Science.gov

Sample records for ipg como posible

  1. IPG Power Grid Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinke, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    This presentation will describe what is meant by grids and then cover the current state of the IPG. This will include an overview of the middleware that is key to the operation of the grid. The presentation will then describe some of the future directions that are planned for the IPG. Finally the presentation will conclude with a brief overview of the Global Grid Forum, which is a key activity that will contribute to the successful availability of grid components.

  2. Characterization of the Inductively Heated Plasma Source IPG6-B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dropmann, Michael; Laufer, Rene; Herdrich, Georg; Matthews, Lorin; Hyde, Truell

    2014-10-01

    In close collaboration between the Center for Astrophysics, Space Physics and Engineering Research (CASPER) at Baylor University, Texas, and the Institute of Space Systems (IRS) at the University of Stuttgart, Germany, two plasma facilities have been established using the Inductively heated Plasma Generator 6 (IPG6). The facility at Baylor University (IPG6-B) works at a frequency of 13.56 MHz and a maximum power of 15 kW. A vacuum pump of 160 m3/h in combination with a butterfly valve allows pressure control over a wide range. Intended fields of research include basic investigation into thermo-chemistry and plasma radiation, space plasma environments and high heat fluxes e.g. those found in fusion devices or during atmospheric re-entry of spacecraft. After moving the IPG6-B facility to the Baylor Research and Innovation Collaborative (BRIC) it was placed back into operation during the summer of 2014. Initial characterization in the new lab, using a heat flux probe, Pitot probe and cavity calorimeter, has been conducted for Air, Argon and Helium. The results of this characterization are presented.

  3. IPG Job Manager v2.0 Design Documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Chaumin

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides a high-level design of the IPG Job Manager, and satisfies its Master Requirement Specification v2.0 Revision 1.0, 01/29/2003. The presentation includes a Software Architecture/Functional Overview with the following: Job Model; Job Manager Client/Server Architecture; Job Manager Client (Job Manager Client Class Diagram and Job Manager Client Activity Diagram); Job Manager Server (Job Manager Client Class Diagram and Job Manager Client Activity Diagram); Development Environment; Project Plan; Requirement Traceability.

  4. Perspective of Lecturers in Implementing PISMP Science Curriculum in Malaysia's IPG

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yahya, Fauziah Hj; Bin Hamdan, Abdul Rahim; Jantan, Hafsah Binti; Saleh, Halimatussadiah Binti

    2015-01-01

    The article aims to identify lecturers' perspectives in implementing PISMP science curriculum in IPG Malaysia based on teaching experience with KIPP model. The respondents consisted of 105 lecturers from 20 IPG Malaysia. The study used a questionnaire consisting of 74 items covering the four dimensions (Context, Input, Process and Product). Data…

  5. Shigella IpgB1 promotes bacterial entry through the ELMO-Dock180 machinery.

    PubMed

    Handa, Yutaka; Suzuki, Masato; Ohya, Kenji; Iwai, Hiroki; Ishijima, Nozomi; Koleske, Anthony J; Fukui, Yoshinori; Sasakawa, Chihiro

    2007-01-01

    Shigella use a special mechanism to invade epithelial cells called 'the trigger mechanism of entry', which allows epithelial cells to trap several bacteria simultaneously. On contact, Shigella deliver effectors into epithelial cells through the type III secretion system. Here, we show that one of the effectors, IpgB1, has a pivotal role in producing membrane ruffles by exploiting the RhoG-ELMO-Dock180 pathway to stimulate Rac1 activity. Using pulldown assays, we identified engulfment and cell motility (ELMO) protein as the IpgB1 binding partner. IpgB1 colocalized with ELMO and Dock180 in membrane ruffles induced by Shigella. Shigella invasiveness and IpgB1-induced ruffles were less in ELMO- and Dock180-knockdown cells compared with wild-type cells. Membrane association of ELMO-Dock180 with ruffles were promoted when cells expressed an IpgB1-ELMO chimera, establishing that IpgB1 mimics the role of RhoG in producing membrane ruffles. Taken together, our findings show that IpgB1 mimicry is the key to invasion by Shigella. PMID:17173036

  6. Characterization of the Los Alamos IPG YLR-6000 fiber laser using multiple optical paths and laser focusing optics

    SciTech Connect

    Milewski, John O; Bernal, John E

    2009-01-01

    Fiber laser technology has been identified as the replacement power source for the existing Los Alamos TA-55 production laser welding system. An IPG YLR-6000 fiber laser was purchased, installed at SM-66 R3, and accepted in February 2008. No characterization of the laser and no welding was performed in the Feb 2008 to May 2009 interval. T. Lienert and J. Bernal (Ref. 1, July 2009) determined the existing 200 mm Rofin collimator and focus heads used with the Rofin diode pumped lasers were inadequate for use with the IPG laser due to clipping of the IPG laser beam. Further efforts in testing of the IPG laser with Optoskand fiber delivery optics and a Rofin 120 mm collimator proved problematic due to optical fiber damage. As a result, IPG design optical fibers were purchased as replacements for subsequent testing. Within the same interval, an IPG fiber-to-fiber (F2F) connector, custom built for LANL, (J. Milewski, S. Gravener, Ref.2) was demonstrated and accepted at IPG Oxford, MA in August 2009. An IPG service person was contracted to come to LANL to assist in the installation, training, troubleshooting and characterization of the multiple beam paths and help perform laser head optics characterization. The statement of work is provided below: In summary the laser system, optical fibers, F2F connector, Precitec head, and a modified Rofin type (w/120mm Optoskand collimator) IWindowIBoot system focus head (Figure 1) were shown to perform well at powers up to 6 kW CW. Power measurements, laser spot size measurements, and other characterization data and lessons learned are contained within this report. In addition, a number of issues were identified that will require future resolution.

  7. NPSS on NASA's IPG: Using CORBA and Globus to Coordinate Multidisciplinary Aeroscience Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, Isaac; Follen, Gregory J.; Gutierrez, Richard; Naiman, Cynthia G.; Foster, Ian; Ginsburg, Brian; Larsson, Olle; Martin, Stuart; Tuecke, Steven; Woodford, David

    2000-01-01

    Within NASA's High Performance Computing and Communication (HPCC) program, the NASA Glenn Research Center is developing an environment for the analysis/design of aircraft engines called the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS). The vision for NPSS is to create a "numerical test cell" enabling full engine simulations overnight on cost-effective computing platforms. To this end, NPSS integrates multiple disciplines such as aerodynamics, structures, and heat transfer and supports "numerical zooming" between O-dimensional to 1-, 2-, and 3-dimensional component engine codes. In order to facilitate the timely and cost-effective capture of complex physical processes, NPSS uses object-oriented technologies such as C++ objects to encapsulate individual engine components and CORBA ORBs for object communication and deployment across heterogeneous computing platforms. Recently, the HPCC program has initiated a concept called the Information Power Grid (IPG), a virtual computing environment that integrates computers and other resources at different sites. IPG implements a range of Grid services such as resource discovery, scheduling, security, instrumentation, and data access, many of which are provided by the Globus toolkit. IPG facilities have the potential to benefit NPSS considerably. For example, NPSS should in principle be able to use Grid services to discover dynamically and then co-schedule the resources required for a particular engine simulation, rather than relying on manual placement of ORBs as at present. Grid services can also be used to initiate simulation components on parallel computers (MPPs) and to address inter-site security issues that currently hinder the coupling of components across multiple sites. These considerations led NASA Glenn and Globus project personnel to formulate a collaborative project designed to evaluate whether and how benefits such as those just listed can be achieved in practice. This project involves firstly development of the

  8. Initial Operation of the Miniaturized Inductively Heated Plasma Generator IPG6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dropmann, Michael; Herdrich, Georg; Laufer, Rene; Koch, Helmut; Gomringer, Chris; Cook, Mike; Schmoke, Jimmy; Matthews, Lorin; Hyde, Truell

    2012-10-01

    In close collaboration between the Center for Astrophysics, Space Physics and Engineering Research (CASPER) at Baylor University, Texas, and the Institute of Space Systems (IRS) at the University of Stuttgart, Germany, two plasma wind tunnel facilities of similar type have been established using the inductively heated plasma source IPG6 which is based on proven IRS designs. The facility at Baylor University (IPG6-B) works at a frequency of 13.56 MHz and a maximum power of 15 kW. A vacuum pump of 160m^3/h in combination with a butterfly valve allows pressure control in a wide range. First experiments have been conducted with Air, O2 and N2 as working gases and volumetric flow rates of up to 14 L/min at pressures of a few 100 Pa, although pressures below 1 Pa are achievable at lower flow rates. The maximum tested electric power so far was 8 kW. Plasma powers and total pressures in the plasma jet have been obtained. In the near future the set up of additional diagnostics, the use of other gases (i.e. H2, He), and the integration of a dust particle accelerator are planned. The intended fields of research are basic investigation in thermo-chemistry and plasma radiation, space plasma environments and high heat fluxes e.g. in fusion devices or during atmospheric entry of spacecraft.

  9. Comparison of first dimension IPG and NEPHGE techniques in two-dimensional gel electrophoresis experiment with cytosolic unfolded protein response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) is one of the most popular methods in proteomics. Currently, most 2DE experiments are performed using immobilized pH gradient (IPG) in the first dimension; however, some laboratories still use carrier ampholytes-based isoelectric focusing technique. The aim of this study was to directly compare IPG-based and non-equilibrium pH gradient electrophoresis (NEPHGE)-based 2DE techniques by using the same samples and identical second dimension procedures. We have used commercially available Invitrogen ZOOM IPGRunner and WITAvision systems for IPG and NEPHGE, respectively. The effectiveness of IPG-based and NEPHGE-based 2DE methods was compared by analysing differential protein expression during cytosolic unfolded protein response (UPR-Cyto) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Results Protein loss during 2DE procedure was higher in IPG-based method, especially for basic (pI > 7) proteins. Overall reproducibility of spots was slightly better in NEPHGE-based method; however, there was a marked difference when evaluating basic and acidic protein spots. Using Coomassie staining, about half of detected basic protein spots were not reproducible by IPG-based 2DE, whereas NEPHGE-based method showed excellent reproducibility in the basic gel zone. The reproducibility of acidic proteins was similar in both methods. Absolute and relative volume variability of separate protein spots was comparable in both 2DE techniques. Regarding proteomic analysis of UPR-Cyto, the results exemplified parameters of general comparison of the methods. New highly basic protein Sis1p, overexpressed during UPR-Cyto stress, was identified by NEPHGE-based 2DE method, whereas IPG-based method showed unreliable results in the basic pI range and did not provide any new information on basic UPR-Cyto proteins. In the acidic range, the main UPR-Cyto proteins were detected and quantified by both methods. The drawback of NEPHGE-based 2DE method is its failure to

  10. Posible origen del agua terrestre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Sisto, R. P.; Orellana, R. B.; Brunini, A.

    The most plausible sources of the terrestrial water are found in the main external asteroid belt, the giant planetary region and in the Kuiper belt, because of its great presence of ices. However, the timing of earth planets's formation (108 years) marks an inferior limit for the dynamical lifetime of the objects of interest since the previous megaimpacts would volatilize the icy material previusly accreted. The central parameter that allow us to rebuild the origin of water in the solar system is the rate of the Deuterium/Hydrogen isotope (D/H). The D/H measured in three comets has an average value two times greater that the value measured in the terrestrial oceans. Morbidelli et al. support that the main part of the present buldge of water on earth was product of the accretion, in the last formation stages, of some planetary embryos originally formed in the external asteroid belt. In the Jupiter zone, the D/H could be of the order of the terrestrial value. Then, we would have there posible sources with an apropiate isotopic composition that have survived for several 108 years. These sources are: the Troyan asteroids, objects in the Jupiter-Saturn region and objects in the external limit of the asteroidal belt. As for this last group we have considered in this work, the Hilda Family asteroids. The Hilda Family asteroids are placed in the 3/2 mean motion resonance with Jupiter. From the present distribution of the Hilda's orbital parameters, we generate randomly, inicial conditions for 500 massless particles in the Hildas region. Trough numerical simulations we follow their dynamical evolution during 500 millon years and its final state. The mayority of these particles are eyected out of the Solar System (76 %) due to the gravitational action of Jupiter and only a 24 % stay in the resonance zone. The 8.1 % of the particles that leave the resonance, hit Jupiter. Some objects have encounters with the terrestrial planets. From the number of encounters with each planet

  11. Information Power Grid (IPG) Tutorial 2003

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, George

    2003-01-01

    For NASA and the general community today Grid middleware: a) provides tools to access/use data sources (databases, instruments, ...); b) provides tools to access computing (unique and generic); c) Is an enabler of large scale collaboration. Dynamically responding to needs is a key selling point of a grid. Independent resources can be joined as appropriate to solve a problem. Provide tools to enable the building of a frameworks for application. Provide value added service to the NASA user base for utilizing resources on the grid in new and more efficient ways. Provides tools for development of Frameworks.

  12. TUBERCULOSIS COMO ENFERMEDAD OCUPACIONAL

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza-Ticona, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Existe evidencia suficiente para declarar a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional en diversos profesionales especialmente entre los trabajadores de salud. En el Perú están normados y reglamentados los derechos laborales inherentes a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional, como la cobertura por discapacidad temporal o permanente. Sin embargo, estos derechos aún no han sido suficientemente socializados. En este trabajo se presenta información sobre el riesgo de adquirir tuberculosis en el lugar de trabajo, se revisan las evidencias para declarar a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional en trabajadores de salud y se presenta la legislación peruana vigente al respecto. PMID:22858771

  13. Femtoquímica: reacciones en tiempo real, ?`Posibles aplicaciones en Astrofísica?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douhal, Abderrazzak

    En esta conferencia, se mostrarán resultados de medidas en escala del femtosegundo por la primera vez obtenidos en España. Los sistemas elegidos muestran dinámicas que varían de 50 fs a centenas de picosegundo. La técnica usada (sumación de frecuencia) permite ver como ocurren las reacciones químicas y biológicas en tiempo real de reacciones. Su aplicación al estudio de las reacciones fotónicas en el espacio es evidente.

  14. Como Lo Hago Yo: Myelomeningocele

    PubMed Central

    Lazareff, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Fortificación con ádico fólico es efectiva, pero aún falta conciencia en los jóvenes. La legalidad del aborto aumenta la importancia de la consulta prenatal. Realizo la cirugía bajo microcoscopio por razones didácticas. Irrigación continua para reducir la temperatura del tejido. Trato a la plaqueta como tejido viable. No suturo la plaqueta. No cierro músculo. ATB por una semana después de cirugía. Hidrocefalia: Válvula en todos los casos de ventriculomegalia. Médula anclada: Desanclar una sola vez. Chiari II: Revisar la válvula. Incluir en el seguimiento rendimiento escolar, puede indicar obstrucción de la válvula o médula anclada. PMID:24791217

  15. Concepciones Alternativas de "Fotosintesis" en estudiantes Universitarios del curso basico de Biologia y posibles correcciones con el Modelo Educativo MODEF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Jesus Roman, Sandra

    Concepciones Alternativas de Fotosíntesis en estudiantes Universitariosdel curso básico de Biología y posibles correcciones con el Modelo Educativo MODEF El modelo educativo para la enseñanza de Fotosíntesis (MODEF) se implantó para trabajar el problema de las concepciones alternativas (CA) en un curso de Biología General. Se evaluaron los resultados en cuanto al logro del aprendizaje significativo. La pregunta central de la investigación fue: ¿Cómo aporta el modelo educativo en la didáctica y comprensión del tema de fotosíntesis? Se efectuó una investigación acción con una fase cuantitativa y una cualitativa. Para la fase cuantitativa se elaboró una prueba para determinar las concepciones alternativas, se validó y se sometió a los estudiantes que participaron en el estudio antes y después de ofrecer la unidad de metabolismo celular. Los participantes eran estudiantes de primer año de la Universidad de Puerto Rico en Bayamón (UPRB). Se llevó a cabo un análisis de consistencia interna de la prueba mediante el método Alfa de Cronbach. Se analizaron las contestaciones a cada pregunta mediante la prueba de Ji cuadrado de contingencia, se efectuó la prueba de t y el coeficiente r de Pearson. La fase cualitativa incluyó la observación participativa de la investigadora- profesora, las reflexiones de los estudiantes y la información de las entrevistas semi-estructuradas que se realizaron a tres estudiantes del curso. El análisis se llevó a cabo mediante el Modelo de Wolcott. Se trabajaron diez CA de las cuales siete fueron corregidas mediante el Modelo MODEF. Las actividades más importantes para el proceso de aprendizaje incluyeron el trabajo de investigación o búsqueda de información para hacer una presentación digital, la elaboración de tablas, los mapas de conceptos, el uso de visuales o videos y las analogías para explicar conceptos o procesos. En conclusión: se recomienda el uso del Modelo MODEF para la discusión del tema de

  16. Como Lo Hago Yo: Mielomeningocele En Bolivia

    PubMed Central

    Dabdoub, Carlos F.; Dabdoub, Carlos B.; Villavicencio, Ramiro; Quevedo, Germán

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: Las malformaciones del tubo neural (MTN) representan la segunda causa más frecuente de anomalías congénitas, luego de las cardiopatías. En este grupo se destaca el mielomeningocele (MMC) por su mayor incidencia, y por ser la más incapacitante y la más compleja entre todas las demás malformaciones del sistema nervioso c`entral (SNC). En Bolivia, como en muchos países de Sudamérica, los bajos niveles socio-culturales y la debilidad en el sistema sanitario, hacen que su incidencia y su morbilidad, sean mayores que en las naciones más desarrolladas. Material y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo y descriptivo de 70 casos de MMC, atendidos por un equipo multidisciplinario en el Hospital Universitario Japonés (HUJ) de Santa Cruz de la Sierra, entre 2008-2011. De ellos, 60 fueron intervenidos quirúrgicamente. Resultados: Se realizaron controles prenatales sólo en 27 mujeres (38.6%), diagnosticándose una disrafia espinal en apenas dos casos (7.4%). La edad de ingreso del MMC en su mayoría fue después de las 24 horas (65.6%), predominando su localización en la región lumbosacra (64.3%). De ellos, 67.2% eran abiertos, presentando un 32.9% un daño neurológico motor parcial mientras que 47.1% tenían paraplejia por debajo de la lesión. De los 70 casos, tres (4.3%) no fueron intervenidos, por presentar defectos congénitos severos o estado general grave. Las principales complicaciones posoperatorias inmediatas fueron: dehiscencia de sutura y/o infección de la herida (16.6%), fístula de líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR) (10%) e infección del SNC (11.7%). La mortalidad general y postoperatoria fue de 7.1% y 3.3%, respectivamente. Al mes de vida presentaban hidrocefalia un 80% de los pacientes operados, colocándose una derivación ventriculoperitoneal (DVP) de presión media. De 9 pacientes que tuvieron un acompanamiento de dos o más años, seis presentaron una médula anclada, que fueron intervenidas quirúrgicamente. Conclusi

  17. 15. Como gatehouse (outlet tower) and access bridge, looking west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Como gatehouse (outlet tower) and access bridge, looking west from dam crest (Trash rack visible in reservoir pool behind and right of tower) - Bitter Root Irrigation Project, Como Dam, West of U.S. Highway 93, Darby, Ravalli County, MT

  18. Harold Varmus investido bajo juramento como 14.º director d

    Cancer.gov

    Ganador del Premio Nobel, doctor Harold E. Varmus, prestó juramento hoy como 14.º director del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI).  "Es muy estimulante que estés de regreso con nosotros", dijo la secretaria del Departamento de Salud y Servicios Humanos K

  19. LA BIOÉTICA COMO QUEHACER FILOSÓFICO

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer, Jorge José

    2009-01-01

    El artículo examina el estatuto epistemológico de la bioética como disciplina académica. El autor sostiene que el estatuto epistemológico de un discurso lo determina la pregunta fundamental que se plantea y la respuesta que se busca, focos integradores del discurso. En el caso de la bioética, la pregunta fundamental es de índole moral. La bioética es pues una disciplina ética que tiene su hogar epistemológico en la filosofía. El autor también defiende el concepto de “éticas aplicadas”. Sugiere finalmente que el método de la bioética, sobre todo la que se hace desde nuestras latitudes, debería adoptar el círculo hermenéutico como metodología para su filosofar. PMID:20463860

  20. Recent DDT and PCB contamination in the sediment and biota of the Como Bay (Lake Como, Italy).

    PubMed

    Bettinetti, R; Quadroni, S; Boggio, E; Galassi, S

    2016-01-15

    Due to its peculiar geographical and morphological characteristics, Lake Como (Northern Italy) represents an interesting study-case for investigating the sub-basin scale circulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) that, despite being banned since the 1970s, have reached surprisingly high concentrations in some southern alpine lakes as a consequence of their release from melting glaciers in recent years. In particular, the Como Bay, which is located in the city of Como, seems noteworthy because its waters have a longer residence time than the other areas of the lake. The analyses of the historical concentration of PCBs, pp′DDT and its metabolites in a sediment core sampled from the Como Bay covering a time-period from their ban to recent times, showed that the DDTs have never experienced a significant (p < 0.05) decrease over time, with concentrations of the most abundant homologue, pp′DDE, ranging from 27 to 75 ng g(-1) d.w. Conversely PCBs significantly (p < 0.05) decreased towards recent times, reaching concentrations around 80 ng g(-1) d.w. The contribution of high altitude and local sources was recorded also in the food web: both zooplankton and the zooplanktivorous fish agone were mainly contaminated by pp′DDE (81.4 ng g(-1) w.w. and 534.6 ng g(-1) w.w. respectively) and by the PCB metabolite hexa-CB (449.7 ng g(-1) w.w. and 1672.1 ng g(-1) w.w. respectively). The DDT concentrations in the agone (sampled during the years 2006–2009) never exceeded the limits for human consumption in Italy, while concentrations of six selected PCBs exceeded human health advisory recommendations in one of the fish samples analysed, when it was approximately two times higher than the recommended value of 125 ng g(-1) w.w. PMID:26520265

  1. Valorisation of Como Historical Cadastral Maps Through Modern Web Geoservices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brovelli, M. A.; Minghini, M.; Zamboni, G.

    2012-07-01

    Cartographic cultural heritage preserved in worldwide archives is often stored in the original paper version only, thus restricting both the chances of utilization and the range of possible users. The Web C.A.R.T.E. system addressed this issue with regard to the precious cadastral maps preserved at the State Archive of Como. Aim of the project was to improve the visibility and accessibility of this heritage using the latest free and open source tools for processing, cataloguing and web publishing the maps. The resulting architecture should therefore assist the State Archive of Como in managing its cartographic contents. After a pre-processing consisting of digitization and georeferencing steps, maps were provided with metadata, compiled according to the current Italian standards and managed through an ad hoc version of the GeoNetwork Opensource geocatalog software. A dedicated MapFish-based webGIS client, with an optimized version also for mobile platforms, was built for maps publication and 2D navigation. A module for 3D visualization of cadastral maps was finally developed using the NASA World Wind Virtual Globe. Thanks to a temporal slidebar, time was also included in the system producing a 4D Graphical User Interface. The overall architecture was totally built with free and open source software and allows a direct and intuitive consultation of historical maps. Besides the notable advantage of keeping original paper maps intact, the system greatly simplifies the work of the State Archive of Como common users and together widens the same range of users thanks to the modernization of map consultation tools.

  2. 78 FR 36163 - Bitterroot National Forest, Darby Ranger District, Como Forest Health Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... FHP covers approximately 5,640 acres of national forest land between Lake Como and Lost Horse Roads... project area lies between Lake Como Road and Lost Horse Road, about three miles northwest of...

  3. Morphological investigation of nanostructured CoMo catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawelec, B.; Castaño, P.; Zepeda, T. A.

    2008-04-01

    This work reports the morphological investigation of nanostructured sulfided CoMo catalysts by means of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The catalysts were supported on Ti-modified hexagonal mesoporous silica (HMS-Ti) and P-modified HMS-Ti (P/HMS-Ti) materials. The oxide precursors were characterized by specific surface area (S BET), temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy in the OH region (DRIFTS-OH) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) in order to elucidate the influence of the impregnation sequence (successive vs. simultaneous) and the effect of P-incorporation into HMS-Ti material on the morphology of calcined CoMo catalysts. Both TPR and XPS measurements indicate that the catalysts prepared by successive impregnation possess well-dispersed MoO 3 and CoO phases, whereas their counterparts prepared by simultaneous impregnation additionally possess the CoMoO 4 phase. For all sulfided catalysts, the presence of MoS 2 phase with particle size in the range 3.3-4.4 nm was confirmed by HRTEM. Catalytic activity was evaluated in the reaction of hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of dibenzothiophene (DBT) carried out in a flow reactor at 593 K and hydrogen pressure of 5.5 MPa. P-incorporation into the HMS-Ti material led to an overall increase in HDS activity and the hydrogenation ability of the sulfided catalysts. All catalysts proved to be stable during 10 h time-on-stream (TOS) operation. The activity of sulfide catalysts in the target reaction depends linearly on the surface exposure of Co species in the oxide precursors, as determined by XPS, and on the morphology of the sulfide form of catalysts (surface density of MoS 2 particles and their sizes) as determined by HRTEM.

  4. 78 FR 38287 - Bitterroot National Forest, Darby Ranger District, Como Forest Health Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    .... Correction In the Federal Register of June 17, 2013, in FR DOC 2013- 14229 on page 36163 in the second column...,640 acres of national forest between Lake Como and Lost Horse roads, about 6 miles northwest of...

  5. Como preparar un programa de informacion sobre la asistencia economica (Planning a Financial Aid Awareness Program).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    This booklet, written in Spanish, is intended to be used with a set of slides as part of a presentation to students on "How To Apply for Federal Student Aid" ("Como Solicitar la Asistencia Economica Federal para Estudiantes"). The first part of the book is a script based on the slides. After the script is a guide to hosting a financial aid…

  6. Prevalence of previously undiagnosed abdominal aortic aneurysms in the area of Como: the ComoCuore "looking for AAA" ultrasonography screening.

    PubMed

    Corrado, Giovanni; Durante, Alessandro; Genchi, Vincenzo; Trabattoni, Loris; Beretta, Sandro; Rovelli, Enza; Foglia-Manzillo, Giovanni; Ferrari, Giovanni

    2016-08-01

    The prognosis for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture is poor. Long-term follow-up of population-based randomized trials has demonstrated that ultrasound (US) screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) measuring 3 cm or greater decreases AAA-related mortality rates and is cost-effective. We though to prospectively perform during a 26-month period a limited US examination of the infrarenal aorta in volunteers of both gender aged 60-85 years without history of AAA living in the area of Como, Italy. From September 2010 to November 2013 ComoCuore, a no-profit nongovernmental association, enrolled 1555 people (aged 68.8 ± 6.8 years; 48.6 % males). Clinical data and a US imaging of the aorta were collected for each participant. AAA was found in 22 volunteers (1.4 %) mainly males (2.5 % in males vs. 0.4 % in females p = 0.005). Overall, the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors was higher in patients with vs. without AAA (mean 2.9 ± 3.0 vs. 1.4 ± 1.0 respectively, p < 0.0001). Independent predictors of AAA on multivariate analysis were age (OR 1.14, 1.06-1.22; p < 0.0001), male gender (OR 8.23, 1.79-37.91; p = 0.007), and both current (OR 4.98, 1.57-15.79; p = 0.007) and previous smoking (OR 2.76, 1.12-8.94; p = 0.03). Our study confirms the feasibility of one time US screening for AAA in a large cohort of asymptomatic people. Independent predictors of AAA were male sex, older age and a history of smoking. Accordingly to recent data the prevalence of AAA seems to be declining, maybe due to a reduction of smoking in Italy. PMID:27215751

  7. The Sefwi-Comoé belt Ghana/Ivory Coast : a major crustal shear zone ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jessell, Mark

    2010-05-01

    The Palaeoproterozoic Sefwi-Comoé region that straddles Ghana and the Ivory Coast in West Africa has been characterised as resulting from a combination of compression and simple shear during late synkinematic leucogranite intrusion. The analysis of regional geophysical datasets allows us to better define the geometry of the major lithostratigraphic packages and their structural contacts in this region. This analysis reveals a series of well defined leucogranites intrusions enveloped by high strain zones. Recent finite element modelling of two-phase aggregates has shown that we can analyse the geometry of these systems both in terms of their finite defomation and their mechanical contrast. We interpret the geometries we see in the Sefwi-Comoé region as reflecting the activity of a major crustal deformation zone which was dominated by simple shear. The comparison with the modelling suggests a finite shear strain of approximately 5 gamma, which in turn implies a lateral displacement of 400 km across the belt. Our analysis suggests that the leucogranites were already acting as more rigid bodies during the (dextral?) shearing, suggesting that their emplacement was predominantly pre-kinematic, and which has implications for their potential subsequent remobilization by gravitational forces.

  8. Vulnerability and adaptation to climate change in the Comoe River Basin (West Africa).

    PubMed

    Yéo, Wonnan Eugène; Goula, Bi Tié Albert; Diekkrüger, Bernd; Afouda, Abel

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is impacting water users in many sectors: water supply, farming, industry, hydropower, fishing, housing, navigation and health. Existing situations, like population growth, movement of populations from rural to urban areas, poverty and pollution can aggravate the impacts of climate change. The aim of the study is to evaluate the vulnerability of different water user groups to climate change and define communities' adaptation strategies in the Comoe River Basin. Information was collected on communities' concerns and perception on changes in climate and potential adaptation measures and strategies. Results show that 95 % of the sample in the study communities had heard of it and are aware that climate change is occurring. They have been experiencing changes in economic activity and cropping pattern, reduced water level in rivers, crop failure, delay in cropping season, new pests and diseases, food insecurity, drop in income and decline in crop yield. Results also show that communities employ various adaptation strategies including crops diversification, substitution and calendar redefinition, agroforestry, borrowing from friends and money lenders and increasing fertilizer application. PMID:27386296

  9. Catalytic functionalities of supported sulfides. I. Effect of support and additives on the CoMo catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Muralidhar, G.; Massoth, F.E.; Shabtai, J.

    1984-01-01

    C-S hydrogenolysis (HDS) of thiophene, hydrogenation (HYD) of 1-hexene, and hydrocracking (HCG) of 2,4,4-trimethyl-1-pentene, were used as separate model test reactions to differentiate and assess the catalytic functionalities of sulfided CoMo catalysts, and their dependence on the nature of the support and incorporation of additives. Rate constants and relative catalyst activities for these three reaction types were determined. HDS and HYD activities of CoMo supported on different types of Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ were higher, while the HCG activity was lower compared with CoMo supported on SiO/sub 2/-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, SiO/sub 2/-MgO, or TiO/sub 2/. For SiO/sub 2/-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ supports both HDS and HYD activities decreased with increase in SiO/sub 2/ content from 10 to 75%, while HCG activity showed the opposite trend. Additives to a finished CoMo catalyst at 0.5% level caused variations in HDS and HCG activities, while HYD was essentially unaffected. HDS was promoted by NH/sub 4/HF/sub 2/ and NH/sub 4/Cl, but depressed by NaNO/sub 3/, Ca(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/, and H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/. HCG was promoted by NH/sub 4/HF/sub 2/, NH/sub 4/Cl, and H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/. Additives at 5% level, prior to or after CoMo impregnation, showed a strong depressing effect on HDS and a lesser effect on HYD, while HCG was strongly promoted by NH/sub 4/HF/sub 2/, Ti isopropoxide, and H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/. The changes in catalytic functionalities are rationalized in terms of different interactions between CoMo phase, support, and additives. 3 tables, 1 figure.

  10. DIABETES MELLITUS COMO FACTOR DE RIESGO DE DEMENCIA EN LA POBLACIÓN ADULTA MAYOR MEXICANA

    PubMed Central

    Silvia, Mejía-Arango; Clemente, y Zúñiga-Gil

    2012-01-01

    Introduccion La diabetes mellitus y las demencias constituyen dos problemas crecientes de salud entre la población adulta mayor del mundo y en particular de los paises en desarrollo. Hacen falta estudios longitudinales sobre el papel de la diabetes como factor de riesgo para demencia. Objetivo Determinar el riesgo de demencia en sujetos Mexicanos con diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Materiales y Metodos Los sujetos diabéticos libres de demencia pertenecientes al Estudio Nacional de Salud y Envejecimiento en México fueron evaluados a los dos años de la línea de base. Se estudió el papel de los factores sociodemográficos, de otras comorbilidades y del tipo de tratamiento en la conversión a demencia. Resultados Durante la línea de base 749 sujetos (13.8%) tuvieron diabetes. El riesgo de desarrollar demencia en estos individuos fue el doble (RR, 2.08 IC 95%, 1.59–2.73). Se encontró un riesgo mayor en individuos de 80 años y más (RR 2.44 IC 95%, 1.46–4.08), en los hombres (RR, 2.25 IC 95%, 1.46–3.49) y en sujetos con nivel educativo menor de 7 años. El estar bajo tratamiento con insulina incrementó el riesgo de demencia (RR, 2.83, IC 95%, 1.58–5.06). Las otras comorbilidades que aumentaron el riesgo de demencia en los pacientes diabéticos fueron la hipertensión (RR, 2.75, IC 95%, 1.86–4.06) y la depresión (RR, 3.78, 95% IC 2.37–6.04). Conclusión Los sujetos con diabetes mellitus tienen un riesgo mayor de desarrollar demencia, La baja escolaridad y otras comorbilidades altamente prevalentes en la población Mexicana contribuyen a la asociación diabetes-demencia. PMID:21948010

  11. Hydrotreatment of Athabasca bitumen derived gas oil over Ni-Mo, Ni-W, and Co-Mo catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz-Real, R.A.; Mann, R.S.; Sambi, I.S. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-07-01

    The hydrotreatment of Athabasca bitumen derived heavy gas oil containing 4.08% S and 0.49% N was carried out in a trickle bed reactor over Ni-W, Ni-Mo, and Co-Mo catalysts supported on zeolite-alumina-silica at 623-698 K, LHSV of 1-4, gas flow rate 890 m[sup 3][sub H2]/m[sup 3][sub oil] (5,000 sef/bbl), and pressure of 6.89 MPa. Analyses for viscosity, density, aniline point, ASTM mid boiling point distillation, C/H ratio, and percentage of N and S in the final product were carried out to characterize the product oil. The amounts of N and S removed indicated the hydrodenitrogenation and hydrodesulfurization activity of the catalysts. Results of zeolite-alumina-silica-supported catalysts are compared to those obtained with commercially available Ni-Mo, Ni-W, and Co-Mo on [gamma]-alumina. Ni-Mo supported on zeolite-alumina-silica was most active and could remove as much as 99 % S and 89% N present in the oil at 698 K. The data for HDN and HDS fitted the pseudo first order model. The kinetic model is described in detail.

  12. Ab initio study of energetics and magnetism of sigma phase in Co-Mo and Fe-Mo systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlů, J.; Vřešťál, J.; Šob, M.

    2016-02-01

    We analyse, from first-principles, the energetics and magnetic ordering of sigma phases in Co-Mo and Fe-Mo systems. Total energy differences between the sigma phase and Standard Element Reference (SER) structures are calculated in the whole concentration range at equilibrium volumes by means of the linear muffin-tin orbitals method in the atomic-sphere approximation (LMTO-ASA), the full-potential linearised augmented-plane waves (FLAPW) method and the pseudopotential approach. They are compared with the enthalpy of formation of sigma phase obtained from the phase equilibria calculations at higher temperature based on the semiempirical CALPHAD (CALculation of PHAse Diagram) method. It turns out that the binary sigma phases are more stable than the weighted average of the sigma phase of elemental constituents and that this stability for Fe-Mo is higher than for Co-Mo. On the other hand it was found that the binary sigma phases do not exhibit any stability with respect to the weighted average of the SER structures. The magnetic configurations in all systems are investigated and the stabilizing effect of magnetic order in sigma phase at 0 K is presented. It turns out that the atomic magnetic moment strongly depends on the type of occupied sublattice and total composition of the alloy.

  13. Alejarse como proceso social: niños y ancianos «abandonados» en Ayacucho1

    PubMed Central

    Leinaweaver, Jessaca

    2013-01-01

    En investigaciones previas sobre el acogimiento familiar y la adopción en Ayacucho, se ha podido descubrir cómo los ayacuchanos adquieren y producen relaciones sociales. Mientras negocian creativamente los discursos y espacios construidos simultáneamente por instituciones, comunidades, y estructuras sociales, van adquiriendo nuevas formas de relacionarse. Este artículo discute el proceso opuesto: el deshacerse de relaciones de parentesco, y el proceso social del abandono o alejamiento. Cuando se aleja a una persona de su familia o su comunidad, los que se quedan en ella llegan a entenderse como ciertos tipos de personas. En los estudios de caso discutidos aquí, recopilados a través de una detallada y cuidadosa observación participante y de entrevistas etnográficas grabadas entre 2001 y 2007, se puede ver cómo, después de un alejamiento social, los individuos que alejan se reinterpretan como sujetos que se encuentran superándose o volviéndose modernos, o bien sacrificándose. PMID:25177044

  14. The stucco decorations from St. Lorenzo in Laino (Como, Italy): The materials and the techniques employed by the "Magistri Comacini".

    PubMed

    Rampazzi, Laura; Rizzo, Biagio; Colombo, Chiara; Conti, Claudia; Realini, Marco; Bartolucci, Ugo; Colombini, Maria Perla; Spiriti, Andrea; Facchin, Laura

    2008-12-01

    The paper reports a cross-cutting and systematic approach to the analytical study of Baroque stucco decorations by Italian artists known as "Magistri Comacini". Samples from the Church of St. Lorenzo in Laino (Como, Italy) were analysed using chemical and mineralogical techniques and the results interpreted with the help of art historians in order to enlighten the artistic techniques. The characterisation of the binder, aggregate and organic fractions was carried out through optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with microprobe, X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and laser ablation mass spectrometry equipped with plasma source spectrometry. The results on major, minor and trace components ascertained various recipes. In particular, the investigation of the finishing layers corroborated hypotheses of attribution and chronology and stressed the different skills of the artists working in the building, shedding a light on details of the decoration technique. PMID:19068330

  15. A Utilização da Astronomia como Tema Interdisciplinar e Aplicações de Objetos de Aprendizagem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, L. A.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2008-09-01

    Este trabalho visa analisar a possibilidade de relacionar conteúdos aplicados no ensino fundamental e médio de forma interdisciplinar por intermédio da astronomia, com a intervenção de objetos de aprendizagem que possam integrar as disciplinas e a utilização de recursos tecnológicos. Em uma pesquisa prévia com 20 professores de uma escola estadual situada na cidade de Guarulhos foi observado que apenas 25% dos professores utilizam algum recurso tecnológico para o desenvolvimento de conteúdos pertinentes à sua disciplina, tais como sites e softwares educativos, sendo que a maioria absoluta continua ensinando apenas com livros didáticos. A maior parte dos professores apresenta dificuldades em trabalhar sua disciplina de forma interdisciplinar, ou seja, 75% dos professores preferem aplicar os conteúdos seguindo uma hierarquia linear de tópicos, evitando a discussão de temas que de alguma forma estão relacionados. A astronomia pode vir à fascinar o ser humano e despertar sua curiosidade promovendo um maior interesse no aprendizado, podendo favorecer análises interdisciplinares de forma lógica e objetiva, desta forma colocar a astronomia como tema motivador interdisciplinar, pode ser relevante no que se refere ao distanciamento da fragmentação dos conteúdos. No Estado de São Paulo, a implantação da proposta curricular no ensino fundamental e médio mostra claramente a inserção da astronomia na maior parte das séries, principalmente na 6ª série em que todo o bimestre se fala de astronomia.

  16. Las fulguraciones como manifestación de reconexión en el campo magnético solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagalá, L. G.; Mandrini, M. C.; Rovira, M. G.; Démoulin, P.

    Las fulguraciones solares son fenómenos transitorios de liberación de energía que se desarrollan en las estructuras magnéticas de las regiones activas del Sol. Las fulguraciones pueden llegar a liberar hasta 1032 erg en 100 seg. en todo el rango electromagnético, y acelerar partículas. En este trabajo mostramos que la ubicación de los abrillantamientos en Hα de diversas fulguraciones está relacionado con las propiedades de las conexiones de las líneas del campo magnético de la región, como se espera por las teorías de reconexión en 3D recientemente desarrolladas (Démoulin et al, 1996a). El campo magnético coronal se extrapola del campo fotosférico observado suponiendo una configuración libre de fuerzas lineal. Por medio de un algoritmo se determinan las regiones donde existe un cambio drástico en la conectividad de las líneas de campo (límites ``cuasi-discontinuos'', o cuasi-separatrices CS). Las CS son bandas abiertas que identifican zonas donde el campo magnético se reconectará con más probabilidad y, siempre que las mismas sean lo suficientemente finas, se producirá allíla liberación de energía proveniente del campo magnético. Hemos encontrado que en todas las regiones fulgurantes estudiadas (Démoulin et al, 1996b) existen CS en los mismos lugares donde se observaron los abrillantamientos en Hα. Allídonde coinciden los abrillantamientos con las CS, éstas tienen un espesor menor que 1 Mm. Las líneas de campo coronales extrapoladas de nuestro modelo tienen sus orígenes fotosféricos a ambos lados de las CS, como se espera dados los recientes estudios de reconexión magnética en 3D. Estos resultados ponen a prueba los modelos presentes sobre fulguraciones solares.

  17. In-situ HRTEM study of the reactive carbide phase of Co/MoS2 catalyst.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Manuel; Ferrer, Domingo; Martinez-Soto, Eduan; Lopez-Lippmann, Hugo; Torres, Brenda; Berhault, Gilles; Chianelli, Russell R

    2013-04-01

    Hydrotreatment catalytic operations are commonly performed industrially by layered molybdenum sulfide promoted by cobalt or nickel in order to remove heteroelements (S, N, O) from fossil fuels and biofuels. Indeed, these heteroelements are responsible of the emission of pollutants when these fuels are used in vehicles. In this respect, previous studies made by our research group have shown that the active phase under steady state conditions is partially carbided while strong bending effects of MoS2 slabs were also observed. However, up to now, the morphology of the resulting Co/MoSxCy carbided catalyst has not been fully characterized. In the present study, for the first time, a chemical reaction between the carbon content of a TEM Cu/C grid and a freshly sulfide Co/MoS2 catalyst was in situ observed at 300 °C and 450 °C by HRTEM experimental techniques at ~10 nm of resolution. Results indicate that bending of MoS2 layers occurred due to carbon addition on MoS2 edge sites, as observed in stabilized catalysts after HDS reaction. Using a silicon grid, only cracks of MoS2 slabs were observed without bending effect confirming the role of structural-carbon in this change of morphology. PMID:22925737

  18. Encontrando planetas alrededor de otras estrellas

    NASA Video Gallery

    Así como la Tierra gira alrededor del Sol, la estrella más cercana, es posible que otros planetas orbiten las estrellas que se ven en el cielo nocturno. Piensa en todos los planetas del universo qu...

  19. XAS Study at Mo and Co K-Edges of the Sulfidation of a CoMo / Al2O3 Hydrotreating Catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichon, C.; Gandubert, A. D.; Legens, C.; Guillaume, D.

    2007-02-01

    Because of its impact on environment, the removal of sulfur is an indispensable step, called hydrotreatment, in the refining of petroleum. One of the most commonly used hydrotreating catalysts is CoMo-type catalyst which is composed of molybdenum disulfide slabs promoted by cobalt atoms (CoMoS phase) and well dispersed on a high specific area alumina. As far as the highest sulfur content allowed in gasoline and diesel is continually decreasing, more and more efficient and active hydrotreating catalysts are required. In order to optimize the reactivity of the CoMo-type catalyst in hydrotreatment, a better understanding of the processes used to produce the active phase (CoMoS slabs) of the catalyst is necessary. The study reported here deals with the sulfiding mechanism of the slabs and the influence of temperature on the phenomenon. Ex situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XANES and EXAFS) was used to study the evolution of the structure of CoMo-type catalyst sulfided at various temperatures (from 293 to 873 K). XAS analysis was performed at both molybdenum and cobalt K-edges to obtain a cross-characterization of the sulfidation of the slabs. It evidenced the formation of various compounds, including two molybdenum oxides, MoS3 (or MoS3-like compound) and Co9S8, at specific steps of the sulfiding process. It showed the role of intermediate played by MoS3 (or MoS3-like compound) during the formation of the slabs and the competition between the appearance of promoted slabs (CoMoS phase) and Co9S8. At last, it leaded to the proposal of a mechanism for the sulfidation of the catalyst.

  20. XAS Study at Mo and Co K-Edges of the Sulfidation of a CoMo / Al2O3 Hydrotreating Catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Pichon, C.; Gandubert, A. D.; Legens, C.; Guillaume, D.

    2007-02-02

    Because of its impact on environment, the removal of sulfur is an indispensable step, called hydrotreatment, in the refining of petroleum. One of the most commonly used hydrotreating catalysts is CoMo-type catalyst which is composed of molybdenum disulfide slabs promoted by cobalt atoms (CoMoS phase) and well dispersed on a high specific area alumina. As far as the highest sulfur content allowed in gasoline and diesel is continually decreasing, more and more efficient and active hydrotreating catalysts are required. In order to optimize the reactivity of the CoMo-type catalyst in hydrotreatment, a better understanding of the processes used to produce the active phase (CoMoS slabs) of the catalyst is necessary. The study reported here deals with the sulfiding mechanism of the slabs and the influence of temperature on the phenomenon. Ex situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XANES and EXAFS) was used to study the evolution of the structure of CoMo-type catalyst sulfided at various temperatures (from 293 to 873 K). XAS analysis was performed at both molybdenum and cobalt K-edges to obtain a cross-characterization of the sulfidation of the slabs. It evidenced the formation of various compounds, including two molybdenum oxides, MoS3 (or MoS3-like compound) and Co9S8, at specific steps of the sulfiding process. It showed the role of intermediate played by MoS3 (or MoS3-like compound) during the formation of the slabs and the competition between the appearance of promoted slabs (CoMoS phase) and Co9S8. At last, it leaded to the proposal of a mechanism for the sulfidation of the catalyst.

  1. [Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) hulls: a posible commercial source of pectins].

    PubMed

    Barazarte, Humberto; Sangronis, Elba; Unai, Emaldi

    2008-03-01

    Commercial exploitation of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) generates a volume of hulls that could be used in the production of pectins on an industrial scale. Therefore, pectins from cocoa hulls were extracted at different pH and temperature conditions, and their main chemical characteristics were evaluated. EDTA at 0.5% was used for the extraction at pHs 3, 4 and 5 and temperatures of 60, 75 and 90 degrees C, under a 3 2 factorial design. The response variables were yield, content of anhydrous galacturonic acid (AGA), content of metoxil, degree of esterification and equivalent weight of the pectins extracted. The strength of the pectic gel was determined with a TA-XT2 texturometer. Strawberry jam was made with the pectin extracted, and its acceptability was determined using a 7-point hedonic scale. The results obtained were as follows: an extraction yield from 2.64 to 4.69 g/100 g; an AGA content between 49.8 and 64.06 g/100 g; a content of metoxil between 4.72 and 7.18 g/100 g; a degree of esterification between 37.94 and 52.20%; an equivalent weight from 385.47 to 464.61 g/equivalent of H+, and a degree of gelation between 28.64 and 806.03 g force. The pectin extracted at pH 4 and 90 degrees C showed a gelation power of 422.16 g force, purity 62.26 g/100 g of AGA, and a yield of extraction of 3.89 g/100 g and allowed to prepare ajam with an average level of liking of "like moderately". Pectins from cocoa hulls show potential application in the food industry, but it is necessary to optimize the extraction parameters to increase its yield. PMID:18589574

  2. Intermediate-wavelength magnetic anomaly field of the North Pacific and posible source distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labrecque, J. L.; Cande, S. C.; Jarrard, R. D.

    1985-01-01

    A technique that eliminates external field sources and the effects of strike aliasing was used to extract from marine survey data the intermediate wavelength magnetic anomaly field for (B) in the North Pacific. A strong correlation exists between this field and the Magsat field although a directional sensitivity in the Magsat field can be detected. The intermediate wavelength field is correlated to tectonic features. Island arcs appear as positive anomalies of induced origin likely due to variations in crustal thickness. Seamount chains and oceanic plateaus also are manifested by strong anomalies. The primary contribution to many of these anomalies appears to be due to a remanent magnetization. The source parameters for the remainder of these features are presently unidentified ambiguous. Results indicate that the sea surface field is a valuable source of information for secular variation analysis and the resolution of intermediate wavelength source parameters.

  3. Posible culto al sol en los grabados rupestres de Las Hurdes (Cáceres).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevillano, C.

    The author presents a set of rock engravings located in the region of Las Hurdes (Cäceres) a mountainous region to the west of the Central System of the Iberian Peninsula, which present some characteristics different from the other rock engravings known in the Península. In first place the total lack of a narrative character must be underlined, implying that the idea is transmitted through symbols. Essentially the set is formed by geometric scenes, mainly cycles associated with pictures of steps and standing stones. There do exist several schematic motives of weapons and feet as well. On one of the rocks there exists a Roman inscription. The study centers on the circular motives and their associations with other geometric motives, which suggest a possible solar cult, especially in view of the steps which can define the image of a cart, which could be identified with the image of the solar cart. Similarly, on other rock there appear a series of five-spiked stars associated in one case to weapons and in another with foot prints, which provide evidence for a solar cult. In any case, the symbolic character of the figures represented seems to imply the abstraction of a cult, with a magic religious character, in which the idea of the star cult presides the rock symbolism. From the study of the arms represented and because of the Roman inscription one could assign to the set of engravings a chronology which could go from the megalithic to the time of romanization.

  4. Telescópio de pequeno porte como suporte ao ensino em cidades com intensa poluição luminosa II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, P. C. R.; Santos-Júnior, J. M.; Cruz, W. S.

    2003-08-01

    Para a maioria dos estudantes, sua passagem pelo ensino formal fundamental envolve a transmissão de fatos que devem ser guardados para um exame, a habilidade para lembrar fórmulas e, eventualmente, a repetição de experimentos que devem produzir resultados exigidos pelo professor. O resultado deste modelo de ensino, ao longo dos anos, é conhecido por todos: desconhecimento e descontentamento, por parte dos estudantes, de temas relativos ao papel e aos processos da ciência. Acreditamos que a Astronomia, pelo seu caráter observacional, é uma das áreas do conhecimento que pode contribuir neste cenário. A Fundação Planetário da Cidade do Rio de Janeiro possui um telescópio Meade LX-200 (25cm) que, juntamente com as câmeras CCD ST-7E e ST8E, tem sido utilizado em projetos voltados aos estudantes do ensino médio desde o ano 2000. Tais projetos envolvem a condução de um projeto de pesquisa observacional num nível apropriado, e possibilitam o contato com técnicas e novas tecnologias: computador, software para manipulação de dados e gráficos, programas de tratamento e redução de dados, uso de equipamentos óptico-eletrônicos (telescópio e CCD), bem como o processo de aquisição de conhecimento. Dentro da proposta dos anos anteriores, priorizamos projetos de uma noite, ou seja, procuramos trabalhar com fenômenos que apresentem variabilidade com intervalo de recorrência relativamente curto. Em todos os casos, optamos pela fotometria diferencial, que tem se mostrado bastante eficiente para o céu luminoso como o da cidade do Rio de Janeiro. Neste painel, apresentamos alguns dos projetos desenvolvidos no último ano, com 25 estudantes. Apresentamos os resultados da observação da variável pulsante AI Vel (V = 6,6) e da variável cataclísmica FO Aqr (V = 13,5), e do monitoramento do trânsito da lua de Júpiter, Europa, ocorrido em 30 de abril de 2003. As curvas de luz produzidas para as primeiras estão concordantes com as da literatura, assim

  5. Tal Como Somos/Just As We Are: An Educational Film to Reduce Stigma towards Gay and Bisexual Men, Transgender Individuals & Persons Living with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez-Valles, Jesus; Kuhns, Lisa M.; Manjarrez, Dianna

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we describe the development and dissemination of a film-based educational intervention to reduce negative attitudes towards gay and bisexual men and transgender women (GBT) and people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Latino communities, with a focus on youth. The intervention, Tal Como Somos/Just as We Are, is based on stigma and attribution theories, extensive formative research, and community input. Evaluation findings among educators and school youth suggest the film has the potential to effectively impact attitudes towards GBT and PLWHA. The film and intervention are being disseminated using diffusion of innovations theory through community-based organizations, schools, television broadcasting and film festivals. PMID:24377496

  6. Tal Como Somos/just as we are: an educational film to reduce stigma toward gay and bisexual men, transgender individuals, and persons living with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Valles, Jesus; Kuhns, Lisa M; Manjarrez, Dianna

    2014-04-01

    In this article, the authors describe the development and dissemination of a film-based educational intervention to reduce negative attitudes toward gay and bisexual men, transgender women, and people living with HIV/AIDS in Latino communities, with a focus on youth. The intervention, Tal Como Somos/Just as We Are, is based on stigma and attribution theories, extensive formative research, and community input. Evaluation findings among educators and school youth suggest the film has the potential to effectively influence attitudes toward gay and bisexual men, transgender women, and people living with HIV/AIDS. The film and intervention are being disseminated using diffusion of innovations theory through community-based organizations, schools, television broadcasting, and film festivals. PMID:24377496

  7. Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... battery-operated medical device called an implantable pulse generator (IPG) - similar to a heart pacemaker and approximately ... shoulder, connecting the lead to the implantable pulse generator. The IPG (the "battery pack") is the third ...

  8. Hydro-geochemical modeling of subalpine urbanized area: geochemical characterization of the shallow and deep aquifers of the urban district of Como (first results).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrana, Silvia; Brunamonte, Fabio; Frascoli, Francesca; Ferrario, Maria Francesca; Michetti, Alessandro Maria; Pozzi, Andrea; Gambillara, Roberto; Binda, Gilberto

    2016-04-01

    One of the greatest environmental and social-economics threats is climate change. This topic, in the next few years, will have a significant impact on the availability of water resources of many regions. This is compounded by the strong anthropization of water systems that shows an intensification of conflicts for water resource exploitation. Therefore, it is necessary a sustainable manage of natural resources thorough knowledge of the hosting territories. The development of investigation and data processing methods are essential to reduce costs for the suitable use and protection of resources. Identify a sample area for testing the best approach is crucial. This research aims to find a valid methodology for the characterization, modeling and management of subalpine urban aquifers, and the urban district of Como appears perfect. The city of Como is located at the southern end of the western sector of Lake Como (N Italy). It is a coastal town, placed on a small alluvial plain, therefore in close communication with the lake. The plain is drained by two streams, which are presently artificially buried, and have an underground flow path in the urban section till the mouth. This city area, so, is suitable for this project as it is intensely urbanized, its dimensions is not too extensive and it is characterized by two aquifers very important and little known. These are a shallow aquifer and a deep aquifer, which are important not only for any water supply, but also for the stability of the ground subsidence in the city. This research is also the opportunity to work in a particular well-known area with high scientific significance; however, there is complete absence of information regarding the deep aquifer. Great importance has also the chosen and used of the more powerful open source software for this type of area, such as PHREEQC, EnvironInsite, PHREEQE etc., used for geological and geochemical data processing. The main goal of this preliminary work is the

  9. Congressional Hispanic Caucus: Como Va?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darrow, Denice

    1978-01-01

    The Caucus aims to develop a national policy on behalf of the Spanish-speaking, and to strengthen the Federal commitment toward Hispanics. The Caucus also plans to serve an educational purpose, informing the Hispanic population about the political process and functioning of government. (NQ)

  10. Tailoring (n,m) structure of single-walled carbon nanotubes by modifying reaction conditions and the nature of the support of CoMo catalysts.

    PubMed

    Lolli, Giulio; Zhang, Liang; Balzano, Leandro; Sakulchaicharoen, Nataphan; Tan, Yongqiang; Resasco, Daniel E

    2006-02-01

    The (n,m) population distribution of single-walled carbon nanotubes obtained on supported CoMo catalysts has been determined by photoluminescence and optical absorption. It has been found that the (n,m) distribution can be controlled by varying the gaseous feed composition, the reaction temperature, and the type of catalyst support used. When using CO as a feed over CoMo/SiO2 catalysts, increasing the synthesis temperature results in an increase in nanotube diameter, without a change in the chiral angle. By contrast, by changing the support from SiO2 to MgO, nanotubes with similar diameter but different chiral angles are obtained. Finally, keeping the same reaction conditions but varying the composition of the gaseous feed results in different (n,m) distribution. The clearly different distributions obtained when varying catalysts support and/or reaction conditions demonstrate that the (n,m) distribution is a result of differences in the growth kinetics, which in turn depends on the nanotube cap-metal cluster interaction. PMID:16471791

  11. From Management to Negotiation: Technical and Institutional Innovations for Integrated Water Resource Management in the Upper Comoé River Basin, Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roncoli, Carla; Kirshen, Paul; Etkin, Derek; Sanon, Moussa; Somé, Léopold; Dembélé, Youssouf; Sanfo, Bienvenue J.; Zoungrana, Jacqueline; Hoogenboom, Gerrit

    2009-10-01

    This study focuses on the potential role of technical and institutional innovations for improving water management in a multi-user context in Burkina Faso. We focus on a system centered on three reservoirs that capture the waters of the Upper Comoé River Basin and servicing a diversity of users, including a sugar manufacturing company, a urban water supply utility, a farmer cooperative, and other downstream users. Due to variable and declining rainfall and expanding users’ needs, drastic fluctuations in water supply and demand occur during each dry season. A decision support tool was developed through participatory research to enable users to assess the impact of alternative release and diversion schedules on deficits faced by each user. The tool is meant to be applied in the context of consultative planning by a local user committee that has been created by a new national integrated water management policy. We contend that both solid science and good governance are instrumental in realizing efficient and equitable water management and adaptation to climate variability and change. But, while modeling tools and negotiation platforms may assist users in managing climate risk, they also introduce additional uncertainties into the deliberative process. It is therefore imperative to understand how these technological and institutional innovations frame water use issues and decisions to ensure that such framing is consistent with the goals of integrated water resource management.

  12. From management to negotiation: technical and institutional innovations for integrated water resource management in the Upper Comoé River Basin, Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Roncoli, Carla; Kirshen, Paul; Etkin, Derek; Sanon, Moussa; Somé, Léopold; Dembélé, Youssouf; Sanfo, Bienvenue J; Zoungrana, Jacqueline; Hoogenboom, Gerrit

    2009-10-01

    This study focuses on the potential role of technical and institutional innovations for improving water management in a multi-user context in Burkina Faso. We focus on a system centered on three reservoirs that capture the waters of the Upper Comoé River Basin and servicing a diversity of users, including a sugar manufacturing company, a urban water supply utility, a farmer cooperative, and other downstream users. Due to variable and declining rainfall and expanding users' needs, drastic fluctuations in water supply and demand occur during each dry season. A decision support tool was developed through participatory research to enable users to assess the impact of alternative release and diversion schedules on deficits faced by each user. The tool is meant to be applied in the context of consultative planning by a local user committee that has been created by a new national integrated water management policy. We contend that both solid science and good governance are instrumental in realizing efficient and equitable water management and adaptation to climate variability and change. But, while modeling tools and negotiation platforms may assist users in managing climate risk, they also introduce additional uncertainties into the deliberative process. It is therefore imperative to understand how these technological and institutional innovations frame water use issues and decisions to ensure that such framing is consistent with the goals of integrated water resource management. PMID:19707708

  13. Co-Doped MoS₂ Nanosheets with the Dominant CoMoS Phase Coated on Carbon as an Excellent Electrocatalyst for Hydrogen Evolution.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xiaoping; Du, Kangli; Li, Zhanzhao; Liu, Mengzhao; Ma, Yangde; Sun, Hui; Zhang, Xin; Yang, Ying

    2015-12-16

    Highly active and low-cost catalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) are crucial for the development of efficient water splitting. Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanosheets possess unique physical and chemical properties, which make them promising candidates for HER. Herein, we reported a facile, effective, and scalable strategy by a deposition-precipitation method to fabricate metal-doped (Fe, Co, Ni) molybdenum sulfide with a few layers on carbon black as noble metal-free electrocatalysts for HER. The CoMoS phase after thermal annealing in Co-doped MoS2 plays a crucial role for the enhanced HER. The optimized Co-doped MoS2 catalyst shows superior HER performance with a high exchange current density of 0.03 mA·cm(-2), low onset potential of 90 mV, and small Tafel slope of 50 mV·dec(-1), which also exhibits excellent stability of 10000 cycles with negligible loss of the cathodic current. The superior HER activity originates from the synergistically structural and electronic modulations between MoS2 and Co ions, abundant defects in the active edge sites, as well as the good balance between active sites and electronic conductivity. Thanks to their ease of synthesis, low cost, and high activity, the Co-doped MoS2 catalysts appear to be promising HER catalysts for electrochemical water splitting. PMID:26599427

  14. Detection and identification of pathogenic trypanosome species in tsetse flies along the Comoé River in Côte d’Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Djohan, Vincent; Kaba, Dramane; Rayaissé, Jean-Baptiste; Dayo, Guiguigbaza-Kossigan; Coulibaly, Bamoro; Salou, Ernest; Dofini, Fabien; Kouadio, Alain De Marie Koffi; Menan, Hervé; Solano, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    In order to identify pathogenic trypanosomes responsible for African trypanosomiasis, and to better understand tsetse-trypanosome relationships, surveys were undertaken in three sites located in different eco-climatic areas in Côte d’Ivoire during the dry and rainy seasons. Tsetse flies were caught during five consecutive days using biconical traps, dissected and microscopically examined looking for trypanosome infection. Samples from infected flies were tested by PCR using specific primers for Trypanosoma brucei s.l., T. congolense savannah type, T. congolense forest type and T. vivax. Of 1941 tsetse flies caught including four species, i.e. Glossina palpalis palpalis, G. p. gambiensis, G. tachinoides and G. medicorum, 513 (26%) were dissected and 60 (12%) were found positive by microscopy. Up to 41% of the infections were due to T. congolense savannah type, 30% to T. vivax, 20% to T. congolense forest type and 9% due to T. brucei s.l. All four trypanosome species and subgroups were identified from G. tachinoides and G. p. palpalis, while only two were isolated from G. p. gambiensis (T. brucei s.l., T. congolense savannah type) and G. medicorum (T. congolense forest, savannah types). Mixed infections were found in 25% of cases and all involved T. congolense savannah type with another trypanosome species. The simultaneous occurrence of T. brucei s.l., and tsetse from the palpalis group may suggest that human trypanosomiasis can still be a constraint in these localities, while high rates of T. congolense and T. vivax in the area suggest a potential risk of animal trypanosomiasis in livestock along the Comoé River. PMID:26035296

  15. Detection and identification of pathogenic trypanosome species in tsetse flies along the Comoé River in Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Djohan, Vincent; Kaba, Dramane; Rayaissé, Jean-Baptiste; Dayo, Guiguigbaza-Kossigan; Coulibaly, Bamoro; Salou, Ernest; Dofini, Fabien; Kouadio, Alain De Marie Koffi; Menan, Hervé; Solano, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    In order to identify pathogenic trypanosomes responsible for African trypanosomiasis, and to better understand tsetse-trypanosome relationships, surveys were undertaken in three sites located in different eco-climatic areas in Côte d'Ivoire during the dry and rainy seasons. Tsetse flies were caught during five consecutive days using biconical traps, dissected and microscopically examined looking for trypanosome infection. Samples from infected flies were tested by PCR using specific primers for Trypanosoma brucei s.l., T. congolense savannah type, T. congolense forest type and T. vivax. Of 1941 tsetse flies caught including four species, i.e. Glossina palpalis palpalis, G. p. gambiensis, G. tachinoides and G. medicorum, 513 (26%) were dissected and 60 (12%) were found positive by microscopy. Up to 41% of the infections were due to T. congolense savannah type, 30% to T. vivax, 20% to T. congolense forest type and 9% due to T. brucei s.l. All four trypanosome species and subgroups were identified from G. tachinoides and G. p. palpalis, while only two were isolated from G. p. gambiensis (T. brucei s.l., T. congolense savannah type) and G. medicorum (T. congolense forest, savannah types). Mixed infections were found in 25% of cases and all involved T. congolense savannah type with another trypanosome species. The simultaneous occurrence of T. brucei s.l., and tsetse from the palpalis group may suggest that human trypanosomiasis can still be a constraint in these localities, while high rates of T. congolense and T. vivax in the area suggest a potential risk of animal trypanosomiasis in livestock along the Comoé River. PMID:26035296

  16. The Observatory-Camping: a place of posible apprenticeship to the education and popularization of the Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navone, H. D.; Gastaud, C.; Pattini, N.; Aquilano, R.

    The development of Astronomy in the Educations area presents limitations as: poor equipment, trouble in managing space and time, difficulty to make experiences. The sky contaminations in the city, because of the luminosity, make the astronomical observation just impossible. But, the formal education has a wonderful media for the Astronomy: camping; this activity is very close to physical education. The proposal is the transformation of camping in "observatory-camping", to introduce astronomical concepts by the exploration of the sky. The methodology for this job is the observation of the sky by the eyes, first, and then making use of binoculars and a telescope, far from urban centres. Finally, this experience has place in the Planta de Campamentos N° 7502 (Máximo Paz, Santa Fe), which belongs to Ministerio de Educación de la Provincia de Santa Fe. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  17. Percepción de competencia y adiestramiento profesional especializado relativos al VIH/SIDA en estudiantes y profesionales de la salud: el estigma como un indicador de necesidad

    PubMed Central

    RODRÍGUEZ, Yarimar ROSA; DÍAZ, Nelson VARAS

    2009-01-01

    El proceso de estigmatización asume una devaluación de la persona debido a una característica o marca que haya sido identificada socialmente y que permita que se le describa como diferente. Desde que se desató la epidemia del VIH/SIDA, vivir con la enfermedad ha sido señalado de manera social como una marca estigmatizante. Las manifestaciones de dicha estigmatización se han documentado entre profesionales de la salud. Este estigma puede afectar los servicios de salud que las personas que viven con VIH/SIDA reciben de estos profesionales. Los objetivos de esta investigación fueron explorar: 1) la percepción que tienen estudiantes y profesionales de la salud sobre su nivel de competencia para ofrecer servicios a personas que viven con VIH/SIDA, 2) las opiniones de éstos sobre el tipo de adiestramiento profesional recibido y la necesidad del mismo, y 3) la manifestación de actitudes estigmatizantes como indicadores de necesidad de adiestramiento profesional. La muestra total del estudio estuvo compuesta por 80 de diversas profesiones de la salud. Los resultados reflejan que algunos/as de los/as participantes han recibido formación en VIH pero ésta no ha sido suficiente para contrarrestar las nociones estigmatizantes. Discutimos las implicaciones de los resultados para investigaciones futuras y el desarrollo de intervenciones con vías de minimizar las nociones estigmatizantes en los escenarios de salud. PMID:20011236

  18. Distribución del continuo ultravioleta e infrarrojo en estrellas Be

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruzado, A.; Ringuelet, A.; di Rocco, H.

