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Sample records for ipsilateral femoral shaft

  1. [Progress in diagnosis and treatment of ipsilateral femoral neck and shaft fracture].

    PubMed

    Du, C G; Zhang, Y Z; Chen, W

    2016-07-01

    Ipsilateral femoral neck and shaft fractures are rare injuries, which are often caused by high-energy trauma and combined with multiple injuries, such as thoracic and abdominal injury, head injuries, and fractures of other sites.Delayed or missed diagnosis of the ipsilateral femoral neck fracture often occurs.When patients with femoral shaft fractures caused by high-energy trauma are admitted into hospital, physical examination should be conducted carefully.In addition to femoral shaft fractures, radiographs of the ipsilater hip and knee joints should been taken, simultaneously taking into consideration the potential effect of anteversion angle on the demonstration of femoral neck fracture.Computed tomograph and magnetic resonance imaging are advised to perform if necessary to facilitate early and accurate diagnosis of ipsilateral femoral neck fracture.Comprehensive evaluation should be done based on age, physical condition, associated injuries as well as fracture site, classification and injury severity.Accordingly, proper and reasonable surgical plan is made.During the operation, anatomical reduction of the fractures, especially femoral neck fractures, should be achieved, and then fixed with appropriate internal implants.Besides, attention should also be paid to the treatment of associated injuries as well as the prevention and management of complications. PMID:27373484

  2. Intramedullary nailing of pediatric femoral shaft fracture.

    PubMed

    Hosalkar, Harish S; Pandya, Nirav K; Cho, Robert H; Glaser, Diana A; Moor, Molly A; Herman, Martin J

    2011-08-01

    Intramedullary nail fixation of pediatric long bone fracture, particularly femoral shaft fracture, has revolutionized the care and outcome of these complex injuries. Nailing is associated with a high rate of union and a low rate of complications. Improved understanding of proximal femoral vascularity has led to changes in nail insertion methodology. Multiple fixation devices are available; selection is based on fracture type, patient age, skeletal maturity, and body mass index. A thorough knowledge of anatomy and biomechanics is required to achieve optimal results without negatively affecting skeletal development. PMID:21807915

  3. Bilateral Simultaneous Femoral Neck and Shafts Fractures - A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghifar, Amirreza; Saied, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Simultaneous fractures of the femoral neck and shaft are not common injuries, though they cannot be considered rare. Herein, we report our experience with a patient with bilateral occurance of this injury. Up to the best of our knowkedge this is the first case reported in literature in which correct diagnosis was made initially. Both femurs were fixed using broad 4.5 mm dynamic compression plate and both necks were fixed using 6.5 mm cannulated screws. Femur fixation on one side was converted to retrograde nailing because of plate failure. Both neck fractures healed uneventfully. In spite of rarity of concomitant fractures of femoral neck and shaft, this injury must be approached carefully demanding especial attention and careful device selection. PMID:25692158

  4. Robotic assisted reduction of femoral shaft fractures using Stewart platform.

    PubMed

    Majidifakhr, Kamran; Kazemirad, Siavash; Farahmand, Farzam

    2009-01-01

    A robotic system with 6 DOF mobility was proposed for reduction of femoral shaft fractures based on Stewart platform. A plan for implementing the platform on bone fragments was introduced and a step by step strategy for performing the reduction procedure, based on the system's inverse kinematic solution, was proposed. The efficacy of the system was evaluated in some case studies and it was shown that it can be locked to act as an external fixator. PMID:19377143

  5. Endovascular management of renal transplant dysfunction secondary to hemodynamic effects related to ipsilateral femoral arteriovenous graft.

    PubMed

    Salsamendi, Jason; Pereira, Keith; Quintana, David; Bleicher, Drew; Tabbara, Marwan; Goldstein, Michael; Narayanan, Govindarajan

    2016-01-01

    Hemodialysis access options become complex in long-term treatment for patients with renal disease, while awaiting renal transplantation (RT). Once upper extremity sites are exhausted, lower extremities are used. RT is preferably in the contralateral iliac fossa, rarely ipsilateral. In current literature, RT dysfunction secondary to the hemodynamic effects of an ipsilateral femoral arteriovenous graft (AVG) has been rarely described. To our knowledge, AVG ligation is the only published technique for hemodynamic correction of an ipsilateral AVG. We present a simple, potentially reversible endovascular approach to manage the hemodynamic effects of an AVG, without potentially permanently losing future AVG access. PMID:26899147

  6. Incidence of Avascular Necrosis of the Femoral Head After Intramedullary Nailing of Femoral Shaft Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Wan; Oh, Jong-Keon; Byun, Young-Soo; Shon, Oog-Jin; Park, Jai Hyung; Oh, Hyoung Keun; Shon, Hyun Chul; Park, Ki Chul; Kim, Jung Jae; Lim, Seung-Jae

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The goal of this study was to determine the incidence of avascular necrosis of the femoral head (AVNFH) after intramedullary nailing of femoral shaft fractures and to identify risk factors for developing AVNFH. We retrospectively reviewed all patients with femoral shaft fractures treated with antegrade intramedullary nailing at 10 institutions. Among the 703 patients enrolled, 161 patients were excluded leaving 542 patients in the study. Average age was 42.1 years with average follow-up of 26.3 months. Patient characteristics and fracture patterns as well as entry point of femoral nails were identified and the incidence of AVNFH was investigated. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to open versus closed physis, open versus closed fractures, and age (<20 versus ≥20 years). Overall incidence of AVNFH was 0.2% (1 of 542): the patient was 15-year-old boy. Of 25 patients with open physis, the incidence of AVNFH was 4%, whereas none of 517 patients with closed physis developed AVNFH (P < 0.001). The incidence of AVNFH in patients aged < 20 versus ≥20 years was 1.1% (1 of 93) and 0.0% (0 of 449), respectively (P = 0.172), which meant that the incidence of AVNFH was 0% in adult with femur shaft fracture. Of 61 patients with open fractures, the incidence of AVNFH was 0%. The number of cases with entry point at the trochanteric fossa or tip of the greater trochanter (GT) was 324 and 218, respectively, and the incidence of AVNFH was 0.3% and 0.0%, respectively (P = 0.412). In patients aged ≥20 years with isolated femoral shaft fracture, there was no case of AVNFH following antegrade intramedullary nailing regardless of the entry point. Therefore, our findings suggest that the risk of AVNFH following antegrade femoral nailing is extremely low in adult patients. PMID:26844518

  7. A low-energy femoral shaft fracture from performing a yoga posture.

    PubMed

    Moriarity, Andrew; Ellanti, Prasad; Hogan, Niall

    2015-01-01

    The femoral shaft is rarely the site of a low-energy fracture in a healthy individual. The vast majority of these fractures are due to major trauma such as motor vehicle accidents. Although low-energy femoral shaft fractures do occur, they are typically in patients with osteoporotic bone, or prosthesis related. In this case report, we present a man in his late 30s who was practising a specific yoga stance when he experienced a femoral shaft fracture. PMID:26452743

  8. Iatrogenic Femoral Pseudoaneurysm and Secondary Ipsilateral Deep Vein Thrombosis: An Indication for Early Surgical Exploration.

    PubMed

    Papadakis, Marios; Zirngibl, Hubert; Floros, Nikolaos

    2016-07-01

    Pseudoaneurysm formation often complicates transfemoral interventional procedures. Nonsurgical treatment consists of femoral compression and thrombin injection under ultrasound guidance. We report a 74-year-old man who was diagnosed with a pseudoaneurysm, following coronary angiography. Duplex ultrasound revealed deep vein thrombosis of the ipsilateral common femoral vein. Ultrasound-guided thrombin injection was unsuccessfully performed, and the patient subsequently underwent surgical exploration for repair of the pseudoaneurysm and release of the venous compression. The increased local inflammation, because of the thrombosis, added in surgical difficulties. We conclude that early surgical intervention should be considered as a primary strategy in patients with femoral pseudoaneurysms and deep vein thrombosis secondary to femoral compression. PMID:27174354

  9. Case Reports: Treatment of Subtrochanteric and Ipsilateral Femoral Neck Fractures in an Adult with Osteopetrosis

    PubMed Central

    Mchale, Kathleen A.

    2008-01-01

    We describe a patient with autosomal-dominant osteopetrosis, a subtrochanteric fracture, and an ipsilateral femoral neck fracture treated with a hip spica cast Although the fracture united with coxa vara and external rotation deformities, the patient successfully returned to his normal activities of daily living. Operative fracture treatment in patients with osteopetrosis is difficult, and our patient provides evidence that with nonoperative treatment these patients can return to a functional level when operative treatment is not an option. PMID:18431613

  10. Profunda anchor technique for ipsilateral antegrade approach in endovascular treatment of superficial femoral artery ostial occlusion.

    PubMed

    Pua, Uei

    2015-04-01

    Endovascular treatment of the superficial femoral artery (SFA) is challenging in the presence of flush ostial occlusion. One of the main challenges is the availability of access sites for intervention. Contralateral retrograde femoral access followed by cross-over and antegrade intervention while commonly used, may not be feasible in cases of altered iliac anatomy (e.g. kissing iliac stents). Ipsilateral antegrade intervention using common femoral artery (CFA) access in these instances while possible is typically challenging due to inadequate working length of the CFA for interrogation of the SFA ostium, compounded by the lack of sheath stability. The "profunda anchor" technique uses a buddy wire in the profunda femoris artery (PFA) to stabilize the sheath and allow catheter manipulation for antegrade intervention at the level of the SFA ostium. The PFA is further used as a conduit for deployment of closure device to avoid interference with the treated SFA. PMID:25522981

  11. Profunda Anchor Technique for Ipsilateral Antegrade Approach in Endovascular Treatment of Superficial Femoral Artery Ostial Occlusion

    SciTech Connect

    Pua, Uei

    2015-04-15

    Endovascular treatment of the superficial femoral artery (SFA) is challenging in the presence of flush ostial occlusion. One of the main challenges is the availability of access sites for intervention. Contralateral retrograde femoral access followed by cross-over and antegrade intervention while commonly used, may not be feasible in cases of altered iliac anatomy (e.g. kissing iliac stents). Ipsilateral antegrade intervention using common femoral artery (CFA) access in these instances while possible is typically challenging due to inadequate working length of the CFA for interrogation of the SFA ostium, compounded by the lack of sheath stability. The “profunda anchor” technique uses a buddy wire in the profunda femoris artery (PFA) to stabilize the sheath and allow catheter manipulation for antegrade intervention at the level of the SFA ostium. The PFA is further used as a conduit for deployment of closure device to avoid interference with the treated SFA.

  12. Ipsilateral Fracture Shaft Femur with Neglected Dislocation of Prosthesis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Mantu; Bihari, Amar Jyoti; Sriramka, Bhavna

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Neglected hip dislocation is rare in today’s world and after prosthesis replacement even rarer finding. However such patients may not report to surgeons until they develop secondary complications. Management of such patient’s is a challenge to the treating surgeon and need to be tailored suiting to patient’s demands, expectations and constraints of financial resources. We did not find a similar case in the electronic and print media and therefore report this case which was innovatively managed. Case Report: A 60 year farmer presented with fracture shaft femur and ipsilateral dislocation prosthesis of right hip. He had a hemiarthroplasty done for fracture neck of femur in the past but used to walk with a lurch since he started to ambulate after discharge. However he was satisfied despite “some problems” which had caused shortening of his limb. The patient was informed of the various treatment options and their possible complications. He expressed his inability to afford a Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA) at any stage and consented for other options discussed with him. The patient was positioned supine and adductor tenotomy done. Next he was positioned laterally and the fracture was fixed with heavy duty broad dynamic compression plate and screws. The wound was temporarily closed. Now through the previous scar via posterior approach the hip was exposed. The prosthesis was found to be firmly fixed to the proximal femur. The acetabulum was cleared with fibrous tissue. All attempts the prosthesis to relocate the prosthesis failed after several attempts and it was best decided to leave alone. Post operatively period was uneventful. At follow up he refused for any further manoeuvre in future inform of heavy traction and attempts to reduce the same. At one year when he was walking unaided and his X-rays showed that fracture had well united his SF-36 score was PCS - 49.6 and MCS – 51.9. Conclusion: Ipsilateral shaft femur fracture in chronically

  13. Curvature analysis of femoral shaft in total knee arthroplasty patient and control group.

    PubMed

    Lim, Ki Seon; Oh, Wang Kyun; Shin, Ji Yun; Cho, Byung Ki; Lee, Tae Soo

    2013-01-01

    For some patients with joint illnesses such as rheumarthritis or varus deformity, the total knee arthroplasty (TKA) procedures are performed. However, when inserting metal cutting guide for the procedures, due to the femoral shaft bowing, complications such as the cortex of the femoral shaft damages or secondary fractures can be caused. If the central coordinate value of the femoral shaft is known, the metal cutting guide could be inserted into the anatomical center, so such complications can be prevented. In this study, CT images of femoral shafts of 10 individuals in the experiment group who are in need of receiving the total knee arthroplasty procedures and those of 10 individuals in the control group without illness in the femoral shaft have been utilized to locate the 3-dimensional coordinate values. Then, Matlab was utilized to identify the central coordinate value in order to obtain a graph reflecting the anatomical shapes as well as to acquire the 3-dimensional curvature values by section. As a result, the average curvature range of femoral shafts of the experiment group was determined to be 631.2 mm whereas the average curvature range of femoral shafts of the control group was determined to be 1430.4 mm. The statistical significant of the measured results was verified through ANOVA analysis. Based on these results, it was verified that the level of curvature of the femoral shaft of the experiment group was higher. If the anatomical central points are located and analyzed using this methodology, it would be helpful in performing orthopedic operations such as the total knee arthroplasty. PMID:24110202

  14. [Treatment strategy for posttraumatic complex deformity : After bilateral femoral shaft fractures].

    PubMed

    Ahrend, M; Ateschrang, A; Stöckle, U; Schröter, S

    2016-02-01

    A case of complex posttraumatic deformity after bilateral femoral shaft fractures is reported. Different possibilities for correction in cases of valgus malalignment combined with internal rotation deformity as well as shortening combined with external rotation deformity are presented. Oblique osteotomy and a motorized femoral extension nail were used. PMID:26187430

  15. Autograft Transfer from the Ipsilateral Femoral Condyle in Depressed Tibial Plateau Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Sferopoulos, N.K

    2014-01-01

    Introduction : The rationale for operative treatment of depressed tibial plateau fractures is anatomic reduction, stable fixation and grafting. Grafting options include autogenous bone graft or bone substitutes. Methods : The autograft group included 18 patients with depressed tibial plateau fractures treated with autogenous bone grafting from the ipsilateral femoral condyle following open reduction and internal fixation. According to Schatzker classification, there were 9 type II, 4 type III, 2 type IV and 3 type V lesions. The average time to union and the hospital charges were compared with the bone substitute group. The latter included 17 patients who had an excellent outcome following treatment of split and/or depressed lateral plateau fractures, using a similar surgical technique but grafting with bone substitutes (allografts). Results : Excellent clinical and radiological results were detected in the autograft group after an average follow-up of 28 months (range 12-37). The average time to union in the autograft group was 14 weeks (range 12-16), while in the bone substitute group it was 18 weeks (range 16-20). The mean total cost was 1276 Euros for the autograft group and 2978 Euros for the bone substitute group. Discussion : The use of autogenous graft from the ipsilateral femoral condyle following open reduction and internal fixation of depressed tibial plateau fractures provided enough bone to maintain the height of the tibial plateau and was not associated with any donor site morbidity. Using this method, the surgical time was not significantly elongated and the rehabilitation was not affected. It also exhibited faster fracture healing without postoperative loss of reduction and it was less expensive than the use of bone substitutes. PMID:25317215

  16. Ipsilateral obturator type of hip dislocation with fracture shaft femur in a child: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Arjun, R H H; Kumar, Vishal; Saibaba, Balaji; John, Rakesh; Guled, Uday; Aggarwal, Sameer

    2016-09-01

    The incidence of traumatic hip dislocations in children is rising in this fast developing world along with increasing numbers of high-velocity road traffic accidents. Anterior dislocation of the hip has a lower incidence compared with posterior dislocation of the hip. We encountered a rare case of the obturator type of anteriorly dislocated hip associated with ipsilateral fracture of the shaft femur in an 11-year-old child. This is a highly unusual injury combination and the mechanism of injury is obscure. Only two similar cases have been reported in the English literature to date. Closed reduction of the hip using a hitherto undescribed technique and an intramedullary interlocking nail was performed in this case. At 6 months of follow-up, the fracture shaft femur has united and the child is bearing full weight on the limb. PMID:27128394

  17. Results of the treatment of the open femoral shaft fractures in children

    PubMed Central

    Tomaszewski, Ryszard; Gap, Artur

    2014-01-01

    Background Intramedullary nailing has become the treatment of choice for closed femoral shaft fractures in children and adolescents. Immediate intramedullary nailing of open fractures of femur in children remains controversial, with most surgeons preferring to treat grade II or III open fractures either by debridement and traction or external fixation. The aims The aim of this study is to evaluate the results of intramedullary nailing of open femoral fractures in children. Methods 172 children were treated for femoral shaft fracture in our department. 19 fractures were opened in 18 patients. Results In children with polytrauma, multiple fractures, head injuries and other conditions which necessitate intensive nursing care, intramedullary nailing of opens femoral shaft fractures (type I, II, IIIA, IIIB) should be preferred. Conclusion Satisfactory results were obtained in all patients in terms of self evaluation of patients, radiological and clinical evaluation. The infection rate was much lower for patients who had been given a cephalosporin than for patient who had been given a penicillin or had been given no antibiotic. PMID:25104890

  18. Measuring anteversion and femoral neck-shaft angle in cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Miller, F; Liang, Y; Merlo, M; Harcke, H T

    1997-02-01

    Femoral anteversion was measured by computed tomography (CT) in 40 children with cerebral palsy, however an accurate measurement was possible in only 59 of the 80 hips. Flat-surface measurement of anteversion was possible in 72 of 80 hips by CT, and in 36 of 40 hips by ultrasound. A high neck-shaft angle correlated with an inability to measure anteversion by CT. Measuring by ultrasound allowed subjects to be positioned in internal rotation and in this way accurate measurements of neck-shaft angles were obtained. PMID:9062426

  19. Rigid Intramedullary Nailing of Femoral Shaft Fractures for Patients Age 12 and Younger: Indications and Technique.

    PubMed

    Martus, Jeffrey E

    2016-06-01

    Femoral shaft fractures are common injuries in the pediatric and adolescent age groups. Rigid intramedullary nailing is an excellent treatment option for older children and adolescents, particularly for length-unstable fractures and larger patients (>49 kg). Appropriate indications, contraindications, and preoperative assessment are described. The rigid nailing surgical technique is detailed including positioning, operative steps, pearls, and pitfalls. Complications and the reported outcomes of lateral trochanteric entry nailing are reviewed from the published series. PMID:27100036

  20. A meta-analysis of flexible intramedullary nailing versus external fixation for pediatric femoral shaft fractures.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yong Cheng; Feng, Guo Ming; Xing, Guang Wei; Yin, Jin Neng; Xia, Bing; Dong, Yan Zhao; Niu, Xue Qiang; He, Qianyi; Hu, Pengfei

    2016-09-01

    To compare the difference in efficacy following flexible intramedullary nailing (FIN) and external fixation (EF) for pediatric femoral shaft fractures. A systematic search was performed on PubMed, Embase, Medline, and Cochrane library for relevant studies. We included controlled trials comparing complications between FIN and EF for pediatric femoral shaft fractures published before 25 November 2014. Modified Jadad scores were utilized to assess the methodological quality of the studies included. The meta-analysis was carried out using Stata 12.0 software. Six studies involving 237 patients were included. On comparison of EF, a low incidence of overall complications [relative risk (RR)=0.30, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.19-0.46; P<0.001] and pin-tract infection (RR=0.286, 95% CI: 0.13-0.61; P=0.001), but a high risk of soft tissue irritation (RR=1.86, 95% CI: 1.35-2.56; P<0.001) were found in patients treated with the FIN approach. No significant differences in other complications were found. On the basis of current evidence, the use of FIN leads to fewer complications than EF and may be considered as the first-line approach in the treatment of femoral shaft fractures. PMID:27294706

  1. Stress fractures of the femoral shaft in athletes: a new treatment algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Ivkovic, A; Bojanic, I; Pecina, M

    2006-01-01

    Background Femoral shaft stress fractures in athletes are not common but pose a great diagnostic challenge to clinicians. Because of few clinical signs, diagnosis and treatment are often delayed. Furthermore, if not treated correctly, these fractures are well known for complications and difficulties. Objective To develop a well structured and reproducible treatment algorithm for athletes with femoral shaft stress fractures. Methods The proposed algorithm is carried out in four phases, each lasting three weeks, and the move to the next phase is based on the result of the tests carried out at the end of the previous phase. Over nine years, we treated seven top level athletes, aged 17–21. In all athletes, diagnosis was based on physical examination, plain radiographs, and bone scan. Results As a result of the treatment method, all the athletes were fully engaged in athletic activity 12–18 weeks after the beginning of treatment. After completion of the treatment, the athletes were followed up for 48–96 months. During the follow up, there was no recurrence of discomfort or pain, and all the athletes eventually returned to competition level. Conclusion These results and data available from the literature suggest that the algorithm is the optimal treatment protocol for femoral shaft stress fractures in athletes, avoiding the common complications and difficulties. PMID:16720887

  2. FEMORAL ANTEVERSION AND THE NECK-SHAFT ANGLE: RELATIONSHIP WITH HIP OSTEOARTHRITIS

    PubMed Central

    Labronici, Pedro José; de Oliveira Castro, Gabriel Novaes Pillar; Neto, Sérgio Ricardo; Gomes, Hermann Costa; Hoffmann, Rolix; de Azevedo Neto, Justino Nóbrega; Franco, José Sergio; de Noronha Rocha, Tito Henrique; Alves, Sergio Delmonte

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the existence of agreement between measurements of anteversion of the femoral neck and the degrees of osteoarthritis and abnormality of the neck-shaft angle in patients with unilateral idiopathic hip osteoarthritis, among three evaluators. Methods: Forty-two patients with unilateral hip osteoarthritis were evaluated by means of simple radiography and computed tomography. Results: It was observed that there was no significant variation in femoral anteversion between the diseased and healthy hips. There was strongest agreement between observers 1 and 2 in relation to both the diseased hips (cases) and the healthy hips (controls). Moreover, no significant agreement was found between observers 1 and 3 (p = 0.13) and between observers 2 and 3 (p = 0.12), in relation to the neck-shaft angle of the control hips. Conclusion: Although there was no relationship between femoral anteversion and the neck-shaft angle in the patients with unilateral hip osteoarthritis, the present study showed that there was also no relationship with these angular deviations. PMID:27026989

  3. Femoral shaft fracture osteosynthesis in a critically ill patient under Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO)

    PubMed Central

    Calvo, Cristobal; Salineros, Matias; Diaz, Rodrigo; Carvajal, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) is an invasive procedure used in critically ill patients with catastrophic pulmonary failure or cardiogenic shock in which conventional management has failed. These patients are managed with permanent anticoagulation, with increased bleeding risk. Hemorrhage is the main reported complication. Case: A 25-year-old polytraumatized woman, both lower limbs amputated and a left femoral shaft fracture with catastrophic pulmonary failure (Murray score 4) that required intensive management care with ECMO. During her evolution definitive femoral shaft osteosynthesis with a nail as required and the medical team decided to operate on the patient under ECMO. She recovered with fluctuations in her hematocrit, but was hemodynamically stable. The patient recovered satisfactorily, was weaned from ECMO and commenced her rehabilitation program. At 16 months, she was almost autovalent, and full consolidation was achieved, with no complication of the implants. Discussion: ECMO is a life-saving support, but requires permanent anticoagulation, which implies a high risk of hemorrhages, specially for surgical treatment. This patient underwent an osteosynthesis surgery satisfactorily. Hematoma was the only complication of her intramedullary femoral nail, without compromising hemodynamics. This case shows that patients on ECMO can undergo a major orthopedic surgery in selected cases. PMID:27194108

  4. Osteochondral Autograft from the Ipsilateral Femoral Head by Surgical Dislocation for Treatment of Femoral Head Fracture Dislocation: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Won, Yougun; Lee, Gi Soo; Kim, Sang Bum; Kim, Sun Joong; Yang, Kyu Hyun

    2016-11-01

    As anatomical reduction of the articular surface of femoral head fractures and restoration of damaged cartilage are essential for good long-term results, many treatment options have been suggested, including fixation of the fracture using various surgical exposures and implants, as well as arthroscopic irrigation and debridement, bone marrow stimulating techniques, osteochondral allograft, autograft, and autogenous chondrocyte implantation. We report a case of osteochondral autograft harvested from its own femoral articular surface through surgical hip dislocation. The osteochondral graft was harvested from the inferior non-weight-bearing articular surface and grafted to the osteochondral defect. One year later, the clinical and radiological results were good, without the collapse of the femoral head or arthritic change. This procedure introduced in our case is considered convenient and able to lessen surgical time without morbidity of the donor site associated with the harvest. PMID:27593886

  5. Management of Femoral Shaft Fracture in Klippel-Trenaunay Syndrome with External Fixator

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Yogendra; Jha, Ranjib Kumar; Karn, Navin Kumar; Sah, Sanjaya Kumar; Mishra, Bibhuti Nath; Bhattarai, Manoj Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome (KTS) is a rare complex malformation characterized by the clinical triad of capillary malformations, soft tissue and bone hypertrophy, and venous/lymphatic malformation. Fractures of long bones in such cases are challenging to treat. A 12-year-old female with this syndrome presented with femoral shaft fracture of right thigh. She was initially kept on skeletal traction for two weeks and then she underwent closed reduction and immobilization with external fixator with uneventful intraoperative and postoperative period. Fracture united at four and half months. PMID:26885423

  6. Treatment of femoral shaft fractures in children using the "Tobruk" method.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Turlough M P; Murphy, Diarmuid P; Mullett, Hannan; Moore, David P; Fogarty, Esmond E; Dowling, Frank E

    2006-08-01

    The "Tobruk" technique of plaster augmentation of a Thomas' splint can be used for the treatment of femoral shaft fractures in children. The radiological and clinical data of 118 patients treated using this method were reviewed over a consecutive 3-year period. The mean age of the patients was 4.25 years. Mean hospital stay was 14.11 days. Mean time spent in the "Tobruk" splint was 44.77 days. Loss of reduction during splintage occurred in 9.32% of patients. Skin complications occurred in 5 patients (4.2%), and cast repairs were necessary in 3 patients. "Tobruk" splinting is a relatively safe and effective way of treating femoral shaft fractures in children. Although its use is not widespread, especially in the United States, until better results are achieved with spica casting and elastic stable intramedullary nails, it does provide a valid option in the treatment of these fractures. A controlled randomized prospective trial with long-term follow-up is needed to fully elucidate its value. PMID:16983865

  7. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND RADIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF FEMORAL SHAFT FRACTURES: STUDY OF 200 CASES

    PubMed Central

    de Moraes, Frederico Barra; da Silva, Luciano Lucindo; Ferreira, Fábio Vieira; Ferro, Ademar Martins; da Rocha, Valney Luís; Teixeira, Kim-Ir-Sen Santos

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to evaluate epidemiological and radiological characteristics of the femoral shaft fractures, surgically treated from 1990 to 2005 at Hospital de Acidentados – Clínica Santa Isabel – in Goiânia, Goiás, aiming to contribute to better preventive and therapeutic measures planning to adopt on those fractures. Methods: 200 patients' files and x-rays with femoral shaft fractures have been retrospectively evaluated. Patients below the age of 10 years were not included because the treatment for this group was conservative. 25 files have been discarded for not supplying all the necessary data to the study. The patients were assessed for sex, age, side of the fracture, bone exposure, mechanisms of trauma, classification of the fractures, associated trauma, time for bone healing and types of surgical devices. Statistic analyses were made by chi-squared, Fisher and Student's-t tests, adopting as a significance level p<0.05. Results: significant results (p < 0.05) were found in: 70% of men, 80% closed fractures and 65% of women above the age of 60. Fractures resulting from simple falls were more frequent in women, above 60 years old, with simpler traces, and the ones caused by projectiles of firearm in men, from 20 to 60 years, with unstable traces. Trampling accidents were prevalent among youngsters between 10 and 19 years old. Car accidents showed all the types of fractures, mostly associated to other traumas, reaching its peak incidence in the age group of 20-30 years. The treatment with Küntscher Nail resulted in a longer mean consolidation time, as well as fractures with unstable traces (B3,C1,C2,C3). Conclusion: we found a bi-modal characteristic the femoral shaft fractures, consistently to literature data, where the high energy mechanisms (traffic accidents, high falls and wounds from firearms), have been more frequent in young adults, men, generating unstable traces of fractures, with more serious associated trauma, while the other group with low

  8. Open reduction and plate fixation of femoral shaft fractures in children aged 4 to 10.

    PubMed

    Eren, Osman Tugrul; Kucukkaya, Metin; Kockesen, Caglar; Kabukcuoglu, Yavuz; Kuzgun, Unal

