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Sample records for iran

  1. Iran.

    PubMed

    1987-05-01

    Iran's population stood at 49.8 million in 1986, 1 1/2-2 million of which were Afghan refugees. The annual population growth rate was 4%. The infant mortality rate was 10/1000 and life expectancy was 54 years. 40% of the labor force is engaged in agriculture, 33% are employed in industry and commerce, and 27% work in services. Iran is an Islamic republic dominated by the Islamic Republican Party. By the 1970s, Iran has achieved significant industrialization and economic modernization. However, economic activity was disrupted by the 1979 revolution and more recently by the war with Iraq and the sharp decline in oil prices. All major business and industrial growth indicators are significantly below prerevolutionary levels and unemployment is over 30%. Political infighting has hampered the formulation of coherent economic policies, and purges in the civil service in the postrevolutionary phase eliminated many qualified personnel. The petroleum, mining, utilities, and transportation sectors have been nationalized, but there is dissension within the Khomeni's regime as to how to proceed with land reform. Iran's gross national product was US$75 billion in 1986, with a per capita income of $1667. Inflation is about 25-40%. PMID:12177957

  2. Iran: spotlight.

    PubMed

    Roudi, N

    1987-09-01

    Given its location between Asia and Asia Minor, Iran has been a country of strategic political importance throughout history. More than 98% of Iran's population is Moslem. During the early 20th century, as Iran gradually gained independence from the USSR and Turkey, a modernization process was begun. However, this modernization process was forced to yield to Islamic traditionalism after the 1979 Islamic Revolution. Women have been most affected by this change. The implementation of Islamic traditions has meant low job opportunity or motivation for continuing education among women. Although fertility remains high, the present government is satisfied with the current rate of population growth. Family planning is allowed if implemented within the framework of Islamic law, but abortion is illegal. Mortality fell substantially after World War II, but has not continued to decline. At present, both males and females have the same life expectancy at birth. Iran's population is growing at a rate of 4%/year, and can be expected to double in another 21 years. It has been projected that Iran, currently the 21st largest country in the world with a population of 50 million, will become the 15th largest with a population of 97 million by the year 2025. Tehran, the 20th largest city in 1985, is projected to be the 9th largest by the year 2000, with a population of 13.6 million. PMID:12268893

  3. Factors affecting Iran`s future. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sinai, J.

    1993-05-28

    This study examines the factors affecting Iran`s future by focusing on the demographic, economic, and military trends in Iran and their impact on the country`s national security objectives in the next decade. The paper also assesses the implications of an economic embargo on Iran and potential Iranian threats to regional and United States national interests.

  4. 31 CFR 561.329 - Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Iran. 561.329 Section 561.329 Money... Iran. The term Iran means the Government of Iran and the territory of Iran and any other territory or... Iran claims sovereignty, sovereign rights, or jurisdiction, provided that the Government of...

  5. 31 CFR 561.329 - Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Iran. 561.329 Section 561.329 Money... Iran. The term Iran means the Government of Iran and the territory of Iran and any other territory or... Iran claims sovereignty, sovereign rights, or jurisdiction, provided that the Government of...

  6. Petroleum industry in Iran

    SciTech Connect

    Farideh, A.

    1981-01-01

    This study examines the oil industry in Iran from the early discovery of oil nearly two hundred years ago in Mazandaran (north part) to the development of a giant modern industry in the twentieth century. Chapter I presents a brief historical setting to introduce the reader to the importance of oil in Iran. It focuses on the economic implications of the early oil concessions in the period 1901 to 1951. Chapter II discusses the nationalization of the Iranian oil industry and creation of NIOC in 1951 and the international political and economic implication of these activities. Chapter III explains the activities of NIOC in Iran. Exploration and drilling, production, exports, refineries, natural gas, petrochemicals and internal distributions are studied. Chapter IV discusses the role of the development planning of Iran. A brief presentation of the First Development Plan through the Fifth Development Plan is given. Sources and uses of funds by plan organization during these Five Plans is studied. The Iran and Iraq War is also studied briefly, but the uncertainty of its resolution prevents any close analysis of its impact on the Iranian oil industry. One conclusion, however, is certain; oil has been a vital resource in Iran's past and it will remain the lifetime of its economic development in the future.

  7. [History of acupuncture in Iran].

    PubMed

    Bai, Xinghua

    2015-10-01

    Iran is the neighbor of western China, and is a key transport junction on ancient Silk Road. The medical communication between China and Iran dates back to the 10th century, however, according to current evidences, it is indicated that acupuncture has not been introduced to Iran until the early 1970s. Unfortunately over the last 40 years, the acupuncture in Iran has not presented great development. The history of acupuncture development in Iran implies that geographical advantage and personnel exchanges are not essential to the international exchange of acupuncture, while language and cultural background may hinder the spread of acupuncture in foreign countries. PMID:26790220

  8. 31 CFR 560.303 - Iran; Iranian.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Iran; Iranian. 560.303 Section 560.303... Iran; Iranian. The term Iran means the territory of Iran, and any other territory or marine area, including the exclusive economic zone and continental shelf, over which the Government of Iran...

  9. 31 CFR 560.303 - Iran; Iranian.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Iran; Iranian. 560.303 Section 560.303... Definitions § 560.303 Iran; Iranian. The term Iran means the territory of Iran and any other territory or... Iran claims sovereignty, sovereign rights, or jurisdiction, provided that the Government of...

  10. 31 CFR 560.303 - Iran; Iranian.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Iran; Iranian. 560.303 Section 560.303... Iran; Iranian. The term Iran means the territory of Iran, and any other territory or marine area, including the exclusive economic zone and continental shelf, over which the Government of Iran...

  11. 31 CFR 560.303 - Iran; Iranian.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Iran; Iranian. 560.303 Section 560.303... Definitions § 560.303 Iran; Iranian. The term Iran means the territory of Iran and any other territory or... Iran claims sovereignty, sovereign rights, or jurisdiction, provided that the Government of...

  12. Iran: Country Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFerren, Margaret

    A survey of the status of language usage in Iran begins with an overview of the usage pattern of Persian, the official language spoken by just over half the population, and the competing languages of six ethnic and linguistic minorities: Azerbaijani, Kurdish, Arabic, Gilaki, Luri-Bakhtiari, and Mazandarani. The development of language policy…

  13. Transplantation activities in Iran.

    PubMed

    Broumand, Behrooz

    2005-06-01

    Iran is a tropical country with a land area of 1,648,000 square kilometers and a population of 68,100,000. Iran has a recorded history that dates back 2553 years. Its earliest medical school was Pasargad. Jondi Chapour University was founded 1753 years ago during the Sassanid dynasty as a center for higher education in medicine, philosophy, and pharmacology. Indeed, the idea of xenotransplantation dates back to days of Achaemenidae (Achaemenian dynasty), as evidenced by engravings of many mythologic chimeras still present in Persepolis. Avicenna (980-1037 AD), the great Iranian physician, performed the first nerve repair. Transplantation progress in Iran follows roughly the same pattern as that of the rest of the world, with some 10-20 years' delay. Modern organ transplantation dates back to 1935, when the first cornea transplant was performed at Farabi Hospital in Tehran, Iran. The first living-related kidney transplantation performed at Shiraz University Hospital dates back to 1968. The first bone marrow transplant was performed at Dr. Shariaati's Hospital in Tehran. The first heart transplant was performed 1993 in Tabriz, Iran. The first liver transplant was performed in 1993 in Shiraz. The first lung transplant was performed in 2001, and the first heart and lung transplants were performed in 2002, both at Tehran. In late 1985, the renal transplantation program was officially started in a major university hospital in Tehran and was poised to carry out 2 to 4 transplantations each week. Soon, another large center initiated a similar program. Both of these centers accepted surgical, medical, and nursing teams from other academic medical centers for training in kidney transplantation. Since 2002, Iran has grown to include 23 active renal, 68 cornea, 2 liver, 4 heart, 2 lung, and 2 bone marrow transplantation centers in different cities. In June 2000, the Organ Transplantation Brain Death Act was approved by the Parliament, followed by the establishment of the

  14. Popularising astronomy in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tafreshi, Babak A.

    2011-06-01

    The interest to astronomy has incredibly risen in the younger generation of Iranians during the last two decades. By the end of the devastating war with Iraq, science popularisation activities started again in Iran and with only a handful of astronomers and few dozens of serious amateur astronomers in the whole country in late 1980s now there are thousands of amateur astronomers (60% female on average) and over 100 professional astronomers propelling the fun and science of astronomy in the society.

  15. Astronomy in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobouti, Y.

    2006-08-01

    Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, Zanjan, Iran In spite of her renowned pivotal role in the advancement of astronomy on the world scale during 9th to 15th centuries, Iran's rekindled interest in modern astronomy is a recent happening. Serious attempts to introduce astronomy into university curricula and to develop it into a respectable and worthwhile field of research began in the mid 60's. The pioneer was Shiraz University. It should be credited for the first few dozens of astronomy- and astrophysics- related research papers in international journals, for training the first half a dozen of professional astronomers and for creating the Biruni Observatory. Here, I take this opportunity to acknowledge the valuable advice of Bob Koch and Ed Guinan, then of the University of Pennsylvania, in the course of the establishment of this observatory. At present the astronomical community of Iran consists of about 65 professionals, half university faculty members and half MS and PhD students. The yearly scientific contribution of its members has, in the past three years, averaged to about 15 papers in reputable international journals, and presently has a healthy growth rate. Among the existing observational facilities, Biruni Observatory with its 51 cm Cassegrain, CCD cameras, photometers and other smaller educational telescopes, is by far the most active place. Tusi Observatory of Tabriz University has 60 and 40 cm Cassegrains, and a small solar telescope. A number of smaller observing facilities exist in Meshed, Zanjan, Tehran, Babol and other places. The Astronomical Society of Iran (ASI), though some 30 years old, has expanded and institutionalized its activities since early 1990's. ASI sets up seasonal schools for novices, organizes annual colloquia and seminars for professionals and supports a huge body of amateur astronomers from among high school and university students. Over twenty of ASI members are also members of IAU and take active part in its

  16. Iran's Million-Student Alternative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labi, Aisha

    2008-01-01

    The Islamic Azad University was founded by Hashemi Rafsanjani, a cleric who was in the past the first speaker of the Majlis, or Parliament, of Iran's postrevolutionary government. He served as president of Iran from 1989 to 1997 and ran for re-election in 2005, when he was defeated by Mahmoud Ahmadinejad. In the two decades after Azad was founded,…

  17. 31 CFR 560.303 - Iran; Iranian.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Iran; Iranian. 560.303 Section 560... § 560.303 Iran; Iranian. The term Iran means the territory of Iran, and any other territory or marine area, including the exclusive economic zone and continental shelf, over which the Government of...

  18. Natural Gas Exports from Iran

    EIA Publications

    2012-01-01

    This assessment of the natural gas sector in Iran, with a focus on Iran’s natural gas exports, was prepared pursuant to section 505 (a) of the Iran Threat Reduction and Syria Human Rights Act of 2012 (Public Law No: 112-158). As requested, it includes: (1) an assessment of exports of natural gas from Iran; (2) an identification of the countries that purchase the most natural gas from Iran; (3) an assessment of alternative supplies of natural gas available to those countries; (4) an assessment of the impact a reduction in exports of natural gas from Iran would have on global natural gas supplies and the price of natural gas, especially in countries identified under number (2); and (5) such other information as the Administrator considers appropriate.

  19. Echinococcus granulosus genotypes in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Sharafi, Seyedeh Maryam; Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad; Moazeni, Mohammad; Yousefi, Morteza; Saneie, Behnam; Hosseini-Safa, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Hydatidosis, caused by Echinococcus granulosus is one of the most important zoonotic diseases, throughout most parts of the world. Hydatidosis is endemic in Iran and responsible for approximately 1% of admission to surgical wards. There are extensive genetic variations within E. granulosus and 10 different genotypes (G1–G10) within this parasite have been reported. Identification of strains is important for improvement of control and prevention of the disease. No new review article presented the situation of Echinococcus granulosus genotypes in Iran in the recent years; therefore in this paper we reviewed the different studies regarding Echinococcus granulosus genotypes in Iran. PMID:24834298

  20. Managing Proliferation Issues with Iran

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, C. Richard; Saltiel, David H.

    2002-02-15

    Any government in Tehran will be inclined to seek weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and missile delivery options given the realities of its strategic environment. These weapons might help Iran to deter potential external threats, to achieve equality with other major regional powers armed with WMD, and to attain self-reliance in national security, given the isolating experience of arms embargoes. A more pluralist leadership in the future, however, may examine broader choices and trade-offs, and perhaps be less likely to cross key thresholds in WMD acquisition. In any event, Iran's WMD behavior is likely to be determined by both external factors, mainly the availability of crucial components, and internal factors, including calculations of costs, risks, and benefits. Among the benefits, psychological factors, such as prestige, will play an important role. Other important factors that might well shape Iran's WMD behavior include developments in Iraq, relations with the United States and other Gulf states, Israeli-Palestinian relations and the future price of oil. This paper offers recommendations on how the United States can best hope to influence Iranian decisions regarding the acquisition of WMD and missile delivery systems if the United States decides to pursue more direct engagement with Tehran. An engagement-nonproliferation strategy should involve at least three types of parallel efforts: public, private and indirect. Public efforts should seek to create a more positive, less-threatening image of the United States among opinion leaders in Iran. Private efforts should seek to determine the purposes, nature and extent of Iran's efforts to develop WMD and missiles and to suggest better alternatives for Iran's security and prestige needs. Indirect efforts should involve key third countries and organizations in an attempt both to address Iran's security concerns and to deny Iran access to critical WMD and missile technology and components. Russian policy, in

  1. Iran: World Oil Report 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports that at the end of its war with Iraq, Iran embarked on an urgent program to restore its productive capacity. This effort has been hindered by lack of hard currency and, hence, technology, parts, equipment, etc. Iran has been trying to improve relations with the U.S, over the past two years. Recently, the embargo on importing Iranian crude into the U.S. was lifted. Over the past year and a half, Iran accumulated enough money to resume imports of U.S. and other foreign drilling equipment. However, drilling has remained at a low level. Also, efforts to boost output have been slowed by war damage both on and offshore---particularly the latter---and serious BHP declines in major onshore fields that can only be corrected by ultra- high cost gas injection projects. Currently, large injection projects are only operating in three major fields: Gachsaran, Ahwaz and Marun.

  2. Education and fertility in Iran.

    PubMed

    Darabi, K F

    1976-01-01

    Studies providing evidence concerning literacy's relationship to fertility in Iran are reviewed. Reliable demographic data are unavailable for Iran before the 1st census in 1956. The 1966 census revealed a reversal of the normally expected larger female population, with a sex ratio of 107 men for every 100 women. The female population in Iran is accorded low status; only 29.6% of the population over the age of 10 was literate according to the 1966 census. A negative relationship between literacy or levels of education and fertility seems to have become a basic tenet of demographic theory. The hypothesis that as a woman's education increases she has fewer children has been confirmed in numerous studies, and, in response to this information, the Iranian government has sponsored several projects which incorporate family planning education into literacy projects. In view of the associations noted in other studies of the relationship between education and fertility, it seems wise to examine the effects of education on fertility in Iran. None of the studies reviewed give conclusive evidence that literacy is unrelated to fertility in Iran. Several of the studies reveal built-in biases: the husbands in Siassi's study were all military personnel; Gulick interviewed women who were already attending family planning clinics; Edlefsen and Liberman made some highly abstract and speculative predictions, and Lieberman et al. were basically measuring incomes instead of education. All of the studies do, however, give some indication of an irregular effect of education on fertility in Iran and swggest the need for further study of this variable. PMID:12334804

  3. Commentary: Childbirth Education in Iran

    PubMed Central

    TorkZahrani, Shahnaz

    2008-01-01

    With regard to childbirth, the role of every health-care system is to improve maternity care as well as the birth experience of women and their family members. Despite many efforts to improve maternity care in the Islamic Republic of Iran, the nation's childbirth care still faces a tremendous amount of unnecessary intervention and, consequently, a high rate of cesarean births. This article describes the strengths and weaknesses of Iran's maternity-care system and childbirth education in light of evidence-based practice. PMID:19436412

  4. 31 CFR 560.516 - Transfers of funds involving Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transfers of funds involving Iran. 560... involving Iran. (a) United States depository institutions are authorized to process transfers of funds to or from Iran, or for the direct or indirect benefit of persons in Iran or the Government of Iran, if...

  5. 31 CFR 560.516 - Transfers of funds involving Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Transfers of funds involving Iran. 560... involving Iran. (a) United States depository institutions are authorized to process transfers of funds to or from Iran, or for the direct or indirect benefit of persons in Iran or the Government of Iran, if...

  6. Iran's strategic intentions and capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Clawson, P.

    1994-04-01

    Iran appears to be pursuing an assertive foreign policy that confronts the United States on a variety of points: the Middle East Peace Process, the stability of moderate Muslim states, terrorism (such as the death threat to Rushdie), security in the Persian Gulf, and nuclear proliferation.

  7. English Language Instruction in Iran.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strain, Jeris E.

    1971-01-01

    This article discusses English-language programs in Iran and their shortcomings. Teachers are inadequately prepared, classrooms are overcrowded, materials are not properly used, and basic writing skills have not been taught. To overcome these problems, the language skills of the teachers must be developed and teachers must be acquainted with…

  8. Status of Iran's nuclear program and negotiations

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, David

    2014-05-09

    Iran's nuclear program poses immense challenges to international security. Its gas centrifuge program has grown dramatically in the last several years, bringing Iran close to a point where it could produce highly enriched uranium in secret or declared gas centrifuge plants before its breakout would be discovered and stopped. To reduce the risk posed by Iran's nuclear program, the P5+1 have negotiated with Iran short term limits on the most dangerous aspects of its nuclear programs and is negotiating long-term arrangements that can provide assurance that Iran will not build nuclear weapons. These long-term arrangements need to include a far more limited and transparent Iranian nuclear program. In advance of arriving at a long-term arrangement, the IAEA will need to resolve its concerns about the alleged past and possibly on-going military dimensions of Iran's nuclear program.

  9. Status of Iran's nuclear program and negotiations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albright, David

    2014-05-01

    Iran's nuclear program poses immense challenges to international security. Its gas centrifuge program has grown dramatically in the last several years, bringing Iran close to a point where it could produce highly enriched uranium in secret or declared gas centrifuge plants before its breakout would be discovered and stopped. To reduce the risk posed by Iran's nuclear program, the P5+1 have negotiated with Iran short term limits on the most dangerous aspects of its nuclear programs and is negotiating long-term arrangements that can provide assurance that Iran will not build nuclear weapons. These long-term arrangements need to include a far more limited and transparent Iranian nuclear program. In advance of arriving at a long-term arrangement, the IAEA will need to resolve its concerns about the alleged past and possibly on-going military dimensions of Iran's nuclear program.

  10. A new flea from Iran

    PubMed Central

    Darvishi, Mohammad Mehdi; Youssefi, Mohammad Reza; Changizi, Emad; Lima, Rasoul Rostami; Rahimi, Mohammad Taghi

    2014-01-01

    Fleas are obligatory ectoparsites of humans and animals. These tiny insects are hematophagous and they can transmit a wide varity of disease agents to humans and domesticated animals. Indeed, this pest causes a considerable economic damages and health dangers particularly in tropical and subtropical. During an investigation on ectoparasites of five Mus muscuuls in Semnan province, Iran, 15 fleas (8 males and 7 females) were collected. The extracted fleas mounted using clearing, dehydrating, mounting process and preserved with Canada balsam. After precise study, all of examined specimens were recognized as Leptopsylla aethiopicus aethiopicus using available systematic keys. This is the first report of this genus and species in Iran. And this country is new locality for Leptopsylla aethiopicus aethiopicus.

  11. Iran rebuilds family planning services.

    PubMed

    Butta, P

    1993-07-01

    After the revolution, the Islamic Republic of Iran instituted pronatalist policies which included lowering the minimum marriage age for girls to 9 years, abolishing some laws securing women's rights, and limiting availability of family planning (FP) services. By 1983, Iran's population growth rate was 3.9% which was among the highest worldwide. Before the revolution, Iran had 37 million people. About 2 million more people were added each year, resulting in a population size of 60 million by 1992. By the mid-1980s, economic development stood idle, there were not enough houses, children attended schools on 3 shifts, and malnutrition was spreading. In 1989, the government formed a population council and reestablished FP services. It also increased the minimum age of marriage for girls to 13 years, slightly improved women status, and eliminated fertility incentives for couples with at least 4 children. It also significantly increased funding for FP (from 560 million to 13 billion rials between 1990 and 1992). Government spending for FP will likely increase 2% annually until 2011. The government initiated a promotion of FP mass media campaign, emphasizing a 2-child family. Some posters showed a family with 2 girls. The mass media campaign promoted specific contraceptive methods (even tubal occlusion and vasectomy), a practice other Middle Eastern countries not do. 80% of sterilization acceptors claimed to learn about sterilization from the radio or newspapers. The Ministry of Health has invited the Association for Voluntary Surgical Contraception (AVSC) to help with its campaign to update sterilization techniques, including the non scalpel vasectomy technique. AVSC hopes to become even more involved in helping Iran update its national FP program. PMID:12318289

  12. Iran eases limits on sterilization.

    PubMed

    Roudi, N

    1991-03-01

    The government of Iran announced in November 1990, in an abrupt reversal of previous policies, the legislation of sterilization and its provision free-of-charge upon request, as well as the distribution of other contraceptive gratis. At the time of the Islamic Revolution in 1979 the government adopted a pronatalist policy, family planning programs were interrupted, legal ages of marriage were lowered, and barriers against polygamy were loosened. Iran had a 3.5% growth rate in 1990 and a total fertility rate of 6.3 lifetime births/woman. After the end of the war between Iran and Iraq in 1988, the population explosion became an obstacle to reconstruction. In 1950, the population numbered 14.2 million; by 1970 it had doubled to 28.4 million. In 1990, the country had 54.6 million people. According to a 1990 UN assessment the population will soar to 100 million by 2020. Over 8 million live in Tehran where overcrowding, traffic congestion, air pollution, and high living costs are the norm. the 1989 National Birth Control Policy Summary adopted targets to reduce the average number of lifetime births per woman to 4 children and natural growth rate to 2.3% by 2011, and to provide family planning to 24% of reproductive-age women whereby 1 million conceptions would be prevented. Indirect measures to curb fertility include raising literacy promoting the education of girls, improving the status and health conditions of women, and reducing maternal and child mortality. A media campaign has started to encourage a small family model. The low legal, social, educational, and employment status of women poses obstacles to this plan, however, the revision of laws that conflict with these goals has been urged. In other Islamic countries such as Turkey, Tunisia, Indonesia, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, female sterilization is legal. Abortion in Iran remains banned except for saving the life of the mother. PMID:12343087

  13. Diversity of beet curly top Iran virus isolated from different hosts in Iran.

    PubMed

    Gharouni Kardani, Sara; Heydarnejad, Jahangir; Zakiaghl, Mohammad; Mehrvar, Mohsen; Kraberger, Simona; Varsani, Arvind

    2013-06-01

    Beet curly top Iran virus (BCTIV) is a major pathogen of sugar beet in Iran. In order to study diversity of BCTIV, we sampled 68 plants in Iran during the summer of 2010 with curly top disease symptoms on beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata), tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L.), sea beets (Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima), and sugar beets (Beta vulgaris). Plant samples showing leaf curling, yellowing, and/or swelling of veins on the lower leaf surfaces were collected from various fields in Khorasan Razavi, Northern Khorasan (north-eastern Iran), East Azarbayejan, West Azarbayejan (north-western Iran), and Fars (southern Iran) provinces. Using rolling circle amplification coupled with restriction digests, cloning, and Sanger sequencing, we determined the genomes of nine new BCTIV isolates from bean, cowpea, tomato, sea beet, and sugar beet in Iran. Our analysis reveals ~11 % diversity amongst BCTIV isolates and we detect evidence of recombination within these genomes. PMID:23329008

  14. Desert and desertification in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahrami, M.

    2009-04-01

    One of the greatest environmental concerns in Iran as in other arid and semiarid countries is the transformation of once productive, or marginally productive, land to deteriorated land and soil unable to support plants and animals. Because the land becomes barren and dry, the process is described as desertification, which occurs as a sequence of events. The area of deserts in Iran is about 340,000 Km2 (less than one fifth of its total area), of which 100,000 Km2 is being used for some cultivation, 120,000 Km2 is subjected to moving sands about 40 % of which is active sand dunes. Most of features and processes usual in world famous deserts are also observed in Iran: low precipitation, high evaporation, poor or lack of vegetation, saline and alkaline soils, low population and small and sparse oases. The deserts of Iran are generally classified in the subtropical, warm, arid and semiarid group, but the effect and presence of some geographical and geoclimatical factors such as height, vicinity to Indian Ocean and so on do some changes in climatic conditions and geographical features causing some local and regional differences in them. Geographically, two groups of deserts have been known in Iran: (1) Coastal deserts which, like a ribbon with variable width, stretch from extreme southeast to extreme southwest, at the north parts of Oman Sea and Persian Gulf. One important feature of these deserts is relatively high humidity which differentiates them from other deserts. This causes an increase in vegetation coverage and hence a decrease in eolian erosion and also a dominance of chemical weathering to that of physical. (2) internal deserts, which rest in central, eastern and southeastern plateau of the country and in independent and semi dependent depressions. This situation, which is due to the surrounding high mountains, blocks humidity entry and causes the aridity of these deserts. Wind as a dominant process in the area causes deflated features such as Reg (desert

  15. Reflections on Foreign Language Education in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farhady, Hossein; Hezaveh, Fattaneh Sajadi; Hedayati, Hora

    2010-01-01

    This article reflects upon foreign-language education in Iran. Contrary to its political and historical reputation in the world, Iran has not been well presented regarding its educational system in general and its foreign-language education in particular. Of course, a critical assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of the Iranian education…

  16. 31 CFR 560.304 - Government of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Government of Iran. 560.304 Section... § 560.304 Government of Iran. The term Government of Iran includes: (a) The state and the Government of Iran, as well as any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof; (b) Any entity owned...

  17. 31 CFR 560.304 - Government of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Government of Iran. 560.304 Section... § 560.304 Government of Iran. The term Government of Iran includes: (a) The state and the Government of Iran, as well as any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof; (b) Any entity owned...

  18. 31 CFR 535.301 - Iran; Iranian Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Iran; Iranian Entity. 535.301 Section... § 535.301 Iran; Iranian Entity. (a) The term Iran and Iranian Entity includes: (1) The state and the Government of Iran as well as any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof or any...

  19. 31 CFR 535.301 - Iran; Iranian Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Iran; Iranian Entity. 535.301 Section... § 535.301 Iran; Iranian Entity. (a) The term Iran and Iranian Entity includes: (1) The state and the Government of Iran as well as any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof or any...

  20. 31 CFR 535.301 - Iran; Iranian Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Iran; Iranian Entity. 535.301 Section... § 535.301 Iran; Iranian Entity. (a) The term Iran and Iranian Entity includes: (1) The state and the Government of Iran as well as any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof or any...

  1. 31 CFR 560.304 - Government of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Government of Iran. 560.304 Section... § 560.304 Government of Iran. The term Government of Iran includes: (a) The state and the Government of Iran, as well as any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof; (b) Any entity owned...

  2. 31 CFR 535.301 - Iran; Iranian Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Iran; Iranian Entity. 535.301 Section... § 535.301 Iran; Iranian Entity. (a) The term Iran and Iranian Entity includes: (1) The state and the Government of Iran as well as any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof or any...

  3. 31 CFR 535.301 - Iran; Iranian Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Iran; Iranian Entity. 535.301 Section... § 535.301 Iran; Iranian Entity. (a) The term Iran and Iranian Entity includes: (1) The state and the Government of Iran as well as any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof or any...

  4. 31 CFR 535.433 - Central Bank of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Central Bank of Iran. 535.433 Section 535.433 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 535.433 Central Bank of Iran. The Central Bank of Iran (Bank Markazi Iran) is an...

  5. 31 CFR 535.433 - Central Bank of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Central Bank of Iran. 535.433 Section 535.433 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 535.433 Central Bank of Iran. The Central Bank of Iran (Bank Markazi Iran) is an...

  6. 31 CFR 535.433 - Central Bank of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Central Bank of Iran. 535.433 Section 535.433 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 535.433 Central Bank of Iran. The Central Bank of Iran (Bank Markazi Iran) is an...

  7. 31 CFR 535.433 - Central Bank of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Central Bank of Iran. 535.433 Section 535.433 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 535.433 Central Bank of Iran. The Central Bank of Iran (Bank Markazi Iran) is an...

  8. 31 CFR 535.433 - Central Bank of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Central Bank of Iran. 535.433 Section 535.433 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 535.433 Central Bank of Iran. The Central Bank of Iran (Bank Markazi Iran) is an...

  9. Community genetic services in iran.

    PubMed

    Atri Barzanjeh, Shirin; Behshid, Mozhgan; Hosseini, Mohammad Bagher; Ezari, Maryam; Taghizadeh, Mahdieh; Dastgiri, Saeed

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to report a description of the primary, secondary, and tertiary level services available for genetic disorders in Iran. For the purpose of this study, essential data were collected from every facility providing community genetic services in Tabriz city of Iran using a prestructured checklist. Technical information was filled in the predesigned forms using diagnostic records of each client/patient. Information was also gathered from community genetic services clients through a face-to-face interview at these facilities to assess the quality of services provided. Primary prevention measures were available in 80 percent of centres in the study population. Diagnostic techniques were fully available in the study area both in public and private sectors. Screening of congenital hypothyroidism and thalassemia has been successfully performed across the country by the Ministry of Health. Other screening programs have also been initiated by the country health authorities for neural tube defects, Down syndrome, and phenylketonuria. The high cost of genetic services at secondary and tertiary levels does not allow many people to get access to these services despite their needs. Governments will therefore need to allocate necessary resources to make the essential genetic services available for everyone needing these in the community. PMID:23304526

  10. Coding and traceability in Iran.

    PubMed

    Aghayan, Hamid Reza; Mahdavi-Mazdeh, Mitra; Goodarzi, Parisa; Arjmand, Babak; Emami-Razavi, Seyed Hassan

    2010-11-01

    Transplantation has a long history in Iran. Cornea was the first tissue transplantation in 1935. The Central Eye Bank of Iran was established in 1991 and the Iranian Tissue Bank (ITB) in 1994. Now, there are also some private cell and tissue banks in the country, that produce different tissue grafts such as homograft heart valves, musculoskeletal tissues, soft tissues, cartilages, pericardium, amniotic membrane and some cell based products. There is not a separate legislation for tissue transplantation but the legal framework for tissue donation is based on the "Deceased or Brain dead patient organ transplantation" act (passed on April 6, 2000). For tissue banking there is no regulatory oversight by the national health authority. To increase the level of safety and considering the importance of effective traceability, each tissue bank has its own policy and terminology for coding and documentation without any correlation to others. In some cases tissue banks have implemented ISO based standards (i.e., ISO 9001) as a basic quality management system. PMID:20953716

  11. Seroprevalence of West Nile virus in Iran.

    PubMed

    Chinikar, Sadegh; Shah-Hosseini, Nariman; Mostafavi, Ehsan; Moradi, Maryam; Khakifirouz, Sahar; Jalali, Tahmineh; Goya, Mohammad Mehdi; Shirzadi, Mohammad Reza; Zainali, Mohammad; Fooks, Anthony R

    2013-08-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the seroprevalence of West Nile virus (WNV) in human and equine sera in Iran. Blood samples were tested from 300 human samples and 315 equine samples in five geographic zones of north and central parts of Iran between 2010 and 2012. All samples were tested for the immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody to WNV by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Of all samples, 4 (1.3%) human and 9 (2.8%) equines were considered to be seropositive for WNV. These results suggest circulation and exposure of the human and equine populations to WNV in Iran. PMID:23697768

  12. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Keshtkar-Jahromi, Maryam; Sajadi, Mohammad M.; Ansari, Hossein; Mardani, Masoud; Naieni, Kourosh Holakouie

    2014-01-01

    The presence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) in Iran was first identified in studies of livestock sera and ticks in the 1970s, but the first human infection was not diagnosed until 1999. Since that time, the number of cases of CCHF in Iran has markedly increased. Through January 2012, articles in the published literature have reported a total of 870 confirmed cases, with 126 deaths, for a case fatality rate (CFR) of 17.6%. The disease has been seen in 26 of the country’s 31 provinces, with the greatest number of cases in Sistan and Baluchestan, Isfahan, Fars, Tehran, Khorasan, and Khuzestan provinces. The increase in CCHF in Iran has paralleled that in neighboring Turkey, though the number of cases in Turkey has been much larger, with an overall CFR of around 5%. In this article, we review the features of CCHF in Iran, including its history, epidemiology, animal and tick reservoirs, current surveillance and control programs, diagnostic methods, clinical features and experience with ribavirin therapy, and consider possible explanations for the difference in the CFR of CCHF between Iran and Turkey. The emergence of CCHF in Iran calls for countermeasures at many levels to protect the population, but also provides opportunities for studying the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of the disease. PMID:23872313

  13. Soil erosion in Iran: Issues and solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamidreza Sadeghi, Seyed; Cerdà, Artemi

    2015-04-01

    Iran currently faces many soil erosion-related problems (see citations below). These issues are resulted from some inherent characteristic and anthropogenic triggering forces. Nowadays, the latter plays more important rule to accelerate the erosion with further emphasis on soil erosion-prone arid and semi arid regions of the country. This contribution attempts to identify and describe the existing main reasons behind accelerated soil erosion in Iran. Appropriate solutions viz. structural and non-structural approaches will be then advised to combat or minimise the problems. Iran can be used as a pilot research site to understand the soil erosion processes in semiarid, arid and mountainous terrain and our research will review the scientific literature and will give an insight of the soil erosion rates in the main factors of the soil erosion in Iran. Key words: Anthropogenic Erosion, Land Degradation; Sediment Management; Sediment Problems Acknowledgements The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and PREVENTING AND REMEDIATING DEGRADATION OF SOILS IN EUROPE THROUGH LAND CARE (RECARE)FP7-ENV-2013- supported this research. References Aghili Nategh, N., Hemmat, A., & Sadeghi, M. (2014). Assessing confined and semi-confined compression curves of highly calcareous remolded soil amended with farmyard manure. Journal of Terramechanics, 53, 75-82. Arekhi, S., Bolourani, A. D., Shabani, A., Fathizad, H., Ahamdy-Asbchin, S. 2012. Mapping Soil Erosion and Sediment Yield Susceptibility using RUSLE, Remote Sensing and GIS (Case study: Cham Gardalan Watershed, Iran). Advances in Environmental Biology, 6(1), 109-124. Arekhi, S., Shabani, A., Rostamizad, G. 2012. Application of the modified universal soil loss equation (MUSLE) in prediction of sediment yield (Case study: Kengir Watershed, Iran). Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 5(6), 1259-1267.Sadeghi, S. H., Moosavi, V., Karami, A., Behnia, N. 2012. Soil erosion assessment and prioritization of affecting factors at plot

  14. Surprising decline in Iran's growth rates.

    PubMed

    Roudi, F

    1997-11-01

    According to Iran's 1996 census, the country's population was 60 million, about 6-7 million people fewer than estimates used by the UN and other international organizations. These findings surprised Iranian demographers and have been examined with skepticism outside of the country. However, if Iran's 1986 and 1996 censuses are comparable and children were not undercounted, these results indicate a remarkable decline in fertility. The proportion of Iran's population under age 5 years fell from 18% in 1986 to 10% in 1996. An Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, Paris, study published in 1996 estimated that Iran's total fertility rate (TFR) fell from an average of 6.2 children/woman in 1986 to 3.5 in 1993. However, based upon analyses of sample surveys, the Iranian government's health ministry reported that the TFR dropped from 5.0 in 1991 to 3.3 in 1995. Irrespective of questions over the magnitude of Iran's fertility decline, it is clear that the Iranian government is committed to limiting population growth. The UN Population Fund considers Iran's family planning program to be one of the world's best-functioning, with the Ministry of Health Care and Medical Education providing free contraceptives. A bill was passed in 1993 which penalizes couples who have more than 3 children and posters around the country encourage the one- or two-child family. Iran's family planning program is integrated into the national primary health care system and provides a broad range of reproductive health services to women. The program is also the only one in the region which promotes both male and female sterilization. PMID:12321257

  15. 31 CFR 560.403 - Transshipment through Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Transshipment through Iran. 560.403... Interpretations § 560.403 Transshipment through Iran. The prohibitions in §§ 560.204, 560.206 and 560.208 apply to... through Iran to third countries....

  16. 31 CFR 560.403 - Transshipment or transit through Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transshipment or transit through Iran... REGULATIONS Interpretations § 560.403 Transshipment or transit through Iran. The prohibitions in §§ 560.204... transit of goods or technology through Iran to third countries....

  17. 31 CFR 561.321 - Government of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... under 31 CFR part 560. ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Government of Iran. 561.321 Section... Definitions § 561.321 Government of Iran. The term Government of Iran includes: (a) The state and...

  18. 31 CFR 560.403 - Transshipment through Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transshipment through Iran. 560.403... Interpretations § 560.403 Transshipment through Iran. The prohibitions in §§ 560.204, 560.206 and 560.208 apply to... through Iran to third countries....

  19. 31 CFR 561.321 - Government of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... under 31 CFR part 560. ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Government of Iran. 561.321 Section... Definitions § 561.321 Government of Iran. The term Government of Iran includes: (a) The state and...

  20. 48 CFR 25.703-2 - Iran Sanctions Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Iran Sanctions Act. 25.703... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Prohibited Sources 25.703-2 Iran Sanctions Act. (a) Certification—(1) Certification relating to activities described in section 5 of the Iran Sanctions Act. As required by section...

  1. 31 CFR 560.403 - Transshipment or transit through Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Transshipment or transit through Iran... REGULATIONS Interpretations § 560.403 Transshipment or transit through Iran. The prohibitions in §§ 560.204... transit of goods or technology through Iran to third countries....

  2. 31 CFR 560.403 - Transshipment through Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Transshipment through Iran. 560.403... Interpretations § 560.403 Transshipment through Iran. The prohibitions in §§ 560.204, 560.206 and 560.208 apply to... through Iran to third countries....

  3. 48 CFR 25.703-2 - Iran Sanctions Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Iran Sanctions Act. 25.703... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Prohibited Sources 25.703-2 Iran Sanctions Act. (a) Certification—(1) Certification relating to activities described in section 5 of the Iran Sanctions Act. As required by section...

  4. 31 CFR 561.321 - Government of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... under 31 CFR part 560. ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Government of Iran. 561.321 Section... Definitions § 561.321 Government of Iran. The term Government of Iran includes: (a) The state and...

  5. 48 CFR 25.703-2 - Iran Sanctions Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Iran Sanctions Act. 25.703... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Prohibited Sources 25.703-2 Iran Sanctions Act. (a) Certification. (1) As required by the Iran Sanctions Act, unless an exception applies or a waiver is granted...

  6. 48 CFR 25.703-2 - Iran Sanctions Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Iran Sanctions Act. 25.703... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Prohibited Sources 25.703-2 Iran Sanctions Act. (a) Certification. (1) As required by the Iran Sanctions Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 note), unless an exception applies...

  7. 15 CFR 742.8 - Anti-terrorism: Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: Iran. 742.8 Section... BASED CONTROLS § 742.8 Anti-terrorism: Iran. (a) License Requirements. (1) A license is required for anti-terrorism purposes to export or reexport to Iran any item for which AT column 1 or AT column 2...

  8. 15 CFR 742.8 - Anti-terrorism: Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: Iran. 742.8 Section... BASED CONTROLS § 742.8 Anti-terrorism: Iran. (a) License Requirements. (1) A license is required for anti-terrorism purposes to export or reexport to Iran any item for which AT column 1 or AT column 2...

  9. 15 CFR 742.8 - Anti-terrorism: Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: Iran. 742.8 Section... BASED CONTROLS § 742.8 Anti-terrorism: Iran. (a) License Requirements. (1) A license is required for anti-terrorism purposes to export or reexport to Iran any item for which AT column 1 or AT column 2...

  10. 15 CFR 742.8 - Anti-terrorism: Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: Iran. 742.8 Section... BASED CONTROLS § 742.8 Anti-terrorism: Iran. (a) License Requirements. (1) A license is required for anti-terrorism purposes to export or reexport to Iran any item for which AT column 1 or AT column 2...

  11. 15 CFR 742.8 - Anti-terrorism: Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: Iran. 742.8 Section... BASED CONTROLS § 742.8 Anti-terrorism: Iran. (a) License Requirements. (1) A license is required for anti-terrorism purposes to export or reexport to Iran any item for which AT column 1 or AT column 2...

  12. Epidemiology of hepatitis C virus in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Taherkhani, Reza; Farshadpour, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    In Iran, the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is relatively low according to the population-based epidemiological studies. However, the epidemiology of HCV is changing and the rate of HCV infection is increasing due to the growth in the number of injecting drug users in the society. In addition, a shift has occurred in the distribution pattern of HCV genotypes among HCV-infected patients in Iran. Genotype 1a is the most prevalent genotype in Iran, but in recent years, an increase in the frequency of 3a and a decrease in 1a and 1b have been reported. These variations in the epidemiology of HCV reflect differences in the routes of transmission, status of public health, lifestyles, and risk factors in different groups and geographic regions of Iran. Health policy makers should consider these differences to establish better strategies for control and prevention of HCV infection. Therefore, this review was conducted to present a clear view regarding the current epidemiology of HCV infection in Iran. PMID:26478671

  13. Domestic Abuse in Behshahr, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rahmatian, Ali Akbar; Hosseini, Seyyed Ali Asghar

    2015-01-01

    Background: The United Nations in a resolution defined abuse as any violent act that is primarily or exclusively committed against females and results in physical, sexual and psychological harm. Objectives: The aim of this research was to study the contributing factors of husband’s violence against females residing in the city of Behshahr, Iran. Materials and Methods: We distributed a specifically designed questionnaire among 380 married females aged between 15 and 65 years. According to the Morgan table, the subjects were randomly selected from a list of 301000 females. Demographic data and data on spouse abuse were then analyzed using the SPSS software, Spearman and Pearson correlation coefficients. According to Cronbach’s alpha, the reliability of the questionnaire was 0.96. Results: All of the females reported at least one form of violence within the past year, with R square 0.20, indicating that the independent variable can explain 20% of the violence against females. years of marriage, female’s education, male’s addiction and the number of children each had their share in the explanation of violence against females. Conclusions: This study revealed a high prevalence of domestic violence in the sample population. Violence existed among all ages, social categories and male occupational groups, and also involved both employed and unemployed females. The situation regarding domestic abuse is similar worldwide. PMID:26834799

  14. Iran plans huge private sector MTBE plant

    SciTech Connect

    Alperowicz, N.

    1992-01-15

    An export-oriented 1-million m.t./year methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) plant is planned as one of Iran`s private sector investment projects. State-owned National Petrochemical Co (NPC; Tehran) and the Dubai-based Iranian businessman Abdul Wahab Galadari have signed a letter of intent allowing Galadari to develop the venture. Colt Engineering (Calgary, AL) is assisting Galadari with costs, planning and technology selection for the estimated $300-million plus venture. An important meeting with NPC is scheduled end of this month, says Galadari, and a financial package should be put together by end of March or April. The facility will most likely be wholly-owned by the Galadari family, roughly 50% by members resident in Iran and the remainder by the Dubai-based concern A.W. Galadari Sons. NPC says it may take a token shareholding in the venture.

  15. Health Promoting Hospitals Model in Iran

    PubMed Central

    YAGHOUBI, Maryam; JAVADI, Marzieh; BAHADORI, Mohammadkarim; RAVANGARD, Ramin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hospitals are the central entity of each health care system and Health Promoting Hospitals (HPH) was launched by WHO in 1988. However, there has not been any accurate and detailed model for establishing a HPH in Iran up to now. Therefore, this study aimed to determine factors affecting the establishment of a health promoting hospital in Iran using factor analysis method. Methods: This applied, cross-sectional and descriptive-analytical study was conducted in Iran in four steps. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was used for determining factors affecting the establishment of a HPH. Results: Society (0.97) and Policy (0.74) had the highest regression weights (effects) and management had the lowest one. Conclusion: Community assessment was the most important dimension of proposed conceptual model for establishing a HPH. PMID:27141499

  16. Economics of Gypsum Production in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmaeili, Abdoulkarim

    The purpose of this research is to analyze the economics of gypsum production in Iran. The trend in production cost, selling price and profit are used to investigate economics of gypsum production. In addition, the multivariate time series method is used to determine factors affecting gypsum price in domestic market. The results indicated that due to increase in production and inflation, profitability of gypsum production has decreased during recent years. It is concluded that tariff and non-tariff barriers on mines machinery are among reasons for increasing production cost in Iranian gypsum mines. Decreasing such barriers could increase profitability of gypsum production in Iran.

  17. Iran's nuclear-power program revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Mossavar-Rahmani, B.

    1980-09-01

    Iran's new government has not yet decided the fate of the country's once-ambitious nuclear power program. If the program is kept alive, it will be limited to the completion of at most one or two of the reactors that were already well underway then the revolution broke out. The author traces the origins and growth of the Iranian nuclear-power program between 1974 and 1978, summarizes the principal economic, infrasturctural, and political criticisms of the program as originally planned, discusses the potential for greater use of natural gas as an alternative and, finally, recommends a long, detailed reassessment of Iran's energy options. 13 references, 3 tables.

  18. A Review of Myiasis in Iran and a New Nosocomial Case from Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh, Mahbobeh; Mowlavi, Gholamreza; Kargar, Faranak; Nateghpour, Mehdi; Akbarzadeh, Kamran; Hajenorouzali-Tehrani, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Background: Due to various climatic conditions in different parts of Iran, presenting of various kinds of human myiasis is expected. Despite of a few case series, most papers related to myiasis are case reports originated from various parts of Iran. This study discusses on different clinical features of myiasis in Iran and description of one case from Tehran as a representative to nosocomial infection in Iran. Methods: The information needed for this descriptive study was derived mainly from the digital library of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The larvae have been identified with observing on posterior spiracles, spines of their body and anal tubercles. Results: Total number of reported myiasis cases from Iran is 77 which can be categorized clinically as furuncular, wound, ophthalmic, auricular, nasopharyngeal, oral, intestinal and genitourinary. Based on parasitological features, all myiasis agents in Iran are belonging to Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Oestridae and Syrphidae flies. The case which is reporting in this paper can be mentioned as representative of nosocomial myiasis which it seems to be underreported because of some medicolegal reasons. Conclusion: Low number of investigations on various aspects of human myiasis, as well as incuriosity to report of the cases in disease reporting system of health minister, made the myiasis as a neglected disease. PMID:26114125

  19. Design issues concerning Iran`s Bushehr nuclear power plant VVER-1000 conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, C.F.

    1996-12-31

    On January 8, 1995, the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI) signed a contract for $800 million with the Russian Federation Ministry for Atomic Energy (Minatom) to complete Bushehr nuclear power plant (BNPP) unit 1. The agreement called for a Russian VVER-1000/320 pressurized water reactor (PWR) to be successfully installed into the existing German-built BNPP facilities in 5 yr. System design differences, bomb damage, and environmental exposure are key issues with which Minatom must contend in order to fulfill the contract. The AEOI under the Shah of Iran envisioned Bushehr as the first of many nuclear power plants, with Iran achieving 24 GW(electric) by 1993 and 34 GW(electric) by 2000. Kraftwerk Union AG (KWU) began construction of the two-unit plant near the Persian Gulf town of Halileh in 1975. Unit 1 was {approx}80% complete and unit 2 was {approx}50% complete when construction was interrupted by the 1979 Iranian Islamic revolution. Despite repeated AEOI attempts to lure KWU and other companies back to Iran to complete the plant, Western concerns about nuclear proliferation in Iran and repeated bombings of the plant during the 1980-1988 Iran-Iraq war dissuaded Germany from resuming construction.

  20. Seasonal Pattern in Suicide in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Moqaddasi Amiri, Mohammad; Ahmadi Livani, Abdolkarim; Moosazadeh, Mahmood; Mirzajani, Mohammadreza; Dehghan, Azizallah

    2015-01-01

    Background: Various studies have shown a seasonal pattern in suicide in the developed societies; however, this pattern is not taken into consideration in most countries including Iran. Objectives: The current paper studied the seasonal pattern of committing suicide in Northern Iran. Materials and Methods: The present study was a longitudinal study with time series features. Subject included suicide attempts recorded by emergency wards of all hospitals in Mazandaran province, Iran. The variable time, in this study, was defined as each month of study years (2005 - 2011), which included 84 monthly time points. To analyze data, the Student’s independent t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) test were used. Results: Of the 14,437 suicide attempts reported during the seven-year period, 5359 (37.1%) were related to males. Suicide attempts reached a peak in June (1418 cases) and November (1352 cases), but were at their lowest level in March (991 cases) (P = 0.877). Conclusions: The suicide seasonality range is broad in this part of Iran. Moreover, there were two noticeable suicide peaks in June and November. PMID:26576177

  1. Teaching the Iran-Contra Affair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masker, John Scott

    1996-01-01

    Describes a six-week study unit that requires students to examine specific aspects of the Iran-Contra affair in light of models such as presidential leadership style. The combination of a case study, student-centered cooperative learning, and writing across the curriculum proved popular with both the students and teacher. (MJP)

  2. Future Perspectives for Hand Transplant in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Fatemi, M. J.; Masoumi, M.; Esfandiari, E.

