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Sample records for iranian miniature reactor

  1. Evaluation of Miniaturized Infrared Sensors for Process Control of the Palladium Membrane Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Lascola, R. J.; Howard, D. W.

    2005-07-31

    We have tested the suitability of a miniaturized infrared sensor for measurements of CO and H{sub 2}O in the inlet stream to the Palladium Membrane Reactor (PMR). We demonstrated that both analytes can be measured with absolute accuracies of 2-4% at the process inlet conditions of 120-140 C and approximately 1 atm of each gas. This accuracy must be improved to 1-1.5% for effective PMR process control. The use of a reference detector and independent temperature and pressure measurements to correct the raw signals will improve the accuracy to a level that will approach, if not meet, this goal. With appropriate bandpass filters, the infrared sensors may be used for other gas analysis applications.

  2. Neutron energy spectrum adjustment using deposited metal films on Teflon in the miniature neutron source reactor.

    PubMed

    Nassan, L; Abdallah, B; Omar, H; Sarheel, A; Alsomel, N; Ghazi, N

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this article was on the experimental estimation of the neutron energy spectrum in the inner irradiation site of the miniature neutron source reactor (MNSR), using, for the first time, a selected set of deposited metal films on Teflon (DMFTs) neutron detectors. Gold, copper, zinc, titanium, aluminum, nickel, silver, and chromium were selected because of the dependence of their neutron cross-sections on neutron energy. Emphasis was placed on the usability of this new type of neutron detectors in the total neutron energy spectrum adjustment. The measured saturation activities per target nucleus values of the DMFTs, and the calculated neutron spectrum in the inner irradiation site using the MCNP-4C code were used as an input for the STAY'SL computer code during the adjustment procedure. The agreement between the numerically calculated and experimentally adjusted spectra results was discussed. PMID:26562448

  3. Measurement of photon flux with a miniature gas ionization chamber in a Material Testing Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fourmentel, D.; Filliatre, P.; Villard, J. F.; Lyoussi, A.; Reynard-Carette, C.; Carcreff, H.

    2013-10-01

    Nuclear heating measurements in Material Testing Reactors (MTR) are crucial for the design of the experimental devices and the prediction of the temperature of the hosted samples. Nuclear heating in MTR materials (except fuel) is mainly due to the energy deposition by the photon flux. Therefore, the photon flux is a key input parameter for the computer codes which simulate nuclear heating and temperature reached by samples/devices under irradiation. In the Jules Horowitz MTR under construction at the CEA Cadarache, the maximal expected nuclear heating levels will be about 15 to 18 W g-1 and it will be necessary to assess this parameter with the best accuracy. An experiment was performed at the OSIRIS reactor to combine neutron flux, photon flux and nuclear heating measurements to improve the knowledge of the nuclear heating in MTR. There are few appropriate sensors for selective measurement of the photon flux in MTR even if studies and developments are ongoing. An experiment, called CARMEN-1, was conducted at the OSIRIS MTR and we used in particular a gas ionization chamber based on miniature fission chamber design to measure the photon flux. In this paper, we detail Monte-Carlo simulations to analyze the photon fluxes with ionization chamber measurements and we compare the photon flux calculations to the nuclear heating measurements. These results show a good accordance between photon flux measurements and nuclear heating measurement and allow improving the knowledge of these parameters.

  4. Measurements of miniature ionization chamber currents in the JSI TRIGA Mark II reactor demonstrate the importance of the delayed contribution to the photon field in nuclear reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radulović, Vladimir; Fourmentel, Damien; Barbot, Loïc; Villard, Jean-François; Kaiba, Tanja; Gašper, Žerovnik; Snoj, Luka

    2015-12-01

    The characterization of experimental locations of a research nuclear reactor implies the determination of neutron and photon flux levels within, with the best achievable accuracy. In nuclear reactors, photon fluxes are commonly calculated by Monte Carlo simulations but rarely measured on-line. In this context, experiments were conducted with a miniature gas ionization chamber (MIC) based on miniature fission chamber mechanical parts, recently developed by the CEA (French Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies Commission) irradiated in the core of the Jožef Stefan Institute TRIGA Mark II reactor in Ljubljana, Slovenia. The aim of the study was to compare the measured MIC currents with calculated currents based on simulations with the MCNP6 code. A discrepancy of around 50% was observed between the measured and the calculated currents; in the latter taking into consideration only the prompt photon field. Further experimental measurements of MIC currents following reactor SCRAMs (reactor shutdown with rapid insertions of control rods) provide evidence that over 30% of the total measured signal is due to the delayed photon field, originating from fission and activation products, which are untreated in the calculations. In the comparison between the measured and calculated values, these findings imply an overall discrepancy of less than 20% of the total signal which is still unexplained.

  5. Liquid Marbles Based on Magnetic Upconversion Nanoparticles as Magnetically and Optically Responsive Miniature Reactors for Photocatalysis and Photodynamic Therapy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Zhu, Lin; Chen, Jian-Feng; Dai, Liming

    2016-08-26

    Magnetic liquid marbles have recently attracted extensive attention for various potential applications. However, conventional liquid marbles based on iron oxide nanoparticles are opaque and inadequate for photo-related applications. Herein, we report the first development of liquid marbles coated with magnetic lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) that can convert near-infrared light into visible light. Apart from their excellent magnetic and mechanical properties, which are attractive for repeatable tip opening and magnetically directed movements, the resultant UCNP-based liquid marbles can act as ideal miniature reactors for photodynamic therapy of cancer cells. This work opens new ways for the development of liquid marbles, and shows great promise for liquid marbles based on UCNPs to be used in a large variety of potential applications, such as photodynamic therapy for accelerated drug screening, magnetically guided controlled drug delivery and release, and multifunctional actuation. PMID:27487265

  6. Controller design and experiment for autothermal reforming of methanol in miniature reactor.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jiangang; Zhuang, Hong; Yang, Qinmin; Wang, Xuefei; Zheng, Jianfeng; Chen, Jinshui; Sun, Youxian

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, a miniature methanol fuel processor and its controller design is introduced for onboard hydrogen production. The hydrogen is generated via autothermal reforming of methanol. The control scheme consists of a hydrogen flow rate controller and a reforming temperature controller. To deal with uncertain system dynamics and external disturbance, an adaptive sliding mode control algorithm is adopted as the hydrogen flow rate controller for regulating hydrogen flow rate by manipulating methanol flow rate. Additionally, a high-gain observer is implemented to estimate the unmeasurable system state. The stability of closed-loop system is guaranteed by standard Lyapunov analysis. Furthermore, a variable ratio control law is employed as the reforming temperature controller to achieve steady reforming temperature by adjusting the reforming air flow rate. Finally, the effectiveness of the entire system is testified by experimental means. PMID:24398056

  7. Miniaturization in Biocatalysis

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    The use of biocatalysts for the production of both consumer goods and building blocks for chemical synthesis is consistently gaining relevance. A significant contribution for recent advances towards further implementation of enzymes and whole cells is related to the developments in miniature reactor technology and insights into flow behavior. Due to the high level of parallelization and reduced requirements of chemicals, intensive screening of biocatalysts and process variables has become more feasible and reproducibility of the bioconversion processes has been substantially improved. The present work aims to provide an overview of the applications of miniaturized reactors in bioconversion processes, considering multi-well plates and microfluidic devices, update information on the engineering characterization of the hardware used, and present perspective developments in this area of research. PMID:20479988

  8. Miniature Earthmover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    International Machinery Corporation (IMC) developed a miniature earthmover, the 1/8 scale Caterpillar D11N Track-type Tractor, with trademark product approval and manufacturing/marketing license from Caterpillar, Inc. Through Marshall Space Flight Center assistance, the company has acquired infrared remote control technology, originally developed for space exploration. The technology is necessary for exports because of varying restrictions on radio frequency in foreign countries. The Cat D11N weighs only 340 pounds and has the world's first miniature industrial internal combustion engine. The earthmover's uses include mining, construction and demolition work, and hazardous environment work. IMC also has designs of various products for military use and other Caterpillar replicas.

  9. Multiple Miniature Avionic Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rye, Jeffrey M. (Inventor); Dorneich, Michael C. (Inventor); Gannon, Aaron J. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A display screen for displaying multiple sets of information is provided. In one embodiment, an aviation display screen includes a main window and a plurality of miniature windows. The main window is adapted to illustrate one set of information. Each miniature window is adapted to display a set of avionic information. The avionic display is further adapted to toggle a select set of avionic information in one of the miniature windows into the main window.

  10. Miniature propulsion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, John G.

    1992-07-01

    Miniature solenoid valves, check valves and a hydrazine gas generator typify the miniaturization used in the liquid propulsion system for the Army Light Weight Exo-Atmospheric Projectile (LEAP). The pressure control subsystem uses a solenoid valve weighing 24 grams to control flow of helium to pressurize the propellant tanks. The attitude control subsystem uses a gas generator weighing 71 grams to produce decomposed hydrazine as the gaseous propellant for miniature 1 lbf ACS thrusters weighing 5.4 grams. The successful use of these miniature components in development tests and a hover test of the LEAP is described.

  11. Iranian Library Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, John F.

    1973-01-01

    The development of library education in Iran is presented in some detail. In addition, the origins, purposes, operations and services of the Iranian Documentation Centre and the Tehran Book Processing Centre are described. (7 references) (KE)

  12. Growing Isolation Frustrates Iranian Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labi, Aisha

    2008-01-01

    Before the Islamic Revolution of 1979, Iranian graduate students and academics frequently studied or worked in the United States. That year, for example, the 51,300 Iranian students in the United States were the single largest group of foreign students in the country. Many, if not most, Iranian professors received their doctorates from American…

  13. Reflections on Miniature Golf.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Nancy Norem; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes a transformational geometry project in which groups of students explore symmetry, reflections, translations, rotations, and dilations to design and create one hole of miniature golf large enough to play on. Includes unit plan for transformational geometry. (MKR)

  14. Miniature TV Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Originally devised to observe Saturn stage separation during Apollo flights, Marshall Space Flight Center's Miniature Television Camera, measuring only 4 x 3 x 1 1/2 inches, quickly made its way to the commercial telecommunications market.

  15. Miniature oxygen resuscitator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, G.; Teegen, J. T.; Waddell, H.

    1969-01-01

    Miniature, portable resuscitation system is used during evacuation of patients to medical facilities. A carrying case contains a modified resuscitator head, cylinder of oxygen, two-stage oxygen regulator, low pressure tube, and a mask for mouth and nose.

  16. of Iranian EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rashidi, Nasser; Mortazavi, Fariba

    2012-01-01

    This research investigated the relationship between vocabulary learning strategies and vocabulary size of Iranian university EFL students. Participants in the present study were a total of 67 EFL learners, studying at Shiraz Azad University as senior English Translation students. The instruments utilized for data collection were three tests: A…

  17. Miniaturized handheld hyperspectral imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Huawen; Haibach, Frederick G.; Bergles, Eric; Qian, Jack; Zhang, Charlie; Yang, William

    2014-05-01

    A miniaturized hyperspectral imager is enabled with image sensor integrated with dispersing elements in a very compact form factor, removing the need for expensive, moving, bulky and complex optics that have been used in conventional hyperspectral imagers for decades. The result is a handheld spectral imager that can be installed on miniature UAV drones or conveyor belts in production lines. Eventually, small handhelds can be adapted for use in outpatient medical clinics for point-of-care diagnostics and other in-field applications.

  18. Miniature Centrifugal Compressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sixsmith, Herbert

    1989-01-01

    Miniature turbocompressor designed for reliability and long life. Cryogenic system includes compressor, turboexpander, and heat exchanger provides 5 W of refrigeration at 70 K from 150 W input power. Design speed of machine 510,000 rpm. Compressor has gas-lubricated journal bearings and magnetic thrust bearing. When compressor runs no bearing contact and no wear.

  19. Throw a Miniature Vase

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapiro, Maurice

    1977-01-01

    A direct correlation exists between the acquisition of skills on the potter's wheel and the vertical dimension of the finished pot. Ability equals height. Overlooked somewhere in the search for acquiring technical facility and a means of demonstrating it, is the fascinating world of miniature pottery. Describes the mechanics peculiar to small…

  20. Chemical Society Reinstates Iranian Chemists; Iranian-American Scholar Arrested

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bollag, Burton

    2007-01-01

    The frosty relationship between the United States and Iran has created a chill in many areas of scholarly endeavor. One resulting battle, over whether Iranian scholars can belong to the American Chemical Society, has been largely resolved. But a new imbroglio looms with the arrest of a prominent U.S.-Iranian scholar who was visiting Tehran. The…

  1. REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Szilard, L.

    1963-09-10

    A breeder reactor is described, including a mass of fissionable material that is less than critical with respect to unmoderated neutrons and greater than critical with respect to neutrons of average energies substantially greater than thermal, a coolant selected from sodium or sodium--potassium alloys, a control liquid selected from lead or lead--bismuth alloys, and means for varying the quantity of control liquid in the reactor. (AEC)

  2. REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Christy, R.F.

    1961-07-25

    A means is described for co-relating the essential physical requirements of a fission chain reaction in order that practical, compact, and easily controllable reactors can be built. These objects are obtained by employing a composition of fissionsble isotope and moderator in fluid form in which the amount of fissionsble isotcpe present governs the reaction. The size of the reactor is no longer a critical factor, the new criterion being the concentration of the fissionable isotope.

  3. Miniaturized Environmental Monitoring Instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    C. B. Freidhoff

    1997-09-01

    The objective of the Mass Spectrograph on a Chip (MSOC) program is the development of a miniature, multi-species gas sensor fabricated using silicon micromachining technology which will be orders of magnitude smaller and lower power consumption than a conventional mass spectrometer. The sensing and discrimination of this gas sensor are based on an ionic mass spectrograph, using magnetic and/or electrostatic fields. The fields cause a spatial separation of the ions according to their respective mass-to-charge ratio. The fabrication of this device involves the combination of microelectronics with micromechanically built sensors and, ultimately, vacuum pumps. The prototype of a chemical sensor would revolutionize the method of performing environmental monitoring for both commercial and government applications. The portable unit decided upon was the miniaturized gas chromatograph with a mass spectrometer detector, referred to as a GC/MS in the analytical marketplace.

  4. Miniature ceramic fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Lessing, Paul A.; Zuppero, Anthony C.

    1997-06-24

    A miniature power source assembly capable of providing portable electricity is provided. A preferred embodiment of the power source assembly employing a fuel tank, fuel pump and control, air pump, heat management system, power chamber, power conditioning and power storage. The power chamber utilizes a ceramic fuel cell to produce the electricity. Incoming hydro carbon fuel is automatically reformed within the power chamber. Electrochemical combustion of hydrogen then produces electricity.

  5. Miniature implantable ultrasonic echosonometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojima, G. K. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A miniature echosonometer adapted for implantation in the interior of an animal for imaging the internal structure of a organ, tissue or vessel is presented. The echosonometer includes a receiver/transmitter circuit which is coupled to an ultrasonic transducer. Power is coupled to the echosonometer by electromagnetic induction through the animal's skin. Imaging signals from the echosonometer are electromagnetically transmitted through the animal's skin to an external readout apparatus.

  6. A miniaturized applanation tonometer.

    PubMed

    Ma, J G; Xu, D Z

    1999-08-01

    A miniaturized hand-held applanation tonometer is introduced, in which a special cone prism is employed to be an applanation probe to flatten the eye vertically. The self-weight of the probe is just the applanation force, and the applanation area of the ocular cornea is monitored by the optoelectronic signal. The preliminary test demonstrates its good clinical acceptance and its accuracy meeting clinical needs. PMID:10431459

  7. Miniature multichannel biotelemeter system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carraway, J. B.; Sumida, J. T. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A miniature multichannel biotelemeter system is described. The system includes a transmitter where signals from different sources are sampled to produce a wavetrain of pulses. The transmitter also separates signals by sync pulses. The pulses amplitude modulate a radio frequency carrier which is received at a receiver unit. There the sync pulses are detected by a demultiplexer which routes the pulses from each different source to a separate output channel where the pulses are used to reconstruct the signals from the particular source.

  8. Miniaturizing RFID for magnamosis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hao; Chen, Shijie; Kish, Shad; Loh, Lokkee; Zhang, Junmin; Zhang, Xiaorong; Kwiat, Dillon; Harrison, Michael; Roy, Shuvo

    2014-01-01

    Anastomosis is a common surgical procedure using staples or sutures in an open or laparoscopic surgery. A more effective and much less invasive alternative is to apply the mechanical pressure on the tissue over a few days [1]. Since the pressure is produced by the attractive force between two permanent magnets, the procedure is called magnamosis[1]. To ensure the two magnets are perfectly aligned during the surgery, a miniaturized batteryless Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) tag is developed to wirelessly telemeter the status of a pressure sensitive mechanical switch. Using the multi-layer circular spiral coil design, the diameter of the RFID tag is shrunk to 10, 15, 19 and 27 mm to support the magnamosis for children as well as adults. With the impedance matching network, the operating distance of these four RFID tags are longer than 10 cm in a 20 × 22 cm(2) area, even when the tag's normal direction is 45° off the antenna's normal direction. Measurement results also indicate that there is no noticeable degradation on the operating distance when the tag is immersed in saline or placed next to the rare-earth magnet. The miniaturized RFID tag presented in this paper is able to support the magnamosis and other medical applications that require the miniaturized RFID tag. PMID:25570040

  9. REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Roman, W.G.

    1961-06-27

    A pressurized water reactor in which automatic control is achieved by varying the average density of the liquid moderator-cooiant is patented. Density is controlled by the temperature and power level of the reactor ftself. This control can be effected by the use of either plate, pellet, or tubular fuel elements. The fuel elements are disposed between upper and lower coolant plenum chambers and are designed to permit unrestricted coolant flow. The control chamber has an inlet opening communicating with the lower coolant plenum chamber and a restricted vapor vent communicating with the upper coolant plenum chamber. Thus, a variation in temperature of the fuel elements will cause a variation in the average moderator density in the chamber which directly affects the power level of the reactor.

  10. REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Spitzer, L. Jr.

    1961-10-01

    Thermonuclear reactors, methods, and apparatus are described for controlling and confining high temperature plasma. Main axial confining coils in combination with helical windings provide a rotational transform that avoids the necessity of a figure-eight shaped reactor tube. The helical windings provide a multipolar helical magnetic field transverse to the axis of the main axial confining coils so as to improve the effectiveness of the confining field by counteracting the tendency of the more central lines of force in the stellarator tube to exchange positions with the magnetic lines of force nearer the walls of the tube. (AEC)

  11. Mars Miniature Science Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Soon Sam; Hayati, Samad; Lavery, David; McBrid, Karen

    2006-01-01

    For robotic Mars missions, all the science information is gathered through on-board miniature instruments that have been developed through many years of R&D. Compared to laboratory counterparts, the rover instruments require miniaturization, such as low mass (1-2 kg), low power (> 10 W) and compact (1-2 liter), yet with comparable sensitivity. Since early 1990's, NASA recognized the need for the miniature instruments and launched several instrument R&D programs, e.g., PIDDP (Planetary Instrument Definition and Development). However, until 1998, most of the instrument R&D programs supported only up to a breadboard level (TRL 3, 4) and there is a need to carry such instruments to flight qualifiable status (TU 5, 6) to respond to flight AOs (Announcement of Opportunity). Most of flight AOs have only limited time and financial resources, and can not afford such instrument development processes. To bridge the gap between instrument R&D programs and the flight instrument needs, NASA's Mars Technology Program (MTP) created advanced instrumentation program, Mars Instrument Development Project (MIDP). MIDP candidate instruments are selected through NASA Research Announcement (NRA) process [l]. For example, MIDP 161998-2000) selected and developed 10 instruments, MIDP II (2003-2005) 16 instruments, and MIDP III (2004-2006) II instruments.Working with PIs, JPL has been managing the MIDP tasks since September 1998. All the instruments being developed under MIDP have been selected through a highly competitive NRA process, and employ state-of-the-art technology. So far, four MIDP funded instruments have been selected by two Mars missions (these instruments have further been discussed in this paper).

  12. Miniature Laser Magnetometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slocum, Robert; Brown, Andy

    2011-01-01

    A conceptual design has been developed for a miniature laser magnetometer (MLM) that will measure the scalar magnitude and vector components of near-Earth magnetic fields. The MLM incorporates a number of technical innovations to achieve high-accuracy and high-resolution performance while significantly reducing the size of the laser-pumped helium magnetometer for use on small satellites and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). and electronics sections that has the capability of measuring both the scalar magnetic field magnitude and the vector magnetic field components. Further more, the high-accuracy scalar measurements are used to calibrate and correct the vector component measurements in order to achieve superior vector accuracy and stability. The correction algorithm applied to the vector components for calibration and the same cell for vector and scalar measurements are major innovations. The separate sensor and electronics section of the MLM instrument allow the sensor to be installed on a boom or otherwise located away from electronics and other noisy magnetic components. The MLM s miniaturization will be accomplished through the use of advanced miniaturized components and packaging methods for the MLM sensor and electronics. The MLM conceptual design includes three key innovations. The first is a new non-magnetic laser package that will allow the placement of the laser pump source near the helium cell sensing elements. The second innovation is the design of compact, nested, triaxial Braunbek coils used in the vector measurements that reduce the coil size by a factor of two compared to existing Helmholtz coils with similar field-generation performance. The third innovation is a compact sensor design that reduces the sensor volume by a factor of eight compared to MLM s predecessor.

  13. Miniature biaxial strain transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, I. S. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A reusable miniature strain transducer for use in the measurement of static or quasi-static, high level, biaxial strain on the surface of test specimens or structures was studied. Two cantilever arms, constructed by machining the material to appropriate flexibility, are self-aligning and constitute the transducing elements of the device. Used in conjunction with strain gages, the device enables testing beyond normal gage limits for high strains and number of load cycles. The device does not require conversion computations since the electrical output of the strain gages is directly proportional to the strain measured.

  14. Miniaturized radiation chirper

    DOEpatents

    Umbarger, C. John; Wolf, Michael A.

    1980-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a miniaturized radiation chirper for use with a small battery supplying on the order of 5 volts. A poor quality CdTe crystal which is not necessarily suitable for high resolution gamma ray spectroscopy is incorporated with appropriate electronics so that the chirper emits an audible noise at a rate that is proportional to radiation exposure level. The chirper is intended to serve as a personnel radiation warning device that utilizes new and novel electronics with a novel detector, a CdTe crystal. The resultant device is much smaller and has much longer battery life than existing chirpers.

  15. Miniature electrical connector

    DOEpatents

    Casper, Robert F.

    1976-01-01

    A miniature coaxial cable electrical connector includes an annular compressible gasket in a receptacle member, the gasket having a generally triangular cross section resiliently engaging and encircling a conically tapered outer surface of a plug member to create an elongated current leakage path at their interface; means for preventing rotation of the plug relative to the receptacle; a metal sleeve forming a portion of the receptacle and encircling the plug member when interconnected; and a split ring in the plug having outwardly and rearwardly projecting fingers spaced from and encircling a portion of a coaxial cable and engageable with the metal sleeve to interlock the receptacle and plug.

  16. REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Spitzer, L. Jr.

    1962-01-01

    The system conteraplates ohmically heating a gas to high temperatures such as are useful in thermonuclear reactors of the stellarator class. To this end the gas is ionized and an electric current is applied to the ionized gas ohmically to heat the gas while the ionized gas is confined to a central portion of a reaction chamber. Additionally, means are provided for pumping impurities from the gas and for further heating the gas. (AEC)

  17. Perspectives on Simulation and Miniaturization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCluskey, Michael R.

    Training applications of simulation and miniaturization are examined, as are areas where research is needed to develop cost-effectiveness simulation methodologies for training. In order for simulation and miniaturization techniques to reach maximum levels of effectiveness, systems analysis is needed to define physical and psychological dimensions,…

  18. 31 CFR 560.518 - Transactions in Iranian-origin and Iranian Government property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transactions in Iranian-origin and... Iranian-origin and Iranian Government property. (a) Except for transactions involving the Government of Iran, all domestic transactions with respect to Iranian-origin goods located in the United States...

  19. Miniature Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Small Business Innovation Research contracts from Goddard Space Flight Center to Thermacore Inc. have fostered the company work on devices tagged "heat pipes" for space application. To control the extreme temperature ranges in space, heat pipes are important to spacecraft. The problem was to maintain an 8-watt central processing unit (CPU) at less than 90 C in a notebook computer using no power, with very little space available and without using forced convection. Thermacore's answer was in the design of a powder metal wick that transfers CPU heat from a tightly confined spot to an area near available air flow. The heat pipe technology permits a notebook computer to be operated in any position without loss of performance. Miniature heat pipe technology has successfully been applied, such as in Pentium Processor notebook computers. The company expects its heat pipes to accommodate desktop computers as well. Cellular phones, camcorders, and other hand-held electronics are forsible applications for heat pipes.

  20. Miniature drag force anemometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krause, L. N.; Fralick, G. C.

    1977-01-01

    A miniature drag force anemometer is described which is capable of measuring dynamic velocity head and flow direction. The anemometer consists of a silicon cantilevered beam 2.5 mm long, 1.5 mm wide, and 0.25 mm thick with an integrated diffused strain gage bridge, located at the base of the beam, as the force measuring element. The dynamics of the beam are like that of a second order system with a natural frequency of about 42 kHz and a damping coefficient of 0.007. The anemometer can be used in both forward and reversed flow. Measured flow characteristics up to Mach 0.6 are presented along with application examples including turbulence measurements.

  1. Miniature, ruggedized data collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Scott; Calcutt, Wade; Knobler, Ron; Jones, Barry; Klug, Robert

    2009-05-01

    McQ has developed a miniaturized, programmable, ruggedized data collector intended for use in weapon testing or data collection exercises that impose severe stresses on devices under test. The recorder is designed to survive these stresses which include acceleration and shock levels up to 100,000 G. The collector acquires and stores up to four channels of signal data to nonvolatile memory for later retrieval by a user. It is small (< 7 in3), light weight (< 1 lb), and can operate from various battery chemistries. A built-in menuing system, accessible via a USB interface, allows the user to configure parameters of the recorder operation, such as channel gain, filtering, and signal offsets, and also to retrieve recorded data for analysis. An overview of the collector, its features, performance, and potential uses, is presented.

  2. Miniature spectrally selective dosimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, R. R.; Macconochie, I. O.; Poole, B. D., Jr. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A miniature spectrally selective dosimeter capable of measuring selected bandwidths of radiation exposure on small mobile areas is described. This is achieved by the combination of photovoltaic detectors, electrochemical integrators (E-cells) and filters in a small compact case which can be easily attached in close proximity to and substantially parallel to the surface being measured. In one embodiment two photovoltaic detectors, two E-cells, and three filters are packaged in a small case with attaching means consisting of a safety pin. In another embodiment, two detectors, one E-cell, three filters are packaged in a small case with attaching means consisting of a clip to clip over a side piece of an eye glass frame.

  3. Miniature Latching Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, A. David; Benson, Glendon M.

    2008-01-01

    A miniature latching valve has been invented to satisfy a need for an electrically controllable on/off pneumatic valve that is lightweight and compact and remains in the most recently commanded open or closed state when power is not supplied. The valve includes a poppet that is moved into or out of contact with a seat to effect closure or opening, respectively, of the flow path. Motion of the poppet is initiated by electrical heating of one of two opposing pairs of nickel/titanium shape-memory alloy (SMA) wires above their transition temperature: heated wires contract to their remembered length, applying tension to pull the poppet toward or away from the seat. A latch consisting mainly of a bistable Belleville washer (a conical spring) made of a hardened stainless steel operates between two stable positions corresponding to the fully closed or fully open state, holding the poppet in one of these positions when power is not applied to either pair of SMA wires. To obtain maximum actuation force and displacement, the SMA wires must be kept in tension. The mounting fixtures at the ends of the wires must support large tensile stresses without creating stress concentrations that would limit the fatigue lives of the wires. An earlier design provided for each wire to be crimped in a conical opening with a conical steel ferrule that was swaged into the opening to produce a large, uniformly distributed holding force. In a subsequent design, the conical ferrule was replaced with a larger crimped cylindrical ferrule depicted in the figure. A major problem in designing the valve was to protect the SMA wires from a bake-out temperature of 300 C. The problem was solved by incorporating the SMA wires into an actuator module that is inserted into a barrel of the valve body and is held in place by miniature clip rings.

  4. Reactor

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Robert M.

    1976-10-05

    1. A neutronic reactor having a moderator, coolant tubes traversing the moderator from an inlet end to an outlet end, bodies of material fissionable by neutrons of thermal energy disposed within the coolant tubes, and means for circulating water through said coolant tubes characterized by the improved construction wherein the coolant tubes are constructed of aluminum having an outer diameter of 1.729 inches and a wall thickness of 0.059 inch, and the means for circulating a liquid coolant through the tubes includes a source of water at a pressure of approximately 350 pounds per square inch connected to the inlet end of the tubes, and said construction including a pressure reducing orifice disposed at the inlet ends of the tubes reducing the pressure of the water by approximately 150 pounds per square inch.

  5. 31 CFR 560.320 - Iranian accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Iranian accounts. 560.320 Section 560.320 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 560.320 Iranian accounts. The term Iranian accounts means accounts of persons who are...

  6. 31 CFR 560.320 - Iranian accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Iranian accounts. 560.320 Section 560.320 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 560.320 Iranian accounts. The term Iranian accounts means accounts of persons who are...

  7. Producing miniature threads. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gillespie, L.K.; Robb, J.M.

    1981-11-01

    Miniature precision actuators, timers, and switches typically utilize miniature threads to provide convenient assembly, disassembly and adjustment. Thread rolling provides high-quality external threads with greater strength and lower cost than other thread-producing techniques. Tap breakage is a significant problem when 0.5 and 0.6 Unified National Miniature (UNM) threads must be produced in hard materials such as SAE K95100 high-permeability magnetic steel. Aluminum parts can be tapped with no difficulty in these sizes. Stainless steel 0.5 UNM screws break at loads of 21 lb (53 N). Thread failure occurs at thread heights of 62% full thread or lower.

  8. Miniature electron microscopes for lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feinerman, Alan D.; Crewe, David A.; Perng, Dung-Ching; Spindt, Capp A.; Schwoebel, Paul R.; Crewe, Albert V.

    1994-05-01

    Two inexpensive and extremely accurate methods for fabricating miniature 10 - 50 kV and 0.5 - 10 kV electron beam columns have been developed: `slicing,' and `stacking.' Two or three miniature columns could be used to perform a 20 nm or better alignment of an x-ray mask to a substrate. An array of miniature columns could be used for rapid wafer inspection and high throughput electron beam lithography. The column fabrication methods combine the precision of semiconductor processing and fiber optic technologies to create macroscopic structures consisting of charged particle sources, deflecting and focusing electrodes, and detectors. The overall performance of the miniature column also depends on the emission characteristics of the micromachined electron source which is currently being investigated.

  9. Summary of Miniature NMR Development

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, Gennady; Feinerman, Alan

    2000-12-31

    The effort in this project has been in 3 distinct directions: (1) First, they focused on development of miniature microfabricated micro-coil NMR detectors with maximum Signal-to-Noise (SNR) ratio. (2) Secondly, they focused on design of miniature micro-coil NMR detectors that have minimal effect on the NMR spectrum distortions. (3) Lastly they focused on the development of a permanent magnet capable of generating fields on the order of 1 Tesla with better than 10 ppm uniformity.

  10. Miniature Chemical Sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew C. R. Pipino

    2004-12-13

    A new chemical detection technology has been realized that addresses DOE environmental management needs. The new technology is based on a variant of the sensitive optical absorption technique, cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS). Termed evanescent-wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy (EW-CRDS), the technology employs a miniature solid-state optical resonator having an extremely high Q-factor as the sensing element, where the high-Q is achieved by using ultra-low-attenuation optical materials, ultra-smooth surfaces, and ultra-high reflectivity coatings, as well as low-diffraction-loss designs. At least one total-internal reflection (TIR) mirror is integral to the resonator permitting the concomitant evanescent wave to probe the ambient environment. Several prototypes have been designed, fabricated, characterized, and applied to chemical detection. Moreover, extensions of the sensing concept have been explored to enhance selectivity, sensitivity, and range of application. Operating primarily in the visible and near IR regions, the technology inherently enables remote detection by optical fiber. Producing 11 archival publications, 5 patents, 19 invited talks, 4 conference proceedings, a CRADA, and a patent-license agreement, the project has realized a new chemical detection technology providing >100 times more sensitivity than comparable technologies, while also providing practical advantages.

  11. The Whole new world of miniature technology

    SciTech Connect

    Gillespie, L.K.

    1980-07-01

    In the past ten years, miniaturization of both electrical and mechanical parts has significantly increased. Documentation of the design and production capabilities of miniaturization in the electronics industry is well-defined. Literature on the subject of miniaturization of metal piece parts, however, is hard to find. Some of the current capabilities in the manufacture of miniature metal piece parts or miniature features in larger piece parts are discussed.

  12. Miniature bioreactors: current practices and future opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Betts, Jonathan I; Baganz, Frank

    2006-01-01

    This review focuses on the emerging field of miniature bioreactors (MBRs), and examines the way in which they are used to speed up many areas of bioprocessing. MBRs aim to achieve this acceleration as a result of their inherent high-throughput capability, which results from their ability to perform many cell cultivations in parallel. There are several applications for MBRs, ranging from media development and strain improvement to process optimisation. The potential of MBRs for use in these applications will be explained in detail in this review. MBRs are currently based on several existing bioreactor platforms such as shaken devices, stirred-tank reactors and bubble columns. This review will present the advantages and disadvantages of each design together with an appraisal of prototype and commercialised devices developed for parallel operation. Finally we will discuss how MBRs can be used in conjunction with automated robotic systems and other miniature process units to deliver a fully-integrated, high-throughput (HT) solution for cell cultivation process development. PMID:16725043

  13. Miniature Intelligent Sensor Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beech, Russell S.

    2007-01-01

    An electronic unit denoted the Miniature Intelligent Sensor Module performs sensor-signal-conditioning functions and local processing of sensor data. The unit includes four channels of analog input/output circuitry, a processor, volatile and nonvolatile memory, and two Ethernet communication ports, all housed in a weathertight enclosure. The unit accepts AC or DC power. The analog inputs provide programmable gain, offset, and filtering as well as shunt calibration and auto-zeroing. Analog outputs include sine, square, and triangular waves having programmable frequencies and amplitudes, as well as programmable amplitude DC. One innovative aspect of the design of this unit is the integration of a relatively powerful processor and large amount of memory along with the sensor-signalconditioning circuitry so that sophisticated computer programs can be used to acquire and analyze sensor data and estimate and track the health of the overall sensor-data-acquisition system of which the unit is a part. The unit includes calibration, zeroing, and signalfeedback circuitry to facilitate health monitoring. The processor is also integrated with programmable logic circuitry in such a manner as to simplify and enhance acquisition of data and generation of analog outputs. A notable unique feature of the unit is a cold-junction compensation circuit in the back shell of a sensor connector. This circuit makes it possible to use Ktype thermocouples without compromising a housing seal. Replicas of this unit may prove useful in industrial and manufacturing settings - especially in such large outdoor facilities as refineries. Two features can be expected to simplify installation: the weathertight housings should make it possible to mount the units near sensors, and the Ethernet communication capability of the units should facilitate establishment of communication connections for the units.

  14. Iranian EFL Learners' Compliment Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allami, Hamid; Montazeri, Maryam

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed at examining the knowledge of Iranian EFL learners in responding to compliments in English, with a focus on the variables of gender, age and educational background. The data were collected through a 24-item English Discourse Completion Task (DCT) to which 40 male and female EFL learners were asked to provide short…

  15. Physician's acquittal of responsibility in Iranian statutes

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi, Mahmoud; Pirouz, Amir Samavati

    2011-01-01

    The physician's acquittal has obsessed Iranian legislator's mind to a large extent. This is exclusively observed in Iranian statuses and specifically in Shi’ite school of though. Muslim jurists’ opinions play a very important role in enacting legal articles related to it. After reviewing the literature, the authors tried to pick and collect common features of physician's responsibilities and duties to introduce Iranian Acts with respect to the subject. Also, Iranian Acts are analyzed and the challenging medical topics such as emergency situations and infectious diseases are discussed. Iranian legislator didn’t specify a kind of physician's acquittal which received from the patient knowingly and is based on his/her free will. There are also some medical and legal gaps. Patients are not often informed of all exact and scientific information and results of their treatments. Furthermore, the forms prepared to receive the patient's consent do not provide what Iranian legislator meant. PMID:22091234

  16. Visual thread quality for precision miniature mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Gillespie, L.K.

    1981-04-01

    Threaded features have eight visual appearance factors which can affect their function in precision miniature mechanisms. The Bendix practice in deburring, finishing, and accepting these conditions on miniature threads is described as is their impact in assemblies of precision miniature electromechanical assemblies.

  17. Iranian Joint Registry (Iranian National Hip and Knee Arthroplasty Registry)

    PubMed Central

    Aslani, Hamidreza; Nourbakhsh, Seyed Taghi; Lahiji, Farivar A.; Heydarian, Keykavoos; Jabalameli, Mahmood; Ghazavi, Mohammad Taghi; Tahmasebi, Mohammad Naghi; Fayyaz, Mahmoud Reza; Sazegari, Mohammad Ali; Mohaddes, Maziar; Rajabpour, Mojtaba; Emami, Mohammad; Jazayeri, Seyyed Mohammad; Madadi, Firooz; Farahini, Hossein; Mirzatoloee, Fardin; Gharahdaghi, Mohammad; Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad Hossein; Ebrahimian, Mohammadreza; Mirvakili, Hossein; Bashti, Kaveh; Almasizadeh, Mohtasham; Abolghasemian, Mansour; Taheriazam, Afshin; Motififard, Mehdi; Yazdi, Hamidreza; Mobarakeh, Mahmood Karimi; Shayestehazar, Masoud; Moghtadae, Mehdi; Siavashi, Babak; Sajjadi, Mohammadreza M.; Rasi, Alireza Manafi; Chabok, Seyyed Kazem; Zafarani, Zohreh; Salehi, Shahin; Ahmadi, Monireh; Mohammadi, Amin; Shahsavand, Mohammad Ebrahim

    2016-01-01

    Periodic evaluation and monitoring the health and economic outcome of joint replacement surgery is a common and popular process under the territory of joint registries in many countries. In this article we introduce the methodology used for the foundation of the National Iranian Joint Registry (IJR) with a joint collaboration of the Social Security Organization (SSO) and academic research departments considering the requirements of the Iran’s Ministry of Health and Education. PMID:27200403

  18. Iranian Women: Between Education and Repression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bousalis, Rina

    2012-01-01

    Iranian women have endured more than 30 years of an Islamist dictatorship that uses religion as a validation for unjust control. Human rights violations against women in Iran are a tragic phenomenon for an otherwise highly developed civilization. Invisible and powerless in a male-dominated society, Iranian women are discouraged from becoming…

  19. 31 CFR 560.303 - Iran; Iranian.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Iran; Iranian. 560.303 Section 560.303... Iran; Iranian. The term Iran means the territory of Iran, and any other territory or marine area, including the exclusive economic zone and continental shelf, over which the Government of Iran...

  20. 31 CFR 560.303 - Iran; Iranian.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Iran; Iranian. 560.303 Section 560.303... Definitions § 560.303 Iran; Iranian. The term Iran means the territory of Iran and any other territory or... Iran claims sovereignty, sovereign rights, or jurisdiction, provided that the Government of...

  1. 31 CFR 560.303 - Iran; Iranian.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Iran; Iranian. 560.303 Section 560.303... Iran; Iranian. The term Iran means the territory of Iran, and any other territory or marine area, including the exclusive economic zone and continental shelf, over which the Government of Iran...

  2. 31 CFR 560.303 - Iran; Iranian.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Iran; Iranian. 560.303 Section 560... § 560.303 Iran; Iranian. The term Iran means the territory of Iran, and any other territory or marine area, including the exclusive economic zone and continental shelf, over which the Government of...

  3. 31 CFR 560.303 - Iran; Iranian.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Iran; Iranian. 560.303 Section 560.303... Definitions § 560.303 Iran; Iranian. The term Iran means the territory of Iran and any other territory or... Iran claims sovereignty, sovereign rights, or jurisdiction, provided that the Government of...

  4. How Creative Are Iranian EFL Teachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khany, Reza; Boghayeri, Mahnaz

    2014-01-01

    The study of creativity has been of great interest to educationalists in general and language teaching practitioners in particular. With all these, very little if any has been reported on the issue in Iranian EFL context. Having this in mind and drawing on the latest profile of creativity, effort was made to see how creative Iranian EFL teachers…

  5. Menorrhagia Management in Iranian Traditional Medicine.

    PubMed

    Tansaz, Mojgan; Memarzadehzavareh, Hajar; Qaraaty, Marzieh; Eftekhar, Tahereh; Tabarrai, Malihe; Kamalinejad, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Menorrhagia is a common problem. Medical management for menorrhagia includes hormonal and nonhormonal treatments. These treatments have different side effects, which reduce quality of life. Complementary and traditional medicines have been used to handle menorrhagia for centuries in many cultures. There is a lot of information and data in Iranian traditional documents or books about medicinal herbs that are used by Iranian traditional medicine scientists for the treatment of menorrhagia. The aim of this study was to review the approaches to menorrhagia in Iranian traditional medicine texts. In this study, some main Iranian traditional medicine manuscripts including Canon of Medicine and Al-Havi of Rhazes were studied to extract important information about menorrhagia management. Iranian traditional medicine physicians have relied on an organized system of etiological theories and treatments for menorrhagia. Their methods for menorrhagia management may be able to convince the desire of many women to preserve their uterus and avoid hormonal therapy. PMID:26072222

  6. Miniature x-ray source

    DOEpatents

    Trebes, James E.; Stone, Gary F.; Bell, Perry M.; Robinson, Ronald B.; Chornenky, Victor I.

    2002-01-01

    A miniature x-ray source capable of producing broad spectrum x-ray emission over a wide range of x-ray energies. The miniature x-ray source comprises a compact vacuum tube assembly containing a cathode, an anode, a high voltage feedthru for delivering high voltage to the anode, a getter for maintaining high vacuum, a connection for an initial vacuum pump down and crimp-off, and a high voltage connection for attaching a compact high voltage cable to the high voltage feedthru. At least a portion of the vacuum tube wall is highly x-ray transparent and made, for example, from boron nitride. The compact size and potential for remote operation allows the x-ray source, for example, to be placed adjacent to a material sample undergoing analysis or in proximity to the region to be treated for medical applications.

  7. Miniature x-ray source

    DOEpatents

    Trebes, James E.; Bell, Perry M.; Robinson, Ronald B.

    2000-01-01

    A miniature x-ray source utilizing a hot filament cathode. The source has a millimeter scale size and is capable of producing broad spectrum x-ray emission over a wide range of x-ray energies. The miniature source consists of a compact vacuum tube assembly containing the hot filament cathode, an anode, a high voltage feedthru for delivering high voltage to the cathode, a getter for maintaining high vacuum, a connector for initial vacuum pump down and crimp-off, and a high voltage connection for attaching a compact high voltage cable to the high voltage feedthru. At least a portion of the vacuum tube wall is fabricated from highly x-ray transparent materials, such as sapphire, diamond, or boron nitride.

  8. Handheld interface for miniature sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kedia, Sunny; Samson, Scott A.; Farmer, Andrew; Smith, Matthew C.; Fries, David; Bhansali, Shekhar

    2005-02-01

    Miniaturization of laboratory sensors has been enabled by continued evolution of technology. Field portable systems are often desired, because they reduce sample handling, provide rapid feedback capability, and enhance convenience. Fieldable sensor systems should include a method for initiating the analysis, storing and displaying the results, while consuming minimal power and being compact and portable. Low cost will allow widespread usage of these systems. In this paper, we discuss a reconfigurable Personal Data Assistant (PDA) based control and data collection system for use with miniature sensors. The system is based on the Handspring visor PDA and a custom designed motherboard, which connects directly to the PDA microprocessor. The PDA provides a convenient and low cost graphical user interface, moderate processing capability, and integrated battery power. The low power motherboard provides the voltage levels, data collection, and input/output (I/O) capabilities required by many MEMS and miniature sensors. These capabilities are relayed to connectors, where an application specific daughterboard is attached. In this paper, two applications are demonstrated. First, a handheld nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) detection sensor consisting of a heated and optical fluorescence detection system is discussed. Second, an electrostatically actuated MEMS micro mirror controller is realized.

  9. A miniature fuel reformer system for portable power sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolanc, Gregor; Belavič, Darko; Hrovat, Marko; Hočevar, Stanko; Pohar, Andrej; Petrovčič, Janko; Musizza, Bojan

    2014-12-01

    A miniature methanol reformer system has been designed and built to technology readiness level exceeding a laboratory prototype. It is intended to feed fuel cells with electric power up to 100 W and contains a complete setup of the technological elements: catalytic reforming and PROX reactors, a combustor, evaporators, actuation and sensing elements, and a control unit. The system is engineered not only for performance and quality of the reformate, but also for its lightweight and compact design, seamless integration of elements, low internal electric consumption, and safety. In the paper, the design of the system is presented by focussing on its miniaturisation, integration, and process control.

  10. Hyperhidrosis in Iranian Traditional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Shahroodi, Aniseh Saffar; Shirbeigi, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Background: Excessive sweating is a medical condition in which a person sweats much more than needed. The medical name of this disorder is hyperhidrosis known as a common dermal problem that affects people of all ages and leads to negative impact on the quality of life. During the last decades, several studies have shown that in many cases of hyperhidrosis there is no evidence of systemic disease. Therefore, most treatments are temporary and symptomatic therapy. According to Iranian traditional medicine (ITM), different approaches are mentioned for hyperhidrosis. Methods: This study has reviewed ITM textbooks, such as “Canon of Medicine and Exir-e-azam” as well as scientific references and databases of modern medicine (ISI, PubMed, etc.) with specific keywords. Contents and related concepts were classified and results prepared. Results: In modern medicine, hyperhidrosis has been defined as an abnormal excessive sweating, which is either primary (idiopathic) or secondary to other systemic diseases such as hyperthyroidism, neurological condition or heart disease. Current modalities for treatment are topical anti-perspiration, iontophoresis, Botox injection (Botulinum toxin type A) and eventually thoracic sympathectomy as the last therapeutic modalities. From the viewpoint of the Iranian traditional medicine as a holistic doctrine, hyperhidrosis etiologies include overfilled and repletion of body due to the accumulation of humors, excessive intake of food, excessive dilated skin pores, vigorous exercise, or physical activity. Therefore, therapeutic plan for hyperhidrosis was based on its cause, which includes reduction in the amount of food, increasing physical activity, purging the body from the excess humors and adjustment in temperament. Conclusion: Hyperhidrosis is not an important or dangerous disorder; however, due to the negative impact on quality of life and failure to achieve perfect answer in modern medicine treatments it seems that the recommendations

  11. Motivating factors among Iranian nurses

    PubMed Central

    Negarandeh, Reza; Dehghan-Nayeri, Nahid; Ghasemi, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Background: One of the most important challenges of Iranian health care system is “quality of care,” and it is assumed that motivated nurses are more ready to provide better care. There are limited studies investigating Iranian nurses’ motivations; however, factors which motivate them have not been studied yet. Identifying the motivating factors enables nurse managers to inspire nurses for continuous quality improvement. The aim of this study was to identify motivating factors for Iranian hospital nurses. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study in which 310 nurses working at 14 hospitals of Tehran University of Medical Sciences were selected by proportionate stratified random sampling. Data were collected in 2010 by a researcher-developed questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and independent t-test, analysis of variance, Tukey post-hoc test, Chi-Square and Fisher's exact test were used for statistical analysis by Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16. Results: The mean score of motivation was 90.53 ± 10.76 (range: 59–121). Four motivating factors including “career development” (22.63 ± 5.66), “job characteristics” (34.29 ± 4), “job authority” (18.48 ± 2.79), and “recognition” (15.12 ± 2.5) were recognized. The least mean of the motivation score, considering the number of items, was 3.23 for career development, while the highest mean was 3.81 for job characteristics. Conclusions: The findings showed that motivation of nurses was at a medium level, which calls for improvement. The factors that have the greatest potential to motivate nurses were identified in this study and they can help managers to achieve the goal of continuous quality improvement. PMID:26257797

  12. Miniaturization of flight deflection measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fodale, Robert (Inventor); Hampton, Herbert R. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A flight deflection measurement system is disclosed including a hybrid microchip of a receiver/decoder. The hybrid microchip decoder is mounted piggy back on the miniaturized receiver and forms an integral unit therewith. The flight deflection measurement system employing the miniaturized receiver/decoder can be used in a wind tunnel. In particular, the miniaturized receiver/decoder can be employed in a spin measurement system due to its small size and can retain already established control surface actuation functions.

  13. Oxygen Transfer Characteristics of Miniaturized Bioreactor Systems

    PubMed Central

    Kirk, Timothy V; Szita, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Since their introduction in 2001 miniaturized bioreactor systems have made great advances in function and performance. In this article the dissolved oxygen (DO) transfer performance of submilliliter microbioreactors, and 1–10 mL minibioreactors was examined. Microbioreactors have reached kLa values of 460 h-1, and are offering instrumentation and some functionality comparable to production systems, but at high throughput screening volumes. Minibioreactors, aside from one 1,440 h-1 kLa system, have not offered as high rates of DO transfer, but have demonstrated superior integration with automated fluid handling systems. Microbioreactors have been typically limited to studies with E. coli, while minibioreactors have offered greater versatility in this regard. Further, mathematical relationships confirming the applicability of kLa measurements across all scales have been derived, and alternatives to fluorescence lifetime DO sensors have been evaluated. Finally, the influence on reactor performance of oxygen uptake rate (OUR), and the possibility of its real-time measurement have been explored. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2013; 110: 1005–1019. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23280578

  14. Miniature Autonomous Robotic Vehicle (MARV)

    SciTech Connect

    Feddema, J.T.; Kwok, K.S.; Driessen, B.J.; Spletzer, B.L.; Weber, T.M.

    1996-12-31

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has recently developed a 16 cm{sup 3} (1 in{sup 3}) autonomous robotic vehicle which is capable of tracking a single conducting wire carrying a 96 kHz signal. This vehicle was developed to assess the limiting factors in using commercial technology to build miniature autonomous vehicles. Particular attention was paid to the design of the control system to search out the wire, track it, and recover if the wire was lost. This paper describes the test vehicle and the control analysis. Presented in the paper are the vehicle model, control laws, a stability analysis, simulation studies and experimental results.

  15. Miniature drag-force anemometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krause, L. N.; Fralick, G. C.

    1981-01-01

    A miniature drag force anemometer is described which is capable of measuring unsteady as well as steady state velocity head and flow direction. It consists of a cantilevered beam with strain gages located at the base of the beam as the force measuring element. The dynamics of the beam are like those of lightly damped second order system with a natural frequency as high as 40 kilohertz depending on beam geometry and material. The anemometer is used in both forward and reversed flow. Anemometer characteristics and several designs are presented along with discussions of several applications.