    2003-01-01

    A retrospective review of 40 children aged 4 to 10 years with 46 femur fractures treated with open reduction and plate fixation is presented. Follow-up time was 6.3 years (range 2.5-17.5). There were no nonunions. One case of osteomyelitis and one refracture occurred. Leg-length discrepancy averaging 1.2 cm (range 0.4-1.8), with lengthening on the operated side, was observed in 15 patients. Although there is some risk for complications, and although good early results have been reported with elastic intramedullary nails, plate fixation continues to be a viable alternative in the surgical treatment of femoral shaft fractures in children aged 4 to 10. PMID:12604949

  9. An Effective Approach for Optimization of a Composite Intramedullary Nail for Treating Femoral Shaft Fractures.

    PubMed

    Samiezadeh, Saeid; Tavakkoli Avval, Pouria; Fawaz, Zouheir; Bougherara, Habiba

    2015-12-01

    The high stiffness of conventional intramedullary (IM) nails may result in stress shielding and subsequent bone loss following healing in long bone fractures. It can also delay union by reducing compressive loads at the fracture site, thereby inhibiting secondary bone healing. This paper introduces a new approach for the optimization of a fiber-reinforced composite nail made of carbon fiber (CF)/epoxy based on a combination of the classical laminate theory, beam theory, finite-element (FE) method, and bone remodeling model using irreversible thermodynamics. The optimization began by altering the composite stacking sequence and thickness to minimize axial stiffness, while maximizing torsional stiffness for a given range of bending stiffnesses. The selected candidates for the seven intervals of bending stiffness were then examined in an experimentally validated FE model to evaluate their mechanical performance in transverse and oblique femoral shaft fractures. It was found that the composite nail having an axial stiffness of 3.70 MN and bending and torsional stiffnesses of 70.3 and 70.9 N⋅m², respectively, showed an overall superiority compared to the other configurations. It increased compression at the fracture site by 344.9 N (31%) on average, while maintaining fracture stability through an average increase of only 0.6 mm (49%) in fracture shear movement in transverse and oblique fractures when compared to a conventional titanium-alloy nail. The long-term results obtained from the bone remodeling model suggest that the proposed composite IM nail reduces bone loss in the femoral shaft from 7.9% to 3.5% when compared to a conventional titanium-alloy nail. This study proposes a number of practical guidelines for the design of composite IM nails. PMID:26458035

  10. Modern trends in internal fixation of femoral shaft fractures in children. A critical review.

    PubMed

    Parsch, K D

    1997-04-01

    Elastic intramedullary (IM) devices, which avoid the physeal region like Nancy and Ender nails do, can be used in children younger than even 4 years without compromising the trochanter physis or risking an avascular necrosis. Intramedullary fixation of femoral shaft fractures leads to satisfactory results of alignment and union. Prerequisites for intramedullary closed nailing are a traction table, especially for older children and adolescents, and an image intensifer. Interlocking IM, Ender, and Nancy nails all have the equal advantage of early weight bearing and reduced hospitalization time compared with traction and cast management. Küntscher or interlocking nails should only be used in adolescents close to the end of growth to avoid growth arrest of the trochanterocervical physis. Küntscher nails and interlocking IM nails are both associated with the small but troublesome risk of avascular necrosis. Ender and Nancy nails, with retrograde or antegrade pinning, have a low complication rate and a short learning curve for surgeons. Overgrowth in late controls after IM rodding of shaft fractures is about the same as the other types of treatment with an average overgrowth of 7 mm. Short hospital stay for children with IM nails reduces cost of treatment to about one half compared with in-hospital traction and cast management. PMID:9165440

  11. [Atipic osteosarcoma in the femoral shaft case report and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Clara-Altamirano, M A; García-Ortega, D Y; Martínez-Tlahuel, J L; Martínez-Said, H; Caro-Sánchez, C H S; García-Ruíz, G C; Mejía-Salazar, C R; Cuellar-Hubbe, M

    2016-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most frequent primary malignant bone tumor. It is characterized by osteoid production by tumor cells. Its most frequent location is in the metaphyses of long bones, but a purely diaphyseal presentation is reported in 10% of cases. We report the case of a female 25 year-old patient whose symptoms of pain and swelling of the right mid thigh started four months before, without an apparent cause. Femur X-rays showed a tumor in the femoral shaft. The MRI showed extension to soft tissues with no compromise of the neurovascular bundle. The histopathologic report of the incisional biopsy was osteoblastic and chondroblastic osteosarcoma, classified as Enneking IIB, AJCC IIB. Treatment consisted of three cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Then intercalary femur resection plus reconstruction with centromedullary nailing and a diaphyseal spacer were performed. The histopathologic report was 95% necrosis (Huvos grade III). Three cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy were given and now, 18 months after completing the latter, the patient has no signs of local or distant tumor activity, and she can walk unassisted. Despite the fact that osteosarcoma does not occur usually in the mid shaft of long bones, we should always bear it in mind as part of the differential diagnosis for other conditions that occur more frequently in that region. Such location allows for a broad gamut of surgical approaches that spare the adjacent joints. PMID:27627776

  12. A rat model for evaluating physiological responses to femoral shaft fracture reduction using a surgical robot.

    PubMed

    Oszwald, Markus; Westphal, Ralf; O'Loughlin, Padhraig F; Kendoff, Daniel; Hufner, Tobias; Wahl, Friedrich; Krettek, Christian; Gosling, Thomas

    2008-12-01

    The first step in treatment of displaced femoral shaft fractures is adequate reduction of the fracture fragments. Manually performed, reduction can be challenging, and is frequently associated with soft tissue damage, especially when repeated reduction attempts are made. The magnitude of local and systemic inflammatory responses caused by prolonged and repeated reduction maneuvers has not been fully established. We devised an operative technique utilizing a robotic reduction device for use in a rat. A femoral fracture was simulated by means of an osteotomy. The robot enabled reproduction of both manual and guided precision reductions, performed in a single path movement. An external fixator was designed specifically to manipulate the rat femur and also for fixation of the osteotomy region. First, reduction accuracy was assessed in eight femurs, then the quality of fixator placement and reduction accuracy was analyzed in 22 femurs. In the first case, 100% of the femurs were accurately reduced. In the second case, 91% had successful stable fixation and an accurate reduction was achieved in 86% of the specimens. We demonstrated the feasibility of a model of robot-assisted fracture reduction that could be used to analyze the effects of reduction on the surrounding soft tissue via biochemical and histopathological means. A future aspect will be to evaluate whether the robot confers an advantage in fracture reduction versus the conventional technique, which would have significant implications for the use of robotic devices in orthopaedic surgery. PMID:18634014

  13. Intraoperative cone-beam CT for correction of periaxial malrotation of the femoral shaft: A surface-matching approach

    SciTech Connect

    Khoury, Amal; Whyne, Cari M.; Daly, Michael; Moseley, Douglas; Bootsma, Greg; Skrinskas, Tomas; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey; Jaffray, David

    2007-04-15

    Limb length, alignment and rotation can be difficult to determine in femoral shaft fractures. Shaft axis rotation is particularly difficult to assess intraoperatively. Femoral malpositioning can cause deformity, pain and secondary degenerative joint damage. The aim of this study is to develop an intraoperative method based on cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) to guide alignment of femoral shaft fractures. We hypothesize that bone surface matching can predict malrotation even with severe comminution. A cadaveric femur was imaged at 16 femoral periaxial malrotations (-51.2 deg. to 60.1 deg.). The images were processed resulting in an unwrapped bone surface plot consisting of a pattern of ridges and valleys. Fracture gaps were simulated by removing midline CT slices. The gaps were reconstituted by extrapolating the existing proximal and distal fragments to the midline of the fracture. The two bone surfaces were then shifted to align bony features. Periaxial malrotation was accurately assessed using surface matching (r{sup 2}=0.99, slope 1.0). The largest mean error was 2.20 deg. and the average difference between repeated measurements was 0.49 deg. CBCT can provide intraoperative high-resolution images with a large field of view. This quality of imaging enables surface matching algorithms to be utilized even with large areas of comminution.

  14. Comparison between external fixation and elastic stable intramedullary nailing for the treatment of femoral shaft fractures in children younger than 8 years of age.

    PubMed

    Andreacchio, Antonio; Marengo, Lorenza; Canavese, Federico; Pedretti, Leopoldo; Memeo, Antonio

    2016-09-01

    The main objective of this study was to compare external fixation (EF) with elastic stable intramedullary nailing (ESIN) for the treatment of femoral shaft fractures in children aged 8 or younger. Fifteen children with femoral shaft fractures treated by EF and 23 children with femoral shaft fractures treated by ESIN were retrospectively reviewed. All patients were pain free at the last follow-up, with good ranges of motion in the hip and knee. Partial and full weight bearing occurred sooner in patients treated with EF than with ESIN, although more polytrauma patients were present in the ESIN group. In conclusion, EF and ESIN can be considered as safe and effective methods for femoral shaft fracture treatment in children younger than 8 years of age. PMID:27261769

  15. Femoral Shaft Torsion in Injured and Uninjured Ballet Dancers and Its Association with Other Hip Measures: A Cross-sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Hafiz, Eliza; Hiller, Claire E; Nicholson, Leslie L; Nightingale, Elizabeth J; Grimaldi, Alison; Refshauge, Kathryn M

    2016-03-01

    Low range femoral torsion, termed "lateral shaft torsion," has been associated with greater range of hip external rotation and turnout in dancers. It is also hypothesized that achieving greater turnout at the hip minimizes torsion at the knee, shank, ankle, and foot, and consequently reduces incidence of lower limb injuries. The primary aims of this study were to investigate: 1. differences in range of femoral shaft torsion between dancers with and without lower limb injuries; and 2. the relationship between femoral shaft torsion, hip external rotation range, and turnout. A secondary aim was to examine the relationship between femoral shaft torsion and other hip measures: hip strength, lower limb joint hypermobility, hip stability, and foot progression angle, as explanatory variables. Demographic, dance, and injury data were collected, along with physical measures of femoral shaft torsion, hip rotation range of motion, and turnout. Hip strength, control, lower limb hypermobility, and foot progression angle were also measured. Eighty female dancers, 50 with lower limb injury (20.7 ± 4.8 years of age) and 30 without lower limb injury (17.8 ± 4.1 years of age), participated in the study. There was no difference in range of femoral shaft torsion between the groups (p = 0.941). Femoral shaft torsion was weakly correlated with range of hip external rotation (r = -0.034, p = 0.384) and turnout (r = -0.066, p = 0.558). Injured dancers had a significantly longer training history than non-injured dancers (p = 0.001). It was concluded that femoral shaft torsion does not appear to be associated with the overall incidence of lower limb injury in dancers or to be a primary factor influencing extent of turnout in this population. PMID:27025447

  16. Improve the Efficiency of Surgery for Femoral Shaft Fractures with A Novel Instrument: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Peichun; Qin, Hui; An, Zhiquan; Zhang, Changqing; Sheng, Jiagen

    2016-01-01

    Objective To improve the efficacy of closed reduction and wire guiding during intramedullary nail internal fixation in femoral shaft fractures. Methods A novel instrument was designed and manufactured. Sixty-eight patients were enrolled from February 2011 to December 2013. The instrument designed was used during the operation in the experimental group, but not in the control group. Results All patients exhibited fracture union, excluding 1 patient in the experimental group and 2 in the control group who had non-union; all of whom achieved fracture union with reoperation. There were no statistically significant differences in operative blood loss or duration of hospital stay between the groups (P > 0.05). The operative time, frequency of wire drilling, and number of open reduction cases, were significantly smaller in the experimental group than in the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusion Femoral shaft fractures are difficult to reduce using general methods; the novel instrument showed high clinical value and proved effective and safe in assisting with closed reduction and intramedullary nail fixation for femoral shaft fractures. Trial Registration ChiCTR ChiCTR-ICR-15007335 PMID:27115752

  17. Fracture mechanics of human cortical bone: The relationship of geometry, microstructure and composition with the fracture of the tibia, femoral shaft and the femoral neck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeni, Yener Nail

    Bone fracture is a major health problem in old population with its complications leading to mortality and morbidity. Therapies mostly involve preventing bone mass loss. Individuals with high bone mass, however, may still suffer fractures suggesting that additional components such as bone microstructure and composition may be responsible for increased fracture risk in the elderly. The relationship of bone constituents with bone fragility, however, is not well-understood. A better understanding of these relationships will help improving therapies by controlling the relevant biological processes. Bone is a composite material with many constituents such as osteons embedded with vascular channels, collagen fibers, mineral crystals, etc. The nature of interfacing between these constituents makes bone a more complex material. Bone also has a structure that adapts itself, both internally and externally, to better fit its needs. This suggested that, unlike man-made materials, a relationship between material properties and structural properties may exist. Because bone has some similarities with engineering composite materials and also experiences microcracks, a fracture mechanics approach would be more appropriate for investigating its fragility. Choosing mode I and mode II fracture toughness (Gsb{Ic} and Gnsb{IIc}, respectively) as indicators of bone fragility, their relationship with bone microstructure (porosity, osteon morphology, mineral crystal imperfection and microdamage), composition (density, mineral, organic, water and collagen content) and macrostructure (thickness, diameter and moment of inertia of the shaft and angle between the femoral neck and femoral shaft from different views) was investigated. Use of x-ray radiogrammetry for detecting the latter was tested. Differences among the femoral shaft, femoral neck and the tibia were investigated for an age range of 22-94 years. In general, fracture toughness increased with increasing bone quantity. However, the

  18. Knee megaprosthesis: a salvage solution for severe open and complex distal femoral fracture associated with an ipsilateral brachial plexus injury (a case report with literature review).

    PubMed

    Ennaciri, Badr; Vasile, Christian; Lebredonchel, Thierry; Berrada, Mohamed Saleh; Montbarbon, Eric; Beaudouin, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Complex distal femoral fractures in the young patient often occur as a result of high velocity trauma. Timely recognition and treatment is everything in such a situation, and it needs a robust staged management pathway to optimize the chance of limb preservation. We report a case of a motorcyclist admitted to the department of orthopedics at Chambery hospital, France, with a complex comminuted and open distal femoral fracture of the left leg, associated with a brachial plexus injury to the ipsilateral upper limb. On arrival to the emergency department, damage control stabilization and surgery was commenced, debridement of contaminated non-viable tissue, abundant antiseptic lavage and application of external fixation coupled with the use of antibiotic spacer. Following normalization of inflammatory markers and ensuring no clinical signs of infection, subsequent management consisted of joint reconstruction to achieve a functional knee. The external fixator and femoral spacer was removed and a modular megaprosthesis was implanted with a lateral gastrocnemius flap to cover the exposed knee joint and reinforce the extensor apparatus. Nerve graft to the left brachial plexus injury was performed at University Hospital of Grenoble. Our patient entered an intensive rehabilitation program and at 1 year follow-up achieved good knee function and sensation to the left upper limb. PMID:26421102

  19. Mini-open versus closed reduction in titanium elastic nailing of paediatric femoral shaft fractures: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Altay, Mehmet Akif; Erturk, Cemil; Cece, Hasan; Isikan, Ugur Erdem

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare retrospectively intraoperative fluoroscopy time and clinical-radiological results in pediatric femoral shaft fractures treated with titanium elastic nailing (TEN), with a mini-open "blind-hand" technique versus closed reduction. The study included 87 children (18 girls and 69 boys) who underwent surgical treatment with TEN for femoral shaft fractures. Patients were divided into two groups. Group 1 included 42 patients (mean age : 83 +/- 2.7 years) treated with a mini-open "blind-ha nd" technique (a 2-3 cm lateral incision at the level of the fracture ; reduction achieved with one or two fingers, without visualization of the fracture). Group 2 consisted of 45 patients (mean age: 8.8 +/- 2.6 years) treated with a closed reduction technique. Duration of surgery and intraoperative fluoroscopy time were recorded in both groups. Clinical and radiologic results were assessed using the TEN scoring system after mean follow-up periods of 213 +/- 5.8 months and 193 +/- 5.6 months in group 1 and group 2, respectively. Mean duration of surgery was 31.7 +/- 7.6 and 52.1 +/- 14.4 minutes, and mean fluoroscopy time 32.9 +/- 22.1 and 75.1 +/- 31.5 seconds in group 1 and group 2, respectively. Both surgical and fluoroscopy time were significantly longer in group 2 (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of clinical and radiological results. All fractures healed with solid union, and there was no complication that was expected to cause permanent disability. Although successful clinical and radiological results were obtained with both techniques, duration of surgery and intraoperative fluoroscopy time were significantly higher in the closed reduction group 2. We suggest the "blind-hand" technique as an alternative to closed reduction to prevent extensive intraoperative radiation exposure and to decrease the length of the surgical procedure. PMID:21667733

  20. Treatment of Adult Femoral Shaft Fractures Using the Perkins Traction at Addis Ababa Tikur Anbessa University Hospital: The Ethiopian Experience

    PubMed Central

    Bezabeh, Bahiru; Wamisho, Biruk L.; Coles, Maxime J.M.

    2012-01-01

    This is a prospective study to evaluate the efficacy of the Perkins traction in the treatment of adult femoral shaft fractures from October 1, 2007, to the present at the Black Lion Hospital in Addis Ababa University Hospital in Ethiopia. All femur fractures admitted to the hospital were reviewed and evaluated for treatment. Black Lion Hospital (Tikur Anbessa) is the university hospital in Addis Ababa and the highest tertiary teaching hospital in a country of 85 million inhabitants. A 67-bed orthopedic department offers the main ground for teaching to the undergraduate medical students. The hospital is also the pivotal center for the formation of the orthopedic residents. Patients from different parts of the country are referred to this institution for orthopedic care. A total of 68 adult (older than 16 years) patients with 69 femoral shaft fractures were considered for treatment during the study period. Consent was obtained and prospective treatment initiated. A standard Perkins traction was applied by an orthopedic team composed of consultants, orthopedic residents, physical therapists, and nurses. A protocol was developed for patients undergoing such traction. The physiotherapists will supervise all individual or group therapy sessions. Progressive knee range of motion to facilitate quadriceps and hamstring muscle strengthening exercises were implemented four times a day and recorded. Demographic information, fracture patterns, duration of traction, thigh circumference leg length discrepancy, and pin sites were routinely monitored and charted. Data were computerized and analyzed weekly, and appropriate adjustments were made accordingly. Clinical evidence of a competent callus and confirmation by radiographic studies will influence the cessation of traction to allow gait training with toe-touch crutch ambulation. Progress will be monitored during the following outpatient visits in the fracture clinic. A total of 68 consecutive patients with 69 femoral shaft

  1. Early intramedullary nailing of femoral shaft fracture on outcomes in patients with severe chest injury: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Meng; Li, Changli; Yi, Chengla; Tang, Shaotao

    2016-01-01

    Early intramedullary nailing (IMN) within the first 24 hours for multiply injured patients with femoral fracture and concomitant severe chest injury is still controversial. This review aimed to investigate the association between early IMN and pulmonary complications in such patients. We searched the literature up to Jan 2016 in the main electronic databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane library databases) to identify eligible studies. Data were extracted and analyzed using a Mantel-Haenszel method with random-effects model to estimate pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Seven retrospective cohort studies were identified eventually. The pooled estimates demonstrated that the application of early IMN did not significantly increase the risk of adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (OR, 0.65; 95% CI: 0.38-1.13), mortality (OR, 0.79; 95% CI: 0.43-1.47), pneumonia (OR, 0.92; 95% CI: 0.55-1.54), multiple organ failure (MOF) (OR, 0.87; 95% CI: 0.45-1.71) and pulmonary embolism (OR, 1.81; 95% CI: 0.28-11.83). In subgroup analysis according to the type of IMN (reamed or undreamed), we did not find any significant difference either. Our results indicated that early IMN of femoral shaft fracture was not associated with increased rates of pulmonary complications in severe chest-injured patients. PMID:27457468

  2. Early intramedullary nailing of femoral shaft fracture on outcomes in patients with severe chest injury: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Meng; Li, Changli; Yi, Chengla; Tang, Shaotao

    2016-01-01

    Early intramedullary nailing (IMN) within the first 24 hours for multiply injured patients with femoral fracture and concomitant severe chest injury is still controversial. This review aimed to investigate the association between early IMN and pulmonary complications in such patients. We searched the literature up to Jan 2016 in the main electronic databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane library databases) to identify eligible studies. Data were extracted and analyzed using a Mantel–Haenszel method with random-effects model to estimate pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Seven retrospective cohort studies were identified eventually. The pooled estimates demonstrated that the application of early IMN did not significantly increase the risk of adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (OR, 0.65; 95% CI: 0.38–1.13), mortality (OR, 0.79; 95% CI: 0.43–1.47), pneumonia (OR, 0.92; 95% CI: 0.55–1.54), multiple organ failure (MOF) (OR, 0.87; 95% CI: 0.45–1.71) and pulmonary embolism (OR, 1.81; 95% CI: 0.28–11.83). In subgroup analysis according to the type of IMN (reamed or undreamed), we did not find any significant difference either. Our results indicated that early IMN of femoral shaft fracture was not associated with increased rates of pulmonary complications in severe chest-injured patients. PMID:27457468

  3. The effectiveness of the antegrade reamed technique: the experience and complications from 415 traumatic femoral shaft fractures

    PubMed Central

    Papadimitriou, George; Theodoratos, Gerasimos; Papanikolaou, Anastasios; Maris, John

    2009-01-01

    This retrospective study presents the experience gained through use of reamed femoral nails and reports results and respective complications. This study included 415 femur fractures (312 men and 101 women with a mean age of 27.8 years) that were treated from 1993 to 2004. The fractures were classified according to AO, and 74 open fractures were included and typed according to the Gustilo classification. Dynamic nailing was performed for nearly all type A fractures and static nailing for types B and C. After a mean follow-up of 1.5 years, union rate was 97.8%. The complications were: 9 non-unions, 14 delayed-unions, 4 torsional malunions, 6 limb length discrepancies (shortening) and 30 nerve pareses due to traction. Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) occurred below the knee in 4 patients, while there were recorded 3 pulmonary and 2 fat embolisms, 1 superficial and 1 deep infection. There were 28 broken screws identified postoperatively. Logistic regression analysis revealed that type B and C were associated with increased risk of complications, with respective odds ratios of 3.1 (95% CI = 1.3–7.2, P = 0.011) and 4.3 (95% CI = 1.8–10.3, P = 0.001) when compared to type A patterns. All patients returned to their activities in a mean time of 10 months. Intramedullary nailing is still the treatment of choice for femoral shaft fractures, but knowledge of potential complications and their association with certain fracture patterns is needed. PMID:19936887

  4. Reverse distal femoral locking compression plate a salvage option in nonunion of proximal femoral fractures

    PubMed Central

    Dumbre Patil, Sampat S; Karkamkar, Sachin S; Patil, Vaishali S Dumbre; Patil, Shailesh S; Ranaware, Abhijeet S

    2016-01-01

    Background: When primary fixation of proximal femoral fractures with implants fails, revision osteosynthesis may be challenging. Tracts of previous implants and remaining insufficient bone stock in the proximal femur pose unique problems for the treatment. Intramedullary implants like proximal femoral nail (PFN) or surface implants like Dynamic Condylar Screw (DCS) are few of the described implants for revision surgery. There is no evidence in the literature to choose one implant over the other. We used the reverse distal femur locking compression plate (LCP) of the contralateral side in such cases undergoing revision surgery. This implant has multiple options of fixation in proximal femur and its curvature along the length matches the anterior bow of the femur. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of this implant in salvage situations. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients of failed primary proximal femoral fractures who underwent revision surgery with reverse distal femoral locking plate from February 2009 to November 2012 were included in this retrospective study. There were 18 subtrochanteric fractures and two ipsilateral femoral neck and shaft fractures, which exhibited delayed union or nonunion. The study included 14 males and six females. The mean patient age was 43.6 years (range 22–65 years) and mean followup period was 52.1 months (range 27–72 months). Delayed union was considered when clinical and radiological signs of union failed to progress at the end of four months from initial surgery. Results: All fractures exhibited union without any complications. Union was assessed clinically and radiologically. One case of ipsilateral femoral neck and shaft fracture required bone grafting at the second stage for delayed union of the femoral shaft fracture. Conclusions: Reverse distal femoral LCP of the contralateral side can be used as a salvage option for failed fixation of proximal femoral fractures exhibiting nonunion. PMID:27512218

  5. Do post-operative changes of neck-shaft angle and femoral component anteversion have an effect on clinical outcome following uncemented total hip arthroplasty?

    PubMed

    Müller, M; Abdel, M P; Wassilew, G I; Duda, G; Perka, C

    2015-12-01

    The accurate reconstruction of hip anatomy and biomechanics is thought to be important in achieveing good clinical outcomes following total hip arthroplasty (THA). To this end some newer hip designs have introduced further modularity into the design of the femoral component such that neck-shaft angle and anteversion, which can be adjusted intra-operatively. The clinical effect of this increased modularity is unknown. We have investigated the changes in these anatomical parameters following conventional THA with a prosthesis of predetermined neck-shaft angle and assessed the effect of changes in the hip anatomy on clinical outcomes. In total, 44 patients (mean age 65.3 years (standard deviation (SD) 7); 17 male/27 female; mean body mass index 26.9 (kg/m²) (SD 3.1)) underwent a pre- and post-operative three-dimensional CT scanning of the hip. The pre- and post-operative neck-shaft angle, offset, hip centre of rotation, femoral anteversion, and stem alignment were measured. Additionally, a functional assessment and pain score were evaluated before surgery and at one year post-operatively and related to the post-operative anatomical changes. The mean pre-operative neck-shaft angle was significantly increased by 2.8° from 128° (SD 6.2; 119° to 147°) to 131° (SD 2.1; 127° to 136°) (p = 0.009). The mean pre-operative anteversion was 24.9° (SD 8; 7.9 to 39.1) and reduced to 7.4° (SD 7.3; -11.6° to 25.9°) post-operatively (p < 0.001). The post-operative changes had no influence on function and pain. Using a standard uncemented femoral component, high pre- and post-operative variability of femoral anteversion and neck-shaft angles was found with a significant decrease of the post-operative anteversion and slight increase of the neck-shaft angles, but without any impact on clinical outcome. PMID:26637674

  6. Femoral neck-shaft angle in humans: variation relating to climate, clothing, lifestyle, sex, age and side.

    PubMed

    Gilligan, Ian; Chandraphak, Supichya; Mahakkanukrauh, Pasuk

    2013-08-01

    The femoral neck-shaft angle (NSA) varies among modern humans but measurement problems and sampling limitations have precluded the identification of factors contributing to its variation at the population level. Potential sources of variation include sex, age, side (left or right), regional differences in body shape due to climatic adaptation, and the effects of habitual activity patterns (e.g. mobile and sedentary lifestyles and foraging, agricultural, and urban economies). In this study we addressed these issues, using consistent methods to assemble a global NSA database comprising over 8000 femora representing 100 human groups. Results from the analyses show an average NSA for modern humans of 127° (markedly lower than the accepted value of 135°); there is no sex difference, no age-related change in adults, but possibly a small lateral difference which could be due to right leg dominance. Climatic trends consistent with principles based on Bergmann's rule are evident at the global and continental levels, with the NSA varying in relation to other body shape indices: median NSA, for instance, is higher in warmer regions, notably in the Pacific (130°), whereas lower values (associated with a more stocky body build) are found in regions where ancestral populations were exposed to colder conditions, in Europe (126°) and the Americas (125°). There is a modest trend towards increasing NSA with the economic transitions from forager to agricultural and urban lifestyles and, to a lesser extent, from a mobile to a sedentary existence. However, the main trend associated with these transitions is a progressive narrowing in the range of variation in the NSA, which may be attributable to thermal insulation provided by improved cultural buffering from climate, particularly clothing. PMID:23781912

  7. Femoral neck-shaft angle in humans: variation relating to climate, clothing, lifestyle, sex, age and side

    PubMed Central

    Gilligan, Ian; Chandraphak, Supichya; Mahakkanukrauh, Pasuk

    2013-01-01

    The femoral neck-shaft angle (NSA) varies among modern humans but measurement problems and sampling limitations have precluded the identification of factors contributing to its variation at the population level. Potential sources of variation include sex, age, side (left or right), regional differences in body shape due to climatic adaptation, and the effects of habitual activity patterns (e.g. mobile and sedentary lifestyles and foraging, agricultural, and urban economies). In this study we addressed these issues, using consistent methods to assemble a global NSA database comprising over 8000 femora representing 100 human groups. Results from the analyses show an average NSA for modern humans of 127° (markedly lower than the accepted value of 135°); there is no sex difference, no age-related change in adults, but possibly a small lateral difference which could be due to right leg dominance. Climatic trends consistent with principles based on Bergmann's rule are evident at the global and continental levels, with the NSA varying in relation to other body shape indices: median NSA, for instance, is higher in warmer regions, notably in the Pacific (130°), whereas lower values (associated with a more stocky body build) are found in regions where ancestral populations were exposed to colder conditions, in Europe (126°) and the Americas (125°). There is a modest trend towards increasing NSA with the economic transitions from forager to agricultural and urban lifestyles and, to a lesser extent, from a mobile to a sedentary existence. However, the main trend associated with these transitions is a progressive narrowing in the range of variation in the NSA, which may be attributable to thermal insulation provided by improved cultural buffering from climate, particularly clothing. PMID:23781912

