition. PMID:26346617

  12. Propulsion Diagnostic Method Evaluation Strategy (ProDiMES) User's Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Donald L.

    2010-01-01

    This report is a User's Guide for the Propulsion Diagnostic Method Evaluation Strategy (ProDiMES). ProDiMES is a standard benchmarking problem and a set of evaluation metrics to enable the comparison of candidate aircraft engine gas path diagnostic methods. This Matlab (The Mathworks, Inc.) based software tool enables users to independently develop and evaluate diagnostic methods. Additionally, a set of blind test case data is also distributed as part of the software. This will enable the side-by-side comparison of diagnostic approaches developed by multiple users. The Users Guide describes the various components of ProDiMES, and provides instructions for the installation and operation of the tool.

  13. First results with Mercedes-Benz DI diesel engines running on monoesters of vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Ventura, L.M.; Nascimento, A.C.; Bandel, W.

    1982-01-01

    In their pure form the vegetable oils are not suitable for the use in modern DI diesel engines, due to the excessive carbon deposit on the injection nozzles and in the combustion chamber. Nevertheless, these oils are promising candidates as raw materials for alternative diesel fuels. Processes are being developed to transform the long vegetable oil molecules into smaller molecules in order to fulfill the fuel requirements of DI diesel engines. Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids e.g. obtained by transesterification of vegetable oils through their catalytic reaction with methanol and ethanol, have shown a typical diesel fuel behaviour in conventional DI engines without excessive deposit formation. Problems concerning lubricating oil contamiation, and possibile remedial measures to avoid it, are being examined. There are also problems to be solved in relation to white smoke formation and the odor of exhaust gases. 10 figures.

  14. Origins of the di-jet asymmetry in heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milhano, José Guilherme; Zapp, Korinna Christine

    2016-05-01

    The di-jet asymmetry—the measure of the momentum imbalance in a di-jet system—is a key jet quenching observable. Using the event generator Jewel we show that the di-jet asymmetry is dominated by fluctuations both in proton-proton and in heavy-ion collisions. We discuss how in proton-proton collisions the asymmetry is generated through recoil and out-of-cone radiation. In heavy-ion collisions two additional sources can contribute to the asymmetry, namely energy loss fluctuations and differences in path length. The latter is shown to be a sub-leading effect. We discuss the implications of our results for the interpretation of this observable.

  15. diArk – the database for eukaryotic genome and transcriptome assemblies in 2014

    PubMed Central

    Kollmar, Martin; Kollmar, Lotte; Hammesfahr, Björn; Simm, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic genomes are the basis for understanding the complexity of life from populations to the molecular level. Recent technological innovations have revolutionized the speed of data generation enabling the sequencing of eukaryotic genomes and transcriptomes within days. The database diArk (http://www.diark.org) has been developed with the aim to provide access to all available assembled genomes and transcriptomes. In September 2014, diArk contains about 2600 eukaryotes with 6000 genome and transcriptome assemblies, of which 22% are not available via NCBI/ENA/DDBJ. Several indicators for the quality of the assemblies are provided to facilitate their comparison for selecting the most appropriate dataset for further studies. diArk has a user-friendly web interface with extensive options for filtering and browsing the sequenced eukaryotes. In this new version of the database we have also integrated species, for which transcriptome assemblies are available, and we provide more analyses of assemblies. PMID:25378341

  16. Microbiological and chemical characterization of a typical Italian cheese: Robiola di Roccaverano.

    PubMed

    Bonetta, Silvia; Coïsson, Jean Daniel; Barile, Daniela; Bonetta, Sara; Travaglia, Fabiano; Piana, Gianluca; Carraro, Elisabetta; Arlorio, Marco

    2008-08-27

    Robiola di Roccaverano is a traditional Italian goat's milk cheese carrying a Protected Designation of Origin (PDO). The present work studied both cheese microflora and cheese physicochemical characteristics to obtain a more accurate description of this PDO product. Multivariate statistical analysis (PCA) was performed to evaluate the influence of cheesemaking (artisanal and industrial), ripening time, and season of production on cheese characteristics. Multiplex PCR and fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) were used to identify the kind of milk employed by Robiola di Roccaverano producers. The results obtained highlight some product differences between the artisanal and industrial products. These differences were most evident in the microbiological data. The use of PCA allowed cheese samples to cluster on the basis of their age (fresh or ripened), the origin of production (artisanal and industrial), and even the season of production. Gross composition, microbiological parameters, and gas chromatographic analyses of FAMEs provided the most important parameters for Robiola di Roccaverano cheese characterization. PMID:18646764

  17. Biodegradation of diazinon by Serratia marcescens DI101 and its use in bioremediation of contaminated environment.

    PubMed

    Abo-Amer, Aly

    2011-01-01

    Four diazinon-degrading bacteria were isolated from agricultural soil by using an enrichment technique. The biochemical analysis and molecular method including RFLP indicated that these isolates were identical, and one strain designated DI101 was selected for further study. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA sequencing indicated that the strain DI101 clearly belongs to the Serratia marcescens group. The ability of the strain to utilize diazinon as a source of carbon and phosphorus was investigated under different culture conditions. The DI101 strain was able to completely degrade 50 mg/l diazinon in MSM within 11 days with a degradation rate of 0.226 day-1. The inoculation of sterilized soil treated with 100 mg/kg of diazinon with 10(6) CFU/g DI101 resulted in a faster degradation rate than was recorded in non-sterilized soil. The diazinon degradation rate by DI101 was efficient at temperatures from 25 to 30degrees C and at pHs from 7.0 to 8.0. The degradation rate of diazinon was not affected by the absence of a phosphorus supplement, and addition of other carbon sources (glucose or succinate) resulted in the slowing down of the degradation rate. The maximum degradation rate (Vmax) of diazinon was 0.292 day-1 and its saturation constant (Ks) was 11 mg/l, as determined by a Michaelis-Menten curve. The strain was able to degrade diethylthiophosphate-containing organophosphates such as chlorpyrifos, coumaphos, parathion, and isazofos when provided as a source of carbon and phosphorus, but not ethoprophos, cadusafos, and fenamiphos. These results propose useful information for the potential application of the DI101 strain in bioremediation of pesticide-contaminated environments. PMID:21301195

  18. c-di-GMP Enhances Protective Innate Immunity in a Murine Model of Pertussis

    PubMed Central

    Elahi, Shokrollah; Van Kessel, Jill; Kiros, Tedele G.; Strom, Stacy; Hayakawa, Yoshihiro; Hyodo, Mamoru; Babiuk, Lorne A.; Gerdts, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Innate immunity represents the first line of defense against invading pathogens in the respiratory tract. Innate immune cells such as monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, NK cells, and granulocytes contain specific pathogen-recognition molecules which induce the production of cytokines and subsequently activate the adaptive immune response. c-di-GMP is a ubiquitous second messenger that stimulates innate immunity and regulates biofilm formation, motility and virulence in a diverse range of bacterial species with potent immunomodulatory properties. In the present study, c-di-GMP was used to enhance the innate immune response against pertussis, a respiratory infection mainly caused by Bordetella pertussis. Intranasal treatment with c-di-GMP resulted in the induction of robust innate immune responses to infection with B. pertussis characterized by enhanced recruitment of neutrophils, macrophages, natural killer cells and dendritic cells. The immune responses were associated with an earlier and more vigorous expression of Th1-type cytokines, as well as an increase in the induction of nitric oxide in the lungs of treated animals, resulting in significant reduction of bacterial numbers in the lungs of infected mice. These results demonstrate that c-di-GMP is a potent innate immune stimulatory molecule that can be used to enhance protection against bacterial respiratory infections. In addition, our data suggest that priming of the innate immune system by c-di-GMP could further skew the immune response towards a Th1 type phenotype during subsequent infection. Thus, our data suggest that c-di-GMP might be useful as an adjuvant for the next generation of acellular pertussis vaccine to mount a more protective Th1 phenotype immune response, and also in other systems where a Th1 type immune response is required. PMID:25333720

  19. Correction to storm, Tressoldi, and di Risio (2010).

    PubMed

    2015-03-01

    Reports an error in "Meta-analysis of free-response studies, 1992-2008: Assessing the noise reduction model in parapsychology" by Lance Storm, Patrizio E. Tressoldi and Lorenzo Di Risio (Psychological Bulletin, 2010[Jul], Vol 136[4], 471-485). In the article, the sentence giving the formula in the second paragraph on p. 479 was stated incorrectly. The corrected sentence is included. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2010-12718-001.) [Correction Notice: An erratum for this article was reported in Vol 136(5) of Psychological Bulletin (see record 2010-17510-009). In the article, the second to last sentence of the abstract (p. 471) was stated incorrectly. The sentence should read as follows: "The mean effect size value of the ganzfeld database was significantly higher than the mean effect size of the standard free-response database but was not higher than the effect size of the nonganzfeld noise reduction database."] We report the results of meta-analyses on 3 types of free-response study: (a) ganzfeld (a technique that enhances a communication anomaly referred to as "psi"); (b) nonganzfeld noise reduction using alleged psi-enhancing techniques such as dream psi, meditation, relaxation, or hypnosis; and (c) standard free response (nonganzfeld, no noise reduction). For the period 1997-2008, a homogeneous data set of 29 ganzfeld studies yielded a mean effect size of 0.142 (Stouffer Z = 5.48, p = 2.13 × 10-8). A homogeneous nonganzfeld noise reduction data set of 16 studies yielded a mean effect size of 0.110 (Stouffer Z = 3.35, p = 2.08 × 10-4), and a homogeneous data set of 14 standard free-response studies produced a weak negative mean effect size of -0.029 (Stouffer Z = -2.29, p = .989). The mean effect size value of the ganzfeld database were significantly higher than the mean effect size of the nonganzfeld noise reduction and the standard free-response databases. We also found that selected participants (believers in the paranormal

  20. Risk assessment of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in the workplace

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives A hazard assessment of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a commonly used workplace chemical, was conducted in order to protect the occupational health of workers. A literature review, consisting of both domestic and international references, examined the chemical management system, working environment, level of exposure, and possible associated risks. This information may be utilized in the future to determine appropriate exposure levels in working environments. Methods Hazard assessment was performed using chemical hazard information obtained from international agencies, such as Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development-generated Screening Information Data Set and International Program on Chemical Safety. Information was obtained from surveys conducted by the Minister of Employment and Labor (“Survey on the work environment”) and by the Ministry of Environment (“Survey on the circulation amount of chemicals”). Risk was determined according to exposure in workplaces and chemical hazard. Results In 229 workplaces over the country, 831 tons of DEHP have been used as plasticizers, insecticides, and ink solvent. Calculated 50% lethal dose values ranged from 14.2 to 50 g/kg, as determined via acute toxicity testing in rodents. Chronic carcinogenicity tests revealed cases of lung and liver degeneration, shrinkage of the testes, and liver cancer. The no-observed-adverse-effect level and the lowest-observed-adverse-effect level were determined to be 28.9 g/kg and 146.6 g/kg, respectively. The working environment assessment revealed the maximum exposure level to be 0.990 mg/m3, as compared to the threshold exposure level of 5 mg/m3. The relative risk of chronic toxicity and reproductive toxicity were 0.264 and 0.330, respectively, while the risk of carcinogenicity was 1.3, which is higher than the accepted safety value of one. Conclusions DEHP was identified as a carcinogen, and may be dangerous even at concentrations lower than the

  1. Measurement of undisturbed di-nitrogen emissions from aquatic ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Shuping, Clough, Timothy, Lou, Jiafa; Hu, Chunsheng; Oenema, Oene; Wrage-Mönnig, Nicole; Zhang, Yuming

    2016-04-01

    Increased production of reactive nitrogen (Nr) from atmospheric di-nitrogen (N2) during the last century has greatly contributed to increased food production1-4. However, enriching the biosphere with Nr through N fertilizer production, combustion, and biological N2 fixation has also caused a series of negative effects on global ecosystems 5,6, especially aquatic ecosystems7. The main pathway converting Nr back into the atmospheric N2 pool is the last step of the denitrification process, i.e., the reduction of nitrous oxide (N2O) into N2 by micro-organisms7,8. Despite several attempts9,10, there is not yet an accurate, fast and direct method for measuring undisturbed N2 fluxes from denitrification in aquatic sediments at the field scale11-14. Such a method is essential to study the feedback of aquatic ecosystems to Nr inputs1,2,7. Here we show that the measurement of both N2O emission and its isotope signature can be used to infer the undisturbed N2 fluxes from aquatic ecosystems. The microbial reduction of N2O increases the natural abundance of 15N-N2O relative to 14N-N2O (δ15N-N2O). We observed linear relationships between δ15N-N2O and the logarithmic transformed N2O/(N2+N2O) emission ratios. Through independent measurements, we verified that the undisturbed N2 flux from aquatic ecosystems can be inferred from measurements of N2O emissions and the δ15N-N2O signature. Our method allows the determination of field-scale N2 fluxes from undisturbed aquatic ecosystems, and thereby allows model predictions of denitrification rates to be tested. The undisturbed N2 fluxes observed are almost one order of magnitude higher than those estimated by the traditional method, where perturbation of the system occurs, indicating that the ability of aquatic ecosystems to remove Nr may have been severely underestimated.

  2. 32 CFR 644.336 - Notices to Departments of Interior (DI); Health and Human Resources (HHR); Education; and Housing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Notices to Departments of Interior (DI); Health and Human Resources (HHR); Education; and Housing and Urban Development (HUD). 644.336 Section 644.336... Departments of Interior (DI); Health and Human Resources (HHR); Education; and Housing and Urban...

  3. 32 CFR 644.336 - Notices to Departments of Interior (DI); Health and Human Resources (HHR); Education; and Housing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Notices to Departments of Interior (DI); Health and Human Resources (HHR); Education; and Housing and Urban Development (HUD). 644.336 Section 644.336... Departments of Interior (DI); Health and Human Resources (HHR); Education; and Housing and Urban...

  4. 32 CFR 644.336 - Notices to Departments of Interior (DI); Health and Human Resources (HHR); Education; and Housing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Notices to Departments of Interior (DI); Health and Human Resources (HHR); Education; and Housing and Urban Development (HUD). 644.336 Section 644.336... Departments of Interior (DI); Health and Human Resources (HHR); Education; and Housing and Urban...

  5. 32 CFR 644.336 - Notices to Departments of Interior (DI); Health and Human Resources (HHR); Education; and Housing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Notices to Departments of Interior (DI); Health and Human Resources (HHR); Education; and Housing and Urban Development (HUD). 644.336 Section 644.336... Departments of Interior (DI); Health and Human Resources (HHR); Education; and Housing and Urban...

  6. 40 CFR 721.1725 - Benzoic acid, 3,3′-methyl-enebis [6 amino-, di-2-propenyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... amino-, di-2-propenyl ester. 721.1725 Section 721.1725 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1725 Benzoic acid, 3,3′-methyl-enebis [6 amino-, di-2-propenyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1)...

  7. [Valutare le esperienze positive e negative: la validazione di una nuova misura del benessere in una popolazione italiana].