  16. Personal miniature electrophysiological tape recorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, H.

    1981-11-01

    The use of a personal miniature electrophysiological tape recorder to measure the physiological reactions of space flight personnel to space flight stress and weightlessness is described. The Oxford Instruments Medilog recorder, a battery-powered, four-channel cassette tape recorder with 24 hour endurance is carried on the person and will record EKG, EOG, EEG, and timing and event markers. The data will give information about heart rate and morphology changes, and document adaptation to zero gravity on the part of subjects who, unlike highly trained astronauts, are more representative of the normal population than were the subjects of previous space flight studies.

  17. Miniature drag-force anemometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krause, L. N.; Fralick, G. C.

    1981-01-01

    A miniature drag-force anemometer is described which is capable of measuring unsteady as well as steady-state velocity head and flow direction. It consists of a cantilevered beam with strain gages located at the base of the beam as the force measuring element. The dynamics of the beam are like those of a lightly damped second-order system with a natural frequency as high as 40 kilohertz depending on beam geometry and material. The anemometer can be used in both forward and reversed flow. Anemometer characteristics and several designs are presented along with discussions of several applications.

  18. Personal miniature electrophysiological tape recorder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, H.

    1981-01-01

    The use of a personal miniature electrophysiological tape recorder to measure the physiological reactions of space flight personnel to space flight stress and weightlessness is described. The Oxford Instruments Medilog recorder, a battery-powered, four-channel cassette tape recorder with 24 hour endurance is carried on the person and will record EKG, EOG, EEG, and timing and event markers. The data will give information about heart rate and morphology changes, and document adaptation to zero gravity on the part of subjects who, unlike highly trained astronauts, are more representative of the normal population than were the subjects of previous space flight studies.

  19. A miniature optical breathing sensor

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Jinesh; Semenova, Yuliya; Farrell, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel miniature optical breathing sensor based on an Agarose infiltrated photonic crystal fiber interferometer. The sensor detects the variation in relative humidity that occurs between inhaled and exhaled breath. The sensor interrogation system can determine the breathing pattern in real time and can also predict the breathing rate and the breathing status during respiration. The sensor is suitable for monitoring patients during a magnetic resonance imaging scan where use of sedatives and anesthetics necessitates breathing monitoring; electronic sensors are not suitable in such an environment and a visual observation of the patient's respiratory efforts is often difficult. PMID:23243581

  20. A miniature remote deadweight calibrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supplee, Frank H., Jr.; Tcheng, Ping

    A miniature, computer-controlled, deadweight calibrator was developed to remotely calibrate a force transducer mounted in a cryogenic chamber. This simple mechanism allows automatic loading and unloading of deadweights placed onto a skin friction balance during calibrations. Equipment for the calibrator includes a specially designed set of five interlocking 200-milligram weights, a motorized lifting platform, and a controller box taking commands from a microcomputer on an IEEE interface. The computer is also used to record and reduce the calibration data and control other calibration parameters. The full-scale load for this device is 1,000 milligrams; however, the concept can be extended to accommodate other calibration ranges.

  1. 33 CFR 13.01-40 - Miniature medals and bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-40 Miniature medals and bars. (a) Miniature Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals and bars...

  2. 33 CFR 13.01-40 - Miniature medals and bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-40 Miniature medals and bars. (a) Miniature Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals and bars...

  3. 33 CFR 13.01-40 - Miniature medals and bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-40 Miniature medals and bars. (a) Miniature Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals and bars...

  4. 33 CFR 13.01-40 - Miniature medals and bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-40 Miniature medals and bars. (a) Miniature Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals and bars...

  5. 33 CFR 13.01-40 - Miniature medals and bars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... GENERAL DECORATIONS, MEDALS, RIBBONS AND SIMILAR DEVICES Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals, Bars, and Miniatures § 13.01-40 Miniature medals and bars. (a) Miniature Gold and Silver Lifesaving Medals and bars...

  6. Miniature Telerobots in Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venema, S. C.; Hannaford, B.

    1995-01-01

    Ground controlled telerobots can be used to reduce astronaut workload while retaining much of the human capabilities of planning, execution, and error recovery for specific tasks. Miniature robots can be used for delicate and time consuming tasks such as biological experiment servicing without incurring the significant mass and power penalties associated with larger robot systems. However, questions remain regarding the technical and economic effectiveness of such mini-telerobotic systems. This paper address some of these open issues and the details of two projects which will provide some of the needed answers. The Microtrex project is a joint University of Washington/NASA project which plans on flying a miniature robot as a Space Shuttle experiment to evaluate the effects of microgravity on ground-controlled manipulation while subject to variable time-delay communications. A related project involving the University of Washington and Boeing Defense and Space will evaluate the effectiveness f using a minirobot to service biological experiments in a space station experiment 'glove-box' rack mock-up, again while subject to realistic communications constraints.

  7. Miniature multimode monolithic flextensional transducers.

    PubMed

    Hladky-Hennion, Anne-Christine; Uzgur, A Erman; Markley, Douglas C; Safari, Ahmad; Cochran, Joe K; Newnham, Robert E

    2007-10-01

    Traditional flextensional transducers classified in seven groups based on their designs have been used extensively in 1-100 kHz range for mine hunting, fish finding, oil explorations, and biomedical applications. In this study, a new family of small, low cost underwater, and biomedical transducers has been developed. After the fabrication of transducers, finite-elements analysis (FEA) was used extensively in order to optimize these miniature versions of high-power, low-frequency flextensional transducer designs to achieve broad bandwidth for both transmitting and receiving, engineered vibration modes, and optimized acoustic directivity patterns. Transducer topologies with various shapes, cross sections, and symmetries can be fabricated through high-volume, low-cost ceramic and metal extrusion processes. Miniaturized transducers posses resonance frequencies in the range of above 1 MHz to below 10 kHz. Symmetry and design of the transducer, polling patterns, driving and receiving electrode geometries, and driving conditions have a strong effect on the vibration modes, resonance frequencies, and radiation patterns. This paper is devoted to small, multimode flextensional transducers with active shells, which combine the advantages of small size and low-cost manufacturing with control of the shape of the acoustic radiation/receive pattern. The performance of the transducers is emphasized. PMID:18019236

  8. Lightweight, Miniature Inertial Measurement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Liang; Crassidis, Agamemnon

    2012-01-01

    A miniature, lighter-weight, and highly accurate inertial navigation system (INS) is coupled with GPS receivers to provide stable and highly accurate positioning, attitude, and inertial measurements while being subjected to highly dynamic maneuvers. In contrast to conventional methods that use extensive, groundbased, real-time tracking and control units that are expensive, large, and require excessive amounts of power to operate, this method focuses on the development of an estimator that makes use of a low-cost, miniature accelerometer array fused with traditional measurement systems and GPS. Through the use of a position tracking estimation algorithm, onboard accelerometers are numerically integrated and transformed using attitude information to obtain an estimate of position in the inertial frame. Position and velocity estimates are subject to drift due to accelerometer sensor bias and high vibration over time, and so require the integration with GPS information using a Kalman filter to provide highly accurate and reliable inertial tracking estimations. The method implemented here uses the local gravitational field vector. Upon determining the location of the local gravitational field vector relative to two consecutive sensors, the orientation of the device may then be estimated, and the attitude determined. Improved attitude estimates further enhance the inertial position estimates. The device can be powered either by batteries, or by the power source onboard its target platforms. A DB9 port provides the I/O to external systems, and the device is designed to be mounted in a waterproof case for all-weather conditions.

  9. Miniaturized neural interfaces and implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stieglitz, Thomas; Boretius, Tim; Ordonez, Juan; Hassler, Christina; Henle, Christian; Meier, Wolfgang; Plachta, Dennis T. T.; Schuettler, Martin

    2012-03-01

    Neural prostheses are technical systems that interface nerves to treat the symptoms of neurological diseases and to restore sensory of motor functions of the body. Success stories have been written with the cochlear implant to restore hearing, with spinal cord stimulators to treat chronic pain as well as urge incontinence, and with deep brain stimulators in patients suffering from Parkinson's disease. Highly complex neural implants for novel medical applications can be miniaturized either by means of precision mechanics technologies using known and established materials for electrodes, cables, and hermetic packages or by applying microsystems technologies. Examples for both approaches will be introduced and discussed. Electrode arrays for recording of electrocorticograms during presurgical epilepsy diagnosis have been manufactured using approved materials and a marking laser to achieve an integration density that is adequate in the context of brain machine interfaces, e.g. on the motor cortex. Microtechnologies have to be used for further miniaturization to develop polymer-based flexible and light weighted electrode arrays to interface the peripheral and central nervous system. Polyimide as substrate and insulation material will be discussed as well as several application examples for nerve interfaces like cuffs, filament like electrodes and large arrays for subdural implantation.

  10. US university reverses Iranian student ban

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Administrators at the University of Massachusetts have backtracked on plans to ban Iranian students from entering a number of programmes in physics and chemistry as well as computer and electrical engineering.

  11. 77 FR 66918 - Iranian Financial Sanctions Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-08

    ...The Department of the Treasury's Office of Foreign Assets Control is amending the Iranian Financial Sanctions Regulations in order to implement sections 214 through 216 of the Iran Threat Reduction and Syria Human Rights Act of...

  12. Measuring Iranian women's sexual behaviors: Expert opinion.

    PubMed

    Ghorashi, Zohreh; Merghati-Khoei, Effat; Yousefy, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    The cultural compatibility of sexually related instruments is problematic because the contexts from which the concepts and meanings were extracted may be significantly different from related contexts in a different society. This paper describes the instruments that have been used to assess sexual behaviors, primarily in Western contexts. Then, based on the instruments' working definition of 'sexual behavior' and their theoretical frameworks, we will (1) discuss the applicability or cultural compatibility of existing instruments targeting women's sexual behaviors within an Iranian context, and (2) suggest criteria for sexually related tools applicable in Iranian settings. Iranian women's sexual scripts may compromise the existing instruments' compatibility. Suggested criteria are as follows: understanding, language of sexuality, ethics and morality. Therefore, developing a culturally comprehensive measure that can adequately examine Iranian women's sexual behaviors is needed. PMID:25250346

  13. Measuring Iranian women's sexual behaviors: Expert opinion

    PubMed Central

    Ghorashi, Zohreh; Merghati-Khoei, Effat; Yousefy, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    The cultural compatibility of sexually related instruments is problematic because the contexts from which the concepts and meanings were extracted may be significantly different from related contexts in a different society. This paper describes the instruments that have been used to assess sexual behaviors, primarily in Western contexts. Then, based on the instruments’ working definition of ‘sexual behavior’ and their theoretical frameworks, we will (1) discuss the applicability or cultural compatibility of existing instruments targeting women's sexual behaviors within an Iranian context, and (2) suggest criteria for sexually related tools applicable in Iranian settings. Iranian women's sexual scripts may compromise the existing instruments’ compatibility. Suggested criteria are as follows: understanding, language of sexuality, ethics and morality. Therefore, developing a culturally comprehensive measure that can adequately examine Iranian women's sexual behaviors is needed. PMID:25250346

  14. Environmental study of miniature slip rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radnik, J. L.

    1967-01-01

    Investigation studied the long term operation of miniature slip ring assembles in high vacuum of space and included the influence of ring, brush, and insulator materials on electrical noise and mechanical wear. Results show that soft metal vapor plating and niobium diselenide miniature slip rings are beneficial.

  15. Miniature reaction chamber and devices incorporating same

    DOEpatents

    Mathies, Richard A.; Woolley, Adam T.

    2000-10-17

    The present invention generally relates to miniaturized devices for carrying out and controlling chemical reactions and analyses. In particular, the present invention provides devices which have miniature temperature controlled reaction chambers for carrying out a variety of synthetic and diagnostic applications, such as PCR amplification, nucleic acid hybridization, chemical labeling, nucleic acid fragmentation and the like.

  16. Anthrax vaccine associated deaths in miniature horses.

    PubMed

    Wobeser, Bruce K

    2015-04-01

    During a widespread anthrax outbreak in Canada, miniature horses were vaccinated using a live spore anthrax vaccine. Several of these horses died from an apparent immune-mediated vasculitis temporally associated with this vaccination. During the course of the outbreak, other miniature horses from different regions with a similar vaccination history, clinical signs, and necropsy findings were found. PMID:25829553

  17. Advances in Miniaturized Instruments for Genomics

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, a lot of demonstrations of the miniaturized instruments were reported for genomic applications. They provided the advantages of miniaturization, automation, sensitivity, and specificity for the development of point-of-care diagnostics. The aim of this paper is to report on recent developments on miniaturized instruments for genomic applications. Based on the mature development of microfabrication, microfluidic systems have been demonstrated for various genomic detections. Since one of the objectives of miniaturized instruments is for the development of point-of-care device, impedimetric detection is found to be a promising technique for this purpose. An in-depth discussion of the impedimetric circuits and systems will be included to provide total consideration of the miniaturized instruments and their potential application towards real-time portable imaging in the “-omics” era. The current excellent demonstrations suggest a solid foundation for the development of practical and widespread point-of-care genomic diagnostic devices. PMID:25114919

  18. 31 CFR 560.518 - Transactions in Iranian-origin and Iranian Government property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Iran, all domestic transactions with respect to Iranian-origin goods located in the United States are... services of Iranian origin or owned or controlled by the Government of Iran that are located or to be... owned or controlled by the Government of Iran, except that the following transactions are authorized:...

  19. 31 CFR 560.518 - Transactions in Iranian-origin and Iranian Government property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Iran, all domestic transactions with respect to Iranian-origin goods located in the United States are... services of Iranian origin or owned or controlled by the Government of Iran that are located or to be... owned or controlled by the Government of Iran, except that the following transactions are authorized:...

  20. Miniaturized flow injection analysis system

    DOEpatents

    Folta, J.A.

    1997-07-01

    A chemical analysis technique known as flow injection analysis is described, wherein small quantities of chemical reagents and sample are intermixed and reacted within a capillary flow system and the reaction products are detected optically, electrochemically, or by other means. A highly miniaturized version of a flow injection analysis system has been fabricated utilizing microfabrication techniques common to the microelectronics industry. The microflow system uses flow capillaries formed by etching microchannels in a silicon or glass wafer followed by bonding to another wafer, commercially available microvalves bonded directly to the microflow channels, and an optical absorption detector cell formed near the capillary outlet, with light being both delivered and collected with fiber optics. The microflow system is designed mainly for analysis of liquids and currently measures 38{times}25{times}3 mm, but can be designed for gas analysis and be substantially smaller in construction. 9 figs.

  1. Miniature hybrid optical imaging lens

    DOEpatents

    Sitter, D.N. Jr.; Simpson, M.L.

    1997-10-21

    A miniature lens system that corrects for imaging and chromatic aberrations is disclosed, the lens system being fabricated from primarily commercially-available components. A first element at the input to a lens housing is an aperture stop. A second optical element is a refractive element with a diffractive element closely coupled to, or formed a part of, the rear surface of the refractive element. Spaced closely to the diffractive element is a baffle to limit the area of the image, and this is closely followed by a second refractive lens element to provide the final correction. The image, corrected for aberrations exits the last lens element to impinge upon a detector plane were is positioned any desired detector array. The diffractive element is fabricated according to an equation that includes, as variables, the design wavelength, the index of refraction and the radius from an optical axis of the lens system components. 2 figs.

  2. Miniature hybrid optical imaging lens

    DOEpatents

    Sitter, Jr., David N.; Simpson, Marc L.

    1997-01-01

    A miniature lens system that corrects for imaging and chromatic aberrations, the lens system being fabricated from primarily commercially-available components. A first element at the input to a lens housing is an aperture stop. A second optical element is a refractive element with a diffractive element closely coupled to, or formed a part of, the rear surface of the refractive element. Spaced closely to the diffractive element is a baffle to limit the area of the image, and this is closely followed by a second refractive lens element to provide the final correction. The image, corrected for aberrations exits the last lens element to impinge upon a detector plane were is positioned any desired detector array. The diffractive element is fabricated according to an equation that includes, as variables, the design wavelength, the index of refraction and the radius from an optical axis of the lens system components.

  3. Miniature drag-force anemometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krause, L. N.; Fralick, G. C.

    1977-01-01

    A miniature drag-force anemometer is described which is capable of measuring dynamic velocity head and flow direction. The anemometer consists of a silicon cantilever beam 2.5 mm long, 1.5 mm wide, and 0.25 mm thick with an integrated diffused strain-gage bridge, located at the base of the beam, as the force measuring element. The dynamics of the beam are like those of a second-order system with a natural frequency of about 42 kHz and a damping coefficient of 0.007. The anemometer can be used in both forward and reversed flow. Measured flow characteristics up to Mach 0.6 are presented along with application examples including turbulence measurements.

  4. Miniature mechanical transfer optical coupler

    DOEpatents

    Abel, Philip; Watterson, Carl

    2011-02-15

    A miniature mechanical transfer (MT) optical coupler ("MMTOC") for optically connecting a first plurality of optical fibers with at least one other plurality of optical fibers. The MMTOC may comprise a beam splitting element, a plurality of collimating lenses, and a plurality of alignment elements. The MMTOC may optically couple a first plurality of fibers disposed in a plurality of ferrules of a first MT connector with a second plurality of fibers disposed in a plurality of ferrules of a second MT connector and a third plurality of fibers disposed in a plurality of ferrules of a third MT connector. The beam splitting element may allow a portion of each beam of light from the first plurality of fibers to pass through to the second plurality of fibers and simultaneously reflect another portion of each beam of light from the first plurality of fibers to the third plurality of fibers.

  5. Miniaturized flow injection analysis system

    DOEpatents

    Folta, James A.

    1997-01-01

    A chemical analysis technique known as flow injection analysis, wherein small quantities of chemical reagents and sample are intermixed and reacted within a capillary flow system and the reaction products are detected optically, electrochemically, or by other means. A highly miniaturized version of a flow injection analysis system has been fabricated utilizing microfabrication techniques common to the microelectronics industry. The microflow system uses flow capillaries formed by etching microchannels in a silicon or glass wafer followed by bonding to another wafer, commercially available microvalves bonded directly to the microflow channels, and an optical absorption detector cell formed near the capillary outlet, with light being both delivered and collected with fiber optics. The microflow system is designed mainly for analysis of liquids and currently measures 38.times.25.times.3 mm, but can be designed for gas analysis and be substantially smaller in construction.

  6. Miniaturization of Planar Horn Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Ostlund, Patrick N.; Chang, Zensheu; Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Widholm, Scott E.; Badescu, Mircea

    2012-01-01

    There is a great need for compact, efficient motors for driving various mechanisms including robots or mobility platforms. A study is currently underway to develop a new type of piezoelectric actuators with significantly more strength, low mass, small footprint, and efficiency. The actuators/motors utilize piezoelectric actuated horns which have a very high power density and high electromechanical conversion efficiency. The horns are fabricated using our recently developed novel pre-stress flexures that make them thermally stable and increases their coupling efficiency. The monolithic design and integrated flexures that pre-stresses the piezoelectric stack eliminates the use of stress bolt. This design allows embedding solid-state motors and actuators in any structure so that the only macroscopically moving parts are the rotor or the linear translator. The developed actuator uses a stack/horn actuation and has a Barth motor configuration, which potentially generates very large torque and speeds that do not require gearing. Finite element modeling and design tools were investigated to determine the requirements and operation parameters and the results were used to design and fabricate a motor. This new design offers a highly promising actuation mechanism that can potentially be miniaturized and integrated into systems and structures. It can be configured in many shapes to operate as multi-degrees of freedom and multi-dimensional motors/actuators including unidirectional, bidirectional, 2D and 3D. In this manuscript, we are reporting the experimental measurements from a bench top design and the results from the efforts to miniaturize the design using 2x2x2 mm piezoelectric stacks integrated into thin plates that are of the order of3 x 3x 0.2 cm.

  7. 31 CFR 535.301 - Iran; Iranian Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Iran; Iranian Entity. 535.301 Section... § 535.301 Iran; Iranian Entity. (a) The term Iran and Iranian Entity includes: (1) The state and the Government of Iran as well as any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof or any...

  8. 31 CFR 535.301 - Iran; Iranian Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Iran; Iranian Entity. 535.301 Section... § 535.301 Iran; Iranian Entity. (a) The term Iran and Iranian Entity includes: (1) The state and the Government of Iran as well as any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof or any...

  9. 31 CFR 535.301 - Iran; Iranian Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Iran; Iranian Entity. 535.301 Section... § 535.301 Iran; Iranian Entity. (a) The term Iran and Iranian Entity includes: (1) The state and the Government of Iran as well as any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof or any...

  10. 31 CFR 535.301 - Iran; Iranian Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Iran; Iranian Entity. 535.301 Section... § 535.301 Iran; Iranian Entity. (a) The term Iran and Iranian Entity includes: (1) The state and the Government of Iran as well as any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof or any...

  11. 31 CFR 535.301 - Iran; Iranian Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Iran; Iranian Entity. 535.301 Section... § 535.301 Iran; Iranian Entity. (a) The term Iran and Iranian Entity includes: (1) The state and the Government of Iran as well as any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof or any...

  12. Scanning Miniature Microscopes without Lenses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yu

    2009-01-01

    The figure schematically depicts some alternative designs of proposed compact, lightweight optoelectronic microscopes that would contain no lenses and would generate magnified video images of specimens. Microscopes of this type were described previously in Miniature Microscope Without Lenses (NPO - 20218), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 22, No. 8 (August 1998), page 43 and Reflective Variants of Miniature Microscope Without Lenses (NPO 20610), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 26, No. 9 (September 1999), page 6a. To recapitulate: In the design and construction of a microscope of this type, the focusing optics of a conventional microscope are replaced by a combination of a microchannel filter and a charge-coupled-device (CCD) image detector. Elimination of focusing optics reduces the size and weight of the instrument and eliminates the need for the time-consuming focusing operation. The microscopes described in the cited prior articles contained two-dimensional CCDs registered with two-dimensional arrays of microchannels and, as such, were designed to produce full two-dimensional images, without need for scanning. The microscopes of the present proposal would contain one-dimensional (line image) CCDs registered with linear arrays of microchannels. In the operation of such a microscope, one would scan a specimen along a line perpendicular to the array axis (in other words, one would scan in pushbroom fashion). One could then synthesize a full two-dimensional image of the specimen from the line-image data acquired at one-pixel increments of position along the scan. In one of the proposed microscopes, a beam of unpolarized light for illuminating the specimen would enter from the side. This light would be reflected down onto the specimen by a nonpolarizing beam splitter attached to the microchannels at their lower ends. A portion of the light incident on the specimen would be reflected upward, through the beam splitter and along the microchannels, to form an image on the CCD. If the

  13. Computational imaging for miniature cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salahieh, Basel

    Miniature cameras play a key role in numerous imaging applications ranging from endoscopy and metrology inspection devices to smartphones and head-mount acquisition systems. However, due to the physical constraints, the imaging conditions, and the low quality of small optics, their imaging capabilities are limited in terms of the delivered resolution, the acquired depth of field, and the captured dynamic range. Computational imaging jointly addresses the imaging system and the reconstructing algorithms to bypass the traditional limits of optical systems and deliver better restorations for various applications. The scene is encoded into a set of efficient measurements which could then be computationally decoded to output a richer estimate of the scene as compared with the raw images captured by conventional imagers. In this dissertation, three task-based computational imaging techniques are developed to make low-quality miniature cameras capable of delivering realistic high-resolution reconstructions, providing full-focus imaging, and acquiring depth information for high dynamic range objects. For the superresolution task, a non-regularized direct superresolution algorithm is developed to achieve realistic restorations without being penalized by improper assumptions (e.g., optimizers, priors, and regularizers) made in the inverse problem. An adaptive frequency-based filtering scheme is introduced to upper bound the reconstruction errors while still producing more fine details as compared with previous methods under realistic imaging conditions. For the full-focus imaging task, a computational depth-based deconvolution technique is proposed to bring a scene captured by an ordinary fixed-focus camera to a full-focus based on a depth-variant point spread function prior. The ringing artifacts are suppressed on three levels: block tiling to eliminate boundary artifacts, adaptive reference maps to reduce ringing initiated by sharp edges, and block-wise deconvolution or

  14. Miniature infrared data acquisition and telemetry system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stokes, J. H.; Ward, S. M.

    1985-01-01

    The Miniature Infrared Data Acquisition and Telemetry (MIRDAT) Phase 1 study was performed to determine the technical and commercial feasibility of producing a miniaturized electro-optical telemetry system. This system acquires and transmits experimental data from aircraft scale models for realtime monitoring in wind tunnels. During the Phase 1 study, miniature prototype MIRDAT telemetry devices were constructed, successfully tested in the laboratory and delivered to the user for wind tunnel testing. A search was conducted for commercially available components and advanced hybrid techniques to further miniaturize the system during Phase 2 development. A design specification was generated from laboratory testing, user requirements and discussions with component manufacturers. Finally, a preliminary design of the proposed MIRDAT system was documented for Phase 2 development.

  15. Miniature capacitor functions as pressure sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, R. G.

    1967-01-01

    Miniature capacitor operates as a differential pressure telemetry sensor during free flight of test model in a hypersonic wind tunnel. The capacitor incorporates a beryllium copper diaphragm. It is also used as an absolute pressure sensor.

  16. Using Miniature Landforms in Teaching Geomorphology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, James F.

    1986-01-01

    This paper explores the uses of true landform miniatures and small-scale analogues and suggests ways to teach geomorphological concepts using small-scale relief features as illustrative examples. (JDH)

  17. Miniaturized GPS/MEMS IMU integrated board

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Ching-Fang (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    This invention documents the efforts on the research and development of a miniaturized GPS/MEMS IMU integrated navigation system. A miniaturized GPS/MEMS IMU integrated navigation system is presented; Laser Dynamic Range Imager (LDRI) based alignment algorithm for space applications is discussed. Two navigation cameras are also included to measure the range and range rate which can be integrated into the GPS/MEMS IMU system to enhance the navigation solution.

  18. Miniature Electrostatic Ion Thruster With Magnet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Frank T.

    2006-01-01

    A miniature electrostatic ion thruster is proposed that, with one exception, would be based on the same principles as those of the device described in the previous article, "Miniature Bipolar Electrostatic Ion Thruster". The exceptional feature of this thruster would be that, in addition to using electric fields for linear acceleration of ions and electrons, it would use a magnetic field to rotationally accelerate slow electrons into the ion stream to neutralize the ions.

  19. Miniature electrically operated diaphragm valve

    DOEpatents

    Adkins, Douglas R.; Spletzer, Barry L.; Wong, Chungnin C.; Frye-Mason, Gregory C.; Fischer, Gary J.; Hesketh, Peter J.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a miniature electrically operated valve that can stand off significant pressures, that can be inexpensively produced, and that can be made to operate without continuous electrical power. A valve according to the present invention comprises a housing and a beam mounted with the housing. A diaphragm mounted with the housing forms a sealed fluid volume. An electromagnetic energy source, such as an electromagnetic coil, mounts with the housing and when energized urges the beam in one direction. The beam can be urged in the opposing direction by passive means or by reversing the polarity of the electromagnetic energy source or by a second electromagnetic energy source. Two fluid ports mount with the housing. A first fluid port mounts so that, as the beam is urged in one direction or the opposite, the beam urges the diaphragm to move between engaging and substantially sealing the fluid port and disengaging and not substantially sealing the fluid port. A seat can be mounted with the diaphragm to aid in sealing the fluid port. Latching mechanisms such as permanent magnets can be mounted so that the valve remains in the open or closed positions without continuous electrical power input. Fluid can flow through the housing between the two fluid ports when the diaphragm does not seal the first fluid port, but can be prevented from flowing by urging the beam so that the diaphragm seals the first fluid port. Various embodiments accommodate various latching mechanisms, electromagnetic energy sources, number of fluid ports, and diaphragm design considerations.

  20. Miniature curved artificial compound eyes

    PubMed Central

    Floreano, Dario; Pericet-Camara, Ramon; Viollet, Stéphane; Ruffier, Franck; Brückner, Andreas; Leitel, Robert; Buss, Wolfgang; Menouni, Mohsine; Expert, Fabien; Juston, Raphaël; Dobrzynski, Michal Karol; L’Eplattenier, Geraud; Recktenwald, Fabian; Mallot, Hanspeter A.; Franceschini, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    In most animal species, vision is mediated by compound eyes, which offer lower resolution than vertebrate single-lens eyes, but significantly larger fields of view with negligible distortion and spherical aberration, as well as high temporal resolution in a tiny package. Compound eyes are ideally suited for fast panoramic motion perception. Engineering a miniature artificial compound eye is challenging because it requires accurate alignment of photoreceptive and optical components on a curved surface. Here, we describe a unique design method for biomimetic compound eyes featuring a panoramic, undistorted field of view in a very thin package. The design consists of three planar layers of separately produced arrays, namely, a microlens array, a neuromorphic photodetector array, and a flexible printed circuit board that are stacked, cut, and curved to produce a mechanically flexible imager. Following this method, we have prototyped and characterized an artificial compound eye bearing a hemispherical field of view with embedded and programmable low-power signal processing, high temporal resolution, and local adaptation to illumination. The prototyped artificial compound eye possesses several characteristics similar to the eye of the fruit fly Drosophila and other arthropod species. This design method opens up additional vistas for a broad range of applications in which wide field motion detection is at a premium, such as collision-free navigation of terrestrial and aerospace vehicles, and for the experimental testing of insect vision theories. PMID:23690574

  1. Miniature curved artificial compound eyes.

    PubMed

    Floreano, Dario; Pericet-Camara, Ramon; Viollet, Stéphane; Ruffier, Franck; Brückner, Andreas; Leitel, Robert; Buss, Wolfgang; Menouni, Mohsine; Expert, Fabien; Juston, Raphaël; Dobrzynski, Michal Karol; L'Eplattenier, Geraud; Recktenwald, Fabian; Mallot, Hanspeter A; Franceschini, Nicolas

    2013-06-01

    In most animal species, vision is mediated by compound eyes, which offer lower resolution than vertebrate single-lens eyes, but significantly larger fields of view with negligible distortion and spherical aberration, as well as high temporal resolution in a tiny package. Compound eyes are ideally suited for fast panoramic motion perception. Engineering a miniature artificial compound eye is challenging because it requires accurate alignment of photoreceptive and optical components on a curved surface. Here, we describe a unique design method for biomimetic compound eyes featuring a panoramic, undistorted field of view in a very thin package. The design consists of three planar layers of separately produced arrays, namely, a microlens array, a neuromorphic photodetector array, and a flexible printed circuit board that are stacked, cut, and curved to produce a mechanically flexible imager. Following this method, we have prototyped and characterized an artificial compound eye bearing a hemispherical field of view with embedded and programmable low-power signal processing, high temporal resolution, and local adaptation to illumination. The prototyped artificial compound eye possesses several characteristics similar to the eye of the fruit fly Drosophila and other arthropod species. This design method opens up additional vistas for a broad range of applications in which wide field motion detection is at a premium, such as collision-free navigation of terrestrial and aerospace vehicles, and for the experimental testing of insect vision theories. PMID:23690574

  2. Miniature Ion-Array Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Frank T.

    2006-01-01

    A figure is shown that depicts a proposed miniature ion-mobility spectrometer that would share many features of design and operation of the instrument described in another article. The main differences between that instrument and this one would lie in the configuration and mode of operation of the filter and detector electrodes. A filter electrode and detector electrodes would be located along the sides of a drift tube downstream from the accelerator electrode. These electrodes would apply a combination of (1) a transverse AC electric field that would effect differential transverse dispersal of ions and (2) a transverse DC electric field that would drive the dispersed ions toward the detector electrodes at different distances along the drift tube. The electric current collected by each detector electrode would be a measure of the current, and thus of the abundance of the species of ions impinging on that electrode. The currents collected by all the detector electrodes could be measured simultaneously to obtain continuous readings of abundances of species. The downstream momentum of accelerated ions would be maintained through neutralization on the electrodes; the momentum of the resulting neutral atoms would serve to expel gases from spectrometer, without need for a pump.

  3. Miniature Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karmon, D.; Darrech, M.; Chutjian, A.; Jan, D.

    1999-01-01

    JPL is funded by Code U to develop a Miniature QMSA for an EVA flight test. The initial intent was to fly an experiment internal to the astronaut suit during a shuttle EVA. Following discussions with JSC the suit application was abandoned in favor of other more urgent needs. The JSC EVA office was particularly interested in hydrazine detection on the astronaut suit. While discussing and exploring the implementation of such an experiment, managers at JSC suggested combining the interests of two JSC groups. The Life Support and Thermal Systems Branch, Crew and Thermal Systems Division has a need for an ammonia detection instrument, while the EVA office has a need for hydrazine detection. The two groups were pursuing separate single-purpose solutions. Instead, the JPL QMSA offers a single instrument solution via a portable instrument to be used by an astronaut on an EVA. Such an instrument would serve both the ammonia leak detection and the hydrazine contamination needs. The need for the QMSA was defined as urgent and targeted for a January 1999 flight. While the original JPL task (as funded by Code U) was for an experiment flight with JPL delivery in October 1998, this task was for a qualified flight instrument with a planned JPL delivery in August 1998. This schedule was very demanding and dictated a fast-tract implementation.

  4. Perceived ethical values by Iranian nurses.

    PubMed

    Shahriari, Mohsen; Mohammadi, Eesa; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Bahrami, Masoud; Fooladi, Marjaneh M

    2012-01-01

    Nursing, a scientific and practical discipline, faces continuing challenges of finding new direction in order to decipher its core values and develop current ethical codes for nursing practice. In 2009-10, 28 nurses were purposely selected and interviewed using a semi-structured format in focus groups and individually. Thematic Content Analysis helped explore the perception of Iranian nurses on ethical values in patient care. Seven major themes emerged: respect for dignity, professional integrity, professional commitment, developing human relationships, justice, honesty, and promoting individuals and the nursing profession. Iranian nurses revealed a unique and culture-based set of ethical values. This study found that Iranian nurses place a greater emphasis on preserving the dignity of those accompanying the patient and in showing regard for patients' religious beliefs in a gender appropriate environment. PMID:22140186

  5. Iranian Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Registry

    PubMed Central

    Fahimi, Fanak; Sharif-Kashani, Babak; Malek Mohammad, Majid; Saliminejad, Leila; Monjazebi, Fateme

    2015-01-01

    Background: Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) is a fatal disorder with a prevalence of 8.6 per million. We introduce a registry website for IPAH and PAH patients ( www.IPAH.ir) for access and efficient delivery of government-aided and subsidized antihypertensive medications. Materials and Methods: The IPAH registry was opened in November 2009. Information of IPAH and PAH patients with a username and password were uploaded in the site. Data entry was possible only via the physicians and healthcare organizations via internet that were given a personalized username and password for entry. Following the patients’ profile submission, a scientific committee composed of a cardiologist and a pulmonologist who were selected by the Ministry of Health of Iran (MOH), evaluated the data. The eligibility of the patient to receive the medications was confirmed after evaluation. If the patient was eligible, 82% of the Bosentan cost was paid by MOH. Results: To date, one hundred and sixteen patients (82 females, 34 males) have been registered. The mean pulmonary artery pressure by right heart catheterization was 69.24±17 mmHg (ranging from 35 to 110 mmHg). Conclusion: The first online Iranian registry program for IPAH and PAH patients is believed to supply essential information for health care providers in the field. PMID:26528365

  6. Visual representations of Iranian transgenders.

    PubMed

    Shakerifar, Elhum

    2011-01-01

    Transsexuality in Iran has gained much attention and media coverage in the past few years, particularly in its questionable depiction as a permitted loophole for homosexuality, which is prohibited under Iran's Islamic-inspired legal system. Of course, attention in the West is also encouraged by the “shock” that sex change is available in Iran, a country that Western media and society delights in portraying as monolithically repressive. As a result, Iranian filmmakers inevitably have their own agendas, which are unsurprisingly brought into the film making process—from a desire to sell a product that will appeal to the Western market, to films that endorse specific socio-political agendas. This paper is an attempt to situate sex change and representations of sex change in Iran within a wider theoretical framework than the frequently reiterated conflation with homosexuality, and to open and engage with a wider debate concerning transsexuality in Iran, as well as to specifically analyze the representation of transexuality, in view of its current prominent presence in media. PMID:21910275

  7. Progress in developing DBTT determinations from miniature disk bend tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohse, G.; Ames, M.; Harling, O. K.

    1986-11-01

    Experiments to investigate the possibility of obtaining ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) data using bend tests of 3 mm diameter disks are described. A disk specimen 0.40 mm thick with two V-shaped grooves, 0.10 mm deep at right angles to each other along diameters of the disk face, is found to be suitable. In high strain-rate bend testing of materials which exhibit a Charpy V-notch (CVN) DBTT, such specimens undergo a marked change in load/deflection behavior as temperature is lowered. The temperature at which this transition occurs is 145-178 K below the CVN 68 J (50 ft-1b) temperature for three materials tested. There is some evidence that the miniature test transition correlates more consistently with the temperature at which CVN energy reaches a low value such as 7 J. This test offers interesting possibilities for in-service monitoring of critical components such as reactor pressure vessels. Further testing to investigate more fully the relationship between the miniature test and Charpy V-notch results is required.

  8. Miniature Ion-Mobility Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Frank T.

    2006-01-01

    The figure depicts a proposed miniature ion-mobility spectrometer that would be fabricated by micromachining. Unlike prior ion-mobility spectrometers, the proposed instrument would not be based on a time-of-flight principle and, consequently, would not have some of the disadvantageous characteristics of prior time-of-flight ion-mobility spectrometers. For example, one of these characteristics is the need for a bulky carrier-gas-feeding subsystem that includes a shutter gate to provide short pulses of gas in order to generate short pulses of ions. For another example, there is need for a complex device to generate pulses of ions from the pulses of gas and the device is capable of ionizing only a fraction of the incoming gas molecules; these characteristics preclude miniaturization. In contrast, the proposed instrument would not require a carrier-gas-feeding subsystem and would include a simple, highly compact device that would ionize all the molecules passing through it. The ionization device in the proposed instrument would be a 0.1-micron-thick dielectric membrane with metal electrodes on both sides. Small conical holes would be micromachined through the membrane and electrodes. An electric potential of the order of a volt applied between the membrane electrodes would give rise to an electric field of the order of several megavolts per meter in the submicron gap between the electrodes. An electric field of this magnitude would be sufficient to ionize all the molecules that enter the holes. Ionization (but not avalanche arcing) would occur because the distance between the ionizing electrodes would be less than the mean free path of gas molecules at the operating pressure of instrument. An accelerating grid would be located inside the instrument, downstream from the ionizing membrane. The electric potential applied to this grid would be negative relative to the potential on the inside electrode of the ionizing membrane and would be of a magnitude sufficient to

  9. Miniaturized cathodic arc plasma source

    DOEpatents

    Anders, Andre; MacGill, Robert A.

    2003-04-15

    A cathodic arc plasma source has an anode formed of a plurality of spaced baffles which extend beyond the active cathode surface of the cathode. With the open baffle structure of the anode, most macroparticles pass through the gaps between the baffles and reflect off the baffles out of the plasma stream that enters a filter. Thus the anode not only has an electrical function but serves as a prefilter. The cathode has a small diameter, e.g. a rod of about 1/4 inch (6.25 mm) diameter. Thus the plasma source output is well localized, even with cathode spot movement which is limited in area, so that it effectively couples into a miniaturized filter. With a small area cathode, the material eroded from the cathode needs to be replaced to maintain plasma production. Therefore, the source includes a cathode advancement or feed mechanism coupled to cathode rod. The cathode also requires a cooling mechanism. The movable cathode rod is housed in a cooled metal shield or tube which serves as both a current conductor, thus reducing ohmic heat produced in the cathode, and as the heat sink for heat generated at or near the cathode. Cooling of the cathode housing tube is done by contact with coolant at a place remote from the active cathode surface. The source is operated in pulsed mode at relatively high currents, about 1 kA. The high arc current can also be used to operate the magnetic filter. A cathodic arc plasma deposition system using this source can be used for the deposition of ultrathin amorphous hard carbon (a-C) films for the magnetic storage industry.

  10. Miniature EVA Software Defined Radio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pozhidaev, Aleksey

    2012-01-01

    As NASA embarks upon developing the Next-Generation Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) Radio for deep space exploration, the demands on EVA battery life will substantially increase. The number of modes and frequency bands required will continue to grow in order to enable efficient and complex multi-mode operations including communications, navigation, and tracking applications. Whether conducting astronaut excursions, communicating to soldiers, or first responders responding to emergency hazards, NASA has developed an innovative, affordable, miniaturized, power-efficient software defined radio that offers unprecedented power-efficient flexibility. This lightweight, programmable, S-band, multi-service, frequency- agile EVA software defined radio (SDR) supports data, telemetry, voice, and both standard and high-definition video. Features include a modular design, an easily scalable architecture, and the EVA SDR allows for both stationary and mobile battery powered handheld operations. Currently, the radio is equipped with an S-band RF section. However, its scalable architecture can accommodate multiple RF sections simultaneously to cover multiple frequency bands. The EVA SDR also supports multiple network protocols. It currently implements a Hybrid Mesh Network based on the 802.11s open standard protocol. The radio targets RF channel data rates up to 20 Mbps and can be equipped with a real-time operating system (RTOS) that can be switched off for power-aware applications. The EVA SDR's modular design permits implementation of the same hardware at all Network Nodes concept. This approach assures the portability of the same software into any radio in the system. It also brings several benefits to the entire system including reducing system maintenance, system complexity, and development cost.

  11. Miniature Bipolar Electrostatic Ion Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Frank T.

    2006-01-01

    The figure presents a concept of a bipolar miniature electrostatic ion thruster for maneuvering a small spacecraft. The ionization device in the proposed thruster would be a 0.1-micron-thick dielectric membrane with metal electrodes on both sides. Small conical holes would be micromachined through the membrane and electrodes. An electric potential of the order of a volt applied between the membrane electrodes would give rise to an electric field of the order of several mega-volts per meter in the submicron gap between the electrodes. An electric field of this magnitude would be sufficient to ionize all the molecules that enter the holes. In a thruster-based on this concept, one or more propellant gases would be introduced into such a membrane ionizer. Unlike in larger prior ion thrusters, all of the propellant molecules would be ionized. This thruster would be capable of bipolar operation. There would be two accelerator grids - one located forward and one located aft of the membrane ionizer. In one mode of operation, which one could denote the forward mode, positive ions leaving the ionizer on the backside would be accelerated to high momentum by an electric field between the ionizer and an accelerator grid. Electrons leaving the ionizer on the front side would be ejected into free space by a smaller accelerating field. The equality of the ion and electron currents would eliminate the need for an additional electron- or ion-emitting device to keep the spacecraft charge-neutral. In another mode of operation, which could denote the reverse mode, the polarities of the voltages applied to the accelerator grids and to the electrodes of the membrane ionizer would be the reverse of those of the forward mode. The reversal of electric fields would cause the ion and electrons to be ejected in the reverse of their forward mode directions, thereby giving rise to thrust in the direction opposite that of the forward mode.

  12. Language Choice among Iranians in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Namei, Shidrokh

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the language choice among Iranians in Sweden, both inside and outside the home domain. The data are collected from 188 participants through structured interviews and questionnaires. The results show that Persian is the main instrument of communication in the home domain between parents and children. However, some Swedish is…

  13. Teachability of Communication Strategies: An Iranian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maleki, Ataollah

    2007-01-01

    The possibility of teaching communication strategies and the feasibility of incorporating them into school syllabi have been a controversial issue. In the current study, 60 Iranian students were divided into two thirty-member classes; then two different textbooks, one with specific CS and the other without them, were chosen to be taught in the…

  14. 75 FR 48562 - Iranian Transactions Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-11

    ... Government of Iran, as that term is defined in the Iranian Transactions Regulations. The names of these... Iran was actively supporting terrorism as an instrument of state policy, the President prohibited the... policies of the Government of Iran, including its support for international terrorism, its efforts...

  15. Dysphoria and somatization in Iranian culture.

    PubMed Central

    Pliskin, K L

    1992-01-01

    Iranians express dysphoria through an undifferentiated term called narahati, meaning depressed, ill at ease, nervous, inconvenienced, or anxious. People try masking this emotion or express it in specific ways nonverbally, such as sulking or not eating. Two other dysphoric affects, sadness and anger, are not masked. Because of the social conception of persons being emotionally sensitive, the expression of narahati is guarded: expressing it not only could show that one is socially vulnerable, it could also make another sensitive empathic person narahat. The body is also sensitive, but to the physical world. Physical health is maintained by balancing a diet of "hot" and "cold" foods and avoiding exposure to cold and moisture. With the social and cultural problems brought on by revolution, war, immigration, and accommodation to a new society, Iranian refugees experience changes in family, role, status, finances, language, and other sociocultural ways of being that cause them to feel narahat and to express it verbally, nonverbally, or through somatization. Understanding Iranian conceptions of emotional and physical sensitivity will help clinicians in treating Iranian patients. PMID:1413773

  16. Apology Strategies of Iranian Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tehrani, Mohammad Dadkhah; Rezaei, Omid; Dezhara, Salman; Kafrani, Reza Soltani

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the different primary and secondary strategies the Iranian EFL students use in different situations and the effect of gender on this. A questionnaire was developed based on Sugimoto's (1995) to compare the apology strategies used by male and female students, only gender was examined as a variable. The results showed that…

  17. The Feminisation of Iranian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shavarini, Mitra K.

    2005-01-01

    The number of women attending institutions of higher education in Iran has been steadily increasing since 1989. Growing enrollment rates for women in colleges and universities have sparked wide social and political debates in that country. The basic question of why young Iranian women might even choose to pursue tertiary education, however, has…

  18. 78 FR 16403 - Iranian Financial Sanctions Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ...The Department of the Treasury's Office of Foreign Assets Control is amending the Iranian Financial Sanctions Regulations (the ``IFSR'') to implement sections 503 and 504 of the Iran Threat Reduction and Syria Human Rights Act of 2012, which amended section 1245 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2012; and section 1, portions of section 6, and other related provisions of......

  19. Iranian Validation of the Identity Style Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Shokri, Omid

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate the Iranian version of the Identity Style Inventory (ISI). Participants were 376 (42% males) university students. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed a clear three-factor structure of identity style and a mono-factor structure of commitment in the overall sample as well as in gender subgroups. Convergent…

  20. Advances in miniature spectrometer and sensor development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinen, Jouko; Rissanen, Anna; Saari, Heikki; Karioja, Pentti; Karppinen, Mikko; Aalto, Timo; Tukkiniemi, Kari

    2014-05-01

    Miniaturization and cost reduction of spectrometer and sensor technologies has great potential to open up new applications areas and business opportunities for analytical technology in hand held, mobile and on-line applications. Advances in microfabrication have resulted in high-performance MEMS and MOEMS devices for spectrometer applications. Many other enabling technologies are useful for miniature analytical solutions, such as silicon photonics, nanoimprint lithography (NIL), system-on-chip, system-on-package techniques for integration of electronics and photonics, 3D printing, powerful embedded computing platforms, networked solutions as well as advances in chemometrics modeling. This paper will summarize recent work on spectrometer and sensor miniaturization at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) tunable filter technology has been developed in two technical versions: Piezoactuated FPIs have been applied in miniature hyperspectral imaging needs in light weight UAV and nanosatellite applications, chemical imaging as well as medical applications. Microfabricated MOEMS FPIs have been developed as cost-effective sensor platforms for visible, NIR and IR applications. Further examples of sensor miniaturization will be discussed, including system-on-package sensor head for mid-IR gas analyzer, roll-to-roll printed Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) technology as well as UV imprinted waveguide sensor for formaldehyde detection.

  1. A Laser Interferometric Miniature Sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, Dustin W., PhD.; Baldwin, Patrick C.; Milburn, Howard; Robinson, David

    2011-09-12

    This is the second year of a Phase II Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract geared towards the development of a new seismic sensor. Ground-based seismic monitoring systems have proven to be very capable in identifying nuclear tests, and can provide somewhat precise information on the location and yield of the explosive device. Making these measurements, however, currently requires very expensive and bulky seismometers that are difficult to deploy in places where they are most needed. A high performance, compact device can enable rapid deployment of large scale arrays, which can in turn be used to provide higher quality data during times of critical need. The use of a laser interferometer-based device has shown considerable promise, while also presenting significant challenges. The greatest strength of this optical readout technique is the ability to decouple the mechanical design from the transducer, thus enabling a miniaturized design that is not accessible with conventional sensing techniques. However, the nonlinearity in the optical response must be accounted for in the sensor output. Previously, we had proposed using a force-feedback approach to position the sensor at a point of maximum linearity. However, it can be shown that the combined nonlinearities of the optical response and the force-feedback curve necessarily results in a significant amount of unwanted noise at low frequencies. Having realized this, we have developed a new approach that eliminates force feedback, allowing the proof mass to move freely at all times. This takes advantage of some advanced optical spatial filtering that was developed at Symphony Acoustics for other types of sensors, and was recently adapted to this work. After processing the signals in real time, the digital output of the device is intrinsically linear, and the sensor can operate at any orientation with the same level of resolution, while instantly adapting to significant changes in orientation. Ultimately, we

  2. Miniature Long-life Space Cryocoolers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tward, E.

    1993-01-01

    TRW has designed, built, and tested a miniature integral Stirling cooler and a miniature pulse tube cooler intended for long-life space application. Both efficient, low-vibration coolers were developed for cooling IR sensors to temperatures as low as 50 K on lightsats. The vibrationally balanced nonwearing design Stirling cooler incorporates clearance seals maintained by flexure springs for both the compressor and the drive displacer. The design achieved its performance goal of 0.25 W at 65 K for an input power to the compressor of 12 W. The cooler recently passed launch vibration tests prior to its entry into an extended life test and its first scheduled flight in 1995. The vibrationally balanced, miniature pulse tube cooler intended for a 10-year long-life space application incorporates a flexure bearing compressor vibrationally balanced by a motor-controlled balancer and a completely passive pulse tube cold head.

  3. Fabrication method for miniature plastic gripper

    DOEpatents

    Benett, W.J.; Krulevitch, P.A.; Lee, A.P.; Northrup, M.A.; Folta, J.A.

    1998-07-21

    A miniature plastic gripper is described actuated by inflation of a miniature balloon and method of fabricating same. The gripper is constructed of either heat-shrinkable or heat-expandable plastic tubing and is formed around a mandrel, then cut to form gripper prongs or jaws and the mandrel removed. The gripper is connected at one end with a catheter or tube having an actuating balloon at its tip, whereby the gripper is opened or dosed by inflation or deflation of the balloon. The gripper is designed to removably retain a member to which is connected a quantity or medicine, plugs, or micro-components. The miniature plastic gripper is inexpensive to fabricate and can be used for various applications, such as gripping, sorting, or placing of micron-scale particles for analysis. 8 figs.

  4. Fabrication method for miniature plastic gripper

    DOEpatents

    Benett, William J.; Krulevitch, Peter A.; Lee, Abraham P.; Northrup, Milton A.; Folta, James A.

