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Sample records for ionospheric plasma convection

  1. New SuperDARN Radar Capabilities for Observing Ionospheric Plasma Convection and ITM Coupling in the Mid-Latitude Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Baker, J. B.; Greenwald, R. A.; Clausen, L. B.; Shepherd, S. G.; Bristow, W. A.; Talaat, E. R.; Barnes, R. J.

    2010-12-01

    Within the past year the first pair of SuperDARN radars funded under the NSF MSI program has become operational at a site near Hays, Kansas. The fields of view of the co-located radars are oriented to provide common-volume observations with two existing radars in Virginia (Wallops, Blackstone) and two MSI radars under construction in Oregon (Christmas Valley). The emerging mid-latitude radar chain will complement the existing SuperDARN coverage at polar cap and auroral latitudes within North America. The mid-latitude radars observe the expansion of auroral effects during disturbed periods, subauroral polarization streams, and small-scale ionospheric irregularities on the nightside that open a window on the plasma drifts and electric fields of the quiet-time subauroral ionosphere. They also measure neutral winds at mesospheric heights and the propagation of ionospheric disturbances due to the passage of atmospheric gravity waves. The new radar capabilities provide unprecedented views of ITM processes in the subauroral ionosphere with applications to studies of ionospheric electric fields, ion-neutral coupling, atmospheric tides and planetary waves, ionospheric plasma structuring and plasma instability. In this talk we describe the new capabilities and the potential for providing large-scale context for related ITM measurements over North America. We present the first high-resolution two-dimensional maps of ionospheric plasma convection at mid-latitudes as generated from common-volume observations with the Hays and Blackstone radars.

  2. Strong IMF By-Related Plasma Convection in the Ionosphere and Cusp Field-Aligned Currents Under Northward IMF Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le, G.; Lu, G.; Strangeway, R. J.; Pfaff, R. F., Jr.; Vondrak, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We present in this paper an investigation of IMF-By related plasma convection and cusp field-aligned currents using FAST data and AMIE model during a prolonged interval with large positive IMF By and northward Bz conditions (By/Bz much greater than 1). Using the FAST single trajectory observations to validate the global convection patterns at key times and key locations, we have demonstrated that the AMIE procedure provides a reasonably good description of plasma circulations in the ionosphere during this interval. Our results show that the plasma convection in the ionosphere is consistent with the anti-parallel merging model. When the IMF has a strongly positive By component under northward conditions, we find that the global plasma convection forms two cells oriented nearly along the Sun-earth line in the ionosphere. In the northern hemisphere, the dayside cell has clockwise convection mainly circulating within the polar cap on open field lines. A second cell with counterclockwise convection is located in the nightside circulating across the polar cap boundary, The observed two-cell convection pattern appears to be driven by the reconnection along the anti-parallel merging lines poleward of the cusp extending toward the dusk side when IMF By/Bz much greater than 1. The magnetic tension force on the newly reconnected field lines drives the plasma to move from dusk to dawn in the polar cusp region near the polar cap boundary. The field-aligned currents in the cusp region flow downward into the ionosphere. The return field-aligned currents extend into the polar cap in the center of the dayside convection cell. The field-aligned currents are closed through the Peterson currents in the ionosphere, which flow poleward from the polar cap boundary along the electric field direction.

  3. Driving mechanism of the nightside ionospheric convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, T.

    2001-12-01

    Magnetometer and SuperDARN observations provided evidence of the instantaneous reaction of ionospheric convection on the dayside and nightside. The AMIE analyses revealed that the potential pattern did not move but remained nearly at fixed locations. SuperDARN observations demonstrated that the plasma motion in the nightside ionosphere was intensified immediately after the motion of dayside ionospheric plasma was intensified within a resolution of the measurement (2 min). The convection in the night-side polar ionosphere would cause the plasma convection in the near-earth magnetotail. In the companion paper (Hashimoto and Kikuchi, this meeting) we demonstrate that the growth phase signature at the geosynchronous orbit and the ground magnetic signatures of the partial ring currents developed several minutes after the magnetic reconnection at the dayside magnetopause. These results suggest that the electric field responsible for the convection in the near-Earth magnetotail propagated from the night-side polar ionosphere after having propagated from the magnetosphere to the polar ionosphere on the dayside. In order to explain the quick response of the nightside ionospheric convection, we examine possible propagation modes that could transmit the convection electric field from the dayside outer magnetosphere to the nightside ionosphere. The magnetospheric convection may be generated either by accumulation of the FTEs or by the dynamo action in the cusp and the HLBL. In either case, the electric field propagates from the dayside magnetosphere to the nightside ionosphere within a few minutes. One possible propagation mode would be the magnetosonic wave propagating across the geomagnetic field and the other is the shear Alfvén mode propagating parallel to the geomagnetic field. The magnetosonic waves would be totally reflected at the ionosphere and the resultant electric field would be vanished almost completely. On the other hand, the convective motion of the plasma can

  4. Is the ionospheric plasma convection causing GOCE's anomalies at the geomagnetic poles?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marz, Stefan; Schlicht, Anja

    2016-04-01

    In the gradients Vyy of the GOCE gravity field mission signals were observed in the region of the poles, which do not exhibit gravity field signatures and therefore suggest distinct systematic errors. In this connection also correlations with the cross track common mode are visible, whereby an insufficient calibration of the gradiometer is generally assumed. In the present thesis a correlation between the cross track common mode and Vyy is highlighted in more detail and the effect by natural low frequency signals in the ionosphere is discussed as another possible reason for the accelerometer deflections. Relating to the cross track accelerations thermospheric winds are the only discussed reason. As a result, it is clear that the distinct signal peaks particularly reveal correlations with the geomagnetic activity, as well as seasonal dependencies. In addition, it can be determined that these signal peaks occur exclusively in the area of polar latitudes and show connections with the areas of polar caps and aurora ovals. The behaviour of the signal peaks further exhibits a distinct influence by the By component of the interplanetary magnetic field. Distinct correlations of the cross track common mode reveal with the ionospheric plasma convection. Regarding the yy gradients it is determined that aspects correlate with the common mode, but the common mode can not explain the full signal.

  5. Plasma and convection reversal boundary motions in the high-latitude ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.-J.; Heelis, R. A.; Cumnock, J. A.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we present a statistical study of the high-latitude ionospheric plasma motion at the convection reversal boundary (CRB) and its dependence on the location of the CRB and the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) orientation by using the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) F13 and F15 measurements over the period from 2000 to 2007. During periods of stable southward IMF, we find a smaller variability in plasma drifts across the CRB over a 4 h segment in magnetic local time (MLT) around dawn and dusk compared to that for variable IMF. Across these segments, the plasma motion at the CRB is directed poleward at local times closer to local noon and equatorward at local times closer to midnight on both the dawn and dusk sides with a total potential drop ~10 kV, suggesting that the CRB behaves much like an adiaroic line. For variable IMF with no stability constraint, we see a relatively narrow distribution of plasma drifts across the CRB only in the 6-7 h and 17-18 h MLT and equatorward/poleward motions of the CRB when the CRB is located at the highest/lowest latitudes. The smaller local time extent of the adiaroic line for variable IMF (~1 h) may be associated with rotation of the dayside merging gap in local time or local contractions and expansions of the polar cap boundary.

  6. Ionospheric convection signatures and magnetic field topology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coley, W. R.; Heelis, R. A.; Hanson, W. B.; Reiff, P. H.; Sharber, J. R.

    1987-01-01

    A statistical study of signatures of the high-latitude ionospheric convection pattern and the simultaneously observed energetic electron precipitation is presented. Most often found are convection cells in which the sunward flowing region contains auroral particle precipitation but the antisunward flowing region does not. However, observations also show the frequent occurrence of convection cells in which neither the antisunward nor the sunward flowing plasma region contains auroral particle precipitation. These findings may appear within the dawnside or duskside convection pattern and strongly suggest that such convection cells may be associated with open magnetic field lines that thread the magnetotail lobes.

  7. Local determination of ionospheric plasma convection from coherent scatter radar data using the SECS technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amm, O.; Grocott, A.; Lester, M.; Yeoman, T. K.

    2010-03-01

    A new technique for merging line-of-sight (LOS) data of the ionospheric plasma convection velocity, as obtained from coherent scatter radars, into a full velocity vector field on a sphere is presented. This technique is based on the expansion into Spherical Elementary Current Systems (SECS) which have been successfully applied to many other problems in ionosphere-magnetosphere physics. Despite their name mentioning currents for historical reasons, SECS can be used as basis functions for any continuously differentiable vector field on a sphere. In contrast to the traditional modeling of the radar data with spherical harmonics over the whole auroral zone, the new technique does not require any “a priori” model input but relies solely on the measured data, nor does it need any explicit boundary conditions to be specified. The new technique is designed to be applied locally to areas where sufficient radar backscatter exists. The analysis area that satisfies this condition may have any shape and is not limited to, e.g., spherical caps. A test with synthetic data shows that the method performs excellently (less than 5% relative error) if 25% or more of the optimal coverage of input data are actually available as backscatter data, with respect to the scale on which the results for the velocity vector field are desired to be obtained. Still if only 10% of the optimal coverage of input data are available, the technique performs fairly well with a relative error of ˜12%. A second test with real LOS input data from the SuperDARN radars shows that on such a local area with sufficient backscatter, our new technique is able to reproduce mesoscale details of the LOS data significantly better than the current standard analysis based on the technique of Ruohoniemi and Baker (1998) which processes the radar data on the whole auroral zone. While the new technique is presented here for the application with LOS radar data, it can be applied for merging any kind of vector component

  8. Relationship of Topside Ionospheric Ion Outflows to Auroral Forms and Precipitations, Plasma Waves, and Convection Observed by POLAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirahara, M.; Horwitz, J. L.; Moore, T. E.; Germany, G. A.; Spann, J. F.; Peterson, W. K.; Shelley, E. G.; Chandler, M. O.; Giles, B. L.; Craven, P. D.; Pollock, C. J.; Gurnett, D. A.; Persoon, A. M.; Scudder, J. D.; Maynard, N. C.; Mozer, F. S.; Brittnacher, M. J.; Nagai, T.

    1997-01-01

    The POLAR satellite often observes upflowing ionospheric ions (UFls) in and near the auroral oval on southern perigee (approximately 5000 km altitude) passes. We present the UFI features observed by the thermal ion dynamics experiment (TIDE) and the toroidal imaging mass-angle spectrograph (TIMAS) in the dusk-dawn sector under two different geomagnetic activity conditions in order to elicit their relationships with auroral forms, wave emissions, and convection pattern from additional POLAR instruments. During the active interval, the ultraviolet imager (UVI) observed a bright discrete aurora on the dusk side after the substorm onset and then observed a small isolated aurora form and diffuse auroras on the dawn side during the recovery phase. The UFls showed clear conic distributions when the plasma wave instrument (PWI) detected strong broadband wave emissions below approximately 10 kHz, while no significant auroral activities were observed by UVI. At higher latitudes, the low-energy UFI conics gradually changed to the polar wind component with decreasing intensity of the broadband emissions. V-shaped auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) signatures observed above approximately 200 kHz by PWI coincided with the region where the discrete aurora and the UFI beams were detected. The latitude of these features was lower than that of the UFI conics. During the observations of the UFI beams and conics, the lower-frequency fluctuations observed by the electric field instrument (EFI) were also enhanced, and the convection directions exhibited large fluctuations. It is evident that large electrostatic potential drops produced the precipitating electrons and discrete auroras, the UFI beams, and the AKR, which is also supported by the energetic plasma data from HYDRA. Since the intense broadband emissions were also observed with the UFIs. the ionospheric ions could be energized transversely before or during the parallel acceleration due to the potential drops.

  9. Relationship of Topside Ionospheric Ion Outflows to Auroral Forms and Precipitation, Plasma Waves, and Convection Observed by Polar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirahara, M.; Horwitz, J. L.; Moore, T. E.; Germany, G. A.; Spann, J. F.; Peterson, W. K.; Shelley, E. G.; Chandler, M. O.; Giles, B. L.; Craven, P. D.; Pollock, C. J.; Gurnett, D. A.; Pickett, J. S.; Persoon, A. M.; Scudder, J. D.; Maynard, N. C.; Mozer, F. S.; Brittnacher, M. J.; Nagai, T.

    1998-01-01

    The POLAR satellite often observes upflowing ionospheric ions (UFIs) in and near the aurora] oval on southern perigee (approx. 5000 km altitude) passes. We present the UFI features observed by the thermal ion dynamics experiment (TIDE) and the toroidal imaging mass angle spectrograph (TIMAS) in the dusk-dawn sector under two different geomagnetic activity conditions in order to elicit their relationships with auroral forms, wave emissions, and convection pattern from additional POLAR instruments. During the active interval, the ultraviolet imager (UVI) observed a bright discrete aurora on the duskside after the substorm onset and then observed a small isolated aurora form and diffuse auroras on the dawnside during the recovery phase. The UFIs showed clear conic distributions when the plasma wave instrument (PWI) detected strong broadband wave emissions below approx. 10 kHz, while no significant auroral activities were observed by UVI. At higher latitudes, the low-energy UFI conics gradually changed to the polar wind component with decreasing intensity of the broadband emissions. V-shaped auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) signatures observed above -200 kHz by PWI coincided with the region where the discrete aurora and the UFI beams were detected. The latitude of these features was lower than that of the UFI conics. During the observations of the UFI beams and conics, the lower-frequency fluctuations observed by the electric field instrument were also enhanced, and the convection directions exhibited large fluctuations. It is evident that large electrostatic potential drops produced the precipitating electrons and discrete auroras, the UFI beams, and the AKR, which is also supported by the energetic plasma data from HYDRA. Since the intense broadband emissions were also observed with the UFIs, the ionospheric ions could be energized transversely before or during the parallel acceleration due to the potential drops.

  10. Analytical model of ionospheric convection at subauroral latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deminov, M. G.; Kim, V. P.; Shubin, V. N.; Khegai, V. V.

    An analytical model of plasma convection in the subauroral ionosphere is developed, assuming that the electric shielding of the inner magnetosphere is controlled by polarization of the hot ion zone situated behind the inner boundary of the plasma sheet. It is shown that, at subauroral latitudes at night, the plasma drifts eastward, while during the day it shifts westward. Thus, in the predmidnight sector, the direction of convection in the subauroral ionosphere is opposite to that of auroral convection. In general, the electric field, with a strength of 10 mV/m, has a meridional direction.

  11. On the convective instability of the cometary ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ershkovich, A. I.; Israelevich, P. L.

    1993-07-01

    The stability analysis of a cometary ionosphere by Ershkovich et al. (1989) is extended to include the effects of plasma motion. In the local inertial frame of reference moving with the plasma we arrived at the same instability criterion, but the Brunt-Vaisala frequency which governs the convective instability now involves the centrifugal force which has a destabilizing effect. As a result, the unstable layer becomes broader, expanding to greater distances from the ionopause. An increase of the comet production rate is shown to stabilize the ionosphere whereas an increase of the ion-neutral momentum exchange rate has a destabilizing effect. The cometary ionopause is shown to undergo the convective instability. The apparent stability of the Halley ionopause is due to the fact that perturbations are convected well downstream with the plasma bulk velocity before growing substantially. Thus we arrive at the conclusion that the cometary ionopause cannot be at rest.

  12. Ionospheric convection associated with discrete levels of particle precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, J.C.; Holt, J.M.; Musgrove, R.G.; Evans, D.S.

    1986-07-01

    A precipitation index is described which quantifies the intensity and spatial extent of high-latitude particle precipitation based on observations made along individual satellite passes. By sorting plasma-convection data according to this index, average patterns of the ionospheric convection electric field were derived from a data set consisting of five years' observations by the Millstone Hill radar. Reference to the instantaneous precipitation index, and the average patterns keyed to it, provides a means of characterizing the global precipitation and convection patterns throughout an event.

  13. Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Convection as a Compound System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, T.

    2007-12-01

    Convection is the most fundamental process in understanding the structure of geospace and disturbances observed in the magnetosphere-ionosphere (M-I) system. In this paper, a self-consistent configuration of the global convection system is considered under the real topology as a compound system. Investigations are made based on the M-I coupling scheme by analyzing numerical results obtained from magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations which guarantee the self-consistency in the whole system under the Bv (magnetic field and velocity) paradigm. It is emphasized in the M-I coupling scheme that convection and field-aligned current (FAC) are different aspects of same physical process characterizing the open magnetosphere. Special attention is given in this paper to the energy supplying (dynamo) process that drives the FAC system. In the convection system, the dynamo must be constructed from shear motion together with plasma population regimes to steadily drive the convection. Convection patterns observed in the ionosphere are also the manifestation of achievement in global self-consistency. A primary approach to apply these concepts to the study of geospace is to consider how the M-I system adjusts the relative motion between the compressible magnetosphere and the incompressible ionosphere when responding to given solar-wind conditions. The above principle is also applicable for the study of disturbance phenomena such as the substorm as well as for the study of apparently unique processes such as the flux transfer event (FTE), the sudden commencement (SC), and the theta aurora. Finally, an attempt is made to understand the substorm as the extension of enhanced convection under the southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) condition.

  14. Studies of ionospheric plasma and electrodynamics and their application to ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heelis, R. A.

    1988-01-01

    The contribution of the Dynamics Explorer (DE) program to the study of small-scale structure in the equatorial ionospheric number density and the bulk motion of the plasma in the equatorial ionosphere is considered. DE results have helped elucidate the role of E region and F region winds in decreasing the magnitude of variations in the east-west plasma drift at night, as a function of magnetic flux tube apex height, with increasing height above the altitude of the peak F region concentration. Other results concern the ionospheric convection pattern at high latitudes during periods of southward IMF, the magnetosphere/solar-wind interaction that may be involved in the production of the convection pattern, and the characteristics of the high-latitude ionospheric plasma motion during periods of northward IMF.

  15. Magnetospheric convection and the high-latitude F2 ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knudsen, W. C.

    1974-01-01

    Behavior of the polar ionospheric F layer as it is convected through the cleft, over the polar cap, and through the nightside F layer trough zone is investigated. Passage through the cleft adds approximately 200,000 ions per cu cm in the vicinity of the F2 peak and redistributes the ionization above approximately 400-km altitude to conform with an increased electron temperature. The redistribution of ionization above 400-km altitude forms the 'averaged' plasma ring seen at 1000-km altitude. The F layer is also raised by approximately 20 km in altitude by the convection electric field. The time required for passage across the polar cap (25 deg) is about the same as that required for the F layer peak concentration to decay by e. The F layer response to passage through the nightside soft electron precipitation zone should be similar to but less than its response to passage through the cleft.

  16. Statistical features of the high-latitude ionospheric convection structure associated with enhanced solar wind fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Lyons, L. R.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Frissell, N. A.

    2012-12-01

    While the IMF and solar wind dynamic pressure almost certainly play larger roles under most conditions, evidence has been recently found that Ultra Low Frequency (ULF) wave power in the solar wind has an additional substantial effect on the strength of convection within the polar caps, and on the nightside within both the aurora ionosphere and the plasma sheet. An initial study shows that the convection flows under enhanced solar wind fluctuations often appear to be more structured, with localized strong vortical features, than the convection under steady solar wind conditions. In this work, we statistically examine characteristic features of the ionospheric convection structure in terms of vortex patterns and how they are related to the convection enhancements during periods of enhanced solar wind fluctuations. Specifically, we examine whether enhanced solar wind ULF power will drive localized turbulence within enhanced convection cells while it increases convection strength at the same time. The results of this study will provide evidence for how solar wind ULF fluctuations can contribute to the solar wind energy transfer to the magnetosphere-ionosphere system. To determine the features of 2-D convection structure, we analyze the large-scale global convection maps derived from the SuperDARN observations with extensive radar echo coverage over a large portion of the high latitude ionosphere. Wind and ACE data are used for examination of solar wind and IMF conditions.

  17. Plasma temperatures in Saturn's ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Luke; Galand, Marina; Mueller-Wodarg, Ingo; Yelle, Roger; Mendillo, Michael

    2008-10-01

    We have calculated self-consistent electron and ion temperatures in Saturn's ionosphere using a series of coupled fluid and kinetic models developed to help interpret Cassini observations and to examine the energy budget of Saturn's upper atmosphere. Electron temperatures in the midlatitude topside ionosphere during solar maximum are calculated to range between 500 and 560 K during the Saturn day, approximately 80-140 K above the neutral temperature. Ion temperatures, calculated for only the major ions H+ and H3+, are nearly equal to the neutral temperature at altitudes near and below the height of peak electron density, while they can reach 500 K during the day at the topside. Plasma scale heights of the dusk electron density profile from radio occultation measurements of the Voyager 2 flyby of Saturn have been used to estimate plasma temperature as a comparison. Such an estimate agrees well with the temperatures calculated here, although there is a topside enhancement in electron density that remains unexplained by ionospheric calculations that include photochemistry and plasma diffusion. Finally, parameterizations of the heating rate from photoelectrons and secondary electrons to thermal, ambient electrons have been developed. They may apply for other conditions at Saturn and possibly at other giant planets and exoplanets as well.

  18. Ground-based studies of ionospheric convection associated with substorm expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Kamide, Y. |; Richmond, A.D.; Emery, B.A.; Hutchins, C.F.; Ahn, B.H. |; Beaujardiere, O. de la; Foster, J.C.; Heelis, R.A.; Kroehl, H.W.; Rich, F.J.

    1994-10-01

    The instantaneous patterns of electric fields and currents in the high-latitude ionosphere are deduced by combining satellite and radar measurements of the ionospheric drift velocity, along with ground-based magnetometer observations for October 25, 1981. For this purpose, an updated version of the assimilative mapping of ionospheric electrodynamics technique has been used. These global patterns are unobtainable from any single data set. The period under study was characterized by a relatively stable southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), so that the obtained electric field patterns do reflect, in general, the state of sustained and enhanced plasma convection in the magnetosphere. During one of the satellite passes, however, an intense westward electrojet caused by a substorm intruded into the satellite (DE 2) and radar (Chatanika, Alaska) field of view in the premidnight sector, providing a unique opportunity to differentiate the enhanced convection and substorm expansion fields. The distributions of the calculated electric potential for the expansion and maximum phases of the substorm show the first clear evidence of the coexistence of two physically different systems in the global convection pattern. The changes in the convection pattern during the substorm indicate that the large-scale potential distributions are indeed of general two-cell patterns representing the southward IMF status, but the night-morning cell has two positive peaks, one in the midnight sector and the other in the late morning hours, corresponding to the substorm expansion and the convection enhancement, respectively. 40 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Ground-based studies of ionospheric convection associated with substorm expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Kamide, Y.; Richmond, A.D.; Emery, B.A.; Hutchins, C.F.; Ahn, B.H.

    1994-10-01

    The instantaneous patterns of electric fields and currents in the high-latitude ionosphere are deduced by combining satellite and radar measurements of the ionospheric drift velocity, along with ground-based magnetometer observations for October 25, 1981. For this purpose, an updated version of the assimilative mapping of ionospheric electrodynamics technique has been used. These global patterns are unobtainable from any single data set. The period under study was characterized by a relatively stable southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), so that the obtained electric field patterns do reflect, in genernal, the state of sustained and enhanced plasma convection in the magnetosphere. During one of the satellite passes, however, an intense westward electrojet caused by a substorm intruded into the satellite (DE 2) and radar (Chatanika, Alaska) field of view in the premidnight sector, providing a unique opportunity to differentiate the enhanced convection and substorm expansion fields. The distributions of the calculated electric potential for the epansion and maximum phases of the substorm show the first clear evidence of the coezistence of two physically different systems in the global convection pattern. The changes in the convection pattern during the substorm indicate that the large-scale potential distributions are indeed of general two-cell patterns representing the southward LMF status, but the night-morning cell has two positive peaks, one in the midnight sector and the other in the late morning hours, corresponding to the substorm expansion and the convection enhancement respectively.

  20. A three-dimensional diffusion/convection model of the large scale magnetic field in the Venus ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luhmann, J. G.

    1988-01-01

    A three-dimensinal diffusion/convection model of the dayside Venus ionosphere magnetic field was developed on the basis of previously published one-dimensional diffusion/convection models, and assuming that the field and flow at the upper boundary (in the magnetic barrier) as well as the ionospheric plasma velocity are known. The results indicate that the low-altitude magnetosheath field draping may be distorted by the interaction with the ionosphere in such a manner that there is an apparent 'focusing' of the field toward the subsolar point, caused by the shear in the horizontal velocity between the magnetosheath and ionospheric flows. A comparison of published magnetic-field observations with the present results indicates that the simple nesting of external and internal velocity fields may be a good approximation to global plasma flows near Venus under normal conditions.

  1. SuperDARN convection and Sondrestrom plasma drift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, L.; Koustov, A. V.; Thayer, J.; McCready, M. A.

    Plasma convection measurements by the Goose Bay and Stokkseyri SuperDARN radar pair and the Sondrestrom incoherent scatter radar are compared in three different ways, by looking at the line-of-sight (l-o-s) velocities, by comparing the SuperDARN vectors and corresponding Sondrestrom l-o-s velocities and by comparing the end products of the instruments, the convection maps. All three comparisons show overall reasonable agreement of the convection measurements though the data spread is significant and for some points a strong disagreement is obvious. The convection map comparison shows a tendency for the SuperDARN velocities to be often less than the Sondrestrom drifts for strong flows (velocities > 1000 m/s) and larger for weak flows (velocities < 500 m/s). On average, both effects do not exceed 35%. Data indicate that inconsistencies between the two data sets occur largely at times of fast temporal variations of the plasma drift and for strongly irregular flow ac-cording to the SuperDARN convection maps. These facts indicate that the observed discrepancies are in many cases a result of the different spatial and temporal resolutions of the instruments.Key words. Ionosphere (ionospheric irregularities; plasma convection; polar ionosphere)

  2. In situ observations of bifurcation of equatorial ionospheric plasma depletions

    SciTech Connect

    Aggson, T.L.; Pfaff, R.F.; Maynard, N.C.

    1996-03-01

    Vector electric field measurements from the San Marco D satellite are utilized to investigate the bifurcation of ionospheric plasma depletions (sometimes called {open_quotes}bubbles{close_quotes}) associated with nightside equatorial spread F. These depletions are identified by enhanced upward ExB convection in depleted plasma density channels in the nighttime equatorial ionosphere. The in situ determination of the bifurcation process is based on dc electric field measurements of the bipolar variation in the zonal flow, westward and eastward, as the eastbound satellite crosses isolated signatures of updrafting plasma depletion regions. The authors also present data in which more complicated regions of zonal velocity variations appear as the possible result of multiple bifurcations of updrafting equatorial plasma bubbles. 10 refs., 7 fig.

  3. Ionospheric convection during the magnetic storm of 20-21 March 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, J. R.; Yeoman, T. K.; Lester, M.; Buonsanto, M. J.; Scali, J. L.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Kelly, J. D.

    1994-01-01

    We report on the response of high-latitude ionospheric convection during the magnetic storm of March 20-21 1990. IMP-8 measurements of solar wind plasma and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), ionospheric convection flow measurements from the Wick and Goose Bay coherent radars, EISCAT, Millstone Hill and Sondrestorm incoherent radars and three digisondes at Millstone Hill, Goose Bay and Qaanaaq are presented. Two intervals of particular interest have been indentified. The first starts with a storm sudden commencement at 2243 UT on March 20 and includes the ionospheric activity in the following 7 h. The response time of the ionospheric convection to the southward tuning of the IMF in the dusk to midnight local times is found to be approximately half that measured in a similar study at comparable local times during more normal solar wind conditions. A subsequent reconfiguration of the nightside convection pattern was also observed, although it was not possible to distinguish between effects due to possible changes in B(sub y) and effects due to substorm activity. The second interval, 1200-2100 UT 21 March 1990, included a southward turning of the IMF which resulted in the B(sub z) component becoming -10 nT. The response time on the dayside to this change in the IMF at the magnetopause was approximately 15 min to 30 min which is a factor of approximately 2 greater than those previously measured at higher latitudes. A movement of the nightside flow reversal, possibly driven by current systems associated with the substorm expansion phases, was observed, implying that the nightside convection pattern can be dominated by substorm activity.

  4. Role of Ionospheric Plasmas in Earth's Magnetotail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Thomas E.

    2007-01-01

    This tutorial will summarize observations and theories indicating a prominent role of ionospheric plasma in the Earth's magnetotail. At the Global scale, I will argue that it is ionospheric plasma momentum and dynamic pressure that are responsible for the production of plasmoids, through the action of a transient near-Earth neutral or X-line, which serves to release excessive plasma pressure from the magnetotail field. Ionospheric plasma gains the momentum and energy to produce plasmoids and their related effects through its interaction with the solar wind, beginning at the dayside reconnection region and extending across the polar caps through the magnetotail lobes. This distant neutral line can be depicted as a feature much like that found in cometary magnetospheres, where disconnection limits the amount of IMF hung up on the cometary coma. On the other hand, the near-Earth neutral one can be seen as a feature unique to planets with an intrinsic magnetic field and internal source of plasma, the heating of which produces pressures too large to be restrained. Ionospheric plasmas also have other more local roles to play in the magnetotail. The circulation influences the composition of the plasma sheet, and the resultant wave environment, giving rise to reduced wave propagation speeds. Important heavy ion cyclotron resonances, and enhanced finite gyro-radius effects including non-adiabatic particle acceleration. At minimum, the presence of ionospheric plasma must influence the rate of reconnection via its enhanced mass density. Other non-MHD effects of ionospheric plasma presence are likely to be important but need much more investigation to be well understood. The MMS mission is designed to penetrate the subtle diffusion region physics that is involved, and its ability to observe ionospheric plasma involvement in reconnection will contribute significantly toward that goal.

  5. Ground-based studies of ionospheric convection associated with substorm expansion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamide, Y.; Richmond, A. D.; Emery, B. A.; Hutchins, C. F.; Ahn, B.-H.; De La Beaujardiere, O.; Foster, J. C.; Heelis, R. A.; Kroehl, H. W.; Rich, F. J.

    1994-01-01

    The instantaneous patterns of electric fields and currents in the high-latitude ionosphere are deduced by combining satellite and radar measurements of the ionospheric drift velocity, along with ground-based magnetometer observations for October 25, 1981. The period under study was characterized by a relatively stable southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), so that the obtained electric field patterns do reflect, in general, the state of sustained and enhanced plasma convection in the magnetosphere. During one of the satellite passes, however, an intense westward electrojet caused by a substorm intruded into the satellite (DE2) and radar (Chatanika, Alaska) field of view in the premidnight sector, providing a unique opportunity to differentiate the enhanced convection and substorm expansion fields. The distributions of the calculated electric potential for the expansion and maximum phases of the substorm show the first clear evidence of the coexistence of two physically different systems in the global convection pattern. The changes in the convection pattern during the substorm indicate that the large-scale potential distributions are indeed of general two-cell patterns representing the southward IMF status, but the night-morning cell has two positive peaks, one in the midnight sector and the other in the late morning hours, corresponding to the substorm expansion and the convection enhancement, respectively.

  6. Self-consistent modelling of the polar thermosphere and ionosphere to magnetospheric convection and precipitation (invited review)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rees, D.; Fuller-Rowell, T.; Quegan, S.; Moffett, R.

    1986-01-01

    It has recently been demonstrated that the dramatic effects of plasma precipitation and convection on the composition and dynamics of the polar thermosphere and ionosphere include a number of strong interactive, or feedback, processes. To aid the evaluation of these feedback processes, a joint three dimensional time dependent global model of the Earth's thermosphere and ionosphere was developed in a collaboration between University College London and Sheffield University. This model includes self consistent coupling between the thermosphere and the ionosphere in the polar regions. Some of the major features in the polar ionosphere, which the initial simulations indicate are due to the strong coupling of ions and neutrals in the presence of strong electric fields and energetic electron precipitation are reviewed. The model is also able to simulate seasonal and Universal time variations in the polar thermosphere and ionospheric regions which are due to the variations of solar photoionization in specific geomagnetic regions such as the cusp and polar cap.

  7. Interhemispheric differences in ionospheric convection: Cluster EDI observations revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Förster, M.; Haaland, S.

    2015-07-01

    The interaction between the interplanetary magnetic field and the geomagnetic field sets up a large-scale circulation in the magnetosphere. This circulation is also reflected in the magnetically connected ionosphere. In this paper, we present a study of ionospheric convection based on Cluster Electron Drift Instrument (EDI) satellite measurements covering both hemispheres and obtained over a full solar cycle. The results from this study show that average flow patterns and polar cap potentials for a given orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field can be very different in the two hemispheres. In particular during southward directed interplanetary magnetic field conditions, and thus enhanced energy input from the solar wind, the measurements show that the southern polar cap has a higher cross polar cap potential. There are persistent north-south asymmetries, which cannot easily be explained by the influence of external drivers. These persistent asymmetries are primarily a result of the significant differences in the strength and configuration of the geomagnetic field between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Since the ionosphere is magnetically connected to the magnetosphere, this difference will also be reflected in the magnetosphere in the form of different feedback from the two hemispheres. Consequently, local ionospheric conditions and the geomagnetic field configuration are important for north-south asymmetries in large regions of geospace.

  8. Magnetospheric convection from Cluster EDI measurements compared with the ground-based ionospheric convection model IZMEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Förster, M.; Feldstein, Y. I.; Haaland, S. E.; Dremukhina, L. A.; Gromova, L. I.; Levitin, A. E.

    2009-08-01

    Cluster/EDI electron drift observations above the Northern and Southern polar cap areas for more than seven and a half years (2001-2008) have been used to derive a statistical model of the high-latitude electric potential distribution for summer conditions. Based on potential pattern for different orientations of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) in the GSM y-z-plane, basic convection pattern (BCP) were derived, that represent the main characteristics of the electric potential distribution in dependence on the IMF. The BCPs comprise the IMF-independent potential distribution as well as patterns, which describe the dependence on positive and negative IMFBz and IMFBy variations. The full set of BCPs allows to describe the spatial and temporal variation of the high-latitude electric potential (ionospheric convection) for any solar wind IMF condition near the Earth's magnetopause within reasonable ranges. The comparison of the Cluster/EDI model with the IZMEM ionospheric convection model, which was derived from ground-based magnetometer observations, shows a good agreement of the basic patterns and its variation with the IMF. According to the statistical models, there is a two-cell antisunward convection within the polar cap for northward IMFBz+≤2 nT, while for increasing northward IMFBz+ there appears a region of sunward convection within the high-latitude daytime sector, which assumes the form of two additional cells with sunward convection between them for IMFBz+≍4-5 nT. This results in a four-cell convection pattern of the high-latitude convection. In dependence of the ±IMFBy contribution during sufficiently strong northward IMFBz conditions, a transformation to three-cell convection patterns takes place.

  9. Electrodynamics and plasma processes in the ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heelis, R. A.

    1987-01-01

    The paper examines the advances achieved between 1983 and 1986 on understanding ionospheric electrodynamics and associated plasma processes, including an assessment of the roles of the E- and F-region neutral winds in providing the large-scale electric field in the ionosphere, as well as of the influence of electric fields of magnetospheric origin on the motion and distribution of plasma. Studies of the factors affecting the creation and evolution of plasma structure with many different scale sizes are discussed. Consideration is also given to the ground-based and in situ techniques used in these studies.

  10. Venus' nighttime horizontal plasma flow, 'magnetic congestion', and ionospheric hole production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grebowsky, J. M.; Mayr, H. G.; Curtis, S. A.; Taylor, H. A., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    A simple rectilinear, two-dimensional MHD model is used to investigate the effects of field-aligned plasma loss and cooling on a dense plasma convecting across a weak magnetic field, in order to illumine the Venus nighttime phenomena of horizontal plasma flow, magnetic congestion and ionospheric hole production. By parameterizing field-aligned variations and explicitly solving for cross magnetic field variations, it is shown that the abrupt horizontal enhancements of the vertical magnetic field, as well as sudden decreases of the plasma density to very low values (which are characteristic of ionospheric holes), can be produced in the presence of field-aligned losses.