    PubMed

    Corno, Giulia; Molinari, Guadalupe; Baños, Rosa Maria

    2016-01-01

    RIASSUNTO. Lo scopo del presente studio è quello di esplorare le proprietà psicometriche di uno strumento di misurazione dell'affetto, la Scala di Esperienze Positive e Negative (SPANE), all'interno di una popolazione italiana. Gli esiti dell'analisi fattoriale confermativa comprovano l'attesa struttura a due fattori, sentimenti positivi e negativi. Le correlazioni con altre dimensioni (per es., ansia, depressione, affetto, aspettative future) confermano i risultati ottenuti con le precedenti versioni della scala: affetto negativo, ansia, depressione e aspettative future negative correlano positivamente con la subscala di esperienze negative e negativamente con la subscala di esperienze positive dello SPANE. In conclusione, i risultati del nostro studio dimostrano che la versione italiana dello SPANE presenta caratteristiche psicometriche simili a quelle mostrate dalla versione orginale e da successive validazioni dello strumento in altre lingue. La scala presenta, inoltre, affidabilità e validità fattoriale. Lo SPANE è un indice utile dal punto di vista clinico che può fornire informazioni rilevanti circa l'esperienza emotiva e il benessere della persona. Nonostante ulteriori studi siano necessari per confermare le caratteristiche psicometriche della scala, la presente validazione della versione italiana dello SPANE può contribuire ad ampliare la ricerca nell'ambito del benessere in una popolazione Italiana. PMID:27362822

  8. Utility of the 3Di Short Version for the Diagnostic Assessment of Autism Spectrum Disorder and Compatibility with DSM-5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slappendel, Geerte; Mandy, William; van der Ende, Jan; Verhulst, Frank C.; van der Sijde, Ad; Duvekot, Jorieke; Skuse, David; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin

    2016-01-01

    The Developmental Diagnostic Dimensional Interview-short version (3Di-sv) provides a brief standardized parental interview for diagnosing autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study explored its validity, and compatibility with DSM-5 ASD. 3Di-sv classifications showed good sensitivity but low specificity when compared to ADOS-2-confirmed clinical…

  9. 40 CFR 721.1725 - Benzoic acid, 3,3′-methyl-enebis [6 amino-, di-2-propenyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... amino-, di-2-propenyl ester. 721.1725 Section 721.1725 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1725 Benzoic acid, 3,3′-methyl-enebis [6 amino-, di-2-propenyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1)...

  10. PERIPUBERTAL DI (2-ETHYLHEXYL) PHTHALATE EXPOSURE INHIBITS ANDROGEN SENSITIVE TISSUE DEVELOPMENT AND DELAYS PUBERTY IN MALE SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    PERIPUBERTAL DI (2-ETHYLHEXYL) PHTHALATE EXPOSURE INHIBITS ANDROGEN SENSITIVE TISSUE DEVELOPMENT AND DELAYS PUBERTY IN MALE SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS

    Nigel Noriega, Jonathan Furr, Christy Lambright, Vickie Wilson, L. Earl Gray Jr.

    The plasticizer Di (2-ethylhexyl) phtha...

  11. Synthesis, conformational and theoretical studies of 1,n-di(2-formyl-4-phenylazophenoxy)alkanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balachander, R.; Manimekalai, A.

    2016-01-01

    1,n-di(2-Formyl-4-phenylazophenoxy)alkanes 1 and 2 and 1,3-di(2-formyl-4-phenylazophenoxymethyl)benzene 3 were synthesis and characterized by FT-IR, UV-Vis, 1H, 13C NMR and mass spectral studies. The stable conformations of 1-3 were predicted theoretically and selected geometrical parameters were derived from optimized structures. The molecular parameters of HOMO-LUMO energies, polarizability, hyperpolarizability, natural bond orbital (NBO), atom in molecule (AIM) analysis and molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) surfaces were determined by the density functional theory (DFT) method and analysed.

  12. Superheavyweight missions SI versus DI: Ascent flight design options and recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    AFD has completed the trade study on Standard Insertion (SI) vs Direct Insertion (DI) for STS-50. RSOC Range Safety has developed acceptable DI targets from 130 n.mi. to 150 n.mi. and the corresponding performance assessment for these targets using STS-50 data has been completed. This mission has sufficient performance capability to perform this mission as a DI to 160 n.mi. A reduced OMS load corresponding to a DI mission is required for this option. The increase in altitude over the AFP baseline (SI to 145 n.mi.) is highly desirable for this mission. The orientation on orbit for the orbiter/USML-1 payload is such that orbital decay is maximized (maximum frontal cross-sectional area with vehicle normal to velocity vector). Increasing the operational altitude reduces the amount of vernier thruster firings necessary to maintain a constant gravity gradient. The results of this trade study can also be applied to other superheavyweight missions (EDO flights) and will allow for use of the DI technique for lower orbital altitudes, thereby eliminating the SI option for due east, low altitude missions. STSOC transmittal form no. 330-330-130, which documents the technical issues and assumptions used for this trade study effort in detail, should be referenced for further information. The main reason that a DI is desired for STS-50 and other superheavyweight flights (low altitude) is that ESMC range safety has expressed reservations about SI missions in general. The concern is that the current SI design underspeed exposes Africa and Madagascar to potential ET debris impact. In the past range safety has waived the requirement that these areas be protected in the event of an engine failure. With the advent of the pre-MECO OMS dump, the viability of DI and the high casualty expectations from the ACTA press to MECO hazard study, range safety has become more reluctant to approve SI flights. It is felt that to perform an SI mission there would have to be a large decrease in design

  13. Enzymatic synthesis of 2'-ara and 2'-deoxy analogues of c-di-GMP.

    PubMed

    Shchokolova, Anastasia S; Rymko, Alexander N; Kvach, Sergey V; Shabunya, Polina S; Fatykhava, Svetlana A; Zinchenko, Anatoly I

    2015-01-01

    The substrate specificity of recombinant full-length diguanylate cyclase (DGC) of Thermotoga maritima with mutant allosteric site was investigated. It has been originally shown that the enzyme could use GTP closest analogues - 2'-deoxyguanosine-5'-triphosphate (dGTP) and 9-β-D-arabinofuranosyl-guanine-5'-triphosphate (araGTP) as the substrates. The first demonstrations of an enzymatic synthesis of bis-(3'-5')-cyclic dimeric deoxyguanosine monophosphate (c-di-dGMP) and the previously unknown bis-(3'-5')-cyclic dimeric araguanosine monophosphate (c-di-araGMP) using DGC of T. maritima in the form of inclusion bodies have been provided. PMID:25965330

  14. Studying 750 GeV di-photon resonance at photon-photon collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Hayato; Moroi, Takeo; Takaesu, Yoshitaro

    2016-05-01

    Motivated by the recent LHC discovery of the di-photon excess at the invariant mass of ∼ 750 GeV, we study the prospect of investigating the scalar resonance at a future photon-photon collider. We show that, if the di-photon excess observed at the LHC is due to a new scalar boson coupled to the standard-model gauge bosons, such a scalar boson can be observed and studied at the photon-photon collider with the center-of-mass energy of ∼ 1 TeV in large fraction of parameter space.

  15. 4,4′-(Propane-1,3-di­yl)dipiperidinium sulfate monohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Yang, E; Song, Xu-Chun; Zhuang, Rong-Qiang

    2008-01-01

    In the title compound, C13H28N2 2+·SO4 2−·H2O, extensive hydrogen-bonding inter­actions between the protonated 4,4′-(propane-1,3-di­yl)dipiperidinium ions, the sulfate anions and the water mol­ecules lead to a three-dimensional pillared and layered structure with the 4,4′-(propane-1,3-di­yl)­dipiperidinium ions acting as the pillars. PMID:21201745

  16. Crystal structure of tris­(di­methyl­amido-κN)­bis­(di­methyl­amine-κN)­zirconium(IV) iodide

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Wesley D.; Akurathi, Gopalakrishna; Valle, Henry U.; Hollis, T. Keith

    2016-01-01

    Zirconium amides have become increasingly popular and useful due to their widespread use as precursors to other zirconium complexes and their use in the production of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Herein we report the mol­ecular structure of tris­(di­methyl­amido)­bis­(di­methyl­amine)­zirconium(IV) iodide, [Zr(C2H6N)3(C2H7N)2]I. The bond lengths and bond angles are consistent with a slightly distorted trigonal–bipyramidal coordination geometry around the metal atom. N⋯I contacts of 3.6153 (15) and 3.5922 (14) Å are consistent with the presence of N—H⋯I inter­actions. These N—H⋯I inter­actions link the complex cations and iodide anions into extended chains that propagate parallel to the a axis. PMID:26870590

  17. Characterization and application of sodium di(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate and sodium di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate surfactants as pseudostationary phases in micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    PubMed

    Akbay, Cevdet; Wilmot, Nathan; Agbaria, Rezik A; Warner, Isiah M

    2004-12-17

    Sodium di(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (DOSS) and sodium di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (NaDEHP) surfactants, with double alkyl chains and negatively charged headgroups, were characterized using fluorescence quenching, densitometry, and tensiometry techniques to determine their aggregation number, partial specific volume, and critical aggregation concentration. These two surfactants were then applied as pseudostationary phases in micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) for separations of alkyl phenyl ketones. The aggregation number of NaDEHP was found to be more than two-fold higher than that of DOSS. The partial specific volumes of NaDEHP and DOSS were found to be 0.9003 and 0.8371 mL/g, respectively. The critical aggregation concentrations are 5.12 and 1.80 mM for NaDEHP and DOSS, respectively. The DOSS surfactant provided a wider separation window and had a greater hydrophobic environment than the NaDEHP surfactant under the MEKC experimental conditions studied. PMID:15633750

  18. Utility of the 3Di Short Version for the Diagnostic Assessment of Autism Spectrum Disorder and Compatibility with DSM-5.

    PubMed

    Slappendel, Geerte; Mandy, William; van der Ende, Jan; Verhulst, Frank C; van der Sijde, Ad; Duvekot, Jorieke; Skuse, David; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin

    2016-05-01

    The Developmental Diagnostic Dimensional Interview-short version (3Di-sv) provides a brief standardized parental interview for diagnosing autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study explored its validity, and compatibility with DSM-5 ASD. 3Di-sv classifications showed good sensitivity but low specificity when compared to ADOS-2-confirmed clinical diagnosis. Confirmatory factor analyses found a better fit against a DSM-5 model than a DSM-IV-TR model of ASD. Exploration of the content validity of the 3Di-sv for the DSM-5 revealed some construct underrepresentation, therefore we obtained data from a panel of 3Di-trained clinicians from ASD-specialized centers to recommend items to fill these gaps. Taken together, the 3Di-sv provides a solid basis to create a similar instrument suitable for DSM-5. Concrete recommendations are provided to improve DSM-5 compatibility. PMID:26825661

  19. Migration matrices and surnames in populations with different isolation patterns: Val di Lima (Italian Apennines), Val di Sole (Italian Alps), and La Cabrera (Spain).

    PubMed

    Boattini, Alessio; Calboli, Federico C F; Blanco Villegas, Maria José; Gueresi, Paola; Franceschi, Marcello G; Paoli, Giorgio; Cavicchi, Sandro; Pettener, Davide

    2006-01-01

    Biodemographic methods are widely used to infer the genetic structure of human populations. In this study, we revise and standardize the procedures required by the migration matrix model of Malécot ([1950] Ann Univ Lyon Sci [A] 13:37-60), testing it in large historical-demographic databases of 85 populations from three mountain valleys with different degrees of isolation: Val di Lima (Italian Apennines, 21 parishes), Val di Sole, (Italian Alps, 27 parishes), and La Cabrera (Spain, 37 parishes). An add-on package (Biodem) for the R program is proposed to perform all calculations. Results from migration matrices are compared with those obtained from isonymic relationships. Migration and isonymy matrices are derived from 22,781 marriage records. Matrices are analyzed using a nonlinear isolation-by-distance (IBD) model and multivariate techniques (multidimensional scaling, Procrustes rotation, and cluster analysis). Microdifferentiation levels (F(ST)) from the migration data agree with the observed inbreeding values: higher values are found in La Cabrera (F(ST) = 0.0082), the most isolated population; Val di Lima (F(ST) = 0.0015) and Val di Sole (F(ST) = 0.0012) have lower values due to the larger parish population sizes and greater mobility. Temporal changes of F(ST) and IBD are analyzed using the migration matrix approach. The populations show a marked decline in F(ST) values in time, together with increased population mobility and emigration rates. In all three valleys, marital migration and isonymy yield similar results, suggesting that geographic distance is the most important factor structuring the populations. However, isonymy shows a lower correlation with geographic distance than migration matrices do. This difference can be attributed to the differing sensitivity of the methods for past migration events, and to genetic drift. PMID:16917890

  20. Coal-transformation chemistry. Ninth quarterly progress report. [1,2-di(1-naphthyl)ethane and 1,2-di(9-anthryl)ethane

    SciTech Connect

    Stock, L.M.

    1982-01-01

    The effort on donor solvent coal chemistry during this quarter concerned the factors that govern the cleavage of ethylene linkages in several representative compounds. The behavior of the resulting radicals were also studied. Bibenzyl, 1,2-di(1-naphthyl)ethane and 1,2-di(9-anthryl)ethane were selected as the reaction substrates. The latter two compounds have been synthesized and the catalytic effect of these compounds on the exchange reaction of diphenylmethane with tetralin-d/sub 12/ at 400/sup 0/C was examined. The results showed that the catalytic effect was in the order: 1,2-di(1-naphthyl)ethane ..-->.. 1,2-di(9-anthryl)ethane ..-->.. bibenzyl. Nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) suppression in carbon nmr spectra of reductively alkylated coals is discussed. Suppression of NOE in /sup 13/C-enriched alkylated coal samples does not result in a difference in carbon to oxygen alkylation ratios. However, for unenriched reductively alkylated coal samples, suppression of NOE is essential for accurate quantitative analysis. With NOE suppression, the carbon to oxygen alkylation ratios of reductively ethylated coal are consistent with previous results for reductively methylated and butylated Illinois No. 6 coal. The EPR spectra of Illinois No. 6 coal and several of its reductive alkylation products were studied. The EPR spectra of the hydrofuran soluble reaction products and the insoluble reaction products were each studied. There is a large decrease in the spin concentration in the reductive alkylation products in both the soluble and insoluble products. However, the insoluble materials which are, of course, relatively rich in inorganic compounds exhibit broad resonance bands extending to zero field. The substances responsible for these broad absorptions are readily removed by treatment with dilute hydrochloric acid. The materials treated in this way exhibit only a weak resonance at g = 2. 7 figures, 7 tables.