    1998-01-01

    A miniature plastic gripper actuated by inflation of a miniature balloon and method of fabricating same. The gripper is constructed of either heat-shrinkable or heat-expandable plastic tubing and is formed around a mandrel, then cut to form gripper prongs or jaws and the mandrel removed. The gripper is connected at one end with a catheter or tube having an actuating balloon at its tip, whereby the gripper is opened or dosed by inflation or deflation of the balloon. The gripper is designed to removably retain a member to which is connected a quantity or medicine, plugs, or micro-components. The miniature plastic gripper is inexpensive to fabricate and can be used for various applications, such as gripping, sorting, or placing of micron-scale particles for analysis.

  5. Miniature plastic gripper and fabrication method

    DOEpatents

    Benett, W.J.; Krulevitch, P.A.; Lee, A.P.; Northrup, M.A.; Folta, J.A.

    1997-03-11

    A miniature plastic gripper actuated by inflation of a miniature balloon and method of fabricating same are disclosed. The gripper is constructed of either heat-shrinkable or heat-expandable plastic tubing and is formed around a mandrel, then cut to form gripper prongs or jaws and the mandrel removed. The gripper is connected at one end with a catheter or tube having an actuating balloon at its tip, whereby the gripper is opened or closed by inflation or deflation of the balloon. The gripper is designed to removably retain a member to which is connected a quantity or medicine, plugs, or micro-components. The miniature plastic gripper is inexpensive to fabricate and can be used for various applications, such as gripping, sorting, or placing of micron-scale particles for analysis. 8 figs.

  6. Miniature plastic gripper and fabrication method

    DOEpatents

    Benett, William J.; Krulevitch, Peter A.; Lee, Abraham P.; Northrup, Milton A.; Folta, James A.

    1997-01-01

    A miniature plastic gripper actuated by inflation of a miniature balloon and method of fabricating same. The gripper is constructed of either heat-shrinkable or heat-expandable plastic tubing and is formed around a mandrel, then cut to form gripper prongs or jaws and the mandrel removed. The gripper is connected at one end with a catheter or tube having an actuating balloon at its tip, whereby the gripper is opened or closed by inflation or deflation of the balloon. The gripper is designed to removably retain a member to which is connected a quantity or medicine, plugs, or micro-components. The miniature plastic gripper is inexpensive to fabricate and can be used for various applications, such as gripping, sorting, or placing of micron-scale particles for analysis.

  7. Goniometry and Limb Girth in Miniature Dachshunds

    PubMed Central

    Thomovsky, Stephanie A.; Chen, Annie V.; Kiszonas, Alecia M.; Lutskas, Lori A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To report the mean and median pelvic limb joint angles and girth measurements in miniature Dachshunds presenting with varying degrees of pelvic limb weakness secondary to thoracolumbar intervertebral disc extrusion. Methods. 15 miniature Dachshunds who presented to WSU-VTH for thoracolumbar disc extrusion. Dachshunds varied in neurologic status from ambulatory paraparetic to paraplegic at the time of measurements. Results. There were no significant differences in joint angles or girth among the three groups (ambulatory paraparetic, nonambulatory paraparetic, or paraplegic) (P > 0.05). When group was disregarded and values for extension, flexion, and girth combined, no differences existed. Conclusions. Goniometry and limb girth measurements can successfully be made in the miniature Dachshund; however, the shape of the Dachshund leg makes obtaining these values challenging. There were no differences in joint angle or girth measurements between dogs with varying neurologic dysfunction at the time of measurement. PMID:27403455

  8. FY 2006 Miniature Spherical Retroreflectors Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Anheier, Norman C.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Krishnaswami, Kannan

    2006-12-28

    Research done by the Infrared Photonics team at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is focused on developing miniature spherical retroreflectors using the unique optical and material properties of chalcogenide glass to reduce both performance limiting spherical aberrations. The optimized optical performance will provide efficient signal retroreflection that enables a broad range of remote detection scenarios for mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) sensing applications. Miniature spherical retroreflectors can be developed to aid in the detection of signatures of nuclear proliferation or other chemical vapor or radiation signatures. Miniature spherical retroreflectors are not only well suited to traditional LIDAR methods for chemical plume detection and identification, but could enable remote detection of difficult semi-volatile chemical materials or low level radiation sources.

  9. Electronic systems miniaturization using programmable logic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Ashton, E.C.; Bergeson, G.C.

    1990-10-01

    This report describes the steps which were taken to miniaturize a target circuit using Erasable Programmable Logic Devices (EPLDs). The original objective of this project was to explore the miniaturization of a circuit using both Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) and EPLDs to meet the following goals: balance cost and circuit density; reduce fabrication time; improve quality control issues by keeping much of the design in-house; and eliminate security risks by partitioning the design into ASIC and PLD (EPLD) sections. Due to cost considerations, the target circuit was miniaturized using only PLDs. The results of this project indicate that PLDs are capable of realizing fairly dense circuitry, are considerably less expensive than ASICs (by a factor of 500--1000), and are able to eliminate security risks and reduce fabrication time by keeping the design completely in-house.

  10. Compact Miniaturized Antenna for 210 MHz RFID

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Richard Q.; Chun, Kue

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the design and simulation of a miniaturized square-ring antenna. The miniaturized antenna, with overall dimensions of approximately one tenth of a wavelength (0.1 ), was designed to operate at around 210 MHz, and was intended for radio-frequency identification (RFID) application. One unique feature of the design is the use of a parasitic element to improve the performance and impedance matching of the antenna. The use of parasitic elements to enhance the gain and bandwidth of patch antennas has been demonstrated and reported in the literature, but such use has never been applied to miniaturized antennas. In this work, we will present simulation results and discuss design parameters and their impact on the antenna performance.

  11. Method and system for assembling miniaturized devices

    DOEpatents

    Montesanti, Richard C.; Klingmann, Jeffrey L.; Seugling, Richard M.

    2013-03-12

    An apparatus for assembling a miniaturized device includes a manipulator system including six manipulators operable to position and orient components of the miniaturized device with submicron precision and micron-level accuracy. The manipulator system includes a first plurality of motorized axes, a second plurality of manual axes, and force and torque and sensors. Each of the six manipulators includes at least one translation stage, at least one rotation stage, tooling attached to the at least one translation stage or the at least one rotation stage, and an attachment mechanism disposed at a distal end of the tooling and operable to attach at least a portion of the miniaturized device to the tooling. The apparatus also includes an optical coordinate-measuring machine (OCMM) including a machine-vision system, a laser-based distance-measuring probe, and a touch probe. The apparatus also includes an operator control system coupled to the manipulator system and the OCMM.

  12. FY 2005 Miniature Spherical Retroreflectors Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Anheier, Norman C.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Johnson, Bradley R.; Riley, Brian J.; Sliger, William A.

    2005-12-01

    Research done by the Infrared Photonics team at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is focused on developing miniature spherical retroreflectors using the unique optical and material properties of chalcogenide glass to reduce both performance limiting spherical and chromatic aberrations. The optimized optical performance will provide efficient signal retroreflection that enables a broad range of remote detection scenarios for mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) sensing applications. Miniature spherical retroreflectors can be developed to aid in the detection of signatures of nuclear proliferation or other chemical vapor or radiation signatures. Miniature spherical retroreflectors are not only well suited to traditional bistatic LIDAR methods for chemical plume detection and identification, but could enable remote detection of difficult semi-volatile chemical materials or low level radiation sources.

  13. Coulomb Repulsion in Miniature Ion Mobility Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, J.; Whitten, W.B.; Ramsey, J.M.

    1999-08-08

    We have undertaken a study of ion mobility resolution in a miniature ion mobility spectrometer with a drift channel 1.7 mm in diameter and 35 mm in length. The device attained a maximum resolution of 14 in separating ions of NO, O{sub 2}, and methyl iodine. The ions were generated by pulses from a frequency-quadrupled Nd:YAG laser. Broadening due to Coulomb repulsion was modeled theoretically and shown experimentally to have a major effect on the resolution of the miniature device.

  14. Miniature rotating transmissive optical drum scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Robert (Inventor); Parrington, Lawrence (Inventor); Rutberg, Michael (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A miniature rotating transmissive optical scanner system employs a drum of small size having an interior defined by a circumferential wall rotatable on a drum axis, an optical element positioned within the interior of the drum, and a light-transmissive lens aperture provided at an angular position in the circumferential wall of the drum for scanning a light beam to or from the optical element in the drum along a beam azimuth angle as the drum is rotated. The miniature optical drum scanner configuration obtains a wide scanning field-of-view (FOV) and large effective aperture is achieved within a physically small size.

  15. Continuous flow nitration in miniaturized devices

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Summary This review highlights the state of the art in the field of continuous flow nitration with miniaturized devices. Although nitration has been one of the oldest and most important unit reactions, the advent of miniaturized devices has paved the way for new opportunities to reconsider the conventional approach for exothermic and selectivity sensitive nitration reactions. Four different approaches to flow nitration with microreactors are presented herein and discussed in view of their advantages, limitations and applicability of the information towards scale-up. Selected recent patents that disclose scale-up methodologies for continuous flow nitration are also briefly reviewed. PMID:24605161

  16. Batch fabrication of precision miniature permanent magnets

    DOEpatents

    Christenson, Todd R.; Garino, Terry J.; Venturini, Eugene L.

    2002-01-01

    A new class of processes for fabrication of precision miniature rare earth permanent magnets is disclosed. Such magnets typically have sizes in the range 0.1 to 10 millimeters, and dimensional tolerances as small as one micron. Very large magnetic fields can be produced by such magnets, lending to their potential application in MEMS and related electromechanical applications, and in miniature millimeter-wave vacuum tubes. This abstract contains simplifications, and is supplied only for purposes of searching, not to limit or alter the scope or meaning of any claims herein.

  17. Research on miniature gas analysis systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angell, J. B.

    1974-01-01

    Technology for fabricating very small valves, whose function will be to introduce a small sample of the gas to be analyzed into the main carrier gas stream flowing through the chromatograph column is described. In addition, some analyses were made of the factors governing the resolution of gas chromatographs, particularly those with miniature columns. These analyses show how important the column lining thickness is in governing the ability of a miniature column to separate components of an unknown gas. A brief description of column lining factors is included. Preliminary work on a super small thermistor detector is included.

  18. Miniature biotelemeter gives multichannel wideband biomedical data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carraway, J. B.

    1972-01-01

    A miniature biotelemeter was developed for sensing and transmitting multiple channels of biomedical data over a radio link. The design of this miniature, 10-channel, wideband (5 kHz/channel), pulse amplitude modulation/ frequency modulation biotelemeter takes advantage of modern device technology (e.g., integrated circuit operational amplifiers, complementary symmetry/metal oxide semiconductor logic, and solid state switches) and hybrid packaging techniques. The telemeter is being used to monitor 10 channels of neuron firings from specific regions of the brain in rats implanted with chronic electrodes. Design, fabrication, and testing of an engineering model biotelemeter are described.

  19. Antineutrino Monitoring for Heavy Water Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Eric; Huber, Patrick; Jaffke, Patrick; Shea, Thomas E.

    2014-07-01

    In this Letter we discuss the potential application of antineutrino monitoring to the Iranian heavy water reactor at Arak, the IR-40, as a nonproliferation measure. An above ground detector positioned right outside the IR-40 reactor building could meet IAEA verification goals for reactor plutonium inventories. While detectors with the needed spectral sensitivity have been demonstrated below ground, additional research and development is needed to demonstrate an above-ground detector with this same level of sensitivity. In addition to monitoring the reactor during operation, observing antineutrino emissions from long-lived fission products could also allow monitoring the reactor when it is shut down, provided very low detector backgrounds can be achieved. Antineutrino monitoring could also be used to distinguish different levels of fuel enrichment. Most importantly, these capabilities would not require a complete reactor operational history and could provide a means to reestablish continuity of knowledge in safeguards conclusions should this become necessary.

  20. Two Views of Islam: Ceramic Tile Design and Miniatures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macaulay, Sara Grove

    2001-01-01

    Describes an art project focusing on Islamic art that consists of two parts: (1) ceramic tile design; and (2) Islamic miniatures. Provides background information on Islamic art and step-by-step instructions for designing the Islamic tile and miniature. Includes learning objectives and resources on Islamic tile miniatures. (CMK)

  1. A miniature mass spectrometer for hydrazine detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houseman, J.; Sinha, M. P.

    2003-01-01

    A Miniature Mass Spectrometer (MMS) with a focal plane (Mattauch-Herzog) geometry has been developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The MMS has the potential to meet the NASA requirements of 10 parts per billion sensitivity for Hydrazine detection, as well as the requirements for instant response, portability, and low maintenance.

  2. Miniaturization of EISCAP sensor for triglyceride detection.

    PubMed

    Vemulachedu, Hareesh; Fernandez, Renny Edwin; Bhattacharya, Enakshi; Chadha, Anju

    2009-12-01

    In this paper we discuss the fabrication and characterization of miniaturized triglyceride biosensors on crystalline silicon and porous silicon (PS) substrates. The sensors are miniaturized Electrolyte Insulator Semiconductor Capacitors (mini-EISCAPs), which primarily sense the pH variation of the electrolyte used. The lipase enzyme, which catalyses the hydrolysis of triglycerides, was immobilized on the sensor surface. Triglyceride solutions introduced into the enzyme immobilized sensor produced butyric acid which causes the change in pH of the electrolyte. Miniaturized EISCAP sensors were fabricated using bulk micromachining technique and have silicon nitride as the pH sensitive dielectric layer. The sensors are cubical pits of dimensions 1,500 microm x 1,500 microm x 100 microm which can hold an electrolyte volume of 0.1 microl. The pH changes in the solution can be sensed through the EISCAP sensors by monitoring the flatband voltage shift in the Capacitance-Voltage (C-V) characteristics taken during the course of the reaction. The reaction rate is found to be quite high in the miniature cells when compared to the sensors of bigger dimensions. PMID:18649048

  3. Miniature pulse tube cooler at 100HZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Houlei; Xu, Nana; Yin, Chuanlin; Cai, Jinghui; Liang, Jingtao

    2012-06-01

    Miniature pulse tube coolers operating at 100Hz have been designed and manufactured. The regenerator is designed by REGEN 3.2, and the inertance tube is simulated by DeltaE. An in-line prototype is manufactured according to the theoretical design parameters initially. On that basis, a coaxial cooler is developed and with double inlet it gains higher cooling performance.

  4. Miniaturized symmetrization optics for junction laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammer, Jacob M. (Inventor); Kaiser, Charlie J. (Inventor); Neil, Clyde C. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    Miniaturized optics comprising transverse and lateral cylindrical lenses composed of millimeter-sized rods with diameters, indices-of-refraction and spacing such that substantially all the light emitted as an asymmetrical beam from the emitting junction of the laser is collected and translated to a symmetrical beam.

  5. Miniature Marimbas: Migrant Workers' Memories of Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Jayne

    1995-01-01

    Three Mexican migrant workers attending classes at Geneseo (New York) Migrant Center used leftover art materials to represent their home village in miniature. A spontaneous artistic expression, the objects allowed the men an opportunity to reminisce and reinforce cultural and interpersonal ties, and gave insight about their background and culture…

  6. Miniature Housings for Electronics With Standard Interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, David E.; Smith, Dennis A.; Alhorn, Dean C.

    2006-01-01

    A family of general-purpose miniature housings has been designed to contain diverse sensors, actuators, and drive circuits plus associated digital electronic readout and control circuits. The circuits contained in the housings communicate with the external world via standard RS-485 interfaces.

  7. MINIATURE ACID CONDENSATION SYSTEM: DESIGN AND OPERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    An extractive source sampling system was designed and constructed. The sampling system measures gaseous sulfuric acid and sulfur dioxide in combustion emissions. The miniature acid condensation system (MACS) includes a high-temperature quartz probe and quartz-filter holder. Since...

  8. Body Satisfaction and Management in Iranian Students

    PubMed Central

    Garousi, Saeide; Garrusi, Behshid; Divsalar, Fatemeh; Divsalar, Kouros

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Despite the importance of body satisfaction on self concept and well being, there is little study about it or its consequences in Iranian populations, a part of Asian culture. The aim of this study was the assessment of body satisfaction and body management strategies in Iranian university students. Work method: This survey was performed based on a self-administrated questionnaire in 535 university and post graduate students. Work results: About 2/3rd of the students had moderate to severe body dissatisfaction and 40% of the students were using body management methods. Rhinoplasty and heavy exercise were the most frequent body management methods in women and men, respectively. Conclusion: Widespread research on body satisfaction prevalence and its management behaviors in the general population can be effective in reducing the negative health, social and economic consequences of harmful behaviors. PMID:23922514

  9. Miniature Scroll Pumps Fabricated by LIGA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiberg, Dean; Shcheglov, Kirill; White, Victor; Bae, Sam

    2009-01-01

    Miniature scroll pumps have been proposed as roughing pumps (low - vacuum pumps) for miniature scientific instruments (e.g., portable mass spectrometers and gas analyzers) that depend on vacuum. The larger scroll pumps used as roughing pumps in some older vacuum systems are fabricated by conventional machining. Typically, such an older scroll pump includes (1) an electric motor with an eccentric shaft to generate orbital motion of a scroll and (2) conventional bearings to restrict the orbital motion to a circle. The proposed miniature scroll pumps would differ from the prior, larger ones in both design and fabrication. A miniature scroll pump would include two scrolls: one mounted on a stationary baseplate and one on a flexure stage (see figure). An electromagnetic actuator in the form of two pairs of voice coils in a push-pull configuration would make the flexure stage move in the desired circular orbit. The capacitance between the scrolls would be monitored to provide position (gap) feedback to a control system that would adjust the drive signals applied to the voice coils to maintain the circular orbit as needed for precise sealing of the scrolls. To minimize power consumption and maximize precision of control, the flexure stage would be driven at the frequency of its mechanical resonance. The miniaturization of these pumps would entail both operational and manufacturing tolerances of <1 m. Such tight tolerances cannot be achieved easily by conventional machining of high-aspect-ratio structures like those of scroll-pump components. In addition, the vibrations of conventional motors and ball bearings exceed these tight tolerances by an order of magnitude. Therefore, the proposed pumps would be fabricated by the microfabrication method known by the German acronym LIGA ( lithographie, galvanoformung, abformung, which means lithography, electroforming, molding) because LIGA has been shown to be capable of providing the required tolerances at large aspect ratios.

  10. Substance Abuse among Iranian High School Students

    PubMed Central

    Momtazi, Saeed; Rawson, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review In this study, we reviewed data on drug use among high school students in Iran. Recent findings Published epidemiological studies in international and domestic journals show that drug use/abuse is a serious mental health problem in Iran. There is cultural support for opium in Iran, and also there is cultural tolerance for tobacco smoking, especially as water pipe smoking, in Iranian families. Alcohol, opium, and cannabis are the most frequently used illicit drugs, but there are new emerging problems with anabolic steroids, ecstasy, and stimulant substances, such as crystal methamphetamine. Summary There is serious drug abuse problem among Iranian high school students. It could be due to role-modeling by parents – mainly fathers – and also cultural tolerance of some substances. Early onset of tobacco smoking, with a daily use rate between 4.4% and 12.8% in high school students, is an important risk factor for other drug abuse problems. Use of all types of drugs, except prescription drugs, is more prevalent among boys. Alcohol is the most frequently abused substance, with a lifetime rate of at least 9.9%. Lifetime rates of opiate use – mostly opium – were between 1.2 an 8.6% in different parts of the country. As drug abuse is a frequent problem among Iranian high school students, it is necessary to design and implement drug prevention programs to protect them. Such programs, including life skills training and drug education, have been operating in recent years for Iranian students from kindergarten to the university level. PMID:20308905

  11. Aftershock Decay Rates in the Iranian Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ommi, S.; Zafarani, H.; Zare, M.

    2016-07-01

    Motivated by the desire to have more information following the occurrence of damaging events, the main purpose of this article is to study aftershock sequence parameters in the Iranian plateau. To this end, the catalogue of the Iranian earthquakes between 2002 to the end of 2013 has been collected and homogenized among which 15 earthquakes have been selected to study their aftershock decay rates. For different tectonic provinces, the completeness magnitudes ( M c) of the earthquake catalogue have been calculated in different time intervals. Also, the M c variability in spatial and temporal windows has been determined for each selected event. For major Iranian earthquakes, catalogue of aftershocks has been collected thanks to three declustering methods: first, the classical windowing method of Gardner and Knopoff (Bull Seismol Soc Am 64:1363-1367, 1974); second, a modified version of this using spatial windowing based on the Wells and Coppersmith (Bull Seismol Soc Am 84:974-1002, 1994) relations; and third, the Burkhard and Grünthal (Swiss J Geosci 102:149-188, 2009) scheme. Effects of the temporal windows also have been investigated using the time periods of 1 month, 100 days, and 1 year in the declustering method of Gardner and Knopoff (Bull Seismol Soc Am 64:1363-1367, 1974). In the next step, the modified Omori law coefficients have been calculated for the 15 selected earthquakes. The calibrated regional generic model describing the temporal and magnitude distribution of aftershocks is of interest for time-dependent seismic hazard forecasts. The regional characteristics of the aftershock decay rates have been studied for the selected Iranian earthquakes in the Alborz, Zagros and Central Iran regions considering their different seismotectonics regimes. However, due to the lack of sufficient data, no results have been reported for the Kopeh-Dagh and Makran seismotectonic regions.

  12. Organizational Citizenship Behavior Among Iranian Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Dargahi, H; Alirezaie, S; Shaham, G

    2012-01-01

    Background: Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) is defined as “individual behavior that is discretionary, not directly or explicitly recognized by the formal reward system, and that in the aggregate, promotes the effective functioning of organization”. OCB, enhance job satisfaction among nursing employees. According to several findings, nurses’ OCB have a positive and significant influence on job satisfaction. This research is aimed to study OCB among Iranian nurses. Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical study was conducted among 510 nurses working in 15 teaching hospitals in Tehran, Iran to be selected by stratified random sampling. The respondents were asked to complete Netemeyer’s organizational citizenship behavior questionnaire that encompassed four dimensions of OCB including Sportsmanship, Civil Virtue, Conscientiousness, Altruism and selected each item of OCB dimensions and identified their attitudes about OCB items were observed in hospitals of Tehran. The data was analyzed by T-test, ANOVA and Pearson statistical methods. Results: The results of this research showed that most of the nurses who studied in this study, had OCB behaviors. Also, we found that there was significant correlation between Iranian nurses’ marriage status, qualifications and gender with sportsmanship, altruism and civic virtue. Conclusion: This research demonstrates the existence of OCB among Iranian nurses that are essential in developing patient – oriented behavior. The results can be used to develop further nursing management strategies for enhancement of OCB. Finally, the present study indicates new possibilities for future researches such as analysis and comparison of OCB between different hospitals and how nursing policy-makers can enhance these behaviors in Iranian hospitals. PMID:23113181

  13. Complete Mitochondrial DNA Diversity in Iranians

    PubMed Central

    Derenko, Miroslava; Malyarchuk, Boris; Bahmanimehr, Ardeshir; Denisova, Galina; Perkova, Maria; Farjadian, Shirin; Yepiskoposyan, Levon

    2013-01-01

    Due to its pivotal geographical location and proximity to transcontinental migratory routes, Iran has played a key role in subsequent migrations, both prehistoric and historic, between Africa, Asia and Europe. To shed light on the genetic structure of the Iranian population as well as on the expansion patterns and population movements which affected this region, the complete mitochondrial genomes of 352 Iranians were obtained. All Iranian populations studied here exhibit similarly high diversity values comparable to the other groups from the Caucasus, Anatolia and Europe. The results of AMOVA and MDS analyses did not associate any regional and/or linguistic group of populations in the Anatolia/Caucasus and Iran region pointing to close genetic positions of Persians and Qashqais to each other and to Armenians, and Azeris from Iran to Georgians. By reconstructing the complete mtDNA phylogeny of haplogroups R2, N3, U1, U3, U5a1g, U7, H13, HV2, HV12, M5a and C5c we have found a previously unexplored genetic connection between the studied Iranian populations and the Arabian Peninsula, India, Near East and Europe, likely the result of both ancient and recent gene flow. Our results for Persians and Qashqais point to a continuous increase of the population sizes from ∼24 kya to the present, although the phase between 14-24 kya is thought to be hyperarid according to the Gulf Oasis model. Since this would have affected hunter-gatherer ranges and mobility patterns and forced them to increasingly rely on coastal resources, this transition can explain the human expansion across the Persian Gulf region. PMID:24244704

  14. Complete mitochondrial DNA diversity in Iranians.

    PubMed

    Derenko, Miroslava; Malyarchuk, Boris; Bahmanimehr, Ardeshir; Denisova, Galina; Perkova, Maria; Farjadian, Shirin; Yepiskoposyan, Levon

    2013-01-01

    Due to its pivotal geographical location and proximity to transcontinental migratory routes, Iran has played a key role in subsequent migrations, both prehistoric and historic, between Africa, Asia and Europe. To shed light on the genetic structure of the Iranian population as well as on the expansion patterns and population movements which affected this region, the complete mitochondrial genomes of 352 Iranians were obtained. All Iranian populations studied here exhibit similarly high diversity values comparable to the other groups from the Caucasus, Anatolia and Europe. The results of AMOVA and MDS analyses did not associate any regional and/or linguistic group of populations in the Anatolia/Caucasus and Iran region pointing to close genetic positions of Persians and Qashqais to each other and to Armenians, and Azeris from Iran to Georgians. By reconstructing the complete mtDNA phylogeny of haplogroups R2, N3, U1, U3, U5a1g, U7, H13, HV2, HV12, M5a and C5c we have found a previously unexplored genetic connection between the studied Iranian populations and the Arabian Peninsula, India, Near East and Europe, likely the result of both ancient and recent gene flow. Our results for Persians and Qashqais point to a continuous increase of the population sizes from ∼24 kya to the present, although the phase between 14-24 kya is thought to be hyperarid according to the Gulf Oasis model. Since this would have affected hunter-gatherer ranges and mobility patterns and forced them to increasingly rely on coastal resources, this transition can explain the human expansion across the Persian Gulf region. PMID:24244704

  15. Aftershock Decay Rates in the Iranian Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ommi, S.; Zafarani, H.; Zare, M.

    2016-04-01

    Motivated by the desire to have more information following the occurrence of damaging events, the main purpose of this article is to study aftershock sequence parameters in the Iranian plateau. To this end, the catalogue of the Iranian earthquakes between 2002 to the end of 2013 has been collected and homogenized among which 15 earthquakes have been selected to study their aftershock decay rates. For different tectonic provinces, the completeness magnitudes (M c) of the earthquake catalogue have been calculated in different time intervals. Also, the M c variability in spatial and temporal windows has been determined for each selected event. For major Iranian earthquakes, catalogue of aftershocks has been collected thanks to three declustering methods: first, the classical windowing method of uc(Gardner) and uc(Knopoff) (Bull Seismol Soc Am 64:1363-1367, 1974); second, a modified version of this using spatial windowing based on the uc(Wells) and uc(Coppersmith) (Bull Seismol Soc Am 84:974-1002, 1994) relations; and third, the uc(Burkhard) and uc(Grünthal) (Swiss J Geosci 102:149-188, 2009) scheme. Effects of the temporal windows also have been investigated using the time periods of 1 month, 100 days, and 1 year in the declustering method of uc(Gardner) and uc(Knopoff) (Bull Seismol Soc Am 64:1363-1367, 1974). In the next step, the modified Omori law coefficients have been calculated for the 15 selected earthquakes. The calibrated regional generic model describing the temporal and magnitude distribution of aftershocks is of interest for time-dependent seismic hazard forecasts. The regional characteristics of the aftershock decay rates have been studied for the selected Iranian earthquakes in the Alborz, Zagros and Central Iran regions considering their different seismotectonics regimes. However, due to the lack of sufficient data, no results have been reported for the Kopeh-Dagh and Makran seismotectonic regions.

  16. Iranian Common Attitude Toward Opium Consumption.

    PubMed

    Zarghami, Mehran

    2015-06-01

    Iran is suffering from the 2(nd) most severe addiction to opioids in the world. While the explanation of this enormous drug problem is refutably related to drug trafficking, the drug dilemma also illustrates the chain reaction of the imposed war with Iraq in 1980 - 88; the problems of poverty, unemployment, urbanization, homelessness, adultery, family crises, divorce, domestic violence, and runaway children. Although opium addiction often linked to these factors, drug use is common among all social classes. It seems that a positive traditional attitude is another reason for widespread raw opium use in this country. A survey in Iranian literature reveals that famous Iranian poets, who have a substantial contribution on cultural attitude formation of Iranian population, have used the phrase "Teriac" (raw opium) as a means of "antidote" a substance that treats every disease. It seems that a concrete deduction from the literature has been leaden to a positive attitude towards opium consumption in Persian culture. Recent research also supports this idea. Many patients use raw opium as a pain killer or for treating hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes and other chronic diseases; most of them had started the use after developing the disease and the remaining had increased the consumption after developing the disease. Regarding this superstitious common belief, drug control headquarters should focus on education and correction of the faulty unhealthy attitude toward opium consumption. PMID:26288642

  17. The Iranian model of living renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Mahdavi-Mazdeh, Mitra

    2012-09-01

    Organ shortage for transplantation remains a worldwide serious problem for kidney patients with end-stage renal failure, and several countries have tried different models to address this issue. Iran has 20 years of experience with one such model that involves the active role of the government and charity foundations. Patients with a desperate demand for a kidney have given rise to a black market of brokers and other forms of organ commercialism only accessible to those with sufficient financial resources. The current Iranian model has enabled most of the Iranian kidney transplant candidates, irrespective of socioeconomic class, to have access to kidney transplantation. The Iranian government has committed a large budget through funding hospital and staff at the Ministry of Health and Medical Education by supporting the brain death donation (BDD) program or redirecting part of the budget of living unrelated renal donation (LURD) to the BDD program. It has been shown that it did not prevent the development and progression of a BDD program. However, the LURD program is characterized by several controversial procedures (e.g., confrontation of donor and recipient at the end of the evaluation procedure along with some financial interactions) that should be ethically reviewed. Operational weaknesses such as the lack of a registration system and long-term follow-up of the donors are identified as the 'Achilles heel of the model'. PMID:22673884

  18. Iranian Common Attitude Toward Opium Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Zarghami, Mehran

    2015-01-01

    Iran is suffering from the 2nd most severe addiction to opioids in the world. While the explanation of this enormous drug problem is refutably related to drug trafficking, the drug dilemma also illustrates the chain reaction of the imposed war with Iraq in 1980 - 88; the problems of poverty, unemployment, urbanization, homelessness, adultery, family crises, divorce, domestic violence, and runaway children. Although opium addiction often linked to these factors, drug use is common among all social classes. It seems that a positive traditional attitude is another reason for widespread raw opium use in this country. A survey in Iranian literature reveals that famous Iranian poets, who have a substantial contribution on cultural attitude formation of Iranian population, have used the phrase “Teriac” (raw opium) as a means of “antidote” a substance that treats every disease. It seems that a concrete deduction from the literature has been leaden to a positive attitude towards opium consumption in Persian culture. Recent research also supports this idea. Many patients use raw opium as a pain killer or for treating hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes and other chronic diseases; most of them had started the use after developing the disease and the remaining had increased the consumption after developing the disease. Regarding this superstitious common belief, drug control headquarters should focus on education and correction of the faulty unhealthy attitude toward opium consumption. PMID:26288642

  19. Miniature Arcs for Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alford, J. M.; Mason, G. R.; Feikema, D. A.

    2006-01-01

    Although many methods are available for producing single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), the conventional carbon arc process remains the most popular due to its simplicity and large production rate. In the carbon arc, SWNTs are catalytically synthesized by rapidly evaporating a graphite anode impregnated with NiN metal catalyst from which the nanotubes grow in an inert atmosphere. However, high temperatures inside the carbon arc generate strong buoyancy driven convection, and it is hypothesized that the non-uniform environment created by this flow has a large effect on the growth and morphology of the SWNTs. To study the effect of buoyancy on the arc process, a miniature carbon arc apparatus was developed to synthesize SWNTs in a microgravity environment substantially free from these strong convective flows. The reactor was operated for either 2.2 or 5 seconds during free-fall in the drop towers at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Two apparatus designs differing mainly in their production rate and power capacity were investigated. The first consisted of a miniaturized carbon arc employing a 1 mm diameter graphite anode and powered by a 0.54 F capacitor bank charged to 65 V. The second, larger apparatus employed a 4 mm diameter anode and was powered by a portable battery pack capable of providing in excess of 300 amps at 30 volts to the arc for the duration of a 5 second drop. Initial results indicated that transient heating is a very large effect in the short-duration drop tower carbon arcs, and thermal equilibrium of the arc plasma, buffer gas, and apparatus was not attained during the short microgravity periods. In addition, removal of the buoyant convection by the microgravity now allowed clear observation of large jets of evaporated carbon vapor streaming from the anode and mixing with the inert buffer gas. The initial mixing of these jets with the cold buffer gas combined with the thermal transient made it difficult to establish a uniform high temperature

  20. Real time PCR on disposable PDMS chip with a miniaturized thermal cycler.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Q; Xu, B; Fu, R; Li, D

    2005-12-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of a low-cost miniature PCR device consisting of a disposable reactor chip and a miniature thermal cycler. The simple fabrication of the PCR chip by PDMS (Polydimethylsiloxane) does not need micro-machining or photolithography processes. The thermal cycler was built with a thin film heater for heating and a fan for rapid cooling. This device can perform PCR tests in a single well chip or a multiple-well chip. It can run PCR reactions of different volumes to meet specific application requirements. The smallest reaction volume tested in this work is 0.9 microL. In addition, this device fits any standard fluorescence microscope for real time detection, which makes real time PCR affordable for most research labs and clinics with a fluorescence microscope. Real-time PCR of E. coli stx1 has been demonstrated with the device described. PMID:16404505

  1. Demotivating Factors Affecting EFL Learning of Iranian Seminary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabatabaei, Omid; Molavi, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, an attempt has been made to determine the demotives affecting EFL learning of Iranian Islamic seminary students and also to distinguish the motivated and demotivated EFL learners in terms of their EFL learning as the major focus of this study. Fifty Iranian EFL seminary students were investigated using two validated…

  2. The Effect of Collaboration on Iranian EFL Learners' Writing Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jafari, Narges; Ansari, Dariush Nejad

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at finding the effect of group work on Iranian EFL learners' writing accuracy. Moreover, the effect of gender on text production has also been investigated. Over a month, sixty Iranian EFL learners were chosen as the participants of this study. They were divided into two groups. The experimental group wrote collaboratively while…

  3. Miniature Heat Transport System for Nanosatellite Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, Donya M,

    1999-01-01

    The scientific understanding of key physical processes between the Sun and the Earth require simultaneous measurements from many vantage points in space. Nano-satellite technologies will enable a class of constellation missions for the NASA Space Science Sun-Earth Connections. This recent emphasis on the implementation of smaller satellites leads to a requirement for development of smaller subsystems in several areas. Key technologies under development include: advanced miniaturized chemical propulsion; miniaturized sensors; highly integrated, compact electronics; autonomous onboard and ground operations; miniatures low power tracking techniques for orbit determination; onboard RF communications capable of transmitting data to the ground from far distances; lightweight efficient solar array panels; lightweight, high output battery cells; lightweight yet strong composite materials for the nano-spacecraft and deployer-ship structures. These newer smaller systems may have higher power densities and higher thermal transport requirements than seen on previous small satellites. Furthermore, the small satellites may also have a requirement to maintain thermal control through extended earth shadows, possibly up to 8 hours long. Older thermal control technology, such as heaters, thermostats, and heat pipes, may not be sufficient to meet the requirements of these new systems. Conversely, a miniature two-phase heat transport system (Mini-HTS) such as a Capillary Pumped Loop (CPL) or Loop Heat Pipe (LBP) is a viable alternative. A Mini-HTS can provide fine temperature control, thermal diode action, and a highly efficient means of heat transfer. The Mini-HTS would have power capabilities in the range of tens of watts or less and provide thermal control over typical spacecraft ranges. The Mini-HTS would allow the internal portion of the spacecraft to be thermally isolated from the external radiator, thus protecting the internal components from extreme cold temperatures during an

  4. Miniature synthetic-aperture radar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockton, Wayne; Stromfors, Richard D.

    1990-11-01

    Loral Defense Systems-Arizona has developed a high-performance synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) for small aircraft and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) reconnaissance applications. This miniature radar, called Miniature Synthetic-Aperture Radar (MSAR), is packaged in a small volume and has low weight. It retains key features of large SAR systems, including high-resolution imaging and all-weather operation. The operating frequency of MSAR can optionally be selected to provide foliage penetration capability. Many imaging radar configurations can be derived using this baseline system. MSAR with a data link provides an attractive UAV sensor. MSAR with a real-time image formation processor is well suited to installations where onboard processing and immediate image analysis are required. The MSAR system provides high-resolution imaging for short-to-medium range reconnaissance applications.

  5. Miniaturization of holographic Fourier-transform spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Agladze, Nikolay I; Sievers, Albert J

    2004-12-20

    Wave propagation equations in the stationary-phase approximation have been used to identify the theoretical bounds of a miniature holographic Fourier-transform spectrometer (HFTS). It is demonstrated that the HFTS throughput can be larger than for a scanning Fourier-transform spectrometer. Given room- or a higher-temperature constraint, a small HFTS has the potential to outperform a small multichannel dispersive spectrograph with the same resolving power because of the size dependence of the signal-to-noise ratio. These predictions are used to analyze the performance of a miniature HFTS made from simple optical components covering a broad spectral range from the UV to the near IR. The importance of specific primary aberrations in limiting the HFTS performance has been both identified and verified. PMID:15646777

  6. Design considerations for miniaturized PEM fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyers, Jeremy P.; Maynard, Helen L.

    In this paper, we consider the design of a miniaturized proton-exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell for powering 0.5-20 W portable telecommunication and computing devices. Our design is implemented on a silicon substrate to take advantage of advanced silicon processing technology in order to minimize production costs. The reduced length scales afforded by silicon processing allow us to consider designs that would be prohibited by excessive Ohmic losses in larger systems. We employ a mathematical model to quantify the effects of the secondary current distribution on two competing cell designs. In addition to the design of the cell itself, we discuss key integration issues and engineering trade-offs relevant to all miniaturized fuel cell systems: air movement, fuel delivery and water balance, thermal management and load handling.

  7. Miniaturized Wilkinson Power Dividers Utilizing Capacitive Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scardelletti, Maximilian C.; Ponchak, George E.; Weller, Thomas M.

    2001-01-01

    This letter reports the miniaturization of a planar Wilkinson power divider by capacitive loading of the quarter wave transmission lines employed in conventional Wilkinson power dividers. Reduction of the transmission line segments from lambda/4 to between lambda/5 and lambda/12 are reported here. The input and output lines at the three ports and the lines comprising the divider itself are coplanar waveguide (CPW) and asymmetric coplanar stripline (ACPS), respectively. The 10 GHZ power dividers are fabricated on high resistivity silicon (HRS) and alumina wafers. These miniaturized dividers are 74% smaller than conventional Wilkinson power dividers, and have a return loss better than +30 dB and an insertion loss less than 0.55 dB. Design equations and a discussion about the effect of parasitic reactance on the isolation are presented for the first time.

  8. Skeletal atavism in a miniature horse.

    PubMed

    Tyson, Reid; Graham, John P; Colahan, Patrick T; Berry, Clifford R

    2004-01-01

    An 8-month-old miniature horse filly was presented for evaluation of severe rotational and angular limb deformities of the thoracic and pelvic limbs. On radiographic examination, complete ulnas and fibulas were identified. These findings are consistent with a condition previously described as a form of atavism. The term atavism is used to describe the reappearance of a trait or character that was seen in all earlier evolutionary specimens of a particular species, but has not been seen in recent ancestors. The atavistic traits of complete ulnas and fibulas have previously been described in Welsh and Shetland Ponies, all of which had severe rotational and angular limb deformities. In this horse, bilateral osteochondritis dissecans of the medial trochlear ridge of the talii were also identified. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of the atavistic traits of complete ulnas and fibulas seen in the miniature horse. PMID:15373256

  9. Miniature sensor suitable for electronic nose applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinnaduwage, Lal A.; Gehl, Anthony C.; Allman, Steve L.; Johansson, Alicia; Boisen, Anja

    2007-05-01

    A major research effort has been devoted over the years for the development of chemical sensors for the detection of chemical and explosive vapors. However, the deployment of such chemical sensors will require the use of multiple sensors (probably tens of sensors) in a sensor package to achieve selective detection. In order to keep the overall detector unit small, miniature sensors with sufficient sensitivity of detection will be needed. We report sensitive detection of dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), a stimulant for the nerve agents, using a miniature sensor unit based on piezoresistive microcantilevers. The sensor can detect parts-per-trillion concentrations of DMMP within 10s exposure times. The small size of the sensor makes it ideally suited for electronic nose applications.

  10. Iranian Critical ELT: A Belated but Growing Intellectual Shift in Iranian ELT Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aghagolzadeh, Ferdows; Davari, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Reviewing and discussing the development of critical studies in the field of applied linguistics in general and English language teaching (ELT) in particular in Iran, this paper attempts to highlight the main contributions in this field. Introducing a new growing critical-oriented shift in Iranian ELT community as the one which has been mostly…

  11. Raytheon Advanced Miniature Cryocooler Characterization Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, T.; Yates, R.; Schaefer, B.; Bellis, L.; Pillar, M.; Barr, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Raytheon Advanced Miniature (RAM) cryocooler is a flight packaged, high frequency pulse tube cooler with an integrated surge volume and inertance tube. Its design has been fully optimized to make use of the Raytheon Advanced Regenerator, resulting in improved efficiency relative to previous Raytheon pulse tube coolers. In this paper, thermodynamic characterization data for the RAM cryocooler is presented along with details of its design specifications.

  12. Miniature tilting pad gas lubricated bearing

    SciTech Connect

    Sixsmith, H.; Swift, W.L.

    1983-12-01

    This paper describes the design and development of a miniature tilting pad gas bearing developed for use in very small turbomachines. The bearings have been developed for cryogenic turboexpanders with shaft diameters down to about 0.3 cm and rotational speeds up to one million rpm. Cryogenic expansion turbines incorporating this type of bearing should be suitable for refrigeration rates down to about 10 w.

  13. High Q Miniature Sapphire Acoustic Resonator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Rabi T.; Tjoelker, R. L.

    2010-01-01

    We have demonstrated high Q measurements in a room temperature Miniature Sapphire Acoustic Resonator (MSAR). Initial measurements of bulk acoustic modes in room temperature sapphire at 39 MHz have demonstrated a Q of 8.8 x 10(exp 6). The long term goal of this work is to integrate such a high Q resonator with small, low noise quartz oscillator electronics, providing a fractional frequency stability better than 1 x 10(exp -14) @ 1s.

  14. A miniature tilting pad gas lubricated bearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sixsmith, H.; Swift, W. L.

    1983-12-01

    This paper describes the design and development of a miniature tilting pad gas bearing developed for use in very small turbomachines. The bearings have been developed for cryogenic turboexpanders with shaft diameters down to about 0.3 cm and rotational speeds up to one million rpm. Cryogenic expansion turbines incorporating this type of bearing should be suitable for refrigeration rates down to about 10 w.

  15. A miniature tilting pad gas lubricated bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sixsmith, H.; Swift, W. L.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the design and development of a miniature tilting pad gas bearing developed for use in very small turbomachines. The bearings have been developed for cryogenic turboexpanders with shaft diameters down to about 0.3 cm and rotational speeds up to one million rpm. Cryogenic expansion turbines incorporating this type of bearing should be suitable for refrigeration rates down to about 10 w.

  16. Miniature Reversal Electron-Attachment Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, Ara

    1994-01-01

    Miniature reversal electron-attachment detector (miniREAD) enables direct injection of air or vapor at atmospheric pressure from monitored area into mass-spectrometric instrument to detect explosives, narcotics, or other substances, vapors of which suspected of being present in low concentrations. In comparison with older reversal electron-attachment detector, miniREAD simpler in design; more rugged; and easier to build, repair, and maintain. In addition, probably more sensitive.

  17. Imaging performance of a miniature integrated microendoscope

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Jeremy D.; Landau, Sara; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S.; Descour, Michael R.; Rahman, Mohammed S.; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca; Kärkäinen, Ari H. O.; Christenson, Todd

    2011-01-01

    An integrated miniature multi-modal microscope (4M device) for microendoscopy was built and tested. Imaging performance is evaluated and imaging results are presented for both fluorescence and reflectance samples. Images of biological samples show successful imaging of both thin layers of fixed cells prepared on a slide as well as thick samples of excised fixed porcine epithelial tissue, thus demonstrating the potential for in vivo use. PMID:19021400

  18. Miniature, Variable-Speed Control Moment Gyroscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilski, Steve; Kline-Schoder, Robert; Sorensen, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The Miniature Variable-Speed Control Moment Gyroscope (MVS-CMG) was designed for small satellites (mass from less than 1 kg up to 500 kg). Currently available CMGs are too large and heavy, and available miniature CMGs do not provide sufficient control authority for use on practical satellites. This primarily results from the need to greatly increase the speed of rotation of the flywheel in order to reduce the flywheel size and mass. This goal was achieved by making use of a proprietary, space-qualified, high-speed (100,000 rpm) motor technology to spin the flywheel at a speed ten times faster than other known miniature CMGs under development. NASA is supporting innovations in propulsion, power, and guidance and navigation systems for low-cost small spacecraft. One of the key enabling technologies is attitude control mechanisms. CMGs are particularly attractive for spacecraft attitude control since they can achieve higher torques with lower mass and power than reaction wheels, and they provide continuous torque capability that enables precision pointing (in contrast to on-off thruster control). The aim of this work was to develop a miniature, variable-speed CMG that is sized for use on small satellites. To achieve improved agility, these spacecraft must be able to slew at high rate, which requires attitude control actuators that can apply torques on the order of 5 N-m. The MVS-CMG is specifically designed to achieve a high-torque output with a minimum flywheel and system mass. The flywheel can be run over a wide range of speeds, which is important to help reduce/eliminate potential gimbal lock, and can be used to optimize the operational envelope of the CMG.

  19. Miniature Robotic Spacecraft for Inspecting Other Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fredrickson, Steven; Abbott, Larry; Duran, Steve; Goode, Robert; Howard, Nathan; Jochim, David; Rickman, Steve; Straube, Tim; Studak, Bill; Wagenknecht, Jennifer; Lemke, Matthew; Wade, Randall; Wheeler, Scott; Baggerman, Clinton

    2004-01-01

    A report discusses the Miniature Autonomous Extravehicular Robotic Camera (Mini AERCam)-- a compact robotic spacecraft intended to be released from a larger spacecraft for exterior visual inspection of the larger spacecraft. The Mini AERCam is a successor to the AERCam Sprint -- a prior miniature robotic inspection spacecraft that was demonstrated in a space-shuttle flight experiment in 1997. The prototype of the Mini AERCam is a demonstration unit having approximately the form and function of a flight system. The Mini AERCam is approximately spherical with a diameter of about 7.5 in. (.19 cm) and a weight of about 10 lb (.4.5 kg), yet it has significant additional capabilities, relative to the 14-in. (36-cm), 35-lb (16-kg) AERCam Sprint. The Mini AERCam includes miniaturized avionics, instrumentation, communications, navigation, imaging, power, and propulsion subsystems, including two digital video cameras and a high-resolution still camera. The Mini AERCam is designed for either remote piloting or supervised autonomous operations, including station keeping and point-to-point maneuvering. The prototype has been tested on an air-bearing table and in a hardware-in-the-loop orbital simulation of the dynamics of maneuvering in proximity to the International Space Station.

  20. Stability-Augmentation Devices for Miniature Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, RIchard M.

    2005-01-01

    Non-aerodynamic mechanical devices are under consideration as means to augment the stability of miniature autonomous and remotely controlled aircraft. Such aircraft can be used for diverse purposes, including military reconnaissance, radio communications, and safety-related monitoring of wide areas. The need for stability-augmentation devices arises because adverse meteorological conditions generally affect smaller aircraft more strongly than they affect larger aircraft: Miniature aircraft often become uncontrollable under conditions that would not be considered severe enough to warrant grounding of larger aircraft. The need for the stability-augmentation devices to be non-aerodynamic arises because there is no known way to create controlled aerodynamic forces sufficient to counteract the uncontrollable meteorological forces on miniature aircraft. A stability-augmentation device of the type under consideration includes a mass pod (a counterweight) at the outer end of a telescoping shaft, plus associated equipment to support the operation of the aircraft. The telescoping shaft and mass pod are stowed in the rear of the aircraft. When deployed, they extend below the aircraft. Optionally, an antenna for radio communication can be integrated into the shaft. At the time of writing this article, the deployment of the telescoping shaft and mass pod was characterized as passive and automatic, but information about the deployment mechanism(s) was not available. The feasibility of this stability-augmentation concept was demonstrated in flights of hand-launched prototype aircraft.

  1. Micro-Miniature Split Stirling Linear Crycooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veprik, A.; Zehtzer, S.; Vilenchik, H.; Pundak, N.

    2010-04-01

    Novel tactics for rescue, surveillance, reconnaissance, force protection, perimeter security, navigation and targeting often involve the use of miniature infrared imagers, where the cooled imaging systems are known to be superior to their uncooled rivals in terms of working range, resolution and ability to distinguish/track fast moving objects in dynamic infrared scenes. The latest technological advances in industrial applications of high-temperature infrared detectors have spurred the development of linearly driven, long life, dynamically quiet and aurally undetectable micro-miniature split Stirling linear cryogenic coolers. Recent progress in designing highly efficient "moving magnet" resonant linear actuators and dedicated smart electronics have enabled further improvements to the cooler's size, weight, power consumption, cooldown time and ownership costs. The authors report on the development of a novel micro-miniature split Stirling linear cryogenic cooler, where, by means of increasing the driving frequency up to 90 Hz, it appeared possible to shorten the cold finger to 19 mm. The cooler was specifically designed to cool a new generation of 130 K infrared detectors for portable infrared imagers, where compactness, low steady-state power consumption, fast cool-down time, vibration export and aural stealth are of primary concern.

  2. Iranians and Their Pride: Modalities of Political Sovereignty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moaddel, Mansoor

    In 2000, we asked a nationally representative sample of 2,532 Iranian adults "which of the following best describes you: I am an Iranian, above all; I am a Muslim, above all; I am an Arab, a Kurd, a Turk, a Baluch, etc., above all?" We also asked them how proud they are to be Iranian; (1) very proud, (2) proud, (3) not proud, and (4) not proud at all. In the 2005 survey of a nationally representative sample of 2,667 Iranian adults, we asked these questions again. The first question was intended to measure national identity and the second national pride. The results showed that between the two surveys the percent of Iranians who defined themselves as "Iranians, above all" went up significantly-from 35% in 2000 to 42% in 2005. Those who said that they were very proud to be Iranian, on the other hand, went down considerably-from 89% in 2000 to 64% in 2005. What is more, national identity and national pride displayed opposing relationships with the norms and values that were rigorously promoted by Iran's religious regime and these relationships grew stronger between 2000 and 2005. The feeling of national pride was positively linked to attitudes toward gender inequality, religiosity, and religious intolerance, but negatively to attitudes toward the West, while national identity had just the opposite relationships with these variables.