  8. Impact of the Method of Initial Stabilization for Femoral Shaft Fractures in Patients With Multiple Injuries at Risk for Complications (Borderline Patients)

    PubMed Central

    Pape, Hans-Christoph; Rixen, Dieter; Morley, John; Husebye, Elisabeth Ellingsen; Mueller, Michael; Dumont, Clemens; Gruner, Andreas; Oestern, Hans Joerg; Bayeff-Filoff, Michael; Garving, Christina; Pardini, Dustin; van Griensven, Martijn; Krettek, Christian; Giannoudis, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: The timing of definitive fixation for major fractures in patients with multiple injuries is controversial. To address this gap, we randomized patients with blunt multiple injuries to either initial definitive stabilization of the femur shaft with an intramedullary nail or an external fixateur with later conversion to an intermedullary nail and documented the postoperative clinical condition. Methods: Multiply injured patients with femoral shaft fractures were randomized to either initial (<24 hours) intramedullary femoral nailing or external fixation and later conversion to an intramedullary nail. Inclusion: New Injury Severity Score >16 points, or 3 fractures and Abbreviated Injury Scale score ≥2 points and another injury (Abbreviated Injury Scale score ≥2 points), and age 18 to 65 years. Exclusion: patients in unstable or critical condition. Patients were graded as stable or borderline (increased risk of systemic complications). Outcomes: Incidence of acute lung injuries. Results: Ten European Centers, 165 patients, mean age 32.7 ± 11.7 years. Group intramedullary nailing, n = 94; group external fixation, n = 71. Preoperatively, 121 patients were stable and 44 patients were in borderline condition. After adjusting for differences in initial injury severity between the 2 treatment groups, the odds of developing acute lung injury were 6.69 times greater in borderline patients who underwent intramedullary nailing in comparison with those who underwent external fixation, P < 0.05. Conclusion: Intramedullary stabilization of the femur fracture can affect the outcome in patients with multiple injuries. In stable patients, primary femoral nailing is associated with shorter ventilation time. In borderline patients, it is associated with a higher incidence of lung dysfunctions when compared with those who underwent external fixation and later conversion to intermedullary nail. Therefore, the preoperative condition should be when deciding on the type of

  9. The effect of lower limb rehabilitation gymnastics on postoperative rehabilitation in elderly patients with femoral shaft fracture: A retrospective case-control study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Si-Dong; Ning, Sheng-Hua; Zhang, Li-Hong; Zhang, Ying-Ze; Ding, Wen-Yuan; Yang, Da-Long

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of lower limb rehabilitation gymnastics on postoperative rehabilitation in elderly patients with femoral shaft fracture after undergoing intramedullary nail fixation surgery.We collected medical records of elderly patients aged ≥ 60 years with femoral shaft fracture between 03/2010 and 03/2015 in Longyao County Hospital. Totally, 160 patients were identified and divided into the intervention group (n = 80) and the control group (n = 80). During the postoperative period, the intervention group received lower limb rehabilitation gymnastics treatment for 3 months, but the control group did not. All patients were routinely asked to return hospital for a check in the 1st postoperative week, as well as the 2nd week, the 1st month, and the 3rd month, after surgery. The clinical rehabilitation effect was evaluated by checking lower limb action ability, detecting the lower limb deep venous thrombosis (DVT), scoring muscle strength of quadriceps and visual analog scale (VAS) score, and performing satisfaction survey.At the 1st week and 2nd week after surgery, the clinical rehabilitation effect in the intervention group was better regarding lower limb action ability, lower limb DVT, muscle strength of quadriceps, VAS score, and patient satisfaction, as compared with the control group. However, there was no significant difference at the 1st month and the 3rd month after surgery when comparing the intervention group to the control group.In the early postoperative stage, lower limb rehabilitation gymnastics can effectively improve the recovery of lower limb function, beneficial to reducing postoperative complications such as lower limb DVT and muscle atrophy, and increasing patient satisfaction rate. PMID:27537579

  10. Systemic Treatment with Strontium Ranelate Does Not Influence the Healing of Femoral Mid-shaft Defects in Rats.

    PubMed

    Vegger, Jens Bay; Brüel, Annemarie; Sørensen, Thomas Givskov; Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus

    2016-02-01

    Strontium ranelate (SrR) has both bone anabolic and anti-resorption properties and has therefore the potential to increase the healing of bone defects. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of systemic treatment with SrR during the healing of cortical bone defects in rats. In addition, the vertebral bodies were examined in order to elucidate the effect of short-term treatment with SrR on intact trabecular bone. Sixty 16-week-old female Wistar rats were randomized into four groups. A cylindrical defect was drilled through the anterior cortex of the mid-femoral diaphysis in both hind limbs. Two of the groups were treated with SrR (900 mg/kg b.w.) mixed into the food and two groups served as controls. The animals were euthanized after either 3 or 8 weeks of treatment. Healing of the defects was analyzed with µCT, mechanical testing, and stereology. Treatment with SrR resulted in increased thickness of the defects after 3 weeks of treatment, whereas no effect on bone volume fraction (BV/TV), mechanical properties (maximum strength and maximum stiffness), periosteal callus volume, or osteoclast-covered bone surfaces (Oc.S/BS) after either 3 or 8 weeks of treatment was found. Furthermore, SrR increased the bone material density (ρ) of the vertebral bodies, and tended to increase BV/TV after 8 weeks of treatment (p = 0.087). The mechanical properties of the vertebral bodies were not influenced by SrR treatment. In conclusion, 3 weeks of treatment with SrR increased the thickness of the healing mid-femoral cortical bone defects in rats, but did not influence BV/TV, mechanical properties, periosteal callus volume, or Oc.S/BS after either 3 or 8 weeks. Furthermore, SrR had no effect on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the vertebral bodies. PMID:26543033

  11. Ipsilateral common iliac artery plus femoral artery clamping for inducing sciatic nerve ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats: a reliable and simple method

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a practical model of sciatic ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury producing serious neurologic deficits and being technically feasible compared with the current time consuming or ineffective models. Thirty rats were divided into 6 groups (n = 5). Animal were anesthetized by using ketamine (50 mg/kg) and xylazine (4 mg/kg). Experimental groups included a sham-operated group and five I/R groups with different reperfusion time intervals (0 h, 3 h, 1 d, 4 d, 7 d). In I/R groups, the right common iliac artery and the right femoral artery were clamped for 3 hrs. Sham-operated animals underwent only laparotomy without induction of ischemia. Just before euthanasia, behavioral scores (based on gait, grasp, paw position, and pinch sensitivity) were obtained and then sciatic nerves were removed for light-microscopy studies (for ischemic fiber degeneration (IFD) and edema). Behavioral score deteriorated among the ischemic groups compared with the control group (p < 0.01), with maximal behavioral deficit occurring at 4 days of reperfusion. Axonal swelling and IFD were found to happen only after 4 and 7 days, respectively. Our observations led to an easy-to-use but strong enough method for inducing and studying I/R injury in peripheral nerves. PMID:19102739

  12. Applying low-intensity pulsed ultrasounds (LIPUS) to a zoledronate-associated atypical femoral shaft fracture without cessation of zoledronate therapy for 3 years follow up: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Arakawa, Shoutaro; Saito, Mitsuru; Kubota, Makoto; Suzuki, Hidehiko; Tsuchida, Shigeki; Hashimoto, Kurando; Marumo, Keishi

    2015-01-01

    Summary Reports are increasing regarding atypical femoral fractures (AFFs) caused by minor trauma in patients using bisphosphonates (BPs) for long periods. Patients with malignant skeletal metastases potentially are at greater risk for these AFFs, especially considering the high dose and the duration of treatment with BPs. We evaluated a case of atypical femoral shaft fracture treated with an intramedullary nail in a patient treated for five years with zoledronate who had breast cancer with metastases to bone. Although bone union was achieved without cessation of zoledronate therapy by applying low-intensity pulsed ultrasounds (LIPUS), the remodeling phase of the fracture healing process was delayed. For BPs-associated AFFs, LIPUS is an alternative to parathyroid hormone (PTH) analogs such as teriparatide that are contraindicated in patients with malignant skeletal metastases. LIPUS is an effective treatment for fracture healing and may avoid the necessity to discontinue BP therapy. PMID:26811711

  13. Risk of hip, subtrochanteric, and femoral shaft fractures among mid and long term users of alendronate: nationwide cohort and nested case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Eiken, Pia; Eastell, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine the skeletal safety and efficacy of long term (≥10 years) alendronate use in patients with osteoporosis. Design Open register based cohort study containing two nested case control studies. Setting Nationwide study of population of Denmark. Participants 61 990 men and women aged 50-94 at the start of treatment, who had not previously taken alendronate, 1996-2007. Interventions Treatment with alendronate. Main outcome measures Incident fracture of the subtrochanteric femur or femoral shaft (ST/FS) or the hip. Non-fracture controls from the cohort were matched to fracture cases by sex, year of birth, and year of initiation of alendronate treatment. Conditional logistic regression models were fitted to calculate odds ratios with and without adjustment for comorbidity and comedications. Sensitivity analyses investigated subsequent treatment with other drugs for osteoporosis. Results 1428 participants sustained a ST/FS (incidence rate 3.4/1000 person years, 95% confidence interval 3.2 to 3.6), and 6784 sustained a hip fracture (16.2/1000 person years, 15.8 to 16.6). The risk of ST/FS was lower with high adherence to treatment with alendronate (medication possession ratio (MPR, a proxy for compliance) >80%) compared with poor adherence (MPR <50%; odds ratio 0.88, 0.77 to 0.99; P=0.05). Multivariable adjustment attenuated this association (adjusted odds ratio 0.88, 0.77 to 1.01; P=0.08). The risk was no higher in long term users (≥10 dose years; 0.70, 0.44 to 1.11; P=0.13) or in current compared with past users (0.91, 0.79 to 1.06; P=0.22). Similarly, MPR >80% was associated with a decreased risk of hip fracture (0.73, 0.68 to 0.78; P<0.001) as was longer term cumulative use for 5-10 dose years (0.74, 0.67 to 0.83; P<0.001) or ≥10 dose years (0.74, 0.56 to 0.97; P=0.03). Conclusions These findings support an acceptable balance between benefit and risk with treatment with alendronate in terms of fracture outcomes, even for over 10

  14. Shaft adjuster

    DOEpatents

    Harry, Herbert H.

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus.

  15. Shaft balancing

    DOEpatents

    Irwin, John A.

    1979-01-01

    A gas turbine engine has an internal drive shaft including one end connected to a driven load and an opposite end connected to a turbine wheel and wherein the shaft has an in situ adjustable balance system near the critical center of a bearing span for the shaft including two 360.degree. rings piloted on the outer diameter of the shaft at a point accessible through an internal engine panel; each of the rings has a small amount of material removed from its periphery whereby both of the rings are precisely unbalanced an equivalent amount; the rings are locked circumferentially together by radial serrations thereon; numbered tangs on the outside diameter of each ring identify the circumferential location of unbalance once the rings are locked together; an aft ring of the pair of rings has a spline on its inside diameter that mates with a like spline on the shaft to lock the entire assembly together.

  16. [Pathogenesis of atypical femoral fracture].

    PubMed

    Iwata, Ken; Mashiba, Tasuku

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrated microdamage accumulation in the fracture sites in the patients of subtrochanteric atypical femoral fracture with long term bisphosphonate therapy and of incomplete shaft fracture of lateral femoral bowing without bisphosphonate therapy. Based on these findings, pathogenesis of atypical femoral fracture is revealed stress fracture caused by accumulation of microdamages between distal to the lesser trochanter and proximal to the supracondylar flare in the femur in association with severely suppressed bone turnover and/or abnormal lower limb alignment, that causes stress concentration on the lateral side cortex of the femur. PMID:26728533

  17. Blind shaft development

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2009-02-15

    The article discusses how Shaft Drillers International (SDI) is breaking new ground in shaft development and ground stabilization. Techniques of blind shaft drilling and raise bore shaft development developed by SDI are briefly explained. An associated company, Coastal Drilling East, deals with all types of ground improvement such as pre-grouting work for shafts, grouting of poor soil and water leaks into the mine. 3 photos.

  18. SHAFT79 user's manual

    SciTech Connect

    Pruess, K.; Schroeder, R.C.

    1980-03-01

    SHAFT79 (Simultaneous Heat And Fluid Transport) is an integrated finite difference program for computing two-phase non-isothermal flow in porous media. The principal application for which SHAFT79 is designed is in geothermal reservoir simulation. SHAFT79 solves the same equations as an earlier version, called SHAFT78, but uses much more efficient mathematical and numerical methods. The present SHAFT79 user's manual gives a brief account of equations and numerical methods and then describes in detail how to set up input decks for running the program. The application of SHAFT79 is illustrated by means of a few sample problems. (MHR)

  19. Bent shaft motor

    DOEpatents

    Benavides, G.L.

    1998-05-05

    A nonelectromagnetic motor comprising a base, a bent shaft which is rotatable relative to the base wherein the bent shaft comprises a straight portion aligned with a main axis and an offset portion that is offset with respect to the main axis; and a drive means for driving the offset portion of the bent shaft along a generally circular path in a plane perpendicular to the main axis to rotate the bent shaft. The bent shaft and drive means for driving the bent shaft can be selected from piezoelectric, magnetostrictive, rheological and shape memory alloys. The drive means of the nonelectromagnetic motor can additionally comprise a shell which shell surrounds and houses the bent shaft and precesses or gyrates which in turn causes the bent drive shaft to rotate. The nonelectromagnetic motor does not rely on friction for the application of torque upon a rotor. 11 figs.

  20. Bent shaft motor

    DOEpatents

    Benavides, Gilbert L.

    1998-01-01

    A nonelectromagnetic motor comprising a base, a bent shaft which is rotable relative to the base wherein the bent shaft comprises a straight portion aligned with a main axis and an offset portion that is offset with respect to the main axis; and a drive means for driving the offset portion of the bent shaft along a generally circular path in a plane perpendicular to the main axis to rotate the bent shaft. The bent shaft and drive means for driving the bent shaft can be selected from piezoelectric, magnetostrictive, rheological and shape memory alloys. The drive means of the nonelectromagnetic motor can additionally comprise a shell which shell surrounds and houses the bent shaft and precesses or gyrates which in turn causes the bent drive shaft to rotate. The nonelectromagnetic motor does not rely on friction for the application of torque upon a rotor.

  1. SEAL FOR ROTATING SHAFT

    DOEpatents

    Coffman, R.T.

    1957-12-10

    A seal is described for a rotatable shaft that must highly effective when the shaft is not rotating but may be less effective while the shaft is rotating. Weights distributed about a sealing disk secured to the shaft press the sealing disk against a tubular section into which the shiilt extends, and whem the shaft rotates, the centrifugal forces on the weights relieve the pressurc of the sealing disk against the tubular section. This action has the very desirible result of minimizing the wear of the rotating disk due to contact with the tubular section, while affording maximum sealing action when it is needed.

  2. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF CHILDREN DIAPHYSEAL FEMORAL FRACTURES

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Cassiano Ricardo; Traldi, Eduardo Franceschini; Posser, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the personal, fracture, treatment and complication characteristics among patients with pediatric femoral shaft fractures attended at the pediatric orthopedic service of the Joana de Gusmão Children's Hospital. Methods: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study on a population consisting of patients with femoral shaft fractures, aged between birth and 14 years and 11 months, who were divided into four age groups. Information was obtained from medical records and was transferred to a survey questionnaire to present personal, fracture, treatment and complication variables. Results: The study population consisted of 96 patients. Their mean age was 6.8 years. The cases were predominantly among males, comprising closed fractures on the right side, in the middle third with a single line. Regarding fracture etiology, traffic accidents predominated overall in the sample. Most of the patients (74 to 77.1%) presented femoral fractures as their only injury. Conservative treatment predominated in the group younger than six years of age, and surgical treatment in the group aged 6 to 14 years and 11 months. The complications observed until bone union were: discrepancy, infection and movement limitation. The mean time taken for consolidation was 9.6 ± 2.4 weeks, varying with age. Conclusion: The features of these fractures were similar to those described in the literature and the treatment used showed good results. The Joana de Gusmão Children's Hospital has used the treatment proposed in the literature for pediatric femoral shaft fractures. PMID:27042619

  3. Congenital deficiency of the fibula with ipsilateral iliac horn and absence of the kidney.

    PubMed

    Haga, N; Lee, K; Nakamura, K; Okazaki, Y; Mamada, K; Kurokawa, T

    1997-04-01

    Congenital deficiency of the fibula is sometimes accompanied by femoral hypoplasia, genu valgum, patellar a/hypoplasia or dislocation, tibial bowing, foot deformity, and toe deficiency in the affected limb. 'Iliac horns' are bony projections extending posterolaterally from the ilium and considered to be pathognomonic of nail-patella syndrome. We report a 5-year-old Japanese girl with congenital complete deficiency of the left fibula, ipsilateral iliac horn and absence of the left kidney. PMID:9134300

  4. 118. #3 SHAFT ALLEY (PROPELLER SHAFT) FORWARD LOOKING AFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    118. #3 SHAFT ALLEY (PROPELLER SHAFT) - FORWARD LOOKING AFT ON PORT SIDE SHOWING THE SHAFT, SHAFT PACKING GLAND, SHAFT SEAL COOLING WATER LINE AND FIVE INCH FIRE MAIN PIPING. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  5. A free vascularized tibia-fibular composite graft for the traumatic femoral bony defect of a 6-year-old boy with 10-year follow up: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Free vascularized fibular grafts have been widely used for the reconstruction of long bone defects. However, the use of a vascularized tibial graft is precluded by its weight-bearing function and unacceptable donor site morbidity. Case presentation We present a rare case of using a vascularized tibia-fibular composite graft taken from a 6-year-old Chinese boy’s ipsilateral lower leg to reconstruct a large bony defect of his traumatic femur. Hypertrophy of the tibial graft, good remodeling of the femoral shaft, and atrophy of the unloaded fibular graft were noted at the 10-year follow up. He was able to participate in outdoor activities such as basketball while wearing his prosthesis. Conclusions The 10-year follow up demonstrates the feasibility of this salvage procedure for a floating knee injury with neurovascular compromise. PMID:23714102

  6. Femoral neck structure and function in early hominins.

    PubMed

    Ruff, Christopher B; Higgins, Ryan

    2013-04-01

    All early (Pliocene-Early Pleistocene) hominins exhibit some differences in proximal femoral morphology from modern humans, including a long femoral neck and a low neck-shaft angle. In addition, australopiths (Au. afarensis, Au. africanus, Au. boisei, Paranthropus boisei), but not early Homo, have an "anteroposteriorly compressed" femoral neck and a small femoral head relative to femoral shaft breadth. Superoinferior asymmetry of cortical bone in the femoral neck has been claimed to be human-like in australopiths. In this study, we measured superior and inferior cortical thicknesses at the middle and base of the femoral neck using computed tomography in six Au. africanus and two P. robustus specimens. Cortical asymmetry in the fossils is closer overall to that of modern humans than to apes, although many values are intermediate between humans and apes, or even more ape-like in the midneck. Comparisons of external femoral neck and head dimensions were carried out for a more comprehensive sample of South and East African australopiths (n = 17) and two early Homo specimens. These show that compared with modern humans, femoral neck superoinferior, but not anteroposterior breadth, is larger relative to femoral head breadth in australopiths, but not in early Homo. Both internal and external characteristics of the australopith femoral neck indicate adaptation to relatively increased superoinferior bending loads, compared with both modern humans and early Homo. These observations, and a relatively small femoral head, are consistent with a slightly altered gait pattern in australopiths, involving more lateral deviation of the body center of mass over the stance limb. PMID:23341246

  7. Parallel manipulator robot assisted femoral fracture reduction on traction table.

    PubMed

    Lin, H; Wang, J Q; Han, W

    2013-01-01

    The principle of femoral shaft fracture reduction is to restore its pre-fractured limb length and mechanical axis. The current documented treatment method with traction table reduction does not conform to the quantitative alignment and reduction. There is also a great amount of X-Ray radiation exposure to both surgeon and patient during the procedure. For this reason, we introduced an innovated Parallel Manipulator Robot (PMR) application: A Femoral Shaft Fracture Reduction with Parallel Manipulator Robot on Traction Table. With this application, the quantitative control on fracture reduction and alignment can be achieved and the radiation exposure to both surgeons and patients can be greatly reduced. PMID:24110820

  8. Intramedullary locking femoral nails. Experience with the AO nail.

    PubMed Central

    Fogarty, A. B.; Yeates, H. A.

    1991-01-01

    The AO interlocking nail was introduced to the Ulster Hospital, Dundonald in 1988 and since then has been used in over 50 patients with femoral shaft fractures. We have reviewed 45 patients with 46 femoral shaft fractures treated between June 1988 and April 1990. These included four compound fractures and 13 comminuted fractures. The results compare favourably with other series. The union rate was 98% and there were no instances of deep infection. The alternative treatment methods available are discussed along with a review of the relevant literature. Images Fig 3 Fig 5 PMID:1785145

  9. Vertical shaft windmill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grana, D. C.; Inge, S. V., Jr. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A vertical shaft has several equally spaced blades mounted. Each blade consists of an inboard section and an outboard section skew hinged to the inboard section. The inboard sections automatically adjust their positions with respect to the fixed inboard sections with changes in velocity of the wind. This windmill design automatically governs the maximum rotational speed of shaft.

  10. Circumferential shaft seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, L. P. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A circumferential shaft seal is described which comprises two sealing rings held to a rotating shaft by means of a surrounding elastomeric band. The rings are segmented and are of a rigid sealing material such as carbon or a polyimide and graphite fiber composite.

  11. Rotary shaft seal

    DOEpatents

    Langebrake, Clair O.

    1984-01-01

    The invention is a novel rotary shaft seal assembly which provides positive-contact sealing when the shaft is not rotated and which operates with its sealing surfaces separated by a film of compressed ambient gas whose width is independent of the speed of shaft rotation. In a preferred embodiment, the assembly includes a disc affixed to the shaft for rotation therewith. Axially movable, non-rotatable plates respectively supported by sealing bellows are positioned on either side of the disc to be in sealing engagement therewith. Each plate carries piezoelectric transducer elements which are electrically energized at startup to produce films of compressed ambient gas between the confronting surfaces of the plates and the disc. Following shutdown of the shaft, the transducer elements are de-energized. A control circuit responds to incipient rubbing between the plate and either disc by altering the electrical input to the transducer elements to eliminate rubbing.

  12. Rotary shaft seal

    DOEpatents

    Langebrake, C.O.

    1984-01-01

    The invention is a novel rotary shaft seal assembly which provides positive-contact sealing when the shaft is not rotated and which operates with its sealing surfaces separated by a film of compressed ambient gas whose width is independent of the speed of shaft rotation. In a preferred embodiment, the assembly includes a disc affixed to the shaft for rotation therewith. Axially movable, non-rotatable plates respectively supported by sealing bellows are positioned on either side of the disc to be in sealing engagement therewith. Each plate carries piezoelectric transucer elements which are electrically energized at startup to produce films of compressed ambient gas between the confronting surfaces of the plates and the disc. Following shutdown of the shaft, the transducer elements are de-energized. A control circuit responds to incipient rubbing between the plate and either disc by altering the electrical input to the transducer elements to eliminate rubbing.

  13. Crank shaft support assembly

    DOEpatents

    Natkin, Robert J.; Oltmans, Bret; Allison, John E.; Heater, Thomas J.; Hines, Joy Adair; Tappen, Grant K.; Peiskammer, Dietmar

    2007-10-23

    A crank shaft support assembly for increasing stiffness and reducing thermal mismatch distortion in a crank shaft bore of an engine comprising different materials. A cylinder block comprises a first material and at least two crank journal inserts are insert-molded into respective crank journal regions of the cylinder block and comprise a second material having greater stiffness and a lower thermal coefficient of expansion that the first material. At least two bearing caps are bolted to the respective crank journal inserts and define, along with the crank journal inserts, at least two crank shaft support rings defining a crank shaft bore coaxially aligned with a crank shaft axis. The bearing caps comprise a material having higher stiffness and a lower thermal coefficient of expansion than the first material and are supported on the respective crank journal inserts independently of any direct connection to the cylinder block.

  14. Femoral nerve damage (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The femoral nerve is located in the leg and supplies the muscles that assist help straighten the leg. It supplies sensation ... leg. One risk of damage to the femoral nerve is pelvic fracture. Symptoms of femoral nerve damage ...

  15. Femoral nerve dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    Neuropathy - femoral nerve; Femoral neuropathy ... Craig EJ, Clinchot DM. Femoral neuropathy. In: Frontera WR, Silver JK, Rizzo TD Jr, eds. Essentials of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation: Musculoskeletal Disorders, Pain, and Rehabilitation . 3rd ...

  16. Femoral neck version affects medial femorotibial loading.

    PubMed

    Papaioannou, T A; Digas, Georgios; Bikos, Ch; Karamoulas, V; Magnissalis, E A

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide a preliminary evaluation of the possible effect that femoral version may have on the bearing equilibrium conditions developed on the medial tibiofemoral compartment. A digital 3D solid model of the left physiological adult femur was used to create morphological variations of different neck-shaft angles (varus 115, normal 125, and valgus 135 degrees) and version angles (-10, 0, and +10 degrees). By means of finite element modeling and analysis techniques (FEM-FEA), a virtual experiment was executed with the femoral models aligned in a neutral upright position, distally supported on a fully congruent tibial tray and proximally loaded with a vertical only hip joint load of 2800 N. Equivalent stresses and their distribution on the medial compartment were computed and comparatively evaluated. Within our context, the neck-shaft angle proved to be of rather indifferent influence. Reduction of femoral version, however, appeared as the most influencing parameter regarding the tendency of the medial compartment to establish its bearing equilibrium towards posteromedial directions, as a consequence of the corresponding anteroposterior changes of the hip centre over the horizontal tibiofemoral plane. We found a correlation between femoral anteversion and medial tibiofemoral compartment contact pressure. Our findings will be further elucidated by more sophisticated FEM-FEA and by clinical studies that are currently planned. PMID:24959355

  17. Fabricated torque shaft

    DOEpatents

    Mashey, Thomas Charles

    2002-01-01

    A fabricated torque shaft is provided that features a bolt-together design to allow vane schedule revisions with minimal hardware cost. The bolt-together design further facilitates on-site vane schedule revisions with parts that are comparatively small. The fabricated torque shaft also accommodates stage schedules that are different one from another in non-linear inter-relationships as well as non-linear schedules for a particular stage of vanes.

  18. MULTIPLE SHAFT TOOL HEAD

    DOEpatents

    Colbert, H.P.

    1962-10-23

    An improved tool head arrangement is designed for the automatic expanding of a plurality of ferruled tubes simultaneously. A plurality of output shafts of a multiple spindle drill head are driven in unison by a hydraulic motor. A plurality of tube expanders are respectively coupled to the shafts through individual power train arrangements. The axial or thrust force required for the rolling operation is provided by a double acting hydraulic cylinder having a hollow through shaft with the shaft cooperating with an internally rotatable splined shaft slidably coupled to a coupling rigidly attached to the respectlve output shaft of the drill head, thereby transmitting rotary motion and axial thrust simultaneously to the tube expander. A hydraulic power unit supplies power to each of the double acting cylinders through respective two-position, four-way valves, under control of respective solenoids for each of the cylinders. The solenoids are in turn selectively controlled by a tool selection control unit which in turn is controlled by signals received from a programmed, coded tape from a tape reader. The number of expanders that are extended in a rolling operation, which may be up to 42 expanders, is determined by a predetermined program of operations depending upon the arrangement of the ferruled tubes to be expanded in the tube bundle. The tape reader also supplies dimensional information to a machine tool servo control unit for imparting selected, horizontal and/or vertical movement to the tool head assembly. (AEC)

  19. Effect of triple pelvic osteotomy on the proximal femoral geometry in dysplastic dogs.

    PubMed

    Sarierler, Murat; Yildirim, Ismail Gokce; Ocal, Mehmet Kamil

    2012-02-01

    Triple pelvic osteotomy (TPO) is one of the surgical procedures for use to try to reduce subsequent degenerative joint disease or modify the progress of hip dysplasia in young dogs. Joint force and pressure distribution were changed by this procedure. Therefore, the aim of this study was to find out whether the remodeling of proximal femur exists or not after TPO in dysplastic dogs. Ten femora from five young dysplastic mongrel dogs, treated unilaterally with TPO using 20° canine pelvic osteotomy plates, were used. One year after TPO, neck-proximal shaft angle, femoral head, neck, diaphyseal and mid-shaft diameters, total femoral, femoral neck axis, and intertrochanteric, femoral head offset lengths as well as the lengths from head center to lateral margin of greater trochanter and to proximal femoral axis were measured from the bone. The significant differences between treatment and control side were determined in Norberg angle, neck-proximal shaft angle, neck diameter, diaphyseal diameter, mid-shaft diameter, length from head center to proximal femoral axis and femoral head offset length. In conclusion, although small number of cases was used, it was determined that the aforementioned variables are affected by TPO. So, these variables may be supply additional information about the changes to the joint following TPO in dysplastic dogs. PMID:21176929

  20. Traumatic Hip Dislocation with Associated Femoral Head Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Dortaj, H.; Emamifar, A.