  1. Regulation of biofilm formation and cellular buoyancy through modulating intracellular cyclic di-GMP levels in engineered cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Agostoni, Marco; Waters, Christopher M; Montgomery, Beronda L

    2016-02-01

    The second messenger cyclic dimeric (3'→5') GMP (cyclic di-GMP or c-di-GMP) has been implicated in the transition between motile and sessile lifestyles in bacteria. In this study, we demonstrate that biofilm formation, cellular aggregation or flocculation, and cellular buoyancy are under the control of c-di-GMP in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 (Synechocystis) and Fremyella diplosiphon. Synechocystis is a unicellular cyanobacterium and displays lower levels of c-di-GMP; F. diplosiphon is filamentous and displays higher intracellular c-di-GMP levels. We transformed Synechocystis and F. diplosiphon with a plasmid for constitutive expression of genes encoding diguanylate cylase (DGC) and phosphodiesterase (PDE) proteins from Vibrio cholerae or Escherichia coli, respectively. These engineered strains allowed us to modulate intracellular c-di-GMP levels. Biofilm formation and cellular deposition were induced in the DGC-expressing Synechocystis strain which exhibited high intracellular levels of c-di-GMP; whereas strains expressing PDE in Synechocystis and F. diplosiphon to drive low intracellular levels of c-di-GMP exhibited enhanced cellular buoyancy. In addition, the PDE-expressing F. diplosiphon strain showed elevated chlorophyll levels. These results imply roles for coordinating c-di-GMP homeostasis in regulating native cyanobacterial phenotypes. Engineering exogenous DGC or PDE proteins to regulate intracellular c-di-GMP levels represents an effective tool for uncovering cryptic phenotypes or modulating phenotypes in cyanobacteria for practical applications in biotechnology applicable in photobioreactors and in green biotechnologies, such as energy-efficient harvesting of cellular biomass or the treatment of metal-containing wastewaters. PMID:26192200

  2. Systematic analysis of cyclic di-GMP signaling enzymes and their role in biofilm formation and virulence in Yersinia pestis

    PubMed Central

    Bobrov, Alexander G.; Kirillina, Olga; Ryjenkov, Dmitri A.; Waters, Christopher M.; Price, Paul A.; Fetherston, Jacqueline D.; Mack, Dietrich; Goldman, William E.; Gomelsky, Mark; Perry, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    Cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) is a signaling molecule that governs the transition between planktonic and biofilm states. Previously we showed that the diguanylate cyclase HmsT and the putative c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase HmsP inversely regulate biofilm formation through control of HmsHFRS-dependent poly-β-1,6-N-acetylglucosamine synthesis. Here, we systematically examine the functionality of the genes encoding putative c-di-GMP metabolic enzymes in Yersinia pestis. We determine that, in addition to hmsT and hmsP, only the gene y3730 encodes a functional enzyme capable of synthesizing c-di-GMP. The seven remaining genes are pseudogenes or encode proteins that do not function catalytically or are not expressed. Furthermore, we show that HmsP has c-di-GMP-specific phosphodiesterase activity. We report that a mutant incapable of c-di-GMP synthesis is unaffected in virulence in plague mouse models. Conversely, an hmsP mutant, unable to degrade c-di-GMP, is defective in virulence by a subcutaneous route of infection due to poly-β-1,6-N-acetylglucosamine overproduction. This suggests that c-di-GMP signaling is not only dispensable but deleterious for Y. pestis virulence. Our results show that a key event in the evolution of Y. pestis from the ancestral Yersinia pseudotuberculosis was a significant reduction in the complexity of its c-di-GMP signaling network likely resulting from the different disease cycles of these human pathogens. PMID:21219468

  3. Fourier-transform infrared and Raman spectra, and ab initio calculations for cadmium-n-di-iso-propylphosphorylguanidine-di-chloride (CdDPGCl2) complex.

    PubMed

    Téllez, Claudio A; Hollauer, Eduardo; Felcman, Judith; Lopes, Damiana C N; Cattapan, Renata A

    2002-07-01

    Cadmium-n-di-isopropylphosphorylguanidine-di-chloride (CdDPGCl2) was synthesized in the solid phase and characterized previously. The Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectra of (CdDPGCl2) in the solid state were recorded and analyzed. Emphasis was placed on the vibrational assignment of the [(O2P=O-[CdCl2]-HN=C) fragment of the complete molecular structure. With the aim of assisting the vibrational assignment of the experimental spectra, a comparison with the spectra of N-di-isopropylphosphorylguanidine ligand was carried out and ab initio calculations have been performed with several effective core potentials and valence basis sets (Hay-Wadt (HW) and Stevens-Basch-Krauss (SBK)). Due to our limited computational resources, hydrogen atoms replaced the isopropyl groups. The calculated geometrical parameters showed excellent agreement with the experimental, as well as the RHF/MP2 calculated infrared wave numbers, when compared to the IR/Raman experimental wave numbers. PMID:12164485

  4. Di- and triphenylacetate complexes of yttrium and europium.

    PubMed

    Minyaev, Mikhail E; Vinogradov, Alexandr A; Roitershtein, Dmitrii M; Lyssenko, Konstantin A; Ananyev, Ivan V; Nifant'ev, Ilya E

    2016-07-01

    The significant variety in the crystal structures of rare-earth carboxylate complexes is due to both the large coordination numbers of the rare-earth cations and the ability of the carboxylate anions to form several types of bridges between rare-earth metal atoms. Therefore, these complexes are represented by mono-, di- and polynuclear complexes, and by coordination polymers. The interaction of LnCl3(thf)x (Ln = Eu or Y; thf is tetrahydrofuran) with sodium or diethylammonium diphenylacetate in methanol followed by recrystallization from a DME/THF/hexane solvent mixture (DME is 1,2-dimethoxyethane) leads to crystals of the non-isomorphic dinuclear complexes tetrakis(μ-2,2-diphenylacetato)-κ(4)O:O';κ(3)O,O':O';κ(3)O:O,O'-bis[(1,2-dimethoxyethane-κ(2)O,O')(2,2-diphenylacetato-κ(2)O,O')europium(III)], [Eu(C14H11O2)6(C4H10O2)2], (I), and tetrakis(μ-2,2-diphenylacetato)-κ(4)O:O';κ(3)O,O':O';κ(3)O:O,O'-bis[(1,2-dimethoxyethane-κ(2)O,O')(2,2-diphenylacetato-κ(2)O,O')yttrium(III)], [Y(C14H11O2)6(C4H10O2)2], (II), possessing monoclinic (P21/c) symmetry. The [Ln(Ph2CHCOO)3(dme)]2 molecule (Ln = Eu or Y) lies on an inversion centre and exhibits three different coordination modes of the diphenylacetate ligands, namely bidentate κ(2)O,O'-terminal, bidentate μ2-κ(1)O:κ(1)O'-bridging and tridentate μ2-κ(1)O:κ(2)O,O'-semibridging. The terminal and bridging ligands in (I) are disordered over two positions, with an occupancy ratio of 0.806 (2):0.194 (2). The interaction of EuCl3(thf)2 with Na[Ph3CCOO] in methanol followed by crystallization from hot methanol produces crystals of tetrakis(methanol-κO)tris(2,2,2-triphenylacetato)-κ(4)O:O';κO-europium(III) methanol disolvate, [Eu(C19H15O2)3(CH3OH)4]·2CH3OH, (III)·2MeOH, with triclinic (P-1) symmetry. The molecule of (III) contains two O,O'-bidentate and one O-monodentate terminal triphenylacetate ligand. (III)·2MeOH possesses one intramolecular and four intermolecular hydrogen bonds, forming a [(III)·2Me

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of the Xylella fastidiosa CoDiRO Strain.

    PubMed

    Giampetruzzi, Annalisa; Chiumenti, Michela; Saponari, Maria; Donvito, Giacinto; Italiano, Alessandro; Loconsole, Giuliana; Boscia, Donato; Cariddi, Corrado; Martelli, Giovanni Paolo; Saldarelli, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    We determined the draft genome sequence of the Xylella fastidiosa CoDiRO strain, which has been isolated from olive plants in southern Italy (Apulia). It is associated with olive quick decline syndrome (OQDS) and characterized by extensive scorching and desiccation of leaves and twigs. PMID:25676759

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of Sphingobium yanoikuyae TJ, a Halotolerant Di-n-Butyl-Phthalate-Degrading Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Decai; Zhu, Ying; Wang, Xinxin; Kong, Xiao; Liu, Huijun; Wang, Yafeng

    2016-01-01

    Sphingobium yanoikuyae TJ is a halotolerant di-n-butyl-phthalate-degrading bacterium, isolated from the Haihe estuary in Bohai Bay, Tianjin, China. Here, we report the 5.1-Mb draft genome sequence of this strain, which will provide insights into the diversity of Sphingobium spp. and the mechanism of phthalate ester degradation in the estuary. PMID:27313307

  7. The AGATA Demonstrator Array at Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro: Status of the Project

    SciTech Connect

    Farnea, E.

    2009-08-26

    The AGATA Demonstrator Array is presently under installation at Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Italy, where it will replace the CLARA array at the target position of the PRISMA magnetic spectrometer. In the present contribution, the details of the installation will be reviewed. Preliminary results from the first in-beam commissioning test will be given.

  8. Di-tert-butylsilylene-directed alpha-selective synthesis of 4-methylumbelliferyl T-antigen.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Akihiro; Ando, Hiromune; Ishida, Hideharu; Kiso, Makoto

    2005-09-29

    [reaction: see text] We have succeeded in the facile synthesis of 4-methylumbelliferyl T-antigen as a substrate for endo-alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase by exploiting the combination of the di-tert-butylsilylene effect and the Mitsunobu reaction. PMID:16178547

  9. 40 CFR 721.9675 - Titanate [Ti6O13 (2-)], di-po-tas-sium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Substances § 721.9675 Titanate , di-po-tas-sium. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as titanate , dipotassium (CAS No. 12056-51-8) (PMN P-90...), and (q). In addition, a significant new use of the substance is importation of the PMN substance...

  10. 40 CFR 721.9675 - Titanate [Ti6O13 (2-)], di-po-tas-sium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Substances § 721.9675 Titanate , di-po-tas-sium. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as titanate , dipotassium (CAS No. 12056-51-8) (PMN P-90...), and (q). In addition, a significant new use of the substance is importation of the PMN substance...

  11. DEVELOPMENTAL EXPOSURE TO DI-N-BUTYLTIN DICHLORIDE (DBTC): IMMUNOTOXIC AND NEUROTOXIC EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organotins are incorporated as stabilizers in PVC water supply pipe. Particularly when new, mono- and di-substituted methyl- and butyltins leach from the pipe and are thus of regulatory concern to EPA. These contaminants have adverse effects on both the immune and nervous systems...

  12. Di(phenylpropylamino)gossypol: a derivative of the dimeric natural product gossypol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Di(phenylpropylamino)gossypol [2,2'-bis(1,6-dihydroxy,-5-isopropyl,-8-methineaminopropylbenzene-3-methyl)-naphthylene-7-one, C48H52N2O6] is formed by reaction of the dimeric natural product gossypol with 3-phenyl-1-propylamine. When crystallized from diethyl ether, the compound has monoclinic (P21/c...

  13. Two Di-Leucine Motifs Regulate Trafficking of Mucolipin-1 to Lysosomes

    PubMed Central

    Vergarajauregui, Silvia; Puertollano, Rosa

    2006-01-01

    Mutations in the mucolipin-1 gene have been linked to mucolipidosis type IV, a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by severe neurological and ophthalmologic abnormalities. Mucolipin-1 is a membrane protein containing six putative transmembrane domains with both its N- and C-termini localized facing the cytosol. To gain information on the sorting motifs that mediate the trafficking of this protein to lysosomes, we have generated chimeras in which the N- and C- terminal tail portions of mucolipin-1 were fused to a reporter gene. In this article, we report the identification of two separate di-leucine-type motifs that co-operate to regulate the transport of mucolipin-1 to lysosomes. One di-leucine motif is positioned at the N-terminal cytosolic tail and mediates direct transport to lysosomes, whereas the other di-leucine motif is found at the C-terminal tail and functions as an adaptor protein 2-dependent internalization motif. We have also found that the C-terminal tail of mucolipin-1 is palmitoylated and that this modification might regulate the efficiency of endocytosis. Finally, the mutagenesis of both di-leucine motifs abrogated lysosomal accumulation and resulted in cell-surface redistribution of mucolipin-1. Taken together, these results reveal novel information regarding the motifs that regulate mucolipin-1 trafficking and suggest a role for palmitoylation in protein sorting. PMID:16497227

  14. 21 CFR 178.2550 - 4-Hydroxymethyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADJUVANTS, PRODUCTION AIDS, AND SANITIZERS Antioxidants and Stabilizers... concentration of the additive and any other permitted antioxidants in the finished food-contact article does not... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false 4-Hydroxymethyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol....

  15. Method of dissolving metal oxides with di- or polyphosphonic acid and a redundant

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, Earl P.; Chiarizia, Renato

    1996-01-01

    A method of dissolving metal oxides using a mixture of a di- or polyphosphonic acid and a reductant wherein each is present in a sufficient amount to provide a synergistic effect with respect to the dissolution of metal oxides and optionally containing corrosion inhibitors and pH adjusting agents.

  16. MONO-(3-CARBOXYPROPYL) PHTHALATE, A METABOLITE OF DI-N-OCTYL PHTHALATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) is found as a component of mixed C6–C10 linear-chain phthalates used as plasticizers in various polyvinyl chloride applications, including flooring and carpet tiles. Following exposure and absorption, DnOP is metabolized to its hydrolytic monoester, mo...

  17. The Instructional Instrument SL-EDGE Student Library-Educational DiGital Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyriakopoulou, Antonia; Kalamboukis, Theodore

    An educational digital environment that will provide appropriate methods and techniques for the support and enhancement of the educational and learning process is a valuable tool for both educators and learners. In the context of such a mission, the educational tool SL-EDGE (Student Library-Educational DiGital Environment) has been developed. The…

  18. Dose Reconstruction of Di-2-Ethylhexyl Phthalate Using a Simple Pharmacokinetic Model [Manuscript

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background In 2005, eight adults provided full volumes and times of urine voids during one normal work week. These samples were analyzed for four di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) metabolites. Participants also provided diary information on their diet, driving, and out¬door a...

  19. MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry of Naturally-Occurring Mixtures of Mono- and Di-rhamnolipids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been developed for high-throughput screening of naturally-occurring mixtures of rhamnolipids from Pseudomonas spp. Mono- and di-rhamnolipids are readily distinguished by characteristic molecular adduct i...

  20. 21 CFR 172.150 - 4-Hydroxymethyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false 4-Hydroxymethyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol. 172.150 Section 172.150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.150...

  1. 21 CFR 172.150 - 4-Hydroxymethyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false 4-Hydroxymethyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol. 172.150 Section 172.150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives §...

  2. Endoplasmic reticulum stress as a novel cellular response to di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate exposure.