    2011-01-01

    Hand transplant program is a communion of physicians and researchers during the current decade. 72 hands and digits were transplanted in 53 patients over the past 13 years. Unlike a solid organ transplant, hand transplantation involves various tissues, so it is called “composite tissue allotransplantation.” This article discusses the plans for performing the first hand transplant in Iran. PMID:25013615

  3. Khatami, Political Reform and Education in Iran.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehran, Golnar

    2003-01-01

    Elected president of Iran in 1997, Khatami promised to bring about political reform, freedom, and religious democracy. He charged schools with creating moral, politicized, and empowered individuals with a strong Iranian-Islamic identity, but capable of relating to the West. While reflecting some of Khatami's goals and values, schools continue to…

  4. Teaching Iran-Contra: Further Reflections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chilcote, Ronald H.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a political science class that focused on the interconnections between the Iran-Contra political scandal and United States Latin American policies. The class considered relevant aspects of that foreign policy as well as presidential leadership styles, congressional inquiries, bureaucratic politics, and public opinion. Briefly reviews the…

  5. 15 CFR 746.7 - Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... These prohibitions are set forth in OFAC's Iranian Transactions Regulations (31 CFR part 560). In... prohibited by the Iranian Transactions Regulations (31 CFR part 560) and not authorized by OFAC. The... or reexport to Iran any item on the CCL containing a CB Column 1, CB Column 2, CB Column 3, NP...

  6. 15 CFR 746.7 - Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... These prohibitions are set forth in OFAC's Iranian Transactions Regulations (31 CFR part 560). In... prohibited by the Iranian Transactions Regulations (31 CFR part 560) and not authorized by OFAC. The... or reexport to Iran any item on the CCL containing a CB Column 1, CB Column 2, CB Column 3, NP...

  7. 15 CFR 746.7 - Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... These prohibitions are set forth in OFAC's Iranian Transactions Regulations (31 CFR part 560). In... prohibited by the Iranian Transactions Regulations (31 CFR part 560) and not authorized by OFAC. The... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Iran. 746.7 Section 746.7 Commerce...

  8. 15 CFR 746.7 - Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... These prohibitions are set forth in OFAC's Iranian Transactions Regulations (31 CFR part 560). In... transaction is prohibited by the Iranian Transactions Regulations (31 CFR part 560) and not authorized by OFAC... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Iran. 746.7 Section 746.7 Commerce...

  9. Students from the Arab World and Iran.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Althen, Gary L., Ed.

    Information on the background and viewpoints of Middle Eastern students who are studying in the United States is presented in revised papers from a 1978 seminar, "The Middle East: The Arab World and Iran." In the first section of the report, "General Background," James Cowan reviews social and cultural factors, as well as questions of philosophy…

  10. National Strategies of Ophthalmic Education in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Entezari, A; Javadi, MA; Einollahi, B

    2012-01-01

    Background: Academic medicine is in a state of dramatic transformation. For this reason strategic thinking is the most essential part of educational planning. The main purpose of the present study was developing the strategic educational planning of Ophthalmology in Iran from 2007 to 2010 Methods: A qualitative investigation using focus group discussion has been implemented successfully for developing educational planning. Six to twelve representatives of key stakeholders in the ophthalmic education of Iran participated to this study. Results: Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of ophthalmology education in Iran were analyzed. Strategic goals in education, research, and health service providing domains were being developed. Educational goals were defined as training of human resources in accordance with the community needs at the level of general practitioner, specialist, and fellowships in ophthalmology. Research goals of the program were defined as scientific inter-departmental and international communications, in order to promote the level of education, research, and treatment in the country. Also, in the field of health services according to the community needs, providing services by the means of advanced and cost effective methods were defined as strategic objectives. Conclusion: Based on this strategic plan in the last three years ophthalmic education in Iran shall be many changes in educational, research and health care provision for social accountability. PMID:23113125

  11. Medical Biotechnology Trends and Achievements in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mahboudi, Fereidoun; Hamedifar, Haleh; Aghajani, Hamideh

    2012-01-01

    A healthcare system has been the most important priority for all governments worldwide. Biotechnology products have affected the promotion of health care over the last thirty years. During the last several decades, Iran has achieved significant success in extending healthcare to the rural areas and in reducing the rates of infant mortality and increasing population growth. Biomedical technology as a converging technology is considered a helpful tool to fulfill the Iranian healthcare missions. The number of biotechnology products has reached 148 in 2012. The total sales have increased to 98 billion USD without considering vaccines and plasma derived proteins in 2012. Iran is one of the leading countries in the Middle East and North Africa in the area of Medical biotechnology. The number of biotechnology medicines launched in Iran is 13 products until 2012. More than 15 products are in pipelines now. Manufacturers are expecting to receive the market release for more than 8 products by the end of 2012. Considering this information, Iran will lead the biotechnology products especially in area of biosimilars in Asia after India in next three years. The present review will discuss leading policy, decision makers’ role, human resource developing system and industry development in medical biotechnology. PMID:23407888

  12. Selection of College Freshmen in Iran.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazargan, Abbas

    Measurement procedures used in Iran for the selection of college students are described. The pre-university system of education has no mission other than college preparation. In 1972-73 the higher education system was comprised of 158 institutions: eight universities, 54 "B.A. granting" colleges, and 96 junior colleges. In 1972-73, 13 institutions…

  13. Nutrition policy process challenges in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Goshtaei, Massomeh; Ravaghi, Hamid; Sari, Ali Akbari; Abdollahi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Nutrition transition is occurring rapidly in the world, especially in developing countries. The nutrition transition occurred in Iran very fast due to urbanization and changes in the lifestyle of people, leading to overweight and obesity. However, nutritional deficiencies are still detected due to economic factors and low nutritional knowledge. Nutrition policies do not adequately respond to the nutrition challenges in Iran. This study was conducted to evaluate and analyze the nutrition policy process challenges in Iran. Methods A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was conducted with 59 policy makers and nutrition experts of medical universities across Iran. Interviews were continued until data saturation was achieved. Data were supplemented with surveys and documentary analysis. Thematic analysis was guided by the propositions of the stages heuristic framework. Results The results were categorized into four main themes and eight sub-themes. The main themes were 1) nutrition problem definition, 2) policy formulation, 3) implementation of the policies, and 4) evaluation of the policies. However, the multi-faceted nature of the nutritional problem makes it difficult to deal with, so a multi-sectoral approach is needed. Conclusion Nutrition policies have been implemented in Iran with varying degrees of success and with different levels of cross-sectoral collaboration. The nutrition policies sometimes have not been able to respond to the nutritional problems. One of the important reasons is that nutrition is not a priority for policy makers. Many policies suffer from a lack of adequate and appropriate resource allocation. Cooperation mechanisms to resolve nutritional problems are sometimes ineffective and inefficient. PMID:27053992

  14. 78 FR 15798 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Iran Democracy Program Grants Vetting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Iran Democracy Program Grants Vetting ACTION: Notice of...DL@state.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title of Information Collection: Iran Program Grants. OMB.... Respondents: Potential grantees and participants for Iran programs. Estimated Number of Respondents:...

  15. 78 FR 55134 - Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Iran Modern”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ... Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Iran Modern'' ACTION: Notice..., number 153) of determinations made by the Department of State pertaining to the exhibit ``Iran Modern... in the exhibition ``Iran Modern,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the...

  16. 78 FR 31999 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Iran Democracy Program Grants Vetting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-28

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Iran Democracy Program Grants Vetting ACTION: Notice of...: Iran Program Grants Vetting. OMB Control Number: 1405-0176. Type of Request: Extension. ] Originating.... Respondents: Potential grantees and participants for Iran programs. Estimated Number of Respondents:...

  17. An annotated catalogue of the Buprestidae of Iran (Coleoptera: Buprestoidea).

    PubMed

    Ghahari, Hassan; Volkovitsh, Mark G; Bellamy, Charles L

    2015-01-01

    An annotated taxonomic catalogue of the jewel beetles (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) of Iran is given. Original descriptions and recent revisionary or catalogue data are included along with the distribution, both within and outside of Iran, ecological data and host plant associations, junior synonyms, and comments. A complete bibliography completes the catalogue. In total 428 species and 52 subspecies of jewel beetles belonging to 6 subfamilies (Julodinae, Polycestinae, Galbellinae, Chrysochroinae, Buprestinae, and Agrilinae), 20 tribes, and 38 genera are known from Iran including doubtful records and 4 nomina nuda. It is likely that the number of jewel beetle species from Iran will be between 460-480 and possibly even more species. PMID:26250020

  18. Medical tourism in Iran: Issues and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Jabbari, Alireza; Delgoshaei, Bahram; Mardani, Raja; Tabibi, Seid Jamaledin

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Medical tourism is rapidly becoming a worldwide, multibillion-dollar industry. Iran has a high potential for this industry. The purpose of this study was to examine the medical tourism cluster, using Diamond Analysis tool. Materials and Methods: This study is a descriptive, analytical and qualitative one. Thirty professionals and researchers in this field were interviewed and official documents belonging to the Health ministry as well as tourism organization and finally related literature were examined. The data was analyzed using content analysis method. Results: Positive and negative parts of the medical tourism industry of Iran were determined according to diamond of advantage. Conclusion: The strategic issues were identified and a number of possible solutions for addressing them were recommended. More and effective public-private participations, aggressive marketing, improving infrastructures, and international accreditation of health care facilities and human resources development could improve medical tourism industry in the country. PMID:23555142

  19. Makran Mountain Range, Iran and Pakistan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The long folded mountain ridges and valleys of the coastal Makran Ranges of Iran and Pakistan (26.0N, 63.0E) illustrate the classical Trellis type of drainage pattern, common in this region. The Dasht River and its tributaries is the principal drainage network for this area. To the left, the continental drift of the northward bound Indian sub-continent has caused the east/west parallel ranges to bend in a great northward arc.

  20. Investigation of Valiantzas' evapotranspiration equation in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valipour, Mohammad

    2015-07-01

    Several methods are available to estimate the reference evapotranspiration including mass transfer-based, radiation-based, temperature-based, and pan evaporation-based methods. The most important weather parameters are solar radiation, temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed for evapotranspiration models. This study aims to compare five forms of Valiantzas' evapotranspiration methods (one of the newest models) as well as Priestley-Taylor and Turc models to detect the best one under different weather conditions. For this purpose, weather data were gathered from 181 synoptic stations in 31 provinces of Iran. The reference evapotranspiration was compared with the FAO Penman-Monteith method. The results show that they are suitable for provinces of Iran (coefficient of determination ( R 2) was more than 0.9900). The Valiantzas 1 ( T, R s, RH, u) is more suitable for centre and south of Iran (9 provinces), and the Valiantzas 2 ( T, R s, RH, u) is suitable for west, east, and north of Iran (22 provinces). The most precise method was the Valiantzas 1 ( T, R s, RH, u) for ES. In addition, among limited data methods, the Valiantzas 2 ( T, R s, RH) is the best method (18 provinces). Finally, a list of the best performances of each method was presented to use other regions according to values of temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed. The best weather conditions for use in Valiantzas' methods are >24.2 MJ m-2 day-1, 16-18 °C, 40-50 %, and 1.50-2.50 m s-1 for solar radiation, temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed, respectively. Results are also useful for selecting the best model when researchers must apply these models on the basis of the available data.

  1. Spatial Analysis of Colorectal Cancer in Iran.

    PubMed

    Pakzad, Reza; Moudi, Asieh; Pournamdar, Zahra; Pakzad, Iraj; Mohammadian-Hashejani, Abdollah; Momenimovahed, Zohre; Salehiniya, Hamid; Towhidi, Farhad; Makhsosi, Behnam Reza

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers. Due to demographic changes, it is predicted that the incidence of this cancer will increase. Variations of its incidence rate among geographical areas are due to various contributing factors. Since there have been a lack of studies on this topic in our country, the present assessment of spatial patterns of colorectal cancer incidence in Iran was performed. In this ecological study, the new cases of colon cancer were extracted from Cancer Registry Center report of the Health Deputy of Iran in 2009. The reported incidences of the disease were standardized on the basis of the World Health Organization population and the direct method. Then the data were inserted into the GIS software, and finally, using the analysis of hot spots (Getis-Ord Gi) high-risk areas were drawn. Provinces that are higher or lower than the national average (1.9 SD) were considered hot spots or cold spots, significant at the level of 0.05. A total of 6,210 cases of colorectal cancer were registered in Iran in 2009, of which 3,727 were in men and 2,783 in women (age-standardized rates of 11.3 and 10.9 per 100,000 population, respectively). The results showed that in central and northern Iran including Isfahan, Qom, Tehran, Qazvin and Mazandaran significant hot spots in men were present (p <0.05). In women also we have high incidence in northern and central states: Mazandaran province (p<0.01) and the province of Tehran (p<0.05) had higher incidences than the national average and were apparent as significant hot spots. Analysis of the spatial distribution of colorectal cancer showed significant differences between different areas pointing to the necessity for further epidemiological studies into the etiology and early detection. PMID:27165208

  2. Ochratoxin A in several grains in Iran.

    PubMed

    Beheshti, Hamed Reza; Asadi, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Ochratoxin A content in 100 grain and derived products were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with immunoaffinity column clean-up and fluorometric detection. Ochratoxin A was detected in 32% of green gram, 13.3% of chickpea, 10% of lentil and 17.5% of wheat flour. Ochratoxin contamination was below the regulatory limits of the European Union and of Iran. Recovery was 97% and the limit of detection was 0.12 ng g⁻¹. PMID:24779905

  3. Suicidal Attempt and Psychiatric Disorders in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammadi, Mohammad-Reza; Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Rahgozart, Mehdi; Noorbala, Ahmad Ali; Malekafzali, Hossein; Davidian, Haratoun; Naghavi, Hamidreza; Soori, Hamid; Yazdi, Seyed Abbas Bagheri

    2005-01-01

    This study is part of broader research aimed to determine the lifetime prevalence and pattern of comorbidity on self-reported suicidal attempts in the general population of Iran. Overall, 25,180 subjects were interviewed, face-to-face, at home; the lifetime prevalence was 1.4% (0.9% males and 2% females). The majority of attempters were 26-55…

  4. Sheath rot of rice in Iran.

    PubMed

    Naeimi, S; Okhovvat, S M; Hedjaroude, G A; Khosravi, V

    2003-01-01

    Sheath rot of rice occurs in most rice-growing regions of the world. It usually causes yield losses from 20 to 85%. Sheath rot was reported from Iran in 1993. Year after year, the number of diseased plants increased in the Northern Iran. In summer of 2001, these symptoms were observed in most fields: lesions occur on the upper leaf sheaths, especially the flag leaf sheath. As the disease progresses, lesions enlarge and coalesce and may cover most of the leaf sheath. Panicle may fail to completely or at all. Brown or partially brown not filled or partially filled grain is also associated with infection of the panicle. A whitish powdery growth may be found inside affected sheaths. Infected plants were collected and trasferred to laboratory. Small pieces of diseased tissues were washed under tap water for one hour. Then tissues were placed on WA and incubated at 25 degrees C. These isolates were purified and identified as: Sarocladium oryzae, Fusarium udum, F. semitectum, F. avenaceum, F. flocciferum, F. graminearum, Bipolaris oryzae, Alternaria padwickii, Rhizoctonia solani, Paecilomyces sp., Nigrospora sp. and Trichoderma sp. This is the first report of F. udum in Iran. Also this is the first report that rice is the host for F. semitectum, F. avenaceum and F. flocciferum in Iran. Pathogenicity tests were conducted in glass house. Following species were found to be associated with sheath rot of rice: S. oryzae, F. graminearum, F. udum, F. avenaceum, B. oryzae, A. padwickii. This is the first report in the world that F. udum and A. padwickii are the causal agents of the sheath rot on rice plants. PMID:15151303

  5. Epidemiology of hepatitis E virus in Iran.

    PubMed

    Taherkhani, Reza; Farshadpour, Fatemeh

    2016-06-14

    Iran is known as an endemic country for hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection, while there are variations in the epidemiology of HEV infection throughout the country. The available epidemiological studies in different regions of Iran show HEV seroprevalence of 1.1%-14.2% among general population, 4.5% -14.3% among blood donors, 6.1%-22.8% among injecting drug users, 6.3%-28.3% among hemodialysis patients, 1.6%-11.3% among patients infected with other hepatitis viruses, 27.5% among patients with chronic liver disease, 30.8% among kidney transplant recipient patients, and 10%-16.4% among human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. These variations reflect differences in the status of public health and hygiene, risk factors, and routes of transmission in different regions and groups. Therefore, it is necessary to review the epidemiology of HEV infection to determine the most prevalent risk factors and routes of transmission, and to evaluate the effectiveness of preventive strategies employed in the public health services of the country. Moreover, the other epidemiological aspects of HEV, including the genotypic pattern, extra hepatic manifestations, and incidence of chronic infection need to be investigated among Iranian population to expand the current knowledge on the epidemiology of HEV and to clarify the real burden of HEV infection. Therefore, this review was performed to provide a general overview regarding the epidemiology of HEV in Iran. PMID:27298557

  6. Gender and spatial population mobility in Iran.

    PubMed

    Hemmasi, M

    1994-01-01

    1976-1986 data from the National Census of Population and Housing were analyzed to examine the spatial patterns of internal migration of women and men in Iran within its Islamic patriarchal cultural system. The researcher also organized 1986 data into two interprovincial migration matrixes for men and women. Women were spatially as mobile as men (urban, 16.7% for men and 17% for women; rural, 8.4% and 8.9%, respectively). Gender spatial mobility patterns during the 10 years included: migration streams from nine provinces consistently led to Tehran province, most migration flows to Tehran and most other provinces originated from Khuzistan, East Azerbaijan province still continued to lose population (about 500,000), and out-flows generally originated from the provinces affected by the Iran-Iraq war and went to the central and eastern provinces. The strongest determinants of women's migration was men's migration ratio and the road distance between the origin and destination. Reasons for these strong associations were few employed women ( 10%), strong family ties, and traditional cultural values (e.g., women tend not to travel alone). So their migration patterns tended to be associational rather than autonomous. Despite the fact that internal migration patterns of men and women were the same, the causes, processes, and consequences of migration were still very gender-specific in Iran. There are no signs of change in the near future. PMID:12289843

  7. Prevalence of obesity among schoolchildren in Iran.

    PubMed

    Ayatollahi, S M T; Mostajabi, F

    2007-07-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity among schoolchildren aged 6.5-11.5 years in Shiraz (southern Iran) are presented in this paper. The body mass index (BMI) percentiles of these children are compared with the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reference data and with the Iranian standard. The data are based on a random multistage sample survey of 2397 healthy school attenders (1268 boys, 1129 girls) living in Shiraz, whose heights and weights were measured in the 2002-2003 academic year. Joint height and weight measurements were obtained for 2195 schoolchildren (91.6%), consisting of 1138 boys (89.7%) and 1057 girls (93.6%). A total of 77 boys (6.8%) and 40 girls (3.8%) were overweight, and the difference between them was significant (P = 0.001). However, obesity was significantly less prevalent in boys (3.3%) than in girls (6.1%) (P = 0.001). Our children's median BMI lie almost on the 38th centile of the CDC reference data, whereas that of their counterparts born more than 10 years ago lay on the 20th centile of their American counterparts, showing the development of children's obesity in a period of less than 15 years in Iran. A positive secular trend in BMI has been seen during the past decade in Iran, suggesting policymakers and health professionals should pay special attention to children's health. PMID:17578379

  8. Occurrence of viruses infecting pea in Iran.

    PubMed

    Esfandiari, N; Kohi-Habibi, M; Mosahebi, Gh

    2006-01-01

    A survey was conducted to determine the incidence of Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV), Broad bean wilt virus-1 (BBWV), Pea leafroll virus (PLRV), Pea enation mosaic virus (PEMV), Pea seed borne mosaic virus (PSbMV), Potato virus x(PVX), Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV), Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) on pea (Pisum sativum) in Iran. A Total of 1276 random and 684 symptomatic pea samples were collected during the spring and summer of 2002-2004 in Tehran province of Iran, where pea is grown, and tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using specific polyclonal antibodies. Serological diagnoses were confirmed by electron microscopy and host range studies. Incidence of viruses in decreasing order was PVX (69%), ToMV (59%), PSbMV (36.6%), BBWV-1 (26.1%), BYMV (20.3%), AMV (17.77%), TSWV (12.6%), PEMV (10.9%), PLRV (6.78%). In this survey, natural occurrence of AMV, BBWV-1, PSbMV, TSWV, PVX and ToMV was reported for the first time on the pea in Iran. PMID:17390891

  9. Aflatoxins in iran: nature, hazards and carcinogenicity.

    PubMed

    Khoshpey, B; Farhud, Dd; Zaini, F

    2011-12-01

    Many studies have shown that mycotoxin contamination of agricultural products is a challenge for individual's health especially in developing countries. Improper production and storage of foods, prepare conditions for aflatoxin production in crops, especially rice, wheat, pistachio, walnut, almond, etc which are the main sources of foods for people. Feeding livestock by contaminated bread is another way of human exposure to mycotoxins, especially aflatoxin and because of expensive methods for detecting and analyzing aflatoxin in laboratory; it is not measured in foods. This manuscript is a review of some Iranian and nonIranian reports about aflatoxin, its exposure ways, its adverse effect on human health and nutrition, as well as methods for reducing its exposure. Based on studies on foods, aflatoxin exposure is high in Iran. Since livestock feeding by contaminated bread is one of the potential ways for milk contamination, we should control and reduce aflatoxin contamination by improving production process, storage condition and livestock feeding as soon as possible. Pistachio is one of the most important exporting products of Iran and to maintain Iran's position in exporting of this product, specific regulations on lowering its contamination with aflatoxin should be considered seriously. Finally, effective controlling of all food and feedstuffs which are vulnerable to aflatoxin contamination is necessary to prevent its effects. PMID:23113099

  10. Epidemiology of hepatitis E virus in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Taherkhani, Reza; Farshadpour, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Iran is known as an endemic country for hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection, while there are variations in the epidemiology of HEV infection throughout the country. The available epidemiological studies in different regions of Iran show HEV seroprevalence of 1.1%-14.2% among general population, 4.5% -14.3% among blood donors, 6.1%-22.8% among injecting drug users, 6.3%-28.3% among hemodialysis patients, 1.6%-11.3% among patients infected with other hepatitis viruses, 27.5% among patients with chronic liver disease, 30.8% among kidney transplant recipient patients, and 10%-16.4% among human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. These variations reflect differences in the status of public health and hygiene, risk factors, and routes of transmission in different regions and groups. Therefore, it is necessary to review the epidemiology of HEV infection to determine the most prevalent risk factors and routes of transmission, and to evaluate the effectiveness of preventive strategies employed in the public health services of the country. Moreover, the other epidemiological aspects of HEV, including the genotypic pattern, extra hepatic manifestations, and incidence of chronic infection need to be investigated among Iranian population to expand the current knowledge on the epidemiology of HEV and to clarify the real burden of HEV infection. Therefore, this review was performed to provide a general overview regarding the epidemiology of HEV in Iran. PMID:27298557

  11. The cost of hemodialysis in Iran.

    PubMed

    Arefzadeh, Alireza; Lessanpezeshki, Mahboub; Seifi, Sepideh

    2009-03-01

    The use of dialysis in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) remains one of the most resource-intensive and hence, expensive therapeutic interventions. The purpose of this study was to assess the cost of hemodialysis (HD) in Iran. This study was conducted in the Department of Nephrology at the Imam Khomeini Hospital of Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran, between April 2006 and June 2007. Patients with ESRD on chronic HD were involved in the study. Relevant data were collected using interview and questionnaire. Analyzed costs included: transportation plus absence from work, treatment instruments, drugs and other medical procedures, diet, staff salary, equipment and building support services, non-medical supplies, depreciation of installations and equipments, depreciation of reverse osmosis (RO) and building rent. Sixty-three patients of whom 47.7% were males and 52.3% were females, with mean age of 47 +/- 12 years were studied. The estimated cost of each HD session was about 74 US dollars by which an annual cost of $11549 could be estimated for each patient. Transportation and work leaves (28.9%), staff costs and salaries (21.5%), and treatment instruments (21.1%) were among the greatest expenses. We conclude that the annual cost of dialysis in Iran is similar to other developing countries, but significantly less than the cost in developed countries. PMID:19237828

  12. Factors Associated With Suicidal Attempts in Iran: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Hakim Shooshtari, Mitra; Malakouti, Seyyed Kazem; Panaghi, Leili; Mohseni, Shohreh; Mansouri, Naghmeh; Rahimi Movaghar, Afarin

    2016-01-01

    Context: Suicide prevention is a health service priority. Some surveys have assessed suicidal behaviors and potential risk factors. Objectives: The current paper aimed to gather information about etiology of suicide attempts in Iran. Data Sources: Pubmed, ISI web of science, PsychInfo, IranPsych, IranMedex, IranDoc as well as gray literature were searched. Study Selection: By electronic and gray literature search, 128 articles were enrolled in this paper. Pubmed, ISI web of science, PsychInfo, IranPsych, IranMedex, IranDoc were searched for electronic search. After reading the abstracts, 84 studies were excluded and full texts of 44 articles were reviewed critically. Data Extraction: Pubmed, ISI web of science, PsychInfo, IranPsych, IranMedex, IranDoc as well as gray literature were searched to find any study about etiologic factors of suicide attempt in Iran. Results: Depressive disorder was the most common diagnosis in suicide attempters that is 45% of the evaluated cases had depression. One study that had used Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory (MMPI) found that Histrionics in females and Schizophrenia and Paranoia in males were significantly influential. Family conflicts with 50.7% and conflict with parents with 44% were two effective psychosocial factors in suicidal attempts. In around one fourth (28.7%) of the cases, conflict with spouse was the main etiologic factor. Conclusions: According to the methodological limitations, outcomes should be generalized cautiously. Further studies will help to plan preventive strategies for suicidal attempts; therefore, continued researches should be conducted to fill the data gaps. PMID:27284284

  13. Case Study: Iran, Islam, the NPT, and the Bomb

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, E .

    2011-04-01

    The goals of this case study are: (1) To examine the correlation between Iran's nuclear program and clerical statements; (2) To evaluate the importance of these statements; (3) To understand the relationship between policy and fatwas (Islamic decrees); (4) To address the issue of a 'nuclear fatwa'; and (5) To examine how, if at all, Sharia (Islamic law) has influenced Iran's actions or inactions with respect to the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and Iran's adherence to its IAEA Safeguards Agreements and the Additional Protocol. The Islamic Republic of Iran (hereinafter Iran) is one of two theocracies in the world, the second being Vatican City. Iran's government derives its constitutional, moral, and political legitimacy from Islam. As a result of this theocratic culture, rules are set and interpreted with a much different calibrator than that of the Western world. Islam affects all aspects of Iranian life. This is further complicated by the fact that Islam is not a nationalistic faith, in that many people all over the world believe in and adhere to Islamic principles. As a result, a political system that derives much of its fervor from being nationalistic is caught between two worlds, one within the land boundaries of Iran and the other within a faith that transcends boundaries. Thus, any understanding of Islamic law must first be understood within this delicate balance of nationalism and transcendence. Iran has found itself on the international stage concerning its nuclear program. Because Iran is a theocratic state, it is imperative to examine its political moves, speeches, rights, and obligations through the lens of Islam. This study will examine how Islam plays a role in Iran's dealing with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), its understanding of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), including parties obligations under Safeguards Agreements and the Additional Protocol, and also provide a

  14. Meeting the Cultural Challenges of Instructional Technology in Iran.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johari, Abbas

    2002-01-01

    Discusses instructional technology in Iran. Highlights include a historical background of Iran; Islamic faith and technology; technology without western culture and influence; access to mass communication; telecommunications conferences; Internet access, usage, and connectivity; social issues; media in schools; Internet inequalities; and…

  15. 78 FR 43278 - Publication of Iran General License D

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-19

    ... reexportation to persons in Iran of certain services, software, and hardware incident to the exchange of..., wherever located, to persons in Iran of certain software and hardware that are subject to the EAR and..., software, or hardware specified in paragraph (a) of this general license with knowledge or reason to...

  16. The Idea of English in Iran: An Example from Urmia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadeghi, Karim; Richards, Jack C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the place of English in Iran. To do this, we look at the social presence of English in Urmia (the capital of West Azerbaijan province, Iran). The paper draws on instances of the use of English in different contexts in Urmia, including its use in academia, business, state and private education, media, and people's ordinary…

  17. Iran's Denial of Education to Baha'is

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the background of the persecution of the Baha'is in Iran, especially the denial of education, and explores what could be done to alleviate this injustice, including enlisting the support of nations, organizations, media and people around the world. Baha'is are the largest religious minority in Iran and have been…

  18. Organizational Commitment among High School Teachers of India and Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joolideh, Faranak; Yeshodhara, K.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the organizational commitment of teachers in India and Iran. It is an attempt to understand how these perceptions vary by demographic variables such as age and subject taught by teachers. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected from 721 high school teachers in Bangalore (India) and Sanandaj (Iran).…

  19. An annotated checklist of Malachiidae (Coleoptera: Cleroidea) from Iran.

    PubMed

    Mirutenko, Vladyslav; Ghahari, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    A checklist of Iranian Malachiidae (Coleoptera) is given in this paper. Eighty two species from 22 genera (subfamily Malachiinae) are listed in the fauna of Iran. Of these species, 31 are endemic to Iran, and one Anthocomus pupillatus Abeille de Perrin, 1890 is a new record for this country. PMID:27615977

  20. [On the fauna of blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae) of Iran].

    PubMed

    Iankovskiĭ, A V

    2010-01-01

    Collections of blacfklies from Iran have been examined; four species were recorded. Three new species are described--Tetisimulium iranicum sp. n., Wilhelmia lurestanica sp. n., and Crosskeyellum zagros sp. n. Presence of Tetisimulium coarctatum (Rubzov, 1940) in Iran is confirmed. PMID:20536011

  1. 48 CFR 25.703-2 - Iran Sanctions Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... (ii) Knowingly selling, leasing or providing to Iran goods, services, technology, information, or support with a fair market value of $1,000,000 or more, or during a 12-month period with an aggregate fair...) Knowingly selling, leasing, or providing to Iran goods, services, technology, information, or support with...

  2. 31 CFR 560.551 - Student loan payments from persons in Iran authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Iran authorized. 560.551 Section 560.551 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... payments from persons in Iran authorized. United States depository institutions and private loan companies... payments from persons in Iran or ordinarily resident in Iran....

  3. 28 CFR 601.1 - Jurisdiction of the Independent Counsel: Iran/Contra.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...: Iran/Contra. 601.1 Section 601.1 Judicial Administration OFFICES OF INDEPENDENT COUNSEL, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE JURISDICTION OF THE INDEPENDENT COUNSEL: IRAN/CONTRA § 601.1 Jurisdiction of the Independent Counsel: Iran/Contra. (a) The Independent Counsel. Iran/Contra has jurisdiction to investigate to...

  4. 31 CFR 560.551 - Student loan payments from persons in Iran authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Iran authorized. 560.551 Section 560.551 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... payments from persons in Iran authorized. United States depository institutions and private loan companies... payments from persons in Iran or ordinarily resident in Iran....

  5. 28 CFR 601.1 - Jurisdiction of the Independent Counsel: Iran/Contra.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...: Iran/Contra. 601.1 Section 601.1 Judicial Administration OFFICES OF INDEPENDENT COUNSEL, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE JURISDICTION OF THE INDEPENDENT COUNSEL: IRAN/CONTRA § 601.1 Jurisdiction of the Independent Counsel: Iran/Contra. (a) The Independent Counsel. Iran/Contra has jurisdiction to investigate to...

  6. 28 CFR 601.1 - Jurisdiction of the Independent Counsel: Iran/Contra.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...: Iran/Contra. 601.1 Section 601.1 Judicial Administration OFFICES OF INDEPENDENT COUNSEL, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE JURISDICTION OF THE INDEPENDENT COUNSEL: IRAN/CONTRA § 601.1 Jurisdiction of the Independent Counsel: Iran/Contra. (a) The Independent Counsel. Iran/Contra has jurisdiction to investigate to...

  7. 28 CFR 601.1 - Jurisdiction of the Independent Counsel: Iran/Contra.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...: Iran/Contra. 601.1 Section 601.1 Judicial Administration OFFICES OF INDEPENDENT COUNSEL, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE JURISDICTION OF THE INDEPENDENT COUNSEL: IRAN/CONTRA § 601.1 Jurisdiction of the Independent Counsel: Iran/Contra. (a) The Independent Counsel. Iran/Contra has jurisdiction to investigate to...

  8. 28 CFR 601.1 - Jurisdiction of the Independent Counsel: Iran/Contra.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...: Iran/Contra. 601.1 Section 601.1 Judicial Administration OFFICES OF INDEPENDENT COUNSEL, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE JURISDICTION OF THE INDEPENDENT COUNSEL: IRAN/CONTRA § 601.1 Jurisdiction of the Independent Counsel: Iran/Contra. (a) The Independent Counsel. Iran/Contra has jurisdiction to investigate to...

  9. Iran`s petroleum policy: Current trends and the future outlook

    SciTech Connect

    Pezeshki, S.; Fesharaki, F.

    1994-12-01

    The Iranian economy and political situation have undergone radical changes since the 1979 Islamic revolution. The excesses of the early years of the revolution have gradually given way to moderation and a more pragmatic economic policy--based on the principles of the free market. The petroleum policy, as a subset of the economic policies, has been somewhat affected by the political and economic developments in Iran. The petroleum policy has changed from a position of no foreign participation to a position that includes a desire for foreign participation, the text of a model contract, and an attempt to introduce new technologies in the upstream sector. This report provides an overview of the key issues facing the Iranian oil industry and the economic context in which the oil industry is operating in Iran. It describes the evolution of policies meant to move the oil industry toward the free market; it discusses Iran`s oil trading partners, the outlook for refining and project investments, and current and likely future developments in the natural gas and petrochemical sectors. In short, the report provides an up-to-date assessment of the Iranian petroleum sector and its likely evolution in the future.

  10. 31 CFR 560.205 - Prohibited reexportation of goods, technology or services to Iran or the Government of Iran by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CFR parts 740-774) or by the U.S. State Department under the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (22 CFR 123.9). ..., technology or services to Iran or the Government of Iran by persons other than United States...

  11. 31 CFR 560.205 - Prohibited reexportation of goods, technology or services to Iran or the Government of Iran by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR parts 740-774) or by the U.S. State Department under the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (22 CFR 123.9). ..., technology or services to Iran or the Government of Iran by persons other than United States...

  12. 31 CFR 560.205 - Prohibited reexportation of goods, technology or services to Iran or the Government of Iran by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR parts 740-774) or by the U.S. State Department under the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (22 CFR 123.9). ..., technology or services to Iran or the Government of Iran by persons other than United States...

  13. 31 CFR 560.205 - Prohibited reexportation of goods, technology, or services to Iran or the Government of Iran by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Commerce under the Export Administration Regulations (15 CFR parts 730-774) or by the U.S. State Department under the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (22 CFR 123.9). (c) Reexportation by United States..., technology, or services to Iran or the Government of Iran by persons other than United States...

  14. 31 CFR 560.205 - Prohibited reexportation of goods, technology, or services to Iran or the Government of Iran by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Commerce under the Export Administration Regulations (15 CFR parts 730-774) or by the U.S. State Department under the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (22 CFR 123.9). (c) Reexportation by United States..., technology, or services to Iran or the Government of Iran by persons other than United States...

  15. 31 CFR 560.427 - Exportation, reexportation, sale or supply of financial services to Iran or the Government of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exportation, reexportation, sale or supply of financial services to Iran or the Government of Iran. 560.427 Section 560.427 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL,...

  16. 31 CFR 560.427 - Exportation, reexportation, sale or supply of financial services to Iran or the Government of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exportation, reexportation, sale or supply of financial services to Iran or the Government of Iran. 560.427 Section 560.427 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL,...

  17. Profiteering on the Iran-Iraq war

    SciTech Connect

    Brzoska, M.

    1987-06-01

    The military gear delivered from the US in the Iran-contra affair represents only a minor portion of arms sales to the combatants in the Iraq-Iran war. That war has now lasted more than six years and has deeply influenced the international arms market. Occurring during a period when other demand for arms has been relatively low, the war has nourished new suppliers and has revived both the legal and illegal private arms market. The erratic behavior of the USSR and the US, until recently by far the most important arms suppliers to the Third World, has pushed Iran and Iraq toward more commercially oriented sources, including many in the Third World. Both countries have had ample supplies of weapons during the war, and these weapons have served their purpose. Mainly because of its duration, the war already ranks third among post-World War II wars - after the Vietnam war and the Biafra war - in battlefield victims, with 300,000-500,000 casualties. The economic cost has risen to nearly $500 billion in weapons, destruction, and lost income. While it is hard to see anything but losers on the battlefield, the arms traffickers are profiting. Total Iranian arms imports since August 1980 have been higher than $10 billion, while Iraq has imported more than $30 billion worth. It is difficult to know whether making arms more difficult to obtain would have stopped the war, but judging from other recent wars, such as those between India and Pakistan, between Uganda and Tanzania, and in the Middle East, it seems likely that hostilities could have been stopped long ago. 12 references.

  18. Telemedicine in Iran: Chances and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Salehahmadi, Zeinab; Hajialiasghari, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Technology is likely to transform the way care is delivered at home and in the community. Telemedicine, the child of IT and Medicine sciences is the use of telecommunication equipment and information technology to provide clinical care to individuals at distant sites and the transmission of medical and surgical information and images needed to provide that care. Undoubtedly, the advantages outweight its disadvantages, but just like any other innovations, it has some drawbacks. The present study outlines telemedicine strong and weak points. In this regard a survey has been done in Tehran University of Medical Sciences in Iran. METHODS Between 14th May and 14th August 2012, 90 medical specialist men and 42 women from different hospitals of Tehran Medical Sciences University, Iran were enrolled by a simple ran- dom sampling method. They all completed a questionnaire to consider what are telemedicine chances and challenges. RESULTS Making use of telemedicine was a profitable alternative in remote, rural/urban places especially in new project of “family physician” presented by Iran Ministry of Health. The results also highlighted that security considerations was an inevitable challenge of telemedicine, while shorter hospital stays and reduced warm ischemic time, and reduced morbidity and mortality rates were telemedicine merits. Despite most previous studies results, telemedicine has been recognised as a cost-effective alternative. Cultural, language distinctions as well as the level of literacy were barriers on deploying tele- medicine. There was no strong evidence showing that using telemedicine caused a decrease in tactile feedback. CONCLUSION We need to fully understand and consider various outcomes and challenges of telemedicine before applying it. PMID:25489500

  19. The spider family Filistatidae (Araneae) in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Marusik, Yuri M.; Zamani, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Abstract All species of Filistatidae occurring in Iran are surveyed. Zaitunia akhanii sp. n. is described on the basis of female specimens collected in Tehran province, and the previously unknown male of Sahastata sinuspersica Marusik, Zamani & Mirshamsi, 2014 is described for the first time. Also, the endogynes of the holotypes of Zaitunia alexandri Brignoli, 1982, Zaitunia medica Brignoli, 1982 and Zaitunia persica Brignoli, 1982 are illustrated. Including these results, the number of Iranian species of Filistatidae is increased to seven, which indicates the highest species-richness of this family in the Western Palaearctic. PMID:26312024

  20. A Survey of the Agrotis of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Feizpoor, Sh.; Shirvani, A.; Rashki, M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study reviews the genus Agrotis Ochsenheimer, 1816 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Noctuinae) in Iran from a taxonomic and faunistic point of view. An identification key of external features is presented for 16 Iranian species and subspecies. A description of each taxon is presented based on external male and female genital characteristics. Diagnostic features and comparisons with the closest relatives are given for each species. Original combination and citation with the synonymy of each species or subspecies are expounded as well as their distribution and bionomy. Adult moths and male genitalia are illustrated. PMID:25368051

  1. Lead poisoning in the world and Iran.

    PubMed

    Azizi, M H; Azizi, F

    2010-04-01

    Lead is a relatively ubiquitous heavy metal with particular features such as resistance to corrosion, high malleability and wide variety of industrial applications. In medicine, however, it is considered as a slow-acting toxic substance affecting multiple body systems, specifically functioning as a potent neurotoxin in the central nervous system. Lead poisoning may be acute or chronic and can be due to occupational or environmental exposures. The history of lead poisoning dates back to ancient times. The present paper briefly describes the worldwide historical accounts of lead poisoning with a special focus on Iran. PMID:23022790

  2. Energy portfolio of Iran: A case study of solar desalination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besharati, Adib

    Energy plays a very important role in the economic development of a country such as Iran where industrial progress and higher living standards increase demand for energy. Iran is one of the countries in the world that simultaneously produces and consumes large amounts of energy. Because of its geographic latitude and weather conditions, Iran has the potential to develop and use of both fossil and renewable energy sources. In South Iran, there are huge oil and gas resources, and at the same time high potential of solar radiation. However, at the present large-scale utilization, solar energy is prohibitively expensive for Iran. Therefore, this study investigates an economical way to utilize solar energy in a meaningful way for Iran. One of the possible uses of solar energy that is both economical and technically feasible is desalination of water using solar energy. People in South Iran live in different areas with relatively low population density. One of the critical problems in those areas is a lack of clean drinking water. As a result, there is an urgent need to investigate ways to produce clean water from the saltwater. Therefore, the present study conducts a case study of solar desalination in south Iran using solar. Different desalination methods, such as humidification dehumidification by using a solar collector, and reverse osmosis, are discussed. In the case study, a prototype desalination plant was considered and both technical and economic aspects of the plant were investigated in details. The results showed higher productivity of drinking water in reverse osmosis method for south Iran.

  3. Mucormycosis in Iran: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Vaezi, Afsane; Moazeni, Maryam; Rahimi, Mohammad Taghi; de Hoog, Sybren; Badali, Hamid

    2016-07-01

    Fungi in the order Mucorales cause acute, invasive and frequently fatal infections in susceptible patients. This study aimed to perform a systematic review of all reported mucormycosis cases during the last 25 years in Iran. After a comprehensive literature search, we identified 98 cases in Iran from 1990-2015. The mean patient age was 39.8 ± 19.2 years. Diabetes was the most common underlying condition (47.9%), and 22.4% of the patients underwent solid organ or bone marrow transplantation. The most common clinical forms of mucormycosis were rhinocerebral (48.9%), pulmonary (9.2%) and cutaneous (9.2%). Eight cases of disseminated disease were identified. Overall mortality in the identified cases was 40.8%, with the highest mortality rate in patients diagnosed with disseminated infection (75%). The mortality rate in rhinocerebral infection patients was significantly lower (45.8%). Rhinocerebral infection was the most common clinical manifestation in diabetes patients (72.9%). Patients were diagnosed using various methods including histopathology (85.7%), microscopy (12.3%) and culture (2.0%). Rhizopus species were the most prevalent (51.7%), followed by Mucor species (17.2%). Sixty-nine patients were treated with a combination of surgery and antifungal therapy (resulting survival rate, 66.7%). Owing to the high mortality rate of advanced mucormycosis, early diagnosis and treatment may significantly improve survival rates. Therefore, increased monitoring and awareness of this life-threatening disease is critical. PMID:26906121

  4. Contemporary medical ethics: an overview from Iran.

    PubMed

    Larijani, Bagher; Zahedi, Farzaneh

    2008-12-01

    The growing potential of biomedical technologies has increasingly been associated with discussions surrounding the ethical aspects of the new technologies in different societies. Advances in genetics, stem cell research and organ transplantation are some of the medical issues that have raised important ethical and social issues. Special attention has been paid towards moral ethics in Islam and medical and religious professions in Iran have voiced the requirement for an emphasis on ethics. In the last decade, great strides have been made in biomedical ethics, especially in the field of education, research and legislation. In this article, contemporary medical ethics in Iran, and the related moral philosophy, have been reviewed in brief and we have discussed some of the activities in the field of medical ethics that have been carried out in our country within recent years. These activities have included the establishment of the National and Regional Committees for Medical Research Ethics and the production of national codes of ethics in biomedical research in the 1990 s and the introduction of a comprehensive strategic plan for medical ethics at the national level in 2002. This paper will discuss these issues, along with the production, in 2005, of the Specific National Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research. PMID:19046256

  5. Aflatoxins in Iran: Nature, Hazards and Carcinogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Khoshpey, B; Farhud, DD; Zaini, F

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have shown that mycotoxin contamination of agricultural products is a challenge for individual’s health especially in developing countries. Improper production and storage of foods, prepare conditions for aflatoxin production in crops, especially rice, wheat, pistachio, walnut, almond, etc which are the main sources of foods for people. Feeding livestock by contaminated bread is another way of human exposure to mycotoxins, especially aflatoxin and because of expensive methods for detecting and analyzing aflatoxin in laboratory; it is not measured in foods. This manuscript is a review of some Iranian and nonIranian reports about aflatoxin, its exposure ways, its adverse effect on human health and nutrition, as well as methods for reducing its exposure. Based on studies on foods, aflatoxin exposure is high in Iran. Since livestock feeding by contaminated bread is one of the potential ways for milk contamination, we should control and reduce aflatoxin contamination by improving production process, storage condition and livestock feeding as soon as possible. Pistachio is one of the most important exporting products of Iran and to maintain Iran’s position in exporting of this product, specific regulations on lowering its contamination with aflatoxin should be considered seriously. Finally, effective controlling of all food and feedstuffs which are vulnerable to aflatoxin contamination is necessary to prevent its effects. PMID:23113099

  6. Pharmaceutical laws and regulations in Iran: An overview.

    PubMed

    Zaboli, Pardis; Hashemi-Meshkini, Amir; Varmaghani, Mehdi; Gholami, Hadi; Vazirian, Iman; Zekri, Hedieh-Sadat; Eslamitabar, Shahriar; Kebriaeezadeh, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    The pharmaceutical legal framework is a very important infrastructure in achieving predefined goals in pharmaceutical sector: Accessibility, quality, and rational use of medicine. This study aims to review the current pharmaceutical sector-related legal provisions in Iran where the Food and Drug Organization (FDO) is in charge of regulating all issues related to the pharmaceutical sector. The main laws and regulations enacted by parliament and cabinet and even internal regulations enacted by the Ministry of Health or Iran FDO are reviewed. Different laws and regulations are categorized according to the main goals of Iran national drug policy. PMID:27512704

  7. Pharmaceutical laws and regulations in Iran: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Zaboli, Pardis; Hashemi-Meshkini, Amir; Varmaghani, Mehdi; Gholami, Hadi; Vazirian, Iman; Zekri, Hedieh-Sadat; Eslamitabar, Shahriar; Kebriaeezadeh, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    The pharmaceutical legal framework is a very important infrastructure in achieving predefined goals in pharmaceutical sector: Accessibility, quality, and rational use of medicine. This study aims to review the current pharmaceutical sector-related legal provisions in Iran where the Food and Drug Organization (FDO) is in charge of regulating all issues related to the pharmaceutical sector. The main laws and regulations enacted by parliament and cabinet and even internal regulations enacted by the Ministry of Health or Iran FDO are reviewed. Different laws and regulations are categorized according to the main goals of Iran national drug policy. PMID:27512704

  8. Trichinella Infection in Wildlife of Northeast of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Borji, H; Sadeghi, H; Razmi, GhR; Pozio, E; La Rosa, G

    2012-01-01

    Background The objective of this investigation was to detect the presence of Trichinella in some carnivores of Mashhad in northeast of Iran and to identify Trichinella species circulating in this area. Methods The present study was carried out using muscle tissue collected from 120 stray dogs, 26 wild boars, 25 rodents, two foxes and two hyenas captured in Mashhad City, province of Khorasan Razavi, Iran. Results Trichinella larvae were detected in three stray dogs by artificial digestion and compression. All larvae were identified as T. britovi using multiplex PCR. Conclusion This is the first report of identification of T. britovi in stray dog in Iran. PMID:23323092

  9. 77 FR 45897 - Authorizing Additional Sanctions With Respect to Iran

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ... July 31, 2012. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, Washington, July 30, 2012. [FR Doc. 2012-19055... Government of Iran occurring after the conclusion of the 1981 Algiers Accords, and are intended solely as...

