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Sample records for iranian preeclamptic patients

  1. Hypocalcemia and hyperkalemia during magnesium infusion therapy in a pre-eclamptic patient

    PubMed Central

    Hudali, Tamer; Takkar, Chandandeep

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message We present a case of prominent hypocalcemia and hyperkalemia attributed to magnesium infusion in a preeclamptic patient. Iatrogenic hypermagnesemia is an underrecognized cause of hypocalcemia and hyperkalemia. Our report illustrates the effects of magnesium therapy on serum calcium and potassium, necessitating close electrolytes monitoring when used. PMID:26509017

  2. Estrogen Receptor Alpha (ESR1) Gene Polymorphisms in Pre-eclamptic Saudi Patients

    PubMed Central

    El-Beshbishy, Hesham A.; Tawfeek, Manal A.; Al-Azhary, Nevin M.; Mariah, Reham A.; Habib, Fawzia A.; Aljayar, Lamya; Alahmadi, Abrar F.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Pre-eclampsia causes maternal mortality worldwide. Estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) gene polymorphisms were responsible for cardiovascular diseases. This case control study was conducted to investigate whether 2 polymorphic genes of ESR1 are associated with pre-eclampsia among Saudi women in Madina city, Saudi Arabia. Methods: Blood samples from 97 pre-eclamptic and 94 healthy pregnant women were analyzed using restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction method. All the subjects were recruited randomly from outpatient clinics of Madina Maternity Children Hospital (MMCH), Madina, Saudi Arabia, between Dec. 2012 and Jan. 2014. Results: There was no association between pre-eclampsia and PvuII and XbaI ESR1 gene polymorphisms individually. TT/AA and TT/AG genotype combination existed significantly in pre-eclamptic patients compared to control. The frequency of PvuII and XbaI combined TT/AA genotypes between pre-eclamptic women was 36.1% vs 9.6%, however, frequency of PvuII and XbaI combined TT/AG genotypes between pre-eclamptic women was 3.1% vs 17%, compared to control. The homozygous T-A haplotype carriers showed high pre-eclampsia risk, independent of pregnancy, BMI and smoking status (adjusted odds ratio (OR): 3.26, 95% confidence interval (CI):1.71-9.21). The heterozygous T-A haplotype carriers did not differ from that of non-carriers (adjusted OR: 1.12, 95% CI: 0.47-2.75). No association was observed between pre-eclampsia and T-G, C-G and C-A haplotype of PvuII and XbaIESR1 gene polymorphisms. Conclusions: T-A haplotype of homozygous associated with pre eclampsia not heterozygous carriers of ESR 1 PvuII and XbaI gene polymorphisms elicited high risk of pre-eclampsia. GG genotype of XbaI polymorphism decreased pre-eclampsia risk. Further studies using larger sample size are recommended to investigate the ESR 1 gene polymorphisms associated with pre-eclampsia. PMID:26430422

  3. Inhibitory Effect of the Punica granatum Fruit Extract on Angiotensin-II Type I Receptor and Thromboxane B2 in Endothelial Cells Induced by Plasma from Preeclamptic Patients.

    PubMed

    Kusumawati, Widya; Keman, Kusnarman; Soeharto, Setyawati

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate whether the Punica granatum fruit extract modulates the Angiotensin-II Type I receptor (AT1-R) and thromboxane B2 level in endothelial cells induced by plasma from preeclamptic patients. Endothelial cells were obtained from human umbilical vascular endothelial cells. At confluence, endothelial cells were divided into five groups, which included endothelial cells exposed to 2% plasma from normal pregnancy (NP), endothelial cells exposed to 2% plasma from preeclamptic patients (PP), and endothelial cells exposed to PP in the presence of ethanolic extract of Punica granatum (PP + PG) at the following three doses: 14; 28; and 56 ppm. The expression of AT1-R was observed by immunohistochemistry technique, and thromboxane B2 level was done by immunoassay technique. Plasma from PP significantly increased AT1-R expression and thromboxane B2 levels compared to cells treated by normal pregnancy plasma. The increasing of AT1-R expression significantly (P < 0.05) attenuated by high dose treatments of Punica granatum extract. Moreover, the increasing of thromboxane B2 levels significantly (P < 0.05) attenuated by lowest dose treatments of Punica granatum extract. We further concluded that Punica granatum fruit protects and inhibits the sensitivity of endothelial cells to plasma from preeclamptic patients due to inhibition of AT1-R expression (56 ppm) and reduced thromboxane B2 levels (14 ppm). PMID:26989513

  4. Inhibitory Effect of the Punica granatum Fruit Extract on Angiotensin-II Type I Receptor and Thromboxane B2 in Endothelial Cells Induced by Plasma from Preeclamptic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kusumawati, Widya; Keman, Kusnarman; Soeharto, Setyawati