    PubMed

    Peropadre, Ana; Fernández Freire, Paloma; Pérez Martín, José Manuel; Herrero, Óscar; Hazen, María José

    2015-12-25

    Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate is a high-production chemical widely used as a plasticizer for polyvinyl chloride products. Due to its ubiquitous presence in environmental compartments and the constant exposure of the general population through ingestion, inhalation, and dermal absorption, this compound has been subjected to extensive in vivo and in vitro toxicological studies. Despite the available information, research on the cytotoxicity of di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in mammalian cells is relatively limited.In this paper, an in vitro multi-parametric approach was used to provide further mechanistic data on the toxic activity of this chemical in Vero and HaCaT cells. Our results reveal that a 24 h exposure to di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate causes, in both cell lines, an inhibition of cell proliferation that was linked to cell cycle delay at the G1 phase. Concomitantly, the tested compound induces mild endoplasmic reticulum stress which leads to an adaptive rather than a pro-apoptotic response in mammalian cells. These findings demonstrate that there are multiple potential cellular targets of di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate-induced toxicity and the need to develop further experimental studies for the risk assessment of this ubiquitous plasticizer. PMID:26514933

  3. Recent R&D progress on DI-BSCCO wires with high critical current properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakashima, T.; Kobayashi, S.; Kagiyama, T.; Yamazaki, K.; Kikuchi, M.; Yamade, S.; Hayashi, K.; Sato, K.; Shimoyama, J.; Kitaguchi, H.; Kumakura, H.

    2011-11-01

    Sumitomo Electric has been developing the silver-sheathed Bi2223 multi-filamentary wires since the discovery of Bi-based superconductors. DI-BSCCO is the high performance wires produced with the controlled-overpressure (CT-OP) sintering technique. The present commercial DI-BSCCO can provide the uniform high critical current, I c, up to 180 A over 2000 m, and recently 200 A were succeeded to obtain with the same kind of 1000 m-long wires, resulting from the improvement and control of the microstructure in Bi2223 multi-filaments. The short trial wires of several meter have exhibited over 240 A as the highest I c at 77 K, self-field (corresponding to 580 A per 1 cm-width) according with high T c over 112 K. Besides, the optimization of carrier density after CT-OP led to further enhancement of I c, reaching 250 A. All the derivative products have also uniform critical current property over the entire length even after lamination with the reinforcements. The performances of DI-BSCCO can meet the growing needs for various high temperature superconducting applications involving high in-field properties, such as magnets and motors. The recent progress on I c including in-field properties along with the remarkable findings on the performances of DI-BSCCO will be shown.

  4. Recent Progress in High Performance Ag-Sheathed Bi2223 Wire (DI-BSCCO®)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagiyama, T.; Yamazaki, K.; Kikuchi, M.; Yamade, S.; Nakashima, T.; Kobayashi, S.; Hayashi, K.; Sato, K.; Shimoyama, J.; Inoue, M.; Higashikawa, K.; Kiss, T.; Kitaguchi, H.; Kumakura, H.

    2011-10-01

    Sumitomo Electric has been developing the silver-sheathed Bi2223 multi-filamentary wires since the discovery of Bi-based superconductors. DI-BSCCO is the high performance wires produced using the controlled-overpressure (CT-OP) sintering technique. The present commercial DI-BSCCO can provide the uniform high critical current, Ic, up to 180 A with length over 2000 m, and recently 200 A were succeeded to be obtained by the same kind of 1000 m length wires, resulting from the improvement and control of the microstructure in Bi2223 multi-filaments. The short trial wires of several meters have exhibited the highest Ic over 240 A at 77K in self-field (corresponding to 580 A per 1 cm-width). Besides, the optimization of carrier density after CT-OP led to further enhancement of Ic, reached 250 A. All the derivative products also have uniform critical current properties over entire length even after lamination with the reinforcing metals. The performances of DI-BSCCO can meet the growing needs for various application of high temperature superconductor like high in-field applications, such as magnets and motors. The recent progress in transport properties of commercial DI-BSCCO and R&D short trial wires is shown.

  5. Recent R&D progress on DI-BSCCO wires with high critical current properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagiyama, Tomohiro; Kobayashi, Shin-ichi; Yamazaki, Kouhei; Kikuchi, Masashi; Yamade, Satoru; Nakashima, Takayoshi; Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Sato, Ken-ichi; Shimoyama, Jun-ichi; Kitaguchi, Hitoshi

    Sumitomo Electric has been developing the silver-sheathed Bi2223 multi-filamentary wires since the discovery of Bi-based superconductors. DI-BSCCO is the superconducting wire with high and uniform critical current properties produced using the controlled-overpressure (CT-OP) sintering technique. The present commercial DI-BSCCO can provide the uniform high critical current, Ic, up to 180 A with length over 2000 m, and recently over 200 A with length over 1000 m were produced successfully, resulting from the improvement and control of the microstructure in Bi2223 multi-filaments. The short trial wires of several meters have exhibited the highest Ic over 240 A at 77 K in self-field (corresponding to 580 A per 1 cm-width). Besides, the optimization of carrier density after CT-OP have led to further enhancement of Ic, reached 250 A at 77 K in self-field. All the derivative products also have uniform critical current properties over entire length even after lamination with the reinforcing metals. The performances of DI-BSCCO can meet the growing needs for various applications of high temperature superconductor like high in-field applications, such as magnets and motors. The recent progress in transport properties of commercial DI-BSCCO and R&D short trial wires is shown.

  6. VITELLOGENIN GENE EXPRESSION IN MALE FATHEAD MINNOWS EXPOSED TO DI(2-ETHYLHEXYL)PHTHALATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a plasticizer used extensively in the plastics industry. DEHP has been shown to be ubiquitous in the environment and has been detected in ground and surface waters, sediment sludge and at several Superfund sites. Previous studies using rats ...

  7. The phosphatidylethanolamine derivative diDCP-LA-PE mimics intracellular insulin signaling

    PubMed Central

    Nishizaki, Tomoyuki; Gotoh, Akinobu; Shimizu, Tadashi; Tanaka, Akito

    2016-01-01

    Insulin facilitates glucose uptake into cells by translocating the glucose transporter GLUT4 towards the cell surface through a pathway along an insulin receptor (IR)/IR substrate 1 (IRS-1)/phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1)/Akt axis. The newly synthesized phosphatidylethanolamine derivative 1,2-O-bis-[8-{2-(2-pentyl-cyclopropylmethyl)-cyclopropyl}-octanoyl]-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylethanolamine (diDCP-LA-PE) has the potential to inhibit protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) and to directly activate PKCζ, an atypical isozyme, and PKCε, a novel isozyme. PTP1B inhibition enhanced insulin signaling cascades downstream IR/IRS-1 by preventing tyrosine dephosphorylation. PKCζ and PKCε directly activated Akt2 by phosphorylating at Thr309 and Ser474, respectively. diDCP-LA-PE increased cell surface localization of GLUT4 and stimulated glucose uptake into differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, still with knocking-down IR or in the absence of insulin. Moreover, diDCP-LA-PE effectively reduced serum glucose levels in type 1 diabetes (DM) model mice. diDCP-LA-PE, thus, may enable type 1 DM therapy without insulin injection. PMID:27251941

  8. MODULATION OF RAT LEYDIG CELL STEROIDOGENIC FUNCTION BY DI(2-ETHYLHEXYL)PHTHALATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modulation of rat Leydig cell steroidogenic function by di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate.

    Akingbemi BT, Youker RT, Sottas CM, Ge R, Katz E, Klinefelter GR, Zirkin BR, Hardy MP.

    Center for Biomedical Research, Population Council, New York, New York 10021, USA. benson@popcbr...

  9. Yield and economics of shallow subsurface drip irrigation (S3DI) and furrow diking

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A shallow subsurface drip irrigation (S3DI) was installed yearly in conjunction with furrow diking to document yield and economic benefit of these techniques on peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), and corn (Zea mays L.). This research was conducted for three years from 2005...

  10. EFFECTS OF SEWAGE SLUDGE ON DI-(2-ETHYLHEXYL) PHTHALATE UPTAKE BY PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a priority organic pollutant frequently found in municipal sludges. reenhouse study was conducted to determine the effects of sludge on plant uptake of 14 C-DEHP (carbonyl labeled). lants grown included three food chain crops, lettuce (Lactuc...

  11. The phosphatidylethanolamine derivative diDCP-LA-PE mimics intracellular insulin signaling.

    PubMed

    Nishizaki, Tomoyuki; Gotoh, Akinobu; Shimizu, Tadashi; Tanaka, Akito

    2016-01-01

    Insulin facilitates glucose uptake into cells by translocating the glucose transporter GLUT4 towards the cell surface through a pathway along an insulin receptor (IR)/IR substrate 1 (IRS-1)/phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1)/Akt axis. The newly synthesized phosphatidylethanolamine derivative 1,2-O-bis-[8-{2-(2-pentyl-cyclopropylmethyl)-cyclopropyl}-octanoyl]-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylethanolamine (diDCP-LA-PE) has the potential to inhibit protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) and to directly activate PKCζ, an atypical isozyme, and PKCε, a novel isozyme. PTP1B inhibition enhanced insulin signaling cascades downstream IR/IRS-1 by preventing tyrosine dephosphorylation. PKCζ and PKCε directly activated Akt2 by phosphorylating at Thr309 and Ser474, respectively. diDCP-LA-PE increased cell surface localization of GLUT4 and stimulated glucose uptake into differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, still with knocking-down IR or in the absence of insulin. Moreover, diDCP-LA-PE effectively reduced serum glucose levels in type 1 diabetes (DM) model mice. diDCP-LA-PE, thus, may enable type 1 DM therapy without insulin injection. PMID:27251941

  12. Circuits for grasping: spinal dI3 interneurons mediate cutaneous control of motor behavior.

    PubMed

    Bui, Tuan V; Akay, Turgay; Loubani, Osama; Hnasko, Thomas S; Jessell, Thomas M; Brownstone, Robert M

    2013-04-10

    Accurate motor performance depends on the integration in spinal microcircuits of sensory feedback information. Hand grasp is a skilled motor behavior known to require cutaneous sensory feedback, but spinal microcircuits that process and relay this feedback to the motor system have not been defined. We sought to define classes of spinal interneurons involved in the cutaneous control of hand grasp in mice and to show that dI3 interneurons, a class of dorsal spinal interneurons marked by the expression of Isl1, convey input from low threshold cutaneous afferents to motoneurons. Mice in which the output of dI3 interneurons has been inactivated exhibit deficits in motor tasks that rely on cutaneous afferent input. Most strikingly, the ability to maintain grip strength in response to increasing load is lost following genetic silencing of dI3 interneuron output. Thus, spinal microcircuits that integrate cutaneous feedback crucial for paw grip rely on the intermediary role of dI3 interneurons. PMID:23583114

  13. Production technology and characterization of Fior di latte cheeses made from sheep and goat milks.

    PubMed

    Faccia, M; Trani, A; Gambacorta, G; Loizzo, P; Cassone, A; Caponio, F

    2015-03-01

    Innovation in the small ruminant dairy sector faces structural challenges because dairies are often involved in breeding and produce cheeses that appeal essentially to local markets using traditional technologies and facilities. An investigation was carried out to produce Fior di latte, a traditional, soft pasta filata cheese, from sheep and goat milks at the farm level. Fior di latte is an Italian high-moisture, round mozzarella currently produced from cow and water buffalo milks; it is very popular in Europe. Cheesemaking trials were performed and the most appropriate technology proved to be a combination of direct acidification and lactic fermentation, with some modifications to the milk coagulation phase. The gross composition of the experimental cheeses was similar to that of bovine Fior di latte, and the overall hygienic quality was satisfactory even though the milk had not been pasteurized. The new cheeses were similar in appearance to the bovine type, but some specific features were detected. Besides the typical "goaty" and "sheepy" flavors, some novel and distinctive descriptors of odor, flavor, and texture were noted. Our experiment showed that good quality Fior di latte cheese that complies with microbiological requirements of the European legislation can be obtained from sheep and goat milks by appropriately modifying the cheesemaking technology. PMID:25547300

  14. MECHANISTIC CONSIDERATIONS FOR HUMAN RELEVANCE OF CANCER HAZARD OF DI(2-ETHYLHEXYL) PHTHALATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a peroxisome proliferator agent that is widely used as a plasticizer to soften polyvinylchloride plastics and non-polymers. Both occupational (e.g., by inhalation during its manufacture and use as a plasticizer of polyvinylchloride) and enviro...

  15. 21 CFR 178.2550 - 4-Hydroxymethyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false 4-Hydroxymethyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol. 178.2550 Section 178.2550 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADJUVANTS, PRODUCTION AIDS, AND SANITIZERS Antioxidants and...

  16. 21 CFR 178.2550 - 4-Hydroxymethyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false 4-Hydroxymethyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol. 178.2550 Section 178.2550 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADJUVANTS, PRODUCTION AIDS, AND SANITIZERS Antioxidants and...

  17. The Theory behind the Theory in DCT and SCDT: A Response to Rigazio-DiGilio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Linda L.

    1994-01-01

    Responds to previous article by Rigazio-DiGilio on Developmental Counseling and Therapy and Systemic Cognitive-Developmental Therapy as two integrative models that unify individual, family, and network treatment within coconstructive-developmental framework. Discusses hidden complexities in cognitive-developmental ecosystemic integration and…

  18. Genetic Modifiers of the Physical Malformations in Velo-Cardio-Facial Syndrome/DiGeorge Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aggarwal, Vimla S.; Morrow, Bernice E.

    2008-01-01

    Velo-cardio-facial syndrome/DiGeorge syndrome (VCFS/DGS), the most common micro-deletion disorder in humans, is characterized by craniofacial, parathyroid, and thymic defects as well as cardiac outflow tract malformations. Most patients have a similar hemizygous 3 million base pair deletion on 22q11.2. Studies in mouse have shown that "Tbx1", a…

  19. Shallow subsurface drip irrigation (S3DI) for small irregular-shaped fields in the southeast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field tests were conducted using S3DI on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, L.), corn (Zea mays, L.), and peanut (Arachis hypogeae, L.) rotations to investigate yield potential and economic sustainability of this irrigation system. Drip tubing was installed in alternate row middles, strip tillage was used ...

  20. Synthesis and characterization of DI-[3-(trimethylsilyl)-1-propylene] alkylenediphosphonic acids.

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith-Dzielawa, J. A.; Barrans, R. E., Jr.; McAlister, D. R.; Dietz, M. L.; Herlinger, A. W.; Chemistry; Loyola Univ. of Chicago

    2000-01-01

    A homologous series of alkylenediphosphonic acids was successfully esterified with 3-(trimethylsilyl)-1-propanol to the symmetrically-substituted diesters. The procedure, which has general applicability for incorporating silicon heteroatoms into diphosphonic acids, utilizes the esterification reagent dicyclohexyl-carbodiimide (DCC) to activate the acid. The aggregation properties of the di-[3-(trimethylsilyl)-1-propylene] alkylenediphosphonic acids were measured in toluene and 1-decanol.

  1. Di-Ras2 Protein Forms a Complex with SmgGDS Protein in Brain Cytosol in Order to Be in a Low Affinity State for Guanine Nucleotides.