    2015-01-01

    Dislocation of the hip is a critical injury that results from high-energy trauma. This paper describes a case of posterior dislocation of the right hip in a 35-year-old woman with associated ipsilateral femoral head fracture. Initial treatment included reduction of the right hip through posterior approach and fixation of the femoral head fracture with three absorbable screws. After 15-month follow-up, a full range of motion has been achieved and there are no signs of avascular necrosis, hip instability, or limping. The authors describe their method of surgery. PMID:25874147

  1. Shaft Position Optical Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blumenstock, Kenneth A. (Inventor); Hakum, Claef F. (Inventor); Johnson, Clarence S. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is an optical sensor that senses the movement of a shaft. Detection of radial movement is made when a portion of light incident on the shaft sensor-target is blocked. For detection of axial movement, a disk with flat surface is mounted and used to block a portion of light. The variation in the amount of light allowed to pass through is a measure of the position of the shaft. As proposed by this invention, significant improvement is made with respect to sensitivity and linearity of the system when the light is permanently partially blocked. To accomplish this goal this invention adds a boss to the system. To eliminate possible drift of system performance due to LED degradation or temperature variation, a feedback feature is added to the system.

  2. Slipped capital femoral epiphysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000972.htm Slipped capital femoral epiphysis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A slipped capital femoral epiphysis is a separation of the ball ...

  3. Polygonal shaft hole rotor

    DOEpatents

    Hussey, John H.; Rose, John Scott; Meystrik, Jeffrey J.; White, Kent Lee

    2001-01-23

    A laminated rotor for an induction motor has a plurality of ferro-magnetic laminations mounted axially on a rotor shaft. Each of the plurality of laminations has a central aperture in the shape of a polygon with sides of equal length. The laminations are alternatingly rotated 180.degree. from one another so that the straight sides of the polygon shaped apertures are misaligned. As a circular rotor shaft is press fit into a stack of laminations, the point of maximum interference occurs at the midpoints of the sides of the polygon (i.e., at the smallest radius of the central apertures of the laminations). Because the laminates are alternatingly rotated, the laminate material at the points of maximum interference yields relatively easily into the vertices (i.e., the greatest radius of the central aperture) of the polygonal central aperture of the next lamination as the shaft is inserted into the stack of laminations. Because of this yielding process, the amount of force required to insert the shaft is reduced, and a tighter fit is achieved.

  4. Shaft generator transmissions

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    Economical on-board power can be generated from two-stroke, low-speed engines by installing a multistage hollow-shaft gearbox on the propeller intermediate shaft to drive the generator. Gearbox manufacturer Asug, based in Dessau, Germany, has designed units specifically for this purpose. The Asug shaft generator drive concept for generator drives at the front end of the engine is designed to reduce installation costs and uses an integrated engine-gearbox foundation. The complete propulsion system, consisting of the diesel engine, gear with coupling and generator, can be completely or partially preassembled outside the ship`s engine room to reduce onboard assembly time. A separate foundation for this arrangement is not necessary. The company offers a full range of gearboxes to generate power from 500 kW up to 5000 kW. Gearboxes driven from the forward engine end often incorporate an additional gear stage to gain energy from an exhaust turbine. This arrangement feeds part of the exhaust energy back into the system to increase efficiency. Latest installations of Asug shaft generator gears are in container ships and cargo/container ships built in Turkey and China.

  5. Shaft seal system

    DOEpatents

    Kapich, Davorin D.

    1985-01-01

    A shaft seal system is disclosed for isolating two regions of different fluid mediums through which a rotatable shaft extends. The seal system includes a seal housing through which the shaft extends and which defines an annular land and an annular labyrinth both of which face on the shaft so that each establishes a corresponding fluid sealing annulus. A collection cavity is formed in communication with the annular sealing spaces, and fluids compatible with the fluids in each of the two regions to be isolated are introduced, respectively, into the annular sealing spaces and collected in the collection cavity from which the fluid mixture is removed and passed to a separator which separates the fluids and returns them to their respective annular sealing spaces in a recycling manner. In the illustrated embodiment, the isolated fluid mediums comprise a liquid region and a gas region. Gas is removed from the gas region and passed through a purifier and a gas pump operative to introduce the purified gas through the labyrinth sealing annulus to the collection cavity. After passing to the separator, the separated gas is passed through a dryer from which the dried gas is caused to pass through the labyrinth sealing annulus into the collection cavity independently of the purified gas so as to insure isolation of the gas region in the event of sealing gas pump malfunction.

  6. Gravity in a Mine Shaft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Peter M.; Hall, David J.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the effects of gravity, local density compared to the density of the earth, the mine shaft, centrifugal force, and air buoyancy on the weight of an object at the top and at the bottom of a mine shaft. (JRH)

  7. U1h shaft project

    SciTech Connect

    Brian Briggs; R. G. Musick

    2000-06-30

    The U1h shaft project is a design/build subcontract to construct one 20 foot (ft) finished diameter shaft to a depth of 1,045 ft at the Nevada Test Site. Atkinson Construction was subcontracted by Bechtel Nevada to construct the U1h Shaft for the Department of Energy. The project consists of furnishing and installing the sinking plant, construction of the 1,045 ft of concrete lined shaft, development of a shaft station at a depth of 976 ft, and construction of a loading pocket at the station. The outfitting of the shaft and installation of a new hoist may be incorporated into the project at a later date. This paper should be of interest to those involved with the construction of relatively deep shafts and underground excavations.

  8. HUMERAL SHAFT FRACTURES

    PubMed Central

    Benegas, Eduardo; Ferreira Neto, Arnaldo Amado; Neto, Raul Bolliger; Santis Prada, Flavia de; Malavolta, Eduardo Angeli; Marchitto, Gustavo Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Humeral shaft fractures (HSFs) represent 3% of the fractures of the locomotor apparatus, and the middle third of the shaft is the section most affected. In the majority of cases, it is treated using nonsurgical methods, but surgical indications in HSF cases are increasingly being adopted. The diversity of opinions makes it difficult to reach a consensus regarding the types of osteosynthesis, surgical technique and quantity and quality of synthesis materials that should be used. It would appear that specialists are far from reaching a consensus regarding the best method for surgical treatment of HSFs. We believe that less invasive methods, which favor relative stability, are the most appropriate methods, since the most feared complications are less frequent. PMID:27019833

  9. Rotary shaft sealing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Dietle, Lannie L.; Schroeder, John E.; Kalsi, Manmohan S.; Alvarez, Patricio D.

    2010-09-21

    A rotary shaft sealing assembly in which a first fluid is partitioned from a second fluid in a housing assembly having a rotary shaft located at least partially within. In one embodiment a lip seal is lubricated and flushed with a pressure-generating seal ring preferably having an angled diverting feature. The pressure-generating seal ring and a hydrodynamic seal may be used to define a lubricant-filled region with each of the seals having hydrodynamic inlets facing the lubricant-filled region. Another aspect of the sealing assembly is having a seal to contain pressurized lubricant while withstanding high rotary speeds. Another rotary shaft sealing assembly embodiment includes a lubricant supply providing a lubricant at an elevated pressure to a region between a lip seal and a hydrodynamic seal with a flow control regulating the flow of lubricant past the lip seal. The hydrodynamic seal may include an energizer element having a modulus of elasticity greater than the modulus of elasticity of a sealing lip of the hydrodynamic seal.

  10. Rotary shaft sealing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Dietle, Lannie L; Schroeder, John E; Kalsi, Manmohan S; Alvarez, Patricio D

    2013-08-13

    A rotary shaft sealing assembly in which a first fluid is partitioned from a second fluid in a housing assembly having a rotary shaft located at least partially within. In one embodiment a lip seal is lubricated and flushed with a pressure-generating seal ring preferably having an angled diverting feature. The pressure-generating seal ring and a hydrodynamic seal may be used to define a lubricant-filled region with each of the seals having hydrodynamic inlets facing the lubricant-filled region. Another aspect of the sealing assembly is having a seal to contain pressurized lubricant while withstanding high rotary speeds. Another rotary shaft sealing assembly embodiment includes a lubricant supply providing a lubricant at an elevated pressure to a region between a lip seal and a hydrodynamic seal with a flow control regulating the flow of lubricant past the lip seal. The hydrodynamic seal may include an energizer element having a modulus of elasticity greater than the modulus of elasticity of a sealing lip of the hydrodynamic seal.

  11. Computer assisted measurement of femoral cortex thickening on radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Jianhua; Liu, Yixun; Chen, Foster; Summers, Ronald M.; Bhattacharyya, Timothy

    2013-03-01

    Radiographic features such as femoral cortex thickening have been frequently observed with atypical subtrochanteric fractures. These features may be a valuable finding to help prevent fractures before they happen. The current practice of manual measurement is often subjective and inconsistent. We developed a semi-automatic tool to consistently measure and monitor the progress of femoral cortex thickening on radiographs. By placing two seed points on each side of the femur, the program automatically extracts the periosteal and endosteal layers of the cortical shell by active contour models and B-spline fitting. Several measurements are taken along the femur shaft, including shaft diameter, cortical thickness, and integral area for medial and lateral cortex. The experiment was conducted on 52 patient datasets. The semi-automatic measurements were validated against manual measurements on 52 patients and demonstrated great improvement in consistency and accuracy (p<0.001).

  12. Forging Long Shafts On Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilghman, Chris; Askey, William; Hopkins, Steven

    1989-01-01

    Isothermal-forging apparatus produces long shafts integral with disks. Equipment based on modification of conventional isothermal-forging equipment, required stroke cut by more than half. Enables forging of shafts as long as 48 in. (122 cm) on typical modified conventional forging press, otherwise limited to making shafts no longer than 18 in. (46cm). Removable punch, in which forged material cools after plastic deformation, essential novel feature of forging apparatus. Technology used to improve such products as components of gas turbines and turbopumps and of other shaft/disk parts for powerplants, drive trains, or static structures.

  13. Shaft drilling rig

    SciTech Connect

    Wada, M.; Ajiro, S.

    1986-06-17

    A shaft drilling rig is described which consists of: a supporting structure for a drill string having a plurality of components for drilling a shaft into the earth by imparting a turning and thrust for drilling at least to a drill bit on the drill string, the drilling being down to a predetermined depth, and then a further drill string component having at least at the bottom end thereof an inner wall extending substantially in the axial direction of the component being newly added to the drill string for further drilling; means for receiving at least the bottom end of the further drill string component and for supporting it, and having a member with the outer circumference engageable with the inner wall of the further component, the receiving means supporting the further drill string component in a free standing position; means for supporting the receiving means and having a guiding device for guiding the receiving means between a position where the further drill string component is to be added to the drill string and a parking position spaced laterally of the drill string from the first mentioned position; and means for holding a lower part of the drill string which has been separated from the upper part of the drill string preparatory to adding the further drill string component so that the axis of the lower part is substantially aligned with the drilling direction.

  14. [Approaches to radial shaft].

    PubMed

    Bartoníček, J; Naňka, O; Tuček, M

    2015-10-01

    In the clinical practice, radial shaft may be exposed via two approaches, namely the posterolateral Thompson and volar (anterior) Henry approaches. A feared complication of both of them is the injury to the deep branch of the radial nerve. No consensus has been reached, yet, as to which of the two approaches is more beneficial for the proximal half of radius. According to our anatomical studies and clinical experience, Thompson approach is safe only in fractures of the middle and distal thirds of the radial shaft, but highly risky in fractures of its proximal third. Henry approach may be used in any fracture of the radial shaft and provides a safe exposure of the entire lateral and anterior surfaces of the radius.The Henry approach has three phases. In the first phase, incision is made along the line connecting the biceps brachii tendon and the styloid process of radius. Care must be taken not to damage the lateral cutaneous nerve of forearm.In the second phase, fascia is incised and the brachioradialis identified by the typical transition from the muscle belly to tendon and the shape of the tendon. On the lateral side, the brachioradialis lines the space with the radial artery and veins and the superficial branch of the radial nerve running at its bottom. On the medial side, the space is defined by the pronator teres in the proximal part and the flexor carpi radialis in the distal part. The superficial branch of the radial nerve is retracted together with the brachioradialis laterally, and the radial artery medially.In the third phase, the attachment of the pronator teres is identified by its typical tendon in the middle of convexity of the lateral surface of the radial shaft. The proximal half of the radius must be exposed very carefully in order not to damage the deep branch of the radial nerve. Dissection starts at the insertion of the pronator teres and proceeds proximally along its lateral border in interval between this muscle and insertion of the supinator

  15. Slipped capital femoral epiphysis

    MedlinePlus

    A slipped capital femoral epiphysis is a separation of the ball of the hip joint from the thigh bone (femur) at ... A slipped capital femoral epiphysis may affect both hips. An epiphysis is an area at the end of a long bone . ...

  16. Shaft seal assembly and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keba, John E. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A pressure-actuated shaft seal assembly and associated method for controlling the flow of fluid adjacent a rotatable shaft are provided. The seal assembly includes one or more seal members that can be adjusted between open and closed positions, for example, according to the rotational speed of the shaft. For example, the seal member can be configured to be adjusted according to a radial pressure differential in a fluid that varies with the rotational speed of the shaft. In addition, in the closed position, each seal member can contact a rotatable member connected to the shaft to form a seal with the rotatable member and prevent fluid from flowing through the assembly. Thus, the seal can be closed at low speeds of operation and opened at high speeds of operation, thereby reducing the heat and wear in the seal assembly while maintaining a sufficient seal during all speeds of operation.

  17. Shaft sinking method

    SciTech Connect

    Sainsbury, G.M.

    1987-10-20

    A method is described of sinking shafts comprising excavating a series of lifts wherein each lift is excavated by drilling a pattern of blast holes for the full depth of the lift boring a large diameter hole for the full depth of the lift. Then creating a chamber only at the lower end of the large diameter hole, blasting a portion of the walls of the chamber to deposit rock material into the chamber, extracting at least a portion of the rock material created by the blast and repeating the blasting and extraction step throughout the length of the lift from the bottom to the top and when the volume of the lift is blasted extracting the remaining rock broken material.

  18. Subtrochanteric fractures after retrograde femoral nailing.

    PubMed

    Mounasamy, Varatharaj; Mallu, Sathya; Khanna, Vishesh; Sambandam, Senthil

    2015-10-18

    Secondary fractures around femoral nails placed for the management of hip fractures are well known. We report, two cases of a fracture of the femur at the interlocking screw site in the subtrochanteric area after retrograde femoral nailing of a femoral shaft fracture. Only a few reports in the existing literature have described these fractures. Two young men after sustaining a fall presented to us with pain, swelling and deformity in the upper thigh region. On enquiring, examining and radiographing them, peri-implant fractures of subtrochanteric nature through the distal interlocking screws were revealed in both patients who also had histories of previous falls for which retrograde intramedullary nailing was performed for their respective femora. Both patients were managed with similar surgical routines including removal of the existing hardware, open reduction and ace cephallomedullary antegrade nailing. The second case did show evidence of delayed healing and was additionally stabilized with cerclage wires. Both patients had uneventful postoperative outcomes and union was evident at the end of 6 mo postoperatively with a good range of motion at the hip and knee. Our report suggests that though seldom reported, peri-implant fractures around the subtrochanteric region can occur and pose a challenge to the treating orthopaedic surgeon. We suggest these be managed, after initial stabilization and resuscitation, by implant removal, open reduction and interlocking intramedullary antegrade nailing. Good results and progression to union can be expected in these patients by adhering to basic principles of osteosynthesis. PMID:26495251

  19. Bilateral midshaft femoral fractures in an adolescent baseball player.

    PubMed

    Ju, D G; Mogayzel, P J; Sponseller, P D; Familiari, F; McFarland, E G

    2016-07-01

    Bone disease, specifically low bone mineral density, is a common and undertreated complication that begins during childhood in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). This case describes a male baseball player, aged 14years, with undiagnosed CF who sustained a left midshaft femoral fracture while running toward base; 8months later, he sustained a right midshaft femoral fracture under similar conditions. After the second fracture, further evaluation revealed low bone mineral density and CF. There is no previously published report of pathologic fractures occurring in the femoral shaft in an athlete with undiagnosed CF. Patients with CF have a higher fracture rate. Low-energy fractures of major bones in athletically active individuals should be viewed with suspicion for an underlying process. PMID:26927602

  20. Dual rotating shaft seal apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Griggs, J.E.; Newman, H.J.

    1983-06-16

    The report is directed to apparatus suitable for transferring torque and rotary motion through a wall in a manner which is essentially gas impermeable. The apparatus can be used for pressurizing, agitating, and mixing fluids and features two ferrofluidic, i.e., ferrometic seals. Each seal is disposed on one of two supported shafts and each shaft is operably connected at one end to a gear mechanism and at its other end to an adjustable coupling means which is to be connected to a rotatable shaft extending through a wall through which torque and rotary motion are to be transferred.

  1. TIBIAL SHAFT FRACTURES

    PubMed Central

    Kojima, Kodi Edson; Ferreira, Ramon Venzon

    2015-01-01

    The long-bone fractures occur most frequently in the tibial shaft. Adequate treatment of such fractures avoids consolidation failure, skewed consolidation and reoperation. To classify these fractures, the AO/OTA classification method is still used, but it is worthwhile getting to know the Ellis classification method, which also includes assessment of soft-tissue injuries. There is often an association with compartmental syndrome, and early diagnosis can be achieved through evaluating clinical parameters and constant clinical monitoring. Once the diagnosis has been made, fasciotomy should be performed. It is always difficult to assess consolidation, but the RUST method may help in this. Radiography is assessed in two projections, and points are scored for the presence of the fracture line and a visible bone callus. Today, the dogma of six hours for cleaning the exposed fracture is under discussion. It is considered that an early start to intravenous antibiotic therapy and the lesion severity are very important. The question of early or late closure of the lesion in an exposed fracture has gone through several phases: sometimes early closure has been indicated and sometimes late closure. Currently, whenever possible, early closure of the lesion is recommended, since this diminishes the risk of infection. Milling of the canal when the intramedullary nail is introduced is still a controversial subject. Despite strong personal positions in favor of milling, studies have shown that there may be some advantage in relation to closed fractures, but not in exposed fractures. PMID:27026999

  2. Angioseal use after antegrade femoral arteriotomy in patients undergoing percutaneous revascularization for critical limb ischemia: a case series.

    PubMed

    Biondi-Zoccai, Giuseppe G L; Fusaro, Massimiliano; Tashani, Abdulkafi; Mollichelli, Nadia; Medda, Massimo; De Giacobbi, Graziella; Inglese, Luigi

    2007-06-12

    Antegrade femoral artery access is commonly used for percutaneous transluminal revascularization of ipsilateral lower limbs in patients with critical limb ischemia. While hemostasis at the end of the procedure can be achieved by manual compression, this may lead to an increase in local vascular complications. Femoral artery closure devices, such as the Angioseal collagen plug and anchor device, have been approved and shown of benefit after retrograde femoral artery catheterization. To date, there are however no data on the use of such arteriotomy closure device after antegrade femoral access. We hereby report a case series of five patients in whom Angioseal was successfully used after antegrade femoral puncture and below-the-knee percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. In all cases the device enabled immediate and complete hemostasis without major complications, despite the intense antithrombotic regimen, including heparin, aspirin, and clopidogrel in all patients, as well as glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (in two patients) and fibrinolytic therapy (in one). PMID:17052791

  3. Process for sinking of shafts

    SciTech Connect

    Kissich, A.; Schetina, O.; Wrulich, H.; Zitz, A.

    1983-04-12

    For sinking of shafts, a cutting machine is provided having its cutting arm pivotable around a vertical axis and a horizontal axis. The cutting arm carries cutting heads which are rotatable around an axis horizontally arranged and extending perpendicularly relative to the axis of the cutting arm. The shaft is now sunk around its circumference in direction of its axis, for which purpose first the uppermost lead of a screw surface is prepared. On this uppermost lead of the screw surface the cutting machine is advanced until the cutting heads contact the shaft wall. In the following, a floor cut is made whereupon a further floor cut is made at a lower level. Starting from a corresponding position of the cutting machine surfaces are cut free starting from the shaft wall. This manner of operation is continued thereby repeating the previous process steps until the whole screw surface is cut free, the cutting machine thereby being moved in backward direction. Any area possibly remaining close to the axis of the shaft and being not within the operating range of the cutting arm can subsequently be broken away or be removed by cutting operating in another position of the cutting machine.

  4. Open Galeazzi fracture with ipsilateral elbow dislocation.

    PubMed

    Adanır, Oktay; Yüksel, Serdar; Beytemur, Ozan; Güleç, M Akif

    2016-08-01

    Combination of the Galeazzi fracture and dislocation of the elbow joint in same extremity is very rare. In this article, we report a 26-year-old male patient with a posterolateral dislocation of the elbow and ipsilateral volar type Galeazzi fracture. We performed closed reduction for the elbow dislocation during admission to the emergency department. Patient was taken to the operating room in the sixth hour of his application to emergency department and open wound on the ulnovolar region of the wrist was closed primarily after irrigation and debridement. We performed open reduction and internal fixation of the radial fracture with a dynamic compression plate. After fixation, we evaluated the stability of the elbow joint and distal radioulnar joint. Distal radioulnar joint was unstable under fluoroscopic examination and fixed with one 1.8 mm Kirschner wire in a pronated position. Then, elbow joint was stable. One year after surgery, patient had no pain or sings of instability. At the last follow-up, range of motion of the elbow was 10°-135° and forearm pronation and supination were 70°. PMID:27499325

  5. Axle Shaft Optical Inspection System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freese, Fritz; Geise, Philip; George, Eugene; Singh, Tom

    1980-11-01

    An electro-optical instrument to gauge automotive rear axle shafts is described. A high contrast image of the axle lug flange is projected via a high quality photographic lens on two self-scanning linear photodiode arrays. In one three-second rotation, a dedicated digital processor measures bolt circle location, hole diameter and separation. The unit automatically: compares each measurement with preset tolerances, computes the average bolt circle diameter, computes the bolt circle runout, makes a pass/fail decision, provides a digital readout, marks the axle shaft with colored ink and provides the operator a pass/fail light.

  6. An exploratory shaft facility in SALT: Draft shaft study plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-03-01

    This draft Shaft Study Plan describes a program of testing and monitoring in the Exploratory Shafts of a candidate high-level nuclear waste repository site in Deaf Smith County, Texas. The purpose of the programs to assist with site characterization in support of a determination of site suitability for development as a repository design and performance assessment evaluations. The program includes a variety of geological, geophysical, geomechanical, thermomechanical, and geohydrological testing and monitoring. The program is presented as a series of separate studies concerned with geological, geomechanical, and geohydrological site characterization, and with evaluating the mechanical and hydrological response of the site to construction of the shafts. The various studies, and associated test or monitoring methods are shown. The procedure used in developing the test program has been to initially identify the information necessary to satisfy (1) federal, state, and local requirements, and (2) repository program requirements. These information requirements have then been assessed to determine which requirements can be addressed wholly or in significant part by monitoring and testing from within the shafts. Test methods have been identified to address specific information requirements. 67 refs., 39 figs., 31 tabs.

  7. Ipsilateral Hemichorea-hemiballism in a Case of Postoperative Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Kannepalli, Narasinga Rao V. L.; Yadav, Ravi; Vazhayil, Vikas; Somanna, Sampath; Pal, Pramod Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background Ipsilateral hemiballismus refers to the rare occurrence of hemiballism developing on the same side of a brain lesion. Case report We describe a rare case of postoperative ipsilateral hemiballism in a patient who underwent pituitary adenoma resection and experienced a right internal cerebral artery territory infarct. We review the literature on hemichorea hemiballismus (HCHB) and explore various mechanisms for its occurrence. Discussion Only three cases of ipsilateral hemiballism have been described, and the exact pathophysiology remains unknown. A dominant left hemisphere with corpus callosal connections to the right basal ganglia is the most probable explanation for this unusual event. PMID:27127720

  8. Shaft encoder presents digital output

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillis, D. A.

    1966-01-01

    Circuits that include compensation circuitry time a capacitance relative to a reference voltage so that a digital presentation occurs that is representative of the positional condition of the mechanical shaft being monitored. This circuitry may be employed in multiples to furnish binary encoding of a number of rotating devices simultaneously.

  9. Geotechnical instrumentation for repository shafts

    SciTech Connect

    Lentell, R.L.; Byrne, J.

    1993-09-01

    The US Congress passed the Nuclear Waste Policy Act in 1980, which required that three distinctly different geologic media be investigated as potential candidate sites for the permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The three media that were selected for study were basalt (WA), salt (TX, LA, MS, UT), and tuff (NV). Preliminary Exploratory Shaft Facilities (ESF) designs were prepared for seven candidate salt sites, including bedded and domal salt environments. A bedded-salt site was selected in Deaf Smith County, TX for detailed site characterization studies and ESF Final Design. Although Congress terminated the Salt Repository Program in 1988, Final Design for the Deaf Smith ESF was completed, and much of the design rationale can be applied to subsequent deep repository shafts. This paper presents the rationale for the geotechnical instrumentation that was designed for construction and operational performance monitoring of the deep shafts of the in-situ test facility. The instrumentation design described herein can be used as a general framework in designing subsequent instrumentation programs for future high-level nuclear waste repository shafts.

  10. Unusual Foreign Bone Fragment in Femoral Open Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Sadoni, Hanon; Arti, Hamidreza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Femoral shaft fracture is one of the typical bone fractures due to high energy trauma and may occur as an open fracture. Some foreign materials may enter the fracture site such as sand, cloth particles and so on. Case Presentation: A 28-year-old motorcycle riding military member and his collaborator were received in the hospital because of multiple traumas due to a fall in a hollow during a surveillance mission. His collaborator died because of head trauma and multiple severe open fractures. When fixing the patients femoral fracture, a large femoral butterfly fragment was removed from the patient’s thigh as a foreign segment. The patient’s femur was fixed with a plate and screws. No femoral defect was detected during surgery or post-operative X-rays and CT scan. The removed segment was not a part of the patient’s femur. Conclusions: Surgical and post-surgical findings showed that this segment was not related to the patient’s femur. The foreign segment may have belonged to the other victim of this trauma.

  11. Forelimb training drives transient map reorganization in ipsilateral motor cortex.

    PubMed

    Pruitt, David T; Schmid, Ariel N; Danaphongse, Tanya T; Flanagan, Kate E; Morrison, Robert A; Kilgard, Michael P; Rennaker, Robert L; Hays, Seth A

    2016-10-15

    Skilled motor training results in reorganization of contralateral motor cortex movement representations. The ipsilateral motor cortex is believed to play a role in skilled motor control, but little is known about how training influences reorganization of ipsilateral motor representations of the trained limb. To determine whether training results in reorganization of ipsilateral motor cortex maps, rats were trained to perform the isometric pull task, an automated motor task that requires skilled forelimb use. After either 3 or 6 months of training, intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) mapping was performed to document motor representations of the trained forelimb in the hemisphere ipsilateral to that limb. Motor training for 3 months resulted in a robust expansion of right forelimb representation in the right motor cortex, demonstrating that skilled motor training drives map plasticity ipsilateral to the trained limb. After 6 months of training, the right forelimb representation in the right motor cortex was significantly smaller than the representation observed in rats trained for 3 months and similar to untrained controls, consistent with a normalization of motor cortex maps. Forelimb map area was not correlated with performance on the trained task, suggesting that task performance is maintained despite normalization of cortical maps. This study provides new insights into how the ipsilateral cortex changes in response to skilled learning and may inform rehabilitative strategies to enhance cortical plasticity to support recovery after brain injury. PMID:27392641

  12. 30 CFR 56.19102 - Shaft guides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shaft guides. 56.19102 Section 56.19102 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Shaft guides. A means shall be provided to guide the movement of a shaft conveyance....

  13. 30 CFR 57.19102 - Shaft guides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shaft guides. 57.19102 Section 57.19102 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND....19102 Shaft guides. A means shall be provided to guide the movement of a shaft conveyance....

  14. Repairing A Shaft Prone To Fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharp, Roger A.; Larsen, David V.; Bates, Garold A.

    1991-01-01

    Shaft of hydraulic motor now outlives its bearings. Procedure for repairing John Deere Series 50 (or equivalent) hydraulic motor solves problem posed by common type of fatigue failure of shaft. Includes forming internally threaded hole in end of shaft, inserting double-threaded end stud, and adding washers and collars.

  15. 30 CFR 57.19106 - Shaft sets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shaft sets. 57.19106 Section 57.19106 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND....19106 Shaft sets. Shaft sets shall be kept in good repair and clean of hazardous material....

  16. 30 CFR 56.19106 - Shaft sets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shaft sets. 56.19106 Section 56.19106 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Shaft sets. Shaft sets shall be kept in good repair and clean of hazardous material....

  17. Shaft Coupler With Friction and Spline Clutches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thebert, Glenn W.

    1987-01-01

    Coupling, developed for rotor of lift/cruise aircraft, employs two clutches for smooth transmission of power from gas-turbine engine to rotor. Prior to ascent, coupling applies friction-type transition clutch that accelerates rotor shaft to speeds matching those of engine shaft. Once shafts synchronized, spline coupling engaged and friction clutch released to provide positive mechanical drive.