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate whether the Punica granatum fruit extract modulates the Angiotensin-II Type I receptor (AT1-R) and thromboxane B2 level in endothelial cells induced by plasma from preeclamptic patients. Endothelial cells were obtained from human umbilical vascular endothelial cells. At confluence, endothelial cells were divided into five groups, which included endothelial cells exposed to 2% plasma from normal pregnancy (NP), endothelial cells exposed to 2% plasma from preeclamptic patients (PP), and endothelial cells exposed to PP in the presence of ethanolic extract of Punica granatum (PP + PG) at the following three doses: 14; 28; and 56 ppm. The expression of AT1-R was observed by immunohistochemistry technique, and thromboxane B2 level was done by immunoassay technique. Plasma from PP significantly increased AT1-R expression and thromboxane B2 levels compared to cells treated by normal pregnancy plasma. The increasing of AT1-R expression significantly (P < 0.05) attenuated by high dose treatments of Punica granatum extract. Moreover, the increasing of thromboxane B2 levels significantly (P < 0.05) attenuated by lowest dose treatments of Punica granatum extract. We further concluded that Punica granatum fruit protects and inhibits the sensitivity of endothelial cells to plasma from preeclamptic patients due to inhibition of AT1-R expression (56 ppm) and reduced thromboxane B2 levels (14 ppm). PMID:26989513

  5. Corin mutations K317E and S472G from preeclamptic patients alter zymogen activation and cell surface targeting. [Corrected].

    PubMed

    Dong, Ningzheng; Zhou, Tiantian; Zhang, Yue; Liu, Meng; Li, Hui; Huang, Xiaoyi; Liu, Zhenzhen; Wu, Yi; Fukuda, Koichi; Qin, Jun; Wu, Qingyu

    2014-06-20

    Corin is a membrane-bound serine protease that acts as the atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) convertase in the heart. Recent studies show that corin also activates ANP in the pregnant uterus to promote spiral artery remodeling and prevent pregnancy-induced hypertension. Two CORIN gene mutations, K317E and S472G, were identified in preeclamptic patients and shown to have reduced activity in vitro. In this study, we carried out molecular modeling and biochemical experiments to understand how these mutations impair corin function. By molecular modeling, the mutation K317E was predicted to alter corin LDL receptor-2 module conformation. Western blot analysis of K317E mutant in HEK293 cells showed that the mutation did not block corin expression on the cell surface but inhibited corin zymogen activation. In contrast, the mutation S472G was predicted to abolish a β-sheet critical for corin frizzled-2 module structure. In Western blot analysis and flow cytometry, S472G mutant was not detected on the cell surface in transfected HEK293 cells. By immunostaining, the S472G mutant was found in the ER, indicating that the mutation S472G disrupted the β-sheet, causing corin misfolding and ER retention. Thus, these results show that mutations in the CORIN gene may impair corin function by entirely different mechanisms. Together, our data provide important insights into the molecular basis underlying corin mutations that may contribute to preeclampsia in patients. PMID:24828501

  6. Theobroma cacao increases cells viability and reduces IL-6 and sVCAM-1 level in endothelial cells induced by plasma from preeclamptic patients.

    PubMed

    Rahayu, Budi; Baktiyani, Siti Candra Windu; Nurdiana, Nurdiana

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate whether an ethanolic extract of Theobroma cacao bean is able to increase cell viability and decrease IL-6 and sVCAM-1 in endothelial cells induced by plasma from preeclamptic patients. Endothelial cells were obtained from human umbilical vascular endothelial cells. At confluency, endothelial cells were divided into six groups, which included control (untreated), endothelial cells exposed to plasma from normal pregnancy, endothelial cells exposed to 2% plasma from preeclamptic patients (PP), endothelial cells exposed to PP in the presence of ethanolic extract of T. cacao (PP+TC) at the following three doses: 25, 50, and 100 ppm. The analysis was performed in silico using the Hex 8.0, LigPlus and LigandScout 3.1 software. Analysis on IL-6 and sVCAM-1 levels were done by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We found that seven of them could bind to the protein NFκB (catechin, leucoanthocyanidin, niacin, phenylethylamine, theobromine, theophylline, and thiamin). This increase in IL-6 was significantly (P<0.05) attenuated by both the 50 and 100 ppm treatments of T. cacao extract. Plasma from PP significantly increased sVCAM-1 levels compared to untreated cells. This increase in sVCAM-1 was significantly attenuated by all doses of the extract. In conclusion, T. cacao extract prohibits the increase in IL-6 and sVCAM-1 in endothelial cells induced by plasma from preeclamptic patients. Therefore this may provide a herbal therapy for attenuating the endothelial dysfunction found in preeclampsia. PMID:26955771