  10. Social and psychological consequences of abortion in Iran.

    PubMed

    Hosseini-Chavoshi, Meimanat; Abbasi-Shavazi, Mohammad Jalal; Glazebrook, Diana; McDonald, Peter

    2012-09-01

    Iran has had replacement fertility since 2000. Upholding a small family size has led some couples to terminate unwanted pregnancies. Abortion is, however, permitted only on medical grounds in Iran. Using data from the Iran Low Fertility Survey, this study assessed sociodemographic correlates of abortion among a random sample of 5526 ever-married women aged 15-54 years, and used in-depth interviews to explore reasons for and psychological consequences of abortion among 40 women who had experienced an unintended pregnancy. Although social and economic concerns were the main reasons cited for seeking abortion, women experienced anxiety and depression when seeking pregnancy termination and thereafter. Social stigmatization arose from a belief that abortion is sinful and that misfortune experienced thereafter is punishment. Inadequate knowledge and misunderstanding of relevant Sharia laws discouraged women from seeking care when they experienced complications. Iran's reproductive health policies should be revised to integrate pre- and postabortion counseling. PMID:22920623

  11. Imported lymphatic filariasis in an Indian immigrant to iran.

    PubMed

    Kia, Eshrat Beigom; Sharifdini, Meysam; Hajjaran, Homa; Shahbazi, Ali Ehsan; Sayyad Talaie, Zahra

    2014-03-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF), a nematode disease transmitted by arthropod vectors, is repeatedly reported in immigrant population. This disease is not endemic in Iran; however, different species of mosquitoes, capable of transmission of parasite microfilaria, are distributed in the country. Hereby, incidental detection of an imported case of LF due to Wuchereria bancrofti in an Indian worker in Iran is reported. Identification of the case was performed based on morphological and morphometrical characteristics of microfilaria and PCR sequencing. PMID:25642273

  12. Anagnorisma chamrani sp. n. (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) from Iran

    PubMed Central

    Gyulai, Peter; Rabieh, Mohammad Mahdi; Seraj, Ali Asghar; Ronkay, Laslo; Esfandiari, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new Anagnorisma species, Anagnorisma chamrani sp. n., is described from Binaloud Mountains of Khorasan-e-Razavi province in north-eastern Iran, and compared with its sister species, Anagnorisma eucratides (Boursin, 1960). The adults, and male and female genitalia of both species are illustrated in 11 figures. The genus Anagnorisma is recorded for the first time for the fauna of Iran. PMID:23950668

  13. Annotated checklist of Dryopidae and Heteroceridae (Coleoptera: Byrrhoidea) of Iran.

    PubMed

    Mascagni, Alessandro; Jäch, Manfred A; Ostovan, Hadi; Ghahari, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    The distribution of Dryopidae and Heteroceridae (Coleoptera: Byrrhoidea) of Iran is summarized. A total of ten species of Dryopidae in three genera (Dryops Olivier, Parahelichus Löbl & Smetana, and Praehelichus Löbl & Smetana), and 18 species of Heteroceridae in two genera (Augyles Schiödte and Heterocerus Fabricius) are listed. Augyles hispidulus (Kiesenwetter, 1843) (Heteroceridae) is recorded from Iran for the first time. PMID:27470861

  14. Molecular Epidemiology of Human Intestinal Amoebas in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Hooshyar, H; Rostamkhani, P; Rezaian, M

    2012-01-01

    Many microscopic-based epidemiological surveys on the prevalence of human intestinal pathogenic and non-pathogenic protozoa including intestinal amoeba performed in Iran show a high prevalence of human intestinal amoeba in different parts of Iran. Such epidemiological studies on amoebiasis are confusing, mainly due to recently appreciated distinction between the Entamoeba histolytica, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii. Differential diagnosis can be done by some methods such as PCR-based methods, monoclonal antibodies and the analysis of isoenzyme typing, however the molecular study of these protozoa in Iran is low. Based on molecular studies, it seems that E. dispar is predominant species especially in the central and northern areas of Iran and amoebiasis due to E. histolytica is a rare infection in the country. It is suggested that infection with E. moshkovskii may be common among Iranians. Considering the importance of molecular epidemiology of amoeba in Iran and also the current data, the present study reviews the data currently available on the molecular distribution of intestinal human amoeba in Iran. PMID:23193500

  15. The history of organ donation and transplantation in Iran.

    PubMed

    Ghods, Ahad J

    2014-03-01

    The first kidney transplant in Iran was performed in 1967, and this was the first organ transplant in countries that are current members of the Middle East Society for Organ Transplantation. In 1988, in response to the long waiting list at the Iranian Ministry of Health for kidney transplant, a state-regulated living-unrelated donor kidney transplant program was adopted. By 1999, the kidney transplant waiting list in Iran was eliminated. In 1989, a fatwa (religious approval) from the Supreme Religious Leader was obtained that recognized brain death and allowed deceased-donor organ transplant. Subsequently, transplant centers began performing deceased-donor kidney, liver, and heart transplants. In 2000, the Brain Death and Organ Transplantation Act was passed by the Iranian parliament, legalizing deceased-donor organ transplant. The transplant team at Shiraz began performing more deceased-donor kidney and liver transplants and became a successful deceased-donor organ transplant model in the country. By the end of 2012, there were 34166 kidney (including 4436 deceased-donor) and 2021 liver (including 1788 deceased-donor), 482 heart, 147 pancreas, 63 lung, and several intestine and multiorgan transplants performed in Iran. In 2011, there were 2771 solid-organ transplants performed in Iran (37 transplants per million population), and Iran ranked as number 33 among the 50 most active countries worldwide. In 2011 and 2012, Iran was ahead of all country members of the Middle East Society for Organ Transplantation in performing deceased-donor kidney and liver transplants. PMID:24635790

  16. Favism, with special reference to Iran*

    PubMed Central

    Donoso, G.; Hedayat, H.; Khayatian, H.

    1969-01-01

    Fava beans (Vicia fava) are cultivated rather widely in most countries of the Eastern Mediterranean area and provide a cheap but protein-rich food that can be eaten alone, in various culinary preparations, including bread, or as a dietary supplement. However, the ingestion of fava beans may induce a haemolytic disease—favism—in some susceptible individuals and this might appear to limit the use of this pulse crop in those regions where favism occurs frequently. The uses of fava beans in Iran, the characteristics of favism and the present state of knowledge of the pathology of the disease are reviewed in this paper. Although some progress has been made in identifying the toxic substances and in explaining their mode of action, our understanding of favism is still limited. It appears that the disease is seen particularly in young children and is associated with a deficiency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) in the blood. PMID:5306718

  17. The first hand transplantation in iran.

    PubMed

    Kalantar-Hormozi, A; Firoozi, F; Yavari, M; Arasteh, E; Najafizadeh, K; Rashid-Farokhi, F

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, hand transplantation is a very challenging procedure for surgeons and researchers worldwide. Despite many problems that may occur after this surgery, some centers continue to practice this highly sophisticated procedure. Herein, we report on a 38-year-old man who received hand transplant from a 24-year-old brain-dead man. This patient had lost his right hand from the lower one-third of forearm six years before after a trauma from a mincing machine. Team members organized pre-operative research, cadaver dissection, legal consultation, religious permission and discussion to patient. This procedure was done by 15 Khordad Plastic Surgery Transplant team on February 27, 2013 for the first time in Iran. PMID:25013665

  18. 78 FR 48539 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Iran Modern”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Iran Modern'' SUMMARY: Notice is... objects to be included in the exhibition ``Iran Modern,'' imported from abroad for temporary...

  19. Knowledge of healthy lifestyle in Iran: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Ghanei, Mostafa; Ahmady, Khodabakhsh; Babaei, Mansour; Tavana, Ali Mehrabi; Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Ebadi, Abbas; Poursaid, Syed Masood

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Lifestyle is a set of goals, plans, values, attitudes, behaviors, and beliefs manifested in the personal and family life of the individual and in her or his social interactions. It is an interdisciplinary concept that involves a health-oriented view of the physical, psychological, social, and spiritual domains of life. Despite their great importance, there is not much knowledge in Iran about healthy lifestyles. The present study is an attempt to address the knowledge of healthy lifestyle in Iran through a review of the literature on the subject. Methods The present systematic review searched Elsevier, SID, Pub Med, Magiran, IranMedex, and Google Scholar databases for relevant articles published between 2000 and 2014. We used various keywords for the searches, including knowledge, lifestyle, health, and Iran. As a result, 62 articles were included in the study. Results There has been a dramatic increase in the publication of articles on lifestyle in Iran over the past 10 years. The results obtained showed that 64% of the articles addressed physical health, 14% addressed psychological health, 10% addressed social health, and 12% addressed spiritual health. Most lifestyle studies conducted in Iran have focused on physical health, and a few have examined the psychological, social, and spiritual aspects of lifestyle. None of the studies has examined the knowledge map of healthy lifestyles in Iran. Conclusion Given the changes in the causes of mortality from infectious and chronic diseases that impose greater medication and treatment costs on the society, and since diseases caused by unhealthy lifestyles have become the leading cause of death, it is essential for health researchers to focus on the root cause of these diseases, i.e., lifestyle and human behaviors. PMID:27123231

  20. 31 CFR 560.206 - Prohibited trade-related transactions with Iran; goods, technology, or services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... with Iran; goods, technology, or services. 560.206 Section 560.206 Money and Finance: Treasury... Iran; goods, technology, or services. (a) Except as otherwise authorized pursuant to this part, and... services of Iranian origin or owned or controlled by the Government of Iran; or (2) Goods, technology,...

  1. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... to Iran Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of November 12, 2013 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran On November 14, 1979, by Executive Order 12170, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Iran and, pursuant to the International...

  2. 31 CFR 561.322 - Entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Government of Iran. 561.322 Section 561.322 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 561.322 Entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran. The phrase entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran means any entity, including...

  3. 31 CFR 535.334 - Act of the Government of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Act of the Government of Iran. 535.334... Definitions § 535.334 Act of the Government of Iran. For purposes of § 535.216, an act of the Government of Iran, includes any acts ordered, authorized, allowed, approved, or ratified by the Government of...

  4. 31 CFR 560.313 - Entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Government of Iran. 560.313 Section 560.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 560.313 Entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran. The term entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran includes any corporation, partnership,...

  5. 31 CFR 560.552 - Transactions related to U.S. citizens residing in Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... residing in Iran. 560.552 Section 560.552 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... related to U.S. citizens residing in Iran. (a) Except as provided by paragraph (b) of this section, U.S. persons are authorized to engage in transactions in Iran ordinarily incident to the routine and...

  6. 31 CFR 535.334 - Act of the Government of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Act of the Government of Iran. 535.334... Definitions § 535.334 Act of the Government of Iran. For purposes of § 535.216, an act of the Government of Iran, includes any acts ordered, authorized, allowed, approved, or ratified by the Government of...

  7. 31 CFR 535.576 - Payment of non-dollar letters of credit to Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... credit to Iran. 535.576 Section 535.576 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... letters of credit to Iran. Notwithstanding the prohibitions of §§ 535.201 and 535.206(a)(4), payment of existing non-dollar letters of credit in favor of Iranian entities or any person in Iran by any...

  8. 31 CFR 560.206 - Prohibited trade-related transactions with Iran; goods, technology, or services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... with Iran; goods, technology, or services. 560.206 Section 560.206 Money and Finance: Treasury... transactions with Iran; goods, technology, or services. (a) Except as otherwise authorized pursuant to this... to: (1) Goods or services of Iranian origin or owned or controlled by the Government of Iran; or...

  9. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to Iran Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of March 10, 2010 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran On March 15, 1995, by Executive Order 12957, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Iran pursuant to the International Emergency Economic...

  10. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... to Iran Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of March 12, 2013 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran On March 15, 1995, the President issued Executive Order 12957, which declared a national emergency with respect to Iran and, pursuant to the...

  11. 3 CFR - Delegation of Certain Functions and Authorities Under the Iran Freedom and Counter-Proliferation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Under the Iran Freedom and Counter-Proliferation Act of 2012 Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of June 3, 2013 Delegation of Certain Functions and Authorities Under the Iran Freedom... President by the Iran Freedom and Counter-Proliferation Act of 2012 (subtitle D of title XII of Public...

  12. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... to Iran Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of November 7, 2011 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran On November 14, 1979, by Executive Order 12170, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Iran, pursuant to the International...

  13. 31 CFR 560.201 - Prohibited importation of goods or services from Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... services from Iran. 560.201 Section 560.201 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 560.201 Prohibited importation of goods or services from Iran. Except... services of Iranian origin or owned or controlled by the Government of Iran, other than information...

  14. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to Iran Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of November 10, 2010 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran On November 14, 1979, by Executive Order 12170, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Iran, pursuant to the International...

  15. 31 CFR 535.334 - Act of the Government of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Act of the Government of Iran. 535.334... Definitions § 535.334 Act of the Government of Iran. For purposes of § 535.216, an act of the Government of Iran, includes any acts ordered, authorized, allowed, approved, or ratified by the Government of...

  16. 31 CFR 560.313 - Entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Government of Iran. 560.313 Section 560.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 560.313 Entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran. The term entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran includes any corporation, partnership,...

  17. 31 CFR 560.419 - U.S. employment of persons normally located in Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... located in Iran. 560.419 Section 560.419 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS Interpretations § 560.419 U.S. employment of persons normally located in Iran. The prohibitions in § 560.201 make it unlawful to hire an Iranian national normally located in Iran to come to the...

  18. 31 CFR 560.516 - Payment and United States dollar clearing transactions involving Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... clearing transactions involving Iran. 560.516 Section 560.516 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Payment and United States dollar clearing transactions involving Iran. (a) United States depository institutions are authorized to process transfers of funds to or from Iran, or for the direct or...

  19. 31 CFR 560.201 - Prohibited importation of goods or services from Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... services from Iran. 560.201 Section 560.201 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 560.201 Prohibited importation of goods or services from Iran. Except as otherwise... origin or owned or controlled by the Government of Iran, other than information and...

  20. 31 CFR 560.313 - Entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Government of Iran. 560.313 Section 560.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 560.313 Entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran. The term entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran includes any corporation,...

  1. 31 CFR 535.576 - Payment of non-dollar letters of credit to Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... credit to Iran. 535.576 Section 535.576 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... letters of credit to Iran. Notwithstanding the prohibitions of §§ 535.201 and 535.206(a)(4), payment of existing non-dollar letters of credit in favor of Iranian entities or any person in Iran by any...

  2. 31 CFR 535.576 - Payment of non-dollar letters of credit to Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... credit to Iran. 535.576 Section 535.576 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... letters of credit to Iran. Notwithstanding the prohibitions of §§ 535.201 and 535.206(a)(4), payment of existing non-dollar letters of credit in favor of Iranian entities or any person in Iran by any...

  3. 31 CFR 535.334 - Act of the Government of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Act of the Government of Iran. 535.334... Definitions § 535.334 Act of the Government of Iran. For purposes of § 535.216, an act of the Government of Iran, includes any acts ordered, authorized, allowed, approved, or ratified by the Government of...

  4. 31 CFR 560.516 - Payment and United States dollar clearing transactions involving Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... clearing transactions involving Iran. 560.516 Section 560.516 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Payment and United States dollar clearing transactions involving Iran. (a) United States depository institutions are authorized to process transfers of funds to or from Iran, or for the direct or...

  5. 31 CFR 560.206 - Prohibited trade-related transactions with Iran; goods, technology, or services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... with Iran; goods, technology, or services. 560.206 Section 560.206 Money and Finance: Treasury... Iran; goods, technology, or services. (a) Except as otherwise authorized pursuant to this part, and... services of Iranian origin or owned or controlled by the Government of Iran; or (2) Goods, technology,...

  6. 31 CFR 560.313 - Entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Government of Iran. 560.313 Section 560.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 560.313 Entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran. The term entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran includes any corporation,...

  7. 31 CFR 560.419 - U.S. employment of persons ordinarily resident in Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... resident in Iran. 560.419 Section 560.419 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 560.419 U.S. employment of persons ordinarily resident in Iran. The prohibitions in § 560.201 make it unlawful to hire an Iranian national ordinarily resident in Iran to come...

  8. 31 CFR 560.201 - Prohibited importation of goods or services from Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... services from Iran. 560.201 Section 560.201 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 560.201 Prohibited importation of goods or services from Iran. Except as otherwise... origin or owned or controlled by the Government of Iran, other than information and...

  9. 31 CFR 560.419 - U.S. employment of persons normally located in Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... located in Iran. 560.419 Section 560.419 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS Interpretations § 560.419 U.S. employment of persons normally located in Iran. The prohibitions in § 560.201 make it unlawful to hire an Iranian national normally located in Iran to come to the...

  10. 31 CFR 560.419 - U.S. employment of persons ordinarily resident in Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... resident in Iran. 560.419 Section 560.419 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 560.419 U.S. employment of persons ordinarily resident in Iran. The prohibitions in § 560.201 make it unlawful to hire an Iranian national ordinarily resident in Iran to come...

  11. 31 CFR 560.313 - Entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Government of Iran. 560.313 Section 560.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 560.313 Entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran. The term entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran includes any corporation, partnership,...

  12. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... to Iran Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of March 8, 2011 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran On March 15, 1995, by Executive Order 12957, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Iran pursuant to the International Emergency Economic...

  13. 31 CFR 561.322 - Entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Government of Iran. 561.322 Section 561.322 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 561.322 Entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran. The phrase entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran means any entity, including...

  14. 31 CFR 560.552 - Transactions related to U.S. citizens residing in Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... residing in Iran. 560.552 Section 560.552 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... related to U.S. citizens residing in Iran. (a) Except as provided by paragraph (b) of this section, U.S. persons are authorized to engage in transactions in Iran ordinarily incident to the routine and...

  15. 31 CFR 535.576 - Payment of non-dollar letters of credit to Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... credit to Iran. 535.576 Section 535.576 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... letters of credit to Iran. Notwithstanding the prohibitions of §§ 535.201 and 535.206(a)(4), payment of existing non-dollar letters of credit in favor of Iranian entities or any person in Iran by any...

  16. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... to Iran Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of November 9, 2012 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran On November 14, 1979, by Executive Order 12170, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Iran and, pursuant to the International...

  17. 31 CFR 535.334 - Act of the Government of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Act of the Government of Iran. 535... Definitions § 535.334 Act of the Government of Iran. For purposes of § 535.216, an act of the Government of Iran, includes any acts ordered, authorized, allowed, approved, or ratified by the Government of...

  18. 31 CFR 560.206 - Prohibited trade-related transactions with Iran; goods, technology, or services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... with Iran; goods, technology, or services. 560.206 Section 560.206 Money and Finance: Treasury... transactions with Iran; goods, technology, or services. (a) Except as otherwise authorized pursuant to this... to: (1) Goods or services of Iranian origin or owned or controlled by the Government of Iran; or...

  19. 31 CFR 560.201 - Prohibited importation of goods or services from Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... services from Iran. 560.201 Section 560.201 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 560.201 Prohibited importation of goods or services from Iran. Except as otherwise... origin or owned or controlled by the Government of Iran, other than information and...

  20. 31 CFR 560.201 - Prohibited importation of goods or services from Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... services from Iran. 560.201 Section 560.201 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 560.201 Prohibited importation of goods or services from Iran. Except... services of Iranian origin or owned or controlled by the Government of Iran, other than information...

  1. 31 CFR 560.419 - U.S. employment of persons normally located in Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... located in Iran. 560.419 Section 560.419 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS Interpretations § 560.419 U.S. employment of persons normally located in Iran. The prohibitions in § 560.201 make it unlawful to hire an Iranian national normally located in Iran to come to the...

  2. 31 CFR 561.322 - Entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Government of Iran. 561.322 Section 561.322 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 561.322 Entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran. The phrase entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran means any entity, including...

  3. 31 CFR 560.516 - Payment and United States dollar clearing transactions involving Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... clearing transactions involving Iran. 560.516 Section 560.516 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Payment and United States dollar clearing transactions involving Iran. (a) United States depository institutions are authorized to process transfers of funds to or from Iran, or for the direct or...

  4. 31 CFR 535.576 - Payment of non-dollar letters of credit to Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... credit to Iran. 535.576 Section 535.576 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... letters of credit to Iran. Notwithstanding the prohibitions of §§ 535.201 and 535.206(a)(4), payment of existing non-dollar letters of credit in favor of Iranian entities or any person in Iran by any...

  5. 31 CFR 560.206 - Prohibited trade-related transactions with Iran; goods, technology, or services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... with Iran; goods, technology, or services. 560.206 Section 560.206 Money and Finance: Treasury... Iran; goods, technology, or services. (a) Except as otherwise authorized pursuant to this part, and... services of Iranian origin or owned or controlled by the Government of Iran; or (2) Goods, technology,...

  6. Current Status of Acanthamoeba in Iran: A Narrative Review Article

    PubMed Central

    NIYYATI, Maryam; REZAEIAN, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Free-living amoebae belonging to the genus Acanthamoeba have an environmental distribution. Amoebic keratitis due to these protozoan parasites continue to rise in Iran and worldwide. In Iran, there are various researches regarding both morphological and molecular identification of Acanthamoeba spp. in environmental and clinical samples. However, there is no thorough review about Acanthamoeba genotypes and their distribution in environmental sources such as water, dust and biofilm in Iran. Besides, according to increasing cases of Amoebic keratitis in the region awareness regarding the pathogenic potential of these sight-threatening amoebae is of utmost importance. Methods: We conducted a thorough review based on the database sources such as MEDLINE, PubMed and Google scholar. No restrictions were placed on study date, study design or language of publication. We searched all valuable and relevant information considering the occurrence of the Acanthamoeba in both environmental and clinical samples. Results: According to our thorough review Acanthamoeba belonging to T4 genotype is the most prevalent type strain in environmental and clinical samples in several regions in Iran and worldwide, however, there are reports regarding Acanthamoeba belonging to other genotypes such as T2, T3, T5, T6 and T11 and the mentioned point could leads us to more researches with the goal of presenting the real genotype dominance of Acanthamoeba and related disease in the country. Conclusion: Overall, the present review will focus on present status of genotypes of Acanthamoeba in Iran during recent years. PMID:26246812

  7. Family Life and Developmental Idealism in Yazd, Iran.

    PubMed

    Abbasi-Shavazi, Mohammad Jalal; Askari-Nodoushan, Abbas

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This paper is motivated by the theory that developmental idealism has been disseminated globally and has become an international force for family and demographic change. Developmental idealism is a set of cultural beliefs and values about development and how development relates to family and demographic behavior. It holds that modern societies are causal forces producing modern families, that modern families help to produce modern societies, and that modern family change is to be expected. OBJECTIVE: We examine the extent to which developmental idealism has been disseminated in Iran. We also investigate predictors of the dissemination of developmental idealism. METHODS: We use survey data collected in 2007 from a sample of women in Yazd, a city in Iran. We examine the distribution of developmental idealism in the sample and the multivariate predictors of developmental idealism. RESULTS: We find considerable support for the expectation that many elements of developmental idealism have been widely disseminated. Statistically significant majorities associate development with particular family attributes, believe that development causes change in families, believe that fertility reductions and age-at-marriage increases help foster development, and perceive family trends in Iran headed toward modernity. As predicted, parental education, respondent education, and income affect adherence to developmental idealism. CONCLUSIONS: Developmental idealism has been widely disseminated in Yazd, Iran and is related to social and demographic factors in predicted ways. COMMENTS: Although our data come from only one city, we expect that developmental idealism has been widely distributed in Iran, with important implications for family and demographic behavior. PMID:22942772

  8. Family Life and Developmental Idealism in Yazd, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi-Shavazi, Mohammad Jalal; Askari-Nodoushan, Abbas

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND This paper is motivated by the theory that developmental idealism has been disseminated globally and has become an international force for family and demographic change. Developmental idealism is a set of cultural beliefs and values about development and how development relates to family and demographic behavior. It holds that modern societies are causal forces producing modern families, that modern families help to produce modern societies, and that modern family change is to be expected. OBJECTIVE We examine the extent to which developmental idealism has been disseminated in Iran. We also investigate predictors of the dissemination of developmental idealism. METHODS We use survey data collected in 2007 from a sample of women in Yazd, a city in Iran. We examine the distribution of developmental idealism in the sample and the multivariate predictors of developmental idealism. RESULTS We find considerable support for the expectation that many elements of developmental idealism have been widely disseminated. Statistically significant majorities associate development with particular family attributes, believe that development causes change in families, believe that fertility reductions and age-at-marriage increases help foster development, and perceive family trends in Iran headed toward modernity. As predicted, parental education, respondent education, and income affect adherence to developmental idealism. CONCLUSIONS Developmental idealism has been widely disseminated in Yazd, Iran and is related to social and demographic factors in predicted ways. COMMENTS Although our data come from only one city, we expect that developmental idealism has been widely distributed in Iran, with important implications for family and demographic behavior. PMID:22942772

  9. 31 CFR 560.204 - Prohibited exportation, reexportation, sale, or supply of goods, technology, or services to Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., sale, or supply of goods, technology, or services to Iran. 560.204 Section 560.204 Money and Finance... exportation, reexportation, sale, or supply of goods, technology, or services to Iran. Except as otherwise... services to Iran or the Government of Iran is prohibited, including the exportation, reexportation,...

  10. 31 CFR 560.204 - Prohibited exportation, reexportation, sale or supply of goods, technology, or services to Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., sale or supply of goods, technology, or services to Iran. 560.204 Section 560.204 Money and Finance..., reexportation, sale or supply of goods, technology, or services to Iran. Except as otherwise authorized pursuant..., or services to Iran or the Government of Iran is prohibited, including the exportation,...

  11. 31 CFR 560.204 - Prohibited exportation, reexportation, sale or supply of goods, technology, or services to Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., sale or supply of goods, technology, or services to Iran. 560.204 Section 560.204 Money and Finance..., reexportation, sale or supply of goods, technology, or services to Iran. Except as otherwise authorized pursuant..., or services to Iran or the Government of Iran is prohibited, including the exportation,...

  12. 31 CFR 560.204 - Prohibited exportation, reexportation, sale, or supply of goods, technology, or services to Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., sale, or supply of goods, technology, or services to Iran. 560.204 Section 560.204 Money and Finance... exportation, reexportation, sale, or supply of goods, technology, or services to Iran. Except as otherwise... services to Iran or the Government of Iran is prohibited, including the exportation, reexportation,...

  13. 31 CFR 560.204 - Prohibited exportation, reexportation, sale or supply of goods, technology, or services to Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., sale or supply of goods, technology, or services to Iran. 560.204 Section 560.204 Money and Finance..., reexportation, sale or supply of goods, technology, or services to Iran. Except as otherwise authorized pursuant..., or services to Iran or the Government of Iran is prohibited, including the exportation,...

  14. 75 FR 68017 - Designation of Jundallah, Also Known as People's Resistance Movement of Iran (PMRI), Also Known...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... Designation of Jundallah, Also Known as People's Resistance Movement of Iran (PMRI), Also Known as Jonbesh-i Moqavemat-i-Mardom-i Iran, Also Known as The Popular Resistance Movement of Iran, Also Known as Soldiers of God, Also Known as Fedayeen-e-Islam, Also Known as Former Jundallah of Iran, Also Known as...

  15. 75 FR 68017 - Designation of Jundallah, Also Known as People's Resistance Movement of Iran (PMRI), Also Known...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... Designation of Jundallah, Also Known as People's Resistance Movement of Iran (PMRI), Also Known as Jonbesh-i Moqavemat-i-Mardom-i Iran, Also Known as Popular Resistance Movement of Iran, Also Known As Soldiers of God, Also Known as Fedayeen-e-Islam, Also Known as Former Jundallah of Iran, Also Known as Jundullah,...

  16. Actinomycosis in Iran: Short Narrative Review Article.

    PubMed

    Khodavaisy, Sadegh; Zibafar, Ensieh; Hashemi, Seyed Jamal; Narenji, Hanar; Daie Ghazvini, Roshanak

    2014-05-01

    Actinomycosis is an indolent, slowly progressive infection caused by anaerobic or microaerophilic bacteria, primarily of genus Actinomyces, which colonize the mouth, colon and vagina. Mucosal disruption may lead to infection virtually at any sites in the body. The aim of this study was to underline different features of actinomycosis and to represent total data about etiologic agents, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic approaches these infections. From a total of 38 case reports or series, ninety one cases were obtained by using of relevant articles reported as recorded cases in Iran (1972 to 2012). Analyzed data represented 21 cases of oral-servicofacial (23.1%), 7 cases of thoracic (7.7%), 17 cases of abdominal (18.7%), 21 cases of disseminated forms (23.1%) and 25 cases of others (27.5%). Findings indicated more common of these infections in men (61.5%). Actinomyces naeslundii (21 cases) was found as the most common causative agents in comparison with A. Israeli (15 cases), A. viscosus (3 cases) and A. bovis (1 case). The most patients had been successfully treated with penicillin although some cases needed surgery along with antibiotic therapy. Since some clinical features of actinomycosis are similar to malignancies, so the differential diagnosis of invasive forms must be considered. This report emphasizes on the importance of differential diagnosis of actinomycosis from similar diseases by clinicians. PMID:26060757

  17. Profiling of Ecstasy Tablets Seized in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Khajeamiri, Ali Reza; Kobarfard, Farzad; Ahmadkhaniha, Reza; Mostashari, Gelareh

    2011-01-01

    In this study 50 samples of ecstasy tablets seized in Iran during the period of 2007 through 2008 were examined and their physical characteristics (appearance, marking, scored/not scored, color, weight, diameter, thickness) were determined. In order to determine the chemical characteristics of these tablets, color tests (Marquis test, Simon’s test, Chen’s test and Gallic acid test), Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), anion test, residual solvents, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) were carried out on the tablets. The range of tablets weight was 96–308 mg and the range of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) hydrochloride content in these tablets was 60–180 mg. No good correlation was found between the tablets weight and their MDMA contents. All of the tablets containing MDMA had this compound in hydrochloride form. Ketamine, phenmetrazine and ephedrine (or pseudoephedrine) were found in some of the tablets along with MDMA. No MDMA was found in 20% of the tablets. Some of these tablets contained compounds such as caffeine or tramadol as their active ingredient. PMID:24250345

  18. Ocular toxoplasmosis in Iran: 40 cases analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tabatabaei, Seidali; Soleimani, Mohammad; Foroutan, Alireza; Ahmadabadi, Mehdinili; Zarei, Reza; Piri, Nilofar; Gordiz, Arzhang

    2011-01-01

    AIM To report ocular symptoms, funduscopic findings and demographic distribution of ocular toxoplasmosis in Iran METHODS In this cross-sectional study, a total of 40 patients with ocular toxoplasmosis (24 female, 16 male) were enrolled. The distribution of symptoms and funduscopic findings were studied. RESULTS The patients' age was in the range of 13-52 with the most common age of 19 years old. Twenty-four patients were female (60.0%). The most common presenting sign was visual loss. There was anterior chamber (AC) inflammation in 23 patients (57.5%). Vitritis was presented in 36 patients (90.0%). In 35 patients (87.5%), the retinal lesion was central. In patients with peripheral lesion, 3 patients (60.0%) had flashing vs 12.5% chance of flashing in all patients. Older patients had larger lesion (P=0.04). CONCLUSION Ocular toxoplasmosis substantially varies among patients with different age, gender, status of immunity, site of lesion and other undetermined factors. One of ocular symptoms, flashing, may necessitate a more precise peripheral fundus examination. PMID:22553642

  19. Molecular diversity of turncurtoviruses in Iran.

    PubMed

    Kamali, Mehdi; Heydarnejad, Jahangir; Massumi, Hossain; Kvarnheden, Anders; Kraberger, Simona; Varsani, Arvind

    2016-03-01

    Turnip curly top virus (TCTV) is the only member of the newly established genus Turncurtovirus (family Geminiviridae). As part of an ongoing study to identify additional plant hosts and the diversity of turncurtoviruses, between 2012 and 2014, we sampled symptomatic turnip plants and other crops in the provinces Fars and Khorasan Razavi (southern and northeastern Iran, respectively). Infection by turncurtoviruses was tested by PCR and/or rolling-circle amplification (RCA) coupled with restriction enzyme digests. Turncurtoviruses were identified in turnip as well as seven other field crops, including eggplant, basil, radish, lettuce, sugar beet, red beet and spinach. Full turncurtovirus genomes were recovered from 25 of these samples, leading to the identification of TCTV and a new putative turncurtovirus, turnip leaf roll virus (TLRV; 13 isolates), which shares <80% genome-wide pairwise identity with TCTV. Agroinoculation of plants with an infectious clone of TLRV demonstrated that this virus could infect several plant hosts under greenhouse conditions and could be transmitted by the leafhopper Circulifer haematoceps (Mulsant and Rey, 1855) from agroinoculated to healthy plants. PMID:26611911

  20. Asthma in Rhinosinusitis: A Survey from Iran

    PubMed Central

    Bakhshaee, Mehdi; Majidi, Mohamad-Reza; Gharavi, Vahideh; Alavizadeh, Fatemeh-Sadat; Movahed, Rahman; Asnaashari, Parasto; Asnaashari, Amir-Mohammad-Hashem

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The coexistence of asthma and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is more common than expected given their individual prevalence in the general population and may affect patient’s quality of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of asthma in chronic rhinosinusitis in Mashhad, Northeast Iran. Materials and Methods: This study was performed in two university hospital from November 2012 for 12 months. In total, 153 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis were enrolled and referred to a particular pulmonologist for asthma evaluation. Results: The mean age of participants was 40.54±13.11 years, and 41.8% were male. In total, 63.4% of patients had the polypoid form of CRS. The proportion of patients in this study with asthma was 41.8%, compared with a general asthma prevalence in this region of 13.5%. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of asthma among patients with CRS, but it often remains undiagnosed. Asthma in CRS patients should be diagnosed and treated in order to improve patient’s quality of life. We recommend an evaluation of the lower airways in all of these patients as well as further studies in this field. PMID:27602339

  1. Haematophagus Mites in Poultry Farms of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rahbari, S; Nabian, S; Ronaghi, H

    2009-01-01

    Background: Blood sucking mites are important avian ectoparasites which being found on bird species worldwide. Their presence are problematic for the producers either through potential direct effects on weight gain, egg production, sperm production in roosters or as nuisance pests on worker handle hens and eggs. The aim of this study was pointing out of the status of haematophagus mites. Methods: Eight caged layer and four breeder flocks were visited, monitoring for the presence of chicken mites performed by removing and examining debris from poultry house, infested nesting material collected into zip lock plastic bags and at least 20 birds were also randomly selected to examine the presence of chicken mites. Mites obtained from each population were mounted in Hoyer’s medium on microscope slides and identified. All eight caged layer and four breeder flocks were inspected, which were infested with chicken blood feeding mites. Results: Massive infestations of Dermanyssus gallinae were common with huge numbers of parasites on birds, cages and the conveyor belts for egg. Only one farm from Mazandaran Province was infested to Ornithonyssus bursa. Conclusion: Dermanyssus gallinae was the most prevalent blood feeder mite in the breeder and caged layer flocks in Iran, while O. bursa was reported as a first record, which found only in a breeder flock in Mazanderan Province. It seems that its presence is limited into the area which affected by both warm and humid environmental conditions. PMID:22808378

  2. An ethnobotanical survey on hormozgan province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Safa, Omid; Soltanipoor, Mohammad Amin; Rastegar, Soheil; Kazemi, Mahnaz; Nourbakhsh Dehkordi, Khadijeh; Ghannadi, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The present study is based on an ethnobotanical research project conducted in Hormozgan province that is located in south of Iran, bordering waters of the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea. This survey was carried out in order to recover the ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal knowledge of the residents of this province. They are using medicinal and functional plants for treating or preventing several diseases. Materials and Methods: Ethnobotanical data sheets were run with the native inhabitants and people of the province by arranging frequent field trips to different parts of the province and direct interviews with them especially those who were more familiar with the plants and their usage. Results: A total of 150 plant species belonging to 53 families were recorded for their ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal uses among the people of province. The records were developed by scientific names, family names, local names, medicinal parts used, different ways of their application, and traditional uses of the plants. There was high compliance in the use of plants in painful disorders, gastrointestinal, and dermatological diseases. Conclusion: This study revealed that the people of Hormozgan province have a rich knowledge of natural resources. The use and consumption of medicinal plants are still important parts of their life. Rational use of native medicinal plants may benefit and improve their living standards and quality of life. The results of this study can be used as a basis for selecting herbs for further pharmacological, phytochemical, and pharmacognostical studies. PMID:25050260

  3. Urmia Lake (Northwest Iran): a brief review

    PubMed Central

    Eimanifar, Amin; Mohebbi, Feridon

    2007-01-01

    Lake Urmia (or Ormiyeh) is one of the largest hypersaline lakes in the world and the habitat of a unique bisexual Artemia species (A. urmiana). Despite this, and several other values of the lake, little literature on it has been published. The present paper is an attempt to provide a brief review on various aspects of the lake. Urmia Lake, located in northwestern Iran, is an oligotrophic lake of thalassohaline origin with a total surface area between 4750 and 6100 km2 and a maximum depth of 16 m at an altitude of 1250 m. The lake is divided into north and south parts separated by a causeway in which a 1500-m gap provides little exchange of water between the two parts. Due to drought and increased demands for agricultural water in the lake's basin, the salinity of the lake has risen to more than 300 g/L during recent years, and large areas of the lake bed have been desiccated. Therefore, management and conservation of this incomparable ecosystem should be considered to improve the current condition by fisheries research institutes. PMID:17506897

  4. Regression Models For Saffron Yields in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    S. H, Sanaeinejad; S. N, Hosseini

    Saffron is an important crop in social and economical aspects in Khorassan Province (Northeast of Iran). In this research wetried to evaluate trends of saffron yield in recent years and to study the relationship between saffron yield and the climate change. A regression analysis was used to predict saffron yield based on 20 years of yield data in Birjand, Ghaen and Ferdows cities.Climatologically data for the same periods was provided by database of Khorassan Climatology Center. Climatologically data includedtemperature, rainfall, relative humidity and sunshine hours for ModelI, and temperature and rainfall for Model II. The results showed the coefficients of determination for Birjand, Ferdows and Ghaen for Model I were 0.69, 0.50 and 0.81 respectively. Also coefficients of determination for the same cities for model II were 0.53, 0.50 and 0.72 respectively. Multiple regression analysisindicated that among weather variables, temperature was the key parameter for variation ofsaffron yield. It was concluded that increasing temperature at spring was the main cause of declined saffron yield during recent years across the province. Finally, yield trend was predicted for the last 5 years using time series analysis.

  5. Homogeneity analysis of precipitation series in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseinzadeh Talaee, P.; Kouchakzadeh, Mahdi; Shifteh Some'e, B.

    2014-10-01

    Assessment of the reliability and quality of historical precipitation data is required in the modeling of hydrology and water resource processes and for climate change studies. The homogeneity of the annual and monthly precipitation data sets throughout Iran was tested using the Bayesian, Cumulative Deviations, and von Neumann tests at a significance level of 0.05. The precipitation records from 41 meteorological stations covering the years between 1966 and 2005 were considered. The annual series of Iranian precipitation were found to be homogeneous by applying the Bayesian and Cumulative Deviations tests, while the von Neumann test detected inhomogeneities at seven stations. Almost all the monthly precipitation data sets are homogeneous and considered as "useful." The outputs of the statistical tests for the homogeneity analysis of the precipitation time series had discrepancies in some cases which are related to different sensitivities of the tests to break in the time series. It was found that the von Neumann test is more sensitive than the Bayesian and Cumulative Deviations tests in the determination of inhomogeneity in the precipitation series.

  6. Echinococcosis/hydatidosis in western Iran.

    PubMed

    Dalimi, A; Motamedi, Gh; Hosseini, M; Mohammadian, B; Malaki, H; Ghamari, Z; Ghaffari Far, F

    2002-04-30

    In the present study, 115 stray dogs (56 males and 59 females, mixed breed), 86 golden jackal (Canis aureus, 42 males and 44 females), 60 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes, 33 males and 27 females), and three female wolves (Canis lupus) were examined for Echinococcus granulosus infection, as well as, 32,898 sheep, 10,691 goats, 15,779 cattle and 659 buffaloes for hydatid infection from five provinces in western Iran during 3 years (1997-2000). Meanwhile fertility rates of different types and forms of cysts isolated from infected animals and the viability of protoscolices were also determined. Results indicated that 19.1% of the dogs, 2.3% of the golden jackals and 5% of the red foxes were infected with Echinococcus granulosus. 11.1% of the sheep, 6.3% of the goats, 16.4% of the cattle and 12.4% of the buffaloes were also found to be infected with hydatid cyst. The cysts isolated from liver and lungs of the sheep show higher fertility rate than the cysts of liver and lungs of goats, cattle and buffaloes. PMID:11900930

  7. War curbs oil exports by Iran and Iraq

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-29

    A discussion of the effects of the war between Iran and Iraq on oil exports from the area covers damage (extent unknown) to the Abadan, Iran, and Basra, Iraq, oil refineries, to the Iraqi petrochemical complex under construction at Basra, to oil export terminals at Kharg Island and Mina-al-Bakr, and to other oil facilities; war-caused reductions in oil production, refining, shipping, and export, estimated at 2.05-3.35 million bbl/day; the possible effects of the war on OPEC's decisions concerning oil production and pricing; the significance of the Strait of Hormuz for the export of oil by several countries in addition to the belligerents; the U.S. and non-Communist oil stocks which might enable the world to avoid an oil shortage if the war is ended in the near future; and the long-term effects of the war on Iran's and Iraq's oil industries.

  8. The acanthocephalan fauna of Iran, a check list.

    PubMed

    Tavakol, Sareh; Amin, Omar M; Luus-Powell, Wilmien J; Halajian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The acanthocephalan fauna of Iran is reported for the first time since the report of Pomphorhynchus perforator (von Linstow, 1908) Meyer, 1932 in 1964. The knowledge of the acanthocephalan biodiversity of Iran, with parasite-host and host-parasite checklists, is presented. The species of Acanthocephala are presented in alphabetical order, followed by the species of hosts, localities and references. A total of 30 known species of Acanthocephala from 21 genera, 12 families and 7 orders are reported from 80 species of different vertebrates of Iran. One species, Moniliformis moniliformis (Bremser, 1811) Travassos, 1915 was recorded from humans. The group of hosts with the largest number of reported species of acanthocephalan is Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes). PMID:26624401

  9. Ethnic and Geographic Differentiation of Helicobacter pylori within Iran

    PubMed Central

    Latifi-Navid, Saeid; Siavoshi, Farideh; Linz, Bodo; Massarrat, Sadegh; Khegay, Tanya; Salmanian, Ali-Hatef; Shayesteh, Ali Akbar; Masoodi, Mohsen; Ghanadi, Koroush; Ganji, Azita; Suerbaum, Sebastian; Achtman, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The bacterium Helicobacter pylori colonizes the human stomach, with individual infections persisting for decades. The spread of the bacterium has been shown to reflect both ancient and recent human migrations. We have sequenced housekeeping genes from H. pylori isolated from 147 Iranians with well-characterized geographical and ethnic origins sampled throughout Iran and compared them with sequences from strains from other locations. H. pylori from Iran are similar to others isolated from Western Eurasia and can be placed in the previously described HpEurope population. Despite the location of Iran at the crossroads of Eurasia, we found no evidence that the region been a major source of ancestry for strains across the continent. On a smaller scale, we found genetic affinities between the H. pylori isolated from particular Iranian populations and strains from Turks, Uzbeks, Palestinians and Israelis, reflecting documented historical contacts over the past two thousand years. PMID:20339588

  10. History of Medical Parasitology and Parasitic Infections in Iran.

    PubMed

    Edrissian, Gholamhossein; Rokni, Mohammad Bagher; Mohebali, Mehdi; Nateghpour, Mehdi; Mowlavi, Gholamreza; Bahadori, Moslem

    2016-08-01

    Parasites and parasitic diseases have been prevalent in Iran according to Iranian ancient scholars and physicians' inscriptions dating back to 865-1496. Some protozoan diseases such as malaria and cutaneous leishmaniasis have been introduced by clinical manifestations and helminthic infections by size and morphology of the worms. Scientific studies of Parasitology started in Iran from 1833, first by foreign physicians and continued from 1909 by Iranian researchers. The pioneer medical parasitologists of Iran were Dr N. Ansari and Dr. Sh. Mofidi who established the Department of Medical Parasitology in the School of Medicine, University of Tehran, 1939. Afterward, a considerable number of researchers and professors of parasitology have been active in training and research works in the fields of medical parasitology throughout the entire nation. At present, some significant parasitic diseases such as bilharsiasis and dracunculiasis are more or less eradicated and malaria is in the elimination phase. The prevalence of most helminthic infections has considerably decreased. Most of the departments of medical Parasitology in Iran are active in training MD, MSPH and PhD students. The Iranian Society of Parasitology established in 1994 is active with many eligible members and its creditable publication, the Iranian Journal of Parasitology, published seasonally since 2006. From 1833, when the scientific studies of Parasitology have started in Iran up to 2013, many researchers have been done on various fields of medical Parasitology and parasitic diseases in Iran and 2517 papers in English and 1890 papers in Persian have been published in national and international scientific journals. In addition, more than 420 books related in the field of medical parasitology field have been published in Persian language. PMID:27544371

  11. Ecology of Anopheles stephensi Liston in southern Iran.

    PubMed

    Manouchehri, A V; Javadian, E; Eshighy, N; Motabar, M

    1976-09-01

    Anopheles stephensi mysorensis is an important malaria vector in southern Iran. It is known to be the vector of malaria in Abadan, Bandar Abbas, Kazeroun and Dezful. It readily attacks man. Precipitan tests on specimens from different parts of southern Iran showed that 15.7% were positive for human blood. This species usually rests indoors, but a small proportion of its population has been caught outdoors. Larval habitats vary. This species is resistant to DDT and Dieldrin in most of the areas of the Persian Gulf and Oman sea. PMID:1006792

  12. High-tech biomedical research: lessons from Iran's experience

    PubMed Central

    Samadikuchaksaraei, Ali; Mousavizadeh, Kazem

    2008-01-01

    Iran has recently made a significant progress in the field of biomedical science and launched an appreciable number of new high-tech biomedical research projects. Review of Iran's experience in advancing its biomedical research and the pitfalls the country encountered during the years of its progress could be of interest to other countries with similar technological conditions. As needs assessment and human resources have pivotal roles in any research infrastructure, here, we have delineated these factors and explored ways by which optimum advantage could be gained from them. PMID:18501001

  13. Plagiorchis muris (Tanabe, 1922) in Rattus norvegicus in Iran

    PubMed Central

    MOWLAVI, Gholamreza; MOBEDI, Iraj; ABEDKHOJASTEH, Hoda; SADJJADI, Seyed Mahmoud; SHAHBAZI, Farideh; MASSOUD, Jafar

    2013-01-01

    Rats are capable to harbor various pathogens, among which certain species of zoonotic parasites are included. A long-term detection of parasite fauna of rats has sporadically been carried out in Iran. Abundance of these vertebrate pests is of great importance as regards public health issue. The present paper is focused on a digenean trematode Plagiorchis muris, obtained during a comprehensive study on rats over the decades in the country. Herein we describe this occurrence in a Rattus norvegicus in northern Tehran, with specific note on its morphological description. P. muris can infect human through consumption of infected marine food items, and has never been observed in Iran. PMID:24454445

  14. Agricultural variation and household size. A provincial comparison for Iran.

    PubMed

    Aghajanian, A

    1986-01-01

    This research investigates the linkages between agricultural variation and household size in Iran, using data from the 1974 agricultural survey of Iran. Utilizing the agricultural survey data, the author establishes relationships between agricultural density, farm mechanization, land holding inequality, and the size of the household for the rural population. The 3 agricultural variables have significant negative effects on farmers' household size. This suggests that farmers do adjust their household size to various aspects of the agricultural structure. Considering the high rate of current fertility in rural areas, the demographic mechanism for the downward adjustment of household size is the selective migration of young males to work in urban areas. PMID:12280635

  15. Iran and Iraq - the proliferation challenge. Strategic research report

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, F.R.

    1996-04-15

    Worldwide proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and ballistic missiles has been on the rise since the end of the Cold War. This escalation has brought a new set of challenges to post-Cold War strategists and policymakers. This study focus on the impact of nuclear proliferation in the Middle East. It assesses the possibility of Iran`s and Iraq`s ability to develop a nuclear capability within the next twenty to thirty years. United States` strategy and policy to counter this potential is also considered.

  16. Need for geriatric dentistry training programs in Iran.

    PubMed

    Mir, Arash Poorsattar Bejeh

    2013-01-01

    A shifting pattern from communicable diseases to the chronic noncommunicable diseases and increased life expectancy are being sensed throughout the world. Aged populations with multiple chronic diseases come up with their unique needs and require specific attention to be challenged by the health systems. Neglected orodental facts among the elders and the dearth of specific designated undergraduate and postgraduate courses of geriatric dentistry in Iran inevitably adversely affect the delivery of appropriate dental care service to elders by untrained dentists. In this article, a proposal for academic geriatric dentistry courses in Iran is introduced and highlighted with regards to elders' special needs. PMID:23314475

  17. Zagros Mountains, Iran, SRTM Shaded Relief Anaglyph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Zagros Mountains in Iran offer a visually stunning topographic display of geologic structure in layered sedimentary rocks. This scene is nearly 100 kilometers (62 miles) wide but is only a small part of similar terrain that covers much of southern Iran. This area is actively undergoing crustal shortening, as global tectonics moves Arabia toward Asia. Consequently, layers of sedimentary rock are folding much like a carpet will fold if pushed. The convex upward folds create structures called anticlines, which are prominently seen here. The convex downward folds (between the anticlines) create structures called synclines, which are mostly buried and hidden by sediments eroding off the anticlines. Layers having differing erosional resistance create distinctive patterns, often sawtooth triangular facets, that encircle the anticlines. Local relief between the higher mountain ridges and their intervening valleys is about 1,200 meters (about 4,000 feet).

    Salt extrusions and salt 'glaciers' are another set of geologic features readily evident in the topography. Salt deposits, likely created by the evaporation of an ancient inland sea, were buried by the sediments that now make up the layers of the anticlines and synclines. But salt is less dense than most other rocks, so it tends to migrate upward through Earth's crust in vertical columns called 'diapirs'. The compressive folding process has probably facilitated the formation of these diapirs, and the diapirs, in turn, are probably enhancing some anticlines by 'inflating' them with salt. Where the diapirs reach the surface, the salt extrudes, much like lava from a volcano, and the salt flows. Two prominent salt flows are evident in the same valley, leaking from neighboring anticlines, just north of the scene center.

    This anaglyph was created by deriving a shaded relief image from the SRTM data, draping it back over the SRTM elevation model, and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye

  18. Zagros Mountains, Iran, SRTM Shaded Relief

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Zagros Mountains in Iran offer a visually stunning topographic display of geologic structure in layered sedimentary rocks. This scene is nearly 100 kilometers (62 miles) wide but is only a small part of similar terrain that covers much of southern Iran. This area is actively undergoing crustal shortening, as global tectonics moves Arabia toward Asia. Consequently, layers of sedimentary rock are folding much like a carpet will fold if pushed. The convex upward folds create structures called anticlines, which are prominently seen here. The convex downward folds (between the anticlines) create structures called synclines, which are mostly buried and hidden by sediments eroding off the anticlines. Layers having differing erosional resistance create distinctive patterns, often sawtooth triangular facets, that encircle the anticlines. Local relief between the higher mountain ridges and their intervening valleys is about 1200 meters (about 4000 feet).