  11. Magnetosheath-ionospheric plasma interactions in the cups/cleft 2. Mesoscale particle simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Winglee, R.M.; Menietti, J.D.; Lin, C.S.

    1993-11-01

    Ionospheric plasma flowing out from the cusp can be an important source of plasma to the magnetosphere. One source of free energy that can drive this outflow is the injection of magnetosheath plasma into the cusp. Two-dimensional (three velocity) mesoscale particle simulations are used to investigate the particle dynamics in the cusp during southward interplanetary magnetic field. This mesoscale model self-consistently incorporates (1) global influences such as the convection of plasma across the cusp, the action of the mirror force, and the injection of the magnetosheath plasma, and (2) wave-particle interactions which produce the actual coupling between the magnetosheath and ionospheric plasmas. It is shown that, because the thermal speed of the electrons is higher than the bulk motion of the magnetosheath plasma, an upward current is formed on the equatorward edge of the injection region with return currents on either side. However, the poleward return currents are the stronger due to the convection and mirroring of many of the magnetosheath electrons. The electron distribution in this latter region evolves from upward directed streams to single-sided loss cones or possibly electron conics. The ion distribution also shows a variety of distinct features that are produced by spatial and/or temporal effects associated with varying convection patterns and wave-particle interactions. On the equatorward edge the distribution has a downflowing magnetosheath component and an upflowing cold ionospheric component due to continuous convection of ionospheric plasma into the region. Further poleward there is velocity filtering of ions with low pitch angles, so that the magnetosheath ions develop a ring-beam distribution and the ensuing wave instabilities generate downward ionospheric conics. These downward ionospheric components are eventually turned by the mirror force, leading to the production of upward conics at elevated energies throughout the region. 17 refs., 13 figs.

  12. Multiring probe in a flowing ionospheric plasma.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheldon, J. W.; Stone, N. H.

    1973-01-01

    Description of a multiring probe placed in an ionospheric flow simulation chamber utilizing a modified Kaufman ion engine for its plasma source. The pertinent details of the probe design, instrumentation, and operating procedures are discussed, and the preliminary results obtained are presented.

  13. Plasma convection and currents in the auroral zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ling; Carovillano, Robert L.

    The work we present is based upon an analytical model of the global configuration of ionospheric plasma convection, height-integrated currents, electric fields and potentials, with emphasis upon auroral zone effects. Sheet-like field-aligned-currents (FACs), located at the high- and low-latitude boundaries of the auroral zone, are used to represent the region I and region II currents. Utilizing the cross-cap driving potential and the region II FACs as driving mechanisms, the familiar two-cell convection pattern and the dawn to dusk electric field within the polar cap results, along with auroral electrojets and low latitude shielding. The dependence of the ionospheric convection upon the relative phase and intensity of the driving FACs is discussed, including properties such as the convection rotation and twisting in the auroral zone, and potential penetration to the sub-auroral latitudes. The effects of the Hall to Pedersen conductivity ratio and the degree of the auroral zone conductivity enhancement on the twisting of the convection pattern and on low latitude electrical shielding are also demonstrated.

  14. Ion acceleration in expanding ionospheric plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Nagendra; Schunk, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    Plasma expansion along the ambient magnetic field in regions of density gradients provides a mechanism for accelerating ions. A brief review of the basic phenomenon of plasma expansion is given. Estimates of the energies of the accelerated ions in an expanding ionospheric plasma along geomagnetic flux tubes are obtained by solving the time-dependent hydrodynamic equations. It is found that, over certain altitude ranges, each ion species can be the most energetic; the maximum energies of the different ions are found to be limited to less than about 10 eV for H(+), 5 eV for He(+), and less than about 1.5 eV for O(+).

  15. Interplanetary magnetic field effects on high latitude ionospheric convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heelis, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Relations between the electric field and the electric current in the ionosphere can be established on the basis of a system of mathematical and physical equations provided by the equations of current continuity and Ohm's law. For this reason, much of the synthesis of electric field and plasma velocity data in the F-region is made with the aid of similar data sets derived from field-aligned current and horizontal current measurements. During the past decade, the development of a self-consistent picture of the distribution and behavior of these measurements has proceeded almost in parallel. The present paper is concerned with the picture as it applies to the electric field and plasma drift velocity and its dependence on the interplanetary magnetic field. Attention is given to the southward interplanetary magnetic field and the northward interplanetary magnetic field.

  16. Radar Studies of Ionospheric Plasma Irregularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, P. B.

    2006-11-01

    High power high resolution VHF radars have proven to be powerful diagnostics to study ionospheric plasma irregularities, a space weather phenomenon of immense importance in view of its impact on space communication and navigation. The VHF radars at Jicamarca, Peru and Trivandrum, India have contributed greatly over the past four decades in arriving at the current understanding of the basic characteristics of the equatorial spread-F (ESF) and equatorial electrojet (EEJ) irregularities and the underlying plasma instability processes. Recent advances, involving high resolution radar observations of equatorial plasma irregularities, include the detection of supersonic plasma bubbles rising to heights beyond 1000 km, 150 km echoes and kilometric scale waves. The new and more recent developments in plasma irregularity studies came from the middle and upper atmosphere (MU) radar at Shigaraki, Japan and the mesosphere stratosphere troposphere (MST) radar at Gadanki, India. The new types of plasma irregularity structures observed by this mid- and low latitude VHF radars cover the well known quasi- periodic (QP) waves, tidal ion layers, kilometric scale waves and structures in the collision dominated lower E region. The paper presents an overview on the recent advances in the radar technique and the above mentioned new developments in observation and theory of the equatorial and low latitude ionospheric plasma irregularities.

  17. An ionospheric travelling convection vortex event observed by ground-based magnetometers and by VIKING

    SciTech Connect

    Vogelsang, H.; Voelker, H. ); Luehr, H. ); Woch, J. ); Boesinger, T. ); Potemra, T.A. ); Lindqvist, P.A. )

    1993-11-05

    This paper reports the ground based observation of an ionospheric travelling convection vortex event, which was observed in coincidence with observation of the VIKING spacecraft passing through closed field lines which map to this region. The spacecraft saw electric and magnetic signatures which were consistent with it having passed through field aligned current tubes, oppositely directed. This is the first such simultaneous observation and supports the theoretical models which relate such ionospheric travelling convection vortex events to field aligned currents.

  18. Theory of convective saturation of Langmuir waves during ionospheric modification of a barium cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, M. V.; Newman, D. L.; Drake, R. Paul; Afeyan, Bedros B.

    1997-12-01

    In recent experiments (Djuth, F. T., Sulzer, M. P., Elder, J. H. and Groves, K. M. (1995) Journal of Geophysical Research, 100, 17,347), a parametric decay instability was excited by an ordinary-wave HF pump during an ionospheric chemical release from a rocket over Arecibo, PR, which created an artificial `barium ionosphere,' with peak plasma frequency above the pump frequency, and a density gradient with a (short) 5 km scale length. Simultaneous incoherent scattering measurements revealed a strong initial asymmetry in the amplitudes of almost vertically upgoing versus downgoing measured plasma waves. We can account for this asymmetry in terms of linear convective saturation of parametrically unstable plasma waves propagating over a range of altitudes along geometric optics ray paths. Qualitative features of the frequency spectrum of the measured downgoing wave are in agreement with this model, although the theoretically predicted spectrum is narrower than observed. The observed altitude localization of the enhanced spectrum to a few range cells is consistent with the theory.

  19. Plasma Temperatures in the Ionosphere of Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Luke; Galand, M.; Mendillo, M.; Müller-Wodarg, I.

    2007-10-01

    Using a one-dimensional version of the Saturn Thermosphere Ionosphere Model (STIM), we perform calculations of the ion and electron temperatures in the ionosphere of Saturn. There are no direct measurements of plasma temperatures in Saturn's atmosphere published to date, but they are often estimated from the topside plasma scale heights of radio occultation measurements of electron density. Based on Pioneer, Voyager, and now Cassini data, those estimates range from 625 K to 1700 K. Our preliminary calculations reproduce the lower level of that range, with an electron temperature peak value of just over 600 K at midlatitudes near dawn and dusk. Our calculations also suggest a diurnal variation of more than 200 K. Finally, our results allow an assessment of the reliability of estimating plasma temperatures from altitude profiles of electron density, which are also computed in STIM. By applying a range of background conditions (e.g., neutral atmosphere, solar flux) we explore the parameter space of possible variability of plasma temperatures on Saturn. STIM development at Boston University was funded by the NASA Planetary Atmospheres program. LM acknowledges support from a NASA Graduate Student Researchers Program fellowship, IM-W is supported by a British Royal Society Fellowship.

  20. Testing Plasma Physics in the Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, Konstantinos

    TESTING PLASMA PHYSICS IN THE IONOSPHERE K. Papadopoulos University of Maryland College Park, MD 20742 Ionospheric heaters supplemented by ground and space based diagnostic instruments, such as radars, optical cameras and photometers, HF/VLF/ELF/ULF receivers and magnetometers, radio beacons, riometers and ionosondes have for a long time being used to conduct plasma physics, geophysical and radio science investigations. The latest entry to ionospheric heating, the HF transmitter associated with the High Frequency Active Ionospheric Research Program (HAARP), was completed in February 2007. The transmitter consists of 180 antenna elements spanning 30.6 acres and can radiate 3.6 MW of HF power in the 2.8-10.0 MHz frequency range. With increasing frequency the beam-width varies from 15-5 degrees, corresponding to 20-30 dB gain and resulting in Effective Radiating Power (ERP) between .36 - 4.0 GW. The antenna can point to any direction in a cone of 30 degrees from the vertical, with a reposition time of 15 degrees in 15 microseconds resulting in super-luminous scanning speeds. The transmitter can synthesize essentially any desired waveform within the regulatory allowed bandwidth in linear and circular polarization. These capabilities far exceed those of previous ionospheric heaters and allow for new frontier research in plasma physics, geophysics and radio science. Following a brief discussion of the relationship of the new capabilities of the facility with thresholds of physical processes that could not be achieved previously, the presentation will discuss recent results in the areas of ULF/ELF/VLF generation and propagation and wave-particle interactions in the magnetosphere acquired with the completed facility. The presentation will conclude with a detailed discussion of possible frontier science experiments in the areas of Langmuir turbulence, parametric instabilities, electron acceleration, optical emissions and field aligned striations and duct generation, made

  1. Plasma Line in the Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenmary, M.; Sulzer, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    New Plasma Line Observations from the Arecibo Radar show the exact timings of the Arecibo's conjugate sunrise as well as the local sunrise. Using the shadow height of the Earth's radius extend 175 km, we have predicted the time at which local sunrise effects propagate downward with time. These predictions agree within a minute of the observed effects. We can observe the apparent conjugate sunrise with equivalent sensitivity. We are currently comparing the data with predictions from various locations of Arecibo's conjugate point. We have compared our results with the standard tilted dipole configuration and seen a 25 minute discrepancy. Now we are investigating if the delay can be accounted for using research from Laura Waldrop's paper "Photoelectron impact excitation of OI 8446 A emission observed from Arecibo Observatory.

  2. Explosive plasma releases in the earth's ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kintner, P. M.

    1982-01-01

    The Trigger and Buaro experiments and the University of Alaska's radial shaped charge experiment, which were conducted to actively probe the ionosphere with expanding plasmas are described. Emphasis is on the Trigger experiment, which has a Cs release with spherical geometry. Transient events occurring after Cs detonation include the production of a 200 mV/m electric field pulse, and the precipitation of energetic electrons. Future applications are also discussed, and include in situ measurements of the radial shaped experiment from a mother-daughter payload.

  3. Plasma waves in the inhomogeneous auroral ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kintner, Paul

    1999-11-01

    Detailed observations of plasma waves in the auroral ionosphere during the past decade have revealed the existence of modes which depend on inhomogeneities the order of or somewhat larger than the ion gyroradius. The auroral ionosphere is the most strongly driven region of space which is conveniently accessible to space probes. The region is filled with currents, electric fields, electron beams and transversely accelerated ions. During the past decade improved instrumentation has permitted investigation of the ionospheric plasma properties down to spatial scales including the ion gyroradius. These investigations have revealed at least two novel wave modes not previously anticipated. The first wave mode is associated with cylindrical density cavities aligned along the geomagnetic field. The cavities act like resonant structures near the lower hybrid frequency and admit two classes of waves near the lower hybrid frequency. Below the lower hybrid frequency the modes are trapped and rotate in a left-hand sense. Above the lower hybrid frequency waves the modes are not trapped but rotate in a right-hand sense. The symmetry in rotation is broken by the Hall current and the sense of rotation has been confirmed with sounding rocket interferometers. The cavity wave fields also accelerate ions transversely which maintain and expand the cavity dimensions. The second wave mode is less well understood and has the phenomenological name of broad band ELF (BBELF) electric fields. The bandwidth of this mode covers the ion cyclotron frequencies (O+ and H+) and it is also associated with transversely accelerated ions but not with ionospheric density structuring. Instead these modes are associated with electron flow in field-aligned currents although the flows are sub-critical for either the ion acoustic or electrostatic ion cyclotron modes. Furthermore the frequency spectrum shows no structure at the ion cyclotron frequencies. Limited evidence suggests that these modes are shear

  4. Evolution of Ionospheric Convection during a Double Transpolar Arc Phenomenon on February 11, 1999

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narita, Y.; Maezawa, K.; Spann, J. F.; Parks, G. K.; Marklund, G. T.; Kullen, A.; Ivchenko, N.; Greenwald, R. A.; Sato, N.; Yamagishi, H.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    An evolution of ionospheric convection was studied for a double transpolar arc phenomenon on February 11, 1999. While one transpolar arc split from the auroral oval in the morning sector and drifted duskward, another arc appeared in the evening sector. The convection was investigated with three velocity data sets: E B drift velocities from the ASTRID-2 satellite; Ion Driftmeter data from the DMSP satellites; and Doppler-shift data from the Super-DARN radars. We inferred convection cells from these data sets and found that the number of convection cells changed from three to four as the dominance of IMF changed from a negative By to a positive Bz. Our result suggests that the ionospheric convection that has been so far discussed for various conditions of IMF may be applied even to the cases accompanied by transpolar arcs.

  5. Testing Predictions of the Ionospheric Convection from the Expanding/Contracting Polar Cap Paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walach, M. T.; Milan, S. E.; Yeoman, T. K.; Hairston, M. R.; Hubert, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    The expanding/contracting polar cap (ECPC) paradigm, or the time-dependent Dungey cycle, provides a theoretical framework for understanding solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. The ECPC describes the relationship between magnetopause reconnection and substorm growth phase, magnetotail reconnection and substorm expansion phase, associated changes in auroral morphology, and ionospheric convective motions. Despite the many successes of the model, there has yet to be a rigorous test of the predictions made regarding ionospheric convection, which remains a final hurdle for the validation of the ECPC. In this study we undertake a comparison of ionospheric convection, as measured by ion driftmeters on board DMSP (Defense Meteorological Satellite Program) satellites, with motions predicted by a theoretical model (Milan, 2013). The model is coupled to measurements of changes in the size of the polar cap made using global auroral imagery from the IMAGE FUV (Imager for Magnetopause to Aurora Global Exploration Far Ultraviolet) instrument, as well as the dayside reconnection rate, calculated using the OMNI dataset. The results show that we can largely predict the magnitudes of ionospheric convection flows using the context of our understanding of magnetic reconnection at the magnetopause and in the magnetotail.

  6. Ionospheric convection inferred from interplanetary magnetic field-dependent Birkeland currents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasmussen, C. E.; Schunk, R. W.

    1988-01-01

    Computer simulations of ionospheric convection have been performed, combining empirical models of Birkeland currents with a model of ionospheric conductivity in order to investigate IMF-dependent convection characteristics. Birkeland currents representing conditions in the northern polar cap of the negative IMF By component are used. Two possibilities are considered: (1) the morning cell shifting into the polar cap as the IMF turns northward, and this cell and a distorted evening cell providing for sunward flow in the polar cap; and (2) the existence of a three-cell pattern when the IMF is strongly northward.

  7. A quantitative deconstruction of the morphology of high-latitude ionospheric convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grocott, A.; Milan, S. E.; Imber, S. M.; Lester, M.; Yeoman, T. K.

    2012-05-01

    We present an analysis of ionospheric convection data derived from velocity measurements made by the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN). Our analysis uses an established technique for combining the network data to produce maps of large-scale convection by fitting a spherical harmonic expansion of the ionospheric electric potential to the radar measurements. We discuss how the basis functions of the spherical harmonic expansion describe different characteristic elements of the ionospheric convection pattern and show how their associated coefficients can be used to quantify the morphology of the convection, much like the total transpolar voltage is used to quantify its strength, in relation to upstream interplanetary magnetic field conditions and associated magnetospheric activity. We find that ˜2/3 of the voltage associated with the typical convection pattern is described by a simple twin vortex basis function. The magnitude of the twin vortex is strongly dependent on IMF BZ and the degree of its (typically westward) rotation is weakly dependent on IMF BY. The remaining ˜1/3 of the total voltage is associated with deviations from the basic twin vortex pattern, introduced by the addition of other basis functions, such as IMF BY associated dusk-dawn asymmetries, nightside convection features associated with tail activity, and “reverse” high-latitude convection cells associated with intervals of IMF BZ > 0.

  8. Ionospheric Plasma Structures Observed by FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Charles C. H.; Chen, Chia-Hung; Thampi, Smitha V.; Liu, Jann-Yenq; Liu, C. H.

    The GPS Occultation eXperiment (GOX) on board the FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC (F3/C) has provided large amount of the ionospheric electron density soundings since the satellite con-stellation was launched in April 2006. By averaging the electron density profiles distributed global-wide during one-or two-month period, three-dimensional ionospheric electron density maps can be constructed for studying quiet-time ionosphere climatology. Through analysis of the 3-D ionospheric maps during the four years period of the mission, the occultation observa-tions have shown further details of ionospheric plasma structures, such as, the wave-signature of the equatorial ionosphere, the mid-latitude summer nighttime anomaly (MSNA) and the plasma depletion bay (PDB). Additional to the GOX, two other instruments, the tiny iono-spheric photometer (TIP) and the tri-band beacon (TBB), on board the constellation provide more aspects of these plasma structures. In this presentation, we summarize the ionospheric plasma structures observed by the constellation mission, as well as the important details of the plasma structures unveiled by the constellation for better understandings the associated formation mechanism.

  9. A three-dimensional numerical model of ionospheric plasma in the magnetosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Delcourt, D.C.; Chappell, C.R.; Moore, T.E.; Waite, J.H. Jr. )

    1989-09-01

    The magnetospheric transport of terrestrial plasma is numerically investigated by means of three-dimensional particle trajectory tracing in empirical models of the geoelectric and geomagnetic fields. Various ionospheric outflows (auroral, polar cap, cusp, and polar wind) are systematically examined using observational definitions of their respective locations and strengths, and assuming purely adiabatic motions under the effect of the large-scale magnetospheric convection. Due to field model limitations, the simulations are limited in scope of the region within a geocentric radius of 17 {ital R}{sub {ital E}}. Consequently, much of the terrestiral H{sup +} outflow cannot be accurately traced beyond the polar cap region, and the conclusions concerning the terrestrial contribution to plasma sheet H{sup +} are necessarily limited. Many qualitative features of the plasma sheet are produced in the model by the ionospheric plasmas. The motions of terrestrial O{sup +} outflow are well described within the assumptions of the calculation.

  10. Superposed epoch analysis of the ionospheric convection evolution during substorms: onset latitude dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grocott, A.; Wild, J. A.; Milan, S. E.; Yeoman, T. K.

    2008-12-01

    Using data from the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) we investigate the ionospheric convection response to magnetospheric substorms. Substorms were identified using the Far Ultraviolet (FUV) instrument on board the Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) spacecraft, and were then grouped according to the magnetic latitude of their onset. A superposed epoch analysis of the ionospheric convection patterns for each latitude group was then performed using radar data for the interval 60 minutes before onset to 90 minutes after. It is found that lower latitude onset substorms are associated with generally more enhanced convection than the higher latitude substorms, although they suffer from the most significant localised suppression of the flow in the midnight sector during the expansion phase. On the other hand, the higher-latitude events are associated with a significant and rapid increase in the nightside convection following substorm onset. These results suggest differences in the electrodynamics associated with substorms occurring at different latitudes.

  11. Plasma convection in the magnetotail lobes: statistical results from Cluster EDI measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haaland, S.; Paschmann, G.; Förster, M.; Quinn, J.; Torbert, R.; Vaith, H.; Puhl-Quinn, P.; Kletzing, C.

    2008-08-01

    A major part of the plasma in the Earth's magnetotail is populated through transport of plasma from the solar wind via the magnetotail lobes. In this paper, we present a statistical study of plasma convection in the lobes for different directions of the interplanetary magnetic field and for different geomagnetic disturbance levels. The data set used in this study consists of roughly 340 000 one-minute vector measurements of the plasma convection from the Cluster Electron Drift Instrument (EDI) obtained during the period February 2001 to June 2007. The results show that both convection magnitude and direction are largely controlled by the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). For a southward IMF, there is a strong convection towards the central plasma sheet with convection velocities around 10 km s-1. During periods of northward IMF, the lobe convection is almost stagnant. A By dominated IMF causes a rotation of the convection patterns in the tail with an oppositely directed dawn-dusk component of the convection for the northern and southern lobe. Our results also show that there is an overall persistent duskward component, which is most likely a result of conductivity gradients in the footpoints of the magnetic field lines in the ionosphere.

  12. Application of spherical cap harmonic analysis to plasma convection mapping at high latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiori, Robyn A. D.

    The primary goal of this work is to develop, validate, and apply a new technique for mapping the high-latitude ionospheric plasma flow (convection pattern) from velocity measurements routinely performed by the Super Dual Auroral Radar (SuperDARN) network of high frequency (HF) radars. The currently employed FIT technique relies heavily on assumptions that are not always justifiable. A spherical cap harmonic analysis (SCHA) technique, traditionally used in handling geomagnetic field data, is introduced for mapping the high-latitude ionospheric convection pattern based on SuperDARN velocity measurements. The SCHA technique does not require contributions from a statistical model which is dependent on the magnitude and orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), and does not confine the high-latitude flows to a specific region based on magnetic latitude. Several steps are taken to validate the SCHA convection mapping technique. First, it is demonstrated that the SCHA technique can reproduce an arbitrary pattern based on simulated data modified by a random noise component. SCHA maps of the global scale plasma flow pattern for various IMF conditions are next shown to be consistent with expectations for patterns reported in the literature. SCHA maps are compared to ion drifts measured by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites and with convection vectors inferred by merging SuperDARN measurements at beam crossings. The SCHA technique is shown to perform comparably to the FIT technique over regions of good data coverage. The SCHA technique provides a better representation of the ionospheric convection pattern for regions with limited data coverage and over regions of highly variable flow, particularly near the equatorward edge of the mapping region. SCHA analysis of SuperDARN data to create convection maps is expanded to include magnetometer measurements of the perturbation magnetic field. Plasma flow is determined from magnetometer data

  13. Rocket vehicle targeting for the PLACES ionospheric plasma test series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollstin, L. R.

    1984-02-01

    The PLACES (Position Location And Communication Effects Simulations) test program, conducted in December 1980 at Eglin Gulf Test Range, involved a series of ionospheric releases of barium/barium-nitrate vapor. The Defense Nuclear Agency sponsored program investigated effects of a structured ionospheric plasma (similar to that produced by a high-altitude nuclear explosion) on satellite navigation systems and provided in situ measurement of plasma structure. Terrier-Tomahawk rocket systems boosted the barium payloads, beacon payloads (plasma occultation experiment), and probe payloads (plasma in situ measurement). Drifting plasma tracking procedures, beacon- and probe-vehicle targeting procedures, and vehicle flight test results are presented.

  14. Direct observations of the full Dungey convection cycle in the polar ionosphere for southward interplanetary magnetic field conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Q.-H.; Lockwood, M.; Foster, J. C.; Zhang, S.-R.; Zhang, B.-C.; McCrea, I. W.; Moen, J.; Lester, M.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.

    2015-06-01

    Tracking the formation and full evolution of polar cap ionization patches in the polar ionosphere, we directly observe the full Dungey convection cycle for southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions. This enables us to study how the Dungey cycle influences the patches' evolution. The patches were initially segmented from the dayside storm enhanced density plume at the equatorward edge of the cusp, by the expansion and contraction of the polar cap boundary due to pulsed dayside magnetopause reconnection, as indicated by in situ Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) observations. Convection led to the patches entering the polar cap and being transported antisunward, while being continuously monitored by the globally distributed arrays of GPS receivers and Super Dual Auroral Radar Network radars. Changes in convection over time resulted in the patches following a range of trajectories, each of which differed somewhat from the classical twin-cell convection streamlines. Pulsed nightside reconnection, occurring as part of the magnetospheric substorm cycle, modulated the exit of the patches from the polar cap, as confirmed by coordinated observations of the magnetometer at Tromsø and European Incoherent Scatter Tromsø UHF radar. After exiting the polar cap, the patches broke up into a number of plasma blobs and returned sunward in the auroral return flow of the dawn and/or dusk convection cell. The full circulation time was about 3 h.

  15. Global MHD modeling of ionospheric convection and field-aligned currents associated with IMF By triggered theta auroras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Masakazu; Sakito, Shintaro; Tanaka, Takashi; Shinagawa, Hiroyuki; Murata, Ken T.

    2014-08-01

    Using numerical magnetohydrodynamic simulations, we investigate the evolution of ionospheric convection and field-aligned currents (FACs) when θ auroras are formed in response to interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) By transitions. When the polarity of IMF By switches abruptly during northward IMF periods, the crossbar of the θ aurora is isolated from the flankside auroral oval and drifts into the polar cap. This drift motion is involved in a large round cell associated with new IMF By, with sunward convection residing only on the dayside tip of the crossbar. There exists an IMF By-controlled large-scale FAC system on the crossbar. When the θ aurora is drifting duskward (dawnward), the FACs are located on the dawnside (duskside) boundary of the crossbar adjacent to the "new" lobe. In contrast, the magnetospheric source region of the crossbar FAC system is located on the duskside (dawnside) boundary of the protruded plasma sheet adjacent to the "old" lobe. In the source region, plasma thermal pressure feeds the electromagnetic energy of FACs, and these processes can be interpreted as coupling of slow mode and Alfvén mode disturbances. In the ionosphere, the crossbar-associated FACs close with part of the region 1 currents associated with the new crescent cell. The magnetospheric source of that part of the region 1 FACs is located on the plasma sheet boundary and the magnetopause both adjacent to the new lobe. Dynamo processes in the old-lobe side and the new-lobe side work together to drive the ionospheric drift motion of the crossbar.

  16. Effect of high-latitude ionospheric convection on Sun-aligned polar caps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sojka, J. J.; Zhu, L.; Crain, D. J.; Schunk, R. W.

    1994-01-01

    A coupled magnetospheric-ionospheric (M-I) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model has been used to simulate the formation of Sun-aligned polar cap arcs for a variety of interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) dependent polar cap convection fields. The formation process involves launching an Alfven shear wave from the magnetosphere to the ionosphere where the ionospheric conductance can react self-consistently to changes in the upward currents. We assume that the initial Alfven shear wave is the result of solar wind-magnetosphere interactions. The simulations show how the E region density is affected by the changes in the electron precipitation that are associated with the upward currents. These changes in conductance lead to both a modified Alfven wave reflection at the ionosphere and the generation of secondary Alfven waves in the ionosphere. The ensuing bouncing of the Alfven waves between the ionosphere and magnetosphere is followed until an asymptotic solution is obtained. At the magnetosphere the Alfven waves reflect at a fixed boundary. The coupled M-I Sun-aligned polar cap arc model of Zhu et al.(1993a) is used to carry out the simulations. This study focuses on the dependence of the polar cap arc formation on the background (global) convection pattern. Since the polar cap arcs occur for northward and strong B(sub y) IMF conditions, a variety of background convection patterns can exist when the arcs are present. The study shows that polar cap arcs can be formed for all these convection patterns; however, the arc features are dramatically different for the different patterns. For weak sunward convection a relatively confined single pair of current sheets is associated with the imposed Alfven shear wave structure. However, when the electric field exceeds a threshold, the arc structure intensifies, and the conductance increases as does the local Joule heating rate. These increases are faster than a linear dependence on the background electric field strength. Furthermore

  17. Ionospheric physics

    SciTech Connect

    Sojka, J.J. )

    1991-01-01

    Advances in all areas of ionospheric research are reviewed for the 1987-1990 time period. Consideration is given to the equatorial ionosphere, the midlatitude ionosphere and plasmasphere, the auroral ionosphere, the polar ionosphere and polar wind, ionospheric electrodynamic inputs, plasma waves and irregularities, active experiments, ionospheric forecasting, and coupling the ionosphere with other regions.

  18. Evolution of high latitude ionospheric convection associated with substorms: Multiple radar observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Shasha

    The work presented in this dissertation concerns evolution of the high latitude ionospheric convection and the relevant current systems associated with substorms, with emphasize on these features near the nightside Harang reversal region. Three different types of radars, including the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) coherent-scatter radars, the new advanced modular incoherent-scatter radar at Poker Flat (PFISR), and the Sondrestrom incoherent-scatter radar (ISR), have been utilized. Observations from those radars, together with those from complementary instruments, including satellites and other ground-based instruments, have revealed fundamental new understand of the ionospheric electrodynamic properties associated with substorms. By using the SuperDARN and the PFISR radars, we found that the auroral activity at substorm onset is located in the center of the Harang reversal, which represents a key region in the magnetospheric and ionospheric convection and is part of the Region 2 system. We have also shown that nightside convection flows exhibit repeatable, distinct variations at different locations relative to the substorm-related auroral activity. Taking advantage of the simultaneous flow and ionization measurements from PFISR, a current closure relation has been found between the Region 2 and the substorm field-aligned current systems. These observations demonstrate a strong coupling between the Region 2 system and the substorm dynamics. This study sheds new light on the substorm-related magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling and contributes to the building of a holistic picture of the substorm dynamics. The third radar has been used to study the dayside ionospheric convection response to the external soar wind and IMF driving and its role in substorm dynamics. The results have been applied to study substorm triggering and in the future could be used to study the relation between the external driving and the formation of the Harang reversal.

  19. Experimental studies of ionospheric irregularities and related plasma processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Kay D.

    1992-01-01

    Utah State University (USU) continued its program of measuring and interpreting electron density and its variations in a variety of ionospheric conditions with the Experimental Studies of Ionospheric Irregularities and Related Plasma Processes program. The program represented a nearly ten year effort to provide key measurements of electron density and its fluctuations using sounding rockets. The program also involved the joint interpretation of the results in terms of ionospheric processes. A complete campaign summary and a brief description of the major rocket campaigns are also included.

  20. Average patterns of precipitation and plasma flow in the plasma sheet flux tubes during steady magnetospheric convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sergeev, V. A.; Lennartsson, W.; Pellinen, R.; Vallinkoski, M.; Fedorova, N. I.

    1990-01-01

    Average patterns of plasma drifts and auroral precipitation in the nightside auroral zone were constructed during a steady magnetospheric convection (SMC) event on February 19, 1978. By comparing these patterns with the measurements in the midtail plasma sheet made by ISEE-1, and using the corresponding magnetic field model, the following features are inferred: (1) the concentration of the earthward convection in the midnight portion of the plasma sheet (convection jet); (2) the depleted plasma energy content of the flux tubes in the convection jet region; and (3) the Region-1 field-aligned currents generated in the midtail plasma sheet. It is argued that these three elements are mutually consistent features appearing in the process of ionosphere-magnetosphere interaction during SMC periods. These configurational characteristics resemble the corresponding features of substorm expansions (enhanced convection and 'dipolarized' magnetic field within the substorm current wedge) and appear to play the same role in regulating the plasma flow in the flux tubes connected to the plasma sheet.

  1. Magnetospheric convection and the high latitude F2 ionosphere. [in the polar regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knudsen, W. C.

    1973-01-01

    Behavior of the polar ionospheric F-layer as it is convected through the cleft, over the polar cap, and through the night side F-layer trough zone was investigated. Passage through the cleft adds of the order of 200,000 ions/cu cm in the vicinity of the F 2 peak and redistributes the ionization above approximately 400 km altitude to conform with an increased electron temperature. The F-layer is also raised of the order of 20 km in altitude by the convection electric field. In the night soft electron precipitation zone, the layer is lowered in altitude by the convection electric field, and then decays, primarily by chemical recombination, as it convects equatorward and around the dawn side of the earth. In the absence of ionization sources, decay by factors of the order of 100 to 1000 occur prior to entry into the sunlit hemisphere, thus forming the F-layer night trough.

  2. Superposed epoch analysis of the ionospheric convection evolution during substorms: IMF BY dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grocott, A.; Milan, S. E.; Yeoman, T. K.; Sato, N.; Yukimatu, A. S.; Wild, J. A.

    2010-10-01

    We present superposed epoch analyses of the average ionospheric convection response in the northern and southern hemispheres to magnetospheric substorms occurring under different orientations of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). Observations of the ionospheric convection were provided by the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) and substorms were identified using the Far Ultraviolet (FUV) instrument on board the Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) spacecraft. We find that during the substorm growth phase the expected IMF BY-dependent dawn-dusk asymmetry is observed over the entire convection pattern, but that during the expansion phase this asymmetry is retained only in the polar cap and dayside auroral zone. In the nightside auroral zone the convection is reordered according to the local substorm electrodynamics with any remaining dusk-dawn asymmetry being more closely related to the magnetic local time of substorm onset, itself only weakly governed by IMF BY. Owing to the preponderance of substorms occurring just prior to magnetic midnight, the substorm-asymmetry tends to be an azimuthal extension of the dusk convection cell across the midnight sector, a manifestation of the so-called “Harang discontinuity.” This results in the northern (southern) hemisphere nightside auroral convection during substorms generally resembling the expected pattern for negative (positive) IMF BY. When the preexisting convection pattern in the northern (southern) hemisphere is driven by positive (negative) IMF BY, the nightside auroral convection changes markedly over the course of the substorm to establish this same “Harang” configuration.

  3. Multi-Resolution Assimilative Analysis of High-Latitude Ionospheric Convection in both Hemispheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Z. M.; Matsuo, T.; Nychka, D. W.; Cousins, E. D. P.; Wiltberger, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    Assimilative techniques for obtaining complete maps of ionospheric electric potential (and related parameters) from sparse radar and satellite observations greatly facilitates studies of magnetosphere/ionosphere coupling. While there is much scientific interest in studying interhemispheric asymmetry in ionospheric convection at both large and small scales, current mapping procedures rely on spherical harmonic expansion techniques, which produce inherently large-scale analyses. Due to the global nature of the spherical harmonics, such techniques are also subject to various instabilities arising from sparsity/error in the observations which can introduce non-physical patterns in the inferred convection. We present a novel technique for spatial mapping of ionospheric electric potential via a multi-resolution basis function expansion procedure, making use of compactly supported radial basis functions which are flexibly located over geodesic grids; the coefficients are modeled via a Markov random field construction. The technique is applied to radar observations from the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN), whereupon careful comparison of interhemispheric differences in mapped potential is made at various scales.