    Estamos interesados en interpretar los excesos de flujo infrarrojo y/o ultravioleta observados en estrellas Be con respecto al de estrellas B normales, así como su posible correlación. Una envoltura rodeando la estrella distingue una estrella Be de una B normal; para explicar las observaciones es necesario entonces tener en cuenta todos los posibles procesos físicos que en ella tienen lugar. Adoptando un modelo atmosférico específico, hemos estudiado el proceso de recombinación dielectrónica de metales como MgII y FeII, teniendo en cuenta la posible influencia de la opacidad del medio en el flujo emitido.

  19. The Astronomy Club of Araranguá: Educating Science Teachers as Science Communicators. (Breton Title: Clube de Astronomia de AraranguÁ: a Formação de Professores de Ciências Como Divulgadores Científicos. ) Club de Astronomía de Araranguá: la Formación del Profesorado Como Comunicadores de la Ciencia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damasio, Felipe; Allain, Olivier; Antunes Rodrigues, Adriano

    2013-07-01

    The study reported in this work takes place since 2009 at the Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Santa Catarina, Campus Araranguá. Our main goal is to help form teachers, training undergraduate students in Natural Sciences with specialization in Physics as science communicators, as well as to promote actions of broader scientific popularization in the region of the town of Araranguá through an Astronomy Club called CA2. Among the actions of scientific popularization that the students promote are: video production, radio broadcasts, lectures, nightly observations, preparation and exhibition of posters, physics teaching for children, continuing education activities for teachers and regular physics teaching using Astronomy as a theme. The Club's teacher education and scientific dissemination work is based on the Theory of Meaningful Learning, always trying to reach the student's predisposition to learn and produce potentially meaningful material, the two essential conditions for meaningful learning to occur. O estudo que este trabalho relata ocorre desde 2009 no Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia de Santa Catarina, campus Araranguá. Nele procura-se formar divulgadores científicos durante a formação inicial de docentes do curso de Licenciatura em Ciências da Natureza com habilitação em Física, além de promover ações de divulgação científica para o público geral da região da cidade de Araranguá por meio de um Clube de Astronomia chamado CA² (Clube de Astronomia de Araranguá). Entre as ações de divulgação científica que os licenciandos promovem estão: produção de vídeos, programas de rádio, palestras, observações noturnas, confecção e exposição de pôsteres, ensino de física para crianças, formação continuada de professores em atividades e ensino de Física regular utilizando a Astronomia como tema gerador. O trabalho de formação docente e divulgação científica do Clube fundamenta

  20. Characterization of a canola C2 domain gene that interacts with PG, an effector of the necrotrophic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinyu; Li, Qian; Niu, Xiaowei; Chen, Haiyan; Xu, Langlai; Qi, Cunkou

    2009-01-01

    Sspg1d, one of endopolygalacturonases, is an important fungal effector secreted by the necrotrophic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum during early infection. Using sspg1d as bait, a small C2 domain protein (designated as IPG-1) was identified by yeast two-hybrid screening of a canola cDNA library. Deletion analysis confirmed that the C-terminus of IPG-1 is responsible for its interaction with sspg1d in the yeast two-hybrid assay. The sspg1d/IPG-1 interaction was further confirmed in plant cells by a biomolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay. A transient expression assay showed that the IPG-1-GFP fusion protein was targeted to the plasma membrane and nucleus in onion epidermal cells. Following treatment with a Ca(2+) ionophore, it was distributed throughout the cytosol. Real-time PCR assay demonstrated that IPG-1 was highly induced by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in canola leaves and stems. Southern blot analysis indicated the presence of about five homologues of IPG-1 in the canola genome. Two additional members of the IPG-1gene family were isolated by RT-PCR. Their sequence similarity with IPG-1 is as high as 95%. However, they did not interact with sspg1d in the yeast two-hybrid assay. Possible roles of IPG-1 and its association with sspg1d in the defence signalling pathway were discussed. PMID:19407339

  1. La necesidad de cohetes más veloces

    NASA Video Gallery

    Los cohetes utilizados por la NASA son excelentes, pero no nos pueden llevar muy lejos ni muy rápido a aquellos lugares a los que todavía no llegamos, como Marte, o más lejos. Una solución posible ...

  2. Como Lo Hago Yo: Lipomas Medulares

    PubMed Central

    Portillo, Santiago

    2014-01-01

    Basados en la experiencia de 82 casos; en 5% se observaron anomalías pélvicas asociadas. En los menores de 3 años el motivo de consulta (85%) fue la tumoración. En los mayores de 3 años (42%) tenía problemas neurológicos. Solo el 24% preocupados por la tumoración. El objetivo de la cirugía es desanclar la médula y no remover la totalidad del lipoma. El lipoma de filum es el que es mas simple para operar. Aún cuando la escuela francesa propone operar solamente cuando hay síntomas favorezco cirugía preventiva. Favorezco una segunda cirugía si hay signos de anclaje postoperatorio, aún cuando observamos empeoramiento postoperatorio motor en 2.5% de los operados y urológico a largo plazo en 6% de los operados. PMID:24791218

  3. Micoinseticidas e Micoacaricidas no Brasil: Como estamos?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycoinsecticides and mycoacaricides can be defined as biopesticide products based on living propagules of entomopathogenic fungi developed for inundative and inoculative biological control of insects and mites. Based on recently published data on global use of entomopathogenic fungi and a proposal f...

  4. Particle-associated contaminants in street dust, parking lot dust, soil, lake-bottom sediment, and suspended and streambed sediment, Lake Como and Fosdic Lake watersheds, Fort Worth, Texas, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Jennifer T.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Werth, Charles J.; Yang, Yanning

    2006-01-01

    A previous study by the U.S. Geological Survey of impaired water bodies in Fort Worth, Texas, reported elevated but variable concentrations of particle-associated contaminants (PACs) comprising chlorinated hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and trace elements in suspended and bed sediment of lakes and streams affected by urban land use. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Fort Worth, collected additional samples during October 2004 to investigate sources of PACs in the watersheds of two impaired lakes: Lake Como and Fosdic Lake. Source materials and aquatic sediment were sampled and analyzed for PACs. Source materials sampled consisted of street dust and soil from areas with residential and commercial land use and parking lot dust from sealed and unsealed parking lots. Aquatic sediment sampled consisted of bottom-sediment cores from the two lakes and suspended and streambed sediment from the influent stream of each lake. Samples were analyzed for chlorinated hydrocarbons (organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, major and trace elements, organic carbon, grain size, and radionuclides.

  5. 78 FR 64984 - Distribution of the 2000, 2001, 2002 and 2003 Cable Royalty Funds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... proceedings relating to cable retransmission royalties for royalty years 2000 through 2003. 76 FR 7590 (Feb... FR 26798 (May 12, 2010). IPG challenged the category definitions; the Judges rejected IPG's challenge..., Order, in Docket No. 2000-2 CARP CD 93-97, 66 FR 66433, 66444 (Dec. 26, 2001) (quoting H.R. Rep....

  6. Supporting Children on the Autism Spectrum in Peer Play at Home and School: Piloting the Integrated Play Groups Model in Taiwan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Tsung-Ren; Wolfberg, Pamela J.; Wu, Shu-Chin; Hwu, Pey-Yun

    2003-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the integrated play groups (IPGs) model designed to support children with autism in play with typical children. A pilot investigation involving 2 Taiwanese children (ages 6-7) found each child made notable gains in reciprocal social interactions and symbolic/pretend play with participating in IPGs. (Contains…

  7. Using Instructional Pervasive Game for School Children's Cultural Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Cheng-Ping; Shih, Ju-Ling; Ma, Yi-Chun

    2014-01-01

    In the past ten years, mobile learning (m-learning) has created a new learning environment that enables learners, through active learning aids. Instructional pervasive gaming (IPG) seems to be an innovative way introduced to enhance m-learning. This study employed a theoretical IPG model to construct a cultural-based pervasive game. Individual and…

  8. Evaluation of Games in Games and Physical Activity Course Curriculum in Terms of Common Basic Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inan, Mehmet; Ozden, Bülent; Dervent, Fatih; Küçüktepe, Coskun

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide an overview of the games in the "I am Playing Games" (IPG) compilation booklet that was used in the Games and Physical Activity (GPA) curriculum. 257 games in IPG compilation booklet were coded whether they had elements that would enable development of common basic skills or not. Common basic…

  9. Latency Hiding in Dynamic Partitioning and Load Balancing of Grid Computing Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, Sajal K.; Harvey, Daniel J.; Biswas, Rupak

    2001-01-01

    The Information Power Grid (IPG) concept developed by NASA is aimed to provide a metacomputing platform for large-scale distributed computations, by hiding the intricacies of highly heterogeneous environment and yet maintaining adequate security. In this paper, we propose a latency-tolerant partitioning scheme that dynamically balances processor workloads on the.IPG, and minimizes data movement and runtime communication. By simulating an unsteady adaptive mesh application on a wide area network, we study the performance of our load balancer under the Globus environment. The number of IPG nodes, the number of processors per node, and the interconnected speeds are parameterized to derive conditions under which the IPG would be suitable for parallel distributed processing of such applications. Experimental results demonstrate that effective solution are achieved when the IPG nodes are connected by a high-speed asynchronous interconnection network.

  10. Essays on Eclipses, Transits and Occultations as Teaching Tools in the Introductory Astronomy College Course. (Spanish Title: Ensayos sobre Eclipses, Tránsitos y Ocultaciones Como Herramientas de Enseñanza en el Curso Universitario Introductorio a la Astronomía.) Ensaios sobre Eclipses, Trânsitos e Ocultações Como Ferramentas de Ensino em um Curso Universitário Introdutório de Astromomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dcruz, Noella L.

    2014-07-01

    estudiantes que escribieran dos ensayos cortos de tres que se proponían. Los ensayos contenían partes descriptivas y conceptuales. Los mismos estaban destinados a servir como herramientas de enseñanza. 62% de los 106 ensayos de 55 estudiantes obtuvo grados A, B o C. 21% de los 47 encuestados que respondieron al cuestionario posterior consideró que los ensayos aumentaron su interés por la astronomía. 49% de los encuestados consideró que los ensayos no eran educacionalmente útiles y que no deben ser propuestos de nuevo. Las respuestas escritas más comunes a nuestra encuesta indicaran que los estudiantes necesitan más orientación y una mejor preparación en la redacción de ensayos exitosos. Dado que los estudiantes encontraron las piezas conceptuales de los ensayos difíciles, en el futuro vamos a ofrecer actividades pertinentes antes de los plazos de redacción para ayudar a los estudiantes a crear ensayos de mayor calidad. Nós ocasionalmente incluímos projetos em nosso curso universitário introdutório centrado no aluno para permitir aos estudantes que pertencem às carreiras não científicas explorar alguns conceitos astronômicos em mais detalhes do que o normal. Tais projetos também enfatizam eventos astronômicos em curso ou futuros. Esperamos que os alunos se sintam mais interessados na astronomia através de projetos ligados a eventos astronômicos. No termo de Primavera de 2012 (EUA), propomos ensaios curtos focados em eclipses, trânsitos e ocultações para promover o raro trânsito de Vênus que ocorreu no dia 5 de junho de 2012. Pedimos aos alunos que escrevessem dois ensaios curtos dentre três que foram propostos. Os ensaios continham partes descritivas e conceituais. Eles foram feitos para servir como ferramentas de ensino. 62% de 106 ensaios de 55 alunos ganhou graus A, B ou C. 21% dos 47 entrevistados que responderam ao levantamento posterior sentiu que os ensaios aumentaram seu interesse na astronomia. 49% dos inquiridos consideraram que os

  11. Resultados de una encuesta sobre posibles reformas ortograficas en el espanol del siglo XX (Results of a Survey Concerning Possible Orthographic Reforms in Twentieth Century Spanish)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varela Cuellar, Beatriz

    1976-01-01

    This article presents the results of a questionnaire sent to Spanish teachers regarding possible orthographic reforms in Spanish. Changes considered included elimination of certain letters and representation of each phoneme by only one letter. Responses to each question are classified and explained. (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  12. Study on the cutting mechanism and the brittle ductile transition model of isotropic pyrolyric graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Minghai; Wang, Hujun; Liu, Zhonghai

    2010-12-01

    Isotropic pyrolyric graphite (IPG) is a new kind of brittle material, it can be used for sealing the aero-engine turbine shaft and the ethylene high-temperature equipment. It not only has the general advantages of ordinal carbonaceous materials such as high temperature resistance, lubrication and abrasion resistance, but also has the advantages of impermeability and machinability that carbon/carbon composite doesn't have. Therefore, it has broad prospects for development. Mechanism of brittle-ductile transition of IPG is the foundation of precision cutting while the plastic deformation of IPG is the essential and the most important mechanical behavior of precision cutting. Using the theory of strain gradient, the mechanism of this material removal during the precision cutting is analyzed. The critical cutting thickness of IPG is calculated for the first time. Furthermore, the cutting process parameters such as cutting depth, feed rate which corresponding to the scale of brittle-ductile transition deformation of IPG are calculated. In the end, based on the theory of micromechanics, the deformation behaviors of IPG such as brittle fracture, plastic deformation and mutual transformation process are all simulated under the Sih.G.C fracture criterion. The condition of the simulation is that the material under the pressure-shear loading conditions .The result shows that the best angle during the IPG precision cutting is -30°. The theoretical analysis and the simulation result are validated by precision cutting experiments.

  13. Study on the cutting mechanism and the brittle ductile transition model of isotropic pyrolyric graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Minghai; Wang, Hujun; Liu, Zhonghai

    2011-05-01

    Isotropic pyrolyric graphite (IPG) is a new kind of brittle material, it can be used for sealing the aero-engine turbine shaft and the ethylene high-temperature equipment. It not only has the general advantages of ordinal carbonaceous materials such as high temperature resistance, lubrication and abrasion resistance, but also has the advantages of impermeability and machinability that carbon/carbon composite doesn't have. Therefore, it has broad prospects for development. Mechanism of brittle-ductile transition of IPG is the foundation of precision cutting while the plastic deformation of IPG is the essential and the most important mechanical behavior of precision cutting. Using the theory of strain gradient, the mechanism of this material removal during the precision cutting is analyzed. The critical cutting thickness of IPG is calculated for the first time. Furthermore, the cutting process parameters such as cutting depth, feed rate which corresponding to the scale of brittle-ductile transition deformation of IPG are calculated. In the end, based on the theory of micromechanics, the deformation behaviors of IPG such as brittle fracture, plastic deformation and mutual transformation process are all simulated under the Sih.G.C fracture criterion. The condition of the simulation is that the material under the pressure-shear loading conditions .The result shows that the best angle during the IPG precision cutting is -30°. The theoretical analysis and the simulation result are validated by precision cutting experiments.

  14. Master Software Requirements Specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Chaumin

    2003-01-01

    A basic function of a computational grid such as the NASA Information Power Grid (IPG) is to allow users to execute applications on remote computer systems. The Globus Resource Allocation Manager (GRAM) provides this functionality in the IPG and many other grids at this time. While the functionality provided by GRAM clients is adequate, GRAM does not support useful features such as staging several sets of files, running more than one executable in a single job submission, and maintaining historical information about execution operations. This specification is intended to provide the environmental and software functional requirements for the IPG Job Manager V2.0 being developed by AMTI for NASA.

  15. International Psychogeriatrics Paper of the year 2015: the use of modern technology to tackle an old challenge - improving the diagnosis of delirium in the hospital setting.

    PubMed

    Lautenschlager, Nicola T; Ames, David

    2016-06-01

    In 2014, International Psychogeriatrics (IPG) for the first time introduced a "paper of the month" category as part of the 25th year's milestone celebrations. Papers of the month were chosen through an internal selection process by the IPG editorial team. Each month, the seven editors ranked suitable accepted papers from the categories "original research articles" and "reviews" according to scientific quality and clinical relevance. Each paper of the month was accompanied by a brief commentary written by one of the IPG editors, one of the reviewers for the paper, or an international expert on the specific topic of the paper. From the 12 papers of the month, an IPG paper of the year was selected after a ranking process involving three independent expert reviewers. PMID:27053429

  16. Macroporous polyacrylamide-based monolithic column with immobilized pH gradient for protein analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guijie; Yuan, Huiming; Zhao, Peng; Zhang, Lihua; Liang, Zhen; Zhang, Weibing; Zhang, Yukui

    2006-09-01

    Monolithic materials were prepared in capillaries by in situ polymerization of acrylamide, glycidyl methacrylate, and N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide in the presence of 1,4-butanediol, dodecanol, and DMSO as porogens. With Ampholine attached to the surface of the porous monolith via epoxide groups, a monolithic-IPG (M-IPG) was formed and showed good mechanical and chemical stability. With such a column immobilized by Ampholine 3.5-10, IEF-MIX 3.6-9.3 was separated and good linearity was obtained. The CIEF behavior of M-IPG was evinced by comparing the current with that in the open tubular capillary. In addition, the protein mixtures excreted from lung cancer cells of rats were analyzed with such a new M-IPG column. PMID:16915568

  17. NASA Exhibits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deardorff, Glenn; Djomehri, M. Jahed; Freeman, Ken; Gambrel, Dave; Green, Bryan; Henze, Chris; Hinke, Thomas; Hood, Robert; Kiris, Cetin; Moran, Patrick; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A series of NASA presentations for the Supercomputing 2001 conference are summarized. The topics include: (1) Mars Surveyor Landing Sites "Collaboratory"; (2) Parallel and Distributed CFD for Unsteady Flows with Moving Overset Grids; (3) IP Multicast for Seamless Support of Remote Science; (4) Consolidated Supercomputing Management Office; (5) Growler: A Component-Based Framework for Distributed/Collaborative Scientific Visualization and Computational Steering; (6) Data Mining on the Information Power Grid (IPG); (7) Debugging on the IPG; (8) Debakey Heart Assist Device: (9) Unsteady Turbopump for Reusable Launch Vehicle; (10) Exploratory Computing Environments Component Framework; (11) OVERSET Computational Fluid Dynamics Tools; (12) Control and Observation in Distributed Environments; (13) Multi-Level Parallelism Scaling on NASA's Origin 1024 CPU System; (14) Computing, Information, & Communications Technology; (15) NAS Grid Benchmarks; (16) IPG: A Large-Scale Distributed Computing and Data Management System; and (17) ILab: Parameter Study Creation and Submission on the IPG.

  18. Large-Scale Distributed Computational Fluid Dynamics on the Information Power Grid Using Globus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnard, Stephen; Biswas, Rupak; Saini, Subhash; VanderWijngaart, Robertus; Yarrow, Maurice; Zechtzer, Lou; Foster, Ian; Larsson, Olle

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes an experiment in which a large-scale scientific application development for tightly-coupled parallel machines is adapted to the distributed execution environment of the Information Power Grid (IPG). A brief overview of the IPG and a description of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) algorithm are given. The Globus metacomputing toolkit is used as the enabling device for the geographically-distributed computation. Modifications related to latency hiding and Load balancing were required for an efficient implementation of the CFD application in the IPG environment. Performance results on a pair of SGI Origin 2000 machines indicate that real scientific applications can be effectively implemented on the IPG; however, a significant amount of continued effort is required to make such an environment useful and accessible to scientists and engineers.

  19. PI5P Triggers ICAM-1 Degradation in Shigella Infected Cells, Thus Dampening Immune Cell Recruitment.

    PubMed

    Boal, Frédéric; Puhar, Andrea; Xuereb, Jean-Marie; Kunduzova, Oksana; Sansonetti, Philippe J; Payrastre, Bernard; Tronchère, Hélène

    2016-02-01

    Shigella flexneri, the pathogen responsible for bacillary dysentery, has evolved multiple strategies to control the inflammatory response. Here, we show that Shigella subverts the subcellular trafficking of the intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), a key molecule in immune cell recruitment, in a mechanism dependent on the injected bacterial enzyme IpgD and its product, the lipid mediator PI5P. Overexpression of IpgD, but not a phosphatase dead mutant, induced the internalization and the degradation of ICAM-1 in intestinal epithelial cells. Remarkably, addition of permeant PI5P reproduced IpgD effects and led to the inhibition of neutrophil recruitment. Finally, these results were confirmed in an in vivo model of Shigella infection where IpgD-dependent ICAM-1 internalization reduced neutrophil adhesion. In conclusion, we describe here an immune evasion mechanism used by the pathogen Shigella to divert the host cell trafficking machinery in order to reduce immune cell recruitment. PMID:26776508

  20. Accessing Wind Tunnels From NASA's Information Power Grid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, Jeff; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Ames wind tunnel customers are one of the first users of the Information Power Grid (IPG) storage system at the NASA Advanced Supercomputing Division. We wanted to be able to store their data on the IPG so that it could be accessed remotely in a secure but timely fashion. In addition, incorporation into the IPG allows future use of grid computational resources, e.g., for post-processing of data, or to do side-by-side CFD validation. In this paper, we describe the integration of grid data access mechanisms with the existing DARWIN web-based system that is used to access wind tunnel test data. We also show that the combined system has reasonable performance: wind tunnel data may be retrieved at 50Mbits/s over a 100 base T network connected to the IPG storage server.

  1. A Latency-Tolerant Partitioner for Distributed Computing on the Information Power Grid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, Sajal K.; Harvey, Daniel J.; Biwas, Rupak; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    NASA's Information Power Grid (IPG) is an infrastructure designed to harness the power of graphically distributed computers, databases, and human expertise, in order to solve large-scale realistic computational problems. This type of a meta-computing environment is necessary to present a unified virtual machine to application developers that hides the intricacies of a highly heterogeneous environment and yet maintains adequate security. In this paper, we present a novel partitioning scheme. called MinEX, that dynamically balances processor workloads while minimizing data movement and runtime communication, for applications that are executed in a parallel distributed fashion on the IPG. We also analyze the conditions that are required for the IPG to be an effective tool for such distributed computations. Our results show that MinEX is a viable load balancer provided the nodes of the IPG are connected by a high-speed asynchronous interconnection network.

  2. Shigella flexneri Spa15 Crystal Structure Verified in Solution by Double Electron Electron Resonance

    PubMed Central

    Lillington, James E.D.; Lovett, Janet E.; Johnson, Steven; Roversi, Pietro; Timmel, Christiane R.; Lea, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    Shigella flexneri Spa15 is a chaperone of the type 3 secretion system, which binds a number of effectors to ensure their stabilization prior to secretion. One of these effectors is IpgB1, a mimic of the human Ras-like Rho guanosine triphosphatase RhoG. In this study, Spa15 alone and in complex with IpgB1 has been studied by double electron electron resonance, an experiment that gives distance information showing the spacial separation of attached spin labels. This distance is explained by determining the crystal structure of the spin-labeled Spa15 where labels are seen to be buried in hydrophobic pockets. The double electron electron resonance experiment on the Spa15 complex with IpgB1 shows that IpgB1 does not bind Spa15 in the same way as is seen in the homologous Salmonella sp. chaperone:effector complex InvB:SipA. PMID:21075116

  3. Evaluating the Information Power Grid using the NAS Grid Benchmarks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanderWijngaartm Rob F.; Frumkin, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    The NAS Grid Benchmarks (NGB) are a collection of synthetic distributed applications designed to rate the performance and functionality of computational grids. We compare several implementations of the NGB to determine programmability and efficiency of NASA's Information Power Grid (IPG), whose services are mostly based on the Globus Toolkit. We report on the overheads involved in porting existing NGB reference implementations to the IPG. No changes were made to the component tasks of the NGB can still be improved.

  4. High index contrast polysiloxane waveguides fabricated by dry etching

    SciTech Connect

    Madden, S. J.; Zhang, M. Y.; Choi, D.-Y.; Luther-Davies, B.; Charters, R.

    2009-05-15

    The authors demonstrate the production of low loss enhanced index contrast waveguides by reactive ion etching of IPG trade mark sign polysiloxane thin films. The use of a silica mask and CHF{sub 3}/O{sub 2} etch gas led to large etch selectivity between the silica and IPG trade mark sign of >20 and etch rates of >100 nm/min. This work indicates that compact optical circuits could be successfully fabricated for telecommunication applications using polysiloxane films.

  5. Insulin-Stimulated Release of D-Chiro-Inositol-Containing Inositolphosphoglycan Mediator Correlates with Insulin Sensitivity in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cheang, Kai I.; Baillargeon, Jean-Patrice; Essah, Paulina A.; Ostlund, Richard E.; Apridonize, Teimuraz; Islam, Leila; Nestler, John E.

    2008-01-01

    Some actions of insulin are mediated by inositolphosphoglycan mediators. Deficient release of a putative D-chiro-inositol-containing inositolphosphoglycan (DCI-IPG) mediator may contribute to insulin resistance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Previously we demonstrated that oral DCI supplementation improved ovulation and metabolic parameters in women with PCOS. However, whether oral DCI mediates an increase in the release of the DCI-IPG mediator and an improvement in insulin sensitivity in women with PCOS is unknown. We conducted a randomized controlled trial of DCI supplementation vs. placebo in 11 women with PCOS who were assessed at two-time points, 6 weeks apart. Plasma DCI, DCI-IPG release during OGTT (AUCDCI-IPG) and insulin sensitivity (Si) by FSIVGTT were assessed at baseline and end-of-study. The study was terminated early due to a sudden unavailability of the study drug. However, in all subjects without regard to treatment assignment, there was a positive correlation between the change in AUCDCI-IPG / AUCInsulin ratio and the change in Si during the 6-week period (r=0.69, p=0.02), which remained significant after adjustment for BMI (p=0.022), and after further adjustment for BMI and treatment allocation (p=0.0261). This suggests that in women with PCOS, increased glucose-stimulated DCI-IPG release is significantly correlated with improved insulin sensitivity. The significant relationship between DCI-IPG release and insulin sensitivity suggests that the DCI-IPG mediator may be a target for therapeutic interventions in PCOS. PMID:18803944

  6. Simulation of Etching in Chlorine Discharges Using an Integrated Feature Evolution-Plasma Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, Helen H.; Bose, Deepak; Govindan, T. R.; Meyyappan, M.; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    To better utilize its vast collection of heterogeneous resources that are geographically distributed across the United States, NASA is constructing a computational grid called the Information Power Grid (IPG). This paper describes various tools and techniques that we are developing to measure and improve the performance of a broad class of NASA applications when run on the IPG. In particular, we are investigating the areas of grid benchmarking, grid monitoring, user-level application scheduling, and decentralized system-level scheduling.

  7. Como Planear Mi Vida = Make a Life for Yourself.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haffner, Debra; Casey, Sean

    This booklet for teenagers about life planning is presented in parallel English and Spanish versions with a special focus on young Hispanics growing up in America. It discusses hopes and dreams that adolescents may have and gives tips for reaching goals. A sentence completion exercise is included to help readers set goals. Four important goals for…

  8. Los mitos como memoria colectiva de Los Pueblos.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín, P. T.

    Myths are essentially something practical that allows those who believe in them to solve any ambiguity which could come up in their relation with nature. Since they bring information about the condition of the reality to which they belong, they are but the appropriate instrument to insert nature into culture by actually achieving an adaptation to the environment. The purpose of this essay is to show how the deification of plants, animals, and stars, which are present in the daily lives of "Amerindian" people, not only constitutes a source of rich mythology but also turns out to be an effective measure towards the continuity of social groups. Similarities or identifications between human life and the life of plants, animals and stars as well as mutual interplay are somehow present in those myths: stars which create or are changed into human being, animals or plants; human beings who create or are transformed into astral bodies; battles between peoples and stars, etc. On this base, mythology can provide not only keys to show how certain human groups have achieved their adaptation to the environment and how the different social systems and their relations to nature have developed, but also hints of changes which have taken place in other heavenly spheres such as the falling of meteors, the appearance of comets or any other significant events of this kind in the lives of these groups.

  9. Make a Life for Yourself = Como Planear Mi Vida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Population Options, Washington, DC.

    This booklet was devised to help Hispanic teenagers develop a life plan. It provides information for making decisions, and is written in both English and Spanish. Tips are provided for setting goals. A sentence-completion task helps the teenager focus on specific issues, and use concrete language when talking about the goals. Specific goals are…

  10. El Espanol como Idioma Universal (Spanish as a Universal Language)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mijares, Jose

    1977-01-01

    A proposal to transform Spanish into a universal language because it possesses the prerequisites: it is a living language, spoken in several countries; it is a natural language; and it uses the ordinary alphabet. Details on simplification and standardization are given. (Text is in Spanish.) (AMH)

  11. [Parenting Information. Informacion Sobre Como Ser Padres Mejores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Steve

    These five booklets, containing information on how parenting can effect children's school achievement, are part of a series of 22 innovative booklets designed specifically to help parents understand and help their children learn. Booklet #1, "Parents--Teach Your Children to Learn [Before They Go to School]," defines intelligence and suggests…

  12. Understanding Your Child's Learning Differences = Entienda como aprende su hijo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fielding, Elizabeth N.

    Children who are bright and hard-working, yet find school a struggle, or children who can discuss things they have learned but whose written work is of surprisingly poor quality, might have learning differences that are hindering them from reaching their full potential. Some children are visual learners, others are auditory learners, and others…

  13. Como Lo Hago Yo: Tratamiento Quirurgico Del Mielomeningocele

    PubMed Central

    Portillo, Santiago

    2014-01-01

    En Argentina hay plan de fortificación con ácido fólico. Diagnostico prenatal no siempre es correcto. Cierre según técnica. Cerramos músculo. No favorecemos corpectomía temprana en casos de cifosis. Suturamos la plaqueta. Cerramos el plano muscular. Hidrocefalia: Válvula de derivación, generalmente dentro de los dos primeros meses. Ventriculostomía no está indicada. Chiari II. Laminectomia cervical alta. Siringomielia: Derivación desde la cavidad al peritoneo. PMID:24791219

  14. Interphase gap as a means to reduce electrical stimulation thresholds for epiretinal prostheses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weitz, Andrew C.; Behrend, Matthew R.; Ahuja, Ashish K.; Christopher, Punita; Wei, Jianing; Wuyyuru, Varalakshmi; Patel, Uday; Greenberg, Robert J.; Humayun, Mark S.; Chow, Robert H.; Weiland, James D.

    2014-02-01

    Objective. Epiretinal prostheses are designed to restore functional vision to the blind by electrically stimulating surviving retinal neurons. These devices have classically employed symmetric biphasic current pulses in order to maintain a balance of charge. Prior electrophysiological and psychophysical studies in peripheral nerve show that adding an interphase gap (IPG) between the two phases makes stimulation more efficient than pulses with no gap. This led us to investigate the effect of IPG duration on retinal stimulation thresholds. Approach. We measured retinal ganglion cell (RGC) electrical thresholds in salamander retina and phosphene perceptual thresholds in epiretinal prosthesis patients during stimulation with different IPG lengths. We also built Hodgkin-Huxley-type models of RGCs to further study how IPG affects thresholds. Main results. In general, there was a negative exponential correlation between threshold and IPG duration. Durations greater than or equal to ˜0.5 ms reduced salamander RGC thresholds by 20-25%. Psychophysical testing in five retinal prosthesis patients indicated that stimulating with IPGs can decrease perceptual thresholds by 10-15%. Results from computational models of RGCs corroborated the observed behavior. Significance. Incorporating interphase gaps can reduce the power consumption of epiretinal prostheses and increase the available dynamic range of phosphene size and brightness.

  15. NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunini, A.

    Se presenta una revisión de los conocimientos actuales sobre el proceso de acreción del sistema solar exterior. En base a nuevas y más realistas simulaciones numéricas, se analiza el impacto que tuvo dicho proceso en otras regiones del sistema solar tales como la nube de Oort, el cinturón de Kuiper y el sistema solar interior. Se presentan entonces, las principales limitaciones de los modelos numéricos actuales, los principales puntos aún oscuros en el problema, y algunos de los posibles caminos a seguir para mejorar nuestro conocimiento en el tema. Se discute a continuación la posible utilidad de este tipo de estudios para el diseño de estrategias de búsqueda de otros sistemas planetarios.

  16. Chronological Changes of C-Reactive Protein Levels Following Uncomplicated, Two-Staged, Bilateral Deep Brain Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-hun; Ha, Sang-woo; Choi, Jin-gyu

    2015-01-01

    Objective The occurrence of acute cerebral infection following deep brain stimulation (DBS) is currently being reported with elevation of C-reactive protein (CRP) level. The aim of the present study was to establish normal range of the magnitude and time-course of CRP increases following routine DBS procedures in the absence of clinical and laboratory signs of infection. Methods A retrospective evaluation of serial changes of plasma CRP levels in 46 patients undergoing bilateral, two-staged DBS was performed. Because DBS was performed as a two-staged procedure involving; implantation of lead and internal pulse generator (IPG), CRP was measured preoperatively and postoperatively every 2 days until normalization of CRP (post-lead implantation day 2 and 4, post-IPG implantation day 2, 4, and 6). Results Compared with preoperative CRP levels (0.12±0.17 mg/dL, n=46), mean CRP levels were significantly elevated after lead insertion day 2 and 4 (1.68±1.83 mg/dL, n=46 and 0.76±0.38 mg/dL, n=16, respectively, p<0.001). The mean CRP levels at post-lead implantation day 2 were further elevated at post-IPG implantation day 2 (3.41±2.56 mg/dL, n=46, respectively, p<0.01). This elevation in post-IPG day 2 rapidly declined in day 4 (1.24±1.29 mg/dL, n=46, p<0.05) and normalized to preoperative value at day 6 (0.42±0.33 mg/dL, n=46, p>0.05). Mean CRP levels after IPG implantation were significantly higher in patients whose IPGs were implanted at post-lead day 3 than those at post-lead day 5-6 (3.99±2.80 mg/dL, n=30, and 2.31±1.56 mg/dL, n=16, respectively, p<0.05). However, there was no difference in post-IPG day 2 and 4 between them (p>0.05). Conclusion The mean postoperative CRP levels were highest on post-IPG insertion day 2 and decreased rapidly, returning to the normal range on post-IPG implantation day 6. The duration of post-lead implantation period influenced the magnitude of CRP elevation at post-IPG insertion day 2. Information about the normal response of CRP

  17. Technetium-99m red blood cell venography in patients with clinically suspected deep vein thrombosis: a prospective study

    SciTech Connect

    Leclerc, J.R.; Wolfson, C.; Arzoumanian, A.; Blake, G.P.; Rosenthall, L.

    1988-09-01

    We have compared technetium-99m (99mTc) red blood cell (RBC) venography to serial impedance plethysmography (IPG) in 110 consecutive patients with a first episode of clinically suspected deep vein thrombosis (DVT). IPG was performed at Day 0 and, if abnormal, contrast venography was also performed to rule out a falsely positive result. Patients with an initially normal IPG had the test repeated at Days 1, 3, 5 to 7, and 10 to 14. Contrast venography was not performed and anticoagulant treatment was withheld in all patients who remained normal during repeated IPG testing. Technetium-99m RBC venography was performed at Day 0 in patients with an initially abnormal IPG and during the period of serial IPG testing in those with an initially normal IPG. The sensitivity of (99mTc)RBC venography for proximal DVT was 0.68, with 95% confidence limits (CL) from 0.48 to 0.89. Specificity was 0.88 (95% CL from 0.81 to 0.95). When the findings of (99mTc)RBC venography for the entire lower extremity were compared to the reference method, the sensitivity increased to 0.90 (95% CL from 0.82 to 0.97) but the specificity decreased to 0.56 (95% CL from 0.51 to 0.62). Technetium-99m RBC venography is a sensitive but less specific method for detecting DVT of the entire lower extremity. An abnormal (99mTc)RBC venogram, particularly in the calf region, should always be confirmed by another diagnostic method.

  18. Technetium-99m red blood cell venography in patients with clinically suspected deep vein thrombosis: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, J R; Wolfson, C; Arzoumanian, A; Blake, G P; Rosenthall, L

    1988-09-01

    We have compared technetium-99m (99mTc) red blood cell (RBC) venography to serial impedance plethysmography (IPG) in 110 consecutive patients with a first episode of clinically suspected deep vein thrombosis (DVT). IPG was performed at Day 0 and, if abnormal, contrast venography was also performed to rule out a falsely positive result. Patients with an initially normal IPG had the test repeated at Days 1, 3, 5 to 7, and 10 to 14. Contrast venography was not performed and anticoagulant treatment was withheld in all patients who remained normal during repeated IPG testing. Technetium-99m RBC venography was performed at Day 0 in patients with an initially abnormal IPG and during the period of serial IPG testing in those with an initially normal IPG. The sensitivity of [99mTc]RBC venography for proximal DVT was 0.68, with 95% confidence limits (CL) from 0.48 to 0.89. Specificity was 0.88 (95% CL from 0.81 to 0.95). When the findings of [99mTc]RBC venography for the entire lower extremity were compared to the reference method, the sensitivity increased to 0.90 (95% CL from 0.82 to 0.97) but the specificity decreased to 0.56 (95% CL from 0.51 to 0.62). Technetium-99m RBC venography is a sensitive but less specific method for detecting DVT of the entire lower extremity. An abnormal [99mTc]RBC venogram, particularly in the calf region, should always be confirmed by another diagnostic method. PMID:3411373

  19. Estudio teórico de la desorción de Na y K de SiO2 estimulada por la acción de fotones o electrones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez Ariza, D.; López, N.; Illas, F.; Pacchioni, G.; Madey, T. E.

    Se ha estudiado el mecanismo de generación de sodio y potasio atómico a partir de muestras de SiO2 utilizando cálculos basados tanto en la teoría del funcional de la densidad como en métodos post-Hartree Fock, así como en el método de cluster para modelar el sólido. Como consecuencia del estudio se han propuesto distintos caminos posibles para la desorción, estimulada por la acción de fotones o electrones, de sodio y potasio desde el óxido de silicio, proporcionando por lo tanto una explicación a la atmósfera tenue de sodio y potasio de La Luna.

  20. Evidence for alternative quaternary structure in a bacterial Type III secretion system chaperone

    SciTech Connect

    Barta, Michael L.; Zhang, Lingling; Picking, Wendy L.; Geisbrecht, Brian V.

    2010-10-05

    Type III secretion systems are a common virulence mechanism in many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. These systems use a nanomachine resembling a molecular needle and syringe to provide an energized conduit for the translocation of effector proteins from the bacterial cytoplasm to the host cell cytoplasm for the benefit of the pathogen. Prior to translocation specialized chaperones maintain proper effector protein conformation. The class II chaperone, Invasion plasmid gene (Ipg) C, stabilizes two pore forming translocator proteins. IpgC exists as a functional dimer to facilitate the mutually exclusive binding of both translocators. In this study, we present the 3.3 {angstrom} crystal structure of an amino-terminally truncated form (residues 10-155, denoted IpgC10-155) of the class II chaperone IpgC from Shigella flexneri. Our structure demonstrates an alternative quaternary arrangement to that previously described for a carboxy-terminally truncated variant of IpgC (IpgC{sup 1-151}). Specifically, we observe a rotationally-symmetric 'head-to-head' dimerization interface that is far more similar to that previously described for SycD from Yersinia enterocolitica than to IpgC1-151. The IpgC structure presented here displays major differences in the amino terminal region, where extended coil-like structures are seen, as opposed to the short, ordered alpha helices and asymmetric dimerization interface seen within IpgC{sup 1-151}. Despite these differences, however, both modes of dimerization support chaperone activity, as judged by a copurification assay with a recombinant form of the translocator protein, IpaB. Conclusions: From primary to quaternary structure, these results presented here suggest that a symmetric dimerization interface is conserved across bacterial class II chaperones. In light of previous data which have described the structure and function of asymmetric dimerization, our results raise the possibility that class II chaperones may transition between

  1. A tunable isoelectric focusing via moving reaction boundary for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and proteomics.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chen-Gang; Shang, Zhi; Yan, Jian; Li, Si; Li, Guo-Qing; Liu, Rong-Zhong; Qing, Ying; Fan, Liu-Yin; Xiao, Hua; Cao, Cheng-Xi

    2015-05-01

    Routine native immobilized pH gradient isoelectric focusing (IPG-IEF) and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) are still suffering from unfortunate reproducibility, poor resolution (caused by protein precipitation) and instability in characterization of intact protein isoforms and posttranslational modifications. Based on the concept of moving reaction boundary (MRB), we firstly proposed a tunable non-IPG-IEF system to address these issues. By choosing proper pairs of catholyte and anolyte, we could achieve desired cathodic and anodic migrating pH gradients in non-IPG-IEF system, effectively eliminating protein precipitation and uncertainty of quantitation existing in routine IEF and 2DE, and enhancing the resolution and sensitivity of IEF. Then, an adjustable 2DE system was developed by combining non-IPG-IEF with polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). The improved 2DE was evaluated by testing model proteins and colon cancer cell lysates. The experiments revealed that (i) a tunable pH gradient could be designed via MRB; (ii) up to 1.65 fold improvement of resolution was achieved via non-IPG-IEF; (iii) the sensitivity of developed techniques was increased up to 2.7 folds; and (iv) up to about 16.4% more protein spots could be observed via the adjustable 2DE as compared with routine one. The developed techniques might contribute to complex proteome research, especially for screening of biological marker and analysis of extreme acidic/alkaline proteins. PMID:25770625

  2. Effect of separation dimensions on resolution and throughput using very narrow-range IEF for 2-DE after solution phase isoelectric fractionation of a complex proteome.

    PubMed

    Lee, KiBeom; Pi, KyungBae

    2009-04-01

    This paper describes how the lengths of the first and second dimensions in narrow pH-range 2-DE affect the number of detected protein spots, by analysis of human breast carcinoma cell line lysates prefractionated by solution phase IEF. The aim is to maximize throughput while minimizing experimental costs. In this study, systematic evaluation of narrow-range IPG strip lengths showed that separation distances were very important, with dramatic increases in resolution when longer gels were used. Compared with 7 cm minigels, maximal resolution was obtained using 18 and 24 cm IPG strips. Systematic evaluation of SDS-PAGE gel length showed a far weaker influence of separation length on resolution in the second dimension compared with that observed for the IEF dimension. There was little benefit in using separation distances greater than 12-15 cm, at least with currently available electrophoresis units. The work shows that regions of the IPG strip not containing any proteins can be excised to fit a smaller gel if prefractionation using IEF in solution has been performed. As expected, larger 2-DE gel volumes resulting from the use of longer IPG strips and second dimension gels decreased detection sensitivity when equal protein loads were used. However, this effect could be readily eliminated by increasing the loads applied to IPG strips. PMID:19301322

  3. EspT triggers formation of lamellipodia and membrane ruffles through activation of Rac-1 and Cdc42

    PubMed Central

    Bulgin, Richard R; Arbeloa, Ana; Chung, Jade C S; Frankel, Gad

    2009-01-01

    Subversion of the eukaryotic cell cytoskeleton is a virulence strategy employed by many bacterial pathogens. Due to the pivotal role of Rho GTPases in actin dynamics they are common targets of bacterial effector proteins and toxins. IpgB1, IpgB2 (Shigella), SifA, SifB (Salmonella) and Map and EspM (attaching and effacing pathogens) constitute a family of type III secretion system effectors that subverts small GTPase signalling pathways. In this study we identified and characterized EspT from Citrobacter rodentium that triggers formation of lamellipodia on Swiss 3T3 and membrane ruffles on HeLa cells, which are reminiscent of the membrane ruffles induced by IpgB1. Ectopic expression of EspT and IpgB1, but not EspM, resulted in a mitochondrial localization. Using dominant negative constructs we found that EspT-induced actin remodelling is dependent on GTP-bound Rac-1 and Cdc42 but not ELMO or Dock180, which are hijacked by IpgB1 in order to form a Rac-1 specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor. Using pull-down assays with the Rac-1 and Cdc42 binding domains of Pak and WASP we demonstrate that EspT is capable of activating both Rac-1 and Cdc42. These results suggest that EspT modulates the host cell cytoskeleton through coactivation of Rac-1 and Cdc42 by a distinct mechanism. PMID:19016787

  4. Information Power Grid: Distributed High-Performance Computing and Large-Scale Data Management for Science and Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, William E.; Gannon, Dennis; Nitzberg, Bill; Feiereisen, William (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The term "Grid" refers to distributed, high performance computing and data handling infrastructure that incorporates geographically and organizationally dispersed, heterogeneous resources that are persistent and supported. The vision for NASN's Information Power Grid - a computing and data Grid - is that it will provide significant new capabilities to scientists and engineers by facilitating routine construction of information based problem solving environments / frameworks that will knit together widely distributed computing, data, instrument, and human resources into just-in-time systems that can address complex and large-scale computing and data analysis problems. IPG development and deployment is addressing requirements obtained by analyzing a number of different application areas, in particular from the NASA Aero-Space Technology Enterprise. This analysis has focussed primarily on two types of users: The scientist / design engineer whose primary interest is problem solving (e.g., determining wing aerodynamic characteristics in many different operating environments), and whose primary interface to IPG will be through various sorts of problem solving frameworks. The second type of user if the tool designer: The computational scientists who convert physics and mathematics into code that can simulate the physical world. These are the two primary users of IPG, and they have rather different requirements. This paper describes the current state of IPG (the operational testbed), the set of capabilities being put into place for the operational prototype IPG, as well as some of the longer term R&D tasks.

  5. Insulin-induced activation of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase by a chiro-inositol-containing insulin mediator is defective in adipocytes of insulin-resistant, type II diabetic, Goto-Kakizaki rats.

    PubMed Central

    Farese, R V; Standaert, M L; Yamada, K; Huang, L C; Zhang, C; Cooper, D R; Wang, Z; Yang, Y; Suzuki, S; Toyota, T

    1994-01-01

    Type II diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats were insulin-resistant in euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp studies. We therefore examined insulin signaling systems in control Wistar and diabetic GK rats. Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (G3PAT), which is activated by headgroup mediators released from glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI), was activated by insulin in intact and cell-free adipocyte preparations of control, but not diabetic, rats. A specific chiro-inositol-containing inositol phosphoglycan (IPG) mediator, prepared from beef liver, bypassed this defect and comparably activated G3PAT in cell-free adipocyte preparations of both diabetic GK and control rats. A myo-inositol-containing IPG mediator did not activate G3PAT. Relative to control adipocytes, labeling of GPI by [3H]glucosamine was diminished by 50% and insulin failed to stimulate GPI hydrolysis in GK adipocytes. In contrast to GPI-dependent G3PAT activation, insulin-stimulated hexose transport was intact in adipocytes and soleus and gastrocnemius muscles of the GK rat, as was insulin-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and protein kinase C. We conclude that (i) chiro-inositol-containing IPG mediator activates G3PAT during insulin action, (ii) diabetic GK rats have a defect in synthesizing or releasing functional chiro-inositol-containing IPG, and (iii) defective IPG-regulated intracellular glucose metabolism contributes importantly to insulin resistance in diabetic GK rats. PMID:7972005

  6. Contribución al flujo infrarrojo de las estrellas Be de la recombinación dielectrónica del MgII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruzado, A.; di Rocco, H.; Ringuelet, A.

    Para evaluar la contribución del proceso de recombinación dielectrónica del átomo de MgII al exceso de flujo infrarrojo observado en las estrellas Be, calculamos la energía emitida en las líneas originadas por este proceso. Se evaluaron los efectos de las condiciones físicas del medio, como la temperatura electrónica y la densidad electrónica, sobre el flujo emitido. Se consideró también la influencia de una posible opacidad.

  7. Information Power Grid Posters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaziri, Arsi

    2003-01-01

    This document is a summary of the accomplishments of the Information Power Grid (IPG). Grids are an emerging technology that provide seamless and uniform access to the geographically dispersed, computational, data storage, networking, instruments, and software resources needed for solving large-scale scientific and engineering problems. The goal of the NASA IPG is to use NASA's remotely located computing and data system resources to build distributed systems that can address problems that are too large or complex for a single site. The accomplishments outlined in this poster presentation are: access to distributed data, IPG heterogeneous computing, integration of large-scale computing node into distributed environment, remote access to high data rate instruments,and exploratory grid environment.

  8. Inositolphosphoglycans are possible mediators of the glucagon-like peptide 1 (7-36)amide action in the liver.

    PubMed

    Trapote, M A; Clemente, F; Galera, C; Morales, M; Alcántara, A I; López-Delgado, M I; Villanueva-Peñacarrillo, M L; Valverde, I

    1996-02-01

    A potent glycogenic effect for GLP-1(7-36)amide has been found in rat hepatocytes and skeletal muscle, and the specific receptors detected for GLP-1(7-36)amide in these tissue membranes do not seem to be associated to adenylate cyclase. On the other hand, inositolphosphoglycan molecules (IPGs) have been implicated as second messengers in the action of insulin. In a human hepatoma cell line (HEP G-2), we have observed the presence of [125I]GLP-1(7-36)amide specific binding, and a stimulatory effect of the peptide upon glycogen synthesis, confirming the findings in isolated rat hepatocytes. Also, GLP-1(7-36)amide modulates the cell content of radiolabelled glycosylphosphatidylinositols (GPIs), in the same manner as insulin, indicating hydrolysis of GPIs and an immediate and short-lived generation of IPGs. Thus, IPGs could be mediators in the GLP-1(7-36)amide glycogenic action in the liver. PMID:8778163

  9. Integrated play groups: promoting symbolic play and social engagement with typical peers in children with ASD across settings.

    PubMed

    Wolfberg, Pamela; DeWitt, Mila; Young, Gregory S; Nguyen, Thanh

    2015-03-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) face pervasive challenges in symbolic and social play development. The Integrated Play Groups (IPG) model provides intensive guidance for children with ASD to participate with typical peers in mutually engaging experiences in natural settings. This study examined the effects of a 12-week IPG intervention on the symbolic and social play of 48 children with ASD using a repeated measures design. The findings revealed significant gains in symbolic and social play that generalized to unsupported play with unfamiliar peers. Consistent with prior studies, the outcomes provide robust and compelling evidence that further validate the efficacy of the IPG model. Theoretical and practical implications for maximizing children's developmental potential and social inclusion in play are discussed. PMID:25231289

  10. Disease-specific longevity of impulse generators in deep brain stimulation and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    van Riesen, Christoph; Tsironis, Georg; Gruber, Doreen; Klostermann, Fabian; Krause, Patricia; Schneider, Gerd Helge; Kupsch, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) represents an established and internationally approved therapy for movement disorders. In the present retrospective analysis, we evaluated disease-specific longevity of dual channel impulse generators (IPG) used in different movement disorders. We correlated the battery lifetime with electrical stimulation settings, "total electrical energy delivered" (TEED), stimulation modi (monopolar, double monopolar and bipolar) and targets. Specifically, we reviewed the longevity and stimulation settings of 464 IPGs implanted between 1996 until 2011 in a single university center. Disease entities comprised Parkinson's disease (PD, n = 257), dystonia (n = 130) and essential tremor (ET, n = 50). Further subanalyses aimed at assessing differential longevity in different subtypes of PD and dystonia. The main finding relates to longer IPG longevity in ET (thalamic DBS) and PD (subthalamic DBS) vs. dystonia (pallidal DBS; 71.9 ± 6.7 vs. 51.5 ± 2.3 vs. 37 ± 2 months). In PD the tremor-dominant type was associated with a significant shorter battery survival than in the akinetic-rigid type without tremor or the "balanced" type with tremor, bradykinesia and rigidity (38.8 ± 3.9 vs. 53.6 ± 3.4 vs. 58.8 ± 4.1 months), while there were no significant differences in longevity between the subtypes of dystonia. Frequency, amplitude, pulse widths and TEED correlated inversely with battery lifetime. Pallidal DBS in dystonia is associated with a shorter lifetime of IPGs than subthalamic or thalamic DBS for PD or ET. The present results may contribute to the rapidly evolving refinement of DBS devices. Future studies that assess energy consumption both in patients with and without IPG replacement could help to avoid potential underestimation of longevity of IPGs. PMID:27198700

  11. Microfluidic device having an immobilized pH gradient and PAGE gels for protein separation and analysis

    DOEpatents

    Sommer, Gregory J.; Hatch, Anson V.; Singh, Anup K.; Wang, Ying-Chih

    2012-12-11

    Disclosed is a novel microfluidic device enabling on-chip implementation of a two-dimensional separation methodology. Previously disclosed microscale immobilized pH gradients (IPG) are combined with perpendicular polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) microchannels to achieve orthogonal separations of biological samples. Device modifications enable inclusion of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in the second dimension. The device can be fabricated to use either continuous IPG gels, or the microscale isoelectric fractionation membranes we have also previously disclosed, for the first dimension. The invention represents the first all-gel two-dimensional separation microdevice, with significantly higher resolution power over existing devices.

  12. Microfluidic device having an immobilized pH gradient and page gels for protein separation and analysis

    DOEpatents

    Sommer, Gregory J; Hatch, Anson V; Singh, Anup K; Wang, Ying-Chih

    2014-05-20

    Disclosed is a novel microfluidic device enabling on-chip implementation of a two-dimensional separation methodology. Previously disclosed microscale immobilized pH gradients (IPG) are combined with perpendicular polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) microchannels to achieve orthogonal separations of biological samples. Device modifications enable inclusion of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in the second dimension. The device can be fabricated to use either continuous IPG gels, or the microscale isoelectric fractionation membranes we have also previously disclosed, for the first dimension. The invention represents the first all-gel two-dimensional separation microdevice, with significantly higher resolution power over existing devices.

  13. Web-Based Distributed Simulation of Aeronautical Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Desheng; Follen, Gregory J.; Pavlik, William R.; Kim, Chan M.; Liu, Xianyou; Blaser, Tammy M.; Lopez, Isaac

    2001-01-01

    An application was developed to allow users to run and view the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) engine simulations from web browsers. Simulations were performed on multiple INFORMATION POWER GRID (IPG) test beds. The Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) was used for brokering data exchange among machines and IPG/Globus for job scheduling and remote process invocation. Web server scripting was performed by JavaServer Pages (JSP). This application has proven to be an effective and efficient way to couple heterogeneous distributed components.

  14. Modeling of electrodes and implantable pulse generator cases for the analysis of implant tip heating under MR imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Acikel, Volkan Atalar, Ergin; Uslubas, Ali

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: The authors’ purpose is to model the case of an implantable pulse generator (IPG) and the electrode of an active implantable medical device using lumped circuit elements in order to analyze their effect on radio frequency induced tissue heating problem during a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination. Methods: In this study, IPG case and electrode are modeled with a voltage source and impedance. Values of these parameters are found using the modified transmission line method (MoTLiM) and the method of moments (MoM) simulations. Once the parameter values of an electrode/IPG case model are determined, they can be connected to any lead, and tip heating can be analyzed. To validate these models, both MoM simulations and MR experiments were used. The induced currents on the leads with the IPG case or electrode connections were solved using the proposed models and the MoTLiM. These results were compared with the MoM simulations. In addition, an electrode was connected to a lead via an inductor. The dissipated power on the electrode was calculated using the MoTLiM by changing the inductance and the results were compared with the specific absorption rate results that were obtained using MoM. Then, MRI experiments were conducted to test the IPG case and the electrode models. To test the IPG case, a bare lead was connected to the case and placed inside a uniform phantom. During a MRI scan, the temperature rise at the lead was measured by changing the lead length. The power at the lead tip for the same scenario was also calculated using the IPG case model and MoTLiM. Then, an electrode was connected to a lead via an inductor and placed inside a uniform phantom. During a MRI scan, the temperature rise at the electrode was measured by changing the inductance and compared with the dissipated power on the electrode resistance. Results: The induced currents on leads with the IPG case or electrode connection were solved for using the combination of the MoTLiM and

  15. Bioimpedance Measurement of Segmental Fluid Volumes and Hemodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Leslie D.; Wu, Yi-Chang; Ku, Yu-Tsuan E.; Gerth, Wayne A.; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Bioimpedance has become a useful tool to measure changes in body fluid compartment volumes. An Electrical Impedance Spectroscopic (EIS) system is described that extends the capabilities of conventional fixed frequency impedance plethysmographic (IPG) methods to allow examination of the redistribution of fluids between the intracellular and extracellular compartments of body segments. The combination of EIS and IPG techniques was evaluated in the human calf, thigh, and torso segments of eight healthy men during 90 minutes of six degree head-down tilt (HDT). After 90 minutes HDT the calf and thigh segments significantly (P < 0.05) lost conductive volume (eight and four percent, respectively) while the torso significantly (P < 0.05) gained volume (approximately three percent). Hemodynamic responses calculated from pulsatile IPG data also showed a segmental pattern consistent with vascular fluid loss from the lower extremities and vascular engorgement in the torso. Lumped-parameter equivalent circuit analyses of EIS data for the calf and thigh indicated that the overall volume decreases in these segments arose from reduced extracellular volume that was not completely balanced by increased intracellular volume. The combined use of IPG and EIS techniques enables noninvasive tracking of multi-segment volumetric and hemodynamic responses to environmental and physiological stresses.

  16. ANNUAL PROGRESS REPORT. IRON PHOSPHATE GLASSES: AN ALTERNATIVE FOR VITRIFYING CERTAIN NUCLEAR WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A high priority has been given to investigating the vitrification of three specific nuclear wastes in iron phosphate glasses (IPG). These wastes, which were recommended by the Tank Focus Area (TFA) group of Hanford, are poorly suited for vitrification in the currently DOE-approve...

  17. Custom Sky-Image Mosaics from NASA's Information Power Grid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, Joseph; Collier, James; Craymer, Loring; Curkendall, David

    2005-01-01

    yourSkyG is the second generation of the software described in yourSky: Custom Sky-Image Mosaics via the Internet (NPO-30556), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 27, No. 6 (June 2003), page 45. Like its predecessor, yourSkyG supplies custom astronomical image mosaics of sky regions specified by requesters using client computers connected to the Internet. Whereas yourSky constructs mosaics on a local multiprocessor system, yourSkyG performs the computations on NASA s Information Power Grid (IPG), which is capable of performing much larger mosaicking tasks. (The IPG is high-performance computation and data grid that integrates geographically distributed 18 NASA Tech Briefs, September 2005 computers, databases, and instruments.) A user of yourSkyG can specify parameters describing a mosaic to be constructed. yourSkyG then constructs the mosaic on the IPG and makes it available for downloading by the user. The complexities of determining which input images are required to construct a mosaic, retrieving the required input images from remote sky-survey archives, uploading the images to the computers on the IPG, performing the computations remotely on the Grid, and downloading the resulting mosaic from the Grid are all transparent to the user

  18. A Fully Implantable Stimulator With Wireless Power and Data Transmission for Experimental Investigation of Epidural Spinal Cord Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qi; Hu, Dingyin; Duan, Bingyu; He, Jiping

    2015-07-01

    Epidural spinal cord stimulation (ESCS) combined with partial weight-bearing therapy (PWBT) has been shown to facilitate recovery of functional walking for individuals after spinal cord injury (SCI). The investigation of neural mechanisms of recovery from SCI under this treatment has been conducted broadly in rodent models, yet a suitable ESCS system is still unavailable. This paper describes a practical, programmable, and fully implantable stimulator for laboratory research on rats to explore fundamental neurophysiological principles for functional recovery after SCI. The ESCS system is composed of a personal digital assistant (PDA), an external controller, an implantable pulse generator (IPG), lead extension, and stimulating electrodes. The stimulation parameters can be programmed and adjusted through a graphical user interface on the PDA. The external controller is placed on the rat back and communicates with the PDA via radio-frequency (RF) telemetry. An RF carrier from the class-E power amplifier in the external controller provides both data and power for the IPG through an inductive link. The IPG is built around a microcontroller unit to generate voltage-regulated pulses delivered to the bipolar electrode for ESCS in rats. The encapsulated IPG measures 22 mm × 23 mm × 7 mm with a mass of  ∼  3.78 g. This fully implantable batteryless stimulator provided a simplified and efficient method to carry out chronic experiments in untethered animals for medical electro-neurological research. PMID:25680207

  19. Brevity is the soul of wit or psychogeriatrics is growing up: new Brief Report category for international psychogeriatrics.

    PubMed

    Lautenschlager, Nicola T

    2016-04-01

    This brief editorial is written at the beginning of a new calendar year and it is typical for this time to ponder what changes the new year will bring. One exciting change for International Psychogeriatrics (IPG) is the introduction of a new category of paper, the Brief Report. PMID:27009321

  20. Integrated Play Groups: Promoting Symbolic Play and Social Engagement with Typical Peers in Children with ASD across Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfberg, Pamela; DeWitt, Mila; Young, Gregory S.; Nguyen, Thanh

    2015-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) face pervasive challenges in symbolic and social play development. The Integrated Play Groups (IPG) model provides intensive guidance for children with ASD to participate with typical peers in mutually engaging experiences in natural settings. This study examined the effects of a 12-week IPG…

  1. Play and Imagination in Children with Autism. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfberg, Pamela J.

    2009-01-01

    This now classic text remains a cornerstone of continuing efforts to develop inclusive peer play programs for children on the autism spectrum. The second edition has been thoroughly revised to reflect major new developments in the field of autism. Notable additions include an updated description of the Integrated Play Groups (IPG) model and…

  2. Development, implementation and evaluation of an interprofessional graduate program for nursing-paramedicine double-degree graduates.

    PubMed

    Considine, Julie; Walker, Tony; Berry, Debra

    2015-11-01

    Over the past decade, several Australian universities have offered a double degree in nursing and paramedicine. Mainstream employment models that facilitate integrated graduate practice in both nursing and paramedicine are currently lacking. The aim of the present study was to detail the development of the Interprofessional Graduate Program (IPG), the industrial and professional issues that required solutions, outcomes from the first pilot IPG group and future directions. The IPG was an 18-month program during which participants rotated between graduate nursing experience in emergency nursing at Northern Health, Melbourne, Australia and graduate paramedic experience with Ambulance Victoria. The first IPG with 10 participants ran from January 2011 to August 2012. A survey completed by nine of the 10 participants in March 2014 showed that all nine participants nominated Ambulance Victoria as their main employer and five participants were working casual shifts in nursing. Alternative graduate programs that span two health disciplines are feasible but hampered by rigid industrial relations structures and professional ideologies. Despite a 'purpose built' graduate program that spanned two disciplines, traditional organisational structures still hamper double-degree graduates using all of skills to full capacity, and force the selection of one dominant profession. PMID:25863818

  3. Ischemic Postconditioning and Subanesthetic S(+)-Ketamine Infusion: Effects on Renal Function and Histology in Rats

    PubMed Central

    de Resende, Marco A. C.; Pantoja, Alberto V.; Barcellos, Bruno M.; Reis, Eduardo P.; Consolo, Thays D.; Módolo, Renata P.; Domingues, Maria A. C.; Assad, Alexandra R.; Cavalcanti, Ismar L.; Castiglia, Yara M. M.; Módolo, Norma S. P.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Ischemic postconditioning (IP) in renal Ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) models improves renal function after IRI. Ketamine affords significant benefits against IRI-induced acute kidney injury (AKI). The present study investigated the effects of IP and IP associated with subanesthetic S(+)-ketamine in ischemia-reperfusion-induced AKI. Methods. Forty-one Wistar rats were randomized into four groups: CG (10), control; KG (10), S(+)-ketamine infusion; IPG (10), IP; and KIPG (11), S(+)-ketamine infusion + IP. All rats underwent right nephrectomy. IRI and IP were induced only in IPG and KIPG by left kidney arterial occlusion for 30 min followed by reperfusion for 24 h. Complete reperfusion was preceded by three cycles of 2 min of reocclusion followed by 2 min of reperfusion. Renal function was assessed by measuring serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Tubular damage was evaluated by renal histology. Results. Creatinine and BUN were significantly increased. Severe tubular injury was only observed in the groups with IRI (IPG and KIPG), whereas no injury was observed in CG or KG. No significant differences were detected between IPG and KIPG. Conclusions. No synergic effect of the use of subanesthetic S(+)-ketamine and IP on AKI was observed in this rat model. PMID:26413552

  4. A fully implanted programmable stimulator based on wireless communication for epidural spinal cord stimulation in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hui; Xu, Qi; He, Jiping; Ren, Hangkong; Zhou, Houlun; Zheng, Kejia

    2012-03-15

    Clinical research indicates that the epidural spinal cord stimulation (ESCS) has shown potential in promoting locomotor recovery in patients with incomplete spinal cord injury (ISCI). This paper presents the development of a fully implantable voltage-regulated stimulator with bi-directional wireless communication for investigating underlying neural mechanisms of ESCS facilitating motor function improvement. The stimulation system consists of a computer, an external controller, an implantable pulse generator (IPG), a magnet, the extension leads and a stimulation electrode. The telemetry transmission between the IPG and the external controller is achieved by a commercially available transceiver chip with 2.4GHz carrier band. The magnet is used to activate the IPG only when necessary to minimize the power consumption. The encapsulated IPG measures 33mm×24mm×8mm, with a total mass of ∼12.6g. Feasibility experiments are conducted in three Sprague-Dawley rats to validate the function of the stimulator, and to investigate the relationship between lumbar-sacral ESCS and hindlimb electromyography (EMG) responses. The results show that the stimulation system provides an effective tool for investigation of ESCS application in motor function recovery in small animals. PMID:22085835

  5. Inositolphosphoglycans possibly mediate the effects of glucagon-like peptide-1(7-36)amide on rat liver and adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Márquez, L; Trapote, M A; Luque, M A; Valverde, I; Villanueva-Peñacarrillo, M L

    1998-03-01

    Insulin-like effects of glucagon-like peptide-1(7-36)amide (GLP-1) in rat liver, skeletal muscle and fat, and also the presence of GLP-1 receptors in these extrapancreatic tissues, have been documented. In skeletal muscle and liver, the action of GLP-1 is not associated with an activation of adenylate cyclase, and in cultured murine myocytes and hepatoma cell lines, it was found that GLP-1 provokes the generation of inositolphosphoglycan molecules (IPGs), which are considered second messengers of insulin action. In the present work, we document in isolated normal rat adipocytes and hepatocytes that GLP-1 exerts a rapid decrease of the radiolabelled glycosylphosphatidylinositols (GPIs)--precursors of IPGs--in the same manner as insulin, indicating their hydrolysis and the immediate short-lived generation of IPGs. Thus, IPGs could be mediators in the GLP-1 actions in adipose tissue and liver, as well as in skeletal muscle, through GLP-1 receptors which are, at least functionally, different from that of the pancreatic B-cell. PMID:9580153

  6. La tasa de decaimiento del ciclo solar como indicador de actividad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buccino, A. P.; Mauas, P. J. D.

    The length of the solar cycle has been linked to solar forcing of global climate. Usually, cycle length is defined as the time difference between consecutive sunspot minima. However, sunspot minima is determined both by the diminishing number of spots of the old cycle and by the increasing number of spots of the new one. Therefore, the date of the minimum depends on the properties of both cycles, and is generally ill defined. Furthermore, changes in solar activity should precede climatic changes. On the other hand, it has been suggested that the length of the cycle is related to changes in the Sun's convective energy transport, through the decay rate of individual sunspots. Here, using the concept of extended activity cycle, we define an activity index based on the decay rate of the cycle, and study its correlation with other indexes.