    Salt extrusions and salt 'glaciers' are another set of geologic features readily evident in the topography. Salt deposits, likely created by the evaporation of an ancient inland sea, were buried by the sediments that now make up the layers of the anticlines and synclines. But salt is less dense than most other rocks, so it tends to migrate upward through Earth's crust in vertical columns called 'diapirs'. The compressive folding process has probably facilitated the formation of these diapirs, and the diapirs, in turn, are probably enhancing some anticlines by 'inflating' them with salt. Where the diapirs reach the surface, the salt extrudes, much like lava from a volcano, and the salt flows. Two prominent salt flows are evident in the same valley, leaking from neighboring anticlines, just north of the scene center.

    This shaded relief image was created directly from an SRTM elevation model by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear

  19. Tertiary stress field evolution in Sistan (Eastern Iran)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michael, Jentzer; Marc, Fournier; Philippe, Agard; Jafar, Omrani

    2016-04-01

    The Sistan orogenic belt in eastern Iran, near the boundary with Afghanistan, results from the closure of a branch of the Neo-Thethys: the Sistan Ocean. It was divided by Tirrul et al. (1983) in five main units: the Lut (1) and Afghan (2) continental blocks where basement is exposed; the Neh (3) and Ratuk (4) complexes which display ophiolitic rocks weakly and highly (HP-BT) metamorphosed, respectively, and the Sefidabeh basin lying over these complexes and interpreted as a fore-arc basin. Sistan is bordered by the Makran and Zagros (formed by the closure of the Neo-Tethys) to the south and by the Kopet Dagh (formed by the closure of Paleo-Tethys) to the North. The aim of this study is to fill the gap between preliminary studies about the overall structure of the Sistan Suture Zone and recent investigations of active tectonics in the region (e.g., Walker et al., 2004 and 2006 a and b). Questions herein addressed are: (1) how are stresses transfered throughout Iran from the Zagros to the Sistan belts? (2) Did the Zagros, Makran and Sistan belts evolve independently through time, or were they mechanically coupled? In order to answer these questions, we have determined paleostress evolution in the Sistan, using a direct inversion method for 42 microtectonic sites in almost all lithologies of the Neh complex and the Sefidabeh basin. We find three successive directions of compression: (1) 87°N for the oldest deformation stage dated of the Late Miocene, (2) 59°N for the intermediate stage probably dated of the Early Pliocene, and (3) 26°N for the youngest stage dated of the Plio-Quaternary. A counterclockwise rotation of about 60° of the main stress (σ1) in less than 10 Ma is therefore documented in Sistan. These same three stages of deformation were also documented by several microtectonic studies in Iran, especially in Makran and Zagros. The direction of the youngest compression is very homogeneous indicating that the mountain belts and continental blocks of Iran

  20. Dust storm simulation over Iran using HYSPLIT

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Particulate matters have detrimental effects on human health, environment and economic. This pollutant may emit from anthropogenic or natural sources. On global scale, main proportion of natural particulate matter release to the atmosphere because of wind erosion from arid and semi-arid regions. Recently, the amount of dust coming from Arabian countries has dramatically increased, especially dust storms that are affecting western and even central parts of Iran. This phenomenon has caused a lot of environmental problems. Dust source identification and trajectory simulation using numerical techniques are the main aims of this study. HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) model dust module and trajectory simulation are utilized in this research and two case studies are investigated (in May and June 2010). The base of the HYSPLIT dust module is the PM10 dust storm emission algorithm for desert land use. This methodology is applied to estimate hotspots and trajectories. Due to the results, dust storms started on May 17th and June 7th because of high wind shear (>8.5 m/s) from the western Syrian Desert. The source region limited to 32.50 °N to 33.80 °N and 38.00 °E to 38.80 °E coordinates. Dust plumes lifted and dispersed towards the east and southeast of the sources and reached Ahvaz on May 18th and June 8th. The average of PM10 concentration in these dates reached 625 and 494 μgm3 on Ahvaz monitoring stations, respectively. Moreover, the results gained from the model for dust motion simulation are similar to the MODIS satellite images. PMID:24397928

  1. Maternal mortality in Yazd Province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Karimi-Zarchi, Mojgan; Ghane-Ezabadi, Marzie; Vafaienasab, Mohammadreza; Dehghan, Ali; Ghasemi, Fateme; Zaidabadi, Mahbube; Zanbagh, Leila; Yazdian-Anari, Pouria; Teimoori, Soraya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Five hundred thousand maternal deaths occur each year worldwide, many of which are in developing countries. The maternal mortality rate is a measure that demonstrates the degree of adequacy of prenatal care and of economic and social conditions. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and causes of pregnancy-related mortality rates in Yazd Province. Methods This cross-sectional study examined the maternal deaths related to pregnancy that were recorded in Yazd Province, Iran, from 2002 to 2011. All maternal deaths that occurred during pregnancy, during delivery, and 42 days after birth were analyzed in this study. The data were collected through a questionnaire, and both direct and indirect causes of maternal deaths were determined. Results Forty pregnancy-related deaths occurred in this period, and the maternal mortality rate was 20.8 deaths per 100,000 live births. The mean age of death in the mothers in this study was 29.17. Fifty-five percent of women of the women who died delivered their babies by cesarean section, and only 20% of them delivered their babies vaginally. Bleeding was the most common cause of maternal mortality (30%), and it was associated directly with maternal mortality. Furthermore 20% of the mothers died due to heart disease and cardiac complications, which were associated indirectly with maternal mortality. Conclusion Cesarean section and its complications were the main cause of death in many cases. Thus, providing a strategic plan to reduce the use of this procedure, educate mothers, and ensure adequate access to pre-maternal care and to care during pregnancy are the most important measures that can be taken to decrease the maternal mortality rate. PMID:27054003

  2. Hydrogeochemical analysis for Tasuj plain aquifer, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadiri, Ata Allah; Moghaddam, Asghar Asghari; Tsai, Frank T.-C.; Fijani, Elham

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated the hydrogeochemical processes of groundwater in the Tasuj plain, Iran. The Tasuj plain is one of the 12 marginal plains around Urmia Lake which is currently under a critical ecological condition. In the last decades, the Tasuj plain aquifer suffered from severe groundwater level declination and caused degradation of groundwater quality. To better understand hydrogeochemical processes in the Tasuj plain, this study adopted graphical methods and multivariate statistical techniques to analyze groundwater samples. A total of 504 groundwater samples was obtained from 34 different locations (qanats, wells, and springs) over 12 years (1997-2009) and analyzed for 15 water quality parameters. From the results, the Piper diagram indicated four groundwater types and the Stiff diagram showed eight different sources of groundwater samples. The Durov diagram identified five major hydrogeochemical processes in the aquifer. However, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) identified five water types in the groundwater samples because HCA was able to analyze more chemical and physical data than graphical methods. The HCA result was checked by discriminant analysis and found consistency in all samples that were classified into correct groups. Using factor analysis, we identified three factors that accounted for 81.6% of the total variance of the dataset. Based on the high factor loadings of the variables, factors 1 and 2 reflected the natural hydrogeochemical processes and factor 3 explained the effect of agricultural fertilizers and human activities in the Tasuj plain. Dendrograms from 2000 to 2009 were studied to understand the temporal variation of groundwater quality. Comparing the distributions of groundwater types in 2000 and 2009, we found that the mixing zone was expanded. This may be due to artificial groundwater recharge in the recharge area and the effect of inverse ion exchange in the discharge area.

  3. Dust storm simulation over Iran using HYSPLIT.

    PubMed

    Ashrafi, Khosro; Shafiepour-Motlagh, Majid; Aslemand, Alireza; Ghader, Sarmad

    2014-01-01

    Particulate matters have detrimental effects on human health, environment and economic. This pollutant may emit from anthropogenic or natural sources. On global scale, main proportion of natural particulate matter release to the atmosphere because of wind erosion from arid and semi-arid regions. Recently, the amount of dust coming from Arabian countries has dramatically increased, especially dust storms that are affecting western and even central parts of Iran. This phenomenon has caused a lot of environmental problems. Dust source identification and trajectory simulation using numerical techniques are the main aims of this study. HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) model dust module and trajectory simulation are utilized in this research and two case studies are investigated (in May and June 2010). The base of the HYSPLIT dust module is the PM10 dust storm emission algorithm for desert land use. This methodology is applied to estimate hotspots and trajectories. Due to the results, dust storms started on May 17th and June 7th because of high wind shear (>8.5 m/s) from the western Syrian Desert. The source region limited to 32.50 °N to 33.80 °N and 38.00 °E to 38.80 °E coordinates. Dust plumes lifted and dispersed towards the east and southeast of the sources and reached Ahvaz on May 18th and June 8th. The average of PM10 concentration in these dates reached 625 and 494 μgm3 on Ahvaz monitoring stations, respectively. Moreover, the results gained from the model for dust motion simulation are similar to the MODIS satellite images. PMID:24397928

  4. Hereditary benign telangiectasia: first case in Iran.

    PubMed

    Javidi, Zari; Maleki, M; Mashayekhi, V; Nahidi, Y; Omidvar Borna, A

    2006-07-01

    A 14-year-old boy was referred to the Dermatology Clinic of the Medical University of Mashhad, Iran, with numerous cutaneous telangiectasias on the face, ears, lips, and back of the hands, with lesions in the temporal region being the first to appear (Figs 1-3). His mother stated that the lesions had been present for 10 years with an increase in the past 6 months. He had no history of bleeding from the nose, mouth, gastrointestinal tract, and other mucosal surfaces, and there was no sign of organ involvement. On inspection, no lesions were detected on the nasal mucosa, external ear, over the tympanic membrane, or mouth. The patient is one member of a family of six. His mother is healthy, but similar lesions were seen in his father, sister and one of his brothers with similar distributions. Lesions were also seen in his aunt and paternal grandmother, showing disease distribution in six members of this family from three generations. The oldest brother is 20 years of age and mentioned the onset of disease from the age of 10 years. The sister is 18 years of age and lesions started to appear 7 years ago; she claims that the lesions regress during her menstrual period. The youngest brother is 4 years of age and shows no sign of cutaneous lesions as yet. The parents are not consanguineous. Generalized telangiectasia with a predominant distribution on light-exposed skin, an autosomal dominant inheritance, and no sign of systemic or mucosal involvement and bleeding disorders indicates a diagnosis of hereditary benign telangiectasia. Our patient did not consent to biopsy. PMID:16863520

  5. Economic Sanctions Against Iran, and Drug Use in Tehran, Iran: A 2013 Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Deilamizade, Abbas; Esmizade, Sara

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study was conducted in 2013 among male drug user patients referred to Drop-In Centers (n = 23) and Residential Treatment Centers (n = 25) in Tehran. The results show that when the price of drugs increases, some drug users tend to use cheaper drugs, which are more harmful, use more harmful routes of administration, such as injecting drugs, sharing needles, and make money illegally. Economic sanctions have threatened Iranian people's economic status since 2006 and have become more intense in 2010 and 2011. As an important consequence of these economic sanctions, the price of drugs, as well as other goods and services, have increased in Iran in recent years. Given these "big economic events," big changes in the patterns of drug use, and an increase in drug use-related harms, can be expected to occur in the near future. PMID:25723313

  6. Fatal attraction: Explaining Russia's sensitive nuclear transfers to Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuchinsky, Leah R.

    This paper explores Russia's sensitive nuclear assistance to Iran in an effort to determine why a supplier state might proliferate against its own apparent security interests. The goal is to help readers understand the supply-side dynamics of nuclear proliferation. Through careful reconstruction of the historical narrative, using open source data, this study tests the plausibility of a "fatalistic calculus" explanation, identified by Stephen Sestanovich as a possible driver for Russia's behavior. According to the hypothesis, Russia has cooperated with Iran as a way both to stay in the good graces of a neighbor that is suspected of developing nuclear weapons and to win short-term influence and profits. The paper also examines the role of other factors advanced in the existing supply-side literature, such as economic motives identified by physicist and nonproliferation scholar David Albright. The findings show that bureaucratic, economic and fatalistic factors have each played a role in motivating Russia's cooperation with Iran, with their relative importance shifting over time. Fatalism begets a strategy of Russian "minimaxing," in the lexicon of Russia scholar Robert Freedman, wherein Russia attempts to minimize damage to its relationship with the U.S. while maximizing influence in Iran via nuclear cooperation. Fatalism, as actualized by minimaxing, best explains Russia's behavior after former Russian president Vladmir Putin came to power, when the bureaucratic and economic arguments become less cogent.

  7. Children's Early Numeracy in Finland and Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aunio, Pirjo; Korhonen, Johan; Bashash, Laaya; Khoshbakht, Fariba

    2014-01-01

    This research investigates similarities and differences in young children's early numeracy skills related to age, nationality and gender. The participants were five- to seven-year-old children from Finland and Iran. Early numeracy was investigated by using tasks measuring number-related relational skills (e.g. comparison, one-to-one…

  8. Content and Style of Advice in Iran and Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavakoli, Mahin

    2013-01-01

    The content and nature of nonprofessional advice in Iran, a hierarchical and collectivist culture, was compared to the same type of advice in Canada, an egalitarian and individualist culture. A researcher developed a questionnaire that consisted of 10 letters, each describing a writer's problem and asking for advice. The responses of…

  9. Teaching English for Special Purposes in Iran: Problems and Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayati, A. Majid

    2008-01-01

    The academic requirement for students majoring in fields other than English to pass English for Special or Specific Purposes (ESP) courses at university level has led to a rapid growth of such classes in Iran. However, despite this growth, not much literature on the practical aspects of these classes is available. The aim of the present article is…

  10. Civic Education: Lessons from the Iran-Contra Affair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinberg, Walter

    1988-01-01

    This article suggests several lessons, exercises, and class projects that utilize the Iran-Contra affair as a theme. Designed to aid the development of abilities necessary for civic virtue, the activities focus on fact gathering, validating claims, reflecting on the source of opinions, and learning to ask questions. (IAH)

  11. Predicting Habitat Distribution of Five Heteropteran Pest Species in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Solhjouy-Fard, Samaneh; Sarafrazi, Alimorad; Minbashi Moeini, Mehdi; Ahadiyat, Ali

    2013-01-01

    In agroecosystems, potential species distribution models are extensively applied in pest management strategies, revealing species ecological requirements and demonstrating relationships between species distribution and predictive variables. The Maximum Entropy model was used to predict the potential distribution of five heteropteran key pests in Iran, namely Adelphocoris lineolatus (Goeze) (Hemiptera: Miridae), Lygus pratensis (L.), Apodiphus amygdali (Germar) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), Nezara viridula (L.), and Nysius cymoides (Spinola) (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae). A total of 663 samples were collected from different parts of Iran. The altitude and climate variable data were included in the analysis. Based on test and training data, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve values were above 0.80, the binomial omission test with the lowest presence threshold for all species was statistically significant (< 0.01), and the test omission rates were less than 3%. The suitability of areas in Iran for A. amygdale (Germar) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), N. cymoides (Spinola) (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae), A. lineolatus (Goeze) (Hemiptera: Miridae), L. pratensis (L.), and N. viridula (L.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), ranked as 78.86%, 68.78%, 43.29%, 20%, and 15.16%, respectively. In general, central parts of Iran including salt lakes, deserts, and sand dune areas with very high temperatures and windy weather were predicted to be less suitable, while other regions, mainly northern parts, were most suitable. These new data could be applied practically for the design of integrated pest management and crop development programs. PMID:24735397

  12. Higher education initiatives for disaster and emergency health in iran.

    PubMed

    Ardalan, Ali; Mesdaghinia, Alireza; Masoumi, Gholamreza; Holakouie Naieni, Kourosh; Ahmadnezhad, Elham

    2013-01-01

    Iran's health system is expanding the disaster and emergency higher education programs over the country to enhance the capacity of human resources for effective and efficient disaster mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery. In this article we present an overview about the initiatives and progress of disaster and emergency health higher education in Iran. Following the Bam earthquake, in collaboration with the Ministry of Health & Medical Education and National Institute of Health Research, School of Public Health at the Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran took the initiative to develop a Master of Public Health (MPH) with disaster concentration in 2006, a PhD in disaster and emergency health in 2011, and a well constructed certificate course in 2008 entitled Disaster Health Management and Risk Reduction (DHMR). Iran, Kerman and Shahid Beheshti Universities of Medical Sciences and University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation are other academia that joined this initiative. Regarding the importance of programs evaluation, we have planned for a comprehensive evaluation of MPH and DHMR programs in 2013-4 and the Accreditation and Evaluation Board of Disaster & Emergency Health, based in MOH&ME, is responsible for evaluation of the PhD program in 3-5 years from initiation. PMID:23967432

  13. English Language Teaching Curriculum in Iran: Planning and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atai, Mahmood Reza; Mazlum, Farhad

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates English language teaching (ELT) curriculum planning in Iran's Ministry of Education and its implementation by teachers. We studied programme evaluation; needs analysis; the ELT-specific documents; communication channels between planning and practice levels; teacher evaluation and student assessment;…

  14. Trachoma prevalence in rural areas of eastern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Sharifi-Rad, J.; Fallah, F.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence of trachoma in rural areas of eastern Iran. We collected swabs from 150 children in three areas. Results of PCR showed presence of chlamydia in four boys (5.97%) and nine girls (10.84%). We suggest that in assessing the elimination of trachoma, WHO must consider border areas between countries. PMID:27158510

  15. Lessons We Have Learned from Iran--Rule by Islam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowder, William W.

    1982-01-01

    Presents guidelines for teachers to help students understand a government based on religious tenets, such as the Islamic republic in Iran. Suggests four avenues of study: Islam and government, comparison of Islamic and western legal systems, problems and conflicts in an Islamic republic, and an enlarged perspective of the Islamic republic. (LC)

  16. alpha-thalassemia mutations in Khuzestan Province, Southwest Iran.

    PubMed

    Zandian, Khodamorad; Nateghi, Jamal; Keikhaie, Bijan; Pedram, Mohammad; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Hadavi, Valeh; Oberkanins, Christian; Azarkeivan, Azita; Law, Hai-Yang; Najmabadi, Hossein

    2008-01-01

    Although alpha-thalassemia (alpha-thal) is the most common hereditary hemoglobin (Hb) disorder in Iran, no comprehensive data are so far available on the prevalence of the disease in the province of Khuzestan in Southwest Iran. This study investigates the spectrum of alpha-thal mutations in this region. One hundred and twenty-one subjects from Khuzestan Province, Iran, were initially tested for the three most common Iranian alpha-thal mutations (- alpha3.7, -alpha4.2, and --MED) by gap-polymerase chain reaction (gap-PCR). Reverse hybridization test strips and DNA sequencing were used to identify additional alpha-globin mutations. A total of 131 mutated alpha-globin alleles were identified in these patients. Of the 13 mutations that were detected in Khuzestan Province, Iran, the - alpha3.7 single gene deletion was the most frequently identified variant, representing 62.6% of the total; we also observed significant numbers of individuals with compound heterozygous mutations. On the basis of our results, we strongly recommend screening for the most common mutations to improve the molecular diagnosis of anemia in this region. PMID:19065332

  17. Challenges to the Future Development of Iran's Protected Areas System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolahi, Mahdi; Sakai, Tetsuro; Moriya, Kazuyuki; Makhdoum, Majid F.

    2012-10-01

    Since the 1950s, there has been a continuous increase in the number and coverage of protected areas (PAs) in Iran, and in total 253 PAs have been declared that cover 10.12 % of the country's area. This paper reviews literature addressing Iran's PAs, examines what is known about them, highlights the challenges and lessons learned, and identifies areas where more research is needed. The PA system in Iran is criticized because of (1) shortages of manpower, equipment, and financial resources; (2) de jure PAs that are often implemented as de facto reserves; (3) lack of national biodiversity indicators and objective monitoring processes; and (4) limited public participation and conflict between people over PAs. To improve, Iran's PAs system needs to be realistically supported by policies and planning instruments. In addition, the implementation of active management to restore habitat, increase education and awareness, shift practices towards the guidelines of international organizations, build capacity, and improve management and co-management by local communities needs to occur.

  18. Three eriophyoid mite species (Acari: Eriophyoidea: Eriophyidae) from Iran.

    PubMed

    Xue, Xiao-Feng; Sadeghi, Hussein; Honarmand, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Three mite species of the family Eriophyidae from Iran are described and illustrated. They are: Tegolophus marrubiumer sp. nov. on Marrubium vulgare L. (Lamiaceae); Phyllocoptes sp. cf. balasi Farkas, 1962 on Sanguisorba minor Scop. subsp. minor (Rosaceae) and Aceria fasciculifolis sp. nov. on Astragalus fasciculifolius Boiss. (Fabaceae). Both new species described herein are vagrants on their respective host plants. PMID:27395681

  19. Seroprevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis in southeast of Iran.

    PubMed

    Mahshid, Mostafavi; Baharak, Akhtardanesh; Iraj, Sharifi; Sina, Kakooei; Javad, Khedri; Mehdi, Bamorovat

    2014-06-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is an endemic disease in many parts of Iran and infected dogs constitute the main domestic reservoirs that play a key role in transmission to humans. The objective of this study was to assess the seroprevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in southeast of Iran. This survey was carried out from 2009 to 2011 in Kerman, Bam and Baft districts in Kerman province and Zabol in Sistan-Baluchestan province. Blood samples were taken from 201 dogs after complete clinical examination. Following hematological evaluation; collected sera were tested by indirect ELISA method for the presence of anti Leishmania infantum antibodies. Overall seroprevalence was 15.4 %, including 6.4, 3.5, 3 and 2.4 % in Bam, Zabol, Baft and Kerman, respectively. However, seroprevalence of disease was not significantly related to age, gender, presence of clinical signs and hematological disorders. Based to the results of the present study, CVL is endemic in southeastern Iran. Delayed diagnosis and euthanasia of potentially infectious animals may occur with an increased transmission risk to sand flies and subsequently to humans. Implementation of potent screening tests with high validity is essential for rapid detection and successful dog elimination programs in endemic parts of Iran. PMID:24808656

  20. 78 FR 46782 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Iran Threat Reduction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ... Federal Register at 77 FR 73516, on December 10, 2012, to implement sections of titles II and III of the... rule amending 48 CFR parts 4, 25, and 52, which was published in the Federal Register at 77 FR 73516... military action against Iran to destroy their nuclear arms program. Response: This rule implements...

  1. 77 FR 73516 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Iran Threat Reduction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ...), respectively, and the Presidential Memorandum of September 23, 2010 (75 FR 67025), shall submit the request to... compelling Iran to abandon efforts to acquire a nuclear weapons capability and other threatening activities... nuclear weapon. However, pursuant to 41 U.S.C. 1707 and FAR 1.501-3(b), DoD, GSA, and NASA will...

  2. Child Maltreatment among School Children in the Kurdistan Province, Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Rob; Sheikhattari, Payam; Assasi, Nazilla; Eftekhar, Hassan; Zamani, Qasem; Maleki, Bahram; Kiabayan, Hamid

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the determinants of three types of child maltreatment: physical maltreatment, mental maltreatment, and child neglect among school children in the Kurdistan Province of Iran. The analysis examines the impact of socioeconomic, familial, demographic, and household dynamic factors on the three child maltreatment…

  3. Colorectal Cancer in Iran: Molecular Epidemiology and Screening Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Dolatkhah, Roya; Somi, Mohammad Hossein; Bonyadi, Mortaza Jabbarpour; Asvadi Kermani, Iraj; Farassati, Faris; Dastgiri, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The increasing incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) in the past three decades in Iran has made it a major public health burden. This study aimed to report its epidemiologic features, molecular genetic aspects, survival, heredity, and screening pattern in Iran. Methods. A comprehensive literature review was conducted to identify the relevant published articles. We used medical subject headings, including colorectal cancer, molecular genetics, KRAS and BRAF mutations, screening, survival, epidemiologic study, and Iran. Results. Age standardized incidence rate of Iranian CRCs was 11.6 and 10.5 for men and women, respectively. Overall five-year survival rate was 41%, and the proportion of CRC among the younger age group was higher than that of western countries. Depending on ethnicity, geographical region, dietary, and genetic predisposition, mutation genes were considerably diverse and distinct among CRCs across Iran. The high occurrence of CRC in records of relatives of CRC patients showed that family history of CRC was more common among young CRCs. Conclusion. Appropriate screening strategies for CRC which is amenable to early detection through screening, especially in relatives of CRCs, should be considered as the first step in CRC screening programs. PMID:25685149

  4. Provenance of Neoproterozoic sedimentary basement of northern Iran, Kahar Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etemad-Saeed, Najmeh; Hosseini-Barzi, Mahboubeh; Adabi, Mohammad Hossein; Sadeghi, Abbas; Houshmandzadeh, Abdolrahim

    2015-11-01

    This article presents new data to understand the nature of the hidden crystalline basement of northern Iran and the tectonic setting of Iran during late Neoproterozoic time. The siliciclastic-dominated Kahar Formation represents the oldest known exposures of northern Iran and comprises late Ediacaran (ca. 560-550 Ma) compositionally immature sediments including mudrocks, sandstones, and conglomerates. This work focuses on provenance of three well preserved outcrops of this formation in Alborz Mountains: Kahar Mountain, Sarbandan, and Chalus Road, through petrographic and geochemical methods. Mineralogical Index of Alteration (MIA) and Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA-after correction for K-metasomatism) values combined with A-CN-K relations suggest moderate weathering in the source areas. The polymictic nature of Kahar conglomerates indicates a mixed provenance for them. However, modal analysis of Kahar sandstones (volcanic to plagioclase-rich lithic arkose) and whole rock geochemistry of mudrocks suggest that they are largely first-cycle sediments and that their sources were remarkably late Ediacaran, intermediate-felsic igneous rocks from proximal arc settings. Tectonic setting discrimination diagrams also indicate a convergent plate margin and continental arc related basin for Kahar sediments. This interpretation is supported by the phyllo-tectic to tectic composition and geochemistry of mudrocks. These results reveal the presence of a felsic/intermediate subduction-related basement (∼600-550 Ma) in this region, which provides new constraints on subduction scenario during this time interval in Iran, as a part of the Peri-Gondwanan terranes.

  5. The Constitution Today: Lessons of the Iran-Contra Affair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobbitt, Philip

    1988-01-01

    Presents a speech which discusses private funding for government operations, secret policies, and the doctrine of plausible denial. States that the Iran-Contra affair illustrates the failure of the educational system to educate patriotic, intelligent persons in the nation's most fundamental constitutional arrangements, such as the appropriations…

  6. Recent trends in the nonfuel minerals industry of Iran

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hastorun, Sinan; Renaud, Karine M.; Lederer, Graham W.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated that Iran held globally significant reserves of feldspar (2d largest in the world), barite (5th largest), gypsum (5th largest), fluorspar (8th largest), and iron ore (10th largest). The Government of Iran claimed to also have significant reserves of chromium, copper, gold, manganese, phosphate rock, and zinc. In 2014, Iran was the second-leading producer of gypsum and the sixth-leading producer of barite, with 6.1 percent and 3.6 percent of world output, respectively. Iran was also the world’s 7th-leading producer of cement, feldspar, and fluorspar; 8th-leading producer of bentonite; 9th-leading producer of molybdenum; 11th-leading producer of iron ore; and 14th-leading producer of crude steel. The Government of Iran plans to quadruple the output of aluminum, copper cathode, direct-reduced iron, and iron ore pellets; triple that of crude steel and gold; and double that of cement, pig iron, and zinc by 2025. It also plans to double the contribution of mining and to quadruple that of mineral processing to the national economy in the next decade. In order to achieve these major goals, the construction and expansion of several mines and mineral facilities are planned or under development. Whether Iran’s annual mineral production increases as rapidly as envisioned by the Government will depend largely on the amount of foreign investment into the minerals industry; integration of modern technology into mineral facilities; and availability of energy to aluminum, copper, and steel plants at competitive prices to international investors.

  7. Satisfying patients’ rights in Iran: Providing effective strategies

    PubMed Central

    Anbari, Zohreh; Mohammadi, Mehri; Taheri, Magid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Assessment of patients’ views about the observance of their rights and obtaining feedback from them is an integral component of service quality and ensures healthcare ethics. The aim of this study was to assess patients’ awareness of their rights and their satisfaction with observance of their rights, and provide effective strategies to improve the management of patients’ rights in hospitals of Markazi Province, Iran in 2012. Materials and Methods: This analytical study was conducted on 384 patients at 10 hospitals. Patients’ awareness of the relevant hospital legislation was assessed by a structured interview, and then patients’ satisfaction with observance of their rights was measured by a standardized questionnaire consisting of 10 principles approved by the Iran Ministry of Health of Iran in 2012. In this study, through Delphi technique, effective strategies have been provided to improve the management of patients’ rights in the hospitals of Iran. Analysis of variance (ANOVA), t-test, and Z test were applied for data analysis. Results: Overall, 89% of the patients were unaware of the relevant hospital legislation and 28% of them were not satisfied with the observance of their rights (1.4 ± 0.6). A significant difference was observed between observance of patients’ rights according to hospitals, language, and place of residence of the patients (P < 0.05), but there was no significant difference with respect to patients’ rights according to sex, education, job, and duration of hospital stay (P > 0.05). Conclusions: The Patient Bill of Rights of Iran needs further revision and modification. Moreover, extensive education of patients and healthcare processionals as the most structural strategies to promote professional ethics, reduce ethical conflict, and increase implementation of the law to respect patients’ rights should be taken into deeper consideration. PMID:25878693

  8. Drought Prediction in Iran during Next 30 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khazanedari, L.; Zabol Abbasi, F.; Ghandhari, Sh.; Kouhi, M.; Malbousi, Sh.

    2009-09-01

    The effects of climate changes, especially due to increasing of greenhouse gasses, caused a lot of problems that affect different sections of society. One of the most important of these effects is the increasing of natural disasters such as flood, drought, tropical cyclones, raising sea level, dust storm, etc. Drought and flood are the most prevalent of these disasters in Iran. Because of the geographical location of Iran and the synoptic systems that affect this region, it is clear that dry is one of the characteristics of this region, and drought is one of the most important of natural disaster that affect this country. Drought affects the different sectors of society such as water resources, agriculture, industry, economy, health, etc therefore drought monitoring is necessary for planning in future. For this purpose, the climate data should be simulated for future period by using outputs of Atmospheric-Ocean General Circulation Model. In this paper precipitation data during 2010-2039 is simulated by downscaling via LARS-WG model. Then, drought situation is estimated according to DI and SPI, by using these data in Iran. The results of this study have showed that during next 30 years, drought conditions will be increase in Iran, and it confirms climate change event in this region. In addition, the most parts of Iran will experience severe and extreme drought in 2011, 2025, 2032, 2034, 2035, 2039, and among these years 2039 will have more critical drought situation. Keywords: Atmospheric General Circulation Models, Downscaling, LARS-WG, Drought, Decile Index, Standard Precipitation Index.

  9. Crustal Thickness of Iran Inferred from Converted Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taghizadeh-Farahmand, Fataneh; Afsari, Narges; Sodoudi, Forough

    2015-02-01

    The Iranian plate is part of the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt, which has been formed by the continental collision between the Arabian and Eurasian plates. The present-day Iranian plate is characterized by diverse tectonic domains including mountain belts (e.g. Zagros and Alborz, Kopeh-Dagh) and oceanic plate subduction (e.g. Makran). Here we present the lateral variations of the Moho discontinuity beneath Iran using a detailed P receiver function study. Our results allow for more precise estimations of the crustal thickness and enable us to provide a detailed Moho depth map for all of Iran for the first time. We used the teleseismic events recorded from 1995 to 2011 at 77 national permanent stations (24 broadband and 53 short period stations). Our results show significant variations in the crustal thickness, which are related to the different geological features within Iran. In general, the average crustal thickness beneath Iran is about 40-45 km. A relatively thick crust of about 54 ± 2 km due to the shortening is observed beneath the Alborz mountain ranges. The crust beneath the Alborz zone shows a thickness changing from 47 ± 2 to 45 ± 2 km from west to east and reaches a thickness of about 50 ± 2 km beneath the Kopeh-Dagh mountain range. We find the thinnest crust of about 33 ± 2 km beneath the Makran subduction zone in southeast Iran showing a normal continental crust, which has not been influenced by collisional processes. The thickest crust (~66 ± 2 km) is locally observed beneath the Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone, which is considered the suture zone of the collision between the Arabian and Eurasian plates.

  10. Priority Setting for Improvement of Cervical Cancer Prevention in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Majidi, Azam; Ghiasvand, Reza; Hadji, Maryam; Nahvijou, Azin; Mousavi, Azam-Sadat; Pakgohar, Minoo; Khodakarami, Nahid; Abedini, Mehrandokht; Amouzegar Hashemi, Farnaz; Rahnamaye Farzami, Marjan; Shahsiah, Reza; Sajedinejhad, Sima; Mohagheghi, Mohammad Ali; Nadali, Fatemeh; Rashidian, Arash; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Mogensen, Ole; Zendehdel, Kazem

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer among women worldwide. Organized cervical screening and vaccination against human papilloma virus (HPV) have been successful interventions for prevention of invasive cervical cancer (ICC). Because of cultural and religious considerations, ICC has low incidence in Iran and many other Muslim countries. There is no organized cervical screening in these countries. Therefore, ICC is usually diagnosed in advanced stages with poor prognosis in these countries. We performed a priority setting exercise and suggested priorities for prevention of ICC in this setting. Methods: We invited experts and researchers to a workshop and asked them to list important suggestions for ICC prevention in Iran. After merging similar items and removing the duplicates, we asked the experts to rank the list of suggested items. We used a strategy grid and Go-zone analysis to determine final list of priorities for ICC prevention in Iran. Results: From 26 final items suggested as priorities for prevention of ICC, the most important priorities were developing national guidelines for cervical screening and quality control protocol for patient follow-up and management of precancerous lesions. In addition, we emphasized considering insurance coverage for cervical screening, public awareness, and research priorities, and establishment of a cervical screening registry. Conclusion: A comprehensive approach and implementation of organized cervical screening program is necessary for prevention of ICC in Iran and other low incidence Muslim countries. Because of high cost for vaccination and low incidence of cervical cancer, we do not recommend HPV vaccination for the time being in Iran. PMID:27239863

  11. Seroepidemiology of toxoplasmosis in childbearing women of Northwest Iran.

    PubMed

    Rajaii, Mehrangiz; Pourhassan, Aboulfazl; Asle-Rahnamaie-Akbari, Najibeh; Aghebati, Leili; Xie, Juliana Ling; Goldust, Mohammad; Naghavi-Behzad, Mohammad

    2013-09-01

    Toxoplasma gondii causes the most common parasitic infection in the world. Congenital transmission, prenatal mortality and abortion are major problems of T. gondii. Prevalence of toxoplasmosis is high in Iran, especially in Azerbaijan. The current literature reviewed in this paper reveal results pertaining to various regions of Iran. The present cross-sectional e-study was designed to evaluate the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in childbearing women in Northwest Iran. We evaluated 1659 women in childbearing age from several cities in Northwestern Iran (Tabriz, Maragheh, Ahar, Marand, Sarab, Miane) from July 2009 to August 2010. Women aged between 20 and 40 years and seeking prenatal care were enrolled in the study. The subjects' sera were probed with indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA). A total of 1659 subjects were examined. Titres ranged from 1:100 to 1:800. In all, 899 subjects (54.13%) were seropositive. The highest frequency of seropositivity was shown in 1:200 dilution (36.08%) and in subjects from Maragheh (84% of 211 subjects). There was a direct linear relationship between seropositivity and age (p 0.001). Also, seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis was higher in subjects with primary school/lower educational level (p 0.001) and subjects living in rural regions (p 0.001). Overall, more than 50% of women in childbearing age were seropositive for toxoplasmosis in northwestern Iran. Increasing seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis with age was a predictable result due to longer exposure to the parasite. The relationship between increasing seroprevalence and lower educational level as well as living in rural areas is in line with the latest epidemiological findings, which also show such relationships due to lower socioeconomic status. PMID:24008851

  12. 75 FR 64120 - Technical Amendments to Forms N-CSR and N-SAR in Connection With the Comprehensive Iran Sanctions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-19

    ... Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, Accountability, and Divestment Act of 2010 AGENCY: Securities and Exchange... that were included in the Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, Accountability, and Divestment Act of 2010... President signed the Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, Accountability, and Divestment Act of 2010...

  13. New species and records of Uropodina mites from Iran (Acari, Mesostigmata)

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi, Shahrooz; Abolghasemi, Somayeh

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In this paper, a new species of the genus Nenteria Oudemans, 1915 is described on the basis of adult female and male specimens collected in soil and litter in parks in Kerman, southeastern Iran, and Tehran, northern Iran. A key to the Iranian species of Nenteria is also presented, and Trachycilliba abantica (Bal & Őzkan, 2007) is reported for the first time in Iran. PMID:27408598

  14. Mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosomal stratification in Iran: relationship between Iran and the Arabian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Terreros, Maria C; Rowold, Diane J; Mirabal, Sheyla; Herrera, Rene J

    2011-03-01

    Modern day Iran is strategically located in the tri-continental corridor uniting Africa, Europe and Asia. Several ethnic groups belonging to distinct religions, speaking different languages and claiming divergent ancestries inhabit the region, generating a potentially diverse genetic reservoir. In addition, past pre-historical and historical events such as the out-of-Africa migrations, the Neolithic expansion from the Fertile Crescent, the Indo-Aryan treks from the Central Asian steppes, the westward Mongol expansions and the Muslim invasions may have chiseled their genetic fingerprints within the genealogical substrata of the Persians. On the other hand, the Iranian perimeter is bounded by the Zagros and Albrez mountain ranges, and the Dasht-e Kavir and Dash-e Lut deserts, which may have restricted gene flow from neighboring regions. By utilizing high-resolution mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers and reanalyzing our previously published Y-chromosomal data, we have found a previously unexplored, genetic connection between Iranian populations and the Arabian Peninsula, likely the result of both ancient and recent gene flow. Furthermore, the regional distribution of mtDNA haplogroups J, I, U2 and U7 also provides evidence of barriers to gene flow posed by the two major Iranian deserts and the Zagros mountain range. PMID:21326310

  15. Devonian palaeobiogeographic affinities of Afghanistan and surrounding areas (Iran, Pakistan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mistiaen, B.; Brice, D.; Hubert, B. L. M.; Pinte, E.

    2015-04-01

    Palaeozoic (Devonian) outcrops in Afghanistan and neighbouring countries (Iran, Pakistan) are numerous but very sparsely distributed, and poorly known. The first interpretation, based on rare or poor data considered these North Gondwanan terranes as poorly connected and some authors have suggested the presence of large oceanic domains in palaeogeographical models. Increase in knowledge, especially of the distribution of main fossils groups, and also some lithological similarities, allow a review of the preliminary models and the identification of connections between the different terranes. For example the presence of Fistuliporid Bryozoan beds or rich Receptaculites levels in different sections of the three countries, especially in the Dasht-e Nawar and Central Iran areas, allows the preliminary models to be reviewed and the connections among the different terranes to be clarified.

  16. Eriophyoid mites (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyidae) associated with Compositae in Iran.

    PubMed

    Lotfollahi, Parisa; Irani-Nejad, Karim Haddad; Khanjani, Mohamad; Moghadam, Mohamad; De Lillo, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Five species of eriophyoid mites were identified during surveys of mite fauna associated with plant species of the family Compositae from Southwest of East Azerbaijan province during 2010 and 2011. Two of them, Aceria virgatae n. sp. from Centaurea virgata Lam. and Aceria xeranthenzis n. sp. from Xeranthemumn squarrosum Boiss., were found to be new to science. No damage symptoms were observed on their host plants. Aceria xeranthemis n. sp. is the first eriophyoid collected from the plant genus Xeranthenun. Aculops centaureae (Farkas, 1960) from Centaurea albonitens Turrill and Aceria cichorii Petanović et al. 2000 from Cichorium intybus L. are new records for Iranian mite fauna. The deutogyne female of Aceria anthocoptes (Nalepa) was recorded for the first time in Iran, too. A key to the species collected on Compositae in Iran is given. PMID:26266306

  17. Middle East: Iran isn't missed much

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-15

    A concerted effort to further develop productive capacity is evident in most Middle Eastern Countries, through exploration, field development, and secondary recovery. Saudi Arabia, Iraq, and Abu Dhabi all plan expanded petroleum industry programs in 1980. Oil production in Saudi Arabia through the first one-half of 1980 averaged 9.5 million bpd, and the Saudis are proceeding with the large-scale associated gas utilization and industrialization program. Iraq's near-term interest is in development of the Majnoon Discovery. Abu Dhabi is continuing efforts to complete development of a giant offshore field and finalize an onshore/offshore associated gas utilization facility. Only Iran and Kuwait are expected to be relatively inactive in petroleum programs during the remainder of 1980. Individual country reports are presented for Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Iran, Kuwait, the Divided Neutral Zone, Qatar, Oman, Bahrain, Syria, Turkey, Israel, Jordan, South Yemen, and Yemen Arab Republic.

  18. Indoor radon variations in central Iran and its geostatistical map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadad, Kamal; Mokhtari, Javad

    2015-02-01

    We present the results of 2 year indoor radon survey in 10 cities of Yazd province in Central Iran (covering an area of 80,000 km2). We used passive diffusive samplers with LATEX polycarbonate films as Solid State Nuclear Track Detector (SSNTD). This study carried out in central Iran where there are major minerals and uranium mines. Our results indicate that despite few extraordinary high concentrations, average annual concentrations of indoor radon are within ICRP guidelines. When geostatistical spatial distribution of radon mapped onto geographical features of the province it was observed that risk of high radon concentration increases near the Saqand, Bafq, Harat and Abarkooh cities, this depended on the elevation and vicinity of the ores and mines.

  19. A Systematic Review of Iran's Medicinal Plants With Anticancer Effects.

    PubMed

    Asadi-Samani, Majid; Kooti, Wesam; Aslani, Elahe; Shirzad, Hedayatollah

    2016-04-01

    Increase in cases of various cancers has encouraged the researchers to discover novel, more effective drugs from plant sources. This study is a review of medicinal plants in Iran with already investigated anticancer effects on various cell lines. Thirty-six medicinal plants alongside their products with anticancer effects as well as the most important plant compounds responsible for the plants' anticancer effect were introduced. Phenolic and alkaloid compounds were demonstrated to have anticancer effects on various cancers in most studies. The plants and their active compounds exerted anticancer effects by removing free radicals and antioxidant effects, cell cycle arrest, induction of apoptosis, and inhibition of angiogenesis. The investigated plants in Iran contain the compounds that are able to contribute effectively to fighting cancer cells. Therefore, the extract and active compounds of the medicinal plants introduced in this review article could open a way to conduct clinical trials on cancer and greatly help researchers and pharmacists develop new anticancer drugs. PMID:26297173

  20. Tissue and organ donation and transplantation in Iran.

    PubMed

    Goodarzi, Parisa; Aghayan, Hamid Reza; Larijani, Bagher; Rafiee, Alireza Baradaran; Falahzadeh, Khadijeh; Sahebjam, Mehrnaz; Ghaderi, Firoozeh; Arjmand, Babak

    2015-06-01

    Tissue and organ transplantation is one of the most promising treatments for some incurable diseases. Nowadays, transplantation is the common therapy in many countries. Unfortunately, availability of donated tissues and organs is limited. There are several factors which may affect donation rate for instance; social factors, culture, religion, and family decision. Accordingly, religious beliefs have a crucial role in tissue and organ donation and transplantation. Islam as a code of life has a comprehensive road map to lead mankind. Spiritual view of human life is considered to be much more valuable in Islam. Therefore, saving a human life is one of the most important Islamic teachings. In Iran as a Muslim country, tissue and organ transplantation program was established based on religious scholars' permission which has an essential role towards considerable development of the program in Iran. PMID:25194580

  1. Land subsidence in Iran caused by widespread water reservoir overexploitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motagh, Mahdi; Walter, Thomas R.; Sharifi, Mohammad Ali; Fielding, Eric; Schenk, Andreas; Anderssohn, Jan; Zschau, Jochen

    2008-08-01

    The increasing demands upon groundwater resources due to expanding metropolitan and agricultural areas are a serious challenge, particularly in semiarid and arid regions. In Iran, decades of unrestrained groundwater extraction for domestic, agricultural, and industrial use have resulted in a precipitous depletion of this valuable resource. Here we show that the decline in groundwater levels is associated with land-surface deformation on local and regional scales. Combining water-level data with satellite radar observations provides evidence for the prevalence of compacting aquifers in the country. Groundwater level decline is often associated with destruction of the aquifers, which appears to be a common problem in the groundwater basins of central and northeast Iran. Global warming and future climate change will affect arid and semiarid areas in the coming decades, further augmenting hazards associated with groundwater-induced land subsidence.

  2. The sociocultural contexts of attempting suicide among women in Iran.

    PubMed

    Keyvanara, Mahmoud; Haghshenas, Abbas

    2010-09-01

    In this study, we investigated the sociocultural contexts of suicide attempts among women in Iran. Fifty women who attempted suicide and were admitted to the two main hospitals in Isfahan in 2006 were interviewed. The main themes identified were family problems, marriage and love, social stigma, pressure of high expectations, and poverty. We observed significant sociocultural influence on attempting suicide among the Iranian women in this study. Based on our findings we conclude that the women in the study were affected by social changes and the interplay between traditional and modern values and attitudes. Understanding sociocultural aspects of suicide in Iran is critical in providing effective and culturally sensitive suicide prevention and care programs. PMID:20677036

  3. Developing a provisional and national renal disease registry for Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ajami, Sima; Askarianzadeh, Mahdi; Mortazavi, Mojgan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Disease registry is a database that includes information about people suffering a special kind of disease. The aim of this study was to first identify and compare the National Renal Disease Registry (NRDR) characteristics in some countries with Iran; and second, develop a provisional and NRDR for Iran. Materials and Methods: Retrieval of data of the NRDR was performed by scholars responsible in related agencies, including the Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Renal Disease charity, and data registries in the United States, United Kingdom, Malaysia, and Iran. This research was applied, and the study was descriptive-comparative. The study population consisted of the NRDR in selected countries in which data were collected by forms that were designed according to the study objectives. Sources of data were researchers, articles, books, journals, databases, websites, related documents, and people who are active in this regard, and related agencies, including the Ministry of Health and Medical Education, and patient support charity. The researchers collected data for each country based on the study objectives and then put them in comparative tables. Data were analyzed by descriptive, comparative, and theoretical methods. Results: Most of the renal transplant teams report their own results as a single center experiences. America and Britain have a preeminent national registry of renal disease compared to other countries. Conclusion: Given that control, prevention, and treatment of chronic renal diseases incur high expenses and the disease is one of leading mortality factors in Iran and across the world and since national registry system for chronic renal diseases can provide better tools and strategies to manage and evaluate patients’ characteristics as well as risk factors which eventually leads to making better decisions. PMID:26109970

  4. Diabetes Research in Iran: a Scientometric Analysis of Publications Output

    PubMed Central

    Rasolabadi, Masoud; Khaledi, Shahnaz; Ardalan, Marlin; Kalhor, Marya Maryam; Penjvini, Susan; Gharib, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In the developing countries, diabetes mellitus as a chronic diseases, have replaced infectious diseases as the main causes of morbidity and mortality. International Diabetes Federation (IDF) recently estimates 382 million people have diabetes globally and more than 34.6 million people in the Middle East Region and this number will increase to 67.9 million by 2035. The aim of this study was to analyze Iran’s research performance on diabetes in national and international context. Methods: This Scientometric analysis is based on the Iranian publication data in diabetes research retrieved from the Scopus citation database till the end of 2014. The string used to retrieve the data was developed using “diabetes” keyword in title, abstract and keywords, and finally Iran in the affiliation field was our main string. Results: Iran’s cumulative publication output in diabetes research consisted of 4425 papers from 1968 to 2014, with an average number of 96.2 papers per year and an annual average growth rate of 25.5%. Iran ranked 25th place with 4425 papers among top 25 countries with a global share of 0.72 %. Average of Iran’s publication output was 6.19 citations per paper. The average citation per paper for Iranian publications in diabetes research increased from 1.63 during 1968-1999 to 10.42 for 2014. Conclusions: Although diabetic population of Iran is increasing, number of diabetes research is not remarkable. International Diabetes Federation suggested increased funding for research in diabetes in Iran for cost-effective diabetes prevention and treatment. In addition to universal and comprehensive services for diabetes care and treatment provided by Iranian health care system, Iranian policy makers should invest more on diabetes research. PMID:26236083

  5. Essential oil compositions of Cymbopogon parkeri STAPF from Iran.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, R; Mohamadi, S; Abkar, A; Fazlollahi, A

    2007-10-01

    Aerial parts of aromatic grass, Cymbopogon parkeri STAPF, were collected at flowering stage from Kerman province of Iran. The essential oil of air dried samples obtained by hydro-distillation method. The compositions of the essential oil were determined by the use of GC and GC-MS. Nineteen (98.7%) constituents were identified. The main constituents were piperitone (80.8%), germacrene-D (5.1%), santolinyl acetate (2.1%) and alpha-eudesmol (2.1%). PMID:19090178

  6. Prevalence of Low Birth Weight and Obesity in Central Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafiei, M.; Ayatollahi, S. M. T.