  4. Plasma effects of active ion beam injections in the ionosphere at rocket altitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnoldy, R. L.; Cahill, L. J., Jr.; Kintner, P. M.; Moore, T. E.; Pollock, C. J.

    1992-01-01

    Data from ARCS rocket ion beam injection experiments are primarily discussed. There are three results from this series of active experiments that are of particular interest in space plasma physics. These are the transverse acceleration of ambient ions in the large beam volume, the scattering of beam ions near the release payload, and the possible acceleration of electrons very close to the plasma generator which produce intense high frequency waves. The ability of 100 ma ion beam injections into the upper E and F regions of the ionosphere to produce these phenomena appear to be related solely to the process by which the plasma release payload and the ion beam are neutralized. Since the electrons in the plasma release do not convect with the plasma ions, the neutralization of both the payload and beam must be accomplished by large field-aligned currents (milliamperes/square meter) which are very unstable to wave growth of various modes.

  5. The INAF/IAPS Plasma Chamber for ionospheric simulation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diego, Piero

    2016-04-01

    The plasma chamber is particularly suitable to perform studies for the following applications: - plasma compatibility and functional tests on payloads envisioned to operate in the ionosphere (e.g. sensors onboard satellites, exposed to the external plasma environment); - calibration/testing of plasma diagnostic sensors; - characterization and compatibility tests on components for space applications (e.g. optical elements, harness, satellite paints, photo-voltaic cells, etc.); - experiments on satellite charging in a space plasma environment; - tests on active experiments which use ion, electron or plasma sources (ion thrusters, hollow cathodes, field effect emitters, plasma contactors, etc.); - possible studies relevant to fundamental space plasma physics. The facility consists of a large volume vacuum tank (a cylinder of length 4.5 m and diameter 1.7 m) equipped with a Kaufman type plasma source, operating with Argon gas, capable to generate a plasma beam with parameters (i.e. density and electron temperature) close to the values encountered in the ionosphere at F layer altitudes. The plasma beam (A+ ions and electrons) is accelerated into the chamber at a velocity that reproduces the relative motion between an orbiting satellite and the ionosphere (≈ 8 km/s). This feature, in particular, allows laboratory simulations of the actual compression and depletion phenomena which take place in the ram and wake regions around satellites moving through the ionosphere. The reproduced plasma environment is monitored using Langmuir Probes (LP) and Retarding Potential Analyzers (RPA). These sensors can be automatically moved within the experimental space using a sled mechanism. Such a feature allows the acquisition of the plasma parameters all around the space payload installed into the chamber for testing. The facility is currently in use to test the payloads of CSES satellite (Chinese Seismic Electromagnetic Satellite) devoted to plasma parameters and electric field

  6. Kinetic modeling of the Saturn ring-ionosphere plasma environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, G. R.; Waite, J. H., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    A time-independent kinetic plasma model was developed on the basis of the Li et al. (1988) semikinetic plasma model and was used to study the interaction of the Saturnian ionosphere and ring plasma. The model includes the gravitational magnetic mirror and centripetal and ambipolar electric forces, and the effect of the mixing of two plasma populations. The results obtained indicate that the density, temperature, and composition of plasma near the rings changing in the direction from the inner C ring to the outer A ring, due to the fact that the predominant source of plasma changes from the ionosphere to the rings. The model results also suggest that the outflow of hydrogen from the ionosphere to the rings may be shut off for field lines passing through the outer B and A ring, due to the ambipolar electric field set up by the warm ring plasma trapped near the ring plane by the centipetal force. In these regions, there will be a net flux of O(+) ions from the rings to the ionosphere.

  7. Effect of finite blob size on the current convective instability in the auroral ionosphere. Memorandum report

    SciTech Connect

    Huba, J.D.; Chaturvedi, P.K.

    1986-04-11

    It has been suggested that the current convective instability may be responsible for the structuring, i.e., generation of density irregularities, of density enhancements (known as blobs) in the auroral ionosphere. However, previous theories have neglected the finite extent of the blob along the geomagnetic field. In this paper, a nonlocal theory of the current convective instability is developed, which considers the finite extent of an ionospheric blob parallel to the geomagnetic field. It was found that the growth rate of the instability can be substantially reduced in the finite-sized blob case from the value obtained in the local approximation for an infinitely long blob. For auroral ionosphere parameters, the reduction in the growth rate for medium scale irregularities (1-10 km) can be one to two orders of magnitude for the typical observed values of blob sizes (approx. a few hundred km). Thus, it appears that the current convective instability is not a viable mechanism to generate scintillation causing irregularities, i.e., 1-10 km irregularities.

  8. Superposed epoch analysis of the ionospheric convection evolution during substorms: onset latitude dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grocott, A.; Wild, J. A.; Milan, S. E.; Yeoman, T. K.

    2009-02-01

    Using data from the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) we investigate the ionospheric convection response to magnetospheric substorms. Substorms were identified using the Far Ultraviolet (FUV) instrument on board the Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) spacecraft, and were then binned according to the magnetic latitude of their onset. A superposed epoch analysis of the ionospheric convection patterns for each onset-latitude bin was then performed using radar data for the interval 60 min before onset to 90 min after. It is found that lower onset-latitude substorms are associated with generally more enhanced convection than the higher latitude substorms, although they suffer from a significant localised reduction of the flow in the midnight sector during the expansion phase. Higher-latitude substorms are associated with a significant and rapid increase in the nightside convection following substorm onset, with all onset-latitude bins showing an enhancement over onset values by ~60 min into the expansion phase. A rudimentary inspection of the concurrent auroral evolution suggests that the duration of the flow reduction following substorm onset is dependent on the strength and duration of the expansion phase aurora and its associated conductivity enhancement.

  9. Anomalous ionospheric conductivities caused by plasma turbulence in high-latitude E-region ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimant, Yakov; Oppenheim, Meers

    2015-11-01

    During periods of intense geomagnetic activity, electric fields penetrating from the Earth's magnetosphere to the high-latitude E-region ionosphere drive strong currents named electrojets and excite there plasma instabilities. These instabilities give rise to plasma turbulence that induces nonlinear currents and strong anomalous electron heating. This increases the ionospheric conductances and modifies the global energy flow, affecting behavior of the entire near-Earth plasma. A quantitative understanding of anomalous conductance and global energy transfer is important for accurate modeling of the geomagnetic storm/substorm evolution. Our theoretical analysis, supported by recent 3D fully kinetic particle-in-cell simulations, shows that during strong geomagnetic storms the inclusion of anomalous conductivity can more than double the total Pedersen conductance - the crucial factor responsible for magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling through the current closure. We have started incorporating the effects of anomalous heating and nonlinear conductivity into existing global magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere codes developed for predictive modeling of Space. In our presentation, we will report on the latest progress in this modeling. Work supported by NASA Heliophysics GCR Grant NNX14AI13G.

  10. Observations of ionospheric convection from the Wallops SuperDARN radar at middle latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, J. B. H.; Greenwald, R. A.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Oksavik, K.; Gjerloev, J. W.; Paxton, L. J.; Hairston, M. R.

    2007-01-01

    During geomagnetic storms the ability of the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) to measure ionospheric convection becomes limited when the radars suffer from absorption and the auroral disturbance expands equatorward of the radar sites. To overcome these shortcomings, it was decided to construct a SuperDARN radar at middle latitudes on the grounds of the NASA Wallops Flight Facility. This paper presents the first comprehensive analysis of Doppler measurements from the Wallops radar, which commenced operations in May 2005. Wallops measurements are compared with the Goose Bay radar during the onset of a geomagnetic storm on 31 August 2005: Goose Bay measured the onset of geomagnetic activity at high latitude while Wallops monitored the expansion of convection to middle latitudes. Average convection patterns binned by the Kp geomagnetic index are also presented. During weak-moderate geomagnetic activity (Kp ≤ 3) the Wallops radar observes ionospheric irregularities between 50° and 60° magnetic latitude drifting westward across much of the nightside. When these measurements are incorporated into the calculation of an average SuperDARN convection pattern, the streamlines of polar cap outflow on the nightside become kinked in a manner reminiscent of the Harang discontinuity. This morphology arises quite naturally when the two-cell convection at high latitudes merges with the prevailing westward convection at middle latitudes. During increased geomagnetic activity (Kp ≥ 3), Wallops is able to measure the expansion of auroral electric fields to middle latitudes and the average SuperDARN cross-polar cap potential is increased by 25%.

  11. Plasma dynamics in Saturn's middle-latitude ionosphere and implications for magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Shotaro; Watanabe, Shigeto

    2016-08-01

    A multifluid model is used to investigate how Saturn's magnetosphere affects ionosphere. The model includes a magnetospheric plasma temperature of 2 eV as a boundary condition. The main results are: (1) H+ ions are accelerated along magnetic field lines by ambipolar electric fields and centrifugal force, and have an upward velocity of about 10 km/s at 8000 km; (2) the ionospheric plasma temperature is 10,000 K at 5000 km, and is significantly affected by magnetospheric heat flow at high altitudes; (3) modeled electron densities agree with densities from occultation observations if the maximum neutral temperature at a latitude of 54˚ is about 900 K or if electrons are heated near an altitude of 2500 km; (4) electron heating rates from photoelectrons (≈100 K/s) can also give agreement with observed electron densities when the maximum neutral temperature is lower than 700 K (note that Cassini observations give 520 K); and (5) the ion temperature is high at altitudes above 4000 km and is almost the same as the electron temperature. The ionospheric height-integrated Pedersen conductivity, which affects the magnetospheric plasma velocity, varies with local time with values between 0.4 and 10 S. We suggest that the sub-corotating ion velocity in the inner magnetosphere depends on the local time, because the conductivity generated by dust-plasma interactions in the inner magnetosphere is almost comparable to the ionospheric conductivity. This indicates that magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling is highly important in the Saturn system.

  12. Mapping high-latitude plasma convection with coherent HF radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Greenwald, R. A.; Baker, K. B.; Villain, J.-P.; Hanuise, C.

    1989-01-01

    Several methods developed for mapping high-latitude plasma convection with a high-latitude HF radar are described, which utilize coherent backscatter from electron density irregularities at F-region altitudes to observe convective plasma motion. Several examples of two-dimensional convection-velocity maps are presented, showing instances of L-shell-aligned flow in the dusk sector, the reversal of convection near magnetic midnight, and counterstreaming in the dayside cleft.

  13. Coupled Magnetotail-Ionosphere Asymmetries from Ionospheric Hall Conduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotko, W.; Smith, R. H.; Zhang, B.; Ouellette, J.; Brambles, O.; Lyon, J.; Wiltberger, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    Fast convective transport in the plasma sheet is more prevalent in the premidnight (dusk) sector relative to postmidnight. Ionospheric convection exhibits related asymmetries - more flux typically circulates in the dusk cell than in the dawn cell, and the nightside convection pattern is rotated clockwise when viewed over the North Pole. We show, using global simulations of the solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere interaction, that the electrodynamic interaction between Earth's magnetosphere and ionosphere produces asymmetries resembling observed distributions in plasmasheet flows and ionospheric convection (Figure, center panel). The primary causal agent in the simulations is a meridional gradient in ionospheric Hall conductance which, through Cowling polarization, regulates the distributions of i) electrical currents flowing within and between the ionosphere and magnetotail and ii) the nightside reconnection rate and resulting dawn-dusk distribution of plasma sheet fast flows. The asymmetry disappears in the simulation when the Hall conductance is taken to be uniform (left panel), and it reverses when the conductance is artificially depleted at auroral latitudes (right panel). The coupling between meridional currents and electric fields in the ionosphere and axial currents and electric fields in the plasmasheet is demonstrated by a simple model for non-ideal coupling of field-aligned currents flowing between the plasma sheet and the region of enhanced ionospheric conductance straddling the nightside convection throat.

  14. On the Generation of Enhanced Sunward Convection and Transpolar Aurora in the High-Latitude Ionosphere by Magnetic Merging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson, S.; Baker, J. B.; Petrinec, S. M.; Elkington, S. R.; Dunlop, M. W.; Reme, H.; Greenwald, R. A.; Frey, H. U.; Ergun, R. E.; Balogh, A.

    2004-12-01

    The IMAGE SI-12 instrument indicates a region of diffuse aurora poleward of the duskside Northern Hemisphere oval, while the IMAGE WIC instrument observes a transpolar auroral (TPA) feature at the polar cap boundary of the diffuse aurora during much of the 0110 UT to 0445 UT time interval on 16 December 2001. We here focus on the 0302 UT to 0312 UT period when the SuperDARN convection data display enhanced 800-1100 m/s sunward directed ionospheric flows near the TPA region in a four-degree wide region centered at 81o magnetic latitude between 14 MLT and 16 MLT. This flow channel seemingly drives a single dayside lobe cell with a convection reversal boundary near 84o and 14 MLT. At 0300 UT, the Cluster C1 S/C traverses the Northern Hemisphere duskside flank magnetopause at [X,Y,Z]=[-1.2,9.2,9.1] RE (GSM) where it encounters a localized density depletion region and a clear deflection of the bulk plasma velocity relative to the observed magnetosheath flow. The magnetic field and plasma velocity observed by C1 satisfy the Walen stress balance relation for a rotational discontinuity and the corresponding flow deflection dV suggests a merging site poleward and tailward of the spacecraft. The IMF magnitude as measured by ACE is 18 nT with a steady and favorable 45o clock angle (positive By and Bz) direction for merging in the vicinity of these duskside regions. The Tsyganenko T01 model maps the Cluster position to 75o and 14 MLT at 0130 UT or a few degrees equatorward of the ionospheric flow channel. Based on these data sets, we examine whether the active merging region on the magnetopause is consistent with the enhanced flow signatures observed by SuperDARN on 16 December 2001 and the IMAGE observations in these duskside high-latitude regions. An MHD simulation of this event puts these observations into a global context and is further used to map the Cluster location at the time of the plasma flow deflections to the ionosphere.

  15. Martian Atmospheric and Ionospheric plasma Escape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundin, Rickard

    2016-04-01

    Solar forcing is responsible for the heating, ionization, photochemistry, and erosion processes in the upper atmosphere throughout the lifetime of the terrestrial planets. Of the four terrestrial planets, the Earth is the only one with a fully developed biosphere, while our kin Venus and Mars have evolved into arid inhabitable planets. As for Mars, there are ample evidences for an early Noachian, water rich period on Mars. The question is, what made Mars evolve so differently compared to the Earth? Various hydrosphere and atmospheric evolution scenarios for Mars have been forwarded based on surface morphology, chemical composition, simulations, semi-empiric (in-situ data) models, and the long-term evolution of the Sun. Progress has been made, but the case is still open regarding the changes that led to the present arid surface and tenuous atmosphere at Mars. This presentation addresses the long-term variability of the Sun, the solar forcing impact on the Martian atmosphere, and its interaction with the space environment - an electromagnetic wave and particle interaction with the upper atmosphere that has implications for its photochemistry, composition, and energization that governs thermal and non-thermal escape. Non-thermal escape implies an electromagnetic upward energization of planetary ions and molecules to velocities above escape velocity, a process governed by a combination of solar EUV radiation (ionization), and energy and momentum transfer by the solar wind. The ion escape issue dates back to the early Soviet and US-missions to Mars, but the first more accurate estimates of escape rates came with the Phobos-2 mission in 1989. Better-quality ion composition measurement results of atmospheric/ionospheric ion escape from Mars, obtained from ESA Mars Express (MEX) instruments, have improved our understanding of the ion escape mechanism. With the NASA MAVEN spacecraft orbiting Mars since Sept. 2014, dual in-situ measurement with plasma instruments are now

  16. Hemispheric asymmetries in high-latitude ionospheric convection and upper atmosphere neutral wind circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foerster, M.; Cnossen, I.; Haaland, S.

    2015-12-01

    Recent observations have shown that the ionospheric/thermospheric response to solar wind and IMF dependent processes in the magnetosphere can be very dissimilar in the Northern and Southern polar regions. We present statistical studies of both the high-latitude ionospheric convection and the upper thermospheric circulation patterns obtained over almost a full solar cycle during the first decade of this century by measurements of the electron drift instrument (EDI) on board the Cluster satellites and by the accelerometer on board the CHAMP spacecraft, respectively. The asymmetries are attributed to the non-dipolar portions of the Earth's magnetic field that constitute hemispheric differences in magnetic flux densities, different offsets of the invariant geomagnetic poles, and generally in different field configurations of both hemispheres. Seasonal and solar cycle effects of the asymmetries are considered and first trials to explain the effects by numerical modeling are presented.

  17. Generation of a severe convective ionospheric storm under stable Rayleigh-Taylor conditions: triggering by meteors?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, M. C.; Ilma, R. R.

    2016-02-01

    Here we report on four events detected using the Jicamarca Radio Observatory (JRO) over an 18-year period, in which huge convective ionospheric storms (CISs) occur in a stable ionosphere. We argue that these rare events could be initiated by meteor-induced electric fields. The meteor-induced electric fields map to the bottomside of the F region, causing radar echoes and a localized CIS. If and when a localized disturbance reaches 500 km, we argue that it becomes two-dimensionally turbulent and cascades structure to both large and small scales. This leads to long-lasting structure and, almost certainly, to scintillations over a huge range of latitudes some ±15° wide and to 3 m irregularities, which backscatter the VHF radar waves. These structures located at high altitudes are supported by vortices shed by the upwelling bubble in a vortex street.

  18. Recirculation and Acceleration of Ionospheric Plasma in the Martian Magnetospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ip, Wing-Huen

    2012-07-01

    The presence of strong crustal remnant magnetic fields on Mars has important influence on the dynamical behavior of the ionospheric plasma. A model based on computational simulation of the time-varying configuration of the mini-magnetosphere is described to examine the possible process of acceleration and heating of photo electrons and ions embedded in the magnetic flux tubes as Mars rotates from dawn to dusk. The main idea is that ionospheric H+ and O+ ions pumped into the mini-magnetospheres on the dawn side could be subject to adiabatic heating during "depolarization" of the magnetic field as the local time approaches noon.

  19. Effects of magnetospheric precipitation and ionospheric conductivity on the ground magnetic signatures of traveling convection vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, L.; Schunk, R. W.; Sojka, J. J.

    1999-04-01

    By using an improved TCV model (Zhu et al., 1997), a quantitative study of the effects of magnetospheric precipitation and ionospheric background conductivity on the ground magnetic signatures of traveling convection vortices (TCVs) has been conducted. In this study the localized conductivity enhancement associated with the TCVs is present and the ratio of the Hall and Pedersen conductances vary both spatially and temporally according to the hardness of the TCV precipitation. It is found that a strong conductivity enhancement associated with hard TCV precipitation can significantly distort the TCV current closure in the ionosphere and lead to ground magnetic disturbance patterns with strong asymmetry in E-W direction. The asymmetry of the ground magnetic patterns is characterized by a stronger magnetic disturbance on the side of the upward field-aligned currents (clockwise convection cell) and a possible rotation of the whole magnetic patterns. Specifically, the modeling results predict that when the characteristic energy of the TCV precipitation is below 500 eV, the asymmetry of the ground magnetic patterns is minimal (less than 1%) and may not be detectable. When the characteristic energy of the precipitation is about 7 keV, the asymmetry of the magnetic patterns can be well above 30%. It is also found that a low ionospheric background conductivity favors the appearance of strong asymmetry in the ground magnetic patterns of the TCVs, while a high ionospheric background conductivity favors the appearance of strong ground magnetic disturbances but with less asymmetry. We concluded that the most favorable condition for the appearance of strong asymmetry in the TCV ground magnetic signatures is the condition of winter, solar minimum, and hard precipitation.

  20. Ionospheric plasma dynamics and instability caused by upward currents above thunderstorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, C. L.; Lee, L. C.

    2015-04-01

    Thunderstorms are electric generators, which drive currents upwardly into the ionosphere. In this paper, we examine the effects of thunderstorm upward current on the ionosphere. We use a thunderstorm model to calculate the three-dimensional current flows in the atmosphere and to simulate the upward current above the thunderstorm with the tripole-charge structure. The upward current flows into the ionosphere, while the associated electric field causes the plasma E × B motion. The caused plasma motion redistributes the plasma density, leading to ionospheric density variations. In the nighttime ionosphere, the E × B motion may also cause the formation of plasma bubbles.

  1. Diffuse spreading of inhomogeneities in the ionospheric dusty plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Shalimov, S. L.; Kozlovsky, A.

    2015-08-15

    According to results of sounding of the lower ionosphere at altitudes of about 100 km, the duration of radio reflections from sufficiently dense ionized meteor trails, which characterizes their lifetime, can reach a few tens of seconds to several tens of minutes. This is much longer than the characteristic spreading time (on the order of fractions of a second to several seconds) typical in meteor radar measurements. The presence of dust in the lower ionosphere is shown to affect the ambipolar diffusion coefficient, which determines the spreading of plasma inhomogeneities. It is found that the diffusion coefficient depends substantially on the charge and size of dust grains, which allows one to explain the results of ionospheric sounding.

  2. Application of nonlinear methods to the study of ionospheric plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernyshov, A. A.; Mogilevsky, M. M.; Kozelov, B. V.

    2015-01-01

    Most of the processes taking place in the auroral region of Earth's ionosphere are reflected in a variety of dynamic forms of the aurora borealis. In order to study these processes it is necessary to consider temporary and spatial variations of the characteristics of ionospheric plasma. Most traditional methods of classical physics are applicable mainly for stationary or quasi-stationary phenomena, but dynamic regimes, transients, fluctuations, selfsimilar scaling could be considered using the methods of nonlinear dynamics. Special interest is the development of the methods for describing the spatial structure and the temporal dynamics of auroral ionosphere based on the ideas of percolation theory and fractal geometry. The fractal characteristics (the Hausdorff fractal dimension and the index of connectivity) of Hall and Pedersen conductivities are used to the description of fractal patterns in the ionosphere. To obtain the self-consistent estimates of the parameters the Hausdorff fractal dimension and the index of connectivity in the auroral zone, an additional relation describing universal behavior of the fractal geometry of percolation at the critical threshold is applied. Also, it is shown that Tsallis statistics can be used to study auroral ionosphere

  3. Twin-vortex Convection in the Nightside High-Latitude Ionosphere Observed by the New Polar Cap SuperDARN Radar at Rankin Inlet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McWilliams, K. A.

    2006-12-01

    The opening and closing of magnetic flux by reconnection at the dayside magnetopause and in the magnetotail is the primary driver of convection in the magnetosphere and polar ionospheres. It is not the existence of open flux that excites convection; rather it is the creation or destruction of open flux that excites convection. These flows persist until a new equilibrium condition is reached, assuming no further reconnection occurs. The time scale for the excitation and decay of ionospheric flows depends on the time necessary for the polar cap to reconfigure following reconnection. The consequence of this zero-flow equilibrium concept (Cowley and Lockwood, 1992) has a powerful consequence when considering both bursty and steady-state reconnection. Newly created regions of open flux are appended contiguously to the polar cap adjacent to the previously reconnected region of open flux. Similarly, newly closed flux regions are appended contiguously to the closed field line region outside the polar cap on the nightside. The opening or closing of magnetic flux will create a perturbation of the polar cap boundary, and convection cells develop at the ends of the reconnection X-line. Convection is excited such that the newly created open flux is incorporated into the polar cap on the dayside or the newly closed flux is excluded from the polar cap on the nightside. The observation of the nightside convection response to reconnection has been very difficult to accomplish because (a) the nightside has a far more dynamic and complex response to reconnection, and (b) radar observations of convection in the midnight sector are difficult to achieve due to absorption of the radio waves during active conditions. The newest SuperDARN radar at Rankin Inlet is located at very high latitudes (73.2 magnetic), and it offers extensive and nearly continual observations of plasma convection in the poleward part of the nightside auroral region. Because of its high latitude, the Rankin Inlet

  4. Magnetic field-aligned coupling effects on ionospheric plasma structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heelis, R. A.; Vickrey, J. F.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a mathematical description of the electrical coupling and dynamics of plasma structure in the E and F regions. The scale size dependence of the electric field coupling along the magnetic field is examined for a realistic background ionosphere and atmosphere. It is shown that, while normalized potentials map reciprocally between two altitudes, the potential disturbance caused by a fixed amplitude plasma density perturbation does not. The magnitude of electrostatic potential created by structured ionization is also shown to be strongly dependent on the altitude of the structure. The role of diffusion parallel to the magnetic field in the redistribution and decay of plasma structure is illustrated.

  5. The response of ionospheric convection in the polar cap to substorm activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lester, M.; Lockwood, M.; Yeoman, T. K.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Luehr, H.; Bunting, R.; Farrugia, C. J.

    1995-01-01

    We report multi-instrument observations during an isolated substorm on 17 October 1989. The European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT) radar operated in the SP-UK-POLI mode measuring ionospheric convection at latitudes 71 deg Lambda - 78 deg Lambda. Sub-Auroral Magnetometer Network (SAMNET) and the EISCAT Magnetometer Cross provide information on the timing of substorm expansion phase onset and subsequent intensifications, as well as the location of the field aligned and ionospheric currents associated with the substorm current wedge. Interplanetary Monitoring Platform-8 (IMP-8) magnetic field data are also included. Evidence of a substorm growth phase is provided by the equatorward motion of a flow reversal boundary across the EISCAT radar field of view at 2130 MLT, following a southward turning of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). We infer that the polar cap expanded as a result of the addition of open magnetic flux in the tail lobes during this interval. The flow reversal boundary, which is a lower limit to the polar cap boundary, reached an invariant latitude equatorward of 71 deg Lambda by the time of the expansion phase onset. We conclude that the substorm onset region in the ionosphere, defined by the westward electrojet, mapped to a part of the tail radially earthward of the boundary between open and closed magnetic flux, the distant neutral line. Thus the substorm was not initiated at the distant neutral line, although there is evidence that it remained active during the expansion phase.

  6. About MHD heating of plasmaspheric and ionospheric plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilipenko, V. A.; Buechner, J.; Kirchner, T.

    In recent years, the possibility has been considered to provide supplementary MHD heating to a Tokamak plasma on the basis of an approach involving resonant mode conversion of a magnetosonic wave into a kinetic Alfven wave. The present paper has the objective to study Alfven resonance heating under magnetospheric conditions. The conducted investigation takes into account the damping of an Alfven wave in the ionosphere, a phenomenon, which has not been considered in some previous studies. The employed model is not restricted to the consideration of an approximation of the plasma density by a linear profile, and arbitrary, smooth characteristics are contemplated. The employed model of the magnetosphere corresponds to the model described by Southwood (1974). The rate of energy dissipation at the point of Alfven resonance is calculated, and Joule heating of the ionosphere caused by dissipation of resonant Alfven waves is estimated. MHD waves of sufficient intensity can induce anomalous heating of plasmaspheric particles near the point of resonance.

  7. The dawn enhancement of the equatorial ionospheric vertical plasma drift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ruilong; Liu, Libo; Chen, Yiding; Le, Huijun

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies have reported that a dawn enhancement does not present in the statistical picture of the equatorial ionospheric vertical plasma drift, while it clearly shows in case measurements. In this statistical study, it is the first time to investigate the occurrence of the dawn enhancement in the equatorial ionospheric vertical plasma drift from ROCSAT-1 observations during geomagnetic quiet times. The dawn enhancements occur most frequently in June solstice and least frequently in December solstice. The statistical survey shows that the occurrence depends on the magnetic declination. The enhancement has the strongest amplitude in regions near 320° longitude and peaks during June solstice. The dawn enhancement reaches its peak after the sunrise in conjugated E regions. Furthermore, it is found that the dawn enhancement is closely related to the difference between the sunrise times in the conjugated E regions (sunrise time lag). The dawn enhancement occurs easily in regions with a large sunrise time lag.

  8. The interplanetary electric field, cleft currents and plasma convection in the polar caps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, P. M.; Clauer, C. R.; Araki, T.; St. Maurice, J. P.; Foster, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    The relationship between the pattern of plasma convection in the polar cleft and the dynamics of the interplanetary electric field (IEF) is examined theoretically. It is shown that owing to the geometrical properties of the magnetosphere, the East-West component of the IEF will drive field-aligned currents which connect to the ionosphere at points lying on either side of noon, while currents associated with the North-South component of the IEF will connect the two polar caps as sheet currents, also centered at 12 MLT. In order to describe the consequences of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) effects upon high-latitude electric fields and convection patterns, a series of numerical simulations was carried out. The simulations were based on a solution to the steady-state equation of current continuity in a height-integrated ionospheric current. The simulations demonstrate that a simple hydrodynamical model can account for the narrow 'throats' of strong dayside antisunward convection observed during periods of southward interplanetary IMF drift, as well as the sunward convection observed during periods of strongly northward IMF drift.

  9. Electrodynamics of long metallic tethers in the ionospheric plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobrowolny, M.

    1978-01-01

    A study is presented of the electrodynamic interactions of long metallic tethers (lengths up to 100 km) with the ionospheric plasma. The study, which is of interest in view of possible future experiments using long tethers in space, includes the derivation of current and potential distribution along the tether, taking also the effects of internal resistance into account. Electrostatic and electrodynamic drag forces are computed and compared with aerodynamic drag.

  10. Numerical model of the convecting F2 ionosphere at high latitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knudsen, W. C.; Banks, P. M.; Winningham, J. D.; Klumpar, D. M.

    1977-01-01

    In previous work Knudsen (1974) presented a model for the convection field of the high latitude F layer and evaluated the time-dependent behavior of a tube of F layer plasma carried around the polar regions by the field. The present paper describes the initial results of a more detailed numerical study of the behavior of the F layer tubes, where it is assumed that the tubes are subjected to time-dependent ionization rates from both solar photons and precipitating energetic electrons. The numerical results are presented in the form of a map view of N-m F2 contours, electron concentration in vertical section over the magnetic pole from noon to midnight, and several vertical profiles of electron concentration for both convecting and nonconvecting flux tubes. The proposed convection field produced a tongue of F layer plasma extending from the dayside of the cleft over the polar cap with concentrations consistent with those observed by Isis 2.

  11. Radio Pumping of Ionospheric Plasma with Orbital Angular Momentum

    SciTech Connect

    Leyser, T. B.; Norin, L.; McCarrick, M.; Pedersen, T. R.; Gustavsson, B.

    2009-02-13

    Experimental results are presented of pumping ionospheric plasma with a radio wave carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM), using the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility in Alaska. Optical emissions from the pumped plasma turbulence exhibit the characteristic ring-shaped morphology when the pump beam carries OAM. Features of stimulated electromagnetic emissions (SEE) that are attributed to cascading Langmuir turbulence are well developed for a regular beam but are significantly weaker for a ring-shaped OAM beam in which case upper hybrid turbulence dominates the SEE.

  12. Radio pumping of ionospheric plasma with orbital angular momentum.

    PubMed

    Leyser, T B; Norin, L; McCarrick, M; Pedersen, T R; Gustavsson, B

    2009-02-13

    Experimental results are presented of pumping ionospheric plasma with a radio wave carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM), using the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility in Alaska. Optical emissions from the pumped plasma turbulence exhibit the characteristic ring-shaped morphology when the pump beam carries OAM. Features of stimulated electromagnetic emissions (SEE) that are attributed to cascading Langmuir turbulence are well developed for a regular beam but are significantly weaker for a ring-shaped OAM beam in which case upper hybrid turbulence dominates the SEE. PMID:19257597

  13. Numerical simulation of the interaction between two high-energy plasma bunches in the ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motorin, A. A.; Stupitsky, E. L.; Kholodov, A. S.

    2016-07-01

    The 3D MHD algorithm developed by us has been adapted to modeling the interaction between two plasma bunches in the ionosphere, mainly in order to sufficiently correctly describe the physics of the interaction between two plasma regions with regard to the ionospheric inhomogeneity and the geomagnetic field action. Modeling has been performed for several versions of location of the plasma region centers.

  14. Effects of convection electric field on upwelling and escape of ionospheric O(+)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cladis, J. B.; Chiu, Yam T.; Peterson, William K.

    1992-01-01

    A Monte Carlo code is used to explore the full effects of the convection electric field on distributions of upflowing O(+) ions from the cusp/cleft ionosphere. Trajectories of individual ions/neutrals are computed as they undergo multiple charge-exchange collisions. In the ion state, the trajectories are computed in realistic models of the magnetic field and the convection, corotation, and ambipolar electric fields. The effects of ion-ion collisions are included, and the trajectories are computed with and without simultaneous stochastic heating perpendicular to the magnetic field by a realistic model of broadband, low frequency waves. In the neutral state, ballistic trajectories in the gravitational field are computed. The initial conditions of the ions, in addition to ambipolar electric field and the number densities and temperatures of O(+), H(+), and electrons as a function of height in the cusp/cleft region were obtained from the results of Gombosi and Killeen (1987), who used a hydrodynamic code to simulate the time-dependent frictional-heating effects in a magnetic tube during its motion though the convection throat. The distribution of the ion fluxes as a function of height are constructed from the case histories.

  15. Final Progress Report for Ionospheric Dusty Plasma In the Laboratory [Smokey Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, Scott

    2010-09-28

    Ionospheric Dusty Plasma in the Laboratory” is a research project with the purpose of finding and reproducing the characteristics of plasma in the polar mesosphere that is unusually cold (down to 140 K) and contains nanometer-sized dust particles. This final progress report summarizes results from four years of effort that include a final year with a no-cost extension.

  16. Ionospheric plasma drift and structure studies at high and mid-latitudes. Volume 1. Final report, October 1990-October 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Reinisch, B.W.; Scali, J.L.; Dozois, C.; Crowley, G.

    1993-12-01

    Ground-based observations of the high latitude ionosphere with Digisonde sounders at Quaanaaq, Sondrestrom, Goose Bay, Argentina and Millstone Hill provide a description of the patch structure and the convection pattern in the polar cap. Correlation analysis of observed F-region plasma drifts with the orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field (measured by IMP8) lead to a new technique of deducing the signs of Bz and By from the measured drifts. Real time calculation of the plasma drift was successfully introduced at one of the Digisonde stations (Sondrestrom) providing the possibility of determining the IMF components in real time. Analysis of mid-latitude trough observation shows large westward velocities in the trough region. Digisonde data from Quaanaaq and DMSP F8 and F9 satellite data showed the development of the ionospheric polar hole.

  17. Artificial plasma jet in the ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haerendel, G.; Sagdeev, R. Z.

    The dynamics of an artificially injected plasma beam in the near-earth space are analyzed in terms of the beam structure, its propagation across the magnetic field, and the resulting wave phenomena (Porcupine Project, flight 4, March 31, 1979). Out of the four ejectable canisters attached to the main payload, two were instrumented by the U.S., one by the USSR (the Xenon plasma beam experiment), and one by West Germany (carrying a barium ion jet experiment). The propagation of the plasma seems to occur in three stages, with high-frequency broad-band oscillations mainly localized in the 'core' of the jet, while low-frequency oscillations were spatially separated from it. The generation region of LF oscillations was found to be much wider than the jet core. As a result of the interaction between the plasma beam and the ambient medium a heating of electrons, up to energies of about 20 eV, associated with LF noise was observed. The behavior of high-energy ions and the observed HF wave phenomena need further analysis.

  18. New Ionospheric Interaction Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheerin, J. P.

    2004-11-01

    Current upgrades to both the HF transmitter and diagnostic capabilities at the HAARP facility near Gakona, AK will permit a new generation ionospheric interaction experiments. We explore some of the new phenomena accessible with significantly increased ERP. Large-scale long-lived density structures induced by the HF pump in the ionospheric plasma are investigated. Long-lived density structures which convect with the ambient ionosphere, may serve as tracers for ionospheric flows and fields. Recent advances in HF and VHF radar diagnostics available for HAARP experiments, permit plasma wave detection and monitoring. We survey the mode structures expected with the next generation of high intensity experiments. Together with existing complementary diagnostics such as stimulated HF emissions and optical effects, these data will provide unprecedented views of highly nonlinear phenomena induced by high intensity RF radiation in the ionosphere.