  7. Iranian Nurses’ Perception of Patient Safety Culture

    PubMed Central

    Bahrami, Mohammad Amin; Chalak, Mahjabin; Montazeralfaraj, Razieh; Dehghani Tafti, Arefeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: In recent decades, patient safety has become a high priority health system issue, due to the high potential of occurring adverse events in health facilities. Objectives: This study was aimed to survey patient safety culture in 2 Iranian educational hospitals. Materials and Methods: In a descriptive, cross-sectional survey, a hospital survey on patient safety culture, was used in two teaching hospitals in Yazd, Iran during 2012. Study population was comprised of the same hospitals' nurses. Stratified-random sampling method was used and distributed among a total of 340 randomly-selected nurses from different units. From all distributed questionnaires, 302 ones were answered completely and afterwards analyzed using SPSS 17. Dimensional- and item-level positive scores were used for results reporting. Additionally descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation), independent sample t-test and ANOVA were sued for data analyzing. Results: Research findings demonstrated that both hospitals had low to average scores in all dimensions of patient safety culture. Non-punitive response to error, staffing and frequency of events reported had the lowest positive scores of patient safety dimensions with scores 15.26, 19.26, 16.65, 30 and 32.87, 31.10 respectively in Shahid Sadoughi and Shahid Rahnemoon Hospitals. Also only 29.20 and 28.80 percent of nurses in Shahid Sadoughi and Shahid Rahnemoon Hospitals, respectively, evaluated the patient safety grade of their hospital as “excellent” and “very good”. Indeed, the studied hospitals had a statistical difference in 3 dimensions of patient safety culture (frequency of events reported, organizational learning and staffing). (P ≤ 0.05) Conclusions: Our study results were indicating of the challenge of weak patient safety culture, in educational hospitals. Therefore, the issue should be integrated to all policy makers and managerial initiatives in our health system, as a top priority. PMID:24910783

  8. Adherence to Antihypertensive Medications in Iranian Patients

    PubMed Central

    Behnood-Rod, Azin; Rabbanifar, Omid; Pourzargar, Pirouz; Rai, Alireza; Saadat, Zahra; Saadat, Habibollah; Moharamzad, Yashar; Morisky, Donald E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Appropriate adherence to medication is still a challenging issue for hypertensive patients. We determined adherence to antihypertensive(s) and its associated factors among 280 Iranian patients. Methods. They were recruited consecutively from private and university health centers and pharmacies in four cities. The validated Persian version of the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8) was administered to measure adherence. Results. Mean (±SD) overall MMAS-8 score was 5.75 (±1.88). About half of the sample (139 cases, 49.6%) showed low adherence (MMAS-8 score < 6). There was a negative linear association between the MMAS-8 score and systolic BP (r = −0.231, P < 0.001) as well as diastolic BP (r = −0.280, P < 0.001). In linear regression model, overweight/obesity (B = −0.52, P = 0.02), previous history of admission to emergency services due to hypertensive crisis (B = −0.79, P = 0.001), and getting medication directly from drugstore without refill prescription in hand (B = −0.51, P = 0.04) were factors recognized to have statistically significant association with the MMAS-8 score. Conclusion. Antihypertensive adherence was unsatisfactory. We suggest that health care providers pay special attention and make use of the aforementioned findings in their routine visits of hypertensive patients to recognize those who are vulnerable to poor adherence. PMID:27069676

  9. Adherence to Antihypertensive Medications in Iranian Patients.

    PubMed

    Behnood-Rod, Azin; Rabbanifar, Omid; Pourzargar, Pirouz; Rai, Alireza; Saadat, Zahra; Saadat, Habibollah; Moharamzad, Yashar; Morisky, Donald E

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Appropriate adherence to medication is still a challenging issue for hypertensive patients. We determined adherence to antihypertensive(s) and its associated factors among 280 Iranian patients. Methods. They were recruited consecutively from private and university health centers and pharmacies in four cities. The validated Persian version of the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8) was administered to measure adherence. Results. Mean (±SD) overall MMAS-8 score was 5.75 (±1.88). About half of the sample (139 cases, 49.6%) showed low adherence (MMAS-8 score < 6). There was a negative linear association between the MMAS-8 score and systolic BP (r = -0.231, P < 0.001) as well as diastolic BP (r = -0.280, P < 0.001). In linear regression model, overweight/obesity (B = -0.52, P = 0.02), previous history of admission to emergency services due to hypertensive crisis (B = -0.79, P = 0.001), and getting medication directly from drugstore without refill prescription in hand (B = -0.51, P = 0.04) were factors recognized to have statistically significant association with the MMAS-8 score. Conclusion. Antihypertensive adherence was unsatisfactory. We suggest that health care providers pay special attention and make use of the aforementioned findings in their routine visits of hypertensive patients to recognize those who are vulnerable to poor adherence. PMID:27069676

  10. Lifestyle in Iranian Patients with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Khalili, Robabeh; Janbabai, Ghasem; Nikkhah, Attieh

    2015-01-01

    Background One of the most commonly diagnosed cancers is breast cancer that leads to mortality and morbidity among Iranian women. Behavioural risk factors, such as common lifestyle patterns are often associated with risk of breast cancer incidence. Aim This study aimed to investigate lifestyle of breast cancer patients admitted to Cancer Research Center of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted using convenient sampling method. Sample size consisted of 150 cancer patients, and data collection tool included a researcher-made questionnaire on dimensions of lifestyle containing four dimensions of self-care, exercise and physical activity, diet and coping with stress. Maximum score in different dimensions, based on 100% of marks earned, was evaluated in three categories of undesirable, relatively desirable and desirable. Data were analysed with SPSS-19 software using descriptive statistics (relative and absolute frequencies, mean and standard deviation). Results In total of 150 women, the mean age of patients was 51.9 ± 1.04 (27-78). The majority of participants were married, housewives, with high school education. Among the four parts of healthy lifestyle, desirable level of physical activity and exercise had the least participants, and in the dimensions of physical activity and exercise, the lowest level related to walking, followed by daily exercise. Most of the participants had undesirable level of self-care and lowest frequency related to mammography after 40-year-old, followed by annual check-up and Pap-smear. With regard to nutrition, most of them were at desirable level. Conclusion The results indicated undesirable levels in two lifestyle dimensions (self-care and physical activity and exercise) in the majority of participants for a year before contracting breast cancer. Primary prevention programs should be implemented with a comprehensive approach, thus, effective strategies are