    2008-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of low birth weight (LBW) and to document distribution of body mass index (BMI) at birth in Arak (central Iran) neonates of the 10,241 live neonates (5241 boys, 5000 girls, sex ratio 105) born in 2004 in Arak. A birth weight of less than 2500 g was classified as LBW. BMI based on the original supine length and weight…

  7. Surveillance for foodborne disease outbreaks in Iran, 2006-2011

    PubMed Central

    Masoumi Asl, Hossein; Gouya, Mohammad Mehdi; Soltan-dallal, Mohammad Mehdi; Aghili, Nooshin

    2015-01-01

    Background: The outbreaks of foodborne diseases is a major health problem and occur daily in all countries, from the most to the least developed. This study is the first report of foodborne outbreaks in Iran that carried out from 2006 to 2011. Methods: A retrospective, longitudinal study carried out using foodborne disease national surveillance system data from 2006-2011, which have been reported by all provincial health centers to the Center for Communicable Disease Control. Collected data were analyzed using SPSS version 18 software. Results: Since 2006 to 2011, a total of 2250 outbreaks were reported in Iran. Analyzed data showed that the outbreak rate has increased from 0.07/100000 in 2006 to 1.38/100000 population in 2011. Khuzestan, Kermanshah and Qazvin were three provinces that reported more outbreaks than nationally expected outbreak incidence rate during 2011. Analysis of epidemiological characteristics of foodborne outbreaks during 2011 indicated that the numbers of outbreaks were highest in warm months, e.g. 17.8% of total outbreaks was just reported in August. Females and age group of 16-30 years old were more affected and 55% of cases occurred in rural area. Among 684 human samples which have been tested, E. coli, Shigella, Hepatitis A and Vibrio cholera were predominant etiologic agents respectively. Conclusion: Increasing the detection rate of foodborne outbreaks imply the expansion of surveillance activities and improved primary health care in Iran in recent years. Foodborne disease surveillance system is a new program in Iran that should be continued and strengthened including diagnostic laboratory capacities. PMID:26913248

  8. A new species of Haplothrips from southern Iran (Thysanoptera, Phlaeothripidae)

    PubMed Central

    Minaei, Kambiz; Aleosfoor, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Haplothrips herajius sp. n. is described from leaves and flowers of a species of Suaeda in the south of Fars Province, Iran. This is the second Iranian species of Haplothrips with the unusual character state of extra setae on the metanotum. Information on variation in color and structure of the new species is provided. The similarities and host plant associations of this new species and Haplothrips kermanensis are discussed,as both are phytophagous on species of Chenopodiaceae. PMID:23794813

  9. Pre-Hospital Emergency in Iran: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Ghardashi, Fatemeh; Izadi, Ahmad Reza; Ravangard, Ramin; Mirhashemi, Sedigheh; Hosseini, Seyed Mojtaba

    2016-01-01

    Context Pre-hospital care plays a vital role in saving trauma patients. Objectives This study aims to review studies conducted on the pre-hospital emergency status in Iran. Data Sources Data were sourced from Iranian electronic databases, including SID, IranMedex, IranDoc, Magiran, and non-Iranian electronic databases, such as Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, Scopus, and Google Scholar. In addition, available data and statistics for the country were used. Data Selection All Persian-language articles published in Iranian scientific journals and related English-language articles published in Iranian and non-Iranian journals indexed on valid sites for September 2005 - 2014 were systematically reviewed. Data Extraction To review the selected articles, a data extraction form developed by the researchers as per the study’s objective was adopted. The articles were examined under two categories: structure and function of pre-hospital emergency. Results A total of 19 articles were selected, including six descriptive studies (42%), four descriptive-analytical studies (21%), five review articles (16%), two qualitative studies (10.5%), and two interventional (experimental) studies (10.5%). In addition, of these, 14 articles (73.5%) had been published in the English language. The focus of these selected articles were experts (31.5%), bases of emergency medical services (26%), injured (16%), data reviews (16%), and employees (10.5%). A majority of the studies (68%) investigated pre-hospital emergency functions and 32% reviewed the pre-hospital emergency structure. Conclusions The number of studies conducted on pre-hospital emergency services in Iran is limited. To promote public health, consideration of prevention areas, processes to provide pre-hospital emergency services, policymaking, foresight, systemic view, comprehensive research programs and roadmaps, and assessments of research needs in pre-hospital emergency seem necessary. PMID:27626016

  10. Mycetoma in Iran: Causative Agents and Geographic Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Bassiri-Jahromi, Shahindokht

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mycetoma is a chronic granulomatous disease caused by true fungi (eumycetoma) or filamentous bacteria (actinomycetoma). It usually involves the subcutaneous tissue after a traumatic inoculation of the causative organism. We reviewed retrospectively 13 patients with mycetoma. Materials and Methods: This study reports the etiologic agents and distribution of mycetoma in 35 cases from 1994 to2009 in Iran. The diagnostic of mycetoma were confirmed by histopathology and direct preparation, culture techniques, and histopathology of granules and surgical biopsies, radiological examination of the affected site. Results: Mycetoma was identified in 35 patients of 168 suspected patients (20.8%). They occurred in 22 male and 13 females. Their ages ranged from 14 to 80 years. The duration of the disease ranged from two months to 38 years. Sixteen patients had eumycetoma, and 19 patients had actinomycetoma, one of them had mix infections by eumycetoma and actinomycetoma. The majority of the patients were from central and states in south and north of Iran. The feet were most affected site (65.7%) of the cases, followed by hands (25.7%), face (2.8%), and trunk (2.8%), and buttock (2.8%). Most patients (68.5%) were more than 40 year-old. The male to female ratio was 5:3. The disease was abundant among housewife in urban and farmer in rural area of Iran. The most common prevalent mycetoma agents in this study were Actinomyces sp. There was a history of risk factors in 28.6% of patients in this study. Conclusion: Mycetoma occasionally occurs particularly in the South, Central, and North of Iran, and seen most often in persons, who live in hot, humid climates. If there are risk factors for invasive fungal infections traumatic inoculation with any fungus may result in rapid local spread and systemic disease, often with fatal outcome. PMID:25284877

  11. A reconnaissance study of radon concentration in Hamadan city, Iran.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillmore, G. K.; Jabari Vasal, Naghi

    2009-04-01

    This paper presents results of a reconnaissance study that used CR-39 alpha track-etch detectors to measure radon concentrations in dwellings in Hamadan, western Iran, significantly, built on permeable alluvial fan deposits. The indoor radon levels recorded varied from 4 to 364 Bq/m3 with a mean value of 107.87 Bq/m3 which is 2.5 times the average global population-weighted indoor radon concentration - these data augment the very few published studies on indoor radon levels in Iran. The maximum radon concentration in Hamadan occurs during the winter period (January to March) with lower concentrations during the autumn. The effective dose equivalent to the population in Hamadan is estimated from this reconnaissance study to be in the region of 2.7 mSv/y, which is above the guidelines for dose to a member of the public of 1 mSv/y suggested by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in 1993, although further work is required to confirm these results. This study supports other work in a number of countries that indicates such permeable 'surficial' deposits as being of intermediate to high radon potential. In western Iran, the presence of hammered clay floors, the widespread presence of excavated qanats to distribute water underground, the textural properties of surficial deposits and human behaviour intended to cope with winds are likely to be important factors influencing radon concentrations in older buildings. Keywords: Radon; health; dwellings; clay floors; alluvial fan; surficial geology; Hamadan; Iran

  12. Selenium status in soil, water and essential crops of Iran.

    PubMed

    Nazemi, Lyly; Nazmara, Shahrokh; Eshraghyan, Mohammad Reza; Nasseri, Simin; Djafarian, Kurosh; Yunesian, Masoud; Sereshti, Hassan; Moameni, Aziz; Shahtaheri, Seyed Jamaleddin

    2012-01-01

    As a contributing factor to health, the trace element selenium (Se) is an essential nutrient of special interest for humans and all animals. It is estimated that 0.5 to 1 billion people worldwide suffer from Se deficiency. In spite of the important role of Se, its concentrations in soil, water and essential crops have not been studied in Iran. Therefore, the main aim of the current study was to determine the Se content of soil, water, and essential crops (rice in North, wheat in Center, date, and pistachio in South) of different regions of Iran. Sampling was performed in the North, South, and Central regions of Iran. In each selected area in the three regions, 17 samples of surface soil were collected; samples of water and essential crops were also collected at the same sampling points. Upon preliminary preparation of all samples, the Se concentrations were measured by ICP-OES Model Varian Vista-MPX. The amount of soil-Se was found to be in the range between 0.04 and 0.45 ppm in the studied areas; the Se content of soil in the central region of Iran was the highest compared to other regions (p<0.0001). The average Se concentration in irrigation water of different areas was less than 0.01 mg/L, and the mean concentrations of Se in the rice, wheat, date, and pistachio samples were 0.95, 0.74, 0.46, and 0.40 ppm, respectively. Although Se-soil and water-Se level in different regions were low, the typical levels of Se in the essential crops were relatively high. PMID:23369199

  13. Menarche age in Iran: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bahrami, Nasim; Soleimani, Mohammad Ali; Chan, Yiong Huak; Ghojazadeh, Morteza; Mirmiran, Parvin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Research shows that the age at menarche, as an essential element in the reproductive health of women, had been decreasing in the 19th and 20th centuries, and shows a huge variation across different countries. There are numerous studies performed in Iran reporting a range of age at menarche. Thus, this meta-analysis aimed to determine the overall mean age at menarche of the girls in Iran. Materials and Methods: All relevant studies were reviewed using sensitive and standard keywords in the databases from 1950 to 2013. Two raters verified a total of 1088 articles based on the inclusion criteria of this study. Forty-seven studies were selected for this meta-analysis. Cochran test was used for samples’ homogeneity (Tau-square). The mean age at menarche of the girls in Iran with 95% confidence interval (CI) from the random effects was reported. Results: The homogeneity assumption for the 47 reviewed studies was attained (Tau-square = 0.00). The mean (95% CI) menarche age of Iranian girls from the random effects was 12.81 (95% CI: 12.56–13.06) years. Conclusions: The results of this study showed that mean age at menarche was less than that of some European developed countries such as Switzerland, Sweden, and Denmark, more than that reported in some countries such as Greece and Italy, and similar to the values obtained in the United States of America and Colombia. Lower age at menarche in Iran may be largely attributed to the changes in lifestyle and diet of the children. PMID:25400670

  14. 48 CFR 25.703 - Prohibition on contracting with entities that engage in certain activities relating to Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prohibition on contracting with entities that engage in certain activities relating to Iran. 25.703 Section 25.703 Federal... to Iran....

  15. 48 CFR 25.703 - Prohibition on contracting with entities that engage in certain activities relating to Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prohibition on contracting with entities that engage in certain activities relating to Iran. 25.703 Section 25.703 Federal... to Iran....

  16. 48 CFR 25.703 - Prohibition on contracting with entities that engage in certain activities relating to Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Prohibition on contracting with entities that engage in certain activities relating to Iran. 25.703 Section 25.703 Federal... to Iran....

  17. Trends in meteorological and agricultural droughts in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golian, S.; Mazdiyasni, O.; AghaKouchak, A.

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate characteristics of meteorological and agricultural droughts and their trends in Iran, as well as several subregions with different climate conditions from 1980 to 2013. The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and Standardized Soil Moisture Index (SSI) are used as the primary indicators of meteorological and agricultural droughts, respectively. This study assesses historical droughts using the Multivariate Standardized Drought Index (MSDI), which provides a composite model of meteorological-agricultural drought. Furthermore, this study discusses the behavior of MSDI relative to the other indices (SPI and SSI) over different climatic conditions ranging from humid, semiarid, and hyperarid regions. The Mann-Kendall trend test shows that the northern, northwestern, and central parts of Iran have experienced significant drying trends at a 95 % confidence level. However, no statistically significant drying trend was observed in the eastern part of Iran. The most severe drought across the country occurred between 1998 and 2001, with approximately 80 % of the country experiencing an exceptional drought (<2 % probability of occurrence). This event coincided with a prolonged cold phase El Niño-Southern Oscillation (La Niña) that led to persistently cold sea surface temperatures in the eastern Pacific and warm sea surface temperatures in the Indian and western Pacific.

  18. Predicting presence and absence of trout (Salmo trutta) in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mostafavi, Hossein; Pletterbauer, Florian; Coad, Brian W.; Mahini, Abdolrassoul Salman; Schinegger, Rafaela; Unfer, Günther; Trautwein, Clemens; Schmutz, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Species distribution modelling, as a central issue in freshwater ecology, is an important tool for conservation and management of aquatic ecosystems. The brown trout (Salmo trutta) is a sensitive species which reacts to habitat changes induced by human impacts. Therefore, the identification of suitable habitats is essential. This study explores the potential distribution of brown trout by a species distribution modelling approach for Iran. Furthermore, modelling results are compared to the distribution described in the literature. Areas outside the currently known distribution which may offer potential habitats for brown trout are identified. The species distribution modelling was based on five different modelling techniques: Generalised Linear Model, Generalised Additive Model, Generalised Boosting Model, Classification Tree Analysis and Random Forests, which are finally summarised in an ensemble forecasting approach. We considered four environmental descriptors at the local scale (slope, bankfull width, wetted width, and elevation) and three climatic parameters (mean air temperature, range of air temperature and annual precipitation) which were extracted on three different spatial extents (1/5/10 km). The performance of all models was excellent (≥0.8) according to the TSS (True Skill Statistic) criterion. Slope, mean and range of air temperature were the most important variables in predicting brown trout occurrence. Presented results deepen the knowledge about distribution patterns of brown trout in Iran. Moreover, this study gives a basic background for the future development of assessment methods for riverine ecosystems in Iran. PMID:24707064

  19. The Epidemiology of Skin Cancer and its Trend in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Razi, Saeid; Enayatrad, Mostafa; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah; Salehiniya, Hamid; Fathali-loy-dizaji, Mehri; Soltani, Shahin

    2015-01-01

    Background: One of the most common cancers is skin cancer worldwide. Since incidence and cost of treatment of the cancer are increasing, it is necessary to further investigate to prevent and control this disease. This study aimed to determine skin cancer trend and epidemiology in Iran. Methods: This study was done based on existing data. Data used in this study were obtained from a national registry of cancer cases and the Disease Management Center of Ministry of Health in Iran. All cases registered in the country were included during 2004–2008. Incidence rates were reported based on the direct method and standard population of World Health Organization. Results: Based on the results of this study, the incidence of skin cancer is rising in Iran and the sex ratio was more in men than women in all provinces. The age-standardized incidence rate (ASR) of skin cancer was highest in males in Semnan, Isfahan, and Hamedan provinces (34.9, 30.80, and 28.84, respectively). The highest ASRs were seen in females in Semnan, Yazd, and Isfahan provinces (26.7, 24.14, and 18.97, respectively). The lowest ASR in male was observed in Sistan and Baluchestan, and in female in Hormozgan provinces. Conclusions: The incidence of skin cancer is increasing in the country. Therefore, the plan for the control and prevention of this cancer must be a high priority for health policy makers. PMID:26288708

  20. Nursing education in Iran: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Tabari Khomeiran, Rasoul; Deans, Cecil

    2007-10-01

    Nursing education in Iran has undergone significant change since its genesis with foreign missionaries over one hundred years ago. More recently, following the 1979 Islamic revolution, nurse education has followed the direction taken by most other countries in moving from an apprenticeship model of training to an academic model. A series of transformative changes to nursing education specifically-and across the higher education system generally-has resulted in nurses now being able to undertake study across all university-based programs up to and including doctoral level. Contemporary nursing students have access to full-text professional journals through the internet, and they may pursue their doctoral studies in other countries. Although these improvements in nursing education in Iran are to be applauded, much more needs to be accomplished to ensure that highly competent nurse practitioners continue to be produced in this country. This article presents an historical overview of the development of nursing education in Iran, within its economic and sociopolitical contexts. Recommendations based upon lessons learned from historical and contemporary realities are presented in order to advance nursing education in this part of world. PMID:17125890

  1. Genetic Identification of Orientobilharzia turkestanicum from Sheep Isolates in Iran

    PubMed Central

    TABARIPOUR, Reza; YOUSSEFI, Mohammad Reza; TABARIPOUR, Rabeeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adult worms of Orientobilharzia turkestanicum live in the portal veins, or intestinal veins of cattle, sheep, goat and many other mammals causing orientobilharziasis. Orientobilharziasis causes significant economic losses to livestock industry of Iran. However, there is limited information about genotypes of O. turkestanicum in Iran. Methods: In this study, 30 isolates of O. turkestanicum obtained from sheep were characterized by sequencing mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) gene. The mitochondrial cox1 and nad1 DNA were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and then sequenced and compared with O. turkestanicum and that of other members of the Schistosomatidae available in Gen-Bank™. Results: Phylogenetic relationships between them were re-constructed using the maximum parsimony method. Phylogenetic analyses done in present study placed O. turkestanicum within the Schistosoma genus, and indicates that O. turkestanicum was phylogenetically closer to the African schistosome group than to the Asian schistosome group. Conclusion: Comparison of nad1 and cox1 sequences of O. turkestanicum obtained in this study with corresponding sequences available in Genbank™ revealed some sequence variations and provided evidence for presence of microvarients in Iran. PMID:25904947

  2. Islamic politics and women's quest for gender equality in Iran.

    PubMed

    Hoodfar, Homa; Sadr, Shadi

    2010-01-01

    The unification of a strong and authoritarian state with religious laws and institutions after the 1979 revolution in Iran has resulted in the creation of a dualistic state structure in which non-elected and non-accountable state authorities and institutions-the majority of whom have not accepted either the primacy of democracy nor the premise of equality between men and women (or Muslims and non-Muslims)-are able to oversee the elected authorities and institutions. The central question posed by this paper is whether a religious state would be capable of democratising society and delivering gender equality. By analysing the regime's gender policies and political development, the paper suggests that, at least in the case of Iran and Shi'ism, the larger obstacle to gender (and minorities') equality has more to do with the undemocratic state-society relations that persist in Iran and less to do with the actual or potential compatibility (or lack thereof) of religious traditions or practices with democratic principles. PMID:20857567

  3. Oesophageal cancer among the Turkomans of northeast Iran

    PubMed Central

    Saidi, F; Sepehr, A; Fahimi, S; Farahvash, M J; Salehian, P; Esmailzadeh, A; Keshoofy, M; Pirmoazen, N; Yazdanbod, M; Roshan, M K

    2000-01-01

    A Caspian Littoral Cancer Registry survey in the early 1970s established northern Iran as one of the highest oesophageal cancer incidence regions of the world. To verify this, an oesophageal cancer survey was carried out between 1995 and 1997 in the Turkoman Plain at the southeastern corner of the Caspian Sea. Oesophageal balloon cytology screening was carried out on 4192 asymptomatic adults above age 30 years in one town and three adjoining villages with a total population of 20 392 people at risk. Oesophagoscopy was performed on 183 patients with abnormal cytological findings. The discovery of two asymptomatic small squamous cell cancers and one ‘carcinoma- suspect’ implied a prevalence ranging from 47.7 per 100 000 to 71.5 per 100 000. During a 1-year active surveillance, 14 patients were found with clinically advanced oesophageal squamous cell cancer, yielding age-standardized incidence rates of 144.09 per 100 000 for men and 48.82 per 100 000 for women. The very high frequency of oesophageal cancer reported for northern Iran 25 years ago stands confirmed. Differences in incidence rates, then and now, can be attributed to survey methods used and diagnostic criteria applied, but not to socioeconomic factors, which have remained relatively stable. Oesophageal balloon cytology is a practical method of mass screening for oesophageal cancer in Iran. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:11027442

  4. Islamic Republic of Iran population growth rate declines.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    In April 1996, at the 52nd Session of the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP), the delegate from the Islamic Republic of Iran announced that social indicators indicate acceptable improvement. The average population growth rate fell from 3.9% (1981-1991) to less than 2% (1995). High birth rates and an influx of refugees during 1981-1991 accounted for the high population growth rate. The marked decline in the birth rate, brought about mainly by effective family planning and health programs, has contributed greatly to the reduced population growth rate. The government has focused on rural areas. 86% of rural households now have access to piped water. More than 60% have electricity. The overall literacy rate in Iran has reached 79%. The entire population has access to free or subsidized primary health care services. The Second Development Plan of Iran centers on the significance of the role that mothers have in shaping society and individuals by their child raising abilities, particularly in the early years. The Iranian delegate endorsed the secretariat's plan for helping members and associate members to reach their development goals and objectives. PMID:12291139

  5. The Economic Burden of Breast Cancer in Iran

    PubMed Central

    DAROUDI, Rajabali; AKBARI SARI, Ali; NAHVIJOU, Azin; KALAGHCHI, Bita; NAJAFI, Massoomeh; ZENDEHDEL, Kazem

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although breast cancer imposes a considerable economic burden on high-income countries, there is limited knowledge about its economic burden in low- and middle-income countries (LMCs), including Iran. In this study, we estimated the economic burden of breast cancer in Iran in 2010. Methods: We used the prevalence-based approach and estimated the direct and indirect costs of all breast cancer cases in 2010. We used several data sources, including national cancer registry reports, hospital records, occupational data, and interviews with experts. Result: The economic burden of breast cancer was US$947,374,468. Most of the cost (77%) pertained to the productivity lost due to breast cancer deaths and the direct medical cost accounted for 18.56% of the estimated total cost. Out of the US$175,860,607 as the direct medical cost, the chemotherapy cost constituted the main part ($76,755,740), of which prescriptions of trastuzumab accounted for 41% ($31,529,280). Conclusion: The economic burden of breast cancer in Iran is substantial and is expected to increase significantly due to the increasing incidence rate. Strategies for the prevention and early detection of breast cancer should be prioritized in the national cancer control program. PMID:26587497

  6. Family Medicine in Iran: Facing the Health System Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Esmaeili, Reza; Hadian, Mohammad; Rashidian, Arash; Shariati, Mohammad; Ghaderi, Hossien

    2015-01-01

    Background: In response to the current fragmented context of health systems, it is essential to support the revitalization of primary health care in order to provide a stronger sense of direction and integrity. Around the world, family medicine recognized as a core discipline for strengthening primary health care setting. Objective: This study aimed to understand the perspectives of policy makers and decision makers of Iran’s health system about the implementation of family medicine in Iran urban areas. Materials/Patients and Methods: This study is a qualitative study with framework analysis. Purposive semi-structured interviews were conducted with Policy and decision makers in the five main organizations of Iran health care system. The codes were extracted using inductive and deductive methods. Results: According to 27 semi-structured interviews were conducted with Policy and decision makers, three main themes and 8 subthemes extracted, including: The development of referral system, better access to health care and the management of chronic diseases. Conclusion: Family medicine is a viable means for a series of crucial reforms in the face of the current challenges of health system. Implementation of family medicine can strengthen the PHC model in Iran urban areas. Attempting to create a general consensus among various stakeholders is essential for effective implementation of the project. PMID:25948450

  7. Cost effectiveness of Iran national plasma contract fractionation program

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Plasma derived medicines (PDM) including immunoglobulins, clotting factors and albumin are life saving medicines which due to their high costs are inaccessible for many patients living in developing countries. By contrary substantial volume of plasma as raw materials for production of these medicines are discarded worldwide. Good quality recovered plasma, as a result of separation of donated blood into its components, could be used for production of PDM. In 2011 Iranian donors donated about 2 million units of blood. A shift from administration of whole blood to components therapy has resulted in the generation of over 250,000 liters of surplus of recovered plasma. This created a good opportunity for Iran’s health care system to use this plasma for production of PDM. Therefore Iran national transfusion service has started a contract fractionation program for converting recovered plasma into PDM. This program not only provided essential PDM for Iran pharmaceutical market but also has created a direct saving of about 8.5 million Euros in 2011 for national health sector. In addition this program has drastically contributed to improvement of overall quality of working procedures and services provided by Iran national blood transfusion organization. PMID:23351278

  8. Identifying challenges for academic leadership in medical universities in Iran.

    PubMed

    Bikmoradi, Ali; Brommels, Mats; Shoghli, Alireza; Khorasani-Zavareh, Davoud; Masiello, Italo

    2010-05-01

    CONTEXT The crucial role of academic leadership in the success of higher education institutions is well documented. Medical education in Iran has been integrated into the health care system through a complex organisational change. This has called into question the current academic leadership, making Iranian medical universities and schools a good case for exploring the challenges of academic leadership. OBJECTIVES This study explores the leadership challenges perceived by academic managers in medical schools and universities in Iran. METHODS A qualitative study using 18 face-to-face, in-depth interviews with academic managers in medical universities and at the Ministry of Health and Medical Education in Iran was performed. All interviews were recorded digitally, transcribed verbatim and analysed by qualitative content analysis. RESULTS The main challenges to academic leadership could be categorised under three themes, each of which included three sub-themes: organisational issues (inefficacy of academic governance; an overly extensive set of missions and responsibilities; concerns about the selection of managers); managerial issues (management styles; mismatch between authority and responsibilities; leadership capabilities), and organisational culture (tendency towards governmental management; a boss-centred culture; low motivation). CONCLUSIONS This study emphasises the need for academic leadership development in Iranian medical schools and universities. The ability of Iranian universities to grow and thrive will depend ultimately upon the application of leadership skills. Thus, it is necessary to better designate authorities, roles of academic staff and leaders at governance. PMID:20518985

  9. Rapid fertility decline in Iran: analysis of intermediate variables.

    PubMed

    Erfani, Amir; McQuillan, Kevin

    2008-05-01

    The remarkable decline in fertility in Iran, which saw the total fertility rate fall from 7 children per woman in 1986 to 2 in 2000, has received only limited analysis in the demographic literature. Using the 2000 Iran Demographic and Health Survey and Bongaarts' age-specific fertility model, this paper examines the role of the major proximate determinants of fertility in bringing about the rapid decrease in fertility in Iran. The analysis indicates that contraception had the largest effect on fertility, accounting for 61% of the reduction in fertility from its theoretical maximum. The fertility-inhibiting effect of marriage patterns accounted for an additional 31% reduction, and was most important among the young. Further analysis of contraceptive behaviour suggests that the current period fertility rate of 2.0 children per woman is an outcome of a synchronization of delaying and spacing of births among younger women with stopping of childbearing among women in the middle and late reproductive ages. The policy implications of the results are discussed. PMID:17850688

  10. Preliminary study of dengue virus infection in Iran.

    PubMed

    Chinikar, Sadegh; Ghiasi, Seyed Mojtaba; Shah-Hosseini, Nariman; Mostafavi, Ehsan; Moradi, Maryam; Khakifirouz, Sahar; Rasi Varai, Fereshteh Sadat; Rafigh, Mahboubeh; Jalali, Tahmineh; Goya, Mohammad Mehdi; Shirzadi, Mohammad Reza; Zainali, Mohammad; Fooks, Anthony R

    2013-01-01

    Dengue fever is one of the most important arthropod-borne viral diseases of public health significance. It is endemic in most tropical and subtropical parts of the world, many of which are popular tourist destinations. The presence of dengue infection was examined in Iranian patients who were referred to the Arboviruses and Viral Haemorrhagic Fevers Laboratory of the Pasteur Institute of Iran and tested negative for Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) between 2000 and 2012. Serum samples from these patients were tested for the presence of specific IgG and IgM and viral nucleic acid in blood. Of the 300 sera tested, 15 (5%) were seropositive, and 3 (1%) were both serologically and PCR positive. Of the 15 seropositive cases, 8 (53.3%) had travelled to endemic areas including Malaysia (5, 62.5%), India (2, 25%) and Thailand (1, 12.5%). In contrast, 7 (46.7%) of the cases had not reported travelling abroad. Of these, six cases were from the Sistan and Baluchistan province in southeast Iran and neighbouring Pakistan. Travellers play a key role in the epidemiology of dengue infection in Iran and it is recommended that travellers to endemic areas take precautionary measures to avoid mosquito bites. PMID:23194952

  11. A Paleogene extensional arc flare-up in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdel, Charles; Wernicke, Brian P.; Hassanzadeh, Jamshid; Guest, Bernard

    2011-06-01

    Arc volcanism across Iran is dominated by a Paleogene pulse, despite protracted and presumably continuous subduction along the northern margin of the Neotethyan ocean for most of Mesozoic and Cenozoic time. New U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar data from volcanic arcs in central and northern Iran constrain the duration of the pulse to ˜17 Myr, roughly 10% of the total duration of arc magmatism. Late Paleocene-Eocene volcanic rocks erupted during this flare-up have major and trace element characteristics that are typical of continental arc magmatism, whereas the chemical composition of limited Oligocene basalts in the Urumieh-Dokhtar belt and the Alborz Mountains which were erupted after the flare-up ended are more consistent with derivation from the asthenosphere. Together with the recent recognition of Eocene metamorphic core complexes in central and east central Iran, stratigraphic evidence of Eocene subsidence, and descriptions of Paleogene normal faulting, these geochemical and geochronological data suggest that the late Paleocene-Eocene magmatic flare-up was extension related. We propose a tectonic model that attributes the flare-up to decompression melting of lithospheric mantle hydrated by slab-derived fluids, followed by Oligocene upwelling and melting of enriched mantle that was less extensively modified by hydrous fluids. We suggest that Paleogene magmatism and extension was driven by an episode of slab retreat or slab rollback following a Cretaceous period of flat slab subduction, analogous to the Laramide and post-Laramide evolution of the western United States.

  12. A reconnaissance study of radon concentrations in Hamadan city, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillmore, G. K.; Jabarivasal, N.

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents results of a reconnaissance study that used CR-39 alpha track-etch detectors to measure radon concentrations in dwellings in Hamadan, western Iran, significantly, built on permeable alluvial fan deposits. The indoor radon levels recorded varied from 4 (i.e. below the lower limit of detection for the method) to 364 Bq/m3 with a mean value of 108 Bq/m3 which is 2.5 times the average global population-weighted indoor radon concentration - these data augment the very few published studies on indoor radon levels in Iran. The maximum radon concentration in Hamadan occurs during the winter period (January to March) with lower concentrations during the autumn. The effective dose equivalent to the population in Hamadan is estimated from this study to be in the region of 2.7 mSv/y, which is above the guidelines for dose to a member of the public of 1 mSv/y suggested by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in 1993. This study supports other work in a number of countries that indicates such permeable "surficial" deposits as being of intermediate to high radon potential. In western Iran, the presence of hammered clay floors, the widespread presence of excavated qanats, the textural properties of surficial deposits and human behaviour intended to cope with winds are likely to be important factors influencing radon concentrations in older buildings.

  13. Uppermost mantle P wave velocities beneath Turkey and Iran

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.; Chen, W.; Molnar, P.

    1980-01-01

    The uppermost mantle P wave velocities beneath Turkey and Iran were estimated by applying the conventional travel time-distance relation method to arrival times of well located earthquakes recorded at a few stations. The average uppermost mantle P wave velocity under Turkey is estimated from two stations of the World Wide Standardized Seismograph Network (WWSSN), Istanbul and Tabriz. The data are consistent with a crust of uniform, but poorly determined, thickness and an uppermost mantle P wave velocity of 7.73 +- 0.08 km/s. This velocity is very similar to that for the Aegean Sea and suggests that its structure could be closely related to that beneath Turkey. For Iran, the results calculated from travel times to three WWSSN stations, Meshed, Shiraz, and Tabriz, can be explained by a crust dipping toward the south-southeast at about 1/sup 0/ with an uppermost mantle P wave velocity of 8.0 +- 0.1 km/s. If the crustal thickness were 34 km in the north it would reach about 49 km in the south. Based on these uppermost mantle velocities, the temperature at Moho beneath Turkey is probably close to the melting temperature of peridotite but that beneath Iran is probably lower.

  14. Cancer epidemiology and trends in Sistan and Baluchestan province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rafiemanesh, Hosein; Mehtarpoor, Mojtaba; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah; Salehiniya, Hamid; Enayatrad, Mostafa; Khazaei, Salman

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cancer is the second leading cause of death in developing countries. In Iran, cancer is the third cause of death. The present study aimed at providing the incidence rates (crude and agestandardized) of different types of cancers in Sistan and Baluchestan province (Southeastern of Iran). Methods: Data were collected retrospectively reviewing all new cancer patients registered in Cancer Registry Center of Health Heputy for Sistan and Baluchestan province. Common cancers were defined based on the number of cases and standardized incidence rates. To compute the annual percentage change (APC), joinpoint 4.1.1.1 software was applied. Results: A total of 3535 cases of cancers registered during 2004-2009 were identified. Of these, 46.82% occurred in females and 53.18% in males. The most frequent cancer in women was breast cancer followed by esophagus, skin, colorectal and leukemia. The 5 most frequent cancers in men were stomach, skin, leukemia, esophagus and bladder. Joinpoint analyze showed a significant increasing trend for adjusted standard incidence rate (ASIR) for both sexes (p<0.05). Conclusion: According to The results of the present study and comparison to previous studies for other provinces in Iran, cancer incidence in Sistan and Baluchistan is less common but trends of cancers are increasing in Sistan and Baluchestan Province. It is necessary to have a comprehensive health policy for prevention and control of this problem. PMID:26793645

  15. Nuclear war between Israel and Iran: lethality beyond the pale

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The proliferation of nuclear technology in the politically volatile Middle East greatly increases the likelihood of a catastrophic nuclear war. It is widely accepted, while not openly declared, that Israel has nuclear weapons, and that Iran has enriched enough nuclear material to build them. The medical consequences of a nuclear exchange between Iran and Israel in the near future are envisioned, with a focus on the distribution of casualties in urban environments. Methods Model estimates of nuclear war casualties employed ESRI's ArcGIS 9.3, blast and prompt radiation were calculated using the Defense Nuclear Agency's WE program, and fallout radiation was calculated using the Defense Threat Reduction Agency's (DTRA's) Hazard Prediction and Assessment Capability (HPAC) V404SP4, as well as custom GIS and database software applications. Further development for thermal burn casualties was based on Brode, as modified by Binninger, to calculate thermal fluence. ESRI ArcGISTM programs were used to calculate affected populations from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's LandScanTM 2007 Global Population Dataset for areas affected by thermal, blast and radiation data. Results Trauma, thermal burn, and radiation casualties were thus estimated on a geographic basis for three Israeli and eighteen Iranian cities. Nuclear weapon detonations in the densely populated cities of Iran and Israel will result in an unprecedented millions of numbers of dead, with millions of injured suffering without adequate medical care, a broad base of lingering mental health issues, a devastating loss of municipal infrastructure, long-term disruption of economic, educational, and other essential social activity, and a breakdown in law and order. Conclusions This will cause a very limited medical response initially for survivors in Iran and Israel. Strategic use of surviving medical response and collaboration with international relief could be expedited by the predicted casualty

  16. Trends in Incidence of Common Cancers in Iran.

    PubMed

    Enayatrad, Mostafa; Mirzaei, Maryam; Salehiniya, Hamid; Karimirad, Mohammad Reza; Vaziri, Siavash; Mansouri, Fiezollah; Moudi, Asieh

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is a major public health problem in Iran. The aim of this study was to evaluate trends in incidence of ten common cancers in Iran, based on the national cancer registry reports from 2004 to 2009. This epidemiological study was carried out based on existing age-standardized estimate cancer data from the national report on cancer registry/Ministry of Health in Iran. The obtained data were analyzed by test for linear trend and P ≥ 0.05 was taken as the significant level. Totals of 41,169 and 32,898 cases of cancer were registered in men and females, respectively, during these years. Overall age-standard incidence rates (ASRs) per 100,000 population according to primary site weres 125.6 and 113.4 in males and females, respectively. Between 2004 and 2009, the ten most common cancers (excluding skin cancer) were stomach (16.2), bladder (12.6), prostate (11), colon-rectum (10.14), hematopoeitic system (7.1), lung (6.1), esophagus (6.4), brain (3.2), lymph node (3.8) and larynx (3.4) in males; and in females were breast (27.4), colon-rectum (9.3), stomach (7.6), esophagus (6.4), hematopoeitic system (4.9), thyroid (3.9), ovary (3.6), corpus uteri (2.9), bladder (3.2) and lung (2.6). Moreover, results showed that skin cancer was estimated as the most common cancer in both sexes. The lowest and the highest incidence in females and males were reported respectively in 2004 and 2009. Over this period, the incidence of cancer in both sexes has been significantly increasing (p<0.01). Like other less developed and epidemiologically transitioning countries, the trend of age-standardized incidence rate of cancer in Iran is rising. Due to the increasing trends, the future burden of cancer in the Iran is going to be acute with the expected increases in aging populations. Determining and controlling potential risk factors of cancer should hopefully lead to decrease in its burden. PMID:27165205

  17. Socioeconomic Factors Affecting Household Energy Consumption in Qom, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrzad, Ebrahimi; Masoud, Alizadeh; Mansour, Ebrahimi

    Petrol is heavily subsidized in Iran which has led both to very high consumption levels and a big smuggling problem as petrol is transported out of Iran's border areas for re-sale in neighboring countries, where petrol prices are much higher. Also, a shortage of refineries combined with wasteful consumption means that Iran regularly imports petrol despite being one of the world's biggest oil producers. To look at the different variables contributing to wasteful consumption of fuel in Iran and the effect of governmental gradual increase of fuel prices, this study questioned 600 family warden views in Qom, Iran. The results showed that more than two third of samples have heard or read at least one news about energy saving and quoted TV as main source of their information while 55% mentioned all fossils resources would be finish in near future and urged optimum energy consumption as the best way to tackle energy crisis (82%), with 85% asked for more media propagation to change wrong cultural behaviors in Qom. Nearly half of the people said that governmental plan to increase domestic price of high octane and regular gasoline annually had little or no effect on fuel consumption and majority of them mentioned cultural changes as the best tools and nearly the same rate were worried about air pollution as the immediate result of uncontrolled fuel consumption in Qom. The results also showed that with increase in each year education of family warden, decreases fuel expenses 11.2% in hot seasons and 1240000 Iranian Rials (IR-R) in cold seasons while increase in family members' size adds 288660 (IR-R) per member to base family size (2) and for each member of family which works outside the house, family energy expenses increase 234470 IR-R. And finally the results showed fuel (or energy) expenses in cold months in Qom is higher than other months and family warden education showed more effect to reduce those expenses during mild months but less during hot months. Therefore it is

  18. 31 CFR 560.515 - 30-day delayed effective date for pre-May 7, 1995 trade contracts involving Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-May 7, 1995 trade contracts involving Iran. 560.515 Section 560.515 Money and Finance: Treasury....515 30-day delayed effective date for pre-May 7, 1995 trade contracts involving Iran. (a) All... involving Iran (a pre-existing trade contract), including the exportation of goods, services...

  19. 31 CFR 560.515 - 30-day delayed effective date for pre-May 7, 1995 trade contracts involving Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-May 7, 1995 trade contracts involving Iran. 560.515 Section 560.515 Money and Finance: Treasury....515 30-day delayed effective date for pre-May 7, 1995 trade contracts involving Iran. (a) All... involving Iran (a pre-existing trade contract), including the exportation of goods, services...

  20. 31 CFR 535.217 - Blocking of property of the former Shah of Iran and of certain other Iranian nationals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Shah of Iran and of certain other Iranian nationals. 535.217 Section 535.217 Money and Finance... former Shah of Iran and of certain other Iranian nationals. (a) For the purpose of protecting the rights... in the control of the estate of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the former Shah of Iran, or any close...

  1. 31 CFR 535.201 - Transactions involving property in which Iran or Iranian entities have an interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... which Iran or Iranian entities have an interest. 535.201 Section 535.201 Money and Finance: Treasury... Iran or Iranian entities have an interest. No property subject to the jurisdiction of the United States... States in which on or after the effective date Iran has any interest of any nature whatsoever may...

  2. 3 CFR 13622 - Executive Order 13622 of July 30, 2012. Authorizing Additional Sanctions With Respect to Iran

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Additional Sanctions With Respect to Iran 13622 Order 13622 Presidential Documents Executive Orders Executive Order 13622 of July 30, 2012 EO 13622 Authorizing Additional Sanctions With Respect to Iran By the... subsequent Executive Orders, particularly in light of the Government of Iran's use of revenues from...

  3. 31 CFR 535.403 - Termination and acquisition of an interest of Iran or an Iranian entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... interest of Iran or an Iranian entity. 535.403 Section 535.403 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Iran or an Iranian entity. (a) Whenever a transaction licensed or authorized by or pursuant to this part results in the transfer of property (including any property interest) away from Iran or an...

  4. 31 CFR 535.201 - Transactions involving property in which Iran or Iranian entities have an interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... which Iran or Iranian entities have an interest. 535.201 Section 535.201 Money and Finance: Treasury... Iran or Iranian entities have an interest. No property subject to the jurisdiction of the United States... States in which on or after the effective date Iran has any interest of any nature whatsoever may...

  5. 31 CFR 561.407 - Conducting or facilitating a financial transaction with the Central Bank of Iran or a designated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... transaction with the Central Bank of Iran or a designated Iranian financial institution. 561.407 Section 561... § 561.407 Conducting or facilitating a financial transaction with the Central Bank of Iran or a... transaction with the Central Bank of Iran or a designated Iranian financial institution if it maintains...

  6. 31 CFR 535.217 - Blocking of property of the former Shah of Iran and of certain other Iranian nationals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Shah of Iran and of certain other Iranian nationals. 535.217 Section 535.217 Money and Finance... former Shah of Iran and of certain other Iranian nationals. (a) For the purpose of protecting the rights... in the control of the estate of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the former Shah of Iran, or any close...

  7. 48 CFR 25.703-3 - Prohibition on contracting with entities that export sensitive technology to Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... with entities that export sensitive technology to Iran. 25.703-3 Section 25.703-3 Federal Acquisition... Sources 25.703-3 Prohibition on contracting with entities that export sensitive technology to Iran. (a... or services with a person that exports certain sensitive technology to Iran, as determined by...

  8. 31 CFR 535.403 - Termination and acquisition of an interest of Iran or an Iranian entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... interest of Iran or an Iranian entity. 535.403 Section 535.403 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Iran or an Iranian entity. (a) Whenever a transaction licensed or authorized by or pursuant to this part results in the transfer of property (including any property interest) away from Iran or an...

  9. 31 CFR 535.217 - Blocking of property of the former Shah of Iran and of certain other Iranian nationals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Shah of Iran and of certain other Iranian nationals. 535.217 Section 535.217 Money and Finance... former Shah of Iran and of certain other Iranian nationals. (a) For the purpose of protecting the rights... in the control of the estate of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the former Shah of Iran, or any close...

  10. 31 CFR 535.217 - Blocking of property of the former Shah of Iran and of certain other Iranian nationals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Shah of Iran and of certain other Iranian nationals. 535.217 Section 535.217 Money and Finance... former Shah of Iran and of certain other Iranian nationals. (a) For the purpose of protecting the rights... in the control of the estate of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the former Shah of Iran, or any close...

  11. 31 CFR 535.504 - Certain judicial proceedings with respect to property of Iran or Iranian entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... respect to property of Iran or Iranian entities. 535.504 Section 535.504 Money and Finance: Treasury... § 535.504 Certain judicial proceedings with respect to property of Iran or Iranian entities. (a) Subject... existed an interest of Iran or an Iranian entity. (b) This section does not authorize: (1) Any...

  12. 31 CFR 535.403 - Termination and acquisition of an interest of Iran or an Iranian entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... interest of Iran or an Iranian entity. 535.403 Section 535.403 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Iran or an Iranian entity. (a) Whenever a transaction licensed or authorized by or pursuant to this part results in the transfer of property (including any property interest) away from Iran or an...

  13. 31 CFR 535.214 - Direction involving other financial assets in which Iran or an Iranian entity has an interest...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... assets in which Iran or an Iranian entity has an interest held by any person subject to the jurisdiction... Iran or an Iranian entity has an interest held by any person subject to the jurisdiction of the United... institution and is on January 19, 1981, in possession or control of funds or securities of Iran or...

  14. 31 CFR 535.201 - Transactions involving property in which Iran or Iranian entities have an interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... which Iran or Iranian entities have an interest. 535.201 Section 535.201 Money and Finance: Treasury... Iran or Iranian entities have an interest. No property subject to the jurisdiction of the United States... States in which on or after the effective date Iran has any interest of any nature whatsoever may...

  15. 48 CFR 25.703-3 - Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, Accountability, and Divestment Act of 2010, section 106.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Comprehensive Iran... Prohibited Sources 25.703-3 Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, Accountability, and Divestment Act of 2010, section... goods or services with a person that exports certain sensitive technology to Iran, as determined by...

  16. 31 CFR 535.403 - Termination and acquisition of an interest of Iran or an Iranian entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... interest of Iran or an Iranian entity. 535.403 Section 535.403 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Iran or an Iranian entity. (a) Whenever a transaction licensed or authorized by or pursuant to this part results in the transfer of property (including any property interest) away from Iran or an...

  17. 31 CFR 535.504 - Certain judicial proceedings with respect to property of Iran or Iranian entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... respect to property of Iran or Iranian entities. 535.504 Section 535.504 Money and Finance: Treasury... § 535.504 Certain judicial proceedings with respect to property of Iran or Iranian entities. (a) Subject... existed an interest of Iran or an Iranian entity. (b) This section does not authorize: (1) Any...

  18. 31 CFR 535.214 - Direction involving other financial assets in which Iran or an Iranian entity has an interest...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... assets in which Iran or an Iranian entity has an interest held by any person subject to the jurisdiction... Iran or an Iranian entity has an interest held by any person subject to the jurisdiction of the United... institution and is on January 19, 1981, in possession or control of funds or securities of Iran or...

  19. 31 CFR 535.504 - Certain judicial proceedings with respect to property of Iran or Iranian entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... respect to property of Iran or Iranian entities. 535.504 Section 535.504 Money and Finance: Treasury... § 535.504 Certain judicial proceedings with respect to property of Iran or Iranian entities. (a) Subject... existed an interest of Iran or an Iranian entity. (b) This section does not authorize: (1) Any...

  20. 31 CFR 535.504 - Certain judicial proceedings with respect to property of Iran or Iranian entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... respect to property of Iran or Iranian entities. 535.504 Section 535.504 Money and Finance: Treasury... § 535.504 Certain judicial proceedings with respect to property of Iran or Iranian entities. (a) Subject... existed an interest of Iran or an Iranian entity. (b) This section does not authorize: (1) Any...

  1. 48 CFR 25.703-3 - Prohibition on contracting with entities that export sensitive technology to Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... with entities that export sensitive technology to Iran. 25.703-3 Section 25.703-3 Federal Acquisition... Sources 25.703-3 Prohibition on contracting with entities that export sensitive technology to Iran. (a... or services with a person that exports certain sensitive technology to Iran, as determined by...

  2. 31 CFR 560.515 - 30-day delayed effective date for pre-May 7, 1995 trade contracts involving Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-May 7, 1995 trade contracts involving Iran. 560.515 Section 560.515 Money and Finance: Treasury....515 30-day delayed effective date for pre-May 7, 1995 trade contracts involving Iran. (a) All... involving Iran (a pre-existing trade contract), including the exportation of goods, services...

  3. 31 CFR 535.217 - Blocking of property of the former Shah of Iran and of certain other Iranian nationals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Shah of Iran and of certain other Iranian nationals. 535.217 Section 535.217 Money and Finance... former Shah of Iran and of certain other Iranian nationals. (a) For the purpose of protecting the rights... in the control of the estate of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the former Shah of Iran, or any close...

  4. 31 CFR 535.214 - Direction involving other financial assets in which Iran or an Iranian entity has an interest...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... assets in which Iran or an Iranian entity has an interest held by any person subject to the jurisdiction... Iran or an Iranian entity has an interest held by any person subject to the jurisdiction of the United... institution and is on January 19, 1981, in possession or control of funds or securities of Iran or...

  5. 31 CFR 561.407 - Conducting or facilitating a financial transaction with the Central Bank of Iran or a designated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... transaction with the Central Bank of Iran or a designated Iranian financial institution. 561.407 Section 561... § 561.407 Conducting or facilitating a financial transaction with the Central Bank of Iran or a... transaction with the Central Bank of Iran or a designated Iranian financial institution if it maintains...

  6. 31 CFR 561.407 - Conducting or facilitating a financial transaction with the Central Bank of Iran or a designated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... transaction with the Central Bank of Iran or a designated Iranian financial institution. 561.407 Section 561... § 561.407 Conducting or facilitating a financial transaction with the Central Bank of Iran or a... transaction with the Central Bank of Iran or a designated Iranian financial institution if it maintains...

  7. 31 CFR 535.201 - Transactions involving property in which Iran or Iranian entities have an interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... which Iran or Iranian entities have an interest. 535.201 Section 535.201 Money and Finance: Treasury... Iran or Iranian entities have an interest. No property subject to the jurisdiction of the United States... States in which on or after the effective date Iran has any interest of any nature whatsoever may...

  8. 31 CFR 535.201 - Transactions involving property in which Iran or Iranian entities have an interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... which Iran or Iranian entities have an interest. 535.201 Section 535.201 Money and Finance: Treasury... Iran or Iranian entities have an interest. No property subject to the jurisdiction of the United States... States in which on or after the effective date Iran has any interest of any nature whatsoever may...

  9. 31 CFR 535.403 - Termination and acquisition of an interest of Iran or an Iranian entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... interest of Iran or an Iranian entity. 535.403 Section 535.403 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Iran or an Iranian entity. (a) Whenever a transaction licensed or authorized by or pursuant to this part results in the transfer of property (including any property interest) away from Iran or an...

  10. 48 CFR 25.703-3 - Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, Accountability, and Divestment Act of 2010, section 106.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Comprehensive Iran... Prohibited Sources 25.703-3 Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, Accountability, and Divestment Act of 2010, section... goods or services with a person that exports certain sensitive technology to Iran, as determined by...

  11. 3 CFR 13599 - Executive Order 13599 of February 5, 2012. Blocking Property of the Government of Iran and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Property of the Government of Iran and Iranian Financial Institutions 13599 Order 13599 Presidential... Government of Iran and Iranian Financial Institutions By the authority vested in me as President by the... Iran and other Iranian banks to conceal transactions of sanctioned parties, the deficiencies in...