  18. 14 CFR 27.935 - Shafting joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Shafting joints. 27.935 Section 27.935... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.935 Shafting joints. Each universal joint, slip joint, and other shafting joints whose lubrication is necessary for operation must...

  19. 14 CFR 29.935 - Shafting joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Shafting joints. 29.935 Section 29.935... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29.935 Shafting joints. Each universal joint, slip joint, and other shafting joints whose lubrication is necessary for operation...

  20. 14 CFR 29.935 - Shafting joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shafting joints. 29.935 Section 29.935... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29.935 Shafting joints. Each universal joint, slip joint, and other shafting joints whose lubrication is necessary for operation...

  1. 14 CFR 29.935 - Shafting joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Shafting joints. 29.935 Section 29.935... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29.935 Shafting joints. Each universal joint, slip joint, and other shafting joints whose lubrication is necessary for operation...

  2. 14 CFR 27.935 - Shafting joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Shafting joints. 27.935 Section 27.935... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.935 Shafting joints. Each universal joint, slip joint, and other shafting joints whose lubrication is necessary for operation must...

  3. 14 CFR 27.935 - Shafting joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Shafting joints. 27.935 Section 27.935... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.935 Shafting joints. Each universal joint, slip joint, and other shafting joints whose lubrication is necessary for operation must...

  4. 14 CFR 27.935 - Shafting joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shafting joints. 27.935 Section 27.935... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.935 Shafting joints. Each universal joint, slip joint, and other shafting joints whose lubrication is necessary for operation must...

  5. 14 CFR 29.935 - Shafting joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Shafting joints. 29.935 Section 29.935... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29.935 Shafting joints. Each universal joint, slip joint, and other shafting joints whose lubrication is necessary for operation...

  6. 14 CFR 29.935 - Shafting joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Shafting joints. 29.935 Section 29.935... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29.935 Shafting joints. Each universal joint, slip joint, and other shafting joints whose lubrication is necessary for operation...

  7. 14 CFR 27.935 - Shafting joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Shafting joints. 27.935 Section 27.935... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.935 Shafting joints. Each universal joint, slip joint, and other shafting joints whose lubrication is necessary for operation must...

  8. Cortical bone distribution in the femoral neck of strepsirhine primates.

    PubMed

    Demes, B; Jungers, W L; Walker, C

    2000-10-01

    The thickness of the inferior and superior cortices of the femoral neck was measured on X-rays of 181 strepsirhine primate femora representing 24 species. Neck length, neck depth and neck-shaft angle were also measured. The strength of the femoral neck in frontal bending was estimated by modeling the neck as a hollow cylinder, with neck depth as the outer diameter and cortical thickness representing the superior and inferior shell dimensions. Results indicate that the inferior cortex is always thicker than the superior cortex. The ratio of superior to inferior cortical thickness is highly variable but distinguishes two of the three locomotor groups in the sample. Vertical clingers and leapers have higher ratios (i.e., a more even distribution of cortical bone) than quadrupeds. The slow climbers tend to have the lowest ratios, although they do not differ significantly from the leapers and quadrupeds. These results do not confirm prior theoretical expectations and reported data for anthropoid primates that link greater asymmetry of the cortical shell to more stereotypical hip excursions. The ratio of superior to inferior cortical thickness is unrelated to body mass, femoral neck length, and neck-shaft angle, calling into question whether the short neck of strepsirhine primates acts as a cantilever beam in bending. On the other hand, the estimated section moduli are highly correlated with body mass and neck length, a correlation that is driven primarily by body mass. In conclusion, we believe that an alternative interpretation to the cantilever beam model is needed to explain the asymmetry in bone distribution in the femoral neck, at least in strepsirhine primates (e.g., a thicker inferior cortex is required to reinforce the strongly curved inferior surface). As in prior studies of cross-sectional geometry of long bones, we found slightly positive allometry of cortical dimensions with body mass. PMID:11006046

  9. Symptomatic atypical femoral fractures are related to underlying hip geometry.

    PubMed

    Taormina, David P; Marcano, Alejandro I; Karia, Raj; Egol, Kenneth A; Tejwani, Nirmal C

    2014-06-01

    The benefits of bisphosphonates are well documented, but prolonged use has been associated with atypical femur fractures. Radiographic markers for fracture predisposition could potentially aid in safer medication use. In this case-control designed study, we compared hip radiographic parameters and the demographic characteristics of chronic bisphosphonate users who sustained an atypical femoral fracture with a group of chronic bisphosphonate users who did not sustain an atypical femur fracture and also a group who sustained an intertrochanteric hip fracture. Radiographic parameters included were neck-shaft angle (NSA), hip-axis length (HAL) and center-edge angle (CE). Multivariate regression was used to evaluate the relationship between radiographic measures and femur fracture. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis determined cut-off points for neck-shaft angle and risk of atypical femur fracture. Ultimately, pre-fracture radiographs of 53 bisphosphonate users who developed atypical fracture were compared with 43 asymptomatic chronic bisphosphonate users and 64 intertrochanteric fracture patients. Duration of bisphosphonate use did not statistically differ between users sustaining atypical fracture and those without fracture (7.9 [±3.5] vs. 7.7 [±3.3] years, p=0.7). Bisphosphonate users who fractured had acute/varus pre-fracture neck-shaft angles (p<0.001), shorter hip-axis length (p<0.01), and narrower center-edge angles (p<0.01). Regression analysis revealed associations between neck-shaft angle (OR=0.89 [95% CI=0.81-0.97; p=0.01), center edge angle (OR=0.89 [95% CI=0.80-0.99]; p=0.03), and BMI (OR=1.15 [95% CI=1.02-1.31; p=0.03) with fracture development. ROC curve analysis (AUC=0.67 [95% CI=0.56-0.79]) determined that a cut-off point for neck-shaft angle <128.3° yielded 69% sensitivity and 63% specificity for development of atypical femoral fracture. Ultimately, an acute/varus angle of the femoral neck, high BMI, and narrow center-edge angle were

  10. [Trochanteric femoral fractures].

    PubMed

    Douša, P; Čech, O; Weissinger, M; Džupa, V

    2013-01-01

    At the present time proximal femoral fractures account for 30% of all fractures referred to hospitals for treatment. Our population is ageing, the proportion of patients with post-menopausal or senile osteoporosis is increasing and therefore the number of proximal femoral fractures requiring urgent treatment is growing too. In the age category of 50 years and older, the incidence of these fractures has increased exponentially. Our department serves as a trauma centre for half of Prague and part of the Central Bohemia Region with a population of 1 150 000. Prague in particular has a high number of elderly citizens. Our experience is based on extensive clinical data obtained from the Register of Proximal Femoral Fractures established in 1997. During 14 years, 4280 patients, 3112 women and 1168 men, were admitted to our department for treatment of proximal femoral fractures. All patients were followed up until healing or development of complications. In the group under study, 82% were patients older than 70 years; 72% of those requiring surgery were in their seventies and eighties. Men were significantly younger than women (p<0.001) and represented 30% of the group. The fractures were 2.3-times more frequent in women than in men. In the category under 60 years, men significantly outnumbered women (p<0.001). The patients with pertrochanteric fractures were, on the average, eight years older than the patients with intertrochanteric fractures, which is a significant difference (p<0.001). The mortality rate within a year of injury was about 30%. Trochanteric fractures accounted for 54.7% and femoral neck fractures for 45.3% of all fractures. The inter-annual increase was 5.9%, with more trochanteric than femoral neck fractures. There was a non-significant decrease in intertrochanteric (AO 31-A3) fractures. On the other hand, the number of pertrochanteric (AO 31-A1+2) fractures increased significantly (p<0.001). A total of 1 394 fractures were treated with a proximal

  11. Less invasive percutaneous wave plating of simple femur shaft fractures: A prospective series.

    PubMed

    Angelini, Alessandro Janson; Livani, Bruno; Flierl, Michael A; Morgan, Steven J; Belangero, William Dias

    2010-06-01

    In developing nations, fixation of femoral shaft fractures with intramedullary (IM) nails can pose significant challenges. Use of IM implants is commonly limited by availability, funds or patient's physique. Conversely, traditional compression plates are usually readily available at a much lower cost, making bridge plating of femur fractures a frequently used surgical technique. We hypothesised that less invasive percutaneous plate osteosynthesis (MIPPO) of femoral shaft fractures has a similar outcome compared to IM nailing. The study is designed as a prospective case series at a Level 1 university trauma centre. Fifty-seven patients with simple femur shaft fractures (Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen/Orthopaedic Trauma Association (AO/OTA) type A) were enrolled between April 2001 and December 2005 and followed up for a minimum of 1 year or until fracture union. Primary outcome measures included union rate and time to union. Secondary outcome parameters were hardware failure, malalignment, infection and need for revision surgery. The mean age of the study cohort was 24.7 years. Fifty-four patients sustained associated systems injury. Primary union occurred in 54 patients in an average time of 13 weeks. Two patients presented with implant failure, and one patient displayed signs of delayed union. Six patients developed valgus deformities, whereas five patients displayed external rotation malalignment. One patient developed a superficial wound infection, and another presented with a deep infection. Bridge wave plating represents a safe and efficacious treatment alternative to IM nailing for simple femoral shaft fractures in countries where IM nails are limited by availability, costs and patient's physical characteristics. PMID:20170914

  12. Intramedullary nailing: evolutions of femoral intramedullary nailing: first to fourth generations.

    PubMed

    Russell, Thomas A

    2011-12-01

    Intramedullary femoral nailing is the gold standard for femoral shaft fixation but only in the past 27 years. This rapid replacement of closed traction and cast techniques in North America was a controversial and contentious evolution in surgery. As we enter the fourth generation of implant design, capabilities, and surgical technique, it is important to understand the driving forces for this technology. These forces included changes in radiographic imaging capabilities, biomaterial design and computer-assisted manufacturing, and the recognition of the importance of mobilization of the trauma patient to avoid systemic complications and optimize functional recovery. PMID:22089849

  13. Jumbo Cutter for Removal of A Bent Femoral Interlocking Nail: A Cost Effective Method.

    PubMed

    Dhanda, Manjeet Singh; Madan, Harnam Singh; Sharma, Sansar C; Ali, Nadeem; Bhat, Abedullah

    2015-06-01

    Closed diaphyseal femoral shaft fractures can be treated with multiple surgical options. It is more challenging to remove a bent nail than a broken one because it is difficult to retrieve the bent nail through the intramedullary canal. Various authors have published their techniques for removal of bent femoral interlocking nail. This article describes a simple technique using Jumbo cutter for sectioning and removal of bent interlocking nail. This technique will help orthopaedic surgeons to remove bent nail without using any specialised metal cutting instruments. PMID:26266173

  14. Jumbo Cutter for Removal of A Bent Femoral Interlocking Nail: A Cost Effective Method

    PubMed Central

    Dhanda, Manjeet Singh; Sharma, Sansar C; Ali, Nadeem; Bhat, Abedullah

    2015-01-01

    Closed diaphyseal femoral shaft fractures can be treated with multiple surgical options. It is more challenging to remove a bent nail than a broken one because it is difficult to retrieve the bent nail through the intramedullary canal. Various authors have published their techniques for removal of bent femoral interlocking nail. This article describes a simple technique using Jumbo cutter for sectioning and removal of bent interlocking nail. This technique will help orthopaedic surgeons to remove bent nail without using any specialised metal cutting instruments. PMID:26266173

  15. Measurement of shaft diameters by machine vision.

    PubMed

    Wei, Guang; Tan, Qingchang

    2011-07-01

    A machine vision method for accurately measuring the diameters of cylindrical shafts is presented. Perspective projection and the geometrical features of cylindrical shafts are modeled in order to enable accurate measurement of shaft diameters. Some of the model parameters are determined using a shaft of known diameter. The camera model itself includes radial and tangential distortions terms. Experiments were used to measure the accuracy of the proposed method and the effect of the position of the camera relative to the shaft, as well as other factors. PMID:21743525

  16. Shaft Diameter Measurement Using Structured Light Vision

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Siyuan; Tan, Qingchang; Zhang, Yachao

    2015-01-01

    A method for measuring shaft diameters is presented using structured light vision measurement. After calibrating a model of the structured light measurement, a virtual plane is established perpendicular to the measured shaft axis and the image of the light stripe on the shaft is projected to the virtual plane. On the virtual plane, the center of the measured shaft is determined by fitting the projected image under the geometrical constraints of the light stripe, and the shaft diameter is measured by the determined center and the projected image. Experiments evaluated the measuring accuracy of the method and the effects of some factors on the measurement are analyzed. PMID:26274963

  17. Hermetic seal for a shaft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lombardi, F. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    An hermetic seal for a linear rod having a portion thereof projected axially through a port defined in a wall for a pressure chamber and supported thereby for omni-directional motion is described. The seal is characterized by a resilient, impervious, cylindrical body having a first section concentrically related to the shaft and integrally affixed thereto comprising a linear ordered array of annular flutes. A second section integrally is affixed to the wall of the chamber and concentrically related to the port comprising a second linear ordered array of annular flutes. A third section is interposed between the first and second sections and integrally affixed in coaxial alignment therewith comprising an annular ordered array of linear flutes concentrically related to the shaft, whereby axial, angular, and pivotal motion of the rod is accommodated.

  18. Wing-Wake Interactions between Ipsilateral Wings in Dragonfly Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Haibo; Liang, Zongxian

    2009-11-01

    Bilateral and ipsilateral wing-wing interactions can be commonly observed in insect flights. As a representative example of ipsilateral wing-wing interaction, dragonflies in flight have been widely studied. An important fact is that the flow over their hindwings is affected by the presence of the forewings. Wake capture and phase-change play very important role on aerodynamic performance of the hindwings We present a direct numerical simulation of a modeled dragonfly (Aeshna juncea) in slow flight as studied in Azuma et al (JEB 1985). Realistic morphologies of wing, body, and kinematics are used for maximum including wing and body features of a dragonfly. This work aims to study the relations between wake-topology and aerodynamic performance due to wing-wing and wing-wake interactions of dragonfly ipsilateral wings. DNS results are also compared with Local Momentum Theory (Azuma et al).

  19. Statistical Shape Modeling of Proximal Femoral Shape Deformities in Legg-Calvé-Perthes Disease and Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Elaine F.; Farnsworth, Christine L.; Koziol, James A.; Hosalkar, Harish S.; Sah, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The current understanding of morphological deformities of the hip such as femoroacetabular impingement (FAI), Legg-Calve-Perthes disease (LCPD), and slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) is based on 2-dimensional metrics, primarily involving the femoral head, that only partially describe the complex skeletal morphology. Objective This study aimed to improve the 3-dimensional understanding of shape variations during normal growth, and in LCPD and SCFE, through statistical shape modeling. Design Thirty-two patients with asymptomatic, LCPD, and SCFE hips, determined from physical and radiographic examination, were scanned using 3-D CT at a voxel size of (0.5–0.9mm)2 in-plane and 0.63mm slice thickness. Statistical shape modeling was performed on segmented proximal femoral surfaces to determine modes of variation and shape variables quantifying 3-D shape. In addition, conventional variables were determined for all femora. Results Proximal femur shape was described by 8 modes of variation and corresponding shape variables. Statistical shape variables were distinct with age and revealed coordinated, growth-associated differences in neck length-to-width ratio, femoral head medialization, and trochanter protrusion. After size and age-based shape adjustment, diseased proximal femora were characterized by shape variables distinct from those of asymptomatic hips. The shape variables defined morphology in health and disease, and were correlated with certain conventional variables of shape, including neck-shaft angle, head diameter, and neck diameter. Conclusion 3-D quantitative analyses of proximal femoral bone shape during growth and in disease are useful for furthering the understanding of normal and abnormal shape deviations which affect cartilage biomechanics and risk of developing osteoarthritis. PMID:23274103

  20. Calibration of ipsilateral stimulus transducer for acoustic reflex measurements.

    PubMed

    Olsen, S; Osterhammel, P A; Rasmussen, A N; Nielsen, L H

    1995-01-01

    Pure-tone Reference Equivalent Threshold Sound Pressure Level (RETSPL) of the ipsilateral stimulus receiver for acoustic reflex measurements on Madsen Electronics type Zodiac 901 impedance audiometer is provided. The results, obtained from 20 normal-hearing subjects, are achieved by comparing hearing threshold levels measured using a TDH 39 telephone (calibrated to ISO 389) with thresholds recorded using the ipsilateral stimulus insert phone. The calibration is referenced to an IEC-711 ear simulator and comprises the following frequencies: 125, 250, 500, 750, 1000, 1500, 2000, 3000, 4000, 6000, 8000 Hz. PMID:8552975

  1. Securing Bearing Races To Turbopump Shafts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blount, Dale H.

    1990-01-01

    Proposed method of attaching inner race of roller bearing to shaft prevents loosening now caused by difference between coefficients of thermal expansion of race and shaft materials. Intended for cryogenic turbopump in which race made of 440C stainless-steel alloy and shaft made of Inconel(R) 100 nickel alloy. Flanges of race replaced by tension bands that shrink faster as they are cooled. Tension band engages race on slightly sloping surface so axial forces do not dislodge it.

  2. Risk of atypical femoral fracture during and after bisphosphonate use

    PubMed Central

    Schilcher, Jörg; Koeppen, Veronika; Aspenberg, Per; Michaëlsson, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose Use of bisphosphonates in women is associated with higher risk of atypical femoral fractures. The risk in terms of timing of use and type of bisphosphonate, and in men, remains unclear. Patients and methods We reviewed radiographs of 5,342 Swedish women and men aged 55 years or more who had had a fracture of the femoral shaft in the 3-year period 2008–2010 (97% of those eligible), and found 172 patients with atypical fractures (93% of them women). We obtained data on medication and comorbidity. The risk of atypical fracture associated with bisphosphonate use was estimated in a nationwide cohort analysis. In addition, we performed a case-control analysis with comparison to 952 patients with ordinary shaft fractures. A short report of the findings has recently been presented (Schilcher et al. 2014a). Here we provide full details. Results The age-adjusted relative risk (RR) of atypical fracture associated with bisphosphonate use was 55 (95% CI: 39–79) in women and 54 (CI: 15–192) in men. In bisphosphonate users, women had a 3-fold higher risk than men (RR = 3.1, CI: 1.1–8.4). Alendronate users had higher risk than risedronate users (RR = 1.9, CI: 1.1–3.3). The RR after 4 years or more of use reached 126 (CI: 55–288), with a corresponding absolute risk of 11 (CI: 7–14) fractures per 10,000 person-years of use. The risk decreased by 70% per year since last use. Interpretation Women have a higher risk of atypical femoral fracture than men. The type of bisphosphonate used may affect risk estimates and the risk decreases rapidly after cessation. PMID:25582459

  3. Correlation between the forearm plus little finger length and the femoral length.

    PubMed

    Naik, Monappa A; Sujir, Premjit; Tripathy, Sujit Kumar; Goyal, Tarun; Rao, Sharath K

    2013-08-01

    PURPOSE. To assess the correlation between the forearm plus little finger length and the femoral length in 100 volunteers. METHODS. The forearm plus little finger length and the ipsilateral femoral length of 68 male and 32 female volunteers aged 19 to 55 (mean, 35.8) years were measured using a measuring tape. The forearm plus litter finger length was measured from the tip of the olecranon to the tip of the little finger, whereas the femoral length was measured from the tip of the greater trochanter to the level of proximal pole of the patella over the outer aspect of thigh. Two observers made the measurements on 2 separate occasions. Intra- and inter-observer variations were calculated. A value of 0.75 or greater indicated excellent agreement. RESULTS. The mean forearm plus little finger length and femoral length were 39.87 (SD, 2.73) and 39.85 (SD, 2.44) cm, respectively. The mean difference between these 2 measurements was 0.028 (95% CI, -0.109 to 0.165) cm. The correlation between these 2 measurements was 0.861 (p<0.001). Patient age, sex, and body mass index did not affect this correlation. The intra- and inter-observer reliability was excellent. CONCLUSION. The forearm plus little finger length correlated with the femoral length. This method is simple, radiation-free, and can be applied in day-today practice. PMID:24014776

  4. Calcaneal Insufficiency Fracture after Ipsilateral Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Min; Shin, Sung Jin; Kang, Byoung Youl

    2016-01-01

    Insufficiency fracture of the calcaneus is a rare entity. In the absence of trauma, evaluating a painful ankle in an elderly patient can be difficult and also it might be overlook the insufficiency fracture. We experienced a case of insufficiency calcaneus fracture that occurred after ipsilateral total knee arthroplasty. Here, we report our case with a review of literatures. PMID:26981521

  5. Ipsilateral Floating Hip and Floating Knee - A Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    Yashavantha Kumar, C; Nalini, K B; Nagaraj, Prashanth; Jawali, Abhijith

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Ipsilateral floating hip and floating knee are very rare injuries. These injuries so uncommon that only three cases of similar kind have been reported. These injuries are due to high velocity injuries following motor vehicle accidents. Management of such complex injuries is a challenging task even in experienced hands as there are no standard treatment guidelines for such fractures. Case Report: We hereby report a 20 yr old male who sustained ipsilateral floating hip and ipsilateral floating knee injuries following motor vehicle accident. Patient was stabilized initially and later taken up for surgery. Patient was treated with interlocking nail for femur and tibia in the same sitting whereas acetabulam fracture was managed conservatively. At five months all the fractures united well with restoration of good range of motion in both hip and knee Conclusion: Ipsilateral floating knee and floating hip are very rare injuries seen following high velocity motor vehicle accidents. There are no standard guidelines for treatment of those fractures as only a few cases of similar kind have been reported in literature. Early fixation and aggressive mobilization ensures fracture union and fewer complications. PMID:27298908

  6. Monocular patching may induce ipsilateral "where" spatial bias.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peii; Erdahl, Lillian; Barrett, Anna M

    2009-02-01

    Spatial bias is an asymmetry of perception and/or representation of spatial information - "where" bias -, or of spatially directed actions - "aiming" bias. A monocular patch may induce contralateral "where" spatial bias (the Sprague effect [Sprague, J. M. (1966). Interaction of cortex and superior colliculus in mediation of visually guided behavior in cat. Science, 153(3743), 1544-1547]). However, an ipsilateral patch-induced spatial bias may be observed if visual occlusion results in top-down, compensatory re-allocation of spatial perceptual or representational resources toward the region of visual deprivation. Tactile distraction from a monocular patch may also contribute to an ipsilateral bias. To examine these hypotheses, neurologically normal adults bisected horizontal lines at baseline without a patch, while wearing a monocular patch, and while wearing tactile-only and visual-only monocular occlusion. We fractionated "where" and "aiming" spatial bias components using a video apparatus to reverse visual feedback for half of the test trials. The results support monocular patch-induced ipsilateral "where" spatial errors, which are not consistent with the Sprague effect. Further, the present findings suggested that the induced ipsilateral bias may be primarily induced by visual deprivation, consistent with compensatory "where" resource re-allocation. PMID:19100274

  7. Unitary Shaft-Angle and Shaft-Speed Sensor Assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alhorn, Dean C.; Howard, David E.; Smith, Dennis A.

    2006-01-01

    The figure depicts a unit that contains a rotary-position or a rotary-speed sensor, plus electronic circuitry necessary for its operation, all enclosed in a single housing with a shaft for coupling to an external rotary machine. This rotation sensor unit is complete: when its shaft is mechanically connected to that of the rotary machine and it is supplied with electric power, it generates an output signal directly indicative of the rotary position or speed, without need for additional processing by other circuitry. The incorporation of all of the necessary excitatory and readout circuitry into the housing (in contradistinction to using externally located excitatory and/or readout circuitry) in a compact arrangement is the major difference between this unit and prior rotation-sensor units. The sensor assembly inside the housing includes excitatory and readout integrated circuits mounted on a circular printed-circuit board. In a typical case in which the angle or speed transducer(s) utilize electromagnetic induction, the assembly also includes another circular printed-circuit board on which the transducer windings are mounted. A sheet of high-magnetic permeability metal ("mu metal") is placed between the winding board and the electronic-circuit board to prevent spurious coupling of excitatory signals from the transducer windings to the readout circuits. The housing and most of the other mechanical hardware can be common to a variety of different sensor designs. Hence, the unit can be configured to generate any of variety of outputs by changing the interior sensor assembly. For example, the sensor assembly could contain an analog tachometer circuit that generates an output proportional (in both magnitude and sign or in magnitude only) to the speed of rotation.

  8. Finger force perception during ipsilateral and contralateral force matching tasks

    PubMed Central

    Park, Woo-Hyung; Leonard, Charles T.; Li, Sheng

    2010-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to compare matching performance between ipsilateral and contralateral finger force matching tasks and to examine the effect of handedness on finger force perception. Eleven subjects were instructed to produce reference forces by an instructed finger (index – I or little – L finger) and to reproduce the same amount force by the same or a different finger within the hand (i.e., ipsilateral matching task), or by a finger of the other hand (i.e., contralateral matching task). The results of the ipsilateral and contralateral tasks in the present study commonly showed that 1) the reference and matching forces were matched closely when the two forces were produced by the same or homologous finger(s) such as I/I task; 2) the weaker little finger underestimated the magnitude of reference force of the index finger (I/L task), even with the higher level of effort (relative force), but the two forces were matched when considering total finger forces; 3) the stronger index finger closely matched the reference force of the little finger with the lower level of relative force (i.e., L/I task); 4) when considering the constant errors, I/L tasks showed an underestimation and L/I tasks showed an overestimation compared to I/I tasks. There was no handedness effect during ipsilateral tasks. During the contralateral task, the dominant hand overestimated the force of the non-dominant hand, while the non-dominant hand attempted to match the absolute force of the dominant hand. The overall results support the notion that the absolute, rather than relative, finger force is perceived and reproduced during ipsilateral and contralateral finger force matching tasks, indicating the uniqueness of finger force perception. PMID:18488212

  9. Spiral groove seal. [for hydraulic rotating shaft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, L. P. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    Mating flat surfaces inhibit leakage of a fluid around a stationary shaft. A spiral groove pattern produces a pumping action toward the fluid when the shaft rotates which prevents leakage while a generated hydraulic lifting force separates the mating surfaces to minimize wear.

  10. Femoral approach to lead extraction.

    PubMed

    Mulpuru, Siva K; Hayes, David L; Osborn, Michael J; Asirvatham, Samuel J

    2015-03-01

    Laser and radiofrequency energy-assisted lead extraction has greatly facilitated this complex procedure. Although success rates are high, in some instances alternate methods of extraction are required. In this review, we discuss techniques for femoral extraction of implanted leads and retained fragments. The major tools available, including commonly used snares and delivery tools, are discussed. We briefly describe combined internal jugular and femoral venous extraction approaches, as well as complimentary utilization of more than one technique via the femoral vein. Animated and procedural sequences are included to help the reader visualize the key components of these techniques. PMID:25311643

  11. Passive magnetic bearing for a horizontal shaft

    DOEpatents

    Post, Richard F.

    2003-12-02

    A passive magnetic bearing is composed of a levitation element and a restorative element. The levitation element is composed of a pair of stationary arcuate ferromagnetic segments located within an annular radial-field magnet array. The magnet array is attached to the inner circumference of a hollow shaft end. An attractive force between the arcuate segments and the magnet array acts vertically to levitate the shaft, and also in a horizontal transverse direction to center the shaft. The restorative element is comprised of an annular Halbach array of magnets and a stationary annular circuit array located within the Halbach array. The Halbach array is attached to the inner circumference of the hollow shaft end. A repulsive force between the Halbach array and the circuit array increases inversely to the radial space between them, and thus acts to restore the shaft to its equilibrium axis of rotation when it is displaced therefrom.

  12. Exhaust powered drive shaft torque enhancer

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, A.B.

    1986-09-30

    This patent describes a power producing combination including an internal combustion engine and a mounting frame therefor, and power transmission means including rotating drive shaft means connected to the engine. The improvement described here is a drive shaft torque enhancing device, the device comprising: a multiplicity of blades secured to the drive shaft, equally spaced therearound, each generally lying in a plane containing the axis of the drive shaft; torque enhancer feed duct means for selectively directing a stream of exhaust gases from the engine to impact against the blades to impart torque to the drive shaft; and wherein the power producing combination is used in a vehicle, the vehicle having braking means including a brake pedal; and the power producing combination further comprising torque enhancer disengagement means responsive to motion of the brake pedal.

  13. Shaft Sinking at the Nevada Test Site, U1h Shaft Project

    SciTech Connect

    B. Briggs; R. Musick

    2001-03-01

    The U1h Shaft Project is a design/build subcontract to construct one 6.1 meter (m) (20 feet (ft)) finished diameter shaft to a depth of 321.6 m (1,055 ft.) at the Nevada Test Site. Atkinson Construction was subcontracted by Bechtel Nevada to construct the U1h Shaft for the U.S. Department of Energy. The project consists of furnishing and installing the sinking plant, construction of the 321.6 m (1,055 ft.) of concrete lined shaft, development of a shaft station at a depth of 297.5 m (976 ft.), and construction of a loading pocket at the station. The outfitting of the shaft and installation of a new hoist may be incorporated into the project at a later date. This paper will describe the design phase, the excavation and lining operation, shaft station construction and the contractual challenges encountered on this project.