    PubMed

    Ogita, Yoshitaka; Egami, Sachiko; Ebihara, Arisa; Ueda, Nami; Katada, Toshiaki; Kontani, Kenji

    2015-08-14

    The Ras family of small GTPases function in a wide variety of biological processes as "molecular switches" by cycling between inactive GDP-bound and active GTP-bound forms. Di-Ras1 and Di-Ras2 were originally identified as small GTPases forming a distinct subgroup of the Ras family. Di-Ras1/Di-Ras2 mRNAs are detected predominantly in brain and heart tissues. Biochemical analysis of Di-Ras1/Di-Ras2 has revealed that they have little GTPase activity and that their intrinsic guanine-nucleotide exchange rates are much faster than that of H-Ras. Yet little is known about the biological role(s) of Di-Ras1/Di-Ras2 or of how their activities are regulated. In the present study we found that endogenous Di-Ras2 co-purifies with SmgGDS from rat brain cytosol. Size-exclusion chromatography of purified recombinant proteins showed that Di-Ras2 forms a high affinity complex with SmgGDS. SmgGDS is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor with multiple armadillo repeats and has recently been shown to specifically activate RhoA and RhoC. In contrast to the effect on RhoA, SmgGDS does not act as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Di-Ras2 but instead tightly associates with Di-Ras2 to reduce its binding affinity for guanine nucleotides. Finally, pulse-chase analysis revealed that Di-Ras2 binds, in a C-terminal CAAX motif-dependent manner, to SmgGDS immediately after its synthesis. This leads to increased Di-Ras2 stability. We thus propose that isoprenylated Di-Ras2 forms a tight complex with SmgGDS in cytosol immediately after its synthesis, which lowers its affinity for guanine nucleotides. PMID:26149690

  2. Gel-electrophoretic identification of hen brain neurotoxic esterase, labelled with tritiated di-isopropyl phosphorofluoridate.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, D G; Johnson, M K

    1981-01-01

    The particulate fraction from hen brain was labelled with [3H]di-isopropyl phosphorofluoridate (DiPF) and separated by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. Four radioactive protein bands (1--4) of molecular weights 155000, 92000, 60000, and 30000 were resolved. Most of the labelling of bands 2, 3 and 4 was inhibited by preincubation with Paraoxon. The residue in band 4 was sensitive to pH 5.2. Successive treatments with Paraoxon and pH 5.2 resulted in the abolition of bands 3 and 4. Bands 1 and 2 contained one and two polypeptides respectively, whose labelling was sensitive to Mipafox, but one, in band 2, was sensitive to higher concentrations of Paraoxon. The concentrations of the other two polypeptides were 6.7 and 1.95 pmol of DiPF bound/g of brain in bands 1 and 2 respectively. Both were as sensitive to Mipafox as neurotoxic esterase and were also sensitive to phenyl benzylcarbamate. 4-Nitrophenyl di-n-pentylphosphinate given in vivo inhibited neurotoxic esterase and the labelling of the band-1 polypeptide by 82% and 84% respectively, but inhibited the labelling of the band 2 polypeptide by 51%. The phosphinate in vitro produced 98% inhibition of the labelling of the band-1 polypeptide, with only 26% inhibition of the band-2 polypeptide, under conditions sufficient to inhibit neurotoxic esterase totally. Both neurotoxic esterase and the band-1 polypeptide were found in the forebrain at 1.74-fold their concentration in the rest of the brain, whereas the band-2 polypeptide was uniformly distributed. The evidence indicates that the Mipafox-sensitive polypeptide in band 1 is the [3H]DiPF-labelled active-site subunit of neurotoxic esterase. The catalytic-centre activity of the enzyme for phenyl valerate hydrolysis was found to be 2.6 x 10(5) min-1. PMID:7340807

  3. Microphase separation in thin films of lamellar forming polydisperse di-block copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Rajeev; Lokitz, Bradley S.; Sides, Scott W.; Chen, Jihua; Heller, William T.; Ankner, John F.; Browning, James F.; Kilbey, II, S. Michael; Sumpter, Bobby G.

    2015-02-03

    Despite the ubiquity of polydispersity in chain lengths of di-block copolymers, its effects on microphase separation in thin films have eluded a clear understanding. In this paper, we have studied effects of polydispersity on the microphase separation in thin films of lamellar forming di-block copolymers using self-consistent field theory (SCFT) and neutron reflectivity experiments. Di-block copolymers containing a polydisperse block of poly(glycidylmethacrylate) (PGMA) connected to a near-monodisperse block poly(2-vinyl-4,4-dimethyl-d6 azlactone) (PVDMA-d6) are considered in this work. Effects of chain length polydispersity, film thickness, substrate–monomer and monomer–monomer interactions on the microphase segregation are studied using SCFT. The theoretical study reveals that in comparison to a film created with monodisperse di-block copolymers, an increase in polydispersity tends to decrease the number of lamellar strata that can be packed in a film of given thickness. This is a direct consequence of an increase in lamellar domain spacing with an increase in polydispersity index. Furthermore, it is shown that polydispersity induces conformational asymmetry and an increase in the polydispersity index leads to an increase in the effective Kuhn segment length of the polydisperse blocks. It is shown that the conformational asymmetry effects, which are entropic in origin and of increasing importance as film thickness decreases, drive the polydisperse blocks to the middle of the films despite favorable substrate interactions. These predictions are verified by results from neutron reflectivity experiments on thin films made from moderately polydisperse PGMA-PVDMA-d6 di-block copolymer deposited on silicon substrates. In conclusion, results from SCFT are used to predict neutron reflectivity profiles, providing a facile and robust route to obtain useful physical insights into the structure of polydisperse diblock copolymers at

  4. Revisiting the Anomalous Apsidal Motion of the Eccentric Eclipsing Binary DI Herculis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maloney, F. P.; Guinan, E. F.; Barge, L. M.; Mardling, R. A.

    2003-12-01

    In 1985, Guinan & Maloney presented the detailed analysis of the puzzling eclipsing binary system DI Herculis. This system is rare among main sequence stars in that its apsidal motion is dominated by the effects of General Relativity. The GR contribution to its theoretically predicted apsidal motion is 2.34 o/100 y., whereas the theoretically predicted classical contribution (due to tidal and rotational deformation of the component stars) is 1.93 o/100 y. The interesting fact is that the observed apsidal motion, determined from timings of the stars' mutual eclipses, is anomalously low: ˜1 o/100 y., well below the combined theoretical expectation of 4.27 o/100 y. Since Rudkj\\o bing's (1959) announcement of the special nature of DI Her, observers have been measuring light curves and radial velocity curves to determine the orbital parameters of the system and the stellar properties of its components. DI Her consists of two main sequence stars (B5V and B6V) in a 10.55 day eccentric orbit (e=0.489). Observations of times of minima reveal the system's apsidal motion, computed from the changing displacement of the secondary eclipse from the primary eclipse. Four decades of photoelectric measurements show that the observed apsidal motion remains below that predicted. Various explanations for this discrepancy have been offered, with the most promising involving the presence of a third component of the system. In a highly inclined orbit, the third body would diminish the rate of apsidal advance of the close pair. Adding photometry recently taken with the 0.8 m Four College Automatic Photoelectric Telescope, we present a new determination of the apsidal motion for DI Her. We also present the results from a new formalism for studying three-body interactions by Mardling in the DI Her system. This research is supported by NSF/RUI grant AST00-71260, which we gratefully acknowledge.

  5. Ultraviolet stimulated melanogenesis by human melanocytes is augmented by di-acyl glycerol but not TPA

    SciTech Connect

    Friedmann, P.S.; Wren, F.E.; Matthews, J.N. )

    1990-02-01

    Epidermal melanocytes (MC) synthesize melanin in response to ultraviolet radiation (UVR). The mechanisms mediating the UV-induced activation of melanogenesis are unknown but since UVR induces turnover of membrane phospholipids generating prostaglandins (PGs) and other products, it is possible that one of these might provide the activating signal. We have examined the effects of prostaglandins (PGs) E1, E2, D2, F2 alpha, and di-acyl glycerol upon the UV-induced responses of cultured human MC and the Cloudman S91 melanoma cell line. The PGs had little effect on unirradiated cells and did not alter the response to UVR in either human MC or S91 melanoma cells. However, a synthetic analogue of di-acyl glycerol, 1-oleyl 2-acetyl glycerol (OAG), caused a significant (P less than 0.0001), dose-related augmentation of melanin content both in human MC (seven-fold) and S91 cells (three-fold). UVR caused a significant augmentation of the OAG-induced melanogenesis of both human MC and S91 cells. Since OAG is known to activate protein kinase C, it was possible that the observed modulation of the UVR signal could be via that pathway. Di-octanoyl glycerol, another di-acyl glycerol, which activates kinase C, caused a small (70%) increase in melanogenesis in MC which was not altered by UVR. However, 12-0 tetradecanoyl phorbol 13-acetate (TPA), a potent activator of protein kinase C, had no significant effect on either basal or UV-induced melanin synthesis in either cell type. These data suggest that the UV-induced signal activating melanogenesis could be mediated by di-acyl glycerol. Furthermore, they imply that the signal is transduced via an alternative, pathway that might be independent of protein kinase C.

  6. DiMeX: A Text Mining System for Mutation-Disease Association Extraction.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, A S M Ashique; Wu, Tsung-Jung; Mazumder, Raja; Vijay-Shanker, K

    2016-01-01

    The number of published articles describing associations between mutations and diseases is increasing at a fast pace. There is a pressing need to gather such mutation-disease associations into public knowledge bases, but manual curation slows down the growth of such databases. We have addressed this problem by developing a text-mining system (DiMeX) to extract mutation to disease associations from publication abstracts. DiMeX consists of a series of natural language processing modules that preprocess input text and apply syntactic and semantic patterns to extract mutation-disease associations. DiMeX achieves high precision and recall with F-scores of 0.88, 0.91 and 0.89 when evaluated on three different datasets for mutation-disease associations. DiMeX includes a separate component that extracts mutation mentions in text and associates them with genes. This component has been also evaluated on different datasets and shown to achieve state-of-the-art performance. The results indicate that our system outperforms the existing mutation-disease association tools, addressing the low precision problems suffered by most approaches. DiMeX was applied on a large set of abstracts from Medline to extract mutation-disease associations, as well as other relevant information including patient/cohort size and population data. The results are stored in a database that can be queried and downloaded at http://biotm.cis.udel.edu/dimex/. We conclude that this high-throughput text-mining approach has the potential to significantly assist researchers and curators to enrich mutation databases. PMID:27073839

  7. DiMeX: A Text Mining System for Mutation-Disease Association Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, A. S. M. Ashique; Wu, Tsung-Jung; Mazumder, Raja; Vijay-Shanker, K.

    2016-01-01

    The number of published articles describing associations between mutations and diseases is increasing at a fast pace. There is a pressing need to gather such mutation-disease associations into public knowledge bases, but manual curation slows down the growth of such databases. We have addressed this problem by developing a text-mining system (DiMeX) to extract mutation to disease associations from publication abstracts. DiMeX consists of a series of natural language processing modules that preprocess input text and apply syntactic and semantic patterns to extract mutation-disease associations. DiMeX achieves high precision and recall with F-scores of 0.88, 0.91 and 0.89 when evaluated on three different datasets for mutation-disease associations. DiMeX includes a separate component that extracts mutation mentions in text and associates them with genes. This component has been also evaluated on different datasets and shown to achieve state-of-the-art performance. The results indicate that our system outperforms the existing mutation-disease association tools, addressing the low precision problems suffered by most approaches. DiMeX was applied on a large set of abstracts from Medline to extract mutation-disease associations, as well as other relevant information including patient/cohort size and population data. The results are stored in a database that can be queried and downloaded at http://biotm.cis.udel.edu/dimex/. We conclude that this high-throughput text-mining approach has the potential to significantly assist researchers and curators to enrich mutation databases. PMID:27073839

  8. Atomistic simulation of lipid and DiI dynamics in membrane bilayers under tension.

    PubMed

    Muddana, Hari S; Gullapalli, Ramachandra R; Manias, Evangelos; Butler, Peter J

    2011-01-28

    Membrane tension modulates cellular processes by initiating changes in the dynamics of its molecular constituents. To quantify the precise relationship between tension, structural properties of the membrane, and the dynamics of lipids and a lipophilic reporter dye, we performed atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of DiI-labeled dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) lipid bilayers under physiological lateral tensions ranging from -2.6 mN m(-1) to 15.9 mN m(-1). Simulations showed that the bilayer thickness decreased linearly with tension consistent with volume-incompressibility, and this thinning was facilitated by a significant increase in acyl chain interdigitation at the bilayer midplane and spreading of the acyl chains. Tension caused a significant drop in the bilayer's peak electrostatic potential, which correlated with the strong reordering of water and lipid dipoles. For the low tension regime, the DPPC lateral diffusion coefficient increased with increasing tension in accordance with free-area theory. For larger tensions, free area theory broke down due to tension-induced changes in molecular shape and friction. Simulated DiI rotational and lateral diffusion coefficients were lower than those of DPPC but increased with tension in a manner similar to DPPC. Direct correlation of membrane order and viscosity near the DiI chromophore, which was just under the DPPC headgroup, indicated that measured DiI fluorescence lifetime, which is reported to decrease with decreasing lipid order, is likely to be a good reporter of tension-induced decreases in lipid headgroup viscosity. Together, these results offer new molecular-level insights into membrane tension-related mechanotransduction and into the utility of DiI in characterizing tension-induced changes in lipid packing. PMID:21152516

  9. Cyclic Di-GMP-Regulated Periplasmic Proteolysis of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa Type Vb Secretion System Substrate

    PubMed Central

    Cooley, Richard B.; Smith, T. Jarrod; Leung, Wilfred; Tierney, Valerie; Borlee, Bradley R.; O'Toole, George A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT We previously identified a second-messenger-regulated signaling system in the environmental bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens which controls biofilm formation in response to levels of environmental inorganic phosphate. This system contains the transmembrane cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) receptor LapD and the periplasmic protease LapG. LapD regulates LapG and controls the ability of this protease to process a large cell surface adhesin protein, LapA. While LapDG orthologs can be identified in diverse bacteria, predictions of LapG substrates are sparse. Notably, the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa harbors LapDG orthologs, but neither the substrate of LapG nor any associated secretion machinery has been identified to date. Here, we identified P. aeruginosa CdrA, a protein known to mediate cell-cell aggregation and biofilm maturation, as a substrate of LapG. We also demonstrated LapDG to be a minimal system sufficient to control CdrA localization in response to changes in the intracellular concentration of c-di-GMP. Our work establishes this biofilm signaling node as a regulator of a type Vb secretion system substrate in a clinically important pathogen. IMPORTANCE Here, the biological relevance of a conserved yet orphan signaling system in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is revealed. In particular, we identified the adhesin CdrA, the cargo of a two-partner secretion system, as a substrate of a periplasmic protease whose activity is controlled by intracellular c-di-GMP levels and a corresponding transmembrane receptor via an inside-out signaling mechanism. The data indicate a posttranslational control mechanism of CdrA via c-di-GMP, in addition to its established transcriptional regulation via the same second messenger. PMID:26100041

  10. Analysis of tomographic mineralogical data using YaDiV—Overview and practical case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friese, Karl-Ingo; Cichy, Sarah B.; Wolter, Franz-Erich; Botcharnikov, Roman E.