  7. Co/Mo bimetallic addition to electrolytic manganese dioxide for oxygen generation in acid medium.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Dario; Minakshi, Manickam; McGinnity, Justin; Kim, Dong-Jin

    2015-01-01

    An efficient electrocatalyst comprising inexpensive and earth-abundant materials for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is crucial for the development of water electrolysis. In this work, in-situ addition of cobalt/molybdenum ions to the electrolytic manganese dioxide has been shown to be beneficial for the OER in acid solution as its overpotential performed better (305 mV) than that of the commercial DSA(®) (341 mV) at 100 mA cm(-2). The OER was investigated at ambient temperature in 2 M H2SO4 solution on the modified EMD (MnMoCoO) electrodes. The energy efficiency of the MnMoCoO electrodes improved significantly with the amount of Co in the plating solution. For the electrodeposited catalysts, physico-chemical and electrochemical measurements were conducted including static overpotentials. The better performance of the modified EMD was attributed to an improved charge transfer resistance (Rct; 0.290 Ω cm(2)), average roughness factor (rf; 429) and decrease in water content in the electrodeposited catalysts. The kinetic parameters obtained on MnMoCoO catalysts were compared and discussed according to the cobalt concentration. PMID:26469204

  8. The New Room Arrangement as a Teaching Strategy = La Nueva Organizacion del Salon como Estrategia Educativa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Diane Trister

    Many typical classroom behavior problems--running in the classroom, inability to make choices, failure to stick with activities, fighting over toys, and poor use of materials-- can be traced to how the room is arranged and how materials are displayed. By making a few changes in the classroom environment, early childhood teachers can create a…

  9. Co/Mo bimetallic addition to electrolytic manganese dioxide for oxygen generation in acid medium

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, Dario; Minakshi, Manickam; McGinnity, Justin; Kim, Dong-Jin

    2015-01-01

    An efficient electrocatalyst comprising inexpensive and earth-abundant materials for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is crucial for the development of water electrolysis. In this work, in-situ addition of cobalt/molybdenum ions to the electrolytic manganese dioxide has been shown to be beneficial for the OER in acid solution as its overpotential performed better (305 mV) than that of the commercial DSA® (341 mV) at 100 mA cm−2. The OER was investigated at ambient temperature in 2 M H2SO4 solution on the modified EMD (MnMoCoO) electrodes. The energy efficiency of the MnMoCoO electrodes improved significantly with the amount of Co in the plating solution. For the electrodeposited catalysts, physico-chemical and electrochemical measurements were conducted including static overpotentials. The better performance of the modified EMD was attributed to an improved charge transfer resistance (Rct; 0.290 Ω cm2), average roughness factor (rf; 429) and decrease in water content in the electrodeposited catalysts. The kinetic parameters obtained on MnMoCoO catalysts were compared and discussed according to the cobalt concentration. PMID:26469204

  10. Como ayudar a sus hijos a usar la biblioteca (Helping Your Child Use the Library).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkinson, Kathryn

    Focusing on the cooperative role of parents and public libraries in stimulating reading interests in children of all ages, this booklet addresses the following issues: (1) getting children interested in reading (reading aloud to children; encouraging children to read to you; starting a home library; showing children that you enjoy reading;…

  11. Como Solicitar la Asistencia Economica Federal para Estudiantes (How To Apply for Federal Student Aid).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Federal Student Aid (ED), Washington, DC.

    This guide, written in Spanish, discusses reasons for going to college, how to pay for college, and how to apply for federal student aid in a series of brief, clear illustrations. Following outlines of financial benefits of college, college costs, and space to note costs for the student's area, the guide outlines these steps in the application…

  12. Co/Mo bimetallic addition to electrolytic manganese dioxide for oxygen generation in acid medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, Dario; Minakshi, Manickam; McGinnity, Justin; Kim, Dong-Jin

    2015-10-01

    An efficient electrocatalyst comprising inexpensive and earth-abundant materials for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is crucial for the development of water electrolysis. In this work, in-situ addition of cobalt/molybdenum ions to the electrolytic manganese dioxide has been shown to be beneficial for the OER in acid solution as its overpotential performed better (305 mV) than that of the commercial DSA® (341 mV) at 100 mA cm-2. The OER was investigated at ambient temperature in 2 M H2SO4 solution on the modified EMD (MnMoCoO) electrodes. The energy efficiency of the MnMoCoO electrodes improved significantly with the amount of Co in the plating solution. For the electrodeposited catalysts, physico-chemical and electrochemical measurements were conducted including static overpotentials. The better performance of the modified EMD was attributed to an improved charge transfer resistance (Rct; 0.290 Ω cm2), average roughness factor (rf; 429) and decrease in water content in the electrodeposited catalysts. The kinetic parameters obtained on MnMoCoO catalysts were compared and discussed according to the cobalt concentration.

  13. Escuelas sin Drogas. Como Actuar. Edicion 1992. (Schools without Drugs. What Works. 1992 Edition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    Across the United States, schools and communities have found ways to turn the tide in the battle against drugs. This guidebook describes the methods they have used and the actions they have taken. The first section, "Children and Drugs" outlines the nature and extent of the drug problem and summarizes the latest research on the effects of drugs on…

  14. Spanish Oral Language Guide: Kindergarten Level. Espanol como Segundo Idioma. Teacher's Guide: Level I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbell, Gloria; And Others

    This teacher's guide to Spanish language at the kindergarten level includes a recommended subject presentation sequence for the Spanish curriculum, a sample schedule, a grouping of students using three stations, and a classroom layout. The grouping would be effective when at least one-third of the children are Spanish-speaking or bilingual. The…

  15. Como Ayudar a sus Hijos a Aprender Ciencia (Helping Your Child Learn Science).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulu, Nancy; Martin, Margery

    Because most parents say they do not or cannot help their children with science, this booklet was designed to help them do so, easily and with pleasure for both parent and child. The introduction presents information on why and how parents should help their children and provides a general orientation to the ideas and activities offered in the…

  16. Cosmic ray soil moisture observing systems comos in cap fields at El Reno Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil water content (SWC) partitions rainfall into runoff and infiltration, modulates surface and atmospheric exchanges of water and energy, affects plant growth and crop yields, and impacts chemical and biological activities of soil, among other things. Thus, SWC, especially over large scales, is a...

  17. International Perspectives on Affirmative Action. A Bellagio Conference (Lake Como, Italy, August 16-20, 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockefeller Foundation, New York, NY.

    This volume presents nine papers read at a conference on affirmative action, sponsored by the Rockefeller Foundation and held at Columbia University in August 1982; a preface, summary paper, and list of participants are also included. Each paper addresses the issue of affirmative action within a different country and describes: (1) the policies…

  18. Contributions of local knowledge to the physical limnology of Lake Como, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Laborde, Sarah; Imberger, Jörg; Toussaint, Sandy

    2012-01-01

    This article shows how local knowledge may be valuably integrated into a scientific approach in the study of large and complex hydrological systems where data collection at high resolution is a challenge. This claim is supported through a study of the hydrodynamics of a large lake where qualitative data collected from professional fishers was combined with theory to develop a hypothesis that was then verified by numerical modeling. First the fishermen’s narratives were found to describe with accuracy internal wave motions that were evident in water column temperature records, which revealed their practical knowledge of the lake’s hydrodynamics. Second, local knowledge accounts emphasized the recurrent formation of mesoscale gyres and return flows in certain zones of the lake in stratified conditions, which did not appear in the physical data because of limitations of sampling resolution. We hypothesized that these features developed predominantly because of the interaction of wind-driven internal motions with the lake’s bathymetry, and the Earth’s rotation in the widest areas of the basin. Numerical simulation results corroborated the fishers’ descriptions of the flow paths and supported the hypothesis about their formation. We conclude that the collaboration between scientific and local knowledge groups, although an unusual approach for a physical discipline of the geosciences, is worth exploring in the pursuit of a more comprehensive understanding of complex geophysical systems such as large lakes. PMID:22493231

  19. Como pagar to educacion, 2004-2005 (Funding Your Education, 2004-2005).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Federal Student Aid (ED), Washington, DC.

    This publication, written in Spanish, describes financial aid programs of the U.S. Department of Education and advises students about paying for college. It outlines things a student should ask about college and how to obtain financial aid, whether grants, work-study, or loans. Chapters provide information on: (1) "Education after High School";…

  20. Como pagar tu educacion, 2003-2004 (How To Pay for Your Education, 2003-2004).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Federal Student Aid (ED), Washington, DC.

    This Spanish language booklet discusses paying for college. The guide presents information in question-and-answer form about things an applicant should ask and how to obtain financial aid. It describes the criteria for receiving aid and provides information about complying with aid requirements. The booklet also describes federal Pell grants and…

  1. Como Lo Hago Yo: Defectos Del Cierre Del Tubo Neural En Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Juan Bosco

    2014-01-01

    En Nicaragua no hay un plan de forltificación de alimentos con ácido fólico. Las madres son muy jóvenes. En La Mascota operamos mas de cuarenta niños por año. Derivación tardía es un problema. La infección preoperatoria tiene que ser descartada. Vancomicina y Ceftriaxone estan indicadas. Estricta regla de asepsia operatoria. Suturamos la plaqueta para asemejar su forma al cilindro normal de la médula. No ceramos la capa de músculo. PMID:24791221

  2. Como si le Falta un Brazo: Latino Immigrant Parents and the Costs of Not Knowing English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthy, Jo

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the perspectives of Latino/a immigrant parents about the place of English in their lives. The parents described how they had come to the United States with intentions of learning English, but various obstacles made it an overwhelming challenge. The author questions whether, despite rhetoric to the contrary, financially…

  3. "Tanto Necesitamos De Aqui Como Necesitamos De Alla": "Leer Juntas" among Mexican Transnational Mothers and Daughters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Piedra, Maria Teresa

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents part of the results of a qualitative study about literacy practices of Mexican transnational mothers, who live in and frequently cross the border between two countries (the United States and Mexico). Drawing on sociocultural approaches to literacy and literature on transnationalism, I analyze one practice: "leer juntas"…

  4. The Struggle for Mexico's First Gay-Straight Alliance: Como una Novela Real

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macgillivray, Ian K.

    2006-01-01

    In 2004, a group of high school students at a private American school in Mexico City started the first gay-straight alliance in Mexico. A small group of conservative parents and a Mormon principal organized in opposition. This paper details the students' struggle to keep their club and offers lessons learned about student activism, school change,…

  5. Effectiveness of different surgical modalities in the management of temporomandibular joint ankylosis: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaohan; Shen, Pei; Zhang, Shanyong; Yang, Chi; Wang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Background: A meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of three surgical modalities-gap arthroplasty (GA), interpositional gap arthroplasty (IPG) and joint reconstruction (AR)-in treating temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis. Methods: A systematic review was performed using the PUBMED, EMBASE and OVID search engines in February 2015 to identify cohort studies with no restrictions, with the aim of evaluating the three surgical modalities. The outcome was the change between the pre- and postoperative maximal incisal opening (MIO). Analyses of category, heterogeneity, sensitivity and publication bias were performed. A fixed-effects model was used to compute the pooled weighted mean difference in the MIO among the different groups. Result: Seventeen studies with 740 participants were included in the final analysis. The IPG therapy showed a significantly greater MIO when compared to GA (WMD=1.16 mm; 95% CI, 0.15-2.16) and AR (WMD=0.99 mm; 95% CI, 0.05-1.92) therapies. The weighted mean difference between the AR and GA modalities was 2.94 mm (95% CI, 0.12-5.75). The pooled odds ratios (ORs) of the recurrence rate for IPG, GA and AR were 0.01 (95% CI, 0.00-0.03), 0.03 (95% CI, 0.00-0.07) and 0.06 (95% CI, 0.04-0.09), respectively. Conclusion: The analysis showed that IPG was more effective and displayed a lower recurrence rate, followed by AR and GA, in treating TMJ ankylosis. Thus, this analysis provides strong evidence supporting IPG as a first-line therapy for TMJ ankylosis. PMID:26884893

  6. Hepatoma-targeting and pH-sensitive nanocarriers based on a novel D-galactopyranose copolymer for efficient drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yuanyuan; Han, Jingtian; Tian, Baocheng; Han, Jian; Zhang, Jing; Zheng, Hong; Han, Yuzhen; Pei, Meishan

    2014-12-30

    Smart nanoparticles based on the mechanisms of asialoglycoprotein (ASGP)-mediated endocytosis and pH-induced drug release were developed for the efficient treatment of hepatoma using a newly developed copolymer, methoxy-polyethylene glycols (PEG)-b-poly (d-galactopyranose) (MPEG-b-PMaIPG). The particles exhibited spherical shapes, uniform particle size distribution (100 ± 4.43 nm), negative zeta potential (-32.8 ± 0.23 mV), high drug loading (24.77 ± 2.68%) and encapsulation efficiency (66.12 ± 9.44%). The in vitro drug release was also investigated, resulting that the release of drug from particles depended on different pH value. In vitro cell cytotoxicity and hemolysis assays were conducted to confirm the safety of the MPEG-b-PMaIPG nanoparticles. Anticancer activity showed that DOX-loaded MPEG-b-PMaIPG nanoparticles exhibited a high antitumor activity toward HepG2 cells, which was similar to free DOX, while blank MPEG-b-PMaIPG nanoparticles were non-toxic up to a tested concentration of 1.0mg/mL. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and flow cytometry (FCM) were used to verify the targeting efficiency of d-galactopyranose-modified nanoparticles. The results clearly demonstrated that d-galactopyranose-modified nanoparticles were taken up quickly by the HepG2 cells, which suggests that MPEG-b-PMaIPG nanoparticles with good biocompatibility and non-toxic for normal cells may be used as an effective cancer-targeting drug delivery system for chemotherapy. PMID:25455771

  7. Neuroimagen en la enfermedad de Alzheimer: nuevas perspectivas

    PubMed Central

    Becker, James T.

    2012-01-01

    Introducción y desarrollo En los próximos 50 años vamos a presenciar un incremento significativo de la población mayor de 65 años y por lo tanto va a aumentar, considerablemente, el número de individuos con riesgo de desarrollar demencias neurodegenerativas, especialmente la enfermedad de Alzheimer (EA). Las estrategias actuales de tratamiento farmacológico y no farmacológico se han centrado en las fases sintomáticas de esta enfermedad y, gradualmente, vamos teniendo una mayor comprensión de los posibles factores de riesgo del síndrome clínico. Conclusiones Los estudios de neuroimagen han sido muy útiles para mostrar los cambios estructurales del envejecimiento normal y patológico, así como también los factores de riesgo para la EA. Los tratamientos apropiados de los factores de riesgo y su posible combinación con tratamientos específicos para la EA podrían prolongar el período presintomático de la EA y, por tanto, mejorar la calidad de vida y disminuir la carga para el paciente, la familia y la sociedad. PMID:20517866

  8. PubMed

    Barrantes-Monge, Melba; Rodríguez, Eduardo; Lama, Alexis

    2009-01-01

    Existen prejuicios en relación con la vejez, incluso entre los profesionales que se dedican a la gerontología. Uno común y peligroso es considerar que los viejos son todos enfermos o discapacitados.La relación médico-paciente es la piedra angular de la práctica y ética médicas. Para alcanzar el respeto por los adultos mayores es necesaria una medicina prudente, basada en una práctica en la cual la reflexión ética y clínica pueda contribuir. Esto último es posible si se hacen valer los derechos del adulto mayor, en particular como paciente para la toma de decisiones. PMID:20379380

  9. Polarimetría multicolor en dirección a un glóbulo de Bok

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, J. R.; Morras, R.; Arnal, E. M.

    Presentamos resultados de observaciones polarimétricas UBVRI en 65 estrellas muy débiles localizadas en el campo de un Glóbulo de Bok carente de anterior análisis observacional. Los resultados muestran un alto y uniforme grado de polarización --sobre todo en las bandas V, R e I-- en casi todas las estrellas de la muestra, así como una alineación del campo magnético proyectado en torno a la nube similar al del campo magnético general. Adicionalmente, estudiamos la posible conexión con la emisión en el infrarrojo a través de las observaciones del satélite IRAS.

  10. Nuevos fenómenos en erupciones cometarias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, A.

    Se discuten aquí tres procesos físicos novedosos encontrados en la actividad de cometas: 1) El rol de una distribución de granos de hielo como fuente extendida de H2O en la coma, 2) El efecto de una discontinuidad en el plasma cometario, llamada Cometopausa, sobre la excitación del radical OH , y 3) La actividad por erupciones a grandes distancias heliocéntricas (r > 5 AU). Con respecto a 1) y 2), se presentan modelos que ajustan bien con las observaciones. En cuanto a 3), se presentan explicaciones posibles al fenómeno, y se trata el interesante caso de Chirón 2060, basándose en observaciones propias tomadas desde el CASLEO y datos anteriores.

  11. RELACIÓN MÉDICO PACIENTE: DERECHOS DEL ADULTO MAYOR

    PubMed Central

    Barrantes-Monge, Melba; Rodríguez, Eduardo; Lama, Alexis

    2009-01-01

    Existen prejuicios en relación con la vejez, incluso entre los profesionales que se dedican a la gerontología. Uno común y peligroso es considerar que los viejos son todos enfermos o discapacitados. La relación médico-paciente es la piedra angular de la práctica y ética médicas. Para alcanzar el respeto por los adultos mayores es necesaria una medicina prudente, basada en una práctica en la cual la reflexión ética y clínica pueda contribuir. Esto último es posible si se hacen valer los derechos del adulto mayor, en particular como paciente para la toma de decisiones. PMID:20379380

  12. Unificando los criterios de sepsis neonatal tardía: propuesta de un algoritmo de vigilancia diagnóstica

    PubMed Central

    Zea-Vera, Alonso; Turin, Christie G.; Ochoa, Theresa J.

    2015-01-01

    Las infecciones constituyen una de las principales causas de muerte en el periodo neonatal. El diagnóstico de sepsis neonatal representa un gran desafío ya que los recién nacidos presentan signos clínicos muy inespecíficos y los exámenes auxiliares tienen una baja sensibilidad. Con el objetivo de mejorar el diagnóstico correcto de esta patología proponemos un algoritmo de vigilancia diagnóstica para sepsis neonatal tardía en el Perú y países de la región. El algoritmo permite clasificar a los episodios como sepsis confirmada, probable o posible, y sobretodo busca identificar aquellos episodios que no corresponden a sepsis, evitando calificar otras patologías como “sepsis”. Un mejor diagnóstico permitiría tener tasas más reales de sepsis neonatal, mejorar el uso de antibióticos y evitar sus efectos negativos en el recién nacido, así como una visión más exacta de su impacto en la salud pública. PMID:25123879

  13. Estudio teórico de moléculas de interés en Astrofísica: compuestos binarios policarbonados

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Largo-Cabrerizo, A.

    Se han detectado en el espacio distintos compuestos binarios policarbonados (que se pueden formular como CnX), algunos de ellos con elementos de la primera fila del sistema periódico, pero también existen otros que contienen elementos de la segunda fila, como azufre o silicio. La información experimental sobre estos últimos compuestos es escasa, por lo que los estudios teóricos son especialmente valiosos en este campo. En esta comunicación presentaremos los avances mas recientes que sobre el tema ha realizado nuestro grupo. Incidiremos particularmente en dos aspectos. En primer lugar resumiremos los estudios en los que hemos intentado proporcionar información estructural sobre carburos metálicos formados por sodio, magnesio, aluminio o calcio, que pueda ser de ayuda a la hora de caracterizar estas moléculas en laboratorio como paso previo a su eventual detección en el espacio. Un aspecto importante dentro de este primer apartado es el análisis de las propiedades moleculares en función del tamaño del sistema (cuantificado en el numero de átomos de carbono) con el objeto de intentar sistematizar su estudio. En segundo lugar comentaremos brevemente algunos de los estudios realizados sobre posibles reacciones que pueden ser vías de síntesis de este tipo de compuestos en el medio interestelar.

  14. Influence of gel dimensions on resolution and sample throughput on two-dimensional gels.

    PubMed

    Lee, KiBeom; Pi, KyungBae; Lee, Hong-Gu

    2008-04-01

    To achieve high throughput and economical format of 2-D PAGE, comparison between gel size and resolution was conducted on human breast carcinoma cell line (MCF-7/AZ) proteins. SDS gel length showed a weaker influence of separation length on resolution in the second dimension, and there was little benefit of separation distances greater than 15 to 19 cm. IPG strip separation distances were very important with dramatic increase in resolution of longer gels compared with smaller gels, and maximal resolution was obtained using 18- and 24-cm IPG strips. Loading optimal amount of proteins on 2-D gels can also increase the number of detected spots. Therefore, taken together, compromise 2-D gels are crucial for higher capacity and higher throughput. PMID:18457572

  15. Delayed cerebritis after bilateral stereotactic implantation of globus pallidus interna electrodes for treatment of dystonia.

    PubMed

    Jankowski, Pawel P; Lessig, Stephanie; Nguyen, Andrew D; Barba, David

    2013-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is being used to treat an increasing number of movement and psychiatric disorders. However, the risk of infection remains as a problem that can hinder the usefulness of this technology. We report a case of a patient with dystonia who underwent bilateral globus pallidus interna electrode and impulse generator (IPG) placement, developed an infection of his IPG, and later cerebritis. The patient was initially treated with antibiotics and partial hardware removal. Follow-up cranial imaging showed an area concerning for cerebritis around one of the intracranial electrodes. The patient was then treated with complete hardware removal followed by a course of intravenous antibiotics. Four-month follow-up imaging showed resolution of the infection. This case demonstrates the importance of following cranial imaging in DBS patients with delayed infection, continued vigilance for infection in implanted patients and that partial hardware removal may not be successful in the setting of methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus infections. PMID:23378545

  16. A Unified Framework for Periodic, On-Demand, and User-Specified Software Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolano, Paul Z.

    2004-01-01

    Although grid computing can increase the number of resources available to a user; not all resources on the grid may have a software environment suitable for running a given application. To provide users with the necessary assistance for selecting resources with compatible software environments and/or for automatically establishing such environments, it is necessary to have an accurate source of information about the software installed across the grid. This paper presents a new OGSI-compliant software information service that has been implemented as part of NASA's Information Power Grid project. This service is built on top of a general framework for reconciling information from periodic, on-demand, and user-specified sources. Information is retrieved using standard XPath queries over a single unified namespace independent of the information's source. Two consumers of the provided software information, the IPG Resource Broker and the IPG Neutralization Service, are briefly described.

  17. Anaesthetic management of shoulder arthroscopic repair in Parkinson's disease with deep brain stimulator

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, Ranju; Chawla, Reeta

    2014-01-01

    We describe the anaesthetic management of arthroscopic repair for complete rotator cuff tear of shoulder in a 59-year-old female with Parkinson's disease (PD) with deep brain stimulator (DBS) using a combination of general anaesthesia with interscalene approach to brachial plexus block. The DBS consists of implanted electrodes in the brain connected to the implantable pulse generator (IPG) normally placed in the anterior chest wall subcutaneously. It can be programmed externally from a hand-held device placed directly over the battery stimulator unit. In our patient, IPG with its leads was located in close vicinity of the operative site with potential for DBS malfunction. Implications of DBS in a patient with PD for shoulder arthroscopy for anaesthesiologist are discussed along with a brief review of DBS. PMID:25024475

  18. Inositolphosphoglycan mediators structurally related to glycosyl phosphatidylinositol anchors: synthesis, structure and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Martín-Lomas, M; Khiar, N; García, S; Koessler, J L; Nieto, P M; Rademacher, T W

    2000-10-01

    The preparation of the pseudopentasaccharide 1a, an inositol-phosphoglycan (IPG) that contains the conserved linear structure of glycosyl phosphatidylinositol anchors (GPI anchors), was carried out by using a highly convergent 2+3-block synthesis approach which involves imidate and sulfoxide glycosylation reactions. The preferred solution conformation of this structure was determined by using NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations prior to carrying out quantitative structure--activity relationship studies in connection with the insulin signalling process. The ability of 1a to stimulate lipogenesis in rat adipocytes as well as to inhibit cAMP dependent protein kinase and to activate pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase was investigated. Compound 1a did not show any significant activity, which may be taken as a strong indication that the GPI anchors are not the precursors of the IPG mediators. PMID:11072827

  19. Improved protein solubility in two-dimensional electrophoresis using tributyl phosphine as reducing agent.

    PubMed

    Herbert, B R; Molloy, M P; Gooley, A A; Walsh, B J; Bryson, W G; Williams, K L

    1998-05-01

    In this study, dithiothreitol was replaced by tributyl phosphine as the reducing agent in both the sample solution for the first-dimensional isoelectric focusing and during the immobilised pH gradient (IPG) equilibration procedure. Tributyl phosphine improves protein solubility during isoelectric focusing, which results in shorter run times and increased resolution. Tributyl phosphine is nonionic and thus does not migrate in the IPG, therefore maintaining reducing conditions during the course of the first-dimensional separation. The increased solubility provided by the maintenance of reducing conditions gives improved focusing and decreased horizontal streaking on the subsequent second-dimension gel. The use of tributyl phosphine in the equilibration step allows the procedure to be simplified, incorporating reduction and alkylation in a single step. This is possible because, in direct contrast to dithiothreitol (DTT), tributyl phosphine does not contain a free thiol and therefore does not react with thiol-specific alkylating reagents. PMID:9629925

  20. Differential bilateral involvement of the parietal gyrus during predicative metaphor processing: an auditory fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Obert, Alexandre; Gierski, Fabien; Calmus, Arnaud; Portefaix, Christophe; Declercq, Christelle; Pierot, Laurent; Caillies, Stéphanie

    2014-10-01

    Despite the growing literature on figurative language processing, there is still debate as to which cognitive processes and neural bases are involved. Furthermore, most studies have focused on nominal metaphor processing without any context, and very few have used auditory presentation. We therefore investigated the neural bases of the comprehension of predicative metaphors presented in a brief context, in an auditory, ecological way. The comprehension of their literal counterparts served as a control condition. We also investigated the link between working memory and verbal skills and regional activation. Comparisons of metaphorical and literal conditions revealed bilateral activation of parietal areas including the left angular (lAG) and right inferior parietal gyri (rIPG) and right precuneus. Only verbal skills were associated with lAG (but not rIPG) activation. These results indicated that predicative metaphor comprehension share common activations with other metaphors. Furthermore, individual verbal skills could have an impact on figurative language processing. PMID:25193417

  1. A computational-grid based system for continental drainage network extraction using SRTM digital elevation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curkendall, David W.; Fielding, Eric J.; Pohl, Josef M.; Cheng, Tsan-Huei

    2003-01-01

    We describe a new effort for the computation of elevation derivatives using the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) results. Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) SRTM has produced a near global database of highly accurate elevation data. The scope of this database enables computing precise stream drainage maps and other derivatives on Continental scales. We describe a computing architecture for this computationally very complex task based on NASA's Information Power Grid (IPG), a distributed high performance computing network based on the GLOBUS infrastructure. The SRTM data characteristics and unique problems they present are discussed. A new algorithm for organizing the conventional extraction algorithms [1] into a cooperating parallel grid is presented as an essential component to adapt to the IPG computing structure. Preliminary results are presented for a Southern California test area, established for comparing SRTM and its results against those produced using the USGS National Elevation Data (NED) model.

  2. Spinal cord stimulators and radiotherapy: first case report and practice guidelines.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Lorraine; Guha, Daipayan; Purdie, Thomas G; Bedard, Philippe; Easson, Alexandra; Liu, Fei-Fei; Hodaie, Mojgan

    2011-01-01

    Spinal cord stimulators (SCS) are a well-recognised treatment modality in the management of a number of chronic neuropathic pain conditions, particularly failed back syndrome and radiculopathies. The implantable pulse generator (IPG) component of the SCS is designed and operates in a similar fashion to that of a cardiac pacemaker. The IPG consists of an electrical generator, lithium battery, transmitter/receiver and a minicomputer. When stimulated, it generates pulsed electrical signals which stimulate the dorsal columns of the spinal cord, thus alleviating pain. Analogous to a cardiac pacemaker, it can be potentially damaged by ionising radiation from a linear accelerator, in patients undergoing radiotherapy. Herein we report our clinical management of the first reported case of a patient requiring adjuvant breast radiotherapy who had a SCS in situ. We also provide useful practical recommendations on the management of this scenario within a radiation oncology department. PMID:22024340

  3. Chalcophile and platinum-group element distribution in the Ultramafic series of the Stillwater Complex, MT, USA—implications for processes enriching chromite layers in Os, Ir, Ru, and Rh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Sarah-Jane; Pagé, P.; Prichard, H. M.; Zientek, M. L.; Fisher, P. C.

    2016-01-01

    All of the rocks from the Ultramafic series of the Stillwater Complex are enriched in PGE relative to most mafic magmas. Furthermore, the chromite layers are particularly enriched in IPGE (Os, Ir, and Ru) and Rh. This enrichment appears to be a common characteristic of ultramafic rocks from many types of settings, layered intrusions, ophiolites, and zoned complexes. We have carried out a petrological, mineralogical, and geochemical study to assess how the enrichment occurred in the case of the Stillwater Complex and applied our results to the chromite layers of the Bushveld and Great Dyke complexes. The minerals that now host the PGE are laurite and fine-grained intergrowths of pentlandite, millerite, and chalcopyrite. The laurite occurs as inclusions in chromite, and mass balance calculations indicate that it hosts most of the Os, Ir, and Ru. The sulfide minerals occur both as inclusions in chromite and as interstitial grains. The sulfides host much of the Pd and Rh. The IPGE and Rh correlate with Cr but not with S or Se, indicating that these elements were not collected by a sulfide liquid. Palladium, Cu, and Se correlate with each other, but not with S. The low S/Se (<1500) of the whole rock and magnetite rims around the sulfides indicate some S has been lost from the rocks. We conclude that to account for all observations, the IPGE and Rh were originally collected by chromite, and subsequently, small quantities of base metal sulfide liquid was added to the chromite layers from the overlying magma. The IPGE and Rh in the chromite diffused from the chromite into the base metal sulfides and converted some of the sulfides to laurite.

  4. A Data Miner for the Information Power Grid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinke, Thomas H.; Parks, John W. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Grid Miner (GM) is one of the early data mining applications developed by NASA to help users obtain information from the Information Power Grid (IPG). Topics cover include: benefits of data mining, potential use of grids in data mining activities, an overview of the GM application, and a brief review of GM architecture and implementation issues. The current status of the GM system is also discussed.

  5. Combining high-throughput MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and isoelectric focusing gel electrophoresis for virtual 2D gel-based proteomics.

    PubMed

    Lohnes, Karen; Quebbemann, Neil R; Liu, Kate; Kobzeff, Fred; Loo, Joseph A; Ogorzalek Loo, Rachel R

    2016-07-15

    The virtual two-dimensional gel electrophoresis/mass spectrometry (virtual 2D gel/MS) technology combines the premier, high-resolution capabilities of 2D gel electrophoresis with the sensitivity and high mass accuracy of mass spectrometry (MS). Intact proteins separated by isoelectric focusing (IEF) gel electrophoresis are imaged from immobilized pH gradient (IPG) polyacrylamide gels (the first dimension of classic 2D-PAGE) by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) MS. Obtaining accurate intact masses from sub-picomole-level proteins embedded in 2D-PAGE gels or in IPG strips is desirable to elucidate how the protein of one spot identified as protein 'A' on a 2D gel differs from the protein of another spot identified as the same protein, whenever tryptic peptide maps fail to resolve the issue. This task, however, has been extremely challenging. Virtual 2D gel/MS provides access to these intact masses. Modifications to our matrix deposition procedure improve the reliability with which IPG gels can be prepared; the new procedure is described. Development of this MALDI MS imaging (MSI) method for high-throughput MS with integrated 'top-down' MS to elucidate protein isoforms from complex biological samples is described and it is demonstrated that a 4-cm IPG gel segment can now be imaged in approximately 5min. Gel-wide chemical and enzymatic methods with further interrogation by MALDI MS/MS provide identifications, sequence-related information, and post-translational/transcriptional modification information. The MSI-based virtual 2D gel/MS platform may potentially link the benefits of 'top-down' and 'bottom-up' proteomics. PMID:26826592

  6. Studies of the conformational stability of invasion plasmid antigen B from Shigella.

    PubMed

    Choudhari, Shyamal P; Kramer, Ryan; Barta, Michael L; Greenwood, Jamie C; Geisbrecht, Brian V; Joshi, Sangeeta B; Picking, William D; Middaugh, C Russell; Picking, Wendy L

    2013-05-01

    Shigella spp. are the causative agent of shigellosis, the second leading cause of diarrhea in children of ages 2-5. Despite many years of research, a protective vaccine has been elusive. We recently demonstrated that invasion plasmid antigens B and D (IpaB and IpaD) provide protection against S. flexneri and S. sonnei. These proteins, however, have very different properties which must be recognized and then managed during vaccine formulation. Herein, we employ spectroscopy to assess the stability of IpaB as well as IpgC (invasion protein gene), IpaB's cognate chaperone, and the IpaB/IpgC complex. The resulting data are mathematically summarized into a visual map illustrating the stability of the proteins and their complex as a function of pH and temperature. The IpaB/IpgC complex exhibits thermal stability at higher pH values but, though initially stable, quickly unfolds with increasing temperature when maintained at lower pH. In contrast, IpaB is a much more complex protein exhibiting increased stability at higher pH, but shows initial instability at lower pH values with pH 5 showing a distinct transition. IpgC precipitates at and below pH 5 and is stable above pH 7. Most strikingly, it is clear that complex formation results in stabilization of the two components. This work serves as a basis for the further development of IpaB as a vaccine candidate as well as extends our understanding of the structural stability of the Shigella type III secretion system. PMID:23494968

  7. Insertion of Astronomy as a High School Subject. (Spanish Title: Inserción de Astronomia Como Materia del Ciclo Secundario.) Inserção da Astronomia Como Disciplina Curricular do Ensino Médio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Claudio André C. M.; Santa Rita, Josué R.

    2008-12-01

    Astronomy is considered among the first sciences that man dominated, however, the basic skills for the construction of knowledge, relatively to the contents "Earth and the Universe" are not being developed properly for the majority of students concluding the high school level. The students are concluding this teaching cycle without proper knowledge of several subjects in the area of Astronomy, which are mandatory in the national Curricular National Parameters (PCN). Because of this discrepancy, this work stresses the need of the incorporation of a specific subject of Astronomy in the high school, in order to reduce the gap between what is taught and which should be taught. La Astronomía es considerada una de las primeras ciencias que el hombre dominó. Sin embargo, las habilidades básicas para la construcción del conocimento, relativo al eje temático "Tierra y Universo", no vienen siendo trabajadas adecuadamente con la mayoría de los alumnos que concluyen el ciclo escolar medio. Los alumnos están concluyendo este nivel de enseñanza sin conocimentos de varios temas en el área de Astronomía, que son obligatorios según los Parámetros Curriculares Nacionales (PCN). En virtud de esta discrepancia, este trabajo enfatiza la necesidad de incorporar una disciplina específica de Astronomía em el ciclo medio, em pro de la reducción de las distorsiones entre lo que es enseñado y lo que se debe enseñar. A Astronomia é considerada uma das primeiras ciências que o homem dominou, porém as competências básicas para a construção do conhecimento, relativo ao eixo temático "Terra e Universo", não vêm sendo trabalhadas a contento com a maioria dos alunos que concluem o ensino médio. Os alunos estão concluindo este nível de ensino sem conhecimento de vários temas na área de Astronomia, que são obrigatórios nos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais (PCN). Em virtude desta discrepância, este trabalho vem evidenciar a necessidade da incorporação de uma disciplina específica de Astronomia, no ensino médio, em prol da redução das distorções entre o que é ensinado e o que se deve ensinar.

  8. How Families Teach, Support, Learn, Make Decisions: Ways for Families To Help Children Do Better in School = Como las Familias Ensenan, Apoyan, Aprenden, Toman Decisiones: Como las Familias Ayudan a los Ninos a Mejorar en la Escuela.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RMC Research Corp., Hampton, NH.

    This booklet contains ideas about how families can help children in school in the following basic ways by: (1) teaching their children; (2) learning new things to help their children learn; (3) supporting children and the school; and (4) making decisions about what and how children learn. For each of these areas, a chart is included so that…

  9. Serum pepsinogen I and II concentrations and IgG antibody to Helicobacter pylori in dyspeptic patients.

    PubMed Central

    Biasco, G; Paganelli, G M; Vaira, D; Holton, J; Di Febo, G; Brillanti, S; Miglioli, M; Barbara, L; Samloff, I M

    1993-01-01

    AIMS--To investigate the association between histologically confirmed gastritis, carriage of Helicobacter pylori and pepsinogen (PG) I and PG II concentrations. METHODS--Prospective study of 81 dyspeptic patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was made. The extent of gastric mucosal inflammation and the presence of H pylori was determined, and serology to evaluate PG I and II concentrations and IgG titres to H pylori was carried out. RESULTS--The presence of H pylori was strongly correlated with high IgG antibody titres to H pylori and gastritis. Patients who were H pylori positive had significantly higher PG I and PG II concentrations and a significantly lower PG I:PG II ratio than patients who were negative for H pylori. In 13 patients with duodenal ulcer and H pylori positive gastritis serum PG I concentrations were significantly higher than in H pylori positive patients without duodenal ulcer. Significant correlations were found between the age of patients and serum PG II, the PG I:PG II ratio, IgG antibodies to H pylori, the severity of body gastritis and H pylori infection, and between the degree of gastritis in the body of the stomach and the PG II concentration. CONCLUSIONS--Serum PG I and II concentrations, together with a fall in the PG I:PG II ratio, could be used as predictors of H pylori infection as well as serum IgG antibody response to H pylori. PMID:8227432

  10. A fully implantable stimulator with wireless power and data transmission for experimental use in epidural spinal cord stimulation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qi; Li, Jun; Han, Wenjuan; Zhou, Houlun

    2011-01-01

    Epidural spinal cord stimulation (ESCS) combined with partial weight bearing therapy (PWBT) has been reported to facilitate recovery of functional walking for individuals after chronic incomplete spinal cord injury. This paper describes a low cost, fully implantable, advanced ESCS stimulator that can be manufactured in a research laboratory for use in small animals. The system is composed of four main parts: an external personal digital assistant (PDA), an external controller, an implantable pulse generator (IPG), lead extension and electrode. The PDA allows the experimenter to program the stimulation parameters through a user-friendly graphical interface. The external controller placed on the rat back communicates with PDA via RF telemetry. The IPG generates the biphasic charge-balanced voltage-regulated pulses, which are delivered to the bipolar electrode by the lead extension to achieve chronic ESCS in freely moving rats. A RF carrier from the Class-E amplifier in the external controller provides both data and power for the implanted circuitry through a closely coupled inductive link. The IPG is hermetically packaged using a silicon elastomer and measures 22 mm × 23 mm × 7 mm with a mass of ~3.78 g. PMID:22256007

  11. G(q/11) is involved in insulin-stimulated inositol phosphoglycan putative mediator generation in rat liver membranes: co-localization of G(q/11) with the insulin receptor in membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Sleight, S; Wilson, B A; Heimark, D B; Larner, J

    2002-07-12

    Insulin signaling to generate inositol phosphoglycans (IPGs) was demonstrated to occur via the participation of the heterotrimeric G-proteins G(q/11). IPGs were measured as two specific inositol markers, myo-inositol and chiro-inositol after strong acid hydrolysis. Insulin and Pasteurella multocida toxin (PMT) generated both myo-inositol and chiro-inositol IPGs in a dose-dependent manner. PMT has been shown to activate G(q) specifically. Insulin action was abrogated by pre-treatment with anti G(q/11) antibody. Western blotting demonstrated the enrichment of both insulin receptor beta subunit and G(q/11) in the liver membrane vesicles. Vesicles also contained clathrin, caveolin PLC beta 1 and PLC Delta. Immunogold staining revealed the co-localization of both insulin receptor beta subunit and G(q/11) in an approximate stochiometric ratio of 1:3. No vesicles were detected with either component alone. The present and considerable published data provide strong evidence for insulin signaling both via a tyrosine kinase cascade mechanism and via heterotrimeric G-protein interactions. PMID:12150987

  12. Disruption of contralateral inferior parietal cortex by 1 Hz repetitive TMS modulates body sway following unpredictable removal of sway-related fingertip feedback.

    PubMed

    Johannsen, Leif; Hirschauer, Franziska; Stadler, Waltraud; Hermsdörfer, Joachim

    2015-01-23

    Contact with an earth-fixed reference augments sway-related feedback and leads to sway reduction during upright standing. We investigated the effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the left hemisphere inferior parietal gyrus (IPG) as well as middle frontal gyrus (MFG) on the progression of sway following right-hand finger tip contact onset and removal. In two experimental sessions, 12 adults received 20 min of 1 Hz rTMS stimulation at 110% passive motor threshold over the left MFG and left IPG, respectively. Before and after each stimulation interval, participants' body sway was assessed in terms of antero-posterior Center-of-Pressure (CoP) velocity. Passive touch onset and removal were timed at random intervals by controlling the vertical position of a contact plate. Progression of sway was evaluated across 6s before to 6s after each contact event. Following both contact onset and removal, a temporary increase in sway above baseline without contact was observed. After removal overshoot was especially prominent. While steady-state sway was not altered by stimulation, rTMS over the left IPG reduced overshoot compared to pre-stimulation; thus, improving sway progression on haptic deprivation. We discuss our finding in the light of altered transient postural disorientation due to intermodal sensory conflict, illusion of backwards falling and tactile attention capture. PMID:25481762

  13. The use of indium-111 labeled platelet scanning for the detection of asymptomatic deep venous thrombosis in a high risk population

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, R.S.; Rae, J.L.; Ryan, N.L.; Edwards, C.; Fortune, W.P.; Lewis, R.J.; Reba, R.C. )

    1989-11-01

    Five hundred indium-111 labeled platelet imaging studies (387 donor and 113 autologous) were performed postoperatively in 473 patients who had undergone total hip replacement, total knee replacement, or internal fixation of a hip fracture to detect occult deep venous thrombosis. All patients had been anticoagulated prophylactically with aspirin, warfarin sodium (Coumadin), or dextran. Thirty-four possible cases of proximal deep venous thrombosis were identified in 28 asymptomatic patients. To verify the scan results, 31 venograms were performed in 25 patients (three refused). In 21 of 31 cases, totally occlusive thrombi were detected; in 5 cases, partially occlusive thrombi were detected; in 5 cases, no thrombus was seen. No patient who had a negative scan nor any patient who had a verified positive scan (and received appropriate heparin therapy) subsequently developed symptoms or signs of pulmonary embolism. One hundred forty-one indium study patients also underwent Doppler ultrasonography/impedance plethysmography (Doppler/IPG) as a comparative non-invasive technique. In 137 cases, the results of the indium study and Doppler/IPG studies were congruent. The indium study had no false negative results that were detected by Doppler/IPG. No patient had any clinically evident toxicity. These results suggest that indium-111 labeled platelet scanning is a safe, noninvasive means for identifying DVT in high risk patients.

  14. Effects of iriflophenone 3-C-β-glucoside on fasting blood glucose level and glucose uptake

    PubMed Central

    Pranakhon, Ratree; Aromdee, Chantana; Pannangpetch, Patchareewan

    2015-01-01

    Background: One of the biological activities of agar wood (Aquilaria sinensis Lour., Thymelaeaceae), is anti-hyperglycemic activity. The methanolic extract (ME) was proven to possess the fasting blood glucose activity in rat and glucose uptake transportation by rat adipocytes. Objective: To determine the decreasing fasting blood glucose level of constituents affordable for in vivo test. If the test was positive, the mechanism which is positive to the ME, glucose transportation, will be performed. Materials and Methods: The ME was separated by column chromatography and identified by spectroscopic methods. Mice was used as an animal model (in vivo), and rat adipocytes were used for the glucose transportation activity (in vitro). Result: Iriflophenone 3-C-β-glucoside (IPG) was the main constituent, 3.17%, and tested for the activities. Insulin and the ME were used as positive controls. The ME, IPG and insulin lowered blood glucose levels by 40.3, 46.4 and 41.5%, respectively, and enhanced glucose uptake by 152, 153, and 183%, respectively. Conclusion: These findings suggest that IPG is active in lowering fasting blood glucose with potency comparable to that of insulin. PMID:25709215

  15. Synthesis of prostaglandin E2, thromboxane B2 and prostaglandin catabolism in gastritis and gastric ulcer.

    PubMed Central

    Hawkey, C J

    1986-01-01

    Because endogenous prostaglandins may protect the gastric mucosa a study was conducted to determine factors influencing the synthesis of immunoreactive prostaglandin (iPG) E2 and thromboxane (iTx) B2 as measured by radioimmunoassay and prostaglandin catabolism measured radiometrically, in human gastric mucosa. Gastric mucosa was obtained at endoscopy. Synthesis of iPE2 and iTxB2 was inhibited in vitro by indomethacin; iTxB2 synthesis was also selectively inhibited by the thromboxane synthesis inhibitor dazmegrel. Prostaglandin catabolism was inhibited by carbenoxolone. Multivariate analysis showed that synthesis of iPGE2 from endogenous precursor during homogenisation was decreased in patients on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Mucosal inflammation was associated with significantly increased synthesis of iPGE2 and decreased prostaglandin catabolism. There were no differences between the mucosa of patients with or without gastric ulcers, nor between the ulcer rim and mucosa 5 cm away. Age, sex, smoking history and ingestion of antisecretory drugs appeared to exert no influence. In this study gastritis was the major influence on prostaglandin synthesis. It seems unlikely that prostaglandin deficiency is a strong predisposing factor for gastric ulceration. PMID:3468053

  16. Inositolphosphoglycans and diacyglycerol are possible mediators in the glycogenic effect of GLP-1(7-36)amide in BC3H-1 myocytes.

    PubMed

    Galera, C; Clemente, F; Alcantara, A; Trapote, M A; Perea, A; Lopez-Delgado, M I; Villanueva-Penacarrillo, M L; Valverde, I

    1996-03-01

    A potent glycogenic effect of GLP-1(7-36)amide has been found in rat hepatocytes and skeletal muscle, and specific receptors for this peptide, which do not seem to be associated with the adenylate cyclase-cAMP system, have been detected in these tissue membranes. On the other hand, inositolphosphoglycan molecules (IPGs) have been implicated as second messengers of the action of insulin. In this work, we have found, in differentiated BC3H-1 myocytes, specific binding of [125I]GLP-1(7-36)amide, and a stimulatory effect of the peptide on glycogen synthesis, confirming the findings in rat skeletal muscle. Also, GLP-1(7-36)amide modulates the cell content of radiolabelled glycosylphosphatidylinositols (GPIs) and increases the production of diacylglycerol (DAG), in the same manner as insulin acts, indicating hydrolysis of GPIs and an immediate and short-lived generation of IPGs. Thus, IPGs and DAG could be mediators in the glycogenic action of GLP-1(7-36)amide in skeletal muscle. PMID:8907253

  17. Lunar Swirls: Plasma Magnetic Field Interaction and Dust Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dropmann, Michael; Laufer, Rene; Herdrich, Georg; Matthews, Lorin; Hyde, Truell

    2013-10-01

    In close collaboration between the Center for Astrophysics, Space Physics and Engineering Research (CASPER) at Baylor University, Texas, and the Institute of Space Systems (IRS) at the University of Stuttgart, Germany, two plasma facilities have been established using the Inductively heated Plasma Generator 6 (IPG6), based on proven IRS designs. A wide range of applications is currently under consideration for both test and research facilities. Basic investigations in the area of plasma radiation and catalysis, simulation of certain parameters of fusion divertors and space applications are planned. In this paper, the facility at Baylor University (IPG6-B) will be used for simulation of mini-magnetospheres on the Moon. The interaction of the solar wind with magnetic fields leads to the formation of electric fields, which can influence the incoming solar wind ion flux and affect dust transport processes on the lunar surface. Both effects may be partially responsible for the occurrence of lunar swirls. Interactions of the solar wind with such mini-magnetospheres will be simulated in the IPG6-B by observing the interaction between a plasma jet and a permanent magnet. The resulting data should lead to better models of dust transport processes and solar wind deflection on the moon.

  18. Genetic characterization of Moniezia species in Senegal and Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Diop, Gora; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Hailemariam, Zerihun; Menkir, Sissay; Nakao, Minoru; Sako, Yasuhito; Ba, Cheikh Tidiane; Ito, Akira

    2015-10-01

    Genetic diversity of Moniezia spp. from domestic ruminants in Senegal and Ethiopia was investigated based on the nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rDNA). A total of 64 adult tapeworms were collected from sheep, goat and cattle, and the tapeworms from cattle were all morphologically identified as Moniezia benedeni. On the other hand, the tapeworms obtained from sheep and goat were identified as Moniezia expansa or could not be identified because of the lack of diagnostic morphologic character, i.e. interproglottidal glands (IPGs). Phylogenetic analysis based on cox1 gene sequences revealed that the worms from sheep/goat and cattle formed distinct clades, and three mitochondrial lineages were confirmed within the sheep/goat tapeworms. The maximum pairwise divergences among the three mitochondrial linages were about 3% in cox1 and 0.1% in SSU rDNA, while that between the worms from sheep/goat and cattle reached 13% in cox1 and 2.7% in SSU rDNA. All of the three mitochondrial lineages contained tapeworms morphologically identified as M. expansa, and the tapeworms without IPGs were confirmed in one of the three lineages, indicating the tapeworms without IPGs were also M. expansa. PMID:25752566

  19. PGE distribution in the Chromite bearing mafic-ultramafic Kondapalli Layered Complex, Krishna district, Andhra Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meshram, Tushar M.; Nannaware, Shraddha. B.; Nannaware, B.; Bhatacharjee, Shantanu; Waghmare, Minakshi. M.; Rajakumar, T.

    2015-09-01

    The Kondapalli Layered Complex (KLC) is a dismembered mafic-ultramafic layered intrusion, mainly composed of gabbroic and anorthositic rocks with subordinate ultramafics and chromitite. Chromitite occurs as lenses, pods, bands and disseminations. Platinum group of minerals (PGMs) occur as inclusions within chromite and silicates. The study indicates an inhomogeneous distribution of PGMs and distinct dominance of IPGEs over the PPGEs. The average ΣPGE content of chromite of KLC varies from 64 ppb to 576 ppb with Pt ranging from 5 to 495 ppb, Pd 5 to 191 ppb, Ir 3 to 106 ppb, Ru 3 to 376 ppb and Rh 3 to 135 ppb. The PGMs identified in the KLC indicate primary deposition of the IPGE, preceding chromite, indicating its orthomagmatic nature. Most of the PGM grains are usually below 10 μm. The identified PGMs are Laurite (RuS2), irarsite (Ir, As, S), iridosmine (Os, Ir), undetermined Os-Ir sulphide and Ru-Os-Ir-Zn alloys. Chromite also contains inclusions of pentlandite, millerite, chalcopyrite and pyrite. Study indicating that the KLC have orthomagmatic origin for PGE which are dominated by IPGE group and formed under surpa-subduction zone peridotite setting.

  20. Contextualizacion y "Expresiones Pragmaticas": "Che" como Senal de Marco (Contextualization and "Pragmatic Expressions": "Che" as Deictic Marker).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carranza, Isolda

    The pragmatic expressions of Argentine Spanish (e.g., "bueno, viste, no? mira") are defined as deictic signals. They are deictic because they indicate elements of the communicative situation: transitions between text segments, conversational roles, or the social relationship between participants. They also signal contextual suppositions and help…

  1. El doblete D del Sodio como indicador de la actividad cromosférica en estrellas de la secuencia principal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, R. F.; Mauas, P. J. D.

    We study the line profile of the sodium D doublet (5890 A and 5896 A) in dwarf stars with spectral type between M5.5 and F6. We find that the equivalent width of these lines shows a very good correlation with spectral type for stars later than K4. The flux absorbed in this region of the spectrum is then compared with the flux absorbed in the calcium H&K lines -a traditional activity indicator. For stars with (B-V)> 1.15 the correlation between absorbed fluxes is good and hence the sodium doublet is a good activity indicator. Since the doublet is found at longer wavelenghts than the calcium H & K lines, it is particularly useful for the study of chromospheric activity in late-type stars.

  2. La Traduccion Simultanea como Materia en Una Carrera de Lenguas (Simultaneous Translation as a Course in a Foreign Language Program)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, D.

    1977-01-01

    A description of the foreign language curriculum at the university level in which courses in simultaneous translation are required. The size and composition of the groups are described as well as methods used to develop skill in translating and interpreting. Results are assessed. (Text is in Spanish.) (AMH)

  3. How To Start a Family Day Care = Como Iniciar una Guarderia en El Hogar. [Videotape and Viewer's Guide].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raphael, Doris; Weisman, Douglas

    Being a family day care provider is work that requires professional responsibilities and attention to the physical, emotional, and educational well-being of children; listening and responding to parents; and running a business. This videotape, in English- and Spanish-language versions, explores the elements involved in starting up a family day…

  4. Como ayudar a los padres a prevenir el envenenamiento por plomo (Helping Parents Prevent Lead Poisoning). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binns, Helen J.; Ricks, Omar Benton

    Children are at greater risk than adults for lead poisoning because children absorb lead more readily than adults, and a small amount of lead in children's bodies can do a great deal of harm. This Spanish-language Digest summarizes some of the causes and effects of childhood lead poisoning and suggests some lead poisoning prevention strategies…

  5. Caracteristicas de la Instruccion Programada como Tecnica de Ensenanza (Characteristics of Programed Instruction as a Teaching Technique).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorrego, Maria Elena

    This discussion of programed instruction begins with the fundamental psychological aspects and learning theories behind this teaching method. Negative and positive reinforcement, conditioning, and their relationship to programed instruction are considered. Different types of programs, both linear and branching, are discussed; criticism of the…

  6. "Tras de un Amoroso Lance" como Estructura Expresiva (The Poem, "Behind the Amorous Cast" as an Expressive Structure).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratosevich, Nicolas

    1967-01-01

    An analysis of a poem by San Juan de la Cruz (St. John of the Cross), the sixteenth century Spanish mystic, identifies symbols and images, explains themes, and offers a synthesis of his structural patterns. The poem, "Tras de amoroso lance", deals with the theme of the search of the beloved (i.e., the soul) for the lover, and incorporates the…

  7. Significant Learning Experiences for English Foreign Language Students (Experiencias significativas para estudiantes de inglés como lengua extranjera)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becerra, Luz María; McNulty, Maria

    2010-01-01

    This action research examines experiences that students in a grade 10 EFL class had with redesigning a grammar-unit into a topic-based unit. Strategies were formulating significant learning goals and objectives, and implementing and reflecting on activities with three dimensions of Dee Fink's (2003) taxonomy of significant learning: the human…

  8. Las líneas de aluminio neutro como diagnóstico cromosférico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández Borda, R.; Mauas, P. J. D.

    Se presenta un modelo atómico para el cálculo de las lí neas del Aluminio neutro que se forman en la cromósfera solar. En particular, se estudia la línea λ 3961 Å, que, por estar muy próxima a la lí nea H del Ca II y a Hɛ es muy frecuentemente observada. Observaciones en esta lí nea obtenidas con el espectrógrafo a instalarse en el CASLEO, serán utilizadas para el estudio de fulguraciones solares.

  9. The English as a Foreign Language/Lingua Franca Debate: Sensitising Teachers of English as a Foreign Language towards Teaching English as a Lingua Franca (El debate del inglés como lengua extranjera o como lengua franca: sensibilización de docentes de inglés como lengua extranjera hacia la enseñanza del inglés como lengua franca)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansfield, Gillian; Poppi, Franca

    2012-01-01

    The function of English as a lingua franca for communication needs rethinking in the teaching of English as a foreign language classroom as a consequence of globalisation. The present contribution is an empirical study carried out in an Italian university environment which aims to show how teachers should take on board awareness raising activities…

  10. How Can We Provide Safe Playgrounds? = Como podemos proveer lugares con juegos infantiles que no sean peligrosos para los ninos?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACCESS ERIC, Rockville, MD.

    Outdoor playgrounds can be exciting places where children explore their environment and develop motor and social skills; however, they can also pose serious safety hazards. With the exception of California, no mandatory state or federal standards currently exist regarding manufacture or installation of playground equipment or surfaces. The…

  11. Parámetros fundamentales de objetos catalogados como cúmulos estelares en la Nube Mayor de Magallanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piatti, A. E.

    We present the results of 16 Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) clusters ob- tained for the first time from CCD Washington CT1 T2 photometry. CMD cluster features turn out to be identifiable when performing annular extrac- tions around their respective centres, once they were cleaned from field star contamination; their main sequences extending from one up to four mag- nitudes downwards. The clusters resulted to be small angular size objects projected or immersed in dense star fields, as judged from their radial stellar density profiles, so that crowding effect could be responsible for the limited magnitude reached in some cases. We estimated their ages from isochrone fitting - along with the E(B - V ) colour excesses - assuming a metallicity of Z = 0.008 ([Fe/H] = -0.4 dex) and a LMC distance modulus of (m - M)o = 18.50 ± 0.10 mag. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  12. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Raúl; Garnacho-Castaño, Manuel Vicente; Maté-Muñoz, José Luis

    2016-01-01

    La fuerza influye directamente en el estado de salud y en la capacidad de fitness, motivo por el que el entrenamiento contra resistencias o resistance training (RT) se incluye dentro de aquellos programas de ejercicio encaminados a mejorar la salud y calidad de vida. Debido a que muchasenfermedades cursan con alteración de la masa y funcionalidad muscular y a que el RT es la principal modalidad de ejercicio encaminada a mejorar la función muscular, el objetivo de la presente revisión bibliográfica ha sido exponer las evidencias actuales sobre las adaptaciones delRT, así como su posible aplicación en patologías como la obesidad, diabetes, dislipemia, hipertensión, cáncer, Parkinson, esclerosis múltiple o fibromialgia. El RT en estas enfermedades puede aumentar los niveles de masa muscular, disminuyendo los niveles de masa grasa, los nivelesde ácidos grasos en sangre y la glucemia, incrementando la sensibilidad a la insulina, y disminuyendo los niveles de citokinas inflamatorias. El RT, además, mejora el gasto cardiaco y la funcionalidad endotelial, regulando la tensión arterial e incrementando el consumo de oxígeno. Las ganancias de fuerza muscular mejoran la funcionalidad y la calidad de vida, especialmente en población con una afectación neuromuscular grave, como pudieran ser los enfermos de esclerosis múltiple, fibromialgia o Parkinson. Por ello, el RT debe ser incorporado como parte del tratamiento en las personas que presentan determinado tipo de patologías. PMID:27513511

  13. Cinética Química: el laboratorio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabañas Galán, B.

    La interpretación de las transformaciones químicas que se producen en la atmósfera requiere un profundo conocimiento de la cinética, productos y mecanismos de reacción de las posibles interacciones que pueden ocurrir entre las distintas especies presentes en ella. Información cuantitativa de este tipo es un prerrequisito para la construcción de modelos numéricos adecuados que expliquen el comportamiento químico-físico de la atmósfera. Esta información se obtiene a partir de experimentos realizados en laboratorios y por tanto independiente de medidas atmosféricas, por lo que los modelos atmosféricos derivados de ellos, pueden usarse para diagnosticar y predecir adecuadamente el comportamiento atmosférico. En esta exposición se recogen las técnicas experimentales más extendidas para la obtención de datos cinéticos así como los métodos de análisis de datos más utilizados en el estudio de las distintas reacciones de interés atmosférico. Se analizan sus características generales así como su adecuación a los distintos tipos de reacciones.

  14. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    San Mauro Martín, Ismael; Garicano Vilar, Elena; León Fernández, Joana; Ciudad Cabañas, María José; Collado Yurrita, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: recientemente ha surgido el interés por el posible papel de la microbiota intestinal como agente potenciador del rápido aumento que se está observando en el aumento de la prevalencia de obesidad en todo el mundo.Objetivos: relacionar las modificaciones que puede ocasionar el consumo de antibióticos en la microflora intestinal con la obesidad.Métodos: se extrajeron, de las Encuestas Nacionales de Salud de España, entre los años 2001 y 2011, las cifras de ingesta de antibióticos y la prevalencia (%) de obesidad en el mismo rango de edad, género y año. La media total de encuestados fue de 29.904 participantes.Resultados: se encontraron correlaciones significativas (p=0,09) en la asociación de la prevalencia de obesidad y la ingesta de antibióticos. Además, se objetivó que en el sexo masculino esta influencia es el doble que en el femenino.Conclusiones: los descubrimientos recientes en el campo de la microbiota intestinal y su relación con el huésped abren nuevos caminos en la comprensión de ciertas enfermedades inflamatorias y metabólicas, como la obesidad. PMID:27571657

  15. Highly siderophile element geochemistry of 187Os-enriched 2.8 Ga Kostomuksha komatiites, Baltic Shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puchtel, Igor S.; Humayun, Munir

    2005-03-01

    New analyses of highly siderophile elements (HSE; Re, Os, Ir, Ru, Pt, and Pd) obtained by Carius tube digestion isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry (ID-ICPMS) technique are reported for 187Os-enriched 2.8 Ga komatiites from the Kostomuksha greenstone belt. As a result of a significant improvement in the yield over our previous digestions by the NiS fire-assay technique, these komatiites have now been shown to contain 22 to 25% more Os, Ir, and Pt and 34% more Ru. The emplaced komatiite lavas at Kostomuksha thus had siderophile element abundances comparable to those of the Abitibi belt. The discrepancies observed between the two techniques are interpreted to be the result of incomplete digestion of HSE carriers (particularly chromite) during the NiS fire-assay procedure. Our results for UB-N peridotite reference material agree well with those obtained by the high-pressure ashing digestion ID-ICPMS technique reported in the literature. Two types of komatiite lavas have been distinguished in this study based on the IPGE (Os, Ir, and Ru) behavior during lava differentiation. The Kostomuksha type is unique and is characterized by an incompatible behavior of IPGEs, with bulk solid-liquid partition coefficients for IPGEs being close to those for olivine. Cumulate zones in this type of komatiite lava occupy <20% of the total thickness of the flows. The Munro type exhibits a compatible behavior of IPGEs during lava differentiation. The cumulate zone in this type of komatiite occupies >20% of the total thickness of the flows. The calculated bulk partition coefficients indicate that, as with the other Munro-type komatiite lavas, the bulk cumulate contained an IPGE-rich minor phase(s) in addition to olivine. The non-CI chondritic HSE pattern for the source of the Kostomuksha komatiites calculated here is similar to that of Abitibi komatiites and to average depleted spinel lherzolite (ADSL) and supports the hypothesis of a non-CI chondritic HSE

  16. Auditory-nerve responses to varied inter-phase gap and phase duration of the electric pulse stimulus as predictors for neuronal degeneration.

    PubMed

    Ramekers, Dyan; Versnel, Huib; Strahl, Stefan B; Smeets, Emma M; Klis, Sjaak F L; Grolman, Wilko

    2014-04-01

    After severe hair cell loss, secondary degeneration of spiral ganglion cells (SGCs) is observed-a gradual process that spans years in humans but only takes weeks in guinea pigs. Being the target for cochlear implants (CIs), the physiological state of the SGCs is important for the effectiveness of a CI. For assessment of the nerve's state, focus has generally been on its response threshold. Our goal was to add a more detailed characterization of SGC functionality. To this end, the electrically evoked compound action potential (eCAP) was recorded in normal-hearing guinea pigs and guinea pigs that were deafened 2 or 6 weeks prior to the experiments. We evaluated changes in eCAP characteristics when the phase duration (PD) and inter-phase gap (IPG) of a biphasic current pulse were varied. We correlated the magnitude of these changes to quantified histological measures of neurodegeneration (SGC packing density and SGC size). The maximum eCAP amplitude, derived from the input-output function, decreased after deafening, and increased with both PD and IPG. The eCAP threshold did not change after deafening, and decreased with increasing PD and IPG. The dynamic range was wider for the 6-weeks-deaf animals than for the other two groups. Excitability increased with IPG (steeper slope of the input-output function and lower stimulation level at the half-maximum eCAP amplitude), but to a lesser extent for the deafened animals than for normal-hearing controls. The latency was shorter for the 6-weeks-deaf animals than for the other two groups. For several of these eCAP characteristics, the effect size of IPG correlated well with histological measures of degeneration, whereas effect size of PD did not. These correlations depend on the use of high current levels, which could limit clinical application. Nevertheless, their potential of these correlations towards assessment of the condition of the auditory nerve may be of great benefit to clinical diagnostics and prognosis in cochlear

  17. Iron phosphate glasses: Structure determination and radiation tolerance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolley, Kenny; Smith, Roger

    2016-05-01

    Iron phosphate glass (IPG) has gained recent interest for use in encapsulating radioactive waste for long term storage. In this work, we investigate 5 different compositions of iron phosphate glass. We consider amorphous structures of 3 known crystalline phases: Fe2+Fe23+ (P2O7)2, Fe43+ (P2O7)3 and Fe3+(PO3)3, and structures of IPG (40 mol% Fe2O3 and 60 mol% P2O5), with 4% and 17% Fe2+ ion concentrations. Using constant volume molecular dynamics (MD), we quench a set of structures for each glass composition, to find the optimal density structure. We found that the lowest energy structures of IPG with 4% and 17% concentration of Fe2+, have a density of 3.25 and 3.28 g/cm3 respectively. This is slightly higher than the experimentally measured values of 2.9 and 2.95 g/cm3 respectively. We also estimate an upper and lower bound on the melting temperatures of each glass, then for each glass, we simulate radiation damage cascades at 4 keV. The cascade structures can be in the form of either a concentrated thermal spike or more diffuse with sub-cascade branching. We found that the glass compositions with a higher Fe/P atomic ratio, contained a greater number of displacements after the cascade. We also found that the IPG with 4% Fe2+, contained slightly fewer displacements than the IPG with 17% Fe2+. This is consistent with our previous work, which showed that the threshold displacement energies are lower for glasses with a lower Fe2+ content. In all the simulations, many PO4 polyhedra are destroyed during the early stages of irradiation, but recover strongly over a time scale of picoseconds, leaving very few over or under co-ordinated P atoms at the end of the ballistic phase. This is in contrast to recent work in apatite. The strong recovery indicates that phosphate glasses with a low Fe2+ content could be good materials for waste encapsulation.

  18. Iron phosphate glasses: Structure determination and radiation tolerance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolley, Kenny; Smith, Roger

    2016-05-01

    Iron phosphate glass (IPG) has gained recent interest for use in encapsulating radioactive waste for long term storage. In this work, we investigate 5 different compositions of iron phosphate glass. We consider amorphous structures of 3 known crystalline phases: Fe2+ Fe23+ (P2O7)2, Fe43 + (P2O7)3 and Fe3+(PO3)3, and structures of IPG (40 mol% Fe2O3 and 60 mol% P2O5), with 4% and 17% Fe2+ ion concentrations. Using constant volume molecular dynamics (MD), we quench a set of structures for each glass composition, to find the optimal density structure. We found that the lowest energy structures of IPG with 4% and 17% concentration of Fe2+, have a density of 3.25 and 3.28 g/cm3 respectively. This is slightly higher than the experimentally measured values of 2.9 and 2.95 g/cm3 respectively. We also estimate an upper and lower bound on the melting temperatures of each glass, then for each glass, we simulate radiation damage cascades at 4 keV. The cascade structures can be in the form of either a concentrated thermal spike or more diffuse with sub-cascade branching. We found that the glass compositions with a higher Fe/P atomic ratio, contained a greater number of displacements after the cascade. We also found that the IPG with 4% Fe2+, contained slightly fewer displacements than the IPG with 17% Fe2+. This is consistent with our previous work, which showed that the threshold displacement energies are lower for glasses with a lower Fe2+ content. In all the simulations, many PO4 polyhedra are destroyed during the early stages of irradiation, but recover strongly over a time scale of picoseconds, leaving very few over or under co-ordinated P atoms at the end of the ballistic phase. This is in contrast to recent work in apatite. The strong recovery indicates that phosphate glasses with a low Fe2+ content could be good materials for waste encapsulation.