  11. Resistance to Clopidogrel among Iranian Patients Undergoing Angioplasty Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Haji Aghajani, Mohammad; Kobarfard, Farzad; Safi, Olia; Sheibani, Kourosh; Sistanizad, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    To study the resistance to standard dosage of clopidogrel among Iranian patients following percutaneous coronary intervention measured by platelet aggregation test. Patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention in Imam Hussein Medical center, Tehran, Iran, who were under treatment with aspirin, but had no history of clopidogrel usage, entered the study. Patients received standard dosage of clopidogrel (Plavix®, Sanofi, France, 600 mg loading dose and 75 mg/day afterward). Platelet aggregation was measured using light transmission aggregometer. The response to the drug was categorized as complete resistance (platelet aggregation decreased less than 10%), intermediate resistance (platelet aggregation decreased between 10 to 30%) and complete response (platelet aggregation decreased to 30% or more). All patients were evaluated for major adverse cardio vascular events one month after the angioplasty based on MACE criteria by phone contact. Thirty-one patients with a mean age of 59 ± 13 entered the study. Sixty-five percent of patients showed complete response to clopidogrel (95% CI: 45% to 81%), 22% showed intermediate resistance (95% CI: 10-41%) and 13% showed complete resistance (95% CI: 4-30%). One month after the angioplasty, no major adverse cardiovascular event was recorded. Based on our findings, it seems that there is no major difference between Iranian population and other studies regarding the resistance to clopidogrel. Due to the limited number of participants in our study, further investigations with higher number of patients are recommended to more precisely calculate the percentage of resistance among Iranian patients. PMID:24250685

  12. Electroencephalographic characteristics of Iranian schizophrenia patients.

    PubMed

    Chaychi, Irman; Foroughipour, Mohsen; Haghir, Hossein; Talaei, Ali; Chaichi, Ashkan

    2015-12-01

    Schizophrenia is a prevalent psychiatric disease with heterogeneous causes that is diagnosed based on history and mental status examination. Applied electrophysiology is a non-invasive method to investigate the function of the involved brain areas. In a previously understudied population, we examined acute phase electroencephalography (EEG) records along with pertinent Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores for each patient. Sixty-four hospitalized patients diagnosed to have schizophrenia in Ebn-e-Sina Hospital were included in this study. PANSS and MMSE were completed and EEG tracings for every patient were recorded. Also, EEG tracings were recorded for 64 matched individuals of the control group. Although the predominant wave pattern in both patients and controls was alpha, theta waves were almost exclusively found in eight (12.5 %) patients with schizophrenia. Pathological waves in schizophrenia patients were exclusively found in the frontal brain region, while identified pathological waves in controls were limited to the temporal region. No specific EEG finding supported laterality in schizophrenia patients. PANSS and MMSE scores were significantly correlated with specific EEG parameters (all P values <0.04). Patients with schizophrenia demonstrate specific EEG patterns and show a clear correlation between EEG parameters and PANSS and MMSE scores. These characteristics are not observed in all patients, which imply that despite an acceptable specificity, they are not applicable for the majority of schizophrenia patients. Any deduction drawn based on EEG and scoring systems is in need of larger studies incorporating more patients and using better functional imaging techniques for the brain. PMID:25651947

  13. Fibrinogen, an endogenous ligand of Toll-like receptor 4, activates monocytes in pre-eclamptic patients.

    PubMed

    Al-ofi, Ebtisam; Coffelt, Seth B; Anumba, Dilly O

    2014-06-01

    Pre-eclampsia (PE) remains the leading cause of pregnancy-associated mortality and morbidity, urging the need for a better understanding of its aetiology and pathophysiological progression. A key characteristic of PE is a systemic, exaggerated, inflammatory condition involving abnormal cytokine levels in serum, altered immune cell phenotype and Th1/Th2-type immunological imbalance. However, it is unknown how this heightened inflammatory condition manifests. We previously reported increased expression of the lipopolysaccharide receptor, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), on monocytes from PE patients compared with normotensive, pregnant patients (NP). This upregulation of TLR4 on PE monocytes was accompanied by a hyper-responsiveness to bacterial TLR4 ligands. To determine whether non-microbial, endogenous TLR4 ligands also activate monocytes from PE patients, we investigated the expression of host-derived TLR4 ligands and the response of monocytes to these endogenous ligands. Plasma levels of fibrinogen - but not fibronectin or heparan sulphate - were higher in PE patients than in NP. Exposure to fibrinogen was associated with significantly increased production of inflammatory cytokines by monocytes from PE patients. Interestingly, this effect was not observed with NP monocytes. Our findings suggest that the fibrinogen-TLR4 axis might play an important role in the atypical activation of monocytes observed in PE patients that may contribute to the exaggerated inflammatory condition. PMID:24661950