  12. Current Readings on the Iran-Iraq Conflict and Its Effects on U.S. Foreign Relations and Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Sherbini, Magda

    1989-01-01

    Provides background on the Iran-Iraq conflict and suggests readings dating from 1980 to 1988 in both English and Arabic which are classified under seven broad categories: the roots of the conflict; Iran-United States relations; the American hostage crisis; the Iran-Contra affair; periodicals and indexes; online databases; and bibliographies. (105…

  13. Inquiring Into Iran: A Case Study Approach to the Social Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellicano, Roy R.

    1980-01-01

    The author suggests contemporary Iran as an excellent subject for a case study in secondary social studies. He considers some of the issues which students might analyze: journalistic bias toward Iran, pluralism in Iranian society and Islam, sociopolitical factors which affect modernizing nations, and the causes of revolution. (SJL)

  14. Early Visean bryozoans from the Shishtu II Member, Shishtu Formation, central Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolokonnikova, Zoya; Yazdi-Moghadam, Mohsen

    2013-12-01

    Four bryozoan species are described from the upper member (Shishtu II) (Visean, Early Carboniferous=Mississippian) of the Shishtu Formation of central Iran: Nikiforovella ulbensis Nekhoroshev, 1956, Nicklesopora elegantulaformis (Nekhoroshev, 1956), Primorella cf. iranica Gorjunova, 2006, and Nikiforopora intermedia (Nikiforova, 1950). This Visean assemblage shows close palaeogeographical affinities of Iran with Kazakhstan and Russia (eastern Transbaikalia, Kurgan region).

  15. Three new species of mygalomorph and filistatid spiders from Iran (Araneae, Cyrtaucheniidae, Nemesiidae and Filistatidae)

    PubMed Central

    Marusik, Yuri M.; Zamani, Alireza; Mirshamsi, Omid

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Three new spider species are described from Iran: Anemesia koponeni sp. n. (♂, Cyrtaucheniidae); Raveniola mazandaranica sp. n. (♂, Nemesiidae) and Sahastata sinuspersica sp. n. (♀, Filistatidae). Cyrtaucheniidae and Sahastata Benoit, 1968 are reported from Iran for the fisrt time. PMID:25589859

  16. 75 FR 67025 - Delegation of Certain Functions and Authorities Under the Comprehensive Iran Sanctions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-01

    ... Register. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, WASHINGTON, September 23, 2010 [FR Doc. 2010-27679 Filed 10... Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, Accountability, and Divestment Act of 2010 Memorandum for the Secretary of State... sections 4(c), 5(a), 5(b), 5(c), 5(f), 6(a)(1), 6(a)(2), 6(b)(5), and 9(c) of the Iran Sanctions Act...

  17. 78 FR 68321 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    .... (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, November 12, 2013. [FR Doc. 2013-27376 Filed 11-12-13; 11:15 am] Billing... With Respect to Iran #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No... ] Notice of November 12, 2013 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran On November...

  18. 75 FR 12115 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    .... (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, March 10, 2010. [FR Doc. 2010-5662 Filed 3-11-10; 11:15 am] Billing code... Notice of March 10, 2010--Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran #0; #0; #0... Emergency With Respect to Iran On March 15, 1995, by Executive Order 12957, the President declared...

  19. 77 FR 67739 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ..., Washington, November 9, 2012. [FR Doc. 2012-27742 Filed 11-9-12; 2:15 pm] Billing code 3295-F3 ... With Respect to Iran #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77, No... ] Notice of November 9, 2012 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran On November...

  20. 75 FR 69567 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect To Iran

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-12

    ... Congress. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, November 10, 2010. [FR Doc. 2010-28780 Filed 11-10-10; 11:15... Notice of November 10, 2010--Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect To Iran #0; #0; #0... the National Emergency With Respect To Iran On November 14, 1979, by Executive Order 12170,...

  1. 78 FR 16395 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-14

    ... Congress. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, March 12, 2013. [FR Doc. 2013-06113 Filed 3-13-13; 11:15 am... With Respect to Iran #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No... ] Notice of March 12, 2013 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran On March 15,...

  2. Mental Health Counseling in the Islamic Republic of Iran: A Marriage of Religion, Science, and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priester, Paul E.

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the state of mental health counseling in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Topics that are addressed include training of clinicians, theoretical developments in Islamic-based theories of psychology, and issues related to the practice of counseling. Counseling issues in the Islamic Republic of Iran are influenced by its unique…

  3. 76 FR 70033 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    ... Register and transmitted to the Congress. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, November 7, 2011. [FR Doc... With Respect to Iran #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76, No... ] Notice of November 7, 2011 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran On November...

  4. 76 FR 13283 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ... Congress. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, March 8, 2011. [FR Doc. 2011-5729 Filed 3-9-11; 11:15 am... Documents#0;#0; ] Notice of March 8, 2011 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran On... Iran pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) to deal with...

  5. Toward a Distance Education Based Strategy for Internationalization of the Curriculum in Higher Education of Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vajargah, Kourosh Fathi; Khoshnoodifar, Mehrnoosh

    2013-01-01

    The present study is to investigate the necessity of internationalization of curricula in Higher Education of Iran; it also determines the effect of characteristics of new generation of distance education on curriculum internationalization and presents some influential strategies for internationalizing curricula of Iran Higher Education with…

  6. Development Discourses on the Educational System of Iran: A Critical Analysis of Their Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahdi Sajjadi, Seyed

    2015-01-01

    Three decades have passed since the victory of the Islamic Revolution in Iran and, entering the fourth decade, major changes are apparent in the structure and content of the nation's education system. Because of the victory of the Islamic Revolution of Iran and the regime change and formation of an Islamic state, the changes in the educational…

  7. 75 FR 2181 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-4100, Iran Program Grants Vetting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-14

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-4100, Iran Program Grants Vetting, Information Collection... of Information Collection: Iran Program Grants OMB Control Number: 1405-0176 Type of Request... Eastern Affairs (NEA/IR) Form Number: DS-4100 Respondents: Potential grantees and participants for...

  8. The Extension of Cultural Dominance in Iran with the Establishment of New Schools in Ghajar Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piri, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of 19th century, England for political reasons tried to make relations with Iran. Englishmen besides political tricks tried to establish their trace in Iran society by cultural permeation. European religious commissions who proceeded in different parts of the world since 19th century, though apparently had religious…

  9. Enhancing Ethos: The Role of Epideictic at the Iran-Contra Hearings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, David

    A critique predicated primarily on aesthetic considerations can show the potential a speech has to move an audience, but gauging a speech's actual effects on the audience is more difficult. A case in point is the United States Congressional investigation of the Iran-Contra scandal. Government officials and businessmen sold arms to Iran in exchange…

  10. A Two-Year Comprehensive Community College Model for Developing Nations: A Case of Iran.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abili, Khodi

    A three-part discussion is provided of the applicability of the comprehensive two-year community college model to Iran. Part I provides an overview of Iran's current economic status and manpower needs, the advantages that the development of a community college system would afford the country, the specific educational needs that could be met by a…

  11. Recruitment and Employment of Foreign Workers--Iran. Project Findings and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Labour Organisation, Geneva (Switzerland).

    Prepared for the government of Iran, the report is the result of a study concerned with the recruitment and employment of foreign workers. Due to the rapid industrialization of Iran, an anticipated shortage of qualified workers led to the government's request for an outside expert to advise on considerations and suggested procedures involved in…

  12. "New York Times" Editorial Position and the U.S. Foreign Policy: The Case of Iran.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malek, Abbas

    A study examined the similarity or dissimilarity between the "New York Times'" editorial position on Iran and Iranian affairs and the official United States foreign policy towards Iran as reflected in the "Department of State Bulletin" for the period of 1968-1981. Each piece was categorized by major category and sub-category by three coders who…

  13. Comparative Policy Brief: Status of Intellectual Disabilities in the Islamic Republic of Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samadi, Sayyed Ali

    2008-01-01

    In the Islamic Republic of Iran, considerable stigma is attached to the presence of a family member with intellectual disabilities, and even in Iran's new constitution, a word with traditional, negative connotation has been retained to refer to persons with intellectual disabilities. While two government organizations have recently become involved…

  14. 31 CFR 560.412 - Extensions of credit or loans to Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Extensions of credit or loans to Iran. 560.412 Section 560.412 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... REGULATIONS Interpretations § 560.412 Extensions of credit or loans to Iran. (a) The prohibitions contained...

  15. 31 CFR 560.412 - Extensions of credit or loans to Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Extensions of credit or loans to Iran. 560.412 Section 560.412 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... REGULATIONS Interpretations § 560.412 Extensions of credit or loans to Iran. (a) The prohibitions contained...

  16. 31 CFR 560.550 - Certain noncommercial, personal remittances to or from Iran authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... remittances to or from Iran authorized. 560.550 Section 560.550 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Policy § 560.550 Certain noncommercial, personal remittances to or from Iran authorized. (a) In cases in which the transfer involves a noncommercial, personal remittance, the transfer of funds to or from...

  17. 31 CFR 535.580 - Necessary living expenses of relatives of the former Shah of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Necessary living expenses of relatives of the former Shah of Iran. 535.580 Section 535.580 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating... Necessary living expenses of relatives of the former Shah of Iran. The transfer, payment or withdrawal...

  18. 31 CFR 535.580 - Necessary living expenses of relatives of the former Shah of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Necessary living expenses of relatives of the former Shah of Iran. 535.580 Section 535.580 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating... Necessary living expenses of relatives of the former Shah of Iran. The transfer, payment or withdrawal...

  19. 31 CFR 535.580 - Necessary living expenses of relatives of the former Shah of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Necessary living expenses of relatives of the former Shah of Iran. 535.580 Section 535.580 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating... Necessary living expenses of relatives of the former Shah of Iran. The transfer, payment or withdrawal...

  20. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran Executive Order 12957

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... to Iran Executive Order 12957 Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of March 13, 2012 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran Executive Order 12957 On March 15, 1995, by Executive Order 12957, the President declared a national emergency with respect to...

  1. 31 CFR 560.412 - Extensions of credit or loans to Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Extensions of credit or loans to Iran. 560.412 Section 560.412 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... Interpretations § 560.412 Extensions of credit or loans to Iran. (a) The prohibitions contained in §§ 560.204...

  2. 31 CFR 560.412 - Extensions of credit or loans to Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Extensions of credit or loans to Iran. 560.412 Section 560.412 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... Interpretations § 560.412 Extensions of credit or loans to Iran. (a) The prohibitions contained in §§ 560.204...

  3. 31 CFR 535.580 - Necessary living expenses of relatives of the former Shah of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Necessary living expenses of relatives of the former Shah of Iran. 535.580 Section 535.580 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating... Necessary living expenses of relatives of the former Shah of Iran. The transfer, payment or withdrawal...

  4. 31 CFR 560.550 - Certain noncommercial, personal remittances to or from Iran authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... remittances to or from Iran authorized. 560.550 Section 560.550 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Policy § 560.550 Certain noncommercial, personal remittances to or from Iran authorized. (a) In cases in which the transfer involves a noncommercial, personal remittance, the transfer of funds to or from...

  5. 31 CFR 535.580 - Necessary living expenses of relatives of the former Shah of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Necessary living expenses of relatives of the former Shah of Iran. 535.580 Section 535.580 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Necessary living expenses of relatives of the former Shah of Iran. The transfer, payment or withdrawal...

  6. 3 CFR - Delegation of Certain Functions and Authorities Under the Comprehensive Iran Sanctions...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Under the Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, Accountability, and Divestment Act of 2010 Presidential... Authorities Under the Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, Accountability, and Divestment Act of 2010 Memorandum for... President by sections 4(c), 5(a), 5(b), 5(c), 5(f), 6(a)(1), 6(a)(2), 6(b)(5), and 9(c) of the...

  7. Women and Higher Education in Iran: What Are the Implications for Employment and the "Marriage Market"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rezai-Rashti, Goli M.; Moghadam, Valentine M.

    2011-01-01

    In contemporary Iran, women with higher education face both gender discrimination and an unfavourable economic system, one that is not conducive to employment-generation for women. This paper provides an analysis of women's access to higher education in Iran, which has varied over the last 30 years, and their continuously limited participation in…

  8. A Model and Questionnaire of Language Identity in Iran: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khatib, Mohammad; Rezaei, Saeed

    2013-01-01

    This study consisted of three main phases including the development of a hypothesised model of language identity in Iran, developing and validating a questionnaire based on this model and finally testing the model based on the questionnaire data. In the first phase of this research, a hypothesised model of language identity in Iran was developed…

  9. Constructing the Ideal Muslim Sexual Subject: Problematics of School-Based Sex Education in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabatabaie, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    School-based sex education is an underdeveloped and challenging issue to address in Iran. This paper provides insights into the main challenges in developing and implementing school-based sex education in Iran. Through an investigation of one Iranian boys' school that, in contrast to the majority of Iranian educational institutions, has an…

  10. Take a look at the ancient observatories in Iran and prospects for the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayanikhoo, F.; Bahrani, F.

    2014-12-01

    In this article, we want to introduce ancient observatories of Iran and study about applications of two of them in ancient times. Then, we will introduce one of the robotic observatories of Iran that is located in university of Kashan. We, also, will study about features of Iranian National Observatory that is an under construction robotic observatory.

  11. 31 CFR 560.412 - Extensions of credit or loans to Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... in existence as of May 6, 1995, such as the extension of a standby letter of credit. (b) The... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Extensions of credit or loans to Iran... Interpretations § 560.412 Extensions of credit or loans to Iran. (a) The prohibitions contained in §§ 560.204...

  12. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of March 11, 2009 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran On March 15, 1995, by Executive Order 12957, the...

  13. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of November 12, 2009 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran On November 14, 1979, by Executive Order 12170,...

  14. Description of a new species of the genus Laelaspis Berlese (Acari, Mesostigmata, Laelapidae) from Iran

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi, Shahrooz; Mehrzad, Nazanin; Latifi, Malihe

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the genus Laelaspis Berlese, Laelaspis elongatus sp. n. is described based on adult female and male specimens collected in association with Pheidole pallidula (Nylander) (Hym., Formicidae) in Ahwaz, Khuzestan Province, southwestern Iran, and also Acinopus (Acinopus) picipes (Olivier) (Col., Carabidae) in Bam, Kerman Province, southeastern Iran. PMID:26843834

  15. Rural Cultural Houses (A New Approach to Rural Youth Work in Iran).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmanzadeh, Cyrus

    Based on field work in rural areas of Khuzestan Province in southwestern Iran in 1973-74, an examination of the nature of rural cultural houses in Iran was undertaken. Set up by royal decree in 1968, the rural cultural houses have had as their objective to assist peasantry in general and rural youth in particular to achieve a socially enriched…

  16. Gastrointestinal helminths of the Caspian turtle, Mauremys caspica (Testudines), from Northern Iran.

    PubMed

    Youssefi, Mohammad Reza; Mousapour, Ali; Nikzad, Reza; Gonzalez-Solis, David; Halajian, Ali; Rahimi, Mohammad Taghi

    2016-03-01

    The Caspian turtle (Mauremys caspica) is a semi-aquatic and adaptable reptile. To date, there are no reports on the parasites of this turtle in Iran. Hence, the current survey was designed to prepare a list of the gastrointestinal helminth parasites of the Caspian turtle in North Iran. A total of 34 road-killed individuals (14 males and 20 females) were collected between July 2011 and October 2012 from the Mazandaran province, Iran. All parts of gastrointestinal were parasitologically scrutinized and collected specimens were fixed and preserved in 70 % ethanol. Half of the examined Caspian turtles (17) were infected with at least one parasitic helminth. The list of helminths includes three nematodes: Serpinema microcephalum (Camallanidae), Falcaustra armenica (Kathlaniidae), Oxyuridae sp., and one digenean: Telorchis sp. (Telorchiidae). This is the first report of the gastrointestinal helminth parasites of the Caspian turtle in Iran and all helminth species are reported for the first time in Iran. PMID:27065600

  17. The gastro-esophageal malignancies in Northern Iran research project: impact on the health research and health care systems in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Sepanlou, Sadaf G.; Etemadi, Arash; Kamangar, Farin; Pourshams, Akram; Poustchi, Hossein; Islami, Farhad; Sadjadi, Alireza; Nasrollahzadeh, Dariush; Semnani, Shahryar; Abnet, Christian; Ponder, Bruce; Pharoh, Paul; day, Nick; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo; Dawsey, Sanford M; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Since 2000, considerable progress has been made in health research in Iran. An example of this progress has been the Gastro- Esophageal Malignancies in Northern Iran (GEMINI). The original aim of this project was to identify etiologic factors and prevention measures for upper gastrointestinal cancers in Northern provinces of Iran, but its achievements have gone much beyond the initial goal. This project is one of the largest studies in the Middle East and North African region, has helped build and strengthen research capacity at both individual and institutional levels in Iran, and has provided international credibility to research institutes and the wider research system in Iran. The success of GEMINI reveals the feasibility of large-scale studies in developing countries and serves as a successful model not only for health research institutes within Iran, but also for research systems in other developing countries. The outcomes of the project are numerous, including establishment of research networks, development of efficient methods for planning and implementation of research projects, and introduction of methodologies for project management, data management and usage of health technology. Finally and perhaps most importantly, GEMINI is among the few projects that has had a significant impact on the attitudes and concerns of decision makers in the health sector in Iran. It signifies the importance of investment in human resources and has proved that health policies should be health-based rather than patient-based. Here we review the impact of GEMINI on the health research system and the broader health care system of Iran and put these into a more global perspective. PMID:23273237

  18. Spatial Analysis of Stomach Cancer Incidence in Iran.

    PubMed

    Pakzad, Reza; Khani, Yousef; Pakzad, Iraj; Momenimovahed, Zohre; Mohammadian-Hashejani, Abdollah; Salehiniya, Hamid; Towhidi, Farhad; Makhsosi, Behnam Reza

    2016-01-01

    Stomach cancer, the fourth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death through the world, is very common in parts of Iran. Geographic variation in the incidence of stomach cancer is due to many different factors. The aim of this study was to assess the geographical and spatial distribution of stomach cancer in Iran using data from the cancer registry program in Iran for the year 2009. The reported incidences of stomach cancer for different provinces were standardized to the world population structure. ArcGIS software was used to analyse the data. Hot spots and high risk areas were determined using spatial analysis (Getis-Ord Gi). Hot and cold spots were determined as more than or less than 2 standard deviations from the national average, respectively. A significance level of 0.10 was used for statistical judgment. In 2009, a total of 6,886 cases of stomach cancers were reported of which 4,891 were in men and 1,995 in women (standardized incidence rates of 19.2 and 10.0, respectively, per 100,000 population). The results showed that stomach cancer was concentrated mainly in northwest of the country in both men and women. In women, northwest provinces such as Ardebil, East Azerbaijan, West Azerbaijan, Gilan, and Qazvin were identified as hot spots (p<0.1). In men, all northwest provinces, Ardabil, East Azerbaijan, Gilan, Qazvin, Zanjan and Kurdistan, the incidences were higher than the national average and these were identified as hot spots (P<0.01). As stomach cancer is clustered in the northwest of the country, further epidemiological studies are needed to identify factors contributing to this concentration. PMID:27165203

  19. Hospital Mortality Associated with Stroke in Southern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Borhani-Haghighi, Afshin; Safari, Rasool; Heydari, Seyed Taghi; Soleimani, Faroq; Sharifian, Maryam; Yektaparast Kashkuli, Sara; Nayebi Khayatghuchani, Mahsa; Azadi, Mahbube; Shariat, Abdolhamid; Safari, Anahid; Bagheri Lankarani, Kamran; Alshekhlee, Amer; Cruz-Flores, Salvador

    2013-01-01

    Background: Unlike the western hemisphere, information about stroke epidemiology in southern Iran is scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the main epidemiological characteristics of patients with stroke and its mortality rate in southern Iran. Methods: A retrospective, single-center, hospital-based longitudinal study was performed at Nemazee Hospital in Shiraz, Southern Iran. Patients with a diagnosis of hemorrhagic and ischemic strokes were identified based on the International Classification of Diseases, 9th and 10th editions, for the period between 2001 and 2010. Demographics including age, sex, area of residence, socioeconomic status, length of hospital stay, and discharge destinations were analyzed in association with mortality. Results: 16351 patients with a mean age of 63.4 years (95% CI: 63.1, 63.6) were included in this analysis. Men were slightly predominant (53.6% vs. 46.4%). Forty-seven percent of the total sample was older than 65,17% were younger than 45, and 2.6% were children younger than 18. The mean hospital stay was 6.3 days (95% CI: 6.2, 6.4). Among all types of strokes, the overall hospital mortality was 20.5%. Multiple logistic regression revealed significantly higher in-hospital mortality in women and children (P<0.001) but not in patients with low socioeconomic status or from rural areas. During the study period, the mortality proportions increased from 17.8% to 22.2%. Conclusion: In comparison to western countries, a larger proportion of our patients were young adults and the mortality rate was higher. PMID:24293785

  20. The Application of Morphometric Indices for Neotectonic Study of Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamani, Ahmad; Hadavi, Fatemeh

    2010-05-01

    The application of morphometric indices for neotectonic studies in large scale, is leading to obtain of accurate results. Indices that used in this study were such as: asymmetry factor, stream-gradient index, drainage density, elongation ratio, and relief ratio. In this research, the whole of Iran was studied that from geographical position side it is placed in northern latitude of 25 up to 39 degree and eastern longitude of 44 up to 63 degree. This study was unique from the point of aim and work scale in Iran, and review of literature showed that most of applied indices in this research have been used only in Hydrogeology course in the world. This study at first, started with digitizing the topographic maps and creates DEM in the scale of 1/250000 and the limit's definition for 660 subsidiary drainage basin and the selection of 900 stream from diverse kinds of orders. Indices, calculated in the base of DEM with regarding to special definition of them. All of these stages have done with using of some software such as: Arc View GIS, Arc Map and Maple. With the aim of analyzing crude data; mentioned indices were implied for preparing contour maps. Investigating of findings and their correlation with the trend of tectonic liniments, revealed that morphometric indices in neotectonic studies of region (with the aim of detection of relative intensity of tectonic processes and comparison of tectonically potential in large scale) had some advantages like applicability and high pace. There was Relative correlation between linear trends of anomaly with trends of tectonic liniments, and also correlation maps and charts with the natural geographic map in the whole scale of country. These observations showed the influence of fault's operation on formation of morphologic landscapes. Therefore it's clear; negative and positive anomalies that obtained for each index, distinguished relative intensity of tectonic activity in the different regions of Iran.

  1. A Five Years Study of Tuberculous Meningitis in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Hajia, Massoud; Amirzargar, Ali Akbar; Nazari, Mina; Razavi Davodi, Neda; Karami Zarandi, Morteza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is a severe form of extra pulmonary tuberculosis with high mortality and morbidity rate in all age group patients specific in adults and children. The incidence and prevalence are not exactly known in Iran. In this study, we tried to evaluate the role of rapid diagnosis and to find out the highest risk group patients. Methods: Totally, 1783-suspected patients with tuberculous meningitis whose CSF specimens were admitted at Noor Pathobiology Laboratory, Tehran, Iran were enrolled in this study from January 2009 until December 2013. All specimens were checked for MTB by direct examination, culture and PCR tests, and for the adenosine deaminase (ADA). Results: Confirmed positive cases were aged from 13 to 82 yr old with mean age 46.63 yr (SD±18.84). The number of diagnosed positive MTB was different by the 3 applied protocol, 64 by PCR, 28 by culture and 33 by direct examination. Considering the result of PCR protocol the TBM was approved in 64 patients with rate of 3.59%. Two patients had other infection as well, one 56 years old with VZV and the other patient who was HIV positive was 27 years old. Increased ADA titer higher than cutoff was relevant with other results of positive samples except in two cases. Conclusion: Analysis of the results proved adults are more at risk for tuberculous meningitis than children in Iran are. It is also confirmed PCR method provide the most efficient, rapid and reliable results for these patients who are at the critical situations. PMID:26351499

  2. Spatial Analysis of Breast Cancer Incidence in Iran.

    PubMed

    Mahdavifar, Neda; Pakzad, Reza; Ghoncheh, Mahshid; Pakzad, Iraj; Moudi, Asieh; Salehiniya, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer in females (27% of the total) and the main cause of death (16%) due to cancer in women in developed and developing countries. Variations in its incidence rate among geographical areas are due to various contributing factors. Since there have been a lack of studies on this topic in our country, the present spatial analysis of breast cancer incidence in Iran in 2009 was conducted using data from the national cancer registry system. The reported incidences of the disease were standardized according to the World Health Organization population and the direct method. Then data was inserted into the GIS software and finally, using the Hot Spot Analysis (Geties-Ord Gi), high-risk areas were drawn. Provinces with incidences 1.96 SD higher or lower than the national average were considered as hot spots or cold spots, at the significance level of 0.05%. In 2009, a total of 7,582 cases of BC occurred in Iran. The annual incidence was 33.2 per hundred thousand people. Our study showed that the highest incidence of BC in women occurred in the central provinces of the country, Tehran, Isfahan, Yazd, Markazi and Fars. The results of hot spots analysis showed that the distribution of high-risk BC was focused in central parts of Iran, especially Isfahan province (p <0.01). The other provinces were not significantly different from the national average. The higher incidence in central provinces may be due to greater exposure to carcinogens in urban areas, a Western lifestyle and high prevalence of other risk factors. Further epidemiological studies about the etiology and early detection of BC are essential. PMID:27165209

  3. The burn registry program in Iran - First report

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, H.; Momeni, M.; Motevalian, A.; Bahar, M.A.; Boddouhi, N.; Alinejad, F.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Burn injury is still a major problem in Iran, resulting in many reports which are usually dispersed, uncoordinated and probably unreliable. We created a burn registry comprised of a data entry program with 222 variables for each admitted burn patient. This program was established in August 2010 at the Iran University of Medical Sciences, Motahari Burn Hospital. We had 14,277 burn patients from August 2010 to August 2011, 877 of whom were admitted to the hospital. Of the patients, 65.9% were male and 34.1% were female. The age was 28.85 years (SD = 19.77). The most prevalent cause of burn was flame 78.5% (pipe propane gas 57.2; kerosene 19.9%). The mean total body surface area (TBSA) involvement was 23%. A total of 77.8% of patients were discharged with partial recovery, while mortality was 8.9%. The mean hospital stay was 14.63 days (SD =11.07). The program is designed to help understand the scope of burn injury in Iran, providing information on patients, etiology, and course of treatment. It also highlights differences between various parts of the country in terms of the causes and frequency of burn injuries. Moreover, the burn registry provides a basis for further research and surveys for treatment and preventive programs. Our results showed that, although Emergency Medical Services (EMS) staff are highly capable and well-trained, their coverage seems to be less than 50% and needs to be increased. Marriage status was shown to have no influence on the occurrence of burns, and among our patients, 57.0 % were poorly educated. PMID:26170796

  4. The cost effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination in Iran.

    PubMed

    Mousavi Jarrahi, Yasaman; Zahraei, Seyed Mohsen; Sadigh, Nader; Esmaeelpoor Langeroudy, Keyhan; Khodadost, Mahmoud; Ranjbaran, Mehdi; Sanjari Moghaddam, Ali; Besharat, Mehdi; Mosavi Jarrahi, Alireza

    2016-03-01

    Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe diarrhea leading to hospitalization or disease-specific death among young children. Effective vaccines have recently been approved and successful vaccination program implemented. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost effectiveness of mass rotavirus vaccination program in Iran. We developed a Markov model that reflects key features of rotavirus natural history. Parameters of the model were assessed by field study or developed through literature search and published data. We applied the model to the 2009 Iranian birth cohort and evaluated the cost-effectiveness of including the rotavirus vaccine (Rotarix®) into Iranian expanded immunization program (EPI). With an estimated hospitalization rate of 0.05 and outpatient rate of 0.23 cases per person-year, vaccinating cohort of 1231735 infants in Iran with 2 doses of (Rotarix®), would prevent 32092 hospitalizations, 158750 outpatient visits, and 1591 deaths during 5 y of follow-up. Under base-case assumption of $10 cost per course of vaccine, the vaccination would incur an extra cost of $1,019,192 from health care perspective and would avert 54680 DALYs. From societal perspective, there would be $15,192,568 saving for the society with the same averted DALYs. The incremental cost effectiveness ratio showed a cost of $19 US dollars per averted DALY from health care perspective and a saving of $278 US dollars for each averted DALY from societal perspective. Introducing rotavirus vaccine into EPI program would be highly cost-effective public health intervention in Iran. PMID:26360331

  5. Meta-analysis of Smoking Prevalence in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Moosazadeh, Mahmood; Ziaaddini, Hassan; Mirzazadeh, Ali; Ashrafi-Asgarabad, Ahad; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar

    2013-01-01

    Background There are numerous studies and documents regarding the prevalence of smoking in Iran. Thus, to provide suitable information for decision-making and policy-making in this regard, the prevalence of smoking in Iran was evaluated using the meta-analysis of the results of the existing researches. Methods Data were collected by searching the keywords cigarette, smoking, tobacco, and nicotine in English databases, searching their Persian equivalents in Persian Databases, and in non-electronic resources. After studying the titles and texts of collected articles, the repeated and irrelevant cases were excluded. Cases which had the inclusion criteria of this meta-analysis were entered into the Stata software. According to heterogeneity results, random effect model was used to estimate the prevalence of smoking. Findings In initial studies and non-communicable surveillance system, 274992 Iranian adults were studied regarding daily smoking. Among initial studies, smoking prevalence varied from 12.3% to 38.5% in men, and from 0.6% to 9.8% in women. Based on the meta-analysis of initial studies and risk factors of non-communicable disease surveillance system, smoking prevalence was estimated 21.7% and 19.8% in men and 3.6% and 0.94% in women, respectively. Moreover, smoking prevalence in all subjects was estimated 13.9% according to the meta-analysis of the initial study. Conclusion The findings of this meta-analysis revealed that a significant part of the general population over 15 years of age, and one fifth of Iranian male adults smoke. Thus, concerning causal relationship confirmed between smoking and most diseases, if suitable guidelines are not employed the diseases related to this factor will increase in Iran. PMID:24494171

  6. Isoniazid-resistant tuberculosis in Iran: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Javad Nasiri, Mohammad; Chirani, Alireza Salimi; Amin, Mohsen; Halabian, Raheleh; Imani Fooladi, Abbas Ali

    2016-05-01

    Isoniazid (INH) is one of the most potent anti-tuberculosis (TB) agents. INH resistance is an obstacle to the treatment of TB disease and the National TB control Program (NTP). We aimed to determine the true prevalence of INH-resistant TB in Iran. Several databases including Embase, Medline, Cochrane library and Iranian databases were searched to identify studies addressing INH-resistant tuberculosis in Iran. We identified 156 articles, of which 129 records were excluded based on their titles and abstracts. In a secondary screening, we assessed the eligibility of 27 full-text articles of which, 6 did not report usage data. Finally, 21 studies published from different regions of Iran from March 1999 until July 2015 were included in this study. Comprehensive meta-analysis (V2.2, Biostat) software was used to analyze the data. The meta-analysis showed that 12.8% (95% CI 9.4-15.8; I(2) = 87.8; P < 0.001 test for heterogeneity) of new TB cases and 40.1% (95% CI 28.5-53.0; I(2) = 88.2; P < 0.001 test for heterogeneity) of previously treated cases were resistant to INH. High prevalence of INH resistance among TB patients has been reported in many health-care settings, suggesting that better management of such cases, use of effective treatment regimens and establishing advanced diagnostic facilities are needed to avoid further emergence of INH-resistant TB. PMID:27156625

  7. E-Health Readiness Assessment Framework in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rezai-Rad, M; Vaezi, R; Nattagh, F

    2012-01-01

    Background: Concept of e-readiness is used in many areas such as e-business, e-commerce, e-government, and e-banking. In terms of healthcare, e-readiness is a rather new concept, and is propounded under the title of E-healthcare. E-health readiness refers to the readiness of communities and healthcare institutions for the expected changes brought by programs related to Information and Communications Technology (lCT). The present research is conducted aiming at designing E-health Readiness Assessment Framework (EHRAF) in Iran. Methods: The e-health readiness assessment framework was designed based on reviewing literature on e-readiness assessment models and opinions of ICT and health experts. In the next step, Delphi method was used to develop and test the designed framework. Three questionnaires developed to test and modify the model while determining weights of the indices; afterward they were either sent to experts through email or delivered to them in face. Results: The designed framework approved with 4 dimensions, 11 constituents and 58 indices. Technical readiness had the highest importance coefficient (0.256099), and the other dimensions were of the next levels of coefficient importance: core readiness (0.25520), social communication readiness (0.244658), and engagement readiness (0.244039). Conclusion: The framework presents the movement route and investment priorities in e-health in Iran. The proposed framework is a good instrument for measuring the e-readiness in health centers in Iran, and for identifying strengths and weaknesses of these centers to access ICT and its implementation for more effectiveness and for analyzing digital divide between them, as well. PMID:23304661

  8. Vectors of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Telmadarraiy, Zakkyeh; Chinikar, Sadegh; Vatandoost, Hassan; Faghihi, Faezeh; Hosseini-Chegeni, Asadollah

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ticks are important vectors and reservoirs of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) virus. Human beings may be infected whenever the normal life cycle of the infected ticks on non-human vertebrate hosts is interrupted by the undesirable presence of humans in the cycle. A total of 26 species of Argasid and Ixodid ticks have been recorded in Iran; including nine Hyalomma, two Rhipicephalus, two Dermacentor, five Haemaphysalis, two Boophilus, one Ixodes and two Argas as well as three Ornithodoros species as blood sucking ectoparasites of livestock and poultries. The present paper reviews tick vectors of CCHF virus in Iran, focusing on the role of ticks in different provinces of Iran using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. Methods: During ten years study, 1054 tick specimens; including two species of Argasidae and 17 species of Ixodidae were examined for their infection to CCHF virus genome. The output of all studies as well as related publications were discussed in the current paper. Results: The results show that Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Hyalomma marginatum, H. anatolicum, H. asiaticum and H. dromedarii were known as the most frequent species which were positive for CCHF virus. Conclusion: The status of ticks which were positive for CCHF virus revealed that unlike the most common idea that Hyalomma species are the most important vectors of CCHF virus, other ticks including Rhipicephalus, Haemaphysalis and Dermacentor can be reservoir of this virus; thus, considering geographical distribution, type of host and environmental conditions, different tick control measurements should be carried out in areas with high incidence of CCHF disease. PMID:26623426

  9. Factors Affecting Patients Undergoing Cosmetic Surgery in Bushehr, Southern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Salehahmadi, Zeinab; Rafie, Seyyed Reza

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although, there have been extensive research on the motivations driving patient to undergo cosmetic procedures, there is still a big question mark on the persuasive factors which may lead individuals to undergo cosmetic surgery. The present study evaluated various factors affecting patients undergoing cosmetic surgery in Bushehr, Southern Iran. METHODS From 24th March 2011 to 24th March 2012, eighty-one women and 20 men who wished to be operated in Fatemeh Zahra Hospital in Bushehr, Southern Iran and Pars Clinic, Iran were enrolled by a simple random sampling method. They all completed a questionnaire to consider reasons for cosmetic procedures. The collected data were statistically analyzed. RESULTS Demographical, sociological and psychological factors such as age, gender, educational level, marital status, media, perceived risks, output quality, depression and self-improvement were determined as factors affecting tendency of individuals to undergo cosmetic surgery in this region. Trend to undergo cosmetic surgery was more prevalent in educational below bachelor degree, married subjects, women population of 30-45 years age group. Education level, age, marital status and gender were respectively the influential factors in deciding to undergo cosmetic surgery. Among the socio-psychological factors, self-improvement, finding a better job opportunity, rivalry, media, health status as well as depression were the most persuasive factors to encourage people to undergo cosmetic surgery too. Cost risk was not important for our samples in decision making to undergo cosmetic surgery. CONCLUSION We need to fully understand the way in which the combination of demographic, social and psychological factors influence decision-making to undergo cosmetic surgery. PMID:25734051

  10. Main Determinants of Supplementary Health Insurance Demand: (Case of Iran)

    PubMed Central

    Motlagh, Soraya Nouraei; Gorji, Hassan Abolghasem; Mahdavi, Ghadir; Ghaderi, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In the majority of developing countries, the volume of medical insurance services, provided by social insurance organizations is inadequate. Thus, supplementary medical insurance is proposed as a means to address inadequacy of medical insurance. Accordingly, in this article, we attempted to provide the context for expansion of this important branch of insurance through identification of essential factors affecting demand for supplementary medical insurance. Method: In this study, two methods were used to identify essential factors affecting choice of supplementary medical insurance including Classification and Regression Trees (CART) and Bayesian logit. To this end, Excel® software was used to refine data and R® software for estimation. The present study was conducted during 2012, covering all provinces in Iran. Sample size included 18,541 urban households, selected by Statistical Center of Iran using 3-stage cluster sampling approach. In this study, all data required were collected from the Statistical Center of Iran. Results: In 2012, an overall 8.04% of the Iranian population benefited from supplementary medical insurance. Demand for supplementary insurance is a concave function of age of the household head, and peaks in middle-age when savings and income are highest. The present study results showed greater likelihood of demand for supplementary medical insurance in households with better economic status, higher educated heads, female heads, and smaller households with greater expected medical expenses, and household income is the most important factor affecting demand for supplementary medical insurance. Conclusion: Since demand for supplementary medical insurance is hugely influenced by households’ economic status, policy-makers in the health sector should devise measures to improve households’ economic or financial access to supplementary insurance services, by identifying households in the lower economic deciles, and increasing their

  11. Epidemiological Aspects of Dermatophytosis in Khuzestan, southwestern Iran, an Update.

    PubMed

    Rezaei-Matehkolaei, Ali; Rafiei, Abdollah; Makimura, Koichi; Gräser, Yvonne; Gharghani, Maral; Sadeghi-Nejad, Batool

    2016-08-01

    Dermatophytosis is among the most common superficial mycoses in Iran. The purpose of this report was to update the clinical and mycological features of human dermatophytosis in the Khuzestan, southwestern Iran. In the framework of a one-year survey, a total of 4120 skin, hair and nail samples obtained from the outpatients with symptoms suggestive of tinea were analyzed by using direct microscopy, culture and molecular identification methods. Strains isolated from cultures were subjected to amplification of the nuclear rDNA ITS regions in a PCR assay followed by an early established RFLP analysis. For confirmation of species identification, 100 isolates as representatives of all presumable species were subjected to ITS sequencing. Infection was confirmed in 1123 individuals (27.25 %) in the age range of 1-89 years by direct microscopy and/or culture including 603 males versus 520 females. Frequencies of infections were the highest and the lowest in age groups of 21-30 and 11-20 years, respectively. Tinea corporis was the most prevalent clinical manifestation followed by tinea cruris, tinea capitis, tinea manuum, tinea pedis, tinea unguium, tinea faciei and tinea barbae. Trichophyton interdigitale (58.7 %) was the most dominant isolate followed by Epidermophyton floccosum (35.4 %), Microsporum canis (3 %), T. rubrum (1.5 %), T. species of Arthroderma benhamiae (0.5 %), T. tonsurans (0.3 %) and T. violaceum (0.3 %). Other species included M. gypseum, M. fulvum and T. verrucosum (each one 0.1 %). Such a high occurrence of infection with T. interdigitale, which has not been reported from Iran, is due to the use of accurate molecular methods based on new species concept in dermatophytes. The prevalence of dermatophytoses caused by zoophilic species remarkably increased and Trichophyton species of A. benhamiae has emerged as a new agent of dermatophytosis in southwestern Iran, while infections due to anthropophilic species, except E. floccosum, took a

  12. Use of Ubiquitous Technologies in Military Logistic System in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafari, P.; Sadeghi-Niaraki, A.

    2013-09-01

    This study is about integration and evaluation of RFID and ubiquitous technologies in military logistic system management. Firstly, supply chain management and the necessity of a revolution in logistic systems especially in military area, are explained. Secondly RFID and ubiquitous technologies and the advantages of their use in supply chain management are introduced. Lastly a system based on these technologies for controlling and increasing the speed and accuracy in military logistic system in Iran with its unique properties, is presented. The system is based on full control of military logistics (supplies) from the time of deployment to replenishment using sensor network, ubiquitous and RFID technologies.

  13. Progress in the national schistosomiasis control programme of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Massoud, J.; Arfaa, F.; Farahmandian, I.; Ardalan, A.; Mansoorian, A.

    1982-01-01

    A combination of chemotherapy and mollusciciding has been used in Khuzestan, south-west Iran, since 1966, to try to control urinary schistosomiasis. The total amount of molluscicide used each year varied between 702 and 3505 kg and between 287 and 1320 infected persons were detected and treated annually. The prevalence of infection has gradually declined from 8.3% in 1970 to 0.7% in 1979. Similarly, the incidence of infection among schoolchildren decreased from 3.5% in 1970 to 0.7% in 1979. The proportion of Bulinus-infested habitats also decreased from 10% in 1971 to 2.4% in 1979. PMID:6982780

  14. Secondary Metabolites of Alchemilla persica Growing in Iran (East Azarbaijan).

    PubMed

    Afshar, Fariba Heshmati; Maggi, Filippo; Ferrari, Sara; Peron, Gregorio; Dall'Acqua, Stefano

    2015-10-01

    Phytochemical investigations of Alchemilla persica Rothm. growing in Iran were performed taking into account both the volatile and polar constituents. The hydrodistilled essential oil was analysed by GC-MS that revealed the presence of alkanes (27.8%), diterpenoids (19.6%) and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (17.1%) as the major constituents, while tannins and flavonol glycosides were identified as the most abundant constituents of the methanol extract by HPLC-MS. A. persica can be a valuable source of ellagitannins and polyphenols. PMID:26669107

  15. Polymorphisms associated with sickle cell disease in Southern Iran.

    PubMed

    Haghpanah, S; Nasirabadi, S; Kianmehr, M; Afrasiabi, A; Karimi, M

    2012-07-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited autosomal recessive disorder. We aimed to describe the spectrum of haplotyes of BS-gene and to investigate a relationship with disease phenotype in patients with SCD in Southern Iran. We didn't find any significant association between BS-globin gene haplotypes and clinical severity of the disease in an Iranian population. The exact mechanism by which the BS-globin gene polymorphism affects clinical presentation is not obvious; however, further detailed studies at the molecular level, with a larger sample size are required to show the mechanisms that influence the clinical presentation of SCD in Iranian population. PMID:22988776

  16. Beller Lecture: Dialogue Across Divides - Physicists and the Iran Dossier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuneck, Götz

    For over a decade, the nuclear activities of the Islamic Republic of Iran have been at the center of international concerns and subsequent track II talks. NGOs, think tanks and analysts played a role to help to find technical solutions in a highly political setting. The talk will give an overview about the role of physicists to understand the Iranian sensitive nuclear fuel-cycle and to prepare the ground for the JCPOA. Furthermore, the experience of the work of the Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs will be elaborated.

  17. The burden of disease and injury in Iran 2003

    PubMed Central

    Naghavi, Mohsen; Abolhassani, Farid; Pourmalek, Farshad; Lakeh, Moradi; Jafari, Nahid; Vaseghi, Sanaz; Mahdavi Hezaveh, Niloufar; Kazemeini, Hossein

    2009-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to estimate the burden of disease and injury in Iran for the year 2003, using Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) at the national level and for six selected provinces. Methods Methods developed by the World Health Organization for National Burden of Disease (NBD) studies were applied to estimate disease and injury incidence for the calculation of Years of Life Lost due to premature mortality (YLL), Years Lived with Disability (YLD), and DALYs. The following adjustments of the NBD methodology were made in this study: a revised list with 213 disease and injury causes, development of new and more specific disease modeling templates for cancers and injuries, and adjustment for dependent comorbidity. We compared the results with World Health Organization (WHO) estimates for Eastern Mediterranean Region, sub-region B in 2002. Results We estimated that in the year 2003, there were 21,572 DALYs due to all diseases and injuries per 100,000 Iranian people of all ages and both sexes. From this total number of DALYs, 62% were due to disability premature deaths (YLD) and 38% were due to premature deaths (YLL); 58% were due to noncommunicable diseases, 28% – to injuries, and 14% – to communicable, maternal, perinatal, and nutritional conditions. Fifty-three percent of the total number of 14.349 million DALYs in Iran were in males, with 36.5% of the total due to intentional and unintentional injuries, 15% due to mental and behavioral disorders, and 10% due to circulatory system diseases; and 47% of DALYs were in females, with 18% of the total due to mental and behavioral disorders, 18% due to intentional and unintentional injuries, and 12% due to circulatory system diseases. The disease and injury causes leading to the highest number of DALYs in males were road traffic accidents (1.071 million), natural disasters (548 thousand), opioid use (510 thousand), and ischemic heart disease (434 thousand). The leading causes of DALYs in

  18. First Case Report of Sinusitis with Lophomonas blattarum from Iran

    PubMed Central

    Berenji, Fariba; Parian, Mahmoud; Fata, Abdolmajid; Bakhshaee, Mahdi; Fattahi, Fereshte

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Lophomonas blattarum is a rare cause of bronchopulmonary and sinus infection. This paper presents a rare case of Lophomonas sinusitis. Case Presentation. The patient was a 31-year-old woman who was admitted because of a history of upper respiratory infection and sinusitis. Direct microscopic examination of the sputum and nasal discharge showed large numbers of living Lophomonas blattarum with irregular movement of flagella. The patient was successfully treated by Metronidazole 750 mg t.i.d. for 30 days. Conclusions. This is the first case report of Lophomonas blattarum sinusitis from Iran. PMID:26966601

  19. First Case Report of Sinusitis with Lophomonas blattarum from Iran.

    PubMed

    Berenji, Fariba; Parian, Mahmoud; Fata, Abdolmajid; Bakhshaee, Mahdi; Fattahi, Fereshte

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Lophomonas blattarum is a rare cause of bronchopulmonary and sinus infection. This paper presents a rare case of Lophomonas sinusitis. Case Presentation. The patient was a 31-year-old woman who was admitted because of a history of upper respiratory infection and sinusitis. Direct microscopic examination of the sputum and nasal discharge showed large numbers of living Lophomonas blattarum with irregular movement of flagella. The patient was successfully treated by Metronidazole 750 mg t.i.d. for 30 days. Conclusions. This is the first case report of Lophomonas blattarum sinusitis from Iran. PMID:26966601

  20. Ophiolites of Iran: Keys to understanding the tectonic evolution of SW Asia: (II) Mesozoic ophiolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghadam, Hadi Shafaii; Stern, Robert J.

    2015-03-01

    Iran is a mosaic of continental terranes of Cadomian (520-600 Ma) age, stitched together along sutures decorated by Paleozoic and Mesozoic ophiolites. Here we present the current understanding of the Mesozoic (and rare Cenozoic) ophiolites of Iran for the international geoscientific audience. We summarize field, chemical and geochronological data from the literature and our own unpublished data. Mesozoic ophiolites of Iran are mostly Cretaceous in age and are related to the Neotethys and associated backarc basins on the S flank of Eurasia. These ophiolites can be subdivided into five belts: 1. Late Cretaceous Zagros outer belt ophiolites (ZOB) along the Main Zagros Thrust including Late Cretaceous-Early Paleocene Maku-Khoy-Salmas ophiolites in NW Iran as well as Kermanshah-Kurdistan, Neyriz and Esfandagheh (Haji Abad) ophiolites, also Late Cretaceous-Eocene ophiolites along the Iraq-Iran border; 2. Late Cretaceous Zagros inner belt ophiolites (ZIB) including Nain, Dehshir, Shahr-e-Babak and Balvard-Baft ophiolites along the southern periphery of the Central Iranian block and bending north into it; 3. Late Cretaceous-Early Paleocene Sabzevar-Torbat-e-Heydarieh ophiolites of NE Iran; 4. Early to Late Cretaceous Birjand-Nehbandan-Tchehel-Kureh ophiolites in eastern Iran between the Lut and Afghan blocks; and 5. Late Jurassic-Cretaceous Makran ophiolites of SE Iran including Kahnuj ophiolites. Most Mesozoic ophiolites of Iran show supra-subduction zone (SSZ) geochemical signatures, indicating that SW Asia was a site of plate convergence during Late Mesozoic time, but also include a significant proportion showing ocean-island basalt affinities, perhaps indicating the involvement of subcontinental lithospheric mantle.