  19. Is Jupiter's ionosphere a significant plasma source for its magnetosphere?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, A. F.; Barakat, A. R.; Schunk, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    A semikinetic model was used to study the steady state, collisionless, polar wind outflow from the Jovian polar caps. H+ escape fluxes and energies were calculated for a range of conditions, including several values of the ambient electron temperature, different hot electron populations, and both with and without the effects of the centrifugal force. The calculations indicate that if hot electron populations exist over the Jovian polar caps, as they do on earth, polar wind escape fluxes of the order of 108cm-2s-1 are possible. When integrated over the polar cap area, escape fluxes of this order of magnitude imply an ionospheric source strength of 2×1028ions/s, which is comparable to the present estimate of the total magnetospheric plasma source population. Therefore, the ionosphere may play an important role in populating the Jovian magnetosphere, specifically the "hidden", low energy, light ion component of the population.

  20. Investigation of a rare event where the polar ionospheric reverse convection potential does not saturate during a period of extreme northward IMF solar wind driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clauer, C. Robert; Xu, Zhonghua; Maimaiti, M.; Ruohoneimi, J. Michael; Scales, Wayne; Hartinger, Michael D.; Nicolls, Michael J.; Kaeppler, Stephen; Wilder, Frederick D.; Lopez, Ramon E.

    2016-06-01

    A variety of statistical studies have shown that the ionospheric polar potential produced by solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling is linear for weak to moderate solar wind driving but becomes nonlinear during periods of very strong driving. It has been shown that this applies to the two-cell convection potential that develops during southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and also to the reverse convection cells that develop during northward IMF. This has been described as polar potential saturation, and it appears to begin when the driving solar wind electric field becomes greater than 3 mV/m. Utilizing measurements from the Resolute Incoherent Scatter Radar (RISR-N), we examine ionospheric data near local noon within the reverse convection cells that developed during a period of very strong northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) on 12 September 2014. During this period we measure the electric field within the throat of the reverse convection cells to be near 150 mV/m at a time when the IMF is nearly 28 nT northward. This is far in excess of the 30-40 mV/m expected for polar potential saturation of the reverse convection cells. In fact, the development of the electric field responds linearly to the IMF Bz component throughout this period of extreme driving. The conditions in the solar wind show the solar wind velocity near 600 km/s, number density near 20 ions/cm3, and the Alfvén velocity about 75 km/s giving an Alfvén Mach number of 8. A search of several years of solar wind data shows that these values occur together 0.035% of the time. These conditions imply a high plasma β in the magnetosheath. We believe that condition of high β along with high mass density and a strong merging electric field in the magnetosheath are the significant parameters that produce the linear driving of the ionospheric electric field during this unusual period of extreme solar wind conditions. A discussion of current theories to account for cross-polar cap

  1. Small-scale plasma irregularities in the nightside Venus ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grebowsky, J. M.; Curtis, S. A.; Brace, L. H.

    1991-01-01

    The individual volt-ampere curves from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter electron temperature probe showed evidence for small-scale density irregularities, or short-period plasma waves, in regions of the nightside ionosphere where the Orbiter electric field detector observed waves in its 100-Hz channel. A survey of the nightside volt-ampere curves has revealed several hundred examples of such irregularities. The I-V structures correspond to plasma density structure with spatial scale sizes in the range of about 100-2000 m, or alternatively they could be viewed as waves having frequencies extending toward 100 Hz. They are often seen as isolated events, with spatial extent along the orbit frequently less than 80 km. The density irregularities or waves occur in or near prominent gradients in the ambient plasma concentrations both at low altitudes where molecular ions are dominant and at higher altitudes in regions of reduced plasma density where O(+) is the major ion. Electric field 100-Hz bursts occur simultaneously, with the majority of the structured I-V curves providing demonstrative evidence that at least some of the E field signals are produced within the ionosphere.

  2. Plasma transport in the equatorial ionosphere during the great magnetic storm of March 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, C.E. ); Greenspan, M.E. )

    1993-01-01

    We have modeled plasma transport in the low-latitude and equatorial ionosphere during the great magnetic storm of March 1989. Our goal was to provide a consistent explanation for the DMSP (Defense Meteorological Satellite Program) observations of dramatic decreases in ion density and rapid ion drifts in the low latitude ionosphere over South America during the storm. The modeling effort supports the hypothesis that abnormally large upward drifts lifted F region plasma above the satellite's altitude and created the density depletions observed by DMSP. Modeled O[sup +] densities at the satellite's altitude have a strong qualitative resemblance to DMSP observations. Both the model and the observations indicate a deep density through with extremely sharp boundaries surrounding the equator. The widths of both the modeled and the observed equatorial troughs increase with time. Vertical ion drifts predicted by the model also have been compared with DMSP measurements. Like the observed vertical drifts, the modeled drifts reversed sign near the trough boundaries. The modeled vertical drifts are of the same order and direction as the vertical component of E x B convection near the equator, but of opposite direction (downward) near the trough boundaries and outside of the trough. 12 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Specific Plasma Ionospheric Excitations Modes in the Ionosphere Produced by Space Vehicle Launch and RE Entry and Natural Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauscher, E. A.; van Bise, W. L.

    2001-10-01

    SPECIFIC PLASMA IONOSPHERIC EXCITATIONS MODES IN THE IONOSPHERE PRODUCED BY SPACE VEHICLE LAUNCH AND RE ENTRY AND NATURAL PHENOMENA We have examined both experimentally and theoretically the formation and excitation of highly well defined specific wave forms of plasma excitation in the D, E, F(1) and F(2) and sometimes G layers of the earth?s ionosphere. In our formal study period from October 1989 until December 1996, we measured 41 distinct events out of a possible 73 events utilizing ground based sensitive T1050 magnetometers. In five cases more than two to three stations were displayed and detected the same ionospheric excitations. Sometimes background noise was high and dominated the signals, but under good measurement conditions signals appeared to be 50 to 70 dbm over the background noise floor. Specific frequencies of the D-layer appeared around 5.2 to 6.52 Hz and E layer excitations were from 10.48 to 12.8 Hz. Sometimes an F double peak appeared around 15 to 17 Hz as excited by space shuttle activity and delta rockets and in several cases, large scale volcanism. A theoretical model has been developed which describes sustained long duration and long range coherent plasma excitation modes which occur when the ionospheric layers are shock excited. Alfven-like velocities of propogation are calculated in these ionospheric layer. Some Schumann resonates were observed from 7 to 8 Hz.

  4. Electric Field Double Probe Measurements for Ionospheric Space Plasma Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfaff, R.

    1999-01-01

    Double probes represent a well-proven technique for gathering high quality DC and AC electric field measurements in a variety of space plasma regimes including the magnetosphere, ionosphere, and mesosphere. Such experiments have been successfully flown on a variety of spacecraft including sounding rockets and satellites. Typical instrument designs involve a series of trades, depending on the science objectives, type of platform (e.g., spinning or 3-axis stabilized), expected plasma regime where the measurements will be made, available telemetry, budget, etc. In general, ionospheric DC electric field instruments that achieve accuracies of 0.1 mV/m or better, place spherical sensors at large distances (10m or more) from the spacecraft body in order to extend well beyond the spacecraft wake and sheath and to achieve large signal-to-noise ratios for DC and long wavelength measurements. Additional sets of sensors inboard of the primary, outermost sensors provide useful additional information, both for diagnostics of the plasma contact potentials, which particularly enhance the DC electric field measurements on non-spinning spacecraft, and for wavelength and phase velocity measurements that use the spaced receiver or "interferometer" technique. Accurate attitude knowledge enables B times V contributions to be subtracted from the measured potentials, and permits the measured components to be rotated into meaningful geophysical reference frames. We review the measurement technique for both DC and wave electric field measurements in the ionosphere discussing recent advances involving high resolution burst memories, multiple baseline double probes, new sensor surface materials, biasing techniques, and other considerations.

  5. Solar Wind Driven Plasma Fluxes from the Venus Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez De Tejada, H. A.; Lundin, R. N.; Zhang, T.; Sauvaud, J. A.; Reyes-Ruiz, M.

    2012-12-01

    SOLAR WIND DRIVEN PLASMA FLUXES FROM THE VENUS IONOSPHERE H. Pérez-de-Tejada (1), R. Lundin (2), H. Durand-Manterola (1), S. Barabash (2), T. L. Zhang (3), J. A., Sauvaud (4), and M. Reyes-Ruiz (5) 1 - Institute of Geophysics, UNAM, México, D. F. 2 - Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden 3 - Space Research Institute, Graz, Austria 4 - CESR, Toulouse, France 5 - Institute of Astronomy, UNAM, Ensenada, México Measurements conducted with the ASPERA-4 instrument and the magnetometer of the Venus Express spacecraft show that the kinetic pressure of planetary O+ ion fluxes measured in the Venus wake can be significantly larger than the local magnetic pressure and, as a result, those ions are not being driven by magnetic forces but by the kinetic energy of the solar wind. Beams of planetary O+ ions with those properties have been detected in several orbits of the Venus Express through the wake as the spacecraft traverses by the noon-midnight plane along its near polar trajectory. The momentum flux of the O+ ions leads to superalfvenic flow conditions. It is suggested that such O+ ion beams are produced in the vicinity of the magnetic polar regions of the Venus ionosphere where the solar wind erodes the local plasma leading to plasma channels that extend downstream from those regions.

  6. Transverse ion heating in multicomponent plasmas. [in ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashour-Abdalla, M.; Okuda, H.; Kim, S. Y.

    1987-01-01

    A new mechanism is proposed for plasma modes which can occur only in a multicomponent plasma and not in pure electron-ion plasma. The addition of ions creates a new instability near the ion-ion hybrid mode whose frequency is adequate for the wave to interact with oxygen ions. To study heating of ions (such as ionospheric oxygen ions) in presence of auroral electrons, several numerical simulations were carried out using a one-dimensional electrostatic code in a magnetic field. It was found that in the presence of electrons drifting along auroral field lines into the ionosphere, the ion-ion hybrid mode can be driven unstable when the electron drift speed is too small to excite the lower hybrid instability. Since the ion-ion mode has a smaller frequency than that of the lower hybrid waves, it can couple to the heavy ions, resulting in a substantial heating of heavy ions; on the other hand, because of their frequencies, the lower hybrid waves can accelerate only light ion species.

  7. Intercomparison among plasma wake models for plasmaspheric and ionospheric conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samir, U.; Comfort, R. H.; Wright, K. H., Jr.; Stone, N. H.

    1987-01-01

    The angular distributions of ions in the wake of a body moving through a space plasma computed from three different models are compared in order to investigate wake current depletion ratios under conditions simulating the topside ionosphere and plasmasphere. Results demonstrate the importance of taking into account the thermal flux at low Mach numbers and the angular acceptance of ion detectors in making theory-experiment comparisons. For all models considered, gradients in the angular variations of the fluxes are shown to be steeper near the wake-ambient interface than closer to the maximum rarefaction region.

  8. High-Latitude Plasma Convection from Cluster EDI Measurements: North-South Asymmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haaland, S.; Foerster, M.; Paschmann, G.; Torbert, R. B.; Vaith, H.

    2009-12-01

    Recent observations have shown that the ionospheric response to processes in the magnetosphere can be very dissimilar in the northern and southern hemispheres. In this paper we present a statistical study of ionospheric convection patterns obtained from 7 years of electric field observations from the Cluster mission. The results show some prominent asymmetries between the two hemispheres, but most of the differences can probably be attributed to ionospheric conductivities. The results also demonstrate that magnetospheric convection is not simply the result of processes in the magnetospheric boundaries and the magnetotail, but that it is modified and partly controlled by ionospheric effects.

  9. Measuring ionospheric electron density using the plasma frequency probe

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, M.D.; Baker, K.D. )

    1992-02-01

    During the past decade, the plasma frequency probe (PFP) has evolved into an accurate, proven method of measuring electron density in the ionosphere above about 90 km. The instrument uses an electrically short antenna mounted on a sounding rocket that is immersed in the plasma and notes the frequency where the antenna impedance is large and nonreactive. This frequency is closely related to the plasma frequency, which is a direct function of free electron concentration. The probe uses phase-locked loop technology to follow a changing electron density. Several sections of the plasma frequency probe circuitry are unique, especially the voltage-controlled oscillator that uses both an electronically tuned capacitor and inductor to give the wide tuning range needed for electron density measurements. The results from two recent sounding rocket flights (Thunderstorm II and CRIT II) under vastly different plasma conditions demonstrate the capabilities of the PFP and show the importance of in situ electron density measurements of understanding plasma processes. 9 refs.

  10. Meteor dust in the ionosphere makes dust plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Scott; Asmus, Heiner

    2013-10-01

    Flights of rocket-borne probes into the ionosphere have returned data from 60-100 km altitude on the occurrence of meteoric dust (Robertson et al., J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys, 2013 in press). The number density of these particles is of order 20,000/cc which exceeds the typical electron density at 60-70 km but is smaller than the electron density typical at 90-100 km. Model equations and rocket data show that the ionosphere makes a transition from the dust particles being almost entirely negatively charged at high altitude to the dust particles being almost equally positive and negative at lower altitudes. The low-altitude result is a consequence of the electron and ion from an ionization event each attaching to dust particles before other processes can occur. Equilibrium is established in which attachment of an electron or ion to a neutral dust particle is equally as probable as it neutralizing a dust particle of the opposite sign. The low altitude region has many more positive and negative dust particles than electrons or ions, hence a dust plasma rather than a dusty plasma.

  11. The ionospheric source of magnetospheric plasma is not a black box input for global models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welling, D. T.; Liemohn, M. W.

    2016-06-01

    Including ionospheric outflow in global magnetohydrodynamic models of near-Earth outer space has become an important step toward understanding the role of this plasma source in the magnetosphere. Of the existing approaches, however, few tie the outflowing particle fluxes to magnetospheric conditions in a self-consistent manner. Doing so opens the magnetosphere-ionosphere system to nonlinear mass-energy feedback loops, profoundly changing the behavior of the magnetosphere-ionosphere system. Based on these new results, it is time for the community eschew treating ionospheric outflow as a simple black box source of magnetospheric plasma.

  12. DyFK Simulation of Field-Aligned Ion Flows Observed by POLAR within Convecting Flux Over the Polar Ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tu, J.-N.; Wu, X. Y.; Horwitz, J. L.; Stevenson, B. A.; Moore, T. E.; Coffey, V. N.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Ion (O+ and H+) parallel flows along antisunward convecting flux tubes across the polar ionosphere from day to night side are simulated by an extended Dynamic Fluid semiKinetic (DyFK) model. The collision dominated portion of the flux tubes is treated with a moment-based fluid model for altitudes from 120 ?1100 km, while the generalized semikinetic model is used for the topside through 3 RE region. The effects of cleft/auroral soft electron precipitation and wave-driven transverse ion heating are incorporated into the generalized semi-kinetic treatment of topside ionosphere. The simulated evolution of field-aligned ion flow parameters is compared with observations made by the Thermal Ion Dynamics Experiment (TIDE) on board the POLAR satellite near 5000 km altitude over the southern hemisphere polar ionosphere.

  13. Interhemispheric differences and solar cycle effects of the high-latitude ionospheric convection patterns deduced from Cluster EDI observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Förster, Matthias; Haaland, Stein

    2015-04-01

    Here, we present a study of ionospheric convection at high latitudes that is based on satellite measurements of the Electron Drift Instrument (EDI) on-board the Cluster satellites, which were obtained over a full solar cycle (2001-2013). The mapped drift measurements are covering both hemispheres and a variety of different solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions. The large amount of data allows us to perform more detailed statistical studies. We show that flow patterns and polar cap potentials can differ between the two hemispheres on statistical average for a given IMF orientation. In particular, during southward directed IMF conditions, and thus enhanced energy input from the solar wind, we find that the southern polar cap has a higher cross polar cap potential. We also find persistent north-south asymmetries which cannot be explained by external drivers alone. Much of these asymmetries can probably be explained by significant differences in the strength and configuration of the geomagnetic field between the Northern and Southern Hemisphere. Since the ionosphere is magnetically connected to the magnetosphere, this difference will also be reflected in the magnetosphere in the form of different feedback from the two hemispheres. Consequently, local ionospheric conditions and the geomagnetic field configuration are important for north-south asymmetries in large regions of geospace. The average convection is higher during periods with high solar activity. Although local ionospheric conditions may play a role, we mainly attribute this to higher geomagnetic activity due to enhanced solar wind - magnetosphere interactions.

  14. Nonlinear Structures Transfer in Artificially Disturbed Ionospheric Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terina, Galina

    Under artificial ionospheric turbulence (AIT) sounding by short probing radio pulses of ordinary polarization three types of scattered signals were revealed: a "caviton" signal (CS) (narrow-band one), a "plasma" signal (PS) and an "aftereffect plasma signal" (AEPS)(broad-band ones) (G.I.Terina, J.Atm.Terr.Phys.,1995, 57, 273; Izv.VUZov, Radiofizika, 1996, 39, 2, 203). The spatial and time characteristics of these signals allow to study AIT structure and its evolution. In this paper the transfer of artificial plasma structures during the heating time and after heater turn off is considered. The experiments were carried out at the heating facility "Zimenki". The heating and probing transmitters radiated radio waves of ordinary polarization with difference of frequencies 0.1-0.2 MHz. The heating transmitter periodically was turned on for dozens seconds and was turned off for the same duration. The duration of probing radio pulses was 50µs. CS appeared at once with the turning on of the heating transmitter moving then at smaller heights. The amplitude characteristic research showed that CS was due to scattering of probing radio pulses of caviton formations excited by strong Langmuir turbulence in the reflection region of the heating radio wave. The time phase dependencies of CS allow to estimate the travel velocities of caviton formations at the different stages of ionosphere heater. At the initial heater stage the fast travel of caviton formations to the lesser heights with velocities of the order of the ion sound one was observed during fractions of a second. Further slower CS travel to the larger heights took place with velocities of the order of tens meters per second, corresponding to velocities of travel of the reflection region of the probing and heating radio waves. AEPS appeared after the turning off of the heating transmitter when the corresponding PS had the amplitude fluctuations and the small relaxation time. It was situated at the virtual heights

  15. Relationship between the observed and modeled modulation of the dayside ionospheric convection by the IMF B{sub y} component

    SciTech Connect

    Papitashvili, V.O.; Clauer, C.R.; Levitin, A.E.

    1995-05-01

    The Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation (IZMIRAN) electrodynamic model (IZMEM) provides global patterns of polar ionospheric potential and is parameterized by the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). Given IMF conditions measured by an upstream satellite, the model yields a good global approximation to the polar ionospheric convection patterns assuming the proper time delay. While the model assumes static patterns and is based upon statistical regression analysis of high-latitude magnetometer data, it can furnish an appropriate global context within which to examine time-varying phenomena. The authors use the IZMEM model to further develop their understanding of the coordinated analysis of Greenland radar, riometer, and magnetometer data on August 2, 1991, which is one of the geospace environment modeling program intervals. The event is characterized by geomagnetic pulsations observed near local magnetic noon, having a 25-min period and poleward phase propagation. A modulation of the intensity and orientation of the convection electric field is observed by the Sondrestrom incoherent scatter radar. Modeled global convection patterns show striking agreement with observations in the area covered by the radar field of view. The authors interpret observed phenomena as a direct ground-based evidence of the IMF B{sub y} component reconnection at the dayside magnetopause. 31 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Injun 5 observations of magnetospheric electric fields and plasma convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, D. A.

    1971-01-01

    Recent measurements of magnetospheric electric fields with the satellite Injun 5 have provided a comprehensive global survey of plasma convection at low altitudes in the magnetosphere. A persistent feature of these electric field observations is the occurrence of an abrupt reversal in the convection electric field at auroral zone latitudes. The plasma convection velocities associated with these reversals are generally directed east-west, away from the sun on the poleward side of the reversal, and toward the sun on the equatorward side of the reversal. Convection velocities over the polar cap region are normally less than those observed near the reversal region. The electric field reversal is observed to be coincident with the trapping boundary for electrons with energies E greater than 45 keV.

  17. Applications of numerical codes to space plasma problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Northrop, T. G.; Birmingham, T. J.; Jones, F. C.; Wu, C. S.

    1975-01-01

    Solar wind, earth's bowshock, and magnetospheric convection and substorms were investigated. Topics discussed include computational physics, multifluid codes, ionospheric irregularities, and modeling laser plasmas.

  18. Ionospheric Plasma Energization and Escape from Mars: Composition and Flow Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundin, R.; Barabash, S.; Holmström, M.; Nilsson, H.; Yamauch, M.

    2008-12-01

    Recent results from Mars Express (Lundin et al., GRL 2008) display a comet-like behaviour of the Martian ionospheric plasma escape. Low-energy (cold) ionospheric plasma is swept from the dayside, expanding into the nightside/tail, eventually picking up speed in the central and deep tail. The cause of the plasma escape, i.e. the processes that bring ionospheric plasma to just above escape velocity (5 - 10 km/s), is of particular interest. In analogy with the polar wind of the Earth, ionospheric plasma is expected to become energized by waves and electric fields generated by solar wind energy and momentum transfer processes. The comet-like flow of low-energy ionospheric plasma, streaming along the external sheath flow, suggests a 'viscous-like' coupling between the sheath plasma and the expanding ionospheric plasma. Moreover, the tailward outflow is structured, frequently modulated in the same manner as the ULF wave activity in the Martian magnetosheath. This implies that wave activity is involved in the energization and escape of ionospheric ions. Another interesting feature in the ionospheric plasma escape from Mars is a large abundance of molecular ions, predominantly molecular heavy ions (e.g. O2+ and CO2+). However, we also find a significant fraction of low-energy/cold m/q=2 ionospheric ions; most likely molecular hydrogen (H2+) because the content is perhaps too high to qualify as Deuterium (D+). Whether H2+ or D+, the finding provides important information on the long-term, and short term, weathering and dissociation of water at Mars.

  19. Laboratory plasma with cold electron temperature of the lower ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickson, Shannon; Robertson, Scott

    2009-10-01

    For the first time, plasma with cold electron temperatures less than 300K has been created continuously in the laboratory. The plasma is created in a cylindrical double-walled vacuum chamber in which the inner chamber (18cm in diameter and 30cm long) is wrapped in copper tubing through which vapor from liquid nitrogen flows, providing a cooling mechanism for the neutral gas. The inner chamber has two negatively-biased filaments for plasma generation and a platinum wire Langmuir probe for diagnostic measurements. Neutral gas pressures of 1.6mTorr and a total filament emission current of 2mA are used to obtain plasma densities near 4 x 10^8 cm-3. When carbon monoxide is used as the working gas, decreasing the neutral gas temperature also decreases the cold electron temperatures, yielding cold electrons with 21meV (240K) when the neutral CO is at 150K. The same experiment conducted with H2, He, or Ar results in a doubling of the cold electron temperatures, yielding 80meV (930K) when the neutral gas is at 150K. The lower electron temperature with CO is attributed to the asymmetric CO molecule having a nonzero electric dipole moment which increases the cross section for electron energy exchange. Nitric oxide, a dominant constituent of the ionosphere, has a similar dipole moment and collision cross section as carbon monoxide and is likely to be equally effective at cooling electrons.

  20. High-resolution ionospheric observations and modeling over Belgium during the solar eclipse of 20 March 2015 including first results of ionospheric tilt and plasma drift measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhulst, Tobias G. W.; Sapundjiev, Danislav; Stankov, Stanimir M.

    2016-06-01

    The ionospheric behavior over Belgium during the partial solar eclipse of 20 March 2015 is analyzed based on high-resolution solar radio flux, vertical incidence sounding, and GPS TEC measurements. First results of ionosonde-based ionospheric plasma drift and tilt observations are presented and analyzed, including some traveling ionospheric disturbances caused by the eclipse. Also, collocated ionosonde and GPS measurements are used to reconstruct the time evolution of the vertical electron density distribution using the Royal Meteorological Institute (RMI) ionospheric specification system, called Local Ionospheric Electron Density profile Reconstruction (LIEDR).

  1. Cassini observations of ionospheric plasma in Saturn's magnetotail lobes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felici, M.; Arridge, C. S.; Coates, A. J.; Badman, S. V.; Dougherty, M. K.; Jackman, C. M.; Kurth, W. S.; Melin, H.; Mitchell, D. G.; Reisenfeld, D. B.; Sergis, N.

    2016-01-01

    Studies of Saturn's magnetosphere with the Cassini mission have established the importance of Enceladus as the dominant mass source for Saturn's magnetosphere. It is well known that the ionosphere is an important mass source at Earth during periods of intense geomagnetic activity, but lesser attention has been dedicated to study the ionospheric mass source at Saturn. In this paper we describe a case study of data from Saturn's magnetotail, when Cassini was located at ≃ 2200 h Saturn local time at 36 RS from Saturn. During several entries into the magnetotail lobe, tailward flowing cold electrons and a cold ion beam were observed directly adjacent to the plasma sheet and extending deeper into the lobe. The electrons and ions appear to be dispersed, dropping to lower energies with time. The composition of both the plasma sheet and lobe ions show very low fluxes (sometimes zero within measurement error) of water group ions. The magnetic field has a swept-forward configuration which is atypical for this region, and the total magnetic field strength is larger than expected at this distance from the planet. Ultraviolet auroral observations show a dawn brightening, and upstream heliospheric models suggest that the magnetosphere is being compressed by a region of high solar wind ram pressure. We interpret this event as the observation of ionospheric outflow in Saturn's magnetotail. We estimate a number flux between (2.95 ± 0.43) × 109 and (1.43 ± 0.21) × 1010 cm-2 s-1, 1 or about 2 orders of magnitude larger than suggested by steady state MHD models, with a mass source between 1.4 ×102 and 1.1 ×103 kg/s. After considering several configurations for the active atmospheric regions, we consider as most probable the main auroral oval, with associated mass source between 49.7 ±13.4 and 239.8 ±64.8 kg/s for an average auroral oval, and 10 ±4 and 49 ±23 kg/s for the specific auroral oval morphology found during this event. It is not clear how much of this mass is

  2. High-latitude plasma convection from Cluster EDI measurements: method and IMF-dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haaland, S. E.; Paschmann, G.; Förster, M.; Quinn, J. M.; Torbert, R. B.; McIlwain, C. E.; Vaith, H.; Puhl-Quinn, P. A.; Kletzing, C. A.

    2007-02-01

    We have used vector measurements of the electron drift velocity made by the Electron Drift Instrument (EDI) on Cluster between February 2001 and March 2006 to derive statistical maps of the high-latitude plasma convection. The EDI measurements, obtained at geocentric distances between ~4 and ~20 RE over both hemispheres, are mapped into the polar ionosphere, and sorted according to the clock-angle of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), measured at ACE and propagated to Earth, using best estimates of the orientation of the IMF variations. Only intervals of stable IMF are used, based on the magnitude of a "bias-vector" constructed from 30-min averages. The resulting data set consists of a total of 5862 h of EDI data. Contour maps of the electric potential in the polar ionosphere are subsequently derived from the mapped and averaged ionospheric drift vectors. Comparison with published statistical results based on Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) radar and low-altitude satellite measurements shows excellent agreement between the average convection patterns, and in particular the lack of mirror-symmetry between the effects of positive and negative IMF By, the appearance of a duskward flow component for strongly southward IMF, and the general weakening of the average flows and potentials for northerly IMF directions. This agreement lends credence to the validity of the assumption underlying the mapping of the EDI data, namely that magnetic field lines are equipotentials. For strongly northward IMF the mapped EDI data show the clear emergence of two counter-rotating lobe cells with a channel of sunward flow between them. The total potential drops across the polar caps obtained from the mapped EDI data are intermediate between the radar and the low-altitude satellite results.

  3. High-Latitude Plasma Convection as a Function of Solar Wind and IMF Using a Simple Parameterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, K. B.

    2001-12-01

    A simple parameterization of high-latitude ionospheric plasma convection patterns has been developed to study the relationship of the convection patterns to the speed and density of the solar wind and the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). The parameterization includes the overall size of the convection pattern, the total potential drop, the orientation of the pattern, and the relative sizes of the dawn and dusk convection cells. The spherical harmonic fitting analysis of Ruohoniemi and Baker [1998] was applied to two years (1999, 2000) of SuperDARN HF-Radar data from the northern hemisphere. Solar Wind and IMF data were take from the definitive ACE key parameter data. Linear regression analysis was applied to determine the relationship of the convection pattern parameters to various combinations of solar wind and IMF parameters. The polar cap potential drop was found to be most strongly correlated to vBz, but a weaker correlation to v*abs(By) was also noted. The orientation of the convection pattern was well correlated with either By alone or the IMF clock angle. Ruohoniemi, J. M., and K. B. Baker, Large-scale imaging of high-latitude convection with SuperDARN HF-radar observations, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 20,797-20,811, 1998.

  4. Magnetosphere, ionosphere and atmosphere interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, P. M.

    1979-01-01

    In the present review, the general nature of the earth's space environment is discussed with particular reference to the physical processes which link the magnetosphere, the ionosphere, and the upper atmosphere. Recent theoretical and experimental research has revealed the existence of subtle couplings which closely link the electrical and mass properties of these regions. Some of these couplings have been known for many years. Recent discoveries include such couplings as the formation of the plasmasphere through the mutual action of convective electric fields and ionospheric plasma flows. However, there is still insufficient information to define accurately the basic processes associated with space plasma dynamics when cool thermal plasma of ionospheric origin interacts with the neutral atmosphere, the energetic plasma of the ionosphere, and the solar wind. The primary objective of the discussion is to provide a general introduction to the more challenging processes as they are presently known.

  5. Phenomenology of structured plasma in the ionosphere. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Vickrey, J.F.; Cousins, M.D.; Tsunoda, R.T.; Walker, N.B.; Livingston, R.C.

    1983-03-01

    This report summarizes the results of the past year's efforts at SRI International to investigate experimentally and theoretically the processes that control the evolution of plasma structure in the natural and the nuclear environments. Important new results include a description of the anisotropy of large-scale and scintillation-producing plasma density irregularities at high latitudes and its convection domination, the refinement of a method to extract true irregularity drifts from spaced-receiver measurements, the first experimental observations of the formation of image striations, a model of image formation that shows the process (in agreement with observations) to be highly scale-size selective, and evidence that the previously puzzling seasonal patterns of equatorial spread-F occurrence are a result of the seasonal changes in the time of sunset in the conjugate E layers.

  6. Toward an integrated view of ionospheric plasma instabilities: Altitudinal transitions and strong gradient case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarevich, Roman A.

    2016-04-01

    A general dispersion relation is derived that integrates the Farley-Buneman, gradient-drift, and current-convective plasma instabilities (FBI, GDI, and CCI) within the same formalism for an arbitrary altitude, wave propagation vector, and background density gradient. The limiting cases of the FBI/GDI in the E region for nearly field-aligned irregularities, GDI/CCI in the main F region at long wavelengths, and GDI at high altitudes are successfully recovered using analytic analysis. Numerical solutions are found for more general representative cases spanning the entire ionosphere. It is demonstrated that the results are consistent with those obtained using a general FBI/GDI/CCI theory developed previously at and near E region altitudes under most conditions. The most significant differences are obtained for strong gradients (scale lengths of 100 m) at high altitudes such as those that may occur during highly structured soft particle precipitation events. It is shown that the strong gradient case is dominated by inertial effects and, for some scales, surprisingly strong additional damping due to higher-order gradient terms. The growth rate behavior is examined with a particular focus on the range of wave propagations with positive growth (instability cone) and its transitions between altitudinal regions. It is shown that these transitions are largely controlled by the plasma density gradients even when FBI is operational.

  7. Model study of the effects of gravity wave dissipation on the thermosphere and ionosphere from deep convection worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadas, Sharon; Liu, Hanli

    In this paper, we discuss the methods and results of a global modeling study for the effect of deep convection on the thermosphere and ionosphere through the dissipation of atmospheric gravity waves (GWs). The selected time periods are 15-27 June 2009, during the recent extreme solar minimum, and 15-27 June 2000, during the recent solar maximum. The convective plumes which overshot the tropopause are identified from IR images obtained by 5 satellites covering the Earth during each period. We model the excitation of GWs from these plumes, and ray trace them into the thermosphere using our ray trace model which has been upgraded to span the Earth. We then calculate the forcings/heatings/coolings which result when and where these GWs dissipate in the thermosphere. We input these forcings/heatings/coolings into the global TIME-GCM, and re-run the model. In this paper, we discuss these methods and models in detail. We then discuss how the thermosphere and ionosphere responded to the dissipation of these convectively-generated GWs worldwide. We show that the responses propagate westward due to wind filtering by tides in the lower thermosphere. We also show that the neutral temperature and wind perturbations are larger during extreme solar minimum than during solar maximum.

  8. Ionospheric traveling convection vortices observed near the polar cleft: A triggered response to sudden changes in the solar wind

    SciTech Connect

    Friis-Christensen, E.; McHenry, M.A.; Clauer, C.R.; Vennerstroem, S.

    1988-03-01

    Analysis of 20-second resolution magnetometer data from an array of temporary stations operated around Soendre Stroemfjord, Greenland during the summer of 1986 shows the signatures of localized ionospheric traveling convection vortices. An example of an isolated event of this kind observed near 08 local time is presented in detail. This event consists of a twin vortex pattern of convection consistent with the presence of two field-aligned current filaments separated by about 600 km in the east-west direction. This system of current is observed to move westward (tailward) past the array of stations at about 4 km/sec. The event is associated with relative quiet time ionospheric convection and occurs during an interval of northward IMF. It is, however, associated with a large fluctuation in both the Z and Y components of the IMF and with a large sudden decrease in the solar wind number density. The propagation of the system is inconsistent with existing models of FTE current systems, but nevertheless appears to be related to a readjustment of the magnetopause boundary to a sudden change in the solar wind dynamic pressure and/or to a change in reconnection brought about by a sudden reorientation of the IMF. copyright American Geophysical Union 1988

  9. Ionospheric traveling convection vortices observed near the polar cleft - A triggered response to sudden changes in the solar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friis-Christensen, E.; Vennerstrom, S.; Mchenry, M. A.; Clauer, C. R.

    1988-01-01

    Analysis of 20-second resolution magnetometer data from an array of temporary stations operated around Sondre Stromfjord, Greenland, during the summer of 1986 shows the signatures of localized ionospheric traveling convection vortices. An example of an isolated event of this kind observed near 08 local time is presented in detail. This event consists of a twin vortex pattern of convection consistent with the presence of two field-aligned current filaments separated by about 600 km in the east-west direction. This system of currents is observed to move westward (tailward) past the array of stations at about 4 km/sec. The event is associated with relative quiet time ionospheric convection and occurs during an interval of northward IMF. It is, however, associated with a large fluctuation in both the Z and Y components of the IMF and with a large sudden decrease in the solar wind number density. The propagation of the system is inconsistent with existing models of FTE current systems, but nevertheless appears to be related to a readjustment of the magnetopause boundary to a sudden change in the solar wind dynamic pressure and/or to a change in reconnection brought about by a sudden reorientation of the IMF.

  10. Investigation of plasma motion in the equatorial ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyekola, Oyedemi S.