  19. Los cambios en la velocidad de rotación terrestre y los fenómenos geomagnéticos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gianibelli, J. C.

    Uno de los aspectos importantes relativos a la geodinámica del interior terrestre es la correlación entre los eventos de cambio en la velocidad de rotación terrestre y los determinados en los elementos del campo geomagnético por ejemplo, la Declinación Magnética, o los coeficientes de los modelos matemáticos de representación global de dicho campo. En este trabajo se presentan los resultados de las características espectrales de los cambios observados en la longitud del día (ldd), y su relación con la estructura espectral de las coeficientes de los modelos matemáticos de campo denominados Campo Internacional Geomagnético de Referencia (CIGR). El intervalo estudiado comprende los últimos 100 años. Los resultados muestran una correlación en las bandas de 60 y 30 años, con posibles períodos mucho mayores que no son posibles determinar a partir de los modelos de CIRG. Se efectúa una simulación a partir de los resultados obtenidos por la aplicación del método de máxima entropía con longitudes del filtro predictor de error comprendida entre el 10% y el 95% de la longitud de la serie analizada. Se observan procesos sicrónicos y asincrónicos que, en muy largos intervalos de tiempos, podrían suponerse como caóticos.

  20. Technological Advances In The Surgical Treatment Of Movement Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Robert E.; McDougal, Margaret E.

    2013-01-01

    Technological innovations have driven the advancement of the surgical treatment of movement disorders, from the invention of the stereotactic frame to the adaptation of deep brain stimulation (DBS). Along these lines, this review will describe recent advances in getting neuromodulation modalities, including DBS, to the target; and in the delivery of therapy at the target. Recent radiological advances are altering the way that DBS leads are targeted and inserted, by refining the ability to visualize the subcortical targets using high-field strength MRI and other innovations such as diffusion tensor imaging, and the development of novel targeting devices enabling purely anatomical implantations without the need for neurophysiological monitoring. New portable CT scanners also are facilitating lead implantation without monitoring as well as improving radiological verification of DBS lead location. Advances in neurophysiological mapping include efforts to develop automatic target verification algorithms, and probabilistic maps to guide target selection. The delivery of therapy at the target is being improved by the development of the next generation of internal pulse generators (IPGs). These include constant current devices that mitigate the variability introduced by impedance changes of the stimulated tissue, and in the near future, devices that deliver novel stimulation patterns with improved efficiency. Closed-loop adaptive IPGs are being tested, which may tailor stimulation to ongoing changes in the nervous system reflected in Œbiomarkers1 continuously recorded by the devices. Finer grained DBS leads, in conjunction with new IPGs and advanced programming tools, may offer improved outcomes via Œcurrent steering1 algorithms. Finally, even thermocoagulation - essentially replaced by DBS - is being advanced by new Œminimally-invasive1 approaches that may improve this therapy for selected patients in whom it may be preferred. Functional neurosurgery has a history of

  1. Effects of intravenous ethanol on basal bile-pancreatic secretion in nonalcoholic and alcohol-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Tiscornia, O M; Iovanna, J; Tumilasci, O; Perec, C J; Cresta, M A; Celener, D; Dreiling, D A

    1990-11-01

    In nonalcoholic (NA) and alcohol-fed rats (AF), intravenous-ethanol-induced percentage changes in bile-pancreatic-secretion (BPS) were evaluated, with and without gastric juice diversion (GJD) and with and without BPS duodenal recirculation (DR). Even with GJD, ethanol elicited a slight increase in BPS. These changes were greater in AF animals even when performed without GJD. When intravenous ethanol was given under conditions of GJD and DR, there were marked differences between the NA and AF animals in the ethanol-elicited post-plateau percentage changes of BPS. NA animals evidenced no significant difference from controls. But in the AF rats, ethanol triggered a marked and significant increase of flow, protein concentration, and output that became progressively greater in successive collection periods. It is postulated that without DR, and the resulting lack of negative duodeno-pancreatic reflexes (DPR), there occurs a change in reactivity to intravenous ethanol of the hypothalamic-bulbar nuclei (HBN) and in the mechanisms that modulate the flow of cholinergic impulses through the intrapancreatic ganglia (IPG). The postulated consequence is predominance (slight in NA rats receiving intravenous ethanol, greater in AF rats) in discharge of positive impulses from HBN and flowing unimpeded through the IPG to the "pancreon" units. In the NA animal with DR, ethanol may enhance BPS values, but in the AF rats, impairment of the negative DPR elicited by chronic alcohol intoxication might, after an acute intravenous ethanol injection, favor the discharge of positive impulses from the HBN flowing unimpeded through the IPG. In the AF rats also, ethanol would activate the nonnicotinic receptors of the neurons of the "antral," "duodenal," and "celiac" autonomic brains.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2079953

  2. Parotid gland volumetric changes during intensity-modulated radiotherapy in head and neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fiorentino, A; Caivano, R; Metallo, V; Chiumento, C; Cozzolino, M; Califano, G; Clemente, S; Pedicini, P; Fusco, V

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate volumetric changes of parotid glands (PGs) during intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in head and neck cancer patients. Methods During IMRT all patients underwent kilovolt cone-beam CT (CBCT) scans to verify the set-up positioning in a protocol study. On each CBCT scan, the PGs were retrospectively contoured and evaluated with a dose–volume histogram. Results From February to June 2011, 10 patients were enrolled. 140 CBCT scans were registered (280 PGs): for each patient, a median of 14 CBCT scans were performed (range 14–16). At the start of radiation, the average volume for ipsilateral PGs (iPGs) was 18.77 ml (range 12.9–31.2 ml), whereas for contralateral PGs (cPGs) it was 16.63 ml (range 8.3–28.7 ml). At the last CBCT scan, the average volume loss was 43.5% and 44.0% for the iPG and cPG, respectively. When we analysed the percentage of volume loss, we observed that the volume decreased by linear regression (r2=0.92 for iPG; r2=0.91 for cPG), with an average volume loss rate of 1.5% per day for both PGs. During the third week of treatment the volume of both PGs reduced by 24–30%. Conclusion Our data show that, during IMRT, the shrinkage of PGs should be taken into account. A replan could be indicated in the third week of radiotherapy. PMID:22573295

  3. Comparative value of noninvasive testing for diagnosis and surveillance of deep vein thrombosis

    SciTech Connect

    Comerota, A.J.; Katz, M.L.; Grossi, R.J.; White, J.V.; Czeredarczuk, M.; Bowman, G.; DeSai, S.; Vujic, I.

    1988-01-01

    This is a prospective analysis of 351 patients in two distinct groups undergoing ascending phlebography, impedance plethysmography (IPG), and/or phleborheography (PRG) within the same 24-hour period. One hundred twenty patients also had a /sup 125/I-fibrinogen uptake test (RFUT). The two patient groups consisted of the following: those patients evaluated because of suspicion of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) (diagnostic) and those patients at high risk for postoperative DVT (total joint replacement) who had routine noninvasive testing and ascending phlebography (surveillance). The overall sensitivities for IPG and PRG were significantly better in the diagnosis group (71% (69 of 97 patients) and 78% (82 of 105), respectively) compared with the surveillance group (20% (14 of 71) and 27% (17 of 63), respectively) (p less than 0.0001). The sensitivities for IPG and PRG detecting proximal (A/K) thrombi was 83% (68 of 82 patients) and 92% (79 of 86) in the diagnosis group compared with 32% (11 of 34) and 33% (9 of 27) in the surveillance group (p less than 0.0001). Although there was no difference in overall incidence of DVT between the diagnosis group (56%, 118 of 212 patients) and the surveillance group (55%, 76 of 139), the results can be explained by the difference in A/K thrombi (84% (99 of 118) and 47% (36 of 76)) (p less than 0.001) and occlusive A/K thrombi (84% (58 of 69) and 23% (7 of 31)) (p less than 0.0001), respectively. Of the patients with A/K thrombi, 97% (67 of 69) in the diagnosis group had hemodynamically detectable thrombi compared with only 48% (12 of 25) in the surveillance group (p less than 0.001). Combining the RFUT with the noninvasive studies for surveillance significantly improved the sensitivity for both A/K and distal thrombi.

  4. Phospholipase cleavage of D- and L-chiro-glycosylphosphoinositides asymmetrically incorporated into liposomal membranes.

    PubMed

    Bonilla, Julia B; Cid, M Belén; Contreras, F-Xabier; Goñi, Félix M; Martín-Lomas, Manuel

    2006-02-01

    The nature of chiro-inositol-containing inositolphosphoglycans (IPGs), reported to be putative insulin mediators, was studied by examination of the substrate specificities of the phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) and the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase D (GPI-PLD) by using a series of synthetic D- and L-chiro-glycosylphosphoinositides. 3-O-alpha-D-Glucosaminyl- (3) and -galactosaminyl-2-phosphatidyl-L-chiro-inositol (4), which show the maximum stereochemical similarity to the 6-O-alpha-D-glucosaminylphosphatidylinositol pseudodisaccharide motifs of GPI anchors, were synthesized and asymmetrically incorporated into phospholipid bilayers in the form of large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs). Similarly, 2-O-alpha-D-glucosaminyl- (5) and -galactosaminyl-1-phosphatidyl-D-chiro-inositol (6), which differ from the corresponding pseudodisaccharide motif of the GPI anchors only in the axial orientation of the phosphatidyl moiety, were also synthesized and asymmetrically inserted into LUVs. The cleavage of these synthetic molecules in the liposomal constructs by PI-PLC from Bacillus cereus and by GPI-PLD from bovine serum was studied with the use of 6-O-alpha-D-glucosaminylphosphatidylinositol (7) and the conserved GPI anchor structure (8) as positive controls. Although PI-PLC cleaved 3 and 4 with about the same efficiency as 7 and 8, this enzyme did not accept 5 or 6. GPI-PLD accepted both the L-chiro- (3 and 4) and the D-chiro- (5 and 6) glycosylinositolphosphoinositides. Therefore, IPGs containing L-chiro-inositol only are expected to be released from chiro-inositol-containing GPIs if the cleavage is effected by a PI-PLC, whereas GPI-PLD cleavage could result in both L-chiro- and D-chiro-inositol-containing IPGs. PMID:16315198

  5. Thermal metamorphism of mantle chromites and the stability of noble-metal nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Jiménez, José M.; Reich, Martin; Camprubí, Antoni; Gervilla, Fernando; Griffin, William L.; Colás, Vanessa; O'Reilly, Suzanne Y.; Proenza, Joaquín A.; Pearson, Norman J.; Centeno-García, Elena

    2015-08-01

    The Loma Baya complex in south-western Mexico is a volume of chromitite-bearing oceanic mantle that records a complex metamorphic history, defined by a first stage of hydrous metamorphism overprinted by a short-lived thermal event associated with an Eocene granite intrusion. During the hydrous metamorphism, the primary magmatic chromite-olivine assemblage was replaced by a secondary, porous intergrowth of Fe2+-rich chromite and chlorite. The heat supplied by an Eocene-age granite intrusion reversed the hydration reaction, producing chromite rims with perfectly developed crystal faces. This third-generation chromite is in equilibrium with highly magnesian (neoformed) olivine and defines a chemical trend analogous to the original magmatic one. The preservation of both reactions in the Loma Baya chromitite provides compelling evidence that the hydration of chromite can be reversed by either prograde metamorphism or any heating event, confirming previous thermodynamic predictions. Understanding these complex features is of particular interest due to the fact that changes in temperature and variable degrees of fluid/rock interaction during metamorphism and intrusion have also significantly affected the chromite-hosted IPGE carrier phases. Here, we propose that the metamorphic fluids involved in the hydrous metamorphism have caused the desulphurization of laurite RuS2, releasing minute particles of Ru-Os-Ir alloys <50 nm in diameter. The following short-lived thermal event that promoted dehydration in the chromitite had the opposite effect on nanoparticle stability, producing a significant coarsening of metal nanoparticles to dimensions larger than a micron. Based on such observations, we argue that IPGE nanoparticles can be exsolved and grown (or coarsen) from sulphide matrices during prograde metamorphism or heating and not exclusively upon cooling under magmatic conditions as it has been previously suggested. These results provide new insights on the relevant role of

  6. Tools and Techniques for Measuring and Improving Grid Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biswas, Rupak; Frumkin, M.; Smith, W.; VanderWijngaart, R.; Wong, P.; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on NASA's geographically dispersed computing resources, and the various methods by which the disparate technologies are integrated within a nationwide computational grid. Many large-scale science and engineering projects are accomplished through the interaction of people, heterogeneous computing resources, information systems and instruments at different locations. The overall goal is to facilitate the routine interactions of these resources to reduce the time spent in design cycles, particularly for NASA's mission critical projects. The IPG (Information Power Grid) seeks to implement NASA's diverse computing resources in a fashion similar to the way in which electric power is made available.

  7. Origins of ultramafic rocks in the Sulu Ultrahigh-pressure Terrane, Eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Zhipeng; Hattori, Keiko; Wang, Jian

    2013-09-01

    Ultramafic rocks in the Sulu belt are associated with high-pressure (HP) and ultra-high-pressure (UHP) rocks, a metamorphic product of the northern margin of the Yangtze Craton (YZC). These ultramafic rocks are important because they provide information relevant to the nature and evolution of the Mesozoic collisional belt. We selected ultramafic rocks from Yangkou Bay (YKB), Suoluoshu (SLS) and Hujialin (HJL) in the central region of Sulu belt. The ultramafic rocks in YKB and SLS are hydrated to form serpentinites and they contain low concentrations of moderately incompatible elements (Al, Ti, and V), high contents of Ir-group platinum-group elements (IPGE; Ir, Os, and Ru; 12.8-21.7 ppb in total), and high ratios (1.2-5.5) of IPGE to Pd-group PGE (PPGE) in bulk rocks. Spinel contains high Cr (Cr# = atomic ratio of Cr/[Cr + Al], 0.57-0.79). The data suggest that they likely represent hydrated forearc mantle peridotites underlying the margin of the North China Craton (NCC). Dunite samples from HJL are not fully hydrated with loss on ignition (LOI) values ranging from 6.6 to 13.2 wt.%, and contain olivine grains with high forsterite components (Fo = 100*Mg/[Mg + Fe], 91.7-92.4) and NiO contents (0.36-0.41 wt.%). Spinel grains show high Cr# (0.68-0.76). The bulk rock contains high IPGE (5.0-22.7 ppb total) and show high ratios (up to 8.8) of IPGE to PPGE. The data suggest that they are also residual mantle peridotites after high degrees of influx partial melting in the subduction setting. The geochemical features of our serpentinite and dunite samples are different from peridotites of young Cenozoic subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) that have been brought to the surface as xenoliths of young volcanic rocks. Instead, our samples are similar but even more refractory than peridotites of relict Archean SCLM below the NCC that were enclosed as xenoliths in Paleozoic-Mesozoic igneous rocks. Thus, the studied ultramafic rocks likely represent the relic of old

  8. Using Computing and Data Grids for Large-Scale Science and Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, William E.

    2001-01-01

    We use the term "Grid" to refer to a software system that provides uniform and location independent access to geographically and organizationally dispersed, heterogeneous resources that are persistent and supported. These emerging data and computing Grids promise to provide a highly capable and scalable environment for addressing large-scale science problems. We describe the requirements for science Grids, the resulting services and architecture of NASA's Information Power Grid (IPG) and DOE's Science Grid, and some of the scaling issues that have come up in their implementation.

  9. Sistemas Correctores de Campo Para EL Telescopio Ritchey-Chretien UNAM212

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobos, F. J.; Galan, M. J.

    1987-05-01

    El telescopio UNAM2l2 fue inaugurado hace siete años y concebido para trabajar en las razones focales: f/7.5, F/13.5, F/27 y F/98. El diseño Ritchey-Chretién corresponde a la razón focal F/7.5 y el foco primario (F/2.286) no se consideró como utilizable para fotografía directa. En el Instituto de Astronomía de la UNAM, se diseñó y construyó un sistema corrector de campo para la razón focal F/7.5, que actualmente está en funcionamiento. Dentro de un programa de colaboración en diseflo y evaluación de sistemas ópticos, entre el Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias y el Instituto de Astronomía de la UNAM, decidimos intentar el diseño de una correctora de campo para el foco primario del tȩlescopio UNAM212 bajo la consideración de que no son insalvables los problemas que implicaría su instalación y de que es muy posible que, en un futuro relativamente cercano, podamom tener un detector bidimenmional tipo Mepsicrón cuya área sensible haga tentadora la idea de construir la cámara directa para foco primario

  10. Velocidades radiales en Collinder 121

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnal, M.; Morrell, N.

    Se han llevado a cabo observaciones espectroscópicas de unas treinta estrellas que son posibles miembros del cúmulo abierto Collinder 121. Las mismas fueron realizadas con el telescopio de 2.15m del Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (CASLEO). El análisis de las velocidades radiales derivadas del material obtenido, confirma la realidad de Collinder 121, al menos desde el punto de vista cinemático. La velocidad radial baricentral (LSR) del cúmulo es de +17 ± 3 km.s-1. Esta velocidad coincide, dentro de los errores, con la velocidad radial (LSR) de la nebulosa anillo S308, la cual es de ~20 ± 10 km.s-1. Como S308 se encuentra físicamente asociada a la estrella Wolf-Rayet HD~50896, es muy probable que esta última sea un miembro de Collinder 121. Desde un punto de vista cinemático, la supergigante roja HD~50877 (K3Iab) también pertenecería a Collinder 121. Basándonos en la pertenencia de HD~50896 a Collinder 121, y en la interacción encontrada entre el viento de esta estrella y el medio interestelar circundante a la misma, se estima para este cúmulo una distancia del orden de 1 kpc.

  11. Un modelo general de eyección de materia estelar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotstein, N. O.

    Posiblemente, la más directa y dramática evidencia de la pérdida de masa por parte de diferentes objetos astrofísicos la constituye el fenómeno de eyección persistente de materia. En el caso particular de las estrellas, las características y los mecanismos que impulsan a sus atmósferas externas hacia el medio interestelar varían a lo largo del diagrama evolutivo. En parte por este motivo, en parte por las dificultades matemáticas involucradas, es muy difícil elaborar un modelo que pueda dar cuenta de los diferentes mecanismos que originan e impulsan el viento estelar. Cabe entonces preguntarse si es posible desarrollar un único modelo en el que estos mecanismos puedan ser considerados (y variados) como parámetros externos que responden a las características de cada región de la secuencia evolutiva. La respuesta es que, en función de la geometría del campo electromagnético involucrado, todo depende de la simetría del problema. En este trabajo se presenta el análisis detallado de una de tales simetrías, discutiendo en particular los resultados obtenidos a la luz de las observaciones disponibles.

  12. The Danger from the Outer Space. (Breton Title: O Perigo que Vem do Espaço.) El Peligro que Viene del Espacio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedaque, Paulo

    2005-12-01

    possíveis "agressores" e na estimativa dos reais riscos que corremos. Entre los muchos riesgos que corre el ambiente terrestre existe la remota posibilidad de choques con pequeños cuerpos celestes como cometas y asteroides, y que pueden provocar desde pequeños daños sin mayores consecuencias hasta cataclismos de grandes dimensiones, con reflejos para toda la vida existente enla Tierra. Latasa de colisiones, como era de esperar, es mucho menor para cuerpos con masas y diámetros crecientes. Es posible realizar simulaciones considerando el diámetro, la masa, su velocidad y el ángulo de la colisión para estimar las probabilidades, las consecuencias para el planeta y con qué tasa temporal podemos esperarlas. Los resultados de estas simulaciones se presentan en gráficos para facilitar el análisis final. Finalmente señalamos que existen varios centros de investigación en el mundo trabajando en barreduras del cielo en busca de posibles "agresores" y en las estimaciones de los riesgos que corremos.

  13. Interculturalidad y anglofonia en la ensenanza del ingles como lengua extranjera (Interculturalism and Anglophone Studies in the Teaching of English as a Foreign Language).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoreda, Margaret Lee; Revilla, Teresa Flores

    This article, written in Spanish, proposes to incorporate the subject "Anglophonism" into the curriculum of English as a Foreign Language (EILE) with a view to providing universities with an intercultural division. It provides a brief summary of John Dewey's philosophy with regard to anthropology, politics, and education. It explains the term…

  14. "Mastery Learning" Como Metodo Psicoeducativo para Ninos con Problemas Especificos de Aprendizaje. ("Mastery Learning" as a Psychoeducational Method for Children with Specific Learning Problems.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coya, Liliam de Barbosa; Perez-Coffie, Jorge

    1982-01-01

    "Mastery Learning" was compared with the "conventional" method of teaching reading skills to Puerto Rican children with specific learning disabilities. The "Mastery Learning" group showed significant gains in the cognitive and affective domains. Results suggested Mastery Learning is a more effective method of teaching reading skills to children…

  15. Uso de exámenes de detección como oportunidad para ayudar a fumadores a dejar el tabaco

    Cancer.gov

    El NCI ha publicado un anuncio de financiamiento para ayudar a estimular la investigación sobre métodos óptimos para dejar de fumar cigarrillos que se entreguen junto con los exámenes de detección.

  16. Effect of the pore size distribution on the activities of alumina supported Co-Mo catalysts in the hydrotreatment of boscan crude

    SciTech Connect

    Plumail, J.C.; Jacquin, Y.; Martino, G.; Toulhoat, H.

    1983-03-01

    The effects of pore size and distribution on the activity of Co-Mo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalysts in the hydrotreatment of asphaltenes have been studied using testing methodology designed to provide initial activities for the catalysis of the critical reactions in the process, hydrodesulfurization (HDS), hydrodemineralization (HDM) (V,NI) and asphaltene conversion to resins and oils (HDA) suitable for subsequent use as refining feedstocks. Nine monomodal (micropores) and seven bimodal (micro- and macropores) were tested. Maximum HDS occurs with mono- and bimodal catalysts having an average pore diameter of 100 A/sup 0/. Maximum HDA and HDM activity appears at a pore diameter between 150 and 200 A/sup 0/ and increases with increasing macroporosity, macropores allowing more efficient access of the large asphaltene molecular units to active sites. Overall catalytic efficiency is dependent upon but HDS and asphaltene hydrogenation rates. Variation of pore structures allowed reaction selectivities to be varied and provided control a asphaltene product (resins, oils) composition.

  17. Collaborative Work as an Alternative for Writing Research Articles (El trabajo colaborativo como alternativa para la escritura de artículos investigativos)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvajal Medina, Nancy Emilce; Roberto Flórez, Eliana Edith

    2014-01-01

    Academic writing in English in our context is a significant aspect that can be innovative when a convergence model of writing stages is used along with collaborative work. This article reports on a study aimed at analyzing how collaborative work relates to undergraduate electronics students' academic writing development in English as a foreign…

  18. La anglofonia y literaturas poscoloniales en la ensenanza de ingles como lengua extranjera (Anglophonism and Postcolonial Literature in Teaching English as a Second Language).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoreda, Margaret Lee

    This paper, written in Spanish, focuses on the instruction of English as a Second Language in the context of cultural understanding, rather than from a purely linguistic point of view. It argues that foreign language instruction should include lessons in the field of sociology, anthropology, history, geography, politics, the arts, and popular…

  19. Prevalence of sarcopenia among community‐dwelling elderly of a medium‐sized South American city: results of the COMO VAI? study

    PubMed Central

    Bielemann, Renata M.; Gonzalez, Maria Cristina; Menezes, Ana Maria B.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background There is insufficient data concerning sarcopenia prevalence in South America. The aim of this study was to estimate sarcopenia prevalence and its clinical subgroups in a Southern Brazilian city. Methods A cross‐sectional population‐based study was performed among community‐dwelling elderly aged 60 years or over. Subjects were evaluated according to the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People established criteria. Muscle mass was estimated by calf circumference (CC). Cut‐off CC points were defined by a subsample's dual X‐ray absorptiometry estimation of the appendicular skeletal muscle mass index (ASMI), which was subsequently compared with the values of a young adult population from the same city. Muscle strength was measured by manual dynamometry. Muscle performance was assessed through the 4 m gait speed test. Results The three diagnostic tests were performed in 1291 subjects. CC of ≤34 cm (males) and ≤33 cm (females) were defined as indicatives of low ASMI. The overall sarcopenia prevalence was 13.9% (CI95% 12.0; 15.8%). Its frequency was significantly higher among elderly with low schooling, without a partner, with low socioeconomic status, smokers, inactive, and with low body mass index. A higher prevalence of pre‐sarcopenia was found in the youngest elderly; a higher prevalence of the clinical stages of the syndrome was found in older age groups. Conclusions Approximately one in ten elderly aged 60–69 years was in the preclinical stage of the disease. This is the age group in which public policies should focus to establish early diagnosis and prevent clinical progression of the syndrome. PMID:27493867

  20. Planeamiento de la unidad didactica en le ensenanza del ingles como idioma extranjero (Planning the Teaching Unit in the Instruction of English as a Foreign Language).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medina T., Rene

    1971-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of the teaching unit as a means for organization in English-as-a-foreign-language classes. It lists the essential elements in the construction of such a unit: cultural topic, linguistic elements, time period, main objectives, instructional materials, focus, specific activities, intended results, evaluation techniques,…

  1. Como evalvar la actuacion del profesor en una clase de segundo idioma (How to Evaluate a Teacher in a Second Language Classroom).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galvez de Bracamonte, Teresa

    This guide in Spanish provides performance criteria for evaluating the foreign language teacher. It provides an outline for analyzing the teacher's actions and teaching methods in the classroom. Through the evaluation by an outsider, the teacher can learn his or her faults in the views of others and can improve on them. The aspects to be analyzed…

  2. Estudio de NIH indica que la actividad física en tiempo libre alarga la vida tanto como 4,5 años

    Cancer.gov

    La actividad física en tiempo libre está asociada con una expectativa de vida más larga, aun en un grado de actividad relativamente bajo e independientemente del peso corporal, de acuerdo con un estudio llevado a cabo por un equipo de investigadores del I

  3. Como los padres ocupados pueden ayudar a sus hijos a aprender y desarrollarse (How Busy Parents Can Help Their Children Learn and Develop). Early Childhood Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Ellen; Kreider, Holly; Vaughan, Peggy

    Although parents are often very busy with work and family responsibilities, there are many things they can do to help their school-age children learn and develop. This Spanish-language early childhood digest for parents provides tips obtained from parents of first and second graders in the School Transition Study on creative ways to stay involved…

  4. Emotions as Learning Enhancers of Foreign Language Learning Motivation (Las emociones como potenciadoras de la motivación en el aprendizaje de una lengua extranjera)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Méndez López, Mariza G.; Peña Aguilar, Argelia

    2013-01-01

    The present article reports on a study that explores the effects of the emotional experiences of Mexican language learners on their motivation to learn English. In this qualitative research we present how emotions impact the motivation of university language learners in south Mexico. Results suggest that emotions, both negative and positive,…

  5. The Why, What, and How of a Bilingual Approach for Young Children [and] El Porque, el Cual y el Como de un Enfoque Bilingue para Ninos Preescolares.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Alfredo R.; Riley, Mary Tom

    This guide, in parallel English and Spanish volumes, provides information necessary for implementing bilingual/multicultural programs. Section 1 defines and describes the bilingual approach, examining instructional goals, rationale, philosophical justification, legal foundations, and practical considerations. Section 2 discusses attitudinal…

  6. The Nature of Recognition in TEFL Teachers' Lives (La naturaleza del reconocimiento en la vida de los maestros de inglés como lengua extranjera)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholes Gillingsde González, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    This article aims at sharing a vital issue that emerged from the findings of a qualitative research study into collective responses of teachers of English as a foreign language to an extended change process in their Mexican university context from 1989 to 2003. The data generation process employed was comprised of semi-structured interviews as…

  7. How To Talk to Your Teens and Children about AIDS = Como hablar con sus adolescentes y sus ninos sobre el SIDA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National PTA, Chicago, IL.

    Two brochures, one in English and one in Spanish, provide parents with basic information that will enable them to educate their children about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Contents address 11 questions: (1) What is AIDS? (2) How do you get AIDS? (3) How is AIDS not spread? (4) Who can get AIDS? (5) How can you tell if someone has…

  8. Estadísticas de visitas en portales web institucionales como indicador de respuesta del público a propuestas de divulgación

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lares, M.

    The presence of institutions on the internet is nowadays very important to strenghten communication channels, both internal and with the general public. The Córdoba Observatory has several web portals, including the official web page, a blog and presence on several social networks. These are one of the fundamental pillars for outreach activities, and serve as communication channel for events and scientific, academic, and outreach news. They are also a source of information for the staff, as well as data related to the Observatory internal organization and scientific production. Several statistical studies are presented, based on data taken from the visits to the official web pages. I comment on some aspects of the role of web pages as a source of consultation and as a quick response to information needs. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  9. Cidadania Negada: A Educacao como Instrumento de Combate a Pobreza no Brasil (Denial of Citizenship: Education as a Way to Fight Poverty in Brazil).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germano, Jose Willington

    1995-01-01

    Compares two compensatory social/educational programs developed by the Brazilian government in the last 15 years. States that although one was formulated during the military regime and one during the present government, they both combat poverty and encourage privatization. Concludes that this promotes a process that sees education as social…

  10. Tips for Parents on Keeping Children Drug Free = Consejos para Los Padres Sobre Como Mantener a Los Hijos Libres de La Droga.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC. Office of Intergovernmental and Interagency Affairs.

    Research shows that recent trends in youth drug use have stabilized; however, the rates of use remain at high levels. It has been shown that the earlier drug use is initiated, the more likely a person is to develop drug problems later in life. Youth substance abuse may lead to many other problems that affect not only the child, but also the…

  11. "O Ensaio como Forma" ou Um Ensaio acerca da Teoria Critica da Sociedade ("The Essay as Form" or An Essay about the Critical Theory of Society).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordano, Rosely

    2000-01-01

    Illuminates the critical theory project, with themes permeating the theoretical constructions of Frankfurt (Germany). Debates the predominance of positivism in the production of knowledge. Speculates that "the essay as form" constitutes itself as a representation of the concept of the Enlightenment. Concludes with a dialogue between Theodor Adorno…

  12. Me escuchas? Como conversar con ninos de cuatro a doce anos (Are You Listening to Me? Communicating with Children from Four to Twelve Years Old).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delfos, Martine F.

    Although talking to children is a daily activity for almost everyone at some stage in one's life and an essential activity for professionals who work with children, there is little research on activity. This Spanish-language book describes communication with children between the ages of 4 and 12 years, focusing on open question-and-answer sessions…

  13. Como Lo Hago Yo: Anomalías del Tubo Neural en Guatemala — Mielomeningocele Unidad de Espina Bífida e Hidrocefalia

    PubMed Central

    Manucci, Graciela; von Quednow, Enzo

    2014-01-01

    En Guatemala nacen por añ 786 niños con defectos de tubo neural. Operamos 65 a 70 niños con mielomenigocele por año. Tenemos equipo multidisciplinario. Recomendamos parto por cesárea. Infección antes de la cirugía es un problema mayor. Derivación tardía es un problema. Disecamos la plaqueta con la técnica clásica. Suturamos la plaqueta para restituir la forma de la médula. Corpectomía en casos de cifósis. Hidrocefalía: Operamos el 80% de los niños. Chiari II: Operamos basados en los síntomas, primero nos aseguramos que la válvula funciona bien. Médula anclada: Operamos basados en los síntomas. PMID:24791216

  14. La Imagen Publica y Professional del Espanol en Yanquilandia - y Como Mejorarla (The Public and Professional Image of Spanish in "Yankee-Land" and How to Improve It).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mead, Robert G., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Decries the stereotypes and prejudices that affect U. S. relations with the Hispanic world and with its own Hispanic minorities. Points out that these attitudes also affect the study of Spanish as a foreign language and suggests means by which educators can improve the Hispanic image among Anglo Americans. (MES)

  15. El Reto: A Leer America! A Leer Y Escribir Ya! Como Divertirse Leyendo Y Escribiendo. (America Reads Challenge: Read*Write*Now! Activities for Reading and Writing Fun)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kameenui, Edward J.; Simmons, Deborah C.

    Developed by national reading experts for the "America Reads Challenge: Read*Write*Now!" initiative and translated into Spanish, this booklet provides 45 ideas for families, teachers, librarians, and other learning partners to use with all children--including those with disabilities--to help them read well and independently by the end of third…

  16. Building Your Baby's Brain: A Parent's Guide to the First Five Years = Como estimular el cerebro infantil: Una guia para padres de familia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Diane Trister; Heroman, Cate

    Noting that all parents can help their baby's brain to grow, this guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, explores what science has learned about infant brain development and how parents and caregivers can influence cognitive development. Topics covered include: prenatal care, touching your baby, teaching about feelings and self-control,…

  17. The Accented EFL Teacher: Classroom Implications (El acento del profesor de inglés como lengua extranjera: implicaciones pedagógicas)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arboleda Arboleda, Argemiro; Castro Garcés, Ángela Yicely

    2012-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a research study on how significant having a foreign accent is for non-native English as a foreign language teachers and learners at university level. It points out the perceptions that teachers and students have about the most relevant issues in the teaching and learning processes. Data were collected by means…

  18. La efectividad de la educacion a distancia como metodologia en la desarrollo de destrezas de pensamiento (Effectiveness of Distance Education as a Methodology for Developing Thinking Skills).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melendez Alicea, Juan

    1992-01-01

    Presents steps taken in designing, justifying, and implementing an experimental study designed to investigate the effectiveness of distance education as a methodology for developing thinking skills. A discussion reviews major findings of the study by comparing student experiences from multimedia distance education and student experiences from…

  19. Sound in ecclesiastical spaces in Cordoba. Architectural projects incorporating acoustic methodology (El sonido del espacio eclesial en Cordoba. El proyecto arquitectonico como procedimiento acustico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarez, Rafael

    2003-11-01

    This thesis is concerned with the acoustic analysis of ecclesiastical spaces, and the subsequent implementation of acoustic design methodology in architectural renovations. One begins with an adequate architectural design of specific elements (shape, materials, and textures), with the intention of elimination of acoustic deficiencies that are common in such spaces. These are those deficiencies that impair good speech intelligibility and good musical audibility. The investigation is limited to churches in the province of Cordoba and to churches built after the reconquest of Spain (1236) and up until the 18th century. Selected churches are those that have undergone architectural renovations to adapt them to new uses or to make them more suitable for liturgical use. The thesis attempts to summarize the acoustic analyses and the acoustical solutions that have been implemented. The results are presented in a manner that should be useful for the adoption of a model for the functional renovation of ecclesiastical spaces. Such would allow those involved in architectural projects to specify the nature of the sound, even though somewhat intangible, within the ecclesiastical space. Thesis advisors: Jaime Navarro and Juan J. Sendra Copies of this thesis written in Spanish may be obtained by contacting the advisor, Jaime Navarro, E.T.S. de Arquitectura de Sevilla, Dpto. de Construcciones Arquitectonicas I, Av. Reina Mercedes, 2, 41012 Sevilla, Spain. E-mail address: jnavarro@us.es

  20. Metodo de Archivar las Observaciones del Comportamiento del Nino, Como Guia para Entenderlo Mejor (Methods of Recording Observations of Children's Behavior, A Guide for Better Understanding)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamp, Isla M.

    1971-01-01

    Copies of the Behaviour Study Technique described in this article may be obtained in English from the Australian Council for Educational Research, Frederick St., Hawthorn, Victoria, Australia 3122. (RY)

  1. Un currículo interdisciplinario de base teórica para enseñar inglés como segunda lengua1

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes, Brenda O.; Mas, Francisco Soto; Mein, Erika; Jacobson, Holly E.

    2013-01-01

    Among Hispanic immigrants in the United States (US), learning English is considered necessary for economic and social achievement. As a consequence, there is a high demand for English as a Second Language (ESL) classes. Despite the recognized benefits of ESL programs, both at the individual and social levels, more research is needed to identify education strategies that effectively promote all aspects of learning English as a second language. This article describes an ESL curriculum that incorporates a theory-based pedagogical approach specifically designed for immigrant Hispanic adults on the US-Mexico border region. The article also describes the implementation of the curriculum as well as the results of the evaluation, which was conducted using both quantitative and qualitative methods. Quantitative results indicate that the participants significantly improved their English proficiency (L2). Qualitative results suggest that participants were positively impacted by both the content and pedagogical approaches used by the curriculum. Their experience with the ESL class was positive in general. It can be concluded that the curriculum achieved its objective. This approach could serve as a model for second language teaching for adults. PMID:25284915

  2. Finding an Appropriate Preschool for Your Child with Special Needs = Como Encontrar un Programa Pre-escolar para su nino con desabilidades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Sandra; Wonderlick, Mary; Madden, Drina

    This booklet, with English and Spanish versions, provides a step-by-step procedure to help families find an appropriate preschool program in the community for their child with disabilities. The booklet lists six steps for locating a program: (1) decide what kind of program is wanted for the child; (2) complete included form outlining child's needs…

  3. A+chieving Excellence. A Parent's Guide to Site-Based Decision Making. Noteworthy = A+lcanzar la Excelencia. Un manual para padres sobre como hacer decisiones. Notable.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, C. L.

    The parents' guide in English and Spanish versions, offers a synthesis of the Mid-Continent Regional Educational Laboratory's (McRel) "A+chieving Excellence," a 480-page manual on educational decision-making and management. Four sections examine four broad areas in which policies must be established for improving student achievement--efficiency,…

  4. Como Puede Mejorar el Programa de Educacion Migrante con el Poder e Influencia de los Padres. Parent Power in the Migrant Education Program: How to Make a Difference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council of La Raza, Washington, DC.

    The bilingual (English-Spanish) handbook explains the established rights that parents with children enrolled in the Elementary and Secondary Education Act Title I Migrant Education Program have and presents ways in which parents can use these rights to help ensure that their children receive a quality education. Chapters discuss: (1) content of…

  5. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Flores Navarro-Pérez, Carmen; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Schmidt-RioVilla, Jacqueline; Meneses-Echávez, José Francisco; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; Correa-Rodríguez, María; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2016-01-01

    Objetivos: los objetivos de este estudio fueron analizar el nivel nutricional en una población de niños y adolescentes colombianos y determinar la posible relación entre el nivel nutricional y el estado nutricional según el índice de masa corporal (IMC) y la circunferencia de cintura (CC).Material y métodos: estudio transversal en 6.383 niños y adolescentes de entre 9 y 17,9 años de edad, de Bogotá, Colombia. Se aplicó de manera autodiligenciada el cuestionario Krece Plus validado en el estudio enKid como indicador del nivel nutricional con las categorías alto (test ≥ 9), medio (test 6-8) y bajo (test ≤ 5). Se tomaron medidas de peso, talla, CC, y se calculó el IMC como marcadores del estado nutricional.Resultados: de la población general, el 57,9% eran chicas (promedio de edad 12,7 ± 2,3 años). En todas las categorías del IMC, más del 50% de chicos y chicas siguen una dieta de muy baja calidad, que empeora progresivamente con el avance en edad. En ambos sexos, se observaron tendencias entre un nivel nutricional muy bajo con el desarrollo de sobrepeso. Asimismo, la obesidad abdominal por CC se relacionó con una puntuación baja en el Krece Plus en ambos sexos.Conclusiones: en escolares de Bogotá, una dieta de muy baja calidad se relacionó con alteraciones del estado nutricional (IMC y CC), especialmente entre chicas y adolescentes. Estos resultados deben alentar el desarrollo de intervenciones orientadas a mejorar los hábitos nutricionales entre los escolares colombianos. PMID:27571667

  6. Las ideologias, las ciencias naturales y sus implicaciones en la educacion cientifica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozada Roldan, Sandra

    acerca de las ideologias, a la luz de la literatura consultada. Entre estas concepciones se destacan las siguientes: a) la funcion de las ideologias y b) la ausencia de validez ante el conocimiento cientifico. Sin embargo, en cuanto a considerar las ciencias naturales como una ideologia mas conocida como cientificismo, no hubo consistencia en las respuestas de los participantes por lo que no es posible afirmarlo o negarlo. Los hallazgos tambien revelaron que entre los docentes participantes hubo posiciones a favor y en contra para las dos situaciones sobre asuntos publicos relacionados a la ciencia que se presentaron. Estas posiciones fueron justificadas con argumentos cientificos y argumentos ideologicos, entre estos, los morales y los economicos. Con este dato se puede afirmar el uso de las ideologias en asuntos publicos relacionados a la ciencia.

  7. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Higuera Pulgar, Isabel; Bretón Lesmes, Irene; Carrascal Fabián, María Luisa; Prieto García, Alicia; Menchén Viso, Luis; Nogales Rincón, Óscar; Iglesias Hernández, Natalia Covadonga; Issasa Rodríguez, Leire; García Peris, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la esofagitis eosinofílica (EEo) es una enfermedad inmunoalérgica crónica emergente en adultos. Surge como respuesta disfuncional frente a los antígenos de los alimentos y se caracteriza por síntomas recurrentes de disfunción esofágica e inflamación. El tratamiento farmacológico y dietético se basa en su patogénesis y debe ser individualizado. Uno de los posibles abordajes dietéticos se basa en la eliminación empírica de alimentos que con mayor frecuencia causan EEo.Objetivo: evaluar la ingesta dietética de los pacientes con EEo que siguen la dieta de exclusión de los seis grupos de alimentos (DESGA) y conocer sus posibles carencias nutricionales.Métodos: estudio transversal descriptivo en un grupo de pacientes con EEo que inició tratamiento con DESGA durante el periodo de marzo de 2013 hasta marzo de 2015. Se evaluó la ingesta mediante registro de 72 horas. Se compararon los resultados con las referencias para población adulta sana española (23). Para el análisis estadístico se usaron los test de Mann-Whitney, Krhuskall-Wallis y Chi-cuadrado. Significación p < 0,05.Resultados: se incluyeron en el estudio 14 pacientes. En algunos de ellos, la ingesta dietética siguiendo DESGA fue deficitaria en energía, proteínas y fibra. Tampoco consiguieron cubrir las ingestas de micronutrientes de calcio, zinc, magnesio, ácido fólico, niacina y vitaminas B2 y D, teniendo en cuenta edad y sexo, el 60% de la muestra.Conclusiones: el abordaje terapéutico mediante DESGA, teniendo en cuenta las características de la dieta, debe acompañarse de una evaluación periódica del estado nutricional, que incluya micronutrientes y una pauta de suplementación específica. PMID:27571662

  8. Moléculas orgánicas obtenidas en simulaciones experimentales del medio interestelar.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Caro, Guillermo Manuel

    Las nubes moleculares son regiones de formación de estrellas, con temperaturas cinéticas entre 10-50 K y densidades de 103-106 átomos cm-3. Su materia está formada por gas y polvo interestelar. Estas partículas de polvo están cubiertas por una fina capa de hielo, de unos 0.01 μm, que contiene H2O y a menudo CO, CO2, CH3OH y NH3. El hielo es presumiblemente irradiado por fotones ultravioleta y rayos cósmicos en las zonas poco profundas de las nubes moleculares y las regiones circunestelares. En un sistema de vacío, P ˜ 10-7 mbar, simulamos la deposición de hielo a partir de 10 K y la irradiación ultravioleta por medio de una lámpara de descarga de hidrógeno activada con microondas. La evolución del hielo se observa por medio de un espectrómetro infrarrojo. De este modo es posible determinar la composición del hielo observado en el medio interestelar y predecir la presencia de moléculas aún no detectadas en el espacio, que han sido producto del procesamiento del hielo en nuestros experimentos. También es posible calentar el sistema hasta temperatura ambiente para sublimar el hielo depositado. Cuando el hielo ha sido previamente irradiado, se observa un residuo compuesto por moléculas orgánicas complejas, algunas prebióticas, como varios ácidos carboxílicos, aminas, amidas, ésteres y en menor proporción moléculas heterocíclicas y aminoácidos. Algunas de estas moléculas podrían detectarse en estado gaseoso por medio de observaciones milimétricas y de radio. También podrían estar presentes en el polvo cometario, cuyo análisis químico está planeado por las misiones Stardust y Rosetta. Mientras tanto, nuestro grupo está llevando a cabo el análisis de partículas de polvo interplanetario (IDPs), algunas de las cuales pueden ser de origen cometario. Al igual que ocurre con los productos obtenidos por irradiación del hielo en nuestros experimentos, algunas IDPs son ricas en material orgánico que contiene oxígeno.

  9. A protocol for storage and long-distance shipment of Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) eggs. 1. Effect of temperature, embryo age , and storage time on survival and quality

    SciTech Connect

    Caceres, C.; Wornoayporn, V.; Islam, S.M.; Ahmad, S.

    2007-03-15

    The operational use of Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), genetic sexing strains in Sterile Insect Technique applications can be maximized by developing methods for effective shipment of eggs. This would enable a central production facility to maintain the relevant mother stocks and large colonies to supply eggs to satellite centers that would mass produce only males for irradiation and release. In order to achieve this, the survival of medfly embryos of different ages was assessed after storage at 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 deg. C in water for different periods of time. Survival was affected by all 3 variables, i.e., embryo age, water temperature, and length of storage. Storage of embryos at any temperature for 120 h resulted in almost no survival. Controlling the age of the embryo at the time of the temperature treatment is crucial for the success of this procedure. Embryos collected between 0 to 12 h after oviposition and pre-incubated at 25 deg. C for 12 h provide a suitable 72 h window for shipment when maintained between 10 to 15 deg. C. Under these conditions, no significant reductions in survival during all the developmental stages were observed. (author) [Spanish] El uso operacional de cepas de la mosca del mediterraneo Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) en las cuales es posible separar los sexos a traves de mecanismos geneticos para su utilizacion en la Tecnica del Insecto Esteril (TIE), puede ser maximizado con el desarrollo de metodos efectivos para el envio y transporte de huevos. Esto permite que un laboratorio de produccion centralizada mantenga las respectivas colonias responsables por la produccion de huevos para este abastecer laboratorios satelites responsables por la produccion masiva de solamente machos para subsiguiente irradiacion y liberacion. Para ser posible esta alternativa fue evaluada la supervivencia de embriones de diferentes edades despues de su almacenamiento en agua a 5, 10, 15, 20 y 25 deg. C por diferentes

  10. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Arellano Ortiz, Ana Lidia; Jiménez Vega, Florinda; Díaz Hernández, Cecilia; Salcedo Vargas, Muricio; De la Mora Covarrubias, Antonio; López Díaz, José Alberto; Vargas Requena, Claudia Lucía; Cassís Nosthas, María Lorena

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: las lesiones intraepiteliales escamosas (LIE) son un estado de transición hacia el cáncer cervicouterino (CaCu) y un déficit de micronutrientes puede acelerar este proceso. Por ello, determinar la existencia de este déficit y conocer qué factores se asocian permitiría una posible prevención en esta población de riesgo.Objetivo: determinar la presencia de alguna deficiencia de micronutrientes involucrados en el proceso anticancerígeno y asociar este déficit con hábitos y factores demográficos en pacientes con LIE de Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, México.Métodos:en un estudio transversal analítico fueron seleccionadas 102 pacientes con LIE. Se realizó una encuesta dietaría (recordatorio de 24 horas) para estimar la ingesta de micronutrientes. La deficiencia fue determinada con un consumo < 75% de la ingesta diaria recomendada o sugerida (IDR o IDS) en México. Algunos hábitos y factores demográficos fueron obtenidos mediante la entrevista con la paciente. Se realizó un modelo de regresión logística para asociar la presencia de deficiencia con factores que afectan a la ingesta o incrementan el requerimiento de micronutrientes.Resultados:el retinol, ácido fólico, zinc, vitaminas C y E, considerados como micronutrientes en el proceso anticancerígeno del CaCu, se encontraron por debajo del 75% de la IDR. Aquellas mujeres con sobrepeso, obesidad y amas de casa se asociaron significativamente con la deficiencia de micronutrientes.Conclusión: el sobrepeso, la obesidad y la ocupación han sido asociados para presentar deficiencias de micronutrientes en este estudio. Estas variables convergen en una posible inseguridad alimentaria, la cual podría asociarse al incremento de incidencia de CaCu en México. PMID:27571671

  11. PFI-ZEKE (Pulsed Field Ionization-Zero Electron Kinetic Energy) para el estudio de iones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castaño, F.; Fernández, J. A.; Basterretxea, A. Longarte. F.; Sánchez Rayo, M. N.; Martínez, R.

    Entre las áreas hacia donde ha evolucionado la Química en los últimos años están los estudios de sistemas con especies reactivas de alta energía y los dominados por fuerzas intermoleculares débiles, con energías de unas pocas kcal/mol. En efecto, el estudio de las propiedades de los iones, comenzando por su relación con la molécula neutra de la que procede, la energía de ionización, los estados vibracionales y rotacionales, energías de enlace de Van der Waals entre el ión y una amplia variedad de otras moléculas, sus confórmeros o isómeros y sus reacciones o semi-reacciones químicas están en la raíz de la necesidad de la espectroscopía conocida como PFI-ZEKE, Pulsed Field Ionization-Zero Electron Kinetic Energy. Entre las aplicaciones que requieren estos conocimientos se encuentran la generación de plasmas para la fabricación de semiconductores, memorias magnéticas, etc, así como los sistemas astrofísicos, la ionosfera terrestre, etc. La espectroscopía ZEKE es una evolución de las de fluorescencia inducida por láser, LIF, ionización multifotónica acrecentada por resonancia, REMPI, con uno y dos colores y acoplada a un sistema de tiempo de vuelo, REMPI-TOF-MS, y las espectroscopías de doble resonancia IR-UV y UV-UV. Sus espectros y la ayuda de cálculos ab inicio permite determinar las energías de enlace de complejos de van der Waals en estados fundamental y excitados, identificar confórmeros e isómeros, obtener energías de ionización experimentales aproximadas (100 cm-1) y otras variables de interés. Al igual que con LIF, REMPI y dobles resonancias, es posible utilizar muestras gaseosas, pero los espectros están muy saturados de bandas y su interpretación es difícil o imposible. Se evitan estas dificultades estudiando las moléculas o complejos en expansiones supersónicas, donde la T de los grados de libertad solo alcanzan unos pocos K. Para realizar experimentos de ZEKE hay que utilizar una propiedad recientemente

  12. [Microchip free flow isoelectric focusing with immobilized pH gradient on monolithic materials].

    PubMed

    Han, Bin; Wang, Pingli; Zhang, Lihua; Qu, Feng; Liang, Zhen; Deng, Yulin; Zhang, Yukui

    2009-07-01

    Microchip free flow electrophoresis (microFFE) is a significant microscale technique for the continuous pre-fractionation and the preparation of valuable biological samples. In our recent work, monolithic polyacylamide (PAM) materials were polymerized in microchamber by ultraviolet (UV) initiated polymerization. With the further immobilization of a stable pH gradient on the monolith, a novel microchip free flow isoelectric focusing (microFF-IEF) with monolithic immobilized pH gradient (M-IPG) materials was developed, by which fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate (FITC) labeled glycin, proline and lysine, with a minimum pI difference of 0.33 units, were well separated with a resolution higher than that performed by traditional microFF-IEF. Our experimental results demonstrate that by microFF-IEF with M-IPG, not only the interference of mobile carrier ampholytes in buffer, usually indispensable in traditional microFF-IEF, on the further separation by other techniques and the identification by mass spectrometry (MS) could be avoided, but also the improved resolution and detection sensitivity could be obtained compared with traditional microFF-IEF. Therefore, such a novel technique might be promising in microscale consecutive separation and preparation of samples. PMID:19938489

  13. Electrolytic Reduction: Modification of Proteins Occurring in Isoelectric Focusing Electrophoresis and in Electrolytic Reactions in the Presence of High Salts

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Artifacts in two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) caused by the presence of salts in isoelectric focusing (IEF) have been previously described as a result of increasing conductivity and inducing electroosmosis. However, electrolysis induced by the presence of salts should not be disregarded. In this study, electrolytic reduction−oxidation reaction (redox) was found to be enhanced in the presence of salts in IEF. The consequence of the electrolytic redox leads to acidification of the low-pH region and alkalization of the high-pH region within the immobilized pH gradient (IPG) strip. As a result, a breakdown of immobilized pH buffer near the high pH region of IPG strips along with reduction of basic proteins resulted in uncharacterized artifacts in 2-DE. Electrolytic reduction in the presence of alkali and alkaline metal ions was demonstrated to reduce 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), protein disulfide bonds, and protein carboxylic acids. Importantly, semipreparative electrolytic reduction of proteins can be carried out in the presence of sodium ions in a homemade electrolytic apparatus. These findings give additional explanations to the observed artifacts in 2-DE and reveal the unknown effects of salts in IEF. Moreover, we have provided a method with the potential to convert proteins or peptides to corresponding modified products containing aldehyde groups that can be used for conjugation with amine-containing compounds. PMID:19438264

  14. Preliminary methods for wearable neuro-vascular assessment with non-invasive, active sensing.

    PubMed

    Carek, Andrew M; Töreyin, Hakan; Hersek, Sinan; Inan, Omer T

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a non-invasive and active sensing scheme that is ultimately aimed to be integrated in a wearable system for neuro-vascular health assessment is presented with preliminary results. With this system, vascular tone is modulated by local heating and cooling of the palm, and the resulting changes in local hemodynamics are monitored via impedance plethysmography (IPG) and photoplethysmography (PPG) sensors interfaced with custom analog electronics. Proof-of-concept measurements were conducted on three subjects using hot packs/ice bags to modulate the palmar skin temperature. From ensemble averaged and smoothed versions of pulsatile IPG and PPG signals, the effects of local changes in skin temperature on a series of parameters associated with neuro-vascular mechanisms (heart rate, blood volume, blood flow rate, blood volume pulse inflection point area ratio, and local pulse transit time) have been observed. The promising experimental results suggest that, with different active temperature modulation schemes (consisting of heating/cooling cycles covering different temperature ranges at different rates), it would be possible to enhance the depth and specificity of the information associated with neuro-vascular health by using biosensors that can fit inside a wearable device (such as a sleeve). This study sets the foundation for future studies on designing and testing such a wearable neuro-vascular health assessment system employing active sensing. PMID:26736951

  15. Extending Grid Computing to Remote Locations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Robert; Vickerman, Mary; Lopez, Isaac; Siebert, Marc

    2003-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center, in cooperation with NASA Ames and geologists from the University of Cincinnati and Bowling Green State University has extended the computational capabilities of the information Power Grid to remote research sites. The combination of satellite (EOS) data acquisition and the IPG processing provides geologists with the ability to identify the key mineralogical features at the research site. The underlying connectivity for this research environment is provided by the Numerical Research and Education Network (NREN) using a combination of terrestrial and mobile satellite-based networking solutions. Our approach not only speeds the process of scientific discovery, but also serves as a simple demonstration of NASA's capacity for geological classification and exploration of remote sites such as the Martian surface. The NASA Glenn Demonstrations combines satellite (EOS) data acquisition and the computational capabilities or the Information Power Grid (IPG) to provide geologists with the ability to identify key mineralogical features in near real-time of an area in study. This capability could someday allow geological classification of rocks and minerals of remote sites such as the Martian surface.

  16. Electrical conductivity of the thermal dusty plasma under the conditions of a hybrid plasma environment simulation facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhukhovitskii, Dmitry I.; Petrov, Oleg F.; Hyde, Truell W.; Herdrich, Georg; Laufer, Rene; Dropmann, Michael; Matthews, Lorin S.

    2015-05-01

    We discuss the inductively heated plasma generator (IPG) facility in application to the generation of the thermal dusty plasma formed by the positively charged dust particles and the electrons emitted by them. We develop a theoretical model for the calculation of plasma electrical conductivity under typical conditions of the IPG. We show that the electrical conductivity of dusty plasma is defined by collisions with the neutral gas molecules and by the electron number density. The latter is calculated in the approximations of an ideal and strongly coupled particle system and in the regime of weak and strong screening of the particle charge. The maximum attainable electron number density and corresponding maximum plasma electrical conductivity prove to be independent of the particle emissivity. Analysis of available experiments is performed, in particular, of our recent experiment with plasma formed by the combustion products of a propane-air mixture and the CeO2 particles injected into it. A good correlation between the theory and experimental data points to the adequacy of our approach. Our main conclusion is that a level of the electrical conductivity due to the thermal ionization of the dust particles is sufficiently high to compete with that of the potassium-doped plasmas.

  17. An Execution Service for Grid Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Warren; Hu, Chaumin

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of the IPG Execution Service that reliably executes complex jobs on a computational grid. Our Execution Service is part of the IPG service architecture whose goal is to support location-independent computing. In such an environment, once n user ports an npplicntion to one or more hardware/software platfrms, the user can describe this environment to the grid the grid can locate instances of this platfrm, configure the platfrm as required for the application, and then execute the application. Our Execution Service runs jobs that set up such environments for applications and executes them. These jobs consist of a set of tasks for executing applications and managing data. The tasks have user-defined starting conditions that allow users to specih complex dependencies including task to execute when tasks fail, afiequent occurrence in a large distributed system, or are cancelled. The execution task provided by our service also configures the application environment exactly as specified by the user and captures the exit code of the application, features that many grid execution services do not support due to dflculties interfacing to local scheduling systems.

  18. Bioelectrical Impedance Methods for Noninvasive Health Monitoring: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Bera, Tushar Kanti

    2014-01-01

    Under the alternating electrical excitation, biological tissues produce a complex electrical impedance which depends on tissue composition, structures, health status, and applied signal frequency, and hence the bioelectrical impedance methods can be utilized for noninvasive tissue characterization. As the impedance responses of these tissue parameters vary with frequencies of the applied signal, the impedance analysis conducted over a wide frequency band provides more information about the tissue interiors which help us to better understand the biological tissues anatomy, physiology, and pathology. Over past few decades, a number of impedance based noninvasive tissue characterization techniques such as bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), electrical impedance plethysmography (IPG), impedance cardiography (ICG), and electrical impedance tomography (EIT) have been proposed and a lot of research works have been conducted on these methods for noninvasive tissue characterization and disease diagnosis. In this paper BIA, EIS, IPG, ICG, and EIT techniques and their applications in different fields have been reviewed and technical perspective of these impedance methods has been presented. The working principles, applications, merits, and demerits of these methods has been discussed in detail along with their other technical issues followed by present status and future trends. PMID:27006932

  19. Loop grafting of Bacillus subtilis lipase A: inversion of enantioselectivity.

    PubMed

    Boersma, Ykelien L; Pijning, Tjaard; Bosma, Margriet S; van der Sloot, Almer M; Godinho, Luís F; Dröge, Melloney J; Winter, Remko T; van Pouderoyen, Gertie; Dijkstra, Bauke W; Quax, Wim J

    2008-08-25

    Lipases are successfully applied in enantioselective biocatalysis. Most lipases contain a lid domain controlling access to the active site, but Bacillus subtilis Lipase A (LipA) is a notable exception: its active site is solvent exposed. To improve the enantioselectivity of LipA in the kinetic resolution of 1,2-O-isopropylidene-sn-glycerol (IPG) esters, we replaced a loop near the active-site entrance by longer loops originating from Fusarium solani cutinase and Penicillium purpurogenum acetylxylan esterase, thereby aiming to increase the interaction surface for the substrate. The resulting loop hybrids showed enantioselectivities inverted toward the desired enantiomer of IPG. The acetylxylan esterase-derived variant showed an inversion in enantiomeric excess (ee) from -12.9% to +6.0%, whereas the cutinase-derived variant was improved to an ee of +26.5%. The enantioselectivity of the cutinase-derived variant was further improved by directed evolution to an ee of +57.4%. PMID:18721749

  20. Technological Advances in Deep Brain Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Ughratdar, Ismail; Samuel, Michael; Ashkan, Keyoumars

    2015-01-01

    Functional and stereotactic neurosurgery has always been regarded as a subspecialty based on and driven by technological advances. However until recently, the fundamentals of deep brain stimulation (DBS) hardware and software design had largely remained stagnant since its inception almost three decades ago. Recent improved understanding of disease processes in movement disorders as well clinician and patient demands has resulted in new avenues of development for DBS technology. This review describes new advances both related to hardware and software for neuromodulation. New electrode designs with segmented contacts now enable sophisticated shaping and sculpting of the field of stimulation, potentially allowing multi-target stimulation and avoidance of side effects. To avoid lengthy programming sessions utilising multiple lead contacts, new user-friendly software allows for computational modelling and individualised directed programming. Therapy delivery is being improved with the next generation of smaller profile, longer-lasting, re-chargeable implantable pulse generators (IPGs). These include IPGs capable of delivering constant current stimulation or personalised closed-loop adaptive stimulation. Post-implantation Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has long been an issue which has been partially overcome with 'MRI conditional devices' and has enabled verification of DBS lead location. Surgical technique is considering a shift from frame-based to frameless stereotaxy or greater role for robot assisted implantation. The challenge for these contemporary techniques however, will be in demonstrating equivalent safety and accuracy to conventional methods. We also discuss potential future direction utilising wireless technology allowing for miniaturisation of hardware. PMID:26406128

  1. Acoustic damage detection in laser-cut CFRP composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishino, Michiteru; Harada, Yoshihisa; Suzuki, Takayuki; Niino, Hiroyuki

    2012-03-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) composite material, which is expected to reduce the weight of automotive, airplane and etc., was cut by laser irradiation with a pulsed-CO2 laser (TRUMPF TFL5000; P=800W, 20kHz, τ=8μs, λ=10.6μm, V=1m/min) and single-mode fiber lasers (IPG YLR-300-SM; P=300W, λ=1.07μm, V=1m/min)(IPG YLR- 2000-SM; P=2kW, λ=1.07μm, V=7m/min). To detect thermal damage at the laser cutting of CFRP materials consisting of thermoset resin matrix and PAN or PITCH-based carbon fiber, the cut quality was observed by X-ray CT. The effect of laser cutting process on the mechanical strength for CFRP tested at the tensile test. Acoustic emission (AE) monitoring, high-speed camera and scanning electron microscopy were used for the failure process analysis. AE signals and fractographic features characteristic of each laser-cut CFRP were identified.

  2. Computer simulation of immobilized pH gradients at acidic and alkaline extremes - A quest for extended pH intervals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mosher, Richard A.; Bier, Milan; Righetti, Pier Giorgio

    1986-01-01

    Computer simulations of the concentration profiles of simple biprotic ampholytes with Delta pKs 1, 2, and 3, on immobilized pH gradients (IPG) at extreme pH values (pH 3-4 and pH 10-11) show markedly skewed steady-state profiles with increasing kurtosis at higher Delta pK values. Across neutrality, all the peaks are symmetric irrespective of their Delta pK values, but they show very high contribution to the conductivity of the background gel and significant alteration of the local buffering capacity. The problems of skewness, due to the exponential conductivity profiles at low and high pHs, and of gel burning due to a strong electroosmotic flow generated by the net charges in the gel matrix, also at low and high pHs, are solved by incorporating in the IPG gel a strong viscosity gradient. This is generated by a gradient of linear polyacrylamide which is trapped in the gel by the polymerization process.

  3. Grid Task Execution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Chaumin

    2007-01-01

    IPG Execution Service is a framework that reliably executes complex jobs on a computational grid, and is part of the IPG service architecture designed to support location-independent computing. The new grid service enables users to describe the platform on which they need a job to run, which allows the service to locate the desired platform, configure it for the required application, and execute the job. After a job is submitted, users can monitor it through periodic notifications, or through queries. Each job consists of a set of tasks that performs actions such as executing applications and managing data. Each task is executed based on a starting condition that is an expression of the states of other tasks. This formulation allows tasks to be executed in parallel, and also allows a user to specify tasks to execute when other tasks succeed, fail, or are canceled. The two core components of the Execution Service are the Task Database, which stores tasks that have been submitted for execution, and the Task Manager, which executes tasks in the proper order, based on the user-specified starting conditions, and avoids overloading local and remote resources while executing tasks.