  14. Cytogenetic Findings in Mentally Retarded Iranian Patients

    PubMed Central

    Nasiri, F; Mahjoubi, F; Manouchehry, F; Razazian, F; Mortezapour, F; Rahnama, M

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a cytogenetic study on 865 individuals with idiopathic mental retardation (MR) who were admitted to the Cytogenetics Department of the Iran Blood Transfusion Organisation (IBTO) Research Centre, Tehran, Iran; these were performed on blood samples using conventional staining methods. Chromosome anomalies were identified in 205 of the patients (23.6%). The majority were Down’s syndrome cases (n = 138). In 33 males, a positive fragile X anomaly was found. The remainder (n = 34) had other chromosomal abnormalities including structural chromosome aberrations (n = 23), marker chromosomes with an unknown origin (n = 3), sex chromosome aneuploidy (n = 6) and trisomy 18 (n = 2). The contribution of chromosome aberrations to the cause of MR in this group of patients is discussed. PMID:24052729

  15. Molecular characterization of Iranian patients with possible familial hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Farrokhi, E; Shayesteh, F; Asadi Mobarakeh, S; Roghani Dehkordi, F; Ghatreh Samani, K; Hashemzadeh Chaleshtori, M

    2011-07-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant disorder of lipoprotein metabolism caused mainly by mutations in the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and apolipoprotein B 100 (APOB) genes. Until now, the molecular basis of FH has been demonstrated in detail in many populations, but there is still very limited Molecular data concerning FH in Iran. The aim of this study was to characterize the LDLR and APOB gene mutations in an Iranian population. A total of 30 non-related Iranian possible FH subjects were studied. Diagnosis of FH was based on the Dutch Lipid Clinic Network diagnostic criteria. All samples were initially tested for three common APOB gene mutations including R3500Q, R3500 W and R3531C using PCR-RFLP assay. Subsequently, promoter and coding region of the LDLR gene was screened by PCR-SSCP analysis and positive results were confirmed by DNA sequencing. Four previously reported polymorphisms 1413G > A, 1725C > T, 1773T > C and 2140 + 5G > A were found in ~17% (5/30) of population studied. Moreover, no variation was found in APOB gene. Our data indicated that LDLR and APOB gene mutations have not contribution to possible FH in Iranian population studied here. However, we examined three common APOB mutations and LDLR in only 30 patients, and to determine the role of these genes in developing FH in Iran, more FH samples and populations needed to be investigated for the mutations of the related genes. PMID:22754187

  16. Monocyte Subpopulations from Pre-Eclamptic Patients Are Abnormally Skewed and Exhibit Exaggerated Responses to Toll-Like Receptor Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Al-ofi, Ebtisam

    2012-01-01

    The leading cause of pregnancy-associated mortality and morbidity is pre-eclampsia (PE). Although information regarding the etiology of this disease is scant, its pathophysiology is characterized by abnormal placentation, endothelial dysfunction as well as an exaggerated inflammatory response. Clinical evidence also indicates that the abundance of many immune cells at the feto-maternal interface and in the circulation of PE patients is abnormal, when compared with normal pregnant (NP) controls. In addition, the phenotype and function of some of these cells is altered. To further characterize the systemic effects of PE on circulating cells, we analyzed monocytic subpopulations in NP and PE patients by flow cytometry. We found that non-classical CD14lowCD16+ monocytes are significantly increased in women with PE and they display irregular expression of several chemokine receptors and antigen presentation molecules. The most striking phenotypic difference among the cell surface molecules was the marked upregulation of TLR4 expression, where both CD14highCD16+ and CD14lowCD16+ monocytes demonstrated higher levels than their NP counterparts. Stimulation of PE monocytes with TLR ligands resulted in profound secretion of various cytokines in comparison with NP controls. These data suggest that PE monocytes are hyper-responsive to TLR ligands and this may contribute to exacerbation of the disease. PMID:22848746

  17. Monocyte subpopulations from pre-eclamptic patients are abnormally skewed and exhibit exaggerated responses to Toll-like receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Al-ofi, Ebtisam; Coffelt, Seth B; Anumba, Dilly O

    2012-01-01

    The leading cause of pregnancy-associated mortality and morbidity is pre-eclampsia (PE). Although information regarding the etiology of this disease is scant, its pathophysiology is characterized by abnormal placentation, endothelial dysfunction as well as an exaggerated inflammatory response. Clinical evidence also indicates that the abundance of many immune cells at the feto-maternal interface and in the circulation of PE patients is abnormal, when compared with normal pregnant (NP) controls. In addition, the phenotype and function of some of these cells is altered. To further characterize the systemic effects of PE on circulating cells, we analyzed monocytic subpopulations in NP and PE patients by flow cytometry. We found that non-classical CD14(low)CD16(+) monocytes are significantly increased in women with PE and they display irregular expression of several chemokine receptors and antigen presentation molecules. The most striking phenotypic difference among the cell surface molecules was the marked upregulation of TLR4 expression, where both CD14(high)CD16(+) and CD14(low)CD16(+) monocytes demonstrated higher levels than their NP counterparts. Stimulation of PE monocytes with TLR ligands resulted in profound secretion of various cytokines in comparison with NP controls. These data suggest that PE monocytes are hyper-responsive to TLR ligands and this may contribute to exacerbation of the disease. PMID:22848746