  14. Vasculitis resulting from a superficial femoral artery angioplasty with a paclitaxel-eluting balloon.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Shannon D; McDonald, Robert R A; Varcoe, Ramon L

    2014-02-01

    Drug-eluting balloons (DEBs) coated with the antiproliferative agent paclitaxel may improve primary patency by reducing recurrent luminal stenosis. A proportion of the active drug and excipient coating are known to embolize distally, but until now, there have been no reports of adverse events resulting from their use. We report an unusual case of a painful nodular, biopsy specimen-proven vasculitic rash that afflicted the ipsilateral lower limb of a patient after superficial femoral artery treatment with a DEB. This adverse event may have implications for the use of DEB in this and other vascular territories. PMID:23642919

  15. Differences in Femoral Geometry and Structure Due to Immobilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiratli, Beatrice Jenny; Yamada, M.; Smith, A.; Marcus, R. M.; Arnaud, S.; vanderMeulen, M. C. H.; Hargens, Alan R. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Reduction in bone mass of the lower extremity is well documented in individuals with paralysis resulting from spinal cord injury (SCI). The consequent osteopenia leads to elevated fracture risk with fractures occurring more commonly in the femoral shaft and supracondylar regions than the hip. A model has recently been described to estimate geometry and structure of the femoral midshaft from whole body scans by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Increases in femoral geometric and structural properties during growth were primarily related to mechanical loading as reflected by body mass. In this study, we investigate the relationship between body mass and femoral geometry and structure in adults with normal habitual mechanical loading patterns and those with severely reduced loading. The subjects were 78 ambulatory men (aged 20-72 yrs) and 113 men with complete paralysis from SCI of more than 4 years duration (aged 21 73 yrs). Subregional analysis was performed on DXA whole body scans to obtain bone mineral content (BMC, g), cortical thickness (cm), crosssectional moment of inertia (CSMI, cm4), and section modulus (cm3) of the femoral midshaft. All measured bone variables were significantly lower in SCI compared with ambulatory subjects: -29% (BMC), -33% (cortical thickness), -23% (CSMI), and -22% (section modulus) while body mass was not significantly different. However, the associations between body mass and bone properties were notably different; r2 values were higher for ambulatory than SCI subjects in regressions of body mass on BMC (0.48 vs 0.20), CSMI (0.59 vs 0.32), and section modulus (0.59 vs 0.31). No association was seen between body mass and cortical thickness for either group. The greatest difference between groups is in the femoral cortex, consistent with reduced bone mass via endosteal expansion. The relatively lesser difference in geometric and structural properties implies that there is less effect on mechanical integrity than would be expected from

  16. Obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis with intestinal malrotation.

    PubMed

    Morino, Masaaki; Hoshino, Masaya; Musha, Ikuma

    2013-08-01

    The combination of uterus didelphys, obstructed hemivagina, and ipsilateral renal agenesis represents a rare congenital anomaly called Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome (HWWS) or obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal anomaly (OHVIRA) syndrome. Several anomalies have recently been reported to be associated with this syndrome. The present patient with HHWS had multiple anomalies: intestinal non-rotation, anomalies of the large vessels of the abdomen including duplication of the inferior vena cava and a high-riding aortic bifurcation, and hypodontia. Hypodontia has never been reported in a patient with HWWS. The patient underwent a preventative Ladd's procedure and vaginal reconstruction. To prevent serious complications from concomitant anomalies such as intestinal malrotation, a patient with HWWS should be evaluated in detail for associated malformations. PMID:23910815

  17. Congenital Seminal Vesicle Cyst Associated with Ipsilateral Renal Agenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hun Soo; Rim, Joung Sik

    2009-01-01

    Purpose A seminal vesicle cyst in combination with ipsilateral renal agenesis is rarely encountered. We present cases of this disease entity with symptoms, which were treated with a laparoscopic approach as a minimally invasive surgical treatment. Materials and Methods We experienced 4 patients with seminal vesicle cysts and ipsilateral renal agenesis. The mean age was 45.8 years. Chief complaints were perineal pain and hematospermia. Seminal vesicle cysts and remnant ureters were excised by laparoscopic surgery with transperitoneal approaches. Results The mean operative time was 133.8 minutes. The mean hospital stay was 6.8 days. There were no operative complications or transfusions. Conclusion In our report, patients of congenital seminal vesicle cyst associated with renal agenesis are presented. Laparoscopy is considered a minimal invasive management of these combined anomalies, providing a good image and an easy approach. PMID:19718406

  18. Ipsilateral coordination features for automatic classification of Parkinson's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarmiento, Fernanda; Atehortúa, Angélica; Martínez, Fabio; Romero, Eduardo

    2015-12-01

    A reliable diagnosis of the Parkinson Disease lies on the objective evaluation of different motor sub-systems. Discovering specific motor patterns associated to the disease is fundamental for the development of unbiased assessments that facilitate the disease characterization, independently of the particular examiner. This paper proposes a new objective screening of patients with Parkinson, an approach that optimally combines ipsilateral global descriptors. These ipsilateral gait features are simple upper-lower limb relationships in frequency and relative phase spaces. These low level characteristics feed a simple SVM classifier with a polynomial kernel function. The strategy was assessed in a binary classification task, normal against Parkinson, under a leave-one-out scheme in a population of 16 Parkinson patients and 7 healthy control subjects. Results showed an accuracy of 94;6% using relative phase spaces and 82;1% with simple frequency relations.

  19. Renal Agenesis with Full Length Ipsilateral Refluxing Ureter.

    PubMed

    Pal, Dilip Kumar; Chandra, Vipin; Banerjee, Manju

    2016-01-01

    Unilateral renal agenesis with vesicoureteral reflux in the ipsilateral full length ureter is a rare phenomenon. Herein we report a case of 10-year old boy who presented with recurrent urinary tract infections. No renal tissue was identified on left side in various imaging studies. Micturating cystourethrogram (MCUG) showed left sided refluxing and blind ending ureter. Left ureterectomy was done because of recurrent UTI in the refluxing system. PMID:27170916

  20. Transient ipsilateral mydriasis during correction of left blowout fracture.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ju-Min; Kim, Cheul-Hong; Kim, Uk-Kyu; Chung, In-Kyo

    2014-03-01

    Mydriasis, either bilateral or unilateral, seldom occurs during reconstruction of periorbital fracture. Anisocoria, a unilateral mydriasis, requires more urgent assessment than bilateral mydriasis does. Pharmacologic agents, local anesthetic infiltration, as well as direct or indirect oculomotor nerve damage are possible causes of unilateral mydriasis. Few cases have been reported about intraoperative temporary ipsilateral mydriasis during correction of blowout fracture. We have experienced an unusual case of anisocoria and report the case with literature reviews. PMID:24561370

  1. Renal Agenesis with Full Length Ipsilateral Refluxing Ureter

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Vipin; Banerjee, Manju

    2016-01-01

    Unilateral renal agenesis with vesicoureteral reflux in the ipsilateral full length ureter is a rare phenomenon. Herein we report a case of 10-year old boy who presented with recurrent urinary tract infections. No renal tissue was identified on left side in various imaging studies. Micturating cystourethrogram (MCUG) showed left sided refluxing and blind ending ureter. Left ureterectomy was done because of recurrent UTI in the refluxing system. PMID:27170916

  2. Shaft/shaft-seal interface characteristics of a multiple disk centrifugal blood pump.

    PubMed

    Manning, K B; Miller, G E

    1999-06-01

    A multiple disk centrifugal pump (MDCP) is under investigation as a potential left ventricular assist device. As is the case with most shaft driven pumps, leakage problems around the shaft/shaft seal interface are of major interest. If leakage were to occur during or after implantation, potential events such as blood loss, clotting, blood damage, and/or infections might result in adverse effects for the patient. Because these effects could be quite disastrous, potential shaft and shaft seal materials have been investigated to determine the most appropriate course to limit these effects. Teflon and nylon shaft seals were analyzed as potential candidates along with a stainless steel shaft and a Melonite coated shaft. The materials and shafts were evaluated under various time durations (15, 30, 45, and 60 min), motor speeds (800, 1,000, 1,200, and 1,400 rpm), and outer diameters (1/2 and 3/4 inches). The motor speed and geometrical configurations were typical for the MDCP under normal physiologic conditions. An air and water study was conducted to analyze the inner diameter wear, the inner temperature values, and the outer temperature values. Statistical comparisons were computed for the shaft seal materials, the shafts, and the outer diameters along with the inner and outer temperatures. The conclusions made from the results indicate that both the tested shaft seal materials and shaft materials are not ideal candidates to be used for the MDCP. Teflon experienced a significant amount of wear in air and water studies. Nylon did experience little wear, but heat generation was an evident problem. A water study on nylon was not conducted because of its molecular structure. PMID:10392284

  3. Repair of the Czar Shaft sinkhole

    SciTech Connect

    Deatherage, J.D.; Starkey, J.; Gustavson, N.

    1996-12-31

    After a Portion of the Queen Mine parking lot collapsed into a sinkhole, an engineering study was conducted to confirm that the cause of the damage was settlement into the Czar Shaft in Bisbee, Arizona. Historical records were researched to describe and locate the original shaft, and a seismic refraction survey was performed to define the foundation conditions within and around the shaft. Recommended mitigation measures were developed to repair the parking lot. Mitigation included design and construction of a flexible geosynthetic cap and telltale settlement monitoring system.

  4. Bone scintigraphy in slipped capital femoral epiphysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gelfand, M.J.; Strife, J.L.; Graham, E.J.; Crawford, A.H.

    1983-12-01

    Tc-/sub 99m/ diphosphonate bone scans were performed on 11 children with slipped capital femoral epiphysis. On pinhole hip images, seven hips in seven patients had increased radionuclide uptake in the physis and adjacent proximal femoral metaphysis where the slip had occurred. Three hips in three patients had decreased radionuclide uptake in the femoral head on the side of the slipped epiphysis, indicating compromise of the femoral head blood supply. Three or more months following internal fixation, three children had scintigraphy that showed loss of the usual focal uptake in the physis and adjacent proximal femoral metaphysis. Bone scintigraphy in pediatric patients with slipped capital femoral epiphysis is valuable in defining the metabolic status of the femoral head. Absence of radiopharmaceutical uptake in the affected femoral head indicates that the femoral head is at risk for development of radiographic changes associated with aseptic necrosis.

  5. Reliability assessment of underground shaft closure

    SciTech Connect

    Fossum, A.F.

    1994-12-31

    The intent of the WIPP, being constructed in the bedded geologic salt deposits of Southeastern New Mexico, is to provide the technological basis for the safe disposal of radioactive Transuranic (TRU) wastes generated by the defense programs of the United States. In determining this technological basis, advanced reliability and structural analysis techniques are used to determine the probability of time-to-closure of a hypothetical underground shaft located in an argillaceous salt formation and filled with compacted crushed salt. Before being filled with crushed salt for sealing, the shaft provides access to an underground facility. Reliable closure of the shaft depends upon the sealing of the shaft through creep closure and recompaction of crushed backfill. Appropriate methods are demonstrated to calculate cumulative distribution functions of the closure based on laboratory determined random variable uncertainty in salt creep properties.

  6. Development of variable-shaft-speed alternator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothbart, G.; Fullwood, R.

    1982-02-01

    A variable shaft speed alternator (VSSA) consists of an ordinary unmodified 1-1/2 Hp wound-rotor motor, with polyphase excitation controlled by solid state switching and a hybrid of analog and digital circuitry. This circuitry senses both shaft speed and line phase resulting in logic levels which control the current flow in each rotor coil. A first order polynomial was found using the least-squares regression method which accurately expressed the relationship among shaft speed, excitation power, and output power, VSSA torque was inferred from observations to be proportional to output power. Efficiency for converting mechanical power to electrical was inferred over a range of shaft speeds. A break-even speed below which no net power is produced was observed to be 0.375 of the synchronous speed for all output power levels. Similar behavior was observed with power fed to the power network (grid). Additional measurements involved VSSA performance at various power factors.

  7. Flexible shaft and roof drilling system

    DOEpatents

    Blanz, John H.

    1981-01-01

    A system for drilling holes in the roof of a mine has a flexible shaft with a pair of oppositely wound, coaxial flat bands. One of the flat bands defines an inner spring that is wound right handed into a helical configuration, adjacent convolutions being in nesting relationship to one another. The other flat band defines an outer spring that is wound left handed into a helical configuration about the inner band, adjacent convolutions being nesting relationship with one another. A transition member that is configured to hold a rock bit is mounted to one end of the flexible shaft. When torque and thrust are applied to the flexible shaft by a driver, the inner spring expands outwardly and the outer spring contracts inwardly to form a relatively rigid shaft.

  8. Traumatic Osteochondral Injury of the Femoral Head Treated by Mosaicplasty: A Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Shindle, Michael K.; Buly, Robert L.; Kelly, Bryan T.; Lorich, Dean G.

    2010-01-01

    The increased risk of symptomatic progression towards osteoarthritis after chondral damage has led to the development of multiple treatment options for cartilage repair. These procedures have evolved from arthroscopic lavage and debridement, to marrow stimulation techniques, and more recently, to osteochondral autograft and allograft transplants, and autogenous chondrocyte implantation. The success of mosaicplasty procedures in the knee has led to its application to other surfaces, including the talus, tibial plateau, patella, and humeral capitellum. In this report, we present two cases of a chondral defect to the femoral head after a traumatic hip dislocation, treated with an osteochondral autograft (OATS) from the ipsilateral knee, and the inferior femoral head, respectively, combined with a surgical dislocation of the hip. At greater than 1 year and greater than 5 years of follow-up, MRI studies have demonstrated good autograft incorporation with maintenance of articular surface conformity, and both patients clinically continue to have no pain and full active range of motion of their respective hips. In our opinion, treatment of osteochondral defects in the femoral head surface using a surgical dislocation combined with an OATS procedure is a promising approach, as full exposure of the femoral head can be obtained while preserving its vasculature, thus enabling adequate restoration of the articular cartilage surface. PMID:21886541

  9. Arthroscopically confirmed femoral button deployment.

    PubMed

    Sonnery-Cottet, Bertrand; Rezende, Fernando C; Martins Neto, Ayrton; Fayard, Jean M; Thaunat, Mathieu; Kader, Deiary F

    2014-06-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament TightRope RT (Arthrex, Naples, FL) is a graft suspension device for cruciate ligament reconstruction. It is an adjustable-length graft loop cortical fixation device designed to eliminate the requirement for loop length calculation and to facilitate complete graft fill of short femoral sockets that are common with anatomic anterior cruciate ligament placement. The adjustable loop length means "one size fits all," thus removing the need for multiple implant sizes and allowing graft tensioning even after fixation. However, the device has been associated with the same complications that have been described with EndoButton (Smith & Nephew Endoscopy, Andover, MA) fixation. The button of the TightRope RT may remain in the femoral tunnel rather than flipping outside of the tunnel to rest on the lateral femoral cortex, or it may become jammed inside the femoral canal. Conversely, the button may be pulled too far off the femoral cortex into the overlying soft tissue and flip in the substance of the vastus lateralis. We describe a new and simple arthroscopic technique to directly visualize the deployment and seating of the TightRope button on the lateral cortex of the femur to avoid all the aforementioned complications. PMID:25126492

  10. Percutaneous K-Wire Fixation for Femur Shaft Fractures in Children: A Treatment Concepts for Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, RL

    2013-01-01

    Background: Fractures shaft femur is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with lower extremity injuries. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of intramedullary Kirschner wires for the treatment of femoral shaft fracture in children. Subjects and Methods: This prospective study was conducted in the Department of Orthopaedic surgery in M. M. Medical College from June 2005 to June 2010. Sixty eight children with a mean age of 7.7 years (range, 2-14 years) were recruited from Emergency and out patient department having closed fracture of femoral shaft. All patients were operated under general anesthesia. All patients were followed for twelve months. Results: Out of sixty eight patients, sixty four patients underwent union in 42 to 70 days with a mean of 56 days. Touch down weight bearing was started on 2nd post-operative day. Complications found in four patients who had insignificant delayed union which were united next three weeks. Intramedullary Kirschner-wires were removed after an average of five months without any complications. The results were excellent in 94.1% (64/68) and good in 5.8% (4/68). Conclusion: This technique is simple, quick to perform, safe and reliable and avoids prolonged hospitalization with good results and is economical. PMID:23919189

  11. Integrated controls and health monitoring fiberoptic shaft monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, P.; Darejeh, H.; Collins, J. J.

    1989-01-01

    Recent work was performed on development optical technology to provide real time monitoring of shaft speed, shaft axial displacement, and shaft orbit of the OTVE hydrostatic bearing tester. Results show shaft axial displacement can be optically measured (at the same time as shaft orbital motion and speed) to within 0.3 mills by two fiber optic deflectometers. The final results of this condition monitoring development effort are presented.

  12. Analysis of ipsilateral and bilateral ratios in male amateur golfers

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jae-Yoon; Park, Jae-Wan; Lee, Chan-Bok; Eun, Denny; Jang, Jung-Hoon; Lee, Ho-Jin; Hyun, Gwang-Suk; Park, Jung-Min; Cha, Jun-Youl; Cho, Nam-Heung; Ko, Il-Gyu; Jin, Jun-Jang; Jin, Yong-Yun; Ham, Do-Woong; Jee, Yong-Seok

    2016-01-01

    The number of injuries that force golfers to quit is also increasing. In particular, the upper body injuries are concerns for amateur golfers. This study was conducted not only to investigate muscular balance, such as ipsilateral and bilateral ratios of the upper body, but to also evaluate the possible problems of muscular joints in amateur golfers. Male golfers (n=10) and a healthy control group (n=10) were recruited for the assessment of muscular function in the upper body, which was measured by an isokinetic dynamometer at 60°/sec. The tested parts were trunk, wrist, forearm, elbow, and shoulder joints. Mann–Whitney U-test was used to evaluate the significance of the differences between groups. The ipsilateral ratios of peak torque or work per repetition (WR) of trunk flexor and extensor in the golfers were not significantly different compared to those of the control group. These results were similar to the shoulder horizontal abductor and adductor. However, there were significant differences in the ipsilateral and bilateral ratios of the wrist, forearm, and elbow joints. Especially, the WR of the wrist flexor, forearm pronator, and elbow flexor on the left side of amateur golfers showed imbalances in bilateral ratios. Moreover, the WR of the wrist and elbow flexors on the left side of amateur golfers were lower than those of the wrist and elbow extensors. Therefore, amateur golfers should strive to prevent injuries of the wrist, forearm, and elbow joints and to reinforce the endurance on those parts of the left side. PMID:27162771

  13. Unilateral Eye Blinking Arising From the Ictal Ipsilateral Occipital Area.

    PubMed

    Falsaperla, Raffaele; Perciavalle, Valentina; Pavone, Piero; Praticò, Andrea Domenico; Elia, Maurizio; Ruggieri, Martino; Caraballo, Roberto; Striano, Pasquale

    2016-07-01

    We report on an 18-month-old boy with unilateral left eye blinking as a single ictal manifestation without facial twitching. The clinical onset of this phenomenon was first recorded (as an occasional event) at age 3 months, and it was overlooked. By age 6 months, the child's blinking increased to almost daily occurrence in clusters: during blinking the infant showed intact awareness and occasional jerks in the upper limbs and right leg. A video-electroencephalography (video-EEG) documented clinical correlation with a focal pattern arising from the left occipital region, and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed severe brain damage, consisting in poroencephalic hollows and increased spaces in the convexities involving a large area of the left cerebral hemisphere. The boy was prescribed sodium valproate (30 mg/kg/d), resulting in drastic reduction of his clinical seizures. Follow-up to his current age documented good general status, with persistent partial right hemilateral seizures. The blinking progressively disappeared, and is no longer recorded. The pathogenic hypotheses of the unilateral ictal blinking include involvement of the ipsilateral cerebral hemisphere and/or the cerebellar pathways. Review of previous reports of unilateral eye blinking, arising from the ictal ipsilateral brain, revealed that different damaged regions may give rise to blinking ictal phenomena, likely via the trigeminal fibres innervating the subdural intracranial structures and the pial vessels in the ipsilateral affected brain. The eye blinking in the present child represents a further example of an ictal phenomenon, which is predictive of the damaged brain region. PMID:25179638

  14. Analysis of ipsilateral and bilateral ratios in male amateur golfers.

    PubMed

    Song, Jae-Yoon; Park, Jae-Wan; Lee, Chan-Bok; Eun, Denny; Jang, Jung-Hoon; Lee, Ho-Jin; Hyun, Gwang-Suk; Park, Jung-Min; Cha, Jun-Youl; Cho, Nam-Heung; Ko, Il-Gyu; Jin, Jun-Jang; Jin, Yong-Yun; Ham, Do-Woong; Jee, Yong-Seok

    2016-04-01

    The number of injuries that force golfers to quit is also increasing. In particular, the upper body injuries are concerns for amateur golfers. This study was conducted not only to investigate muscular balance, such as ipsilateral and bilateral ratios of the upper body, but to also evaluate the possible problems of muscular joints in amateur golfers. Male golfers (n=10) and a healthy control group (n=10) were recruited for the assessment of muscular function in the upper body, which was measured by an isokinetic dynamometer at 60°/sec. The tested parts were trunk, wrist, forearm, elbow, and shoulder joints. Mann-Whitney U-test was used to evaluate the significance of the differences between groups. The ipsilateral ratios of peak torque or work per repetition (WR) of trunk flexor and extensor in the golfers were not significantly different compared to those of the control group. These results were similar to the shoulder horizontal abductor and adductor. However, there were significant differences in the ipsilateral and bilateral ratios of the wrist, forearm, and elbow joints. Especially, the WR of the wrist flexor, forearm pronator, and elbow flexor on the left side of amateur golfers showed imbalances in bilateral ratios. Moreover, the WR of the wrist and elbow flexors on the left side of amateur golfers were lower than those of the wrist and elbow extensors. Therefore, amateur golfers should strive to prevent injuries of the wrist, forearm, and elbow joints and to reinforce the endurance on those parts of the left side. PMID:27162771

  15. Clipping of ipsilateral posterior communicating and superior cerebellar artery aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Welch, Babu G

    2015-01-01

    The case is a 55-year-old female who presented with dizziness as the chief complaint. She has a family history of two relatives with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Digital subtraction angiography revealed the presence of a left-sided posterior communicating artery aneurysm and an ipsilateral superior cerebellar artery (SCA) aneurysm. Due to the smaller nature of the SCA, a decision was made to proceed with surgical clipping of both lesions through a pterional approach. A narrated video with illustrations depicts the intraoperative management of these lesions with postoperative angiography results. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/HCHToSsXv-4 . PMID:25554845

  16. Proximal Femoral Morphology and the Relevance to Design of Anatomically Precontoured Plates: A Study of the Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Kang-Ping; Lee, Pei-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Adequately shaped femoral plate is critical for the fixation of fracture in the pertrochanteric regions. Lateral aspect of greater trochanter is an important region where the proximal femoral plate anchored. However, little is known regarding the morphology of greater trochanter. The objective of this study was to measure main dimensions of greater trochanter and other regions in the proximal end of the femur to provide an anatomical basis for the design of the proximal femoral plate. Anthropometric data on the proximal femur were performed utilizing three-dimensional computational modeling. Computed tomography images of healthy femurs in 53 women and 47 men were contributed to three-dimensional femur modeling. All data were compared between male and female femora. The results showed that mean values for male group were found to be greater in most of measured femoral dimensions. Oppositely, females demonstrated higher neck-shaft angle on anteroposterior view and femoral anteversion angle. The anthropometric data can be used for the anatomical shape design of femoral plates for osteosynthesis of fractures in the trochanteric regions. A distinct plate design may be necessary to accommodate differences between the genders. PMID:25530989

  17. Fatigue-related firing of muscle nociceptors reduces voluntary activation of ipsilateral but not contralateral lower limb muscles.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, David S; Fitzpatrick, Siobhan C; Gandevia, Simon C; Taylor, Janet L

    2015-02-15

    During fatiguing upper limb exercise, maintained firing of group III/IV muscle afferents can limit voluntary drive to muscles within the same limb. It is not known if this effect occurs in the lower limb. We investigated the effects of group III/IV muscle afferent firing from fatigued ipsilateral and contralateral extensor muscles and ipsilateral flexor muscles of the knee on voluntary activation of the knee extensors. In three experiments, we examined voluntary activation of the knee extensors by measuring changes in superimposed twitches evoked by femoral nerve stimulation. Subjects attended on 2 days for each experiment. On one day a sphygmomanometer cuff occluded blood flow of the fatigued muscles to maintain firing of group III/IV muscle afferents. After a 2-min extensor contraction (experiment 1; n = 9), mean voluntary activation was lower with than without maintained ischemia (47 ± 19% vs. 87 ± 8%, respectively; P < 0.001). After a 2-min knee flexor maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) (experiment 2; n = 8), mean voluntary activation was also lower with than without ischemia (59 ± 21% vs. 79 ± 9%; P < 0.01). After the contralateral (left) MVC (experiment 3; n = 8), mean voluntary activation of the right leg was similar with or without ischemia (92 ± 6% vs. 93 ± 4%; P = 0.65). After fatiguing exercise, activity in group III/IV muscle afferents reduces voluntary activation of the fatigued muscle and nonfatigued antagonist muscles in the same leg. However, group III/IV muscle afferents from the fatigued left leg had no effect on the unfatigued right leg. This suggests that any "crossover" of central fatigue in the lower limbs is not mediated by group III/IV muscle afferents. PMID:25525208

  18. Gangliocapsular Bleed with Ipsilateral Internal Carotid Artery Aplasia

    PubMed Central

    Mookan, Senthil Kumar; Sundaram, Senthilnathan; Rajagopalan, Natarajan

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Agenesis requires an extensive work-up as a number of associated other vascular and nonvascular anomalies can be expected. In this scenario, an associated ipsilateral basal ganglia bleeding with subarachnoid haemorrhage with no aetiology is uncommon. We present such a case of moderate ipsilateral ganglio-capsular bleed of unknown cause with associate aortic arch vessel anomaly. Case Report A 45-year-old diabetic man of Indian origin with complaints of a sudden onset of giddiness, left-sided weakness and slurring of speech. Motor system examination revealed power of grade 2. Computed tomography scan revealed a moderate bleeding in the basal ganglia and the right temporo-parietal lobe. Angiography revealed unilateral aplasia of the internal carotid artery. Patient improved symptomatically with a motor system power of grade 4 after hematoma evacuation and treatment with antibiotics, anti-edema measures and neuroprotective drugs. Conclusions Developmental anomalies of the carotid and aortic arch with intracranial bleeding is a rare occurrence and any arterial anomaly requires extensive evaluation. PMID:26379809

  19. CENTRIFUGAL PUMP AND SHAFT SEALING MEANS

    DOEpatents

    Rushing, F.C.

    1960-09-01

    A description is given of sealing means between a hollow rotatable shaft and a stationary member surrounding the shaft which defines therewith a sealing space of annular cross-section, comprising a plurality of axially spaced rings held against seats by ring springs which serve to subdivide the sealing space- into a plurality of zones. Process gas introduced into the hollow shaft through a port communicating with a centrally located zone which iu turn communicates with a bore in the sleeve, is removed from the shaft through a second port communicating with an adjacent central zone and discharged through a second bore. A sealant gas is supplied to an end zone under a pressure sufficient to cause it to flow axially into adjacent zones and then maintained at a lower pressure than either the sealant gas source or the process gas inlet zone, preventing the sealant gas from entering the shaft and allowing gases leaking into the sealant gas to be withdrawn and led to a separator.

  20. High Pressure Rotary Shaft Sealing Mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Dietle, Lannie; Gobeli, Jeffrey D.

    2001-05-08

    A laterally translatable pressure staged rotary shaft sealing mechanism having a seal housing with a shaft passage therein being exposed to a fluid pressure P1 and with a rotary shaft being located within the shaft passage. At least one annular laterally translatable seal carrier is provided. First and second annular resilient sealing elements are supported in axially spaced relation by the annular seal carriers and have sealing relation with the rotary shaft. The seal housing and at least one seal carrier define a first pressure staging chamber exposed to the first annular resilient sealing element and a second pressure staging chamber located between and exposed to the first and second annular resilient sealing elements. A first fluid is circulated to the first pressure chamber at a pressure P1, and a second staging pressure fluid is circulated to the second pressure chamber at a fraction of pressure P1 to achieve pressure staging, cooling of the seals. Seal placement provides hydraulic force balancing of the annular seal carriers.