    2016-07-01

    The structure of evening and nighttime F-region vertical drift component of is vital for understanding the physics of the development of the occurrence of equatorial irregularities. In addition, postsunset ionospheric height has also been attributed as one of the most important factors for the occurrence of equatorial irregularities. We report vertical plasma drift velocities derived from the base (h'F) and the peak height (hmF2) of F-layer using 1-year of data obtained at Ibadan (Geog Long 3.9oE) during International Geophysical Year (1957-58) period for geomagnetic quiet-time and high solar activity conditions. We compared our results with International Reference Ionosphere 2012 model (IRI-2012). The results of this investigation include: (a) overall local- time characteristics of vertical drift between 1800 LT and 0600 LT are in good agreement for equinoxes, December, and June; (b) annual vertical drift derived from time variation of h'F and hmF2 and the corresponding annual variation of h'F and hmF2 variation indicate low correlation (R = 0.30), while IRI-2012 model vertical drift and IRI-2012 model of hmF2 show fairly good correlation ( R = 0.67); (c) regression analysis between time variation of h'F and Scherliess / Fejer model demonstrate correlation coefficient of approximately 0.74 (equinox), 0.85 (December), 0.57 (June) and 0.74 (all-year), while that of time variation of hmF2 and IRI-2012 vertical velocities show 0.95 (equinox), 0.74 (December), 0.43 (June), and 0.74 (all-year); (d) plasma motion derived from the time rate of change of h'F and those of hmF2 are correlated at 0.94, 0.88, 0.63, and 0.90 for equinoxes, December, June, and all-year, respectively; (e) the evening prereversal vertical drifts enhancement rage between ~20 - 45 m/s, ~18 - 46 m/s, ~20 - 50 m/s for time variation of h'F, hmF2, and Scherliess / Fejer model, respectively; (f) the corresponding peak altitudes vary between 430 - 540 km (h'F), 560 - 740 km ( hmF2), and 570 - 620 km (IRI

  11. SuperDARN convection and Sondrestrom plasma drift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, L.; Koustov, A. V.; Thayer, J.; McCready, M. A.

    2001-07-01

    Plasma convection measurements by the Goose Bay and Stokkseyri SuperDARN radar pair and the Sondrestrom incoherent scatter radar are compared in three different ways, by looking at the line-of-sight (l-o-s) velocities, by comparing the SuperDARN vectors and corresponding Sondrestrom l-o-s velocities and by comparing the end products of the instruments, the convection maps. All three comparisons show overall reasonable agreement of the convection measurements though the data spread is significant and for some points a strong disagreement is obvious. The convection map comparison shows a tendency for the SuperDARN velocities to be often less than the Sondrestrom drifts for strong flows (velocities > 1000 m/s) and larger for weak flows (velocities < 500 m/s). On average, both effects do not exceed 35%. Data indicate that inconsistencies between the two data sets occur largely at times of fast temporal variations of the plasma drift and for strongly irregular flow ac-cording to the SuperDARN convection maps. These facts indicate that the observed discrepancies are in many cases a result of the different spatial and temporal resolutions of the instruments.

  12. Ionospheric climate and weather modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Schunk, R.W.; Sojka, J.J.

    1988-03-01

    Simulations of the ionospheric model of Schunk et al. (1986) have been used for climatology and weather modeling. Steady state empirical models were used in the climatology model to provide plasma convection and particle precipitation patterns in the northern high-latitude region. The climatology model also depicts the ionospheric electron density and ion and electron temperatures for solar maximum, winter solstice, and strong geomagnetic activity conditions. The weather model describes the variations of ionospheric features during the solar cycle, seasonal changes, and geomagnetic activity. Prospects for future modeling are considered. 23 references.

  13. Plasma heating, electric fields and plasma flow by electron beam ionospheric injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winckler, J. R.; Erickson, K. N.

    1990-01-01

    The electric fields and the floating potentials of a Plasma Diagnostics Payload (PDP) located near a powerful electron beam injected from a large sounding rocket into the auroral zone ionosphere have been studied. As the PDP drifted away from the beam laterally, it surveyed a region of hot plasma extending nearly to 60 m radius. Large polarization electric fields transverse to B were imbedded in this hot plasma, which displayed large ELF wave variations and also an average pattern which has led to a model of the plasma flow about the negative line potential of the beam resembling a hydrodynamic vortex in a uniform flow field. Most of the present results are derived from the ECHO 6 sounding rocket mission.

  14. Turbulent convective flows in the solar photospheric plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caroli, A.; Giannattasio, F.; Fanfoni, M.; Del Moro, D.; Consolini, G.; Berrilli, F.

    2015-10-01

    > The origin of the 22-year solar magnetic cycle lies below the photosphere where multiscale plasma motions, due to turbulent convection, produce magnetic fields. The most powerful intensity and velocity signals are associated with convection cells, called granules, with a scale of typically 1 Mm and a lifetime of a few minutes. Small-scale magnetic elements (SMEs), ubiquitous on the solar photosphere, are passively transported by associated plasma flows. This advection makes their traces very suitable for defining the convective regime of the photosphere. Therefore the solar photosphere offers an exceptional opportunity to investigate convective motions, associated with compressible, stratified, magnetic, rotating and large Rayleigh number stellar plasmas. The magnetograms used here come from a Hinode/SOT uninterrupted 25-hour sequence of spectropolarimetric images. The mean-square displacement of SMEs has been modelled with a power law with spectral index . We found for times up to and for times up to . An alternative way to investigate the advective-diffusive motion of SMEs is to look at the evolution of the two-dimensional probability distribution function (PDF) for the displacements. Although at very short time scales the PDFs are affected by pixel resolution, for times shorter than the PDFs seem to broaden symmetrically with time. In contrast, at longer times a multi-peaked feature of the PDFs emerges, which suggests the non-trivial nature of the diffusion-advection process of magnetic elements. A Voronoi distribution analysis shows that the observed small-scale distribution of SMEs involves the complex details of highly nonlinear small-scale interactions of turbulent convective flows detected in solar photospheric plasma.

  15. Swarm Measurements of Ionospheric Electric Field and Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burchill, J.; Knudsen, D.; Eriksson, A.

    2009-05-01

    Swarm is a three-spacecraft European Space Agency Earth Explorer mission that will include precision in-situ measurements of magnetic field, electric field, and plasma parameters at altitudes up to 530 km, twice per second for four years beginning in late 2010. Electric fields in the direction perpendicular to the local magnetic field will be measured by the Swarm Electric Field Instruments (EFI) using a technique based on measurements of ion drift. The Swarm EFI's represent a new generation of ion drift measurement in that they use an intensified CCD-based technique to generate 2-D images of low-energy ion distribution functions from which both ion drift velocity and temperature are derived. These measurements will be complemented by Langmuir-probe measurements of electron density, electron temperature and spacecraft potential. We present an overview of the mission and of the predicted performance characteristics of the EFI, and examine the benefits of the Swarm configuration for ionospheric research relative to previous precision magnetic field research missions such as Ørsted and CHAMP.

  16. Ionospheric perturbations in plasma parameters before global strong earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jing; Huang, Jianping; Zhang, Xuemin

    2014-03-01

    Based on the electron density (Ne) and temperature (Te) data from DEMETER, the ionospheric perturbations before 82 Ms ⩾ 7.0 earthquakes (EQs) during 2005-2010 were studied, using moving median and space difference methods within 10 days before and 2 days after these events in local nighttime. It was found that the plasma parameters disturbances appeared before 49 EQs, in which more disturbances were detected before shallow-focus earthquakes than deep ones, and there was little difference between continental and oceanic ones, both exceeding 1/2 percentage. For the disturbed time, more perturbations were seen in 1, 3, 5, 6, 8 days before EQs and 1 day after EQs. For the spatial distribution, the anomalies before EQs were not just above the epicenters, but shifted equatorward with several degrees to almost twenty degrees. Most of the abnormities were positive ones, which demonstrate that Ne increases before EQs at the altitude of 670 km of DEMETER. Perturbations of Ne were more than that of Te, which illustrates that Ne is much more sensitive to seismic activity than Te.

  17. Grid-Sphere Electrodes for Contact with Ionospheric Plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Nobie H.; Poe, Garrett D.

    2010-01-01

    Grid-sphere electrodes have been proposed for use on the positively biased end of electrodynamic space tethers. A grid-sphere electrode is fabricated by embedding a wire mesh in a thin film from which a spherical balloon is formed. The grid-sphere electrode would be deployed from compact stowage by inflating the balloon in space. The thin-film material used to inflate the balloon is formulated to vaporize when exposed to the space environment. This would leave the bare metallic spherical grid electrode attached to the tether, which would present a small cross-sectional area (essentially, the geometric wire shadow area only) to incident neutral atoms and molecules. Most of the neutral particles, which produce dynamic drag when they impact a surface, would pass unimpeded through the open grid spaces. However, partly as a result of buildup of a space charge inside the grid-sphere, and partially, the result of magnetic field effects, the electrode would act almost like a solid surface with respect to the flux of electrons. The net result would be that grid-sphere electrodes would introduce minimal aerodynamic drag, yet have effective electrical-contact surface areas large enough to collect multiampere currents from the ionospheric plasma that are needed for operation of electrodynamic tethers. The vaporizable-balloon concept could also be applied to the deployment of large radio antennas in outer space.

  18. Dayside ionospheric convection changes in response to long-period interplanetary magnetic field oscillations - Determination of the ionospheric phase velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, M. A.; Freeman, M. P.; Southwood, D. J.; Cowley, S. W.; Lockwood, M.; Samson, J. C.; Farrugia, C. J.; Hughes, T. J.

    1992-01-01

    Ground magnetic field perturbations recorded by the CANOPUS magnetometer network in the 7 to 13 MLT sector are used to examine how reconfigurations of the dayside polar ionospheric flow take place in response to north-south changes of the IMF. During the 6-h interval in question, IMF Bz oscillates between +/- 7 nT with about a 1-h period. Corresponding variations in the ground magnetic disturbance are observed which we infer are due to changes in ionospheric flow. Cross correlation of the data obtained from two ground stations at 73.5 deg magnetic latitude, but separated by about 2 hours in MLT, shows that changes in the flow are initiated in the prenoon sector (about 10 MLT) and then spread outward toward dawn and dusk with a phase speed of about 5 km/s over the longitude range about 8 to 12 MLT, slowing to about 2 km/s outside this range. Cross correlating the data from these ground stations with IMP 8 IMF Bz records produces a MLT variation in the ground response delay relative to the IMF which is compatible with these deduced phase speeds.

  19. SuperDARN-derived plasma convection: Comparison with other data and application to field-aligned current measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Liang

    In this thesis, several aspects of the SuperDARN HF radar observations at high latitudes are investigated in cooperation with measurements performed by three other instruments, the Sondrestrom incoherent scatter radar, the ion drift meter onboard of the DMSP satellite and the CADI ionosonde. The first issue under investigation was consistency of plasma convection data provided by these instruments. First, routine measurements by the Goose Bay and Stokkseyri SuperDARN radar pair ("merge" velocity estimates) were compared with the Sondrestrom incoherent scatter radar data. Three different levels of assessment were used; by looking at the line-of-sight velocities, by comparing the SuperDARN vectors and corresponding Sondrestrom line-of-sight velocities and by comparing the end products of the instruments, the convection maps. All three comparisons showed overall reasonable agreement of the convection measurements though the data spread was significant and for some points a strong disagreement was obvious. Importantly, the convection map comparison showed a tendency for the SuperDARN velocities to be often less than the Sondrestrom drifts for strong flows (velocities > 1000 m/s) and larger for weak flows (velocities < 500 m/s). The second issue under investigation was the configuration of the ionospheric plasma convection and field-aligned currents (FACs) in the dayside ionosphere at small IMF B2 and By. By merging SuperDARN convection data for a number of events, it was found that convection tends to be compressed to the poleward edge of the polar cap with a noticeable decrease of the flow velociity inside the central polar cap for this condition. Also, for individual events, existence of three sheets of FACs was illustrated. FACs had similar appearance as region 1, region 2, and region 0 currents known from satellite magnetometer observations for the disturbed magnetosphere. Spatially, sheets of region 1 FACs were co-located with a line separating the plasma flow of

  20. Modeling of the Convection and Interaction of Ring Current, Plasmaspheric and Plasma Sheet Plasmas in the Inner Magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fok, Mei-Ching; Chen, Sheng-Hsien; Buzulukova, Natalia; Glocer, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Distinctive sources of ions reside in the plasmasphere, plasmasheet, and ring current regions at discrete energies constitute the major plasma populations in the inner/middle magnetosphere. They contribute to the electrodynamics of the ionosphere-magnetosphere system as important carriers of the global current system, in triggering; geomagnetic storm and substorms, as well as critical components of plasma instabilities such as reconnection and Kelvin-Helmholtz instability at the magnetospheric boundaries. Our preliminary analysis of in-situ measurements shoves the complexity of the plasmas pitch angle distributions at particularly the cold and warm plasmas, vary dramatically at different local times and radial distances from the Earth in response to changes in solar wind condition and Dst index. Using an MHD-ring current coupled code, we model the convection and interaction of cold, warm and energetic ions of plasmaspheric, plasmasheet, and ring current origins in the inner magnetosphere. We compare our simulation results with in-situ and remotely sensed measurements from recent instrumentation on Geotail, Cluster, THEMIS, and TWINS spacecraft.

  1. On plasma convection in Saturn's magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livi, Roberto

    We use CAPS plasma data to derive particle characteristics within Saturn's inner magnetosphere. Our approach is to first develop a forward-modeling program to derive 1-dimensional (1D) isotropic plasma characteristics in Saturn's inner, equatorial magnetosphere using a novel correction for the spacecraft potential and penetrating background radiation. The advantage of this fitting routine is the simultaneous modeling of plasma data and systematic errors when operating on large data sets, which greatly reduces the computation time and accurately quantifies instrument noise. The data set consists of particle measurements from the Electron Spectrometer (ELS) and the Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS), which are part of the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) instrument suite onboard the Cassini spacecraft. The data is limited to peak ion flux measurements within +/-10° magnetic latitude and 3-15 geocentric equatorial radial distance (RS). Systematic errors such as spacecraft charging and penetrating background radiation are parametrized individually in the modeling and are automatically addressed during the fitting procedure. The resulting values are in turn used as cross-calibration between IMS and ELS, where we show a significant improvement in magnetospheric electron densities and minor changes in the ion characteristics due to the error adjustments. Preliminary results show ion and electron densities in close agreement, consistent with charge neutrality throughout Saturn's inner magnetosphere and confirming the spacecraft potential to be a common influence on IMS and ELS. Comparison of derived plasma parameters with results from previous studies using CAPS data and the Radio And Plasma Wave Science (RPWS) investigation yields good agreement. Using the derived plasma characteristics we focus on the radial transport of hot electrons. We present evidence of loss-free adiabatic transport of equatorially mirroring electrons (100 eV - 10 keV) in Saturn's magnetosphere between

  2. Correlation between the global occurrences of ionospheric irregularities and deep atmospheric convective clouds in the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Shin-Yi; Wu, Chung Lung; Liu, Chao Han

    2014-12-01

    To study the seeding mechanism of ionospheric irregularity occurrences, a correlation study has been carried out between the global monthly/latitudinal (m/l) distributions of irregularity occurrences and the deep atmospheric convective clouds in the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) indicated by the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) measurements. Seven longitude sectors - the African, Indian, West Pacific, Central Pacific, East Pacific, South American, and Atlantic sectors - are selected to study the correlations between the two distributions. The results indicate that good correlations exist only in the South American sector and to some extent in the African sector. For the other five sectors, no correlations are found in the m/l distributions between the irregularities and OLRs. This implies that the gravity wave induced in the ITCZ cannot be the sole seeding agent for the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability in the global irregularity occurrences every season. We suspect that the post-sunset ionospheric electrodynamic perturbations could be the prevailing seeds for the RT instability globally year long. Together with the favorable post-sunset ionospheric condition, the global m/l distributions of irregularity occurrences could be adequately explained.

  3. The response of plasma density to breaking inertial gravity wave in the lower regions of ionosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Wenbo Mahalov, Alex

    2014-04-15

    We present a three-dimensional numerical study for the E and lower F region ionosphere coupled with the neutral atmosphere dynamics. This model is developed based on a previous ionospheric model that examines the transport patterns of plasma density given a prescribed neutral atmospheric flow. Inclusion of neutral dynamics in the model allows us to examine the charge-neutral interactions over the full evolution cycle of an inertial gravity wave when the background flow spins up from rest, saturates and eventually breaks. Using Lagrangian analyses, we show the mixing patterns of the ionospheric responses and the formation of ionospheric layers. The corresponding plasma density in this flow develops complex wave structures and small-scale patches during the gravity wave breaking event.

  4. Phenomena associated with complex (dusty) plasmas in the ionosphere during high-speed meteor showers

    SciTech Connect

    Kopnin, S. I.; Popel, S. I.; Yu, M. Y.

    2009-06-15

    Formation of dusty plasmas in the Earth's ionosphere at 80-120 km altitudes during high-speed meteor showers and its detectable manifestations are discussed. Emphasis is given to ground-based observations such as detection of low-frequency (<50 Hz) ionospheric radio noise, ground-based observations of infrasonic waves, and amplification of the intensity of green radiation at 557.7 nm from a layer at the 110-120 km altitude in the lower ionosphere. The physical processes responsible for these manifestations are considered.

  5. The Role of the Ionosphere in Providing Plasma to the Terrestrial Magnetosphere—An Historical Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chappell, Charles R.

    2015-10-01

    Through the more than half century of space exploration, the perception and recognition of the fundamental role of the ionospheric plasma in populating the Earth's magnetosphere has evolved dramatically. A brief history of this evolution in thinking is presented. Both theory and measurements have unveiled a surprising new understanding of this important ionosphere-magnetosphere mass coupling process. The highlights of the mystery surrounding the difficulty in measuring this largely invisible low energy plasma are also discussed. This mystery has been solved through the development of instrumentation capable of measuring these low energy positively-charged outflowing ions in the presence of positive spacecraft potentials. This has led to a significant new understanding of the ionospheric plasma as a significant driver of magnetospheric plasma content and dynamics.

  6. Excitation of the lower oblique resonance by an artificial plasma jet in the ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiel, J.; Storey, L. R. O.; Bauer, O. H.; Jones, D.

    1984-04-01

    Aboard the Porcupine rockets, bursts of noise were detected in the electron whistler range during the operation of a xenon plasma gun on a package ejected from the main payload. These observations can be interpreted in terms of excitation of the lower oblique resonance by instabilities associated with the motion of the xenon ion beam through the ionospheric plasma.

  7. Behavior of thermal plasma in the ionosphere and magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, P. M.; Doupnik, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    Models of ion flow in the topside ionosphere were developed. These models took both H(+) and O(+) into account and permitted various parameter studies to be made affecting H(+) escape in polar winds. Extensive computer programs were written to display the measured electron density profiles in ways useful to geophysical analysis. The relationship between the location of the plasmapause as it is found in the equatorial plane and the location of the ionospheric trough was also investigated.

  8. Whistler wave-induced ionospheric plasma turbulence: Source mechanisms and remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradipta, R.; Rooker, L. A.; Whitehurst, L. N.; Lee, M. C.; Ross, L. M.; Sulzer, M. P.; Gonzalez, S.; Tepley, C.; Aponte, N.; See, B. Z.; Hu, K. P.

    2013-10-01

    We report a series of experiments conducted at Arecibo Observatory in the past, aimed at the investigation of 40.75 kHz whistler wave interactions with ionospheric plasmas and the inner radiation belts at L=1.35. The whistler waves are launched from a Naval transmitter (code-named NAU) operating in Aguadilla, Puerto Rico at the frequency and power of 40.75 kHz and 100 kW, respectively. Arecibo radar, CADI, and optical instruments were used to monitor the background ionospheric conditions and detect the induced ionospheric plasma effects. Four-wave interaction processes produced by whistler waves in the ionosphere can excite lower hybrid waves, which can accelerate ionospheric electrons. Furthermore, whistler waves propagating into the magnetosphere can trigger precipitation of energetic electrons from the radiation belts. Radar and optical measurements can distinguish wave-wave and wave-particle interaction processes occurring at different altitudes. Electron acceleration by different mechanisms can be verified from the radar measurements of plasma lines. To facilitate the coupling of NAU-launched 40.75 kHz whistler waves into the ionosphere, we can rely on naturally occurring spread F irregularities to serve as ionospheric ducts. We can also use HF wave-created ducts/artificial waveguides, as demonstrated in our earlier Arecibo experiments and recent Gakona experiments at HAARP. The newly constructed Arecibo HF heater will be employed in our future experiments, which can extend the study of whistler wave interactions with the ionosphere and the magnetosphere/radiation belts as well as the whistler wave conjugate propagation between Arecibo and Puerto Madryn, Argentina.

  9. The magnetosphere of Uranus - Plasma sources, convection, and field configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voigt, G.-H.; Hill, T. W.; Dessler, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    It is suggested by qualitative considerations based on analogy with earth, Jupiter, and Saturn that the magnetosphere of Uranus may lack a plasma source able to produce significant internal currents, internal convection, and associated effects. A class of approximately self-consistent quantitative magnetohydrostatic equilibrium configurations for the case of a pole-on magnetosphere with variable plasma parameters is presently constructed in order to test this hypothesis by means of forthcoming Voyager measurements. The configurations that can be computed for the geometries of the magnetic field and of the tail current sheet, for a given distribution of plasma pressure, have a single, funnel-shaped polar cusp pointing into the solar wind and a cylindrical tail plasma sheet whose currents close within the tail, rather than on the tail magnetopause. Interconnection of interplanetary and magnetospheric fields yields a highly asymmetric tail-field configuration.

  10. Plasma convection and ion beam generation in the plasma sheet boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moghaddam-Taaheri, E.; Goertz, C. K.; Smith, R. A.

    1991-01-01

    Because of the dawn-dusk electric field E(dd), plasma in the magnetotail convects from the lobe toward the central plasma sheet (CPS). In the absence of space or velocity diffusion due to plasma turbulence, convection would yield a steady state distribution function f = V exp (-2/3) g(v exp 2 V exp 2/3), where V is the flux tube volume. Starting with such a distribution function and a plasma beta which varies from beta greater than 1 in the CPS to beta much smaller than 1 in the lobe, the evolution of the ion distribution function was studied considering the combined effects of ion diffusion by kinetic Alfven waves (KAW) in the ULF frequency range (1-10 mHz) and convection due to E(dd) x B drift in the plasma sheet boundary layer (PSBL) and outer central plasma sheet (OCPS). The results show that, during the early stages after launching the KAWs, a beamlike ion distribution forms in the PSBL and at the same time the plasma density and temperature decrease in the OCPS. Following this stage, ions in the beams convect toward the CPS resulting in an increase of the plasma temperature in the OCPS.

  11. High-latitude magnetospheric plasma convection and its dependence on solar wind parameters: Statistical analysis of Cluster EDI measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Förster, M.; Haaland, S. E.; Paschmann, G.; Quinn, J. M.; Torbert, R. B.; McIlwain, C. E.; Vaith, H.; Puhl-Quinn, P. A.; Kletzing, C. A.

    2006-12-01

    We have used vector measurements of the electron drift velocity by the Electron Drift Instrument (EDI) on Cluster between February 2001 and March 2006 to derive statistical maps of the high-latitude plasma convection. The EDI measurements, obtained at geocentric distances between ~4 and ~20RE over both hemispheres, are mapped into the polar ionosphere, and sorted according to the orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), as measured at ACE and propagated to Earth, using best estimates of the orientation of the IMF variations. Only intervals of stable IMF are used, based on the magnitude of the so- called bias-vector constructed from 30-minute averages. Contour maps of the electric potential in the polar ionosphere are subsequently derived from the mapped and averaged ionospheric drift vectors. Comparison with published statistical results based on Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) radar and low-altitude satellite measurements shows excellent agreement between the average convection patterns, particularly the lack of mirror-symmetry between the effects of positive and negative IMF B_y effects, the appearance of a duskward flow component for strongly southward IMF, and the general weakening of the flows and potentials for northerly IMF directions. This agreement lends credence to the validity of the assumption underlying the mapping of the EDI data, namely that magnetic field lines are equipotentials. For strongly northward IMF the mapped EDI data show the clear emergence of two counter-rotating lobe cells with a channel of sunward flow between them. The total potential drops across the polar caps obtained from the mapped EDI data are intermediate between the radar and the low-altitude satellite results. We have also sorted the data according to estimates of the reconnection electric field, solar wind dynamic pressure, and disturbance parameters such as DsT and ASYM-H. Finally, we have produced maps of the variances of the convection as a

  12. A two-dimensional model of plasma expansion in the ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, T.-Z.; Schunk, R. W.

    1990-01-01

    A systematic parameter study is conducted of the motion of artificial plasma clouds across the geomagnetic field at ionospheric altitudes. The study is based on a two-dimensional numerical model. Taken into consideration are the effects solar cycle variations on the cloud evolution, as well as the effects of seasonal and geomagnetic activity conditions, and variations in the ionospheric release conditions. The effects of magnetospheric electric fields and thermospheric winds are also considered. The plasma cloud model and related assumptions are discussed, and numerical results are presented.

  13. Ionospheric signatures of a plasma sheet rebound flow during a substorm onset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juusola, L.; Kubyshkina, M.; Nakamura, R.; PitkäNen, T.; Amm, O.; Kauristie, K.; Partamies, N.; RèMe, H.; Snekvik, K.; Whiter, D.

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic reconnection in Earth's magnetotail produces fast earthward flows in the plasma sheet. Tailward flows are often observed associated with the earthward flows. Both return flow vortices at the flanks of an earthward flow channel and rebound of the earthward flow from the intense dipolar magnetic field of the inner magnetosphere have been shown to explain tailward flows observed near Earth. We combine plasma sheet measurements from Cluster with conjugate ground-based magnetic and auroral data to examine the development of earthward and tailward flow signatures during a substorm onset. We show for the first time observations of ionospheric signatures that appear to be associated with rebound flows. Because of the highly dynamic magnetotail configuration, special care is taken with the satellite footprint mapping. The ionospheric footprints produced by the event oriented AM02 model drift equatorward and poleward in response to tail magnetic field stretching and dipolarization, respectively. The footprint motion matches that of the ambient ionospheric structures, and the plasma flow measured by Cluster agrees with that inferred from the conjugate ionospheric observations, confirming the validity of the AM02 mapping. The ionospheric signatures of fast earthward flows during a substorm onset are shown to resemble the known signatures of quiet-time flows, including equatorward propagating auroral streamers inside a channel of enhanced poleward equivalent current. However, the large-scale dipolarization results in additional poleward expansion of the signatures, as has been predicted by simulations.

  14. Plasma convection and ion beam generation in the plasma sheet boundary layer

    SciTech Connect

    Moghaddam-Taaheri, E.; Goertz, C.K.; Smith, R.A. )

    1991-02-01

    Because of the dawn-dusk ekectric field E{sub dd}, plasma in the magnetotail convects from the lobe toward the central plasma sheet (CPS). In the absence of space or velocity diffusion due to plasma turbulence, convection would yield a steady state distribution function f = V{sup {minus}2/3}g(v{sup 2}V{sup 2/3}), where V is the flux tube volume. Starting with such a distribution function and a plasma beta which varies from {beta} > 1 in the CPS to {beta} {much lt} 1 in the lobe, the authors study evolution of the ion distribution function considering the combined effects of ion diffusion by kinetic Alfven waves (KAW) in the ULF frequency range (1-10 mHz) and convection due to E{sub dd} {times} B drift in the plasma sheet boundary layer (PSBL) and outer central plasma sheet (OCPS). The results show that during the early stages after launching the KAWs a beamlike ion distribution forms in the PSBL and at the same time the plasma density and temperature decrease in the OCPS. Following this stage, ions in the beams convect toward the CPS resulting in an increase of the plasma temperature in the OCPS. They also discuss the effects on the polytropic index {gamma} by simultaneous convection and wave-induced diffusion, both in the PSBL and CPS. They find that {gamma} is less than the adiabatic value ({gamma}{sub ad} = 5/3) in the OCPS but approaches the adiabatic value in the CPS and in the PSBL.

  15. Remote detection of the maximum altitude of equatorial ionospheric plasma bubbles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, R. F.

    1981-01-01

    Nearly 200 post-sunset low-altitude passes of the Alouette 2 and ISIS 1 satellites near the dip equator are studied in order to find the maximum ionospheric plasma bubble altitudes, which are determined by calculating the apex altitude of the magnetic field line passing through the satellite when it is immersed in a bubble. The calculations are made only upon the observation of conjugate hemisphere ionospheric echoes, which result from ducted HF sounder signals that are guided along field-aligned irregularities within the plasma depletion. The maximum bubble altitudes corresponding to the three longitude sectors centered on zero deg, 75 deg W, and 105 deg E, are found to often exceed 1000 km, but seldom 3000 km. The electron density depletions within these field-aligned bubbles, as measured at the point of satellite encounter with the topside ionosphere, are generally less than a factor of two but may exceed a factor of ten.

  16. Observations of plasma line splitting in the ionospheric incoherent scatter spectrum.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Asti N; Nicolls, Michael J; Sulzer, Michael P; Kelley, Michael C

    2008-02-01

    Wide-bandwidth ionospheric incoherent scatter (IS) spectra obtained using the Arecibo IS radar show the occurrence of a split in the plasma line (i.e., two plasma lines) when the plasma frequency is close to the second harmonic of the electron gyrofrequency. This split is predicted in the IS theory for a magnetized plasma, but observations have never been reported. Here we present the experimental results and theoretical calculations supporting the observations. These results may assist in understanding the behavior of Langmuir waves in the magnetized plasma and are a validation of what historically was a somewhat controversial aspect of the IS theory. PMID:18352291

  17. Spacelab-2 plasma depletion experiments for ionospheric and radio astronomical studies.

    PubMed

    Mendillo, M; Baumgardner, J; Allen, D P; Foster, J; Holt, J; Ellis, G R; Klekociuk, A; Reber, G

    1987-11-27

    The Spacelab-2 Plasma Depletion Experiments were a series of studies to examine shuttle-induced perturbations in the ionosphere and their application to ground-based radio astronomy. The space shuttle Challenger fired its orbital maneuvering subsystem engines on 30 July and 5 August 1985, releasing large amounts of exhaust molecules (water, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide) that caused the electrons and ions in Earth's upper atmosphere to chemically recombine, thereby creating so-called "ionospheric holes." Two burns conducted over New England produced ionospheric peak depletions ranging from 25 to 50 percent, affected the ionosphere over a 200-kilometer altitude range, and covered 1 degrees to 2 degrees of latitude. Optical emissions associated with the hole spanned an area of several hundred thousand square kilometers. A third burn was conducted over a low-frequency radio observatory in Hobart, Australia, to create an "artificial window" for ground-based observations at frequencies normally below the natural ionospheric cutoff (penetration) frequency. The Hobart experiment succeeded in making high-resolution observations at 1.7 megahertz through the induced ionospheric hole. PMID:17744364

  18. Spacelab-2 plasma depletion experiments for ionospheric and radio astronomical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendillo, M.; Baumgardner, J.; Allen, D. P.; Foster, J.; Holt, J.

    1987-11-01

    The Spacelab-2 Plasma Depletion Experiments were a series of studies to examine Shuttle-induced perturbations in the ionosphere and their application to ground-based radio astronomy. The Space Shuttle Challenger fired its orbital maneuvering subsystem engines, releasing large amounts of exhaust molecules that caused the electrons and ions in earth's upper atmosphere to chemically recombine, thereby creating so-called 'ionospheric holes'. Two burns conducted over New England produced ionospheric peak depletions ranging from 25 to 50 percent, affected the ionosphere over a 200-kilometer altitude range, and covered 1 to 2 deg of latitude. Optical emissions associated with the hole spanned an area of several hundred thousand square kilometers. A third burn was conducted over a low-frequency radio observatory in Hobart, Australia, to create an 'artificial window' for ground-based observations at frequencies normally below the natural ionospheric cutoff (penetration) frequency. The Hobart experiment succeeded in making high-resolution observations at 1.7 megahertz through the induced ionospheric hole.

  19. Ionosphere Plasma State Determination in Low Earth Orbit from International Space Station Plasma Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Leonard

    2014-01-01

    A plasma diagnostic package is deployed on the International Space Station (ISS). The system - a Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) - is used by NASA to monitor the electrical floating potential of the vehicle to assure astronaut safety during extravehicular activity. However, data from the unit also reflects the ionosphere state and seems to represent an unutilized scientific resource in the form of an archive of scientific plasma state data. The unit comprises a Floating Potential probe and two Langmuir probes. There is also an unused but active plasma impedance probe. The data, at one second cadence, are collected, typically for a two week period surrounding extravehicular activity events. Data is also collected any time a visiting vehicle docks with ISS and also when any large solar events occur. The telemetry system is unusual because the package is mounted on a television camera stanchion and its data is impressed on a video signal that is transmitted to the ground and streamed by internet to two off center laboratory locations. The data quality has in the past been challenged by weaknesses in the integrated ground station and distribution systems. These issues, since mid-2010, have been largely resolved and the ground stations have been upgraded. Downstream data reduction has been developed using physics based modeling of the electron and ion collecting character in the plasma. Recursive algorithms determine plasma density and temperature from the raw Langmuir probe current voltage sweeps and this is made available in real time for situational awareness. The purpose of this paper is to describe and record the algorithm for data reduction and to show that the Floating probe and Langmuir probes are capable of providing long term plasma state measurement in the ionosphere. Geophysical features such as the Appleton anomaly and high latitude modulation at the edge of the Auroral zones are regularly observed in the nearly circular, 51 deg inclined, 400 km

  20. Yosemite Conference on Ionospheric Plasma in the Magnetosphere: Sources, Mechanisms and Consequences, meeting report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, D. L.; Burch, J. L.; Klumpar, D. M.; Moore, T. E.; Waite, J. H., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The sixth biennial Yosemite topical conference and the first as a Chapman Conference was held on February 3 to 6, 1986. Due to the recent changes in our perception of the dynamics of the ionospheric/magnetospheric system, it was deemed timely to bring researchers together to discuss and contrast the relative importance of solar versus terrestrial sources of magnetospheric plasma. Although the solar wind was once thought to dominate the supply of plasma in the Earth's magnetosphere, it is now thought that the Earth's ionosphere is a significant contributor. Polar wind and other large volume outflows of plasma have been seen at relatively high altitudes over the polar cap and are now being correlated with outflows found in the magnetotail. The auroral ion fountain and cleft ion fountain are examples of ionospheric sources of plasma in the magnetosphere, observed by the Dynamics Explorer 1 (DE 1) spacecraft. The conference was organized into six sessions: four consisting of prepared oral presentations, one poster session, and one session for open forum discussion. The first three oral sessions dealt separately with the three major topics of the conference, i.e., the sources, mechanisms, and consequences of ionospheric plasma in the magnetosphere. A special session of invited oral presentations was held to discuss extraterrestrial ionospheric/magnetospheric plasma processes. The poster session was extended over two evenings during which presenters discussed their papers on a one-on-one basis. The last session of the conferences was reserved for open discussions of those topics or ideas considered most interesting or controversial.

  1. Ionospheric Plasma Response to M w 8.3 Chile Illapel Earthquake on September 16, 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, C. D.; Shrivastava, Mahesh N.; Seemala, Gopi K.; González, Gabriel; Baez, Juan Carlos

    2016-05-01

    The lithosphere and the atmosphere/ionosphere continuously exchange energy through various coupling mechanisms. In particular, the earth surface displacement caused by earthquakes, volcanoes and tsunamis can manifest as ionospheric plasma perturbations. We investigate the coseismic induced ionospheric total electron content (TEC) perturbations following the M w 8.3 Illapel thrust earthquake that occurred on September 16, 2015. The continuous global positioning system (GPS) data at 48 sites from Centro Sismológico Nacional and International GNSS Service GPS networks have been used in this study. The nearest GPS site recorded the ionospheric response 10 min after the occurrence of this earthquake. The maximum vertical coseismic induced TEC amplitude is ~1.4 TECU, and the perturbations are pronounced in the northern region of the epicenter and confined to less than ~1500 km radius. The average horizontal acoustic wave velocity has been determined as ~1260 m/s. We also observed acoustic resonance recorded by PRN 12 at 4.3 mHz corresponding to the first overtone of acoustic mode and lasting for about 30 min. In this study, we present characteristics of GPS derived ionospheric plasma perturbations following Illapel earthquake.