  18. Health literacy and its influencing factors in Iranian diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Zahra; Tehrani Banihashemi, Arash; Asgharifard, Homa; Bahramian, Mehran; Baradaran, Hamid Reza; Khamseh, Mohammad E

    2015-01-01

    Background: Health literacy is the ability to obtain, read, understand and use healthcare information to make appropriate health decisions and follow instructions for treatment. The aim of this study was to identify the effect of various factors on health literacy in patients with diabetes. Methods: 407 patients with diabetes older than 15 years of age were identified from the Diabetes Clinic affiliated to the Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism (IEM) of Iran University of Medical Sciences. We assessed patients' health literacy using the Persian version of Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (TOFHLA) questionnaire. Results: Mean age of the patients was 55.8 ± 11.3 years, and 61.7% the participants were female.. Overall, 18.2% of the patients had adequate health literacy skills, 11.8% had marginal and 70.0% inadequate health literacy skills. Male participants performed better than females (p< 0.01) and older patients had lower health literacy score than younger patients (p< 0.001). Furthermore, patients with higher educational and occupational levels had higher functional health literacy score than those with lower levels (p< 0.001). Conclusion: Health literacy score in Iranian patients with diabetes seems inadequate. Therefrom effective interventions should be designed and implemented for this group of patients to improve diabetes outcomes. PMID:26478888

  19. Spectrum of factor X gene mutations in Iranian patients with congenital factor X deficiency.

    PubMed

    Dorgalaleh, Akbar; Zaker, Farhad; Tabibian, Shadi; Alizadeh, Shaban; Dorgalele, Saeed; Hosseini, Soudabeh; Shamsizadeh, Morteza

    2016-04-01

    Congenital factor X deficiency is one of the most severe forms of rare bleeding disorders transmitted in autosomal recessive manner. According to the World Federation of Hemophilia survey, 153 patients with factor X deficiency (FXD) live in Iran, but a few studies have been performed to determine the precise distribution of FXD in different parts of the country and to assess molecular basis of this disorder in Iranian patients. This study was conducted to assess the spectrum of factor X gene mutation in Iranian patients with congenital FXD. All relevant English and Persian-language publications were searched (until 2015). Clinical presentations or molecular basis of nearly 90 Iranian patients were reported in different studies. Most of these studies focused on clinical presentations of patients, whereas molecular analyses were rarely performed. Most molecular studies found a diversity in factor X disease causing mutations in Iranian patients. Like other parts of the world, the majority of mutations in Iranian patients were missense mutations, but splice-site mutations were relatively common. Three extremely rare cases of combined factor X and factor VII deficiencies were observed in two cases of which this disorder resulted from different missense mutations in respective factor genes. A wide spectrum of factor X gene mutations was observed in Iranian patients with congenital FXD that revealed diversity in FXD gene mutations. PMID:26891460

  20. Leptin receptor gene polymorphisms in severely pre-eclamptic women.

    PubMed

    Rigó, János; Szendei, György; Rosta, Klára; Fekete, Andrea; Bögi, Krisztina; Molvarec, Attila; Rónai, Zsolt; Vér, Agota

    2006-09-01

    Variants of the leptin receptor gene (LEPR) may modulate the effect of elevated serum leptin levels in pre-eclampsia. The aim of our study was to evaluate the LEPR gene polymorphisms Lys109Arg (A109G) and Gln223Arg (A223G) in severely pre-eclamptic women. In a case-control study, we analyzed blood samples from 124 severely pre-eclamptic patients and 107 healthy control women by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. The Pearson chi2 test was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The association was adjusted for maternal age, pre-pregnancy body mass index and primiparity with logistic regression analysis. Pregnant women with the LEPR 223G allele (223A/G or 223G/G genotype) had almost double the risk of developing severe pre-eclampsia compared with patients with the 223A/A genotype (adjusted OR = 1.92, 95% CI: 1.07-3.41). Genotype variants of LEPR A109G alone did not affect the risk of severe pre-eclampsia. Haplotype estimation of A109G and A223G polymorphisms of the LEPR gene revealed that the G-A haplotype versus other pooled haplotypes was significantly less common in the pre-eclamptic group (p < 0.01), while the G-G haplotype versus others was overrepresented among severely pre-eclamptic patients (p < 0.01), compared with controls. In conclusion, our data indicate that LEPR A223G polymorphism may individually modify the risk of severe pre-eclampsia. PMID:17071538

  1. Coping With Stress Strategies in HIV-infected Iranian Patients.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudi, Maryam; Dehdari, Tahereh; Shojaeezadeh, Davoud; Abbasian, Ladan

    2015-01-01

    Stress has significant adverse impacts on health outcomes of HIV-infected patients. Our study explored coping with stress strategies by HIV-infected Iranian patients. A qualitative content analysis study was conducted at the Consultation Clinic of HIV at the Imam Khomeini Hospital in Tehran, Iran in 2012. Twenty-six semi-structured in-depth interviews were done. Participants were asked about coping strategies for stress. After the first interview, continuous analysis of data was started and continued up to data saturation. Results showed that participants used two categories of strategies (emotion-based coping and problem-based coping) to cope with stress. Emotion-based coping had two sub-themes: adaptive and maladaptive. The problem-based coping category had three sub-themes: participation in education sessions, adherence to medication, and efforts to maintain a healthy lifestyle. Explanations of different strategies available to HIV-infected patients to cope with stress may help develop tailored interventions to improve the psychological conditions of people living with HIV. PMID:25769759