  4. Modelizacion, control e implementacion de un procesador energetico paralelo para aplicacion en sistemas multisalida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreres Sabater, Agustin

    modelizacion, y aplicacion en convertidores PWM, esta aun por estudiar y valorar. El primer Capitulo consiste en una breve introduccion al problema de la regulacion cruzada y la impedancia cruzada para posteriormente describir las tecnicas de post-regulacion actualmente mas empleadas, con especial atencion al post-regulador con transformador controlado. El Capitulo segundo trata del estudio de las caracteristicas estaticas del postregulador con transformador controlado. Partiendo de los estudios disponibles sobre el postregulador se plantean mejoras en su modo de actuacion y se discuten tres alternativas diferentes para controlar el transformador. Las dos primeras consisten en emplear un convertidor auxiliar Boost en sus dos modos de funcionamiento, continuo y discontinuo. La tercera consiste en controlar el transformador con una tension PWM directamente, sin filtrado. Finalmente se comprueba experimentalmente, para el estado estacionario, el funcionamiento del post-regulador para cada uno de los tres metodos de control. El Capitulo tercero trata de la dinamica de la salida controlada con el post-regulador cuando este emplea un convertidor auxiliar tipo Boost. Mediante la tecnica de promediado de variables de estado se propone el modelo de pequena senal, tanto para el modo continuo como para el modo discontinuo de funcionamiento del convertidor auxiliar. Los resultados mas significativos de esta seccion son las expresiones analiticas de las impedancias cruzadas y de la impedancia de la salida post-regulada. Como complemento al modelo de pequena senal se plantea un modelo de gran senal implementado sobre el simulador Pspice. Con este nuevo modelo se reproducen los resultados obtenidos con el modelo de pequena senal y ademas es posible simular los transitorios en las tensiones de salida ante cambios de carga. La modelizacion del convertidor cuando el transformador se controla con una tension PWM sin filtrar es el objetivo del Capitulo 4. En las secciones siguientes del Capitulo

  5. Communicacion Expresiva: Como los ninos nos envian mensajes [and] Comunicacion Receptiva: Como los ninos entienden nuestros mensajes [and] Interacciones de Comunicacion: Hacen falta dos. Hojas informativa de DB-LINK (Communication Interactions: It Takes Two [and] Receptive Communication: How Children Understand Your Messages to Them [and] Expressive Communication: How Children Send Their Messages to You. DB-LINK Fact Sheets).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stremel, Kathleen

    This document consists of three separately published fact sheets combined here because of the close relationship of their subject matter. The first fact sheet, "Communication Interactions: It Takes Two" (Kathleen Stremel), defines communication; suggests ways to find opportunities for interactive communication; offers specific suggestions for…

  6. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Baena González, Marta; Molina Recio, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la disfagia es un síntoma que se refiere a la dificultad para mover el bolo alimentario desde la boca al estómago. A pesar de su relevancia y de la gravedad de sus posibles complicaciones, es poco conocida y estudiada. La prevalencia de la disfagia orofaríngea en enfermosde alzhéimer es de un 84% y puede originar complicaciones de gran trascendencia clínica como consecuencia de las alteraciones en la eficacia de la deglución, y en la seguridad de la misma.Objetivo: conocer el estado actual del conocimiento en relación al abordaje de la disfagia en enfermos de alzhéimer, localizando aquellos factores que permitan un diagnóstico precoz que facilite la prevención de complicaciones y la elección de la pauta de actuación más adecuada.Metodología: revisión sistemática. Estudios publicados entre 2005 y 2014 en inglés y castellano. Bases de datos: PubMed, Cochrane, Scopus, Elsevier, Scielo y Dialnet. Términos MeSH empleados: disfagia, dysphagia, alzheimer, modified y texture food.Resultados: el diagnóstico en los pacientes de alzhéimer se realiza mediante métodos clínicos y exploraciones complementarias como la videofluoroscopia, considerada como el estándar para el estudio de la disfagia orofaríngea, ya que permite identificar entre 1/3 y 1/4 de los pacientes que presentan aspiraciones silentes no diagnosticables clínicamente. Existen estrategias terapéuticas que incluyen cambios en el volumen y viscosidad del bolo, cambios posturales, maniobras deglutorias, procedimientos de rehabilitación y técnicas de incremento sensorial que han demostrado su eficacia, pero se trata de una labor compleja que exige un abordaje multidisciplinar para un correctodiagnóstico y tratamiento.Conclusiones: existe una escasa evidencia científica en el abordaje de la disfagia y un gran desconocimiento en cuanto a la alimentación de los enfermos de alzhéimer. Esta patología necesita una intervención multidisciplinar en la cual las medidas

  7. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Germán Díaz, Marta; Moreno Villares, José Manuel; Gomis Muñoz, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la nutrición parenteral domiciliaria se ha convertido en un punto clave en el tratamiento de pacientes con fracaso intestinal crónico. A pesar de los importantes avances que se han producido en las últimas décadas, tanto en los accesos vasculares, como en las soluciones empleadas, las infecciones asociadas a catéter venoso central siguen constituyendo una de las complicaciones más importantes. Dentro de las estrategias para la prevención o el tratamiento de estas infecciones se encuentra el empleo de sellados con antisépticos, como el etanol o la taurolidina, o de antibióticos.Objetivo: el objetivo de este artículo es revisar la evidencia disponible sobre el empleo de sellados con antisépticos o antibióticos en el manejo de pacientes pediátricos con nutrición parenteral domiciliaria.Material y métodos: el uso de sellados con etanol o taurolidina para prevenir el desarrollo de infecciones asociadas a catéter central estaría indicado en pacientes con nutrición parenteral domiciliaria que hayan tenido más de una infección en el año anterior o que se consideren pacientes de riesgo. Los sellados con antibióticos están indicados en el tratamiento de bacteriemias asociadas a catéter central producidas por S. coagulasa-negativo o gramnegativos, asociados a un tratamiento sistémico, siempre que sea posible, con el fin de salvar el catéter. Se debería llevar a cabo la retirada del mismo cuando existan signos de infección del punto de entrada o del trayecto subcutáneo, o cuando el germen responsable de la infección sea S. aureus o Cándida.Conclusión: a pesar de que la fuerza de la evidencia sobre la eficacia del sellado en la prevención o el tratamiento de infecciones asociadas al catéter es limitada, tanto en el niño como en el adulto, cada vez existen más datos a usar esta alternativa en pacientes con nutrición parenteral domiciliaria en los que la atención y salvaguarda de los catéteres es primordial. PMID:27571647

  8. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Baena González, Marta; Molina Recio, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la disfagia es un síntoma que se refiere a la dificultad para mover el bolo alimentario desde la boca al estómago. A pesar de su relevancia y de la gravedad de sus posibles complicaciones, es poco conocida y estudiada. La prevalencia de la disfagia orofaríngea en enfermosde alzhéimer es de un 84% y puede originar complicaciones de gran trascendencia clínica como consecuencia de las alteraciones en la eficacia de la deglución, y en la seguridad de la misma.Objetivo: conocer el estado actual del conocimiento en relación al abordaje de la disfagia en enfermos de alzhéimer, localizando aquellos factores que permitan un diagnóstico precoz que facilite la prevención de complicaciones y la elección de la pauta de actuación más adecuada.Metodología: revisión sistemática. Estudios publicados entre 2005 y 2014 en inglés y castellano. Bases de datos: PubMed, Cochrane, Scopus, Elsevier, Scielo y Dialnet. Términos MeSH empleados: disfagia, dysphagia, alzheimer, modified y texture food.Resultados: el diagnóstico en los pacientes de alzhéimer se realiza mediante métodos clínicos y exploraciones complementarias como la videofluoroscopia, considerada como el estándar para el estudio de la disfagia orofaríngea, ya que permite identificar entre 1/3 y 1/4 de los pacientes que presentan aspiraciones silentes no diagnosticables clínicamente. Existen estrategias terapéuticas que incluyen cambios en el volumen y viscosidad del bolo, cambios posturales, maniobras deglutorias, procedimientos de rehabilitación y técnicas de incremento sensorial que han demostrado su eficacia, pero se trata de una labor compleja que exige un abordaje multidisciplinar para un correctodiagnóstico y tratamiento.Conclusiones: existe una escasa evidencia científica en el abordaje de la disfagia y un gran desconocimiento en cuanto a la alimentación de los enfermos de alzhéimer. Esta patología necesita una intervención multidisciplinar en la cual las medidas

  9. Estudio del comportamiento tribologico y de las interacciones de superficie de nuevos nanofluidos ionicos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa Rodriguez, Tulia

    tribocorrosion processes. The formation of a coating layer on magnesium alloys from phosphonate imidazolium ionic liquids by immersion and by chronoamperometry has been described. The new coatings reduce the abrasive wear in the magnesium-aluminium alloy but they are not effective in the magnesium-zinc alloy, which prevent the formation of continuous coatings. Los liquidos ionicos son sales liquidas a temperatura ambiente o bajas temperaturas que presentan excelentes propiedades fisico-quimicas. En el presente trabajo se estudian como lubricantes en problemas tribologicos complejos como la lubricacion de metales contra si mismos, el desarrollo de lubricantes base agua y de nuevas superficies autolubricadas. Cuando no es posible reducir la friccion y desgaste mediante lubricacion, como en las aleaciones de magnesio, los liquidos ionicos se han estudiado como precursores de recubrimientos protectores. Se han determinado las interacciones superficiales y los procesos de corrosion sobre cobre y sobre acero con diferentes liquidos ionicos proticos y aproticos para desarrollar nuevos lubricantes y aditivos. En el contacto cobre/cobre, excepto el liquido ionico protico derivado del oleato, todos los liquidos ionicos estudiados presentan mejor comportamiento tribologico que el lubricante comercial Polialfaolefina 6. En el contacto acero/zafiro, los nuevos liquidos ionicos proticos son buenos lubricantes cuando se utilizan en estado puro, y, como aditivos en agua, generan peliculas adsorbidas sobre la superficie del metal reduciendo la friccion y el desgaste tras la evaporacion del agua. Para evitar el periodo de alta friccion inicial en presencia de agua, se han generado peliculas superficiales de liquido ionico sobre el acero en condiciones estaticas. El mejor comportamiento lubricante tanto en el contacto cobre/cobre como en el contacto acero/zafiro se obtiene para el liquido ionico protico derivado del anion adipato, con dos grupos carboxilicos. Las interacciones de los grupos

  10. Ependimoma myxopapilar sacro gigante con osteolisis

    PubMed Central

    Ajler, Pablo; Landriel, Federico; Goldschmidt, Ezequiel; Campero, Álvaro; Yampolsky, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Objetivo: la presentación de un caso de una paciente con un ependimoma sacro con extensa infiltración y destrucción ósea local. Descripción del caso: una mujer de 53 años acudió a la consulta por dolor lumbosacro y alteraciones sensitivas perineales y esfinterianas. La imágenes por Resonancia Magnética (IRM) y la Tomografía Axial Computada (TAC) mostraron una lesión expansiva gigante a nivel S2-S4 con extensa osteólisis e invasión de tejidos adyacentes. Se realizó una exéresis tumoral completa con mejoría del estatus funcional. La anatomía patológica informó ependimoma mixopapilar. Discusión: la extensión de la resección quirúrgica es el mejor predictor de buen pronóstico. El tratamiento radiante se reserva como opción adyuvante para las resecciones incompletas y recidiva tumoral. La quimioterapia sólo debería utilizarse en casos en que la cirugía y la radioterapia estén contraindicadas. Conclusión: Los ependimomas mixopapilares sacros con destrucción ósea y presentación intra y extradural son muy infrecuentes y deben ser tenidos en cuenta entre los diagnósticos diferenciales preoperatorios. Su resección total, siempre que sea posible, es la mejor alternativa terapéutica. PMID:25165615

  11. Calidad de Imagen del Telescopio UNAM212

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobos, F. J.; Teiada de Vargas, C.

    1987-05-01

    El telescopio UNAM2l2, del Observatorio Astronómico Nacional, situado en la Sierra de San Pedro Mártir (Baja California, México), cumplira en un futuro muy cercano siete años de uso para fines de investigación astronómica. Aunque en este tiempo no se ha efectuado un estudio sistemático acerca de su comportamiento óptico y de los factores que influyen en la calidad de las imágenes, se han realizado pruebas diversas, estudios parciales y reuniones especificas, cuyos resultados no siempre se han difundido ampliamente y generalmente no se han presentado por escrito. Es por ello que hemos creido necesario intentar una recopilación de la información existente para poder con ella establecer un diagnóstjco que, aunque no sea definitivo, sirva de base para futuros trabajos tendientes a optimizar el comportamiento óptico del telescopio. Es evidente que un buen número de las conclusiones que se presentan son resultado del trabajo de muchas personas ó de esfuerzos colectivos. Asimismo, hemos tratado de localizar información bibliográfica que pueda ser de utilidad. Nuestro objetivo primordial ha consistido en centrarnos en la óptica del telescopio y su calidad, pero también se han considerado otros aspectos que puedan afectar las imágenes obtenidas tales como: celda del primario, `seeing' local y externo, flexiones posibles en la estructura mecánica del telescopio, etc.

  12. Multiple S isotopes, zircon Hf isotopes, whole-rock Sr-Nd isotopes, and spatial variations of PGE tenors in the Jinchuan Ni-Cu-PGE deposit, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Jun; Li, Chusi; Qian, Zhuangzhi; Jiao, Jiangang; Ripley, Edward M.; Feng, Yanqing

    2016-04-01

    Previous geochemical data for the Jinchuan Ni-Cu-(platinum-group elements, PGE) deposit, the single largest magmatic sulfide deposit in the world, are derived primarily from the upper parts of the deposit. This paper reports new PGE and S-Hf-Sr-Nd isotope data for the lower parts of the deposit that have become accessible for sampling by ongoing underground mining activity. New PGE data from this study, together with previous results, indicate that PGE tenors in the bulk sulfide ores of the deposit increase eastward, except for two fault-offset ore zones which occur together within the western part of the deposit. Generally, these two ore zones show depletions in IPGE (Ir, Ru, Rh) but not in PPGE (Pt, Pd) and Cu, and more fractionated olivine and Cr-spinel compositions than the rest of the deposit. These differences can be explained by a more evolved parental magma for the IPGE-depleted ore zones. The eastward increase of PGE tenors in the rest of the deposit can be explained by upgrading of preexisting sulfide liquid in a subhorizontal conduit by a new surge of magma moving through the conduit from west to east, which took place before the formation of the IPGE-depleted ore zones. The Jinchuan ultramafic rocks are characterized by elevated initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios from 0.7077 to 0.7093, negative ɛ Nd values from -9.2 to -10.5, and zircon ɛ Hf values from -4 to -7. These data indicate up to 20 % of crustal contamination in the Jinchuan magma. Four of nine multiple sulfur isotope analyses for the Jinchuan deposit show anomalous ∆33S values varying from 0.12 to 2.67 ‰. These results, together with elevated δ34S values (>2 ‰) for some of the samples analyzed previously by other researchers, indicate the involvement of external sulfur from Archean and Proterozoic sedimentary rocks. Modeling results based on our olivine data and magma compositions estimated previously by other researchers indicate that fractional crystallization did not play a major role in

  13. Espectroscopía de Microondas en Jets Supersónicos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, J. L.; López, J. C.; Lesarri, A.; Blanco, S.; Sanz, M. E.; Mata, S.; Cocinero, J. E.; Sánchez, R.

    han sido caracterizados hasta el presente. Con este mismo dispositivo experimental de ablación láser ha sido igualmente posible generar clusters metálicos como los de Si3, Se-Te, ldots. entre otros. Moléculas generadas por descargas eléctricas. Utilizando diferentes precursores (1,1-difluoroetileno, trifluoroacetileno, acetileno, ldots) diversos fluoropoliinos [12] y fluorometilpoliinos [13] han sido por primera vez generados y caracterizados por sus espectros de rotación en la expansión adiabática de un instrumento de MBFTMW dotado de un dispositivo de descargas. Solvatación en fase gas. La formación de complejos de biomoléculas con agua en fase gas es de gran importancia para entender la naturaleza de la solvatación a escala microscópica. Los complejos indol\\cdotsH2O [14], glicina\\cdotsH2O (mediante ablación láser) azetidinona\\cdotsH2O, azetidinona\\cdots2H2O, ldots entre otros, han sido analizados en fase gas.

  14. Sistemas Correctores de Campo Para EL Telescopio Cassegrain IAC80

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galan, M. J.; Cobos, F. J.

    1987-05-01

    El proyecto de instrumentación de mayor importancia que ha tenido el Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias en los últimos afios ha sido el diseflo y construcción del te1escopio IAC8O. Este requería del esfuerzo con junto en mec´nica, óptica y electrónica, lo que facilitó la estructuración y el crecimiento de los respectivos grupos de trabajo, que posteriormente se integraron en departamentos En su origen (1977), el telescopio IAC80 fue concebido como un sistema clásico tipo Cassegrain, con una razón focal F/i 1.3 para el sistema Casse grain y una razón focal F/20 para el sistema Coudé. Posteriormente, aunque se mantuvo la filosofia de que el sistema básico fuera el F/11.3, se consideró conveniente el diseño de secundarios para razones focales F/16 y F/32, y se eliminó el de F/20. Sin embargo, dada la importancia relativa que un foco estrictamente fotográfico tiene en un telescopio moderno, diseñado básicamente para fotometría fotoeléctrica y con un campo util mínimamente de 40 minutos de arco, se decídió Ilevar a cabo el diseño de un secundario F/8 con un sistema corrector de campo, pero que estuviera formado únicamente por lentes con superficies esféricas para que asl su construcción fuera posible en España ó en México. La creciente utilización de detectores bidimensionales para fines de investigación astron6mica y la viabilidad de que en un futuro cercano éstos tengan un área sensible cada vez mayor, hicieron atractiva la idea de tener diseñado un sistema corrector de campo para el foco primario (F/3), con un campo útil mínimo de un grado, y también con la limitante de que sus componentes tuvieron sólamente supérficies esféricas. Ambos diseños de los sis-temas correctores de campo se llevaron a cabo, en gran medida, como parte de un proyecto de colaboración e intercambio en el área de diseño y evaluación de sistemas ópticos.

  15. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Corella Aznar, Elena Guadalupe; Ayerza Casas, Ariadna; Samper Villagrasa, Pilar; Rodríguez Vigil, Carmen; Jiménez Montañés, Lorenzo; Calvo Escribano, Carlota; Labarta Aizpun, José Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: los supervivientes de leucemia aguda (LA) infantil presentan un riesgo incrementado de alteraciones metabólicas y cardiovasculares que aumentan su morbimortalidad a largo plazo.Objetivo: estimar la prevalencia de obesidad, resistencia a la insulina, dislipemia e hipertensión arterial como factores de riesgo cardiometabólico (FRCM) en un grupo de supervivientes de LA infantil, y analizar las posibles causas asociadas a su desarrollo.Material y métodos: estudio observacional retrospectivo en 47 supervivientes de LA tratados en un periodo de 4 años, que recibieron seguimiento durante 10 años.Resultados: el 40% de los participantes presentaron al menos un FRCM durante el seguimiento, siendo la dislipemia (aumento LDL) el más frecuente (38,3%), seguido de obesidad/sobrepeso (31,9%) y HTA sistólica (23,4%). El sexo femenino se estableció como factor de riesgo parael desarrollo de todos ellos (RR 1,6; RR 3,16; RR 1,69; p < 0,05). Ningún superviviente desarrolló diabetes mellitus, pero sí resistencia a la insulina el 19,4%. Los pacientes con leucemias de peor pronóstico presentaron mayor riesgo de desarrollar obesidad, resistencia a la insulina y aumento de LDL (RR 3,56; RR 4,08; RR 2,53; p < 0,05). Los pacientes tratados con trasplante de progenitores hematopoyéticos presentaron mayor riesgo de obesidad, aumento de LDL e HTA sistólica (RR 2,86; RR 2,39; RR 3,12; p<0,05). La radioterapia se asoció de igual modo con un incremento de resistencia a la insulina e hipertensión arterial sistólica (RR 2,47; RR 2,53; p < 0,05).Conclusiones: existe un aumento en la prevalencia de obesidad/sobrepeso, dislipemia, resistencia a la insulina y alteración de la tensión arterial sistólica en supervivientes de leucemia aguda infantil a lo largo del tiempo, especialmente en aquellos con enfermedades y tratamientos más agresivos. PMID:27513487

  16. Surfer: An Extensible Pull-Based Framework for Resource Selection and Ranking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolano, Paul Z.

    2004-01-01

    Grid computing aims to connect large numbers of geographically and organizationally distributed resources to increase computational power; resource utilization, and resource accessibility. In order to effectively utilize grids, users need to be connected to the best available resources at any given time. As grids are in constant flux, users cannot be expected to keep up with the configuration and status of the grid, thus they must be provided with automatic resource brokering for selecting and ranking resources meeting constraints and preferences they specify. This paper presents a new OGSI-compliant resource selection and ranking framework called Surfer that has been implemented as part of NASA's Information Power Grid (IPG) project. Surfer is highly extensible and may be integrated into any grid environment by adding information providers knowledgeable about that environment.

  17. Late Neoarchean arc magmatism and crustal growth associated with microblock amalgamation in the North China Craton: Evidence from the Fuping Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Li; Santosh, M.; Tsunogae, Toshiaki; Teng, Xue-Ming

    2016-04-01

    The Fuping, Wutai, and Hengshan Complexes in the North China Craton preserve imprints of widespread late Neoarchean magmatism. Here, we report results from systematic petrology, mineral chemistry, whole-rock major, trace and platinum-group element geochemistry, zircon U-Pb geochronology and Hf-O isotopes from the Yangmuqiao mafic-ultramafic intrusion and coeval tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) gneiss from the Fuping Complex. The mafic-ultramafic intrusion is composed of pyroxene hornblendites, hornblendites, and minor harzburgites. The salient geochemical features of the mafic-ultramafic intrusion and the Fuping TTG gneiss display subduction-related island arc signature, such as fractionated REE patterns with elevated LREE, enrichment of LILE (K, Rb, and Ba) and LREE (La and Ce), and depletion of HFSE (Nb, Ta, Zr, and Hf) and HREE. The chemistry of the clinopyroxene and chromite in the pyroxene hornblendites shows affinity with Alaskan-type mafic-ultramafic intrusions. Zircons from the pyroxene hornblendite yield weighted mean 207Pb/206Pb age of 2514 ± 15 Ma, and those in the Fuping TTG gneiss show mean age of 2513 ± 13 Ma. Zircon Hf and O isotopic compositions are used as magma source and crustal evolution indicators. Zircon grains in the pyroxene hornblendite display positive εHf(t) values (2.6-6.7), Neoarchean TDM (2570-2723 Ma), and their δ18O values vary from 3.8‰ to 7.0‰ (average 6.2‰). Zircons in the TTG gneiss show εHf(t) values in the range of - 1.8 to 4.9, TDM of 2637-2888 Ma, and δ18O values of 4.1‰-6.7‰ (average of 6.1‰). These results suggest that the parental magma of the late Neoarchean magmatism in the Fuping area was dominantly extracted from the depleted mantle and contaminated to different degrees by crustal components. The pyroxene hornblendites have obviously higher IPGE contents (ΣIPGE = 1.69-2.39 ppb) and lower Pd/Ir ratios (5.97-6.28) than those in the hornblendites (ΣIPGE = 0.56-0.72 ppb, Pd/Ir = 6

  18. Characterization of Seed Storage Proteins from Chickpea Using 2D Electrophoresis Coupled with Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pramod Kumar; Shrivastava, Nidhi; Chaturvedi, Krishna; Sharma, Bechan; Bhagyawant, Sameer S

    2016-01-01

    Proteomic analysis was employed to map the seed storage protein network in landrace and cultivated chickpea accessions. Protein extracts were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE) across a broad range 3.0-10.0 immobilized pH gradient (IPG) strips. Comparative elucidation of differentially expressed proteins between two diverse geographically originated chickpea accessions was carried out using 2D-GE coupled with mass spectrometry. A total of 600 protein spots were detected in these accessions. In-gel protein expression patterns revealed three protein spots as upregulated and three other as downregulated. Using trypsin in-gel digestion, these differentially expressed proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) which showed 45% amino acid homology of chickpea seed storage proteins with Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:27144024

  19. Analysis of mandelonitrile lyase and beta-glucosidase from sweet almonds by combined electrophoretic techniques.

    PubMed

    Chiari, M; Gelain, A; Riva, S; Tura, D

    1997-10-01

    Almonds are a rich source of mandelonitrile lyase (oxynitrilase) and beta-glucosidase. The isolation of these two enzymes from sweet almonds requires fractional ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by ion-exchange chromatography on diethylaminoethyl-(DEAE) and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) columns. In the present investigation different electrophoretic techniques such as sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), isoelectric focusing in immobilized pH gradients (IEF-IPG), and capillary electrophoresis were used to characterize these two enzymes. For the first time, beta-glucosidase and oxynitrilase were separated in an immobilized pH gradient of one pH unit. Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) was an excellent tool for analysis of the purity of enzyme preparations, achieving complete separation of various protein constituents in only 15 min. CZE showed a resolving capacity for the separation of enzyme forms comparable to that of isoelectric focusing in an immobilized pH gradient. PMID:9420168

  20. Twiddler syndrome in a patient with tremor dominant Parkinson's disease. A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Sobstyl, Michał; Ząbek, Mirosław; Górecki, Wojciech; Brzuszkiewicz-Kuźmicka, Grażyna

    2015-01-01

    Twiddler syndrome is described as a spontaneous rotation or intentional external manipulation of implanted cardiac or occasionally deep brain stimulation (DBS) devices. We report this hardware related complication in a patient with tremor dominant Parkinson's disease (PD), who underwent unilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) DBS and subsequently developed twiddler syndrome. The clinical course of twiddler syndrome in this patient is described. Some surgical nuances which may prevent its occurrence are suggested. Our case report indicates that twiddler syndrome occurs in DBS patients. Impedance check of DBS hardware, plain chest X-ray, or palpation for a knobbly extension lead through the skin above the IPG allows the correct diagnosis and subsequently a prompt surgical revision. Our subsequent literature review revealed only 10 patients with twiddler syndrome in DBS patient population worldwide. This number may suggest that this syndrome may be unrecognized or underreported, given the number of patients with movement disorders implanted with DBS hardware worldwide. PMID:26652885

  1. Characterization of Seed Storage Proteins from Chickpea Using 2D Electrophoresis Coupled with Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Pramod Kumar; Shrivastava, Nidhi; Chaturvedi, Krishna

    2016-01-01

    Proteomic analysis was employed to map the seed storage protein network in landrace and cultivated chickpea accessions. Protein extracts were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE) across a broad range 3.0–10.0 immobilized pH gradient (IPG) strips. Comparative elucidation of differentially expressed proteins between two diverse geographically originated chickpea accessions was carried out using 2D-GE coupled with mass spectrometry. A total of 600 protein spots were detected in these accessions. In-gel protein expression patterns revealed three protein spots as upregulated and three other as downregulated. Using trypsin in-gel digestion, these differentially expressed proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) which showed 45% amino acid homology of chickpea seed storage proteins with Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:27144024

  2. Facilitating the Portability of User Applications in Grid Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolano, Paul Z.

    2003-01-01

    Grid computing promises the ability to connect geographically and organizationally distributed resources to increase effective computational power, resource utilization, and resource accessibility. For grid computing to be successful, however, users must be able to easily execute the same application on different resources. Different resources, however, may be administered by different organizations with different software installed, different file system structures, and different default environment settings. Even within the same organization, the set of software installed on a given resource is in constant flux with additions, upgrades, and removals. Users cannot be expected to understand all of the idiosyncrasies of each resource they may wish to execute jobs on, thus must be provided with automated assistance. This paper describes a new OGSI-compliant grid service (the Portability Manager) that has been implemented as part of NASA's Information Power Grid (IPG) project to automatically estab!ish the execution environment for user applications.

  3. Ore petrology of chromite-PGE mineralization in the Kempirsai ophiolite complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Distler, V. V.; Kryachko, V. V.; Yudovskaya, M. A.

    2008-01-01

    The platinum group minerals (PGM) in chromite ores of the Kempirsai ophiolite massif, located south of the Ural Mountains, are extremely varied in composition and represented predominantly by alloys, sulfides, arsenides, and sulfosalts of the iridium-group PGE (IPGE). The earlier Ir-Os-Ru alloys prevail over the later Cu-Os-Ru, Cu-Ir, Ni-Ir, Ni-Os-Ir-Ru, and Ni-Ru-Os-Fe alloys rich in base metals (BM). The earlier Ru-Os disulfides crystallize coevally with Ir-Os-Ru alloys, whereas the later sulfides are represented by compounds with a variable stoichiometry and a wide miscibility of Ni, Cu, Ir, Rh, Os, and Fe. Phase relations of PGE alloys with PGE-BM alloys, sulfides and sulfoarsenides confirm that deposition of these minerals was defined by a general evolution of PGE fractionation in the mineral-forming system but not by a super-imposed process. The leading mechanism of PGM crystallization is thought to be their dendritic growth during gas-transport reactions from low-density gaseous fluid enriched in PGE. The representative technological sampling of 0.5 million tons of an ore showed that the average PGE content in chromite ore is 0.71 ppm which leads to an evaluation of the PGE resources to be no less than 250 tons. Hence, the Kempirsai deposit is not only a giant chromium deposit, but also a giant deposit of IPGE: Ir, Ru, and Os. The size parameters of PGM and their aggregates suggests that the PGE may be recoverable in separate concentrates.

  4. The incidence of deep brain stimulator hardware infection: the effect of change in antibiotic prophylaxis regimen and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Robin; Dalton, Arthur; Richards, Mike; Hopkins, Chris; Aziz, Tipu; Nandi, Dipankar

    2011-10-01

    The complication of hardware infection related to deep brain stimulator implantation (or revision) varies between 0 and 15.2% in the literature. However, no national guidelines exist at present to define an average or acceptable rate of infection associated with, nor the preferred antibiotic prophylaxis required for, this procedure. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of changing the antibiotic prophylaxis regimen used in a single neurosurgical centre on the incidence and outcome of hardware infection. A prospective cohort of 38 patients undergoing deep brain stimulation (DBS) implantation or internal pulse generator (IPG) replacement and receiving perioperative vancomycin (including intravenous gentamicin on induction) and pouch-installed gentamicin, was compared to a historical cohort of 35 patients receiving perioperative cefuroxime in the same unit. The infection rate over 2 years in the prospective group for DBS surgery was 0 compared to 1 (5.6%) in the historical cohort (p = 0.11, χ(2)); the infection rate for IPG replacements was 1(3.6%) in the prospective cohort, versus 3 (17.6%) in the historical (p = 0.44, χ(2)). In this article, we have also systematically reviewed the literature to date and derived an average infection rate of 4.7% (PI 0.9-22%, Random Effects Meta-analysis, Stata) for 35 studies comprising 3550 patients. There is no significant difference in infection rates between DBS procedures that are primarily internalised (n = 9) compared to those in which there is a period of electrode externalisation (n = 23) (p = 0.9, Meta-regression analysis, Stata). PMID:21501065

  5. Oligomeric states of the Shigella translocator protein IpaB provide structural insights into formation of the type III secretion translocon

    PubMed Central

    Dickenson, Nicholas E; Choudhari, Shyamal P; Adam, Philip R; Kramer, Ryan M; Joshi, Sangeeta B; Middaugh, C Russell; Picking, Wendy L; Picking, William D

    2013-01-01

    The Shigella flexneri Type III secretion system (T3SS) senses contact with human intestinal cells and injects effector proteins that promote pathogen entry as the first step in causing life threatening bacillary dysentery (shigellosis). The Shigella Type III secretion apparatus (T3SA) consists of an anchoring basal body, an exposed needle, and a temporally assembled tip complex. Exposure to environmental small molecules recruits IpaB, the first hydrophobic translocator protein, to the maturing tip complex. IpaB then senses contact with a host cell membrane, forming the translocon pore through which effectors are delivered to the host cytoplasm. Within the bacterium, IpaB exists as a heterodimer with its chaperone IpgC; however, IpaB's structural state following secretion is unknown due to difficulties isolating stable protein. We have overcome this by coexpressing the IpaB/IpgC heterodimer and isolating IpaB by incubating the complex in mild detergents. Interestingly, preparation of IpaB with n-octyl-oligo-oxyethylene (OPOE) results in the assembly of discrete oligomers while purification in N,N-dimethyldodecylamine N-oxide (LDAO) maintains IpaB as a monomer. In this study, we demonstrate that IpaB tetramers penetrate phospholipid membranes to allow a size-dependent release of small molecules, suggesting the formation of discrete pores. Monomeric IpaB also interacts with liposomes but fails to disrupt them. From these and additional findings, we propose that IpaB can exist as a tetramer having inherent flexibility, which allows it to cooperatively interact with and insert into host cell membranes. This event may then lay the foundation for formation of the Shigella T3SS translocon pore. PMID:23456854

  6. Soluble scute proteins of healthy and ill desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Homer, B.L.; Li, C.; Berry, K.H.; Denslow, N.D.; Jacobson, E.R.; Sawyer, R.H.; Williams, J.E.

    2001-01-01

    Objectives - To characterize protein composition of shell scute of desert tortoises and to determine whether detectable differences could be used to identify healthy tortoises from tortoises with certain illnesses. Animals - 20 desert tortoises. Procedures - Complete postmortem examinations were performed on all tortoises. Plastron scute proteins were solubilized, scute proteins were separated by use of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and proteins were analyzed, using densitometry. Two-dimensional immobilized pH gradient-PAGE (2D IPG-PAGE) and immunoblot analysis, using polyclonal antisera to chicken-feather ?? keratin and to alligator-scale ?? keratin, were conducted on representative samples. The 14-kd proteins were analyzed for amino acid composition. Results - The SDS-PAGE and densitometry revealed 7 distinct bands, each with a mean relative protein concentration of > 1 %, ranging from 8 to 47 kd, and a major protein component of approximately 14 kd that constituted up to 75% of the scute protein. The 2D IPG-PAGE revealed additional distinct 62-and 68-kd protein bands. On immunoblot analysis, the 14-, 32-, and 45-kd proteins reacted with both antisera. The 14-kd proteins had an amino acid composition similar to that of chicken ?? keratins. There was a substantial difference in the percentage of the major 14-kd proteins from scute of ill tortoises with normal appearing shells, compared with 14-kd proteins of healthy tortoises. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance - The major protein components of shell scute of desert tortoises have amino acid composition and antigenic features of ?? keratins. Scute protein composition may be altered in tortoises with certain systemic illnesses.

  7. Kathy Learns How Breastfeeding Can Be Used...To Space Pregnancies. Mother-to-Mother Support = Josefa Aprende como la Lactancia Puede Ser Usada...Para Espaciar los Embarazos. Apoyo Madre a Madre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magalhaes, Rebecca; Stone-Jimenez, Maryanne; Allen de Smith, Paulina; Smith, Natalia

    These magazine-sized booklets, one in English, one in Spanish, are in cartoon format and designed to be used by people with limited literacy in English or Spanish. They explain how breastfeeding can be used to help space pregnancies, the limitations of its effectiveness as a pregnancy-avoiding method, and that the spacing of pregnancies can be…

  8. A Comparison of Chinese and Colombian University EFL Students Regarding Learner Autonomy (Comparación entre estudiantes universitarios de inglés chinos y colombianos con respecto a su autonomía como aprendices)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buendía Arias, Ximena Paola

    2015-01-01

    This research seeks to gain deeper understanding of learner autonomy in English as a Foreign Language students from different cultures through the identification and analysis of similarities and differences between Chinese and Colombian students from two public universities: Tianjin Foreign Studies University in China and Universidad Surcolombiana…

  9. La lectura literaria como arte de "performance": la teoria transaccional de Louise Rosenblatt y sus implicaciones pedagogicas (The Use of Literature as Performance Art: The Transactional Theory of Louise Rosenblatt and Its Pedagogical Implications).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoreda, Margaret Lee

    This paper focuses on the work that Louise Rosenblatt and her followers in the United States have done to improve the teaching and learning of literature at all educational levels. Although these researchers have focused almost exclusively on the use of literature in the native language, the paper uses transactional theory as a basis for teaching…

  10. Estudio del proceso de ebullicion en el interior de un tubo multipuerto extruido en aluminio con mini-canales de geometria triangular usando R32 y R134a como fluidos de trabajo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez Rivera, Francisco Alberto

    The use of multiport mini-channel tubes in compact exchangers has increased in the last few years. They contributing to improve thermal efficient, compactness, energy conservation and required lower refrigerants charge by which reduction of greenhouse gases emission. Those mentioned advantages are very important aspects with regard to modern refrigeration systems design. For that reason, several experimental investigation have been carried out in order to characterize the flow boiling heat transfer process and frictional pressure drop in tubes with parallel channels. Since, the ability to estimate pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient for specific conditions is a fundamental issue to optimise the design of compact heat exchanger. In this study, the characteristics of two- phase flow pressure drop and convective boiling heat transfer have been investigated experimentally inside multiport mini-channel aluminium tube with triangular geometry, hydraulic diameter 0.715 mm and heating length of 1205 mm using R32 and R134a as working fluids. A wide experimental campaign has been carried out to complete an array of measurement under different conditions for both refrigerants studied. The experimental conditions examined included: mass velocity 275-1230 kgm -2s-1, heat flux 0.75-9.30 kWm-2, saturation temperature, 5°C, 7.5°C, 12.5°C, vapour quality 0.012-0.51. The database presented consists of 312 averages values, 223 averages values were recorded for R134a and 89 for R32. The flow boiling averages values were calculated selecting a sample of 40 readings (steps 20s) in stable conditions for all measured variables at each mass velocity tested.

  11. Coping with Social Change: Programs That Work. Proceedings of a Conference (Acapulco, Mexico, June 1989) = Como enfrentarse al cambio social: programas eficaces. Actas de uno Conferencia (Acapulco, Mexico, Junio de 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoskins, Irene, Ed.

    Written in English and Spanish, this document contains the proceedings of the 14th International Congress of Gerontology on concerns about the impact of rapid social change on the well-being of older women and families in Latin American and the Caribbean and about effective programs that address the needs of the older populations. The first…

  12. When Students Say Far Too Much: Examining Gushing in the ELT Classroom (Cuando los alumnos dicen demasiado: análisis del uso excesivo de palabras en clases de inglés como lengua extranjera)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mugford, Gerrard; Cuevas, Oscar Ramírez

    2015-01-01

    English foreign-language users often overuse words when faced with difficult situations. Called gushing, such excessive use of words is often legitimately employed by native speakers to express, for instance, gratitude and apologies when a simple "thank you" or "sorry" does not sufficiently convey an interlocutor's feelings.…

  13. Exploring Elementary Students' Power and Solidarity Relations in an EFL Classroom (Exploración de las relaciones de poder y solidaridad entre estudiantes de primaria en la clase de inglés como lengua extranjera)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Méndez, Tatiana; García, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    This article derives from a critical discourse analysis study that reports the characteristics of elementary school students' power and solidarity relations in English as a foreign language classroom in Bogotá, Colombia, while we were doing our teaching English as a foreign language practicum. The study was based on theories of power and…

  14. A Guide for Reading: How Parents Can Help Their Children Be Ready To Read and Ready To Learn = Guia Para Leer: Como los padres pueden preparar a sus hijos a leer y aprender desde la infancia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White House Initiative on Educational Excellence for Hispanic Americans, Washington, DC.

    As part of the White House Initiative on Educational Excellence for Hispanic Americans, this brochure (in English and Spanish) provides a guide to assist parents in helping their children become ready to read and to learn. The suggestions include: (1) talking to infants/toddlers to help them learn to speak and understand the meaning of words; (2)…

  15. “Es como uno bomba de tiempo [It’s like a time bomb]”: A Qualitative Analysis of Perceptions of Diabetes Among First-Degree Relatives of Latino Patients With Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Boutin-Foster, Carla; Milan, Maria; Kanna, Balavenkatesh

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background. The South Bronx, a largely Latino community, has become an epicenter of the diabetes epidemic in New York City. In this community, nondiabetic first-degree relatives of people with diabetes are prime targets for intervention. Therefore, the objective of this study was to explore the knowledge of diabetes and attitudes toward health behavior modification of Latino adults who are first-degree relatives of people with diabetes. Methods. Participants were recruited from three settings in the South Bronx (a community-based organization, a faith-based organization, and a taxi station). The Common Sense Model was used to develop focus-group items. This model provides a framework for exploring illness representations along five domains: identity, cause, consequences, timeline, and perceptions of curability. Responses were transcribed verbatim, and data analysis proceeded in the following order: data immersion, assignment of codes, grouping of key concepts to form categories, and construction of higher-order themes. Results. Of the 115 potential participants identified, 53 were found to be eligible, and 23 of these participated in the focus group. Of these, 20 were Dominicans, 2 were Puerto Ricans, and 1 was Salvadorian. The mean age was 46.39 years, 35% were women, 61% were married, and 26% had less than a high school education. Qualitative analyses resulted in 547 codes that were grouped into 52 concepts, from which 9 categories and 4 overarching themes emerged. The dominant themes were 1) family, genetics, and culture play a major role in the etiology of diabetes; 2) being Latino and having a first-degree relative with diabetes makes getting diabetes inevitable, and, like a time bomb exploding, it is destined to happen; 3) once one develops diabetes, the physical and emotional consequences are devastating and destructive; and 4) diabetes can be “cured” through healthy eating and with insulin. Conclusions.In this study, first-degree relatives of patients with diabetes were knowledgeable about the risks and consequences of diabetes. However, some participants felt that being Latino and having a first-degree relative with diabetes made one destined to have diabetes. Addressing this misperception through culturally tailored interventions has implications for diabetes prevention and may help to stem the diabetes epidemic in Latino communities. PMID:26246756

  16. Como ayudar a su hijo durante los primeros anos de la adolescencia: Para los padres con ninos entre las edades de 10 a 14 anos (Helping Your Child through Early Adolescence: For Parents of Children from 10 through 14).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulu, Nancy

    Recognizing that parents and families can greatly influence the development of their 10- through 14-year-olds, this Spanish-language booklet is part of a national effort to provide parents with the latest research and practical information to help them support their children both at home and in school. The booklet is organized in 13 sections…

  17. Moral Responsibility and Confidence as Factors That Influence Teacher Involvement in Educational Change (Responsabilidad moral y confianza como factores que influyen en la participación del profesor en el cambio educativo)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    López, Cecilio

    2010-01-01

    Various factors that are not easily observed have a strong impact on educational change. In this paper, I examine some of the issues that emerged from the data collected while exploring my informants' perceptions and attitudes towards their changing roles when confronted with curriculum innovation. This research demonstrates that the…

  18. Estudo da utilizacao da biomassa florestal como fonte de produtos quimicos e energia atraves de processos quimicos e biotechnologicos (Utilization of forest biomass for chemicals and energy by chemical and biotechnological processes). Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    de Miranda, I.M.S.S.

    1989-04-01

    The chemical composition and the non-structural carbohydrate composition were determined for 1-year-old Eucalyptus globulus Labill trees, grown in an experimental plantation with different nutrient and water supplies (C-trees, where no treatment was made and IL-trees, which received a nutrient supply and irrigation). Leaf carbohydrates were determined for the same conditions. Pulping experiments were made using kraft cooks of eucalyptus wood. The results of the pretreatments are complemented with scanning electron microscopy observations. Average wood composition was: ash 1.6%, total extractives 5.2%, Klason lignin 21.0%, soluble lignin 3.1% (% of o.d. weight). The results did not show statistical significant differences between the two growth conditions. The average wood carbohydrate composition was: glucose 2.7%, frutose 4.1% sucrose 1.3% and starch 0.5%. The average carbohydrate composition of leaves was: glucose 1.0%, frutose 1.7%, sucrose 0.1% and starch 4.1%. The average yield for the kraft wood delinification was 49%. The saccharification of pretreated eucalyptus chips with a steam-explosion pretreatment was: For H2SO4 impregnation 26.6% and for H2O impregnation 44.2%.

  19. Systemic Functional Linguistics and Discourse Analysis as Alternatives When Dealing with Texts (La lingüística sistémica funcional y el análisis del discurso como alternativas para trabajar con textos)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García Montes, Paula Andrea; Sagre Barboza, Ana María; Lacharme Olascoaga, Alba Isabel

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a case study research with aims to find out which activities, methodological and textual aspects used in a reading strategies course were causing a group of students difficulties when analyzing critically written information. We conducted the study at Universidad de Córdoba (Colombia) with seventh semester students from the…

  20. What Makes a Good Teacher? Children Speak Their Minds=Qu'est-ce qu'un bon maitre? Les enfants ouvrent leur coeur=Como debe ser un buen maestro? Los ninos opinan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khawajkie, Elizabeth, Ed.; And Others

    This booklet is a product of the UNESCO Associated Schools Project, a network of some 3,800 schools in 131 countries, which conducts pilot projects to promote education for peace, international understanding, and cooperation. Schools taking part in the project participated in an international contest asking for spontaneous reactions to the…

  1. Adult EFL Reading Selection: Influence on Literacy (Procesos de selección de lecturas en estudiantes adultos de inglés como lengua extranjera y su influencia en la habilidad lectora)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basallo Gómez, Juan Sebastián

    2016-01-01

    This paper is about the impact of systematic reading selection used to promote English as foreign language learning in adult students. A qualitative action research methodology was used to carry out this project. Ten class sessions were designed to provide students an opportunity to select texts according to criteria based upon their language…

  2. Teachers' Beliefs about Assessment in an EFL Context in Colombia (Creencias de los profesores acerca de la evaluación en un contexto de inglés como lengua extranjera en Colombia)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muñoz, Ana Patricia; Palacio, Marcela; Escobar, Liliana

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence that teachers' beliefs on teaching and learning exert an influence on the way they teach and assess learning, and on what students learn. Therefore, it is central that overt attention is devoted to the perceptions teachers have and how they influence teaching and learning. In this article we describe a study on…

  3. Como Promover el Exito de las Ninas y las Minorias en las Ciencias y en las Matematicas. Para Padres/sobre Padres (How To Promote the Science and Mathematics Achievement of Females and Minorities. For Parents/about Parents).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Wendy

    Some minority and female students traditionally have not been given the help they need to enroll and succeed in mathematics and science classes. Now, however, various approaches are available to give these students the extra attention they need. Parents can help children develop an interest in science and mathematics by: (1) identifying role…

  4. Parents as Partners: Planning Early for Your Children's School Success and College Attendance. Revised Edition = Los Padres como Socios: Planificando para el Exito Escolar y la Asistencia al Colegio de Sus Ninos. Edicion Revisada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes, Maria; Rothman, Donald

    This booklet, available in English and Spanish, describes what California parents can do at home and in the school to support and encourage their children's success in school and college. Discussion emphasizes the extent to which parents influence their children's attitudes about learning and school, and points out that parent involvement is…

  5. Parents as Partners: Planning Early for Your Children's School Success and College Attendance = Los Padres como Socios: Planificando para el Exito Escolar y la Asistencia al Colegio de Sus Ninos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Long Beach.

    Presented in both the English and Spanish Language versions is a booklet which describes what parents can do at home and in the school to support and encourage their children's success in school and college. Discussion emphasizes the extent to which parents influence their children's attitudes about learning and school, and points out that parent…

  6. Como ayudar a su hijo a ser un buen lector: Con actividades para los ninos desde el nacimiento hasta los 6 anos (Helping Your Child Become a Reader: With Activities for Children from Infancy through Age 6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehr, Fran; Osborn, Jean

    When parents and other family members read with their children, help them with homework, talk with their teachers, and participate in school or other learning activities, they give their children a tremendous advantage. The foundation for learning to read is in place long before children enter school and begin formal reading instruction. Families…

  7. The Role of Genre-Based Activities in the Writing of Argumentative Essays in EFL (El papel de actividades basadas en géneros en la escritura de ensayos argumentativos en inglés como lengua extranjera)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chala Bejarano, Pedro Antonio; Chapetón, Claudia Marcela

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the findings of an action research project conducted with a group of pre-service teachers of a program in modern languages at a Colombian university. The study intended to go beyond an emphasis on linguistic and textual features in English as a foreign language argumentative essays by using a set of genre-based activities and…

  8. Como Trabajar y Vivir en la Realidad: Pasos Basicos Para Jovenes con Incapacidades, sus Padres y sus Profesores (How to Work and Live in the Real World: Basic Steps for Youth with Handicaps and Their Parents and Teachers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Patricia L.; And Others

    This Spanish version of "How to Work and Live in the Real World: Basic Steps for Youth with Handicaps and Their Parents and Teachers" is for young people with handicaps who are getting ready to graduate from high school and begin working and living in the adult world. The booklet places a special focus on individuals with cultural differences. It…

  9. La Capacitacion de Docentes Como Prioridad de los Sistemas Educativos de America Latino y al Caribe (In-Service Teacher Training as a Priority of Latin American and Caribbean Educational Systems).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valle, Victor M.

    Whenever top-level officials in Latin American and Caribbean educational systems are approached, the topic of inservice teacher training is presented as a major priority. This paper outlines some ideas about the subject of inservice teacher training as a priority of educational systems in Latin American and Caribbean countries. The most frequent…

  10. O Imperio como Argumento: Um Contraponto entre Joaquim Nabuco e o Bispo D. Jose Mauricio da Rocha (The Empire as Argument: A Counterpoint between Joaquim Nabuco and the Bishop Dom Jose Mauricio da Rocha).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marson, Izabel Andrade

    1998-01-01

    Dialogs with the previous article establishing a comparative analysis between the political acceptance present in the reactionary speech of Dom Jose Mauricio da Rocha and in the monarchist words of Joaquim Nabuco. (PA)

  11. Encuentros esteticos deweyanos con la cultura popular anglofona en la ensenanza de ingles como lengua extranjera (EILE). Working Paper (Deweyan Aesthetic Encounters with Anglophone Popular Culture in the Teaching of English as a Foreign Language. Working Paper).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoreda, Margaret Lee

    This paper discusses how the introduction of Anglophone popular culture in the English-as-a-foreign-language class can serve to foster critical aesthetic experiences. It is argued that the popular culture of the hegemonic Anglophone countries is already part of students' lives and for that reason should be included in any critical Anglophone…

  12. Ideologies Revealed during the Construction of Meaning in an EFL Class (Ideologías reveladas durante la construcción de significado en una clase de inglés como lengua extranjera)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fajardo Mora, Néstor Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on an interpretive qualitative study conducted at a public university in Bogotá with 26 pre-service social studies teachers. It is focused on unveiling which ideologies are discovered when they construct the meaning of texts through text-based tasks in an English as a foreign language class. The data were collected by using…

  13. The Impact of Different Types of Journaling Techniques on EFL Learners' Self-Efficacy (El impacto de diferentes tipos de diario en la autosuficiencia de estudiantes de inglés como lengua extranjera)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baleghizadeh, Sasan; Mortazavi, Mahboobeh

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation of the impact of different methods of journaling on self-efficacy of learners of English as a foreign language. Sixty upper-intermediate Iranian English language learners were randomly assigned to three experimental conditions, namely no-feedback, teacher-feedback, and peer-feedback, and one control…

  14. The Portrayal of EFLTeachers in Official Discourse: The Perpetuation of Disdain (La imagen de los profesores de inglés como lengua extranjera en el discurso oficial: la perpetuación del desdén)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerrero, Carmen Helena

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to offer an interpretation of the images of Colombian English teachers constructed in official discourse, particularly (but not exclusively) in the document "Estándares básicos de competencias en lenguas extranjeras: inglés. Formar en lenguas extranjeras, el reto". This is part of a larger critical…

  15. The Preschool Classroom as a Context for Cognitive Development: Type of Teacher Feedback and Children's Metacognitive Control (El aula Preescolar como espacio de desarrollo cognitivo: tipo de feedback docente y control metacognitivo en los niños)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muñoz, Liz; Cruz, Josefina Santa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this work was to determine whether the type of feedback given by the preschool teacher during class impacts the children's metacognitive control. For this purpose, the children's behavior was analyzed while teachers provided feedback during collaborative learning sessions. Method: A quasi-experimental, cross-sectional…

  16. La Migracion Como Una Transicion Critica para la Persona en Su Ambiente. Una Interpretacion Organismico Evolutiva. (Migration as a Critical Person-in-Environment Transition: An Organismic-Developmental Interpretation.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacheco, Angel M.; And Others

    In order to explore some of the changes and stresses connected with migration and return migration, a study was conducted among migrants returning from the United States mainland to Puerto Rico. The sample consisted of 75 adolescents participating in a Bilingual Education program in Puerto Rico. Data were collected using Psychological Distance…

  17. Exploring Authorship Development among Mexican EFL Teacher-Researchers (Exploración sobre el desarrollo de la autoría en los profesores-investigadores de inglés como lengua extranjera)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trujeque Moreno, Eva Estefania; Encinas Prudencio, Fátima; Thomas-Ruzic, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a multi-theoretical model to address processes of "authorship development" in the English as a foreign language teaching profession. Working within a sociocultural perspective of second-language teacher education, the authors examined six experienced nonnative English-speaking teacher-researchers. Perceptions of…

  18. Developing Academic Literacy and Voice: Challenges Faced by a Mature ESL Student and Her Instructors (Desarrollo del discurso académico y la voz: retos de una estudiante de inglés como segunda lengua y sus profesores)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Correa, Doris

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on critical, socio-cultural and sociolinguistic theories of writing, text and voice, this ethnographic study examines the challenges that a mature ESL student and her instructors in a university course on Spanish Language Media face as they co-construct a common understanding of academic literacy and voice in an undergraduate General…

  19. Learning & Growing Together: Understanding and Supporting Your Child's Development = Aprender y crecer juntos: Como comprender y fomentar el desarrollo de sus hijos [with] Tip Sheets: Ideas for Professionals in Programs That Serve Young Children and Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Claire; Dombro, Amy Laura; Powers, Stefanie

    Based on the view that the primary caregivers for infants and toddlers are their own best resource for understanding and caring for their child and that parenting is a lifelong learning process, this book provides information and tools to help caregivers build a strong foundation for their child's development. The book, both in English and…

  20. Como ayudar a su hijo a tener exito en la escuela, con actividades para ninos entre las edades de 5 a 11 anos (Helping Your Child Succeed in School, with Activities for Children Ages 5 through 11).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulu, Nancy

    At the heart of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 is a promise to raise standards for all children and to help all children meet those standards. This Spanish-language booklet provides information that parents can use to help their child succeed in school. Following an introduction, the second section of the booklet, "The Basics," offers…

  1. EFL Teaching Methodological Practices in Cali (Prácticas metodológicas en la enseñanza de inglés como lengua extranjera en la ciudad de Cali)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaves, Orlando; Hernández, Fanny

    2013-01-01

    In this article we aim at showing partial results of a study about the profiles of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers in both public and private primary and secondary strata 1-4 schools in Cali, Colombia. Teachers' methodological approaches and practices are described and analyzed from a sample of 220 teachers. Information was gathered…

  2. Como ayudar a su hijo durante la edad preescolar, con actividades para los ninos desde el nacimiento hasta los 5 anos (Helping Your Preschool Child, with Activities for Children from Infancy through Age 5).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC. Office of Intergovernmental and Interagency Affairs.

    The first 5 yeas of a child's life are a time of tremendous physical, emotional, social, and cognitive growth. Noting that research shows that children are more likely to succeed in learning when their families actively support them, this Spanish-language booklet is intended for families and caregivers who want to help their preschool children…

  3. The Kindergarten Survival Handbook: The Before School Checklist & a Guide for Parents. (El Manual de Como Sobrevivir El Jardin de Ninos: La Lista Pre-escolar y Una Guia Para Los Padres).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elovson, Allana Cummings

    Written to help parents understand what their children need to know before they start kindergarten, this volume, bound separately in English and Spanish, is intended to help parents become their children's best, as well as their first and most important, teachers. The first part of the book, the before school checklist, is divided into eight…

  4. EFL Students' Perceptions about a Web-Based English Reading Comprehension Course (Percepciones de estudiantes de inglés como lengua extranjera acerca de un curso de comprensión lectora apoyado en la red)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gómez Flórez, Érica; Pineda, Jorge Eduardo; Marín García, Natalia

    2012-01-01

    Web-based distance education is an innovative modality of instruction in Colombia. It is characterized by the separation of the teacher and learners, the use of technological tools and the students' autonomy development. This paper reports the findings of a case study that explores students' perceptions about an English reading…

  5. Un estudio de evaluacion educativa manipulativos en el aprendizaje de las matematicas con estudiantes hispanos adquiriendo ingles academico como segunda lengua (A Study of the Use of Manipulatives in the Assessment of Mathematics Instruction with ESL Hispanic Students).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lara-Alecio, Rafael; Parker, Richard; Aviles, Claudia; Mason, Samantha; Irby, Beverly J.

    1998-01-01

    As an alternative form of mathematics assessment for use with limited-English-proficient students, 14 mathematics tasks using manipulatives were administered to 45 Hispanic students in grades 1-3 and readministered 2-3 weeks later. Test reliability and validity, task difficulty, and the relationship among test subscales across grades were…

  6. Introversion/Extroversion & Teachers' Perception on Dominican EFL College Students' Performance = La Introversion/Extroversion vs. La Percepcion Profesoral en el Desempeno de Estudiantes Universitarios Dominicanos de Ingles como Lengua Extranjera

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavarez Da Costa, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the relationship between introversion/extroversion and a student's performance (academic achievement) as perceived by Teachers of English as a Foreign Language in three regional centers of the Universidad Autonoma de Santo Domingo. There have been a great number of international studies already published to try to explain…

  7. The Impact of Conferencing Assessment on EFL Students' Grammar Learning (Impacto de la evaluación mediante conferencias en el aprendizaje de la gramática en estudiantes de inglés como lengua extranjera)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baleghizadeh, Sasan; Zarghami, Zahra

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a study that was carried out in order to examine the impact of conferencing assessment on students' learning of English grammar. Forty-two Iranian intermediate university students were randomly assigned to an experimental and a control group. The participants in the experimental group took part in four individual and…

  8. Forms of Appropriation of Tools for the Astronomy Education in Continuous Training of Teachers. (Spanish Title: Formas de Apropriación de Herramientas Para la Enseñanza de la Astronomía en la Formación Docente Continua.) Formas de Apropriação de Instrumentos Para o Ensino de Astronomia na Formação Continuada de Professores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques Soares, Leonardo; Sousa Nascimento, Silvania

    2012-07-01

    The main focus of this article is to present some impressions about the way some teachers appropriated of the tools from the ASTRONOMY TEACHING KIT (KITPEA). The subjects of this research were teachers that took part in the astronomy teaching specialization course offered by the Continuing Education Project (FOCO) at Math and Science Teaching Center (CECIMIG) from the School of Education of Federal University of Minas Gerais (FaE/UFMG). The data was collected with the use of a questionnaire and of an interview applied to these teachers. The analysis of the data was structured with the aid of the Activity Theory and the Mediated Action Theory. We interpret the teachers' speech using the constitutive aspects of the activity system and the concepts of appropriation and domain as an analytical device. It was possible to recognize the appropriation of the tools in 7 narratives among the 11 individuals who took part in the research. El objetivo principal de ese artículo es presentar indicaciones sobre la manera como algunos maestros se apropiaron de las herramientas del KIT PARA LA ENSEÑANZA DE LA ASTRONOMÍA (KITPEA). Los sujetos de esa investigación son docentes que participaron del curso de especialización en enseñanza de astronomía ofrecido por el Proyecto de Formación Continua (Foco) en el Centro de Enseñanza de Ciencias y Matemática (CECIMIG) de la Facultad de Educación de la Universidad Federal de Minas Gerais (FaE/UFMG). Recogimos las informaciones a través de un cuestionario y de una encuesta, aplicados a esos docentes. Estructuramos el análisis de esas informaciones con la ayuda de la Teoría de la Actividad y de la Teoría de la Acción Mediada. Interpretamos os discursos de los docentes usando como dispositivo analítico los elementos constitutivos del sistema de actividad y los conceptos apropiación y dominio. Entre los 11 sujetos que participaron de la investigación, fue posible interpretar con claridad la apropiación de las herramientas en

  9. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Moreno Rojas, Rafael; Moreno Ortega, Alicia; Medina Canalejo, Luis M; Vioque Amor, Montserrat; Cámara Martos, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    ás consumido del establecimiento. No existe relación entre la cantidadde salmorejo servido con el precio del plato, siendo este último acorde a los demás precios de cada establecimiento.Conclusiones: con estos datos y los previos obtenidos por medios bibliográficos se está en condiciones de estandarizar el salmorejo cordobés, tanto para un posible amparo de denominación protegida como para establecer un valor nutricional que pueda ser recogido en bases de datos composicionales y software nutricional, para la evaluación de encuestas o elaboración de dietas. PMID:27019265

  10. Los padres como maestros de los ninos. Los padres como recursos para los maestros. Serie E: El logro de la participacion de los padres, cuadernos I y II. Edicion para el estudiante. Cuadernos para el entrenamiento de maestros de educacion bilingue. (Parents as the Children's Teachers. Parents as Resources for the Teachers. Series E: Success with Parent Participation, Books I and II. Student Edition. Bilingual Education Teacher Training Packets.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazos, Hector

    The student versions of two learning modules for teacher training in bilingual education are part of a series focusing on promoting parent participation in the school system. An introductory section discussing the overall objectives of the materials is followed by two modules, each consisting of introductory sections and two units containing…

  11. Los padres como maestros de los ninos. Los padres como recursos para los maestros. Serie E: [E1] logro de la participacion de los padres. cuadernos 1 y 2. Edicion para el maestro. Cuadernos para el entrenamiento de maestros de educacion bilingue. (Parents as Their Children's Teachers. Parents as Resources for Teachers. Series E: Parent Participation, Book 1 and 2. Teacher Edition. Bilingual Education Teacher Training Packets).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazos, Hector, Comp.

    This guide on training bilingual education teachers focuses on parent participation in school activities. The guide addresses three groups of people: paraprofessionals and non-graduate students, bilingual teachers, and graduate students. Two units are presented, one dealing with the important influence parents have on their child's language…

  12. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Martínez González, Olaia; Vélez de Mendizábal, Itsaso Zabaleta; Galarza Iriarte, Uxue; Vicente Martín, María Soledad; De Vega Castaño, María Del Carmen; Salmerón Egea, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la disfagia o dificultad de deglución afecta a 1 de cada 2 mayores hospitalizados y genera problemas de desnutrición o deshidratación, y aparición de neumonía por aspiración. En situaciones de disfagia orofaríngea, cuando la alimentación oral aún es posible, se deben espesar las texturas líquidas de cara a evitar dichas complicaciones. A los alimentos, tanto fríos como calientes, habitualmente se les añaden espesantes comerciales consistentes en almidones modificados siguiendo especificaciones muy generales que hacen difícil conseguir la textura adaptada a las necesidades personales. Objetivo: el objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar el efecto de la temperatura del alimento (10 oC y 50 oC), la dosificación (néctar, miel y pudin) y el tiempo transcurrido desde la preparación (0, 3, 5, 10, 20 min) sobre los parámetros de textura de agua espesada a base de uno de los espesantes más ampliamente comercializados. Método: las muestras se analizaron por triplicado en un texturómetro TA.XT2i (Stable Micro Systems, UK) mediante ensayo de compresión-extrusión, empleando una sonda de 2,5 cm de diámetro a una velocidad de 3 mm/s y con una célula de carga de 5 kg. A partir de las curvas fuerza vs. tiempo obtenidas se cuantificaron parámetros indicadores de la firmeza, la adhesividad y el trabajo de las muestras. Resultados y conclusión: en general, los parámetros relacionados con la consistencia fueron significativamente (α < 0,05) superiores en las muestras a mayor temperatura, lo que se puede relacionar con fenómenos incipientes de gelatinización. A su vez, se observó un incremento en los valores de todos los parámetros de textura al aumentar la concentración del espesante y a medida que transcurría el tiempo desde la mezcla de este en el agua. Estos resultados apuntan a la necesidad de realizar un trabajo exhaustivo de caracterización, ampliado también a otros productos y matrices alimentarias, de cara a modelizar la

  13. Condiciones Físicas en Nebulosas Gaseosas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luridiana, V.

    1999-03-01

    El presente trabajo se ha enfocado a determinar y entender las condiciones físicas en una variedad de objetos nebulares, prestando particular atención al problema de la determinación de las abundancias químicas. Para este fin, hemos utilizado métodos analíticos en algunos casos, y modelos numéricos de fotoionización en otros. El objetivo general del trabajo es proveer de una visión amplia de las herramientas teórico-observacionales que se utilizan para la determinación de la estructura de temperatura y densidad de las regiones fotoionizadas, poniendo en evidencia posibles fuentes de errores sistemáticos y sus consecuencias para la determinación de las abundancias químicas, y proponiendo métodos para corregirlos. Los resultados principales de este trabajo est´n listados a continuación: a) Se discute el problema de la discrepancia entre T(C III) y T(O III) en las nebulosas planetarias, y se muestra como tal discrepancia implica probablemente la presencia de fluctuaciones de temperatura. Debido a que la temperatura de O++ es muy afectada por fluctuaciones de temperatura, se recomienda usar la temperatura de C++ para determinar la abundancia de carbono. b) Presentamos dos nuevos métodos para determinar la temperatura electrónica en nebulosas planetarias, basados en la medición de las intensidades de las líneas de He I. Las temperaturas que se obtienen a partir de estos métodos son menores que aquellas que se obtienen a partir de las líneas de [O III], implicando la presencia de fluctuaciones espaciales de temperatura. Despreciando las fluctuaciones de temperatura, se obtienen valores sesgados de las abundancias químicas. Determinamos las abundancias en las nebulosas planetarias de tipo I de algunos de los elementos más importantes, tomando en cuenta las fluctuaciones de temperatura. c) Presentamos modelos numéricos de las dos regiones H II extragalácticas gigantes NGC 2363 y NGC 5461. Con el modelaje numérico, pretendemos acotar las car

  14. Cálculos ab initio con correlación electrónica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merchán Bonete, M.

    campo, y se reflejan en libros publicados recientemente. En la conferencia se analizarán ciertos pormenores de las investigaciones realizadas. El tipo de aplicaciones llevadas a cabo hasta la fecha se ilustrará mediante el estudio teórico del espectro electrónico de ciclooctatetraeno. Dando un paso más en la evolución de nuestra investigación, pretendemos en la actualidad describir, desde un formalismo teórico y al mismo nivel de exigencia, los mecanismos subyacentes que tienen lugar en las reacciones biológicas fototoinducidas, es decir, reacciones que se inician mediante la absorción de luz[3]. Como muestra de la caracterización de los procesos fotofísicos y fotoquímicos en fotobiología teórica, hemos elegido la descripción de la conversión interna ultrarrápida que tiene lugar en los cromóforos del ADN. Los estados excitados de las moléculas de los ácidos nucleicos presentan tiempos de vida media que se encuentran en el rango de sub-picosegundos, sugiriendo la presencia de un canal ultrarrápido de conversión interna, lo que normalmente se asocia en la fotoquímica contemporánea a una intersección cónica entre el estado excitado y el fundamental[4]. De esta forma nuestro ADN previene de forma eficaz posibles reacciones en el estado excitado y se revela como un excelente protector solar.

  15. Diagnóstico y cinética de plasmas de NxOy y aire a baja presión. Aplicaciones atmosféricas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanarro Onrubia, Isabel

    Los procesos cinéticos que tienen lugar en plasmas de óxidos de nitrógeno y de aire presentan relevancia en diferentes campos de investigación como son los relativos al control de contaminantes atmosféricos emitidos en procesos de combustión, a su formación en las superficies de las naves supersónicas y los vehículos espaciales al entrar en la atmósfera, o a su presencia en la ionosfera terrestre. En general, los fenómenos que tienen lugar en sistemas tan alejados del equilibrio termodinámico como los plasmas luminiscentes, son capaces de originar determinadas especies intermedias y productos finales de reacción a temperaturas y presiones mucho menores que las de otros procedimientos físico-químicos; y hacen posible reproducir y caracterizar en laboratorio ciertas especies inestables y mecanismos primordiales de la alta atmósfera. Por otra parte, las técnicas de resolución temporal aplicadas a plasmas modulados en amplitud resultan notablemente más sensibles que las medidas estacionarias para estimar la relevancia de los distintos mecanismos elementales o incluso para determinar sus constantes de velocidad. En este trabajo se presenta un estudio espectroscópico y espectrométrico comparativo de plasmas de óxidos de nitrógeno y de aire a baja presión (0.001-1 mbar) generados en descargas de cátodo hueco continuas o moduladas, y se propone un modelo cinético único y relativamente sencillo, que explica satisfactoriamente los comportamientos observados en todos ellos. Dicho modelo se basa en la resolución de un sistema de ecuaciones diferenciales dependientes del tiempo, que incluye los mecanismos elementales de disociación e ionización de los precursores y los productos, reacciones homogéneas entre especies atómicas, iónicas y moleculares, y reacciones heterogéneas. Al abordar estos sistemas, se constata una gran carencia de datos experimentales o teóricos sobre secciones eficaces o constantes de velocidad para las reacciones de

  16. Efectos de la irradiación iónica en hielos de moléculas carbonadas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satorre, M. A.