    2013-07-01

    We introduce the 3D-segmentation and -visualization software YaDiV to the mineralogical application of rock texture analysis. YaDiV has been originally designed to process medical DICOM datasets. But due to software advancements and additional plugins, this open-source software can now be easily used for the fast quantitative morphological characterization of geological objects from tomographic datasets. In this paper, we give a summary of YaDiV's features and demonstrate the advantages of 3D-stereographic visualization and the accuracy of 3D-segmentation for the analysis of geological samples. For this purpose, we present a virtual and a real use case (here: experimentally crystallized and vesiculated magmatic rocks, corresponding to the composition of the 1991-1995 Unzen eruption, Japan). Especially the spacial representation of structures in YaDiV allows an immediate, intuitive understanding of the 3D-structures, which may not become clear by only looking on 2D-images. We compare our results of object number density calculations with the established classical stereological 3D-correction methods for 2D-images and show that it was possible to achieve a seriously higher quality and accuracy. The methods described in this paper are not dependent on the nature of the object. The fact, that YaDiV is open-source and users with programming skills can create new plugins themselves, may allow this platform to become applicable to a variety of geological scenarios from the analysis of textures in tiny rock samples to the interpretation of global geophysical data, as long as the data are provided in tomographic form.

  11. Microphase separation in thin films of lamellar forming polydisperse di-block copolymers

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kumar, Rajeev; Lokitz, Bradley S.; Sides, Scott W.; Chen, Jihua; Heller, William T.; Ankner, John F.; Browning, James F.; Kilbey, II, S. Michael; Sumpter, Bobby G.

    2015-02-03

    Despite the ubiquity of polydispersity in chain lengths of di-block copolymers, its effects on microphase separation in thin films have eluded a clear understanding. In this paper, we have studied effects of polydispersity on the microphase separation in thin films of lamellar forming di-block copolymers using self-consistent field theory (SCFT) and neutron reflectivity experiments. Di-block copolymers containing a polydisperse block of poly(glycidylmethacrylate) (PGMA) connected to a near-monodisperse block poly(2-vinyl-4,4-dimethyl-d6 azlactone) (PVDMA-d6) are considered in this work. Effects of chain length polydispersity, film thickness, substrate–monomer and monomer–monomer interactions on the microphase segregation are studied using SCFT. The theoretical study reveals thatmore » in comparison to a film created with monodisperse di-block copolymers, an increase in polydispersity tends to decrease the number of lamellar strata that can be packed in a film of given thickness. This is a direct consequence of an increase in lamellar domain spacing with an increase in polydispersity index. Furthermore, it is shown that polydispersity induces conformational asymmetry and an increase in the polydispersity index leads to an increase in the effective Kuhn segment length of the polydisperse blocks. It is shown that the conformational asymmetry effects, which are entropic in origin and of increasing importance as film thickness decreases, drive the polydisperse blocks to the middle of the films despite favorable substrate interactions. These predictions are verified by results from neutron reflectivity experiments on thin films made from moderately polydisperse PGMA-PVDMA-d6 di-block copolymer deposited on silicon substrates. In conclusion, results from SCFT are used to predict neutron reflectivity profiles, providing a facile and robust route to obtain useful physical insights into the structure of polydisperse diblock copolymers at interfaces.« less

  12. DiME: A Scalable Disease Module Identification Algorithm with Application to Glioma Progression

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yunpeng; Tennant, Daniel A.; Zhu, Zexuan; Heath, John K.; Yao, Xin; He, Shan

    2014-01-01

    Disease module is a group of molecular components that interact intensively in the disease specific biological network. Since the connectivity and activity of disease modules may shed light on the molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis and disease progression, their identification becomes one of the most important challenges in network medicine, an emerging paradigm to study complex human disease. This paper proposes a novel algorithm, DiME (Disease Module Extraction), to identify putative disease modules from biological networks. We have developed novel heuristics to optimise Community Extraction, a module criterion originally proposed for social network analysis, to extract topological core modules from biological networks as putative disease modules. In addition, we have incorporated a statistical significance measure, B-score, to evaluate the quality of extracted modules. As an application to complex diseases, we have employed DiME to investigate the molecular mechanisms that underpin the progression of glioma, the most common type of brain tumour. We have built low (grade II) - and high (GBM) - grade glioma co-expression networks from three independent datasets and then applied DiME to extract potential disease modules from both networks for comparison. Examination of the interconnectivity of the identified modules have revealed changes in topology and module activity (expression) between low- and high- grade tumours, which are characteristic of the major shifts in the constitution and physiology of tumour cells during glioma progression. Our results suggest that transcription factors E2F4, AR and ETS1 are potential key regulators in tumour progression. Our DiME compiled software, R/C++ source code, sample data and a tutorial are available at http://www.cs.bham.ac.uk/~szh/DiME. PMID:24523864

  13. Intestinal GPS: bile and bicarbonate control cyclic di-GMP to provide Vibrio cholerae spatial cues within the small intestine

    PubMed Central

    Koestler, Benjamin J; Waters, Christopher M

    2014-01-01

    The second messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) regulates numerous phenotypes in response to environmental stimuli to enable bacteria to transition between different lifestyles. Here we discuss our recent findings that the human pathogen Vibrio cholerae recognizes 2 host-specific signals, bile and bicarbonate, to regulate intracellular c-di-GMP. We have demonstrated that bile acids increase intracellular c-di-GMP to promote biofilm formation. We have also shown that this bile-mediated increase of intracellular c-di-GMP is negated by bicarbonate, and that this interaction is dependent on pH, suggesting that V. cholerae uses these 2 environmental cues to sense and adapt to its relative location in the small intestine. Increased intracellular c-di-GMP by bile is attributed to increased c-di-GMP synthesis by 3 diguanylate cyclases (DGCs) and decreased expression of one phosphodiesterase (PDE) in the presence of bile. The molecular mechanisms by which bile controls the activity of the 3 DGCs and the regulators of bile-mediated transcriptional repression of the PDE are not yet known. Moreover, the impact of varying concentrations of bile and bicarbonate at different locations within the small intestine and the response of V. cholerae to these cues remains unclear. The native microbiome and pharmaceuticals, such as omeprazole, can impact bile and pH within the small intestine, suggesting these are potential unappreciated factors that may alter V. cholerae pathogenesis. PMID:25621620

  14. Dimeric c-di-GMP is required for post-translational regulation of alginate production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    SciTech Connect

    Whitney, John C.; Robinson, Howard; Whitfield, Gregory B.; Marmont, Lindsey S.; Yip, Patrick; Neculai, A. Mirela; Lobsanov, Yuri D.; Ohman, Dennis E.; Howell, P. Lynne

    2015-05-15

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen that secretes the exopolysaccharide alginate during infection of the respiratory tract of individuals afflicted with cystic fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Among the proteins required for alginate production, Alg44 has been identified as an inner membrane protein whose bis-(3',5')-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) binding activity post-translationally regulates alginate secretion. In this study, we report the 1.8 Å crystal structure of the cytoplasmic region of Alg44 in complex with dimeric self-intercalated c-di-GMP and characterize its dinucleotide-binding site using mutational analysis. The structure shows that the c-di-GMP binding region of Alg44 adopts a PilZ domain fold with a dimerization mode not previously observed for this family of proteins. Moreover, calorimetric binding analysis of residues in the c-di-GMP binding site demonstrate that mutation of Arg-17 and Arg-95 alters the binding stoichiometry between c-di-GMP and Alg44 from 2:1 to 1:1. Introduction of these mutant alleles on the P. aeruginosa chromosome show that the residues required for binding of dimeric c-di-GMP in vitro are also required for efficient alginate production in vivo. Our results suggest that the dimeric form of c-di-GMP represents the biologically active signaling molecule needed for the secretion of an important virulence factor produced by P. aeruginosa.

  15. Structural Analysis of the GGDEF-EAL Domain-Containing c-di-GMP Receptor FimX

    SciTech Connect

    Navarro, M.; De, N; Bae, N; Wang, Q; Sondermann, H

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial pathogenesis involves social behavior including biofilm formation and swarming, processes that are regulated by the bacterially unique second messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP). Diguanylate cyclases containing GGDEF and phosphodiesterases containing EAL domains have been identified as the enzymes controlling cellular c-di-GMP levels, yet less is known regarding signal transmission and the targets of c-di-GMP. FimX, a protein from Pseudomonas aeruginosa that governs twitching motility, belongs to a large subfamily containing both GGDEF and EAL domains. Biochemical and structural analyses reveals its function as a high-affinity receptor for c-di-GMP. A model for full-length FimX was generated combining solution scattering data and crystal structures of the degenerate GGDEF and EAL domains. Although FimX forms a dimer in solution via the N-terminal domains, a crystallographic EAL domain dimer suggests modes for the regulation of FimX by c-di-GMP binding. The results provide the structural basis for c-di-GMP sensing via degenerate phosphodiesterases.

  16. Dimeric c-di-GMP is required for post-translational regulation of alginate production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Whitney, John C.; Robinson, Howard; Whitfield, Gregory B.; Marmont, Lindsey S.; Yip, Patrick; Neculai, A. Mirela; Lobsanov, Yuri D.; Ohman, Dennis E.; Howell, P. Lynne

    2015-05-15

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen that secretes the exopolysaccharide alginate during infection of the respiratory tract of individuals afflicted with cystic fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Among the proteins required for alginate production, Alg44 has been identified as an inner membrane protein whose bis-(3',5')-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) binding activity post-translationally regulates alginate secretion. In this study, we report the 1.8 Å crystal structure of the cytoplasmic region of Alg44 in complex with dimeric self-intercalated c-di-GMP and characterize its dinucleotide-binding site using mutational analysis. The structure shows that the c-di-GMP binding region of Alg44 adopts a PilZmore » domain fold with a dimerization mode not previously observed for this family of proteins. Moreover, calorimetric binding analysis of residues in the c-di-GMP binding site demonstrate that mutation of Arg-17 and Arg-95 alters the binding stoichiometry between c-di-GMP and Alg44 from 2:1 to 1:1. Introduction of these mutant alleles on the P. aeruginosa chromosome show that the residues required for binding of dimeric c-di-GMP in vitro are also required for efficient alginate production in vivo. Our results suggest that the dimeric form of c-di-GMP represents the biologically active signaling molecule needed for the secretion of an important virulence factor produced by P. aeruginosa.« less

  17. Intestinal GPS: bile and bicarbonate control cyclic di-GMP to provide Vibrio cholerae spatial cues within the small intestine.

    PubMed

    Koestler, Benjamin J; Waters, Christopher M

    2014-01-01

    The second messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) regulates numerous phenotypes in response to environmental stimuli to enable bacteria to transition between different lifestyles. Here we discuss our recent findings that the human pathogen Vibrio cholerae recognizes 2 host-specific signals, bile and bicarbonate, to regulate intracellular c-di-GMP. We have demonstrated that bile acids increase intracellular c-di-GMP to promote biofilm formation. We have also shown that this bile-mediated increase of intracellular c-di-GMP is negated by bicarbonate, and that this interaction is dependent on pH, suggesting that V. cholerae uses these 2 environmental cues to sense and adapt to its relative location in the small intestine. Increased intracellular c-di-GMP by bile is attributed to increased c-di-GMP synthesis by 3 diguanylate cyclases (DGCs) and decreased expression of one phosphodiesterase (PDE) in the presence of bile. The molecular mechanisms by which bile controls the activity of the 3 DGCs and the regulators of bile-mediated transcriptional repression of the PDE are not yet known. Moreover, the impact of varying concentrations of bile and bicarbonate at different locations within the small intestine and the response of V. cholerae to these cues remains unclear. The native microbiome and pharmaceuticals, such as omeprazole, can impact bile and pH within the small intestine, suggesting these are potential unappreciated factors that may alter V. cholerae pathogenesis. PMID:25621620

  18. A direct screen for c-di-GMP modulators reveals a Salmonella Typhimurium periplasmic ʟ-arginine-sensing pathway.

    PubMed

    Mills, Erez; Petersen, Erik; Kulasekara, Bridget R; Miller, Samuel I

    2015-06-01

    Cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP) is a bacterial second messenger that transduces internal and external signals and regulates bacterial motility and biofilm formation. Some organisms encode more than 100 c-di-GMP-modulating enzymes, but only for a few has a signal been defined that modulates their activity. We developed and applied a high-throughput, real-time flow cytometry method that uses a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based biosensor of free c-di-GMP to screen for signals that modulate its concentration within Salmonella Typhimurium. We identified multiple compounds, including glucose, N-acetyl-d-glucosamine, salicylic acid, and ʟ-arginine, that modulated the FRET signal and therefore the free c-di-GMP concentration. By screening a library of mutants, we identified proteins required for the c-di-GMP response to each compound. Furthermore, low micromolar concentrations of ʟ-arginine induced a rapid translation-independent increase in c-di-GMP concentrations and c-di-GMP-dependent cellulose synthesis, responses that required the regulatory periplasmic domain of the diguanylate cyclase STM1987. ʟ-Arginine signaling also required the periplasmic putative ʟ-arginine-binding protein ArtI, implying that ʟ-arginine sensing occurred in the periplasm. Among the 20 commonly used amino acids, S. Typhimurium specifically responded to ʟ-arginine with an increase in c-di-GMP, suggesting that ʟ-arginine may serve as a signal during S. Typhimurium infection. Our results demonstrate that a second-messenger biosensor can be used to identify environmental signals and define pathways that alter microbial behavior. PMID:26060330

  19. Cyclic di-AMP Is Critical for Listeria monocytogenes Growth, Cell Wall Homeostasis, and Establishment of Infection

    PubMed Central

    Witte, Chelsea E.; Whiteley, Aaron T.; Burke, Thomas P.; Sauer, John-Demian; Portnoy, Daniel A.; Woodward, Joshua J.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Listeria monocytogenes infection leads to robust induction of an innate immune signaling pathway referred to as the cytosolic surveillance pathway (CSP), characterized by expression of beta interferon (IFN-β) and coregulated genes. We previously identified the IFN-β stimulatory ligand as secreted cyclic di-AMP. Synthesis of c-di-AMP in L. monocytogenes is catalyzed by the diadenylate cyclase DacA, and multidrug resistance transporters are necessary for secretion. To identify additional bacterial factors involved in L. monocytogenes detection by the CSP, we performed a forward genetic screen for mutants that induced altered levels of IFN-β. One mutant that stimulated elevated levels of IFN-β harbored a transposon insertion in the gene lmo0052. Lmo0052, renamed here PdeA, has homology to a cyclic di-AMP phosphodiesterase, GdpP (formerly YybT), of Bacillus subtilis and is able to degrade c-di-AMP to the linear dinucleotide pApA. Reduction of c-di-AMP levels by conditional depletion of the di-adenylate cyclase DacA or overexpression of PdeA led to marked decreases in growth rates, both in vitro and in macrophages. Additionally, mutants with altered levels of c-di-AMP had different susceptibilities to peptidoglycan-targeting antibiotics, suggesting that the molecule may be involved in regulating cell wall homeostasis. During intracellular infection, increases in c-di-AMP production led to hyperactivation of the CSP. Conditional depletion of dacA also led to increased IFN-β expression and a concomitant increase in host cell pyroptosis, a result of increased bacteriolysis and subsequent bacterial DNA release. These data suggest that c-di-AMP coordinates bacterial growth, cell wall stability, and responses to stress and plays a crucial role in the establishment of bacterial infection. PMID:23716572