  2. Detection of the plasma density irregularities in the topside ionosphere with GPS measurements onboard Swarm satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharenkova, Irina; Cherniak, Iurii

    2016-07-01

    We present new results on the detection of the topside ionospheric irregularities/plasma bubbles using GPS measurements from Precise Orbit Determination (POD) GPS antenna onboard Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites. For this purpose we analyze the GPS measurements onboard the ESA's constellation mission Swarm, consisted of three identical satellites with orbit altitude of 450-550 km. We demonstrate that LEO GPS can be an effective tool for monitoring the occurrence of the topside ionospheric irregularities and may essentially contribute to the multi-instrumental analysis of the ground-based and in situ data. In the present study we analyze the occurrence and global distribution of the equatorial ionospheric irregularities during post-sunset period. To support our observations and conclusions, we involve into our analysis in situ plasma density provided by Swarm constellation. Joint analysis of the Swarm GPS and in situ measurements allows us to estimate the occurrence rate of the topside ionospheric irregularities during 2014-2015. The obtained results demonstrate a high degree of similarities in the occurrence pattern of the seasonal and longitudinal distribution of the topside ionospheric irregularities derived on both types of the satellite observations. This work was partially funded by RFBR according to the research project No.16-05-01077 a.

  3. Ionospheric Plasma Response to M w 8.3 Chile Illapel Earthquake on September 16, 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, C. D.; Shrivastava, Mahesh N.; Seemala, Gopi K.; González, Gabriel; Baez, Juan Carlos

    2016-04-01

    The lithosphere and the atmosphere/ionosphere continuously exchange energy through various coupling mechanisms. In particular, the earth surface displacement caused by earthquakes, volcanoes and tsunamis can manifest as ionospheric plasma perturbations. We investigate the coseismic induced ionospheric total electron content (TEC) perturbations following the M w 8.3 Illapel thrust earthquake that occurred on September 16, 2015. The continuous global positioning system (GPS) data at 48 sites from Centro Sismológico Nacional and International GNSS Service GPS networks have been used in this study. The nearest GPS site recorded the ionospheric response 10 min after the occurrence of this earthquake. The maximum vertical coseismic induced TEC amplitude is ~1.4 TECU, and the perturbations are pronounced in the northern region of the epicenter and confined to less than ~1500 km radius. The average horizontal acoustic wave velocity has been determined as ~1260 m/s. We also observed acoustic resonance recorded by PRN 12 at 4.3 mHz corresponding to the first overtone of acoustic mode and lasting for about 30 min. In this study, we present characteristics of GPS derived ionospheric plasma perturbations following Illapel earthquake.

  4. A method to derive maps of ionospheric conductances, currents, and convection from the Swarm multisatellite mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amm, O.; Vanhamäki, H.; Kauristie, K.; Stolle, C.; Christiansen, F.; Haagmans, R.; Masson, A.; Taylor, M. G. G. T.; Floberghagen, R.; Escoubet, C. P.

    2015-04-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) Swarm spacecraft mission is the first multisatellite ionospheric mission with two low-orbiting spacecraft that are flying in parallel at a distance of ~100-140 km, thus allowing derivation of spatial gradients of ionospheric parameters not only along the orbits but also in the direction perpendicular to them. A third satellite with a higher orbit regularly crosses the paths of the lower spacecraft. Using the Swarm magnetic and electric field instruments, we present a novel technique that allows derivation of two-dimensional (2-D) maps of ionospheric conductances, currents, and electric field in the area between the trajectories of the two lower spacecraft, and even to some extent outside of it. This technique is based on Spherical Elementary Current Systems. We present test cases of modeled situations from which we calculate virtual Swarm data and show that the technique is able to reconstruct the model electric field, horizontal currents, and conductances with a very good accuracy. Larger errors arise for the reconstruction of the 2-D field-aligned currents (FAC), especially in the area outside of the spacecraft orbits. However, even in this case the general pattern of FAC is recovered, and the magnitudes are valid in an integrated sense. Finally, using an MHD model run, we show how our technique allows estimation of the ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling parameter K, if conjugate observations of the magnetospheric magnetic and electric field are available. In the case of a magnetospheric multisatellite mission (e.g., the ESA Cluster mission) several K estimates at nearby points can be generated.

  5. Magnetosphere of Uranus: plasma sources, convection, and field configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Voigt, G.; Hill, T.W.; Dessler, A.J.

    1983-03-01

    At the time of the Voyager 2 flyby of Uranus, the planetary rotational axis will be roughly antiparallel to the solar wind flow. If Uranus has a magnetic dipole moment that is approximately aligned with its spin axis, and if the heliospheric shock has not been encountered, we will have the rare opportunity to observe a ''pole-on'' magnetosphere as discussed qualitatively by Siscoe. Qualitative arguments based on analogy with Earth, Jupiter, and Saturn suggest that the magnetosphere of Uranus may lack a source of plasma adequate to produce significant internal currents, internal convection, and associated effects. In order to provide a test of this hypothesis with the forthcoming Voyager measurements, we have constructed a class of approximately self-consistent quantitative magnetohydrostatic equilibrium configurations for a pole-on magnetosphere with variable plasma pressure parameters. Given a few simplifying assumptions, the geometries of the magnetic field and of the tail current sheet can be computed for a given distribution of trapped plasma pressure. The configurations have a single funnel-shaped polar cusp that points directly into the solar wind and a cylindrical tail plasma sheet whose currents close within the tail rather than on the tail magnetopause, and whose length depends on the rate of decrease of thermal plasma pressure down the tail. Interconnection between magnetospheric and interplanetary fields results in a highly asymmetric tail-field configuration. These features were predicted qualtitatively by Siscoe; the quantitative models presented here may be useful in the interpretation of Voyager encounter results.

  6. Ionospheric Plasma Drift Analysis Technique Based On Ray Tracing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ari, Gizem; Toker, Cenk

    2016-07-01

    Ionospheric drift measurements provide important information about the variability in the ionosphere, which can be used to quantify ionospheric disturbances caused by natural phenomena such as solar, geomagnetic, gravitational and seismic activities. One of the prominent ways for drift measurement depends on instrumentation based measurements, e.g. using an ionosonde. The drift estimation of an ionosonde depends on measuring the Doppler shift on the received signal, where the main cause of Doppler shift is the change in the length of the propagation path of the signal between the transmitter and the receiver. Unfortunately, ionosondes are expensive devices and their installation and maintenance require special care. Furthermore, the ionosonde network over the world or even Europe is not dense enough to obtain a global or continental drift map. In order to overcome the difficulties related to an ionosonde, we propose a technique to perform ionospheric drift estimation based on ray tracing. First, a two dimensional TEC map is constructed by using the IONOLAB-MAP tool which spatially interpolates the VTEC estimates obtained from the EUREF CORS network. Next, a three dimensional electron density profile is generated by inputting the TEC estimates to the IRI-2015 model. Eventually, a close-to-real situation electron density profile is obtained in which ray tracing can be performed. These profiles can be constructed periodically with a period of as low as 30 seconds. By processing two consequent snapshots together and calculating the propagation paths, we estimate the drift measurements over any coordinate of concern. We test our technique by comparing the results to the drift measurements taken at the DPS ionosonde at Pruhonice, Czech Republic. This study is supported by TUBITAK 115E915 and Joint TUBITAK 114E092 and AS CR14/001 projects.

  7. Kinetic modeling of O(+) upflows resulting from E x B convection heating in the high-latitude F region ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, G. R.

    1994-01-01

    We report here the results of modeling work aimed at understanding the development of ionospheric O(+) field-aligned upflows that develop in response to high-latitude E x B drift induced frictional heating. The model used is a collisional semikinetic model which includes ion-neutral resonant charge exchange and polarization collisions as well as Coulomb self-collisions. It also includes the process of chemical removal of O(+) as well as all of the macroscopic forces: ambipolar electric, gravity, magnetic mirror, and centripetal. Model results show the development of several types of non-Maxwellian velocity distributions including toroids at low altitude, distributions with large heat flow in the perpendicular component at intermediate altitudes, and distributions with a separate upflowing population or upward superthermal tail at high altitudes. Whenever the convection electric field increases from a small value (less than 25 mV/m) to a large value (100-200 mV/m) in 6 min or less large upflows develop with parallel drift speeds which peak (below 1000 km) at values between 500 m/s and 2 km/s, parallel fluxes which peak between 6.0 x 10(exp 8) and 3.2 x 10(exp 9)/sq cm/s, and parallel per particle heat flows which peak between 8.0 x 10(exp -9) and 8.0 x 10(exp -8) ergs cm/s. The higher values in these ranges occur for a cooler neutral atmosphere, with a larger convection electric field that is turned on quickly. The model produces field-aligned O(+) flow speeds that are larger than those produced by a 20-moment generalized transport model but smaller then those produced by an isotropic hydrodynamic model for comparable values of the convection turn on times. The model results compare favorably with some topside satellite and radar data.

  8. Comparison of ionospheric plasma drifts obtained by different techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouba, Daniel; Arikan, Feza; Arikan, Orhan; Toker, Cenk; Mosna, Zbysek; Gok, Gokhan; Rejfek, Lubos; Ari, Gizem

    2016-07-01

    Ionospheric observatory in Pruhonice (Czech Republic, 50N, 14.9E) provides regular ionospheric sounding using Digisonde DPS-4D. The paper is focused on F-region vertical drift data. Vertical component of the drift velocity vector can be estimated by several methods. Digisonde DPS-4D allows sounding in drift mode with direct output represented by drift velocity vector. The Digisonde located in Pruhonice provides direct drift measurement routinely once per 15 minutes. However, also other different techniques can be found in the literature, for example the indirect estimation based on the temporal evolution of measured ionospheric characteristics is often used for calculation of the vertical drift component. The vertical velocity is thus estimated according to the change of characteristics scaled from the classical quarter-hour ionograms. In present paper direct drift measurement is compared with technique based on measuring of the virtual height at fixed frequency from the F-layer trace on ionogram, technique based on variation of h`F and hmF. This comparison shows possibility of using different methods for calculating vertical drift velocity and their relationship to the direct measurement used by Digisonde. This study is supported by the Joint TUBITAK 114E092 and AS CR 14/001 projects.

  9. Handling cycle slips in GPS data during ionospheric plasma bubble events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banville, S.; Langley, R. B.; Saito, S.; Yoshihara, T.

    2010-12-01

    During disturbed ionospheric conditions such as the occurrence of plasma bubbles, the phase and amplitude of the electromagnetic waves transmitted by GPS satellites undergo rapid fluctuations called scintillation. When this phenomenon is observed, GPS receivers are more prone to signal tracking interruptions, which prevent continuous measurement of the total electron content (TEC) between a satellite and the receiver. In order to improve TEC monitoring, a study was conducted with the goal of reducing the effects of signal tracking interruptions by correcting for "cycle slips," an integer number of carrier wavelengths not measured by the receiver during a loss of signal lock. In this paper, we review existing cycle-slip correction methods, showing that the characteristics associated with ionospheric plasma bubbles (rapid ionospheric delay fluctuations, data gaps, increased noise, etc.) prevent reliable correction of cycle slips. Then, a reformulation of the "geometry-free" model conventionally used for ionospheric studies with GPS is presented. Geometric information is used to obtain single-frequency estimates of TEC variations during momentary L2 signal interruptions, which also provides instantaneous cycle-slip correction capabilities. The performance of this approach is assessed using data collected on Okinawa Island in Japan during a plasma bubble event that occurred on 23 March 2004. While an improvement in the continuity of TEC time series is obtained, we question the reliability of any cycle-slip correction technique when discontinuities on both GPS legacy frequencies occur simultaneously for more than a few seconds.

  10. Global ionospheric weather

    SciTech Connect

    Decker, D.T.; Doherty, P.H.

    1994-02-28

    In the last year, the authors have studied several issues that are critical for understanding ionospheric weather. Work on global F-region modeling has consisted of testing the Phillips Laboratory Global Theoretical Ionosphere Model. Comparisons with both data and other theoretical models have been successfully conducted and are ongoing. GPS observations, as well as data analysis, are also ongoing. Data have been collected for a study on the limitations in making absolute ionospheric measurements using GPS. Another study on ionospheric variability is the first of its kind using GPS data. The observed seasonal total electron content behavior is consistent with that determined from the Faraday rotation technique. Work on the FAA's Phase 1 Wide Area Differential GPS (WADGPS) Satellite Navigation Testbed Experiment also continues. Initial results indicate that stations using operational WADGPS should be located no greater than 430 km apart. Work comparing the authors electron-proton-H atom model to both observations and other models has been generally successful. They have successfully modeled the creation of high-latitude large-scale plasma structures using two separate mechanisms (time-varying global convection and meso-scale convection events).

  11. Seasonal trends of nighttime plasma density enhancements in the topside ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slominska, Ewa; Blecki, Jan; Lebreton, Jean-Pierre; Parrot, Michel; Slominski, Jan

    2014-08-01

    In situ registrations of electron density from the Langmuir probe on board Detection of Electro-Magnetic Emissions Transmitted from Earthquake Regions satellite are used to study spatial and temporal evolution of nighttime plasma density enhancements (NPDEs). The study introduces the normalized density difference index INDD in order to provide global estimates of the phenomenon. In the validation test, in situ data are compared with synthetic data set generated with the International Reference Ionosphere model. We find signatures of two most common examples of NPDEs, the Weddell Sea Anomaly (WSA) and midlatitude nighttime summer anomaly (MSNA) with proposed index, in the topside ionosphere. The study provides evidence that the occurrence of the WSA and MSNA is not limited to the local summer conditions. Analyzed annual trend of INDD and in particular spatial pattern obtained during equinoxes suggest that mechanisms governing the behavior of the equatorial ionosphere cannot be neglected in the explanation of the development of NPDEs.

  12. Angular dependence of pump-induced bottomside and topside ionospheric plasma turbulence at EISCAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosch, M. J.; MjøLhus, E.; Ashrafi, M.; Rietveld, M. T.; Yeoman, T.; Nozawa, S.

    2011-03-01

    We experimentally observe the location and angular size of the high-frequency (HF) radio window in the bottomside ionosphere, which permits radio wave propagation to the topside ionosphere, with high angular resolution at the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT) facility. HF pump-induced ion line enhancements were observed by the EISCAT UHF incoherent scatter radar on the ionospheric bottomside and topside. The radar zenith angle was scanned in small steps in the magnetic meridian. The HF pump duty cycle was deliberately kept low enough to minimize the growth of artificial field-aligned irregularities. The locations of the bottomside radio window and topside enhanced radar echoes are consistent with the expected position determined by ray tracing performed using the observed plasma densities.

  13. Titan's Topside Ionospheric Composition: Cassini Plasma Spectrometer Ion Mass spectrometer Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Hartle, R. E.; Ali, A.; Cooper, J. F.; Lipatov, A. S.; Simpson, D. G.; Sarantos, M.; Chornay, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    In [1] the first quantitative evidence of ionospheric outflows (r > 10,000 km) coming from Titan was given using the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) data for the T9 flyby. Later in [2] similar outflows were shown for T63 and T75. In [3] evidence for ionospheric outflows for T15 was given and [4] showed evidence of outflows for T41. Normally, the CAPS IMS cannot be used to measure Titan's relatively dense ionosphere because the IMS has high sensitivity to measure the more tenuous plasmas of Saturn's magnetosphere and its detectors will experience count rates beyond their maximum allowed rates, therefore the IMS is configured not to measure the ionospheric plasma. But, whenever there are high altitude Titan wake flybys the ion densities are low enough so the CAPS IMS can measure these ionospheric outflows and their corresponding composition characteristic of the topside ionosphere (i.e., composition freezes in above the exobase) using its unique compositional capabilities. For example, the IMS can distinguish against specific ion types such as hydrocarbon, nitrile and water group ions due fragmentation of molecular ions within the instrument (i.e., incident ions strikes ultra-thin carbon foils at 14.6 kV or higher with exiting fragments such C+,0,-, N+,0, O+,0,-1). The other ionospheric instruments only measure the ion mass-per-charge (M/Q), while the CAPS IMS measures both the ion M/Q and its fragments. Specific attention will be given to such ions as NH4+, N+, O+, CH4+, C2H5+, HCNH+ and C3H7+. These results may impose important constraints upon Titan's ionospheric water group, hydrocarbon and nitrile ion chemistry. Are NH4+ ions present as indicated by INMS at 1100 km altitude and/or water group ions? Our work has concentrated on the T15 flyby. Estimates of the NH4+, N+ and O+ abundances presently have upper values < 20% of the total ion density with actual abundances and their uncertainties to be given. [1] Sittler, E.C. Jr., et al

  14. Plasma irregularities in the D-region ionosphere in association with sprite streamer initiation.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jianqi; Pasko, Victor P; McHarg, Matthew G; Stenbaek-Nielsen, Hans C

    2014-01-01

    Sprites are spectacular optical emissions in the mesosphere induced by transient lightning electric fields above thunderstorms. Although the streamer nature of sprites has been generally accepted, how these filamentary plasmas are initiated remains a subject of active research. Here we present observational and modelling results showing solid evidence of pre-existing plasma irregularities in association with streamer initiation in the D-region ionosphere. The video observations show that before streamer initiation, kilometre-scale spatial structures descend rapidly with the overall diffuse emissions of the sprite halo, but slow down and stop to form the stationary glow in the vicinity of the streamer onset, from where streamers suddenly emerge. The modelling results reproduce the sub-millisecond halo dynamics and demonstrate that the descending halo structures are optical manifestations of the pre-existing plasma irregularities, which might have been produced by thunderstorm or meteor effects on the D-region ionosphere. PMID:24806314

  15. Magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling and scale breaking of a plasma cloud in the magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haerendel, Gerhard; Mende, Stephen B.

    2012-09-01

    The goal of this paper is to deliver a long-missing interpretation of a central issue of the NASA-MPE barium injection experiment performed in September 1971. It pertains to the interaction with the ionosphere. Observations of the cloud's motion revealed no obvious sign of such interaction. The barium vapor was released from a Scout rocket at an altitude of 31,000 km above South America during late evening hours and was observed for more than 4000 s. The barium plasma split into several field-parallel streaks which moved for a long time as if subject to constant acceleration as viewed from the inertial frame of the rocket at release. This means that no reflection of energy due to a mismatch of ionospheric conductivity and the characteristic impedance of an impinging Alfvén wave was observed. It is this finding that has never been properly interpreted. Furthermore, after a careful assessment of the barium cloud properties and environmental parameters, we find a theoretical coupling time to the ambient flow which turns out to be substantially longer than observed. Although this appears to indicate that some interaction with the ionosphere occurred, we can rule out multiple wave reflections during the observed acceleration phase. Discarding other possibilities, we interpret the observed motions as sign of perfect matching of the momentum and energy flux into the ionosphere with the rate of dissipation. This is achieved during the initial phase by scale breaking of the cloud into streaks with narrow widths which allow parallel potential drops along the Alfvén wings because of the waves' inertial nature and inside the lower ionosphere owing to the finite parallel resistivity, thereby greatly reducing the effective Pedersen conductivity. The significance of this finding goes beyond understanding the barium injection experiment. It sheds light on how magnetospheric plasma irregularities can share momentum and energy with the ionosphere in an optimized fashion.

  16. Dust Acoustic Solitons in the Dusty Plasma of the Earth's Ionosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Kopnin, S.I.; Kosarev, I.N.; Popel, S.I.; Yu, M.Y.

    2005-03-15

    Stratified structures that are observed at heights of 80-95 km in the lower part of the Earth's ionosphere are known as noctilucent clouds and polar mesosphere summer echoes. These structures are thought to be associated with the presence of vast amounts of charged dust or aerosols. The layers in the lower ionosphere where there are substantial amounts of dust are called the dusty ionosphere. The dust grains can carry a positive or a negative charge, depending on their constituent materials. As a rule, the grains are ice crystals, which may contain metallic inclusions. A grain with a sufficiently large metallic content can acquire a positive charge. Crystals of pure ice are charged negatively. The distribution of the dust grains over their charges has a profound impact on the ionizational and other properties of dust structures in the dusty ionosphere. In the present paper, a study is made of the effect of the sign of the dust charge on the properties of dust acoustic solitons propagating in the dusty ionosphere. It is shown that, when the dust charge is positive, dust acoustic solitons correspond to a hill in the electron density and a well in the ion density. When the dust is charged negatively, the situation is opposite. These differences in the properties of dust acoustic solitons can be used to diagnose the plasmas of noctilucent clouds and polar mesosphere summer echoes.

  17. Modeling Ionospheric Convection During a Major Geomagnetic Storm on October 22-23, 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moses, J. J.; Slavin, J. A.; Aggson, T. L.; Heelis, R. A.; Winningham, J. D.

    1994-01-01

    Following the passage of an interplanetary shock at approximately 0500 UT, a major geomagnetic storm developed on October 22-23, 1981. Numerous auroral substorms occurred during this storm leading to an AE index greater than 1000 nT. We have used the expanding/contracting polar cap (ECPC) model (Moses et al., 1989) and data from the Dynamics Explorer 2 spacecraft to study the ionospheric electric fields for 12 consecutive traversals of the polar regions. The ECPC model can determine the voltage drops across the dayside merging and nightside reconnection gaps. We determined the relationship of the AL index (i.e., the intensity of the westward electrojet) to the nightside reconnection potential drop. An excellent linear correlation was found between the nightside reconnection gap voltage drop and the AL index. These results show that the solar wind strongly drives the magnetosphere-ionosphere system throughout the geomagnetic storm. A substantial level of dayside merging seems to occur throughout the event. Nightside reconnection varies from satellite pass to satellite pass and within the substorm recovery phase. We find that tail reconnection is an important feature of the recovery phase of substorms.

  18. Asymmetric distribution of the ionospheric electric potential in the opposite hemispheres as inferred from the SuperDARN observations and FAC-based convection model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukianova, R.; Hanuise, C.; Christiansen, F.

    2008-12-01

    We compare the SuperDARN convection patterns with the predictions of a new numerical model of the global distribution of ionospheric electric potentials. The model utilizes high-precision statistical maps of field-aligned currents (FAC) derived from measurements made by polar-orbiting low-altitude satellites. Both the solar and auroral precipitation contributions are included in order to derive the ionospheric conductance. Taking into account the electrodynamic coupling of the opposite hemispheres, the model allows one to obtain the convection patterns developed simultaneously in both hemispheres for given input parameters. SuperDARN, with its database containing global northern and southern convection maps, provides the unique opportunity to compare the model predictions of electric fields with observations. In the present study we focus on the effect of significant interhemispheric asymmetry governed by the IMF clock angle and solar zenith angle. We calculate the convection patterns for specific cases caused by the sign of BY and season and demonstrate the capability of the FAC-based model reproduce the radar observations. The simulation confirms that the solar zenith angle should be linked to the IMF clock angle to fully characterize the convection patterns. The model predicts that the cross-polar cap potential drop is regularly larger in the winter hemisphere than in the summer hemisphere.

  19. Description of the mean behaviour of ionospheric plasma temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilitza, Dieter

    1987-01-01

    A status report on the empirical modeling of ionospheric electron and ion temperatures is given with special emphasis on the models used in the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI). Electron temperature models have now reached a state where reliable prediction of the mean altitudinal, latitudinal and diurnal variations is possible. These models are largely based on satellite measurements, but comparisons with incoherent scatter radar measurements have shown excellent agreement. Variations with season and magnetic and solar activity seem to be small and are not yet included consistently in these models. Similar to the electron temperature, the ion temperature shows the largest variations with altitude, latitude and local time. But due to the larger mass, these variations are smoother and more steady in the case of the ions and therefore easier to model. Nevertheless, very few ion temperature models exist. The IRI model takes advantage of the observed concurrence of the ion temperature with the neutral temperature at low altitudes and with the electron temperature at high altitudes.

  20. Linking Plasma Conditions in the Magnetosphere with Ionospheric Signatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rastaetter, Lutz; Kozyra, Janet; Kuznetsova, Maria M.; Berrios, David H.

    2012-01-01

    Modeling of the full magnetosphere, ring current and ionosphere system has become an indispensable tool in analyzing the series of events that occur during geomagnetic storms. The CCMC has a full model suite available for the magnetosphere, together with visualization tools that allow a user to perform a large variety of analyses. The January, 21, 2005 storm was a moderate-size storm that has been found to feature a large penetration electric field and unusually large polar caps (low-latitude precipitation patterns) that are otherwise found in super storms. Based on simulations runs at CCMC we can outline the likely causes of this behavior. Using visualization tools available to the online user we compare results from different magnetosphere models and present connections found between features in the magnetosphere and the ionosphere that are connected magnetically. The range of magnetic mappings found with different models can be compared with statistical models (Tsyganenko) and the model's fidelity can be verified with observations from low earth orbiting satellites such as DMSP and TIMED.

  1. Ionospheric Convection in the Postnoon Auroral Oval: SuperDARN and Polar UVI Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozlovsky, A.; Koustov, A.; Lyatsky, W.; Kangas, J.; Parks, G.; Chua, D.

    2002-01-01

    Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) observations, ultraviolet imaging from the Polar satellite (UVI), and particle precipitation data from DMSP satellites have been used to investigate the electrodynamics of the postnoon auroral oval in the Northern hemisphere. We show that: (1) For negative IMF By, the convection reversal (CR) was co-located with the maximum of auroral luminosity, but during positive IMF By the convection reversal was poleward of the auroral oval up to several degrees in latitude; (2) Postnoon auroral oval was associated with a large-scale upward field-aligned current (FAC) of the order of 6x10(exp -7). A m(exp -2) in magnitude (the FAC was inferred from the SuperDARN and UVI data). For negative IMF By, maximum of the auroral intensity coincides in latitude with the maximum of the upward field-aligned current. However, for positive IMF By. the maximum of the upward FAC was shifted to the poleward edge of the auroral oval; (3) In response to the IMF By turning from positive to negative, the maximum of the auroral luminosity did not change its position noticeably, but the position of the convection reversal changed considerably from 80-81 degs to about 76 degs MLAT, and the maximum of FAC moved from 77-78 degs to about 76 degs MLAT. Thus, after IMF By turns negative, both the FAC maximum and CR tend to coincide with the auroral maximum; (4) The IMF Bz positive deflection was followed by a decrease in both field-aligned current intensity and auroral luminosity. However, the decrease in the auroral luminosity lags behind the FAC decrease by about 12 min. Firstly, these observations allow us to suggest that the IMF By-related electric field can penetrate into the closed magnetosphere and produce convection and FAC changes in the region of the postnoon auroral oval. Secondly, we suggest that the interchange instability is a promising mechanism for the postnoon auroras.

  2. Plasma waves observed at low altitudes in the tenuous Venus nightside ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strangeway, R. J.; Russell, C. T.; Ho, C. M.; Brace, L. H.

    1993-01-01

    The Pioneer Venus (PV) Orbiter Electric Field Detector (OEFD) measured many plasma wave bursts throughout the low altitude ionosphere during the final entry phase of the spacecraft. Apart from 100 Hz bursts observed at very low altitudes (approx. 130 km), the bursts fall into two classes. The first of these is a wideband signal that is observed in regions of low magnetic field, but average densities, in comparison to the prevailing ionospheric condition. This wideband signal is not observed in the 30 kHz channel of the OEFD, but is resricted to the 5.4 kHz channel and lower. Since these bursts are observed with roughly constant burst rate above 160 km altitude, we attribute them to ion acoustic mode waves generated by precipitating solar wind electrons. The second type of signal is restricted to 100 Hz only, and is observed in the regions of low electron beta, consistent with whistler-mode waves. These waves could be generated by lightning in the Venus atmosphere if the vertical component of the magnetic field greater than 3.6 nT. Because the ionosphere is very different during the entry phase, compared to the ionosphere as observed early in the Pioneer Venus mission, any conclusions regarding the source of the plasma waves detected during entry phase cannot be applied directly to the earlier observations.

  3. Does a localized plasma disturbance in the ionosphere evolve to electrostatic equilibrium? Evidence to the contrary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosgrove, Russell B.

    2016-01-01

    Electrostatic equilibrium must be achieved through electromagnetic evolution. From an initial state with nonzero neutral wind localized along the geomagnetic field, and with all other plasma and electromagnetic perturbations initially zero, evolution progresses from plasma velocity to electric field to magnetic field, where the last step can launch an Alfvén wave that transmits the electromagnetic disturbance along geomagnetic field lines. Without the Alfvén wave the disturbance does not map along geomagnetic field lines, and there is no semblance of electrostatic equilibrium. This paradigm is essentially the traditional magnetosphere/ionosphere coupling paradigm, except addressed to smaller-scale, local ionospheric phenomena. However, Alfvén waves have not been thoroughly studied in the context of the partially ionized, collisional ionospheric plasma, and so the full effects predicted by this modeling paradigm are not known. In this work we adopt the two-fluid equations and investigate whether the ionosphere supports Alfvén-type waves that can transmit disturbances along geomagnetic field lines and perform a wave analysis of the "lumped circuit" parameters normally used to characterize the ionosphere under electrostatic equilibrium. We find that under the wave analysis (1) the Pedersen conductivity is severely modified and has a negative real part at short wavelengths; (2) the mapping distance for electric fields is significantly modified, and there is a nonnegligible wavelength along the geomagnetic field; and (3) the load admittance seen by a localized dynamo is strongly reactive, causing a phase offset between electric field and current, as compared with that when the load is electrostatic.

  4. Intermediate scale plasma density irregularities in the polar ionosphere inferred from radio occultation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shume, E. B.; Komjathy, A.; Langley, R. B.; Verkhoglyadova, O. P.; Butala, M.; Mannucci, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    In this research, we report intermediate scale plasma density irregularities in the high-latitude ionosphere inferred from high-resolution radio occultation (RO) measurements in the CASSIOPE (CAScade Smallsat and IOnospheric Polar Explorer) - GPS (Global Positioning System) satellites radio link. The high inclination of the CASSIOPE satellite and high rate of signal receptionby the occultation antenna of the GPS Attitude, Positioning and Profiling (GAP) instrument on the Enhanced Polar Outflow Probe platform on CASSIOPE enable a high temporal and spatial resolution investigation of the dynamics of the polar ionosphere, magnetosphere-ionospherecoupling, solar wind effects, etc. with unprecedented details compared to that possible in the past. We have carried out high spatial resolution analysis in altitude and geomagnetic latitude of scintillation-producing plasma density irregularities in the polar ionosphere. Intermediate scale, scintillation-producing plasma density irregularities, which corresponds to 2 to 40 km spatial scales were inferred by applying multi-scale spectral analysis on the RO phase delay measurements. Using our multi-scale spectral analysis approach and Polar Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) and Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) observations, we infer that the irregularity scales and phase scintillations have distinct features in the auroral oval and polar cap regions. In specific terms, we found that large length scales and and more intense phase scintillations are prevalent in the auroral oval compared to the polar cap region. Hence, the irregularity scales and phase scintillation characteristics are a function of the solar wind and the magnetospheric forcing. Multi-scale analysis may become a powerful diagnostic tool for characterizing how the ionosphere is dynamically driven by these factors.

  5. The Skylab barium plasma injection experiments. I - Convection observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wescott, E. M.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Davis, T. N.; Peek, H. M.

    1976-01-01

    Two barium-plasma injection experiments were carried out during magnetically active periods in conjunction with the Skylab 3 mission. The high-explosive shaped charges were launched near dawn on November 27 and December 4, 1973, UT. In both cases, the AE index was near 400 gammas, and extensive pulsating auroras covered the sky. The first experiment, Skylab Alpha, occurred in the waning phase of a 1000-gamma substorm, and the second, Skylab Beta, occurred in the expansive phase of an 800-gamma substorm. In both, the convection was generally magnetically eastward, with 100-km-level electric fields near 40 mV/m. However, in the Alpha experiment the observed orientation of the barium flux tube fit theoretical field lines having no parallel current, but the Beta flux-tube orientation indicated a substantial upward parallel sheet current.

  6. Response of High Latitude Birkeland Currents and Ionospheric Convection to Transitions in Solar Wind Forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, B. J.; Korth, H.; Merkin, V. G.; Barnes, R. J.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Recent results from the Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment (AMPERE) indicate that at least some transitions from northward to southward IMF produce a specific sequence in the development of large-scale Birkeland currents. First, a set of Region 1 and Region 2 currents forms on the dayside restricted to within a few hours of noon. After about 40 minutes, currents strongly intensify on the nightside, first near midnight local time associated with substorm onset, and then progressively further toward the dayside via dawn and dusk. Only after an hour or more after the transition to stronger solar wind forcing, is the complete Region 1, Region 2 current system developed. The results imply that the initial response to a transition from weak to strong forcing is convection into the polar cap and lobes without strong return convection to the dayside from the nightside magnetosphere. Return convection from the nightside begins with substorm onset and progresses to the dayside. This analysis is extended by examining a large number of transitions from prolonged auroral quiescence, associated with northward IMF, to southward IMF and the development of large-scale Region 1/Region 2 Birkeland currents, to assess whether the above progression holds in general. In addition, transition events to particularly intense driving, for example, associated with shocks are examined to assess how this ordering of events may be changed for onsets of particularly intense solar wind forcing.

  7. Real-time tracking and targeting computations and rocket vehicle aeroballistics for the PLACES ionospheric plasma test series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollstin, L. R.

    The PLACES (Position Location And Communication Effects Simulations) test program, conducted in December 1980 at Eglin Gulf Test Range, involved a series of ionospheric releases of barium/barium-nitrate vapor. The Defense Nuclear Agency sponsored program investigated effects of a structured ionospheric plasma (similar to that produced by a high-altitude nuclear explosion) on satellite navigation systems and provided in situ measurement of plasma structure. Terrier-Tomahawk rocket systems boosted the barium payloads, beacon payloads (plasma occultation experiment), and probe payloads (plasma in situ measurement). Drifting plasma tracking procedures, beacon- and probe-vehicle targeting procedures, and vehicle flight test results are presented.

  8. Modelling of the plasma environment surrounding 67P: the effect of the convective electric field on ion density profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beth, Arnaud; Galand, Marina; Schwartz, Steven J.

    2016-04-01

    By following comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko along its orbit, Rosetta during its cruise is offering us the unique opportunity to understand the complex evolution of the comet with its environment. Although the coma is not bound at the surface, its photo-ionisation by solar extreme ultraviolet radiation creates a complex plasma environment which interacts with and is influenced by the solar wind. We consider the critical role played by collisionless processes (e.g. the effect of external electric and magnetic fields) in shaping the resulting ionospheric density profiles. In particular, the photo-ionisation of sublimated water molecules leads to the production of H_2O^+. These new ions are subjected to the electromagnetic environment of the solar wind in which they are born. In particular, the convective electric field Econv associated with the component of the solar wind flow perpendicular to the interplanetary magnetic field (i.e. Econv≈-vSWwedgeB) will strongly influence the dynamics of new ions and electrons and thus their density profiles around the comet. To lowest order that field can be described by the generalized Ohm's law of MHD. However, the small scales associated with 67P must be taken into consideration. We show that the convective electric field plays a key-role in the distribution of ions in the vicinity of the comet and in their transport. In particular, the physical size of the comet should be considered and the comet should not be reduced to a point source in the model. Finally, we will discuss the establishment of an induced ambipolar electric field on the ionospheric plasma to counteract the effect of Econv.