  3. Iranian physicist 'defects' to the US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2010-05-01

    An Iranian physicist who disappeared last June during a pilgrimage to Mecca in Saudi Arabia has apparently defected to the US, where he is working for the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). Shahram Amiri, who did research in nuclear physics at Malek Ashtar University of Technology in Tehran, is thought to be co-operating with the CIA to confirm their intelligence assessments about Iran's nuclear-weapons programme. The CIA has so far kept quiet on the issue and it remains unclear whether Amiri had any connections with Iran's nuclear programme.

  4. Analysis of Iranian Potato virus S isolates.

    PubMed

    Salari, Khadijeh; Massumi, Hossein; Heydarnejad, Jahangir; Hosseini Pour, Akbar; Varsani, Arvind

    2011-10-01

    Two hundred forty potato samples with one or more symptoms of leaf mosaic, distortion, mottling and yellowing were collected between 2005 and 2008 from seven Iranian provinces. Forty-four of these samples tested positive with double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (DAS-ELISA) using a Potato virus S (PVS) polyclonal antibody. Of these 12 isolates of PVS were selected based on the geographical location for biological and molecular characterization. The full coat protein (CP) and 11K genes from 12 PVS isolates were PCR amplified, cloned and sequenced. All 12 PVS isolates showed mosaic symptoms on Nicotiana debneyii and N. tabacum cv. Whiteburly and local lesion on Chenopodium amaranticolor, C. quinoa and C. album. The Iranian isolates share between 93 and 100% pairwise nucleotide identity with other PVS(O) isolates. Based on maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis coupled with pairwise identity analysis, we propose 15 genotypes for the PVS(O) strain and 3 genotypes for the PVS(A) strain. PMID:21567245

  5. Fabrication of miniaturized electrostatic deflectors using LIGA

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, K.H.; Khan-Malek, C.; Muray, L.P.

    1997-04-01

    Miniaturized electron beam columns ({open_quotes}microcolumns{close_quotes}) have been demonstrated to be suitable candidates for scanning electron microscopy (SEM), e-beam lithography and other high resolution, low voltage applications. In the present technology, microcolumns consist of {open_quotes}selectively scaled{close_quotes} micro-sized lenses and apertures, fabricated from silicon membranes with e-beam lithography, reactive ion beam etching and other semiconductor thin-film techniques. These miniaturized electron-optical elements provide significant advantages over conventional optics in performance and ease of fabrication. Since lens aberrations scale roughly with size, it is possible to fabricate simple microcolumns with extremely high brightness sources and electrostatic objective lenses, with resolution and beam current comparable to conventional e-beam columns. Moreover since microcolumns typically operate at low voltages (1 KeV), the proximity effects encountered in e-beam lithography become negligible. For high throughput applications, batch fabrication methods may be used to build large parallel arrays of microcolumns. To date, the best reported performance with a 1 keV cold field emission cathode, is 30 nm resolution at a working distance of 2mm in a 3.5mm column. Fabrication of the microcolumn deflector and stigmator, however, have remained beyond the capabilities of conventional machining operations and semiconductor processing technology. This work examines the LIGA process as a superior alternative to fabrication of the deflectors, especially in terms of degree of miniaturization, dimensional control, placement accuracy, run-out, facet smoothness and choice of suitable materials. LIGA is a combination of deep X-ray lithography, electroplating, and injection molding processes which allow the fabrication of microstructures.

  6. Miniaturized Mid-Infrared Sensor Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S; Young, C; Mizaikoff, B

    2007-08-16

    Fundamental vibrational and rotational modes associated with most inorganic and organic molecules are spectroscopically accessible within the mid-infrared (MIR; 3-20 {micro}m) regime of the electromagnetic spectrum. The interaction between MIR photons and organic molecules provides particularly sharp transitions, which - despite the wide variety of organic molecules - provide unique MIR absorption spectra reflecting the molecularly characteristic arrangement of chemical bonds within the probed molecules via the frequency position of the associated vibrational and rotational transitions. Given the inherent molecular selectivity and achievable sensitivity, MIR spectroscopy provides an ideal platform for optical sensing applications. Despite this potential, early MIR sensing applications were limited to localized applications due to the size of the involved instrumentation, and limited availability of appropriately compact MIR optical components including light sources, detectors, waveguides, and spectrometers. During the last decades, engineering advances in photonics and optical engineering have facilitated the translation of benchtop-style MIR spectroscopy into miniaturized optical sensing schemes providing a footprint compatible with portable instrumentation requirements for field deployable analytical tools. In this trend article, we will discuss recent advances and future strategies for miniaturizing MIR sensor technology. The Beer-Lambert law implies that achievable limit of detection (LOD) for any optical sensor system improves by increasing the interaction length between photons and target analyte species such as e.g., folding the optical path multiple times as in multi-pass gas phase sensing; however, this governing paradigm naturally leads to an increase in system dimensions. Hence, miniaturization of optical sensing system requires scaling down of each optical component, yet improving the performance of each optical element within a smaller form factor for

  7. Chromosome Evolution and Genome Miniaturization in Minifish

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shaojun; Hui, Tan Heok; Tan, Sze Ley; Hong, Yunhan

    2012-01-01

    Background Paedocypris is a newly established genus of fish in Southeast Asia. Paedocypris is characterized by several unique features, including a tiny adult size (thus named miniature fish or minifish), fragmentary habitats of acidic peat blackwater swamps, an unusual reproduction mode and truncated development. These peculiarities lend themselves excellent for studying chromosome evolution and rapid speciation in vertebrates but also make them highly controversial for the phylogenetic position. Methodology and Principal Findings We have established an organ procedure to prepare chromosome spreads from tiny organs of minifish and performed a cytogenetic study on two species of the genus Paedocypris, namely P. carbunculus (Pc) and P. sp. “Singkep” (Ps). We found 30 and 34 chromosomes in diploid cells of Pc and Ps, respectively, which are unusual in teleost fishes. The diploid metaphase has 5 pairs of metacentrics and 7 pairs of subtelocentrics in Pc compared to 3 pairs of metacentrics and 11 pairs of subtelocentrics in Ps, whereas the haploid metaphase contains 5 metacentrics and 7 subtelocentrics in Pc compared to 3 metacentrics and 11 subtelocentrics Ps. Chromosome behavior in first meiosis revealed the presence of a chromosomal ring consisting of 2 metacentrics in Pc, suggesting that centric fusion rather than fission was responsible for the karyotypic evolution from Ps to Pc. Flow cytometry revealed that Pc had a 45% nuclear staining intensity relative to medaka whose genome is 700 Mb in size and contains 0.81 pg DNA. The Pc genome should have 315 Mb in length and 0.36 pg of DNA, which represent one of the smallest values in vertebrates, suggesting genome miniaturization in this organism. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that gross chromosome rearrangements and genome miniaturization have accompanied the evolution of Paedocypris fishes. Our data also place Paedocypris outside currently described taxa of the Cypriniformes. PMID:22615970

  8. Development of Californium-252 Miniature Source Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Notspecified, N. A.

    2007-06-26

    The purpose of this CRADA between ORNL and lsotron, Inc. is to develop miniature californium-252 sources configured for remote handling that can be used in neutron brachytherapy for treatment of cancer. Brachytherapy places the · radioactive source at or near the site of the tumor, using a catheter. The CRADA ran from late 1999 through November 2005. The heart of a Cf-252 source is the radioactive core wire, which is sealed inside a metallic source capsule. Previous Cf-252 medical sources were based on a cermet wire with californium oxide dispersed in palladium, typically >1-mm diameter and <0.1% Cf-252 by weight. Previously, the standard medical source in the U.S. was the Applicator Tube (AT) source. 23-mm long, 2.8-mm diameter, with ~30 {micro}g of Cf-252, and which required manual loading into patients by medical staff. The goal of this work was to develop capabilities and technology to fabricate higher-intensity Cf-252 sources attached to a positioning cable, with overall diameter approaching that of exist ing photon (iridium-192) brachytherapy sources (i.e., ~1.1 mm). This work was successful in developing and demonstrating new technologies and procedures for the fabrication of miniaturized Cf-252 sources. CRADA-designed equipment reduced the wire diameters significantly (patent pending). Short wire segments were cut and successfully welded inside capsules meeting the miniaturization goals. A batch of seven prototype sources was prepared that met fabrication specifications. Although their neutron emissions were not maximized, they were still several times more intense than the previous AT sources. Very robust source-to-cable attachment methods were demonstrated (patent issued). A shipping canister was designed and built to contain the completed source assembly. lsotron designed and built a computer-controlled remote afterloader system to deliver the new sources for treatments.

  9. Collaborating miniature drones for surveillance and reconnaissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bürkle, Axel

    2009-09-01

    The use of miniature Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), e.g. quadrocopters, has gained great popularity over the last years. Some complex application scenarios for micro UAVs call for the formation of swarms of multiple drones. In this paper a platform for the creation of such swarms is presented. It consists of commercial quadrocopters enhanced with on-board processing and communication units enabling autonomy of individual drones. Furthermore, a generic ground control station has been realized. Different co-operation strategies for teams of UAVs are currently evaluated with an agent based simulation tool. Finally, complex application scenarios for multiple micro UAVs are presented.

  10. Miniature laser direct-detection radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharekar, Madhu; Lebeau, Robert

    1992-06-01

    A miniature laser with a total volume less than 15 cu cm and weight less than 100 g has been designed, fabricated, and assembled. The laser uses a composite rod consisting of Nd:Cr:GSGG material rod cladded with an Er:Cr:YSGG tube. The laser provides output at 1 and 3 micron wavelengths. The size and weight reduction is obtained by chemical pumping which eliminates the prime power and the power supply. The laser is used as an illuminator in a direct detection radar.

  11. Miniature integrated-optical wavelength analyzer chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunz, R. E.; Dübendorfer, J.

    1995-11-01

    A novel integrated-optical chip suitable for realizing compact miniature wavelength analyzers with high linear dispersion is presented. The chip performs the complete task of converting the spectrum of an input beam into a corresponding spatial irradiance distribution without the need for an imaging function. We demonstrate the feasibility of this approach experimentally by monitoring the changes in the mode spectrum of a laser diode on varying its case temperature. Comparing the results with simultaneous measurements by a commercial spectrometer yielded a rms wavelength deviation of 0.01 nm.

  12. Miniature Robotic Submarine for Exploring Harsh Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behar, Alberto; Bruhn, Fredrik; Carsey, Frank

    2004-01-01

    The miniature autonomous submersible explorer (MASE) has been proposed as a means of scientific exploration -- especially, looking for signs of life -- in harsh, relatively inaccessible underwater environments. Basically, the MASE would be a small instrumented robotic submarine (see figure) that could launch itself or could be launched from another vehicle. Examples of environments that might be explored by use of the MASE include subglacial lakes, deep-ocean hydrothermal vents, acidic or alkaline lakes, brine lenses in permafrost, and ocean regions under Antarctic ice shelves.

  13. Miniature interferometer terminals for earth surveying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Counselman, C. C., III; Shapiro, I. I.

    1978-01-01

    A system of miniature radio interferometer terminals was proposed for the measurement of vector baselines with uncertainties ranging from the millimeter to the centimeter level for baseline lengths ranging, respectively, from a few to a few hundred kilometers. Each terminal would have no moving parts, could be packaged in a volume of less than 0.1 cu m, and would operate unattended. These units would receive radio signals from low-power (10 w) transmitters on earth-orbiting satellites. The baselines between units could be determined virtually instantaneously and monitored continuously as long as at least four satellites were visible simultaneously.

  14. Miniaturized bendable 400 MHz artificial magnetic conductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Presse, Anthony; Tarot, Anne-Claude

    2016-04-01

    A bendable artificial magnetic conductor (AMC) with a resonant frequency of 400 MHz is proposed. The dimensions of the unit cell are 50 × 50 mm2 or 0.07 × 0.07 λ0. The miniaturization is achieved with closely coupled patches printed on each side of a 0.127-mm-thick dielectric substrate. This last one is stacked on a flexible 3-mm-thick silicone over a ground plane. An AMC prototype is simulated and manufactured. Also, a printed inverted-F antenna is used to highlight the bandwidth of the AMC.

  15. A miniature solid propellant rocket motor

    SciTech Connect

    Grubelich, M.C.; Hagan, M.; Mulligan, E.

    1997-08-01

    A miniature solid-propellant rocket motor has been developed to impart a specific motion to an object deployed in space. This rocket motor effectively eliminated the need for a cold-gas thruster system or mechanical spin-up system. A low-energy igniter, an XMC4397, employing a semiconductor bridge was used to ignite the rocket motor. The rocket motor was ground-tested in a vacuum tank to verify predicted space performance and successfully flown in a Sandia National Laboratories flight vehicle program.

  16. A miniature chemiresistor sensor for carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Srinives, Sira; Sarkar, Tapan; Hernandez, Raul; Mulchandani, Ashok

    2015-05-18

    A carpet-like nanostructure of polyaniline (PANI) nanothin film functionalized with poly(ethyleneimine), PEI, was used as a miniature chemiresistor sensor for detection of CO2 at room temperature. Good sensing performance was observed upon exposing the PEI-PANI device to 50-5000 ppm CO2 in presence of humidity with negligible interference from ammonia, carbon monoxide, methane and nitrogen dioxide. The sensing mechanism relied on acid-base reaction, CO2 dissolution and amine-catalyzed hydration that yielded carbamates and carbonic acid for a subsequent pH detection. The sensing device showed reliable results in detecting an unknown concentration of CO2 in air. PMID:25910446

  17. An annotated catalog of the Iranian Reduvioidea (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Cimicomorpha).

    PubMed

    Ghahari, Hassan; Moulet, Pierre; Cai, Wanzhi; Karimi, Javad

    2013-01-01

    An updated list of Iranian Reduvioidea Latreille (families Pachynomidae, Reduviidae) is presented and discussed in this paper. For Iranian fauna, there are records of one species of Pachynomidae and 109 species and subspecies of assassin bugs (Reduviidae) distributed in 24 genera and subgenera, and seven subfamilies, Emesinae, Harpactorinae, Holoptilinae, Peiratinae, Phymatinae, Reduviinae, and Stenopodainae. We report 6 new country records and one new species, Empicoris baerensprungi (Dohrn, 1863) for Asian fauna. Synonyms and distribution data are also given. PMID:26258220

  18. Miniature acoustic guidance system for endotracheal tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juan, Eduardo J.

    Ensuring that the distal end of an endotracheal tube is properly located within the trachea, and that the tube is not obstructed by mucous deposition, is a major clinical concern in patients that require mechanical ventilation. A novel acoustic system was developed to allow for the continuous monitoring of endotracheal tube position and patency. A miniature sound source and two sensing microphones are placed in-line between the ventilator hose and the proximal end of the endotracheal tube. Reflections of an acoustic pulse from the endotracheal tube lumen and the airways are digitally analyzed to estimate the location and degree of obstruction, as well as the position of the distal end of the tube in the airway. The system was evaluated through computer simulations, in vitro studies, and in a rabbit model. The system noninvasively estimated tube position in vivo to within roughly 4.5 mm, and differentiated between proper tracheal, and erroneous bronchial or esophageal intubation in all cases. In addition, the system estimated the area and location of lumen obstructions in vitro to within 14% and 3.5 mm, respectively. These findings indicate that this miniature technology could improve the quality of care provided to the ventilated adult and infant.

  19. Maximizing strain in miniaturized dielectric elastomer actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosset, Samuel; Araromi, Oluwaseun; Shea, Herbert

    2015-04-01

    We present a theoretical model to optimise the unidirectional motion of a rigid object bonded to a miniaturized dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA), a configuration found for example in AMI's haptic feedback devices, or in our tuneable RF phase shifter. Recent work has shown that unidirectional motion is maximized when the membrane is both anistropically prestretched and subjected to a dead load in the direction of actuation. However, the use of dead weights for miniaturized devices is clearly highly impractical. Consequently smaller devices use the membrane itself to generate the opposing force. Since the membrane covers the entire frame, one has the same prestretch condition in the active (actuated) and passive zones. Because the passive zone contracts when the active zone expands, it does not provide a constant restoring force, reducing the maximum achievable actuation strain. We have determined the optimal ratio between the size of the electrode (active zone) and the passive zone, as well as the optimal prestretch in both in-plane directions, in order to maximize the absolute displacement of the rigid object placed at the active/passive border. Our model and experiments show that the ideal active ratio is 50%, with a displacement twice smaller than what can be obtained with a dead load. We expand our fabrication process to also show how DEAs can be laser-post-processed to remove carefully chosen regions of the passive elastomer membrane, thereby increasing the actuation strain of the device.

  20. Miniature Linear Actuator for Small Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willey, Cliff E.; Hill, Stuart W.

    2004-01-01

    A report discusses the development of a kit of mechanisms intended for use aboard future spacecraft having masses between 10 and 100 kg. The report focuses mostly on two prototypes of one of the mechanisms: a miniature linear actuator based on a shape-memory-alloy (SMA) wire. In this actuator, as in SMA-wire actuators described previously in NASA Tech Briefs, a spring biases a moving part toward one limit of its stroke and is restrained or pulled toward the other limit of the stroke by an SMA wire, which assumes a slightly lesser or greater "remembered" length, depending on whether or not an electric current is applied to the wire to heat it above a transition temperature. Topics addressed in the report include the need to develop mechanisms like these, the general approach to be taken in designing SMA actuators, tests of the two prototypes of the miniature linear actuators, and improvements in the second prototype over the first prototype resulting in reduced mass and increased stroke. The report also presents recommendations for future development, briefly discusses problems of tolerances and working with small parts, states a need for better understanding of behaviors of SMAs, and presents conclusions.

  1. Miniaturized kappa goniometer for macromolecular crystallography

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenbaum, G.; Westbrook, E. M.

    1997-07-01

    A goniometer with kappa geometry has been designed and built specifically for macromolecular crystallography. The main feature is a miniaturized kappa stage made possible by the small weight of specimen and specimen holder. The design goal was to: 1) eliminate interference between stage and area detector for specimen-to-detector distances of 100 mm and more; 2) minimize the sphere of confusion on expectation of dealing with very small crystals at third generation sources; 3) minimize the solid angle of shadow and inaccessible positioning of the sample due to interference of the stage with other objects in the sample area; 4) achieve a rotation speed of 10 degree/s at 0.5% constancy and 0.4 s acceleration time for 0.05 s exposures of 0.2 degree fine slice frames every 2 seconds, and 5) to achieve precise synchronization between rotation angle and shutter opening and closing. The kappa stage is mounted on a commercial high precision rotary table, designed for use in both horizontal and vertical orientation. This table provides the high precision rotation for data acquisition. The required crisp response and constant speed is delivered by a high output direct drive DC-motor, controlled by a closed-loop controller using feedback from a precision angular encoder. The kappa- and phi-motions are used for sample positioning only and are driven by miniature DC-motors equipped with integral encoders.

  2. Miniaturized kappa goniometer for macromolecular crystallography

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenbaum, G.; Westbrook, E.M.

    1997-07-01

    A goniometer with kappa geometry has been designed and built specifically for macromolecular crystallography. The main feature is a miniaturized kappa stage made possible by the small weight of specimen and specimen holder. The design goal was to: 1) eliminate interference between stage and area detector for specimen-to-detector distances of 100 mm and more; 2) minimize the sphere of confusion on expectation of dealing with very small crystals at third generation sources; 3) minimize the solid angle of shadow and inaccessible positioning of the sample due to interference of the stage with other objects in the sample area; 4) achieve a rotation speed of 10 degree/s at 0.5{percent} constancy and 0.4 s acceleration time for 0.05 s exposures of 0.2 degree fine slice frames every 2 seconds, and 5) to achieve precise synchronization between rotation angle and shutter opening and closing. The kappa stage is mounted on a commercial high precision rotary table, designed for use in both horizontal and vertical orientation. This table provides the high precision rotation for data acquisition. The required crisp response and constant speed is delivered by a high output direct drive DC-motor, controlled by a closed-loop controller using feedback from a precision angular encoder. The kappa- and phi-motions are used for sample positioning only and are driven by miniature DC-motors equipped with integral encoders.{copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. Miniature Free-Space Electrostatic Ion Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Frank T.; Stephens, James B.

    2006-01-01

    A miniature electrostatic ion thruster is proposed for maneuvering small spacecraft. In a thruster based on this concept, one or more propellant gases would be introduced into an ionizer based on the same principles as those of the device described in an earlier article, "Miniature Bipolar Electrostatic Ion Thruster". On the front side, positive ions leaving an ionizer element would be accelerated to high momentum by an electric field between the ionizer and an accelerator grid around the periphery of the concave laminate structure. On the front side, electrons leaving an ionizer element would be ejected into free space by a smaller accelerating field. The equality of the ion and electron currents would eliminate the need for an additional electron- or ion-emitting device to keep the spacecraft charge-neutral. In a thruster design consisting of multiple membrane ionizers in a thin laminate structure with a peripheral accelerator grid, the direction of thrust could then be controlled (without need for moving parts in the thruster) by regulating the supply of gas to specific ionizer.

  4. Miniaturized integration of a fluorescence microscope

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Kunal K.; Burns, Laurie D.; Cocker, Eric D.; Nimmerjahn, Axel; Ziv, Yaniv; Gamal, Abbas El; Schnitzer, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    The light microscope is traditionally an instrument of substantial size and expense. Its miniaturized integration would enable many new applications based on mass-producible, tiny microscopes. Key prospective usages include brain imaging in behaving animals towards relating cellular dynamics to animal behavior. Here we introduce a miniature (1.9 g) integrated fluorescence microscope made from mass-producible parts, including semiconductor light source and sensor. This device enables high-speed cellular-level imaging across ∼0.5 mm2 areas in active mice. This capability allowed concurrent tracking of Ca2+ spiking in >200 Purkinje neurons across nine cerebellar microzones. During mouse locomotion, individual microzones exhibited large-scale, synchronized Ca2+ spiking. This is a mesoscopic neural dynamic missed by prior techniques for studying the brain at other length scales. Overall, the integrated microscope is a potentially transformative technology that permits distribution to many animals and enables diverse usages, such as portable diagnostics or microscope arrays for large-scale screens. PMID:21909102

  5. Miniaturized optical neuroimaging in unrestrained animals.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hang; Senarathna, Janaka; Tyler, Betty M; Thakor, Nitish V; Pathak, Arvind P

    2015-06-01

    The confluence of technological advances in optics, miniaturized electronic components and the availability of ever increasing and affordable computational power have ushered in a new era in functional neuroimaging, namely, an era in which neuroimaging of cortical function in unrestrained and unanesthetized rodents has become a reality. Traditional optical neuroimaging required animals to be anesthetized and restrained. This greatly limited the kinds of experiments that could be performed in vivo. Now one can assess blood flow and oxygenation changes resulting from functional activity and image functional response in disease models such as stroke and seizure, and even conduct long-term imaging of tumor physiology, all without the confounding effects of anesthetics or animal restraints. These advances are shedding new light on mammalian brain organization and function, and helping to elucidate loss of this organization or 'dysfunction' in a wide array of central nervous system disease models. In this review, we highlight recent advances in the fabrication, characterization and application of miniaturized head-mounted optical neuroimaging systems pioneered by innovative investigators from a wide array of disciplines. We broadly classify these systems into those based on exogenous contrast agents, such as single- and two-photon microscopy systems; and those based on endogenous contrast mechanisms, such as multispectral or laser speckle contrast imaging systems. Finally, we conclude with a discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of these approaches along with a perspective on the future of this exciting new frontier in neuroimaging. PMID:25791782

  6. Miniature spinning as a fiber quality assessment tool

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Miniature spinning has long been used to assess cotton varieties in a timely manner. It has been an accepted fact that the quality of miniature spinning is less than optimal, but that it allows a direct comparison between cottons during varietal studies. Recently, researchers have made processing ...

  7. Congenital urethral stenosis in a male miniature piglet

    PubMed Central

    Pouleur-Larrat, Bénédicte; Maccolini, Edouard; Carmel, Eric Norman; Hélie, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    A 2-month-old male miniature pig showed progressive abdominal pain, pollakiuria, and stranguria that progressed to complete urinary obstruction. Postmortem examination revealed idiopathic urethral stenosis at the level of the recess, of probable congenital origin. Urinary tract malformations should be included in the differential diagnosis of miniature piglets with urinary disorders. PMID:24891635

  8. The Miniature Job Training and Evaluation Approach: Additional Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Arthur I.

    1983-01-01

    Describes miniature job training and evaluation situations administered to 1,034 "low aptitude" Navy recruits. Checklist criterion data describing the on-the-job performance of the sample were collected after the recruits were on their fleet assignments. The results confirmed the predictive validity of the miniature job training approach.…

  9. Catalogue of the Iranian Microgastrinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    PubMed

    Gadallah, Neveen S; Ghahari, Hassan; Peris-Felipo, Francisco Javier

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the Iranian Microgastrinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) fauna is summarized. It is based on a detailed study of all available published data and new material collected. In total 99 species belonging to 8 genera are from Iran: Apanteles Förster, 1862 (36 species), Cotesia Cameron, 1891 (34 species), Deuterixys Mason, 1981 (1 species), Diolcogaster Ashmead, 1900 (4 species), Microgaster Latreille, 1804 (4 species), Microplitis Förster, 1862 (11 species), Pholesetor Mason, 1981 (4 species) and Protapanteles Ashmead, 1898 (5 species) in 4 tribes (Apantilini, Cotesiini, Microgastrini and Microplitini). A faunistic list with distribution data, and host records are given. Four species are new records for the fauna of Iran: Apanteles brunnistigma Abdinbekova, 1969, A. ingenuoides Papp, 1971, Microplitis decipiens Prell, 1925 and M. marshallii Kokujev, 1898. PMID:26624699

  10. 31 CFR 560.512 - Iranian Government missions in the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to, the Iranian Interests Section of the Embassy of Pakistan (or any successor protecting power) in... United States, and to employees of the Iranian Interests Section of the Embassy of Pakistan (or...

  11. 31 CFR 560.512 - Iranian Government missions in the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to, the Iranian Interests Section of the Embassy of Pakistan (or any successor protecting power) in... United States, and to employees of the Iranian Interests Section of the Embassy of Pakistan (or...

  12. 31 CFR 560.512 - Iranian Government missions in the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... to, the Iranian Interests Section of the Embassy of Pakistan (or any successor protecting power) in... United States, and to employees of the Iranian Interests Section of the Embassy of Pakistan (or...

  13. Miniature LED endoilluminators for vitreoretinal surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hessling, M.; Koelbl, P. S.; Lingenfelder, C.; Koch, F.

    2015-07-01

    Two innovative approaches for intraocular illumination during vitreoretinal surgery by application of white LEDs are being developed. Both techniques are less harmful to the patient, more convenient for the surgeon and smaller and cheaper compared to conventional illumination by Xenon light sources and optical fibers. These two novel approaches are: I) The miniature LED chandelier endoilluminator consisting of a single white LED with a "light probe" on top of the LED housing that fits in a small incision in the wall of the eye. II) The alternative transscleral LED endoilluminator is integrated into an eye speculum that presses the flat LED top against the eye. The intraocular space is only illuminated by light transmitted through the sclera. In contrast to conventional illumination techniques for vitreoretinal surgery no incision is necessary. Both approaches are evaluated with regard to potential photochemical and thermal risks for the patient's retina and they are tested on porcine eyes.

  14. Miniature fiber optic surface plasmon resonance biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slavik, Radan; Brynda, Eduard; Homola, Jiri; Ctyroky, Jiri

    1999-01-01

    A novel design of surface plasmon resonance fiber optic sensor is reported which leads to a compact, highly miniaturized sensing element with excellent sensitivity. The sensing device is based on a side-polished single-mode optical fiber with a thin metal overlayer supporting surface plasmon waves. The strength of interaction between a fiber mode and a surface plasmon wave depends strongly on the refractive index near the sensing surface. Therefore, refractive index changes associated with biospecific interaction between antibodies immobilized on the sensor and antigen molecules can be monitored by measuring light intensity variations. Detection of horse radish peroxidase (HRP) of the concentration of 100 ng/ml has been accomplished using the fiber optic sensor with a matrix of monoclonal antibodies against HRP immobilized on the sensor surface.

  15. Miniature Ring-Shaped Peristaltic Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Chang, Zensheu; Bao, Xiaoqi; Lih, Shyh-Shiuh

    2004-01-01

    An experimental miniature peristaltic pump exploits piezoelectrically excited flexural waves that travel around a ring: A fluid is carried in the containers formed in the valleys between the peaks of the flexural waves, What sets the present pump apart from other pumps that exploit piezoelectrically excited flexural waves is the ring shape, which makes it possible to take advantage of some of the desirable characteristics of previously developed piezoelectric rotary motors. A major advantage of the circular (in contradistinction to a straight-line) wave path is that the flexural waves do not come to a stop and, instead, keep propagating around the ring. Hence, a significant portion of the excitation energy supplied during each cycle is reused during the next cycle, with the result that the pump operates more effectively than it otherwise would.

  16. Gallbladder lymphoma in a miniature dachshund.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Nao; Shibata, Sanae; Sakai, Hiroki; Konno, Hiroaki; Takashima, Satoshi; Kawabe, Mifumi; Mori, Takashi; Kitagawa, Hitoshi; Washizu, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    A 7-year-old, miniature dachshund was referred for examination and treatment of persistent anorexia, deep yellow-coloured urine and leucocytosis. The clinical sign of jaundice, results from a serum biochemistry profile and ultrasonographic images suggested a biliary tract obstruction. A cholecystectomy was performed to remove the obstruction. Histopathological assessment of the resected gallbladder and partial common bile duct indicated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Twelve days after the initial operation, a second procedure was performed due to bile leakage into the abdominal cavity. Chemotherapy was administered twice after the second operation but discontinued, because the dog showed adverse effects. The dog is still alive 24 months after the surgery. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first description of canine gallbladder lymphoma. PMID:25311915

  17. Power Electronics for a Miniaturized Arcjet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinero, Luis R.; Bowers, Glen E.

    1997-01-01

    A 0.3 kW Power Processing Unit (PPU) was designed, tested on resistive loads, and then integrated with a miniaturized arcjet. The main goal of the design was to minimize size and mass while maintaining reasonable efficiency. In order to obtain the desired reductions in mass, simple topologies and control methods were considered. The PPU design incorporates a 50 kHz, current-mode-control, pulse-width-modulated (PWM), push-pull topology. An input voltage of 28 +/- 4V was chosen for compatibility with typical unregulated low voltage busses anticipated for smallsats. An efficiency of 0.90 under nominal operating conditions was obtained. The component mass of the PPU was 0.475 kg and could be improved by optimization of the output filter design. The estimated mass for a flight PPU based on this design is less than a kilogram.

  18. An automated miniature robotic vehicle inspection system

    SciTech Connect

    Dobie, Gordon; Summan, Rahul; MacLeod, Charles; Pierce, Gareth; Galbraith, Walter

    2014-02-18

    A novel, autonomous reconfigurable robotic inspection system for quantitative NDE mapping is presented. The system consists of a fleet of wireless (802.11g) miniature robotic vehicles, each approximately 175 × 125 × 85 mm with magnetic wheels that enable them to inspect industrial structures such as storage tanks, chimneys and large diameter pipe work. The robots carry one of a number of payloads including a two channel MFL sensor, a 5 MHz dry coupled UT thickness wheel probe and a machine vision camera that images the surface. The system creates an NDE map of the structure overlaying results onto a 3D model in real time. The authors provide an overview of the robot design, data fusion algorithms (positioning and NDE) and visualization software.

  19. Miniature piezo electric vacuum inlet valve

    DOEpatents

    Keville, Robert F.; Dietrich, Daniel D.

    1998-03-24

    A miniature piezo electric vacuum inlet valve having a fast pulse rate and is battery operated with variable flow capability. The low power (<1.6 watts), high pulse rate (<2 milliseconds), variable flow inlet valve is utilized for mass spectroscopic applications or other applications where pulsed or continuous flow conditions are needed. The inlet valve also has a very minimal dead volume of less than 0.01 std/cc. The valve can utilize, for example, a 12 Vdc input/750 Vdc, 3 mA output power supply compared to conventional piezo electric valves which require preloading of the crystal drive mechanism and 120 Vac, thus the valve of the present invention is smaller by a factor of three.

  20. Miniature piezo electric vacuum inlet valve

    DOEpatents

    Keville, R.F.; Dietrich, D.D.

    1998-03-24

    A miniature piezo electric vacuum inlet valve having a fast pulse rate and is battery operated with variable flow capability is disclosed. The low power (<1.6 watts), high pulse rate (<2 milliseconds), variable flow inlet valve is utilized for mass spectroscopic applications or other applications where pulsed or continuous flow conditions are needed. The inlet valve also has a very minimal dead volume of less than 0.01 std/cc. The valve can utilize, for example, a 12 Vdc input/750 Vdc, 3 mA output power supply compared to conventional piezo electric valves which require preloading of the crystal drive mechanism and 120 Vac, thus the valve of the present invention is smaller by a factor of three. 6 figs.

  1. A miniaturized pointing mount for Spacelab missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritz, C. G.; Howell, T., Jr.; Nicaise, P. D.; Parker, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    A Miniaturized Pointing Mount (MPM) for Spacelab missions is defined and simulation results are described. This mount is proposed to complement the Spacelab Instrument Pointing System (IPS). It uses the same mount isolator concept as the Spacelab IPS but is much more efficient and economical for the accommodation of small shuttle payloads. The MPM is built from star tracker assemblies left over from the Apollo Telescope Mount program thereby assuring low cost and development risk. Simulation results indicate a high level of instrument stability can be expected. The short development time of the MPM would permit it to serve as a precursor to the Spacelab IPS for verifying critical new concepts such as the mount isolation and hold down mechanisms.

  2. Miniature Trailing Edge Effector for Aerodynamic Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Hak-Tae (Inventor); Bieniawski, Stefan R. (Inventor); Kroo, Ilan M. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Improved miniature trailing edge effectors for aerodynamic control are provided. Three types of devices having aerodynamic housings integrated to the trailing edge of an aerodynamic shape are presented, which vary in details of how the control surface can move. A bucket type device has a control surface which is the back part of a C-shaped member having two arms connected by the back section. The C-shaped section is attached to a housing at the ends of the arms, and is rotatable about an axis parallel to the wing trailing edge to provide up, down and neutral states. A flip-up type device has a control surface which rotates about an axis parallel to the wing trailing edge to provide up, down, neutral and brake states. A rotating type device has a control surface which rotates about an axis parallel to the chord line to provide up, down and neutral states.

  3. A miniaturized fibrinolytic assay for plasminogen activators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, M. L.; Nachtwey, D. S.; Damron, K. L.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes a micro-clot lysis assay (MCLA) for evaluating fibrinolytic activity of plasminogen activators (PA). Fibrin clots were formed in wells of microtiter plates. Lysis of the clots by PA, indicated by change in turbidity (optical density, OD), was monitored with a microplate reader at five minutes intervals. Log-log plots of PA dilution versus endpoint, the time at which the OD value was halfway between the maximum and minimum value for each well, were linear over a broad range of PA concentrations (2-200 International units/ml). The MCLA is a modification and miniaturization of well established fibrinolytic methods. The significant practical advantages of the MCLA are that it is a simple, relatively sensitive, non-radioactive, quantitative, kinetic, fibrinolytic micro-technique which can be automated.

  4. Miniaturized attitude control system for nanosatellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candini, Gian Paolo; Piergentili, Fabrizio; Santoni, Fabio

    2012-12-01

    A miniaturized attitude control system suitable for nanosatellites, developed using only commercial off-the-shelf components, is described in the paper. It is a complete and independent system to be used on board nanosatellites, allowing automated attitude control. To integrate this system into nanosatellites such as Cubesats its size has been reduced down to a cube of side about 5 cm. The result is a low cost attitude control system built with terrestrial components, integrating three micro magnetotorquers, three micro reaction wheels, three magnetometers and redundant control electronics, capable of performing automatics operations on request from the ground. The system can operate as a real time maneuvering system, executing commands sent from the ground or as a standalone attitude control system receiving the solar array status from a hosting satellite and the satellite ephemeris transmitted from the ground station. The main characteristics of the developed system and test results are depicted in this paper.

  5. Miniature linear-to-rotary motion actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorokach, Michael R., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    A miniature hydraulic actuation system capable of converting linear actuator motion to control surface rotary motion has been designed for application to active controls on dynamic wind tunnel models. Due to space constraints and the torque requirements of an oscillating control surface at frequencies up to 50 Hertz, a new actuation system was developed to meet research objectives. This new actuation system was designed and developed to overcome the output torque limitations and fluid loss/sealing difficulties associated with an existing vane type actuator. Static control surface deflections and dynamic control surface oscillations through a given angle are provided by the actuation system. The actuator design has been incorporated into a transonic flutter model with an active trailing edge flap and two active spoilers. The model is scheduled for testing in the LaRC 16 Foot Transonic Dynamics Tunnel during Summer 1993. This paper will discuss the actuation system, its design, development difficulties, test results, and application to aerospace vehicles.

  6. Miniature, sub-nanometer resolution Talbot spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Ye, Erika; Atabaki, Amir H; Han, Ningren; Ram, Rajeev J

    2016-06-01

    Miniaturization of optical spectrometers has a significant practical value as it can enable compact, affordable spectroscopic systems for chemical and biological sensing applications. For many applications, the spectrometer must gather light from sources that span a wide range of emission angles and wavelengths. Here, we report a lens-free spectrometer that is simultaneously compact (<0.6  cm3), of high resolution (<1  nm), and has a clear aperture (of 10×10  mm). The wavelength-scale pattern in the dispersive element strongly diffracts the input light to produce non-paraxial mid-field diffraction patterns that are then recorded using an optimally matched image sensor and processed to reconstruct the spectrum. PMID:27244382

  7. A pair of miniature helium expansion turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Sixsmith, H.; Swift, W.

    1982-01-01

    Two miniature cryogenic turboexpanders are discussed. These were developed to provide first and second stage expansion in small helium liquifiers or refrigerators. The design of each is virtually identical although the design operating conditions varied more than 30% in specific speed. The expanders run at high speeds in pressurized helium bearings with an integral brake heat exchanger. The vital components are contained in a cartridge, held in place by a single nut, which can be removed and replaced in less than one minute. Specifications and descriptions are discussed are parameters itemized. The assembly is diagramed with an photo of the brazed bearing assembly and titanium shaft. Expander operation is discussed. A subsequent discussion is recorded concerning the efficiency of the turbine, which is similar to that of an NBS turbine.

  8. Miniature Neutron-Alpha Activation Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, Edgar; Holloway, James Paul; He, Zhong; Goldsten, John

    2002-10-01

    We are developing a miniature neutron-alpha activation spectrometer for in-situ analysis of chem-bio samples, including rocks, fines, ices, and drill cores, suitable for a lander or Rover platform for Mars or outer-planet missions. In the neutron-activation mode, penetrating analysis will be performed of the whole sample using a γ spectrometer and in the α-activation mode, the sample surface will be analyzed using Rutherford-backscatter and x-ray spectrometers. Novel in our approach is the development of a switchable radioactive neutron source and a small high-resolution γ detector. The detectors and electronics will benefit from remote unattended operation capabilities resulting from our NEAR XGRS heritage and recent development of a Ge γ detector for MESSENGER. Much of the technology used in this instrument can be adapted to portable or unattended terrestrial applications for detection of explosives, chemical toxins, nuclear weapons, and contraband.

  9. Self-folding miniature elastic electric devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyashita, Shuhei; Meeker, Laura; Tolley, Michael T.; Wood, Robert J.; Rus, Daniela

    2014-09-01

    Printing functional materials represents a considerable impact on the access to manufacturing technology. In this paper we present a methodology and validation of print-and-self-fold miniature electric devices. Polyvinyl chloride laminated sheets based on metalized polyester film show reliable self-folding processes under a heat application, and it configures 3D electric devices. We exemplify this technique by fabricating fundamental electric devices, namely a resistor, capacitor, and inductor. Namely, we show the development of a self-folded stretchable resistor, variable resistor, capacitive strain sensor, and an actuation mechanism consisting of a folded contractible solenoid coil. Because of their pre-defined kinematic design, these devices feature elasticity, making them suitable as sensors and actuators in flexible circuits. Finally, an RLC circuit obtained from the integration of developed devices is demonstrated, in which the coil based actuator is controlled by reading a capacitive strain sensor.

  10. Miniature reciprocating heat pumps and engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thiesen, Jack H. (Inventor); Willen, Gary S. (Inventor); Mohling, Robert A. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    The present invention discloses a miniature thermodynamic device that can be constructed using standard micro-fabrication techniques. The device can be used to provide cooling, generate power, compress gases, pump fluids and reduce pressure below ambient (operate as a vacuum pump). Embodiments of the invention relating to the production of a cooling effect and the generation of electrical power, change the thermodynamic state of the system by extracting energy from a pressurized fluid. Energy extraction is attained using an expansion process, which is as nearly isentropic as possible for the appropriately chosen fluid. An isentropic expansion occurs when a compressed gas does work to expand, and in the disclosed embodiments, the gas does work by overcoming either an electrostatic or a magnetic force.

  11. Integrated measurement system for miniature camera modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tervonen, Ari; Nivala, Ilkka; Ryytty, Pasi; Saari, Hannu; Ojanen, Harri; Viinikanoja, Jarkko

    2006-04-01

    Particularly for miniature camera modules, manufactured in high volumes, characterization and measurement approaches are needed that provide information on camera key properties efficiently. An integrated measurement system named has been developed that uses images taken on specifically designed test chart targets, which are then automatically analysed by software. The chart combines target elements for measurement of optoelectronic conversion function, resolution, noise, uniformity, distortion and colour reproduction. The software applies machine vision to recognize the various target elements from the images, and to register analysis locations properly. The actual analysis methods conform with existing standards. The software includes graphical user interface, and in addition to the automatic analysis, also user-defined analysis can be flexibly done. The software supports modifications in the chart layout, batch analysis of images and storing the results in spreadsheet report format.

  12. Miniature solid-state gas compressor

    DOEpatents

    Lawless, William N.; Cross, Leslie E.; Steyert, William A.

    1985-01-01

    A miniature apparatus for compressing gases is disclosed in which an elastomer disposed between two opposing electrostrictive or piezoelectric ceramic blocks, or between a single electrostrictive or piezoelectric ceramic block and a rigid surface, is caused to extrude into or recede from a channel defined adjacent to the elastomer in response to application or removal of an electric field from the blocks. Individual cells of blocks and elastomer are connected to effect a gas compression by peristaltic activation of the individual cells. The apparatus is self-valving in that the first and last cells operate as inlet and outlet valves, respectively. Preferred electrostrictive and piezoelectric ceramic materials are disclosed, and an alternative, non-peristaltic embodiment of the apparatus is described.

  13. Miniature solid-state gas compressor

    DOEpatents

    Lawless, W.N.; Cross, L.E.; Steyert, W.A.

    1985-05-07

    A miniature apparatus for compressing gases is disclosed in which an elastomer disposed between two opposing electrostrictive or piezoelectric ceramic blocks, or between a single electrostrictive or piezoelectric ceramic block and a rigid surface, is caused to extrude into or recede from a channel defined adjacent to the elastomer in response to application or removal of an electric field from the blocks. Individual cells of blocks and elastomer are connected to effect a gas compression by peristaltic activation of the individual cells. The apparatus is self-valving in that the first and last cells operate as inlet and outlet valves, respectively. Preferred electrostrictive and piezoelectric ceramic materials are disclosed, and an alternative, non-peristaltic embodiment of the apparatus is described. 9 figs.

  14. An automated miniature robotic vehicle inspection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobie, Gordon; Summan, Rahul; MacLeod, Charles; Pierce, Gareth; Galbraith, Walter

    2014-02-01

    A novel, autonomous reconfigurable robotic inspection system for quantitative NDE mapping is presented. The system consists of a fleet of wireless (802.11g) miniature robotic vehicles, each approximately 175 × 125 × 85 mm with magnetic wheels that enable them to inspect industrial structures such as storage tanks, chimneys and large diameter pipe work. The robots carry one of a number of payloads including a two channel MFL sensor, a 5 MHz dry coupled UT thickness wheel probe and a machine vision camera that images the surface. The system creates an NDE map of the structure overlaying results onto a 3D model in real time. The authors provide an overview of the robot design, data fusion algorithms (positioning and NDE) and visualization software.

  15. Miniaturized Autonomous Extravehicular Robotic Camera (Mini AERCam)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fredrickson, Steven E.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) Engineering Directorate is developing the Autonomous Extravehicular Robotic Camera (AERCam), a low-volume, low-mass free-flying camera system . AERCam project team personnel recently initiated development of a miniaturized version of AERCam known as Mini AERCam. The Mini AERCam target design is a spherical "nanosatellite" free-flyer 7.5 inches in diameter and weighing 1 0 pounds. Mini AERCam is building on the success of the AERCam Sprint STS-87 flight experiment by adding new on-board sensing and processing capabilities while simultaneously reducing volume by 80%. Achieving enhanced capability in a smaller package depends on applying miniaturization technology across virtually all subsystems. Technology innovations being incorporated include micro electromechanical system (MEMS) gyros, "camera-on-a-chip" CMOS imagers, rechargeable xenon gas propulsion system , rechargeable lithium ion battery, custom avionics based on the PowerPC 740 microprocessor, GPS relative navigation, digital radio frequency communications and tracking, micropatch antennas, digital instrumentation, and dense mechanical packaging. The Mini AERCam free-flyer will initially be integrated into an approximate flight-like configuration for demonstration on an airbearing table. A pilot-in-the-loop and hardware-in-the-loop simulation to simulate on-orbit navigation and dynamics will complement the airbearing table demonstration. The Mini AERCam lab demonstration is intended to form the basis for future development of an AERCam flight system that provides beneficial on-orbit views unobtainable from fixed cameras, cameras on robotic manipulators, or cameras carried by EVA crewmembers.

  16. Miniaturized spectral imager for Aalto-1 nanosatellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannila, Rami; Näsilä, Antti; Praks, Jaan; Saari, Heikki; Antila, Jarkko

    2011-11-01

    The Aalto-1 is a 3U-cubesat project coordinated by Aalto University. The satellite, Aalto-1, will be mainly built by students as project assignments and thesis works. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland will develop the main Earth observation payload, a miniaturized spectral imager, for the satellite. It is a novel highly miniaturized tunable filter type spectral imager. Mass of the spectral imager will be less than 400 grams, and dimensions will be approximately 80 mm x 80 mm x 45 mm. The spectral imager is based on a tunable Fabry-Pérot interferometer (FPI) accompanied by an RGB CMOS image sensor. The FPI consists of two highly reflective surfaces separated by a tunable air gap and it is based either on a microelectromechanical (MEMS) or piezo-actuated structure. The MEMS FPI is a monolithic device, i.e. it is made entirely on one substrate in a batch process, without assembling separate pieces together. The gap is adjusted by moving the upper mirror with electrostatic force. Benefits of the MEMS FPI are low mass and small size. However, large aperture (2-10 mm) MEMS FPIs are currently under development, thus it is not yet known if their performance is adequate. The piezo-actuated FPI uses three piezo-actuators and is controlled in a closed capacitive feedback loop. The drawback of the piezo-actuated FPI is its higher mass. However, it has a large aperture which enables a shorter exposure times. Selection of the FPI type will be done after thorough evaluation. Depending on the selected FPI type, the spectral resolution of the imager will be 5 - 10 nm at full width at half maximum and it will operate in the visible and/or near infrared range.

  17. Miniature, Lightweight, One-Time-Opening Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack; Wu, Juinn Jenq; Leland, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The figure depicts the main parts of a prototype miniature, lightweight, onetime- opening valve. Like some other miniature one-time-opening valves reported in previous issues of NASA Tech Briefs, this valve is opened by melting a material that blocks the flow path. This valve is designed to remain closed at some temperature between room temperature and cryogenic temperature until the time of opening. The prototype valve includes a 1/8-in. (3-mm) aluminum tube, one end of which is plugged with a solder comprising about 37 weight percent of lead and 63 weight percent of tin. The tube and the solder both have a coefficient of thermal expansion of 23 micron/m-K at room temperature. Before plugging, the interior surface of the plug end of the tube is cleaned with a commercial flux paste developed specifically for preparing aluminum for bonding with lead/tin solder. The solder is then melted into the cleaned end of the tube, forming the plug. In a test, the plugged tube was pressurized to 1,000 psi (6.9 MPa) with helium and leak-tested. It was then cooled to a temperature of 77 K (about 196 C) and again leak-tested at the same pressure. Finally, at a lower pressure, the plugged end of the tube was heated to about 200 C (the melting temperature of the solder is 183 C), causing the solder plug to be ejected (see figure). It has been estimated that in a subsequent version of the valve, the plug could be melted by electrical heating, using a nichrome wire having a mass of only 10 g.

  18. 31 CFR 560.549 - Policy governing Iranian news organizations' offices in the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Policy governing Iranian news... Policy § 560.549 Policy governing Iranian news organizations' offices in the United States. Specific... operation of news bureaus in the United States by Iranian organizations whose primary purpose is...

  19. 31 CFR 560.549 - Policy governing Iranian news organizations' offices in the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Policy governing Iranian news... Policy § 560.549 Policy governing Iranian news organizations' offices in the United States. Specific... operation of news bureaus in the United States by Iranian organizations whose primary purpose is...

  20. Transnational Learning: The Integration of Jugyou Kenkyuu into Iranian Teacher Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arani, Mohammad Reza Sarkar

    2006-01-01

    I clarify in this chapter what Iran can learn from Japan's experience of jugyou kenkyuu(lesson study) model, and what we can apply to the Iranian educational context. The chapter also discusses the process, progress and challenges of incorporating jugyou kenkyuu into Iranian teacher training. I examine how Iranian teachers and school…

  1. 31 CFR 535.579 - Authorization of new transactions concerning certain Iranian property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... which Iran or an Iranian entity has an interest are authorized where: (1) The property comes within the... of the United States after January 19, 1981, or (2) The interest in the property of Iran or an Iranian entity (e.g. exports consigned to Iran or an Iranian entity) arises after January 19, 1981....

  2. 31 CFR 535.579 - Authorization of new transactions concerning certain Iranian property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... which Iran or an Iranian entity has an interest are authorized where: (1) The property comes within the... of the United States after January 19, 1981, or (2) The interest in the property of Iran or an Iranian entity (e.g. exports consigned to Iran or an Iranian entity) arises after January 19, 1981....