  20. Identification of a cyclic-di-GMP-modulating response regulator that impacts biofilm formation in a model sulfate reducing bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Rajeev, Lara; Luning, Eric G.; Altenburg, Sara; Zane, Grant M.; Baidoo, Edward E. K.; Catena, Michela; Keasling, Jay D.; Wall, Judy D.; Fields, Matthew W.; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila

    2014-01-01

    We surveyed the eight putative cyclic-di-GMP-modulating response regulators (RRs) in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough that are predicted to function via two-component signaling. Using purified proteins, we examined cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP) production or turnover in vitro of all eight proteins. The two RRs containing only GGDEF domains (DVU2067, DVU0636) demonstrated c-di-GMP production activity in vitro. Of the remaining proteins, three RRs with HD-GYP domains (DVU0722, DVUA0086, and DVU2933) were confirmed to be Mn2+-dependent phosphodiesterases (PDEs) in vitro and converted c-di-GMP to its linear form, pGpG. DVU0408, containing both c-di-GMP production (GGDEF) and degradation domains (EAL), showed c-di-GMP turnover activity in vitro also with production of pGpG. No c-di-GMP related activity could be assigned to the RR DVU0330, containing a metal-dependent phosphohydrolase HD-OD domain, or to the HD-GYP domain RR, DVU1181. Studies included examining the impact of overexpressed cyclic-di-GMP-modulating RRs in the heterologous host E. coli and led to the identification of one RR, DVU0636, with increased cellulose production. Evaluation of a transposon mutant in DVU0636 indicated that the strain was impaired in biofilm formation and demonstrated an altered carbohydrate:protein ratio relative to the D. vulgaris wild type biofilms. However, grown in liquid lactate/sulfate medium, the DVU0636 transposon mutant showed no growth impairment relative to the wild-type strain. Among the eight candidates, only the transposon disruption mutant in the DVU2067 RR presented a growth defect in liquid culture. Our results indicate that, of the two diguanylate cyclases (DGCs) that function as part of two-component signaling, DVU0636 plays an important role in biofilm formation while the function of DVU2067 has pertinence in planktonic growth. PMID:25120537

  1. ASSOCIATION OF EXPOSURE TO DI-2-ETHYLHEXYLPHTHALATE (DEHP) REPLACEMENTS WITH INCREASED BLOOD PRESSURE IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS

    PubMed Central

    Trasande, Leonardo; Attina, Teresa M.

    2015-01-01

    Phthalates are environmental chemicals widely used in consumer and personal care products. In this study we examined associations of urinary phthalates with blood pressure, triglycerides and lipoproteins in children and adolescents, performing a cross-sectional analysis of a subsample of US children 6–19 years of age who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between the years 2009–2012. We quantified exposure to common environmental phthalates, with a focus on the dietary contaminant di-2-ethylhexylphthalate and two increasingly used replacements, di-isononyl phthalate and di-isodecyl phthalate, based on micromolar concentration of urinary metabolites. We assessed descriptive, univariate and multivariable associations with blood pressure and lipids. Controlling for an array of sociodemographic and behavioral factors, as well as diet and body mass, metabolites of di-2-ethylhexylphthalate , di-isononyl phthalate and di-isodecyl phthalate were associated with higher age-, gender- and height-standardized blood pressure. For each log unit increase in di-isodecyl phthalate metabolites, a 0.105 standard deviation unit increase in systolic blood pressure z score was identified (p=0.004); for di-isononyl phthalate metabolites, a 0.113 standard deviation unit increment was identified (p=0.008). For di-2-ethylhexylphthalate metabolites, a 0.103 standard deviation unit increment (p=0.013) was detected. Metabolites of low molecular weight phthalates commonly found in cosmetics and personal care products showed an association with blood pressure (≥90th percentile) in univariate analysis, but this was no longer significant in our full multivariable model, suggesting specificity. Phthalate metabolites were not associated with triglycerides or high-density lipoproteins. Further, longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these associations, and to assess opportunities for intervention. PMID:26156503

  2. Active Site Metal Occupancy and Cyclic Di-GMP Phosphodiesterase Activity of Thermotoga maritima HD-GYP.

    PubMed

    Miner, Kyle D; Kurtz, Donald M

    2016-02-16

    HD-GYPs make up a subclass of the metal-dependent HD phosphohydrolase superfamily and catalyze conversion of cyclic di(3',5')-guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) to 5'-phosphoguanylyl-(3'→5')-guanosine (pGpG) and GMP. Until now, the only reported crystal structure of an HD-GYP that also exhibits c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase activity contains a His/carboxylate ligated triiron active site. However, other structural and phylogenetic correlations indicate that some HD-GYPs contain dimetal active sites. Here we provide evidence that an HD-GYP c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase, TM0186, from Thermotoga maritima can accommodate both di- and trimetal active sites. We show that an as-isolated iron-containing TM0186 has an oxo/carboxylato-bridged diferric site, and that the reduced (diferrous) form is necessary and sufficient to catalyze conversion of c-di-GMP to pGpG, but that conversion of pGpG to GMP requires more than two metals per active site. Similar c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase activities were obtained with divalent iron or manganese. On the basis of activity correlations with several putative metal ligand residue variants and molecular dynamics simulations, we propose that TM0186 can accommodate both di- and trimetal active sites. Our results also suggest that a Glu residue conserved in a subset of HD-GYPs is required for formation of the trimetal site and can also serve as a labile ligand to the dimetal site. Given the anaerobic growth requirement of T. maritima, we suggest that this HD-GYP can function in vivo with either divalent iron or manganese occupying di- and trimetal sites. PMID:26786892

  3. The soybean GmDi19-5 interacts with GmLEA3.1 and increases sensitivity of transgenic plants to abiotic stresses

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Zhi-Juan; Cui, Xiao-Yu; Cui, Xi-Yan; Chen, Ming; Yang, Guang-Xiao; Ma, You-Zhi; He, Guang-Yuan; Xu, Zhao-Shi

    2015-01-01

    Drought-induced (Di19) proteins played important roles in plant growth, development, and abiotic stress responses. In the present study, a total of seven Di19 genes were identified in soybean. Each soybean Di19 gene showed specific responses to salt, drought, oxidative, and ABA stresses based on expression profiles. With a relatively higher transcript level among Di19 members under four stress treatments, GmDi19-5 was selected for detailed analysis. Inhibitor assays revealed that ABA inhibitor (Fluridone) or H2O2 inhibitor (DMTU) was involved in the drought- or salt-induced transcription of GmDi19-5. The GUS activity driven by the GmDi19-5 promoter was induced by salt, PEG, ABA, and MV treatments and tended to be accumulated in the vascular bundles and young leaves. A subcellular localization assay showed that GmDi19-5 protein localized in the nucleus. Further investigation showed that GmDi19-5 protein was involved in the interaction with GmLEA3.1. Overexpression of GmDi19-5 increased sensitivity of transgenic Arabidopsis plants to salt, drought, oxidative, and ABA stresses and regulated expression of several ABA/stress-associated genes. This present investigation showed that GmDi19-5 functioned as a negative factor under abiotic stresses and was involved in ABA and SOS signaling pathway by altering transcription of stress-associated genes. PMID:25852726

  4. KEY COMPARISON Comparison of the standards of air kerma of the ENEA-INMRI and the BIPM for 137Cs gamma rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allisy-Roberts, P. J.; Kessler, C.; Toni, M.; Bovi, M.

    2010-01-01

    A comparison of the standards of air kerma of the Istituto Nazionale di Metrologia delle Radiazioni Ionizzanti of the Ente per le Nuove Tecnologie, l'Energia e l'Ambiente, Italy (ENEA-INMRI) and of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) was carried out in 137Cs radiation in 1998. The comparison result, updated for changes in the standards in 2003 and 2009, is 0.9927 (0.0067) and demonstrates that the ENEA-INMRI and BIPM standards are in agreement within the uncertainties. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI Section I, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  5. Structure of STING bound to c-di-GMP Reveals the Mechanism of Cyclic Dinucleotide Recognition by the Immune System

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Chang; Yi, Guanghui; Watts, Tylan; Kao, C. Cheng; Li, Pingwei

    2012-01-01

    STING, stimulator of interferon genes, is an innate immune sensor of cyclic dinucleotides that regulates the induction of type I interferons. STING C-terminal domain forms a V-shaped dimer and binds a c-di-GMP molecule at the dimer interface through direct and solvent-mediated hydrogen bonds. The guanine bases of c-di-GMP stack against the phenolic rings of a conserved tyrosine residue. Mutations at the c-di-GMP binding surface reduce nucleotide binding and affect signaling. PMID:22728658

  6. Structural Insights into the Distinct Binding Mode of Cyclic Di-AMP with SaCpaA_RCK.

    PubMed

    Chin, Ko-Hsin; Liang, Juin-Ming; Yang, Jauo-Guey; Shih, Min-Shao; Tu, Zhi-Le; Wang, Yu-Chuang; Sun, Xing-Han; Hu, Nien-Jen; Liang, Zhao-Xun; Dow, J Maxwell; Ryan, Robert P; Chou, Shan-Ho

    2015-08-11

    Cyclic di-AMP (c-di-AMP) is a relatively new member of the family of bacterial cyclic dinucleotide second messengers. It has attracted significant attention in recent years because of the abundant roles it plays in a variety of Gram-positive bacteria. The structural features that allow diverse bacterial proteins to bind c-di-AMP are not fully understood. Here we report the biophysical and structural studies of c-di-AMP in complex with a bacterial cation-proton antiporter (CpaA) RCK (regulator of the conductance of K(+)) protein from Staphylococcus aureus (Sa). The crystal structure of the SaCpaA_RCK C-terminal domain (CTD) in complex with c-di-AMP was determined to a resolution of 1.81 Å. This structure revealed two well-liganded water molecules, each interacting with one of the adenine bases by a unique H2Olp-π interaction to stabilize the complex. Sequence blasting using the SaCpaA_RCK primary sequence against the bacterial genome database returned many CpaA analogues, and alignment of these sequences revealed that the active site residues are all well-conserved, indicating a universal c-di-AMP binding mode for CpaA_RCK. A proteoliposome activity assay using the full-length SaCpaA membrane protein indicated that c-di-AMP binding alters its antiporter activity by approximately 40%. A comparison of this structure to all other reported c-di-AMP-receptor complex structures revealed that c-di-AMP binds to receptors in either a "U-shape" or "V-shape" mode. The two adenine rings are stabilized in the inner interaction zone by a variety of CH-π, cation-π, backbone-π, or H2Olp-π interaction, but more commonly in the outer interaction zone by hydrophobic CH-π or π-π interaction. The structures determined to date provide an understanding of the mechanisms by which a single c-di-AMP can interact with a variety of receptor proteins, and how c-di-AMP binds receptor proteins in a special way different from that of c-di-GMP. PMID:26171638

  7. Crystal structure of [N,N′-bis­(4-methyl­phen­yl)-1,2-di­phenyl­ethane-1,2-di­imine-κ2 N,N′]di­chlorido­palladium(II) methanol monosolvate

    PubMed Central

    Peñaloza, Alfredo; Fronczek, Frank R.; Isovitsch, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    The title compound, [PdCl2(C28H24N2)]·CH3OH, was pre­pared from the reaction of PdCl2(DMSO)2 (DMSO is di­methyl sulfoxide) and N,N′-bis­(4-methyl­phen­yl)-1,2-di­phenyl­ethane-1,2-di­imine in methanol. The chelating di­imine core of the title compound deviates slightly from planarity, with an N—C—C—N torsion angle of 5.3 (3)°. Delocalization in the di­imine core is indicated by N—C and C—C bonds that are, respectively, longer and shorter than those found in related nonchelating di­imines. The distorted square-planar coordination environment around the PdII atom is manifested as bond angles that are smaller and larger than 90°, and palladacycle torsion angles of −173.22 (16) and 167.06 (16)°. These deviations are attributed to the small bite angle of 79.13 (8)° of the di­imine chelate. The crystal packing exhibits weak inter­molecular hydrogen-bonding inter­actions involving aromatic H atoms, Cl atoms and inter­calated methanol solvent mol­ecules, defining layers parallel to (010). PMID:26396867

  8. Crystal structure of 9,10-bis­(1,3-di­thiol-2-yl­idene)-9,10-di­hydro­anthracene

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Yi; Lee, Semin; Bertke, Jeffery A.; Moore, Jeffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    The crystal structure of the well-studied 9,10-bis­(1,3-di­thiol-2-yl­idene)-9,10-di­hydro­anthracene mol­ecule, C20H12S4, (I), also known as exTTF, is reported. The mol­ecular structure of (I) consists of a di­hydro­anthracene moiety with two 1,3-di­thiol-2-yl­idene substituents. This is a saddle-shaped mol­ecule, which inter­acts with a close neighbor through various π–π and C—H⋯π contacts to form a ‘dimer’. These ‘dimers’ inter­act through a series of C—H⋯S and C—H⋯π contacts to construct a complex three-dimensional extended structure. PMID:26870408

  9. THE STATE OF MANGANESE IN THE PHOTOSYNTHETIC APPARATUS. I. EXAFS STUDIES ON CHLOROPLASTS AND di-u-oxo BRIDGED di-MANGANESE MODEL COMPOUNDS

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, J. A.; Robertson, A. S.; Smith, J. P.; Thompson, A. C.; Thompson, A. C.; Klein, M. P.

    1980-11-01

    Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) studies on the manganese contained in spinach chloroplasts and on certain di-u-oxo bridged manganese dimers of the form (X{sub 2}Mn)O{sub 2}(MnX{sub 2} (X=2,2'-bypyridine and 1,10-phenanthroline) are reported. From these studies, the manganese associated with photosynthetic oxygen evolution is suggested to occur as a bridged transition metal dimer with most likely another manganese. Extensive details on the analysis are included.

  10. Vibrio cholerae VpsT Regulates Matrix Production and Motility by Directly Sensing Cyclic di-GMP

    SciTech Connect

    Krasteva, P.; Fong, J; Shikuma, N; Beyhan, S; Navarro, M; Yildiz, F; Sondermann, H

    2010-01-01

    Microorganisms can switch from a planktonic, free-swimming life-style to a sessile, colonial state, called a biofilm, which confers resistance to environmental stress. Conversion between the motile and biofilm life-styles has been attributed to increased levels of the prokaryotic second messenger cyclic di-guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP), yet the signaling mechanisms mediating such a global switch are poorly understood. Here we show that the transcriptional regulator VpsT from Vibrio cholerae directly senses c-di-GMP to inversely control extracellular matrix production and motility, which identifies VpsT as a master regulator for biofilm formation. Rather than being regulated by phosphorylation, VpsT undergoes a change in oligomerization on c-di-GMP binding.