  9. Ionospheric plasma temperatures during 1976-2001 over Millstone Hill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shun-Rong; Holt, John M.

    Incoherent scatter measurements have been made since the 1960s over Millstone Hill. Zenith antenna data since 1976 and steerable antenna data since 1980 are now available through the WWW-based Madrigal database system. By analyzing this large volume of data in a systematic way, this paper provides an updated climatology of the ionospheric temperature over Millstone Hill, including diurnal variations, solar activity dependences, and the electron density Ne and electron temperature Te relationship. The daytime Te in the F2-layer is found to increase with the increasing solar activity in summer, and to decrease in winter. The inverse correlation between Ne and Te prevails in winter and equinox but is much less pronounced or even disappears in summer. Based on the database, Millstone Hill incoherent scatter radar models are established, and compared with the latest International Reference Model.

  10. First storm-time plasma velocity estimates from high-resolution ionospheric data assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta-Barua, Seebany; Bust, Gary S.; Crowley, Geoff

    2013-11-01

    This paper uses data assimilation to estimate ionospheric state during storm time at subdegree resolution. We use Ionospheric Data Assimilation Four-Dimensional (IDA4D) to resolve the three-dimensional time-varying electron density gradients of the storm-enhanced density poleward plume. By Estimating Model Parameters from Ionospheric Reverse Engineering (EMPIRE), we infer the three-dimensional plasma velocity from the densities. EMPIRE estimates of ExB drift are made by correcting the Weimer 2000 electric potential model. This is the first time electron densities derived from GPS total electron content (TEC) data are being used to estimate field-aligned and field-perpendicular drifts at such high resolution, without reference to direct drift measurements. The time-varying estimated electron densities are used to construct the ionospheric spatial decorrelation in vertical total electron content (TEC) on horizontal scales of less than 100 km. We compare slant TEC (STEC) estimates to actual STEC GPS observations, including independent unassimilated data. The IDA4D density model of the extreme ionospheric storm on 20 November 2003 shows STEC delays of up to 210 TEC units, comparable to the STEC of the GPS ground stations. Horizontal drifts from EMPIRE are predicted to be northwestward within the storm-enhanced density plume and its boundary, turning northeast at high latitudes. These estimates compare favorably to independent Assimilative Mapping of Ionospheric Electrodynamics-assimilated high-latitude ExB drift estimates. Estimated and measured Defense Meteorological Satellite Program in situ drifts differ by a factor of 2-3 and in some cases have incorrect direction. This indicates that significant density rates of change and more accurate accounting for production and loss may be needed when other processes are not dominant.

  11. Processes accompanying the charging of dust grains in the ionospheric plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Kopnin, S. I.; Morzhakova, A. A.; Popel, S. I.; Shukla, P. K.

    2011-08-15

    The influence of the neutral component of the dusty ionospheric plasma on the process of dust grain charging is analyzed. Microscopic ion fluxes onto a dust grain are calculated with allowance for the interaction with the neutral components of the ionospheric plasma for both negatively and positively charged dust grains. For the latter case, which takes place in the presence of intense UV or X-ray solar radiation, the electron heating caused by the photoelectric effect is also investigated. It is found that the efficiency of electron heating depends on the density of neutral particles. The altitudes at which these effects appreciably influence the charging of different types of nano- and microscale dust grains are determined. It is shown that these effects should be taken into account in describing noctilucent clouds, polar mesosphere summer echoes, and physical phenomena involving grains of meteoric origin.

  12. Relaxation Time of Artificial Periodic Irregularities of the Ionospheric Plasma and Diffusion in the Inhomogeneous Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigor'ev, G. I.; Bakhmet'eva, N. V.; Tolmacheva, A. V.; Kalinina, E. E.

    2013-09-01

    We consider diffusion of the ionospheric-plasma irregularities as applied to the problem of experimental determination of the lower-ionosphere parameters by artificial periodic irregularities of the electron number density. A rigorous solution to the problem of diffusion of one-dimensional plasma irregularities in a weakly ionized medium, whose diffusion coefficient exponentially decreases with the altitude, is obtained. The Green's function for this problem is found. Three parameters are taken into account in the solution, namely, the size of the region occupied by the irregularities, the size of the irregularities, and a typical spatial scale of the e-fold decrease in the diffusion coefficient. Theoretical relaxation times of the irregularities as functions of these parameters are analyzed. Calculated relaxation times are compared with the times measured in the observation of the artificial periodic irregularities created by the SURA facility. Calculated relaxation times of these irregularities are in good agreement with the observed values.

  13. Bounds on current collection from the far field by plasma clouds in the ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, D. E.; Blandino, J.

    1989-01-01

    Plasma clouds can enhance the collection of current to a charged body in the ionosphere in two ways. The first is by providing a large collection area for ionospheric electrons to be collected. The second is by ionization of neutral gas in the vicinity of the plasma cloud. The collection of electrons across a magnetic field is examined, and it is shown that the effective collection area is limited to the region of the cloud where the magnetic field effects are overwhelmed by the electric field effects from the charged body. Upper and lower bounds are obtained for the radius of the core region where the electric field influence dominates. From these, upper and lower bounds are obtained for the current collection.

  14. Convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britz, Dieter

    Convection has long been coupled with electrochemistry, and the name hydrodynamic voltammetry has become standard. In electroanalytical chemistry we mainly seek reproducible conditions. These are almost always attained by systems in which a steady convective state is achieved, although not always. Thus, the once popular dropping mercury electrode (see texts such as [74, 257]) has convection around it, but is never in steady state; it might be called a reproducible periodic dynamic state.

  15. Space weather. Ionospheric control of magnetotail reconnection.

    PubMed

    Lotko, William; Smith, Ryan H; Zhang, Binzheng; Ouellette, Jeremy E; Brambles, Oliver J; Lyon, John G

    2014-07-11

    Observed distributions of high-speed plasma flows at distances of 10 to 30 Earth radii (R(E)) in Earth's magnetotail neutral sheet are highly skewed toward the premidnight sector. The flows are a product of the magnetic reconnection process that converts magnetic energy stored in the magnetotail into plasma kinetic and thermal energy. We show, using global numerical simulations, that the electrodynamic interaction between Earth's magnetosphere and ionosphere produces an asymmetry consistent with observed distributions in nightside reconnection and plasmasheet flows and in accompanying ionospheric convection. The primary causal agent is the meridional gradient in the ionospheric Hall conductance which, through the Cowling effect, regulates the distribution of electrical currents flowing within and between the ionosphere and magnetotail. PMID:25013068

  16. Magnetosphere--Ionosphere Coupling: Effects of Plasma Alfven Wave Relative Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, P. J.; Dum, C. T.

    1989-06-01

    The introduction of relative perpendicular motion between a flux-tube supporting shear Alfven wave activity and the background plasma is studied in the context of the coupling of a wave generating region with a distant ionosphere. The results of a representative simulation, using an extended version of the code developed by Lysak & Dum (J. geophys. Res. 88, 365 (1983)), are used as a basis for interpreting some aspects of recent satellite observations.

  17. Magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling: effects of plasma Alfvén wave relative motion.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, P. J.; Dum, C. T.

    The introduction of relative perpendicular motion between a flux-tube supporting shear Alfvén wave activity and the background plasma is studied in the context of the coupling of a wave generating region with a distant ionosphere. The results of a representative simulation, using an extended version of the code developed by Lysak & Dum, are used as a basis for interpreting some aspects of recent satellite observations.

  18. Features of terrestrial plasma transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, T. E.; Chandler, M. O.; Chappell, C. R.; Pollock, C. J.; Waite, J. H., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Research concerning the transport and distribution of ionospheric plasma in the magnetosphere are reviewed, stressing the dichotomy in explanations given for the low plasma densities outside the plasmasphere. The convection/hot solar plasma model and the convection/loss model are considered. Observations of global ionospheric outflows are compared with theoretical studies. It is suggested that there is a need for a hybrid model of magnetospheric plasma in which terrestrial plasma is both lost into the solar wind and energized and trapped within the magnetosphere, inflating the geomagnetic field and excluding cold plasma from conjugate regions.

  19. Mid-latitude ionospheric perturbation associated with the Spacelab-2 plasma depletion experiment at Millstone Hill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, J. C.; Holt, J. M.; Lanzerotti, L. J.

    2000-01-01

    Elevation scans across geomagnetic mid latitudes by the incoherent scatter radar at Millstone Hill captured the ionospheric response to the firing of the Space Shuttle Challenger OMS thrusters near the peak of the F layer on July 30, 1985. Details of the excitation of airglow and the formation of an ionospheric hole during this event have been reported in an earlier paper by Mendillo et al.. The depletion (factor sim2) near the 320 km Shuttle orbital altitude persisted for sim35 min and then recovered to near normal levels, while at 265 km the density was reduced by a factor of sim6; this significant reduction in the bottomside F-region density persisted for more than 3 hours. Total electron content in the vicinity of the hole was reduced by more than a factor of 2, and an oscillation of the F-region densities with 40-min period ensued and persisted for several hours. Plasma vertical Doppler velocity varied quasi-periodically with a sim80-min period, while magnetic field variations observed on the field line through the Shuttle-burn position exhibited a similar sim80-min periodicity. An interval of magnetic field variations at hydromagnetic frequencies (sim95 s period) accompanied the ionospheric perturbations on this field line. Radar observations revealed a downward phase progression of the 40-min period density enhancements of -1.12° km-1, corresponding to a 320-km vertical wavelength. An auroral-latitude geomagnetic disturbance began near the time of the Spacelab-2 experiment and was associated with the imposition of a strong southward IMF Bz across the magnetosphere. This created an additional complication in the interpretation of the active ionospheric experiment. It cannot be determined uniquely whether the ionospheric oscillations, which followed the Spacelab-2 experiment, were related to the active experiment or were the result of a propagating ionospheric disturbance (TID) launched by the enhanced auroral activity. The most reasonable conclusion is that

  20. Study on the Boundary between the Ionosphere and the Magnetosheath from the Disappearance and Reappearance of Electron Plasma Oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duru, F.

    2013-05-01

    The radar sounder on the Mars Express Spacecraft is able to make measurements of electron densities in the Martian ionosphere from both local electron plasma oscillations and remote soundings. A study of thousands of orbits shows that in some cases the electron plasma oscillations disappear and reappear abruptly near the upper boundary of the dayside ionosphere. This study investigates these cases and explores possibilities which could cause these time variations with the help of the Analyzer of Space Plasmas and Energetic Atoms (ASPERA-3) Electron Spectrometer (ELS) and Ion Mass Analyzer (IMA) data. Study of the ion spectra through ASPERA-3 data shows upward acceleration of ionospheric ions and downward acceleration of electrons. All this information favors the possibility that the events are related to auroral density cavities. Another reason for these intermittent appearances of electron plasma oscillations can be the multiple crossings of the boundary between the ionosphere and magnetosheath. The motion of the boundary between the ionosphere in response to the solar wind, or plasma clouds or ionospheric streamers with sizes ranging between about 500 and 3000 km along the trajectory could cause multiple crossings. When a quasi - sinusoidal oscillation of the boundary is assumed, the periods of oscillation are found to be around 7 min, and the amplitudes of the velocity are less than 20 km/s.

  1. Ionospheric Research with Miniaturized Plasma Sensors Aboard FalconSAT-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habash Krause, L.; Herrero, F. A.; Chun, F. K.; McHarg, M. G.

    2003-12-01

    Investigations into a novel technique to measure ionosphere-thermosphere parameters have culminated in the Flat Plasma Spectrometer (FLAPS) experiment, presently under development through a collaboration between NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and the U. S. Air Force Academy (USAFA). FLAPS is capable of providing measurements of the full neutral wind vector, full ion-drift velocity vector, neutral and ion temperatures, and deviations from thermalization. In addition, coarse mass spectroscopy is possible using an energy analysis technique. The suite of instruments is comprised of a set of 16 individual neutral and ion analyzers, each of which is designed to perform a specific function. Advances in miniaturization technology have enabled a design in which the 16-sensor suite resides on a circular microchannel plate with an effective area of 25 cm2. The FLAPS electronics package, consisting of low voltage and high voltage power supplies, a microprocessor, and Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) amplifiers, requires a volume of 290 cm3, power of 1.5 W, and a mass of 500 g. The suite requires a +5V regulated power line from the spacecraft, and the telemetry interface is a 5.0 V TTL-compatible serial connection. Data collection rates vary from 1 to 1000 (192 Byte) spectra per second. The motivation for the FLAPS experiment is driven by objectives that fall into both basic science and technology demonstration categories. Scientifically, there is strong interest in the effects of ionosphere-thermosphere coupling and non-thermalized plasma on the processes associated with equatorial F-region ionospheric plasma bubbles. These bubbles have been known to scintillate transionospheric propagation of radio waves, often resulting in disruptions of space-based communication and navigation systems. FLAPS investigations will assist in quantifying the impact of various processes on the instigation or suppression of plasma bubbles; certain outstanding questions

  2. Magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions: Near Earth manifestations of the plasma universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faelthammar, Carl-Gunne

    1986-01-01

    As the universe consists almost entirely of plasma, the understanding of astrophysical phenomena must depend critically on the understanding of how matter behaves in the plasma state. In situ observations in the near Earth cosmical plasma offer an excellent opportunity of gaining such understanding. The near Earth cosmical plasma not only covers vast ranges of density and temperature, but is the site of a rich variety of complex plasma physical processes which are activated as a results of the interactions between the magnetosphere and the ionosphere. The geomagnetic field connects the ionosphere, tied by friction to the Earth, and the magnetosphere, dynamically coupled to the solar wind. This causes an exchange of energy an momentum between the two regions. The exchange is executed by magnetic-field-aligned electric currents, the so-called Birkeland currents. Both directly and indirectly (through instabilities and particle acceleration) these also lead to an exchange of plasma, which is selective and therefore causes chemical separation. Another essential aspect of the coupling is the role of electric fields, especially magnetic field aligned (parallel) electric fields, which have important consequences both for the dynamics of the coupling and, especially, for energization of charged particles.

  3. Numerical modeling of the global changes to the thermosphere and ionosphere from the dissipation of gravity waves from deep convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadas, S. L.; Liu, H.-L.; Lieberman, R. S.

    2014-09-01

    During the minimum of solar cycles 23-24, the Sun was extremely quiet; however, tropospheric deep convection was strong and active. In this paper, we model the gravity waves (GWs) excited by deep convective plumes globally during 15-27 June in 2009 and in 2000 (previous solar maximum). We ray trace the GWs into the thermosphere and calculate the body force/heatings which result where they dissipate. We input these force/heatings into a global dynamical model and study the neutral and plasma changes that result. The body forces induce horizontal wind (uH') and temperature (T') perturbations, while the heatings primarily induce T'. We find that the forces create much larger T' than the heatings. uH' consists of clockwise and counterclockwise circulations and "jet"-like winds that are highly correlated with deep convection, with |uH'|˜50-200m/s. uH' and T' are much larger during 2009 than 2000. uH' decreases slightly (significantly) with altitude from z˜150 to 400 km during 2009 (2000). T' perturbations at z=350km primarily propagate westward at ˜460 m/s, consistent with migrating tides. It was found that planetary-scale diurnal and semidiurnal tides are generated in situ in the thermosphere, with amplitudes ˜10-40m/s at z=250 km. The largest-amplitude in situ tides are DW1, D0, DW2, SW2, SW3, and SW5. Smaller-amplitude in situ tides are S0, SE2, and SW3. Total electron content (TEC') perturbations of 1-2.5 (2-3.5) total electron content units (TECU, where 1 TECU = 1016 el m-2) during 2009 (2000) are created in the upper atmosphere above nearby regions of deep tropical convection. For a given local time (LT), there are 2 to 3 TEC' peaks in longitude around the Earth.

  4. Theoretical study of the ionospheric plasma cave in the equatorial ionization anomaly region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu-Tsung; Lin, C. H.; Chen, C. H.; Liu, J. Y.; Huba, J. D.; Chang, L. C.; Liu, H.-L.; Lin, J. T.; Rajesh, P. K.

    2014-12-01

    This paper investigates the physical mechanism of an unusual equatorial electron density structure, plasma cave, located underneath the equatorial ionization anomaly by using theoretical simulations. The simulation results provide important new understanding of the dynamics of the equatorial ionosphere. It has been suggested previously that unusual E>⇀×B>⇀ drifts might be responsible for the observed plasma cave structure, but model simulations in this paper suggest that the more likely cause is latitudinal meridional neutral wind variations. The neutral winds are featured by two divergent wind regions at off-equator latitudes and a convergent wind region around the magnetic equator, resulting in plasma divergences and convergence, respectively, to form the plasma caves structure. The tidal-decomposition analysis further suggests that the cave related meridional neutral winds and the intensity of plasma cave are highly associated with the migrating terdiurnal tidal component of the neutral winds.

  5. August 28, 1978, Storm 1. GEOS 2 observations of the initial magnetopause crossings and STARE observations near the ionospheric convection reversal

    SciTech Connect

    Sofko, G.J.; Korth, A.; Kremser, G.

    1985-02-01

    During the postdawn period on August 28, 1978, from approx.0750 to 0830 magnetic local time, the magnetopause moved several earth radii inward to less than 6.6 R/sub E/, where it remained until approx.1120 MLT. As the magnetopause approached the earth, the poleward boundary of the westward auroral electrojet moved southward to geomagnetic latitudes less than 66/sup 0/. Fortuitously, the geostationary satellite GEOS 2 was located in this morning sector during this entire period, and experienced a series of magnetopause crossings. In quiet periods GEOS 2 was conjugate to that area of the lower E region which constituted the field-of-view of the Scandinavian Twin Auroral Radar Experiment (STARE) radars. This paper compares the magnetospheric satellite and ionospheric radar observations. The combined observations suggest that, near the dawnside magnetopause, large-scale merging was occurring, while in the ionosphere, the convection reversal region and poleward portion of the auroral zone underwent major equatorward shifts and featured prominent sunward moving ULF pulsations. Between the magnetopause and ionosphere a large increase in the ring current accompanied the equatorward shift of the convection reversal.

  6. Plasma Instability Growth Rates in the F-Region Cusp Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moen, J. I.; Daabakk, Y.; Oksavik, K.; Clausen, L.; Bekkeng, T. A.; Abe, T.; Saito, Y.; Baddeley, L. J.; Lorentzen, D. A.; Sigernes, F.; Yeoman, T. K.

    2014-12-01

    There are at least two different micro-instability processes that applies to the F-region cusp/polar cap ionosphere. These are the Gradient Drift Instability (GDI) and the Kelvin Helmholtz Instability (KHI). Due to space weather effects on radio communication and satellite signals it is of practical interest to assess the relative importance of these two instability modes and to quantify their growth rates. The Investigation of Cusp Irregularities (ICI) rocket program has been developed to investigate these plasma instabilities and formation scintillation irregularities. High resolution measurements are critical to get realistic quantities on the growth rates. The results achieved so far demonstrates that cusp ionosphere precipitation can give rise to km scale plasma structures on which grow rates are down to a few tens of seconds compared to earlier measures of ten minutes based on ground observations. This has to do with the spatial resolution required for these measurements. Growth rates for the KHI instability is found to be of the same order, which is consistent with growth rates calculated from the EISCAT Svalbard Radar. I.e. both instability modes can be highly efficient in the cusp ionosphere.

  7. GPS and in situ Swarm observations of the equatorial plasma density irregularities in the topside ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharenkova, Irina; Astafyeva, Elvira; Cherniak, Iurii

    2016-07-01

    Here we study the global distribution of the plasma density irregularities in the topside ionosphere by using the concurrent GPS and Langmuir probe measurements onboard the Swarm satellites. We analyze 18 months (from August 2014 till January 2016) of data from Swarm A and B satellites that flew at 460 and 510 km altitude, respectively. To identify the occurrence of the ionospheric irregularities, we have analyzed behavior of two indices ROTI and RODI based on the change rate of total electron content and electron density, respectively. The obtained results demonstrate a high degree of similarities in the occurrence pattern of the seasonal and longitudinal distribution of the topside ionospheric irregularities derived from both types of the satellite observations. Among the seasons with good data coverage, the maximal occurrence rates for the post-sunset equatorial irregularities reached 35-50 % for the September 2014 and March 2015 equinoxes and only 10-15 % for the June 2015 solstice. For the equinox seasons the intense plasma density irregularities were more frequently observed in the Atlantic sector, for the December solstice in the South American-Atlantic sector. The highest occurrence rates for the post-midnight irregularities were observed in African longitudinal sector during the September 2014 equinox and June 2015 solstice. The observed differences in SWA and SWB results could be explained by the longitude/LT separation between satellites, as SWB crossed the same post-sunset sector increasingly later than the SWA did.

  8. HF Propagation Effects Caused by an Artificial Plasma Cloud in the Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, D. R.; Groves, K. M.; McNeil, W. J.; Caton, R. G.; Parris, R. T.; Pedersen, T. R.; Cannon, P. S.; Angling, M. J.; Jackson-Booth, N. K.

    2014-12-01

    In a campaign carried out by the NASA sounding rocket team, the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) launched two sounding rockets in the Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands, in May 2013 known as the Metal Oxide Space Cloud (MOSC) experiment to study the interactions of artificial ionization and the background plasma and measure the effects on high frequency (HF) radio wave propagation. The rockets released samarium metal vapor in the lower F-region of the ionosphere that ionized forming a plasma cloud that persisted for tens of minutes to hours in the post-sunset period. Data from the experiments has been analyzed to understand the impacts of the artificial ionization on HF radio wave propagation. Swept frequency HF links transiting the artificial ionization region were employed to produce oblique ionograms that clearly showed the effects of the samarium cloud. Ray tracing has been used to successfully model the effects of the ionized cloud. Comparisons between observations and modeled results will be presented, including model output using the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI), the Parameterized Ionospheric Model (PIM) and PIM constrained by electron density profiles measured with the ALTAIR radar at Kwajalein. Observations and modeling confirm that the cloud acted as a divergent lens refracting energy away from direct propagation paths and scattering energy at large angles relative to the initial propagation direction. The results confirm that even small amounts of ionized material injected in the upper atmosphere can result in significant changes to the natural propagation environment.

  9. Comparison of the ionospheric plasma turbulence over seismic and equatorial regions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosciesza, M.; Blecki, J.; Parrot, M.; Wronowski, R.

    2012-04-01

    Many strong earthquakes which are objects of interest in investigations of the changes registered in the electric field in the ELF frequency range (1 Hz - 1250 Hz) in the ionospheric plasma, occurs in the equatorial region. In order to determine, if the observed disturbances are connected with the coupling between the ground and the ionosphere in the seismic active region, it is necessary to analyse and compare plasma instability phenomena occurring in the equatorial F-region ionosphere and are known as equatorial spread F (ESF) to changes before earthquakes because their character is very similar. The aim of this paper is the analysis of changes in the electromagnetic ELF field, registered by the French micro-satellite DEMETER over epicentres of three selected strong earthquakes with magnitude bigger than 6, which took place in: Sichuan, Chile and Haiti. A comparison between those cases and changes observed by the same satellite over the equatorial region in the similar time of year is presented. The analysis of the data, was conducted with the Fourier, wavelet and bispectral methods. The last one gives answer to question, whether the changes localized with the spectral analysis are nonlinear. Further processing consists the determination of the power spectrum and its slope, which allows to determine the type of turbulence which was inducted by the three wave interaction. The last stage of the presented research, was finding the characteristic remarks of changes, by calculation of the probability density function (PDF) and calculation of its characteristic values such as kurtosis and skewness.

  10. Radial convection of finite ion temperature, high amplitude plasma blobs

    SciTech Connect

    Wiesenberger, M. Kendl, A.; Madsen, J.

    2014-09-15

    We present results from simulations of seeded blob convection in the scrape-off-layer of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. We consistently incorporate high fluctuation amplitude levels and finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects using a fully nonlinear global gyrofluid model. This is in line with conditions found in tokamak scrape-off-layers (SOL) regions. Varying the ion temperature, the initial blob width, and the initial amplitude, we found an FLR dominated regime where the blob behavior is significantly different from what is predicted by cold-ion models. The transition to this regime is very well described by the ratio of the ion gyroradius to the characteristic gradient scale length of the blob. We compare the global gyrofluid model with a partly linearized local model. For low ion temperatures, we find that simulations of the global model show more coherent blobs with an increased cross-field transport compared to blobs simulated with the local model. The maximal blob amplitude is significantly higher in the global simulations than in the local ones. When the ion temperature is comparable to the electron temperature, global blob simulations show a reduced blob coherence and a decreased cross-field transport in comparison with local blob simulations.

  11. TARANIS: a Tool to investigate Potential Links Between Sprites and Ionospheric and Magnetospheric Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francois, L.; Elisabeth, B.; TARANIS Team

    2004-12-01

    TARANIS (Tool for the Analysis of RAdiations from lightNIngs and Sprites) is a CNES microsatellite project which will be in phase A in 2005. The main scientific objective is to compare observations of sprites and other optical emissions (blue jets, halos, elves,etc.) with observations of terrestrial gamma and X ray flashes, electromagnetic and electrostatic emissions, and energetic electrons, in order to investigate physical mechanisms allowing impulsive transfers of energy between the neutral atmosphere and the ionospheric and magnetospheric plasmas. The main questions to be addressed for a satellite mission are presented. They include : the triggering factor of the optical emissions, the quasi electrostatic field above thunderstorms, the modification of the electrodynamics of the ionosphere, the detection and the modeling of energetic runaways electron beams, the associated electromagnetic and electrostatic emissions, the presence of the generated electron beams within the magnetosphere and more specifically within the radiation belts. The adequation of the scientific payload to the scientific objectives is discussed.

  12. Horizontal plasma flow velocities in the ionosphere of Mars - A test case for the solar wind interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singhal, R. P.; Whitten, R. C.

    1988-01-01

    On the apparently nonmagnetic planets Mars and Venus, ionospheric plasma can be driven from the day to the nightside by two different mechanisms: (1) the pressure gradient force across the terminator, and (2) a solar wind-induced force via a viscous boundary layer interaction. Calculations of the horizontal flow velocities in the ionosphere of Mars using the two mechanisms produce results differing by an order of magnitude. It is pointed out that the detailed observations of the horizontal flow velocity in the ionosphere of Mars may provide a test case for the resolution of some problems relating to the interaction of the solar wind with the planets Mars and Venus.

  13. Model study of the effects of gravity wave dissipation on the thermosphere and ionosphere from deep convection worldwide 15-27 June 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadas, S.; Liu, H.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we discuss the methods and results of a global modeling study for the effect of deep convection on the thermosphere and ionosphere through the dissipation of atmospheric gravity waves (GWs). The selected time period is 15-27 June 2009, during the recent extreme solar minimum. The convective plumes which overshot the tropopause are identified from IR images obtained by the instruments on 5 satellites covering Earth (from west to east: GOES11, GOES12, M9, M7, and MTS). We model the excitation of GWs from these plumes, and ray trace them into the thermosphere using our ray trace model which has been upgraded to span the Earth. We then calculate the forcings/heatings/coolings which result when and where these GWs dissipate in the thermosphere. We input these forcings/heatings/coolings into the global TIME-GCM, and re-run the model. In this paper, we discuss these methods and models in detail. We then discuss how the thermosphere and ionosphere responded to the dissipation of these convectively-generated GWs worldwide.

  14. Plasma Waves Observed at Low Altitudes in the Tenuous Venus Nightside Ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strangeway, R. J.; Russell, C. T.; Ho, C. M.; Brace, L. H.

    1993-01-01

    The Pioneer Venus Orbiter Electric Field Detector (OEFD) measured many plasma wave bursts throughout the low altitude ionosphere during the final entry phase of the spacecraft. Apart from 100 Hz bursts observed at very low altitudes (approx. 130 km), the bursts fall into two classes. The first of these is a wideband signal that is observed in regions of low magnetic field, but average densities, in comparison to the prevailing ionospheric condition. This wideband signal is not observed in the 30 kHz channel of the OEFD, but is restricted to the 5.4 kHz channel and lower. Since these bursts are observed with roughly constant burst rate above 160 km altitude, we attribute them to ion acoustic mode waves generated by precipitating solar wind electrons. The second type of signal is restricted to 100 Hz only, and is observed in regions of low electron beta, consistent with whistler-mode waves. These waves could be generated by lightning in the Venus atmosphere if the vertical component of the magnetic field greater than 3.6 nT. Unfortunately, the spacecraft spin axis is mainly horizontal, and only that component of magnetic field can be measured. Alternatively, the 100 Hz bursts could be generated locally through gradient drift instabilities, provided the ambient magnetic field is horizontal. Because the ionosphere is very different during the entry phase, compared to the ionosphere as observed early in the Pioneer Venus mission, any conclusions regarding the source of the plasma waves detected during entry phase cannot be applied directly to the earlier observations.

  15. Ionosphere/thermosphere heating determined from dynamic magnetosphere-ionosphere/thermosphere coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Jiannan; Song, Paul; Vasyliūnas, Vytenis M.

    2011-09-01

    Ionosphere/thermosphere heating driven by magnetospheric convection is investigated through a three-fluid inductive (including Faraday's law) approach to describing magnetosphere-ionosphere/thermosphere coupling, for a 1-D stratified ionosphere/thermosphere in this initial study. It is shown that the response of the ionosphere/thermosphere and thus the heating is dynamic and height-dependent. The heating is essentially frictional in nature rather than Joule heating as commonly assumed. The heating rate reaches a quasi-steady state after about 25 Alfvén travel times. During the dynamic period, the heating can be enhanced and displays peaks at multiple times due to wave reflections. The dynamic heating rate can be more than twice greater than the quasi-steady state value. The heating is strongest in the E-layer but the heating rate per unit mass is concentrated around the F-layer peak height. This implies a potential mechanism of driving O+ upflow from O+ rich F-layer. It is shown that the ionosphere/thermosphere heating caused by the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling can be simply evaluated through the relative velocity between the plasma and neutrals without invoking field-aligned currents, ionospheric conductance, and electric field. The present study provides understanding of the dynamic magnetosphere-ionosphere/thermosphere coupling from the ionospheric/thermospheric view in addition to magnetospheric perspectives.

  16. Variation of the cold plasma density structure above the polar ionosphere associated with geomagnetic storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitamura, N.; Shinbori, A.; Nishimura, Y.; Ono, T.; Iizima, M.; Kumamoto, A.; Yamada, M.; Watanabe, S.; Abe, T.

    2007-12-01

    Plasma outflow from the polar ionosphere into the magnetosphere is one of the most important processes in the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling in the polar region. Recent satellite observations have clarified that plasma outflow takes an important role for plasma transport into the magnetosphere, abrupt changes of the ring current ion composition, and the disappearance of the auroral acceleration region during geomagnetic storms. In the present study, we analyzed the electron density data observed by the Akebono satellite in an altitude range from 300 to 10500 km, in order to clarify the formation process of the plasma density enhancement above the polar ionosphere. The electron density along the satellite path was derived using the upper-hybrid resonance (UHR) frequency and maximum frequency of whistler-mode waves observed by the PWS instrument onboard the Akebono satellite with the time resolution of 2 seconds. In the present data analysis, we used the electron density data from March, 1989 to July, 1990 for statistical analyses. First, we investigate the statistically averaged density distributions during the quiet time in summer, equinox, and winter seasons. The data are sorted by day and night in magnetic local time, 5 degrees in invariant latitude and 100 km in altitude. The logarithmically averaged data in each bin are fitted by using the non-linear least square fitting method in altitude direction, using the equation of sum of the exponential and power law functions. Then, the fitted profiles are interpolated in ILAT direction by exponential functions. Finally, we obtain electron density distribution on the meridian plane. From comparing these distributions, it is identified that electron density in summer is 5 to 50 times larger than that in winter below 5000 km altitude in the polar cap and auroral zone. Next, we perform case studies for the geomagnetic storm events which occurred on June 6, June 9, 1989 and March 30, 1990. In these events, enhancements

  17. Transport processes and distribution of plasma in the ionosphere during total solar eclipses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chukwuma, Victor

    2016-07-01

    The effect of solar eclipse on the ionospheric F2 layer does not appear to depend only on the changes in the electron density. In this regards therefore, we have investigated the transport term process and the distribution F2 plasma during three total solar eclipses (TSE) at low- and mid-latitude. Particularly, the diurnal changes in the NmF2 and hmF2 during these spectacular events, as recorded by the ionosondes situated along the path of solar eclipses, which are within the obscuration percentage of 59-90% were investigated. Presently, our results show that NmF2 decreased during the eclipse window, as a consequence of the variation in the local solar radiation in regions under investigation. However, at mid-latitude, the distribution of F2 plasma was dominated by diffusion mechanisms which determined the height at which the F2 peak formed and were related to the changes in thermospheric composition. While at low-latitude the plasma distribution during TSE appeared to depend on combined effect of solar ionizing radiation (SIR) and the background nighttime ionospheric instabilities/irregularities mechanism. The downward/upward transport processes of the plasma appear to correspond with the drifting of the diffusion mechanisms and suffered a comparable variation with the SIR. Furthermore, at low-latitude ionosphere the transport process is controlled by the equatorial electric field. It is also observed that the eastward/westward movement of the equatorial electric field during the eclipse phase was connected to the upward/downward movement of the vertical transport. In conclusion, our results appear to indicate that eclipse effects increased with increase in latitude and the time lag decreases with increase in latitude.

  18. Study of plasma natural convection induced by electron beam in atmosphere [

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Yongfeng Han, Xianwei; Tan, Yonghua

    2014-06-15

    Using high-energy electron beams to ionize air is an effective way to produce a large-size plasma in the atmosphere. In particular, with a steady-state high power generator, some unique phenomena can be achieved, including natural convection of the plasma. The characteristics of this convection are studied both experimentally and numerically. The results show that an asymmetrical temperature field develops with magnitudes that vary from 295 K to 389 K at a pressure of 100 Torr. Natural convection is greatly enhanced under 760 Torr. Nevertheless, plasma transport is negligible in this convection flow field and only the plasma core tends to move upward. Parameter analysis is performed to discern influencing factors on this phenomenon. The beam current, reflecting the Rayleigh number Ra effect, correlates with convection intensity, which indicates that energy deposition is the underlying key factor in determining such convections. Finally, natural convection is concluded to be an intrinsic property of the electron beam when focused into dense air, and can be achieved by carefully adjusting equipment operations parameters.

  19. Ionospheric nf sub H resonances: Frequency shifts versus plasma conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, R. F.

    1971-01-01

    The Alouette 2 resonances observed near the harmonics of the electron cyclotron frequency f sub H reveal frequency shifts (relative to the n(f sub H) values derived from model field calculations) which can be interpreted in terms of plasma wave dispersion effects. These effects are observed on the 2(f sub H) resonance when it is near the resonance observed close to the upper hybrid frequency f sub T. The observations suggest that an oblique echo model may be required to give a proper interpretation of the 2(f sub H) resonance. Cyclotron damping can be ignored only when the angle between the propagation vector and the direction perpendicular to the earth's magnetic field B is less than a few degrees for the 2(f sub H) wave, and less than a few tenths of a degree for the n(f sub H) waves with n 2. The negative offset of the absolute value of B inferred from the plasma resonance observations is consistent with expectations based on recent OGO 3 and OGO 5 rubidium magnetometer observations at higher altitudes in the equatorial regions.

  20. The superdense plasma sheet: Plasmaspheric origin, solar wind origin, or ionospheric origin?

    SciTech Connect

    Borovsky, J.E.; Thomsen, M.F.; McComas, D.J.