  1. Adaptation of Traumatic Brain Injury Guidelines in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Abdollah Zadegan, Shayan; Ghodsi, Seyed Mohammad; Arabkheradmand, Jalil; Amirjamshidi, Abbas; Sheikhrezaei, Abdolreza; Khadivi, Masoud; Faghih Jouibari, Morteza; Tabatabaeifar, Seyed Mahmood; Sharifi, Guive; Abbaszadeh Ahranjani, Jalal; Motlagh Pirooz, Farhad; Tavakoli, Seyed Fakhredin; Mohit, Parviz; Alimohammadi, Yadollah; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa

    2016-01-01

    Context The National institute for health and care excellence (NICE) and scottish intercollegiate guidelines network (SIGN) are two well-known sources of clinical guideline development. In the past years, they have developed clinical guidelines for the management of head injury. In this report, we will highlight our modifications to these guidelines according to the domestic situation in a developing country. Evidence Acquisition The guidelines were appraised using the appraisal of guidelines for research and evaluation (AGREE) instrument. All key recommendations were reviewed by 14 prominent Iranian neurosurgeons; levels of evidence were evaluated and items with limited evidence were determined. Available evidence for selected items were reviewed and discussed. Results The following items were the most challenging when accounting for the domestic situation in Iran: age as a risk factor for referral, computed tomography scan, the impact of medical comorbidities, pregnancy, consultation, referral to a neurosurgical unit, and teleconsulting and observation before discharge. Conclusions The evidence in the discussed topics was limited and controversial. This report is important because it exposes the current knowledge gap in head trauma studies in Iran. PMID:27626012

  2. Endohelminths of European pond turtle Emys orbicularis in Southwest Iran.

    PubMed

    Shayegh, Hossein; Rajabloo, Mohammad; Gholamhosseini, Amin; Mootabi Alavi, Amir; Salarian, Parisa; Zolfaghari, Ali

    2016-03-01

    Very little is known about parasitic diseases of European pond turtles (Emys orbicularis) in Iran. The objective of this study is to examine parasitic fauna of European pond turtles collected from Fars province, southwest Iran. Carcasses of turtles (n = 52) which died during dredging procedure are collected from earthen fishery basins in Zarghan region. They have been died earlier during dredging procedure in different farms. Three species of helminths in total were found in gastrointestinal tract, including two nematodes (Serpinema microcephalus and Falcaustra araxiana) and one digenean trematod (Telorchis assula). Large intestines of all examined turtles were infected by F. araxiana (100 %, Mean intensity = 18) and this nematode were also found in gastric nodules. Nine turtles (17.3 %, 3 male, 6 female, Mean intensity = 3) were infected with Serpinema microcephalus. T. assula were found in 25 turtles (48.07 %, 5 male, 20 female, mean intensity = 5). Helminths were not found in any examined organs and no ectoparasite found eighter. F. araxiana is the most prevalent nematode in European pond turtles. Detection of Serpinema.microcephalus is in agreement with the fact which this parasite is common parasite of turtles in all over the world. T. assula might be transmitted between variety of reptiles so presence of the trematod should be considered as a risk factor for other reptiles. PMID:27065624

  3. Human Rights in Iran after the 1978 Islamic Revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadizadeh, Hadi

    2005-03-01

    Iranians have been fighting for their rights since early 1900. The history of this struggle will be reviewed with emphasis on what might be termed the modern era, which began with the return of Ayatollah Khomeini to Iran in February 1979. A brief summary of the modern era Iran Constitution also will be presented. Although Iranians had been promised a democracy within the framework of Islam, in reality Khomeini instituted a theocratic regime dominated by himself as ``Supreme Leader'' with almost unlimited powers. Surprisingly, these powers actually were expanded after Khomeini's passing. For years now, many Iranian intellectuals, as well as a good portion of the nation, religious or not, have been challenging the absolute powers of the Supreme Leader through legal means. Big prices have been paid, but the friction between the so called ``reformists'' and the ``fundamentalists'' are on the rise without a bright future. These frictions, stemming in large part from the conflicts between the ``elected'' and ``non-elected'' bodies in the political system, will be discussed. The roles of political activists, reformists, and the ``so-called'' ``religious nationalists'' -- and the prices they are paying -- will also be discussed.

  4. Incidence of Childhood Cancers in Golestan Province of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Moradi, Abdolvahab; Semnani, Shahryar; Roshandel, Gholamreza; Mirbehbehani, Narges; Keshtkar, Abbasali; Aarabi, Mohsen; Moghaddami, Abbas; Cheraghali, Fatemeh

    2010-01-01

    Objective This paper presents the incidence rates of childhood cancers using the data obtained from Golestan population based cancer registry (GPCR) between 2004 and 2006. Methods GPCR registers only primary cancers based on standard protocols of the international association of cancer registries (IACR). We collect data on newly diagnosed (incident) cancer cases from all public and private diagnostic and therapeutic centers of the whole province. CanReg-4 software was used for data entry and analysis. Findings Totally 5076 cancer cases (all ages) were diagnosed in GPCR between 2004 and 2006. Of these, 139 (2.74 %) were children (aged 0–14 years) with mean (±SD) age of 8.06 (±4.48) years. The age standardized incidence rates for childhood cancer were 119.8 and 78.3 per 1000000 person-years in male and female children, respectively. Leukemia was the most common childhood cancer in Golestan province of Iran. Lymphomas and central nervous system tumors were the second and third ones, respectively. Conclusion The incidence rates of childhood cancers were relatively high in Golestan province of Iran. So, controlling of childhood cancers should be mentioned as an important issue in health policy making in this area. PMID:23056726

  5. Prevalence of human respiratory syncytial virus circulating in Iran.

    PubMed

    Salimi, Vahid; Tavakoli-Yaraki, Masoumeh; Yavarian, Jila; Bont, Louis; Mokhtari-Azad, Talat

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of acute respiratory infection during early childhood and is associated with a great burden on patients, parents, and society. While no treatment is yet available, results from recent phase 2 clinical trials of cell-entry inhibitors and RSV vaccines are promising. To prepare for introduction of these novel therapeutics, good understanding of its molecular epidemiology and continuous RSV surveillance data are necessary. This paper provides an overview of RSV prevalence and genotype distribution in Iran from 1996 to 2013. This meta-analysis includes 21 published studies. In total, 775 (18.7%) of 4140 respiratory specimens were positive for RSV infection. The male-female ratio of RSV-positive patients was 1.5:1. Significant peaks of RSV infection were detected during the cold season (November-March). RSV infection was mainly observed in patients <2 years of age. Phylogenetic studies showed that genotypes GA1, GA2, GA5, and BA co-circulated in Iran in 2007-2013. This review highlights the necessity of introducing standard molecular surveillance programs to inform the epidemiological, clinical, and pathological characteristics of various RSV genotypes. Improved understanding of the molecular epidemiology will be useful for development of novel RSV therapeutics. PMID:26143136

  6. Mineralogy and geochemistry of atmospheric particulates in western Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmady-Birgani, Hesam; Mirnejad, Hassan; Feiznia, Sadat; McQueen, Ken G.

    2015-10-01

    This study investigates the mineralogy and physico-chemical properties of atmospheric particulates collected at Abadan (southwestern Iran) near the Persian Gulf coast and Urmia (northwestern Iran) during ambient and dust events over 6 months (winter 2011; spring 2012). Particle sizes collected were: TSP (total suspended particulates); PM10 (particulates <10 μm); and PM2.5 (particulates <2.5 μm). Minerals were identified using X-ray diffraction (XRD); particle morphology and composition were examined by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX). Major minerals detected are calcite, quartz, clay minerals and gypsum, with relative abundance related to sampling site, collection period, wind direction, sampling head, and total sample amount. The anomalously high calcite content appears a characteristic feature originated from calcareous soils of the region. SEM observations indicated a wide range of particle morphologies over the 1-50 μm size range, with spherical, platy, cubic, elongate and prismatic shapes and rounding from angular to rounded. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis of TSP samples from both sites for non-dusty periods indicated that the sampled mineral suite contained Al, Mg, Na, Cl, P, S, Ca, K, Fe, Ti, and Si, mostly reflecting calcite, quartz, aluminosilicates, clays, gypsum and halite. Additionally, As, Pb, Zn, Mn, Sc, Nd, W, Ce, La, Ba and Ni were detected in TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 samples collected during dust events.

  7. Breaching confidentiality: medical mandatory reporting laws in Iran.

    PubMed

    Milanifar, Alireza; Larijani, Bagher; Paykarzadeh, Parvaneh; Ashtari, Golanna; Mehdi Akhondi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Medical ethics is a realm where four important subjects of philosophy, medicine, theology and law are covered. Physicians and philosophers cooperation in this area will have great efficiency in the respective ethical rules formation. In addition to respect the autonomy of the patient, physician's obligation is to ensure that the medical intervention has benefit for the patient and the harm is minimal. There is an obvious conflict between duty of confidentiality and duty of mandatory reporting. Professional confidentiality is one of the basic components in building a constant physician-patient relationship which nowadays, beside the novelty, it is the subject of discussion. Legal obligation of confidentiality is not absolute. In physician-patient relationship, keeping patient's secrets and maintaining confidentiality is a legal and ethical duty, and disclosure of such secrets is mainly through specific statutes. Thus, there are a number of situations where breach of confidentiality is permitted in different legal systems. One of the situations where breaching confidentiality is permitted is the medical mandatory reporting to the relevant authority which is in accordance with many countries' legal systems. Some situations are considered in many countries legal systems' such as notification of births and deaths, infectious diseases, child abuse, sport and relevant events, medical errors, drug side effects and dangerous pregnancies. In this paper, we will examine and discuss medical mandatory reporting and its ethical and legal aspects in the judicial and legal system of Iran and few other countries. Finally we will suggest making Medical Mandatory Reporting Law in Iran. PMID:25512832

  8. Short View of Leukemia Diagnosis and Treatment in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Azad, Mehdi; Bakhshi Biniaz, Ramin; Goudarzi, Mehdi; Mobarra, Naser; Alizadeh, Shaban; Nasiri, Hajar; Dehghani Fard, Ali; Kaviani, Saeid; Moghadasi, Mohamad Hossein; Sarookhani, Mohammad Reza; Vatanmakan, Mousa; Sahmani, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Early diagnosis and treatment of leukemia patients remains a fundamental aim in clinical oncology, especially in developing country. Present study highlights the basic requirements of these patients in Iran. Better understanding of these issues may lead to improve the healthcare standards toward leukemia diagnosis and treatment. Methods: This descriptive study included 101 specialists in hematology-oncology and pathology serving in oncology centers. The participants were then asked to fill out a standard questionnaire on the issues around diagnosis and treatment of blood malignancies. Results: According to specialists, unfair distribution of facilities across the country, delayed diagnosis of disease, absence of psychological support for patients, and insufficient financial support were the main reasons of inappropriate diagnosis and treatment in leukemia patients. Conclusions: Our results show that making an amendment to health policies by preparing well-equipped medical centers in all provinces, improving the morale of patients through consultation during the process of treatment, and above all, subsiding leukemia patients' financial problems will promote the health standard regarding the leukemia diagnosis and treatment in Iran. PMID:25922649

  9. Helicopsis persica n. sp. from northern Iran (Gastropoda: Geomitridae).

    PubMed

    Hausdorf, Bernhard; Bössneck, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Helicopsis Fitzinger, 1833 is a mainly eastern European genus of the xerophilous Helicellinae (Geomitridae, Helicoidea; for family systematics see Razkin et al. 2015) that is characterized by two symmetrical dart and accessory sacs. This is probably the plesiomorphous character state within the Geomitridae and Hygromiidae. Therefore, the delimitation and relationships of Helicopsis remained questionable (Hausdorf 1996). Most Helicopsis species are characterized by a lateral attachment of the outer layer of the penial papilla at the penis wall so that a cavity is separated in the proximal part of the penis (Schileyko 1978; Giusti et al. 1992; Hausdorf 1996). However, a similar cavity is present in some other Helicellinae (e.g., Pseudoxerophila, Xerolenta, Xeromunda). Giusti et al. (1992) considered these cavities artefacts, but it cannot be excluded that they are actually homologous to the cavity of Helicopsis. Therefore, it is doubtful whether such a cavity can be considered as an autapomorphy of Helicopsis. About ten species of Helicopsis are spread from Turkey and Bulgaria to the Ukraine with a centre of diversity on the Crimean peninsula. Only the type species, Helicopsis striata (Müller, 1774) is more widespread from Alsace in the west, the island Öland in the Baltic Sea in the north to Bulgaria and Turkey in the south and western Russia in the east. Furthermore, species from Morocco, Greece, Cyprus, Iran and the Kopetdag were classified as Helicopsis. The relationships between these species have to be examined in more detail. Here we describe a new Helicopsis species from Iran. PMID:27395547

  10. The outcomes of health care process in Iran's rural society

    PubMed Central

    Eskandari, Manije; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Borhani, Fariba

    2013-01-01

    Background: Health care systems in rural areas face numerous challenges in meeting the community's needs and adequate attention has not been paid to this problem. The aim of this study was to describe the outcomes of health care process in rural society. Materials and Methods: Twenty-six participants including twenty-one rural health care providers and five clients were selected according to purposive sampling. The data were collected via semi-structured individual interviews and a mini focus group. Data were analyzed by using qualitative content analysis based on methods described by Granheme and Landman. Results: Data analysis eventually led to formation of one category of inefficiency in health care process in rural society including subcategories such as arbitrary self-therapy, slow care process, dissatisfaction with the care process, superficial caring, job stress and burn out of caregivers, and ineffective caring relationship. Conclusion: Outcomes in health care in rural society of Iran represents inefficiency of the current health care process. These outcomes are related to the cultural and social context of rural communities and the structure of the health system. These outcomes in health care in the rural society of Iran represent impairment of the current health care process. The necessity of modifying the existing care trend with new models designed to improve the health care process is felt. PMID:24403941

  11. Scientific Production of Medical Sciences Universities in North of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Siamian, Hasan; Firooz, Mousa Yamin; Vahedi, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    CONFLICT OF INTEREST: NONE DECLARED Introduction The study of the scientific evidence citation production by famous databases of the world is one of the important indicators to evaluate and rank the universities. The study at investigating the scientific production of Northern Iran Medical Sciences Universities in Scopus from 2005 through 2010. Method This survey used scientometrics technique. The samples under studies were the scientific products of four northern Iran Medical universities. Results Viewpoints quantity of the Scientific Products Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences stands first and of Babol University of Medical Sciences ranks the end, but from the viewpoints of quality of scientific products of considering the H-Index and the number of cited papers the Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences is a head from the other universities under study. From the viewpoints of subject of the papers, the highest scientific products belonged to the faculty of Pharmacy affiliated to Mazandaran University of Medial Sciences, but the three other universities for the genetics and biochemistry. Conclusion Results showed that the Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences as compared to the other understudies universities ranks higher for the number of articles, cited articles, number of hard work authors and H-Index of Scopus database from 2005 through 2010. PMID:24058251

  12. Incidence Trends and Geographical Distribution of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Safavi-Naini, Ali; Raad, Nasim; Ghorbani, Jahangir; Chaibakhsh, Samira; Ramezani-Daryasar, Rashid

    2015-01-01

    Background Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has known as a highly distinct kind of head and neck cancer. This distinction has been due to its clinical presentation, epidemiology, outcome, and treatment. There have not been any reports of epidemiological analysis of NPC in Iran. This study has evaluated the incidence rates and trends of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in the Iranian population during 2004 to 2009. Methods The data have collected from the Iranian national cancer data system registry. All the cases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (with the topography code 11 and histology of carcinoma) have retrieved and analyzed from an overall cancer database during a 6-year period. The data have analyzed by using the SPSS, version 16. Results To determine the current incidence of NPC in Iran, we have examined the NPC cases from 2004 to 2009. A total of 1431 cases (981 male and 450 female NPC patients) have analyzed epidemiologically in this study. The mean age of the patients was 47.1 years. The incidence was 0.33 per 100000 persons. The overall incidence rate have increased annually (p<0.05). The incidence of NPC gradually increased with age. Prefectures that bordering the Caspian Sea have proved to have a higher incidence than the other studied areas. Conclusion Our study has indicated an increasing trend in the incidence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Therefore; attempts should be precipitated for prevention. PMID:26396710

  13. Increased Guillain-Barre syndrome admissions in Shiraz, southern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Safari, Anahid; Heydari, Seyed Taghi; Lankarani, Kamran Bagheri

    2013-01-01

    Background Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) is an acute immune-mediated peripheral neuropathy usually after an incident. This study was performed to investigate the basic epidemiologic features of GBS in south of Iran. Methods We studied consecutive patients with GBS in Nemazi Hospital of Shiraz, southern Iran. Demographic characteristics of the subjects, i.e. age, sex, and length of hospital stay were extracted. Information regarding yearly admissions for the entire hospital was also gathered. The prevalence of GBS per 10,000 hospital admissions was calculated and stratified by sex and year. Yearly prevalence was compared using the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results From January 2000 to December 2009, 389 (232 males and 157 females) patients with GBS were admitted in our center. The mean age of patients was 29.8 ± 23.0 years and their mean length of hospital stay was 12.9 ± 11.6 days. The overall mortality rate was 6%. The ratio of admissions due to GBS to the total admissions was significantly higher in 2009, the year of an influenza A (H1N1) virus pandemic. Conclusion There appears to be an increase in the incidence of GBS in Shiraz. This is in parallel with the increasing trend of some other autoimmune diseases. PMID:24250891

  14. A haplotype framework for cystic fibrosis mutations in Iran.

    PubMed

    Elahi, Elahe; Khodadad, Ahmad; Kupershmidt, Ilya; Ghasemi, Fereshteh; Alinasab, Babak; Naghizadeh, Ramin; Eason, Robert G; Amini, Mahshid; Esmaili, Mehran; Esmaeili Dooki, Mohammad R; Sanati, Mohammad H; Davis, Ronald W; Ronaghi, Mostafa; Thorstenson, Yvonne R

    2006-02-01

    This is the first comprehensive profile of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) mutations and their corresponding haplotypes in the Iranian population. All of the 27 CFTR exons of 60 unrelated Iranian CF patients were sequenced to identify disease-causing mutations. Eleven core haplotypes of CFTR were identified by genotyping six high-frequency simple nucleotide polymorphisms. The carrier frequency of 2.5 in 100 (1 in 40) was estimated from the frequency of heterozygous patients and suggests that contrary to popular belief, cystic fibrosis may be a common, under-diagnosed disease in Iran. A heterogeneous mutation spectrum was observed at the CFTR locus in 60 cystic fibrosis (CF) patients from Iran. Twenty putative disease-causing mutations were identified on 64 (53%) of the 120 chromosomes. The five most common Iranian mutations together represented 37% of the expected mutated alleles. The most frequent mutation, DeltaF508 (p.F508del), represented only 16% of the expected mutated alleles. The next most frequent mutations were c.1677del2 (p.515fs) at 7.5%, c.4041C>G (p.N1303K) at 5.6%, c.2183AA>G (p.684fs) at 5%, and c.3661A>T (p.K1177X) at 2.5%. Three of the five most frequent Iranian mutations are not included in a commonly used panel of CF mutations, underscoring the importance of identifying geographic-specific mutations in this population. PMID:16436643

  15. Phytochemical Investigation of Vinca minor Cultivated in Iran.

    PubMed

    Farahanikia, Behnaz; Akbarzadeh, Tahmineh; Jahangirzadeh, Akbar; Yassa, Narguess; Shams Ardekani, Mohammad Reza; Mirnezami, Tahmineh; Hadjiakhoondi, Abbas; Khanavi, Mahnaz

    2011-01-01

    Lesser Periwinkle (Vinca minor L.), a member of Apocynaceae, is not only an ornamental plant with lilac-blue flowers, but also a medical plant producing an important alkaloid, vincamine, found in the leaves which shows a pronounced cerebrovasodilatory and neuroprotective activity. This plant is native to northern Spain, western France, central and southern Europe, and Caucasus. It has been recently cultivated for pharmaceutical purposes by Zardband Botanical Garden in Iran. Since the quality of herb material and alkaloid concentration is greatly influenced by environmental conditions, in this study, we report the isolation and identification of major alkaloids along with the quantification of vincamine as the pharmacologically most important component. Alkaloids from the aerial parts of V. minor were isolated and purified using different chromatographic methods. The structures of these alkaloids were determined on the basis of their physical and spectroscopic data. The concentration of vincamine was determined by high performance liquid chromatography using Tracer Excel 120 ODS A C18 column. Five indole alkaloids including vincaminorine, vincaminoreine, minovine, minovincine, and vincamine (Figure 1) were isolated from the aerial parts of V. minor. Vincamine was found to be the dominant alkaloid in this plant with the content of 0.057% of the dried plant mass. This plant may be used as a natural source for pharmaceutical purposes in Iran, due to the presence of biologically active alkaloids especially vincamine as the major alkaloid in Lesser Periwinkle cultivated. PMID:24250413

  16. Phytochemical Investigation of Vinca minor Cultivated in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Farahanikia, Behnaz; Akbarzadeh, Tahmineh; Jahangirzadeh, Akbar; Yassa, Narguess; Shams Ardekani, Mohammad Reza; Mirnezami, Tahmineh; Hadjiakhoondi, Abbas; Khanavi, Mahnaz

    2011-01-01

    Lesser Periwinkle (Vinca minor L.), a member of Apocynaceae, is not only an ornamental plant with lilac-blue flowers, but also a medical plant producing an important alkaloid, vincamine, found in the leaves which shows a pronounced cerebrovasodilatory and neuroprotective activity. This plant is native to northern Spain, western France, central and southern Europe, and Caucasus. It has been recently cultivated for pharmaceutical purposes by Zardband Botanical Garden in Iran. Since the quality of herb material and alkaloid concentration is greatly influenced by environmental conditions, in this study, we report the isolation and identification of major alkaloids along with the quantification of vincamine as the pharmacologically most important component. Alkaloids from the aerial parts of V. minor were isolated and purified using different chromatographic methods. The structures of these alkaloids were determined on the basis of their physical and spectroscopic data. The concentration of vincamine was determined by high performance liquid chromatography using Tracer Excel 120 ODS A C18 column. Five indole alkaloids including vincaminorine, vincaminoreine, minovine, minovincine, and vincamine (Figure 1) were isolated from the aerial parts of V. minor. Vincamine was found to be the dominant alkaloid in this plant with the content of 0.057% of the dried plant mass. This plant may be used as a natural source for pharmaceutical purposes in Iran, due to the presence of biologically active alkaloids especially vincamine as the major alkaloid in Lesser Periwinkle cultivated. PMID:24250413

  17. Exposure Assessment of the Tehran Population (Iran) to Zearalenone Mycotoxin

    PubMed Central

    Yazdanpanah, Hassan; Zarghi, Afshin; Shafaati, Ali Reza; Foroutan, Seyyed Mohsen; Aboul-Fathi, Farshid; Khoddam, Arash; Nazari, Firoozeh

    2012-01-01

    Zearalenone (ZEA) mycotoxin is a potent estrogenic metabolite. It is the primary toxin causing infertility, abortion or other breeding problems. A HPLC method was validated for ZEA in foods using a monolithic column with sample clean-up on an immunoaffinity column. A certified reference material (CRM) from FAPAS (UK) was analyzed. A survey of ZEA was performed on the 72 samples of rice, bread, puffed corn snack and wheat flour collected from Tehran retail market. The average recovery and coefficient of variation in different foods ranged 92.7-107.1 and 4.9-13.8%, respectively. The amount of ZEA in corn CRM was in the acceptable range of FAPAS. The limit of quantification was 3 ng/g for rice, bread and wheat flour and 2.7 ng/g for puffed corn snack. The retention time of zearalenone was 2.6 min. All samples had contamination level lower than the maximum tolerated level of ZEA in foods in Iran. The mean intake of ZEA from all samples was much lower than the tolerable daily intake estimated by JECFA. This is the first survey on ZEA contamination in bread and rice in Iran as well as the first study on exposure assessment of Tehran population to ZEA. PMID:24250447

  18. alpha-Thalassemia mutation analyses in Mazandaran province, North Iran.

    PubMed

    Tamaddoni, Ahmad; Hadavi, Valeh; Nejad, Nima Hafezi; Khosh-Ain, Atefeh; Siami, Rita; Aghai-Meibodi, Jalil; Almadani, Navid; Oberkanins, Christian; Law, Hai-Yang; Najmabadi, Hossein

    2009-01-01

    Two hundred and fifty-five patients from Mazandaran Province, Iran, all presenting with hypochromic and microcytic anemia, were selected for alpha-thalassemia (alpha-thal) mutation screening. We detected a total of 274 alpha-globin mutations in 227 (89%) of these patients. Among the 21 different alpha-globin alleles found, the -alpha(3.7) (44.9%), polyadenylation signal 2 (poly A2) (AATAAA>AATGAA) (18.2%), -alpha(4.2) (9.1%), alpha(IVS-I(-5 nt)) (6.5%), - -(MED) (4.3%), and alpha(codon 19 (-G)) (4%) were the most frequent. The other 15 mutations included variants that had not yet been observed in Iran, such as Hb Bleuland [alpha108(G15)ThrAsn, ACC>AAC (alpha2)], as well as a novel mutation on the alpha2 gene, also not described to date [3 ' untranslated region (3 'UTR) nucleotide (nt) 46 (C>A)]. These comprehensive new data are useful for establishing a screening strategy for the effective control of alpha-thal in Mazandaran Province. PMID:19373587

  19. Sarcocystis cruzi: First Molecular Identification from Cattle in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Kalantari, Narges; Bayani, Masomeh; Ghaffari, Salman

    2013-01-01

    Sarcocystis is a genus of cyst-forming parasites infecting both animals and human. This study aimed to isolate coccidian tissue cysts from muscle of infected animals by a simple method in addition to molecular identification of Sarcocystis cruzi from the samples. The samples were obtained from commercial source in Babol, Northern Iran. Five grams of calf muscle was cut into 2-3 pieces in 30 ml of phosphate-buffered saline containing 0.1% Tween 80 and homogenized with IKA T25, DIGITAL ULTRA-TURRAX. The homogenate was filtrated twice and used for microscopy examination and molecular analysis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and partial sequence analysis of the 18S ribosomal gene were used to identify the Sarcocystis species. Giemsa stain of the filtrated calf muscle samples showed that the sample had ellipse to around tissue cysts contained crescent-shaped bodies. The PCR of the 18SrDNA yielded an 1100 bp DNA band on agarose gel and sequence analysis of the DNA confirmed the isolate as S. cruzi. The sequence was deposited in GenBank by Accession No.KC508514. This is the first molecular identification of an isolate of S. cruzi in Iran. PMID:24551802

  20. Level Changes of Traffic Noise in Kerman City, Southeast Iran

    PubMed Central

    Malakootian, M; Ahmadian, M; Yaghmaeian, K; Dowlatshahi, Sh; Ravandi, MR Ghotbi

    2012-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this research was to determine the traffic noise level and changes in the Kerman City, southeast Iran in recent years. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in 2008 to investigate the existing noise situation in Kerman. Sound levels (LMax, LMin, Leq, L99, L90, L50 and L10) were determined throughout 13 stations using sound level measurement system (model, CEL-440). Number of passing vehicles was also assessed at the sampled stations. Results: Sound level in all sampled stations was higher than Iran and World Health Organization guidelines. Comparison of Leq in different hours using statistical tests showed significant difference between different hours with 95 % confidence coefficient (P=0.01). Comparison of Leq throughout the week also showed that there was a significant difference (P=0.001) between Friday and workday. The comparison of Leq with the number of passing vehicles using Pearson correlation statistical test showed significant difference between the number of heavy vehicles passed and the level of Leq (P=0.001). It also showed that number of heavy vehicles caused the most noise levels. Conclusion: The results of this study compared to a similar study conducted in 1999 showed an increasingly high noise level. Noise level increased from 1999 to 2008 by 3.89 % which is indicative of an increase in noise emission sources. PMID:23113129

  1. Islamic Republic of Iran. "Balance" a daunting challenge.

    PubMed

    1994-05-01

    At the fiftieth session of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP), the representative from the Islamic Republic of Iran expressed concern about continuing rapid population growth in developing countries. Overall growth in absolute terms between 1992 and 2025 will result in a population increase 16 times greater in developing countries than in developed countries. The requirements for food, housing, employment, health care, education, and energy of a population this size in relation to availability would contribute to the decline of the environment. The success of Iran's First Development Plan, which is based on the recommendations of the Bali Declaration on Population and Sustainable Development, is indicated by a decreased population growth rate (from more than 3% to 2.5%) and by an increased life expectancy (from 58 years in 1976 to 67 years in 1992). Policies that have been implemented include 1) increasing literacy and general knowledge in the population, particularly by increasing the level of school attendance of girls; 2) improving the status of women through an extension of education and by increasing their participation in management of the family and society; 3) improving health conditions and decreasing maternal and infant mortality; 4) repealing all regulations that encourage population growth and adopting measures in conformity with national birth control policies; and 5) increasing rural per capita income through diversification of job opportunities and creation of income from nonagricultural sources in rural areas. PMID:12288616

  2. A Haplotype Framework for Cystic Fibrosis Mutations in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Elahi, Elahe; Khodadad, Ahmad; Kupershmidt, Ilya; Ghasemi, Fereshteh; Alinasab, Babak; Naghizadeh, Ramin; Eason, Robert G.; Amini, Mahshid; Esmaili, Mehran; Esmaeili Dooki, Mohammad R.; Sanati, Mohammad H.; Davis, Ronald W.; Ronaghi, Mostafa; Thorstenson, Yvonne R.

    2006-01-01

    This is the first comprehensive profile of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) mutations and their corresponding haplotypes in the Iranian population. All of the 27 CFTR exons of 60 unrelated Iranian CF patients were sequenced to identify disease-causing mutations. Eleven core haplotypes of CFTR were identified by genotyping six high-frequency simple nucleotide polymorphisms. The carrier frequency of 2.5 in 100 (1 in 40) was estimated from the frequency of heterozygous patients and suggests that contrary to popular belief, cystic fibrosis may be a common, under-diagnosed disease in Iran. A heterogeneous mutation spectrum was observed at the CFTR locus in 60 cystic fibrosis (CF) patients from Iran. Twenty putative disease-causing mutations were identified on 64 (53%) of the 120 chromosomes. The five most common Iranian mutations together represented 37% of the expected mutated alleles. The most frequent mutation, ΔF508 (p.F508del), represented only 16% of the expected mutated alleles. The next most frequent mutations were c.1677del2 (p.515fs) at 7.5%, c.4041C>G (p.N1303K) at 5.6%, c.2183AA>G (p.684fs) at 5%, and c.3661A>T (p.K1177X) at 2.5%. Three of the five most frequent Iranian mutations are not included in a commonly used panel of CF mutations, underscoring the importance of identifying geographic-specific mutations in this population. PMID:16436643

  3. A brief history of smallpox eradication in Iran.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Mohammad Hossein

    2010-01-01

    Smallpox, which currently is only of historical interest, was once one of the most terrible illnesses with high mortality and morbidity. In the late 18th century, the English physician and naturalist, Edward Jenner (1749 - 1823), discovered an efficient preventive technique against smallpox which he termed "vaccination". Afterwards, the practice of vaccination gradually became widespread when finally in 1979, the World Health Organization formally declared the global eradication of this fatal disease.Presented here is a brief account of smallpox eradication in Iran which started on a limited scale in the 19th century by the order of Abbas Mirza (1789 - 1833), the Crown Prince of Fath Ali Shah Qajar (reign from 1797 - 1834), and reinforced in 1848 by Mirza Taghi Khan Amir Kabir (1807 - 1852) the Prime Minster of Naser ad-Din Shah, and became more popular after the establishment of the Pasteur Institute in Tehran in 1921, where considerable doses of smallpox vaccine were produced. In addition, in subsequent years, a law that mandated public smallpox vaccination was passed by the Iranian parliament (Majles) in 1953 and eventually, the mass vaccination program led to the complete eradication of smallpox in Iran in 1978. PMID:20039774

  4. Certain Hospital Waste Management Practices in Isfahan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ferdowsi, Ali; Ferdosi, Masoud; Mehrani, Zeinab; Narenjkar, Parisa

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Infected hospital wastes are among hazardous wastes, and special treatment methods are needed for their disposal. Having information about present status of medical waste management systems is of great importance in finding weak, and for future planning. Such studies have not been done for most of the hospitals in Iran. Methods: This paper reports the results of a study on the present status of medical waste management in Isfahan hospitals. A ten page researcher made questionnaire was used to collect data in terms of collection, transportation, segregation, treatment and disposal. For assessment of autoclaves, standard tests including TST (Time, Steam, and Temperature) strip test and spore tests were used. Samples were made of stack gases of incinerators. Quantity and composition of hospital wastes in Isfahan were also measured manually. Results: Of all wastes in selected hospitals, 40% were infected wastes (1.59 kg/day/bed), which is 15 to 20% higher than World Health Organization (WHO) standards. TST and Spore test results were negative in all samples. Stack gases analysis showed high concentration of CO in some samples. Besides, the combustion efficiency in some samples is less than 99.5%, which is the standard criterion in Iran. Conclusions: This study may create awareness regarding the magnitude of the problem of waste management in hospitals of Isfahan and may stimulate interests for systematic control efforts for hospital waste disposal. Hospital waste management cannot succeed without documented plans, certain equipment, defined staff trainings, and periodic evaluations. PMID:22826762

  5. Commercialization of biopharmaceutical knowledge in Iran; challenges and solutions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to investigate the application of the university research findings or commercialization of the biopharmaceutical knowledge in Iran and determine the challenges and propose some solutions. Results A qualitative study including 19 in-depth interviews with experts was performed in 2011 and early 2012. National Innovation System (NIS) model was employed as the study design. Thematic method was applied for the analysis. The results demonstrate that policy making, regulations and management development are considered as fundamental reasons for current commercialization practice pattern. It is suggested to establish foundation for higher level documents that would involve relating bodies and provide them operational guidelines for the implementation of commercialization incentives. Conclusions Policy, regulations and management as the most influential issue should be considered for successful commercialization. The present study, for the first time, attempts to disclose the importance of evidence input for measures in order to facilitate the commercialization process by the authorities in Iran. Overall, the NIS model should be considered and utilized as one of the effective solutions for commercialization. PMID:24568555

  6. Small-Scale Convection Raising East Anatolia and Northern Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogus, O.; Pysklywec, R. N.; Sengul Uluocak, E.

    2014-12-01

    The East Anatolia and Iranian plateaus (originally referred as a Turkish-Iranian plateau) are characterized by 1.5-2 km average elevation and have been deformed through Alpine-Himalayan continental collision between the Arabian and Eurasian plates. Recent seismological and geological studies suggest that the lithospheric structure between these two plateaus differs significantly since the Zagros fold-thrust belt in western Iran is associated with a thick lithospheric root (up to 225 km) whereas the East Anatolia seems to be lacking its mantle lithosphere. In this work, we use 2-D numerical experiments to test the applicability of small-scale convection model to account for the anomalous topography and uplift across the Turkish-Iranian plateau. Our models are designed to track the evolution of the surface topography as a response to a mantle flow activity in the step like morphology of the lithospheric base as wells as the temperature field. We test the role of several rheological parameters (e.g., viscosity) and variation in the lithospheric thickness in a series of experiments. Modeling results are tested against various observables for eastern Anatolia and Iran such as surface topography, crustal thickness, and surface strain rate. Our results provide new insight in the geodynamic evolution of Alpine type orogenic systems and suggest alternative mechanism to lithospheric delamination and/or slab break-off for the uplift of mountain belts.

  7. Time trend and change point of reference evapotranspiration over Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseinzadeh Talaee, P.; Shifteh Some'e, B.; Sobhan Ardakani, S.

    2014-05-01

    Identifying changes in reference evapotranspiration (ETo) can help in future planning of crop water requirements and water resources for high water-use efficiency. This study analyzes the ETo trends on a seasonal and annual timescale by applying various statistical tools to data from 41 Iranian weather stations during the period between 1966 and 2005. The Mann-Kendall test after removal of significant serial correlation was used to determine the statistical significance of the trends, and the change point in the ETo time series was determined using the cumulative sum technique. The results showed that (1) the significant increasing trends of annual ETo were observed at seven stations which are located in different parts of Iran, (2) the stations located at the southeast, northeast, and northwest corners of Iran experienced the highest positive change of annual ETo, and (3) the changes in seasonal ETo were most pronounced in the winter season, both in terms of trend magnitude and the number of stations with significant trends.

  8. Obesity and Related Factors in Iran: The STEPS Survey, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Bakhshi, Enayatollah; Koohpayehzadeh, Jalil; Seifi, Behjat; Rafei, Ali; Biglarian, Akbar; Asgari, Fereshteh; Etemad, Koorosh; Bidhendi Yarandi, Razieh

    2015-01-01

    Background: To date, no study has addressed the association between race/ethnicity and obesity considering other sociodemographic and lifestyle factors in Iran. Objectives: The current study aimed to study lifestyle and the environmental factors affecting obesity in the Iranian subjects of the STEPS Survey, 2011. Patients and Methods: The study was conducted on 8639 subjects (aged ≥ 20 years) in the STEPS Survey 2011 in Iran under supervision of the World Health Organization (WHO). Height and body weight were measured following the standardized procedures. Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) method was used to examine factors associated with obesity. The examined variables were age, gender, race/ethnicity, place of residence, employment status, physical activity, smoking status, and educational level. Results: Overall, 22.3% of the subjects were obese. In a GEE model, a healthy weight status among adults was associated with being younger, male, in a rural residence, employees, spending more time engaged in physical activity, being a smoker and having a moderate or high level of education. These associations were statistically significant after adjusting for other variables. Conclusions: The study results suggest a need for targeted interventions and continued surveillance for the Iranian adults. PMID:26328062

  9. Spatial and Statistical Analysis of Leptospirosis in Guilan Province, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nia, A. Mohammadi; Alimohammadi, A.; Habibi, R.; Shirzadi, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    The most underdiagnosed water-borne bacterial zoonosis in the world is Leptospirosis which especially impacts tropical and humid regions. According to World Health Organization (WHO), the number of human cases is not known precisely. Available reports showed that worldwide incidences vary from 0.1-1 per 100 000 per year in temperate climates to 10-100 per 100 000 in the humid tropics. Pathogenic bacteria that is spread by the urines of rats is the main reason of water and soil infections. Rice field farmers who are in contact with infected water or soil, contain the most burden of leptospirosis prevalence. In recent years, this zoonotic disease have been occurred in north of Iran endemically. Guilan as the second rice production province (average=750 000 000 Kg, 40% of country production) after Mazandaran, has one of the most rural population (Male=487 679, Female=496 022) and rice workers (47 621 insured workers) among Iran provinces. The main objectives of this study were to analyse yearly spatial distribution and the possible spatial clusters of leptospirosis to better understand epidemiological aspects of them in the province. Survey was performed during the period of 2009-2013 at rural district level throughout the study area. Global clustering methods including the average nearest neighbour distance, Moran's I and General G indices were utilized to investigate the annual spatial distribution of diseases. At the end, significant spatial clusters have been detected with the objective of informing priority areas for public health planning and resource allocation.

  10. Forecasting Tuberculosis Incidence in Iran Using Box-Jenkins Models

    PubMed Central

    Moosazadeh, Mahmood; Nasehi, Mahshid; Bahrampour, Abbas; Khanjani, Narges; Sharafi, Saeed; Ahmadi, Shanaz

    2014-01-01

    Background: Predicting the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) plays an important role in planning health control strategies for the future, developing intervention programs and allocating resources. Objectives: The present longitudinal study estimated the incidence of tuberculosis in 2014 using Box-Jenkins methods. Materials and Methods: Monthly data of tuberculosis cases recorded in the surveillance system of Iran tuberculosis control program from 2005 till 2011 was used. Data was reviewed regarding normality, variance equality and stationary conditions. The parameters p, d and q and P, D and Q were determined, and different models were examined. Based on the lowest levels of AIC and BIC, the most suitable model was selected among the models whose overall adequacy was confirmed. Results: During 84 months, 63568 TB patients were recorded. The average was 756.8 (SD = 11.9) TB cases a month. SARIMA (0,1,1)(0,1,1)12 with the lowest level of AIC (12.78) was selected as the most adequate model for prediction. It was predicted that the total nationwide TB cases for 2014 will be about 16.75 per 100,000 people. Conclusions: Regarding the cyclic pattern of TB recorded cases, Box-Jenkins and SARIMA models are suitable for predicting its prevalence in future. Moreover, prediction results show an increasing trend of TB cases in Iran. PMID:25031852

  11. Workplace bullying in nursing: The case of Azerbaijan province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Esfahani, Ali Nasr; Shahbazi, Gholamreza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Workplace bullying is a significant issue confronting the nursing profession both in Iran and internationally. This study examined workplace bullying among a group of Iranian nurses. Materials and Methods: The prevalence rate of bullying behavior among nurses was determined. Data were collected from 162 nurses who worked in four hospitals located in West Azerbaijan province, Iran. Results: Results showed that only 9% of nurses who participated in this study had frequently been exposed to bullying behavior, 22% had occasionally been bullied, and 69% had never been exposed to these behaviors during the last year. The most common type of workplace bullying experienced by nurses was verbal bullying. Forty percent of the nurses reported exposure to verbal bullying behavior frequently or occasionally. Conclusions: To be able to intervene with bullying behavior in the workplace, there is a need to pay greater attention to the problem by the entire range of managers, lawyers, industrial–organizational psychologists, counselors, social workers, and local authorities. PMID:25183984

  12. Leishmania tropica in Stray Dogs in Southeast Iran

    PubMed Central

    BAMOROVAT, Mehdi; SHARIFI, Iraj; DABIRI, Shahriar; MOHAMMADI, Mohammad Ali; FASIHI HARANDI, Majid; MOHEBALI, Mehdi; AFLATOONIAN, Mohammad Reza; KEYHANI, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) caused by Leishmania tropica is endemic in Kerman, southeastern Iran. While dogs have long been implicated as the main domestic reservoirs of L. infantum, etiological agent of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL), they can also carry L. tropica infection. The objective of the present study was to determine molecular identity and to evaluate histopathological changes due to CL in dogs in a well-known focus of anthroponotic CL (ACL) in Kerman, southeastern Iran. Methods: This study was carried out in three prospective series from 1994 to 2013 on dogs. Tissue samples were taken from 471 stray dogs. Pathological specimens including skin, spleen, liver and lymph nodes were prepared for paraffin blocks, sectioning and staining for further histopathological examination. PCR amplification of kDNA was performed to identify the causative agent and sequencing. Overall, two out of 471 stray dogs were infected with L. tropica. Hyperplasia of red pulp by the proliferation of histiocytes, lymphocytes, plasma cells and cytoplasm of histiocytes collection of amastigotes was noted. Results: Based on the results of PCR products and sequencing analysis, the parasites isolated from the lesions of two dogs were characterized as L. tropica, corresponding to a band of 830 bp Conclusion: This finding revealed infection with L. tropica in stray dogs in the city and suburbs of Kerman. This information is essential for public health concerns and planning effective future control programs. The role of dogs as potentional reservoir in the epidemiology of ACL needs further investigation. PMID:26576349

  13. Exposure assessment of the tehran population (iran) to zearalenone mycotoxin.

    PubMed

    Yazdanpanah, Hassan; Zarghi, Afshin; Shafaati, Ali Reza; Foroutan, Seyyed Mohsen; Aboul-Fathi, Farshid; Khoddam, Arash; Nazari, Firoozeh

    2012-01-01

    Zearalenone (ZEA) mycotoxin is a potent estrogenic metabolite. It is the primary toxin causing infertility, abortion or other breeding problems. A HPLC method was validated for ZEA in foods using a monolithic column with sample clean-up on an immunoaffinity column. A certified reference material (CRM) from FAPAS (UK) was analyzed. A survey of ZEA was performed on the 72 samples of rice, bread, puffed corn snack and wheat flour collected from Tehran retail market. The average recovery and coefficient of variation in different foods ranged 92.7-107.1 and 4.9-13.8%, respectively. The amount of ZEA in corn CRM was in the acceptable range of FAPAS. The limit of quantification was 3 ng/g for rice, bread and wheat flour and 2.7 ng/g for puffed corn snack. The retention time of zearalenone was 2.6 min. All samples had contamination level lower than the maximum tolerated level of ZEA in foods in Iran. The mean intake of ZEA from all samples was much lower than the tolerable daily intake estimated by JECFA. This is the first survey on ZEA contamination in bread and rice in Iran as well as the first study on exposure assessment of Tehran population to ZEA. PMID:24250447

  14. Impact of Human Enterovirus 71 Genotypes in Meningoencephalitis in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Pooneh; Roohandeh, Akram; Sohrabi, Amir; Mostafavi, Ehsan; Bahram Ali, Golnaz

    2015-01-01

    Background: Since the importance of poliovirus has diminished, as a result of its elimination in the majority of countries, non-polioviruses are emerging as causative agents of severe central nervous system (CNS) involvement. Outbreaks of enterovirus 71 (EV71)-associated CNS infections have recently been reported in Asia, Australia, and Europe. Objectives: This is the first study on genotyping of EV71 in children with meningoencephalitis to be carried out in Iran, and it was conducted in order to obtain an improved understanding of the disease burden of this virus, particularly with regard to CNS involvement. Patients and Methods: Viral RNA was extracted from 170 cerebrospinal fluid samples obtained from children aged under 8 years with a primary diagnosis of aseptic meningitis. Specific EV71 PCR was conducted to identify the genotype of the detected EV71 viruses. Results: Human enteroviruses (HEVs) were detected in 89 patients (52.3%). EV71 infection was detected in 19 (21.3%) of the 89 EV71-positive patients, and the C genotype was identified in 15 isolates. Conclusions: The C genotype should be considered as the prevalent EV71 circulating genotype in Iran, particularly in cases of aseptic meningitis. PMID:26865943

  15. A faunistic study on the leafhoppers of northwestern Iran (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae)

    PubMed Central

    Abdollahi, Tandis; Jalalizand, Ali Reza; Mozaffarian, Fariba; Wilson, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The leafhopper fauna of northwestern Iran: Azarbaijan-e-Sharghi, Azarbaijan-e-Gharbi and Ardabil provinces is listed from previously published records and from our current work. Sixty-nine species are included with four species (Mogangella straminea Dlabola, 1957, Doratura stylata (Boheman, 1847), Macrosteles sordidipennis (Stål, 1858) and Psammotettix seriphidii Emeljanov, 1962) listed as new for Iran and Balclutha punctata (Fabricius, 1775), as a new record for the region. A distribution map of the species in northwestern Iran is given. PMID:25931954

  16. The Cimmerian accretionary wedge of Anarak, Central Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanchi, Andrea; Malaspina, Nadia; Zanchetta, Stefano; Berra, Fabrizio; Benciolini, Luca; Bergomi, Maria; Cavallo, Alessandro; Javadi, Hamid Reza; Kouhpeyma, Meyssam

    2015-04-01

    The occurrence in Iran of several ophiolite belts dating between Late Palaeozoic to Triassic poses several questions on the possible existence of various sutures marking the closure of the Palaeotethys ocean between Eurasia and this Gondwana-derived microplate. In this scenario, the Anarak region in Central Iran still represents a conundrum. Contrasting geochronological, paleontological, paleomagnetic data and reported field evidence suggest different origins for the Anarak Metamorphic Complex (AMC). The AMC is either interpreted, as: (1) relict of an accretionary wedge developed at the Eurasia margin during the Palaeotethys subduction as part of the Cimmerian suture zone of NE Iran, displaced to Central Iran by a large counter-clockwise rotation of the central Iranian blocks; (2) autochthonous unit forming a secondary branch of the main suture zone. Our structural, petrographic and geochemical data indicate that the AMC consists of several metamorphic units also including dismembered "ophiolites" which display different tectono-metamorphic evolutions. Three main ductile deformational events can be distinguished in the AMC. The Morghab and Chah Gorbeh complexes preserve a different M1 metamorphism, characterized by blueschist relics in the S1 foliation of the former unit, and greenschist assemblages in the latter. They share a subsequent similar D2 deformational and M2 metamorphic history, showing a prograde metamorphism with syn- to post-deformation growth of blueschist facies mineral assemblages on pre-existing greenschist facies associations. High pressure, low temperature (HP/LT) metamorphism responsible for the growth of sodic amphibole has been recognized also within marble lenses at the contact between the Chah Gorbeh Complex and serpentinites. Evidence of HP/LT metamorphism also occurs in glaucophane-bearing meta-pillow lavas and serpentinites, which contain antigorite and form most of the "ophiolites" within the AMC. Structural relationships show that the

  17. Origin of birefringence in andradite from Arizona, Madagascar, and Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antao, Sytle M.; Klincker, Allison M.