  11. Bromine Incorporation in Regulated and Emerging DBPs and the Relative Predominance of Mono, Di and Trihalogenated DBPs - SLIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Examination of bromine incorporation in emerging DBPs vs that of regulated DBPs Study of predominance of di- vs trihalogenated species in different DBP classes Better understand and characterize exposure to DBPs of health concern

  12. A Versatile Room-Temperature Route to Di- and Trisubstituted Allenes Using Flow-Generated Diazo Compounds**

    PubMed Central

    Poh, Jian-Siang; Tran, Duc N; Battilocchio, Claudio; Hawkins, Joel M; Ley, Steven V

    2015-01-01

    A copper-catalyzed coupling reaction between flow-generated unstabilized diazo compounds and terminal alkynes provides di- and trisubstituted allenes. This extremely mild and rapid transformation is highly tolerant of several functional groups. PMID:26013774

  13. Oxidation of 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol. The structure of C14H22O3

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yohe, G.R.; Dunbar, J.E.; Lansford, M.W.; Pedrotti, R.L.; Scheidt, F.M.; Lee, F.G.H.; Smith, E.C.

    1959-01-01

    The acidic compound C14H22O3, previously reported without assignment of structure as an oxidation product of 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol, is now believed to be DL-trans-5,6-di-tert-butyl-2-hydroxy-1,4-diketo-2-cyclohexene (I). Chemical properties are described and infrared spectra are presented in support of this structure. This structure is of interest in relation to the problem of the existence of o-di-tert-alkylbenzene derivatives. The relatively easy racemization of optically active I suggests that its completely enolized form, 5,6-di-tert-butyl-1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene, is capable of transitory existence.

  14. A Minimal Threshold of c-di-GMP Is Essential for Fruiting Body Formation and Sporulation in Myxococcus xanthus

    PubMed Central

    Skotnicka, Dorota; Trampari, Eleftheria; Liang, Jennifer; Kaever, Volkhard; Malone, Jacob G.; Singer, Mitchell; Søgaard-Andersen, Lotte

    2016-01-01

    Generally, the second messenger bis-(3’-5’)-cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP) regulates the switch between motile and sessile lifestyles in bacteria. Here, we show that c-di-GMP is an essential regulator of multicellular development in the social bacterium Myxococcus xanthus. In response to starvation, M. xanthus initiates a developmental program that culminates in formation of spore-filled fruiting bodies. We show that c-di-GMP accumulates at elevated levels during development and that this increase is essential for completion of development whereas excess c-di-GMP does not interfere with development. MXAN3735 (renamed DmxB) is identified as a diguanylate cyclase that only functions during development and is responsible for this increased c-di-GMP accumulation. DmxB synthesis is induced in response to starvation, thereby restricting DmxB activity to development. DmxB is essential for development and functions downstream of the Dif chemosensory system to stimulate exopolysaccharide accumulation by inducing transcription of a subset of the genes encoding proteins involved in exopolysaccharide synthesis. The developmental defects in the dmxB mutant are non-cell autonomous and rescued by co-development with a strain proficient in exopolysaccharide synthesis, suggesting reduced exopolysaccharide accumulation as the causative defect in this mutant. The NtrC-like transcriptional regulator EpsI/Nla24, which is required for exopolysaccharide accumulation, is identified as a c-di-GMP receptor, and thus a putative target for DmxB generated c-di-GMP. Because DmxB can be—at least partially—functionally replaced by a heterologous diguanylate cyclase, these results altogether suggest a model in which a minimum threshold level of c-di-GMP is essential for the successful completion of multicellular development in M. xanthus. PMID:27214040

  15. Inactivation of Cyclic Di-GMP Binding Protein TDE0214 Affects the Motility, Biofilm Formation, and Virulence of Treponema denticola

    PubMed Central

    Bian, Jiang; Liu, Xiangyang; Cheng, Yi-Qiang

    2013-01-01

    As a ubiquitous second messenger, cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP) has been studied in numerous bacteria. The oral spirochete Treponema denticola, a periodontal pathogen associated with human periodontitis, has a complex c-di-GMP signaling network. However, its function remains unexplored. In this report, a PilZ-like c-di-GMP binding protein (TDE0214) was studied to investigate the role of c-di-GMP in the spirochete. TDE0214 harbors a PilZ domain with two signature motifs: RXXXR and DXSXXG. Biochemical studies showed that TDE0214 binds c-di-GMP in a specific manner, with a dissociation constant (Kd) value of 1.73 μM, which is in the low range compared to those of other reported c-di-GMP binding proteins. To reveal the role of c-di-GMP in T. denticola, a TDE0214 deletion mutant (TdΔ214) was constructed and analyzed in detail. First, swim plate and single-cell tracking analyses showed that TdΔ214 had abnormal swimming behaviors: the mutant was less motile and reversed more frequently than the wild type. Second, we found that biofilm formation of TdΔ214 was substantially repressed (∼6.0-fold reduction). Finally, in vivo studies using a mouse skin abscess model revealed that the invasiveness and ability to induce skin abscesses and host humoral immune responses were significantly attenuated in TdΔ214, indicative of the impact that TDE0214 has on the virulence of T. denticola. Collectively, the results reported here indicate that TDE0214 plays important roles in motility, biofilm formation, and virulence of the spirochete. This report also paves a way to further unveil the roles of the c-di-GMP signaling network in the biology and pathogenicity of T. denticola. PMID:23794624

  16. Mechanistic insights into c-di-GMP–dependent control of the biofilm regulator FleQ from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Matsuyama, Bruno Y.; Krasteva, Petya V.; Baraquet, Claudine; Harwood, Caroline S.; Sondermann, Holger; Navarro, Marcos V. A. S.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial biofilm formation during chronic infections confers increased fitness, antibiotic tolerance, and cytotoxicity. In many pathogens, the transition from a planktonic lifestyle to collaborative, sessile biofilms represents a regulated process orchestrated by the intracellular second-messenger c-di-GMP. A main effector for c-di-GMP signaling in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the transcription regulator FleQ. FleQ is a bacterial enhancer-binding protein (bEBP) with a central AAA+ ATPase σ54-interaction domain, flanked by a C-terminal helix-turn-helix DNA-binding motif and a divergent N-terminal receiver domain. Together with a second ATPase, FleN, FleQ regulates the expression of flagellar and exopolysaccharide biosynthesis genes in response to cellular c-di-GMP. Here we report structural and functional data that reveal an unexpected mode of c-di-GMP recognition that is associated with major conformational rearrangements in FleQ. Crystal structures of FleQ’s AAA+ ATPase domain in its apo-state or bound to ADP or ATP-γ-S show conformations reminiscent of the activated ring-shaped assemblies of other bEBPs. As revealed by the structure of c-di-GMP–complexed FleQ, the second messenger interacts with the AAA+ ATPase domain at a site distinct from the ATP binding pocket. c-di-GMP interaction leads to active site obstruction, hexameric ring destabilization, and discrete quaternary structure transitions. Solution and cell-based studies confirm coupling of the ATPase active site and c-di-GMP binding, as well as the functional significance of crystallographic interprotomer interfaces. Taken together, our data offer unprecedented insight into conserved regulatory mechanisms of gene expression under direct c-di-GMP control via FleQ and FleQ-like bEBPs. PMID:26712005

  17. A Minimal Threshold of c-di-GMP Is Essential for Fruiting Body Formation and Sporulation in Myxococcus xanthus.

    PubMed

    Skotnicka, Dorota; Smaldone, Gregory T; Petters, Tobias; Trampari, Eleftheria; Liang, Jennifer; Kaever, Volkhard; Malone, Jacob G; Singer, Mitchell; Søgaard-Andersen, Lotte

    2016-05-01

    Generally, the second messenger bis-(3'-5')-cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP) regulates the switch between motile and sessile lifestyles in bacteria. Here, we show that c-di-GMP is an essential regulator of multicellular development in the social bacterium Myxococcus xanthus. In response to starvation, M. xanthus initiates a developmental program that culminates in formation of spore-filled fruiting bodies. We show that c-di-GMP accumulates at elevated levels during development and that this increase is essential for completion of development whereas excess c-di-GMP does not interfere with development. MXAN3735 (renamed DmxB) is identified as a diguanylate cyclase that only functions during development and is responsible for this increased c-di-GMP accumulation. DmxB synthesis is induced in response to starvation, thereby restricting DmxB activity to development. DmxB is essential for development and functions downstream of the Dif chemosensory system to stimulate exopolysaccharide accumulation by inducing transcription of a subset of the genes encoding proteins involved in exopolysaccharide synthesis. The developmental defects in the dmxB mutant are non-cell autonomous and rescued by co-development with a strain proficient in exopolysaccharide synthesis, suggesting reduced exopolysaccharide accumulation as the causative defect in this mutant. The NtrC-like transcriptional regulator EpsI/Nla24, which is required for exopolysaccharide accumulation, is identified as a c-di-GMP receptor, and thus a putative target for DmxB generated c-di-GMP. Because DmxB can be-at least partially-functionally replaced by a heterologous diguanylate cyclase, these results altogether suggest a model in which a minimum threshold level of c-di-GMP is essential for the successful completion of multicellular development in M. xanthus. PMID:27214040

  18. Type IV Pilus Assembly in Pseudomonas aeruginosa over a Broad Range of Cyclic di-GMP Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Ruchi; Behrens, Anna-Janina; Kaever, Volkhard

    2012-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative, opportunistic pathogen that utilizes polar type IV pili (T4P) for twitching motility and adhesion in the environment and during infection. Pilus assembly requires FimX, a GGDEF/EAL domain protein that binds and hydrolyzes cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP). Bacteria lacking FimX are deficient in twitching motility and microcolony formation. We carried out an extragenic suppressor screen in PA103ΔfimX bacteria to identify additional regulators of pilus assembly. Multiple suppressor mutations were mapped to PA0171, PA1121 (yfiR), and PA3703 (wspF), three genes previously associated with small-colony-variant phenotypes. Multiple independent techniques confirmed that suppressors assembled functional surface pili, though at both polar and nonpolar sites. Whole-cell c-di-GMP levels were elevated in suppressor strains, in agreement with previous studies that had shown that the disrupted genes encoded negative regulators of diguanylate cyclases. Overexpression of the regulated diguanylate cyclases was sufficient to suppress the ΔfimX pilus assembly defect, as was overexpression of an unrelated diguanylate cyclase from Caulobacter crescentus. Furthermore, under natural conditions of high c-di-GMP, PA103ΔfimX formed robust biofilms that showed T4P staining and were structurally distinct from those formed by nonpiliated bacteria. These results are the first demonstration that P. aeruginosa assembles a surface organelle, type IV pili, over a broad range of c-di-GMP concentrations. Assembly of pili at low c-di-GMP concentrations requires a polarly localized c-di-GMP binding protein and phosphodiesterase, FimX; this requirement for FimX is bypassed at high c-di-GMP concentrations. Thus, P. aeruginosa can assemble the same surface organelle in distinct ways for motility or adhesion under very different environmental conditions. PMID:22685276

  19. Mechanistic insights into c-di-GMP-dependent control of the biofilm regulator FleQ from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, Bruno Y; Krasteva, Petya V; Baraquet, Claudine; Harwood, Caroline S; Sondermann, Holger; Navarro, Marcos V A S

    2016-01-12

    Bacterial biofilm formation during chronic infections confers increased fitness, antibiotic tolerance, and cytotoxicity. In many pathogens, the transition from a planktonic lifestyle to collaborative, sessile biofilms represents a regulated process orchestrated by the intracellular second-messenger c-di-GMP. A main effector for c-di-GMP signaling in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the transcription regulator FleQ. FleQ is a bacterial enhancer-binding protein (bEBP) with a central AAA+ ATPase σ(54)-interaction domain, flanked by a C-terminal helix-turn-helix DNA-binding motif and a divergent N-terminal receiver domain. Together with a second ATPase, FleN, FleQ regulates the expression of flagellar and exopolysaccharide biosynthesis genes in response to cellular c-di-GMP. Here we report structural and functional data that reveal an unexpected mode of c-di-GMP recognition that is associated with major conformational rearrangements in FleQ. Crystal structures of FleQ's AAA+ ATPase domain in its apo-state or bound to ADP or ATP-γ-S show conformations reminiscent of the activated ring-shaped assemblies of other bEBPs. As revealed by the structure of c-di-GMP-complexed FleQ, the second messenger interacts with the AAA+ ATPase domain at a site distinct from the ATP binding pocket. c-di-GMP interaction leads to active site obstruction, hexameric ring destabilization, and discrete quaternary structure transitions. Solution and cell-based studies confirm coupling of the ATPase active site and c-di-GMP binding, as well as the functional significance of crystallographic interprotomer interfaces. Taken together, our data offer unprecedented insight into conserved regulatory mechanisms of gene expression under direct c-di-GMP control via FleQ and FleQ-like bEBPs. PMID:26712005

  20. The Cyclic AMP-Vfr Signaling Pathway in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Is Inhibited by Cyclic Di-GMP

    PubMed Central

    Almblad, Henrik; Harrison, Joe J.; Rybtke, Morten; Groizeleau, Julie; Givskov, Michael; Parsek, Matthew R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa expresses numerous acute virulence factors in the initial phase of infection, and during long-term colonization it undergoes adaptations that optimize survival in the human host. Adaptive changes that often occur during chronic infection give rise to rugose small colony variants (RSCVs), which are hyper-biofilm-forming mutants that commonly possess mutations that increase production of the biofilm-promoting secondary messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP). We show that RSCVs display a decreased production of acute virulence factors as a direct result of elevated c-di-GMP content. Overproduction of c-di-GMP causes a decrease in the transcription of virulence factor genes that are regulated by the global virulence regulator Vfr. The low level of Vfr-dependent transcription is caused by a low level of its coactivator, cyclic AMP (cAMP), which is decreased in response to a high level of c-di-GMP. Mutations that cause reversion of the RSCV phenotype concomitantly reactivate Vfr-cAMP signaling. Attempts to uncover the mechanism underlying the observed c-di-GMP-mediated lowering of cAMP content provided evidence that it is not caused by inhibition of adenylate cyclase production or activity and that it is not caused by activation of cAMP phosphodiesterase activity. In addition to the studies of the RSCVs, we present evidence that the deeper layers of wild-type P. aeruginosa biofilms have high c-di-GMP levels and low cAMP levels. IMPORTANCE Our work suggests that cross talk between c-di-GMP and cAMP signaling pathways results in downregulation of acute virulence factors in P. aeruginosa biofilm infections. Knowledge about this cross-regulation adds to our understanding of virulence traits and immune evasion by P. aeruginosa in chronic infections and may provide new approaches to eradicate biofilm infections. PMID:25897033