  3. 31 CFR 535.579 - Authorization of new transactions concerning certain Iranian property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... which Iran or an Iranian entity has an interest are authorized where: (1) The property comes within the... of the United States after January 19, 1981, or (2) The interest in the property of Iran or an Iranian entity (e.g. exports consigned to Iran or an Iranian entity) arises after January 19, 1981....

  4. 31 CFR 535.579 - Authorization of new transactions concerning certain Iranian property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... which Iran or an Iranian entity has an interest are authorized where: (1) The property comes within the... of the United States after January 19, 1981, or (2) The interest in the property of Iran or an Iranian entity (e.g. exports consigned to Iran or an Iranian entity) arises after January 19, 1981....

  5. 31 CFR 535.579 - Authorization of new transactions concerning certain Iranian property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... which Iran or an Iranian entity has an interest are authorized where: (1) The property comes within the... of the United States after January 19, 1981, or (2) The interest in the property of Iran or an Iranian entity (e.g. exports consigned to Iran or an Iranian entity) arises after January 19, 1981....

  6. Attitudes toward English & English Learning at an Iranian Military University: A Preliminary Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahdavi Zafarghandi, Amir; Jodai, Hojat

    2012-01-01

    This study intends to represent attitudes toward English and English learning at an Iranian military university. Iranian military staff is required to study English in a social environment where there is little immediate need or opportunity to use the language for real communicative purposes.The subjects included 34 Iranian military personnel who…

  7. 31 CFR 560.413 - Letter of credit payments by Iranian banks in the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Letter of credit payments by Iranian... TRANSACTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 560.413 Letter of credit payments by Iranian banks in the United... Iranian bank's branch or agency pursuant to the terms of the letter of credit or other financing...

  8. 3 CFR - Delegation of Certain Functions Under Section 1264 of the Victims of Iranian Censorship Act...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of the Victims of Iranian Censorship Act (Public Law 111-84, Subtitle D of the National Defense... 21, 2010 Delegation of Certain Functions Under Section 1264 of the Victims of Iranian Censorship Act... 1264 of the Victims of Iranian Censorship Act (Public Law 111-84, subtitle D) to make the...

  9. A versatile miniature bioreactor and its application to bioelectrochemistry studies.

    PubMed

    Kloke, A; Rubenwolf, S; Bücking, C; Gescher, J; Kerzenmacher, S; Zengerle, R; von Stetten, F

    2010-08-15

    Often, reproducible investigations on bio-microsystems essentially require a flexible but well-defined experimental setup, which in its features corresponds to a bioreactor. We therefore developed a miniature bioreactor with a volume in the range of a few millilitre that is assembled by alternate stacking of individual polycarbonate elements and silicone gaskets. All the necessary supply pipes are incorporated as bore holes or cavities within the individual elements. Their combination allows for a bioreactor assembly that is easily adaptable in size and functionality to experimental demands. It allows for controlling oxygen transfer as well as the monitoring of dissolved oxygen concentration and pH-value. The system provides access for media exchange or sterile sampling. A mass transfer coefficient for oxygen (k(L)a) of 4.3x10(-3) s(-1) at a flow rate of only 15 ml min(-1) and a mixing time of 1.5s at a flow rate of 11 ml min(-1) were observed for the modular bioreactor. Single reactor chambers can be interconnected via ion-conductive membranes to form a two-chamber test setup for investigations on electrochemical systems such as fuel cells or sensors. The versatile applicability of this modular and flexible bioreactor was demonstrated by recording a growth curve of Escherichia coli (including monitoring of pH and oxygen) saturation, and also as by two bioelectrochemical experiments. In the first electrochemical experiment the use of the bioreactor enabled a direct comparison of electrode materials for a laccase-catalyzed oxygen reduction electrode. In a second experiment, the bioreactor was utilized to characterize the influence of outer membrane cytochromes on the performance of Shewanella oneidensis in a microbial fuel cell. PMID:20537883

  10. Achromatic miniature lens system for coherent Raman scattering microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Richa; Balu, Mihaela; Wilder-Smith, Petra; Potma, Eric O.

    2013-01-01

    We discuss the design and performance of a miniature objective lens optimized for coherent Raman scattering microscopy. The packaged lens assembly has a numerical aperture of 0.51 in water and an outer diameter of 8 mm. The lens system exhibits minimum chromatic aberrations, and produces coherent Raman scattering images with sub-micrometer lateral resolution (0.648 μm) using near-infrared excitation pulses. We demonstrate that despite the small dimensions of the miniature objective, the performance of this lens system is comparable to standard microscope objective lenses, offering opportunities for miniaturizing coherent Raman scattering imaging probes without sacrificing the image quality. PMID:24156075

  11. A MEMS-based miniature DNA analysis system

    SciTech Connect

    Northrup, M.A.; Gonzalez, C.; Hadley, D.

    1995-04-25

    We detail the design and development of a miniature thermal cycling instrument for performing the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) that uses microfabricated, silicon-based reaction chambers. The MEMS-based, battery-operated instrument shows significant improvements over commercial thermal cycling instrumentation. Several different biological systems have been amplified and verified with the miniature PCR instrument including the Human Immunodeficiency Virus; both cloned and genomic DNA templates of {beta} globin; and the genetic disease, Cystic Fibrosis from human DNA. The miniaturization of a PCR thermal cycler is the initial module of a fully-integrated portable, low-power, rapid, and highly efficient bioanalytical instrument.

  12. Coping Work Strategies and Job Satisfaction Among Iranian Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Ghiyasvandian, Shahrzad; Adera Gebra, Addis

    2014-01-01

    Context: Nursing is a stressful job that could create physical and psychological disorders. Many studies presented information on stress, effects of coping strategies, and job satisfaction of nurses within health setting. We aimed to identify and describe nursing stresses, coping strategies and job satisfaction of Iranian nurses who are working or worked in different wards. Evidence Acquisition: In this review, we studied peer-reviewed journal articles on the field of stress, coping strategies and job satisfaction in nursing practice, especially Iranian nurses, which were published between 2000 and 2013. In this regard, we searched databases of PubMed, Elsevier, Google, BMJ, PMC, and MEDLINE. Results: The majority of the studies (60%) had analyzed the effect of coping strategies, experiences and perception of job-related stresses in Iranian nurses working in hospitals. In some of the reviewed studies (60%), the majority of the samples enrolled Iranian nurses. Forty percent of studies selected a maximum sample size of 565 (44%) participants in 2011. Nursing stress scale employed at 30% of the studies was the most commonly used strategy. This reviewed studies also revealed a combined measurement (60% of studies), based on categorical stress measurement, effects of coping strategies, and job satisfaction methods. Three studies explored the relationship between job stress and job satisfaction. For instance, the majority (74.4%) of nurses reported job satisfaction. Conclusions: Effect of coping strategies and job satisfaction on Iranian nurses is a well-accepted issue and has important positive outcomes on several areas of health discipline. PMID:25068050

  13. Miniaturized Airborne Imaging Central Server System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Xiuhong

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, some remote-sensing applications require advanced airborne multi-sensor systems to provide high performance reflective and emissive spectral imaging measurement rapidly over large areas. The key or unique problem of characteristics is associated with a black box back-end system that operates a suite of cutting-edge imaging sensors to collect simultaneously the high throughput reflective and emissive spectral imaging data with precision georeference. This back-end system needs to be portable, easy-to-use, and reliable with advanced onboard processing. The innovation of the black box backend is a miniaturized airborne imaging central server system (MAICSS). MAICSS integrates a complex embedded system of systems with dedicated power and signal electronic circuits inside to serve a suite of configurable cutting-edge electro- optical (EO), long-wave infrared (LWIR), and medium-wave infrared (MWIR) cameras, a hyperspectral imaging scanner, and a GPS and inertial measurement unit (IMU) for atmospheric and surface remote sensing. Its compatible sensor packages include NASA s 1,024 1,024 pixel LWIR quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) imager; a 60.5 megapixel BuckEye EO camera; and a fast (e.g. 200+ scanlines/s) and wide swath-width (e.g., 1,920+ pixels) CCD/InGaAs imager-based visible/near infrared reflectance (VNIR) and shortwave infrared (SWIR) imaging spectrometer. MAICSS records continuous precision georeferenced and time-tagged multisensor throughputs to mass storage devices at a high aggregate rate, typically 60 MB/s for its LWIR/EO payload. MAICSS is a complete stand-alone imaging server instrument with an easy-to-use software package for either autonomous data collection or interactive airborne operation. Advanced multisensor data acquisition and onboard processing software features have been implemented for MAICSS. With the onboard processing for real time image development, correction, histogram-equalization, compression, georeference, and

  14. Pneumatically Actuated Miniature Peristaltic Vacuum Pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, Sabrina; Feldman, Jason; Svehla, Danielle

    2003-01-01

    Pneumatically actuated miniature peristaltic vacuum pumps have been proposed for incorporation into advanced miniature versions of scientific instruments that depend on vacuum for proper operation. These pumps are expected to be capable of reaching vacuum-side pressures in the torr to millitorr range (from .133 down to .0.13 Pa). Vacuum pumps that operate in this range are often denoted roughing pumps. In comparison with previously available roughing pumps, these pumps are expected to be an order of magnitude less massive and less power-hungry. In addition, they would be extremely robust, and would operate with little or no maintenance and without need for oil or other lubricants. Portable mass spectrometers are typical examples of instruments that could incorporate the proposed pumps. In addition, the proposed pumps could be used as roughing pumps in general laboratory applications in which low pumping rates could be tolerated. The proposed pumps could be designed and fabricated in conventionally machined and micromachined versions. A typical micromachined version (see figure) would include a rigid glass, metal, or plastic substrate and two layers of silicone rubber. The bottom silicone layer would contain shallow pump channels covered by silicone arches that could be pushed down pneumatically to block the channels. The bottom silicone layer would be covered with a thin layer of material with very low gas permeability, and would be bonded to the substrate everywhere except in the channel areas. The top silicone layer would be attached to the bottom silicone layer and would contain pneumatic- actuation channels that would lie crosswise to the pump channels. This version is said to be micromachined because the two silicone layers containing the channels would be fabricated by casting silicone rubber on micromachined silicon molds. The pneumatic-actuation channels would be alternately connected to a compressed gas and (depending on pump design) either to atmospheric

  15. A novel miniature thermomagnetic energy harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chin-Chung; Chung, Tien-Kan; Cheng, Chi-Cheng; Tseng, Chia-Yuan

    2014-03-01

    Nowadays, thermal-energy-harvesting is an important research topic for powering wireless sensors. Among numerous thermal-energy-harvesting approaches, some researchers demonstrated novel thermomagnetic-energy harvesters to convert a thermal-energy from an ambient temperature-difference to an electrical-output to power the sensors. However, the harvesters are too bulky to be integrated with the sensors embedded in tiny mechanical-structures for some structuralhealth- monitoring applications. Therefore, miniaturized harvesters are needed. Hence, we demonstrate a miniature thermomagnetic-energy harvester. The harvester consists of CuBe-beams, PZT-piezoelectric-sheet, Gd-soft-magnet, NdFeB-hard-magnet, and mechanical-frame. The piezoelectric-sheet and soft-magnet is bounded at fixed-end and freeend of the beams, respectively. The mechanical-frame assembles the beams and hard-magnet. The length×width×thickness of the harvester is 2.5cm×1.7cm×1.5cm. According to this, our harvester is 20-times smaller than the other harvesters. In the initial-state of the energy-harvesting, the beams' free-end is near the cold-side. Thus, the soft-magnet is cooled lower than its curie temperature (Tc) and consequently changed from paramagnetic to ferromagnetic. Therefore, a magnetic-attractive force is produced between the soft-magnet and hard-magnet. Consequently, the beams/soft-magnet are down-pulled toward the hard-magnet fixed on the hot-side. The soft-magnet closing to the hot-side is heated higher than its Tc and subsequently changed to paramagnetic. Consequently, the magnetic-force is eliminated thus the beams are rebounded to the initial-state. Hence, when the harvester is under a temperature-difference, the beams' pulling-down/back process is cyclic. Due to the piezoelectric effect, the piezoelectric-sheet fixed on the beams continuously produces voltage-response. Under the temperature-difference of 29°C, the voltage-response of the harvester is 30.4 mV with an oscillating

  16. A Miniature Controllable Flapping Wing Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arabagi, Veaceslav Gheorghe

    The agility and miniature size of nature's flapping wing fliers has long baffled researchers, inspiring biological studies, aerodynamic simulations, and attempts to engineer their robotic replicas. Flapping wing flight is characterized by complex reciprocating wing kinematics, transient aerodynamic effects, and very small body lengths. These characteristics render robotic flapping wing aerial vehicles ideal for surveillance and defense applications, search and rescue missions, and environment monitoring, where their ability to hover and high maneuverability is immensely beneficial. One of the many difficulties in creating flapping wing based miniature robotic aerial vehicles lies in generating a proper wing trajectory that would result in sufficient lift forces for hovering and maneuvering. Since design of a flapping wing system is a balance between overall weight and the number of actuated inputs, we take the approach of having minimal controlled inputs, allowing passive behavior wherever possible. Hence, we propose a completely passive wing pitch reversal design that relies on wing inertial dynamics, an elastic energy storage mechanism, and low Reynolds number aerodynamic effects. Theoretical models, compiling previous research on piezoelectric actuators, four-bar transmissions, and aerodynamics effects, are developed and used as basis for a complete numerical simulation. Limitations of the model are discussed in comparison to experimental results obtained from a working prototype of the proposed passive pitch reversal flapping wing mechanism. Given that the mechanism is under-actuated, methods to control lift force generation by actively varying system parameters are proposed, discussed, and tested experimentally. A dual wing aerial platform is developed based on the passive pitch reversal wing concept. Design considerations are presented, favoring controllability and structural rigidity of the final platform. Finite element analysis and experimental

  17. 31 CFR 560.306 - Iranian-origin goods or services; goods or services owned or controlled by the Government of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Iranian-origin goods or services..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRANIAN TRANSACTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 560.306 Iranian-origin... of Iranian origin and Iranian-origin goods include: (1) Goods grown, produced,...

  18. An Investigation Into the Performance of a Miniature Diesel Engine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, P. W.

    1970-01-01

    Reports the procedures and results of a student investigation of the performance of a miniature diesel engine. The experiments include (1) torque measurement, (2) power measurement, and (3) variation of power output with applied load. Bibliography. (LC)

  19. Miniature oxygen-hydrogen cutting torch constructed from hypodermic needle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shlichta, P.

    1964-01-01

    A miniature cutting torch consisting of a main body member, upon which the hydrogen and oxygen containers are mounted, valves for controlling gas flow, and a hypodermic needle that acts as a mixing tube and flame tip is constructed.

  20. Miniature Tractor Pull Helps Teach Mechanical Power Transmission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waggoner, Todd C.

    1996-01-01

    A miniature tractor pull was developed as a high school activity, enabling students to assess a tractor's pulling capabilities and determine subsequent horsepower. The activity takes the textbook concept of horsepower and makes it come alive. (JOW)

  1. Miniature paint-spray gun for recessed areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanasse, M. A.

    1968-01-01

    Miniature spray gun regulates paints and other liquids to spray at close range, facilitating spraying of remote or recessed areas. Individual valves for regulating air pressure and paint maximizes atomization for low pressure spraying.

  2. Miniaturized King furnace permits absorption spectroscopy of small samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ercoli, B.; Tompkins, F. S.

    1968-01-01

    Miniature King-type furnace, consisting of an inductively heated, small diameter tantalum tube supported in a radiation shield eliminates the disadvantages of the conventional furnace in obtaining absorption spectra of metal vapors.

  3. Miniature LIMS System for In Situ Detection of Biosignatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedo, A.; Tulej, M.; Neuland, M. B.; Wurz, P.

    2016-05-01

    The current measurement capabilities of our miniature Laser Ablation Ionization Mass Spectrometer for sensitive and quantitative in situ chemical analyses (element, isotope and molecular) of solids on planetary surfaces will be presented.

  4. Personal communication system combines high performance with miniaturization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atlas, N. D.

    1967-01-01

    Personal communication system provides miniaturized components that incorporate high level signal characteristics plus noise rejection in both microphone and earphone circuitry. The microphone is designed to overcome such spacecraft flight problems as size, ambient noise level, and RF interference.

  5. Impacts of international sanctions on Iranian pharmaceutical market.

    PubMed

    Cheraghali, Abdol Majid

    2013-01-01

    Iran in recent decade faced several regional and international sanctions in foreign trade, financial and banking services. Iran national pharmaceutical industry has always played a major role in providing medicines to the Iranian patients. However, following the sanctions it has faced profound difficulties for importing of both finished products and pharmaceutical raw materials. Although medicines are exempted from sanctions, due to restriction on money transaction and proper insurance Iranian pharmaceutical companies have to pay cash in advance for imports of medicines and raw materials or to secure offshore funds at very high risks. Current situation in Iran pharmaceutical market confirms that the sanctions against Iran are affecting ordinary citizens and national health sector which resulted to reduction of availability of lifesaving medicines in the local market and has caused increasing pain and suffering for Iranian patients. PMID:23902642

  6. Prompt gamma radiation as a new tool to measure reactor power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    jalali, Majid; Abdi, Mohammad Reza; davati, Mojtaba Mostajabod

    2013-10-01

    A new method, based on reactor prompt gamma radiation detection, for reactor power measurement is introduced and validated. To verify, the ex-core gamma radiation spectrum from the Iranian Heavy Water Zero Power Reactor (HWZPR) were measured by HPGe and NaI detectors each suitably positioned. The collective prompt gamma count rates for all or for a portion of each of 2″×2″ NaI detector spectra were obtained for seven power level readings from calibrated reactor power monitors. A good linear behavior was found between gamma count rate and reactor power. The method of calibrated prompt gamma reactor power determination is a stable and reliable tool, on-line, sensitive to sudden variation of power, working in pulse mode, increasing redundancy and diversity and so improving the reactor safety. The prompt gamma counting system can be adopted and installed in other nuclear reactors to measure power.

  7. Miniaturized biological and electrochemical fuel cells: challenges and applications.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Ghobadian, Sasan; Goodrich, Payton J; Montazami, Reza; Hashemi, Nastaran

    2013-09-14

    This paper discusses the fundamentals and developments of miniaturized fuel cells, both biological and electrochemical. An overview of microfluidic fuel cells, miniaturized microbial fuel cells, enzymatic biofuel cells, and implanted biofuel cells in an attempt to provide green energy and to power implanted microdevices is provided. Also, the challenges and applications of each type of fuel cell are discussed in detail. Most recent developments in fuel cell technologies such as novel catalysts, compact designs, and fabrication methods are reviewed. PMID:23503374

  8. MEMS mass spectrometers: the next wave of miniaturization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syms, Richard R. A.; Wright, Steven

    2016-02-01

    This paper reviews mass spectrometers based on micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology. The MEMS approach to integration is first briefly described, and the difficulties of miniaturizing mass spectrometers are outlined. MEMS components for ionization and mass filtering are then reviewed, together with additional components for ion detection, vacuum pressure measurement and pumping. Mass spectrometer systems containing MEMS sub-components are then described, applications for miniaturized and portable systems are discussed, and challenges and opportunities are presented.

  9. Patellofemoral pain syndrome in Iranian female athletes.

    PubMed

    Nejati, Parisa; Forogh, Bijan; Moeineddin, Reza; Baradaran, Hamid Reza; Nejati, Mina

    2011-01-01

    Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is the most common overuse syndrome in athletes. It is one of the causes of anterior knee pain in athletic population who come to the sports medicine clinic. Patellofemoral pain is more common among female athletes especially adolescents and young adults. Symptoms include: persistent pain behind the patella or peripatella. Pain increases on ascending and descending stairs and squatting and prolonged sitting. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of PFPS in Iranian female athletes. 418 female athletes aged 15-35 years were examined in five sports: Soccer (190), volleyball (103), running (42), fencing (45) and rock climbing (38). The athletes who had non- traumatic onset anterior knee pain of at least 3 months that increased in descending and ascending stairs and squatting, had no other causes of anterior knee pain such as ligament instability, bursitis, meniscal injury, tendonitis and arthritis and no history of knee surgery during the one past year were diagnosed as PFPS. 26/190 (13.68 %) soccer players, 21/103(20.38 %) volleyball players, 7/42 (16.66 %) runners, 6/45(13.33 %) fencers and 10/38 (26.31%) rock climbers had patellofemoral pain. Among the 418 female athletes who were evaluated 70 had PFPS. Rock climbers were the most common athletes with PFPS followed by volleyball players and runners. PMID:21681705

  10. The Feminisation of Iranian Higher Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shavarini, Mitra K.

    2005-07-01

    The number of women attending institutions of higher education in Iran has been steadily increasing since 1989. Growing enrollment rates for women in colleges and universities have sparked wide social and political debates in that country. The basic question of why young Iranian women might even choose to pursue tertiary education, however, has not been adequately addressed in the critical literature. This study gives voice to young women who explain for themselves why they are interested in higher education. It reveals that college or university studies represent for female students many things: a sphere of hope, a refuge, and a place to experience limited freedom beyond restrictive family environments; an asset that can increase a woman's value in the marriage market; a right that may make possible financial independence; and a vehicle that can earn respect for women. On the whole, the desire for higher education illuminates the challenges facing women in Muslim nations and the ways in which Muslim women are using this institution to change their social status.

  11. Patience and Mental Health in Iranian Students

    PubMed Central

    Aghababaei, Naser; Tabik, Mohammad Taghi

    2015-01-01

    Background: While the role of some personality traits has been comprehensively explored, scientific study of others, such as patience has been neglected. Psychologists have paid scant attention to patience as a personality trait, character strength or virtue. Objectives: The current study examined the relationship between patience and life satisfaction, mental health, and personality. Materials and Methods: A sample of 252 Iranian college students (129 females and 123 males) completed the 3-factor patience scale, satisfaction with life scale, general health questionnaire, anxiety and depression scales and mini international personality item pool-big five. Results: The three types of patience (interpersonal, life hardship, and daily hassles) were associated with higher levels of life satisfaction and lower levels of depression, anxiety and psychological dysfunction. Patience also showed moderate relationship with the Big-Five factors of personality. After controlling the personality factors, patience managed to explain additional unique variance in life satisfaction and mental health indicators. Conclusions: Patience is a unique predictor of mental well-being. It is suggested that long-term patience is more important for depression and general health, whereas short-term patience is more beneficial for hedonic well-being. PMID:26576165

  12. Attitudes of Iranian infertile couples toward surrogacy

    PubMed Central

    Kian, Ensiyeh Mohebbi; Riazi, Hedieh; Bashirian, Saeid

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Surrogacy arrangements are multifaceted in nature, involving multiple controversial aspects and engaging ethical, moral, psychological and social issues. Successful treatment in reproductive medicine is strongly based on the mutual agreement of both partners, especially in Iran where men often make the final decision for health-related problems of this nature. AIM: The aim of the following study is to assess the attitudes of Iranian infertile couples toward surrogacy. SETTING AND DESIGN: This descriptive study was conducted at the infertility clinic of Hamadan university of medical sciences, Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study sample consisted of 150 infertile couples selected using a systematic randomized method. Data collection was based on responses to a questionnaire consisting of 22 questions. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: P <0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. RESULTS: While 33.3% of men and 43.3% of women surveyed insisted on not using surrogacy, the overall attitudes toward surrogacy were positive (53.3% of women and 54.6% of men surveyed). CONCLUSION: Although, there was not a significant difference between the overall positive attitudes of infertile women and men toward surrogacy, the general attitude toward using this method is not strongly positive. Therefore, further efforts are required to increase the acceptability of surrogacy among infertile couples. PMID:24829531

  13. Adherence to Antihypertensive Medications in Iranian Patients

    PubMed Central

    Behnood-Rod, Azin; Rabbanifar, Omid; Pourzargar, Pirouz; Rai, Alireza; Saadat, Zahra; Saadat, Habibollah; Moharamzad, Yashar; Morisky, Donald E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Appropriate adherence to medication is still a challenging issue for hypertensive patients. We determined adherence to antihypertensive(s) and its associated factors among 280 Iranian patients. Methods. They were recruited consecutively from private and university health centers and pharmacies in four cities. The validated Persian version of the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8) was administered to measure adherence. Results. Mean (±SD) overall MMAS-8 score was 5.75 (±1.88). About half of the sample (139 cases, 49.6%) showed low adherence (MMAS-8 score < 6). There was a negative linear association between the MMAS-8 score and systolic BP (r = −0.231, P < 0.001) as well as diastolic BP (r = −0.280, P < 0.001). In linear regression model, overweight/obesity (B = −0.52, P = 0.02), previous history of admission to emergency services due to hypertensive crisis (B = −0.79, P = 0.001), and getting medication directly from drugstore without refill prescription in hand (B = −0.51, P = 0.04) were factors recognized to have statistically significant association with the MMAS-8 score. Conclusion. Antihypertensive adherence was unsatisfactory. We suggest that health care providers pay special attention and make use of the aforementioned findings in their routine visits of hypertensive patients to recognize those who are vulnerable to poor adherence. PMID:27069676

  14. Challenges of Implementing Iranian National Laboratory Standards

    PubMed Central

    Safadel, N; Dahim, P; Anjarani, S; Rahnamaye Farzami, M; Samiee, S Mirab; Amini, R; Farsi, Sh; Mahdavi, S; Khodaverdian, K; Rashed Marandi, F

    2013-01-01

    After four years of publishing the Iranian National Laboratory Standard and following a strategic plan to implement its requirements, it was decided to review the taken actions, evaluating the achievements and the failures, as well as analyzing the gaps and planning the interventional activities to resolve the problems. A thorough evaluation revealed that the progress of implementation process varies considerably in different provinces, as well as in laboratories in different public and private sectors. Diversity and heterogeneousity of laboratories throughout the country is one of unresolvable problems. Although we encounter shortage of resources in the country, improper allocation or distribution of resources and budgets make the problems more complicated. Inadequacy of academic training in laboratory sciences has resulted in necessity of holding comprehensive post-graduate training courses. Revising academic curriculum of laboratory sciences could be mostly helpful, moreover there should be organized, training courses with pre-determined practical topics. providing specific technical guidelines, to clarify the required technical details could temporarily fill the training gaps of laboratory staff. Inadequate number of competent auditors was one of the difficulties in universities. Another important challenge returns to laboratory equipment, developing the national controlling system to manage the laboratory equipment in terms of quality and accessibility has been planned in RHL. At last cultural problems and resistance to change are main obstacles that have reduced the pace of standardization, it needs to rationalize the necessity of establishing laboratory standards for all stakeholders. PMID:23865029

  15. Quality measurement indicators for Iranian Health Centers

    PubMed Central

    Moslehi, Shandiz; Atefi Manesh, Pezhman; Sarabi Asiabar, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recently, quality is a serious concern in development of organizations. There are various indicators to assess quality and the purpose of this study was to identify the main indicators for quality measurement of Iranian health centers. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted in three stages: first, review of the literature was performed to identify different indicators for quality measurement in health centers; second, a tworound Delphi process was used with participation of 18 experts in both rounds; third, Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method was applied to give weights to each indicator. Results: Twenty-seven indicators were identified from the literature review stage. The Delphi method reduced the list to 4 indicators. Developing a quality plan in the health center had the highest weight (38%) and percentage of followed complaints the lowest (12%). The consistency rate was 7.2% indicating appropriateness of the data. Conclusion: This list of indicators can be used as a template for measuring quality of health centers in Iran and possibly in other developing countries. PMID:26034730

  16. Adherence to Antihypertensive Medications in Iranian Patients.

    PubMed

    Behnood-Rod, Azin; Rabbanifar, Omid; Pourzargar, Pirouz; Rai, Alireza; Saadat, Zahra; Saadat, Habibollah; Moharamzad, Yashar; Morisky, Donald E

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Appropriate adherence to medication is still a challenging issue for hypertensive patients. We determined adherence to antihypertensive(s) and its associated factors among 280 Iranian patients. Methods. They were recruited consecutively from private and university health centers and pharmacies in four cities. The validated Persian version of the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8) was administered to measure adherence. Results. Mean (±SD) overall MMAS-8 score was 5.75 (±1.88). About half of the sample (139 cases, 49.6%) showed low adherence (MMAS-8 score < 6). There was a negative linear association between the MMAS-8 score and systolic BP (r = -0.231, P < 0.001) as well as diastolic BP (r = -0.280, P < 0.001). In linear regression model, overweight/obesity (B = -0.52, P = 0.02), previous history of admission to emergency services due to hypertensive crisis (B = -0.79, P = 0.001), and getting medication directly from drugstore without refill prescription in hand (B = -0.51, P = 0.04) were factors recognized to have statistically significant association with the MMAS-8 score. Conclusion. Antihypertensive adherence was unsatisfactory. We suggest that health care providers pay special attention and make use of the aforementioned findings in their routine visits of hypertensive patients to recognize those who are vulnerable to poor adherence. PMID:27069676

  17. Miniaturized Technologies for Enhancement of Motor Plasticity.

    PubMed

    Moorjani, Samira

    2016-01-01

    The idea that the damaged brain can functionally reorganize itself - so when one part fails, there lies the possibility for another to substitute - is an exciting discovery of the twentieth century. We now know that motor circuits once presumed to be hardwired are not, and motor-skill learning, exercise, and even mental rehearsal of motor tasks can turn genes on or off to shape brain architecture, function, and, consequently, behavior. This is a very significant alteration from our previously static view of the brain and has profound implications for the rescue of function after a motor injury. Presentation of the right cues, applied in relevant spatiotemporal geometries, is required to awaken the dormant plastic forces essential for repair. The focus of this review is to highlight some of the recent progress in neural interfaces designed to harness motor plasticity, and the role of miniaturization in development of strategies that engage diverse elements of the neuronal machinery to synergistically facilitate recovery of function after motor damage. PMID:27148525

  18. Recent Advances in Miniaturized Optical Gyroscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dell'Olio, F.; Tatoli, T.; Ciminelli, C.; Armenise, M. N.

    2014-03-01

    Low-cost chip-scale optoelectronic gyroscopes having a resolution ≤ 10 °/h and a good reliability also in harsh environments could have a strong impact on the medium/high performance gyro market, which is currently dominated by well-established bulk optical angular velocity sensors. The R&D activity aiming at the demonstration of those miniaturized sensors is crucial for aerospace/defense industry, and thus it is attracting an increasing research effort and notably funds. In this paper the recent technological advances on the compact optoelectronic gyroscopes with low weight and high energy saving are reviewed. Attention is paid to both the so-called gyroscope-on-a-chip, which is a novel sensor, at the infantile stage, whose optical components are monolithically integrated on a single indium phosphide chip, and to a new ultra-high Q ring resonator for gyro applications with a configuration including a 1D photonic crystal in the resonant path. The emerging field of the gyros based on passive ring cavities, which have already shown performance comparable with that of optical fiber gyros, is also discussed.

  19. Design considerations for miniaturized optical neural probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudmann, Linda; Ordonez, Juan S.; Stieglitz, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Neural probes are designed to selectively record from or stimulate nerve cells. In optogenetics it is desirable to build miniaturized and long-term stable optical neural probes, in which the light sources can be directly and chronically implanted into the animals to allow free movement and behavior. Because of the size and the beam shape of the available light sources, it is difficult to target single cells as well as spatially localized networks. We therefore investigated design considerations for packages, which encapsulate the light source hermetically and have integrated hemispherical lens structures that enable to focus the light onto the desired region, by optical simulations. Integration of a biconvex lens into the package lid (diameter = 300 μm, material: silicon carbide) increased the averaged absolute irradiance ηA by 298 % compared to a system without a lens and had a spot size of around 120 μm. Solely integrating a plano-convex lens (same diameter and material) results in an ηA of up to 227 %.

  20. A miniature bimorph piezoelectrically actuated flow pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, Rogério F.; Nakasone, Paulo H.; de Lima, Cícero R.; Silva, Emílio C. N.

    2006-03-01

    Precision flow pumps have been widely studied over the last three decades. They have been applied as essential components in thermal management solutions for cooling electronic devices offering better performance with low noise and low power consumption. In this work, a novel configuration of a miniature piezoelectrically actuated flow pump with the purpose of cooling a LED set inside a head light system for medical applications has been studied and it will be presented. The complete cycle of pump development was conducted. In the design step, the ANSYS finite element analysis software has been applied to simulate and study the fluid-structure interaction inside the pump, as well as the bimorph piezoelectric actuator behavior. In addition, an optimization process was carried out through Altair Hyperstudy software to find a set of parameter values that maximizes the pump performance measured in terms of flow rate. The prototype manufacturing was guided based on computational simulations. Flow characterization experimental tests were conducted, generating data that allows us to analyze the influence of frequency and amplitude parameters in the pump performance. Comparisons between numerical and experimental results were also made.

  1. Development of a Prototype Miniature Silicon Microgyroscope

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Dunzhu; Chen, Shuling; Wang, Shourong

    2009-01-01

    A miniature vacuum-packaged silicon microgyroscope (SMG) with symmetrical and decoupled structure was designed to prevent unintended coupling between drive and sense modes. To ensure high resonant stability and strong disturbance resisting capacity, a self-oscillating closed-loop circuit including an automatic gain control (AGC) loop based on electrostatic force feedback is adopted in drive mode, while, dual-channel decomposition and reconstruction closed loops are applied in sense mode. Moreover, the temperature effect on its zero bias was characterized experimentally and a practical compensation method is given. The testing results demonstrate that the useful signal and quadrature signal will not interact with each other because their phases are decoupled. Under a scale factor condition of 9.6 mV/°/s, in full measurement range of ± 300 deg/s, the zero bias stability reaches 15°/h with worse-case nonlinearity of 400 ppm, and the temperature variation trend of the SMG bias is thus largely eliminated, so that the maximum bias value is reduced to one tenth of the original after compensation from -40 °C to 80 °C. PMID:22408543

  2. NASA Ultra-Sensitive Miniature Accelerometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zavracky, Paul M.; Hartley, Frank T.

    1994-01-01

    Using micro-machined silicon technology, an ultra-sensitive miniature acce.,rometer can be constructed which meets the requirements for microgravity experiments in the space environment.Such an accelerometer will have a full scale sensitivity of 1C2 g a resolution of lC8 g, low cross axis sensitivity, and low temperature sensitivity. Mass of the device is approximately five grams and its footprint is 2 cm x 2 cm. Innovative features of the accelerometer, which are patented, are: electrostatic caging to withstand handling shock up to 150 g, in-situ calibration, in situ performance characterization, and both static and dynamic compensation. The transducer operates on a force balance principle wherein the displacement of the proof mass is monitored by measuring tunneling electron current flow between a conductive tip, and a fixed platen. The four major parts of the accelerometer are tip die, incorporating the tunneling tip and four field plates for controlling pitch and roll of the proof mass; two proof mass dies, attached to the surrounding frame by sets of four leg" springs; and a force plate die. The four parts are fuse-bonded into a complete assembly. External electrical connections are made at bond pads on the front surface of the force plate die. Materials and processes used in the construction of the transducer are compatible with volume production.

  3. A new miniaturized atomic magnetic gradiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Dong; Perry, Abigail; Krzyzewski, Sean; Geller, Shawn; Knappe, Svenja; Kitching, John

    2016-05-01

    We report the development of a new miniaturized magnetic gradiometer using alkali atoms. The gradiometer, with the length of 5 cm and cross section diameter of 11 mm, is made of two chip-scale atomic magnetometers placed on a printed optical bench with a defined separation. Both magnetometers work in the spin-exchange relaxation free regime, share the same beam for pumping and probing to reduce the common mode noises from the lasers, and atom temperature is independently controlled by heating beams at telecom wavelength. With 2 cm baseline, 1 mW pumping beam power, and less than 400 mW input heating beam power, we measure a noise level of 15 fT/ Hz1/2 from the subtraction of two magnetometer outputs, which corresponds to a gradient field sensitivity of 7.5 fT/ Hz1/2/cm. The maximum common mode magnetic field noise rejection is up to 1000 within the gradiometer bandwidth. This device is useful in many fields that require both sensitive gradient field information and high common mode noise cancellation. We are also developing a new hybrid system based on this device to improve its dynamical range.

  4. Low cost miniature data collection platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The development of the RF elements of a telecommunications package involved detailed study and analysis of concepts and techniques followed by laboratory testing and evaluation of designs. The design goals for a complete telecommunications package excluding antenna were a total weight of 300 grams, in a total volume of 400 cu cm with a capability of unattended operation for a period of six months. Of utmost importance is extremely low cost when produced in lots of 10,000. Early in the program it became apparent that a single Miniature Data Collection Platform would not satisfy all users. A single high efficiency system would not satisfy a user who had available a large battery capacity but required a low cost system. Conversely, the low cost system would not satisfy the end user who had a very limited battery capacity. A system design to satisfy these varied requirements was implemented by designing several versions of the system building blocks and then constructing three systems from these building blocks.

  5. Miniature thermo-electric cooled cryogenic pump

    DOEpatents

    Keville, Robert F.

    1997-01-01

    A miniature thermo-electric cooled cryogenic pump for removing residual water molecules from an inlet sample prior to sample analysis in a mass spectroscopy system, such as ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) mass spectroscopy. The cryogenic pump is a battery operated, low power (<1.6 watts) pump with a .DELTA.T=100.degree. C. characteristic. The pump operates under vacuum pressures of 5.times.10.sup.-4 Torr to ultra high vacuum (UHV) conditions in the range of 1.times.10.sup.-7 to 3.times.10.sup.-9 Torr and will typically remove partial pressure, 2.times.10.sup.-7 Torr, residual water vapor. The cryogenic pump basically consists of an inlet flange piece, a copper heat sink with a square internal bore, four two tier Peltier (TEC) chips, a copper low temperature square cross sectional tubulation, an electronic receptacle, and an exit flange piece, with the low temperature tubulation being retained in the heat sink at a bias angle of 5.degree., and with the TECs being positioned in parallel to each other with a positive potential being applied to the top tier thereof.

  6. Miniature thermo-electric cooled cryogenic pump

    DOEpatents

    Keville, R.F.

    1997-11-18

    A miniature thermo-electric cooled cryogenic pump is described for removing residual water molecules from an inlet sample prior to sample analysis in a mass spectroscopy system, such as ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) mass spectroscopy. The cryogenic pump is a battery operated, low power (<1.6 watts) pump with a {Delta}T=100 C characteristic. The pump operates under vacuum pressures of 5{times}10{sup {minus}4} Torr to ultra high vacuum (UHV) conditions in the range of 1{times}10{sup {minus}7} to 3{times}10{sup {minus}9} Torr and will typically remove partial pressure, 2{times}10{sup {minus}7} Torr, residual water vapor. The cryogenic pump basically consists of an inlet flange piece, a copper heat sink with a square internal bore, four two tier Peltier (TEC) chips, a copper low temperature square cross sectional tubulation, an electronic receptacle, and an exit flange piece, with the low temperature tubulation being retained in the heat sink at a bias angle of 5{degree}, and with the TECs being positioned in parallel to each other with a positive potential being applied to the top tier thereof. 2 figs.

  7. A locust-inspired miniature jumping robot.

    PubMed

    Zaitsev, Valentin; Gvirsman, Omer; Ben Hanan, Uri; Weiss, Avi; Ayali, Amir; Kosa, Gabor

    2015-12-01

    Unmanned ground vehicles are mostly wheeled, tracked, or legged. These locomotion mechanisms have a limited ability to traverse rough terrain and obstacles that are higher than the robot's center of mass. In order to improve the mobility of small robots it is necessary to expand the variety of their motion gaits. Jumping is one of nature's solutions to the challenge of mobility in difficult terrain. The desert locust is the model for the presented bio-inspired design of a jumping mechanism for a small mobile robot. The basic mechanism is similar to that of the semilunar process in the hind legs of the locust, and is based on the cocking of a torsional spring by wrapping a tendon-like wire around the shaft of a miniature motor. In this study we present the jumping mechanism design, and the manufacturing and performance analysis of two demonstrator prototypes. The most advanced jumping robot demonstrator is power autonomous, weighs 23 gr, and is capable of jumping to a height of 3.35 m, covering a distance of 1.37 m. PMID:26602094

  8. Miniaturized Technologies for Enhancement of Motor Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Moorjani, Samira

    2016-01-01

    The idea that the damaged brain can functionally reorganize itself – so when one part fails, there lies the possibility for another to substitute – is an exciting discovery of the twentieth century. We now know that motor circuits once presumed to be hardwired are not, and motor-skill learning, exercise, and even mental rehearsal of motor tasks can turn genes on or off to shape brain architecture, function, and, consequently, behavior. This is a very significant alteration from our previously static view of the brain and has profound implications for the rescue of function after a motor injury. Presentation of the right cues, applied in relevant spatiotemporal geometries, is required to awaken the dormant plastic forces essential for repair. The focus of this review is to highlight some of the recent progress in neural interfaces designed to harness motor plasticity, and the role of miniaturization in development of strategies that engage diverse elements of the neuronal machinery to synergistically facilitate recovery of function after motor damage. PMID:27148525

  9. Miniaturization and globalization of clinical laboratory activities.

    PubMed

    Melo, Murilo R; Clark, Samantha; Barrio, Daniel

    2011-04-01

    Clinical laboratories provide an invaluable service to millions of people around the world in the form of quality diagnostic care. Within the clinical laboratory industry the impetus for change has come from technological development (miniaturization, nanotechnology, and their collective effect on point-of-care testing; POCT) and the increasingly global nature of laboratory services. Potential technological gains in POCT include: the development of bio-sensors, microarrays, genetics and proteomics testing, and enhanced web connectivity. In globalization, prospective opportunities lie in: medical tourism, the migration of healthcare workers, cross-border delivery of testing, and the establishment of accredited laboratories in previously unexplored markets. Accompanying these impressive opportunities are equally imposing challenges. Difficulty transitioning from research to clinical use, poor infrastructure in developing countries, cultural differences and national barriers to global trade are only a few examples. Dealing with the issues presented by globalization and the impact of developing technology on POCT, and on the clinical laboratory services industry in general, will be a daunting task. Despite such concerns, with appropriate countermeasures it will be possible to address the challenges posed. Future laboratory success will be largely dependent on one's ability to adapt in this perpetually shifting landscape. PMID:21175379

  10. Miniaturized 3D microscope imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Yung-Sung; Chang, Chir-Weei; Sung, Hsin-Yueh; Wang, Yen-Chang; Chang, Cheng-Yi

    2015-05-01

    We designed and assembled a portable 3-D miniature microscopic image system with the size of 35x35x105 mm3 . By integrating a microlens array (MLA) into the optical train of a handheld microscope, the biological specimen's image will be captured for ease of use in a single shot. With the light field raw data and program, the focal plane can be changed digitally and the 3-D image can be reconstructed after the image was taken. To localize an object in a 3-D volume, an automated data analysis algorithm to precisely distinguish profundity position is needed. The ability to create focal stacks from a single image allows moving or specimens to be recorded. Applying light field microscope algorithm to these focal stacks, a set of cross sections will be produced, which can be visualized using 3-D rendering. Furthermore, we have developed a series of design rules in order to enhance the pixel using efficiency and reduce the crosstalk between each microlens for obtain good image quality. In this paper, we demonstrate a handheld light field microscope (HLFM) to distinguish two different color fluorescence particles separated by a cover glass in a 600um range, show its focal stacks, and 3-D position.

  11. Miniature Videoprobe Hockey Stick Delivery System

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, Lester R.; McMurry, Kyle M.

    1998-06-18

    The present invention is a miniature videoprobe system having a probe termination box, a strong back, and a videoprobe housing. The videoprobe system is able to obtain images from a restricted space at least as small as 0.125 inches while producing a high quality image. The strong back has a hockey stick shape with the probe termination box connecting to the top of the handle-like portion of the hockey stick and the videoprobe housing attaching to the opposite end or nose of the hockey stick shape. The videoprobe housing has a roughly arrowhead shape with two thin steel plates sandwiching the internal components there between. The internal components are connected in series to allow for a minor dimension of the videoprobe housing of 0.110 inches. The internal components include an optics train, a CCD chip, and an electronics package. An electrical signal is transmitted from the electronics package through wiring within an internal channel of the strong back to the probe termination box. The strong back has milled into it multiple internal channels for facilitating the transfer of information, items, or devices between the probe termination box and the videoprobe housing.

  12. Separation Control Using Miniature Vortex Generator Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaton, John K.; Xu, Cheng

    1998-11-01

    Vortex generator jets are jets which emerge from pitched and skewed holes in the wall bounding a turbulent flow. They have been shown to develop persistent longitudinal vortices when the hole size is comparable to the boundary layer thickness. This experiment used much smaller jets with diameters around a twentieth of the boundary layer thickness. The jets were arranged to produce arrays of co-rotating longitudinal vortices. By changing the hole spacing, the vortices could be made to either remain separate or amalgamate into much larger vortices. The amalgamated vortices produced strong disturbances similar to those produced by a vane-type vortex generator with height comparable to the boundary layer thickness. These disturbances persisted more than 1000 hole diameters downstream. The separation control capabilities were tested in an adverse pressure gradient boundary layer which separated and then reattached forming a closed bubble. The miniature vortex generator jets could control the length of the separated region eventually eliminating it entirely at sufficiently high jet speeds.

  13. Miniaturized Amperometric Solid Electrolyte Carbon Dioxide Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, G. W.; Xu, J. C.; Liu, C. C.; Hammond, J. W.; Ward, B.; Lukco, D.; Lampard, P.; Artale, M.; Androjna, D.

    2006-01-01

    A miniaturized electrochemical carbon dioxide (CO2) sensor using Na3Z r2Si2PO12 (NASICON) as a solid electrolyte has been fabricated and de monstrated. Microfabrication techniques were used for sensor fabricat ion to yield a sensing area around 1.0 mm x 1.1 mm. The NASICON solid electrolyte and the Na2CO3/BaCO3 (1:1.7 molar ratio) auxiliary elect rolyte were deposited by sputtering in between and on top of the inte rdigitated finger-shaped platinum electrodes. This structure maximize s the length of the three-phase boundary (electrode, solid electrolyt e, and auxiliary electrolyte), which is critical for gas sensing. The robust CO2 sensor operated up to 600 C in an amperometric mode and a ttempts were made to optimize sensor operating parameters. Concentrat ions of CO2 between 0.02% and 4% were detected and the overall sensor performance was evaluated. Linear response of sensor current output to ln[CO2 concentration] ranging from 0.02% to 1% was achieved.

  14. A miniature mechanical ventilator for newborn mice.

    PubMed

    Kolandaivelu, K; Poon, C S

    1998-02-01

    Transgenic/knockout mice with pre-defined mutations have become increasingly popular in biomedical research as models of human diseases. In some instances, the resulting mutation may cause cardiorespiratory distress in the neonatal or adult animals and may necessitate resuscitation. Here we describe the design and testing of a miniature and versatile ventilator that can deliver varying ventilatory support modes, including conventional mechanical ventilation and high-frequency ventilation, to animals as small as the newborn mouse. With a double-piston body chamber design, the device circumvents the problem of air leakage and obviates the need for invasive procedures such as endotracheal intubation, which are particularly important in ventilating small animals. Preliminary tests on newborn mice as early as postnatal day O demonstrated satisfactory restoration of pulmonary ventilation and the prevention of respiratory failure in mutant mice that are prone to respiratory depression. This device may prove useful in the postnatal management of transgenic/knockout mice with genetically inflicted respiratory disorders. PMID:9475887

  15. Miniature detector measures deep space radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2011-08-01

    The 1972 journey of Apollo 17 marked not only the last time a human walked on the Moon but also the most recent manned venture beyond the outer reaches of the Earth's atmosphere. With preparations being made for humans to once again explore deep space, important steps are under way to quantify the hazards of leaving low-Earth orbit. One significant risk for long-distance missions is the increased exposure to ionizing radiation—energetic particles that can strip electrons off of otherwise neutral materials, affecting human health and the functioning of spacecraft equipment. The deep space probes that are being sent to measure the risks from ionizing radiation and other hazards can be costly, so maximizing the scientific value of each launch is important. With this goal in mind, Mazur et al. designed and developed a miniature dosimeter that was sent into lunar orbit aboard NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) in 2009. Weighing only 20 grams, the detector is able to measure fluctuations in ionizing radiation as low as 1 microrad (equivalent to 1.0 × 10-8 joules of energy deposited into 1 kilogram) while requiring minimal power and computer processing. The postage stamp-sized detector tracked radiation dosages for the first year of LRO's mission, with the results being confirmed by other onboard and near-Earth detectors. (Space Weather, doi:10.1029/2010SW000641, 2011)

  16. A self-sustained, complete and miniaturized methanol fuel processor for proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Mei; Jiao, Fengjun; Li, Shulian; Li, Hengqiang; Chen, Guangwen

    2015-08-01

    A self-sustained, complete and miniaturized methanol fuel processor has been developed based on modular integration and microreactor technology. The fuel processor is comprised of one methanol oxidative reformer, one methanol combustor and one two-stage CO preferential oxidation unit. Microchannel heat exchanger is employed to recover heat from hot stream, miniaturize system size and thus achieve high energy utilization efficiency. By optimized thermal management and proper operation parameter control, the fuel processor can start up in 10 min at room temperature without external heating. A self-sustained state is achieved with H2 production rate of 0.99 Nm3 h-1 and extremely low CO content below 25 ppm. This amount of H2 is sufficient to supply a 1 kWe proton exchange membrane fuel cell. The corresponding thermal efficiency of whole processor is higher than 86%. The size and weight of the assembled reactors integrated with microchannel heat exchangers are 1.4 L and 5.3 kg, respectively, demonstrating a very compact construction of the fuel processor.

  17. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Fermi, E.; Zinn, W.H.; Anderson, H.L.

    1958-09-16

    Means are presenied for increasing the reproduction ratio of a gaphite- moderated neutronic reactor by diminishing the neutron loss due to absorption or capture by gaseous impurities within the reactor. This means comprised of a fluid-tight casing or envelope completely enclosing the reactor and provided with a valve through which the casing, and thereby the reactor, may be evacuated of atmospheric air.

  18. Mechanical behavior of AISI 304SS determined by miniature test methods after neutron irradiation to 28 dpa

    SciTech Connect

    Ellen M. Rabenberg; Brian J. Jaques; Bulent H. Sencer; Frank A. Garner; Paula D. Freyer; Taira Okita; Darryl P. Butt

    2014-05-01

    The mechanical properties of AISI 304 stainless steel irradiated for over a decade in the Experimental Breeder Reactor (EBR-II) were measured using miniature mechanical testing methods. The shear punch method was used to evaluate the shear strengths of the neutron-irradiated steel and a correlation factor was empirically determined to predict its tensile strength. The strength of the stainless steel slightly decreased with increasing irradiation temperature, and significantly increased with increasing dose until it saturated above approximately 5 dpa. Ferromagnetic measurements were used to observe and deduce the effects of the stress-induced austenite to martensite transformation as a result of shear punch testing.