    ónicas. En la mayor parte de los casos las especies producidas por la rotura del enlace, se recombinan volviendo a formar la molécula original. Sin embargo un pequeño porcentaje es capaz de formar nuevas moléculas. Si el ion queda implantado en el hielo y es reactivo (H+, C+,ldots) podría formar parte de una molécula nueva que incorpora un átomo que inicialmente no se encontraba presente en el hielo. También se presentará un contraejemplo para demostrar que no es posible asegurar que siempre que implantemos un ion reactivo, éste formará parte de nuevas moléculas en la mezcla. También se presentará la formación de nuevas moléculas a partir de la irradiación de hielos de metano, que llevan a la formación de otros compuestos como acetileno, eteno, etano,... en los cuales la relación C/H ha variado. Además de estos compuestos se forma también un residuo carbonoso (refractario) que es estable a temperatura ambiente y cuya composición química no es bien conocida. Por último, el aumento de la temperatura de sublimación es también una consecuencia de la irradiación, aunque la magnitud del aumento depende de la mezcla original y de la irradiación sufrida. Existen moléculas que llegan a variar su temperatura de sublimación en decenas de grados. Para el caso de moléculas carbonadas se forman especies por irradiación que son estables a temperatura ambiente. Con todo ello se muestra que los experimentos de laboratorio pueden ayudarnos a comprender la formación, destrucción y variación de las propiedades físicas de los hielos de interés astrofísico con la irradiación.

  17. Invertebrate fauna associated with Torpedograss, Panicum repens (Cyperales: Poaceae), in Lake Okeechobee, Florida, and prospects for biological control

    SciTech Connect

    Cuda, J.P.; Dunford, J.C.; Leavengood, J.M. Jr.

    2007-03-15

    realizado como parte de un estudio de factibilidad para determinar si conota es una candidata apropiada para un programa de control biologico clasico. En general, especimenes de aproximadamente unos 4,000 artropodos y unos 400 nematodos fueron recolectados. Muestras recolectadas pasando una red sobre vegetacion mezclada, cortando la vegetacion y tomando centros del suelo fueron dominados por representantes de artropodos de los ordenes de Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera, y Acari. Nematodos en el genero Pratylenchus, que causan lesiones sobre tejido, fueron asociados regularmente con las raices de conota. Ninguno de los organismos recolectados eran especialistas sobre conota. Aunque el control biologico clasico de la conota es factible basado sobre la magnitud de la infestacion, las perdidas economicas, la resistencia hacia los metodos de control convencionales y el informe en la India de un posible enemigo natural especifico a esta planta, la posicion botanica de este pasto maleza requiere una evaluacion de riesgo economico formal antes de continuar con un programa de control biologico clasico. (author)

  18. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Lozano Aranaga, Fátima; Palacios Vales, Paula; Serrano Navarro, Juana María; Caballero Requejo, Carmen; Gómez Ramos, María Jesús; Sánchez Álvarez, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la composición lipídica de las fórmulas de nutrición parenteral (NP) se postula como posible factor de evolución clínica.Objetivo: evaluar las diferencias en eficacia y seguridad de dos emulsiones lipídicas en NP.Material y métodos: estudio clínico prospectivo de pacientes posquirúrgicos sometidos a NP durante más de 7 días en un periodo de 2 años. Se administraron de forma indistinta 2 tipos de emulsiones lipídicas: enriquecida con ácidos grasos omega 3 (SMOFlipid Fresenius Kabi®) o con ácido oleico omega 9 (Clinoleic Baxter®). Se analizaron variables epidemiológicas, analíticas, complicaciones infecciosas y mortalidad.Resultados: se estudió un total de 154 pacientes con edad media de 64,36 ± 13,73 años, de los que 95 eran hombres (61%), 78 (51%) recibieron SMOFlipid® y 76 (49%) Clinoleic®. La estancia media fue de 16,91 ± 4,23 días, la duración de la NP 9,68 ± 3,25 días y la mortalidad del 11%. Se diagnosticaron 58 (37%) infecciones. No existieron diferencias significativas en cuanto a los parámetros analíticos lipídicos, hepáticos o nutricionales (medidos al inicio y al 7.º día) ni en su evolución (estancia media, complicaciones infecciosas ni mortalidad) entre los dos grupos de pacientes.Conclusión: los pacientes sometidos a NP presentan similares características evolutivas con independencia de la emulsión lipídica utilizada. La bibliografía actual apunta a un beneficio de la disminución del aporte de ácidos grasos omega 9, pero no se han encontrado diferencias significativas entre las fórmulas comparadas. PMID:27513481

  19. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Chivu, Elena Cristina; Artero-Fullana, Ana; Alfonso García, Antonio; Sánchez Juan, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: conociendo la elevada prevalencia de la desnutrición hospitalaria, se hace necesaria su detección precoz. Cuando, por diversos motivos, no es posible realizar una valoración completa del estado nutricional, se recomienda el empleo de herramientas validadas de cribado nutricional. Estas ayudarían a detectar de forma rápida a aquellos pacientes que necesiten de un tratamiento nutricional.Objetivos: determinar la prevalencia del riesgo de desnutrición, en el Hospital General Universitario de Valencia, empleando para ello la herramienta de cribado nutricional HEMAN y comprobar si la implementación de esta herramienta en la práctica clínica, sería lo más adecuado.Métodos: estudio transversal, realizado sobre una muestra de 1.099 pacientes ingresados en un hospital terciario. A todos ellos se les realizó el cribado nutricional HEMAN a las 24-48 horas del ingreso. Las variables cualitativas se compararon mediante Chi-cuadrado, y las cuantitativas mediante el test t de Student.Resultados: la prevalencia del riesgo de desnutrición fue del 33,5%. Los pacientes que resultaron positivos en el cribado (HEMAN ≥ 3), tenían mayor edad que los pacientes normonutridos, referían pérdidas de peso entre el 5-10%, el 55,2% disminuyó su ingesta a menos del 50% de la habitual. Además, ingresaron con patologías consideradas de leves a moderadas. La utilización del método HEMAN como herramienta de cribado, resultó ser práctica y efectiva, y ayudó a disminuir el tiempo empleado con cada paciente encuestado evaluado.Conclusiones: se detectó una elevada prevalencia de riesgo de desnutrición entre los pacientes evaluados, por lo tanto se hace imprescindible la utilización de métodos de cribado nutricional en la rutina diaria del hospital, para ello recomendamos especialmente la utilización del método HEMAN. PMID:27571664

  20. Evolución de estrellas de Helio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panei, J. A.; Benvenuto, O. G.; Althaus, L. G.

    Podríamos identificar a las estrellas de helio con estrellas Wolf-Rayet (WR) que han perdido su envoltura rica en hidrógeno ya sea porque las mismas pertenecen a sistemas binarios o a través de fuertes vientos estelares. Las WR representan una etapa evolucionaria normal de las estrellas masivas, cuya pérdida de masa es >= 3 × 10-5Msolar/yr y la cual es sufrida por la estrella en un tiempo de escala mucho menor que el tiempo en que se produce la quema del He. Esto garantiza la ``homogeneidad'' de las estrellas de helio para nuestros modelos. Este tipo de estrellas serían posibles progenitores de SN tipo Ib y Ic. Aquí presentamos un estudio sobre la evolución de estrellas de helio a partir de la secuencia principal de helio, pasando por el flash de carbono, hasta agotarlo en la región central; como así también la dependencia con la variable masa y con la pérdida de la misma para distintos tipos de masas. Para tal fin hemos utilizado un código de evolución estelar completo que realiza todas las reacciones de Fowler en forma simultánea. También se han tenido en cuenta los procesos de mezcla convectiva, los principales mecanismos de emisión de neutrinos y los efectos de la pérdida de masa. Las opacidades utilizadas fueron las de Rogers & Iglesias (1992). Debido a la pérdida de masa en este tipo de estrellas, hemos encontrado que los perfiles convectivos, la composición química, las condiciones centrales de temperatura y presión, luminosidad y temperatura efectiva dependen en forma esencial de la velocidad de pérdida de masa adoptada, lo que tendría profundas implicaciones en la evolución posterior de estos objetos.

  1. Aspergilosis cervical con diseminación al sistema nervioso central. Presentación de un caso y revisión de bibliografía

    PubMed Central

    Vergara, Guillermo Enrique; Roura, Natalia; del Castillo, Marcelo; Mora, Andrea; Alcorta, Santiago Condomi; Mormandi, Rubén; Cervio, Andrés; Salvat, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: la Aspergilosis Invasiva (AI) del Sistema Nervioso Central (SNC) es infrecuente y ocurre generalmente en pacientes inmunocomprometidos. Puede presentarse con cuadros de meningitis, aneurismas micóticos, infartos o abscesos. Es una infección con pronóstico reservado y puede afectar el SNC de forma primaria o secundaria a partir de un foco que se disemina por vía hematógena. Presentamos el caso de un paciente con AI con invasión primaria a nivel óseo y diseminación posterior al cerebro. Caso clínico: Paciente masculino de 25 años con diagnóstico de leucemia linfática aguda en tratamiento quimioterápico que presentó neumonitis por metotrexate por lo que inicia tratamiento con corticoides. Posteriormente agregó cervicalgia y con el diagnóstico de osteomielitis cervical se realiza punción bajo tomografía computada (TC) sin aislarse gérmenes. Se colocó Halo Vest e inició tratamiento antibiótico empírico. Posteriormente presentó afasia de expresión secundaria a lesión frontal izquierda. Se realizó evacuación de absceso cerebral aislando A. fumigatus. El tratamiento antibiótico específico posterior permitió una buena respuesta clínica y radiológica. Conclusión: La presencia de lesiones en el SNC de pacientes inmunocomprometidos debe incluir a las micosis como diagnóstico diferencial. La evacuación quirúrgica permite llegar rápidamente al diagnóstico mejorando la respuesta posterior al tratamiento antibiótico. Para evaluar la respuesta terapéutica y posibles recaídas se debe realizar un seguimiento periódico clínico radiológico. Palabras clave: Aspergilosis cerebral; Aspergilosis cervical; Aspergilosis invasiva; Voriconazol. PMID:26600985

  2. High School Students' Previous Knowledge about the Stars. (Spanish Title: Conocimientos Previos de Estudiantes de Secundaria Acerca de Las Estrellas.) O Conhecimento Prévio de Alunos do Ensino Médio sobre as Estrelas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iachel, Gustavo

    2011-12-01

    Based on the readings of articles related to Astronomy Education published in Brazil, it was noticed a lack of research on previous knowledge of students about the physical characteristics of stars, a fact that motivated us to develop this study. Previous knowledge of 125 students (approximated 15 years old) constituted the study sample; data was collected through written questionnaires (Appendix A) for analysis. From the content analysis of these responses it was possible to achieve some inferences as, for example, many students have some difficult to develop an explanatory model on the functioning of a star; there are few who say that the stars have a certain length of existence; some students have said that stars have tips; few recognize that a star is formed by a mass of gas; some previous knowledge come from purely visual aspects; furthermore, some students do not have the habit of observing nature in detail. We see this research as a reference in which science teachers can recognize the importance of previous knowledge for practice teaching and acquire resources for planning their lessons. De la lectura de artículos relacionados con la Educación en Astronomía publicados en el Brasil, se encuentra una falta de investigaciones acerca del conocimiento previo de los estudiantes sobre las características físicas de las estrellas, hecho que nos motivó a desarrollar este estudio. Los datos analizados se obtuvieron al aplicar un cuestionario a 125 estudiantes de secundaria, para posteriormente realizar un análisis de contenido, tal cuestionario se presenta en el Anexo A. Al realizar el análisis de contenido de las respuestas obtenidas, fue posible hacer algunas inferencias, como por ejemplo; muchos estudiantes tienen dificultades para desarrollar un modelo explicativo acerca del funcionamiento de una estrella; pocos estudiantes dicen que las estrellas tienen un cierto tiempo de vida; algunos estudiantes imaginan que las estrellas tienen puntas; pocos

  3. Platinum group elements in mantle melts and mantle samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Stephen J.; Mungall, James E.; Maier, Wolfgang D.

    2015-09-01

    A large data compilation has been assembled of platinum group element (PGE) analyses in mantle melts and mantle rocks, the latter including an assortment of xenoliths and obducted mantle massifs. The degree of correlation has been investigated among the PGEs and with other major element variables such as Al2O3, TiO2 and Mg number, and the results are considered in the context of the current paradigm for the behaviour of highly siderophile elements in the silicate Earth. Primitive mantle melts have a wide range of PGE contents. Komatiites have the highest abundances of all the PGEs, show the strongest correlations between Pt and Rh, Pt and Pd and between the iridium-group PGEs Ir, Ru and Os (IPGEs). Most basalts of all affinities have lower levels of Pt and Pd and much lower levels of Ir, Ru and Os than komatiites. Within the basalt grouping Rh has stronger affinities with the IPGEs. Picrites and Archaean basalts are intermediate between these two groups. MORBs and a small proportion of continental LIP basalts show strong depletions in all PGEs attributable to retention of sulfide in their mantle source rocks, or sulfide liquid fractionation on ascent. The degree of PGE depletion in other basalts is probably attributable to equilibration with sulfide, but is less than would be expected under conventional models of sulfide extraction, and is instead attributed to mixing of magmas generated at variable depths incorporating both sulfide-saturated and undersaturated components. Basalts with Pt and Pd contents higher than typical komatiites are rare, a notable example being B1-type parent magmas to the Bushveld Complex, which have komatiite-like relative PGE abundances and Pt, Pd and Rh abundances up to a factor of two higher than komatiites for comparable Ti contents. The mantle composition array as a whole is characterized by variable degrees of depletion of Pt, Pd and Rh in Al-poor, melt-depleted harzburgite/dunite lithologies; lack of depletion in these elements in

  4. Chalcophile element (Ni, Cu, PGE, and Au) variations in the Tamarack magmatic sulfide deposit in the Midcontinent Rift System: implications for dynamic ore-forming processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taranovic, Valentina; Ripley, Edward M.; Li, Chusi; Rossell, Dean

    2016-03-01

    The Tamarack magmatic sulfide deposit is hosted by the Tamarack Intrusive Complex (1105.6 ± 1.2 Ma) in the Midcontinent Rift System. The most important sulfide mineralization in the Complex occurs in the northern part, which consists of two separate intrusive units: an early funnel-shaped layered peridotite body containing relatively fine-grained olivine (referred to as the FGO Intrusion) at the top, and a late gabbro-troctolite-peridotite dike-like body containing relatively coarse-grained olivine (referred to as the CGO Intrusion) at the bottom. Disseminated, net-textured, and massive sulfides occur in the base of the FGO Intrusion as well as in the upper part of the CGO Intrusion. The widest part of the CGO Intrusion also hosts a large semi-massive (net-textured) sulfide ore body locally surrounded by disseminated sulfide mineralization. Small massive sulfide veins occur in the footwall of the FGO Intrusion and in the wall rocks of the CGO dike. The sulfide mineralization is predominantly composed of pyrrhotite, pentlandite, and chalcopyrite, plus minor magnetite. Pyrrhotite containing the highest Ni and Co contents occurs in the FGO disseminated sulfides and in the CGO semi-massive sulfide ores, respectively. The most important platinum-group minerals associated with the base metal sulfides are sperrylite (PtAs2), sudburyite (PdSb), and michenerite (PdBiTe). Nickel shows a strong positive correlation with S in all types of sulfide mineralization, and Cu shows a strong positive correlation with S in the disseminated sulfide mineralization. At a given S content, the concentrations of Pt, Pd, and Au in the CGO disseminated sulfides are significantly higher than those in the FGO disseminated sulfides. The semi-massive sulfide ores are characterized by significantly higher IPGE (Ir, Os, Ru, and Rh) concentrations than most of the massive sulfide ores. With few exceptions, all of the various textural types of sulfide mineralization collectively show a good positive

  5. Information Power Grid: Distributed High-Performance Computing and Large-Scale Data Management for Science and Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, William E.; Gannon, Dennis; Nitzberg, Bill

    2000-01-01

    ) Coupling large-scale computing and data systems to scientific and engineering instruments (e.g., realtime interaction with experiments through real-time data analysis and interpretation presented to the experimentalist in ways that allow direct interaction with the experiment (instead of just with instrument control); (5) Highly interactive, augmented reality and virtual reality remote collaborations (e.g., Ames / Boeing Remote Help Desk providing field maintenance use of coupled video and NDI to a remote, on-line airframe structures expert who uses this data to index into detailed design databases, and returns 3D internal aircraft geometry to the field); (5) Single computational problems too large for any single system (e.g. the rotocraft reference calculation). Grids also have the potential to provide pools of resources that could be called on in extraordinary / rapid response situations (such as disaster response) because they can provide common interfaces and access mechanisms, standardized management, and uniform user authentication and authorization, for large collections of distributed resources (whether or not they normally function in concert). IPG development and deployment is addressing requirements obtained by analyzing a number of different application areas, in particular from the NASA Aero-Space Technology Enterprise. This analysis has focussed primarily on two types of users: the scientist / design engineer whose primary interest is problem solving (e.g. determining wing aerodynamic characteristics in many different operating environments), and whose primary interface to IPG will be through various sorts of problem solving frameworks. The second type of user is the tool designer: the computational scientists who convert physics and mathematics into code that can simulate the physical world. These are the two primary users of IPG, and they have rather different requirements. The results of the analysis of the needs of these two types of users provides a

  6. Searching for tremor in seismic noise on the 84 OBS (Ocean Bottom Seismometers) and 40 Land Seismometers, 3 months deployment in the Lesser Antilles subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becel, A.; Diaz, J.; Laigle, M.; L. A. S. T., T.

    2008-12-01

    THALES, L.A.S.T., stands for Lesser Antilles Subduction zone Team of the THALES WAS RIGHT project (Coord. A. Hirn) of the European Union FP6, which gathers the scientific teams of a cluster of surveys and cruises in 2007. This cluster comprises the German cruise TRAIL with the vessel F/S Merian (PI E. Flueh and H. Kopp, IFM-GEOMAR), the French cruise SISMANTILLES 2 with the IFREMER vessel N/O Atalante (PI M. Laigle, IPG Paris and JF. Lebrun, Univ. Antilles Guyane), and French cruise OBSANTILLES with the IRD vessel N/O Antea (PI P. Charvis, Geoazur, Nice, France). Presentation T53A-1109 at last year, 2007 AGU Fall Meeting, of THALES, L.A.S.T. summarized the goals and first results of these experiments dedicated specifically to image at depth the seismic structure and activity of this subduction zone segment, which comprised: - MCS, multi-channel reflection seismic profiles as well as coincident multi-beam bathymetry that have been collected for 3700 km along a grid comprising 300 km along strike from North of Guadeloupe to Martinique islands and extending 150 km offshore over the forearc and accretionary wedge. - 84 OBSs at the nodes of this grid of profiles and 40 land stations. These instruments recorded the marine shots for a coincident refraction survey. They recorded local seismicity for precise location and focal mechanisms. The recovery of the continuous recording at this dense and extensive set of temporary sensors (1), recently completed allows to initiate an analysis of the continuously recorded seismic noise. Changes and transients of the noise character, and their possible correlations among instruments in the array will be searched for in the view of checking evidence of possible seismic tremor episodes or seismic transients, as have been described elsewhere with the specific aspect that most observations were acquired at sea-bottom as the forearc extends here broadly offshore. Preliminary results will be documented. (1) During these cruises and surveys

  7. Differential protein expression in human corneal endothelial cells cultured from young and older donors

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Cheng; Rawe, Ian

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To establish a baseline protein fingerprint of cultured human corneal endothelial cells (HCEC), to determine whether the protein profiles exhibit age-related differences, and to identify proteins differentially expressed in HCEC cultured from young and older donors. Methods Corneas were obtained from five young (<30 years old) and five older donors (>50 years old). HCEC were cultured, and protein was extracted from confluent passage 3 cells. Extracts from each age group were pooled to form two samples. Proteins were separated on two-dimensional (2-D) gels and stained with SyproRuby. Resultant images were compared to identify protein spots that were either similarly expressed or differentially expressed by at least twofold. Protein spots were then identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. Results Protein spots were well resolved, and patterns were reproducible on 2-D gels using either pH 3–10 or pH 4–7 IPG strips. Two-dimensional gels prepared with pH 4–7 IPG strips were used for differential display analysis, which was reproduced on three separate pairs of gels. MALDI-TOF identified 58 proteins with similar expression; 30 proteins were expressed twofold higher in HCEC from young donors; five proteins were expressed twofold higher in cells from older donors; and 10 proteins were identified in gels from young donors that did not match in gels from older donors. Several proteins expressed at higher levels in younger donors support metabolic activity, protect against oxidative damage, or mediate protein folding or degradation. Conclusions This is the first proteomic comparison of proteins expressed in HCEC cultured from young and older donors. Although restricted to proteins with isoelectric points between pH 4.0 and pH 7.0, the data obtained represent an initial step in the investigation of molecular mechanisms that underlie physiologically important age-related differences in cultured HCEC

  8. NMR studies of granular media and two-phase flow in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaoyu

    This dissertation describes two experimental studies of a vibrofluidized granular medium and a preliminary study of two-phase fluid flow in a porous medium using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). The first study of granular medium is to test a scaling law of the rise in center of mass in a three-dimensional vibrofluidized granular system. Our granular system consisted of mustard seeds vibrated vertically at 40 Hz from 0g to 14g. We used Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to measure density profile in vibrated direction. We observed that the rise in center of mass scaled as nu 0alpha/Nlbeta with alpha = 1.0 +/- 0.2 and beta = 0.5 +/- 0.1, where nu 0 is the vibration velocity and Nl is the number of layers of grains in the container. A simple theory was proposed to explain the scaling exponents. In the second study we measured both density and velocity information in the same setup of the first study. Pulsed Field Gradient (PFG)-NMR combined with MRI was used to do this measurement. The granular system was fully fluidized at 14.85g 50 Hz with Nl ≤ 4. The velocity distributions at horizontal and vertical direction at different height were measured. The distributions were nearly-Gaussian far from sample bottom and non-Gaussian near sample bottom. Granular temperature profiles were calculated from the velocity distributions. The density and temperature profile were fit to a hydrodynamic theory. The theory agreed with experiments very well. A temperature inversion near top was also observed and explained by additional transport coefficient from granular hydrodynamics. The third study was the preliminary density measurement of invading phase profile in a two-phase flow in porous media. The purpose of this study was to test an invasion percolation with gradient (IPG) theory in two-phase flow of porous media. Two phases are dodecane and water doped with CuSO4. The porous medium was packed glass beads. The front tail width sigma and front width of invading phase were

  9. Variable mineralization processes during the formation of the Permian Hulu Ni-Cu sulfide deposit, Xinjiang, Northwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yun; Xue, Chunji; Zhao, Xiaobo; Yang, Yongqiang; Ke, Junjun; Zu, Bo

    2016-08-01

    mixing of sulfides would result in poor correlations between IPGE (Os, Ir and Ru) and PPGE (Rh, Pt and Pd) in the layered sequence. By contrast, insufficient mixing of the sulfide droplets segregated from different pulses of magma led to variable PGE tenors and good correlations between IPGE and PPGE in the dike-like unit. Numerous Permian mafic-ultramafic intrusions in the CAOB are favorable hosts to magmatic sulfide deposits.

  10. Computer Simulation of High Resolution Transmission Electron Micrographs: Theory and Analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilaas, Roar

    Computer simulation of electron micrographs is an invaluable aid in their proper interpretation and in defining optimum conditions for obtaining images experimentally. Since modern instruments are capable of atomic resolution, simulation techniques employing high precision are required. This thesis makes contributions to four specific areas of this field. First, the validity of a new method for simulating high resolution electron microscope images has been critically examined. This method, which has been termed the real space method (RSP) since the entire calculation is performed without any Fourier transforms, offers a considerable reduction in computing time over the conventional multislice approach when identical sampling conditions are employed. However, for the same level of accuracy the real space method requires more sampling points and more computing time than the conventional multislice method. These characteristics are illustrated with calculated results using both methods to identify practical limitations. Second, three different methods for computing scattering amplitudes in High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) have been investigated as to their ability to include upper Laue layer (ULL) interaction. The conventional first order multislice method using fast Fourier transform (FFT) and the second order multislice (SOM) method are shown to yield calculated intensities of first order Laue reflections with the use of slice thicknesses smaller than the crystal periodicity along the incident electron beam direction. It is argued that the calculated intensities of ULL reflections approach the correct values in the limiting case of vanishing slice thickness and electron wavelength. The third method, the improved phasegrating method (IPG) does also in principle include ULL effects, but is severely limited as to choice of slice thickness and sampling interval. A practical way to use slice thicknesses less than the crystal periodicity along the

  11. Platinum-group element systematics and petrogenetic processing of the continental upper mantle: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorand, Jean-Pierre; Luguet, Ambre; Alard, Olivier

    2013-04-01

    The platinum-group element (PGE) systematics of continental mantle peridotites show large variability, reflecting petrogenetic processing of the upper mantle during partial melting and melt/fluid percolation inside the lithosphere. By removing Pd-Cu-Ni rich sulfides, partial melting events that have stabilized the sub-continental mantle lithosphere fractionated PPGEs (Palladium-group PGE; Pt, Pd) relative to IPGEs (Iridium-group PGE; Os, Ir, Ru, Rh). Residual base-metal sulfides (BMS) survive as enclosed IPGE-enriched Monosulfide Solid Solutions (Mss), which otherwise decompose into Ru-Os-Ir-rich refractory platinum-group minerals (PGMs) once the partial melts become S-undersaturated. The small-scale heterogeneous distribution of these microphases may cause extreme nugget effects, as seen in the huge variations in absolute PGE concentrations documented in cratonic peridotites. Magmas fluxing through the lithospheric mantle may change the initial PGE budgets inherited from the melting events, resulting in the great diversity of PGE systematics seen in peridotites from the sub-continental lithosphere. For instance, melt-rock reactions at increasing melt/rock ratios operate as open-system melting processes removing residual BMS/PGMs. Highly percolated peridotites are characterized by extreme PGE depletion, coupled with PGE patterns and Os-isotope compositions that gradually evolve toward that of the percolating melt. Reactions at decreasing melt-rock ratios (usually referred to as «mantle metasomatism») precipitate PPGE-enriched BMS that yield suprachondritic Pd/Ir and occasionally affect Pt/Ir and Rh/Ir ratios as well. Moreover, volatile-rich, small volume melts fractionate Os relative to Ir and S relative to Se, thereby producing rocks with supra-chondritic Os/Ir and S/Se coupled with supra-chondritic Pd/Ir and Pt/Ir. Major magmatic inputs at the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary may rejuvenate the PGE systematics of the depleted mantle. Integrated studies of

  12. Source components and magmatic processes in the genesis of Miocene to Quaternary lavas in western Turkey: constraints from HSE distribution and Hf-Pb-Os isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldanmaz, Ercan; Pickard, Megan; Meisel, Thomas; Altunkaynak, Şafak; Sayıt, Kaan; Şen, Pınar; Hanan, Barry B.; Furman, Tanya

    2015-08-01

    Hf-Pb-Os isotope compositions and highly siderophile element (HSE) abundance variations are used to evaluate the mantle source characteristics and possible effects of differentiation processes in lavas from western Turkey, where the eruption of Late Miocene to Quaternary OIB-type intraplate mafic alkaline lavas followed pre-Middle Miocene convergent margin-type volcanism. Concentrations of Os, Ir, and Ru (IPGE) in the OIB-type intraplate lavas decrease with fractionation for primitive melts (MgO > 10 wt%), suggesting that these elements reside predominantly in olivine and associated HSE retaining trace phases and behave compatibly during olivine-dominated fractionation. Fractional crystallization trends indicate distinctly lower bulk partition coefficients for IPGE in more evolved lavas, possibly reflecting a change in the fractionating assemblages. Pd and Re in the primitive melts display negative correlations with MgO, demonstrating moderately incompatible behavior of these elements during fractionation, while the significantly scattered variation in Pt against MgO may indicate the effects of micronuggets of a Pt-rich alloy. Os-rich alkaline primary lavas (>50 ppt Os) exhibit a limited range of 187Os/188Os (0.1361-0.1404), with some xenolith-bearing lavas displaying depletions in 187Os/188Os (0.1131-0.1232), suggesting slight compositional modification of primitive melts through contamination with highly depleted, Os-rich mantle lithosphere. More radiogenic Os isotope ratios (187Os/188Os > 0.1954) in the evolved lavas reflect contamination of the magmas by high187Os/188Os crustal material during shallow differentiation. The OIB-type lavas show limited variations in Hf and Pb isotopes with 176Hf/177Hf = 0.282941-0.283051, 206Pb/204Pb = 18.683-19.091, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.579-15.646, 208Pb/204Pb = 38.550-38.993; 176Hf/177Hf ratios correlate negatively with 208Pb*/206Pb*, suggesting the effects of similar mantle processes on the evolution of time-integrated Th/U and Lu

  13. Automated Euler and Navier-Stokes Database Generation for a Glide-Back Booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaderjian, Neal M.; Rogers, Stuart E.; Aftosmis, Mike J.; Pandya, Shishir A.; Ahmad, Jasim U.; Tejnil, Edward

    2004-01-01

    The past two decades have seen a sustained increase in the use of high fidelity Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) in basic research, aircraft design, and the analysis of post-design issues. As the fidelity of a CFD method increases, the number of cases that can be readily and affordably computed greatly diminishes. However, computer speeds now exceed 2 GHz, hundreds of processors are currently available and more affordable, and advances in parallel CFD algorithms scale more readily with large numbers of processors. All of these factors make it feasible to compute thousands of high fidelity cases. However, there still remains the overwhelming task of monitoring the solution process. This paper presents an approach to automate the CFD solution process. A new software tool, AeroDB, is used to compute thousands of Euler and Navier-Stokes solutions for a 2nd generation glide-back booster in one week. The solution process exploits a common job-submission grid environment, the NASA Information Power Grid (IPG), using 13 computers located at 4 different geographical sites. Process automation and web-based access to a MySql database greatly reduces the user workload, removing much of the tedium and tendency for user input errors. The AeroDB framework is shown. The user submits/deletes jobs, monitors AeroDB's progress, and retrieves data and plots via a web portal. Once a job is in the database, a job launcher uses an IPG resource broker to decide which computers are best suited to run the job. Job/code requirements, the number of CPUs free on a remote system, and queue lengths are some of the parameters the broker takes into account. The Globus software provides secure services for user authentication, remote shell execution, and secure file transfers over an open network. AeroDB automatically decides when a job is completed. Currently, the Cart3D unstructured flow solver is used for the Euler equations, and the Overflow structured overset flow solver is used for the

  14. Ophiolitic Chromitites from the Andriamena Greenstone Belt, Madagascar: Possible Evidence for mid-Archean Plate Tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisberg, L. C.; Ohnenstetter, M.; Zimmermann, C.; Ratefiarimino, A.; Levy, D.

    2015-12-01

    Determining the time of the onset of plate tectonics is critical to understanding the geodynamic processes that controlled the evolution of the early Earth. The near absence of Archean ophiolites, as defined by the presence of a residual ultramafic section, has been considered to be one of the primary arguments against Archean plate tectonics. The Andriamena greenstone belt of Madagascar contains massive chromitite bodies consisting of about 90% chromite and about 10% gangue minerals, mostly secondary (talc, green amphibole, orthopyroxene, Ca and Mg carbonate). Numerous observations argue in favor of an ophiolitic origin for these chromitites, including the high Cr# (0.67-0.74), coupled with relatively high Mg# (0.6-0.78) of the constituent chromite. In addition, these phases display extremely low TiO2 contents (<0.25%), which are also characteristic of ophiolites and possibly suggestive of an arc environment. Though in many places the chromitite is in tectonic contact with a variety of unrelated igneous lithologies, remnants of apparently cogenetic ultramafic rock types, including dunites, harzburgites, and some pyroxenites are sometimes immediately juxtaposed with the chromitite. The very high Fo content of the olivine in the associated dunite, as high as 0.95, also attests to an ophiolitic provenance. Platinum group element (PGE) and 187Os/188Os analyses were performed on several chromitite samples. Chondrite normalized PGE spectra display marked depletions in PPGE relative to IPGE, with (Pt/Ir)N ranging from ~0 to 0.09, though Pd contents are somewhat less depleted than those of Pt. The observed PPGE depletion is another feature characteristic of ophiolitic chromitites. The IPGE enrichment is consistent with the presence of laurite microinclusions in the chromite revealed by SEM. Os isotopic compositions are tightly clustered, with 187Os/188Os ranging from 0.1057 to 0.1059, corresponding to TRD model ages of ~ 3.2 Ga, assuming primitive upper mantle parameters

  15. Implementing Production Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, William E.; Ziobarth, John (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We have presented the essence of experience gained in building two production Grids, and provided some of the global context for this work. As the reader might imagine, there were a lot of false starts, refinements to the approaches and to the software, and several substantial integration projects (SRB and Condor integrated with Globus) to get where we are today. However, the point of this paper is to try and make it substantially easier for others to get to the point where Information Power Grids (IPG) and the DOE Science Grids are today. This is what is needed in order to move us toward the vision of a common cyber infrastructure for science. The author would also like to remind the readers that this paper primarily represents the actual experiences that resulted from specific architectural and software choices during the design and implementation of these two Grids. The choices made were dictated by the criteria laid out in section 1. There is a lot more Grid software available today that there was four years ago, and various of these packages are being integrated into IPG and the DOE Grids. However, the foundation choices of Globus, SRB, and Condor would not be significantly different today than they were four years ago. Nonetheless, if the GGF is successful in its work - and we have every reason to believe that it will be - then in a few years we will see that the 28 functions provided by these packages will be defined in terms of protocols and MIS, and there will be several robust implementations available for each of the basic components, especially the Grid Common Services. The impact of the emerging Web Grid Services work is not yet clear. It will likely have a substantial impact on building higher level services, however it is the opinion of the author that this will in no way obviate the need for the Grid Common Services. These are the foundation of Grids, and the focus of almost all of the operational and persistent infrastructure aspects of Grids.

  16. Using adult cloned trees grown under natural conditions to characterize BVOC emission variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persson, Ylva; Schurgers, Guy; Ekberg, Anna; Rinnan, Riikka; Holst, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOCs) are diverse chemical species produced and emitted from the vegetation as trace gases. BVOCs are commonly grouped into isoprene, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, where isoprene is mainly emitted by deciduous trees and monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes by coniferous trees. BVOCs are known to have a considerable impact on atmospheric chemistry and are precursors for secondary organic aerosol, which in turn are important for the aerosol feedback on the Earth's climate. Recently, Bäck et al. (2012) reported a high diversity of the chemical composition of emitted compounds from pine trees growing at the same stand due to genetic variation. This study here uses cloned trees growing naturally in a transect in Europe in order to exclude genetic variation and to assess emission variation between and within selected tree species grown at different climatic conditions. The International Phenological Garden (IPG) network, where cloned trees are used to monitor the long-term phenological observations of representative tree species for Europe provides a specific, cloned set of important tree species, which had been planted throughout Europe starting in 1957. This gives a unique opportunity to study the adaptation to various climatic conditions and field conditions in genetically identical plants in relation to BVOC emissions. During a field campaign in 2013 at the IPG site in Taastrup, Denmark (55°40' N, 12°18' E), seven trees were measured at three heights within the canopy. Measured trees were two English oaks (Quercus robur), one European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and four Norway spruces (Picea abies) of two provenances. For oak and one provenance of spruce, measurements were performed twice, both in June and in August in order to examine any emission pattern change with the progression of the summer. Measurements were performed using a gas-exchange cuvette of a photosynthesis system combined with BVOC adsorbent tubes, which were

  17. Partitioning of platinum-group elements (PGE) and chalcogens (Se, Te, As, Sb, Bi) between monosulfide-solid solution (MSS), intermediate solid solution (ISS) and sulfide liquid at controlled fO2-fS2 conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yanan; Brenan, James

    2015-06-01

    In order to better understand the behavior of highly siderophile elements (HSEs: Os, Ir, Ru, Rh, Pt, Pd, Au, Re), Ag, Pb and chalcogens (As, Se, Sb, Te and Bi) during the solidification of sulfide magmas, we have conducted a series of experiments to measure partition coefficients (D values) between monosulfide solid solution (MSS) and sulfide melt, as well as MSS and intermediate solid solution (ISS), at 0.1 MPa and 860-926 °C, log fS2 -3.0 to -2.2 (similar to the Pt-PtS buffer), with fO2 controlled at the fayalite-magnetite-quartz (FMQ) buffer. The IPGEs (Os, Ir, Ru), Rh and Re are found to be compatible in MSS relative to sulfide melt with D values ranging from ∼20 to ∼5, and DRe/DOs of ∼0.5. Pd, Pt, Au, Ag, Pb, as well as the chalcogens, are incompatible in MSS, with D values ranging from ∼0.1 to ∼1 × 10-3. For the same metal/sulfur ratio, D values for the IPGEs, Rh and Re are systematically larger than most past studies, correlating with higher oxygen content in the sulfide liquid, reflecting the significant effect of oxygen on increasing the activity coefficients for these elements in the melt phase. MSS/ISS partitioning experiments reveal that Ru, Os, Ir, Rh and Re are partitioned into MSS by a factor of >50, whereas Pd, Pt, Ag, Au and the chalcogens partition from weakly (Se, As) to strongly (Ag, Au) into ISS. Uniformly low MSS- and ISS- melt partition coefficients for the chalcogens, Pt, Pd, Ag and Au will lead to enrichment in the residual sulfide liquid, but D values are generally too large to reach early saturation in Pt-Pd-chalcogen-rich accessory minerals, based on current solubility estimates. Instead, these phases likely precipitate at the last dregs of crystallization. Modeled evolution curves for the PGEs and chalcogens are in reasonably good agreement with whole-rock sulfide compositions for the McCreedy East deposit (Sudbury, Ontario), consistent with an origin by crystallization of MSS, then MSS + ISS from sulfide magma.

  18. Biotransformation of pesticides in saturated-zone materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyle, Blythe L.; Arthur, Ellen L.

    Database (Base de Datos de Pesticidas en Aguas Subterráneas)" perteneciente a la US EPA (Agencia de Protección Ambiental de los EEUU) se usó para centrar la discusión en la biotransformación potencial de diversos compuestos orgánicos detectados en diversos acuíferos de los EEUU. Los resultados de más de dos docenas de estudios indican que la biotransformación potencial de estos pesticidas en la zona saturada es posible, aunque para un pesticida dado pueden presentarse grandes diferencias, debidas tanto a diferencias en los métodos experimentales como a la heterogeneidad de los materiales. Sin embargo, no es posible en general extrapolar las predicciones de biotransformación potencial más allá de las zonas específicas estudiadas, al no haberse investigado en detalle sus mecanismos. Los resultados del estudio indican la necesidad de entender mejor la regulación genética de los procesos de biotransformación, para que la información genética pueda incorporarse de manera efectiva en las investigaciones futuras de biotransformación potencial en acuíferos.

  19. If Your Child Learns in Two Languages: A Parent's Guide for Improving Educational Opportunities for Children Acquiring English as a Second Language = Si su nino aprende en dos idiomes: Una guia para que las familias sepan como mejorar las oportunidades educativas de los ninos que adquieren el ingles como segunda lengua = Neu lon Ban Hoc Bang Hai Thu Tieng: Chi-nam cua phu-huynh de cai tien co hoi hoc van cua con em dang hoc Anh van nhu sinh ngu thu hai.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelasko, Nancy; Antunez, Beth

    This guide, in English, Spanish, and Vietnamese, aims to inform parents of students who have learned or are learning English as a Second Language about appropriate approaches for educating children so that they can work with schools to ensure a high quality education for their children. The emphasis is on explaining the laws, schools, and research…

  20. Nuevas oportunidades de inmunoterapia dirigida

    Cancer.gov

    Un equipo de investigadores del NCI ha informado que varios tipos de cánceres gastrointestinales tienen mutaciones específicas al tumor que pueden ser reconocidas por el sistema inmunitario, lo que ofrece una posible oportunidad terapéutica para pacientes

  1. ¿Cómo puede usted contribuir a la investigación médica? Done su sangre, sus tejidos y otras muestras

    Cancer.gov

    Explica la importancia de la donación de tejidos, responde a posibles preocupaciones y anima a los pacientes a que hablen con sus proveedores de cuidados para la salud acerca de la donación de muestras biológicas.

  2. Asteroides

    NASA Video Gallery

    Los asteroides son más que una roca metálica que orbita alrededor del sol. Al igual que la Tierra, es posible que Ceres, el asteroide más grande del sistema solar, tenga casquetes polares. Únete a ...

  3. Mamografías

    Cancer.gov

    Hoja informativa que define las mamografías de detección y de diagnóstico y pautas para pruebas de detección de cáncer de seno. Incluye beneficios y posibles limitaciones de las mamografías de detección.

  4. Terapia hormonal para el cáncer de seno

    Cancer.gov

    Hoja informativa que describe la terapia hormonal y su función en la prevención y tratamiento del cáncer de seno. Incluye información acerca de los efectos secundarios posibles y de los fármacos que pueden interferir con la terapia hormonal.

  5. Perspectives of DSNB neutrino researches in modern detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borodikhina, L.

    2016-02-01

    Studies of diffuse supernova neutrino background (DSNB) by modern underground detectors are reviewed. DSNB neutrino fluxes, their spectra and current experimental limits on their flux are discussed. Currently the best upper limit on DSNB neutrino flux is 2.9 cm-2s-1. Also posibilities to improve upper limits on future detectors and perspectivies of DSNB neutrino detection are discussed.

  6. Terapia hormonal para el cáncer de próstata Hoja informativa

    Cancer.gov

    Hoja informativa que describe la terapia hormonal y su función en el tratamiento del cáncer de próstata. Incluye información acerca de los tipos diferentes de terapia hormonal, cómo se usan y los efectos secundarios posibles.

  7. Beneficios y riesgos de la terapia estrogénica en la menopausia varían por edad, de acuerdo con el e

    Cancer.gov

    Los datos de seguimiento a largo plazo del estudio Iniciativa para la Salud de la Mujer (WHI) proporcionan información nueva e importante sobre los posibles riesgos y beneficios de la terapia hormonal para tratar síntomas relacionadas con la menopausia.

  8. Deep brain stimulation: new techniques.

    PubMed

    Hariz, Marwan

    2014-01-01

    The technology of the hardware used in deep brain stimulation (DBS), and the mode of delivering the stimulation have not significantly evolved since the start of the modern era of DBS 25 years ago. However, new technology is now being developed along several avenues. New features of the implantable pulse generator (IPG) allow fractionation of the electric current into variable proportions between different contacts of the multi-polar lead. Another design consists in leads that allow selective current steering from directionally placed electrode contacts that would deliver the stimulation in a specific direction or even create a directional shaped electric field that would conform to the anatomy of the brain target aimed at, avoiding adjacent structures, and thus avoiding side effects. Closed loop adaptive stimulation technologies are being developed, allowing a tracking of the pathological local field potential of the brain target, and delivering automatically the stimulation to suppress the pathological activity as soon as it is detected and for as long as needed. This feature may contribute to a DBS therapy "on demand", instead of continuously. Finally, advances in imaging technology are providing "new" brain targets, and increasingly allowing DBS to be performed accurately while avoiding the risks of microelectrode recording. PMID:24262179

  9. Laser post-processing of Inconel 625 made by selective laser melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witkin, David; Helvajian, Henry; Steffeney, Lee; Hansen, William

    2016-04-01

    The effect of laser remelting of surfaces of as-built Selective Laser Melted (SLM) Inconel 625 was evaluated for its potential to improve the surface roughness of SLM parts. Many alloys made by SLM have properties similar to their wrought counterparts, but surface roughness of SLM-made parts is much higher than found in standard machine shop operations. This has implications for mechanical properties of SLM materials, such as a large debit in fatigue properties, and in applications of SLM, where surface roughness can alter fluid flow characteristics. Because complexity and netshape fabrication are fundamental advantages of Additive Manufacturing (AM), post-processing by mechanical means to reduce surface roughness detracts from the potential utility of AM. Use of a laser to improve surface roughness by targeted remelting or annealing offers the possibility of in-situ surface polishing of AM surfaces- the same laser used to melt the powder could be amplitude modulated to smooth the part during the build. The effects of remelting the surfaces of SLM Inconel 625 were demonstrated using a CW fiber laser (IPG: 1064 nm, 2-50 W) that is amplitude modulated with a pulse profile to induce remelting without spallation or ablation. The process achieved uniform depth of melting and improved surface roughness. The results show that with an appropriate pulse profile that meters the heat-load, surface features such as partially sintered powder particles and surface connected porosity can be mitigated via a secondary remelting/annealing event.

  10. Drying processes in the presence of temperature gradients —Pore-scale modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huinink, H. P.; Pel, L.; Michels, M. A. J.; Prat, M.

    2002-12-01

    The influence of temperature gradients on the drying of water-saturated porous networks has been studied. We have focussed on the influence of the temperature on the drying process via the equilibrium vapor density ρ _e, because this is the most sensitive parameter with respect to variations of the temperature T. We have used a 2D model which accounts for both capillary and buoyancy forces. Invasion events by air or water are handled by standard rules of invasion percolation in a gradient (IPG). Vapor fluxes are calculated by solving a discretized version of the Laplace equation. In the model the temperature T varies linearly from the open side T0 to the closed side TL. The temperature gradients strongly influence the cluster evolution during the process, because they facilitate vapor transport through wet regions. When T0TL, the front movement is enhanced and the air ingress in the wet region behind the front is inhibited. The behavior of 3D systems differs from that of 2D systems, because the point where air percolates the system and the point where the water network breaks up in isolated clusters do not coincide. Before the latter fragmentation point the temperature will mainly influence the drying rates. After this point also the water distribution becomes sensitive to the temperature profile.

  11. Drying processes in the presence of temperature gradients--pore-scale modelling.

    PubMed

    Huinink, H P; Pel, L; Michels, M A J; Prat, M

    2002-12-01

    The influence of temperature gradients on the drying of water-saturated porous networks has been studied. We have focussed on the influence of the temperature on the drying process via the equilibrium vapor density rhoe, because this is the most sensitive parameter with respect to variations of the temperature T. We have used a 2D model which accounts for both capillary and buoyancy forces. Invasion events by air or water are handled by standard rules of invasion percolation in a gradient (IPG). Vapor fluxes are calculated by solving a discretized version of the Laplace equation. In the model the temperature T varies linearly from the open side T0 to the closed side TL. The temperature gradients strongly influence the cluster evolution during the process, because they facilitate vapor transport through wet regions. When T0TL, the front movement is enhanced and the air ingress in the wet region behind the front is inhibited. The behavior of 3D systems differs from that of 2D systems, because the point where air percolates the system and the point where the water network breaks up in isolated clusters do not coincide. Before the latter fragmentation point the temperature will mainly influence the drying rates. After this point also the water distribution becomes sensitive to the temperature profile. PMID:15011097

  12. Proteomic profiling combining solution-phase isoelectric fractionation with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis using narrow-pH-range immobilized pH gradient gels with slightly overlapping pH ranges.

    PubMed

    Lee, KiBeom; Pi, KyungBae

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a simple new approach toward improving resolution of two-dimensional (2-D) protein gels used to explore the mammalian proteome. The method employs sample prefractionation using solution-phase isoelectric focusing (IEF) to split the mammalian proteome into well-resolved pools. As crude samples are thus prefractionated by pI range, very-narrow-pH-range 2-D gels can be subsequently employed for protein separation. Using custom pH partition membranes and commercially available immobilized pH gradient (IPG) strips, we maximized the total separation distance and throughput of seven samples obtained by prefractionation. Both protein loading capacity and separation quality were higher than the values obtained by separation of fractionated samples on narrow-pH-range 2-D gels; the total effective IEF separation distance was ~82 cm over the pH range pH 3-10. This improved method for analyzing prefractionated samples on narrow-pH-range 2-D gels allows high protein resolution without the use of large gels, resulting in decreased costs and run times. PMID:19813004

  13. Characterization of an inductively coupled plasma source with convergent nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dropmann, Michael; Clements, Kathryn; Edgren, Josh; Laufer, Rene; Herdrich, Georg; Matthews, Lorin; Hyde, Truell

    2015-11-01

    The inductively heated plasma generator (IPG6-B) located in the CASPER labs at Baylor University has recently been characterized for both air, nitrogen and helium. A primary area of research within the intended scope of the instrument is the analysis of material degradation under high heat fluxes such as those imposed by a plasma during atmospheric entry of a spacecraft and at the divertor within various fusion experiment. In order to achieve higher flow velocities and respectively higher heat fluxes, a new exit flange has been designed to allow the installation of nozzles with varying geometries at the exit of the plasma generator. This paper will discuss characterization of the plasma generator for a convergent nozzle accelerating the plasma jet to supersonic velocity. The diagnostics employed include a cavity calorimeter to measure the total plasma power, a Pitot probe to measure stagnation pressure and a heat flux probe to measure the local heat flux. Radial profiles of stagnation pressure and heat flux allowing the determination of the local plasma enthalpy in the plasma jet will be presented. Support from the NSF and the DOE (award numbers PHY-1262031 and PHY-1414523) is gratefully acknowledged.

  14. Regional release of cyclooxygenase products after radiation exposure of the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Schneidkraut, M.J.; Kot, P.A.; Ramwell, P.W.; Rose, J.C.

    1986-10-01

    The present study evaluated the regional release of cyclooxygenase products 4 h following 20 Gy gamma irradiation. Thoracic shielding reduced the radiation-induced increase in immunoreactive thromboxane B2 (iTxB2) excretion to control levels while abdominal shielding partially attenuated the altered excretion of this cyclooxygenase product. To assess the role the kidneys play in the radiation-induced increase in iTxB2 excretion, an in situ isolated perfused rat kidney model was developed. The excretion rate of iTxB2 from irradiated isolated perfused kidneys was not significantly different from sham-irradiated perfused kidneys. Radiation exposure did alter renal cyclooxygenase product release in that the excretion of immunoreactive prostaglandin E2 (iPG2) and immunoreactive 6-keto-PGF1 alpha was significantly increased (P less than 0.05) in irradiated isolated perfused kidneys. These data show that radiation-induced increases in iTxB2 excretion are primarily due to altered extrarenal synthesis and/or metabolism of this arachidonate metabolite.

  15. TOM1 is a PI5P effector involved in the regulation of endosomal maturation.

    PubMed

    Boal, Frédéric; Mansour, Rana; Gayral, Marion; Saland, Estelle; Chicanne, Gaëtan; Xuereb, Jean-Marie; Marcellin, Marlène; Burlet-Schiltz, Odile; Sansonetti, Philippe J; Payrastre, Bernard; Tronchère, Hélène

    2015-02-15

    Phosphoinositides represent a major class of lipids specifically involved in the organization of signaling cascades, maintenance of the identity of organelles and regulation of multiple intracellular trafficking steps. We previously reported that phosphatidylinositol 5-monophosphate (PI5P), produced by the Shigella flexneri phosphatase IpgD, is implicated in the endosomal sorting of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Here, we show that the adaptor protein TOM1 is a new direct binding partner of PI5P. We identify the domain of TOM1 involved in this interaction and characterize the binding motif. Finally, we demonstrate that the recruitment of TOM1 by PI5P on signaling endosomes is responsible for the delay in EGFR degradation and fluid-phase bulk endocytosis. Taken together, our data strongly suggest that PI5P enrichment in signaling endosomes prevents endosomal maturation through the recruitment of TOM1, and point to a new function of PI5P in regulating discrete maturation steps in the endosomal system. PMID:25588840

  16. Two-dimensional electrophoresis analysis of proteins extracted from Alexandrium sp. LC3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hao; Miao, Jinlai; Cui, Fengxia; Li, Guangyou

    2007-10-01

    Two-dimensional electrophoresis(2-DE) of protein extracted and purified from Alexandrium sp. LC3 was conducted. In the SDS-PAGE study, the relative molecular weights of the proteins were mainly in the range of 14kDa-31kDa and 43kDa-66kDa, and more proteins were detected between 14kDa and 31kDa. With the improved protein preparation, the two-dimensional electrophoresis patterns indicated that the relative molecular weights of the proteins were between 14kDa and 100kDa, and most of them ranged from 14kDa to 31kDa. This was consistent with the result of the SDS-PAGE analysis. The isoelectric points were found to lie between 3.0 and 8.0, and most of them were in the range of 3.0 6.0. Better separation effect was acquired with pre-prepared immobilized gradient (IPG) strip (pH3 5.6), and about 320 protein spots could be visualized on the 2-DE map by staining. Within pH3 10 and pH3 5.6 strips, the protein samples of Alexandrium sp. LC3 could be separated well.

  17. Information Power Grid: Distributed High-Performance Computing and Large-Scale Data Management for Science and Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, William E.; Gannon, Dennis; Nitzberg, Bill

    2000-01-01

    ) Coupling large-scale computing and data systems to scientific and engineering instruments (e.g., realtime interaction with experiments through real-time data analysis and interpretation presented to the experimentalist in ways that allow direct interaction with the experiment (instead of just with instrument control); (5) Highly interactive, augmented reality and virtual reality remote collaborations (e.g., Ames / Boeing Remote Help Desk providing field maintenance use of coupled video and NDI to a remote, on-line airframe structures expert who uses this data to index into detailed design databases, and returns 3D internal aircraft geometry to the field); (5) Single computational problems too large for any single system (e.g. the rotocraft reference calculation). Grids also have the potential to provide pools of resources that could be called on in extraordinary / rapid response situations (such as disaster response) because they can provide common interfaces and access mechanisms, standardized management, and uniform user authentication and authorization, for large collections of distributed resources (whether or not they normally function in concert). IPG development and deployment is addressing requirements obtained by analyzing a number of different application areas, in particular from the NASA Aero-Space Technology Enterprise. This analysis has focussed primarily on two types of users: the scientist / design engineer whose primary interest is problem solving (e.g. determining wing aerodynamic characteristics in many different operating environments), and whose primary interface to IPG will be through various sorts of problem solving frameworks. The second type of user is the tool designer: the computational scientists who convert physics and mathematics into code that can simulate the physical world. These are the two primary users of IPG, and they have rather different requirements. The results of the analysis of the needs of these two types of users provides a

  18. Biased suppression of TP homodimerization and signaling through disruption of a TM GxxxGxxxL helical interaction motif

    PubMed Central

    Frey, Alexander J.; Ibrahim, Salam; Gleim, Scott; Hwa, John; Smyth, Emer M.

    2013-01-01

    Thromboxane A2 (TXA2) contributes to cardiovascular disease (CVD) by activating platelets and vascular constriction and proliferation. Despite their preclinical efficacy, pharmacological antagonists of the TXA2 receptor (TP), a G protein-coupled receptor, have not been clinically successful, raising interest in novel approaches to modifying TP function. We determined that disruption of a GxxxGxxxL helical interaction motif in the human TP's (α isoform) fifth transmembrane (TM) domain suppressed TP agonist-induced Gq signaling and TPα homodimerization, but not its cell surface expression, ligand affinity, or Gq association. Heterodimerization of TPα with the functionally opposing prostacyclin receptor (IP) shifts TPα to signal via the IP-Gs cascade contributing to prostacyclin's restraint of TXA2 function. Interestingly, disruption of the TPα-TM5 GxxxGxxxL motif did not modify either IP-TPα heterodimerization or its Gs-cAMP signaling. Our study indicates that distinct regions of the TPα receptor direct its homo- and heterodimerization and that homodimerization is necessary for normal TPα-Gq activation. Targeting the TPα-TM5 GxxxGxxxL domain may allow development of biased TPα homodimer antagonists that avoid suppression of IP-TPα heterodimer function. Such novel therapeutics may prove superior in CVD compared with nonselective suppression of all TP functions with TXA2 biosynthesis inhibitors or TP antagonists. PMID:23493750

  19. Biased suppression of TP homodimerization and signaling through disruption of a TM GxxxGxxxL helical interaction motif.

    PubMed

    Frey, Alexander J; Ibrahim, Salam; Gleim, Scott; Hwa, John; Smyth, Emer M

    2013-06-01

    Thromboxane A2 (TXA2) contributes to cardiovascular disease (CVD) by activating platelets and vascular constriction and proliferation. Despite their preclinical efficacy, pharmacological antagonists of the TXA2 receptor (TP), a G protein-coupled receptor, have not been clinically successful, raising interest in novel approaches to modifying TP function. We determined that disruption of a GxxxGxxxL helical interaction motif in the human TP's (α isoform) fifth transmembrane (TM) domain suppressed TP agonist-induced Gq signaling and TPα homodimerization, but not its cell surface expression, ligand affinity, or Gq association. Heterodimerization of TPα with the functionally opposing prostacyclin receptor (IP) shifts TPα to signal via the IP-Gs cascade contributing to prostacyclin's restraint of TXA2 function. Interestingly, disruption of the TPα-TM5 GxxxGxxxL motif did not modify either IP-TPα heterodimerization or its Gs-cAMP signaling. Our study indicates that distinct regions of the TPα receptor direct its homo- and heterodimerization and that homodimerization is necessary for normal TPα-Gq activation. Targeting the TPα-TM5 GxxxGxxxL domain may allow development of biased TPα homodimer antagonists that avoid suppression of IP-TPα heterodimer function. Such novel therapeutics may prove superior in CVD compared with nonselective suppression of all TP functions with TXA2 biosynthesis inhibitors or TP antagonists. PMID:23493750

  20. Multi-watt 589nm fiber laser source

    SciTech Connect

    DAWSON, J W; DROBSHOFF, A D; BEACH, R J; MESSERLY, M J; PAYNE, S A; BROWN, A; PENNINGTON, D M; BAMFORD, D J; SHARPE, S J; COOK, D J

    2006-01-19

    We have demonstrated 3.5W of 589nm light from a fiber laser using periodically poled stoichiometric Lithium Tantalate (PPSLT) as the frequency conversion crystal. The system employs 938nm and 1583nm fiber lasers, which were sum-frequency mixed in PPSLT to generate 589nm light. The 938nm fiber laser consists of a single frequency diode laser master oscillator (200mW), which was amplified in two stages to >15W using cladding pumped Nd{sup 3+} fiber amplifiers. The fiber amplifiers operate at 938nm and minimize amplified spontaneous emission at 1088nm by employing a specialty fiber design, which maximizes the core size relative to the cladding diameter. This design allows the 3-level laser system to operate at high inversion, thus making it competitive with the competing 1088nm 4-level laser transition. At 15W, the 938nm laser has an M{sup 2} of 1.1 and good polarization (correctable with a quarter and half wave plate to >15:1). The 1583nm fiber laser consists of a Koheras 1583nm fiber DFB laser that is pre-amplified to 100mW, phase modulated and then amplified to 14W in a commercial IPG fiber amplifier. As a part of our research efforts we are also investigating pulsed laser formats and power scaling of the 589nm system. We will discuss the fiber laser design and operation as well as our results in power scaling at 589nm.

  1. An essay of reflection: Why does preeclampsia exist in humans, and why are there such huge geographical differences in epidemiology?

    PubMed

    Robillard, Pierre-Yves; Dekker, Gustaaf; Iacobelli, Silvia; Chaouat, Gérard

    2016-04-01

    This workshop had four main objectives: (A) Trying to look at the preeclampsia (PE) problem "from the Space Shuttle": why preeclampsia has emerged in humans (a specific human reproductive feature among 4300 mammal species)? (B) Epidemiology: there are major geographical differences concerning early onset PE and late onset PE throughout the world. (C) Vascular: The very promising use of pravastatin in the treatment of the vascular maternal syndrome (based on the metabolism of carbon monoxide (CO), the role of inositol phosphate glycans P-type (IPG-P), a major role in comprehending the insulin resistance phenotype in preeclampsia. (D) Immunology: the specialty of these workshops since their start in 1998; our understanding of the role of the immune system and the regulation of the deep implantation of the human trophoblast (and the obligatory compromises between the fetal/placental unit and the mother) have reached a kind of "maturity," following the pivotal studies exploring the biology of repetitive sperm exposure in the female genital tract. The meeting of people who never meet each other in the course of their normal professional lives (obstetricians, evolutionists, geneticists, immunologists, fundamentalist vascular biologists, epidemiologists, anthropologists, neonatologists, etc.) permitted some fruitful reflections to be made again this year. PMID:26253618

  2. Automated CFD Parameter Studies on Distributed Parallel Computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Stuart E.; Aftosmis, Michael; Pandya, Shishir; Tejnil, Edward; Ahmad, Jasim; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the current work is to build a prototype software system which will automated the process of running CFD jobs on Information Power Grid (IPG) resources. This system should remove the need for user monitoring and intervention of every single CFD job. It should enable the use of many different computers to populate a massive run matrix in the shortest time possible. Such a software system has been developed, and is known as the AeroDB script system. The approach taken for the development of AeroDB was to build several discrete modules. These include a database, a job-launcher module, a run-manager module to monitor each individual job, and a web-based user portal for monitoring of the progress of the parameter study. The details of the design of AeroDB are presented in the following section. The following section provides the results of a parameter study which was performed using AeroDB for the analysis of a reusable launch vehicle (RLV). The paper concludes with a section on the lessons learned in this effort, and ideas for future work in this area.

  3. Can fiber laser improve high speed multi-pulse drilling of aeronautic alloy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, M.; Loumena, C.; Bussière, A.; Kling, R.; Delor, C.; Freysz, E.

    2016-03-01

    Processing of helicopter engines faster, better and more reliably is the triptych which binds LOMA, ALPhANOV and TURBOMECA. In current production machines, flash lamp pumped lasers are employed to drill thousands of cooling holes with specific geometries and diameters to ensure a homogeneous air flow over the surface. However we aim to enhance the production process. Therefore, the three partners started an initiative to identify and overcome the shortcomings of the current process, where the laser source is a key element for improvement. In this paper, we report on the latest developments in multi-pulse drilling using an IPG fiber laser. The latter delivers, at a tunable repetition rate (from single shot up to 2 kHz), laser pulses whose width and peak power are adjustable in between 0.2 - 10 ms and 0 - 12 kW respectively. We have focused our work on drilling of thick sheets of metal alloys with different geometries and different processing strategies. We will show that using such laser system it is possible to decrease the processing time while limiting the heat affected zones and collateral effects. Finally, the impact of the different physical processes in play during the drilling on the geometry of the holes will be discussed.

  4. Origin of primary PGM assemblage in сhromitite from a mantle tectonite at Harold's Grave (Shetland Ophiolite Complex, Scotland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badanina, Inna Yu.; Malitch, Kreshimir N.; Lord, Richard A.; Meisel, Thomas C.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we present textural and mineral chemistry data for a PGM inclusion assemblage and whole-rock platinum-group element (PGE) concentrations of chromitite from Harold's Grave, which occurrs in a dunite pod in a mantle tectonite at Unst in the Shetland Ophiolite Complex (SOC), Scotland. The study utilized a number of analytical techniques, including acid digestion and isotope dilution (ID) ICP-MS, hydroseparation and electron microprobe analysis. The chromitite contains a pronounced enrichment of refractory PGE (IPGE: Os, Ir and Ru) over less refractory PGE (PPGE: Rh, Pt and Pd), typical of mantle hosted `ophiolitic' chromitites. A `primary' magmatic PGM assemblage is represented by euhedrally shaped (up to 60 μm in size) single and composite inclusions in chromite. Polyphase PGM grains are dominated by laurite and osmian iridium, with subordinate laurite + osmian iridium + iridian osmium and rare laurite + Ir-Rh alloy + Rh-rich sulphide (possibly prassoite). The compositional variability of associated laurite and Os-rich alloys at Harold's Grave fit the predicted compositions of experiment W-1200-0.37 of Andrews and Brenan (Can Mineral 40: 1705-1716, 2002) providing unequivocal information on conditions of their genesis, with the upper thermal stability of laurite in equilibrium with Os-rich alloys estimated at 1200-1250 °C and f(S2) of 10-0.39-10-0.07.

  5. Design and hardware-in-loop implementation of collision avoidance algorithms for heavy commercial road vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajaram, Vignesh; Subramanian, Shankar C.

    2016-07-01

    An important aspect from the perspective of operational safety of heavy road vehicles is the detection and avoidance of collisions, particularly at high speeds. The development of a collision avoidance system is the overall focus of the research presented in this paper. The collision avoidance algorithm was developed using a sliding mode controller (SMC) and compared to one developed using linear full state feedback in terms of performance and controller effort. Important dynamic characteristics such as load transfer during braking, tyre-road interaction, dynamic brake force distribution and pneumatic brake system response were considered. The effect of aerodynamic drag on the controller performance was also studied. The developed control algorithms have been implemented on a Hardware-in-Loop experimental set-up equipped with the vehicle dynamic simulation software, IPG/TruckMaker®. The evaluation has been performed for realistic traffic scenarios with different loading and road conditions. The Hardware-in-Loop experimental results showed that the SMC and full state feedback controller were able to prevent the collision. However, when the discrepancies in the form of parametric variations were included, the SMC provided better results in terms of reduced stopping distance and lower controller effort compared to the full state feedback controller.

  6. The M 7.7 Tocopilla earthquake and its aftershock sequence: deployment of a Task Force local network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobiesiak, M.; Eggert, S.; Woith, H.; Grosser, H.; Peyrat, S.; Vilotte, J.; Medina, E.; Ruch, J.; Walter, T.; Victor, P.; Barrientos, S.; Gonzalez, G.

    2008-05-01

    After the November 14, 2007 Tocopilla earthquake in northern Chile, a local network of 20 short period seismic stations, 5 strong motion instruments, 6 GPS stations and 3 extensometers has been installed in the fault plane area between Tocopilla and Antofagasta by the German Task Force for earthquakes (GFZ Potsdam). The hydrogeology group of the TF sampled 20 thermal water sources in the area of the El Tatio geyser field, located about 170 km E of the epicentre. In collaboration with the IPG Paris, 4 broad band stations were deployed at the northern end of the fault plane between Tocopilla and Maria Elena. Major targets of the investigations of the aftershock sequence are the segment boundary between the 1995 Antofagasta earthquake and the recent Tocopilla event, stress transfer between both successively ruptured subduction zone segments, structural properties of the fault plane, possible consequences for the northern adjacent Iquique segment, and the influence of earthquake seismic waves on the El Tatio hydrothermal field. In our presentation we would like to show first results on the spatial distribution of the aftershocks and discuss these in relation to studies we have made on the Antofagasta aftershock sequence.

  7. Recent catalysis measurements at IRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massuti-Ballester, B.; Pidan, S.; Herdrich, G.; Fertig, M.

    2015-08-01

    At the Institute of Space Systems (IRS), experiments have been performed using the high enthalpy, inductively heated plasma generator (IPG) in plasma wind tunnel 3 (PWK3), in order to assess the catalytic behaviour of different materials. Utilising the Upwind Relaxation Algorithm for Non-equilibrium Flows of the University of Stuttgart (URANUS), a methodology for determining catalytic efficiencies by obtaining atomic recombination probabilities γ for high temperature materials, has been developed. This method eliminates the inherent uncertainties produced when using catalytic properties of previously tested materials to infer those of new materials. In this work, eight different candidates for the Thermal Protection System (TPS) of an entry vehicle have been studied, of which six are ceramic materials and the other two are metallic alloys. Thermochemical properties of these specimens are given for surface temperatures between 1000 and 2000 K in pure oxygen and pure nitrogen plasmas. The high enthalpies and relatively low pressure conditions in which these material samples have been tested in PWK3 are relevant for entry applications from Low Earth Orbit (LEO).