  1. Tibial hemimelia and femoral bifurcation.

    PubMed

    Ugras, Ali Akin; Sungur, Ibrahim; Akyildiz, Mustafa Fehmi; Ercin, Ersin

    2010-02-01

    Femoral bifurcation and tibial agenesis are rare anomalies and have been described in both the Gollop-Wolfgang complex and tibial agenesis-ectrodactyly syndrome. This article presents a case of Gollop-Wolfgang complex without hand ectrodactyly. Tibial agenesis-ectrodactyly syndrome and Gollop-Wolfgang complex are variants of tibial field defect, which includes distal femoral duplication, tibial aplasia, oligo-ectrodactylous toe defects, and preaxial polydactyly, occasionally associated with hand ectrodactyly.This article describes the case of a patient with bilateral tibial hemimelia and left femoral bifurcation. The proximal tibial anlage had not been identified in the patient's left leg. After failed fibular transfer procedure, the knee was disarticulated. The other leg was treated with tibiofibular synostosis and centralization of fibula to os calcis. At 7-year follow-up, the patient ambulates with an above-knee prosthesis and uses an orthopedic boot for ankle stability.In patients with a congenital absence of the tibia, accurate diagnosis is of the utmost importance in planning future treatment. In the absence of proximal tibial anlage, especially in patients with femoral bifurcation, the knee should be disarticulated. Tibiofibular synostosis is a good choice in the presence of a proximal tibial anlage and good quadriceps function. PMID:20192156

  2. Femoral head cartilage disarticulation disorder

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Femoral head cartilage disarticulation disorder and necrosis is a major skeletal problem in broiler breeders since they are maintained for a long time in the farm. The etiology of this disease is not well understood. A field study was conducted to understand the basis of this metabolic disease. Six ...

  3. [Research progress in strategy of lateral femoral offset reconstruction in total hip arthroplasty].

    PubMed

    Fan, Qiu-ping; Wang, Bo; Ji, Wei-ping

    2016-02-01

    As an important indicator of total hip arthroplasty (THA) the rate and degree of offset reconstruction play an important role in improving the prognosis and life quality of patients. The reconstruction of femoral offset is closely related to reserved length of calcar femorale, the head and neck length of prosthesis, angle degree of neck shaft and whether lower limb is isometric. Reconstruction strategy includes making a meticulous and standard measurement before the surgery, predicting the reserved length of calcar femorale, selecting a prosthesis with approximate anatomical neck-shaft angle and reconstructing offset by adjusting the head and neck length of the prosthetic during the operation. The aim of this article was to introduce the research progress and influence of offset on hip function, prosthetic wear and postoperative complications such as pain, limp and unequal leg length, and to discuss the reconstruction strategy. PMID:27141794

  4. Clinical evaluation of a true percutaneous technique for antegrade femoral nailing.

    PubMed

    Ziran, Bruce H; Smith, Wade R; Zlotolow, D A; Manion, C; Grosskreuz, R; Agudelo, Juan F; Morgan, Steven J

    2005-10-01

    From July 1997 to March 2001, 209 consecutive patients with 215 femoral shaft fractures amenable to antegrade femoral nailing were enrolled. A true percutaneous insertion technique was performed using a stab wound incision. One hundred ninety-seven (92%) fractures achieved primary union with anatomic or near anatomic alignment. Eighteen (8%) healing problems and two deep infections (1%) responded to repeat interventions. There was one iatrogenic complication related to an anterior starting point. External blood loss was minimal (generally <100 cc). Incisions averaged 16 mm and healed uneventfully. At one-year follow-up only 10% of patients had hip abductor pain. The percutaneous technique appears to be a safe and effective alternative to the standard technique. Hip pain at one year appears decreased compared to reports using a traditional approach. PMID:16237882

  5. Effect of growth plate geometry and growth direction on prediction of proximal femoral morphology.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Priti; Shefelbine, Sandra J; Gutierrez-Farewik, Elena M

    2016-06-14

    Mechanical stimuli play a significant role in the process of endochondral growth. Thus far, approaches to understand the endochondral mechanical growth rate have been limited to the use of approximated location and geometry of the growth plate. Furthermore, growth has been simulated based on the average deflection of the growth plate or of the femoral neck. It has also been reported in the literature that the growth plate lies parallel to one of the principal stresses acting on it, to reduce the shear between epiphysis and diaphysis. Hence the current study objectives were (1) to evaluate the significance of a subject-specific finite element model of the femur and growth plate compared to a simplified growth plate model and (2) to explore the different growth direction models to better understand proximal femoral growth mechanisms. A subject-specific finite element model of an able-bodied 7-year old child was developed. The muscle forces and hip contact force were computed for one gait cycle and applied to a finite element model to determine the specific growth rate. Proximal femoral growth was simulated for two different growth direction models: femoral neck deflection direction and principal stress direction. The principal stress direction model captured the expected tendency for decreasing the neck shaft angle and femoral anteversion for both growth plate models. The results of this study suggest that the subject-specific geometry and consideration of the principal stress direction as growth direction may be a more realistic approach for correct prediction of proximal femoral growth morphology. PMID:27063249

  6. Coupled shaft-torsion and blade-bending vibrations of a rotating shaft-disk-blade unit

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, S.C.; Ho, K.B.

    1996-01-01

    A new approach to analyzing the dynamic coupling between shaft torsion and blade bending of a rotating shaft-disk-blade unit is introduced. The approach allows the shaft to vibrate freely around its rotation axis instead of assuming a periodic perturbation of the shaft speed that may accommodate the shaft flexibility only to a limited extent. A weighted residual method is applied, and the receptances at the connections of blades and shaft-disk are formulated. Numerical examples are given for cases with between two and six symmetrically arranged blades. The results show not only coupling between the shaft, disk, and blades, but also coupling between individual blades where the shaft acts as a rigid support and experiences no torsional vibration. The blade-coupling modes occurred only in repeated frequencies. Finally, the effect of shaft speed on the modal frequencies was investigated. Plots illustrating the occurrence of critical speeds and flutter instabilities are presented.

  7. Shaft drill bit with overlapping cutter arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, R.A.; Pessier, R.C.

    1981-02-03

    An earth boring drill bit for large diameter shafts has an improved cutter arrangement. The drill bit has a cutter support member with a number of cutters mounted to it for disintegrating the earth formation face. At least one inner cutter is mounted near the center for cutting the center area. A number of gage cutters are mounted at the periphery to cut the gage area of the shaft. A number of intermediate cutters are spaced between the inner and gage cutters. Each intermediate cutter overlaps onehalf of its width with an adjacent intermediate cutter.

  8. Ipsilateral radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, William R; Herman, Michael P; Deraniyagala, Rohan L; Amdur, Robert J; Werning, John W; Dziegielewski, Peter T; Morris, Christopher G; Mendenhall, William M

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to update our institution's experience with ipsilateral radiation therapy (RT) for squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsillar area. Outcome study of 76 patients treated between 1984 and 2012 with ipsilateral RT for squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil. Patients had either cT1 (n = 41, 54 %) or cT2 (n = 35, 46 %) primaries and cN0 (n = 27, 36 %), cN1 (n = 15, 20 %), cN2a (n = 8, 11 %), or cN2b (n = 26, 34 %) nodal disease. Of these, 32 (42 %) patients underwent a planned neck dissection and 21 (28 %) patients received concomitant chemotherapy. Median follow-up for all patients was 7.1 years (range 0.1-27.2) and 7.8 years (range 2.1-27.2 years) for living patients. The 2- and 5-year control and survival rates were as follows: local control, 98.6 and 96.9 %; local-regional control 95.8 and 92.6 %; cause-specific survival 95.9 and 93.1 %; and overall survival, 92.1 and 83.8 %. One patient failed in the contralateral, non-radiated neck 3 years after primary treatment. Univariate analysis revealed that overall survival was significantly influenced by whether the patient had a primary tumor in the anterior tonsillar pillar versus the tonsillar fossa with the latter performing better. The incidence of severe late complications was 16 %. Ipsilateral RT for patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anterior tonsillar pillar or tonsillar fossa with no base of tongue or soft palate extension is an efficacious treatment that provides excellent control rates with a relatively low incidence of late complications. PMID:26223350

  9. Becker nevus syndrome presented with ipsilateral breast hypoplasia.

    PubMed

    Pektas, Suzan Demir; Akoglu, Gulsen; Metin, Ahmet; Adiyaman, Nuran Sungu; Demirseren, Mustafa Erol

    2014-11-01

    Becker nevus syndrome (BNS) is a rare epidermal nevus syndrome characterized with Becker nevus and ipsilateral breast gland hypoplasia or other skin, skeletal and/or muscle tissue disorders. A 24-year-old woman presented with brown, irregular bordered patch with a diameter of approximately 10 cm which consisted of several small macules on the left breast skin. The ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed left breast hypoplasia. Histopathological examination demonstrated minimal acanthosis, papillomatosis, increase in basal layer melanin and hypertrophy of the erector pili muscle. Immunohistochemical staining was positive for androgen in the epidermis, dermal stromal cells and skin appendages. Depending on the clinical and histopathological findings, the patient was diagnosed as BNS. Diagnosis of BNS needs careful examination of pigmented macules and patches since non-hairy BN may be easily overlooked. Patients with BN should be evaluated for associated abnormalities of BNS, in which the severity and extend of ectodermal involvement may differ from patient to other. PMID:25484431

  10. Parathyroid adenoma on the ipsilateral side of thyroid hemiagenesis.

    PubMed

    Kroeker, Teresa R; Stancoven, Kevin M; Preskitt, John T

    2011-04-01

    We present a case of a parathyroid adenoma on the ipsilateral side of thyroid hemiagenesis-which, to our knowledge, is the third reported case of this entity. A 41-year-old man with nephrolithiasis was found to have elevated calcium and intact parathyroid hormone levels. Both ultrasound and technetium sestamibi scintigraphy with single photon emission computed tomography confirmed left thyroid hemiagenesis and an adenoma in the left inferior thyroid bed. The patient underwent left neck exploration, which confirmed left thyroid hemiagenesis and a left inferior parathyroid adenoma. The left inferior parathyroid gland was resected. The patient was discharged home the same day of surgery and has remained normocalcemic for 14 months without evidence of hyperparathyroidism. PMID:21566751

  11. A Rare Combination of Ipsilateral Partial Talocalcaneal and Talonavicular Coalition

    PubMed Central

    James, Boblee

    2015-01-01

    Tarsal coalitions refer to fibrous, cartilaginous or osseous fusion between two tarsal bones. Commonly seen are talocalcaneal coalitions and calcaneonavicular coalitions. Talonavicular, calcaneocuboid and cubonavicular coalition are very uncommonly seen. Talocalcaneal and calcaneonavicular coalitions are generally symptomatic whereas talonavicular coalitions are asymptomatic. Special view radiography, CT and MRI will be helpful in diagnosing coalitions depending on nature of coalitions. In this case report, we present 24-year-old male patient with rare combination of talocalcaneal and talonavicular coalition on ipsilateral side. Patient also showed talar beak sign and arthritic changes at subtalar joint. Considering first time presentation to hospital and milder symptoms, we treated patient conservatively with short leg cast and foot orthoses. With course of treatment, symptoms were relieved significantly. PMID:26816958

  12. 30 CFR 57.4760 - Shaft mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for a ventilation door in conformance with 30 CFR 57.8531. Within 50 feet but no closer than 20 feet... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Shaft mines. 57.4760 Section 57.4760 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY...

  13. 30 CFR 57.4760 - Shaft mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for a ventilation door in conformance with 30 CFR 57.8531. Within 50 feet but no closer than 20 feet... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Shaft mines. 57.4760 Section 57.4760 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY...

  14. 30 CFR 57.4760 - Shaft mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for a ventilation door in conformance with 30 CFR 57.8531. Within 50 feet but no closer than 20 feet... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Shaft mines. 57.4760 Section 57.4760 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY...

  15. 30 CFR 57.4760 - Shaft mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for a ventilation door in conformance with 30 CFR 57.8531. Within 50 feet but no closer than 20 feet... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Shaft mines. 57.4760 Section 57.4760 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY...

  16. 30 CFR 57.4760 - Shaft mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for a ventilation door in conformance with 30 CFR 57.8531. Within 50 feet but no closer than 20 feet... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shaft mines. 57.4760 Section 57.4760 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY...

  17. 108. BASEMENT, DRIVE SHAFT BENEATH ORIGINAL SHOP OF 1883. BELT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    108. BASEMENT, DRIVE SHAFT BENEATH ORIGINAL SHOP OF 1883. BELT AT RIGHT CONNECTS TO MAIN DRIVE SHAFT. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  18. 161. BLACKSMITH SHOP, OVERHEAD SHAFT. BELT ON LEFT CONNECTS TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    161. BLACKSMITH SHOP, OVERHEAD SHAFT. BELT ON LEFT CONNECTS TO SHAFTS WHICH RUN POWER PRESS AND HYDRAULIC TIRE SETTER. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  19. 107. BASEMENT, DRIVE SHAFT THAT RUNS JOINTER IN BENCH SHOP. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    107. BASEMENT, DRIVE SHAFT THAT RUNS JOINTER IN BENCH SHOP. BELT ON RIGHT CONNECTS TO MAIN DRIVE SHAFT. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  20. 6. VIEW OF DRIFT SHAFT, HOIST MOTOR, WORM WHEEL GEAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF DRIFT SHAFT, HOIST MOTOR, WORM WHEEL GEAR ASSEMBLY, CROSS SHAFT, AND INTERMEDIATE GEAR HOIST ASSEMBLY FOR CONTROL GATE NO. 6, LOOKING WEST - Long Lake Hydroelectric Plant, Spillway Dam, Spanning Spokane River, Ford, Stevens County, WA

  1. 8. IRON MOUNTAIN SHAFT ROOM TO UNIT #5 SHOWING TYPICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. IRON MOUNTAIN SHAFT ROOM TO UNIT #5 SHOWING TYPICAL ARRANGEMENT OF SHAFT AND PUMP IN COLORADO RIVER AQUEDUCT PUMPHOUSES. - Iron Mountain Pump Plant, South of Danby Lake, north of Routes 62 & 177 junction, Rice, San Bernardino County, CA

  2. Factors that affect the fatigue strength of power transmission shafting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, S. H.

    1984-01-01

    A long standing objective in the design of power transmission shafting is to eliminate excess shaft material without compromising operational reliability. A shaft design method is presented which accounts for variable amplitude loading histories and their influence on limited life designs. The effects of combined bending and torsional loading are considered along with a number of application factors known to influence the fatigue strength of shafting materials. Among the factors examined are surface condition, size, stress concentration, residual stress and corrosion fatigue.

  3. Arthroplasty in Femoral Head Osteonecrosis

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Dong Cheol; Jung, Kwangyoung

    2014-01-01

    Osteonecrosis of the femoral head is a destructive joint disease requiring early hip arthroplasty. The polyethylene-metal design using a 22-mm femoral head component, introduced by Charnley in 1950, has been widely used for over half a century. Since then, different materials with the capacity to minimize friction between bearing surfaces and various cement or cementless insert fixations have been developed. Although the outcome of second and third generation designs using better bearing materials and technologies has been favorable, less favorable results are seen with total hip arthroplasty in young patients with osteonecrosis. Selection of appropriate materials for hip arthroplasty is important for any potential revisions that might become inevitable due to the limited durability of a prosthetic hip joint. Alternative hip arthroplasties, which include hemiresurfacing arthroplasty and bipolar hemiarthroplasty, have not been found to have acceptable outcomes. Metal-on-metal resurfacing has recently been suggested as a feasible option for young patients with extra physical demands; however, concerns about complications such as hypersensitivity reaction or pseudotumor formation on metal bearings have emerged. To ensure successful long-term outcomes in hip arthroplasty, factors such as insert stabilization and surfaces with less friction are essential. Understanding these aspects in arthroplasty is important to selection of proper materials and to making appropriate decisions for patients with osteonecrosis of the femoral head. PMID:27536561

  4. 46 CFR 171.100 - Shaft tunnels and stern tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shaft tunnels and stern tubes. 171.100 Section 171.100... PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Additional Subdivision Requirements § 171.100 Shaft tunnels and... and the machinery space must be located in a watertight shaft tunnel. The vessel must be designed...

  5. 46 CFR 171.100 - Shaft tunnels and stern tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Shaft tunnels and stern tubes. 171.100 Section 171.100... PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Additional Subdivision Requirements § 171.100 Shaft tunnels and... and the machinery space must be located in a watertight shaft tunnel. The vessel must be designed...

  6. Influence of Rocket Engine Characteristics on Shaft Sealing Technology Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keba, John E.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs of The Influence of Rocket Engine Characteristics on Shaft Sealing Technology Needs. The topics include: 1) Rocket Turbomachinery Shaft Seals (Inter-Propellant-Seal (IPS) Systems, Lift-off Seal Systems, and Technology Development Needs); 2) Rocket Engine Characteristics (Engine cycles, propellants, missions, etc., Influence on shaft sealing requirements); and 3) Conclusions.

  7. Bilateral Femoral Neck Fractures in A Young Patient Suffering from Hypophosphatasia, Due to A First Time Epileptic Seizure

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, N; Bache, E; Clare, T

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: We report a case of an adolescent sustaining bilateral femoral neck fractures due to a first time epileptic seizure, as a result of expansion of his known syrinx. Case Report: A 19-year-old patient suffering from hypophosphatasia (HPP), Arnold-Chiari malformation, and a ventriculoperitoneal shunt sustained a trivial fall with profound pain and an inability to mobilize. Radiographs demonstrated a right-sided Garden-4 femoral neck and left-sided multi-fragmentary intracapsular/extracapsular fractures. The patient had previously suffered bilateral proximal femoral shaft fractures, treated with intramedullary unlocked nail fixation that was still in situ. Operative treatment with an exchange to Synthes Adolescent Lateral Recon nail was performed on the right with two Recon screws inserted into the femoral head. On the left, the existing Pedinail was preserved with an additional single screw inserted into the femoral head. In addition, 3 months of non-mobilization was required for adequate bone healing. After 1-year from time of injury, there is no avascular necrosis on radiographs and the patient is mobilizing pain-free. Conclusion: Patients with hypophosphatasia have delayed bone healing. We recommend surgical fixation with an intramedullary device and periods of non-mobilization until there is radiographical evidence of adequate bone healing. PMID:27299074

  8. Conservative femoral stem revision: avoiding therapeutic escalation.

    PubMed

    Pinaroli, Alban; Lavoie, Frédéric; Cartillier, Jean-Claude; Neyret, Philippe; Selmi, Tarik Ait Si

    2009-04-01

    A conservative approach to femoral revision is assessed. We report on 41 femoral revisions using an extensively coated hydroxyapatite primary femoral stem. Clinical, operative, and radiological data were gathered. Harris hip scores increased from 65/100 to 90/100 at the minimal follow-up of 1 year (P < .05). All stems showed signs of osseous integration. No significant migration was measured. No patient had to be reoperated because of problems related to the stem. Good results are reported for femoral revision with Paprosky type I and II bone defects with no significant difference between the 2 subgroups, hereby proving that conservative femoral revision is a reasonable treatment alternative. Reproducible results with such a technique may bring surgeons to be more aggressive when noticing early signs of femoral loosening. PMID:18534426

  9. Ten-m3 Is Required for the Development of Topography in the Ipsilateral Retinocollicular Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Dharmaratne, Nuwan; Glendining, Kelly A.; Young, Timothy R.; Tran, Heidi; Sawatari, Atomu; Leamey, Catherine A.

    2012-01-01

    Background The alignment of ipsilaterally and contralaterally projecting retinal axons that view the same part of visual space is fundamental to binocular vision. While much progress has been made regarding the mechanisms which regulate contralateral topography, very little is known of the mechanisms which regulate the mapping of ipsilateral axons such that they align with their contralateral counterparts. Results Using the advantageous model provided by the mouse retinocollicular pathway, we have performed anterograde tracing experiments which demonstrate that ipsilateral retinal axons begin to form terminal zones (TZs) in the superior colliculus (SC), within the first few postnatal days. These appear mature by postnatal day 11. Importantly, TZs formed by ipsilaterally-projecting retinal axons are spatially offset from those of contralaterally-projecting axons arising from the same retinotopic location from the outset. This pattern is consistent with that required for adult visuotopy. We further demonstrate that a member of the Ten-m/Odz/Teneurin family of homophilic transmembrane glycoproteins, Ten-m3, is an essential regulator of ipsilateral retinocollicular topography. Ten-m3 mRNA is expressed in a high-medial to low-lateral gradient in the developing SC. This corresponds topographically with its high-ventral to low-dorsal retinal gradient. In Ten-m3 knockout mice, contralateral ventrotemporal axons appropriately target rostromedial SC, whereas ipsilateral axons exhibit dramatic targeting errors along both the mediolateral and rostrocaudal axes of the SC, with a caudal shift of the primary TZ, as well as the formation of secondary, caudolaterally displaced TZs. In addition to these dramatic ipsilateral-specific mapping errors, both contralateral and ipsilateral retinocollicular TZs exhibit more subtle changes in morphology. Conclusions We conclude that important aspects of adult visuotopy are established via the differential sensitivity of ipsilateral and

  10. Tachometer Derived From Brushless Shaft-Angle Resolver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, David E.; Smith, Dennis A.

    1995-01-01

    Tachometer circuit operates in conjunction with brushless shaft-angle resolver. By performing sequence of straightforward mathematical operations on resolver signals and utilizing simple trigonometric identity, generates voltage proportional to rate of rotation of shaft. One advantage is use of brushless shaft-angle resolver as main source of rate signal: no brushes to wear out, no brush noise, and brushless resolvers have proven robustness. No switching of signals to generate noise. Another advantage, shaft-angle resolver used as shaft-angle sensor, tachometer input obtained without adding another sensor. Present circuit reduces overall size, weight, and cost of tachometer.

  11. Fiber-Optic Sensor Would Detect Movements Of Shaft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roschak, Edmund J.

    1989-01-01

    Fiber-optic sensor senses both rotational speed and axial displacement of shaft in motor, pump, or other rotating machine. Does not require magnetic materials, notches, or grooves in shaft. Required modification of shaft is etching or plating surface to make ring black around half circumference and reflective around other half along short length at one end or some other convenient location. Triangular bundle of sending and receiving optical fibers aimed at black/reflective ring on shaft. Frequency and amplitude of output pulses of fiber-optic probe indicates rotational frequency and axial position of shaft.

  12. Study of femoral torsion during prenatal growth: interpretations associated with the effects of intrauterine pressure.

    PubMed

    Bonneau, Noémie; Simonis, Caroline; Seringe, Raphaël; Tardieu, Christine

    2011-07-01

    The developing fetus is protected from external environmental influences by maternal tissues. However, these structures have a limited elasticity, such that the fetus must grow in a confined space, constraining its size at the end of pregnancy. Can these constraints modify the morphology of the fetal skeleton? The intensity of these constraints increases between 5 months and birth, making it the most appropriate period to address this question. A sample of 89 fetal femora was analyzed, and results provide evidence that during this period, the torsion of the femoral shaft (quantified by means of a new three-dimensional method) increases gradually. Two explanations were considered: this increase could signal effects of constraints induced by the intrauterine cavity, developmental patterning, or some combination of these two. Different arguments tend to support the biomechanical explanation, rather than a programming pattern formation. Indeed, the identification of the femur as a first degree lever, created by the hyperflexion of the fetal lower limbs on the pelvis, could explain the increase in femoral shaft torsion during prenatal life. A comparison with femora of infants is in accordance with this mechanical interpretation, which is possible through bone modeling/remodeling. Although genetic and epigenetic mechanisms may regulate timing of fetal development, our data suggest that at birth, the fetal skeleton also has an intrauterine mechanical history through adaptive bone plasticity. PMID:21541926

  13. Bilateral simultaneous femoral diaphyseal fractures in a patient with long-term ibandronate use.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vishal C; Lazzarini, Adam M

    2010-10-01

    Bisphosphonates are the most common medication used to treat patients with documented osteoporosis. Recently, reports have associated long-term bisphosphonate use with low-energy femur fractures. While no definitive mechanism has been associated, bisphosphonate use has been strongly implicated. This article presents the case of a 65-year-old woman with a 2-year history of ibandronate use presenting with simultaneous low-energy femoral shaft fractures. The patient reported prodromal bilateral thigh pain and was seen by a spine surgeon. A review of the literature implicates long-term ibandronate use in low-energy femur fractures. With most of the basic science studies demonstrating suppressed bone turnover after 5 years of treatment with alendronate, the significance of the present case also lies in the relatively short duration of time the patient was on ibandronate before suffering the bilateral femoral shaft fractures. Possible pathophysiology for the fractures includes suppressed bone turnover that may allow microcracks to propagate in cortical bone, which can weaken the bone and possibly predispose it to fractures. Patients who have been on bisphosphonates long term should be questioned about thigh pain and have radiographs of their femurs obtained if pain exists. Furthermore, if a patient presents with a single subtrochanteric or diaphyseal low-energy femur fracture after long-term bisphosphonate use, a radiograph of the contralateral femur should be obtained to assess for a cortical stress reaction. PMID:20954650

  14. An applicational process for dynamic balancing of turbomachinery shafting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verhoff, Vincent G.

    1990-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has developed and implemented a time-efficient methodology for dynamically balancing turbomachinery shafting. This methodology minimizes costly facility downtime by using a balancing arbor (mandrel) that simulates the turbomachinery (rig) shafting. The need for precision dynamic balancing of turbomachinery shafting and for a dynamic balancing methodology is discussed in detail. Additionally, the inherent problems (and their causes and effects) associated with unbalanced turbomachinery shafting as a function of increasing shaft rotational speeds are discussed. Included are the design criteria concerning rotor weight differentials for rotors made of different materials that have similar parameters and shafting. The balancing methodology for applications where rotor replaceability is a requirement is also covered. This report is intended for use as a reference when designing, fabricating, and troubleshooting turbomachinery shafting.

  15. Lunar vertical-shaft mining system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Introne, Steven D. (Editor); Krause, Roy; Williams, Erik; Baskette, Keith; Martich, Frederick; Weaver, Brad; Meve, Jeff; Alexander, Kyle; Dailey, Ron; White, Matt

    1994-01-01

    This report proposes a method that will allow lunar vertical-shaft mining. Lunar mining allows the exploitation of mineral resources imbedded within the surface. The proposed lunar vertical-shaft mining system is comprised of five subsystems: structure, materials handling, drilling, mining, and planning. The structure provides support for the exploration and mining equipment in the lunar environment. The materials handling subsystem moves mined material outside the structure and mining and drilling equipment inside the structure. The drilling process bores into the surface for the purpose of collecting soil samples, inserting transducer probes, or locating ore deposits. Once the ore deposits are discovered and pinpointed, mining operations bring the ore to the surface. The final subsystem is planning, which involves the construction of the mining structure.