  2. H pylori infection among 1000 southern Iranian dyspeptic patients

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi, Mahmood Reza; Rahnavardi, Mohammad; Bikdeli, Bavand; Zahedani, Mohsen Dehghani

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To describe the frequency of H pylori infection among 1000 southern Iranian dyspeptic patients. METHODS: A prospective study was performed in a referral hospital in south of Iran from 1999 to 2005. One thousand dyspeptic patients (518 males, mean ± SD age of 49.12 ± 12.82 years) consecutively underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Multiple gastric antral biopsy samples were taken from all patients for rapid urease test and histopathologic examination (96.9% satisfactory samples). Patients were considered H pylori-infected if one or both tests were positive. RESULTS: Six hundred and seventy-one patients (67.1%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 64.2%-70.0%) were H pylori-infected. H pylori positivity was significantly more frequent in patients with peptic ulcer disease (PUD) than in those with non-ulcer dyspepsia (P < 0.001). Male-to-female ratio for duodenal and gastric ulcers was 2.7:1 and 1.5:1, respectively. Moreover, the duodenal-to-gastric ulcer ratio was 1.95:1. The frequency of H pylori infection among those with endoscopic diagnosis of gastritis, duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer, and normal mucosa was 70.1% (398/568), 86.2% (150/174), 71.9% (64/89), and 33.5% (54/161), respectively. H pylori infection, male sex, and older age were independently associated with PUD in multivariate analysis. H pylori positivity was associated with chronic gastritis, and chronic active gastritis with odds ratios of 34.21 (95% CI: 12.19%-96.03%) and 81.21 (95% CI: 28.85%-228.55%), respectively. CONCLUSION: H pylori and PUD are highly frequent in dyspeptic patients from south of Iran. H pylori is a cardinal risk factor for chronic active or inactive gastritis. PMID:17006984

  3. INCREASED XANTHINE OXIDASE IN THE SKIN OF PREECLAMPTIC WOMEN

    PubMed Central

    Bainbridge, Shannon A.; Deng, Jau-Shyong; Roberts, James M.

    2010-01-01

    Xanthine oxioreductase is the holoenzyme responsible for terminal purine catabolism. Under conditions of metabolic stress or heightened pro-inflammatory cytokine production this enzyme is preferentially in it’s oxidized form, xanthine oxidase, with catalytic action that generates uric acid and the free radical superoxide. As preeclampsia is characterized by heightened inflammation, oxidative stress and hyperuricemia it has been proposed that xanthine oxidase plays a pivotal role in this hypertensive disorder of pregnancy. We sought to determine whether xanthine oxidase protein content was higher in maternal tissue of preeclamptic mothers, compared to healthy pregnant controls, using immunohistochemical analysis of skin biopsies. We further compared xanthine oxidase immunoreactivity in skin biopsies from preeclamptic women and patients with several inflammatory conditions. In preeclamptic women, intense xanthine oxidase immunoreactivity was present within the epidermis. By contrast, only very faint xanthine oxidase staining was observed in skin biopsies from healthy pregnant controls. Further, a role for inflammation in the increase of xanthine oxidase was suggested by similar findings of heightened xanthine oxidase immunoreactivity in the skin biopsies from non-pregnant individuals diagnosed with conditions of systemic inflammation. The finding of increased xanthine oxidase in maternal tissue, most likely as the result of heightened maternal inflammation, suggest maternal xanthine oxidase as a source of free radical and uric acid generation in preeclampsia. PMID:19196876

  4. Serum Copper and Zinc Levels Among Iranian Colorectal Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Khoshdel, Zahra; Naghibalhossaini, Fakhraddin; Abdollahi, Kourosh; Shojaei, Shahla; Moradi, Mostafa; Malekzadeh, Mahyar

    2016-04-01

    Alterations of trace element concentrations adversely affect biological processes and could promote carcinogenesis. Only a few studies have investigated the degree of changes in copper and zinc levels in colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of the present study was to compare the serum copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) concentrations in patients with CRC from Iran with those of healthy subjects. Cu and Zn concentrations in the serum of 119 cancer patients and 128 healthy individuals were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. We found a significant decrease in the total mean serum Cu and Zn concentrations in CRC patients as compared with the control group (137.5 ± 122.38 vs. 160.68 ± 45.12 μg/dl and 81.04 ± 52.05 vs. 141.64 ± 51.75, respectively). However, the serum Cu/Zn ratio in the patient group was significantly higher than that measured in the control group (p = 0.00). There was no significant difference in the mean values of serum Cu and Zn concentrations between young (<60 years) and elderly (≥60 years) patients. However, the Cu/Zn ratio in <60-year cases was significantly higher than that in ≥60-year age group (p < 0.05). In addition, mean serum Cu level in normal weight patients was significantly higher than that in overweight/obese cases (132.31 ± 87.43 vs. 103.81 ± 53.72 μg/dl, respectively) (p < 0.05). There was no difference in mean serum Cu and Zn concentrations in patients stratified by the site, stage, or differentiation grade of tumors. Our findings suggest that imbalance in Cu and Zn trace element level is associated with CRC and might play an important role in cancer development among Iranian patients. PMID:26329996