  8. Online service for monitoring the ionosphere based on data from the global navigation satellite system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleshin, I. M.; Alpatov, V. V.; Vasil'ev, A. E.; Burguchev, S. S.; Kholodkov, K. I.; Budnikov, P. A.; Molodtsov, D. A.; Koryagin, V. N.; Perederin, F. V.

    2014-07-01

    A service is described that makes possible the effective construction of a three-dimensional ionospheric model based on the data of ground receivers of signals from global navigation satellite positioning systems (GNSS). The obtained image has a high resolution, mainly because data from the IPG GNSS network of the Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring (Rosgidromet) are used. A specially developed format and its implementation in the form of SQL structures are used to collect, transmit, and store data. The method of high-altitude radio tomography is used to construct the three-dimensional model. The operation of all system components (from registration point organization to the procedure for constructing the electron density three-dimensional distribution and publication of the total electron content map on the Internet) has been described in detail. The three-dimensional image of the ionosphere, obtained automatically, is compared with the ionosonde measurements, calculated using the two-dimensional low-altitude tomography method and averaged by the ionospheric model.

  9. Proteomic mapping of the hyperthermophilic and acidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus P2

    SciTech Connect

    Barry, Richard C.; Young, Mark J.; Stedman, Kenneth M.; Dratz, Edward A.

    2006-07-14

    A proteomic map of Sulfolobus solfataricus P2, an archaeon that grows optimally at 80 C and pH 3.2, was developed using high resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and peptide mass fingerprinting. A total of 867 protein spots (659 aqueous tris-soluble spots and 208 aqueous tris-insoluble) were mapped over IPG 3-10, 4-7, and 6-11, with second dimension gels made of 8-18% polyacrylamide. 324 different gene products were represented by the 867 spots, with 274 gene products being identified in the tris-soluble fractions and 100 gene products in the tris-insoluble portion. Fifty gene products were found on gels from both fractions. Additionally, an average of 1.50 + 0.12 isoforms/per protein were identified. This mapping study confirmed the expression of proteins involved in numerous metabolic, transport, energy production, nucleic acid replication, translation, and transcription pathways. Of particular interest, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (SSO2537) was detected even though the pathway for gluconeogenesis is unknown for this archaeon. Tris-soluble fractions contained many cytosolic proteins while tris-insoluble fractions contained many membrane-associated proteins, including ABC transporters and an ATP synthase. This study provides an optimized 2-DE approach for investigating the biochemical pathways and post-translational modifications employed by Sulfolobus to survive in its extreme environment.

  10. Detergent Isolation Stabilizes and Activates the Shigella Type III Secretion System Translocator Protein IpaC.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Abram R; Duarte, Shari M; Kumar, Prashant; Dickenson, Nicholas E

    2016-07-01

    Shigella rely on a type III secretion system as the primary virulence factor for invasion and colonization of human hosts. Although there are an estimated 90 million Shigella infections, annually responsible for more than 100,000 deaths worldwide, challenges isolating and stabilizing many type III secretion system proteins have prevented a full understanding of the Shigella invasion mechanism and additionally slowed progress toward a much needed Shigella vaccine. Here, we show that the non-denaturing zwitterionic detergent N, N-dimethyldodecylamine N-oxide (LDAO) and non-ionic detergent n-octyl-oligo-oxyethylene efficiently isolated the hydrophobic Shigella translocator protein IpaC from the co-purified IpaC/IpgC chaperone-bound complex. Both detergents resulted in monomeric IpaC that exhibits strong membrane binding and lysis characteristics while the chaperone-bound complex does not, suggesting that the stabilizing detergents provide a means of following IpaC "activation" in vitro. Additionally, biophysical characterization found that LDAO provides significant thermal and temporal stability to IpaC, protecting it for several days at room temperature and brief exposure to temperatures reaching 90°C. In summary, this work identified and characterized conditions that provide stable, membrane active IpaC, providing insight into key interactions with membranes and laying a strong foundation for future vaccine formulation studies taking advantage of the native immunogenicity of IpaC and the stability provided by LDAO. PMID:27297397

  11. A 600-µW ultra-low-power associative processor for image pattern recognition employing magnetic tunnel junction-based nonvolatile memories with autonomic intelligent power-gating scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yitao; Miura, Sadahiko; Honjo, Hiroaki; Ikeda, Shoji; Hanyu, Takahiro; Ohno, Hideo; Endoh, Tetsuo

    2016-04-01

    A novel associative processor using magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ)-based nonvolatile memories has been proposed and fabricated under a 90 nm CMOS/70 nm perpendicular-MTJ (p-MTJ) hybrid process for achieving the exceptionally low-power performance of image pattern recognition. A four-transistor 2-MTJ (4T-2MTJ) spin transfer torque magnetoresistive random access memory was adopted to completely eliminate the standby power. A self-directed intelligent power-gating (IPG) scheme specialized for this associative processor is employed to optimize the operation power by only autonomously activating currently accessed memory cells. The operations of a prototype chip at 20 MHz are demonstrated by measurement. The proposed processor can successfully carry out single texture pattern matching within 6.5 µs using 128-dimension bag-of-feature patterns, and the measured average operation power of the entire processor core is only 600 µW. Compared with the twin chip designed with 6T static random access memory, 91.2% power reductions are achieved. More than 88.0% power reductions are obtained compared with the latest associative memories. The further power performance analysis is discussed in detail, which verifies the special superiority of the proposed processor in power consumption for large-capacity memory-based VLSI systems.

  12. Identification of differentially accumulated proteins associated with embryogenic and non-embryogenic calli in saffron (Crocus sativus L.)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is a complex biological process that occurs under inductive conditions and causes fully differentiated cells to be reprogrammed to an embryo like state. In order to get a better insight about molecular basis of the SE in Crocus sativus L. and to characterize differentially accumulated proteins during the process, a proteomic study based on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry has been carried out. Results We have compared proteome profiles of non-embryogenic and embryogenic calli with native corm explants. Total soluble proteins were phenol-extracted and loaded on 18 cm IPG strips for the first dimension and 11.5% sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels for the second dimension. Fifty spots with more than 1.5-fold change in abundance were subjected to mass spectrometry analysis for further characterization. Among them 36 proteins could be identified, which are classified into defense and stress response, protein synthesis and processing, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, secondary metabolism, and nitrogen metabolism. Conclusion Our results showed that diverse cellular and molecular processes were affected during somatic to embryogenic transition. Differential proteomic analysis suggests a key role for ascorbate metabolism during early stage of SE, and points to the possible role of ascorbate-glutathione cycle in establishing somatic embryos. PMID:22243837

  13. Influence of laser surface treated on the characterization and corrosion behavior of Al-Fe aerospace alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pariona, Moisés Meza; Teleginski, Viviane; dos Santos, Kelly; de Lima, Angela A. O. C.; Zara, Alfredo J.; Micene, Katieli Tives; Riva, Rudimar

    2013-07-01

    In this research laser surface remelting without protective coating with a 2 kW Yb-fiber laser (IPG YLR-2000S) was applied in the Al-1.5 wt.%Fe alloy in order to investigate the layer treated with different techniques of superficial characterization, thereby, the technique of optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy and low-angle X-ray diffraction were used. The present work mainly focuses on the corrosion study by diverse techniques in aggressive environment of the laser-treated area and the substrate material was carried out, thereby, at open circuit potential testing, the results have shown a displacement to more anodic values in the corrosion potential for the laser-treated specimen when compared to the untreated specimen; in potentiodynamic polarization tests have shown that as a result of the laser treatment, the corrosion current can be reduced by as much as ten times, and a passive region was obtained, which served as an effective barrier for reducing anodic dissolution and finally, the result in cyclic polarization curves of the untreated sample there was a greater area of the hysteresis loop, implying that it is more susceptible to corrosion. This study was complemented by other techniques mentioned above in order to elucidate this study. Laser surface remelting process has definitely modified the surface film, which results in higher corrosion resistance, a large range of passivation and a lower area of the hysteresis loop.

  14. Teachers' Perceptions about Oral Corrective Feedback and Their Practice in EFL Classrooms (Percepciones de los docentes acerca de la retroalimentación correctiva y su práctica en las aulas de inglés como lengua extranjera)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernández Méndez, Edith; Reyes Cruz, María del Rosario

    2012-01-01

    Corrective feedback has been discussed mainly in second language acquisition contexts, but less has been done concerning corrective feedback in foreign language settings. In this descriptive study, conducted at a Mexican university, our aims were to identify the perceptions of instructors of English as a foreign language about corrective feedback…

  15. How Do EFL Student Teachers Face the Challenge of Using L2 in Public School Classrooms? (¿Cómo enfrentan los docentes practicantes de inglés como lengua extranjera el reto de usar una segunda lengua en las aulas de clase de la escuela pública?)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viáfara, John Jairo

    2011-01-01

    As an EFL Student teachers' advisor, I had constantly perceived that they regarded using the target language with their pupils inside their classroom as a challenge. That is why I became interested in investigating how thirteen student teachers in Tunja public schools faced this issue. While participants were involved in a reflective teaching…

  16. An Exploration of EFL Teachers' Awareness of the Sources of Pedagogical Knowledge in a Teacher Education Program (Una exploración del nivel de conciencia de docentes de inglés como lengua extranjera respecto a las fuentes del conocimiento pedagógico en un programa de formación de docentes)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macías, Diego Fernando

    2013-01-01

    This project set out to investigate the extent to which the sources of English as a foreign language teachers' pedagogical knowledge are acknowledged and addressed in a teacher education program in a public university in Colombia. It involved the participation of teacher educators and novice teachers as well as the analysis of documents. This…

  17. Effects of Strategy Instruction in an EFL Reading Comprehension Course: A Case Study (Efectos de la instrucción de estrategias en un curso de comprensión de lectura en inglés como lengua extranjera: un estudio de caso)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopera Medina, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Strategy instruction is useful in teaching contexts. This paper examines the effects of strategy instruction in an EFL reading comprehension course carried out with 26 undergraduate students at a Colombian university. As a research method, a case study was implemented. There were three instruments with which to collect data: reading comprehension…

  18. "Don't Tell My Father": Important Lessons Learned through EFL Classroom Small Talk ("No le digan a mi padre": lecciones importantes aprendidas a través de la comunión fática en el salón de inglés como lengua extranjera)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayala González, Gabriela; de Cervantes Orozco, Miguel Adrián Leonel; González Cabrera, Víctor Daniel; Romero Mayora, Faviola; Mugford Fowler, Gerrard Edwin

    2011-01-01

    All too often phatic communion is neglected in the English as a foreign language classroom or relegated to the level of formulaic language which merits little or no attention. In this article we argue that phatic communion plays an important role in establishing, developing and maintaining interpersonal relationships between teacher and learners…

  19. Motivation Conditions in a Foreign Language Reading Comprehension Course Offering Both a Web-Based Modality and a Face-to-Face Modality (Las condiciones de motivación en un curso de comprensión de lectura en lengua extranjera (LE) ofrecido tanto en la modalidad presencial como en la modalidad a distancia en la web)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopera Medina, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Motivation plays an important in role in education. Based on the ten macro-strategies proposed by Dörnyei and Csizér (1998), this article analyzes the motivation conditions in a foreign language reading comprehension course using both a web-based modality and a face-to-face modality. A case study was implemented as the primary research method, and…

  20. The Impact of a Teacher Development Program for Strategic Reading on EFL Teachers' Instructional Practice (El impacto de un programa de desarrollo profesional en lectura estratégica en la práctica instruccional de docentes de inglés como lengua extranjera)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khonamri, Fatemeh; Salimi, Mahin

    2010-01-01

    Research on teacher development has been the focus of attention in recent decades. The overall aim of this study was to explore the impact of reading strategy training on high school teachers' reading instructional practices. The study was conducted in the EFL context of Iran. To meet this aim, four EFL high school teachers voluntarily took…

  1. Los padres como consejeros o coparticipes en la toma de decisiones. Serie E: [E1] logro de la participacion de los padres. cuaderno 3. Edicion para el maestro. Cuadernos para el entrenamiento de maestros de educacion bilingue. (Parents as Advisors or Participants in Decision Making. Series E: Parent Participation, Book 3. Teacher Edition. Bilingual Education Teacher Training Packet).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Rodolfo, Comp.

    This guide on training bilingual education teachers focuses on parents as advisors in the decision making process at bilingual schools. The two units, "An Introduction to Parent Participation" and "Parent Participation in Educational Decision Making," include objectives, definitions of terms, lists of materials and equipment, and learning…

  2. O Passado como Nacao: Imagens do Imperio nas Falas Reacionarias dos Anos 30 e 40 do Seculo XX: Uma Pequena Arqueologia do Debate Publico e Privado (The Past as Nation: Images of the Empire in the Reactionary Words of the 30s and 40s in the 20th Century: A Small Archaeology of the Public Debate versus the Private One).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Freitas, Marcos Cezar

    1998-01-01

    Suggests an archaeology of the public debate versus the private one in Brazil through analysis of the reactionary speech of a religious leader, Dom Jose Mauricio da Rocha, which produced innumerable representations of the Brazilian Empire. (PA)

  3. EFL Teachers' Perceptions of Continuing Professional Development: A Case of Iranian High School Teachers (La percepción de docentes de inglés como lengua extranjera acerca del desarrollo profesional continuado: el caso de profesores iraníes de bachillerato)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alibakhshi, Goudarz; Dehvari, Najibeh

    2015-01-01

    English, particularly regarding a foreign language teachers' professional development, has been studied in depth. However, it is not known how Iranian English as a foreign language teachers perceive continuing professional development. This study explored the perceptions of Iranian English as a foreign language teachers of continuing professional…

  4. ...And That's How It All Began: Putting Information about Your Child's Growth, Health and Safety All within Your Reach...Because the First Years Last Forever! = ...Y asi es como empezo todo: Ponemos a su alcance en forma conjunta la informacion sobre el crecimiento, la salud y la seguridad de su hijo...Porque los primeros anos duran para siempre!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina Partnership for Children, Raleigh.

    Smart Start is North Carolina's model early childhood initiative to help all North Carolina children enter school healthy and prepared for success. This resource guide, in Spanish and English versions, is designed to provide parents with information on infant and child development, health care, and resources for further assistance. Presented in an…

  5. Using the EPOSTL for Dialogic Reflection in EFL Teacher Education (El Uso de EPOSTL para la Reflexión Dialógica en la Educación de los Docentes de Inglés como Lengua Extranjera)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schauber, Holli

    2015-01-01

    For many pre-service English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers and their mentors, the theory and practice driven European Portfolio for Student Teachers of Languages (EPOSTL) occupies a prominent and practical role in their preparation programs as a delivery system of core pedagogical skills and knowledge. Interest in the role that dialogical…

  6. How To Talk to Your Doctor (and Get Your Doctor To Talk to You!). An Educational Workshop on Doctor Patient Communication = Como Hablarle a su Doctor (iY que su doctor le hable a usted!). Un seminario educativo sobre la comunicacion entre el doctor y el paciente.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baylor Coll. of Medicine, Houston, TX.

    This workshop, written in both English and Spanish, focuses on improving communication between physician and patient. In the workshop, the trainers will talk about "building bridges" between patient and doctor by understanding the doctor's role and his/her duty to the patient. According to the workshop, a person's doctor should communicate…

  7. Teacher Activities and Adolescent Students' Participation in a Colombian EFL Classroom (Actividades de enseñanza y participación de estudiantes adolescentes en una clase de enseñanza de inglés como lengua extranjera en Colombia)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caicedo, Jefferson

    2015-01-01

    The present study concerns the activities teachers develop and ninth-graders' participation in responses to those activities. The objectives of this study were to identify and describe the types of teaching activities developed and how students respond to them and to show how the target language is used in the classroom. The data collection was…

  8. Pronunciation Instruction and Students' Practice to Develop Their Confidence in EFL Oral Skills (La instrucción de la pronunciación y la práctica de los estudiantes para el desarrollo de la confianza en habilidades orales en inglés como lengua extranjera)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tlazalo Tejeda, Ana Cristina; Basurto Santos, Nora M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to inform on research intended to find out how pronunciation instruction of English as a foreign language was handled in the language classroom with elementary students and also understand if pronunciation instruction had an impact on students' confidence when using it. In order to do this, a qualitative case study was…

  9. Facilitating Professional Development during International Practicum: Understanding Our Work as Teacher Educators through Critical Incidents (Facilitando el desarrollo profesional durante la práctica internacional: Comprendiendo nuestro trabajo como formadores de profesores a través de incidentes críticos)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Judy; Grierson, Arlene

    2016-01-01

    This collaborative self-study details the experiences of an Australian teacher educator and a Canadian teacher educator, who led teacher candidates on international practicum placements to the Cook Islands and Kenya respectively. Focusing on critical incidents, they collaboratively analyzed dilemmas that occurred when providing professional…

  10. For a Child, Life is a Creative Adventure: Supporting Development and Learning through Art, Music, Movement, and Dialogue. A Guide for Parents and Professionals. = Para los ninos, la vida es una aventura creativa: Como estimular el desarrollo y el aprendizaje por medio de las artes visuales, la musica, el movimiento y el dialogo. Guia para padres de familia y profesionales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Elena

    Recognizing that creativity facilitates children's learning and development, the Head Start Program Performance Standards require Head Start programs to include opportunities for creative self-expression. This guide with accompanying videotape, both in English- and Spanish- language versions, encourages and assists adults to support children's…

  11. Pedagogical Factors That Influence EFL Teaching: Some Considerations for Teachers' Professional Development (Factores pedagógicos que influyen en la enseñanza del inglés como lengua extranjera: algunas consideraciones para el desarrollo profesional de docentes)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abad, José Vicente

    2013-01-01

    In this article we present the results of a qualitative research study on the pedagogical factors that influence English teaching in four public schools of Medellín, Colombia. Twelve teachers were interviewed regarding three linguistic principles: communicative competence, native language effect, and interlanguage. The data analysis led to the…

  12. The Implications of Orthographic Intraference for the Teaching and Description of ESL: The Educated Nigerian English Examples (Implicaciones de la Intraferencia Ortográfica para la Enseñanza y Descripción del Inglés como Segunda Lengua: Ejemplos Inglés Nigeriano Formal)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekundayo, Omowumi Steve Bode

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines orthographic intraference and its implications for teaching and describing English as a second language (ESL). Orthographic intraference is used here to denote instances of single word spelling, acronyms, mix up of homophones, homonyms and compound word spelling arising not from interference but from orthographic rules and…

  13. Los padres como consejeros o coparticipes en la toma de decisiones. Serie E: El logro de la participacion de los padres, cuaderno III. Edicion para el estudiante. Cuadernos para el entrenamiento de maestros de educacion bilingue. (Parents as Advisors or Participants in Decision Making. Series E: Success with Parent Participation, Book III. Student Edition. Bilingual Education Teacher Training Packet).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Rodolfo, Comp.

    The student version of a learning module for teacher training in bilingual education is one of three focusing on promoting parent participation in the school system, and concentrates specifically on the role of parents as counselors and co-participants in decisionmaking. An introductory section discussing the overall objectives of the materials is…

  14. Efectos Especiales de Anclaje (Estudio sobre Regresiones de Juicios Condicionales). Parte 2: Invariancia del Juicio No-Condicional Como Valor Estandar Para el Juicio Condicional (Special Effects of Anchoring (Study of Regression of Conditional Judgements) Part 2: Invariance of Unconditional Judgments as Standard Value for the Conditional Judgment). Publication No. 31.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez Alonso, A. O.

    From the best-fit lines corresponding to sets of families of conditional judgements, the constant stimulus family and the constant condition family, both defined for a same scale object, the coordinate values of the point of intersection of both lines (indifference point) are obtained. These values are studied in relation to the mean values of the…

  15. Experiencias interculturales y la pedagogia de la anglofonia en la ensenanza de ingles como lengua extranjera (EILE) desde una perspectiva deweyana. Working Paper (A Deweyan Perspective on Cross-Cultural Experiences and Anglophone Pedagogy in the Teaching of English as a Foreign Language. Working Paper).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoreda, Margaret Lee

    This paper discusses a framework for teaching English as a foreign language that incorporates significant cultural content and fosters critical encounters with Anglophone culture. It reviews relevant contemporary perspectives for understanding cross-cultural processes within the foreign language teaching environment with emphasis on the issue of…

  16. Metacognitive Awareness and Comprehension Monitoring in Reading Ability of Iranian EFL Learners (Monitoreo de la conciencia metacognitiva y de la comprensión en la habilidad lectora de estudiantes iraníes de inglés como lengua extranjera)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khonamri, Fatemeh; Mahmoudi Kojidi, Elahe

    2011-01-01

    We report an investigation on the relationship between metacognitive awareness of reading strategies and comprehension monitoring of language learners in English as a foreign language context. Participants were thirty first year university students majoring in electronics. They completed a questionnaire aimed at discerning the strategies that…

  17. EFL Teenagers' Social Identity Representation in a Virtual Learning Community on Facebook (Representación de la identidad social de los estudiantes adolescentes de inglés como lengua extranjera en una comunidad de aprendizaje virtual en Facebook)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiménez Guamán, Laura Verónica

    2012-01-01

    In this article I report the findings of a descriptive and interpretative qualitative study carried out in a public school in Bogotá, Colombia. The study aimed at analyzing, describing and exploring teenage students' social identity representation as observed in their participation in a learning community on Facebook. Data were collected from…

  18. Building Adult Relationships: Are You Treated as an Equal in Your Family? (A Pamphlet for People with Disbilities) [and] Como Establecer Relaciones Adultas: Se Lo Trata a UD. Igual que a Los Demas Adultos en Su Familia? (Un Panfleto para las Personas con Impedimentos).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Carla

    Two booklets, in English and Spanish, are addressed to disabled adults and offer guidelines for building adult relationships within the family. Stressed are the importance of feeling good about oneself, learning to make decisions, and developing good communication skills so that family balance is maintained. Also included are lists of the types of…

  19. The Need to Disentangle Key Concepts from Ecosystem-Approach Jargon

    PubMed Central

    WAYLEN, K A; HASTINGS, E J; BANKS, E A; HOLSTEAD, K L; IRVINE, R J; BLACKSTOCK, K L

    2014-01-01

    Argot Ambiente-Estrategia Resumen La estrategia ambiental – como es promocionada por la Convención Biológica sobre Diversidad en 2000 – es una estrategia para un manejo holístico, sustentable y equitativo de recursos naturales, que habrá de implementarse por vía de los 12 Principios de Malawi. Estos principios describen la necesidad de manejar la naturaleza en términos de ecosistemas dinámicos, mientras se compromete totalmente con las personas locales. Es un concepto ambicioso. Hoy en día, el término es común en la investigación y la literatura de políticas sobre el manejo ambiente. Sin embargo, se han relacionado múltiples significados con el término, lo que resulta en confusión. Revisamos referencias a la estrategia ambiental de 1957 a 2012 e identificamos tres usos principales: como una alternativa para manejo ambiental o basado en ecosistemas; en referencia a una estrategia integrada y equitativa para el manejo de recursos según la CBD; y como un término que indica un enfoque en el entendimiento y la valuación de los servicios ambientales. Aunque los usos de este término y sus variantes pueden traslaparse en su significado, típicamente no reflejan en su totalidad los valores de la estrategia ambiental como fue definida por la CBD. Por ejemplo, actualmente hay un énfasis creciente en los servicios ambientales, pero enfocarse solamente en estos no promueve la descentralización del manejo o el uso de todas las formas de conocimiento, siendo ambas integrales para el concepto de la CBD. Resaltamos que los Principios de Malawi están en riesgo de ser olvidados. Para entender mejor estos principios, se requiere de más esfuerzo para implementarlos. Dichos esfuerzos deben ser evaluados, idóneamente con estrategias comparativas, antes de permitir que el concepto de la CBD de manejo holístico y comprometido socialmente sea abandonado o reemplazado. Es posible que los intentos por implementar los 12 princip

  20. On matrix diffusion: formulations, solution methods and qualitative effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrera, Jesús; Sánchez-Vila, Xavier; Benet, Inmaculada; Medina, Agustín; Galarza, Germán; Guimerà, Jordi

    ) discriminar entre difusión en la matriz y otros problemas, como las reacciones con cinética química o la heterogeneidad; y (d) describir problemas de identificabilidad y posibles modos de resolverlos.

  1. Measurement and evaluation of national family planning programs.

    PubMed

    Mauldin, W P

    1967-03-01

    presentadas en formularios estandarizados, en las siguienies formas: 1. Informes nensuales por áreas administrativas, sobre los actuales servicios de planeamiento familiar proporcionados en la actualidad, de carácter permanente o de larga duración (al presente, esterilización y IUD de acuerdo a las siguientes características del receptor: residencia, edad, paridad (número de hijos vivos por sexo), y donde se enteró del programa, si es posible "clase";(probablemente educación de la madre, pero posiblemente ocupación del esposo, ingreso, o equivalente); prácticas anticonceptivas anteriores; intervalo; y deseo de tener más hijos. En un programa grande estos datos pueden obtenerse en base a una muestra. 2. Informes mensuales sobre la distribución de suministros anticonceptivos (condones, píldoras, sustancias efervescentes, etc.), los primeros suministros deben ir acompañados de un registro de las características del recipiente, como anteriormente; los suministros subsecuentes se regietrarán sólo en volumen bruto. Esto también se aplicará al ritmo, donde éste método se enseñe a un número considerable de mujeres. 3. Informes regulares sobre las actividades de planeamiento familiar de médicos privados, como una estimación del efecto catalítico del programa del gobierno sobre ci sector privado. 4. Datos generates mensuales, ppr áreas admirtistrativas importantes, sabre: visitas domiciliarias, reuniones, cuñas radiates y televisadas, avisos en los periódicos y personal que trabaja. 5. Para propósitos de seguimiento una entrevi eta de campo cada 6 a 12 meses a cada N mujer de las listas para (1) y (2) arriba, en un total de 300 o 400, para conocer las tasas de continuación y las razones de abandono (ej: desea otro hijo, insatisfecha can ci método, otras). Las mue.stras podrían ser de 300 cada una, con una supuesta experiencia de 6, 12, 18 y 24 meses. B. Un buen conjunto de datos sobre costa (datos sobre cotos actulaes atribuíbles directamente al

  2. Elastoplasticidad anisotropa de metales en grandes deformaciones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caminero Torija, Miguel Angel

    El objetivo de este trabajo es el desarrollo de modelos y algoritmos numericos que simulen el comportamiento del material bajo estas condiciones en el contexto de programas de elementos finitos, dando como resultado predicciones mas precisas de los procesos de conformado y deformacion plastica en general. Para lograr este objetivo se han desarrollado diversas tareas destinadas a mejorar las predicciones en tres aspectos fundamentales. El primer aspecto consiste en la mejora de la descripcion del endurecimiento cinematico anisotropo en pequenas deformaciones, lo cual se ha realizado a traves de modelos y algoritmos implicitos de superficies multiples. Ha sido estudiada la consistencia de este tipo de modelos tanto si estan basados en una regla implicita similar a la de Mroz o en la regla de Prager. Ademas se han simulado los ensayos de Lamba y Sidebottom, obteniendo, en contra de la creencia general, muy buenas predicciones con la regla de Prager. Dichos modelos podrian ser extendidos de forma relativamente facil para considerar grandes deformaciones a traves de procedimientos en deformaciones logaritmicas, similares a los desarrollados en esta tesis y detallados a continuacion. El segundo aspecto consiste en la descripcion de la anisotropia elastoplastica inicial. Esto se ha conseguido mediante el desarrollo de modelos y algoritmos para plasticidad anisotropa en grandes deformaciones, bien ignorando la posible anisotropia elastica, bien considerandola simultaneamente con la anisotropia plastica. Para ello ha sido necesario desarrollar primero un nuevo algoritmo de elastoplasticidad anisotropa en pequenas deformaciones consistentemente linealizado y sin despreciar ningun termino, de tal forma que se conserve la convergencia cuadratica de los metodos de Newton. Este algoritmo en pequenas deformaciones ha servido para realizar la correccion plastica de dos algoritmos en grandes deformaciones. El primero de estos algoritmos es una variacion del clasico algoritmo de

  3. Resonances and Tides in Natural Satellites Systems. (Breton Title: Ressonâncias e Marés em Sistemas de Satélites Naturais.) Resonancias y Mareas en Sistemas de Satélites Naturales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callegari, Nelson, Jr.

    2006-12-01

    sica, e não a descrição detalhada dos conceitos aqui discutidos. Describimos en este trabajo algunos aspectos de la dinámica de resonancias de movimientos promedio. Será dado un énfasis mayor al caso de las resonancias entre satélites regulares de los planetas gigantes, aunque también son discutidos brevemente algunos aspectos de la física de resonancias en sistemas panetarios extrasolares. La importancia del estudio de las resonancias en sistemas de satélites es discutida más detalladamente através de ejemplos, mostrando cómo ciertas resonancias y los efectos de disipación por mareas pueden ser la clave de parte de la explicación de algunos fenómenos aún no comprendidos en el Sistema Solar. Entre varios ejemplos se destacan el problema de la superficie remodelada del satélite Enceladus, la existencia de volcanes activos en Io y la posible existencia de un océano subterráneo en Europa. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo la divulgación de algunos tópicos en Mecánica Celeste y Planetología para un público universitario de ciencias exactas, en particular Astronomía y Física, y no la descripción detallada de los conceptos aquí discutidos.

  4. The conceptualization model problem—surprise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bredehoeft, John

    2005-03-01

    que le modèle conceptuel peut bien changer lorsque des nouvelles informations apparaissent. Dans l'analyse finale le hydrogéologue prend une décision subjective sur le modèle conceptuel approprié. Le problème du le modèle conceptuel ne doit pas rendre le modèle inutilisable. Ce problème introduit une incertitude qui n'est pas toujours reconnue. Les incertitudes du modèle conceptuel deviennent plus importantes dans les cases de prévisions à long terme dans l'analyse de performance. La base para hacer un análisis de un modelo es el modelo conceptual. Se define aquí la sorpresa como los datos nuevos que convierten en incoherente al modelo conceptual previamente aceptado; tal como se define aquí esto representa un cambio de paradigma. Los datos empíricos limitados indican que estas sorpresas suceden entre un 20 a un 30% de los análisis de modelos. Esto sugiere que los analistas de modelos de agua subterránea tienen dificultades al seleccionar el modelo conceptual apropiado. No hayotra solución disponible a este problema del modelo conceptual diferente de: (1) Recolectar tanta información como sea posible, mediante la utilización de todos los métodos aplicables, lo cual puede resultar en que esta nueva información ayude a cambiar el modelo conceptual vigente, y (2) Que el analista de modelos se mantenga siempre abierto al hecho de que un modelo conceptual puede cambiar de manera total, en la medida en que se colecte mas información. En el análisis final el hidrogeólogo toma una decisión subjetiva en cuanto al modelo conceptual apropiado. El problema de la conceptualización no produce modelos inútiles. El problema presenta una incertidumbre, la cual a menudo no es tenida en cuentade manera adecuada. Esta incertidumbre en los modelos conceptuales se aumenta, cuando se hacen predicciones a largo plazo del comportamiento de un sistema dado.

  5. Significado de los cambios en el cuello uterino: Guía para la salud de la mujer

    Cancer.gov

    Explica qué es la infección por el VPH; los exámenes de detección del cáncer de cuello uterino, entre ellos la prueba de Pap, la prueba del VPH y la prueba conjunta de Pap y del VPH; las pautas para los exámenes de detección; los posibles resultados de la

  6. Cúmulos abiertos y su medio interestelar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, J. R.; Arnal, E. M.; Morras, R.; Cappa, C.

    Se analiza la distribución del hidrógeno neutro en la vecindad de cuatro cúmulos abiertos ubicados en el cuarto cuadrante galáctico, con el fin de investigar su posible interacción con el medio interestelar circundante. El estudio se lleva a cabo en base a observaciones de la línea de 21 cm del HI obtenidos con la antena de 30 m del IAR.

  7. [The influence of diptera on the domestic animals].

    PubMed

    Romaniuk, K

    1999-01-01

    The Diptera attacked domestic animals in Poland are: Simuliidae, Culicidae, Tabanidae, Gasterophilidae, Hypoder-matidae and Muscidae. The insect assail the crazing animals, mostly during sunny day dna at close of day. Lack of effective repelents and also difficulties with their usage, makes it impossible to complete extermination of parasitic insects in the environment. It is posible to effectively fight against Hypoderma bovis and Gasterophilus spp. PMID:16886371

  8. Lesser Antilles Subduction Zone Investigation by a Cluster of Large Seismic Experiments in the Forearc Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Last, T.

    2007-12-01

    Thales LAST stands for Lesser Antilles Subduction zone Team which gathers the scientific teams of a cluster of surveys and cruises that have been carried out in 2007 and coordinated under the European Union THALES WAS RIGHT project (Coord. A. Hirn). This cluster is composed by the German cruise TRAIL with the vessel F/S Merian (PI E. Flueh and H. Kopp, IFM-GEOMAR), the French cruise SISMANTILLES 2 with the IFREMER vessel N/O Atalante (PI M. Laigle, IPG Paris and JF. Lebrun, Univ. Antilles Guyane), and French cruise OBSANTILLES with the IRD vessel N/O Antea (PI P. Charvis, Geoazur, Nice, France). During these cruises and surveys, 84 Ocean Bottom 3-components Seismometers (OBS) and 20 Hydrophones (OBHs) have been brought together from several pools (Geoazur, INSU, IPGP, IFM-GEOMAR, AWI,), with up to 30 land stations (CSIC Barcelone, IPG Paris, INSU-RLBM and -LITHOSCOPE) in addition to the permanent onshore arrays of IPGP and SRU. The deployment of all these instruments has been supported principally by ANR Catastrophes Telluriques et Tsunamis (SUBSISMANTI), by the EU SALVADOR Programme of IFM-GEOMAR, as well as by the EU project THALES WAS RIGHT on the Antilles and Hellenic active subductions to which contribute IPGP, Geoazur, IFM-GEOMAR (Germany), ETH Zurich (Switzerland), CSIC Barcelona (Spain), Univ. Trieste (Italy) and NOA Athens (Greece). The main goal of this large seismic investigation effort is the understanding of the behaviour of the seismogenic zone and location of potential source regions of mega-thrust earthquakes. Specific goals are the mapping of the subduction interplate in the range where it may be seismogenic along the Lesser Antilles Arc from Antigua to southern Martinique Islands, as a contribution to identification and localisation in advance of main rupture zones of possible future major earthquakes, and to the search for transient signals of the activity. The forearc region, commonly considered as a proxy to the seismogenic portion of the

  9. Platinum Group Elements (PGE) geochemistry of komatiites and boninites from Dharwar Craton, India: Implications for mantle melting processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Abhishek; Manikyamba, C.; Santosh, M.; Ganguly, Sohini; Khelen, Arubam C.; Subramanyam, K. S. V.

    2015-06-01

    High MgO volcanic rocks having elevated concentrations of Ni and Cr are potential hosts for platinum group elements (PGE) owing to their primitive mantle origin and eruption at high temperatures. Though their higher PGE abundance is economically significant in mineral exploration studies, their lower concentrations are also valuable geochemical tools to evaluate petrogenetic processes. In this paper an attempt has been made to evaluate the PGE geochemistry of high MgO volcanic rocks from two greenstone belts of western and eastern Dharwar Craton and to discuss different mantle processes operative at diverse geodynamic settings during the Neoarchean time. The Bababudan greenstone belt of western and Gadwal greenstone belt of eastern Dharwar Cratons are dominantly composed of high MgO volcanic rocks which, based on distinct geochemical characteristics, have been identified as komatiites and boninites respectively. The Bababudan komatiites are essentially composed of olivine and clinopyroxene with rare plagioclase tending towards komatiitic basalts. The Gadwal boninites contain clinopyroxene, recrystallized hornblende with minor orthopyroxene, plagioclase and sulphide minerals. The Bababudan komatiites are Al-undepleted type (Al2O3/TiO2 = 23-59) with distinctly high MgO (27.4-35.8 wt.%), Ni (509-1066 ppm) and Cr (136-3036 ppm) contents. These rocks have low ΣPGE (9-42 ppb) contents with 0.2-2.4 ppb Iridium (Ir), 0.2-1.4 ppb Osmium (Os) and 0.4-4.4 ppb Ruthenium (Ru) among Iridium group PGE (IPGE); and 1.4-16.2 ppb Platinum (Pt), 2.8-19 ppb Palladium (Pd) and 0.2-9.8 ppb Rhodium (Rh) among Platinum group PGE (PPGE). The Gadwal boninites are high-Ca boninites with CaO/Al2O3 ratios varying between 0.8 and 1.0, with 12-24 wt.% MgO, 821-1168 ppm Ni and 2307-2765 ppm Cr. They show higher concentration of total PGE (82-207 ppb) with Pt concentration ranging from 13 to 19 ppb, Pd between 65 and 180 ppb and Rh in the range of 1.4-3 ppb compared to the Bababudan komatiites. Ir

  10. Platinum-group minerals in the LG and MG chromitites of the eastern Bushveld Complex, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberthür, Thomas; Junge, Malte; Rudashevsky, Nikolay; de Meyer, Eveline; Gutter, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The chromitites of the Bushveld Complex in South Africa contain vast resources of platinum-group elements (PGE); however, except for the economic upper group (UG)-2 chromitite seam, information on the distribution of the PGE in the ores and on the mineralogical nature, assemblages, and proportions of platinum-group minerals (PGM) is essentially missing. In the present geochemical and mineralogical study, PGE concentrates originating from the lower group (LG)-6 and middle group (MG)-1/2 chromitites were investigated with the intention to fill this gap of knowledge. Chondrite-normalized PGE patterns of bulk rock and concentrates are characterized by a positive slope from Os to Rh, a slight drop to Pt, and an increase to Pd again. The pronounced similarities of the PGE patterns indicate similar primary processes of PGE concentration in the chromitites, namely "sulfide control" of the PGE mineralization, i.e., co-precipitation of chromite and sulfide. Further, the primary control of PGE concentration in chromitites appears to be dual in character: (i) base-level concentrations of IPGE (up to ˜500 ppb) hosted within chromite and (ii) co-precipitation of chromite and sulfide, the latter containing virtually the entire remaining PGE budget. Sulfides (chalcopyrite, pentlandite, and pyrite; pyrrhotite is largely missing) are scarce within the chromitites and occur mainly interstitial to chromite grains. Pd and Rh contents in pentlandite are low and erratic. Essentially, the whole PGE inventory of the ores occurs in the form of discrete PGM. The PGM are almost always associated with sulfides. The dominant PGM are various Pt-Pd-Rh sulfides (cooperite/braggite [(Pt,Pd)S] and malanite/cuprorhodsite [CuPt2S4]/[CuRh2S4]), laurite [RuS2], the main carrier of the IPGE (Os, Ir, Ru), sulfarsenides [(Rh,Pt,Ir)AsS], sperrylite [PtAs2], Pt-Fe alloys, and a large variety of mainly Pd-rich PGM. The LG and MG chromitites have many characteristics in common and define a general, "typical

  11. Age-related changes in the response of rat adipocytes to insulin: evidence for a critical role for inositol phosphoglycans and cAMP.

    PubMed

    Kunjara, Sirilaksana; Greenbaum, A Leslie; Rademacher, Thomas W; McLean, Patricia

    2010-08-01

    Adipose tissue plays a pivotal role in ageing and longevity; many studies, both human and animal, have focussed on the effects of food limitation. Here we present a new model based on striking differences between two 'normal' inbred strains of albino Wistar rats the Charles River (CR) and Harlan Olac (HO) that have marked differences in age-related accumulation of fat and insulin-stimulated rates of glucose incorporation into lipid in the epididymal fat pads (EFP). The incorporation [U-(14)C]glucose into lipid by adipocytes showed that the CR group had a twofold higher basal rate of lipogenesis and a greater response to insulin in vitro, exceptionally, adipocytes from CR group maintained the high response to insulin to late adulthood while retaining the lower EFP weight/100 g body weight. Inositol phosphoglycan A-type (IPG-A), a putative insulin second messenger, was 3.5-fold higher and cAMP significantly lower per EFP in the CR versus HO groups. Plasma insulin levels were similar and plasma leptin higher in CR versus HO groups. The anomaly of a higher rate of lipogenesis and response to insulin and lower EFP weight in the CR group is interpreted as the resultant effect of a faster turnover of lipid and stimulating effect of leptin in raising fatty acid oxidation by muscle, potentially key to the lower accumulation of visceral fat. The metabolic profile of the CR strain provides a template that could be central to therapies that may lead to the lowering of both adipose and non-adipocyte lipid accumulation in humans in ageing. PMID:20336370

  12. Analysis of Antibody Responses to Mycobacterium leprae Phenolic Glycolipid I, Lipoarabinomannan, and Recombinant Proteins To Define Disease Subtype-Specific Antigenic Profiles in Leprosy ▿

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, John S.; Kim, Hee Jin; Wheat, William H.; Chatterjee, Delphi; Balagon, Marivic V.; Cellona, Roland V.; Tan, Esterlina V.; Gelber, Robert; Saunderson, Paul; Duthie, Malcolm S.; Reece, Stephen T.; Burman, William; Belknap, Robert; Mac Kenzie, William R.; Geluk, Annemieke; Oskam, Linda; Dockrell, Hazel M.; Brennan, Patrick J.

    2011-01-01

    A simple serodiagnostic test based on the Mycobacterium leprae-specific phenolic glycolipid I(PGL-I), for individuals with leprosy is nearly universally positive in leprosy patients with high bacillary loads but cannot be used as a stand-alone diagnostic test for the entire spectrum of the disease process. For patients with early infection with no detectable acid-fast bacilli in lesions or with low or no antibody titer to PGL-I, as in those at the tuberculoid end of the disease spectrum, this diagnostic approach has limited usefulness. To identify additional M. leprae antigens that might enhance the serological detection of these individuals, we have examined the reactivity patterns of patient sera to PGL-I, lipoarabinomannan (LAM), and six recombinant M. leprae proteins (ML1877, ML0841, ML2028, ML2038, ML0380, and ML0050) by Western blot analysis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Overall, the responses to ML2028 (Ag85B) and ML2038 (bacterioferritin) were consistently high in both multibacillary and paucibacillary groups and weak or absent in endemic controls, while responses to other antigens showed considerable variability, from strongly positive to completely negative. This analysis has given a clearer understanding of some of the differences in the antibody responses between individuals at opposite ends of the disease spectrum, as well as illustrating the heterogeneity of antibody responses toward protein, carbohydrate, and glycolipid antigens within a clinical group. Correlating these response patterns with a particular disease state could allow for a more critical assessment of the form of disease within the leprosy spectrum and could lead to better patient management. PMID:21177913

  13. Ontogenetic variations in the venom proteome of the Amazonian snake Bothrops atrox

    PubMed Central

    Guércio, Rafael AP; Shevchenko, Anna; Shevchenko, Andrej; López-Lozano, Jorge L; Paba, Jaime; Sousa, Marcelo V; Ricart, Carlos AO

    2006-01-01

    Background Bothrops atrox is responsible for the majority of snakebite accidents in the Brazilian Amazon region. Previous studies have demonstrated that the biological and pharmacological activities of B. atrox venom alter with the age of the animal. Here, we present a comparative proteome analysis of B. atrox venom collected from specimens of three different stages of maturation: juveniles, sub-adults and adults. Results Optimized conditions for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) of pooled venom samples were achieved using immobilized pH gradient (IPG) gels of non-linear 3–10 pH range during the isoelectric focusing step and 10–20% gradient polyacrylamide gels in the second dimension. Software-assisted analysis of the 2-DE gels images demonstrated differences in the number and intensity of spots in juvenile, sub-adult and adult venoms. Although peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) failed to identify even a minor fraction of spots, it allowed us to group spots that displayed similar peptide maps. The spots were subjected to a combination of tandem mass spectrometry and Mascot and MS BLAST database searches that identified several classes of proteins, including metalloproteinases, serine proteinases, lectins, phospholipases A2, L-amino oxidases, nerve growth factors, vascular endothelial growth factors and cysteine-rich secretory proteins. Conclusion The analysis of B. atrox samples from specimens of different ages by 2-DE and mass spectrometry suggested that venom proteome alters upon ontogenetic development. We identified stage specific and differentially expressed polypeptides that may be responsible for the activities of the venom in each developmental stage. The results provide insight into the molecular basis of the relation between symptomatology of snakebite accidents in humans and the venom composition. Our findings underscore the importance of the use of venoms from individual specimen at various stages of maturation for the production of

  14. Advanced two-photon photolithography for patterning of transparent, electrically conductive ionic liquid-polymer nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhtina, Natalia A.; MacKinnon, Neil; Korvink, Jan G.

    2016-04-01

    A key challenge in micro- and nanotechnology is the direct patterning of functional structures. For example, it is highly desirable to possess the ability to create three-dimensional (3D), conductive, and optically transparent structures. Efforts in this direction have, to date, yielded less than optimal results since the polymer composites had low optical transparency over the visible range, were only slightly conductive, or incompatible with high resolution structuring. We have previously presented the novel cross-linkable, conductive, highly transparent composite material based on a photoresist (IP-L 780, OrmoComp, or SU-8) and the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide. Material patterning by conventional and two-photon photolithography has been demonstrated as proof-of-concept. Aiming to increase the resolution and to extend the spectrum of exciting applications we continued our research into identifying new ionic liquid - polymer composites. In this paper, we report the precise 3D single-step structuring of optically transparent and electrically conductive ionic liquid - polymer nanostructures with the highest spatial resolution (down to 150 nm) achieved to date. This was achieved via the development of novel cross-linkable composite based on the photoresist IP-G 780 and the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide. The successful combination of the developed material with the advanced direct laser writing technique enabled the time- and cost-saving direct manufacturing of transparent, electrically conductive components. We believe that the excellent characteristics of the structured material will open a wider range of exciting applications.

  15. A Phenomenological Model of the Electrically Stimulated Auditory Nerve Fiber: Temporal and Biphasic Response Properties

    PubMed Central

    Horne, Colin D. F.; Sumner, Christian J.; Seeber, Bernhard U.

    2016-01-01

    We present a phenomenological model of electrically stimulated auditory nerve fibers (ANFs). The model reproduces the probabilistic and temporal properties of the ANF response to both monophasic and biphasic stimuli, in isolation. The main contribution of the model lies in its ability to reproduce statistics of the ANF response (mean latency, jitter, and firing probability) under both monophasic and cathodic-anodic biphasic stimulation, without changing the model's parameters. The response statistics of the model depend on stimulus level and duration of the stimulating pulse, reproducing trends observed in the ANF. In the case of biphasic stimulation, the model reproduces the effects of pseudomonophasic pulse shapes and also the dependence on the interphase gap (IPG) of the stimulus pulse, an effect that is quantitatively reproduced. The model is fitted to ANF data using a procedure that uniquely determines each model parameter. It is thus possible to rapidly parameterize a large population of neurons to reproduce a given set of response statistic distributions. Our work extends the stochastic leaky integrate and fire (SLIF) neuron, a well-studied phenomenological model of the electrically stimulated neuron. We extend the SLIF neuron so as to produce a realistic latency distribution by delaying the moment of spiking. During this delay, spiking may be abolished by anodic current. By this means, the probability of the model neuron responding to a stimulus is reduced when a trailing phase of opposite polarity is introduced. By introducing a minimum wait period that must elapse before a spike may be emitted, the model is able to reproduce the differences in the threshold level observed in the ANF for monophasic and biphasic stimuli. Thus, the ANF response to a large variety of pulse shapes are reproduced correctly by this model. PMID:26903850

  16. The role of regional tectonics, magma pressure and gravitational spreading in earthquakes of the eastern sector of Mt. Etna volcano (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patanè, G.; Montalto, A.; Imposa, S.; Menza, S.

    1994-07-01

    Data concerning M ⩾ 3.3 earthquakes that occurred in the eastern sector of Mt. Etna volcano (Sicily, Italy) in the period 1984-1989 are here presented and discussed. Only events with reliable focal mechanisms and detailed macroseismic investigations have been considered. Instrumental information come from local seismic networks, both permanent and temporary, run by the University of Catania (UCT), the Seismological Observatory of Acireale (SOACR), the CNRS (Grenoble, France) and the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (IPG, France). Observations regarding the macroseismic effects have been collected by means of field recognitions mainly carried out by the authors. All available data are analyzed in light of the more recent interpretations on the kinematic behaviour of the shallowest structures of Etna, with particular reference to its eastern flank which, according to Borgia et al. (1992), is likely affected by a seaward gravitational migration, driven by the sliding of this sector of the volcanic apparatus over its clay-rich substratum. The results obtained support the hypothesis that the shallow seismicity of the eastern flank of Mt. Etna is related to a complex stress field due to the combined effects of: (a) the tectonics associated with the interaction between the African and Eurasian plates; (b) the rise of magma into the crust; and (c) the gravitative seaward sliding of the eastern sector of the volcano. In particular, we hypothesize that: (1) tectonic forces caused the end of the 1984 eruption, by means of a "locking mechanism"; (2) the increment of magma pressure at depth is periodically responsible for local re-orientation of the stress field acting on the volcano, which also produces earthquakes of high intensity; (3) shallow earthquakes ( z < = 5 km), showing eastward compression mechanism, could be related to the gravitational sliding of unbuttressed sectors of the volcanic body accompanying the emplacement of intrusive dykes.

  17. Preliminary Comparison of Properties between Ni-electroplated Stainless Steel Parts Fabricated with Laser Additive Manufacturing and Conventional Machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäkinen, Mika; Jauhiainen, Eeva; Matilainen, Ville-Pekka; Riihimäki, Jaakko; Ritvanen, Jussi; Piili, Heidi; Salminen, Antti

    Laser additive manufacturing (LAM) is a fabrication technology, which enables production of complex parts from metallic materials with mechanical properties comparable to those of conventionally machined parts. These LAM parts are manufactured via melting metallic powder layer by layer with laser beam. Aim of this study is to define preliminarily the possibilities of using electroplating to supreme surface properties. Electrodeposited nickel and chromium as well as electroless (autocatalytic) deposited nickel was used to enhance laser additive manufactured and machined parts properties, like corrosion resistance, friction and wearing. All test pieces in this study were manufactured with a modified research AM equipment, equal to commercial EOS M series. The laser system used for tests was IPG 200 W CW fiber laser. The material used in this study for additive manufacturing was commercial stainless steel powder grade named SS316L. This SS316L is not equal to AISI 316L grade, but commercial name of this kind of powder is widely known in additive manufacturing as SS316L. Material used for fabrication of comparison test pieces (i.e. conventionally manufactured) was AISI 316L stainless steel bar. Electroplating was done in matrix cell and electroless was done in plastic sink properties of plated parts were tested within acetic acid salt spray corrosion chamber (AASS, SFS-EN-ISO 9227 standard). Adhesion of coating, friction and wearing properties were tested with Pin-On-Rod machine. Results show that in these preliminary tests, LAM parts and machined parts have certain differences due to manufacturing route and surface conditions. These have an effect on electroplated and electroless parts features on adhesion, corrosion, wearing and friction. However, further and more detailed studies are needed to fully understand these phenomena.

  18. PEP725 Pan European Phenological Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Elisabeth; Adler, Silke; Ungersböck, Markus; Zach-Hermann, Susanne

    2010-05-01

    Europe is in the fortunate situation that it has a long tradition in phenological networking: the history of collecting phenological data and using them in climatology has its starting point in 1751 when Carl von Linné outlined in his work Philosophia Botanica methods for compiling annual plant calendars of leaf opening, flowering, fruiting and leaf fall together with climatological observations "so as to show how areas differ". The Societas Meteorologicae Palatinae at Mannheim well known for its first European wide meteorological network also established a phenological network which was active from 1781 to 1792. Recently in most European countries, phenological observations have been carried out routinely for more than 50 years by different governmental and non governmental organisations and following different observation guidelines, the data stored at different places in different formats. This has been really hampering pan European studies, as one has to address many National Observations Programs (NOP) to get access to the data before one can start to bring them in a uniform style. From 2004 to 2005 the COST-action 725 was running with the main objective to establish a European reference data set of phenological observations that can be used for climatological purposes, especially climate monitoring, and detection of changes. So far the common database/reference data set of COST725 comprises 7687248 data from 7285 observation sites in 15 countries and International Phenological Gardens (IPG) spanning the timeframe from 1951 to 2000. ZAMG is hosting the database. In January 2010 PEP725 has started and will take over not only the part of maintaining, updating the database, but also to bring in phenological data from the time before 1951, developing better quality checking procedures and ensuring an open access to the database. An attractive webpage will make phenology and climate impacts on vegetation more visible in the public enabling a monitoring of

  19. PEP725 Pan European Phenological Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, E.; Adler, S.; Lipa, W.; Ungersböck, M.; Zach-Hermann, S.

    2010-09-01

    Europe is in the fortunate situation that it has a long tradition in phenological networking: the history of collecting phenological data and using them in climatology has its starting point in 1751 when Carl von Linné outlined in his work Philosophia Botanica methods for compiling annual plant calendars of leaf opening, flowering, fruiting and leaf fall together with climatological observations "so as to show how areas differ". Recently in most European countries, phenological observations have been carried out routinely for more than 50 years by different governmental and non governmental organisations and following different observation guidelines, the data stored at different places in different formats. This has been really hampering pan European studies as one has to address many network operators to get access to the data before one can start to bring them in a uniform style. From 2004 to 2009 the COST-action 725 established a European wide data set of phenological observations. But the deliverables of this COST action was not only the common phenological database and common observation guidelines - COST725 helped to trigger a revival of some old networks and to establish new ones as for instance in Sweden. At the end of 2009 the COST action the database comprised about 8 million data in total from 15 European countries plus the data from the International Phenological Gardens IPG. In January 2010 PEP725 began its work as follow up project with funding from EUMETNET the network of European meteorological services and of ZAMG the Austrian national meteorological service. PEP725 not only will take over the part of maintaining, updating the COST725 database, but also to bring in phenological data from the time before 1951, developing better quality checking procedures and ensuring an open access to the database. An attractive webpage will make phenology and climate impacts on vegetation more visible in the public enabling a monitoring of vegetation development.

  20. In vivo study of partial liver resection on pigs using a 1.9 μm thulium fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theisen-Kunde, D.; Wolken, H.; Danicke, V.; Brinkmann, R.; Bruch, H.; Kleemann, M.

    2011-07-01

    Dissection of liver tissue can be performed by different techniques (ultrasound, mono and bipolar dissection, water jet dissection and by stapler). In this animal study the potential of a Thulium fiber laser system was investigated for open parenchyma dissection. Based on a cw Thulium fiber laser (IPG laser GmbH, Burbach, Germany), emitting a wavelength at 1.9 μm and a maximal power at 50 W, a surgical dissection device was developed at the Medical Laser Centre Luebeck. Cw laser radiation (40 Watt) was transmitted via a 365 μm fiber with a polished distal fiber tip. Procedure was performed in contact mode; irradiance at the distal fiber tip was 38.2 kW/cm2. After general anesthesia and a median laparotomy an atypical laser resection of the liver was performed in 3 pigs. Healing process was controlled after 2-3 weeks by histological analysis (H&E staining). The final evaluation data included total resection time, blood loss, bile leakage and mass of dissected tissue. All animals treated in this study were cared for in accordance to the European convention on animal care. In general the dissection with the 1.9 μm laser radiation was easily performed. Hemostasis was highly sufficient so blood loss and bile leakage was negligible. Total resection time including hemostasis of the remaining tissue was 26 +/- 12 min. Weight of resected tissue was 17 +/- 8 g. During survival period no complications (bleeding or inflammation) occurred. After 2 weeks histology showed ongoing scar formation about 1 - 2 mm in depth of the dissected area.

  1. Neurostimulation of the Lacrimal Nerve for Enhanced Tear Production

    PubMed Central

    Kossler, Andrea L.; Wang, Jianhua; Feuer, William; Tse, David T.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To design a proof-of-concept study to assess the effect of lacrimal nerve stimulation (LNS) with an implantable pulse generator (IPG) to increase aqueous tear production. Methods Experimental animal study design of six Dutch Belted rabbits. Ultra high-resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR-OCT) quantified tear production by measuring the baseline tear volume of each rabbit’s right and left eye. A neurostimulator was implanted adjacent to the right lacrimal nerve. After two minutes of LNS (100 μs, 1.6 mAmp, 20 Hz, 5–8 volts), the tear volumes were measured with UHR-OCT. The change in tear volume was quantified and compared to the non-stimulated left eye. Three rabbits underwent chronic LNS (100 μS, 1.6 mAmp, 10 Hz, 2 volts) and their lacrimal glands were harvested for histopathologic analysis. Results UHR-OCT imaging of the right eyes tear volume showed a 441% average increase in tear production after LNS as a percent of baseline. After stimulation, right eyes had statistically significant greater increase in tear volumes than left eyes (p=0.028, Wilcoxon test). Post-stimulation right eye tear volumes were significantly greater compared to baseline (p=0.028, Wilcoxon test). Histopathologic examination of the lacrimal glands showed no discernible tissue damage from chronic neurostimulation. Additionally, there were no gross adverse effects on the general well-beings of the animals due to chronic stimulation. Conclusions Lacrimal nerve stimulation with an implantable pulse generator appears to increase aqueous tear production. Chronic LNS showed no histopathologic lacrimal gland damage. This study suggests LNS is a promising new treatment strategy to increase aqueous tear production. PMID:25126767

  2. In-situ geochemistry of sulfides in highly metasomatized mantle xenoliths from Kerguelen, southern Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delpech, Guillaume; Lorand, Jean-Pierre; Grégoire, Michel; Cottin, Jean-Yves; O'Reilly, Suzanne Y.

    2012-12-01

    Mantle xenoliths from the Kerguelen Archipelago record a complex multistage history involving a high degree (15 to 25%) partial melting that created a harzburgitic mantle completely stripped of Base Metal Sulfides (BMS), followed by pervasive melt-rock reaction with alkaline melts above the Kerguelen mantle plume. Subsequent reaction of the highly refractory protolith with small volumes of carbonate-rich silicate melts led to a re-enrichment in BMS (up to 0.05 wt.%). Two BMS precipitation mechanisms are suggested: immiscibility from the silicate-carbonate melt and sulfidation reactions from a CO2-rich supercritical fluid. In-situ analyses of chalcophile and siderophile elements (major and trace levels) in the BMS shed new light on their origin. The BMS phases that precipitated via immiscibility are metal-rich sulfide melts which progressively evolved toward Ni and Cu-rich end-members by cumulate fractionation of monosulfide solid solution (mss) during percolation inside the peridotites. Some cumulate mss have elevated and fractionated IPGE contents (200-900 × C1-Chondrite abundances), indicating random digestion of preexisting Os, Ir, Ru-rich PGM by the percolating sulfide melt. The BMS that precipitated by sulfidation reactions from a CO2-rich vapour phase are subsolidus exsolution products from Cu-bearing but Ni-poorer mss. They have the highest concentrations of PGEs and show selective enrichment in S, Pd, Pt and Os over Cu, S, Ir, Ru and Rh. Their PGE compositions confirm experimental data, which demonstrate that S, Pd, Pt and Os can be efficiently transported in a CO2-rich supercritical fluid. Superchondritic (S/Se), (Os/Ir) and (Pd/Pt) in both bulk-rocks and individual sulfides are inferred to be the geochemical fingerprints of sulfide crystallisation from a CO2-rich vapour exsolved from a highly evolved carbonate-rich metasomatic melt.

  3. Linear and non-linear numerical simulations of poloidal Alfven waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, A.

    2013-05-01

    Among the many of numerical simulations of MHD turbulence, few studies had been made of Alfven waves interacting with realistic boundaries. Thus, we have developed a novel hybrid spectral/finite element code, which is capable of simulate properly realistic boundaries properties. Our model is based on a Fourier decompositions of all variables in the azimuthal direction and on a finite element projection in the meridian plan. In order to simulate realistic boundary conditions for the magnetic field we solve the induction equation enforcing continuity of the magnetic field H at the interface with the external insulating medium through a Interior Penalty Galerkin method (IPG) [1]. I will present the results of our investigation of Alfven waves propagating in a cylinder filled of liquid metal submitted to an axial magnetic field. Poloidal Alfven waves are excited magnetically by imposing an azimuthal current pulse at the bottom of the cylinder. In the linear axisymmetric model we find a good agreement with previous experiments in liquid metals by Lundquist and by Lenhert and more recently by Alboussiere et al [2]. This axisymmetric study is extended to the non linear regime, where the amplitudes of the perturbations are comparable to the external applied magnetic field,in this conditions a complex response is found due to waves waves interactions. [1] J. L. Guermond, J.L Leorat, F. Luddens, C. Nore, A. Ribeiro. Effects of discontinuous magnetic permeability on magnetodynamic problems, Journal of Computational Physics Volume 230, Issue 16, 10 July 2011, Pages 6299 -- 6319. [2] T. Alboussiere, P. Cardin, F. Debray, H. C. Nataf, F. Plunian, A. Ribeiro, D. Schmitt, Experimental evidence of Alfven wave propagation in a Gallium alloy, Physics of fluids, 2011, vol. 23, nb 9.

  4. Heat Transfer In Sub- And Supersonic Nonequilibrium Jets Of Carbon Dioxide Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesnikov, A. F.; Gordeev, A. N.; Vasilevskii, S. A.

    2011-05-01

    Subsonic high-enthalpy carbon dioxide flows are realized by using the 100-kW high-frequency inductive plasmatron IPG-4 at the pressures 37 and 96 hPa and enthalpies 16.4 and 16.2MJ/kg. The free stream parameters of the subsonic equilibrium carbon dioxide flow are rebuilt through CFD modeling with use of the data for stagnation point heat flux to silver and stagnation pressure. At the above pressures and enthalpies the catalytic efficiencies of silica-based thermal protection tile coating and sintered SiC surface are predicted in the temperature range 1453 - 1480 K and 1426 - 1536 K correspondingly and compared with our previous data [1] (stagnation pressure 60 - 140hPa, surface temperature 1600 - 1630K) and with results of actinometry and optical emission spectroscopy techniques for O-atoms recombination on β-cristobalite [2] at pressure 2 hPa and surface temperature 1600 K. In general the pressure and temperature ranges for catalytic efficiencies for both materials are expanded and the new and previous data are found to be in good agreement. Supersonic under-expanded jets of carbon dioxide plasma are obtained by using sonic nozzles of different throat diameters (D = 30 and 16 mm). Stagnation point heat fluxes and pressures on water-cooled cylindrical 20-mm diameter model in supersonic carbon dioxide plasma flows are measured. Dependences of the stagnation point heat flux to water-cooled copper wall and stagnation pressure versus distance from exit of the sonic nozzle are obtained for different ground pressure in the test chamber. The maximum of heat flux of 840 W/cm2 and maximum stagnation pressure of 142 hPa are realized using the sonic nozzle with 16-mm throat diameter, gas mass flow rate of 4.6g/s and generator anode power of 72 kW.

  5. Proteome Analysis of the Plasma Membrane of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Shalini; Kosalai, K.; Namane, Abdelkader; Pym, Alex S.; Cole, Stewart T.

    2002-01-01

    The plasma membrane of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is likely to contain proteins that could serve as novel drug targets, diagnostic probes or even components of a vaccine against tuberculosis. With this in mind, we have undertaken proteome analysis of the membrane of M. tuberculosis H37Rv. Isolated membrane vesicles were extracted with either a detergent (Triton X114) or an alkaline buffer (carbonate) following two of the protocols recommended for membrane protein enrichment. Proteins were resolved by 2D-GE using immobilized pH gradient (IPG) strips, and identified by peptide mass mapping utilizing the M. tuberculosis genome database. The two extraction procedures yielded patterns with minimal overlap. Only two proteins, both HSPs, showed a common presence. MALDI–MS analysis of 61 spots led to the identification of 32 proteins, 17 of which were new to the M. tuberculosis proteome database. We classified 19 of the identified proteins as ‘membrane-associated’; 14 of these were further classified as ‘membrane-bound’, three of which were lipoproteins. The remaining proteins included four heat-shock proteins and several enzymes involved in energy or lipid metabolism. Extraction with Triton X114 was found to be more effective than carbonate for detecting ‘putative’ M. tuberculosis membrane proteins. The protocol was also found to be suitable for comparing BCG and M. tuberculosis membranes, identifying ESAT-6 as being expressed selectively in M. tuberculosis. While this study demonstrates for the first time some of the membrane proteins of M. tuberculosis, it also underscores the problems associated with proteomic analysis of a complex membrane such as that of a mycobacterium. PMID:18629250

  6. Initial experience with sacral neuromodulation for the treatment of lower urinary tract dysfunction in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rios, Luis Augusto Seabra; Averbeck, Marcio Augusto; França, Wagner; Sacomani, Carlos Alberto Ricetto; Almeida, Fernando G.; Gomes, Cristiano Mendes

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: We report on the short-term outcomes of sacral neuromodulation (SNM) for treatment of idiopathic lower urinary tract dysfunction in Brazil (procedures performed before 2014). Materials and Methods: Clinical data and surgical outcomes of patients who underwent SNM staged procedures were retrospective evaluated. Urological assessment included a focused medical history and physical examination, measurement of postvoid residual volumes, urodynamics, and bladder diaries. A successful test phase has been defined by improvement of at least 50% of the symptoms, based on bladder diaries. Results: From January 2011 to December 2013, eighteen consecutive patients underwent test phase for SNM due to refractory overactive bladder (15 patients), non-obstructive chronic urinary retention (2 patients), and bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (1 patient). All patients underwent staged procedures at four outpatient surgical centers. Mean age was 48.3±21.2 (range 10-84 years). There were 16 women and 2 men. Median follow-up was 3 months. Fifteen patients (83.3%) had a successful test phase and underwent implantation of the pulse generator (IPG). Median duration of the test phase was 7 days (range 5–24 days). Mean age was 45.6±18.19 years in responders versus 61.66±34.44 years in non-responders (p=0.242). Mean operative time (test phase) was 99±33.12 min in responders versus 95±35 min for non-responders (p=0.852). No severe complications were reported. Conclusion: SNM is a minimally invasive treatment option for patients with refractory idiopathic lower urinary tract dysfunction. Our initial experience with staged technique showed that tined-lead electrodes yielded a high rate of responders and favorable clinical results in the short-term follow-up. PMID:27176186

  7. Platinum group minerals in podiform chromitites of the Bou Azzer ophiolite, Anti Atlas, Central Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Ghorfi, M.; Melcher, F.; Oberthür, T.; Boukhari, A. E.; Maacha, L.; Maddi, A.; Mhaili, M.