  19. Miniature Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potember, Richard S.

    1999-01-01

    Major advances must occur to protect astronauts from prolonged periods in near-zero gravity and high radiation associated with extended space travel. The dangers of living in space must be thoroughly understood and methods developed to reverse those effects that cannot be avoided. Six of the seven research teams established by the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) are studying biomedical factors for prolonged space travel to deliver effective countermeasures. To develop effective countermeasures, each of these teams require identification of and quantitation of complex pharmacological, hormonal, and growth factor compounds (biomarkers) in humans and in experimental animals to develop an in-depth knowledge of the physiological changes associated with space travel. At present, identification of each biomarker requires a separate protocol. Many of these procedures are complicated and the identification of each biomarker requires a separate protocol and associated laboratory equipment. To carry all of this equipment and chemicals on a spacecraft would require a complex clinical laboratory; and it would occupy much of the astronauts time. What is needed is a small, efficient, broadband medical diagnostic instrument to rapidly identify important biomarkers for human space exploration. The Miniature Time-Of- Flight Mass Spectrometer Project in the Technology Development Team is developing a small, high resolution, time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOFMS) to quantitatively measure biomarkers for human space exploration. Virtues of the JHU/APL TOFMS technologies reside in the promise for a small (less than one cubic ft), lightweight (less than 5 kg), low-power (less than 50 watts), rugged device that can be used continuously with advanced signal processing diagnostics. To date, the JHU/APL program has demonstrated mass capability from under 100 to beyond 10,000 atomic mass units (amu) in a very small, low power prototype for biological analysis. Further

  20. A miniature inexpensive, oxygen sensing element

    SciTech Connect

    Arenz, R.W.

    1991-10-07

    An exhaustive study was conducted to determine the feasibility of Nernst-type oxygen sensors based on ceramics containing Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The basic sensor design consisted of a ceramic sensing module sealed into a metal tube. The module accommodated an internal heater and thermocouple. Thermal-expansion-matched metals, adhesives, and seals were researched and developed, consistent with sequential firings during sensor assembly. Significant effort was devoted to heater design/testing and to materials' compatibility with Pt electrodes. A systematic approach was taken to develop all sensor components which led to several design modifications. Prototype sensors were constructed and exhaustively tested. It is concluded that development of Nerst-type oxygen sensors based on Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} will require much further effort and application of specialized technologies. However, during the course of this 3-year program much progress was reported in the literature on amperometric-type oxygen sensors, and a minor effort was devoted here to this type of sensor based on Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}. These studies were made on Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based ceramic samples in a multilayer-capacitor-type geometry and amperometric-type oxygen sensing was demonstrated at very low temperatures ({approximately} 160{degree}C). A central advantage here is that these types of sensors can be mass-produced very inexpensively ({approximately} 20--50 cents per unit). Research is needed, however, to develop an optimum diffusion-limiting barrier coating. In summary, the original goals of this program were not achieved due to unforeseen problems with Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based Nernst sensors. However, a miniature amperometric sensor base on Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} was demonstrated in this program, and it is now seen that this latter sensor is far superior to the originally proposed Nernst sensor. 6 refs., 24 figs.

  1. Miniature Laboratory for Detecting Sparse Biomolecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Ying; Yu, Nan

    2005-01-01

    A miniature laboratory system has been proposed for use in the field to detect sparsely distributed biomolecules. By emphasizing concentration and sorting of specimens prior to detection, the underlying system concept would make it possible to attain high detection sensitivities without the need to develop ever more sensitive biosensors. The original purpose of the proposal is to aid the search for signs of life on a remote planet by enabling the detection of specimens as sparse as a few molecules or microbes in a large amount of soil, dust, rocks, water/ice, or other raw sample material. Some version of the system could prove useful on Earth for remote sensing of biological contamination, including agents of biological warfare. Processing in this system would begin with dissolution of the raw sample material in a sample-separation vessel. The solution in the vessel would contain floating microscopic magnetic beads coated with substances that could engage in chemical reactions with various target functional groups that are parts of target molecules. The chemical reactions would cause the targeted molecules to be captured on the surfaces of the beads. By use of a controlled magnetic field, the beads would be concentrated in a specified location in the vessel. Once the beads were thus concentrated, the rest of the solution would be discarded. This procedure would obviate the filtration steps and thereby also eliminate the filter-clogging difficulties of typical prior sample-concentration schemes. For ferrous dust/soil samples, the dissolution would be done first in a separate vessel before the solution is transferred to the microbead-containing vessel.

  2. A miniature MOSFET radiation dosimeter probe.

    PubMed

    Gladstone, D J; Lu, X Q; Humm, J L; Bowman, H F; Chin, L M

    1994-11-01

    Prototype miniature dosimeter probes have been designed, built, and characterized employing a small, radiation sensitive metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) chip to measure, in vivo, the total accumulated dose and dose rate as a function of time after internal administration of long range beta particle radiolabeled antibodies and in external high energy photon and electron beams. The MOSFET detector is mounted on a long narrow alumina substrate to facilitate electrical connection. The MOSFET, alumina substrate, and lead wires are inserted into a 16 gauge flexineedle, which, in turn, may be inserted into tissue. The radiation dosimeter probe has overall dimensions of 1.6 mm diam and 3.5 cm length. The MOSFET probe signals are read, stored, and analyzed using an automated data collection and analysis system. Initially, we have characterized the probe's response to long range beta particle emission from 90Y sources in solution and to high energy photon and electron beams from linear accelerators. Since the prototype has a finite substrate thickness, the angular dependence has been studied using beta particle emission from a 90Sr source. Temperature dependence and signal drift have been characterized and may be corrected for. Measurements made in spherical volumes containing 90Y with diameters less than the maximum electron range, to simulate anticipated geometries in animal models, agree well with Berger point kernel and EGS4 Monte Carlo calculations. The results from the prototype probes lead to design requirements for detection of shorter range beta particles used in radioimmunotherapy and lower photon energies used in brachytherapy. PMID:7891632

  3. FY 2007 Miniature Spherical Retroreflectors Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Anheier, Norman C.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Krishnaswami, Kannan

    2008-02-20

    Miniature spherical retroreflectors, less than 8 millimeters in diameter, are currently being developed to enhance remote optical detection of nuclear proliferation activities. These retroreflecting spheres resemble small, sand-colored marbles that have the unique optical property of providing a strong reflection directly back to the source (i.e., retroreflecting) when illuminated with a laser. The addition of specific coatings, sensitive to specific chemicals or radioactive decay in the environment, can be applied to the surface of these retroreflectors to provide remote detection of nuclear proliferation activities. The presence of radioactive decay (e.g., alpha, gamma, neutron) or specific chemicals in the environment (e.g., TBP, acids) will change the optical properties of the spheres in a predictable fashion, thus indicating the presence or absence of the target materials. One possible scenario might employ an airborne infrared laser system (e.g., quantum-cascade lasers) to illuminate a section of ground littered with these retroreflective spheres. Depending on the coating and the presence of a specific chemical or radioisotope in the environment, the return signal would be modified in some predictable fashion because of fluorescence, frequency shifting, intensity attenuation/enhancement, or change in polarization. Research conducted in FY 2007 focused on developing novel optical fabrication processes and exploiting the unique material properties of chalcogenide infrared-transparent glass (germanium-arsenic-sulfur-tellurium compounds) to produce highly efficient retroreflectors. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s approach provides comparable performance to the ideal graded index sphere concept, developed by R. K. Luneburg in 1944 (Luneburg 1944), while greatly reducing the complexity in fabrication by utilizing chalcogenide glass materials and compression-molding processes.

  4. Microchannel Reactors for ISRU Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carranza, Susana; Makel, Darby B.; Blizman, Brandon; Ward, Benjamin J.

    2005-02-01

    Affordable planning and execution of prolonged manned space missions depend upon the utilization of local resources and the waste products which are formed in manned spacecraft and surface bases. Successful in-situ resources utilization (ISRU) will require component technologies which provide optimal size, weight, volume, and power efficiency. Microchannel reactors enable the efficient chemical processing of in situ resources. The reactors can be designed for the processes that generate the most benefit for each mission. For instance, propellants (methane) can be produced from carbon dioxide from the Mars atmosphere using the Sabatier reaction and ethylene can be produced from the partial oxidation of methane. A system that synthesizes ethylene could be the precursor for systems to synthesize ethanol and polyethylene. Ethanol can be used as a nutrient for Astrobiology experiments, as well as the production of nutrients for human crew (e.g. sugars). Polyethylene can be used in the construction of habitats, tools, and replacement parts. This paper will present recent developments in miniature chemical reactors using advanced Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) and microchannel technology to support ISRU of Mars and lunar missions. Among other applications, the technology has been demonstrated for the Sabatier process and for the partial oxidation of methane. Microchannel reactors were developed based on ceramic substrates as well as metal substrates. In both types of reactors, multiple layers coated with catalytic material are bonded, forming a monolithic structure. Such reactors are readily scalable with the incorporation of extra layers. In addition, this reactor structure minimizes pressure drop and catalyst settling, which are common problems in conventional packed bed reactors.

  5. Probing combustion chemistry in a miniature shock tube with synchrotron VUV photo ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Patrick T; Troy, Tyler P; Ahmed, Musahid; Tranter, Robert S

    2015-02-17

    Tunable synchrotron-sourced photoionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PI-TOF-MS) is an important technique in combustion chemistry, complementing lab-scale electron impact and laser photoionization studies for a wide variety of reactors, typically at low pressure. For high-temperature and high-pressure chemical kinetics studies, the shock tube is the reactor of choice. Extending the benefits of shock tube/TOF-MS research to include synchrotron sourced PI-TOF-MS required a radical reconception of the shock tube. An automated, miniature, high-repetition-rate shock tube was developed and can be used to study high-pressure reactive systems (T > 600 K, P < 100 bar) behind reflected shock waves. In this paper, we present results of a PI-TOF-MS study at the Advanced Light Source at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Dimethyl ether pyrolysis (2% CH3OCH3/Ar) was observed behind the reflected shock (1400 < T5 < 1700 K, 3 < P5 < 16 bar) with ionization energies between 10 and 13 eV. Individual experiments have extremely low signal levels. However, product species and radical intermediates are well-resolved when averaging over hundreds of shots, which is ordinarily impractical in conventional shock tube studies. The signal levels attained and data throughput rates with this technique are comparable to those with other synchrotron-based PI-TOF-MS reactors, and it is anticipated that this high pressure technique will greatly complement those lower pressure techniques. PMID:25594229

  6. Lifestyle in Iranian Patients with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Khalili, Robabeh; Janbabai, Ghasem; Nikkhah, Attieh

    2015-01-01

    Background One of the most commonly diagnosed cancers is breast cancer that leads to mortality and morbidity among Iranian women. Behavioural risk factors, such as common lifestyle patterns are often associated with risk of breast cancer incidence. Aim This study aimed to investigate lifestyle of breast cancer patients admitted to Cancer Research Center of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted using convenient sampling method. Sample size consisted of 150 cancer patients, and data collection tool included a researcher-made questionnaire on dimensions of lifestyle containing four dimensions of self-care, exercise and physical activity, diet and coping with stress. Maximum score in different dimensions, based on 100% of marks earned, was evaluated in three categories of undesirable, relatively desirable and desirable. Data were analysed with SPSS-19 software using descriptive statistics (relative and absolute frequencies, mean and standard deviation). Results In total of 150 women, the mean age of patients was 51.9 ± 1.04 (27-78). The majority of participants were married, housewives, with high school education. Among the four parts of healthy lifestyle, desirable level of physical activity and exercise had the least participants, and in the dimensions of physical activity and exercise, the lowest level related to walking, followed by daily exercise. Most of the participants had undesirable level of self-care and lowest frequency related to mammography after 40-year-old, followed by annual check-up and Pap-smear. With regard to nutrition, most of them were at desirable level. Conclusion The results indicated undesirable levels in two lifestyle dimensions (self-care and physical activity and exercise) in the majority of participants for a year before contracting breast cancer. Primary prevention programs should be implemented with a comprehensive approach, thus, effective strategies are

  7. Stress Among Iranian Nurses in Critical Wards

    PubMed Central

    Hashemian, Seyed Mohammad Reza; Farzanegan, Behrooz; Fathi, Mohammad; Ardehali, Seyed Hossein; Vahedian-Azimi, Amir; Asghari-Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Hajiesmaeili, Mohammadreza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Stress has been recognized as a significant psychosocial and physiologic component in educational and practical processes. Objectives: The purpose of present study was to survey stress among Iranian nurses in critical wards. Patients and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 3643 anonymous questionnaires were disseminated among nurses in different hospitals in Tehran, Iran, by utilizing multistage random sampling. The questionnaire consisted of two sections: demographic characteristics and a 22-item list on a five-point Likert scale. The association of variables with stress was evaluated using hierarchical logistic regression. Results: A total of 3043 completed questionnaires were completed and returned (response rate, 83.53%). Age (> 33 years, 1571 (51.63%); < 33 years old, 1472 (48.37%)), marital status (single, 188 (6.18%); married, 2685 (88.24%); and widow, 170 (5.59%)), working shift (morning, 605 (19.88%); evening, 631 (20.74%); night, 603 (19.82%); and rotation, 1204 (39.57%)), and the years of experience of nurses (1 - 5 years, 413 (13.57%); 6 - 10 years, 589 (19.36%); 11 - 15 years, 832 (27.34%); 16 - 20 years, 758 (24.91%); and 21-25 years, 451 (14.82%)) had significant association with the level of stress (P < 0.05 for all parameters). However, sex (male, 937 (30.79%); and female, 2106 (69.21%)), education (associate, 444 (14.59%); baccalaureate, 2250 (73.94%); and master, 349 (11.47%)), and body mass index (> 24.6 kg/m2, 2514 (49.75%); and < 24.6 kg/m2, 1529 (50.25%)) showed no significant association with the level of stress (P > 0.05 for all parameters). Conclusions: Considering the personal and background characteristics of personnel and understanding their association with stress and stressful situations encompasses the ability to persevere and adapt to contextual stressors. PMID:26380798

  8. Seismic Waveform Tomography of the Iranian Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggi, A.; Priestley, K.; Jackson, J.

    2001-05-01

    Surprisingly little is known about the detailed velocity structure of Iran, despite the region's importance in the tectonics of the Middle East. Previous studies have concentrated mainly on fundamental mode surface wave dispersion measurements along isolated paths (e.g.~Asudeh, 1982; Cong & Mitchell, 1998; Ritzwoller et.~al, 1998), and the propagation characteristics of crust and upper mantle body waves (e.g. Hearn & Ni 1994; Rodgers et.~al 1997). We use the partitioned waveform inversion method of Nolet (1990) on several hundred regional waveforms crossing the Iranian region to produce a 3-D seismic velocity map for the crust and upper mantle of the area. The method consists of using long period seismograms from earthquakes with well determined focal mechanisms and depths to constrain 1-D path-averaged shear wave models along regional paths. The constraints imposed on the 1-D models by the seismograms are then combined with independent constraints from other methods (e.g.~Moho depths from reciever function analysis etc.), to solve for the 3-D seismic velocity structure of the region. A dense coverage of fundamental mode rayleigh waves at a period of 100~s ensures good resolution of lithospheric scale structure. We also use 20~s period fundamental mode rayleigh waves and some Pnl wavetrains to make estimates of crustal thickness variations and average crustal velocities. A few deeper events give us some coverage of higher mode rayleigh waves and mantle S waves, which sample to the base of the upper mantle. Our crustal thickness estimates range from 45~km in the southern Zagros mountains, to 40~km in central Iran and 35~km towards the north of the region. We also find inconsistencies between the 1-D models required to fit the vertical and the tranverse seismograms, indicating the presence of anisotropy.

  9. Iranian Nurses’ Perception of Patient Safety Culture

    PubMed Central

    Bahrami, Mohammad Amin; Chalak, Mahjabin; Montazeralfaraj, Razieh; Dehghani Tafti, Arefeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: In recent decades, patient safety has become a high priority health system issue, due to the high potential of occurring adverse events in health facilities. Objectives: This study was aimed to survey patient safety culture in 2 Iranian educational hospitals. Materials and Methods: In a descriptive, cross-sectional survey, a hospital survey on patient safety culture, was used in two teaching hospitals in Yazd, Iran during 2012. Study population was comprised of the same hospitals' nurses. Stratified-random sampling method was used and distributed among a total of 340 randomly-selected nurses from different units. From all distributed questionnaires, 302 ones were answered completely and afterwards analyzed using SPSS 17. Dimensional- and item-level positive scores were used for results reporting. Additionally descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation), independent sample t-test and ANOVA were sued for data analyzing. Results: Research findings demonstrated that both hospitals had low to average scores in all dimensions of patient safety culture. Non-punitive response to error, staffing and frequency of events reported had the lowest positive scores of patient safety dimensions with scores 15.26, 19.26, 16.65, 30 and 32.87, 31.10 respectively in Shahid Sadoughi and Shahid Rahnemoon Hospitals. Also only 29.20 and 28.80 percent of nurses in Shahid Sadoughi and Shahid Rahnemoon Hospitals, respectively, evaluated the patient safety grade of their hospital as “excellent” and “very good”. Indeed, the studied hospitals had a statistical difference in 3 dimensions of patient safety culture (frequency of events reported, organizational learning and staffing). (P ≤ 0.05) Conclusions: Our study results were indicating of the challenge of weak patient safety culture, in educational hospitals. Therefore, the issue should be integrated to all policy makers and managerial initiatives in our health system, as a top priority. PMID:24910783

  10. Coping Strategies of Iranian Elderly Women: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagheri-Nesami, Masoumeh; Rafii, Forough; Oskouie, Seyede Fatemeh H.

    2010-01-01

    Successful aging is a process through which older people actively deal with their age-related changes. This study, as a part of more extensive research, explored and describes coping strategies used by Iranian elderly women in response to age-related changes. Grounded theory was used as method. Nineteen participates were recruited. The…

  11. Iranian Students' Performance on the IELTS: A Question of Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghaemi, Farid; Daftarifard, Parisa; Shirkhani, Servat

    2011-01-01

    Reading comprehension has won much effort on the part of teachers, testers, and researchers in Iran due to the fact that the immediate need of Iranian students at different university levels is the ability to read in order to get new information on the topic they are studying. The question raised is how much reading practice can move learners…

  12. Iranian Journal of Language Studies (IJLS). Volume 1, Issue 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Iranian Journal of Language Studies (IJLS) is devoted to all areas of language and linguistics. Its aim is to present work of current interest in all areas of language study. No particular linguistic theories or scientific trends are favored: scientific quality and scholarly standing are the only criteria applied in the selection of papers…

  13. A Model for Implementing E-Learning in Iranian Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghaeni, Emad; Abdehagh, Babak

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the current status of information and communications technology (ICT) usage and provides a comprehensive outlook on e-learning in both virtual universities and organizations in Iran. A model for e-learning implementation is presented. This model tries to address specific issues in Iranian organizations. (Contains 1 table and 2…

  14. Female Empowerment in Iran: The Voice of Iranian University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fereidouni, Somayeh; Mehran, Golmar; Mansourian, Yasdan

    2015-01-01

    In line with global trends, the rate of Iranian female students' enrolment in higher education has increased. However, some policy makers have been concerned about this and without considering the female voice, they have implemented strategies to balance the labour market, which has led to a decrease in female students in certain majors. The…

  15. Studying the Impacts of Globalization on Iranian Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chahardahcheriki, Mitra Abdolahi; Shahi, Sakine

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the degree of globalization of important indicators of education system in Iran including teaching approaches, educational tools and facilities, curriculums and contents, and education management. Findings suggest that the situation of Iranian education system has some distance with the globalized level and…

  16. Integrating CALL into an Iranian EAP Course: Constraints and Affordances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehran, Parisa; Alizadeh, Mehrasa

    2015-01-01

    Iranian universities have recently displayed a growing interest in integrating Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) into teaching/learning English. The English for Academic Purposes (EAP) context, however, is not keeping pace with the current changes since EAP courses are strictly text-based and exam-oriented, and little research has thus…

  17. Iranian Journal of Language Studies (IJLS). Volume 1, Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmani-Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Iranian Journal of Language Studies (IJLS) is a quarterly journal devoted to all areas of language and linguistics. Its aim is to present work of current interest in all areas of language study. No particular linguistic theories or scientific trends are favored: scientific quality and scholarly standing are the only criteria applied in the…

  18. A Historical Overview of Iranian Music Pedagogy (1905-2014)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastaninezhad, Arya

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the recent developments and changes concerning Iranian music education from the constitutional revolution of 1905 to 2014. This concentrates on the five major chronological events referred to as Nationalism, Modernism, Conservatism, Neo-Traditionalism (Shirin-navazi) and Revivalism of the Traditions. This provides a source of…

  19. Iranian Dietary Patterns and Risk of Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Azizi, Hosein; Asadollahi, Khairollah; Davtalab Esmaeili, Elham; Mirzapoor, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Role of diet on colorectal cancer (CRC) has been considered in terms of single foods and nutrients, but less frequently in terms of dietary patterns in Iran. The objective of this study was to determine the association between Iranian dietary patterns and CRC. Methods: This case–control study was conducted in four hospitals in Tabriz City of Iran including 414 participants aged 35–75 years:207 cases with CRC confirmed by pathology and colonoscopy findings were selected and 207 controls free of neoplastic conditions and diet-related chronic diseases (from the same hospital at the same period for the cases). Dietary data were assessed using a 123-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Two dietary patterns were found by using of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) method;“Healthy pattern”and “Iranian pattern”. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (OR) for relationship between dietary patterns and colorectal cancer. Results: After adjusting for confounding factors, the Iranian dietary pattern was significantly associated with an increased odds of colorectal cancer (OR= 1.46; 95% Confidenec Interval (CI)=1.05–2.19) while a reduced odds of colorectal cancer was observed with the Healthy dietary pattern (OR=0.18; 95% CI= 0.091-0.47). Conclusion: Iranian dietary pattern (IDP) seems to increase the odds of colorectal cancer and protective effect of Healthy dietary pattern. PMID:26000248

  20. Multiple Intelligences Theory and Iranian Textbooks: An Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taase, Yoones

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate locally designed ELT textbooks in the light of multiple intelligences theory. Three textbooks (grade 1.2.3) used in guidance school of Iranian educational system were analyzed using MI checklist developed by Botelho, Mario do Rozarioand. Catered for kinds of intelligences in the activities and exercises…

  1. Construct Validity of MSRT Reading Comprehension Module in Iranian Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sichani, Elham Fallahian; Tabatabaei, Omid

    2015-01-01

    Many researchers were interested in validity of the language proficiency tests in the previous decades. The present study aims to study the construct validity of the Ministry of Science, Research, and Technology Reading Comprehension module (MSRT) in the Iranian context. After administering a standard language proficiency test (OPT) 65…

  2. Emotional Intelligence Moderates Perfectionism and Test Anxiety among Iranian Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdollahi, Abbas; Abu Talib, Mansor

    2015-01-01

    Test anxiety is one of the common forms of anxiety for students. Thus, it is necessary to improve our knowledge regarding the etiology of test anxiety. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between perfectionism, emotional intelligence, and test anxiety among Iranian students. This study also was conducted to test emotional…

  3. Common Error Types of Iranian Learners of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nezami, Ali; Najafi, Mousa Sadraie

    2012-01-01

    This paper aimed at obtaining a clear understanding of Iranian EFL learners' L2 writing error types. To develop such an understanding, a research question was formulated to see whether there is any significant difference between the participants' language proficiency level and their error types in writing. To this end, a sample version of the…

  4. 77 FR 75845 - Iranian Transactions and Sanctions Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ...The Department of the Treasury's Office of Foreign Assets Control (``OFAC'') is amending the Iranian Transactions and Sanctions Regulations (the ``ITSR'') to implement section 218 and portions of sections 602 and 603 of the Iran Threat Reduction and Syria Human Rights Act of 2012; section 5, portions of section 6, and other related provisions of Executive Order 13622 of July 30, 2012; and......

  5. Vocabulary Learning Strategies of Iranian Upper-Intermediate EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khatib, Mohammad; Hassanzadeh, Mohammad; Rezaei, Saeed

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the preferred vocabulary learning strategies of Iranian upper-intermediate EFL learners. In order to identify the aforementioned group in terms of language proficiency, a TOEFL test was administered to a population of 146 undergraduate EFL students at the university of Vali-e-Asr in Rafsanjan, Iran. Those scoring above 480 were…

  6. Voices from the Voiceless: Iranian EFL Students' Attitudes toward English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghavamnia, Maedeh; Ketabi, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Some recent research has focused on the students' silence and inviting more student voice. This paper investigated the reasons behind Iranian undergraduate students' silence in English classes and stepped further to give voice to those students' attitudes toward English with the belief that inviting and including student voice could improve the…

  7. Feasibility of Adopting English-Medium Instruction at Iranian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghorbani, Mohammad Reza; Alavi, Sahar Zahed

    2014-01-01

    This study was an attempt to explore the potential possibilities of implementing English as the medium of instruction (EMI) at Iranian universities. The sequential exploratory mixed methods design was used to collect the perspectives of both students and content-area lecturers at the state University of Bojnord through e-mail interviews and survey…

  8. Polyglandular autoimmune syndrome type I among Iranian Jews.

    PubMed Central

    Zlotogora, J; Shapiro, M S

    1992-01-01

    Polyglandular autoimmune syndrome (PAS) has been well characterised and the accepted criteria for diagnosis are the presence of at least two of the three major components: hypoparathyroidism (HPT), candidiasis, and adrenal insufficiency (AI). HPT may, however, be the only manifestation of the syndrome. Iranian Jews, having a high rate of consanguinity, appear to be a community in which PAS type I is frequent. We report on 19 families of patients with HPT from the Iranian Jewish community assuming that they are in fact affected with PAS type I. In the 19 families, 23 patients were affected, including 11 males and 12 females. All the patients but one had HPT (96%), and most were diagnosed by the age of 20 years (91%). AI was diagnosed in five of our patients; in all cases but one it appeared after HPT. Mild oral candidiasis was present in four patients and six of the patients (three males and three females) had hypogonadism. Other features of the syndrome found in some of our patients were pernicious anaemia, hypothyroidism, and alopecia. The disease is autosomal recessive and the calculated prevalence among the Iranian Jews is 1:6500 to 1:9000. The disease is also found with a very high incidence among Finns. A comparison of the symptoms between the two groups showed clinical differences including the relative rarity of candidiasis and absence of keratopathy among the Iranian Jews. PMID:1453436

  9. The Status of Pragmatics among Iranian EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammad-Bagheri, Mehri

    2015-01-01

    The present study attempted to investigate the status of pragmatics among Iranian EFL learners. Status of pragmatics was analyzed in terms of the amount of pragmatic knowledge EFL learners believed to have and the amount of pragmatic knowledge they believed to receive from teachers, classmates, course books, and exams. Additionally, attempts were…

  10. Iranian Journal of Language Studies (IJLS). Volume 1, Issue 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Iranian Journal of Language Studies (IJLS) is devoted to all areas of language and linguistics. Its aim is to present work of current interest in all areas of language study. No particular linguistic theories or scientific trends are favored: scientific quality and scholarly standing are the only criteria applied in the selection of papers…

  11. Iranian Journal of Language Studies (IJLS). Volume 2, Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmani-Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    "Iranian Journal of Language Studies" ("IJLS") is devoted to all areas of language and linguistics. Its aim is to present work of current interest in all areas of language study. No particular linguistic theories or scientific trends are favored: scientific quality and scholarly standing are the only criteria applied in the selection of papers…

  12. Iranian Journal of Language Studies (IJLS). Volume 2, Issue 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmani-Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    Iranian Journal of Language Studies (IJLS) is devoted to all areas of language and linguistics. Its aim is to present work of current interest in all areas of language study. No particular linguistic theories or scientific trends are favored: scientific quality and scholarly standing are the only criteria applied in the selection of papers…

  13. Iranian Journal of Language Studies (IJLS). Volume 1, Issue 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmani-Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Iranian Journal of Language Studies" ("IJLS") is a quarterly journal devoted to all areas of language and linguistics. Its aim is to present work of current interest in all areas of language study. No particular linguistic theories or scientific trends are favored: scientific quality and scholarly standing are the only criteria applied in the…

  14. Iranian Journal of Language Studies (IJLS). Volume 2, Issue 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmani-Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    Iranian Journal of Language Studies (IJLS) is devoted to all areas of language and linguistics. Its aim is to present work of current interest in all areas of language study. No particular linguistic theories or scientific trends are favored: scientific quality and scholarly standing are the only criteria applied in the selection of papers…

  15. An Empirical Investigation of Entrepreneurship Intensity in Iranian State Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazdeh, Mohammad Mahdavi; Razavi, Seyed-Mostafa; Hesamamiri, Roozbeh; Zahedi, Mohammad-Reza; Elahi, Behin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to propose a framework to evaluate the entrepreneurship intensity (EI) of Iranian state universities. In order to determine EI, a hybrid multi-method framework consisting of Delphi, Analytic Network Process (ANP), and VIKOR is proposed. The Delphi method is used to localize and reduce the number of criteria extracted…

  16. Error Analysis in Composition of Iranian Lower Intermediate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taghavi, Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    Learners make errors during the process of learning languages. This study examines errors in writing task of twenty Iranian lower intermediate male students aged between 13 and 15. A subject was given to the participants was a composition about the seasons of a year. All of the errors were identified and classified. Corder's classification (1967)…

  17. Ethnographic Households and Archaeological Interpretations: A Case from Iranian Kurdistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Carol

    1982-01-01

    Shows how archaeological interpretation based strictly on the evidence of architectural remains may lead to inaccurate conclusions about social patterns in extinct societies. An ethnographic study of an Iranian Kurdish village is used to illustrate the possible variations of residential social relationships within buildings with similar…

  18. A miniature forward-imaging optical coherence tomography (OCT) probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joos, Karen M.; Shen, Jin-Hui

    2012-03-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has had a tremendous global health impact upon the current ability to diagnose, treat, and monitor multiple eye diseases. We propose that a miniature forward-imaging OCT probe can be developed for real-time ocular imaging. A miniature 25-gauge forward-imaging probe was designed and developed to use with an 850 nm spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) system (Bioptigen, Inc. Durham, NC). Imaging parameters were determined. Ocular tissues were examined with the miniature OCT probe. A miniature SDOCT probe was developed with the scanning driver within the hand piece. The SDOCT fiber-scanning probe maximally transmitted power of 800 μW. The scanning range was 3 mm when the probe tip was held 3 to 5 mm from the tissue surface. The axial resolution was 6 μm and the lateral resolution was 30-35 μm. The 25-gauge forward-imaging probe was used to image cellophane tape, eyelid skin, cornea, conjunctiva, sclera, iris, anterior lens, anterior chamber angle, retina, retinal tear, retinal detachment, optic nerve head, and optic nerve sheath. Images obtained from the miniature probe appeared similar to images from a 3 mm scanning range of a commercial large handheld OCT probe (Bioptigen, Inc. Durham, NC).

  19. Main characteristics of a miniaturized multipurpose infrared spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keraenen, Kimmo; Blomberg, Martti; Rusanen, Outi; Karioja, Pentti; Tenhunen, Jussi; Kopola, Harri K.; Lehto, Ari

    1999-04-01

    This paper describes the main characteristics of a miniaturized multipurpose IR spectrometer. The miniaturized spectrometer comprise of three silicon micromachined devices: an electrically modulated thermal IR emitter, and electrically tunable Fabry-Perot interferometer and a photodetector. The IR emitter and the detector are monolithically integrated into a silicon substrate. In addition, the silicon substrate carries an integrated circuit die-bonded and wire-bonded on the silicon substrate. The whole spectrometer assembly is packaged in a DIL package having holes for the incoming and outgoing radiation. The dimensions of the package are 12 mm X 23 mm X 5 mm. This concept enables the realization of a miniaturized spectrometer for high-volume and low-cost products. In the miniaturization, the critical optical characteristic is the throughput of a system. In addition, the S/N-ratio and crosstalk of the module are the main electrical characteristics to be considered in the miniaturization. In this paper, the performance of the spectrometer module is presented via measurements including the radiometric analysis, S/N-ratio analysis and crosstalk analysis.

  20. Medicinal Herbs Affecting Gray Hair in Iranian Traditional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Rameshk, Maryam; Khandani, Shahram Kalantari; Raeiszadeh, Mahboobeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: The presence of hair plays an important role in people’s overall physical appearance and self-perception. As a result of increased life expectancy, the desire to look youthful plays a bigger role than ever.The use of medicinal plants is as old as mankind and the market will face many new products containing natural oils and herbs in coming years. In traditional Iranian medicine, many plants and herbal formulations are reported for hair growth as well as the improvement in hair quality. The aim of this article is to introduce effective medicinal plants in traditional Iranian medicine to prevent gray hair and advocate them as the new products. Methods: The present investigation is an overview study and has been codified by library search in the main sources of traditional Iranian medicine. Results: In traditional Iranian medicine, three types of formulations are proposed to prevent gray hair, namely (i) treatment compounds, (ii) preventive compounds, and (iii) hair dyes to color gray hairs. Our search showed that the main parts of a plant that is used in the treatment and preventive compounds are seeds and fruits. These are primarily in the form of topical oil or oral compound (electuary). The majority of plant parts used in hair dyes is from the fruit and/or leaves. Conclusion: Natural products are highly popular and the use of plant extracts in formulations is on the rise. This is because synthetic based product may cause health hazards with several side effects. Considering the increased popularity of herbal drugs in hair care, it is worthwhile to conduct systemic investigation on the production and efficacy of these drugs. We trust that our investigation would encourage the use of traditional Iranian medicine in future hair care products. PMID:27516675

  1. Perception of Alzheimer Disease in Iranian Traditional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Saifadini, Rostam; Tajadini, Haleh; Choopani, Rasool; Mehrabani, Mitra; Kamalinegad, Mohamad; Haghdoost, Aliakbar

    2016-01-01

    Context: Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia. In regards to the world’s aging population, control and treatment of AD will be one of the major concerns of global public health in the next century. Alzheimer disease was not mentioned with the same phrase or its equivalent in traditional medical texts. The main of present paper was to investigate symptoms and causes of alzheimer disease from the view point of Iranian traditional medicine. Evidence Acquisition: In this qualitative study, we searched reliable sources of Iranian traditional medicine such as Canon of Medicide by Avicenna (Al-Quanon fi- tibb), Aghili cure by Aghili’s (Molajat-E-aghili), Tib-E-Akbari, Exire -E-Aazam and Sharh-E-Asbab and some reliable resources of neurology were probed base on keywords to find a disease that had the most overlap in terms of symptoms with alzheimer disease. By taking from the relevant materials, the extracted texts were compared and analyzed. Results: Findings showed that alzheimer disease has the most overlap with Nesyan (fisad-e-zekr, fisad-e-fekr and fisad-e-takhayol) symptoms in Iranian traditional medicine. Although this is not a perfect overlap and there are causes, including coldness and dryness of the brain or coldness and wetness that could also lead to alzheimer disease according to Iranian traditional medicine. Conclusions: According to Iranian traditional medicine, The brain dystemperement is considered the main causes of alzheimer disease. By correcting the brain dystemperement, alzheimer can be well managed. This study helps to suggest a better strategy for preventing and treating alzheimer in the future. PMID:27247784

  2. Two SMA-Actuated Miniature Mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willey, Cliff E.

    2005-01-01

    The figures depict two miniature mechanisms actuated by strips made of shape-memory alloy (SMA). A typical SMA is a nickel-titanium alloy known by the trade name "Flexinol" or "Nitinol." In preparation for a typical application, a suitably sized and shaped piece of an SMA is deformed by a predetermined amount at the lower of two operating temperatures, then mounted in a mechanism. When stroking of the mechanism in one direction is desired, the piece of SMA is heated above a transition temperature to make it return to the "remembered" undeformed state. When stroking of the mechanism in the opposite direction is desired, the SMA is cooled below the transition temperature to make it return to the deformed state. Also, the SMA alloy chosen for a specific application is one that has a transition temperature somewhat above the ambient temperature, so that stroking in one direction or the opposite direction can be achieved by heating the SMA, or refraining from heating the SMA, respectively, above the transition temperature. In the present mechanisms as in typical other SMA mechanisms, the heating is effected by electric currents applied via electrical contacts at the ends of the SMA strips. The purpose served by the mechanism of Figure 1 is to lock or release a flexible latch attachment. In preparation for use in this mechanism, two initially straight SMA strips are deformed into curved springs that, when mounted in the mechanism at ambient temperature, clamp the knob at the lower end of the flexible latch attachment. When heated above their transition temperature by an electric current, the SMA strips return to their original straight configuration, thereby releasing the knob. This mechanism is redundant in the sense that as long as at least one of the two SMA strips straightens when commanded to do so, the knob is released. The mechanism of Figure 2 is suited to any of a variety of applications in which there are requirements for a small mechanism that affords

  3. Miniature vibration isolation system for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quenon, Dan; Boyd, Jim; Buchele, Paul; Self, Rick; Davis, Torey; Hintz, Timothy L.; Jacobs, Jack H.

    2001-06-01

    In recent years, there has been a significant interest in, and move towards using highly sensitive, precision payloads on space vehicles. In order to perform tasks such as communicating at extremely high data rates between satellites using laser cross-links, or searching for new planets in distant solar systems using sparse aperture optical elements, a satellite bus and its payload must remain relatively motionless. The ability to hold a precision payload steady is complicated by disturbances from reaction wheels, control moment gyroscopes, solar array drives, stepper motors, and other devices. Because every satellite is essentially unique in its construction, isolating or damping unwanted vibrations usually requires a robust system over a wide bandwidth. The disadvantage of these systems is that they typically are not retrofittable and not tunable to changes in payload size or inertias. Previous work, funded by AFRL, DARPA, BMDO and others, developed technology building blocks that provide new methods to control vibrations of spacecraft. The technology of smart materials enables an unprecedented level of integration of sensors, actuators, and structures; this integration provides the opportunity for new structural designs that can adaptively influence their surrounding environment. To date, several demonstrations have been conducted to mature these technologies. Making use of recent advances in smart materials, microelectronics, Micro-Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) sensors, and Multi-Functional Structures (MFS), the Air Force Research Laboratory along with its partner DARPA, have initiated an aggressive program to develop a Miniature Vibration Isolation System (MVIS) (patent pending) for space applications. The MVIS program is a systems-level demonstration of the application of advanced smart materials and structures technology that will enable programmable and retrofittable vibration control of spacecraft precision payloads. The current effort has been awarded

  4. Miniature electron microscope beam column optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loyd, Jody Stuart

    This investigation is in the area of electrostatic lens design with the overarching goal of contributing to the creation of a miniaturized scanning electron microscope (SEM) for use in mineralogical analysis or detection of signs of life on the surface of Mars. Such an instrument could also have application in the exploration of Earth's moon, planetary moons, asteroids, or comets. Other embodiments could include tabletop or field portable SEMs for use on Earth. The scope of this research is in the design of a beam column that attains focusing, demagnification, and aberration control within the smallest achievable package. The goals of planetary exploration and of spaceflight in general impose severe constraints on the instrument's mass and electrical power consumption, while favoring a robust design of small size and high rigidity that is also simple to align. To meet these requirements a design using electrostatic lenses was favored because of the lower power requirement and mass of electrostatic versus magnetic lenses, their relatively simple construction, as well as inherently easier shielding from extraneous fields. In modeling the lens field, a hybrid of a Boundary Element Method (BEM) and a Fourier series solution was employed, whereby an initial solution from the BEM is used to derive the bounding potential of a cylindrical subdomain for the subsequent Fourier series solution. The approach is applicable to many problems in physics and combines the inherent precision of this series solution with the flexibility of BEM to describe practical, non-idealized electrode shapes. The resulting lens field in the Fourier series subdomain is of higher precision, thereby allowing smaller errors in subsequent calculations of electron ray paths. The effects of aberrations are thus easier to observe in tracing non-paraxial rays. A significant speed increase in tracing rays is also observed. The modeling technique has been validated by reproducing example ray-traces through

  5. Miniature Blimps for Surveillance and Collection of Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack

    2004-01-01

    Miniature blimps are under development as robots for use in exploring the thick, cold, nitrogen atmosphere of Saturn's moon, Titan. Similar blimps can also be used for surveillance and collection of biochemical samples in buildings, caves, subways, and other, similar structures on Earth. The widely perceived need for means to thwart attacks on buildings and to mitigate the effects of such attacks has prompted consideration of the use of robots. Relative to rover-type (wheeled) robots that have been considered for such uses, miniature blimps offer the advantage of ability to move through the air in any direction and, hence, to perform tasks that are difficult or impossible for wheeled robots, including climbing stairs and looking through windows. In addition, miniature blimps are expected to have greater range and to cost less, relative to wheeled robots.

  6. A microelectromechanical systems-enabled, miniature triple quadrupole mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Wright, Steven; Malcolm, Andrew; Wright, Christopher; O'Prey, Shane; Crichton, Edward; Dash, Neil; Moseley, Richard W; Zaczek, Wojciech; Edwards, Peter; Fussell, Richard J; Syms, Richard R A

    2015-03-17

    Miniaturized mass spectrometers are becoming increasingly capable, enabling the development of many novel field and laboratory applications. However, to date, triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometers, the workhorses of quantitative analysis, have not been significantly reduced in size. Here, the basis of a field-deployable triple quadrupole is described. The key development is a highly miniaturized ion optical assembly in which a sequence of six microengineered components is employed to generate ions at atmospheric pressure, provide a vacuum interface, effect ion guiding, and perform fragmentation and mass analysis. Despite its small dimensions, the collision cell efficiently fragments precursor ions and yields product ion spectra that are very similar to those recorded using conventional instruments. The miniature triple quadrupole has been used to detect thiabendazole, a common pesticide, in apples at a level of 10 ng/g. PMID:25708099

  7. Miniature metastable ionization detectors for exobiology flight experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woeller, F. H.

    1986-01-01

    The Metastable Ionization Detector (MID) is three orders of magnitude more sensitive than the thermal conductivity detectors used on previous flight instruments. The miniature MID provides scientists with a much smaller and highly sensitive detector for flight gas chromatographs. A miniature MID featuring an unconventional triaxial electrode configuration was developed and used routinely in the laboratory. Although much smaller and lighter than the commercial MID, its performance characteristics parallel those of the traditional design. The detector is compatible with the modulated voltage circuitry, also developed here, and thus can perform over an expanded response range of more than 7 orders magnitude. A micro volume version of a miniature MID, with an internal volume of less than 8 microliter, was recently designed is now being tested. The micro volume MID uses carrier gas flow rates of approx. 2cc/min thus eliminating the need for makeup gas when capillary columns are used.

  8. Miniature instruments for aerosol extinction at ambient conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    Aerosol extinction is a fundamental parameter for the direct forcing of climate, visibility, and comparisons to remote sensing. Bringing air into an instrument "box" almost always changes the relative humidity and loses some dust or other large particles. I will show two techniques for miniature instruments that measure extinction at ambient conditions. One is a miniature sun photometer for vertical profiles. In the last year it has successfully gathered data on test flights with excellent performance and signal to noise. The second instrument is a miniature cavity ring down instrument open to the air. In both cases, small instruments require decisions about just what is necessary for the measurement rather than just scaling down larger designs. I will explore the rationale for some of these design choices.

  9. Miniaturization design and implementation of magnetic field coupled RFID antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Tiling

    2013-03-01

    The development of internet of things has brought new opportunities and challenges to the application of RFID tags. Moreover, the Miniaturization application trend of tags at present has become the mainstream of development. In this paper, the double-layer design is to reduce the size of HF antenna, and the magnetic null point of magnetic reconnection region between the RLC resonant circuit and the reader provides sufficient energy to the miniaturization of antenna. The calculated and experimental results show that the miniaturization of HF antennas can meet the reading and writing requirement of the international standard ISO/IEC14443 standard. The results of this paper may make a positive contribution to the applications of RFID technology.

  10. Comprehensive helicopter rotor instrumentation - A retrofit approach using miniature transducers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacklin, Stephen A.; Mort, Ray; Morrison, Dwayne

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports an approach used to retrofit a set of full-scale main rotor blades with 290 miniature pressure transducers, 46 strain gages, and 24 miniature accelerometers. Normally, in order to avoid disturbing the aerodynamics of the rotor flow field, the pressure instrumentation must be integrally built into the body of the rotor blades. However, using a method developed with NASA, miniature pressure transducers are mounted to the blade exterior surface without degrading the quality of the blade aerodynamics. Moreover, it is estimated that this approach reduced costs by more than 50 percent over building a set of pressure instrumented blades. The aerodynamic measurement objectives are presented as are instrumentation design considerations, type of instrumentation used, assembly process, and the installed instrumentation characteristics.

  11. Miniaturized laser illumination module for 3D areal mapper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaynor, Edwin S.; Blase, W. Paul; Woodward, Kim G.

    1998-01-01

    We report progress towards a miniaturized laser illumination module (LIM) for illuminating objects with structured light for 3D imaging purposes. The module, when combined with an off-axis camera and a PC, will image volumes in near-real- time at a range-dependent resolution using 256 X 256 resolution elements. The miniaturized LIM comprises a red laser diode source, a hologram, a spatial light modulator and a projection lens.We present optical and electronic design features of the device in terms of constraints on size and manufacturability. The miniature LIM can be applied to diverse 3D imaging problems to include industrial reverse engineering and inspection and medical diagnostics and prosthetics design.

  12. Analysis of nonlinear elastic behavior in miniature pneumatic artificial muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hocking, Erica G.; Wereley, Norman M.

    2013-01-01

    Pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs) are well known for their excellent actuator characteristics, including high specific work, specific power, and power density. Recent research has focused on miniaturizing this pneumatic actuator technology in order to develop PAMs for use in small-scale mechanical systems, such as those found in robotic or aerospace applications. The first step in implementing these miniature PAMs was to design and characterize the actuator. To that end, this study presents the manufacturing process, experimental characterization, and analytical modeling of PAMs with millimeter-scale diameters. A fabrication method was developed to consistently produce low-cost, high performance, miniature PAMs using commercially available materials. The quasi-static behavior of these PAMs was determined through experimentation on a single actuator with an active length of 39.16 mm (1.54 in) and a diameter of 4.13 mm (0.1625 in). Testing revealed the PAM’s full evolution of force with displacement for operating pressures ranging from 207 to 552 kPa (30-80 psi in 10 psi increments), as well as the blocked force and free contraction at each pressure. Three key nonlinear phenomena were observed: nonlinear PAM stiffness, hysteresis of the force versus displacement response for a given pressure, and a pressure deadband. To address the analysis of the nonlinear response of these miniature PAMs, a nonlinear stress versus strain model, a hysteresis model, and a pressure bias are introduced into a previously developed force balance analysis. Parameters of these nonlinear model refinements are identified from the measured force versus displacement data. This improved nonlinear force balance model is shown to capture the full actuation behavior of the miniature PAMs at each operating pressure and reconstruct miniature PAM response with much more accuracy than previously possible.

  13. Miniature Ion Optics Towards a Micro Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhary, Ashish

    This PhD dissertation reports the development of miniature ion optics components of a mass spectrometer (MS) with the ultimate goal to lay the foundation for a compact low-power micromachined MS (microMS) for broad-range chemical analysis. Miniaturization of two specific components a) RF ion traps and b) an ion funnel have been investigated and miniature low-power versions of these components have been developed and demonstrated successfully in lab experiments. Power savings, simpler electronics and packaging schemes required to operate the micro-scale RF cylindrical ion traps have been the key motivation driving this research. Microfabricated cylindrical ion traps (microCITs) and arrays in silicon, silicon-on-insulator and stainless steel substrates have been demonstrated and average power of as low as 55 mW for a low mass range (28 to 136 amu) and mass spectra with better than a unit-mass-resolution have been recorded. For the ion funnel miniaturization effort, simple assembly, small form factor and ease of integration have been emphasized. A simplification of the conventional 3D ion funnel design, called the planar ion funnel, has been developed in a single plate and has been tested to demonstrate ion funneling at medium vacuum levels (1E-5 Torr) using DC voltages and power less than 0.5 W. Miniaturization of these components also enables use of other novel ion optics components, packaging and integration, which will allow a new class of microMS architectures amenable for radical miniaturization.

  14. BOILING REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Untermyer, S.

    1962-04-10

    A boiling reactor having a reactivity which is reduced by an increase in the volume of vaporized coolant therein is described. In this system unvaporized liquid coolant is extracted from the reactor, heat is extracted therefrom, and it is returned to the reactor as sub-cooled liquid coolant. This reduces a portion of the coolant which includes vaporized coolant within the core assembly thereby enhancing the power output of the assembly and rendering the reactor substantially self-regulating. (AEC)

  15. Parametric Investigations of Miniaturized Cylindrical and Annular Hall Thrusters

    SciTech Connect

    A. Smirnov; Y. Raitses; N.J. Fisch

    2001-10-16

    A cylindrical geometry Hall thruster may overcome certain physical and technological limitations in scaling down of Hall thrusters to miniature sizes. The absence of the inner wall and use of the cusp magnetic field can potentially reduce heating of the thruster parts and erosion of the channel. A 2.6 cm miniaturized Hall thruster of a flexible design was built and successfully operated in the power range of 50-300 W. Comparison of preliminary results obtained for cylindrical and annular thruster configurations is presented.

  16. NOTE: Dosimetric characterization of a new miniature multileaf collimator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, G. H.; Föhlisch, F.

    2002-06-01

    The dosimetrical characteristics of a new miniature multileaf collimator (ModuLeaf MLC, MRC Systems GmbH, Heidelberg, Germany) attached to the accessory holder of a Siemens accelerator with 6 MV x-rays (PRIMUS, Siemens OCS, Concord, California, USA) have been investigated. In particular, those parameters which are important for the accuracy of the treatment such as output factors, penumbra, field edge precision and transmission/leakage were determined. These data can now be used to implement specific dose calculation procedures for this miniature multileaf collimator in treatment planning systems.

  17. Miniature x-ray tubes: current state and future prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filip, V.; Filip, L. D.; Okuyama, F.

    2013-03-01

    Over the last decade, field emission miniature x-ray tubes emerged as cutting-edge applications of nanotechnology, possessing massive potential for use in various important fields, including that of precision medical therapy. The article essentially presents a review of such new devices reported in the literature. Additional discussions on the necessity of stabilizing the electron beam that generates x-rays are also included, and a simple technique for minimizing the current fluctuations is described. It is also pointed out that further miniaturization of field emission x-ray sources may need new concepts in designing the tube in shapes acting as ``self focusing'' structures for the electron beams.

  18. Mechanical, Electrical, and Environmental Evaluation of Nano-Miniature Connectors

    SciTech Connect

    Hilton, J.W.

    2001-07-30

    Because of their small size (0.025-inch spacing), nano-miniature connectors have been chosen for JTA telemetry applications. At the time they were chosen, extensive testing had not been done to determine the mechanical, electrical, and environmental characteristics of these connectors at the levels required for use by weapon systems. Since nano-miniature connectors use some unique plating and wire crimping processes not used in most design agency connectors, it was decided that these properties should be tested thoroughly. This report describes the results of that testing.

  19. Applications of SPICE for modeling miniaturized biomedical sensor systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mundt, C. W.; Nagle, H. T.