  16. Hair shaft videodermoscopy in netherton syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rakowska, Adriana; Kowalska-Oledzka, Elzbieta; Slowinska, Monika; Rosinska, Danuta; Rudnicka, Lidia

    2009-01-01

    Netherton syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder, characterized by ichthyosis, atopic manifestations, and hair shaft abnormalities (trichorrhexis invaginata). The diagnosis of Netherton syndrome may be established on the basis of just one abnormal hair, but it is often difficult to find a hair with pathognomonic features on light microscopic examination. Every attempt requires pulling new hairs. We present the case of an 11-year-old female patient with Netherton syndrome in whom hair and scalp videodermoscopy (trichoscopy) was used to visualize typical bamboo hairs and hairs with golf tee type endings in the scalp hairs and eyebrows. Trichoscopy is a method, which allows noninvasive viewing of hair shafts in many-fold magnification without the need of pulling hair for diagnostic purposes. This case shows that trichoscopy may be employed to significantly improve the chance of establishing the diagnosis of Netherton syndrome in patients. PMID:19706096

  17. Treatment shaft for combined sewer overflow detention.

    PubMed

    Wright, Steven J; Ghalib, Saad; Eloubaidy, Aziz

    2010-05-01

    A deep, large-diameter underground shaft to provide detention storage for combined sewer overflow control may be advantageous in urban environments, where space limitations require solutions with a small footprint. An underflow baffle wall is provided at the center of the treatment shaft to prevent short-circuiting of the flow. An additional objective is to maintain low headlosses through the structure. A physical model study was conducted to determine the effect of the bottom elevation of the baffle wall on the headloss and breakthrough curve for dye injected to the inflow. It was found that there is a considerable range of elevations for which the structure behaves acceptably in providing adequate contact time for disinfectant while maintaining small headlosses. PMID:20480764

  18. Isolated Ipsilateral Nipple Recurrence: Important Lessons to Learn

    PubMed Central

    Shahrun Niza, Abdullah Suhami; Rohaizak, Muhammad; Naqiyah, Ibrahim; Srijit, Das; Noraidah, Masir

    2011-01-01

    Most breast cancer recurrences occur in the surgical scars or within other quadrants of the same breast. Isolated tumour recurrence occurring in the nipple after breast-conserving surgery and radiotherapy is extremely unusual. The reason for this is unknown, but is speculated to be due to involved surgical margins or an occult involvement of the nipple–areolar complex in a breast cancer of the same breast. We present a case of a 44-year-old Indian woman who had recurrent tumour over her right nipple after an ipsilateral breast-conserving surgery that was followed by adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy. There was no typical malignancy features from the mammogram. However, histopathological study confirmed a malignant growth that infiltrated into the dermis and the underneath breast tissue. Completion mastectomy was then performed and the patient was later treated with Taxane-based chemotherapy. Nipple recurrence after breast-conserving surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy may be confused with other nipple conditions such as Paget’s disease of the breast. Comprehensive assessments, which include mammogram and biopsy, have proved that such recurrence do occur, as presented in this case. This warrants a specific management strategy. PMID:22135593

  19. Synchronous Ipsilateral Parotid Tumors with Cytologic-Histologic Correlation.

    PubMed

    Gvozdjan, Kristina; Groth, John V; Patel, Tushar N; Guzman, Grace; David, Odile; Cabay, Robert J

    2016-06-01

    Synchronous ipsilateral tumor formation within a major salivary gland is a very rare event. In this case, a 54-year-old female tobacco smoker presented with a slowly enlarging left parotid gland. Computed tomography of the neck demonstrated a solid mass superficial to a cystic mass in the deep lobe of the gland. Ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration yielded oncocytic cells, lymphoid cells, and granular debris along with rare cohesive groups of basaloid cells. Parotidectomy was performed, and the resected gland was found to contain two adjacent but distinct masses. One mass, a predominantly solid, well-circumscribed lesion composed of ribbons of double-layered oncocytic cells and a lymphoid stroma with germinal center formation, was a Warthin tumor. The other mass, a predominantly cystic lesion composed of cords and nests of basaloid cells with associated deposits of basement membrane-like material, was a basal cell adenoma of the membranous type. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of synchronous Warthin tumor and basal cell adenoma of the parotid gland with cytologic-histologic correlation attributable to each tumor. PMID:26440804

  20. Improved location features for linkage of regions across ipsilateral mammograms.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Christine; van Schie, Guido; Lesniak, Jan M; Karssemeijer, Nico; Székely, Gábor

    2013-12-01

    Improved performance has been reported for computer aided detection (CADe) methods using information from multiple mammographic views over single-view CADe approaches. Linkage across the views is based on assuming that location and image features from the same lesion depicted in both views will be similar. In this study we investigate if the location features can be improved and what effect such an improvement has on the linkage of lesions across ipsilateral views. Performance of different methods to define the location features was first assessed with respect to the location of 137 manually annotated and linked masses. Taking the median result from five complementary methods (based on pectoral muscle boundary, breast shape and intensity signature) increased the mean accuracy compared to the current standard (7.1 vs. 6.3 mm). Thereafter the impact of this best method on the automatic linkage of detected regions across views was assessed for a second, independent dataset of 131 mammogram pairs. Linkage was based on the combination of location and single-view image features by a linear discriminate analysis classifier trained to differentiate between links of corresponding true-positive (TP) regions versus links including TP and false-positive (FP) regions. Nested cross-validation results showed that using the improved location features significantly increased the classification performance and the percentage of correctly linked regions. PMID:23731758

  1. Cortical Effects on Ipsilateral Hindlimb Muscles Revealed with Stimulus-Triggered Averaging of EMG Activity.

    PubMed

    Messamore, William G; Van Acker, Gustaf M; Hudson, Heather M; Zhang, Hongyu Y; Kovac, Anthony; Nazzaro, Jules; Cheney, Paul D

    2016-07-01

    While a large body of evidence supports the view that ipsilateral motor cortex may make an important contribution to normal movements and to recovery of function following cortical injury (Chollet et al. 1991; Fisher 1992; Caramia et al. 2000; Feydy et al. 2002), relatively little is known about the properties of output from motor cortex to ipsilateral muscles. Our aim in this study was to characterize the organization of output effects on hindlimb muscles from ipsilateral motor cortex using stimulus-triggered averaging of EMG activity. Stimulus-triggered averages of EMG activity were computed from microstimuli applied at 60-120 μA to sites in both contralateral and ipsilateral M1 of macaque monkeys during the performance of a hindlimb push-pull task. Although the poststimulus effects (PStEs) from ipsilateral M1 were fewer in number and substantially weaker, clear and consistent effects were obtained at an intensity of 120 μA. The mean onset latency of ipsilateral poststimulus facilitation was longer than contralateral effects by an average of 0.7 ms. However, the shortest latency effects in ipsilateral muscles were as short as the shortest latency effects in the corresponding contralateral muscles suggesting a minimal synaptic linkage that is equally direct in both cases. PMID:26088970

  2. Analogous corticocortical inhibition and facilitation in ipsilateral and contralateral human motor cortex representations of the tongue.

    PubMed

    Muellbacher, W; Boroojerdi, B; Ziemann, U; Hallett, M

    2001-11-01

    How the human brain controls activation of the ipsilateral part of midline muscles is unknown. We studied corticospinal and corticocortical network excitability of both ipsilateral and contralateral motor representations of the tongue to determine whether they are under analogous or disparate inhibitory and facilitatory corticocortical control. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) to unilateral focal transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the tongue primary motor cortex were recorded simultaneously from the ipsilateral and contralateral lingual muscles. Single-pulse TMS was used to assess motor threshold (MT) and MEP recruitment. Paired-pulse TMS was used to study intracortical inhibition (ICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF) at various interstimulus intervals (ISIs) between the conditioning stimulus (CS) and the test stimulus (TS), and at different CS and TS intensities, respectively. Focal TMS invariably produced MEPs in both ipsilateral and contralateral lingual muscles. MT was lower and MEP recruitment was steeper when recorded from the contralateral muscle group. ICI and ICF were identical in the ipsilateral and contralateral representations, with inhibition occurring at short ISIs (2 and 3 ms) and facilitation occurring at longer ISIs (10 and 15 ms). Moreover, changing one stimulus parameter regularly produced analogous changes in MEP size bilaterally, revealing strong linear correlations between ipsilateral and contralateral ICI and ICF (P < 0.0001). These findings indicate that the ipsilateral and contralateral representations of the tongue are under analogous inhibitory and facilitatory control, possibly by a common intracortical network. PMID:11779968

  3. Vibration reduction on automotive shafts using piezoceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunze, Holger; Riedel, Mathias; Schmidt, Knut; Bianchini, Emanuele

    2003-08-01

    This paper reports an experimental study on active vibration reduction for automotive shafts with the use of piezoelectric material. The work focuses on an axle of an Audi A2. The demand in the automobile sector for higher comfort in the vehicle is of a great importance alongside the requirements of lighter weight and low fuel consumption. These requirements are typically in conflict with each other. One solution is the use of intelligent materials instead of viscoelastic materials and proof mass absorbers. These solutions are quite heavy especially at low frequencies. Active vibration control and piezoelectric devices are advantageous in this application due to their low mass to performance ratio. Our research study explores the use of such piezoelectric devices for an axle. In conjunction with electronics it will reduce vibrations in the first natural bending mode of the axle. Laboratory tests simulated the condition present in the road. At first a stationary set up was used, then a simulated disturbance was input at the attachment points of the shaft. Finally, a test with rotating shaft was performed. Piezoelectric devices (custom QuickPacks from ACX, a Division of Cymer) were used as sensors and as actuators to properly control the axle during the different operating conditions. The power consumption of each actuator pair was less than 20W. The work described here details the test setup, the control strategy, the hardware implementation as well as the test results obtained.

  4. [Aneurysm of the femoral and popliteal vein].

    PubMed

    Hansen, L G; Boris, P

    1986-04-01

    Aneurysms of the popliteal and femoral veins are rare and may be seen as casual findings with no clinical manifestations whatsoever. On the other hand they may be potential source of recurrent pulmonary embolism. A case is reported, where an aneurysm of the femoral vein was found in a clinically symptomless woman aged 48. PMID:3715020

  5. Unusual presentation of a femoral stress fracture

    PubMed Central

    Ejnisman, Leandro; Wajnsztejn, Andre; Queiroz, Roberto Dantas; Ejnisman, Benno

    2013-01-01

    Stress fractures are common injuries in sports medicine. Among these fractures, femoral neck stress fractures frequently have a benign course, especially when it happens in the medial aspect of the neck. This case report describes a stress fracture of the medial aspect of the femoral neck that developed a complete fracture and underwent surgical fixation. PMID:23283621

  6. Multi-level femoral morphology and mechanical properties of rats of different ages.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Gong, He; Zhu, Dong; Ma, Renshi; Fang, Juan; Fan, Yobo

    2015-07-01

    A macro-micro-nano-multi-level study was conducted to explore age-related structural and mechanical properties of bone, as well as the effects of aging on bone properties. A total of 70 male Wistar rats were used, ranging in the ages of 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 14, 15, 16, and 17 months (n = 7/age group). After micro-computed tomography (CT) scanning, longitudinal cortical bone specimens with a length of 5mm were cut along the femoral shaft axis from left femur shafts for mechanical testing, and the cross-sectional areas were measured. The macro-mechanical properties obtained in mechanical testing and microarchitecture parameters measured by micro-CT were significantly correlated with the animal age (r(2) = 0.96, p < 0.001). Scanning electron microscopy was used for detecting the microarchitecture features of the fractured surfaces, which exhibited age-related plate-fibrous-mixed fibrous-plate texture, resulting in changes in macro-mechanical properties (r(2) > 0.90, p < 0.001). The mineral phase of the left femoral shaft and head was analyzed by atomic force microscopy. Longitudinal and transverse trabecular bone tissues, as well as longitudinal cortical bone tissue, were used for nanoindentation test, and the chemical composition was evaluated by quantitative chemical analyses. The correlations between mineral content and bone material properties (i.e., elastic properties of the bone tissue and size and roughness of bone mineral grains) were highly significant (r > 0.95, p < 0.001). Multi-level femur morphology, mechanical property, and mineral content were significantly correlated with the animal age. The correlations between bone mineral content and bone material morphological and mechanical properties may partly explain the increase in bone fragility with aging, which will provide a theoretical basis for the investigation of age-related bone properties in clinics. PMID:25857690

  7. Shaft-Angle Sensor Based on Tunnel-Diode Oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chui, Talso

    2008-01-01

    A proposed brushless shaft-angle sensor for use in extreme cold would offer significant advantages over prior such sensors: (1) It would be capable of operating in extreme cold; and (2) Its electronic circuitry would be simpler than that of a permanent-magnet/ multiple-Hall-probe shaft-angle sensor that would otherwise ordinarily be used to obtain comparable angular resolution. The principle of operation of the proposed shaft-angle sensor requires that the shaft (or at least the portion of the shaft at the sensor location) be electrically insulating. The affected portion of the shaft would be coated with metal around half of its circumference. Two half-circular-cylinder electrodes having a radius slightly larger than that of the shaft would be mounted on the stator, concentric with the shaft, so that there would be a small radial gap between them and the outer surface of the shaft. Hence, there would be a capacitance between each stationary electrode and the metal coat on the shaft.

  8. Treatment of neglected femoral neck fracture

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Anil K; Mukunth, R; Srivastava, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Intra-capsular femoral neck fractures are seen commonly in elderly people following a low energy trauma. Femoral neck fracture has a devastating effect on the blood supply of the femoral head, which is directly proportional to the severity of trauma and displacement of the fracture. Various authors have described a wide array of options for treatment of neglected/nonunion (NU) femoral neck fracture. There is lack of consensus in general, regarding the best option. This Instructional course article is an analysis of available treatment options used for neglected femoral neck fracture in the literature and attempt to suggest treatment guides for neglected femoral neck fracture. We conducted the “Pubmed” search with the keywords “NU femoral neck fracture and/or neglected femoral neck fracture, muscle-pedicle bone graft in femoral neck fracture, fibular graft in femoral neck fracture and valgus osteotomy in femoral neck fracture.” A total of 203 print articles were obtained as the search result. Thirty three articles were included in the analysis and were categorized into four subgroups based on treatment options. (a) treated by muscle-pedicle bone grafting (MPBG), (b) closed/open reduction internal fixation and fibular grafting (c) open reduction and internal fixation with valgus osteotomy, (d) miscellaneous procedures. The data was pooled from all groups for mean neglect, the type of study (prospective or retrospective), classification used, procedure performed, mean followup available, outcome, complications, and reoperation if any. The outcome of neglected femoral neck fracture depends on the duration of neglect, as the changes occurring in the fracture area and fracture fragments decides the need and type of biological stimulus required for fracture union. In stage I and stage II (Sandhu's staging) neglected femoral neck fracture osteosynthesis with open reduction and bone grafting with MPBG or Valgus Osteotomy achieves fracture union in almost 90% cases

  9. Transient ipsilateral retinal ganglion cell projections to the brain: Extent, targeting and disappearance

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Célia A.; Mason, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    During development of the mammalian eye, the first retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) that extend to the brain are located in the dorsocentral retina. These RGCs extend to either ipsilateral or contralateral targets, but the ipsilateral projections do not survive into postnatal periods. The function and means of disappearance of the transient ipsilateral projection are not known. We have followed the course of this transient early ipsilateral cohort of RGCs, paying attention to how far they extend, whether they enter targets and if so, which ones, and the time course of their disappearance. The dorsocentral ipsilateral RGC axons were traced using DiI labeling at E13.5 and 15.5 to compare the proportion of ipsi-versus contralateral projections during the first period of growth. In utero electroporation of E12.5 retina with GFP constructs was used to label axons that could be visualized at succeeding time points into postnatal ages. Our results show that the earliest ipsilateral axons grow along the cellular border of the brain, and are segregated from the laterally-postioned contralateral axons from the same retinal origin. In agreement with previous reports, although many early RGCs extend ipsilaterally, after E16 their number rapidly declines. Nonetheless, some ipsilateral axons from the dorsocentral retina enter the superior colliculus (SC) and arborize minimally, but very few enter the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) and those that do extend only short branches. While the mechanism of selective axonal disappearance remains elusive, these data give further insight into establishment of the visual pathways. PMID:25788284

  10. Twin-capacitive shaft angle encoder with analog output signal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hruby, R. J.; Wilson, R. L. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A precision capacitive shaft encoder providing a dc signal corresponding to the angular position of a shaft is described. Two variable capacitances are coupled in tandem by a rotatable shaft. Each capacitor has a capacitance that varies linearly with a change in the angular position of the shaft. The sum of the two capacitances is always constant for any angular position of the shaft. Each capacitance is alternately coupled to a reference dc voltage and a discharge circuit. The capacitances are electrically coupled in series and the charge periodically acquired at the junction of the capacitance is a function of the position of the shaft. An error-compensating voltage is imposed on the junction when the capacitances are coupled to the reference voltages. The junction is coupled to sample-and-hold apparatus provided with a error-correcting circuit.

  11. The representation of the ipsilateral visual field in human cerebral cortex

    PubMed Central

    Tootell, Roger B. H.; Mendola, Janine D.; Hadjikhani, Nouchine K.; Liu, Arthur K.; Dale, Anders M.

    1998-01-01

    Previous studies of cortical retinotopy focused on influences from the contralateral visual field, because ascending inputs to cortex are known to be crossed. Here, functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to demonstrate and analyze an ipsilateral representation in human visual cortex. Moving stimuli, in a range of ipsilateral visual field locations, revealed activity: (i) along the vertical meridian in retinotopic (presumably lower-tier) areas; and (ii) in two large branches anterior to that, in presumptive higher-tier areas. One branch shares the anterior vertical meridian representation in human V3A, extending superiorly toward parietal cortex. The second branch runs antero-posteriorly along lateral visual cortex, overlying motion-selective area MT. Ipsilateral stimuli sparing the region around the vertical meridian representation also produced signal reductions (perhaps reflecting neural inhibition) in areas showing contralaterally driven retinotopy. Systematic sampling across a range of ipsilateral visual field extents revealed significant increases in ipsilateral activation in V3A and V4v, compared with immediately posterior areas V3 and VP. Finally, comparisons between ipsilateral stimuli of different types but equal retinotopic extent showed clear stimulus specificity, consistent with earlier suggestions of a functional segregation of motion vs. form processing in parietal vs. temporal cortex, respectively. PMID:9448246

  12. Specificity and Sufficiency of EphB1 in Driving the Ipsilateral Retinal Projection

    PubMed Central

    Petros, Timothy J.; Shrestha, Brikha R.; Mason, Carol

    2009-01-01

    At the optic chiasm, retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons make the decision to either avoid or traverse the midline, a maneuver that establishes the binocular pathways. In mice, the ipsilateral retinal projection arises from RGCs in the peripheral ventrotemporal (VT) crescent of the retina. These RGCs express the guidance receptor EphB1, which interacts with ephrin-B2 on radial glia cells at the optic chiasm to repulse VT axons away from the midline and into the ipsilateral optic tract. However, since VT RGCs express more than one EphB receptor, the sufficiency and specificity of the EphB1 receptor in directing the ipsilateral projection is unclear. In this study, we utilize in utero retinal electroporation to demonstrate that ectopic EphB1 expression can redirect RGCs with a normally crossed projection to an ipsilateral trajectory. Moreover, EphB1 is specifically required for rerouting RGC projections ipsilaterally, as introduction of the highly similar EphB2 receptor is much less efficient in redirecting RGC fibers, even when expressed at higher surface levels. Introduction of EphB1-EphB2 chimeric receptors into RGCs reveals that both extracellular and juxtamembrane domains of EphB1 are required to efficiently convert RGC projections ipsilaterally. Taken together, these data describe for the first time functional differences between two highly similar Eph receptors at a decision point in vivo, with EphB1 displaying unique properties that efficiently drives the uncrossed retinal projection. PMID:19295152

  13. Lateral femoral cutaneous neuralgia: an anatomical insight.

    PubMed

    Dias Filho, L C; Valença, M M; Guimarães Filho, F A V; Medeiros, R C; Silva, R A M; Morais, M G V; Valente, F P; França, S M L

    2003-07-01

    A detailed anatomic study was carried out on the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve to better understand the etiology and treatment of lateral femoral cutaneous neuralgia. As it passed from the pelvis into the thigh, the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve ran through an "aponeuroticofascial tunnel," beginning at the iliopubic tract and ending at the inguinal ligament; as it passed through the tunnel, an enlargement in its side-to-side diameter was observed, suggesting that the fascial structures proximal to the inguinal ligament may be implicated in the genesis of lateral femoral cutaneous neuralgia. The finding of pseudoneuromas at this location, distant from the inguinal ligament, supports this hypothesis. The anterior superior iliac spine is located approximately 0.7 cm from the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve and serves as the bony landmark for nerve localization. Within the first 3 cm of leaving the pelvis, the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve was observed deep to the fascia lata; therefore, surgical dissection within the subcutaneous fascia may be conducted with relative impunity near the anterior superior iliac spine just inferior to the inguinal ligament. In 36% of cases there was no posterior branch of the nerve, which is correlated to lateral femoral cutaneous neuralgia symptoms often being limited to the anterior branch region. An accessory nerve was found in 30% of cases. PMID:12794914

  14. 10. Photocopied August 1978. CLOSEUP VIEW OF TURBINE SHAFT PENETRATING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photocopied August 1978. CLOSE-UP VIEW OF TURBINE SHAFT PENETRATING THE STEEL PLATE BULKHEAD THROUGH A STUFFING BOX AND AND ALSO SHOWING THE CONTROL GATE SHAFT. THIS PARTICULAR UNIT WAS INSTALLED IN 1916. THE ADMISSION OF WATER TO ALL FOUR RUNNERS IN A PENSTOCK UNIT COULD SIMULTANEOUSLY BE CONTROLLED BY THE CONTROL SHAFT ON THE LEFT. (899) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  15. Proposed design procedure for transmission shafting under fatigue loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, S. H.

    1978-01-01

    A new standard for the design of transmission shafting is reported. Computed was the diameter of rotating solid steel shafts under combined cyclic bending and steady torsion is presented. The formula is based on an elliptical variation of endurance strength with torque exhibited by combined stress fatigue data. Fatigue factors are cited to correct specimen bending endurance strength data for use in the shaft formula. A design example illustrates how the method is to be applied.

  16. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative High-Speed Shaft Calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, J.; McNiff, B.

    2014-09-01

    Instrumentation has been added to the high-speed shaft, pinion, and tapered roller bearing pair of the Gearbox Reliability Collaborative gearbox to measure loads and temperatures. The new shaft bending moment and torque instrumentation was calibrated and the purpose of this document is to describe this calibration process and results, such that the raw shaft bending and torque signals can be converted to the proper engineering units and coordinate system reference for comparison to design loads and simulation model predictions.

  17. Distal femoral fractures: current concepts.

    PubMed

    Gwathmey, F Winston; Jones-Quaidoo, Sean M; Kahler, David; Hurwitz, Shepard; Cui, Quanjun

    2010-10-01

    The diversity of surgical options for the management of distal femoral fractures reflects the challenges inherent in these injuries. These fractures are frequently comminuted and intra-articular, and they often involve osteoporotic bone, which makes it difficult to reduce and hold them while maintaining joint function and overall limb alignment. Surgery has become the standard of care for displaced fractures and for patients who must obtain rapid return of knee function. The goal of surgical management is to promote early knee motion while restoring the articular surface, maintaining limb length and alignment, and preserving the soft-tissue envelope with a durable fixation that allows functional recovery during bone healing. A variety of surgical exposures, techniques, and implants has been developed to meet these objectives, including intramedullary nailing, screw fixation, and periarticular locked plating, possibly augmented with bone fillers. Recognition of the indications and applications of the principles of modern implants and techniques is fundamental in achieving optimal outcomes. PMID:20889949

  18. 23. VIEW SECOND FLOOR, ELEVATOR SHAFT SAFETY NET ACCESS, NORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. VIEW SECOND FLOOR, ELEVATOR SHAFT SAFETY NET ACCESS, NORTHWEST ELEVATOR LOADING DOOR. - Bates Manufacturing Company, Storehouse, Northeast corner of Chestnut Street & Hines Alley, Lewiston, Androscoggin County, ME

  19. 21. VIEW SECOND FLOOR, ELEVATOR SHAFT, TOP ELEVATOR SUPPORT, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. VIEW SECOND FLOOR, ELEVATOR SHAFT, TOP ELEVATOR SUPPORT, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Bates Manufacturing Company, Storehouse, Northeast corner of Chestnut Street & Hines Alley, Lewiston, Androscoggin County, ME

  20. 20. VIEW OF ELEVATOR SHAFT FROM FIRST FLOOR TO SKYLIGHT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. VIEW OF ELEVATOR SHAFT FROM FIRST FLOOR TO SKYLIGHT, LOOKING SKYWARD, NORTH - Bates Manufacturing Company, Storehouse, Northeast corner of Chestnut Street & Hines Alley, Lewiston, Androscoggin County, ME

  1. 9. Interior view, overhead line shafting and lathe workbench, east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Interior view, overhead line shafting and lathe workbench, east shop, ground floor, looking northwest. - Larrabee & Hingston Company, Main Shop Building, 19 Howley Street, Peabody, Essex County, MA

  2. Unilateral Isolated Proximal Femoral Focal Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Doğer, Emek; Köpük, Şule Y.; Çakıroğlu, Yiğit; Çakır, Özgür; Yücesoy, Gülseren

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To discuss a patient with a prenatal diagnosis of unilateral isolated femoral focal deficiency. Case. Antenatal diagnosis of unilateral isolated femoral focal deficiency was made at 20 weeks of gestation. The length of left femur was shorter than the right, and fetal femur length was below the fifth percentile. Proximal femoral focal deficiency was diagnosed. After delivery, the diagnosis was confirmed with skeletal radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging. In prenatal ultrasonographic examination, the early recognition and exclusion of skeletal dysplasias is important; moreover, treatment plans should be initiated, and valuable information should be provided to the family. PMID:23984135

  3. Disrupted Ipsilateral Network Connectivity in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Vega-Zelaya, Lorena; Pastor, Jesús; de Sola, Rafael G.; Ortega, Guillermo J.

    2015-01-01

    increasing global synchronization and a more ordered spectral content of the signals, indicated by lower spectral entropy. The interictal connectivity imbalance (lower ipsilateral connectivity) is sustained during the seizure, irrespective of any appreciable imbalance in the spectral entropy of the mesial recordings. PMID:26489091

  4. Evaluation of proximal femoral locking plate in unstable extracapsular proximal femoral fractures: Surgical technique & mid term follow up results☆

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Nishikant; Kataria, Himanshu; Yadav, Chandrashekhar; Gadagoli, Bharath S.; Raj, Rishi

    2014-01-01

    Background Stable trochanteric femur fractures can be treated successfully with conventional implants such as sliding hip screw, cephalomedullary nails, angular blade plates. However comminuted and unstable inter or subtrochanteric fractures with or without osteoporosis are challenging & prone to complications. The PF-LCP is a new implant that allows angular stability by creating fixed angle block for treatment of complex, comminuted proximal femoral fractures. Method We reviewed 30 patients with unstable inter or subtrochanteric fractures, which were stabilized with PF-LCP. Mean age of patient was 65 years, and average operative time was 80 min. Patients were followed up for a period of 3 years (June 2010–June 2013). Patients were examined regularly at 3 weekly interval for signs of union (radiological & clinical), varus collapse (neck-shaft angle), limb shortening, and hardware failure. Result All patients showed signs of union at an average of 9 weeks (8–10 weeks), with minimum varus collapse (<10°), & no limb shortening and hardware failure. Results were analysed using IOWA (Larson) hip scoring. Average IOWA hip score was 77.5. Conclusion PF-LCP represents a feasible alternative for treatment of unstable inter- or subtrochanteric fractures. PMID:25983487

  5. 30 CFR 56.19105 - Landings with more than one shaft entrance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Landings with more than one shaft entrance. 56... Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19105 Landings with more than one shaft entrance. A safe means of passage around open shaft compartments shall be provided on landings with more than one entrance to the shaft....

  6. Meralgia Paresthetica and Femoral Acetabular Impingement: A Possible Association

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Aiesha

    2010-01-01

    Meralgia paresthetica consists of pain and dysesthesia in the anterolateral thigh. Etiology is divided into spontaneous and iatrogenic causes. To my knowledge this has never been attributed to femoral acetabular impingement. This case highlights the presence of lateral femoral cutaneous neuropathy in the setting of femoral acetabular impingement syndrome thus raising the possibility of an association. Keywords Femoral acetabular impingement; Lateral femoral cutaneous nerve; Dysesthesia; Nerve conduction studies PMID:22043261

  7. Distal femoral cut perpendicular to the mechanical axis may induce varus instability in flexion in medial osteoarthritic knees with varus deformity in total knee arthroplasty: a pitfall of the navigation system.

    PubMed

    Nagamine, Ryuji; Kondo, Keiichi; Ikemura, Satoshi; Shiranita, Atsushi; Nakashima, Satoshi; Hara, Toshihiko; Ihara, Hidetoshi; Sugioka, Yoichi

    2004-01-01

    Two factors that influence the external rotation angle of the femoral rotational axis in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) were assessed in 40 medial osteoarthritic knees with varus deformity. First, the anatomic configuration of the femur was assessed using standardized radiographs of the patients' lower extremities before TKA. Second, the degree of medial soft tissue release was assessed during TKA. The radiographs showed that the characteristics of the femur were lateral bowing of the shaft and external rotation of the condyle in the coronal plane. Therefore, when the distal femur is cut perpendicular to the mechanical axis, the cut surface may be in too much of a valgus position. Furthermore, some degree of medial soft tissue release was necessary in all knees. Medial soft tissue release rotates the femur externally in extension in the coronal plane, and it rotates the femur externally around the femoral axis in flexion relative to the tibia. A distal femoral cut in too much of a valgus position and medial soft tissue release induces varus instability in flexion in knees with lateral bowing of the femoral shaft. Anatomic variation such as femoral bowing should be considered when a navigation system is used for TKA because the navigation system shows only the mechanical axis. PMID:16228670

  8. Flows In Model Human Femoral Arteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Back, Lloyd H.; Kwack, Eug Y.; Crawford, Donald W.

    1990-01-01

    Flow is visualized with dye traces, and pressure measurements made. Report describes experimental study of flow in models of human femoral artery. Conducted to examine effect of slight curvature of artery on flow paths and distribution of pressure.

  9. A Case of Spontaneous Osteonecrosis of the Knee with Early and Simultaneous Involvement of the Medial Femoral Condyle and Medial Tibial Plateau.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Shinya; Arai, Yuji; Honjo, Kuniaki; Nakagawa, Shuji; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee (SPONK) usually involves a single condyle, most often the medial femoral condyle (MFC). Involvement of the medial tibial plateau (MTP) is less common, occurring in about 2% of knees with SPONK. Early onset SPONK on the ipsilateral side of the medial compartment is very rare, with, to our knowledge, only four cases reported to date. We describe a very rare case of SPONK with early simultaneous development in the MFC and MTP. Serial plain radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging showed that SPONK in both condyles followed a similar progressive course. The pathological findings in these lesions were similar to those observed in subchondral insufficiency fractures. PMID:27242941

  10. A Case of Spontaneous Osteonecrosis of the Knee with Early and Simultaneous Involvement of the Medial Femoral Condyle and Medial Tibial Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Shinya; Arai, Yuji; Honjo, Kuniaki; Nakagawa, Shuji; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee (SPONK) usually involves a single condyle, most often the medial femoral condyle (MFC). Involvement of the medial tibial plateau (MTP) is less common, occurring in about 2% of knees with SPONK. Early onset SPONK on the ipsilateral side of the medial compartment is very rare, with, to our knowledge, only four cases reported to date. We describe a very rare case of SPONK with early simultaneous development in the MFC and MTP. Serial plain radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging showed that SPONK in both condyles followed a similar progressive course. The pathological findings in these lesions were similar to those observed in subchondral insufficiency fractures. PMID:27242941