    2013-07-01

    The crystal structure of four birefringent andradite samples (two from Arizona, one from Madagascar, and one from Iran) was refined with the Rietveld method, space group Iaoverline{3} d, and monochromatic synchrotron high-resolution powder X-ray diffraction (HRPXRD) data. Each sample contains an assemblage of three different cubic phases. From the electron-microprobe (EMPA) results, fine-scale intergrowths in the Arizona-2 and Madagascar samples appear homogeneous with nearly identical compositions of {Ca2.99Mg0.01}Σ3[{{Fe}}_{1.99}^{3 + } {{Mn}}_{0.01}^{3 + }]Σ2(Si2.95Al0.03 {{Fe}}_{0.02}^{3 + })Σ3O12, Adr98 (Arizona-2), and Adr97 (Madagascar). Both samples are near-end-member andradite, ideally {Ca3}[{{Fe}}2^{3 + }](Si3)O12, so cation ordering in the X, Y, or Z sites is not possible. Because of the large-scale intergrowths, the Arizona-1 and Iran samples contain three different compositions. Arizona-1 has compositions Adr97 (phase-1), Adr93Grs4 (phase-2), and Adr87Grs11 (phase-3). Iran sample has compositions Adr86Uv12 (phase-1), Adr69Uv30 (phase-2), and Adr76Uv22 (phase-3). The crystal structure of the three phases within each sample was modeled quite well as indicated by the Rietveld refinement statistics of reduced χ2 and overall R ( F 2) values of, respectively, 1.980 and 0.0291 (Arizona-1); 1.091 and 0.0305 (Arizona-2); 1.362 and 0.0231 (Madagascar); and 1.681 and 0.0304 (Iran). The dominant phase for each sample has the following unit-cell parameters (Å) and weight fractions (%): a = 12.06314(1), 51.93(9) (Arizona-1); 12.04889(1), 52.47(1) (Arizona-2); 12.06276(1), 52.21(8) (Madagascar); and 12.05962(2), 63.3(1) (Iran). For these dominant phases, the distances and site occupancy factors ( sofs) in terms of neutral atoms at the Ca(X), Fe(Y), and Si(Z) sites are as follows: = 2.4348, Fe-O = 2.0121(6), Si-O = 1.6508(6) Å; Ca( sof) = 0.955(2), Fe( sof) = 0.930(2), and Si( sof) = 0.917(2) (Arizona-1); = 2.4288, Fe-O = 2.0148(7), Si-O = 1

  18. A history of the 1918 Spanish influenza pandemic and its impact on Iran.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Mohammad Hossein; Raees Jalali, Ghanbar Ali; Azizi, Farzaneh

    2010-05-01

    Approximately ninety two years ago, the worst influenza pandemic or "Spanish flu" occurred in 1918, at the end of the First World War (WWI, 1914-1918) which resulted in the deaths of millions of people worldwide. The death toll exceeded the total number of victims of WWI. The 1918 Spanish flu was a deadly, major global event that affected many countries, including Iran. In Iran, it was accompanied by a high mortality rate estimated to be more than one million. However, detailed information on the impact of this outbreak in Iran is scarce. The present paper describes a brief history of the influenza pandemics in the world as well as the spread of the 1918 Spanish flu to Iran. PMID:20433236

  19. Transition to injection amongst opioid users in Iran: implications for harm reduction.

    PubMed

    Malekinejad, Mohsen; Vazirian, Mohsen

    2012-07-01

    Driven by opioid use, HIV prevalence is high (15-27%) amongst injection drug users (IDU) in Iran. Harm reduction programmes are associated with a reduction in high risk injecting behaviours; however, Iran has a large number of non-injecting opioid users not immediately targeted by harm reduction programmes. The vast majority of heroin injectors tend to have a history of several years of smoking opium or heroin before transitioning to injection, and a small fraction may even start their drug career by injection of opioids, behaviours that can undermine the effectiveness of the harm reduction programmes. In this study, we have reviewed evidence on the HIV epidemic, extent and pattern of opioid use, and correlates of the transition to injection in Iran. We have concluded that harm reduction policies should also emphasize prevention of the transition to injection amongst high-risk non-injecting opioid users as an additional strategy against the spread of HIV infection in Iran. PMID:21996166

  20. Review of the earthworm fauna of Iran with emphasis on Kohgiluyeh & Boyer-Ahmad Province.

    PubMed

    Farhadi, Zeinab; Malek, Masoumeh; Elahi, Elahe

    2013-01-01

    Earthworms were collected in forests, damp habitats, springs, orchards and agricultural fields of the Kohgiluyeh & Boyer Ahmad Province, Iran, from April 2009 to April 2010. Specimens were collected at 20 established stations by digging and by diluted formalin methods. Ten species belonging to family Lumbricidae were identified based on morphology: Aporrectodea caliginosa (Savigny, 1826), Ap. rosea (Savigny, 1826), Ap. jassyensis (Michaelsen, 1891), Dendrobaena veneta (Rosa, 1886), D. byblica (Rosa, 1893) complex, D. orientalis orientalis Cernosvitov 1940, Eisenia fetida (Savigny, 1826), Eiseniella tetraedra (Savigny, 1826), Octolasion lacteum (Örley, 1881), Perelia kaznakovi (Michaelsen, 1910). Ap. caliginosa was the dominant species in this province and D. orientalis orientalis is a new record for Iran. A checklist of all earthworms species form Iran is presented, containing 19 species. Then, in order to show earthworm geographical affinities, hierarchical analysis were applied to available data on earthworm of Iran. PMID:26438954

  1. A New Model for the Organizational Structure of Medical Record Departments in Hospitals in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Moghaddasi, Hamid; Hosseini, Azamossadat; Sheikhtaheri, Abbas

    2006-01-01

    The organizational structure of medical record departments in Iran is not appropriate for the efficient management of healthcare information. In addition, there is no strong information management division to provide comprehensive information management services in hospitals in Iran. Therefore, a suggested model was designed based on four main axes: 1) specifications of a Health Information Management Division, 2) specifications of a Healthcare Information Management Department, 3) the functions of the Healthcare Information Management Department, and 4) the units of the Healthcare Information Management Department. The validity of the model was determined through use of the Delphi technique. The results of the validation process show that the majority of experts agree with the model and consider it to be appropriate and applicable for hospitals in Iran. The model is therefore recommended for hospitals in Iran. PMID:18066362

  2. 77 FR 6657 - Blocking Property of the Government of Iran and Iranian Financial Institutions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    .... eastern standard time on February 6, 2012. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, February 5, 2012. [FR Doc... actions of the Government of Iran occurring after the conclusion of the 1981 Algiers Accords, and...

  3. A new model for the organizational structure of medical record departments in hospitals in Iran.

    PubMed

    Moghaddasi, Hamid; Hosseini, Azamossadat; Sheikhtaheri, Abbas

    2006-01-01

    The organizational structure of medical record departments in Iran is not appropriate for the efficient management of healthcare information. In addition, there is no strong information management division to provide comprehensive information management services in hospitals in Iran. Therefore, a suggested model was designed based on four main axes: 1) specifications of a Health Information Management Division, 2) specifications of a Healthcare Information Management Department, 3) the functions of the Healthcare Information Management Department, and 4) the units of the Healthcare Information Management Department. The validity of the model was determined through use of the Delphi technique. The results of the validation process show that the majority of experts agree with the model and consider it to be appropriate and applicable for hospitals in Iran. The model is therefore recommended for hospitals in Iran. PMID:18066362

  4. Metabolic Syndrome in Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Zahiri, Ziba; Sharami, Seyedeh Hajar; Milani, Forozan; Mohammadi, Fereshteh; Kazemnejad, Ehsan; Ebrahimi, Hannan; Dalil Heirati, Seyedeh Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has been studied in different populations, but their results were so controversial regarding Iranian women. These controversial data indicated the need for more investigation of MetS characteristics in PCOS patients in our population. So this study aimed to evaluate the clinical and laboratory characteristics and metabolic features of patients with PCOS in Rasht. Materials and Methods This prospective cross sectional study was conducted on 215 PCOS women who lived in Rasht, north of Iran, from March 2010 to July 2012. The participants were then divided into two groups of women with MetS (n=62) and women without MetS (n=153). The diagnosis of PCOS and MetS were based on the Rotterdam 2003 criteria and the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria, respectively. Demographic characteristics, fertility characteristics, family history and laboratory findings were assessed. Results The prevalence of MetS in women with PCOS was 28.8%. In PCOS women of both groups, the waist circumference (WC) exceeded 88cm in 72.6%, hypertension [systolic blood pressure (SBP) and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥130/85mm Hg] was prevalent in 9.3%, fasting blood sugar (FBS) level was ≥110 mg/dl in 6%, triglycerides (Tg) level were ≥150 mg/dl in 47%, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level was <50 mg/dl in 86%. The values of WC, SBP, DBP, body mass index (BMI), ovarian size, Tg, cholesterol, FBS, 2-hour blood sugar, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were significantly greater in PCOS women with MetS than women without MetS. Also HDL and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels in women with MetS were significantly lower than women without MetS. Conclusion Prevalence of MetS in PCOS women was 28.8%, indicating that this value is higher than other studies conducted on PCOS women in Iran and other studies conducted on general population in Iran. PCOS women are

  5. Epidemiological, Demographic, and Colonic Extension of Ulcerative Colitis in Iran: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Shayesteh, Ali Akbar; Saberifirozi, Mehdi; Abedian, Shifteh; Sebghatolahi, Vahid

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Ulcerative colitis (UC), as the prototype of inflammatory bowel disease of the large bowel, is increasing in Iran and other developing countries. There are few studies that discuss the properties of this disease Iran. The result of this review may provide a general consensus about the epidemiological features of UC in Iran. METHODS This was a qualitative, systematic review that investigated the incidence, prevalence, and demographic properties of UC in Iran. We evaluated all published studies in the PubMed database, IranMedex, Magiran, and Scientific Information Database (SID) that pertained to the epidemiology and demographic features of UC in Iran from January 1987 to January 2012. After searching with defined keywords and implementing the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 11 case series and 2 case-control studies fulfilled the criteria for inclusion. RESULTS The estimated prevalence of UC is 15 per 105 persons, and the reported incidences were 3.04 and 3.25 per 105 persons in two Iranian provinces. The disease was more commonly observed in women and people in their fourth decade of life. Cigarette smoking conferred protection and familial association seemed to be similar to developed countries. UC did not appear to be more common among the higher socioeconomic class. In addition the proximal colon and rectum were less commonly involved. CONCLUSION Although the data is limited, the prevalence and incidence of UC in Iran shows an increasing pattern similar to other countries in the region. There is no clear association with socioeconomic status. Milder forms of the disease are common in Iran. A comprehensive nationwide data bank is needed for a better definition of the disease characteristics. PMID:24829667

  6. Tularemia, a re-emerging infectious disease in Iran and neighboring countrie

    PubMed Central

    Zargar, Afsaneh; Maurin, Max; Mostafavi, Ehsan

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Tularemia is a zoonotic disease transmitted by direct contact with infected animals and through arthropod bites, inhalation of contaminated aerosols, ingestion of contaminated meat or water, and skin contact with any infected material. It is widespread throughout the northern hemisphere, including Iran and its neighbors to the north, northeast, and northwest. METHODS: In this paper, the epidemiology of tularemia as a re-emerging infectious disease in the world with a focus on Iran and the neighboring countries is reviewed. RESULTS: In Iran, positive serological tests were first reported in 1973, in wildlife and domestic livestock in the northwestern and southeastern parts of the country. The first human case was reported in 1980 in the southwest of Iran, and recent studies conducted among at-risk populations in the western, southeastern, and southwestern parts of Iran revealed seroprevalences of 14.4, 6.52, and 6%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Several factors may explain the absence of reported tularemia cases in Iran since 1980. Tularemia may be underdiagnosed in Iran because Francisella tularensis subspecies holarctica is likely to be the major etiological agent and usually causes mild to moderately severe disease. Furthermore, tularemia is not a disease extensively studied in the medical educational system in Iran, and empirical therapy may be effective in many cases. Finally, it should be noted that laboratories capable of diagnosing tularemia have only been established in the last few years. Since both recent and older studies have consistently found tularemia antibodies in humans and animals, the surveillance of this disease should receive more attention. In particular, it would be worthwhile for clinical researchers to confirm tularemia cases more often by isolating F. tularensis from infected humans and animals. PMID:25773439

  7. Influence of southern oscillation on autumn rainfall in Iran (1951-2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roghani, Rabbaneh; Soltani, Saeid; Bashari, Hossein

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationships between southern oscillation and autumn (October-December) rainfall in Iran. It also sought to identify the possible physical mechanisms involved in the mentioned relationships by analyzing observational atmospheric data. Analyses were based on monthly rainfall data from 50 synoptic stations with at least 35 years of records up to the end of 2011. Autumn rainfall time series were grouped by the average Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) and SOI phase methods. Significant differences between rainfall groups in each method were assessed by Kruskal-Wallis and Kolmogorov-Smirnov non-parametric tests. Their relationships were also validated using the linear error in probability space (LEPS) test. The results showed that average SOI and SOI phases during July-September were related with autumn rainfall in some regions located in the west and northwest of Iran, west coasts of the Caspian Sea and southern Alborz Mountains. The El Niño (negative) and La Niña (positive) phases were associated with increased and decreased autumn rainfall, respectively. Our findings also demonstrated the persistence of Southern Pacific Ocean's pressure signals on autumn rainfall in Iran. Geopotential height patterns were totally different in the selected El Niño and La Niña years over Iran. During the El Niño years, a cyclone was formed over the north of Iran and an anticyclone existed over the Mediterranean Sea. During La Niña years, the cyclone shifted towards the Mediterranean Sea and an anticyclone developed over Iran. While these El Niño conditions increased autumn rainfall in Iran, the opposite conditions during the La Niña phase decreased rainfall in the country. In conclusion, development of rainfall prediction models based on the SOI can facilitate agricultural and water resources management in Iran.

  8. 31 CFR 535.335 - Claim arising out of events in Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Claim arising out of events in Iran... General Definitions § 535.335 Claim arising out of events in Iran. For purposes of § 535.216, a claim is one “arising out of events” of the type specified only if such event is the specific act that is...

  9. 31 CFR 535.335 - Claim arising out of events in Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Claim arising out of events in Iran... General Definitions § 535.335 Claim arising out of events in Iran. For purposes of § 535.216, a claim is one “arising out of events” of the type specified only if such event is the specific act that is...

  10. 31 CFR 535.335 - Claim arising out of events in Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Claim arising out of events in Iran... General Definitions § 535.335 Claim arising out of events in Iran. For purposes of § 535.216, a claim is one “arising out of events” of the type specified only if such event is the specific act that is...

  11. 31 CFR 535.335 - Claim arising out of events in Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Claim arising out of events in Iran... General Definitions § 535.335 Claim arising out of events in Iran. For purposes of § 535.216, a claim is one “arising out of events” of the type specified only if such event is the specific act that is...

  12. 31 CFR 535.335 - Claim arising out of events in Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Claim arising out of events in Iran... General Definitions § 535.335 Claim arising out of events in Iran. For purposes of § 535.216, a claim is one “arising out of events” of the type specified only if such event is the specific act that is...

  13. Nurses' Contribution to Health Information Technology of Iran's 2025 Health Map: A Review of the Document.

    PubMed

    Sadoughi, Farahnaz; Azadi, Tania; Azadi, Tannaz

    2016-01-01

    Implementation of eHealth strategy in Iran has a history less than 17 years. Iran's eHealth strategy is developed in 2011 and is called "Iran' 2025 Health Map: Health Information Technology". Considering the important role of nurses in providing healthcare services as well as in future long term plans such as sustainable development, it is of high value to pay attention to nurses' contribution in developing eHealth strategies. Thus the purpose of this study was to investigate nurses' contribution to health information technology of Iran's 2025 health map. This study was a qualitative study conducted in 2015 through reviewing the "Iran' 2025 Health Map: Health Information Technology" official report. The strategy published in three volumes and in Persian language was downloaded through the official website of the office of Statistics and Information Technology of Iranian Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MOHME). Two main themes were identified in the report indicating areas which nurses' roles were clearly stated. The findings revealed that nurses' contribution is not clearly stated in the strategy. However, there are a few areas highlighting nurses' involvement such as "determining beneficiary groups" and "information dissemination". It is suggested that more attention needs to be paid in contribution of nurses in further actions to revise the Iran's eHealth strategy. PMID:27332183

  14. Epilepsy Research in Iran: a Scientometric Analysis of Publications Output During 2000-2014

    PubMed Central

    Rasolabadi, Masoud; Rasouli-Ghahfarkhi, Seyedeh Moloud; Ardalan, Marlin; Kalhor, Marya Maryam; Seidi, Jamal; Gharib, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to analyze the epilepsy research output of Iran in national and global contexts, as reflected in its publication output indexed in Scopus citation database during 2000-2014. Methods: This study was based on the publications of epilepsy research from Iranian authors retrieved Feb. 2015 from Scopus Citation database [www.scopus.com]. The string used to retrieve the data was developed using “epilepsy OR epilepsies” keywords in title, abstract and keywords and Iran in affiliation field was our main string. Results: Cumulative publication output of Iran in epilepsy research consisted of 702 papers from 2000 to 2014, with an average number of 46.53 papers per year. The total publication output of Iran in epilepsy research increased from 2 papers in 2000 to 88 papers in 2014. Hence, with 702 paper, Iran ranked 25th among the top 25 countries with a global share of 0.82 %. Iranian publication average citation per paper increased from 0 in 2000 to 7.88 in 2014. Overall, the received citations were 3184 citations during those years. Conclusion: Iran is collaborating with 36 countries with no more than 244 of its papers (35% of its total papers). It is necessary to prepare conditions for epilepsy researchers to collaborate more with international scientific societies in order to produce more and high quality papers. PMID:26862249

  15. Information security risk management for computerized health information systems in hospitals: a case study of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Zarei, Javad; Sadoughi, Farahnaz

    2016-01-01

    Background In recent years, hospitals in Iran – similar to those in other countries – have experienced growing use of computerized health information systems (CHISs), which play a significant role in the operations of hospitals. But, the major challenge of CHIS use is information security. This study attempts to evaluate CHIS information security risk management at hospitals of Iran. Materials and methods This applied study is a descriptive and cross-sectional research that has been conducted in 2015. The data were collected from 551 hospitals of Iran. Based on literature review, experts’ opinion, and observations at five hospitals, our intensive questionnaire was designed to assess security risk management for CHISs at the concerned hospitals, which was then sent to all hospitals in Iran by the Ministry of Health. Results Sixty-nine percent of the studied hospitals pursue information security policies and procedures in conformity with Iran Hospitals Accreditation Standards. At some hospitals, risk identification, risk evaluation, and risk estimation, as well as risk treatment, are unstructured without any specified approach or methodology. There is no significant structured approach to risk management at the studied hospitals. Conclusion Information security risk management is not followed by Iran’s hospitals and their information security policies. This problem can cause a large number of challenges for their CHIS security in future. Therefore, Iran’s Ministry of Health should develop practical policies to improve information security risk management in the hospitals of Iran. PMID:27313481

  16. Evaluation of Horizontal Seismic Hazard of Shahrekord, Iran

    SciTech Connect

    Amiri, G. Ghodrati; Dehkordi, M. Raeisi; Amrei, S. A. Razavian; Kamali, M. Koohi

    2008-07-08

    This paper presents probabilistic horizontal seismic hazard assessment of Shahrekord, Iran. It displays the probabilistic estimate of Peak Ground Horizontal Acceleration (PGHA) for the return period of 75, 225, 475 and 2475 years. The output of the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis is based on peak ground acceleration (PGA), which is the most common criterion in designing of buildings. A catalogue of seismic events that includes both historical and instrumental events was developed and covers the period from 840 to 2007. The seismic sources that affect the hazard in Shahrekord were identified within the radius of 150 km and the recurrence relationships of these sources were generated. Finally four maps have been prepared to indicate the earthquake hazard of Shahrekord in the form of iso-acceleration contour lines for different hazard levels by using SEISRISK III software.

  17. Acute Human Cytomegalovirus Infection with Bleeding in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Pourhossein, Behzad; Yaghmaei, Farhad; Esmaeili, Saber; Banafshi, Omid; Afrasiabian, Shahla; Shirzadi, Mohammad Reza; Schleiss, Mark; Mostafavi, Ehsan

    2014-01-01

    In December 2011, a 42-year-old male farmer was admitted to a hospital in Sanandaj (Western Iran) with fever and anemia in order to check whether he suffered from some infectious diseases. During the first 3 days after admission, the patient gradually developed progressive oliguria, fever, abdominal pain in the right upper quadrant, leukocytosis with toxic granulation, petechiae and ecchymosis, oral bleeding, and vomiting. The sonographic findings revealed splenomegaly and an increase in the thickness of the gall bladder wall. In order to manage the patient and taking into consideration the most probable differential diagnoses, diagnostic tests were performed on two blood samples collected from him, and real-time polymerase chain reaction for human cytomegalovirus was positive. PMID:25562049

  18. Source apportionment of volatile organic compounds in Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Sarkhosh, Maryam; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Yunesian, Masud; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Borji, Saeedeh Hemmati; Bajgirani, Ali Ghiami

    2013-04-01

    Identifying the sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is key issue to reducing ground-level ozone and PAN. A multivariate receptor model (Unmix) was used for the determination of the contributions of VOCs sources in Tehran-Iran. Concentrations of ambient C2-C10 VOCs were measured continuously and online at the center of Tehran city during the winter of 2012. A high correlation coefficient existed between measured and predicted values (R (2) = 0.99), indicating that the data were well modeled. Five possible VOCs source categories were identified and mobile sources such as vehicle exhaust (61 %) and fuel evaporation (12 %) more than half of the total VOC concentration. City gas and CNG sources, biogenic source, and industrial solvent source categories accounted for 17 %, 8 % and 2 % of the total VOC, respectively. Result showed Unmix for VOCs source apportionment can be used to analyze and generate air pollution control strategies and policies. PMID:23283536

  19. Appropriate iodine nutrition in Iran: 20 years of success.

    PubMed

    Delshad, Hossein; Mehran, Ladan; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2010-01-01

    Iodine is a trace element in the human body, its only known function is the synthesis of thyroid hormones. Effects of iodine deficiency, termed iodine deficiency disorders (IDD), include endemic goiter, hypothyroidism, cretinism, decreased fertility rate, increased infant mortality and mental retardation. 2.2 billion people worldwide are at risk for IDD. Of these, 30-70% have goiter and 1-10% have cretinism. Two decades ago the I.R. Iran was among the countries most severely affected by iodine deficiency, but during the last two decades has made much progress in the development of universal salt iodization strategies and IDD prevention, and since 1996 meets all WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD criteria for the sustainable elimination of iodine deficiency. PMID:21287473

  20. Helminth parasites of small mammals in Kerman province, southeastern Iran.

    PubMed

    Fasihi Harandi, Majid; Madjdzadeh, Seyed Massoud; Ahmadinejad, Mohammad

    2016-03-01

    Fifty-one specimens of small mammals were collected from different locations of Kerman province, southeastern Iran during 2007 and 2009. They constitute six species of rodents (Meriones persicus, Meriones libycus, Tatera indica, Dryomys nitedula and Mus musculus), one species of Erinaceomorpha (Paraechinus hypomelas) and one species of hare (Lepus europeus). The rate of helminthic infection was 45.1 % among all trapped specimens. In 28 out of 51 hunted specimens no intestinal helminth parasite was found. Of all mammals examined, 15 (29.4 %) had nematodes, 5 (9.8 %) had cestodes, and 3 (5.9 %) were infected with Acanthocephala. Five different species of parasites were isolated: Trichuris muris, Moniliformis moniliformis, Hymenolepis diminuta, Hymenolepis nana, and Mastophorus muris. Results of the present study indicate the potential of small mammals in the transmission of zoonotic helminthic infection. PMID:27065607

  1. First Report of 3-Oxothiolase Deficiency in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Shiasi Arani, Kobra; Soltani, Babak

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Mitochondrial acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase (3-oxothiolase) deficiency is a rare metabolic disorder involving ketone body metabolism characterized by acute attacks of vomiting, acidosis, ketosis, and lethargy along with some laboratory criteria including excessive excretion of 2-methyl-3-hydroxybutyric acid in urine. Case Presentation: This is a case report of 3-oxothiolase deficiency in a young Iranian boy with presentation of intractable vomiting and severe metabolic acidosis following a common cold in six months of age with abundant urinary 2-methyl-3- hydroxybutyric acid. Discussion: This is the first Iranian 3-oxothiolase deficiency case report as searched in the literature. Because of the high rate of consanguineous marriages in Iran, physicians should consider the 3-oxothiolase deficiency in the differential diagnosis of any patient with intractable vomiting and severe metabolic acidosis. PMID:24782902

  2. Late Pleistocene human remains from Wezmeh Cave, western Iran.

    PubMed

    Trinkaus, Erik; Biglari, Fereidoun; Mashkour, Marjan; Monchot, Hervé; Reyss, Jean-Louis; Rougier, Hélène; Heydari, Saman; Abdi, Kamyar

    2008-04-01

    Paleontological analysis of remains from Wezmeh Cave in western Iran have yielded a Holocene Chalcolithic archeological assemblage, a rich Late Pleistocene carnivore faunal assemblage, and an isolated unerupted human maxillary premolar (P(3) or possibly P(4)). Species representation and U-series dating of faunal teeth place the carnivore assemblage during oxygen isotope stages (OIS) 3 and 2, and noninvasive gamma spectrometry dating of the human premolar places it at least as old as early OIS 2. The human premolar crown morphology is not diagnostic of late archaic versus early modern human affinities, but its buccolingual diameter places it at the upper limits of Late Pleistocene human P(3) and P(4) dimensions and separate from a terminal Pleistocene regional sample. Wezmeh Cave therefore provides additional Paleolithic human remains from the Zagros Mountains and further documents Late Pleistocene human association with otherwise carnivore-dominated cave assemblages. PMID:18000894

  3. Activities to Attract Girls to Physics in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izadi, Dina; Araste, Afshin Mohseni; Fadaei, Azita Seied

    2009-04-01

    In Iran there is no difference between boys' and girls' activities in scientific works; however, they study separately at schools until they reach the university level. Before going to university, students think engineering and medical science are better than the other sciences for earning enough money to support their lives. But after the entrance exam for universities most of the girls choose basic sciences based on their test results. Creative methods of teaching physics at the elementary and secondary levels, such as "Dominos in Physics" and "Physics in Nature," and understanding physics through real-life examples and animation are important for attracting students to further studies and careers in physics. Participating in international physics competitions and holding national tournaments and university open houses in physics is also very helpful. Studying physics can improve students' abilities and also help them to imagine, decide, think, and live better.

  4. En-bloc liver-pancreas transplant in Iran.

    PubMed

    Nikeghbalian, Saman; Mehdi, Seyed Haider; Aliakbarian, Mohsen; Kazemi, Kourosh; Shamsaeefar, Alireza; Bahreini, Amin; Gholami, Siavash; Malekhosseini, Seyed Ali

    2014-09-01

    Liver transplant can be challenging in cirrhotic patients with diabetes mellitus. In chronic liver disease, the glucose metabolism is altered; uncontrolled diabetes negatively influences the outcome of liver transplantation and poses difficulty in the management of immediate post transplantation period. Simultaneous liver-pancreas transplantation is an option to prevent early complications due to diabetes and also to improve the quality of life after transplantation in patients with Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM) and chronic liver disease. We report the first en-bloc liver-pancreas transplant done in the transplant history of Iran. We describe the technical details of the procedure as well as the short term outcome after transplantation. In this case report, we also discuss in some details, the surgical, medical and immunological advantages of combined liver-pancreas transplantation as opposed to separate implantation of both organs. PMID:25204483

  5. Histopathological study on parasites in freshwater ornamental fishes in Iran.

    PubMed

    Nematollahi, A; Jaberi, S; Helan, J Ashrafi; Sheikhzadeh, N

    2016-09-01

    During March 2012 through February 2013, 100 freshwater ornamental fishes in 22 species from some aquarium fish shops were examined. Specimens were dissected and tissue samples consisted of liver, kidney, spleen, heart, intestine, ovary, brain and eye were fixed in 10 % buffered formalin and sections were provided and stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Periodic Acid-Schiff, Giemsa and acid-fast staining (Ziehl-Neelsen). At present study six species of protozoans consisting of Eimeria spp. Cryptosporidium spp., Tetrahymena corlissi, Thecamoeba spp., Giardia spp., Myxobolus spp. and two metazoan parasite consisting of Nematoda spp. and Benedenia monticelli were identified. Thecamoeba, B. monticelli and Cryptosporidium spp. were not reported in previous Iranian studies and it is the first report of infestation to this parasite in ornamental fish in Iran. PMID:27605779

  6. Nine eriophyoid mite species from Iran (Acari, Eriophyidae).

    PubMed

    Xue, Xiao-Feng; Sadeghi, Hussein; Hong, Xiao-Yue; Sinaie, Samira

    2011-01-01

    Nine eriophyoid mites, including two new species and five new records, from Iran are described and illustrated. They are Aceria acroptiloni Shevchenko & Kacalev, 1974, rec. n. on Rhaponticum repens (L.) Hidalgo (Asteraceae); Aceria anthocoptes (Nalepa, 1892), rec. n. on Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. (Asteraceae); Aceria lactucae (Canestrini, 1893), rec. n. on Lactuca virosa L. (Asteraceae); Aceria pulicarissp. n. on Pulicaria gnaphalodes (Vent.) Boiss. (Asteraceae); Aceria tosichella Keifer, 1969 on Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv. (Poaceae); Eriophyes rotundae Mohanasundaram, 1983 on Cyperus rotundus L. (Cyperaceae); Aculops maroccensis Keifer, 1972, rec. n. on Mentha piperita L. (Lamiaceae); Aculus medicagersp. n. on Medicago sativa L. (Leguminosae); Tetra lycopersici Xue & Hong, 2005, rec. n. on Solanum nigrum L. (Solanaceae). PMID:22144865

  7. Social Health Status in Iran: An Empirical Study

    PubMed Central

    AMINI RARANI, Mostafa; RAFIYE, Hassan; KHEDMATI MORASAE, Esmaeil

    2013-01-01

    Background: As social health is a condition-driven, dynamic and fluid concept, it seems necessary to construct and obtain a national and relevant concept of it for every society. Providing an empirical back up for Iran’s concept of social health was the aim of the present study. Methods: This study is an ecologic study in which available data for 30 provinces of Iran in 2007 were analyzed. In order to prove construct validity and obtain a social health index, an exploratory factor analysis was conducted on six indicators of population growth, willful murder, poverty, unemployment, insurance coverage and literacy. Results: Following the factor analysis, two factors of Diathesis (made up of high population growth, poverty, low insurance coverage and illiteracy) and Problem (made up of unemployment and willful murder) were extracted. The diathesis and problem explained 48.6 and 19.6% of social health variance respectively. From provinces, Sistan & Baluchistan had the highest rate of poverty and violence and the lowest rate of literacy and insurance coverage. In terms of social health index, Tehran, Semnan, Isfahan, Bushehr and Mazandaran had the highest ranks while Sistan and Baluchistan, Lurestan, Kohkiloyeh and Kermanshah occupied the lowest ones. Conclusion: There are some differences and similarities between Iranian concept of social health and that of other societies. However, a matter that makes our concept special and different is its attention to population. The increase in literacy rate and insurance coverage along with reduction of poverty, violence and unemployment rates can be the main intervention strategies to improve social health status in Iran. PMID:23515572

  8. Psychosocial outcomes following spinal cord injury in Iran.

    PubMed

    Khazaeipour, Zahra; Norouzi-Javidan, Abbas; Kaveh, Mahboobeh; Khanzadeh Mehrabani, Fatemeh; Kazazi, Elham; Emami-Razavi, Seyed-Hasan

    2014-05-01

    Objective/background In patients with spinal cord injury (SCI), SCI causes psychosocial complications that vary based on culture, conditions, and the amenities of each community. Health planners and social services should have full knowledge of these issues in order to plan schedules that address them. In this study, we aimed to understand the psychosocial problems of persons with SCI in Iran and to explore the requirements for minimizing these difficulties. Design This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Setting Brain and Spinal Cord Injury Research (BASIR) Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Participants One hundred nineteen persons with SCI referred to BASIR clinic to receive outpatient rehabilitation. Methods In this study, trained interviewers administered a questionnaire to the participants. The questionnaire consisted of socio-demographic variables and psychosocial questions about finances, employment, housing, education, and social communication problems. Results Psychosocial problems for persons with SCI are mainly associated with financial hardship due to unemployment and the high cost of living, followed by difficulties with transportation, house modification, education, marriage, social communication, sports, and entertainment. Psychological problems include sadness, depression, irritability/anger, suicidal thoughts, and a lack of self-confidence. The levels of the aforementioned problems differ with respect to sex. Conclusion Persons suffering from SCI can face some serious psychosocial problems that may vary according to sex. For example, transportation difficulties can lead to problems such as unsociability. After recognizing these problems, the next step would be providing services to facilitate a productive lifestyle, enhancing social communication and psychological health, and ultimately creating a higher quality of life. PMID:24621045

  9. Asthma Economic Costs in Adult Asthmatic Patients in Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    SHARIFI, Laleh; POURPAK, Zahra; FAZLOLLAHI, Mohammad Reza; BOKAIE, Saied; MOEZZI, Hamid Reza; KAZEMNEJAD, Anoushirvan; MOIN, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Background: High prevalence and increasing rate of asthmatic patients around the word witnesses the high burden of asthma. We have limited data on asthma burden and economic costs in Iran. This study aimed to find direct and indirect economic costs of asthma and their association with some background factors in one of the referral tertiary centers for adult patients with asthma. Methods: We surveyed asthma related economic costs of 197 adult patients who referred to Milad Hospital, Tehran, Iran from Jun 2007 to January 2010. The patients were followed up for a period of one-year ±1 month and asthma related costs and its control status were registered. Results: Patients were consisted of 125 (64.1%) females and 70 (35.9%) males. Total cost of asthma was 590.22 ±32.18 USD for one patient per one year, the cost of drug, paraclinic, doctor visit, hospitalization, emergency, transportation, and absent days were 327.02, 4.76, 35.44, 3.82, 0.26, 113.03, 105.89 USD respectively. Men showed a significant elevation in their total (P=0.009) and drug costs (P=0.028). In addition, we found significant differences between total asthma costs and asthma control status (P=0.002). Conclusions: According to the high proportion of asthma, related cost compare to Total Income of an Iranian family, the necessity of public coverage of health assurance is quite clear. We suggest that improving asthma management and accessibility to specialized treatment centers can result in decreasing asthma medication and transportation costs as major direct and indirect asthma related costs. PMID:26587495

  10. Structural Analysis of Active North Bozgush Fault Zone (NW Iran)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saber, R.; Isik, V.; Caglayan, A.

    2013-12-01

    NW Iran is one of the seismically active regions between Zagros Thrust Belt at the south and Caucasus at the north. Not only large magnitude historical earthquakes (Ms>7), but also 1987 Bozgush, 1997 Ardebil (Mw 6.1) and 2012 Ahar-Varzagan (Mw 6.4) earthquakes reveal that the region is seismically active. The North Bozgush Fault Zone (NBFZ) in this region has tens of kilometers in length and hundreds of meters in width. The zone has produced some large and destructive earthquakes (1593 M:6.1 and 1883 M:6.2). The NBFZ affects the Cenozoic units and along this zone Eocene units thrusted over Miocene and/or Plio-Quaternary sedimentary units. Together with morphologic features (stream offsets and alluvial fan movements) affecting the young unites reveal that the zone is active. The zone is mainly characterized by strike-slip faults with reverse component and reverse faults. Reverse faults striking N55°-85°E and dip of 40°-50° to the SW while strike-slip faults show right lateral slip with N60°-85°W and N60°-80°E directions. Our structural data analysis in NBFZ indicates that the axis direction of σ2 principal stress is vertical and the stress ratio (R) is 0.12. These results suggest that the tectonic regime along the North Bozgush Fault Zone is transpressive. Obtained other principal stresses (σ1, σ3) results are compatible with stress directions and GPS velocity suggested for NW Iran.

  11. HIV/AIDS policy agenda setting in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Khodayari - Zarnaq, Rahim; Ravaghi, Hamid; Mohammad Mosaddeghrad, Ali; Sedaghat, Abbas; Mohraz, Minoo

    2016-01-01

    Background: HIV/AIDS control are one of the most important goals of the health systems. The aim of this study was to determine how HIV/AIDS control was initiated among policy makers’ agenda setting in Iran. Methods: A qualitative research (semi-structured interview) was conducted using Kingdon’s framework (problem, policy and politics streams, and policy windows and policy entrepreneurs) to analysis HIV/AIDS agenda setting in Iran. Thirty-two policy makers, managers, specialists, and researchers were interviewed. Also, 30 policy documents were analyzed. Framework analysis method was used for data analysis. Results: the increase of HIV among Injecting drug users (IDUs) and Female Sex Workers (FSWs), lack of control of their high-risk behaviors, and exceeding the HIV into concentrated phase were examples of problem stream. Policy stream was evidence-based solutions that highlighted the need for changing strategies for dealing with such a problem and finding technically feasible and acceptable solutions. Iran’s participation in United Nations General Assembly special sessions on HIV/AIDS (UNGASS), the establishment of National AIDS Committee; highlighting AIDS control in Iran’s five years development program and the support of the judiciary system of harm reduction policies were examples of politics stream. Policy entrepreneurs linking these streams put the HIV/AIDS on the national agenda (policy windows) and provide their solutions. Conclusion: There were mutual interactions among these three streams and sometimes, they weakened or reinforced each other. Future studies are recommended to understand the interactions between these streams’ parts and perhaps develop further Kingdon’s framework, especially in the health sector. PMID:27579283

  12. Psychosocial outcomes following spinal cord injury in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Khazaeipour, Zahra; Norouzi-Javidan, Abbas; Kaveh, Mahboobeh; Khanzadeh Mehrabani, Fatemeh; Kazazi, Elham; Emami-Razavi, Seyed-Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Objective/background In patients with spinal cord injury (SCI), SCI causes psychosocial complications that vary based on culture, conditions, and the amenities of each community. Health planners and social services should have full knowledge of these issues in order to plan schedules that address them. In this study, we aimed to understand the psychosocial problems of persons with SCI in Iran and to explore the requirements for minimizing these difficulties. Design This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Setting Brain and Spinal Cord Injury Research (BASIR) Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Participants One hundred nineteen persons with SCI referred to BASIR clinic to receive outpatient rehabilitation. Methods In this study, trained interviewers administered a questionnaire to the participants. The questionnaire consisted of socio-demographic variables and psychosocial questions about finances, employment, housing, education, and social communication problems. Results Psychosocial problems for persons with SCI are mainly associated with financial hardship due to unemployment and the high cost of living, followed by difficulties with transportation, house modification, education, marriage, social communication, sports, and entertainment. Psychological problems include sadness, depression, irritability/anger, suicidal thoughts, and a lack of self-confidence. The levels of the aforementioned problems differ with respect to sex. Conclusion Persons suffering from SCI can face some serious psychosocial problems that may vary according to sex. For example, transportation difficulties can lead to problems such as unsociability. After recognizing these problems, the next step would be providing services to facilitate a productive lifestyle, enhancing social communication and psychological health, and ultimately creating a higher quality of life. PMID:24621045

  13. The clinical presentation of celiac disease: experiences from northeastern iran.

    PubMed

    Ganji, Azita; Esmaielzadeh, Abbas; Aafzal Aghayee, Mehdi; Goshayeshi, Ladan; Ghaffarzadegan, Kamran

    2014-04-01

    BACKGROUND This study aimed to explore demographic characteristics and clinical presentations of celiac disease (CD) in Northeastern Iran. METHODS This was a cross-sectional retrospective study of 193 adults with CD who presented to Mashhad University Gastroenterology Clinic between 2008 and 2013. Patient data that included mode of presentation and the presence of any concomitant illnesses were collected. Intestinal biopsy and serum anti-tissue transglutaminase (anti-tTG) were used for diagnosis. Mucosal lesions were classified according to modified Marsh classification. RESULTS Overall, 132 females and 61 males, with a mean age at diagnosis of 32.6 ± 13.2 years were included. The patient's chief complaints in order of decreasing frequency were dyspepsia (24.6%), diarrhea (20%), anemia (12.8%), and flatulence (7.2%). Bone disease was seen (osteopenia, osteoporosis) in 30% of patients. A positive family history of CD was found in 17.9% of cases. There were 64% who had serum anti-tTG >200 units/ml and 78% had a Marsh classification grade 3 on duodenal biopsy. The histology grade (Marsh) did not show any correlation with anti-tTG serum levels, age, body mass index (BMI) or hemoglobin levels. CONCLUSION In Northeastern Iran, CD was seen more commonly in females and with non-diarrheal presentations. Abdominal discomfort, anemia and bone disease were most common primary presentations in this area. Histology grade showed no significant correlation with level of anti-tTG, BMI or hemoglobin levels. We suggest screening for CD in unexplained abdominal discomfort, bone disease and anemia. PMID:24872868

  14. Occupational Stress and Coping Behaviours Among Dentists in Kerman, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Pouradeli, Shiva; Shahravan, Arash; Eskandarizdeh, Ali; Rafie, Forozan; Hashemipour, Maryam A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Recognising causes of stress can help prevent associated adverse effects. This study aimed to investigate causes of occupational stress and coping behaviours among general dentists in Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out from April to December 2014. A modified version of the Occupational Stress Indicator questionnaire was used to assess causes of stress and coping behaviours among 142 general dentists in Kerman, Iran. Results: A total of 93 dentists participated in the study (response rate: 65.5%). Of these, 58.9% reported often being stressed. The mean general stress score was 63.33 ± 19.99. The most common causes of stress were maintaining high levels of concentration while working (65.6%), time pressures (64.5%), concern over their ability to deliver dental services in future (60.2%) and rising costs (59.1%). No significant relationships between stress and gender, age, workplace or working hours per week were noted (P >0.05). However, there was a significant correlation between general stress scores and years of job experience (P = 0.05) and number of patients treated daily (P = 0.03). The most common methods for coping with stress were resting (71.0%), sports (45.2%) and entertainment (43.0%). Most dentists felt that stress management courses could help to reduce stress (89.7%). Conclusion: General dentists in Kerman were subject to many sources of stress in their workplaces, with significant relationships between stress scores and years of work experience and number of patients treated daily. Dentists should be encouraged to participate in stress management courses to help alleviate stress. PMID:27606115

  15. Public awareness and attitudes towards epilepsy in Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ghanean, Helia; Nojomi, Marzieh; Jacobsson, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Background Epilepsy is a prototypical, stigmatised disorder. Numerous studies have been conducted regarding the public perception of epilepsy, but they are primarily from high-income western countries; few studies have taken place in low- to middle-income countries with a traditional culture and a religious orientation. Objective The public knowledge and attitudes towards epilepsy in Tehran, Iran, is studied. Design A survey of 800 subjects ranging from 18 to 85 years was randomly chosen from households in Tehran in 2009. The questionnaire used was based on the Caveness and Gallup's studies conducted in the United States in 1949 and it has been used in numerous similar studies all over the world. The mean age of the participants was 37.5 years and 46.7% were female. Pearson's Chi-squared test was used for subgroup analyses. Results The majority of subjects cited brain disorders as a cause of epilepsy, while 17% indicated the will of God as the cause. Most individuals were willing to work with a person with epilepsy, allow their children to play with a child with epilepsy, and allow people with epilepsy to use public transportation (78–82%). However, only 28% were willing to accept the marriage of a family member to someone with epilepsy. Conclusion The knowledge and attitudes towards epilepsy are similar to those in Europe, with the exception of a much lower acceptance regarding marriage to a person with epilepsy. However, the low acceptance for marrying someone with epilepsy reveals the remaining misconceptions about the nature of epilepsy in Iran, despite the high educational level in the studied population. Therefore, informational efforts must be employed to change the perception of epilepsy. PMID:24314322

  16. Improving continuing medical education by enhancing interactivity: lessons from Iran

    PubMed Central

    FAGHIHI, SEYED ALIAKBAR; KHANKEH, HAMID REZA; HOSSEINI, SEYED JALIL; SOLTANI ARABSHAHI, SEYED KAMRAN; FAGHIH, ZAHRA; PARIKH, SAGAR V.; SHIRAZI, MANDANA

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Continuing Medical Education (CME) has been considered as a lifelong commitment for doctors to provide the optimal care for patients. Despite a long history of creating CME programs, outcomes are far from ideal. The present qualitative study aims to clarify the barriers affecting effectiveness of the CME programs in Iran based on the experiences of general practitioners. Methods Sixteen general practitioners were recruited to participate in in-depth interviews and field observations concerning experiences with CME. The study was performed using a qualitative content analysis method. The codes, categories and themes were explored through an inductive process in which the researchers moved from specific to general. Results The participants’ experiences identified a number of barriers, particularly insufficient interaction with the instructors; additional problems included the teachers’ use of an undifferentiated approach; unreal and abstract CME; and ignorance of the diverse reasons to participate in CME. Conclusion Based on the study results, there are multiple barriers to effective implementation of CME in Iran. The key barriers include insufficient interaction between the trainees and providers, which must be considered by other stakeholders and program designers. Such interactions would facilitate improved program design, invite more specific tailoring of the education to the participants, allow for more effective educational methods and set the stage for outcome evaluation from the learners actually applying their new knowledge in practice. Replication of these findings with another sample would improve confidence in these recommendations, but these findings are broadly consistent with findings in the educational literature on improving the efficacy of CME. PMID:27104199

  17. Magnetotelluric signature of anticlines in Iran's Sehqanat oil field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansoori, Isa; Oskooi, Behrooz; Pedersen, Laust B.

    2015-07-01

    The magnetotelluric (MT) method has proved to be an effective tool in hydrocarbon exploration especially in areas with geological structures/formations where seismic reflection provides neither good quality data nor images. The Sehqanat oil field located in the sedimentary zone of Zagros in SW of Iran is a typical example. It is covered by the high velocity and heterogeneous formation of Gachsaran, which is exposed at the surface and has a thickness varying from 500 m to more than 2 km in the region. Gachsaran is composed mainly of salt and evaporites overlying, as a cap rock, the Asmari limestone formation which is the main reservoir in all oil fields of Iran along the Zagros range. The main geological interface which is targeted to be imaged with the MT method is the contact between the highly conductive evaporites of the Gachsaran formation and the underlying more resistive carbonates of the Asmari formation. MT data at more than 600 stations along five parallel SW-NE profiles crossing the main geological trend of the study area and transient electromagnetic data over 400 stations to be used for static shift corrections of the MT data were available. Dimensionality and strike analysis of the MT data show dominant two-dimensional (2-D) conditions in almost all sites and periods. The 2-D resistivity models resolved the boundary between Gachsaran and Asmari formations as a transition zone from highly conductive to resistive structures. The Sehqanat anticline has also been delineated throughout the 2-D resistivity sections as a resistive dome-shaped body located in the middle part of the MT profiles. There is a considerable correlation between the 2-D resistivity models and the adjacent 2-D reflection seismic sections so that a more reliable interpretation on the hydrocarbon trap of the Sehqanat anticline can be obtained.

  18. High School Knowledge and Attitudes towards Thalassemia in Southeastern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Motaharitabar, Eisa; Erfannia, Leila; Dashipour, Alireza; Houshvar, Marziyeh

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Thalassemia (thal) is the most single gene disorders in southeast of Iran. About one quarter of total Iranian new thal cases were born in the Sistan and Balouchistan province so the aim of this study is to assess knowledge level and attitudes towards thal in high school students in Zahedan, capital of Sistan and Balouchistan province in Iran. Study design Cross-sectional descriptive survey. Methods This study was conducted on 762 Zahedan high school boys and girls students in 2009. The structured questionnaires were completed by students which consisted of three parts, namely demographic characteristics, knowledge part by 20 multiple choice questions and attitude part by 9 questions. Results The results indicated that only 14.7% students had good knowledge, good knowledge towards thal was 16.2% in boys and 29.1% in girls (P-value<0.001), positive attitude was 76.7% in boys and 84.7% in girls (P-value<0.029). Negative attitude in students who were born in villages and cities were 33.3% and 20.7% respectively (P-value=0.04). Good knowledge level in experimental field studied was between 2-4-fold more than other field students. Students in the last year high school had more knowledge and more positive attitude. Students’ knowledge score had no significant relationship with father education level (P-value=0.11) but had considerable difference with mother educational level (P-value=0.03). Conclusions It is concluded that long term and target based programs are suggested for high school students and local population of Sistan and Balouchistan where the trend of family marriages is quite high. These programs would impart valuable education and improve knowledge of people towards thal being couples in pre-marriage period and then after becoming parents thereby reducing the effects of disease. PMID:24505548

  19. Gastroenterology and Hepatology Training in the Islamic Republic of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Saberifiroozi, M; Abedian, S; Pourshams, A; Mohamadnejad, M

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Training in internal medicine has significantly evolved alongside the development of science, technology and new facilities during the past fifty years. After the specialty of internal medicine, there are multiple subspecialty training programs which have started since 1985 in the Islamic Republic of Iran. In this manuscript we want to define the characteristics of the gastroenterology subspecialty training program in our country. METHODS The characteristics of approved gastroenterology training centers were gathered through a questionnaire. The questionnaire was consisted; the establishment date, the number and academic rank of trainers, the number of trainees, hospital beds, the number and types of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in a year, the characteristics of training programs and their curriculum composition. The collected data was discussed and revised in a focused group of gastroenterologists from training centers and the board members of Iranian Association of Gastroenterology and Hepatology (IAGH). RESULTS There are 11 training centers with 94 trainers and 65 trainees, with a ratio of trainers to trainees of 1.36. Fifty four percent of trainers are assistant professor. Yearly, 36 new fellows are admitted. Four centers have adequate facilities for training in advanced gastroenterology, and in three centers there are facilities for liver transplantation. The duration of training in internal medicine is four years, whereas in gastroenterology it is two years. The admission for this subspecialty is not university based and with other subspecialty programs, there is a national entrance examination. CONCLUSION There are adequate well known training centers with a suitable ratio of trainer to trainee in the Islamic Republic of Iran. The duration of the GI fellowship is short and implementation of post subspecialty programs for completing the required capabilities of fellows is necessary. The capacity of fellowship admission should be revised

  20. Breaching confidentiality: medical mandatory reporting laws in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Milanifar, Alireza; Larijani, Bagher; Paykarzadeh, Parvaneh; Ashtari, Golanna; Mehdi Akhondi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Medical ethics is a realm where four important subjects of philosophy, medicine, theology and law are covered. Physicians and philosophers cooperation in this area will have great efficiency in the respective ethical rules formation. In addition to respect the autonomy of the patient, physician’s obligation is to ensure that the medical intervention has benefit for the patient and the harm is minimal. There is an obvious conflict between duty of confidentiality and duty of mandatory reporting. Professional confidentiality is one of the basic components in building a constant physician-patient relationship which nowadays, beside the novelty, it is the subject of discussion. Legal obligation of confidentiality is not absolute. In physician-patient relationship, keeping patient’s secrets and maintaining confidentiality is a legal and ethical duty, and disclosure of such secrets is mainly through specific statutes. Thus, there are a number of situations where breach of confidentiality is permitted in different legal systems. One of the situations where breaching confidentiality is permitted is the medical mandatory reporting to the relevant authority which is in accordance with many countries’ legal systems. Some situations are considered in many countries legal systems’ such as notification of births and deaths, infectious diseases, child abuse, sport and relevant events, medical errors, drug side effects and dangerous pregnancies. In this paper, we will examine and discuss medical mandatory reporting and its ethical and legal aspects in the judicial and legal system of Iran and few other countries. Finally we will suggest making Medical Mandatory Reporting Law in Iran. PMID:25512832