    2000-01-01

    This paper proposes a model for a miniaturized signal conditioning system for biopotential and ion-selective electrode arrays. The system consists of three main components: sensors, interconnections, and signal conditioning chip. The model for this system is based on SPICE. Transmission-line based equivalent circuits are used to represent the sensors, lumped resistance-capacitance circuits describe the interconnections, and a model for the signal conditioning chip is extracted from its layout. A system for measurements of biopotentials and ionic activities can be miniaturized and optimized for cardiovascular applications based on the development of an integrated SPICE system model of its electrochemical, interconnection, and electronic components.

  20. Burden of coronary heart disease on the Iranian oil industry (1999-2000).

    PubMed

    Larijani, B; Fakhrzadeh, H; Mohaghegh, M; Pourebrahim, R; Akhlaghi, M R

    2003-01-01

    To estimate the direct cost of coronary heart disease (CHD) to the Iranian oil industry, we calculated the cost of essential services for 1253 CHD patients admitted to the National Iranian Oil Corporation (NIOC) Central Hospital. The direct cost of CHD at the Hospital was 10940 million rials (US$ 1 = 8000 rials), or 8.7 million rials per patient. The direct cost of CHD to the Iranian oil industry was estimated at 22 770 million rials. Working days lost to workers hospitalized for CHD amounted to 62 832. The heavy burden of CHD on the Iranian oil industry necessitates the introduction of an industry-wide prevention programme. PMID:16450520

  1. Investigating Knowledge and Attitude of Nursing Students Towards Iranian Traditional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Khorasgani, Sahar Rabani; Moghtadaie, Leila

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed at Investigating the knowledge and attitude of Nursing Students towards Iranian Traditional Medicine in universities of Tehran in 2012-2013. 300 students of nursing studying at different universities in Tehran participated in this descriptive, cross-sectional study. The data was collected through a standard questionnaire with an acceptable validity and reliability. The questionnaire was made of five sections including demographic, general knowledge of the Iranian traditional medicine, general attitude towards it, resources of the Iranian traditional medicine and the barriers to it. The results revealed that general knowledge of the students about Iranian traditional medicine and complementary medicine is low. The attitude of the students towards including Iranian traditional medicine and complementary medicine in their curriculum is positive. General attitude of students towards Iranian traditional medicine is positive too. The majority of the participants had not passed any course on Iranian traditional medicine. There was no relationship between participants’ attitude towards Iranian traditional medicine and the number of semesters they had passed. Considering the participants’ positive attitude and their low level of knowledge, it seems necessary for the university policy makers to provide nursing students with different training courses on Iranian traditional medicine and complementary medicine in order to increase their knowledge. PMID:25363119

  2. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Daniels, F.

    1959-10-27

    A reactor in which at least a portion of the moderator is in the form of movable refractory balls is described. In addition to their moderating capacity, these balls may serve as carriers for fissionable material or fertile material, or may serve in a coolant capacity to remove heat from the reactor. A pneumatic system is used to circulate the balls through the reactor.

  3. Miniature terahertz time-domain spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulkin, Brian

    This thesis focuses on the design, development and evaluation of novel concepts which enable the miniaturization of terahertz (THz) time-domain spectrometry. Portable THz spectrometry is applied to research and industrial domains for immediate, short and long term applications in nondestructive evaluation, homeland security, and biomedicine respectively. Due to the previous limitation of THz devices for public uses, in particular, the lack of access to a THz spectrometer, applications of THz science and technology have only recently expanded beyond the laboratory. There is an urgent need for compact, even handheld THz time-domain spectrometry (THz-TDS) platforms which can carry out proven-to-be-useful applications developed and tested in laboratory conditions. There are three major challenges restricting THz-TDS to laboratories. Atmospheric absorption severely limits the propagation distance of the THz beam and confines systems to low-moisture environments. The sample's surface roughness, grain size and geometry severely limit the bandwidth of the measurement. Physical size and weight of THz systems are generally limited by large laser sources and optomechanics. The sensitivity and selectivity of THz-TDS systems are the two most significant parameters used to describe the quality of the system. Sensitivity is directly related to the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and dynamic range, which may be improved by either lowering the noise floor or increasing the THz signal. On the other hand, selectivity is far more complex as it is related to the sensitivity, sample preparation, baseline correction, and selection method. Sensitivity is gauged using industrial statistical methods, such as Gauge Repeatability and Reproducibility (GR&R), and can transform a not-so-useful SNR value to an extremely useful measure of the minimum detectable amount of a certain material. It is shown that the GR&R value is inversely proportional to the square root of the number of averaged waveforms

  4. Miniature L-Band Radar Transceiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McWatters, Dalia; Price, Douglas; Edelstein, Wendy

    2007-01-01

    A miniature L-band transceiver that operates at a carrier frequency of 1.25 GHz has been developed as part of a generic radar electronics module (REM) that would constitute one unit in an array of many identical units in a very-large-aperture phased-array antenna. NASA and the Department of Defense are considering the deployment of such antennas in outer space; the underlying principles of operation, and some of those of design, also are applicable on Earth. The large dimensions of the antennas make it advantageous to distribute radio-frequency electronic circuitry into elements of the arrays. The design of the REM is intended to implement the distribution. The design also reflects a requirement to minimize the size and weight of the circuitry in order to minimize the weight of any such antenna. Other requirements include making the transceiver robust and radiation-hard and minimizing power demand. Figure 1 depicts the functional blocks of the REM, including the L-band transceiver. The key functions of the REM include signal generation, frequency translation, amplification, detection, handling of data, and radar control and timing. An arbitrary-waveform generator that includes logic circuitry and a digital-to-analog converter (DAC) generates a linear-frequency-modulation chirp waveform. A frequency synthesizer produces local-oscillator signals used for frequency conversion and clock signals for the arbitrary-waveform generator, for a digitizer [that is, an analog-to-digital converter (ADC)], and for a control and timing unit. Digital functions include command, timing, telemetry, filtering, and high-rate framing and serialization of data for a high-speed scientific-data interface. The aforementioned digital implementation of filtering is a key feature of the REM architecture. Digital filters, in contradistinction to analog ones, provide consistent and temperature-independent performance, which is particularly important when REMs are distributed throughout a large

  5. Miniaturized gas chromatograph-Paul ion trap system: applications to environmental monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shortt, B. J.; Darrach, M. R.; Holland, Paul M.; Chutjian, A.

    2004-01-01

    A miniature gas chromatograph (GC) and miniature Paul ion trap (PT) mass spectrometer system has been developed for identifying and quantifying chemical species present in closed environments having a complex mixture of gases.

  6. Research reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Tonneson, L.C.; Fox, G.J.

    1996-04-01

    There are currently 284 research reactors in operation, and 12 under construction around the world. Of the operating reactors, nearly two-thirds are used exclusively for research, and the rest for a variety of purposes, including training, testing, and critical assembly. For more than 50 years, research reactor programs have contributed greatly to the scientific and educational communities. Today, six of the world`s research reactors are being shut down, three of which are in the USA. With government budget constraints and the growing proliferation concerns surrounding the use of highly enriched uranium in some of these reactors, the future of nuclear research could be impacted.

  7. CONVECTION REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, R.P.; King, L.D.P.

    1960-03-22

    An homogeneous nuclear power reactor utilizing convection circulation of the liquid fuel is proposed. The reactor has an internal heat exchanger looated in the same pressure vessel as the critical assembly, thereby eliminating necessity for handling the hot liquid fuel outside the reactor pressure vessel during normal operation. The liquid fuel used in this reactor eliminates the necessity for extensive radiolytic gas rocombination apparatus, and the reactor is resiliently pressurized and, without any movable mechanical apparatus, automatically regulates itself to the condition of criticality during moderate variations in temperature snd pressure and shuts itself down as the pressure exceeds a predetermined safe operating value.

  8. Space biology initiative program definition review. Trade study 3: Hardware miniaturization versus cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, L. Neal; Crenshaw, John, Sr.; Davidson, William L.; Herbert, Frank J.; Bilodeau, James W.; Stoval, J. Michael; Sutton, Terry

    1989-01-01

    The optimum hardware miniaturization level with the lowest cost impact for space biology hardware was determined. Space biology hardware and/or components/subassemblies/assemblies which are the most likely candidates for application of miniaturization are to be defined and relative cost impacts of such miniaturization are to be analyzed. A mathematical or statistical analysis method with the capability to support development of parametric cost analysis impacts for levels of production design miniaturization are provided.

  9. 21 CFR 890.1615 - Miniature pressure transducer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Miniature pressure transducer. 890.1615 Section 890.1615 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices §...

  10. 21 CFR 890.1615 - Miniature pressure transducer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Miniature pressure transducer. 890.1615 Section 890.1615 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices §...

  11. 21 CFR 890.1615 - Miniature pressure transducer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Miniature pressure transducer. 890.1615 Section 890.1615 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices §...

  12. 21 CFR 890.1615 - Miniature pressure transducer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Miniature pressure transducer. 890.1615 Section 890.1615 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices §...

  13. The Bama miniature swine is susceptible to experimental HEV infection.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zi-Min; Wang, Si-Ling; Ying, Dong; Wen, Gui-Ping; Cai, Wei; Zhang, Ke; Ji, Wen-Fang; Yang, Ming; Zheng, Zi-Zheng; Xia, Ning-Shao

    2016-01-01

    The hepatitis E virus (HEV) is one of the main causes of enterically transmitted hepatitis worldwide. Although the mortality rates associated with HEV are generally low, they can be up to 28% in HEV-infected pregnant women, and the elderly are more susceptible. The reasons for this selective severity are unclear, partially because there is no suitable, easy-to-use model in which to study HEV infection. Non-human primates and standard swine have been identified as being sensitive to infection with HEV and have been used for HEV infection studies. However, studies in these animals have been limited by high housing costs and the difficulty of manipulating these animals. In the current study, we established a model of HEV infection using Bama miniature swine. The model is easy to use and is sensitive to infections with HEV genotypes 3 and 4, which are classified as zoonotic HEVs. In this model, infection of Bama miniature swine with HEV genotypes 3 and 4 caused the typical features. All Bama miniature swine that were infected with HEV genotypes 3 and 4 exhibited significant HEV viremia, shedding, anti-HEV antibody responses and partial liver inflammation. Bama miniature swine may serve as an alternative to standard swine models for the study of zoonotic HEV infection and HEV genotype specificity research. PMID:27534702

  14. The Bama miniature swine is susceptible to experimental HEV infection

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Zi-Min; Wang, Si-Ling; Ying, Dong; Wen, Gui-Ping; Cai, Wei; Zhang, Ke; Ji, Wen-Fang; Yang, Ming; Zheng, Zi-Zheng; Xia, Ning-Shao

    2016-01-01

    The hepatitis E virus (HEV) is one of the main causes of enterically transmitted hepatitis worldwide. Although the mortality rates associated with HEV are generally low, they can be up to 28% in HEV-infected pregnant women, and the elderly are more susceptible. The reasons for this selective severity are unclear, partially because there is no suitable, easy-to-use model in which to study HEV infection. Non-human primates and standard swine have been identified as being sensitive to infection with HEV and have been used for HEV infection studies. However, studies in these animals have been limited by high housing costs and the difficulty of manipulating these animals. In the current study, we established a model of HEV infection using Bama miniature swine. The model is easy to use and is sensitive to infections with HEV genotypes 3 and 4, which are classified as zoonotic HEVs. In this model, infection of Bama miniature swine with HEV genotypes 3 and 4 caused the typical features. All Bama miniature swine that were infected with HEV genotypes 3 and 4 exhibited significant HEV viremia, shedding, anti-HEV antibody responses and partial liver inflammation. Bama miniature swine may serve as an alternative to standard swine models for the study of zoonotic HEV infection and HEV genotype specificity research. PMID:27534702

  15. 21 CFR 890.1615 - Miniature pressure transducer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Miniature pressure transducer. 890.1615 Section 890.1615 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices §...

  16. Planetary instrument definition and development program: 'Miniature Monochromatic Imager'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broadfoot, A. L.

    1991-01-01

    The miniature monochromatic imager (MMI) development work became the basis for the preparation of several instruments which were built and flown on the shuttle STS-39 as well as being used in ground based experiments. The following subject areas are covered: (1) applications of the ICCD to airglow and auroral measurements and (2) a panchromatic spectrograph with supporting monochromatic imagers.

  17. Miniature fuel cells relieve gas pressure in sealed batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, H. A.

    1971-01-01

    Miniature fuel cells within sealed silver zinc batteries consume evolved hydrogen and oxygen rapidly, preventing pressure rupturing. They do not significantly increase battery weight and they operate in all battery life phases. Complete gas pressure control requires two fuel cells during all phases of operation of silver zinc batteries.

  18. Miniaturization in x ray and gamma ray spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwanczyk, Jan S.; Wang, Yuzhong J.; Bradley, James G.

    1993-01-01

    The paper presents advances in two new sensor technologies and a miniaturized associated electronics technology which, when combined, can allow for very significant miniaturization and for the reduction of weight and power consumption in x-ray and gamma-ray spectroscopy systems: (1) Mercuric iodide (HgI2) x-ray technology, which allows for the first time the construction of truly portable, high-energy resolution, non-cryogenic x-ray fluorescence (XRF) elemental analyzer systems, with parameters approaching those of laboratory quality cryogenic instruments; (2) the silicon avalanche photodiode (APD), which is a solid-state light sensitive device with internal amplification, capable of uniquely replacing the vacuum photomultiplier tube in scintillation gamma-ray spectrometer applications, and offering substantial improvements in size, ruggedness, low power operation and energy resolution; and (3) miniaturized (hybridized) low noise, low power amplification and processing electronics, which take full advantage of the favorable properties of these new sensors and allow for the design and fabrication of advanced, highly miniaturized x-ray and gamma-ray spectroscopy systems. The paper also presents experimental results and examples of spectrometric systems currently under construction. The directions for future developments are discussed.

  19. Epidermoid cyst of the ileum in a miniature dachshund dog

    PubMed Central

    Shimamura, Shunsuke; Kainuma, Risa; Kimura, Ken; Okamura, Yasuhiko; Kobayashi, Saori; Katayama, Masaaki; Sato, Reeko; Yasuda, Jun

    2014-01-01

    A 13-year-old castrated male miniature dachshund dog was presented with chronic vomiting and diarrhea. Contrast radiography and surgical exploration revealed an ileal cyst, which was excised. A diagnosis of epidermoid cyst was made from a combination of the clinical findings and histological examination of the surgical specimen. PMID:24688137

  20. Simple low-cost miniaturization approach for pharmaceutical nanocrystals production.

    PubMed

    Romero, Gregori B; Keck, Cornelia M; Müller, Rainer H

    2016-03-30

    Systematic screening for optimal formulation composition and production parameters for nanosuspensions consumes a lot of time and also drug material when performed at lab scale. Therefore, a cost-effective miniaturized scale top down approach for nanocrystals production by wet bead milling was developed. The final set-up consisted of 3 magnetic stirring bars placed vertically one over the other in a 2 mL glass vial and agitated by a common magnetic stirring plate. All of the tested actives (cyclosporin A, resveratrol, hesperitin, ascorbyl palmitate, apigenin and hesperidin) could be converted to nanosuspensions. For 4 of them, the particles sizes achieved were smaller than previously reported on the literature (around 90 nm for cyclosporin A; 50 nm for hesperitin; 160 nm for ascorbyl palmitate and 80 nm for apigenin). The "transferability" of the data collect by the miniaturized method was evaluated comparing the production at larger scale using both wet bead milling and high pressure homogenization. Transferable information obtained from the miniaturized scale is minimum achievable size, improvements in size reduction by reduction of beads size, diminution kinetics and potentially occurring instabilities during processing. The small scale batches also allow identification of optimal stabilizer types and concentrations. The batch size is 0.5 mL, requiring approximately 50 mg or 5 mg of drug (5% and 1% suspension, respectively). Thus, a simple, accessible, low-cost miniaturized scale method for the production of pharmaceutical nanocrystals was established. PMID:26642945

  1. Miniature spectroscopic instrumentation: Applications to biology and chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacon, Christina P.; Mattley, Yvette; DeFrece, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    Spectroscopy is a fundamental analytical tool utilized throughout all of the sciences. For chemistry and biology alone, there are thousands of applications. In the past two decades there have been monumental advances in the miniaturization of components used in spectrophotometric systems. The key components include detector arrays, laser diodes, and fiber optics. Currently, there are numerous commercially available miniature spectrometer systems as well as discrete components that are used by researchers in designing their own systems. A comprehensive summary of current instrumentation available for the design and development of miniaturized spectroscopy applications is described, including detectors, wavelength discriminating components, light sources, and sampling assemblies. Recommendations are made for designing spectrometer systems for specific applications. Current literature is reviewed for chemical and biological applications specifically using miniaturized spectrometer systems with the focus being on ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared spectrometers. The applications include laboratory applications, environmental sensing, on-site industrial analyses, botany and ecology applications, and finally clinical and biochemical studies. Additionally, microspectrometers, two-dimensional arrays, and photonics crystals are discussed in regards to their future role in chemistry and biology applications.

  2. Miniature implantable instrument measures and transmits heart function data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, R. D.

    1971-01-01

    Heart diameter is derived from measured transit time of 2.25 MHz ultrasonic pulse between two piezoelectric crystals attached to diametrically opposite heart surfaces. Miniature instrument implanted in chest telemeters information to external receiver-converter. System permits continual dimensional data recording taken from awake animals during long-term experiments.

  3. Miniature Incandescent Lamps as Fiber-Optic Light Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuma, Margaret; Collura, Joe; Helvajian, Henry; Pocha, Michael; Meyer, Glenn; McConaghy, Charles F.; Olsen, Barry L.

    2008-01-01

    Miniature incandescent lamps of a special type have been invented to satisfy a need for compact, rapid-response, rugged, broadband, power-efficient, fiber-optic-coupled light sources for diverse purposes that could include calibrating spectrometers, interrogating optical sensors, spot illumination, and spot heating.

  4. Variable recruitment in bundles of miniature pneumatic artificial muscles.

    PubMed

    DeLaHunt, Sylvie A; Pillsbury, Thomas E; Wereley, Norman M

    2016-01-01

    The natural compliance and force generation properties of pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs) allow them to operate like human muscles in anthropomorphic robotic manipulators. Traditionally, manipulators use a single PAM or multiple PAMs actuated in unison in place of a human muscle. However, these standard manipulators can experience significant efficiency losses when operated outside their target performance ranges at low actuation pressures. This study considers the application of a variable recruitment control strategy to a parallel bundle of miniature PAMs as an attempt to mimic the selective recruitment of motor units in a human muscle. Bundles of miniature PAMs are experimentally characterized, their actuation behavior is modeled, and the efficiency gains and losses associated with the application of a variable recruitment control strategy are assessed. This bio-inspired control strategy allows muscle bundles to operate the fewest miniature PAMs necessary to achieve a desired performance objective, improving the muscle bundle's operating efficiency over larger ranges of force generation and displacement. The study also highlights the need for improved PAM fabrication techniques to facilitate the production of identical miniature PAMs for inclusion in muscle bundles. PMID:27623216

  5. Reducing Unsteady Loads on a Piggyback Miniature Submarine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, John

    2009-01-01

    A small, simple fixture has been found to be highly effective in reducing destructive unsteady hydrodynamic loads on a miniature submarine that is attached in piggyback fashion to the top of a larger, nuclear-powered, host submarine. The fixture, denoted compact ramp, can be installed with minimal structural modification, and the use of it does not entail any change in submarine operations.

  6. Miniature bioelectric device accurately measures and telemeters temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fryer, T. B.

    1966-01-01

    Miniature micropower solid-state circuit measures and telemeters the body temperature of laboratory animals over periods up to two years. The circuit employs a thermistor as a temperature sensing element and an fm transmitter. It is constructed from conventional discrete components or integrated circuits.

  7. Fears and concerns of Iranian diabetic women: A phenomenological study.

    PubMed

    Aghamohammadi-Kalkhoran, Masoumeh; Valizadeh, Sousan

    2016-07-01

    This study explored the fears and concerns of 19 Iranian diabetic women using a phenomenological approach. Semistructured individual interviews were conducted; each interview was transcribed verbatim and analyzed simultaneously using Van Manen's method. Data analysis resulted in the emergence of two main themes: (1) "a vague and uncertain future" with sub-themes of "fears of dependency," "loneliness," "disease complications," and "children's future"; and (2) "changing lifestyles" with sub-themes of "dietary restrictions" and "insulin injection." Psychological concerns are common in Iranian diabetic women. These concerns can contribute to poor disease self-management. Thus, it is hoped that identifying these concerns can lead to better management of these issues and a better outcome in diabetic patients. PMID:25305192

  8. Herbal Remedies for Functional Dyspepsia and Traditional Iranian Medicine Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Babaeian, Mahmoud; Naseri, Mohsen; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Ghaffari, Farzaneh; Emadi, Fatemeh; Feizi, Awat; Hosseini Yekta, Nafiseh; Adibi, Peyman

    2015-01-01

    Context: Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a functional gastro-intestinal disorder with high prevalence. Among various treatment options, treatment by complementary and alternative medicines especially herbal remedies also practiced. Traditional Iranian medicine (TIM), a valuable resource of valid applied studies of ancient Iranian scholars, recommends numerous medicinal plants to treat dyspepsia symptoms. In this study, through investigation of TIM references, we aimed to identify medicinal plants for treatment of digestion insufficiency. Evidence Acquisition: In this qualitative study, dyspepsia symptoms including fullness, early satiety, bloating, nausea, and belching were checked under reliable sources of traditional medicine. Then medicinal plants recommended for the treatment of the symptoms were extracted from the books. Likewise, for investigating the pharmacological properties of medicinal plants used for the relieving of dyspepsia symptoms, electronic databases such as PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar and some Iranian databases like SID and IranMedex were employed. Results: The study yielded 105 plants from 37 families which could treat various dyspepsia symptoms; fifty-seven plants, mainly from Apiaceae, Lamiaceae, Amaryllidaceae and Zingiberaceae had digestive effects. In this research, based on the information in TIM reference texts, we obtained 58 plants effective for bloating, 40 for nausea, 37 for appetite loss and 7 for belching. In human clinical trials conducted on medicinal plants effective for FD symptoms, 7 single plants were used. Conclusions: Finding the medicinal plants effective on digestion insufficiency based on TIM could suggest a better strategy for the relieving of dyspepsia symptoms. Traditional Iranian medicine prescribes medicinal plants based on each patient’s personal characteristics and practices multiple target therapies. PMID:26734483

  9. Drug Use among Iranian Drivers Involved in Fatal Car Accidents

    PubMed Central

    Assari, Shervin; Moghani Lankarani, Maryam; Dejman, Masoumeh; Farnia, Marzieh; Alasvand, Ramin; Sehat, Mahmood; Roshanpazooh, Mohsen; Tavakoli, Mahmood; Jafari, Firoozeh; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although the problem of substance use among drivers is not limited to certain parts of the world, most epidemiological reports on this topic have been published from industrial world. Aim: To investigate pattern of drug use among Iranian drivers who were involved in fatal road accidents. Methods: This study enrolled 51 Iranian adults who were involved in fatal vehicle accidents and were imprisoned thereafter. Data came from a national survey of drug abuse that was done among Iranian prisoners. The survey collected data at the entry to seven prisons in different regions of the country during a 4-month period in 2008. Self-reported lifetime, last year, and last month drug use was measured. Commercial substance screening tests were applied to detect recent substance use (opioids, cannabinoids, methamphetamines, and benzodiazepines). Results: The commercial substance screening test showed three distinct patterns of recent illicit drug use: opioids (37.3%), cannabinoids (2.0%), opioids and cannabinoids (13.7%). 29.4% were also positive for benzodiazepines. The substance use screening test detected 23.5% of participants who had used drugs but did not disclose any substance use. Conclusion: Opioids are the most common illicit drugs being used by Iranian drivers who are involved in fatal car accidents. The high rate of substance use prior to fatal car accidents in Iran advocates for the need for drug use control policies and programs as major strategies for injury prevention in Iran. There is also a need for substance screening among all drivers involved in fatal car accidents in Iran, as more than 20% of users may not disclose substance use. PMID:25221521

  10. 31 CFR 535.504 - Certain judicial proceedings with respect to property of Iran or Iranian entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... respect to property of Iran or Iranian entities. 535.504 Section 535.504 Money and Finance: Treasury... § 535.504 Certain judicial proceedings with respect to property of Iran or Iranian entities. (a) Subject... existed an interest of Iran or an Iranian entity. (b) This section does not authorize: (1) Any...

  11. 31 CFR 535.504 - Certain judicial proceedings with respect to property of Iran or Iranian entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... respect to property of Iran or Iranian entities. 535.504 Section 535.504 Money and Finance: Treasury... § 535.504 Certain judicial proceedings with respect to property of Iran or Iranian entities. (a) Subject... existed an interest of Iran or an Iranian entity. (b) This section does not authorize: (1) Any...

  12. 31 CFR 535.504 - Certain judicial proceedings with respect to property of Iran or Iranian entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... respect to property of Iran or Iranian entities. 535.504 Section 535.504 Money and Finance: Treasury... § 535.504 Certain judicial proceedings with respect to property of Iran or Iranian entities. (a) Subject... existed an interest of Iran or an Iranian entity. (b) This section does not authorize: (1) Any...

  13. 31 CFR 535.504 - Certain judicial proceedings with respect to property of Iran or Iranian entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... respect to property of Iran or Iranian entities. 535.504 Section 535.504 Money and Finance: Treasury... § 535.504 Certain judicial proceedings with respect to property of Iran or Iranian entities. (a) Subject... existed an interest of Iran or an Iranian entity. (b) This section does not authorize: (1) Any...

  14. Diseases Led to Refer Iranian Pilgrims From Hajj in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, Seyyed Mostafa; Torkan, Ali; Tabatabaei, Aminreza; Shamspour, Navvab; Heidari, Saeid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Some Iranian pilgrims are referred to Iran because of catching a new disease or exacerbation of their disease during the Hajj ceremony. These diseases need prolonged and specialized treatments. Investigation of the reasons led to their return to Iran is useful and effective in policy-making and planning of preventive health services. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the causes of referring Iranian patients to Iran during Hajj in 2010. Patients and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, all Iranian pilgrim cases in Hajj (2012) who referred to Iran were studied, and data analysis was performed. Demographic data and the causes of return to Iran during and after Hajj rituals were analyzed. Results: A total of 106 cases were referred Iran during Hajj 2012. Psychiatric problems, with 26.4% allocated the highest rate of return to Iran during Hajj days, and significant difference was observed in the reasons before and after performing Hajj rituals (P = 0.001). Conclusions: Psychiatric, neurological, gastrointestinal, and respiratory diseases are the most frequent reasons of referring patients to Iran. More accuracy in screening and care of patients are recommended before Hajj in order to prevent references to Iran and its complications. PMID:26421162

  15. Resistance to Clopidogrel among Iranian Patients Undergoing Angioplasty Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Haji Aghajani, Mohammad; Kobarfard, Farzad; Safi, Olia; Sheibani, Kourosh; Sistanizad, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    To study the resistance to standard dosage of clopidogrel among Iranian patients following percutaneous coronary intervention measured by platelet aggregation test. Patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention in Imam Hussein Medical center, Tehran, Iran, who were under treatment with aspirin, but had no history of clopidogrel usage, entered the study. Patients received standard dosage of clopidogrel (Plavix®, Sanofi, France, 600 mg loading dose and 75 mg/day afterward). Platelet aggregation was measured using light transmission aggregometer. The response to the drug was categorized as complete resistance (platelet aggregation decreased less than 10%), intermediate resistance (platelet aggregation decreased between 10 to 30%) and complete response (platelet aggregation decreased to 30% or more). All patients were evaluated for major adverse cardio vascular events one month after the angioplasty based on MACE criteria by phone contact. Thirty-one patients with a mean age of 59 ± 13 entered the study. Sixty-five percent of patients showed complete response to clopidogrel (95% CI: 45% to 81%), 22% showed intermediate resistance (95% CI: 10-41%) and 13% showed complete resistance (95% CI: 4-30%). One month after the angioplasty, no major adverse cardiovascular event was recorded. Based on our findings, it seems that there is no major difference between Iranian population and other studies regarding the resistance to clopidogrel. Due to the limited number of participants in our study, further investigations with higher number of patients are recommended to more precisely calculate the percentage of resistance among Iranian patients. PMID:24250685

  16. A high prevalence of cumulative trauma disorders in Iranian instrumentalists

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Shahram; Kazemi, Behrooz; Shooshtari, Seyed Mostafa Jazayeri; Bidari, Ali; Jafari, Peyman

    2004-01-01

    Background Cumulative trauma disorders (CTDs) are common in musicians and their prevalence has been the subject of a number of studies in most western countries. Such studies are scarce in developing countries despite the possibility that CTDs may have a different prevalence in these countries, especially when considering traditional musical instruments and different methods of playing. Although not formally studied before, according to our experience the prevalence of CTDs seemed to be high among Iranian instrumentalists. We proposed this study to determine the prevalence of CTDs in amateur music students playing one of the two traditional Iranian instruments: Daf and Setar. Methods In a prospective cross sectional study, we interviewed and examined the students of three music training centers in Iran. Seventy eight instrumentalists, who were playing Daf or Setar and twelve students who had not started playing yet were regarded as case and control groups respectively. Some of them also underwent electrodiagnostic studies. Results Forty-seven percent (17 of 36) of the Setar players and 57% (24 of 42) of the Daf players and fifty-three percent (41 of 78) of the instrumentalists as a whole had CTDs. None of them had carpal tunnel syndrome. Conclusions Our study revealed that the prevalence of CTDs in Iranian instrumentalists was unusually high. In addition to age, other variables may be contributory. This needs to be further studied. PMID:15485578

  17. First identification of Sarcocystis hominis in Iranian traditional hamburger.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, M Moghaddam; Hajimohammadi, B; Eslami, G; Oryan, A; Yasini Ardakani, S A; Zohourtabar, A; Zare, S

    2015-12-01

    Zoonotic concerns of cattle sarcocystosis are of importance, because humans are the final host for Sarcocystis hominis. Therefore the meat products containing beef may encompass sarcocysts which endanger food safety. In this study, we described the first report of molecular identification of S. hominis in Iranian traditional hamburgers using PCR-RFLP. Throughout a pilot research that was carried out to setup a molecular approach to identify the Sarcocystis spp., using PCR-RFLP, a sample of raw Iranian traditional hamburger was purchased from a street food seller located in Yazd, central Iran in May 2013. DNA extraction was done, by salting out method; briefly, the sample was lysed with NET buffer. The DNA purification and precipitation was then performed. Amplicon and digestion results were analyzed, using gel agarose electrophoresis. The results showed a PCR product with 926 bp in length after amplification and 376 and 550 bp in length after digestion. This product was identified as S. hominis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of S. hominis infection in Iranian hamburger. PMID:26688649

  18. Proteomics Approaches Shed New Light on Traditional Iranian Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Movahhed, Mina; Poursaleh, Zohreh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Until now, Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) had been extensively based on Iranian philosophy in theoretical approach in diagnosis and treatment, with doubts on academic medicine. Nevertheless, the diagnosis of temperaments, herbal standardization, and quality control had been with the obscurity of functional molecules and their action mechanisms. Proteomics is a potent board to the mechanistic investigation of ITM and has been comprehensively applied profile drug-regulated proteins. In this review, we assessed the application of this modern molecular biological method in the identification of temperaments and drug targets of ITM. Methods: All available studies related to proteomics in traditional medicine, alternative and complementary medicine, including books, journals, and other references were studied and assessed. Results: The present review showed the phenotypes of the various temperaments in healthy individuals, that is to say, same proteins with different dynamic properties. Therefore, the usefulness of proteomics seems authoritative to understand the means by which the molecular pathways protected in ITM. This might be also the key clinical viewpoint on this new approach for enabling the integration of Iranian traditional medicine and modern biological science and technology, as well for upholding the internationalization of ITM. Conclusion: Proteomics, as a powerful tool for systems biology, is an essential research methodology for understanding the mechanisms of traditional medicine. Further investigation on the applications of advanced proteomics in temperaments, herbal standardization, and quality control in ITM is recommended. PMID:27516684

  19. Body Weight Concerns and Antifat Attitude in Iranian Children

    PubMed Central

    Garousi, Saideh

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is increasing evidence that children are showing body image issues in recent years. Body image disturbances in childhood must be taken seriously. The thin ideal is becoming more prominent in Asian countries; however, there is little research examining how this issue affects Iranian children. This study explores body weight concerns and associated factors among children in Iranian elementary schools. Methods: This study was conducted in 500 elementary schools. An assessment of body image and antifat attitudes was undertaken using the figure rating scale. In addition, body mass index (BMI) and demographic variables were assessed. Results: Nearly, 27.4% of children were underweight, and 13.3% were obese. There was a significant difference between the mean score of body dissatisfaction (BD) between boys and girls (P < 0.05). There were no differences between BD and education of parents, age, and academic grades. In girls, antifat attitudes were significantly related to BMI. Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrate the paramount importance of undertaking further research in order to identify the predictive factors of body concerns and its consequences among Iranian children. In addition, researchers must plan prevention and educational program for these children. PMID:25709795

  20. Pharmacological treatment of catarrh in Iranian traditional medicine

    PubMed Central

    Choopani, Rasool; Sadr, Saeed; Kaveh, Shahpar; Kaveh, Narges; Dehghan, Sohrab

    2015-01-01

    Catarrh is a condition that is carefully explained in Iranian traditional medicine. Medieval Iranian physicians used some medicinal plants in the treatment of the catarrh. Some of these substances are used in treatment today, although still more of these materials can be used in modern medicine. In this study we searched known sources of Iranian traditional medicine and collected the ideas of former great scholars and physicians about medicinal plants that are used for treatment of catarrh. Then we searched PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, and Web of Science databases and found 10 medicinal herbs that have the ability to treat catarrh. Plants discussed in this study are consistent with new research and can be used in modern treatments. According to rising bacterial resistance to antibiotics and complications of antibiotic and anti-inflammatory drugs, it seems that the various components of the medicinal herbs can be beneficial in producing new drugs. Also it is hoped that more investigations on medicinal plants will be conducted in the future treatment of catarrh and other diseases related to it. PMID:26151014

  1. Seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus among Iranian soldiers

    PubMed Central

    Izadi, Morteza; Esfahani, Ali Aliakbar; Hassannia, Hadi; Jonaidi Jafari, Nematollah; Rahmati Najarkolaei, Fatemeh; Rezaee-Zavareh, Mohammad Saeid

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study aims to investigate the seroprevalence of HAV immunity among Iranian soldiers and determine whether vaccination should be given to military draftees. Background: Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is highly contagious in individuals living in crowded conditions such as military centers. To the best of our knowledge, there are limited data about HAV prevalence among Iranian soldiers. Patients and methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 1554 soldiers were recruited through a random clustering sampling. Serum anti-HAV antibody was measured by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS. Results: A total of 1554 male soldiers with age ranged from 18 to 34 years (mean age: 21.2±1.9 years) at baseline were evaluated. Overall, 80.3% of the analyzed specimens were anti-HAV seropositive. Seroprevalence rates significantly increased with the age. Conclusion: Our results suggest that vaccination for HAV is not necessary for Iranian military draftees. However, the vaccination is recommended for high-risk groups, including anti-HAV seronegative soldiers. PMID:27099669

  2. The Attitude of Iranian Nurses About Do Not Resuscitate Orders

    PubMed Central

    Mogadasian, Sima; Abdollahzadeh, Farahnaz; Rahmani, Azad; Ferguson, Caleb; Pakanzad, Fermisk; Pakpour, Vahid; Heidarzadeh, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Do not resuscitate (DNR) orders are one of many challenging issues in end of life care. Previous research has not investigated Muslim nurses’ attitudes towards DNR orders. Aims: This study aims to investigate the attitude of Iranian nurses towards DNR orders and determine the role of religious sects in forming attitudes. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive-comparative study, 306 nurses from five hospitals affiliated to Tabriz University of Medical Sciences (TUOMS) in East Azerbaijan Province and three hospitals in Kurdistan province participated. Data were gathered by a survey design on attitudes on DNR orders. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL) software examining descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: Participants showed their willingness to learn more about DNR orders and highlights the importance of respecting patients and their families in DNR orders. In contrast, in many key items participants reported their negative attitude towards DNR orders. There were statistical differences in two items between the attitude of Shiite and Sunni nurses. Conclusions: Iranian nurses, regardless of their religious sects, reported negative attitude towards many aspects of DNR orders. It may be possible to change the attitude of Iranian nurses towards DNR through education. PMID:24600178

  3. Factors Influencing the Successful Aging of Iranian Old Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Javadi Pashaki, Nazila; Mohammadi, Farahnaz; Jafaraghaee, Fateme; Mehrdad, Neda

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aging is an irreversible natural process characterized by a decline in both the physical and mental status of individuals. Because of multiple factors, this process and its consequences vary greatly between individuals. A successful aging (SA) is the target of current health policies and well-being of individuals. Knowing the factors that contribute to SA and its barriers would translate in measurements that increase the quality of life of elderly and reduce health costs. Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore barriers and facilitators to Iranian elderly women’s SA. Patients and Methods: A purposive sample of 16 elderly women, aged 61 - 96 years, was recruited for this qualitative content analysis study. Study data were collected during 2012 -.2013 by conducting 16 face-to-face semi-structured in-depth interviews. We continued the data collection until reaching saturation. Study data were analyzed concurrently with data collection, by using the conventional qualitative content analysis approach. Results: Barriers and facilitators to Iranian elderly women’s SA fell into five main categories, including availability of support systems, state of health, personal capabilities, personality characteristics, and lifestyle. Conclusions: Availability of support systems, state of health, personal capabilities, personality characteristics, and lifestyle were the main interrelated factors affecting Iranian elderly women’s SA. Accordingly, providing elderly women with strong educational, emotional, financial, cultural, and social supports can help facilitate their SA. PMID:26421171

  4. 31 CFR 535.528 - Certain transactions with respect to Iranian patents, trademarks and copyrights authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Certain transactions with respect to Iranian patents, trademarks and copyrights authorized. 535.528 Section 535.528 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRANIAN ASSETS...

  5. 31 CFR 535.528 - Certain transactions with respect to Iranian patents, trademarks and copyrights authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Certain transactions with respect to Iranian patents, trademarks and copyrights authorized. 535.528 Section 535.528 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRANIAN ASSETS...

  6. 31 CFR 535.528 - Certain transactions with respect to Iranian patents, trademarks and copyrights authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Certain transactions with respect to Iranian patents, trademarks and copyrights authorized. 535.528 Section 535.528 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRANIAN ASSETS...

  7. Can Self-Efficacy and Self-Confidence Explain Iranian Female Students' Academic Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rezaei, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Official statistics from several resources in Iran indicate that female enrollment and achievement in Iranian universities has recently exceeded that of male students. Despite the fact that a religious government has been ruling the country for three decades, and despite many regulations against women, Iranian women have managed to overcome…

  8. The Relationship between Iranian EFL Learners' Beliefs about Language Learning and Their Use of Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azar, Fereshteh Khaffafi; Saeidi, Mahnaz

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between Iranian EFL learners' learning strategies use and their language learning beliefs. A sample of 200 Iranian EFL learners who were all English language learners at different language institutes participated in this study. Two instruments, Beliefs about Language Learning Inventory (BALLI) and…

  9. The Relationship between Iranian EFL Learners' Beliefs about Language Learning and Language Learning Strategy Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarei, Abbas Ali; Rahmani, Hanieh

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between Iranian EFL learners' beliefs about language learning and language learning strategy use. A sample of 104 B.A and M.A Iranian EFL learners majoring in English participated in this study. Three instruments, the Michigan Test of English Language Proficiency (MTELP), Beliefs about Language…

  10. 78 FR 37664 - Identification of Entities Pursuant to the Iranian Transactions and Sanctions Regulations and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... names of 38 entities identified as the Government of Iran under the Iranian Transactions and Sanctions... President issued Executive Order 13599, ``Blocking Property of the Government of Iran and Iranian Financial... interests in property of the Government of Iran, including the Central Bank of Iran, that are in the...

  11. A Comparative Study of Iranian and Japanese English Teachers' Demotivational Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baniasad-Azad, Somayeh; Ketabi, Saeed

    2013-01-01

    This study examined demotivational factors among Iranian and Japanese college teachers of English. To achieve the purpose, the study used a 35-item questionnaire and semi-structured interviews. The results were compared with the similar study in Japan by Sugino (2010). The findings of the study revealed that Iranian and Japanese lecturers are much…

  12. 31 CFR 560.209 - Prohibited transactions with respect to the development of Iranian petroleum resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to the development of Iranian petroleum resources. 560.209 Section 560.209 Money and Finance... respect to the development of Iranian petroleum resources. Except as otherwise authorized, and... development of petroleum resources located in Iran, or (2) A guaranty of another person's performance...

  13. 31 CFR 560.209 - Prohibited transactions with respect to the development of Iranian petroleum resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... to the development of Iranian petroleum resources. 560.209 Section 560.209 Money and Finance... transactions with respect to the development of Iranian petroleum resources. Except as otherwise authorized... for the development of petroleum resources located in Iran, or (2) A guaranty of another...

  14. 31 CFR 560.209 - Prohibited transactions with respect to the development of Iranian petroleum resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... to the development of Iranian petroleum resources. 560.209 Section 560.209 Money and Finance... respect to the development of Iranian petroleum resources. Except as otherwise authorized, and... development of petroleum resources located in Iran, or (2) A guaranty of another person's performance...

  15. 31 CFR 560.209 - Prohibited transactions with respect to the development of Iranian petroleum resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... to the development of Iranian petroleum resources. 560.209 Section 560.209 Money and Finance... transactions with respect to the development of Iranian petroleum resources. Except as otherwise authorized... for the development of petroleum resources located in Iran, or (2) A guaranty of another...

  16. 31 CFR 560.209 - Prohibited transactions with respect to the development of Iranian petroleum resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to the development of Iranian petroleum resources. 560.209 Section 560.209 Money and Finance... respect to the development of Iranian petroleum resources. Except as otherwise authorized, and... development of petroleum resources located in Iran, or (2) A guaranty of another person's performance...

  17. CLIL European-Led Projects and Their Implications for Iranian EFL Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabet, Masoud Khalili; Sadeh, Nima

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to examine the European-led projects in the field of Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) and their potential applicability in the Iranian EFL context. This paper tries to introduce various dimensions of CLIL and examine the compatibility of its component with the Iranian context.

  18. Intercultural Communication Patterns of Iranian Students in Public Forums in the U. S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackman, Bernard I.

    A study was conducted to explore aspects of intercultural communication present when Iranians attempted to communicate publicly in the United States. Thirty-six American students with little previous knowledge of Iran were interviewed following their attendance at a public lecture/demonstration sponsored by Iranian students in Texas. The…

  19. Perceived Parenting, Self-Esteem, and General Self-Efficacy of Iranian American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Gila; Plunkett, Scott W.; Otten, Mark P.

    2010-01-01

    We examined whether Iranian American adolescents' perceptions of parental support, parental knowledge, and parental psychological control relate to general self-efficacy directly, and indirectly through positive esteem and self-deprecation. To investigate this, self-report surveys were collected from 158 Iranian American adolescents attending…

  20. A Follow-up Study on U.S.-Trained Iranian Faculty Members: Satisfactions and Dissatisfactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arasteh, Hamidreza

    2009-01-01

    Iran was one of the major contributors to the international student population in the United States. For some years, the number of Iranian students studied in America mounted such that there were more Iranians studying at colleges and universities in the United States than from any other foreign country. This study examined the satisfaction of…

  1. Examining and Dealing with the Issue of Reading Strategy Use by Iranian EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naeini, Ma'ssoumeh Bemani; Rezaei, Reyhaneh

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between Iranian EFL learners' performance on a reading comprehension test and their pattern of using cognitive and metacognitive learning strategies. Analysis of the data obtained from 190 Iranian intermediate EFL learners (70 males and 120 females, aged 17-25) revealed a strong relationship between reading…

  2. Effective Foreign Language Teaching: A Matter of Iranian Students' and Teachers' Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganjabi, Mahyar

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on a study that investigated the beliefs about language learning of 120 Iranian EFL students and 16 EFL teachers. The primary aim of the study was to reveal whether there was any difference between the beliefs of Iranian students and teachers regarding different aspects of language learning such as grammar teaching, error…

  3. Indexing of Iranian Publications in Well-known Endodontic Textbooks: A Scientometric Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kakooei, Sina; Mostafavi, Mahshid; Parirokh, Masoud; Asgary, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Quoting an article in well-known textbooks is held as a credit for that paper. The numbers of Iranian publications mentioned in endodontic textbooks have increased during recent years. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the number of Iranian articles quoted in eminent endodontic textbooks. Methods and Materials: Three known textbooks (Ingle’s Endodontics, Seltzer and Bender’s Dental Pulp and Cohen’s Pathways of the Pulp) were chosen and all the editions of the textbooks since 2000 were investigated for quoted Iranian publications. Only Iranian authors with affiliations from a domestic university were chosen. All references at the end of each chapter were read by hand searching, and results were noted. The trend and percentage of Iranian publications in different editions of the textbooks were also calculated. The number of citations of these publications in Google Scholar and Scopus databases were also obtained. Results: The number of Iranian publications in all well-known textbooks have notably increased since 2000. The number and percentage of Iranian publications in the latest edition of Cohen’s Pathways of the Pulp was higher compared to other textbooks as well as the previous edition of the same text. Conclusion: Number and percentage of Iranian publications in the field of endodontics in all three textbooks have remarkably increased since 2000. PMID:27471523

  4. Possibilities and Limitations of Functional Literacy: The Iranian Experiment. Educational Studies and Documents: No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furter, Pierre

    The study is a description of the activities undertaken within the framework of the work-oriented adult literacy pilot project in Iran, an evaluation of its first measurable results, and an examination of the problems of functional literacy in the light of the Iranian experiment. The first chapter traces the efforts of the Iranian authorities over…

  5. 31 CFR 560.407 - Transactions related to Iranian-origin goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... from third countries of goods containing Iranian-origin raw materials or components is not prohibited if those raw materials or components have been incorporated into manufactured products or... Iranian-origin raw materials or components are not prohibited if those raw materials or components...

  6. 31 CFR 560.407 - Transactions related to Iranian-origin goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... United States from third countries of goods containing Iranian-origin raw materials or components is not prohibited if those raw materials or components have been incorporated into manufactured products or... Iranian-origin raw materials or components are not prohibited if those raw materials or components...

  7. 31 CFR 560.407 - Transactions related to Iranian-origin goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... from third countries of goods containing Iranian-origin raw materials or components is not prohibited if those raw materials or components have been incorporated into manufactured products or... Iranian-origin raw materials or components are not prohibited if those raw materials or components...

  8. Investigating the Relationship between Multiple Intelligences and Professional Identity of Iranian EFL Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaee, Mitra

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between Iranian EFL teachers' Professional Identity and their types of Multiple Intelligences. Moreover, it aimed to see the extent to which their multiple intelligences can predict their professional identity. The participants of the study were 137 Iranian EFL teachers teaching in…

  9. How Iranian Instructors Teach L2 Pragmatics in Their Classroom Practices? A Mixed-Methods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muthasamy, Paramasivam; Farashaiyan, Atieh

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the teaching approaches and techniques that Iranian instructors utilize for teaching L2 pragmatics in their classroom practices. 238 Iranian instructors participated in this study. The data for this study were accumulated through questionnaire and semi-structured interviews. In terms of the instructional approaches, both the…

  10. Developing Guidelines for a New Curriculum for the BA Program in English Translation in Iranian Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razmjou, Leila

    This study helped develop guidelines for modifying the current curriculum of the existing B.A. in English Translation within Iranian universities. Participants were 30 experts in the fields of English language translation, linguistics, and translatology from four Iranian universities. Using the Delphi research methodology, researchers administered…

  11. Podcasts: A Factor to Improve Iranian EFL Learners' Self-Regulation Ability and Use of Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naseri, Somayeh; Motallebzadeh, Khalil

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of listening to podcasts on Iranian upper- intermediate EFL learners' self-regulation ability and their perception toward the use of technology. To meet the objectives of the current study, 54 female Iranian EFL learners were selected. In experimental group they listened to podcast files while in the control…

  12. The Effect of Textual Metafunction on the Iranian EFL Learners' Writing Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paziraie, Mandana Eftekhar

    2013-01-01

    This study is devoted to the effect of "textual metafunction" on the levels of coherence and cohesion in the Iranian EFL learners' English writing performance. Sixty Iranian intermediate EFL learners who were adult females participated in this study were randomly divided into two groups; experimental, and control. They were given a…

  13. Gambling in the Iranian-American Community and an Assessment of Motives: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parhami, Iman; Siani, Aaron; Campos, Michael D.; Rosenthal, Richard J.; Fong, Timothy W.

    2012-01-01

    Nearly half a million United States residents identify themselves as being of Iranian origin, and many in this population are of high socioeconomic status. Although games of chance have been a notable part of Iranian culture for thousands of years, there is almost no research exploring gambling in this population. The objective of this case study…

  14. Iranian EFL Teachers' Perceptions of the Difficulties of Implementing CALL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedayati, Hora; Marandi, S. Susan

    2014-01-01

    Despite the spread of reliable technological tools and the availability of computers in Iranian universities, as well as the mounting evidence of the effectiveness of blended learning, many Iranian language teachers are still reluctant to incorporate such tools in their English as a foreign language (EFL) classes. This study inspected the status…

  15. Sn Attenuation in the Iranian and Tibetan Plateaus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, W.; Kaviani, A.; Bao, X.; Christopher, J.; Sandvol, E. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Iranian and Tibetan plateaus are both part of the Alpine-Himalayan mountain belt and both formed as a result of the continental collision (between Arabian plate, Indian plate and Eurasia plates). The two plateaus illustrate many of the same processes but at different stages of development. The Iranian plateau is a much less mature continental plateau than the Tibetan plateau with about half the elevation and a much thinner crust. In order to better understand the nature of the lithosphere mantle and origin of the measure seismic velocity anomalies we have made detailed measurements of the uppermost mantle attenuation using the high frequency regional phase Sn. In order to measure Sn attenuation. We have collected a large data set consisting of 18 years (1995-2012) of waveforms recorded by 305 permanent and temporary stations in Iran and 3 years (2007-2009) of waveforms recorded by 136 permanent and temporary stations in Tibet separately. We used a bandpass filter (0.1-0.5Hz) to identify efficient longer period Sn phases. In order to determine Sn Q we applied a Two Station Method (TSM) and Reverse Two Station Method (RTM) to eliminate the source effects. We have used the LSQR algorithm to tomographically map Sn attenuation tomography across the Iranian plateau. Our results show moderately low Q values beneath the Iranian plateau (~250) and high Q values beneath the south Caspian sea (~400) and Arabian shield (~400). The pattern we observe is roughly consistent with previous studies. We also observe high Q values beneath the Zagros mountains (~450) that is consistent with the Arabian plate underthrusting beneath the Eurasia plate. In Tibet we find high Q values beneath the Qaidam basin (~500) and low Q values beneath much of the Kunlun fault (~200). We also observe high Q values beneath the Bangong-Nujiang suture (~400) which can be explained that the Indian plate is underthrusting beneath the Eurasia plate. Comparing the Sn Q values beneath the Iranian and

  16. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Fraas, A.P.; Mills, C.B.