    1997-10-01

    A few times per month, the density of the plasma sheet is several times higher than its usual density. Such superdense plasma sheet intervals are observed both in the midtail region and at geosynchronous orbit. Typically at geosynchronous orbit, a superdense plasma sheet occurs on the first day of a geomagnetic storm and lasts about 12{endash}18 hours. The occurrences of superdense plasma sheets are found to be related to a distinct pattern of Kp: Kp rising after it has been low for an extended period. The occurrences are also associated with high-density solar wind. Three sources for the material of the superdense plasma sheet are explored: (1) the outer plasmasphere, which is stripped away and drawn into the dayside neutral line when Kp increases, wherein it joins the lobe and eventually joins the plasma sheet; (2) high-density solar-wind, which may have its entry into the plasma sheet controlled by the solar-wind magnetic field; and (3) ionospheric outflow, which is known to be Kp dependent. The occurrence of a superdense plasma sheet has several consequences: it adds to the intensity of the ring current, it may alter the dynamics of the magnetotail and the nature of substorms, and it may provide an enhanced source population for storm-time energetic particles. {copyright} 1997 American Geophysical Union

  1. Scintillation of radio astronomical sources due to anisotropic inhomogeneities in the ionospheric plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Bezrodnyi, V.G.

    1988-02-01

    We have investigated the properties of scintillation of sources of cosmic radio emission due to inhomogeneities in the ionospheric F-region. The inhomogeneities are elongated along the geomagnetic field lines. We show that when the line of sight coincides with the magnetic field direction, we should observe an increase in the magnitude of the scintillation index. The amount of the increase, as well as the angular range in which it occurs, depend on the explicit shape of the spectrum of spatial scales of the inhomogeneities. We have given consideration to models which have been adopted in the literature for three-dimensional and two-dimensional anisotropy in the ionospheric turbulence. Based on this analysis, we propose a diagnostic method for the inhomogeneous ionospheric plasma. It is based on multifrequency measurements of the scintillation index of radio astronomical sources which culminate near the direction of the geomagnetic field lines at the latitude of the observing point. We establish the limits which are imposed on our proposed method because of the finite dimensions of the sources.

  2. UCB current detector experiment on Swedish auroral payloads. [ionospheric current and plasma flow measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mozer, F.

    1974-01-01

    A split Langmuir probe has been developed to make in situ measurements of ionospheric current density and plasma bulk flow. The probe consists of two conducting elements that are separated by a thin insulator that shield each other over a 2 pi solid angle, and that are simultaneously swept from negative to positive with respect to the plasma. By measuring the current to each plate and the difference current between plates, information is obtained on the plasma's current density, bulk flow, electron temperature, and density. The instrument was successfully flown twice on sounding rockets into auroral events. Measurement data indicate that the total auroral current configuration is composed of several alternating east and west electrojets associated with several alternating up and down Birkeland currents.

  3. Ionospheric outflows as possible source of the low-energy plasma flux tubes controlling the dimension of pulsating auroral patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, J.; Donovan, E.; Nishimura, T.; Yang, B.; Angelopoulos, V.

    2014-12-01

    Conjunctive observations of low-Earth-orbit satellites and optical auroral imagers have indicated that, a majority of pulsating auroral patches (PAPs) are associated with low-energy ion (LEI) precipitation structures with core energies ranging from several tens of eV up to a few hundred eV. This result is consistent with a long-standing proposal that the PAPs connect to flux tubes filled with enhanced "cold" plasma. To further explore the origin and generation mechanism of those LEI structures, we investigate a few THEMIS events when the in-situ probes are conceived as conjugate to PAPs, judging by an apparent correlation between the in-situ whistler-mode chorus and the oscillation of the PAP luminosity [Nishimura et al., 2011]. We notice a common existence of LEI structures from THEMIS in-situ data during those conjugacy event intervals. Such LEI structures are always strongly field-aligned, with core energies ranging from several tens of eV up to a few hundred eV, and often exhibit distinct energy dispersion features. Contingent upon the energy range and time, the pitch-angle distribution of the LEI structures can be either heavily biased toward parallel direction, or biased toward anti-parallel direction, or roughly symmetric between parallel and anti-parallel directions. The above observations allude to the ion outflows from the ionosphere as a plausible origin of the observed LEI structures. To check the above notion, we perform particle simulations assuming that the low-energy ions originate from the ion outflows in topside ionosphere and bounce between hemispheres while convecting with EXB drift. The simulation results can reproduce some of the basic observable features of the LEI structures, such as the energy dispersion and the variation of pitch-angle distribution versus time and energy. Combining the results from low-Earth-orbit satellites observations, THEMIS in-situ observations, and simulations, we propose that the ion outflows into the magnetosphere

  4. Suprathermal plasma analyzer for the measurement of low-energy electron distribution in the ionosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Shimoyama, M.; Yau, A. W.; Oyama, K.-I.; Abe, T.

    2011-07-15

    It is commonly believed that an energy transfer from thermal to suprathermal electrons (ionosphere. However, observation of electron energy spectrum in this energy range is quite limited because of technical difficulties of measurement. We have developed an instrument to measure electron energy distribution from thermal to suprathermal energy continuously with high-energy resolution of about 0.15 eV. The measurement principle is based on the combination of a retarding potential analyzer with a channel electron multiplier (CEM) and the Druyvesteyn method, which derives energy distribution from the current-voltage characteristics. The capability of detecting plasma space potential enables absolute calibration of electron energy. The instrument with a small vacuum pump, which is required for the CEM to work in low-vacuum region, was first successfully tested by a sounding rocket S-310-37 in the ionospheric E region. The instrument is expected to provide new opportunities to measure energy distribution of thermal and non-thermal electrons in low-density plasma, where a Langmuir probe cannot measure electron temperature because of low plasma density.

  5. Suprathermal plasma analyzer for the measurement of low-energy electron distribution in the ionosphere.

    PubMed

    Shimoyama, M; Oyama, K-I; Abe, T; Yau, A W

    2011-07-01

    It is commonly believed that an energy transfer from thermal to suprathermal electrons (ionosphere. However, observation of electron energy spectrum in this energy range is quite limited because of technical difficulties of measurement. We have developed an instrument to measure electron energy distribution from thermal to suprathermal energy continuously with high-energy resolution of about 0.15 eV. The measurement principle is based on the combination of a retarding potential analyzer with a channel electron multiplier (CEM) and the Druyvesteyn method, which derives energy distribution from the current-voltage characteristics. The capability of detecting plasma space potential enables absolute calibration of electron energy. The instrument with a small vacuum pump, which is required for the CEM to work in low-vacuum region, was first successfully tested by a sounding rocket S-310-37 in the ionospheric E region. The instrument is expected to provide new opportunities to measure energy distribution of thermal and non-thermal electrons in low-density plasma, where a Langmuir probe cannot measure electron temperature because of low plasma density. PMID:21806205

  6. Suprathermal plasma analyzer for the measurement of low-energy electron distribution in the ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimoyama, M.; Oyama, K.-I.; Abe, T.; Yau, A. W.

    2011-07-01

    It is commonly believed that an energy transfer from thermal to suprathermal electrons (ionosphere. However, observation of electron energy spectrum in this energy range is quite limited because of technical difficulties of measurement. We have developed an instrument to measure electron energy distribution from thermal to suprathermal energy continuously with high-energy resolution of about 0.15 eV. The measurement principle is based on the combination of a retarding potential analyzer with a channel electron multiplier (CEM) and the Druyvesteyn method, which derives energy distribution from the current-voltage characteristics. The capability of detecting plasma space potential enables absolute calibration of electron energy. The instrument with a small vacuum pump, which is required for the CEM to work in low-vacuum region, was first successfully tested by a sounding rocket S-310-37 in the ionospheric E region. The instrument is expected to provide new opportunities to measure energy distribution of thermal and non-thermal electrons in low-density plasma, where a Langmuir probe cannot measure electron temperature because of low plasma density.

  7. Observations of the plasma environment during an active ionospheric ion beam injection experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnoldy, R. L.; Pollock, C. J.; Cahill, L. J., Jr.; Erlandson, R. E.; Kintner, P. M.

    1990-01-01

    Several sounding rocket flights have been used to clarify the electrodynamics of neutral beam releases of Ar ions in the upper ionosphere, by varying the Ar's point of release with respect to the diagnostic payload. A volume of 10-m radius centered on the Ar release payload is measured for broadband wave activity; the superthermal neutralizing beam electrons become magnetized in this volume for across-field plasma releases, and ambient electrons are accelerated to energies of several hundred eV. This is speculated to be due to wave turbulence rather than payload-neutralization.

  8. Non-Uniform Plasma Discharges in Near Earth Space Environment and Ionosphere to Troposphere Responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCanney, J. M.

    2009-05-01

    Most earth weather and ionosphere-space environment coupling studies separate the problems into distinct groups. Heliosphere to solar wind - solar storm activity to ionospheric coupling - thermosphere and mid- altitude to the ionosphere and electrical effects such as elves and sprites and thunderstorms in another group - additionally mid and high latitude weather systems are many times separated also. The theoretical work here shows that not only are these areas coupled and related, but it also shows that without the constant electrical and resulting magnetic driving forces from space environments, earth would have little if no weather variability at all below the ionosphere. With only solar light energy as input, earth (and the other planets) would have little weather at all. The realization that extensive electrical activates occur in and above the troposphere, extending to the ionosphere and ultimately coupling to the magnetosphere have raised the theoretical and experimental questions regarding the sources of EMF which create the observed effects. The current work has identified 17 Local Electrical Batteries (LEBs), which provide the electrical EMF that can be linked to the observed effects the jet streams and lower atmospheric weather phenomenon. The path of the sources of EMF can be followed from the passing solar wind through "tunnels" that end in electrical currents that pass into the atmosphere via the ionosphere to storm cloud systems in the lower atmosphere. However the source of energy comes from localized plasma discharging of a non-uniform plasma environment that powers the electrical systems of the entire solar system. These are ultimately the sources of electrical energy that power the severe lower atmospheric storm systems such as westerly moving hurricanes at low latitudes and associated tornadoes. The connection is made theoretically with the solar wind that drives the 17 identified LEBs. The ultimate source of driving energy is the result of an

  9. Daytime plasma drifts in the equatorial lower ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Debrup; Fejer, Bela G.

    2015-11-01

    We have used extensive radar measurements from the Jicamarca Observatory during low solar flux periods to study the quiet time variability and altitudinal dependence of equatorial daytime vertical and zonal plasma drifts. The daytime vertical drifts are upward and have largest values during September-October. The day-to-day variability of these drifts does not change with height between 150 and 600 km, but the bimonthly variability is much larger in the F region than below about 200 km. These drifts vary linearly with height generally increasing in the morning and decreasing in the afternoon. The zonal drifts are westward during the day and have largest values during July-October. The 150 km region zonal drifts have much larger day-to-day, but much smaller bimonthly variability than the F region drifts. The daytime zonal drifts strongly increase with height up to about 300 km from March through October, and more weakly at higher altitudes. The December solstice zonal drifts have generally weaker altitudinal dependence, except perhaps below 200 km. Current theoretical and general circulation models do not reproduce the observed altitudinal variation of the daytime equatorial zonal drifts.

  10. On the equatorial transport of Saturn's ionosphere as driven by a dust-ring current system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ip, W.-H.; Mendis, D. A.

    1983-03-01

    The diurnal modulation of the dust ring current of Saturn's D-ring causes field-aligned Birkeland currents to flow near the dawn and dusk terminators and close across the mid-latitude ionosphere. One consequence of this current system is the establishment of a global convection pattern in the equatorial outer ionosphere. Outward motion of the dayside ionospheric plasma as well as the corresponding absorption effect of the inner ring system might be one physical cause of the depletion of the ionospheric content of Saturn.

  11. On the equatorial transport of Saturn's ionosphere as driven by a dust-ring current system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ip, W.-H.; Mendis, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    The diurnal modulation of the dust ring current of Saturn's D-ring causes field-aligned Birkeland currents to flow near the dawn and dusk terminators and close across the midlatitude ionosphere. One consequence of this current system is the establishment of a global convection pattern in the equatorial outer ionosphere. Outward motion of the dayside ionospheric plasma as well as the corresponding absorption effect of the inner ring system might be one physical cause of the depletion of the ionospheric content of Saturn.

  12. Modelling ionospheric density structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schunk, R. W.; Sojka, J. J.

    1989-01-01

    Large-scale density structures are a common feature in the high-latitude ionsphere. The structures were observed in the dayside cusp, polar cap, and nocturnal auroral region over a range of altitudes, including the E-region, F-region and topside ionosphere. The origins, lifetimes and transport characteristics of large-scale density structures were studied with the aid of a three-dimensional, time-dependent ionospheric model. Blob creation due to particle precipitation, the effect that structured electric fields have on the ionosphere, and the lifetimes and transport characteristics of density structures for different seasonal, solar cycle, and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions were studied. The main conclusions drawn are: (1) the observed precipitation energy fluxes are sufficient for blob creation if the plasma is exposed to the precipitation for 5 to 10 minutes; (2) structured electric fields produce structured electron densities, ion temperatures, and ion composition; (3) the lifetime of an F-region density structure depends on several factors, including the initial location where it was formed, the magnitude of the perturbation, season, solar cycle and IMF; and (4) depending on the IMF, horizontal plasma convection can cause an initial structure to break up into multiple structures of various sizes, remain as a single distorted structure, or become stretched into elongated segments.

  13. Topside ionosphere plasma bubbles, seen in He+ density: longitudinal dependence and thermosphere meridional wind influence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorova, L.

    2009-04-01

    He+ density depletions, considered as originating from equatorial plasma bubbles, or as fossil bubble signatures, were involved in this study. He+ density depletions, obtained from ISS-b spacecraft data, were observed during a high solar activity (1978-80, F10.7=200) in the topside ionosphere (900-1100 km) deeply inside the plasmasphere (L=1.3-3) (Sidorova, 2004, 2007). (1) He+ density depletion statistics with respect to longitude is considered for the post-sunset hours under winter, summer and equinoctial conditions within of 35° invariant latitudes. The map of He+ density depletion distribution as function of latitude- and longitude was also derived. The statistics and the map were compared with Equatorial Spread-F statistics, plasma bubble distribution and Range Spread-F statistics, obtained by Maruyama and Matuura (1984, 1980) from ISS-b spacecraft data for the same period (1978-80). The longitudinal variations of the Equatorial F-region Irregularities probability, obtained from the AE-E spacecraft data (McClure et al., 1998) for the same period, were also taken. Comparison shows good conformity in statistics/spatial distributions of all mentioned irregularities. Their predominant occurrence area for all seasons and both hemispheres covers the region of Brasilia, Atlantic Ocean and Africa (270°-0°-30°), where the range of magnetic field declination angle varies from 0° to 20°. (2) It is also suggested, that the plasma bubbles, produced by Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) instability at the bottomside of ionosphere and transported up to the topside ionosphere/plasmasphere, could be strong affected by meridional wind during a generation due to inhibiting the growth of R-T instability and flux tube integrated conductivity. For better understanding competing/complementary roles of thermosphere winds in the development of plasma bubbles, observed in He+ density, the evaluation of the possible influence of the thermosphere meridional winds was done. The diurnal He

  14. Physics of planetary ionospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, S. J.

    1973-01-01

    The fundamental physical and chemical processes in an idealized planetary ionosphere are considered as a general abstraction, with actual planetary ionospheres representing special cases. After describing the structure of the neutral atmospheres (the barosphere, the thermosphere, and the exosphere) and noting the principal ionizing radiations responsible for the formation of planetary ionospheres, a detailed study is made of the thermal structure of these ionospheres and of the chemical processes and plasma-transport processes occurring in them. The features of equilibrium and realistic models of planetary ionospheres are discussed, and an attempt is made to determine the extent of these ionospheres. Considering the ionosphere as a plasma, a plasma kinetic approach is developed for determining the effects of interactions between individual particles and waves in this plasma. The use of remote-sensing radio techniques and direct measurement or in situ techniques is discussed. Finally, the observed properties of the ionospheres of the Earth, Mars, Venus, and Jupiter are reviewed.

  15. Convection-driven delivery of plasma sheet material to the inner magnetosphere.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denton, M. H.; Thomsen, M. F.; Lavraud, B.; Skoug, R. M.; Henderson, M. G.; Funsten, H. O.; Jahn, J.; Pollock, C. J.; Weygand, J.

    2005-12-01

    We present data from the MENA instrument onboard the IMAGE satellite taken during a period of enhanced convection on 26 June 2001. During the interval, MENA observes energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) in the magnetotail and an Earthwards-propagating enhancement in their flux, at the same time as the convection strength increases (as measured by the Kp and MBI indices). Data from the magnetospheric plasma analyser (MPA) instrument onboard satellites in geosynchronous orbit indicate that enhanced ion and electron fluxes at plasma sheet energies (~1-45 keV) are detected at the same time as enhanced ENA flux are observed at the satellite location. We interpret the results as a convection-driven delivery of plasma sheet material, the ENA signature of which we observe with IMAGE/MENA. We use the rate of the propagation of the ENA enhancement to infer the speed of the plasma sheet delivery to the inner magnetosphere.

  16. Ionospheric plasma escape by high-altitude electric fields: Magnetic moment ''pumping''

    SciTech Connect

    Lundin, R.; Hultqvist, B.

    1989-06-01

    Measurements of electric fields and the composition of upward flowing ionospheric ions by the Viking spacecraft have provided further insight into the mass dependent plasma escape process taking place in the upper ionosphere. The Viking results of the temperature and mass-composition of individual ion beams suggest that upward flowing ion beams can be generated by a magnetic moment ''pumping'' mechanism caused by low-frequency transverse electric field fluctuations, in addition to a field aligned ''quasi-electrostatic'' acceleration process. Magnetic moment ''pumping'' within transverse electric field gradients can be described as a conversion of electric drift velocity to cyclotron velocity by the inertial drift in time-dependent electric field. This gives an equal cyclotron velocity gain for all plasma species, irrespective of mass. Oxygen ions thus gain 16 times as much transverse energy as protons. In addition to a transverse energy gain above the escape energy, a field-aligned quasi-electrostatic acceleration is considered primarily responsible for the collimated upward flow of ions. The field-aligned acceleration adds a constant parallel energy to escaping ionospheric ions. Thus, ion beams at high altitudes can be explained by a bimodal acceleration from both a transverse (equal velocity) and a parallel (equal energy) acceleration process. The Viking observations also show that the thermal energy of ion beams, and the ion beam width are mass dependent. The average O/sup +//H/sup +/ ''temperature ratio has been found to be 4.0 from the Viking observations. This is less than the factor of 16 anticipated from a coherent transverse electric field acceleration but greater than the factor of 1 (or even less than 1) expected from a turbulent acceleration process. /copyright/ American Geophysical Union 1989

  17. Dynamics of three-dimensional plasma clouds with coupling to the background ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, T.-Z.; Schunk, R. W.

    1994-01-01

    A three-dimensional, time-dependent model with a two-grid system was developed to study the expansion of a plasma cloud in the F region and topside ionosphere. The model maintains an adequate resolution for the released cloud motion and its interaction with the immediate environment, and it includes the effect due to the coupling with the distant part of the ionosphere (i.e., E region). Simulations were performed using realistic background ionospheric density profiles in both the E and F regions. The results show that the cloud coupling to the underlying E region affects the perpendicular cloud motion the most. The distant coupling acts to reduce the perturbation potential and perpendicular velocity and delays or eliminates the striations. These simulation results are consistent with simple analytical approximations. The simulation results also show that the distant coupling has a very small effect on 'localized' phenomena, such as the cloud expansion along the B RIGHT ARROW field and the electrostatic snowplow. The cloud-induced electric potential is attenuated in the lower E region. The electrons flow along the B RIGHT ARROW field, carrying the current to the E region and back to the cloud. The current closure is demonstrated in three dimensions for the first time for such a problem. The perpendicular current flowing through the plasma cloud is closed by the field-aligned electron current and the background perpendicular (mainly Pedersen) current in both the E and F regions. The 'image cloud' formation in t he E region is also clearly demonstrated. The variation of the density change in the 'image cloud' along the B RIGHT ARROW field and the features of the image cloud are shown.

  18. Convective plasma stability consistent with MHD equilibrium in magnetic confinement systems with a decreasing field

    SciTech Connect

    Tsventoukh, M. M.

    2010-10-15

    A study is made of the convective (interchange, or flute) plasma stability consistent with equilibrium in magnetic confinement systems with a magnetic field decreasing outward and large curvature of magnetic field lines. Algorithms are developed which calculate convective plasma stability from the Kruskal-Oberman kinetic criterion and in which the convective stability is iteratively consistent with MHD equilibrium for a given pressure and a given type of anisotropy in actual magnetic geometry. Vacuum and equilibrium convectively stable configurations in systems with a decreasing, highly curved magnetic field are calculated. It is shown that, in convectively stable equilibrium, the possibility of achieving high plasma pressures in the central region is restricted either by the expansion of the separatrix (when there are large regions of a weak magnetic field) or by the filamentation of the gradient plasma current (when there are small regions of a weak magnetic field, in which case the pressure drops mainly near the separatrix). It is found that, from the standpoint of equilibrium and of the onset of nonpotential ballooning modes, a kinetic description of convective stability yields better plasma confinement parameters in systems with a decreasing, highly curved magnetic field than a simpler MHD model and makes it possible to substantially improve the confinement parameters for a given type of anisotropy. For the Magnetor experimental compact device, the maximum central pressure consistent with equilibrium and stability is calculated to be as high as {beta} {approx} 30%. It is shown that, for the anisotropy of the distribution function that is typical of a background ECR plasma, the limiting pressure gradient is about two times steeper than that for an isotropic plasma. From a practical point of view, the possibility is demonstrated of achieving better confinement parameters of a hot collisionless plasma in systems with a decreasing, highly curved magnetic field

  19. Comparison of the USU ionospheric model with the UCL-Sheffield coupled thermospheric-ionospheric model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sojka, J. J.; Schunk, R. W.; Rees, D.; Fuller-Rowell, T. J.; Moffett, R. J.; Quegan, S.

    1992-01-01

    Several physical models of the high-latitude ionosphere have been developed that describe the time-dependent evolution of the E- and F-region plasma density. The models require a variety of inputs, including solar EUV fluxes, magnetospheric convection, auroral precipitation, and neutral atmosphere. Of specific relevance to this study is how the neutral atmosphere is incorporated into the ionospheric models. For the USU ionospheric model, the neutral atmosphere is the MSIS 1986 empirical model, while for the UCL-Sheffield coupled thermospheric-ionospheric model the neutral atmosphere is computed simultaneously with the ionosphere. Both models were run for similar solar and magnetospheric conditions (solar maximum, moderate geomagnetic activity, and winter solstice). Solar maximum conditions ensured a strong coupling between the ionosphere and thermosphere, which provided the possibility of a large ionospheric difference between the two physical models. This was further enhanced by choosing winter conditions so that the densities were not dominated by sunlight. The comparison of the two models indicated that both models predict the same morphological features with similar ionospheric densities, generally within about 30 percent.

  20. The possibility of supersonic plasma flow in a collapsing post-sunset ionosphere.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fontheim, E. G.; Banks, P. M.

    1972-01-01

    As a result of the rapidly decreasing pressure in the topside ionosphere during twilight hours, a rapid downward flow of hydrogen plasma from the protonosphere takes place. In the case of steady state, isothermal, frictionless flow, the criterion for the existence of a critical point (transition to supersonic flow) above 1000 km is that the plasma temperature be lower than a certain limiting temperature which is a function of the field line considered. In the latitude region between 40 and 70 deg, this upper temperature limit varies from 963 to 1066 K. Since these temperatures are considerably lower than the observed temperatures, it follows that in the case of steady state, isothermal flow the velocities will always remain subsonic. When the effect of the neglected terms is examined, the temperature gradient is shown to exert the strongest influence on the nature of the flow. It is concluded that there is a definite possibility that supersonic downward flows in a post-sunset topside ionosphere may occur.

  1. Turbulent transport and heating in the auroral plasma of the topside ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ionson, J. A.; Ong, R. S. B.; Fontheim, E. G.

    1979-01-01

    Using plasma parameters from a typical stormtime ionospheric energy balance model, we have investigated the effects of plasma turbulence on the auroral magnetoplasma. The turbulence is assumed to be comprised of electrostatic ion cyclotron waves. These waves have been driven to a nonthermal level by a geomagnetic field-aligned, current-driven instability. The evolution of this instability is shown to proceed in two stages and indicates an anomalous increase in field-aligned electrical resistivity and cross-field ion thermal conductivity as well as a decrease in electron thermal conductivity along the geomagnetic field. In addition, this turbulence heats ions perpendicular to the geomagnetic field and hence leads to a significant ion temperature anisotropy.

  2. Plasma expansion characteristics of ionized clouds in the ionosphere - Macroscopic formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schunk, R. W.; Szuszczewicz, E. P.

    1991-01-01

    A macroscopic plasma expansion model, based on a numerical solution of the type-dependent nonlinear coupled continuity and momentum equations for background O(+) ions and several released ion species, was used to examine plasma expansion characteristics of ionized clouds in the ionosphere. Information is obtained on Ba(+), Li(+), and Ba(+) - Li(+) clouds; different cloud sizes (Gaussian half widths of 0.1, 0.5, and 1 km); cloud/background ion density ratios covering two orders of magnitude; electron/ion temperature ratios of 1, 5, and 10; and several cloud-background relative velocities along B (0, 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 km/sec). The macroscopic expansion features obtained were found to be in general agreement with those obtained from the small-scale numerical simulations.

  3. Convection of Plasmaspheric Plasma into the Outer Magnetosphere and Boundary Layer Region: Initial Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ober, Daniel M.; Horwitz, J. L.

    1998-01-01

    We present initial results on the modeling of the circulation of plasmaspheric-origin plasma into the outer magnetosphere and low-latitude boundary layer (LLBL), using a dynamic global core plasma model (DGCPM). The DGCPM includes the influences of spatially and temporally varying convection and refilling processes to calculate the equatorial core plasma density distribution throughout the magnetosphere. We have developed an initial description of the electric and magnetic field structures in the outer magnetosphere region. The purpose of this paper is to examine both the losses of plasmaspheric-origin plasma into the magnetopause boundary layer and the convection of this plasma that remains trapped on closed magnetic field lines. For the LLBL electric and magnetic structures we have adopted here, the plasmaspheric plasma reaching the outer magnetosphere is diverted anti-sunward primarily along the dusk flank. These plasmas reach X= -15 R(sub E) in the LLBL approximately 3.2 hours after the initial enhancement of convection and continues to populate the LLBL for 12 hours as the convection electric field diminishes.

  4. Convection of Plasmaspheric Plasma into the Outer Magnetosphere and Boundary Layer Region: Initial Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ober, Daniel M.; Horwitz, J. L.; Gallagher, D. L.

    1998-01-01

    We present initial results on the modeling of the circulation of plasmaspheric- origin plasma into the outer magnetosphere and low-latitude boundary layer (LLBL), using a dynamic global core plasma model (DGCPM). The DGCPM includes the influences of spatially and temporally varying convection and refilling processes to calculate the equatorial core plasma density distribution throughout the magnetosphere. We have developed an initial description of the electric and magnetic field structures in the outer magnetosphere region. The purpose of this paper is to examine both the losses of plasmaspheric-origin plasma into the magnetopause boundary layer and the convection of this plasma that remains trapped on closed magnetic field lines. For the LLBL electric and magnetic structures we have adopted here, the plasmaspheric plasma reaching the outer magnetosphere is diverted anti-sunward primarily along the dusk flank. These plasmas reach X = -15 R(sub E) in the LLBL approximately 3.2 hours after the initial enhancement of convection and continues to populate the LLBL for 12 hours as the convection electric field diminishes.

  5. Does the Precipitation of Solar Wind Plasma Cause the Ionospheric Upwellings Detected by MARSIS on the Dayside of Mars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dieval, C.; Morgan, D. D.; Andrews, D. J.; Duru, F.; Gurnett, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding (MARSIS) onboard the Mars Express spacecraft possesses an ionospheric mode, which is used for local and remote sounding measurements of the Martian topside ionosphere. Ideally, the sounding pulse transmitted by MARSIS gives a vertical reflection from the horizontally stratified ionosphere, down to the ionospheric peak. In practice, this is usually the case, however oblique reflections are also detected. These oblique reflections are often found in regions where the remanent crustal magnetic field is nearly vertical and the sources of reflections are often at a higher apparent altitude than the surrounding ionosphere for the same electron density level. There are recurring observations of such ionospheric upwellings during repeated passes of Mars Express above certain regions over time periods of tens of days. An increased ionospheric scale height seems to create these plasma bulges. A possible cause is a localized heating of the neutral atmosphere due to the entrance of solar wind plasma through the magnetic cusps. We test this explanation by using in situ measurements of electron energy distributions made by the Analyzer of Space Plasmas and Energetic Atoms (ASPERA-3) onboard Mars Express. The statistical study considers dayside oblique echoes (solar zenith angle ≤ 90°) with spacecraft altitude ≤1100 km, for orbits with sufficient MARSIS data coverage and corresponding to a criterion of repetitive passes above a given region. We keep only oblique echoes which are no further below than 10 km in apparent altitude compared to the surrounding ionosphere (most of the cases), to ensure the echoes most likely come from near the vertical direction, at the time of closest approach. Finally we take the oblique echoes with simultaneous ASPERA-3 data, with short time intervals (up to 2 minutes) before and after the time of closest approach. This leaves 761 oblique echoes. The intervals are then manually

  6. Lifetime of a depression in the plasma density over Jicamarca produced by space shuttle exhaust in the ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhardt, P. A.; Huba, J. D.; Kudeki, E.; Woodman, R. F.; Condori, L.; Villanueva, F.

    2001-09-01

    When the space shuttle orbiting maneuver subsystem (OMS) engines burn in the ionosphere, a plasma density depression, or "hole," is produced. Charge exchange between the exhaust molecules and the ambient O+ ions yields molecular ion beams that eventually recombine with electrons. The resulting plasma hole in the ionosphere can be studied with ground-based, incoherent scatter radars (ISRs). This type of ionospheric modification is being studied during the Shuttle Ionospheric Modification with Pulsed Localized Exhaust (SIMPLEX) series of experiments over ISR systems located around the globe. The SIMPLEX 1 experiment occurred over Jicamarca, Peru, in the afternoon on October 4, 1997, during shuttle mission STS 86. An electron density depression was produced at 359 km altitude at the midpoint of a magnetic field line. The experiment was scheduled when there were no zonal drifts of the plasma so the modified field line remained fixed over the 50 MHz Jicamarca radar. The density depression was filled in by plasma flowing along the magnetic field line with a time constant of 4.5 min. The density perturbation had completely vanished 20 min after the engine burn. The experimental measurements were compared with two models: (1) SAMI2, a fully numerical model of the F region, and (2) an analytic representation of field-aligned transport by ambipolar diffusion. The computed recovery time from each model is much longer than the observed recovery time. The theory of ambipolar diffusion currently used in ionospheric models seems to be inadequate to describe the SIMPLEX 1 observations. Several possible sources for this discrepancy are discussed. The SIMPLEX 1 active experiment is shown to have the potential for testing selected processes in ionospheric models.

  7. Relations between transverse electric fields and field-aligned currents. [in magnetosphere and ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mallinckrodt, A. J.; Carlson, C. W.

    1978-01-01

    A model for the field-aligned propagation of transverse electric fields and associated field-aligned sheet currents is presented which takes into account the wave nature of the process. The model is applied to the separate cases of ionospheric and magnetospheric sources, and the resulting ionospheric electric field to field-aligned sheet current ratios are determined for comparison with experimental observations. It is found that the magnetospheric wave 'conductivity' for shear mode Alfven waves is small with respect to typical values of the height-integrated ionospheric Pedersen conductivity. For plasma convecting across a stationary disturbance a dynamic equilibrium is achieved in which field-aligned currents flow continuously away from the source on convecting field lines. Consistency with typical ionospheric electric fields requires that the field-aligned sheet currents are limited to around 0.1 A/m for ionospheric polarization sources, while magnetospheric sources are easily capable of 1 A/m or more.

  8. Effect of HF Emission of the topside sounder transmitter aboard the COSMOS-1809 satellite on the ionospheric plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranets, N. V.; Gladyshev, V. A.; Afonin, V. V.

    The experiment on investigation of effect of the HF emission (300 W) by the dipole antenna on the ionospheric plasma was carried out onboard the COSMOS-1809 satellite (1987). The sounder accelerated particles (SAP) at the electron cyclotron harmonics n x omegace and in the frequency region of antenna resonance were detected by the charged particle spectrometer.

  9. Plasma wave turbulence due to the wake of an ionospheric sounding rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, K.; Kumamoto, A.; Ono, T.; Katoh, Y.

    2013-12-01

    In the ionosphere, a rarefied plasma region called "plasma wake" is formed behind a sounding rocket. Based on a one-dimensional Vlasov-Maxwell simulation, it was suggested that electron distribution functions in the plasma wake behind spacecraft are different from the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution function [Singh et al., 1987]. Thus, plasma waves are expected to be generated in the wake of a sounding rocket. Some studies reported plasma waves around the wake of artificial satellites [Keller et al., 1997] and solar system bodies such as Moon [Nakagawa et al., 2003]. Yamamoto (2000) is the first study that focused on plasma waves induced by sounding rockets on the basis of the results of several rocket experiments. He compared the observed wave frequency with the electron number density in the wake and indicated plasma waves could be generated inside the rocket wake. In order to investigate the properties of the waves in more detail (e.g. spin-phase dependence, generation mechanism, etc.), we are now analyzing the data of electron number density and electric fields of plasma waves in mid-latitude ionosphere by an impedance probe and a plasma wave receiver, which were installed on the sounding rocket S-520-26. In the analysis, we have found plasma waves in a frequency range of 1.3-2.4 MHz (hereinafter called Group-A) as well as those in a frequency range between 0.02 MHz to about 0.6 fce (Group-B), and those in a frequency range from about 0.5 fce to 0.9 fce (Group-C), where fce is the electron cyclotron frequency deduced from the IGRF model. The Group-A emissions are similar to the waves observed in previous studies [Yamamoto, 2000]. Comparison with the data of the impedance probe has suggested the Group-A waves are short-wavelength electrostatic waves including upper-hybrid resonance (UHR) mode waves and electrostatic electron cyclotron harmonic (ESCH) waves. On the other hand, the Group-B and Group-C waves are whistler mode waves. Besides, the analysis with the

  10. The thresholds of ionospheric plasma instabilities pumped by high-frequency radio waves at EISCAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryers, C. J.; Kosch, M. J.; Senior, A.; Rietveld, M. T.; Yeoman, T. K.

    2013-11-01

    We test the existing theories regarding the thresholds for the parametric decay instability (PDI), the oscillating two-steam instability (OTSI), and the thermal parametric instability (TPI) using the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT) facility's ionospheric heater. In these processes, the pump wave can couple to various electrostatic waves in the F layer ionosphere, which can be observed using the EISCAT UHF radar (PDI and OTSI) or by HF radar (TPI). On 19 October 2012, the heater power was stepped from ˜0.5 MW to ˜100 MW effective radiated power in seven steps using a 1 min on, 1 min off cycle. We use an electric field model, taking into account D region absorption, to compare theory with our observations. In all three cases, we find good agreement. In addition, the growth of striations formed during the TPI causes anomalous absorption of the heater wave, which we observe as decreased UHF ion line and plasma line backscatter power. We show evidence that heating for a prolonged period of time reduces the UHF ion line intensity throughout the experiment.