    2008-01-01

    The Neoproterozoic Bou Azzer ophiolite complex hosts numerous, small lenticular bodies of massive and disseminated chromite. Metallurgical-grade high-Mg and high-Cr spinels (cores with 48-62 wt% Cr2O3) reveal complex alteration patterns of successive Cr and Mn enrichment and loss of Al towards the rims, while the Mg# ratios [(Mg/(Mg + Fe2+)] remain almost constant. Concentration patterns of platinum-group elements are typical for ophiolitic chromitite poor in sulfides, with predominance of the IPGE, variable Rh, and low Pt and Pd. The most abundant platinum-group mineral is Rh-bearing laurite that occurs either included in spinel or in silicate matrix, whereas Os-Ir-Ru alloy is always included in spinel. Laurite inclusions reveal complex intergrowth textures with Rh-Ru-Pt rich alloy, and with Rh-rich sulfide. Most laurites display trends to sulfur-poor compositions leading to local formation of very fine-grained Ru-Os-Ir alloy phases. Ni-Co-Fe sulfides, arsenides and sulfarsenides devoid of PGE are associated with the alteration of chromite. Textural position and chemical composition of the base metal inclusions, as well as comparison of alteration features between chromite and accessory chromian spinel in the Co-Ni-As ores of the Bou Azzer ophiolite indicate a close connection. It is suggested that hydrothermal fluids percolated through the marginal zones of the ophiolite belt during greenschist facies metamorphism and deposited Ni-Co-Fe arsenides, sulfarsenides and minor sulfides as accessories within altered chromitites, and also in structurally favourable zones as Ni-Co-As ores.

  8. The Pliocene Yafo Formation in Israel: Hydrogeologically inert or active?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avisar, D.; Rosenthal, E.; Shulman, H.; Zilberbrand, M.; Flexer, A.; Kronfeld, J.; Ben Avraham, Z.; Fleischer, L.

    'importance secondaire pour la salinisation de l'eau souterraine cet apport est comparable à celui de sels par les pluies. Durante décadas, las ``Saqiyebeds'' (rebautizadas como Formación Yafo) que se sitúan bajo el acuífero Costero (Grupo Kurkar) de Israel fueron consideradas como un acuicludo extremadamente potente, tectónicamente inalterado y totalmente impermeable. Como resultado de la explotación intensiva del Grupo Kurkar, se produjo la mezcla de aguas salobres y salinas en la zona inferior de dicho acuífero y siempre en el contacto con el acuicludo subyaciente de la Formación Yafo. Este estudio reveló que el acuicludo no es una unidad rocosa uniforme e impermeable, sino que consiste en una alternancia de estratos permeables e impermeables dentro de la Formación Yafo, que contiene fluidos a alta presión de salinidades diferentes pero generalmente elevadas. Las capas permeables se hallan en inconformidad angular y en contacto directo con el acuífero superior del Grupo Kurkar. La Formación Yafo y las unidades rocosas infra- y suprayacentes están dislocadas por numerosos sistemas de fallas, lo que facilita el acceso de las salmueras al acuífero del Grupo Kurkar. Los fluidos de los horizontes permeables del Miembro Petah Tiqva a través de las arcillas de la Formación Yafo o hacia el ascenso de los domos salinos en respuesta a la extracción intensiva en el acuífero del Llano Costero. Podría también haber sido causado por el movimiento a favor del buzamiento de las aguas salinas como resultado de la sobrepresión generada por una acumulación mayor de gas en los horizontes permeables. Otro posible mecanismo podría basarse en el contacto hidráulico con salmueras presurizadas, que fluyen hacia arriba a favor de zonas de falla desde los reservorios profundos del Jurásico o del Cretácico. La extracción de agua salina intersticial desde las arcillas de la Formación Yafo hacia el acuífero superior del Grupo Kurkar es de importancia secundaria para la salinizaci

  9. Current knowledge on groundwater microbial pathogens and their control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macler, Bruce A.; Merkle, Jon C.

    de pollution ou la réhabilitation du puits lui-mème. La désinfection peut ètre une précaution utile et est recommandée comme une mesure prudente de santé publique pour toutes les nappes aquifères. Beber agua subterránea no desinfectada supone un riesgo de infección por microorganismos patógenos. Estudios recientes muestran que la mitad de los pozos de abastecimiento analizados en los EEUU presentan evidencia de contaminación fecal. Un porcentaje significativo de la aparición de enfermedades transmitidas por el agua puede asociarse a las aguas subterráneas, estimándose que por contaminación de las mismas se registran, sólo en ese país, entre 750.000 y 5.9millones de personas enfermas y entre 1400-9400 muertos por año. El control de estos patógenos empieza con la protección de la fuente para prevenir la contaminación fecal de pozos y acuíferos. Esto supone evaluar la vulnerabilidad y corregir las posibles deficiencias detectadas, lo que incluye controlar los trabajos de rehabilitación del propio pozo. La desinfección puede servir como una barrera a los microorganismos patógenos, por lo que se recomienda como una política prudente de salud pública en zonas abastecidas con aguas subterráneas.

  10. The Practice of Research of a Basic Education Teacher Involving Mental Models of the Phases of the Moon and Eclipses. (Spanish Title: La Práctica de Investigación de un Maestro de Educación BÁsica con El Uso de los Modelos Mentales de Las Fases de la Luna Y Eclipses.) A Prática de Pesquisa de um Professor do Ensino Fundamental Envolvendo Modelos Mentais de Fases da Lua e Eclipses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pessôa Queiroz, Glória; Jubitipan Borges de Sousa, Carlos; Auxiliadora Delgado Machado, Maria

    2009-12-01

    docente. La formación de grupos interinstitucionales para la planificación de la acción y la investigación ha resultado productiva para el trabajo de construcción de conocimiento de apoyo a los procesos educativos en la escuela, mientras que la universidad enriquece su colección de experiencias validadas, considerando los resultados de la educación inicial y continua de maestros. La participación activa del maestro en un grupo de investigación en la universidad lo llevó a reflexiones sobre los posibles caminos didácticos que pueden ser descriptos, analizados y comunicados a los demás docentes. La construcción de una pedagogía propia, que tuvo en cuenta los modelos mentales de los estudiantes sobre los temas básicos de astronomía, y los cambios desarrollados a partir de las lecciones que enseñó, trajeron consecuencias de largo alcance sobre la pedagogía adoptada por el maestro, que ahora incorpora una nueva visión de la ciencia y formas alternativas al diálogo con los estudiantes, los componentes esenciales para un investigador en Educaciónen Ciencias. A inclusão do professor da escola básica no universo da pesquisa é questão controvertida e em pleno debate no meio acadêmico. A oportunidade de trabalho coletivo que incorporou professores de uma escola municipal no Rio de Janeiro a um grupo de ensino de Física da universidade nos possibilitou vislumbrar a ressignificação da função de um professor de Ciências (co-autor deste trabalho) por ele próprio, agora passando a incluir a pesquisa sobre a construção de conhecimento pelos alunos em sua prática como docente. A formação de grupos interinstitucionais para o planejamento de ações e de pesquisas tem-se mostrado produtiva para um trabalho de construção de conhecimentos a fim de subsidiar processos educativos na escola, ao mesmo tempo em que a universidade enriquece seu acervo de experiências validadas criticamente, podendo considerar seus resultados na formação inicial e

  11. The Practice of Research of a Basic Education Teacher Involving Mental Models of the Phases of the Moon and Eclipses. (Spanish Title: La Práctica de Investigación de un Maestro de Educación BÁsica con El Uso de los Modelos Mentales de Las Fases de la Luna Y Eclipses.) A Prática de Pesquisa de um Professor do Ensino Fundamental Envolvendo Modelos Mentais de Fases da Lua e Eclipses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pessôa Queiroz, Glória; Jubitipan Borges de Sousa, Carlos; Auxiliadora Delgado Machado, Maria

    2009-12-01

    docente. La formación de grupos interinstitucionales para la planificación de la acción y la investigación ha resultado productiva para el trabajo de construcción de conocimiento de apoyo a los procesos educativos en la escuela, mientras que la universidad enriquece su colección de experiencias validadas, considerando los resultados de la educación inicial y continua de maestros. La participación activa del maestro en un grupo de investigación en la universidad lo llevó a reflexiones sobre los posibles caminos didácticos que pueden ser descriptos, analizados y comunicados a los demás docentes. La construcción de una pedagogía propia, que tuvo en cuenta los modelos mentales de los estudiantes sobre los temas básicos de astronomía, y los cambios desarrollados a partir de las lecciones que enseñó, trajeron consecuencias de largo alcance sobre la pedagogía adoptada por el maestro, que ahora incorpora una nueva visión de la ciencia y formas alternativas al diálogo con los estudiantes, los componentes esenciales para un investigador en Educaciónen Ciencias. A inclusão do professor da escola básica no universo da pesquisa é questão controvertida e em pleno debate no meio acadêmico. A oportunidade de trabalho coletivo que incorporou professores de uma escola municipal no Rio de Janeiro a um grupo de ensino de Física da universidade nos possibilitou vislumbrar a ressignificação da função de um professor de Ciências (co-autor deste trabalho) por ele próprio, agora passando a incluir a pesquisa sobre a construção de conhecimento pelos alunos em sua prática como docente. A formação de grupos interinstitucionais para o planejamento de ações e de pesquisas tem-se mostrado produtiva para um trabalho de construção de conhecimentos a fim de subsidiar processos educativos na escola, ao mesmo tempo em que a universidade enriquece seu acervo de experiências validadas criticamente, podendo considerar seus resultados na formação inicial e

  12. Un nuevo estudio del cúmulo abierto Tr 14 en la región de Carina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, B.; Malaroda, S.; Levato, H.; Morrell, N.

    Presentamos nuevos datos espectroscópicos de 9 objetos entre los miembros más brillantes de Tr 14. Hemos medido un total de 80 nuevos espectrogramas para contribuir a la determinación de la real naturaleza de estos objetos desde el punto de vista de la duplicidad. Del nuevo material debemos concluir que la mayoría de las estrellas en la muestra son simples. Sin embargo existen algunos objetos cuyo seguimiento debe continuar ya que no nos es posible efectuar conclusiones definitivas con el presente material.

  13. El problema de estabilidad de los sistemas Hamiltonianos multidimensionales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cincotta, P. M.

    Se revisarán los aspectos básicos del problema de estabilidad de sistemans Hamiltonianos N-dimensionales, haciendo especial énfasis en los posibles mecanismos que dan lugar a la aparición de ``caos": overlap de resonancias, difusión de Arnol'd y otros procesos difusivos alternativos. Se mencionarán los aspectos aún no resueltos sobre la estabilidad de los sistemas con N > 2. Finalmente, se discutirá cuáles de estos mecanismos podrían tener alguna relevancia en la dinámica de sistemas estelares y planetarios.

  14. Fotoexcitación de Moléculas Pequeñas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González Díaz, P. F.

    El modelo estocástico no puede justificar la excitación multi-fotónica de moléculas pequeñas o muy simétricas. Basándonos en un escenario de interacción radiación-molécula cooperativo para la absorción de N-1 fotones IR por un sistema de N niveles, se especula que un posible mecanismo para la excitación no estocástica de moléculas pudiera ser la generación de procesos caóticos intra-moleculares.

  15. Integration of mobile satellite and cellular systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drucker, Elliott H.; Estabrook, Polly; Pinck, Deborah; Ekroot, Laura

    1993-01-01

    By integrating the ground based infrastructure component of a mobile satellite system with the infrastructure systems of terrestrial 800 MHz cellular service providers, a seamless network of universal coverage can be established. Users equipped for both cellular and satellite service can take advantage of a number of features made possible by such integration, including seamless handoff and universal roaming. To provide maximum benefit at lowest posible cost, the means by which these systems are integrated must be carefully considered. Mobile satellite hub stations must be configured to efficiently interface with cellular Mobile Telephone Switching Offices (MTSO's), and cost effective mobile units that provide both cellular and satellite capability must be developed.

  16. Seismotectonic features of the African plate: the possible dislocation of a continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meghraoui, Mustapha

    2014-05-01

    , the Libyan rifting and Maghreb thrusting. Although bearing a relatively slow deformation with regards to the East Africa Rift System, the Nubia plate previously considered as a homogeneous tectonic block appears to be dislocating progressively also forming a system of microplates. A synthesis of earthquake studies and regional deformation exposed in a seismotectonic map hitherto serves as a basis for the seismic hazard evaluations and the reduction of seismic risks. * IGCP/SIDA: International Geoscience Program/Swedish International Cooperation Authority http://www.unesco.org/science/IGCP IGCP-601 Working Group: Paulina Amponsah (Ghana Atomic Energy Commission), Atalay Ayele (Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia), Bekoa Ateba (Inst. of Geol. and Min. Res., Buea, Cameroon), Abdelhakim Ayadi (CRAAG, Algeria), Abdunnur Bensuleman (University of Tripoli, Libya), Damien Delvaux (Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Belgium), Mohamed El Gabry (National Research Institute of Geophysics, Cairo, Egypt), Rui-Manuel Fernandes (Universidade da Beira Interior, Portugal), Mustapha Meghraoui (IPG Strasbourg, France), Vunganai Midzi & Magda Roos (Council for Geoscience, Pretoria, South Africa), and Youssef Timoulali (CNRST, Rabat, Morocco).

  17. The Seismotectonic Map of Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meghraoui, Mustapha

    2015-04-01

    We present the Seismotectonic Map of Africa based on a geological, geophysical and geodetic database including the instrumental seismicity and re-appraisal of large historical events with harmonization and homogenization of earthquake parameters in catalogues. Although the seismotectonic framework and mapping of the African continent is a difficult task, several previous and ongoing projects provide a wealth of data and outstanding results. The database of large and moderate earthquakes in different geological domains includes the coseismic and Quaternary faulting that reveals the complex nature of the active tectonics in Africa. The map also benefits from previous works on local and regional seismotectonic maps that needed to be integrated with the lithospheric and upper mantle structures from tomographic anisotropy and gravity anomaly into a continental framework. The synthesis of earthquake and volcanic studies with the analysis of long-term (late Quaternary) and short-term (last decades and centuries) active deformation observed with geodetic and other approaches presented along with the seismotectonic map serves as a basis for hazard calculations and the reduction of seismic risks. The map may also be very useful in the assessment of seismic hazard and mitigation of earthquake risk for significant infrastructures and their implications in the socio-economic impact in Africa. In addition, the constant population increase and infrastructure growth in the continent that exacerbate the earthquake risk justify the necessity for a continuous updating of the seismotectonic map. The database and related map are prepared in the framework of the IGC Project-601 "Seismotectonics and Seismic Hazards in Africa" of UNESCO-IUGS, funded by the Swedish International Development Agency and UNESCO-Nairobi for a period of 4 years (2011 - 2014), extended to 2016. * Mustapha Meghraoui (Coordinator) EOST - IPG Strasbourg CNRS-UMR 7516 m.meghraoui@unistra.fr corresponding author

  18. Catabolism of streptokinase and polyethylene glycol-streptokinase: Evidence for transport of intact forms through the biliary system in the mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Brucato, F.H.; Pizzo, S.V. )

    1990-07-01

    The catabolism of streptokinase (SK) and polyethylene glycol derivatives of SK (PEG-SK) were studied in mice. The clearance and catabolism of SK:plasmin (SK:Pm) and PEG-SK:Pm activator complexes were also investigated. Native 125I-SK cleared rapidly (t1/2 = 15 minutes) from the circulation, with the majority of the ligand accumulating in the liver and gastrointestinal (GI) tract and a substantial fraction also localizing in the kidneys. SK, which was removed from the plasma by the liver, was secreted into bile and then the GI tract. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) demonstrated that 125I-SK recovered from liver and bile was homogeneous and of the same molecular weight (mol wt approximately 50,200) as native SK. PEG-125I-SK cleared slowly (t1/2 greater than 200 minutes), with more than 80% of the preparation localizing in liver and GI tract. The PEG-125I-SK secreted into the bile was also intact. The bile containing 125I-SK was incubated with stoichiometric amounts of plasminogen and electrophoresed under nondenaturing conditions. This study demonstrated that the secreted SK was able to form SK:Pg complexes. SDS-PAGE also showed activation of 125I-Pg that was incubated with recovered bile containing the SK. 125I-SK:Pm catabolism was also studied. In these experiments, the mol wt approximately 42,000 fragment obtained when SK is cleaved by plasmin was found in the bile. This fragment of 125I-SK was not recovered as part of a complex with plasmin, consistent with our previous observations that catabolism of SK:Pm involves transfer of the plasmin to plasma proteinase inhibitors while SK is catabolized independently. By contrast, when PEG-125I-SK:Pm was injected into mice, only intact PEG-125I-SK was found in the bile, consistent with our previous observations that the PEG derivatization blocks its degradation by plasmin.

  19. Toward a service-oriented e-infrastructure for data mining and data-intensive modeling applications in seismology: the VERCE (Virtual Earthquake and Seismology Research Community in Europe) initiative.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilotte, Jean-Pierre; van Hemert, Jano

    2010-05-01

    data analysis and HPC data modelling applications through efficient workflow managing systems and data sharing protocols. The VERCE initiative is part of the European Plate Observing Systems (EPOS) initiative. It will strengthen European Earthquake and seismology research and enhance data exploitation and modelling capabilities of the community. Furthermore, it will contribute to European and national e-infrastructures. The VERCE team: CNRS-France (IPG Paris, LGIT Grenoble), UEDIN (UK), KNMI-ORFEUS (Holland), EMSC, INGV (Italy), LMU (Germany), ULIV (UK), BADW-LRZ (Germany), SCAI (Germany), CINECA (Italy)

  20. Crystal structure of the Yersinia enterocolitica type III secretion chaperone SycD in complex with a peptide of the minor translocator YopD

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Type III secretion systems are used by Gram-negative bacteria as “macromolecular syringes” to inject effector proteins into eukaryotic cells. Two hydrophobic proteins called translocators form the necessary pore in the host cell membrane. Both translocators depend on binding to a single chaperone in the bacterial cytoplasm to ensure their stability and efficient transport through the secretion needle. It was suggested that the conserved chaperones bind the more divergent translocators via a hexapeptide motif that is found in both translocators and conserved between species. Results We crystallized a synthetic decapeptide from the Yersinia enterocolitica minor type III secretion translocator YopD bound to its cognate chaperone SycD and determined the complex structure at 2.5 Å resolution. The structure of peptide-bound SycD is almost identical to that of apo SycD with an all helical fold consisting of three tetratricopeptide repeats (TPRs) and an additional C-terminal helix. Peptide-bound SycD formed a kinked head-to-head dimer that had previously been observed for the apo form of SycD. The homodimer interface comprises both helices of the first tetratricopeptide repeat. The YopD peptide bound in extended conformation into a mainly hydrophobic groove on the concave side of SycD. TPRs 1 and 2 of SycD form three hydrophobic pockets that accommodated the conserved hydrophobic residues at position 1, 3 and 6 of the translocator hexapeptide sequence. Two tyrosines that are highly conserved among translocator chaperones contribute to the hydrophobic patches but also form hydrogen bonds to the peptide backbone. Conclusions The interaction between SycD and YopD is very similar to the binding of the Pseudomonas minor translocator PopD to its chaperone PcrH and the Shigella major translocator IpaB to its chaperone IpgC. This confirms the prediction made by Kolbe and co-workers that a hexapeptide with hydrophobic residues at three positions is a conserved

  1. Through the optical combiner monitoring in remote fiber laser welding of zinc coated steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombo, Daniele; Colosimo, Bianca M.; Previtali, Barbara; Bassan, Daniele; Lai, Manuel; Masotti, Giovanni

    2012-03-01

    Thanks to the recent affirmation of the active fiber lasers, remote laser welding of zinc coated steels is under investigation with a particular emphasis on the overlap joint geometry. Due to the high power and high beam quality offered by these lasers, the remote laser welding process has become more practicable. However laser welding of lap zinc coated steels is still problematic because of the violent vaporisation of zinc. The presence of a gap between the plates allowing vapour degassing has been proven to avoid defects due to zinc vaporization. On the other hand variation in the gap value can lead to the welding defect formation. Therefore constant gap values should be ensured and deviation from the reference gap value has to be monitored during the execution of the welding process. Furthermore, the on-line monitoring of the gap values between the plates can be helpful for the on-line quality control of the welding process. The paper proposes a new monitoring solution for the measurement of the gap in remote fiber laser welding of overlapped zinc coated steels. In this solution, referred as Through the Optical Combiner Monitoring (TOCM) , the optical emissions from the welding process are directly observed through the optical combiner of the fiber laser source with spectroscopic equipment. The TOCM solution presented in the paper is integrated in an IPG YLS 3000 fiber laser source whose beam is deflected and focused by means of an El.En. ScanFiber scanning system with an equivalent focal length of 300 mm. After the definition of the right welding process conditions, spectroscopic tests are exploited to evaluate the optical emission from the welding plasma/plume. Acquired spectra are then analysed with multivariate data analysis approach in order to ensure gap monitoring. Results showed that with the proposed method it is possible to evaluate not only the gap between the plates but also the location inside the weld at which the variation occurs. Furthermore

  2. On the Generation of Intense Isolated Attosecond Pulses by Many-Cycle Laser Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzallas, Paris; Skantzakis, Emmanouil; Kruse, Jann E.; Charalambidis, Dimitrios

    Real-time observation of ultrafast dynamics in all states of matter requires temporal resolution on the atomic unit of time (24.189 asec) (1 asec = 1{0}^{-18} s). Tools for tracking such ultrafast dynamics are ultrashort light pulses. During the last decade, continuous efforts in ultrashort pulse engineering led to the development of light pulses width duration close to the atomic unit of time. Attosecond (asec) pulses have been synthesized by broadband coherent extreme ultraviolet (XUV) radiation generated by the interaction of gases or solids with an intense IR fs pulse. Asec pulse trains can be generated when the medium interacts with many-cycle driving IR fs laser fields. In this case, a broadband XUV frequency comb is emitted from the medium. The Fourier synthesis of a part of the comb results in an asec pulse train. Isolated asec pulses are generated when the medium is forced to emit XUV radiation only during few cycles of the driving laser field. This leads to the emission of a broadband quasicontinuum XUV radiation. The Fourier synthesis of the continuum part of the spectrum results in an isolated asec pulse. For the realization of studies of ultrafast dynamics, intense asec pulses are preferable. If the pulses are intense enough to induce a nonlinear process in a target system, they can be used for ultrafast dynamic studies in an XUV pump-probe configuration. Although trains of intense asec pulses are commonly produced nowadays, the generation of intense isolated asec pulses remains a challenge. Here, we review a recently developed approach for the generation of intense asec pulses using high-peak-power many-cycle laser fields. The approach is based on controlling, with asec precession, the response of the atomic dipole to an external many-cycle driving field in such a way as to emit an isolated asec XUV burst. This approach has been implemented by using the inteferometric polarization gating (IPG) technique. The bandwidth of the generated XUV radiation is

  3. The effectiveness of Grief-Help, a cognitive behavioural treatment for prolonged grief in children: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is growing recognition of a syndrome of disturbed grief referred to as prolonged grief disorder (PGD). PGD is mostly studied in adults, but clinically significant PGD symptoms have also been observed in children and adolescents. Yet, to date no effective treatment for childhood PGD exists. The aims of this study are: (1) to investigate the effectiveness of Grief-Help, a nine-session cognitive-behavioural treatment for childhood PGD, combined with five sessions of parental counselling, immediately after the treatment and at three, six and twelve months follow-up; (2) to examine tentative mediators of the effects of Grief-Help, (i.e., maladaptive cognitions and behaviours and positive parenting), and (3) to determine whether demographic variables, child personality, as well as symptoms of PGD, anxiety, and depression in parents moderate the treatment effectiveness. Methods/Design We will conduct a Randomised Controlled Trial (RCT) in which 160 children and adolescents aged 8–18 years are randomly allocated to cognitive behavioural Grief-Help or to a supportive counselling intervention; both treatments are combined with five sessions of parental counselling. We will recruit participants from clinics for mental health in the Netherlands. The primary outcome measure will be the severity of Prolonged Grief Disorder symptoms according to the Inventory of Prolonged Grief for Children (IPG-C). Secondary outcomes will include PTSD, depression and parent-rated internalizing and externalizing problems. Mediators like positive parenting and maladaptive cognitions and behaviours will be identified. We will also examine possible moderators including demographic variables (e.g. time since loss, cause of death), psychopathology symptoms in parents (PGD, anxiety and depression) and child personality. Assessments will take place in both groups at baseline, after the treatment-phase and three, six and twelve months after the post-treatment assessment. Discussion We

  4. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose metabolism in human myocytes.

    PubMed

    Luque, M A; González, N; Márquez, L; Acitores, A; Redondo, A; Morales, M; Valverde, I; Villanueva-Peñacarrillo, M L

    2002-06-01

    , suggesting a role for an inositolphosphoglycan (IPG) as at least one of the possible second messengers of the GLP-1 action in human muscle. PMID:12065236

  5. The 14 November, 2007 Mw 7.8 Tocopilla, northern Chile earthquake within the Iquique seismic gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schurr, B.; Motagh, M.; Krüger, F.; Asch, G.; Anderssohn, J.; Sobiesiak, M.; Kind, R.; Sodoudi, F.; Ohrnberger, M.; Chong Díaz, G.; Vilotte, J.; Oncken, O.

    2008-05-01

    A prominent seismic gap persisted in northern Chile between the towns of Antofagasta and Arica for 130 years. This 500 km segment along the South American subduction zone last ruptured in 1877 in a devastating M9 earthquake. On November 14th 2007, an Mw 7.8 earthquake started near the coastal town of Tocopilla to break the southernmost 200 km of the seismic gap. In Tocopilla and several other communities in the backcountry, a majority of the structures were destroyed. Commencing in 2006, in close cooperation between the GFZ Potsdam (Germany), IPG Paris (France), the Universidad Catolica del Norte, Antofagasta and Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile), a network of 15 observatories equipped with seismic broadband and strong motion sensors, GPS receivers and magnetotelluric probes is being established to monitor the seismic gap. At the time of the Tocopilla earthquake, 12 sites were already deployed with the seismological instruments. Based on these data we relocate the mainshock and early aftershocks. The surface deformation field derived from InSAR data in Wide Swath and Image modes from ascending and descending tracks will be inverted for a distributed slip model using a grid of rectangular dislocations in an elastic half-space. We use broadband stations at teleseismic distances to image the spatio-temporal characteristics of seismic energy release during the earthquake. This analysis indicates a rupture length of approximately 200 km with almost unilateral southward propagation and a duration of approximately 200s. Rupture terminated on Mejillones Peninsula, exactly where an earlier large earthquake, the Mw 8 1995 Antofagasta event, had its northern limit. This is also where most of the early aftershocks focus. The structure beneath the Mejillones Peninsula seems to form a persistent barrier in the northern Chilean earthquake cycle. Based on our analysis, the fault plane of the Tocopilla earthquake fills roughly the southernmost third of the Iquique seismic gap

  6. A Simple XML Producer-Consumer Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Warren; Gunter, Dan; Quesnel, Darcy; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    There are many different projects from government, academia, and industry that provide services for delivering events in distributed environments. The problem with these event services is that they are not general enough to support all uses and they speak different protocols so that they cannot interoperate. We require such interoperability when we, for example, wish to analyze the performance of an application in a distributed environment. Such an analysis might require performance information from the application, computer systems, networks, and scientific instruments. In this work we propose and evaluate a standard XML-based protocol for the transmission of events in distributed systems. One recent trend in government and academic research is the development and deployment of computational grids. Computational grids are large-scale distributed systems that typically consist of high-performance compute, storage, and networking resources. Examples of such computational grids are the DOE Science Grid, the NASA Information Power Grid (IPG), and the NSF Partnerships for Advanced Computing Infrastructure (PACIs). The major effort to deploy these grids is in the area of developing the software services to allow users to execute applications on these large and diverse sets of resources. These services include security, execution of remote applications, managing remote data, access to information about resources and services, and so on. There are several toolkits for providing these services such as Globus, Legion, and Condor. As part of these efforts to develop computational grids, the Global Grid Forum is working to standardize the protocols and APIs used by various grid services. This standardization will allow interoperability between the client and server software of the toolkits that are providing the grid services. The goal of the Performance Working Group of the Grid Forum is to standardize protocols and representations related to the storage and distribution of

  7. Coexistence of compositionally heterogeneous chromitites in the Antalya-Isparta ophiolitic suite, SW Turkey: A record of sequential magmatic processes in the sub-arc lithospheric mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uysal, Ibrahim; Akmaz, Recep Melih; Saka, Samet; Kapsiotis, Argyrios

    2016-04-01

    The Antalya-Isparta region in southwestern Turkey is well known for its large ophiolitic peridotite exposures, which host various chromite orebodies. These are small-sized, massive to disseminated in texture chromitites occurring in the form of lenses or veinlets, and commonly surrounded by dunite envelopes of variable thickness. Chromitite seams from the Antalya mantle suite are both high- and intermediate-Cr varieties (Cr# = 0.56-0.83), whereas chromitites in the Isparta mantle sequence are exclusively Cr-rich (Cr# = 0.75-0.85). In situ minor and trace element abundances obtained by LA-ICP-MS analyses of unaltered Cr-spinel from the Cr-rich chromitites are comparable to those reported in Cr-spinel of chromitites from typical fore-arc peridotite complexes. However, minor and trace element concentrations in Cr-spinel from intermediate chromitites are dissimilar to those acquired from Cr-spinels of chromitites from well-known back-arc basin-derived ultramafic massifs. Calculation of parental magma compositions indicates that both types of chromitites share a common parentage with progressively fractionating arc-related melts. The studied chromitites are characterized by a systematic enrichment in IPGE [Os, Ir, and Ru (41-317 ppb)] with respect to PPGE [Rh, Pt, and Pd (3-49 ppb)], resulting in negatively-sloping chondrite-normalized PGE patterns that are less fractionated in intermediate chromitites. Their noble mineral assemblage is vastly dominated by tiny (≥ 10 μm) euhedral laurite crystals, followed by subsidiary irarsite and trivial amounts of Os-Ir alloy grains. PGM grains are not encountered in the intermediate chromitites, potentially due to crystallization resulting from PGE-poor melt. Laurite is Os-poor and exhibits a narrow range of Os-for-Ru substitution [Ru/(Ru + Os) = 0.75-0.99]. However, the concomitance of laurite and millerite in the Cr-rich chromitites of the mutual Antalya-Isparta mantle suite is in favour of their precipitation from an Os

  8. A 80 OBS and 30 Land 3-component seismometers array encompassing the 280 km segment of the Lesser Antilles subduction megathrust seismogenic zone: view of current seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laigle, Mireille; Sapin, Martine; Ruiz, Mario; Diaz, Jordi; Kissling, Edi; Charvis, Philippe; Flueh, Ernst; Hirn, Alfred

    2010-05-01

    An extensive onshore and offshore seismic station array in the Lesser Antilles subduction zone allows to monitor microearthquake activity for a period of 4 months in a region previously outside of reach for detailed observation. Such a network has been possible thanks to a cluster of 3 seismic surveys (TRAIL - F/S Merian, SISMANTILLESII - N/O Atalante, and OBSANTILLES - N/O Antea) for deploying and recovering the instruments from several pools (Geoazur, INSU-IPGP, IFM-GEOMAR, AWI ). It has been followed by an additional deployment of the 28 GeoAzur OBSs (OBSANTILLES - N/O Antea) during 5 months in the south-western half. These operations have been carried out for the seismic investigation of the Antilles megathrust seismogenic zone in the framework of the THALES WAS RIGHT european project, and with also the financial support of the french ANR Catastrophes Telluriques et Tsunamis (SUBSISMANTI) and by the EU SALVADOR Programme of IFM-GEOMAR. Onshore, 30 3-components land stations (CSIC Barcelone, IPG Paris, INSU-RLBM and -LITHOSCOPE) have been temporarily deployed. The deep seismic structure of the whole area has been investigated during these seismic surveys by wide-angle reflection and refraction seismics recorded by these instruments as well as multi-channel reflection seismic imaging (MCS) along a dense grid of crossing profiles at the OBS positions providing excellent velocity information for the upper plate. Both the location and the interpretation of the recorded earthquake activity require constraints on the deep seismic structure, which will be discussed with respect to the 3D geometry of the interplate boundary and oceanic Moho, as well as those of the forearc basement and Moho. Preliminary locations have been obtained within a simple 1D velocity model by taking into account corrections for the variable thickness of the mud- and sediments layers beneath each OBS. The latter are estimated for both P- and S-waves to compensate for the huge structural

  9. Spatio-temporal patterns in vegetation start of season across the island of Ireland using the MERIS Global Vegetation Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, Brian; Dwyer, Edward; Cawkwell, Fiona; Eklundh, Lars

    2012-03-01

    Spring phenophases such as the beginning of leaf unfolding, measured in the Irish gardens of the International Phenological Garden (IPG) network, indicate an earlier spring occurrence hence a longer growing season. However, these measurements are limited to selected species of trees at a few point locations in the southern half of the country. The aim of this study was to develop a methodology, based on satellite remote sensing, to measure the vegetation start of season (SOS) across the whole island of Ireland on an annual basis, complementary to existing ground-based methods. The SOS metric was extracted for each year in a 7-year time series of 10-day composited, 1.2 km reduced resolution MERIS Global Vegetation Index (MGVI) data from 2003 to 2009, based on curve fitting, using the time series analysis software, TIMESAT. Spatio-temporal variability in the SOS was detected across the island on an annual basis and highlighted in a series of anomaly images showing variation from the 7-year mean SOS. The 2006 SOS was late across the island while there were strong geographical gradients to the SOS anomalies in 2009 when it occurred later in the south and earlier in the north. There was a mix of early and late anomaly values throughout the country in the other years. Qualitatively, the spatial patterns in the timing of the SOS were related to the distribution of landcover types as indicated by the CORINE Land Cover map (CLC). Three statistically separable groups of CLC classes were derived from differences in the SOS, namely agricultural and forest land cover types, peat bogs, and natural and semi-natural vegetation types. These groups demonstrated that vegetation in cultivated areas like pastures has a significantly earlier SOS than in areas of unmanaged vegetation such as peat bogs. An initial climate analysis indicated that an anomalously cold winter and spring in 2005/2006 delayed the 2006 SOS countrywide; while a cold winter followed by a mild spring in 2009 caused

  10. Estimation of the depth to the fresh-water/salt-water interface from vertical head gradients in wells in coastal and island aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izuka, Scot K.; Gingerich, Stephen B.

    gradients verticaux de charge à partir des mesures de niveau piézométrique faites en cours de foration d'un puits incomplet; le gradient est alors utilisé pour estimer la profondeur de l'interface. L'application de cette méthode à un système eau douce - eau salée simulé numériquement montre que la méthode est la plus précise lorsque le gradient est mesuré dans un puits pénétrant profondément dans l'aquifère. Même en utilisant un puits peu profond, la méthode estime la position de l'interface avec plus de précision que ne le fait la relation de Ghyben-Herzberg lorsqu'il existe un gradient vertical de charge bien marqué. L'application de la méthode à des données de terrain montre que la foration, les méthodes de mesure de niveau et les hétérogénéités au sein de l'aquifère peuvent être la cause de difficultés, mais que les effets de ces difficultés peuvent être réduits. Resumen Para la estimación de la productividad de pozos en acuíferos costeros y en islas es necesaria una estimación precisa de la profundidad de la interfaz teórica entre agua dulce y agua salada. La relación de Ghyben-Herzberg, usada habitualmente para estimar la profundidad de la interfaz, puede subestimar o sobrestimar el espesor de agua dulce, al asumir la ausencia de flujos y gradientes verticales. La estimación de la profundidad de la interfaz debe considerar tanto estos gradientes verticales, como la posible anisotropía del acuífero. En este artículo se presenta un método para calcular los gradientes verticales de niveles a partir de las medidas obtenidas durante la perforación de un pozo parcialmente penetrante para, a partir de este gradiente, estimar la profundidad de la interfaz. La aplicación del método a un sistema de agua dulce/agua salada simulado numéricamente muestra que el método es más preciso cuando el gradiente se mide en un pozo profundo. Incluso en el caso de un pozo superficial, el método permite una estimación más precisa de la

  11. Microbial degradation of chloroethenes in groundwater systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, Paul M.

    éthane (DCE) et le chlorure de vinyl (VC). Bien que des études de laboratoire réalisées avec des micro-organismes adaptés aux composés halogénés montrent que la réduction complète en éthane est possible, dans la plupart des nappes la réaction de déchloration par réduction s'arrête apparemment au DCE et au VC. Cependant, des recherches récentes menées sur des sédiments d'un aquifère et d'alluvions ont démontré que l'oxydation microbienne de ces descendants réduits peut se produire de manière significative dans des conditions de redox anérobies. La déchloration par réduction de PCE et de TCE dans des conditions anérobies suivie par une oxydation microbienne anérobie des DCE et VC fournit une piste microbienne possible pour obtenir une dégradation complète des chloroéthanes polluants dans les aquifères. Resumen Los cloroetanos (tetracloroetano PCE y tricloroetano TCE) son contaminantes muy habituales en los acuíferos. Hasta 1980 se consideraba que los cloroetanos no eran biodegradables y, por tanto, los métodos de rehabilitación en acuíferos contaminados con cloroetanos se limitaban al pump-and-treat, generalmente con poco éxito. Posteriormente se vio que, en condiciones reductoras, algunos microorganismos pueden reducir PCE y TCE a unos subproductos menos clorados, como el dicloroetano (DCE) y el cloruro de vinilo (VC). Aunque estudios de laboratorio recientes sugieren que la reducción completa a etano es posible, en la mayoría de los sistemas acuíferos la decloración suele detenerse en los DCE o VC. Sin embargo, investigaciones más recientes en acuíferos y sedimentos fluviales demuestran que la oxidación microbiana de estos subproductos puede ser importante bajo condiciones redox anaerobias. La combinación de la reducción de PCE y TCE en condiciones anaerobias seguida de la oxidación microbiana anaerobia de DCE y VC proporciona un método potencial para la degradación total de los cloroetanos en los sistemas acuíferos.

  12. ‘Everybody knows’, but the rest of the world: the case of a caterpillar-borne reproductive loss syndrome in dromedary camels observed by Sahrawi pastoralists of Western Sahara

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    índrome de pérdida reproductiva en dromedarios transmitido por orugas y observado por pastores nómadas saharauis del Sáhara Occidental. Antecedentes Los conocimientos tradicionales de las comunidades locales de todo el mundo son una valiosa fuente de nuevas ideas e información para la ciencia. En este estudio, se utilizaron los conocimientos de etnoveterinaria de pastores saharauis del Sáhara Occidental con el fin de proponer una hipótesis científica sobre las interacciones competitivas entre los camellos y las orugas en el ecosistema del Sáhara. Métodos Entre los años 2005 y 2009, se realizaron 44 entrevistas semi-estructuradas a los pastores saharauis en los territorios administrados por la República Árabe Saharaui Democrática, Sáhara Occidental, mediante un diseño de muestreo por bola de nieve. Resultados Los pastores nómadas saharauis describieron un síndrome reproductivo transmitido por orugas, llamado duda, entre sus camellas. Sobre la base de los conocimientos saharauis sobre el duda y una revisión literaria exhaustiva, se propuso la siguiente hipótesis: 1) brotes esporádico de orugas de la familia Lasiocampidae (géneros Lasiocampa, Psilogaster o Streblote) en árboles de Acacia se pueden presentar después de fuertes lluvias en el ecosistema del Sáhara Occidental; 2) durante estos brotes, los camellos ingieren las orugas durante el pastoreo; 3) como consecuencia de esta ingestión, se producen abortos repentinos o partos de crías debilitadas. Apoyamos esta hipótesis mediante razonamiento inductivo basado en evidencia circunstancial y razonamiento analógico con síndromes similares en yeguas de los Estados Unidos y Australia. Conclusiones Este es el primer reporte de la posible existencia de un síndrome de pérdida reproductiva en camellos, transmitido por orugas. Se insinúa que estos síndromes son más comunes que lo que actualmente se conoce. Se sugieren investigaciones adicionales p

  13. Establishment of Lipolexis oregmae (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) in a classical biological control program directed against the brown citrus aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) in Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Persad, A.B.; Hoy, M.A.; Ru Nguyen

    2007-03-15

    The parasitoid Lipolexis oregmae Gahan (introduced as L. scutellaris Mackauer) was imported from Guam, evaluated in quarantine, mass reared, and released into citrus groves in Florida in a classical biological control program directed against the brown citrus aphid, Toxoptera citricida Kirkaldy. Releases of 20,200, 12,100, and 1,260 adults of L. oregmae were made throughout Florida during 2000, 2001, and 2002, respectively. To determine if L. oregmae had successfully established, surveys were conducted throughout the state beginning in the summer of 2001 and continuing through the summer of 2003. Parasitism during 2001 and 2002 was evaluated by holding brown citrus aphids in the laboratory until parasitoid adults emerged. Lipolexis oregmae was found in 10 sites in 7 counties and 4 sites in 3 counties with parasitism rates ranging from 0.7 to 3.3% in 2001 and 2002, respectively. Laboratory tests indicated that high rates of mortality occurred if field-collected parasitized aphids were held in plastic bags, so a molecular assay was used that allowed immature L. oregmae to be detected within aphid hosts immediately after collection. The molecular assay was used in 2003 with the brown citrus aphids and with other aphid species collected from citrus, weeds, and vegetables near former release sites; immatures of L. oregmae were detected in black citrus aphids, cowpea aphids, spirea aphids, and melon aphids, as well as in the brown citrus aphid, in 4 of 8 counties sampled, with parasitism ranging from 2.0 to 12.9%, indicating that L. oregmae is established and widely distributed. Samples taken in Polk County during Oct 2005 indicated that L. oregmae has persisted. The ability of L. oregmae to parasitize other aphid species on citrus, and aphids on other host plants, enhances the ability of L. oregmae to persist when brown citrus aphid populations are low. (author) [Spanish] El parasitoide Lipolexis oregmae Gahan (introducido como L. scutellaris Mackauer) fue importado de

  14. Dinámica y crecimiento de los granos de polvo en la nebulosa protoplanetaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Fuente Marcos, Carlos

    2001-06-01

    En el escenario estándar de la formación planetaria, los planetesimales (cuerpos de tamaño kilométrico) crecen a partir de granos de polvo, similares a los interestelares, embebidos en un disco gaseoso denominado nebulosa protoplanetaria. Durante esta etapa, los movimientos del gas pueden tener gran influencia en la dinámica y el crecimiento de los granos de polvo, dado que el flujo kepleriano del gas frena el movimiento de los mismos haciendo que caigan hacia el Sol, y la turbulencia inhibe la inestabilidad gravitacional de la capa de polvo. Aunque se acepta que los planetesimales fueron los elementos constituyentes de los planetas, todavía se desconoce cómo se produjo la formación de los mismos. Por esta razón, en los estudios más recientes, existe un renovado interés por comprender mejor la evolución de la capa de polvo inmersa en el disco gaseoso de la Nebulosa. El gas que fluye en el disco puede engendrar estructuras carentes de simetría axial, como por ejemplo ondas espirales y vórtices, a partir de gran variedad de mecanismos de excitación e inestabilidad. En 1995, Barge y Sommeria pusieron de manifiesto que la existencia de vórtices gaseosos persistentes en la nebulosa solar tendría importantes consecuencias sobre la formación de los planetesimales y el posterior crecimiento de los planetas gigantes. La investigación desarrollada en esta Tesis analiza la relación entre el polvo y el gas debida al acoplamiento por fricción dinámica entre ambos; en concreto, se estudia el efecto del flujo medio del gas sobre la dinámica de las partículas de polvo. El primer objetivo es investigar en profundidad los procesos de captura y crecimiento de los granos de polvo dentro de un vórtice y su posible relevancia en cuanto a la formación de los planetesimales. El segundo objetivo es la exploración de los efectos de ondas espirales propagándose en el disco gaseoso sobre la dinámica y el crecimiento de las partículas. La presencia de líneas de

  15. Analysis of the maximum discharge of karst springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonacci, Ognjen

    2001-07-01

    ) la dimension limitée du conduit karstique, (2) l'écoulement en charge, (3) le débordement dans un autre bassin, (4) le débordement du réseau s'écoulant vers la source principale par des sources temporaires dans le même bassin, (5) le stockage d'eau dans la zone surmontant l'aquifère karstique ou la zone épikarstique du bassin, et (6) des facteurs tels que le climat, le sol et le couvert végétal, l'altitude et la géologie du bassin d'alimentation. Le phénomène de capacité limitée du débit maximal des sources karstiques n'est pas pris en compte dans la modélisation des processus de précipitation-ruissellement, ce qui est probablement une des principales raisons de l'actuelle médiocre qualité de la modélisation hydrologique du karst. Resumen. Se presenta un análisis de las condiciones que limitan la descarga de algunos manantiales kársticos. Un elevado número de los manantiales estudiados muestra que, bajo condiciones de precipitación extremadamente intensa, hay un valor máximo para la descarga de los manantiales principales de la cuenca, independientemente del tamaño de ésta y del volumen de precipitación. La modelación de la descarga de manantiales kársticos no es fácil de generalizar y esquematizar debido a la existencia de numerosas características que son inherentes a los sistemas kársticos de flujo. A partir del estudio detallado de los datos publicados sobre cuatro manantiales kársticos, se identificó las posibles causas de la existencia de un caudal máximo de descarga: (1) el tamaño limitado del conducto kárstico, (2) el caudal surgente, (3) la descarga a otras cuencas, (4) el desbordamiento del sistema de flujo principal hacia manantiales intermitentes dentro de la misma cuenca, (5) el almacenamiento de agua en la zona superior del acuífero kárstico o zona epikárstica de la cuenca, y (6) factores tales como el clima, suelo y cubierta vegetal, y la altitud y geología de la zona de captación. La limitación de la

  16. Elastoplasticidad anisotropa de metales en grandes deformaciones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caminero Torija, Miguel Angel

    El objetivo de este trabajo es el desarrollo de modelos y algoritmos numericos que simulen el comportamiento del material bajo estas condiciones en el contexto de programas de elementos finitos, dando como resultado predicciones mas precisas de los procesos de conformado y deformacion plastica en general. Para lograr este objetivo se han desarrollado diversas tareas destinadas a mejorar las predicciones en tres aspectos fundamentales. El primer aspecto consiste en la mejora de la descripcion del endurecimiento cinematico anisotropo en pequenas deformaciones, lo cual se ha realizado a traves de modelos y algoritmos implicitos de superficies multiples. Ha sido estudiada la consistencia de este tipo de modelos tanto si estan basados en una regla implicita similar a la de Mroz o en la regla de Prager. Ademas se han simulado los ensayos de Lamba y Sidebottom, obteniendo, en contra de la creencia general, muy buenas predicciones con la regla de Prager. Dichos modelos podrian ser extendidos de forma relativamente facil para considerar grandes deformaciones a traves de procedimientos en deformaciones logaritmicas, similares a los desarrollados en esta tesis y detallados a continuacion. El segundo aspecto consiste en la descripcion de la anisotropia elastoplastica inicial. Esto se ha conseguido mediante el desarrollo de modelos y algoritmos para plasticidad anisotropa en grandes deformaciones, bien ignorando la posible anisotropia elastica, bien considerandola simultaneamente con la anisotropia plastica. Para ello ha sido necesario desarrollar primero un nuevo algoritmo de elastoplasticidad anisotropa en pequenas deformaciones consistentemente linealizado y sin despreciar ningun termino, de tal forma que se conserve la convergencia cuadratica de los metodos de Newton. Este algoritmo en pequenas deformaciones ha servido para realizar la correccion plastica de dos algoritmos en grandes deformaciones. El primero de estos algoritmos es una variacion del clasico algoritmo de

  17. Tanque Loma, a new late-Pleistocene megafaunal tar seep locality from southwest Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsey, Emily L.; Lopez R., Eric X.

    2015-01-01

    , geologic context, and sedimentology of Tanque Loma suggest that this site represents a bone bed assemblage in a heavily vegetated, low-energy riparian environment with secondary infiltration of asphalt that helped to preserve the bones. The predominance of Eremotherium fossils at this site indicate that it may have been an area where these animals congregated, suggesting possible gregarious behavior in this taxon. The radiocarbon dates so far obtained on extinct taxa at Tanque Loma are consistent with a model positing earlier extinctions of megafauna in tropical South America than of related taxa further south on the continent, although this pattern may be an artifact of low sampling in the region. xml:lang="es" Aunque más de 1.000 huesos de megafauna han sido identificados en los estratos del Pleistoceno en Tanque Loma, más del 85% de esos mismos pertenecen a una sola especie, el perezoso gigante Eremotherium laurillardi. Sin embargo, otros cinco taxones de megafauna han sido recuperados de este sitio, los cuales son: Glossotherium cf. G. tropicorum, Holmesina occidentalis, cf. Notiomastodon platensis, Equus (Amerhippus) c.f. santaelenae y un cérvido identificado tentativamente en base a tamaño y geografía como cf. Odocoileus salinae. Ningún carnívoro ha sido identificado aún en Tanque Loma, y los restos de microvertebrados son muy raros en los estratos del Pleistoceno, aunque las conchas de caracol terrestre y los restos fragmentados de invertebrados marinos son encontrados ocasionalmente dentro de esas capas. Los fechados de radiocarbono por espectrómetro de acelerador de masas (AMS) en huesos de Eremotherium y cf. Notiomastodon de la capa de asfalto y por encima de esta resultaron en ˜17,000-23,500 años radiocarbónicos AP. En conjunto, la tafonomía, la composición taxonómica, el contexto geológico, y la sedimentolgía del sitio Tanque Loma surgieren que esta localidad representa un yacimiento depositado en un ambiente ribereño con bajo flujo y vegetaci

  18. Foco Nasmyth para el telescopio 2,15mts. de CASLEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casagrande, A. R.

    En principio, este proyecto intenta lograr el mayor aprovechamiento posible del instrumental que se dispone, buscando la manera de optimizar y hacer más eficiente el servicio que brinda el CASLEO a la comunidad astronómica. El mismo consiste en utilizar dispositivos ya existentes en el telescopio, y darle una utilidad. Tal es el caso del camino óptico destinado al foco Coude. Si tenemos en cuenta que disponemos de un tercer espejo Coude, con todos sus mecanismos automatizados, (actualmente sin uso), una distancia apropiada del plano focal, el espacio y el lugar físico necesario para instalar un periférico, es posible la habilitación de un foco Nasmyth en el telescopio 2,15mts. El hecho de contar con este nuevo foco, redundará en importantes beneficios. En primer lugar, posibilitará la observación, casi simultánea, con dos instrumentos. Otro aspecto a tener en cuenta, es que disminuirá el frecuente cambio del instrumental periférico, motivo este que degrada su ideal puesta a punto. Por último, también de interés, es de destacar su escaso costo de ejecución.

  19. Urano y sus dos satélites irregulares recientemente descubiertos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parisi, M. G.; Brunini, A.

    Hasta hace poco tiempo, Urano era el único de los Planetas Gigantes que no poseía satélites irregulares. Esto lo diferenciaba del resto de los planetas Gigantes, al igual que la peculiar oblicuidad de su eje de spin. La gran inclinación de su eje de rotación se debe probablemente a una colisión que sufrió el planeta con otro embrión planetario al final del proceso de formación. Esta colisión habría desligado satélites exteriores preexistentes del planeta. Recientemente se han descubierto dos satélites irregulares de Urano, lo que introduce algunas nuevas cotas y condiciones en el escenario de la "Hipótesis de la Gran Colisión" . Los satélites irregulares de Urano tuvieron que ser capturados en una etapa posterior a la del escenario de la Gran Colisión, de no ser así, hubieran sido eyectados del sistema por el impulso impartido con ese gran impacto. En este trabajo, se discuten los posibles mecanismos de captura de los satélites irregulares y se presenta un nuevo posible mecanismo para dicha captura.

  20. [In situ FTIR and XPS study on selective hydrodesulfurization catalyst of FCC gasoline].

    PubMed

    Qiherima; Yuan, Hui; Zhang, Yun-hong; Li, Hui-feng; Xu, Guang-tong

    2011-07-01

    Improvement of the selectivity of hydrodesulfurization (HDS) for hydrogenation (HYD) of olefins is crucial to produce sulfur-free (S < 0.001%) gasoline from fluid catalytic-cracked (FCC) gasoline. A series of sulfided CoMo/Al2O3 catalysts with different metal loading were prepared by pore-filling impregnation. MoS2 and COMoS active phases on the surface of sulfided COMo/Al2O3 catalyst were identified and analyzed quantitatively by XPS and in-situ FTIR of adsorbed CO. The results reveal that the increase in COMoS phase on the catalyst surface improves the HDS activity and selectivity. And the HDS selectivity correlates linearly with the ratio of active site number of CoMoS and MoS2, the higher the ratio of active site number of CoMoS and MoS2, the better the HDS selectivity. In situ variable temperature FTIR analysis shows that CoMoS phase has stronger electron accepting ability than MoS2. The strong electron deficient property of CoMoS active sites is the main reason for its excellent HDS activity and selectivity. PMID:21942017

  1. Helenistic Encomium: A Reflection on Comics and Rhetoric

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helms, Jason

    2009-01-01

    This video reflection starts in a presentation on comics at the Thomas R. Watson Conference last October, which prompted the author to explore the etymology of cosmos and comos through an alternate reading of Gorgias' "Encomium of Helen". The author then works with comos, as revelry, to offer thoughts on comics as a form of multimodal composition…

  2. Aflatoxinas

    Cancer.gov

    Las aflatoxinas son un tipo de toxinas producidas por ciertos hongos en cultivos agrícolas como el maíz, los cacahuates o el maní, la semilla de algodón y los frutos secos (de cáscara dura como las nueces).

  3. Asociación de XMRV con enfermedades humanas se debe a contaminación

    Cancer.gov

    Nuevas investigaciones muestran que una asociación, mencionada en numerosos estudios, entre el retrovirus conocido como XMRV y el cáncer de próstata así como el síndrome de fatiga crónica, se debe a contaminación de laboratorio con un virus que se originó en ratones.

  4. 25. Photographic copy of photograph (Source: Department of Interior. Bureau ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Photographic copy of photograph (Source: Department of Interior. Bureau of Reclamation. Bitter Root Project History 1931-1962. National Archives, Denver, RG 115, Accession #115-90-039, Box 243. Location of original photo unknown.) View of original construction of Como Dam during 1908 to 1910 - Bitter Root Irrigation Project, Como Dam, West of U.S. Highway 93, Darby, Ravalli County, MT

  5. Resultados del Estudio Nacional de Colografía de Tomografía

    Cancer.gov

    Estudios anteriores encontraron que la colografía de tomografía computarizada, también conocida como colonoscopia virtual, era prometedora como método de examen selectivo de detección de cáncer colorrectal debido

  6. Delirio (PDQ®)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca del delirio como una complicación a causa del cáncer o su tratamiento. Se discuten los enfoques de los cuidados médicos de apoyo, asi como farmacológicos para el manejo del delirio.

  7. Theoretical models for the stability of a liquid ring on a substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diez, Javier A.; González, Alejandro G.; Kondic, Lou

    2013-11-01

    A viscous incompressible fluid ring on a partially wetting substrate is studied within the framework of long-wave theory. We found that static equilibria are posible in the presence of contact angle hysteresis. Their linear stability is carried out by using a slip model. A quasi-static approximation is also implemented to analyze longer times. This latter approach takes into account the concomitant variation of the instantaneous growth rates of the modes responsible for either collapse of the ring into a single central drop or breakup into a number of droplets along the ring circumforence. We compare the results of these models with those obtained from nonlinear numerical simulations based on a complementary disjoining pressure model. We find remarkably good agreement regarding the expected number of drops forming during the breakup process. Supported by CONICET-Argentina grant PIP 844/2011 (AGG, JAD), and by NSF grant CBET-1235710 (LK).

  8. Evolución estelar en sistemas binarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Vito, M. A.; Benvenuto, O.

    Definición y clasificación de sistemas binarios; descripción del comportamiento del sistema frente a la variación de su masa; binarias de rayos X; transferencia de masa en sistemas binarios masivos aplicado al posible esclarecimiento del progenitor azul de la supernova SN 1987A; comentario acerca de la evolución de enanas blancas de helio de baja masa y su conexión con los sistemas binarios; reseña del trabajo de Kippenhahn y Weigert sobre el cual está basado el código evolutivo desarrollado en la FCAG por el Dr. Benvenuto y sobre el cual se trabajará para poder incluir la evolución de una estrella con pérdida de masa perteneciente a un sistema binario.

  9. Espectro de radiación derivado de un modelo de colapso protoestelar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coca, S.; Rohrmann, R.

    El exceso de emisión infrarroja en objetos protoestelares es atribuido usualmente a un disco de material en torno al cuerpo central. A pesar del avance alcanzado en la elaboración de modelos, aún existen dificultades para explicar la ley de temperatura del disco necesaria para reproducir las luminosidades y perfiles de energía observados. Nuestra propuesta consiste en determinar la distribución espectral de la radiación derivada de un particular modelo de colapso protoestelar, y estudiar la evolución del espectro desde estadíos tempranos de la contracción gravitatoria. Este plan es orientado a evaluar las propiedades del modelo (distribuciones de masa y temperatura del material circunestelar) por comparación con datos observacionales, a fin de inferir de ello los posibles ajustes requeridos en la teoría actualmente empleada.

  10. Testing for Dark Matter Trapped in the Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krisher, Timothy P.

    1996-01-01

    We consider the possibility of dark matter trapped in the solar system in bound solar orbits. If there exist mechanisms for dissipating excess kinetic energy by an amount sufficient for generating bound solar orbits, then trapping of galactic dark matter might have taken place during formation of the solar system, or could be an ongoing process. Possible locations for acumulation of trapped dark matter are orbital resonances with the planets or regions in the outer solar system. It is posible to test for the presence of unseen matter by detecting its gravitational effects. Current results for dynamical limits obtained from analyses of planetary ephemeris data and spacecraft tracking data are presented. Possible future improvements are discussed.

  11. Recycling of trace elements required for humans in CELSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashida, A.

    1994-11-01

    Recycle of complete nourishment necessary for human should be constructed in CELSS (Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems). Essential elements necessary for human support are categorized as major elements, semi-major elements and trace elements. Recently, trace elements have been identified from considerations of local diseases, food additive problems, pollution problems and adult diseases, consisting of Fe, Zn, Cu, Se, Co, F, Si, Mn, Cr, I, As, Mo, Ni, V, Sn, Li, Br, Cd, Pb, B. A review of the biogeochemical history of the earth's biosphere and the physiological nature of humans and plants explains some of the requirements. A possible route for intake of trace elements is considered that trace elements are dissolved in some chemical form in water, absorbed by plants through their roots and then transfered to human as foods. There may be a posibility that living things absorb some trace elements from atmosphere. Management and recycling of trace elements in CELSS is discussed.

  12. [Rudimentary horn pregnancy: first trimester ultrasound diagnosis and laparoscopic confirmation].

    PubMed

    Salazar-López, R; Antillón-Valenzuela, J

    2013-08-01

    Case report of rudimentary uterine horn on first trimester pregnancy that was diagnosed by sonographic images and laparoscopically confirmed. We suggest a set of criteria for early diagnosis of this rare condition using sonographic with 3D endovaginal ultrasound. We present a first trimester extrauterine pregnancy that was diagnosed in rutinary sonographic analisys. A rudimentary horn pregnancy was detected by sonographic with 3D endovaginal ultrasound, that was confirmed laparoscopically. Rudimentary horn pregnancy was right sided without endometrial communication with the uterine body. The rudimentary horn pregnancy was laparoscopically resected, a fibrous bridge between horn and uterus is confirmed, also a normal aspect tube was observed, wich was underwent to fimbriectomy. We suggest to consider this rare posibility on extrauterine pregnancy diagnosis, and also apply 3D technology under endovaginal route to achieve an early diagnosis and avoid rupture. PMID:24049979

  13. Liquid lift for the Shuttle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demeis, Richard

    1989-02-01

    After the operational failure of a Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) led to the Space Shuttle Challenger accident, NASA reexamined the use of liquid-fueled units in place of the SRBs in order to ascertain whether they could improve safety and payload. In view of favorable study results obtained, the posibility has arisen of employing a common liquid rocket booster for the Space Shuttle, its cargo version ('Shuttle-C'), and the next-generation Advanced Launch System. The system envisioned would involve two booster units, whose four engines/unit would be fed by integral LOX and kerosene tanks. Mission aborts with one-booster unit and two-unit failures would not be catastrophic, and would respectively allow LEO or an emergency landing in Africa.

  14. [Limits and possibilities of distance learning in continuing education in health: integrative review].

    PubMed

    Silva, Adriane das Neves; dos Santos, Ana Maria Gualberto; Cortez, Elaine Antunes; Cordeiro, Benedito Carlos

    2015-04-01

    This is a study on the use of distance learning (EaD, in Portuguese) as a teaching strategy in continuing health education (EPS, in Portuguese), which aimed to identify and analyze the limits and posibilities of using EaD in the EPS. Integrative Review Study. The result shows that EaD is an innovative, possible and potential strategy for EPS, facilitating the development of learning within or outside the health institution, although is evident the lack of research in the area. The limitations for the implementation of the programs are related to the time variable, preparation for dealing with the technologies and the importance of the tutor as a facilitator of learning. It concludes that the use of EaD has an important contribution to the development of human resources in health, is in the process of training and/or in the continuous knowledge process. PMID:25923621

  15. [Sociocultural aspects of the genesis of personality disorders].

    PubMed

    Pérez Urdániz, A; Santos García, J M; Molina Ramos, R; Rubio Larrosa, V; Carrasco Perera, J L; Mosqueira Terrón, I; Romero, E F

    2001-01-01

    The prevalence of personality disorders seems to be increasing in the last decades. Many sociologists and historians believe that since the end of World War II, we have seen important changes, social, cultural and economic, which could indicate that we are entering a new age. The Postmodern Age, after nearly 500 years of Modern Age. Postmodernits is characterized by an increase of the speed in all realms of life, permanent changes, materialism, dominance of capitalism as economic model, changes of roles, etc. We speculate about the posibility that the characteristics of postmodern society may be contributing to the increase of prevalence of personality disorders in general and some of them in particular. PMID:11333519

  16. Discusión de las aproximaciones utilizadas en el estudio de la recombinación dielectrónica de los metales en envolturas estelares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruzado, A.; di Rocco, H. O.; Ringuelet, A.

    Se calcularon nuevos parámetros atómicos del MgI reemplazando los niveles de energía teóricos por los observados. Con ellos se calculó nuevamente el flujo originado en la Recombinación Dielectrónica (RD) del MgII y se comparó con resultados anteriores. Se evaluó también la posible influencia de diferentes fuentes de opacidad, en el flujo originado en la RD de los metales en atmósferas extendidas de estrellas tempranas. En particular, se calculó la profundidad óptica de las líneas de MgI para diferentes condiciones físicas del medio.

  17. Electron beam process design for the treatment of wastes and economic feasibility of the process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleland, M. R.; Fernald, R. A.; Maloof, S. R.

    Electron beam irradiation is a practical and economical method to disinfect liquid municipal sludges at high thruput rates. Demonstration facilities have been built in Boston and Miami with treatment capacities of 170,000 gallons per day (650 cubic meters per day) for a minimum dose of 400 kilorads. The electron treatment process is described in some detail. Capital and operating cost estimates are given for continuous sludge disinfection. Total costs for liquid sludge are 7.50 per 1000 gallons (2.00 per cubic meter). Equivalent cost for residual sewage solids are $50.00 per metric ton. Economic comparisons are made between electron accelerators and gamma-ray sources for liquid and dewatered sludge. The posibilities of treating wastewater and drinking water with high-energy electrons are also reviewed.

  18. Hubble Space Telescope meteoroid-debris protection analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horn, J.; Maldonado, J.

    1986-01-01

    A system level failure could occur if the Hubble Space Telescope's (ST) capability to operate as a facility on-orbit is critically reduced or when a significant reduction in the quality of science data is registered. Failure could occur if a meteoroid/debris impact damages a component of a major support subsystem or if a meteoroid/debris penetration causes straylight contamination in the light shield, forward shell, aft shroud, or through the aperture door. The ST was analyzed to find the probability of no critical penetration. This probability value was found to be 92.25% for a two-year service life. A straylight leakage repair technique was recommended for the aft shroud, the region found most likely to be critically penetrated. Fozar tape and multilayer insulation blankets are suggested as posible repair materials.

  19. Participatory groundwater management in Jordan: Development and analysis of options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chebaane, Mohamed; El-Naser, Hazim; Fitch, Jim; Hijazi, Amal; Jabbarin, Amer

    ómicos, se ha recomendado la implementación de cinco opciones complementarias de gestión: establecimiento de un Servicio Asesor de Riego; adquisición de pozos de granjas; imposición de límites estrictos en las extracciones de pozos y superficies de riego; substitución de las aguas subterráneas con aguas residuales depuradas; y medidas para incrementar la eficiencia de los usos municipales e industriales del agua. Se ha agrupado varias combinaciones y niveles de dichas opciones en escenarios, representando estrategias posibles de implementación. Los escenarios han sido diseñados para ayudar a los gestores en la toma de decisiones, a los propietarios de pozos y a otros agentes para que se vaya consiguiendo de forma gradual un régimen de extracciones sustentable. Se ha analizado los aspectos sociales y económicos de cada opción y de cada escenario, presentándolos a los diversos agentes, además de generar un resumen de ramificaciones legales, institucionales y medioambientales. Se ha concebido la combinación de un análisis científico con un enfoque participativo en la cuenca de Ammán-Zarga como un prototipo de gestión de las aguas subterráneas que puede ser aplicado a la gestión de otras cuencas en Jordania. También sería útil en otros lugares del mundo que estén experimentando problemas similares de sobreexplotación de los recursos hídricos subterráneos.

  20. Earth Applications Group in the EGEE Europan Project : First experiments and objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petitdidier, M.; Fusco, L.; Nercessian, A.; Vilotte, J.

    2004-12-01

    The aim of the EGEE (Enabling Grids E-science in Europe) project, funded by the EC is to build on recent advances in Grid Technology and to develop a service grid infrastructure, built on the EU Research Network GEANT, available to scientific and industrial applications. The Earth Sciences group is concern in the deployment of selected applications on the EGEE production testbed. Today applications include Earth Observation, Climate, Hydrology, Solid Earth and applied Geophysics. Recent developments made in the domains of Earth Observation and Solid Earth geophysics will be presented. In Earth observation, the goal is to drive the satellite operational and research community to use the Grid to process, validate and exchange large sets of data. This objective has begun during the European DataGrid project. First results have been obtained for Ozone data processing and validation. Large numbers and large volume of files from different satellite instruments (Gome and Gomos) and ground measurements have be handled on the Grid. More than 70,000,000 of Ozone profiles have been produced and stored on the Grid by orbit. The data has been processed with complex algorithms (e.g. Neural approach, inversion methods) using IDL-runtime. Creation and secure access to metadata and satellite data has been made possible on the Grid. Moreover, ESA built a secure portal to access to its Archive Mass Storage to transfer satellite data on the Grid and to process the selected data. This Grid interface has provided a very progressive way for end-users to access and process satellite data. In EGEE an attempt to access other satellite archives from the Grid and process scientific jobs requiring access to several databases for quasi-real time prediction, like ozone, is in progress. In The Solid Earth, a first example of the use of the GRID has been done in the case of a seismic tomography study by IPG Paris. Secure and restricted access to database has been demonstrated as well as complex