    1961-11-21

    A neutronic reactor in which neutron moderation is achieved primarily in its reflector is described. The reactor structure consists of a cylindrical central "island" of moderator and a spherical moderating reflector spaced therefrom, thereby providing an annular space. An essentially unmoderated liquid fuel is continuously passed through the annular space and undergoes fission while contained therein. The reactor, because of its small size, is particularly adapted for propulsion uses, including the propulsion of aircraft. (AEC)

  17. REACTOR COOLING

    DOEpatents

    Quackenbush, C.F.

    1959-09-29

    A nuclear reactor with provisions for selectively cooling the fuel elements is described. The reactor has a plurality of tubes extending throughout. Cylindrical fuel elements are disposed within the tubes and the coolant flows through the tubes and around the fuel elements. The fuel elements within the central portion of the reactor are provided with roughened surfaces of material. The fuel elements in the end portions of the tubes within the reactor are provlded with low conduction jackets and the fuel elements in the region between the central portion and the end portions are provided with smooth surfaces of high heat conduction material.

  18. Plasma Structure and Behavior of Miniature Ring-Cusp Discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Hann-Shin

    Miniature ring-cusp ion thrusters provide a unique blend of high efficiencies and millinewton level thrust for future spacecraft. These thrusters are attractive as a primary propulsion for small satellites that require a high delta V, and as a secondary propulsion for larger spacecraft that require precision formation flying, disturbance rejection, or attitude control. To ensure desirable performance throughout the life of such missions, an advancement in the understanding of the plasma structure and behavior of miniature ring-cusp discharges is required. A research model was fabricated to provide a simplified experimental test bed for the analysis of the plasma discharge chamber of a miniature ion thruster. The plasma source allowed for spatially resolved measurements with a Langmuir probe along a meridian plane. Probe measurements yielded plasma density, electron temperature, and plasma potential data. The magnetic field strength was varied along with the discharge current to determine the plasma behavior under various conditions. The structure of the plasma properties were found to be independent of the discharge power under the proper scaling. It was concluded that weaker magnetic fields can improve the overall performance for ion thruster operation. To further analyze the experimental measurements, a framework was developed based on the magnetic field. A flux aligned coordinate system was developed to decouple the perpendicular and parallel plasma motion with respect to the magnetic field. This was done using the stream function and magnetic scalar potential. Magnetic formulae provided intuition on the field profiles dependence on magnet dimensions. The flux aligned coordinate system showed that the plasma was isopycnic along constant stream function values. This was used to develop an empirical relation suitable for estimating the spatial behavior and to determine the plasma volume and loss areas. The plasma geometry estimates were applied to a control volume

  19. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.

    1958-04-22

    A nuclear reactor for isotope production is described. This reactor is designed to provide a maximum thermal neutron flux in a region adjacent to the periphery of the reactor rather than in the center of the reactor. The core of the reactor is generally centrally located with respect tn a surrounding first reflector, constructed of beryllium. The beryllium reflector is surrounded by a second reflector, constructed of graphite, which, in tune, is surrounded by a conventional thermal shield. Water is circulated through the core and the reflector and functions both as a moderator and a coolant. In order to produce a greatsr maximum thermal neutron flux adjacent to the periphery of the reactor rather than in the core, the reactor is designed so tbat the ratio of neutron scattering cross section to neutron absorption cross section averaged over all of the materials in the reflector is approximately twice the ratio of neutron scattering cross section to neutron absorption cross section averaged over all of the material of the core of the reactor.

  20. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Metcalf, H.E.; Johnson, H.W.

    1961-04-01

    BS>A nuclear reactor incorporating fuel rods passing through a moderator and including tubes of a material of higher Thermal conductivity than the fuel in contact with the fuel is described. The tubes extend beyond the active portion of the reactor into contant with a fiuld coolant.

  1. Miniaturized electronic system for the Planetary Integrated Camera-Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soll, Stanley L.; Graham, Richard; Ramirez, Luis J.

    1994-09-01

    This paper discusses the design, and implementation of a miniaturized electronic system for the Planetary Integrated Camera Spectrometer (PICS). The PICS electronics demonstrate the application of Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) and of analog hybrid technology to space flight multi-spectral systems. A discussion of the electronic system design illustrates how signals from a multi-sensor instrument containing an UV CCD, two visible CCDs, and a near-IR focal plane assembly can be processed through a common set of electronics. Following the system design discussion, the actual electronic design will be presented. Each miniaturized module will be discussed as to functionality and performance. The test setup for bench checkout of a cooled CCD and an IR FPA, including results with breadboard electronics and with the hybrids are also described.

  2. A miniature curvature wavefront sensor with coherent fiber image bundle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jessica; Richards, Samuel; Goodwin, Michael; Lawrence, Jon; Leon-Saval, Sergio; Argyros, Alexander

    2014-08-01

    A miniature curvature wavefront sensor with a coherent fiber image bundle is proposed in which a miniature lateral displacement beamsplitter is designed to obtain the intra- and extra- focus images from a telescope simultaneously at its exit. The two images are received and relayed by two coherent fiber image bundles. The relayed images are then re-imaged to one camera and processed to obtain the input wavefront at telescope pupil. The whole device is quite compact and can be driven by a "Starbug" fiber positioning device currently under development within the Australian Astronomical Observatory. In this paper, the performance of the proposed sensor is investigated in details by applying a simulated atmospheric turbulence at the telescope pupil plane. We study the offset distance of two image measurement planes, fiber core size, fiber fill factor and the magnitude of natural guide star effects to its performance. This study provides guidance to the sensor design.

  3. Miniature Joule Thomson (JT) CryoCoolers for Propellant Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kapat, Jay; Chow, Louis

    2002-01-01

    A proof-of-concept project is proposed here that would attempt to demonstrate how miniature cryocoolers can be used to chill the vacuum jacket line of a propellant transfer line and thus to achieve transfer line pre-chill, zero boil off and possible propellant densification. The project would be performed both at UCF and KSC, with all of the cryogenic testing taking place in the KSC cryogenic test bed. A LN2 line available in that KSC test facility would serve to simulate a LOX transfer line. Under this project, miniature and highly efficient cold heads would be designed. Two identical cold heads will be fabricated and then integrated with a JT-type cryogenic system (consisting of a common compressor and a common external heat exchanger). The two cold heads will be integrated into the vacuum jacket of a LN2 line in the KSC cryo lab, where the testing will take place.

  4. Miniature pulsed magnet system for synchrotron x-ray measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Linden, Peter J. E. M. van der; Mathon, Olivier; Strohm, Cornelius; Sikora, Marcin

    2008-07-15

    We have developed a versatile experimental apparatus for synchrotron x-ray measurements in pulsed high magnetic fields. The apparatus consists of a double cryostat incorporating a liquid nitrogen bath to cool the miniature pulsed coil and an independent helium flow cryostat allowing sample temperatures from 4 up to 250 K. The high duty cycle miniature pulsed coils can generate up to 38 T. During experiments at 30 T a repetition rate of 6 pulses/min was routinely reached. Using a 4 kJ power supply, the pulse duration was between 500 {mu}s and 1 ms. The setup was used for nuclear forward scattering measurements on {sup 57}Fe up to 25 T on the ESRF beamline ID18. In another experiment, x-ray magnetic circular dichroism was measured up to 30 T on the ESRF energy dispersive beamline ID24.

  5. Ultra-Miniature Lidar Scanner for Launch Range Data Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geng, Jason

    2012-01-01

    The most critical component in lidar is its laser scanner, which delivers pulsed or CW laser to target with desirable field of view (FOV). Most existing lidars use a rotating or oscillating mirror for scanning, resulting in several drawbacks. A lidar scanning technology was developed that could achieve very high scanning speed, with an ultra-miniature size and much lighter weight. This technology promises at least a 10x performance improvement in these areas over existing lidar scanners. Features of the proposed ultra-miniature lidar scanner include the ability to make the entire scanner <2 mm in diameter; very high scanning speed (e.g. 5 - 20 kHz, in contrast to several hundred Hz in existing scanners); structure design to meet stringent requirements on size, weight, power, and compactness for various applications; and the scanning speed and FOV can be altered for obtaining high image resolutions of targeted areas and for diversified uses.

  6. A technique for bioinstrumentation of the thorax of miniature swine.

    PubMed

    Harvey, R C; Jones, E F

    1982-02-01

    A surgical technique for sternal thoracotomy was developed for use in miniature swine. An incision was made from the midpoint of the neck to the tip of the xiphoid cartilage. The thorax was entered by dividing the sternum along its long axis with an electric oscillating saw. The thoracotomy was closed with 3-mm wide polyester fiber umbilical tapes placed around each sternebrae to appose the cut surfaces. The technique provided good access to the cranial vena cava, both atria and appendages, both ventricles, great cardiac veins, coronary sinus, ascending aorta and arch, and the pulmonary artery. Miniature swine tolerated this procedure well. It appeared to be less painful than lateral approaches and produced fewer pleural adhesions because only the mediastinum was entered. PMID:7078079

  7. A Miniature Probe for Ultrasonic Penetration of a Single Cell

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ting; Zhou, Zhaoying; Wang, Qun; Yang, Xing; Xiao, Mingfei

    2009-01-01

    Although ultrasound cavitation must be avoided for safe diagnostic applications, the ability of ultrasound to disrupt cell membranes has taken on increasing significance as a method to facilitate drug and gene delivery. A new ultrasonic resonance driving method is introduced to penetrate rigid wall plant cells or oocytes with springy cell membranes. When a reasonable design is created, ultrasound can gather energy and increase the amplitude factor. Ultrasonic penetration enables exogenous materials to enter cells without damaging them by utilizing instant acceleration. This paper seeks to develop a miniature ultrasonic probe experiment system for cell penetration. A miniature ultrasonic probe is designed and optimized using the Precise Four Terminal Network Method and Finite Element Method (FEM) and an ultrasonic generator to drive the probe is designed. The system was able to successfully puncture a single fish cell. PMID:22412314

  8. FY 2008 Miniature Spherical Retroreflectors – Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Anheier, Norman C.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Klymyshyn, Nicholas A.; Krishnaswami, Kannan; Rodriguez, Carmen P.

    2009-02-01

    Through the duration of the NNSA Office of Nuclear Nonproliferation Research and Development (NA-22) Miniature Spherical Retroreflectors lifecycle project, our research team focused on developing solutions to the fabrication bottleneck that has inhibited development and deployment of wide-angle optically interrogated chemical and radiological remote sensing technology. Our team advanced the concept of step-index clad retroreflectors to approximate an optimized, but yet unrealized spherical gradient index design. An intensive numerical simulation effort was undertaken that resulted in optimized step-index optical designs for mid-infrared applications. Geometric optics ray trace modeling was performed to better understand the geometrical dependencies of the miniature spherical retroreflector application. We adopted and advanced the concept of optical cross section, a metric that provides relative performance comparisons between different retroreflector designs and our cross-section analysis demonstrated that our step-index design provided 90% of the range capacity of the ideal spherical index design.

  9. Millimeter-Scale PIG Source for Miniature Mass Spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babapour Ghadikolaee, Mohammad Reza

    2012-12-01

    A new millimeter-scale penning ion generator (PIG) ion source has been developed for miniature mass spectrometers. The cathode is a 40 mm diameter × 2 mm long stainless steel cylinder with a hole of 4 mm, the anode with a hole of 12.6 mm and a length of 6.4 mm is made in stainless steel, and the ion emission hole size on the anticathode is 5 mm. Several microamperes of H+ ions can be extracted with less than 10 W discharge power consumption. The PIG ion source is shown to have advantages of long lifetime under high-pressure operation and low power consumption. The ion source is being designed and investigated for use in miniature mass spectrometer; however this ion source is thoroughly described so that it can be easily implemented by other researchers for other applications.

  10. Determining mechanical behavior of solid materials using miniature specimens

    DOEpatents

    Manahan, M.P.; Argon, A.S.; Harling, O.K.

    1986-02-04

    A Miniaturized Bend Test (MBT) capable of extracting and determining mechanical behavior information from specimens only so large as to have at least a volume or smallest dimension sufficient to satisfy continuum behavior in all directions is disclosed. The mechanical behavior of the material is determined from the measurements taken during the bending of the specimen and is processed according to the principles of linear or nonlinear material mechanics or both. In a preferred embodiment the determination is carried out by a code which is constructed according to the finite element method, and the specimen used for the determinations is a miniature disk simply supported for central loading at the axis on the center of the disk. 51 figs.

  11. Determining mechanical behavior of solid materials using miniature specimens

    DOEpatents

    Manahan, Michael P.; Argon, Ali S.; Harling, Otto K.

    1986-01-01

    A Miniaturized Bend Test (MBT) capable of extracting and determining mechanical behavior information from specimens only so large as to have at least a volume or smallest dimension sufficient to satisfy continuum behavior in all directions. The mechanical behavior of the material is determined from the measurements taken during the bending of the specimen and is processed according to the principles of linear or nonlinear material mechanics or both. In a preferred embodiment the determination is carried out by a code which is constructed according to the finite element method, and the specimen used for the determinations is a miniature disk simply supported for central loading at the axis on the center of the disk.

  12. Miniaturized LTCC elliptic-function lowpass filters with side stopbands

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hsieh, Lung -Hwa; Dai, Steve Xunhu

    2015-05-28

    A compact, high-selectivity, and wide stopband lowpass filter is highly demanded in wireless communication systems to suppress adjacent harmonics and unwanted signals. In this letter, a new miniaturized lowpass filter with elliptic-function frequency response is introduced. The filter is fabricated in multilayer low temperature cofired ceramics. The size of the miniaturized filter is 5.5 × 3.9 × 1.72 mm3. As a result, the measured insertion loss of the filter is better than 0.37 dB from DC to 1.28 GHz and the measured stopband of the filter is great than 22 dB from 2.3 to 7.5 GHz.

  13. Design parameters of a miniaturized piezoelectric underwater acoustic transmitter.

    PubMed

    Li, Huidong; Deng, Zhiqun Daniel; Yuan, Yong; Carlson, Thomas J

    2012-01-01

    PZT ceramics have been widely used in underwater acoustic transducers. However, literature available discussing the design parameters of a miniaturized PZT-based low-duty-cycle transmitter is very limited. This paper discusses some of the design parameters--the backing material, driving voltage, PZT material type, power consumption and the transducer length of a miniaturized acoustic fish tag using a PZT tube. Four different types of PZT were evaluated with respect to the source level, energy consumption and bandwidth of the transducer. The effect of the tube length on the source level is discussed. The results demonstrate that ultralow-density closed-cell foam is the best backing material for the PZT tube. The Navy Type VI PZTs provide the best source level with relatively low energy consumption and that a low transducer capacitance is preferred for high efficiency. A 35% reduction in the transducer length results in 2 dB decrease in source level. PMID:23012534

  14. Miniature pulse compressor of deep-etched gratings.

    PubMed

    Jia, Wei; Zhou, Changhe; Feng, Jijun; Dai, Enwen

    2008-11-10

    We propose a miniature pulse compressor that can be used to compensate the group velocity dispersion that is produced by a commercial femtosecond laser cavity. The compressor is composed of two identical highly efficient deep-etched transmissive gratings. Compared with prism pairs, highly efficient deep-etched transmissive grating pairs are lightweight and small. With an optimized groove depth and a duty cycle, 98% diffraction efficiency of the -1 transmissive order can be achieved at a wavelength of 800 nm under Littrow conditions. The deep-etched gratings are fabricated in fused silica by inductively coupled plasma etching. With a pair of the fabricated gratings, the input positively chirped 73.9 fs pulses are neatly compressed into the nearly Fourier transform-limited 43.2 fs pulses. The miniature deep-etched grating-based pulse compressor should be of interest for practical applications. PMID:19002230

  15. Design Parameters of a Miniaturized Piezoelectric Underwater Acoustic Transmitter

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huidong; Deng, Zhiqun Daniel; Yuan, Yong; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    PZT ceramics have been widely used in underwater acoustic transducers. However, literature available discussing the design parameters of a miniaturized PZT-based low-duty-cycle transmitter is very limited. This paper discusses some of the design parameters—the backing material, driving voltage, PZT material type, power consumption and the transducer length of a miniaturized acoustic fish tag using a PZT tube. Four different types of PZT were evaluated with respect to the source level, energy consumption and bandwidth of the transducer. The effect of the tube length on the source level is discussed. The results demonstrate that ultralow-density closed-cell foam is the best backing material for the PZT tube. The Navy Type VI PZTs provide the best source level with relatively low energy consumption and that a low transducer capacitance is preferred for high efficiency. A 35% reduction in the transducer length results in 2 dB decrease in source level. PMID:23012534

  16. Fiber Attachment Module Experiment (FAME): Using a Multiplexed Miniature Hollow Fiber Membrane Bioreactor Solution for Rapid Process Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunn, Griffin; Wheeler, Raymond; Hummerick, Mary; Birmele, Michele; Richards, Jeffrey; Coutts, Janelle; Koss, Lawrence; Spencer, Lashelle.; Johnsey, Marissa; Ellis, Ronald

    Bioreactor research, even today, is mostly limited to continuous stirred-tank reactors (CSTRs). These are not an option for microgravity applications due to the lack of a gravity gradient to drive aeration as described by the Archimedes principle. This has led to testing of Hollow Fiber Membrane Bioreactors (HFMBs) for microgravity applications, including possible use for wastewater treatment systems for the International Space Station (ISS). Bioreactors and filtration systems for treating wastewater could avoid the need for harsh pretreatment chemicals and improve overall water recovery. However, the construction of these reactors is difficult and commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) versions do not exist in small sizes. We have used 1-L modular HFMBs in the past, but the need to perform rapid testing has led us to consider even smaller systems. To address this, we designed and built 125-mL, rectangular reactors, which we have called the Fiber Attachment Module Experiment (FAME) system. A polycarbonate rack of four square modules was developed with each module containing removable hollow fibers. Each FAME reactor is self-contained and can be easily plumbed with peristaltic and syringe pumps for continuous recycling of fluids and feeding, as well as fitted with sensors for monitoring pH, dissolved oxygen, and gas measurements similar to their larger counterparts. The first application tested in the FAME racks allowed analysis of over a dozen fiber surface treatments and three inoculation sources to achieve rapid reactor startup and biofilm attachment (based on carbon oxidation and nitrification of wastewater). With these miniature FAME reactors, data for this multi-factorial test were collected in duplicate over a six-month period; this greatly compressed time period required for gathering data needed to study and improve bioreactor performance.

  17. Miniaturization of three carbohydrate analyses using a microsample plate reader.

    PubMed

    Fox, J D; Robyt, J F

    1991-05-15

    Three carbohydrate analyses (reducing value by copper-bicinchoninate, total carbohydrate by phenol-sulfuric acid, and D-glucose by glucose oxidase) have been miniaturized using a microsample plate reader. The use of the reducing-value procedure to measure the hydrolysis of starch by alpha-amylase and the use of the glucose oxidase method to measure the hydrolysis of lactose by lactase are illustrated. PMID:1888021

  18. Fabrication of Miniature Thermoelectric Generators Using Bulk Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joo, Sung-Jae; Ryu, Byungki; Min, Bok-Ki; Lee, Ji-Eun; Kim, Bong-Seo; Park, Su-Dong; Lee, Hee-Woong

    2016-05-01

    Miniature thermoelectric modules (TEMs) are required for micro power generation as well as local cooling, and they should have small size and high performance. However, conventional bulk TEMs generally have in-plane dimensions of a few centimeters, and empty space between the legs for electrical isolation makes efficient miniaturization difficult. In this study, a miniature TEM with footprint of about 0.35 cm2 and leg height of 0.97 mm was fabricated by reducing the dimensions of the legs and attaching them together to form a closely packed assembly, without using microelectromechanical processes. First, Bi0.4Sb1.6Te3 (BST) and Bi2Te2.7Se0.3 (BTS) ingots were made by ball milling and spark plasma sintering, and the ingots were cut into thin plates. These BST and BTS plates were then attached alternately using polyimide tapes, and the attached plates were sliced vertically to produce thin sheets. This process was repeated once again to make chessboard-like assemblies having 20 p-n pairs in an area of 0.35 cm2, and electrical contacts were formed by Ni sputtering and Ag paste coating. Finally, thermally conductive silicone pads (~500 μm) were attached on both sides of the assembly using electrically insulating interface thermal tapes (˜180 μm). The maximum output power (P max) from the miniature module was about 28 μW and 2.0 mW for temperature difference (ΔT) of 5.6°C and 50.5°C, respectively. Reducing the contact resistance was considered to be the key to increase the output power.

  19. Design of a Ku band miniature multiple beam klystron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Ayan Kumar; Pal, Debasish; Saini, Anil; Kant, Deepender; Saha, Sukalyan; Joshi, Lalit Mohan

    2016-03-01

    The design of a miniature multiple beam klystron (MBK) working in the Ku-band frequency range is presented in this article. Starting from the main design parameters, design of the electron gun, the input and output couplers and radio frequency section (RF-section) are presented. The design methodology using state of the art commercial electromagnetic design tools, analytical formulae as well as noncommercial design tools are briefly presented in this article.

  20. Miniature fiber Bragg grating sensor interrogator (FBG-Transceiver) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Edgar A.; Kempen, Cornelia; Lopatin, Craig

    2007-04-01

    This paper describes recent progress conducted towards the development of a miniature fiber Bragg grating sensor interrogator (FBG-Transceiver TM) system based on multi-channel integrated optic sensor (InOSense TM) microchip technology. The hybrid InOSense TM microchip technology enables the integration of all of the functionalities, both passive and active, of conventional bench top FBG sensor interrogator systems, packaged in a miniaturized, low power operation, 2-cm x 5-cm package suitable for the long-term structural health monitoring in applications where size, weight, and power are critical for operation. The FBG-Transceiver system uses active optoelectronic components monolithically integrated to the InOSense TM microchip, a microprocessor controlled signal processing electronics board capable of processing the FBG sensors signals related to stress-strain and temperature as well as vibration and acoustics. The FBG-Transceiver TM system represents a new, reliable, highly robust technology that can be used to accurately monitor the status of an array of distributed fiber optic Bragg grating sensors installed in critical infrastructures. Its miniature package, low power operation, and state-of-the-art data communications architecture, all at a very affordable price makes it a very attractive solution for a large number of SHM/NDI applications in aerospace, naval and maritime industry, civil structures like bridges, buildings and dams, the oil and chemical industry, and for homeland security applications. The miniature, cost-efficient FBG-Transceiver TM system is poised to revolutionize the field of structural health monitoring and nondestructive inspection market. The sponsor of this program is NAVAIR under a DOD SBIR contract.

  1. Fabrication of Miniature Thermoelectric Generators Using Bulk Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joo, Sung-Jae; Ryu, Byungki; Min, Bok-Ki; Lee, Ji-Eun; Kim, Bong-Seo; Park, Su-Dong; Lee, Hee-Woong

    2016-07-01

    Miniature thermoelectric modules (TEMs) are required for micro power generation as well as local cooling, and they should have small size and high performance. However, conventional bulk TEMs generally have in-plane dimensions of a few centimeters, and empty space between the legs for electrical isolation makes efficient miniaturization difficult. In this study, a miniature TEM with footprint of about 0.35 cm2 and leg height of 0.97 mm was fabricated by reducing the dimensions of the legs and attaching them together to form a closely packed assembly, without using microelectromechanical processes. First, Bi0.4Sb1.6Te3 (BST) and Bi2Te2.7Se0.3 (BTS) ingots were made by ball milling and spark plasma sintering, and the ingots were cut into thin plates. These BST and BTS plates were then attached alternately using polyimide tapes, and the attached plates were sliced vertically to produce thin sheets. This process was repeated once again to make chessboard-like assemblies having 20 p- n pairs in an area of 0.35 cm2, and electrical contacts were formed by Ni sputtering and Ag paste coating. Finally, thermally conductive silicone pads (~500 μm) were attached on both sides of the assembly using electrically insulating interface thermal tapes (˜180 μm). The maximum output power ( P max) from the miniature module was about 28 μW and 2.0 mW for temperature difference (Δ T) of 5.6°C and 50.5°C, respectively. Reducing the contact resistance was considered to be the key to increase the output power.

  2. Miniaturized planar chromatography using office peripherals--office chromatography.

    PubMed

    Morlock, Gertrud E

    2015-02-20

    Office chromatography (OC) harnesses the novel combination of miniaturized planar separation science and modern print & media technologies. Interdisciplinary knowledge is the essence: Printing of solutions on powerful miniaturized planar separation materials in combination with image capturing and evaluation tools enables an innovative analytical online system. Site-specific printing as lines or areas on defined sections of the layer comprises important steps like application of samples, feeding of the mobile phase as well as supply of the derivatization reagent. Also printing of bioassays can be combined for effect-directed detections and the homogeneous printing of the ultrathin layer itself, enabling tailor-made gradient-layer or multi-layer plates. OC exploits image-giving miniaturized chromatograms being captured and processed with a flatbed scanner or mini-camera. Thus, miniaturized separation materials are the core of OC. Monolithic, electrospun, nanostructured glancing angle deposition and carbon nanotube-templated microfabricated layers or even pillar arrays or polymer brush coated sub-μm silica particles were demonstrated, showing promising results. Layer thicknesses from 50 μm down to few micrometers were explored. A high-throughput capacity is given through the parallel development of as many as possible tiny-printed samples on the separation material. The migration time was reduced to a few minutes and the calculated analysis time per sample lasted few seconds. Considering a substantially reduced solvent consumption at short run times for parallel analysis of numerous samples at the same time, OC is an appropriate analytical technique for green chemistry. OC facilitates the whole planar separation process to be performed with no other equipment but a combined device of printer and flatbed scanner or mini-camera. At the same time, OC can be expected to become a widespread and economical technique with the user-friendliness of high-end office tools

  3. A Miniature Surgical Drill Using Ultrasonic/Sonic Frequency Vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Li; Mathieson, Andrew; Lucas, Margaret

    A study is presented of a miniature ultrasonic surgical drill designed for bone biopsy, based on an ultrasonic/sonic drill which converts high frequency to low frequency vibrations through a freely vibrating mass between an ultrasonic transducer-horn and a drill bit. For conventional surgical drilling using a rotary drill or an ultrasonic drill, considerable power is required to penetrate into bone and the efficiency is low. However, for ultrasonic/sonic drilling, sufficient acoustic energy is accumulated and then released through each impact to achieve precise drilling with a lower power requirement. The ultrasonic/sonic drill was originally invented for rock drilling in low gravity environments. In this study it is incorporated in a miniature ultrasonic surgical drill and the effective impulse delivered to the bone is used to evaluate the drilling performance. To develop a miniature surgical device based on maximising the effective impulse, optimisation of the ultrasonic horn and free-mass is first demonstrated. The shape and dimensions of the ultrasonic horn and free-mass are determined through FEA, which focuses on maximising the post-collision velocity of the free-mass. Then, the entire dynamic stack constituting the surgical drill device is modelled as a mass-spring-damper system to analyse the dynamic behaviour. The numerical model is validated through experiments, using a prototype drill, which record the velocity of the free-mass and the drilling force. The results of the numerical models and experiments indicate this miniature ultrasonic surgical drill can deliver sufficient impulse to penetrate bone and form the basis of an ultrasonically activated bone biopsy device.

  4. Miniaturized unified imaging system using bio-inspired fluidic lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Frank S.; Cho, Sung Hwan; Qiao, Wen; Kim, Nam-Hyong; Lo, Yu-Hwa

    2008-08-01

    Miniaturized imaging systems have become ubiquitous as they are found in an ever-increasing number of devices, such as cellular phones, personal digital assistants, and web cameras. Until now, the design and fabrication methodology of such systems have not been significantly different from conventional cameras. The only established method to achieve focusing is by varying the lens distance. On the other hand, the variable-shape crystalline lens found in animal eyes offers inspiration for a more natural way of achieving an optical system with high functionality. Learning from the working concepts of the optics in the animal kingdom, we developed bio-inspired fluidic lenses for a miniature universal imager with auto-focusing, macro, and super-macro capabilities. Because of the enormous dynamic range of fluidic lenses, the miniature camera can even function as a microscope. To compensate for the image quality difference between the central vision and peripheral vision and the shape difference between a solid-state image sensor and a curved retina, we adopted a hybrid design consisting of fluidic lenses for tunability and fixed lenses for aberration and color dispersion correction. A design of the world's smallest surgical camera with 3X optical zoom capabilities is also demonstrated using the approach of hybrid lenses.

  5. Miniature scientific-grade magnetic sensors for CubeSats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pronenko, Vira; Belyayev, Serhiy

    2016-07-01

    Micro- and nanosatellites have become more attractive due to their low development and launch cost. A class of nanosatellites defined by the CubeSat standard allows standardizing CubeSat preparation and launch, thus making the projects more affordable. Because of the complexity of sensors miniaturization to install them onboard CubeSat, the majority of CubeSat launches are aimed the technology demonstration or education missions. The scientific success of CubeSat mission depends on the sensors quality. In spite that the sensitivity of the magnetic sensors strongly depends on their size, the recent development in this branch allows us to propose tiny but sensitive both AC and DC magnetometers. The goal of the present report is to introduce the new design of miniature three-component sensors for measurement of vector magnetic fields - for quasi-stationary and slowly fluctuating - flux-gate magnetometer (FGM) - and for alternative ones - search-coil magnetometer (SCM). In order to create magnetometers with the really highest possible level of parameters, a set of scientific and technological problems, mostly aimed at the sensor construction improvement, was solved. The most important parameter characterizing magnetometer quality is its own magnetic noise level (NL). The analysis of the NL influencing factors is made and the ways to decrease it are discussed in the report. Construction details and technical specifications of miniature but sensitive FGM and SCM for the CubeSat mission are presented. This work is supported by EC Framework 7 funded project 607197.

  6. Flight experience with lightweight, low-power miniaturized instrumentation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamory, Philip J.; Murray, James E.

    1993-01-01

    Engineers at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility (NASA-Dryden) have conducted two flight research programs with lightweight, low-power miniaturized instrumentation systems built around commercial data loggers. One program quantified the performance of a radio-controlled model airplane. The other program was a laminar boundary-layer transition experiment on a manned sailplane. NASA-Dryden personnel's flight experience with the miniaturized instrumentation systems used on these two programs is reported. The data loggers, the sensors, and the hardware and software developed to complete the systems are described. How the systems were used is described and the challenges encountered to make them work are covered. Examples of raw data and derived results are shown as well. Finally, future plans for these systems are discussed. For some flight research applications where miniaturized instrumentation is a requirement, the authors conclude that commercially available data loggers and sensors are viable alternatives. In fact, the data loggers and sensors make it possible to gather research-quality data in a timely and cost-effective manner.

  7. Development of Thermoelectric Fibers for Miniature Thermoelectric Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Fei; Menchhofer, Paul; Kiggans, James; Wang, Hsin

    2016-03-01

    Miniature thermoelectric (TE) devices may be used in a variety of applications such as power sources of small sensors, temperature regulation of precision electronics, etc. Reducing the size of TE elements may also enable design of novel devices with unique form factor and higher device efficiency. Current industrial practice of fabricating TE devices usually involves mechanical removal processes that not only lead to material loss but also limit the geometry of the TE elements. In this project, we explored a powder-processing method for the fabrication of TE fibers with large length-to-area ratio, which could be potentially used for miniature TE devices. Powders were milled from Bi2Te3-based bulk materials and then mixed with a thermoplastic resin dissolved in an organic solvent. Through an extrusion process, flexible, continuous fibers with sub-millimeter diameters were formed. The polymer phase was then removed by sintering. Sintered fibers exhibited similar Seebeck coefficients to the bulk materials. However, their electrical resistivity was much higher, which might be related to the residual porosity and grain boundary contamination. Prototype miniature uni-couples fabricated from these fibers showed a linear I- V behavior and could generate millivolt voltages and output power in the nano-watt range. Further development of these TE fibers requires improvement in their electrical conductivities, which needs a better understanding of the causes that lead to the low conductivity in the sintered fibers.

  8. Miniature osmotic actuators for controlled maxillofacial distraction osteogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yu-Hsien; Su, Yu-Chuan

    2010-06-01

    We have successfully demonstrated miniature actuators that are capable of converting chemical potential directly into steady mechanical movements for maxillofacial distraction osteogenesis. Pistons and diaphragms powered by osmosis are employed to provide the desired linear and volumetric displacements for bone distraction and potentially the release of bone morphogenetic proteins, respectively. The cylindrical-shaped miniature actuators are composed of polymeric materials and fabricated by molding and assembly processes. In the prototype demonstration, vapor-permeable thermoplastic polyurethane was employed as the semi-permeable material. 3 cm long actuators with piston and diaphragm radii of 1 mm and 500 µm, respectively, were fabricated and characterized. The maximum distraction force from the piston-type actuator is found to be 6 N while the piston travels at a constant velocity of 32 µm h-1 (or 0.77 mm/day) for about 1 week. Meanwhile, the release rate from the diaphragm-type actuator is measured to be constant, 0.15 µl h-1 (or 3.6 µl/day), throughout the experiment. Moreover, the sizes and output characteristics of the self-regulating actuators could readily be tailored to realize optimal distraction rate, rhythm and osteogenic activity. As such, the demonstrated miniature osmotic actuators could potentially serve as versatile apparatuses for maxillofacial distraction osteogenesis and fulfill the needs of a variety of implantable and biomedical applications.

  9. Development of thermoelectric fibers for miniature thermoelectric devices

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ren, Fei; Menchhofer, Paul A.; Kiggans, Jr., James O.; Wang, Hsin

    2016-09-23

    Miniature thermoelectric (TE) devices may be used in a variety of applications such as power sources of small sensors, temperature regulation of precision electronics, etc. Reducing the size of TE elements may also enable design of novel devices with unique form factor and higher device efficiency. Current industrial practice of fabricating TE devices usually involves mechanical removal processes that not only lead to material loss but also limit the geometry of the TE elements. In this project, we explored a powder-processing method for the fabrication of TE fibers with large length-to-area ratio, which could be potentially used for miniature TEmore » devices. Powders were milled from Bi2Te3-based bulk materials and then mixed with a thermoplastic resin dissolved in an organic solvent. Through an extrusion process, flexible, continuous fibers with sub-millimeter diameters were formed. The polymer phase was then removed by sintering. Sintered fibers exhibited similar Seebeck coefficients to the bulk materials. Moreover, their electrical resistivity was much higher, which might be related to the residual porosity and grain boundary contamination. Prototype miniature uni-couples fabricated from these fibers showed a linear I-V behavior and could generate millivolt voltages and output power in the nano-watt range. Further development of these TE fibers requires improvement in their electrical conductivities, which needs a better understanding of the causes that lead to the low conductivity in the sintered fibers.« less

  10. Novel approaches to the construction of miniaturized analytical instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, Marc D.; Otoole, Ronald P.; Coldiron, Shelley J.; Deninger, William D.; Deinhammer, Randall S.; Burns, Stanley G.; Bastiaans, Glenn J.; Braymen, Steve D.; Shanks, Howard R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper focuses on the design, construction, preliminary testing, and potential applications of three forms of miniaturized analytical instrumentation. The first is an optical fiber instrument for monitoring pH and other cations in aqueous solutions. The instrument couples chemically selective indicators that were immobilized at porous polymeric films with a hardware package that provides the excitation light source, required optical components, and detection and data processing hardware. The second is a new form of a piezoelectric mass sensor. The sensor was fabricated by the deposition of a thin (5.5 micron) film of piezoelectric aluminum nitride (AIN). The completed deposition process yields a thin film resonator (TFR) that is shaped as a 400 micron square and supports a standing bulk acoustic wave in a longitudinal mode at frequencies of approx. 1 GHz. Various deposition and vapor sorption studies indicate that the mass sensitivity of the TFR's rival those of the most sensitive mass sensors currently available, though offering such performance in a markedly smaller device. The third couples a novel form of liquid chromatography with microlithographic miniaturization techniques. The status of the miniaturization effort, the goal of which is to achieve chip-scale separations, is briefly discussed.

  11. Development of Miniaturized Optimized Smart Sensors (MOSS) for space plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, D. T.

    1993-01-01

    The cost of space plasma sensors is high for several reasons: (1) Most are one-of-a-kind and state-of-the-art, (2) the cost of launch to orbit is high, (3) ruggedness and reliability requirements lead to costly development and test programs, and (4) overhead is added by overly elaborate or generalized spacecraft interface requirements. Possible approaches to reducing costs include development of small 'sensors' (defined as including all necessary optics, detectors, and related electronics) that will ultimately lead to cheaper missions by reducing (2), improving (3), and, through work with spacecraft designers, reducing (4). Despite this logical approach, there is no guarantee that smaller sensors are necessarily either better or cheaper. We have previously advocated applying analytical 'quality factors' to plasma sensors (and spacecraft) and have begun to develop miniaturized particle optical systems by applying quantitative optimization criteria. We are currently designing a Miniaturized Optimized Smart Sensor (MOSS) in which miniaturized electronics (e.g., employing new power supply topology and extensive us of gate arrays and hybrid circuits) are fully integrated with newly developed particle optics to give significant savings in volume and mass. The goal of the SwRI MOSS program is development of a fully self-contained and functional plasma sensor weighing 1 lb and requiring 1 W. MOSS will require only a typical spacecraft DC power source (e.g., 30 V) and command/data interfaces in order to be fully functional, and will provide measurement capabilities comparable in most ways to current sensors.

  12. Autonomous stair-climbing with miniature jumping robots.

    PubMed

    Stoeter, Sascha A; Papanikolopoulos, Nikolaos

    2005-04-01

    The problem of vision-guided control of miniature mobile robots is investigated. Untethered mobile robots with small physical dimensions of around 10 cm or less do not permit powerful onboard computers because of size and power constraints. These challenges have, in the past, reduced the functionality of such devices to that of a complex remote control vehicle with fancy sensors. With the help of a computationally more powerful entity such as a larger companion robot, the control loop can be closed. Using the miniature robot's video transmission or that of an observer to localize it in the world, control commands can be computed and relayed to the inept robot. The result is a system that exhibits autonomous capabilities. The framework presented here solves the problem of climbing stairs with the miniature Scout robot. The robot's unique locomotion mode, the jump, is employed to hop one step at a time. Methods for externally tracking the Scout are developed. A large number of real-world experiments are conducted and the results discussed. PMID:15828659

  13. Identification of Novel Porcine Endogenous Betaretrovirus Sequences in Miniature Swine

    PubMed Central

    Ericsson, Thomas; Oldmixon, Beth; Blomberg, Jonas; Rosa, Margaret; Patience, Clive; Andersson, Göran

    2001-01-01

    PCR amplification of genomic DNA from miniature swine peripheral blood lymphocytes, using primers corresponding to highly conserved regions of the polymerase (pol) gene, allowed the identification of two novel porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV) sequences, PMSN-1 and PMSN-4. Phylogenetic analyses of the nucleotide sequences of PMSN-1 and PMSN-4 revealed them to be most closely related to betaretroviruses. The identification of PERVs belonging to the Betaretrovirus genus shows that endogenous retroviruses of this family are more broadly represented in mammalian species than previously appreciated. Both sequences contained inactivating mutations, implying that these particular loci are defective. However, Southern blot analysis showed additional copies of closely related proviruses in the miniature swine genome. Analyses of fetal and adult miniature swine tissues revealed a broad mRNA expression pattern of both PMSN-1 and PMSN-4. The most abundant expression was detected in whole bone marrow c-kit+ (CD117+) progenitor bone marrow cells, fetal liver, salivary gland, and thymus. It appears unlikely that functional loci encoding these novel PERV sequences exist, but this remains to be established. The betaretrovirus sequences described in this report will allow such investigations to be actively pursued. PMID:11222699

  14. Miniaturization of Components and Systems for Space Using Mems -Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grönland, T.-A.; Staubo, P.; Seeberg, B.-E.; Rangsten, P.

    2008-08-01

    Development of MEMS-based (Micro Electro Mechanical System) components and subsystems for space applications has been pursued by various research groups and organizations around the world for at least a decade. The main driver for developing MEMS-based components for space is the achievable miniaturization. MEMS technology can not only save orders of magnitude in mass and volume of individual components, it can also allow increased redundancy, and enable novel spacecraft designs and mission scenarios. This paper presents a number of miniaturized components, their development status and their planned maiden spaceflight onboard the PRISMA satellite. One of the two PRISMA satellites will have a cold gas propulsion system onboard including a number of miniaturized MEMS-based components. NanoSpace has developed and manufactured several of the critical components using MEMS technology, i.e. the isolation valve, the pressure relief valve, the thrust chamber/nozzle assemblies, the proportional valves, and the filters. Presens has developed the MEMS-based pressure sensor technology.

  15. Microbial quality survey of sunscreen products in Iranian market

    PubMed Central

    Haftbaradaran, Behnoosh; Abedi, Daryoush; Jalali, Mohammad; Bagherinejad, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Microbial contamination of cosmetic products is very crucial because of their daily use and direct contact with the skin. These products are at high risk for microbial contamination from various sources such as environment, consumer's hands, body sweat and during the time of manufacturing. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the microbial quality of sunscreens products, manufactured in or imported to or formulated in local pharmacies in Iran. Materials and Methods: The microbial quality were determined in three different levels; the intact product (at the time of purchase) and after three and after six months of opening it. Total Aerobic Viable Count (TAVC) and the presence of coliforms, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, molds, and yeasts were studied. Results: At the time of purchase, 40, 73.3 and 43.3 percentage of Iranian made, imported and pharmacy formulated sunscreens were contaminated with at least one of the objectionable microorganisms, respectively. After three months of opening it, 36.6, 70 and 46.6 percentage of Iranian made, imported and pharmacy formulated sunscreens were contaminated with at least one of the objectionable microorganisms, respectively. The percentages of contaminated samples were 36.6, 70 and 50 after six months of opening for Iranian made, imported and pharmacy formulated sunscreens, respectively. Conclusion: Microbial contamination of these sunscreens products is a potential health risk for consumers. It seems that it is necessary to inspect and monitor the products during the manufacturing and shelf life period. It is highly recommended to control and regulate cosmetic products by health organizations to ensure the quality and safety of this kind of products. PMID:25250294

  16. Inconsistent Condom Use among Iranian Male Drug Injectors

    PubMed Central

    Assari, Shervin; Yarmohmmadi Vasel, Mosaieb; Tavakoli, Mahmood; Sehat, Mahmoud; Jafari, Firoozeh; Narenjiha, Hooman; Rafiey, Hassan; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated factors of inconsistent condom use among Iranian male injecting drug users (IDUs). Materials and Methods: Data came from the national Iranian behavioral survey of drug dependence, which sampled 7743 individuals with drug dependence, from medical centers, prisons, and streets in 29 provinces in Iran, in 2007. This study included all individuals who were male, IDUs, and were sexually active (n = 1131). The main outcome was inconsistent condom use which was assessed using a single item. A logistic regression was used to determine the association between socio-economic data, drug use data, and high risk injection behaviors with inconsistent condom use. Result: 83.3% of sexually active IDUs (n = 965) reported inconsistent condom use. Based on the logistic regression, likelihood of inconsistent condom use was higher among those with a history of syringe sharing [Odds Ratio (OR); 1.63, 95% Confidence Interval (CI); 1.13–2.34], but lower among those with higher education levels (OR; 0.34, 95% CI; 0.14–0.82), those who mostly inject at home (OR; 0.09, 95% CI; 0.02–0.47), and those with a history of treatment (OR; 0.54, 95% CI; 0.31–0.94). Conclusion: Because of the link between unsafe sex and risky injecting behaviors among Iranian IDUs, combined programs targeting both sexual and injection behavior may be more appropriate than programs that target sexual or injection behavior. The efficacy of combined programs should be, however, compared with traditional programs that only target sexual or injection behavior of IDUs. PMID:24772093

  17. ML shear wave velocity tomography for the Iranian Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheri-Peyrov, Mehdi; Ghods, Abdolreza; Abbasi, Madjid; Bergman, Eric; Sobouti, Farhad

    2016-04-01

    Iranian Plateau reflects several different tectonic styles of collision, and large-scale strike-slip faults. We calculate a high-resolution 2-D ML shear velocity map for the Iranian Plateau to detect lateral crustal thickness changes associated with different tectonic boundaries. The ML velocity is very sensitive to strong lateral variations of crustal thickness and varies between the velocity of Lg and Sn phases. Our data set consists of 65 795 ML amplitude velocity measurements from 2531 precisely relocated events recorded by Iranian networks in the period 1996-2014. Using a constrained least-squares inversion scheme, we inverted the ML velocities for a 2-D shear velocity map of Iran. Our results show that the Zagros and South Caspian Basin (SCB) have shear wave velocities close to the Sn phase, and are thus Lg-blocking regions. High velocities in the High Zagros and the Simply Folded Belt imply significant crustal undulations within these zones. We note that in the central and south Zagros, the velocity border between the Zagros and central Iran is not coincident with the Zagros suture line that marks underthrusting of the Arabian plate beneath central Iran. The low plains of Gilan and Gorgan to the south of the Caspian Sea show high shear velocities similar to the SCB, implying that they are either underlain by an oceanic type crust or a transitional crust with a strong lateral crustal thickness gradient. The Lut block is an Lg-passing block implying that it is not surrounded by any sudden crustal thickness changes along its borders with central Iran. In the Alborz, NW Iran, Kopeh-Dagh, Binalud and most of the central Iran, low shear velocity near the Lg velocity is attributed to smooth or minor Moho undulations within these regions.

  18. Molecular characterization of Iranian patients with possible familial hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Farrokhi, E; Shayesteh, F; Asadi Mobarakeh, S; Roghani Dehkordi, F; Ghatreh Samani, K; Hashemzadeh Chaleshtori, M

    2011-07-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant disorder of lipoprotein metabolism caused mainly by mutations in the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and apolipoprotein B 100 (APOB) genes. Until now, the molecular basis of FH has been demonstrated in detail in many populations, but there is still very limited Molecular data concerning FH in Iran. The aim of this study was to characterize the LDLR and APOB gene mutations in an Iranian population. A total of 30 non-related Iranian possible FH subjects were studied. Diagnosis of FH was based on the Dutch Lipid Clinic Network diagnostic criteria. All samples were initially tested for three common APOB gene mutations including R3500Q, R3500 W and R3531C using PCR-RFLP assay. Subsequently, promoter and coding region of the LDLR gene was screened by PCR-SSCP analysis and positive results were confirmed by DNA sequencing. Four previously reported polymorphisms 1413G > A, 1725C > T, 1773T > C and 2140 + 5G > A were found in ~17% (5/30) of population studied. Moreover, no variation was found in APOB gene. Our data indicated that LDLR and APOB gene mutations have not contribution to possible FH in Iranian population studied here. However, we examined three common APOB mutations and LDLR in only 30 patients, and to determine the role of these genes in developing FH in Iran, more FH samples and populations needed to be investigated for the mutations of the related genes. PMID:22754187

  19. Herbal Medicines for Leucorrhea According to Iranian Traditional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Dehdari, Sahar; Hajimehdipoor, Homa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Leucorrhea or vaginal discharge is a conventional complaint. It is generally whitish, yellowish, or greenish vaginal discharge in females that might be normal or a symptom of infection. It is almost mucus discharge, which exhibit exfoliation of vaginal epithelial cells due to estrogen influence on the vaginal mucosa. It is important to identify the differences between physiologic and pathologic discharges. Leucorrhea is a well-known disease in Iranian traditional medicine (ITM). In their manuscripts, the word “Sayalan-e rahem” was used by Avicenna and some other Iranian traditional practitioners to describe this condition. Ancient practitioners believed that excessive residue (kesrate fozool) and weakness of digestion (Za’afe hazm) were the main causes of leucorrhea, for which herbal therapy was the main proposed treatment. In the present study, medicinal plants used in ITM for leucorrhea are introduced. Methods: In this research, six Iranian traditional textbooks including Canon of Medicine (Avicena 980-1037 AD), A-Hawi (Razes 865-925 AD), Tuhfat ul-Momineen (Mo’men tonekaboni, 17th century), Makhzan-ul-Adwiah (Aghili 18th century), Ikhtiarat Badi’i (Ansari 1329-1404 AD), and al-jāmi li-mufradāt al-adwiyawa al-aghdhiy (Ibn al-Baitar 1197 AD) were studied and searched for anti-leucorrhea medicines. Then the herbal medicines were selected and scored depending on their frequency in the above-mentioned textbooks. Additional attention was paid to provide the most suitable scientific name for each plant. Results: This study introduced many Materia Medica with anti-leucorrhea activity and among them seven herbs including Rubus fruticosus L., Rhus coriaria L., Phoenix dactylifera L., Pimpinella anisum L., Rumex acetosa L., Olea europaea L. and Quercus lusitanica Lam. showed the most repetition in ITM prescriptions. Conclusion: These herbs can be introduced as new anti-leucorrhea herbal medicines for clinical research. PMID:27516669

  20. Infrared microsensor payload for miniature unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostrzewa, Joseph; Meyer, William H.; Laband, Stan; Terre, William A.; Petrovich, Peter; Swanson, Kyle; Sundra, Carrie; Sener, Ward; Wilmott, Jay

    2003-09-01

    Miniature unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are a category of aircraft small enough to be transported, launched, operated, and retrieved by a crew of one or two. The concept is not new, having been in limited use by the U.S. military over the past fifteen years, but interest in potential applications is growing as size and cost of the vehicles come down. An application that is particularly significant to the military and law-enforcement agencies is remote reconnaissance, with one or more onboard sensors transmitting data back to the operator(s) in real time. Typically, a miniature UAV is capable of flying a pre-programmed route autonomously, with manual override as an option. At the conclusion of the mission, the vehicle returns for landing, after which it can be quickly disassembled and stowed until its next use. Thermal imaging extends the utility of miniature UAVs to operations in complete darkness and limited visibility, but historically thermal imagers have been too large and heavy for this application. That changed in 1999 with the introduction of Indigo System's AlphaTM camera, which established a new class of thermal imaging product termed the infrared "microsensor". Substantially smaller and lighter than any other infrared imaging product available at the time, AlphaTMwas the first camera that could be readily packaged into the nose of a miniature UAV. Its low power consumption was also a key enabling feature. Building upon the success of AlphaTM, Indigo then took the microsensor class a step further with its OmegaTM camera, which broke all the records established by AlphaTM for small size, weight, and power. OmegaTM has been successfully integrated into several miniature UAVs, including AeroVironment's Pointer and Raven, as well as the Snake Eye UAV manufactured by BAI Aerosystems. Aspects of the OmegaTM design that have led to its utility on these and other platforms are described, and future prospects for even smaller microsensors are discussed.