  5. Iranian patients' perspective of patients' rights: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Khaledi, Shahnaz; Moridi, Golrokh; Valiee, Sina

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing emphasis on "protecting patient rights", which has a great influence on the patient's well-being. This study aimed to explore patients' perspectives of patients' rights in the hospitals of Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences in Iran. This qualitative study used the content analysis method. The data were collected through in-depth interviews, conducted in Persian at the internal and surgical wards from 2012 to 2013. Consequently, interviews continued to be conducted on 20 patients, using content analysis, until data saturation. The findings highlighted aspects of patients' rights and five themes emerged from the interviews: having one's dignity respected, receiving care of the requisite quality, being shown financial consideration, receiving adequate information, and having a desirable and pleasant environment. The patients believed that for their rights to be upheld, it is necessary that together with the provision of enough facilities and equipment, they need to be respected and offered ideal healthcare services. This could be achieved by removing barriers and facilitating procedures. PMID:26826656

  6. BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in Iranian breast cancer patients: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Neamatzadeh, Hossein; Shiryazdi, Seyed Mostafa; Kalantar, Seyed Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: BRCA1/2 genes mutation prevalence varies among ethnic groups and may be influenced by founder mutations. Understanding BRCA1/2 genes mutations is important for reducing breast cancer (BC) incidence, accurate risk assessment and counseling. This systematic review of the literature was conducted to addressing BRCA1/2 mutations in Iranian BC patients. Materials and Methods: A search for relevant articles was run on before January 2014 using MedLine, PubMed, Science Iranian Database, Google, and Web sites related to the study topic. The key words included: BC and Iran with Genes, BRCA Genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2; “Cancer Genes,” and “Iran.” Results: Thirteen articles retrieved from this search strategy were eligible for this review. The overall BRCA1 mutation rate for Iranian female BC patients was detected 31.8% (377/1183). Although this gene mutation rate for male patients is <0.01%. Eight BRCA1 mutations (c. 4837A > G, c. 3419G > A, c. 3119G > A, c. 2612C > T, c. 3113A > G, c. 2311T > C, c. 4301T > C and c. 4308T > C in BRCA1, and one BRCA2 mutation (c. 6494G > C) were found in multiple case subjects and represent candidate founder mutations. Conclusion: According to these studies, there is heterogeneity in BRCA mutations in Iranian BC patients. PMID:26109977

  7. Do Cancer Patients Prefer to Know the Diagnosis? A Descriptive Study Among Iranian Patients

    PubMed Central

    Samimi Ardestani, Seyed Mehdi; Faridhosseini, Farhad; Shirkhani, Fatemeh; Karamad, Ardeshir; Farid, Layla; Fayyazi Bordbar, Mohammad Reza; Motlagh, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: There are important differences regarding cancer disclosure in various geographical populations (Europeans, Western Asia, Eastern Asia), depending on multiple sociocultural factors, and therefore, there is no standard protocol on this issue, especially in Iran. Objectives: To evaluate the amount of information that Iranian patients have and their preference for the disclosure of the cancer diagnosis. Patients and Methods: In this cross sectional descriptive research, patients admitted in the oncology departments of 3 referral medical centers, Imam Hussein, Shohada-e-Tajrish and Modarres, in Tehran, from March 2007 to April 2008, were questioned about their awareness and knowledge regarding their diagnosis. Two different structured questionnaires were designed for the people who know and who didn't know their diagnosis. For the former, the survey concerned their psychological reactions to their situations, whether they would prefer to know about their diagnosis and by whom they are preferred to be informed .For the latter, the questionnaire included their preference whether to know the diagnosis and their current emotional state. Descriptive statistics and chi square test was applied to analyze gathering Data, using SPSS version 14. Results: 60.3% of the patients knew their diagnosis. Among the subjects who did not know their diagnosis, 88% preferred to be more informed about their diagnosis and 68% had some psychological reaction to their situations. Among the subjects who knew their diagnosis, 92.1 % preferred to know their diagnosis, 73.6% preferred to be informed directly by their physicians. Following the diagnostic disclosure, 81.5% reported that they had felt nervous, anxious and worried. Conclusions: The majority of Iranian patients with malignancy want to know the truth and they prefer to be informed directly by their doctors. PMID:26834800

  8. Contextual factors affecting autonomy for patients in Iranian hospitals: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Hossein; Sadeghian, Efat; Seyedfatemi, Naeimeh; Mohammadi, Eesa; Crowley, Maureen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Consideration of patient autonomy is an essential element in individualized, patient-centered, ethical care. Internal and external factors associated with patient autonomy are related to culture and it is not clear what they are in Iran. The aim of this study was to explore contextual factors affecting the autonomy of patients in Iranian hospitals. Materials and Methods: This was a qualitative study using conventional content analysis methods. Thirty-four participants (23 patients, 9 nurses, and 2 doctors) from three Iranian teaching hospitals, selected using purposive sampling, participated in semi-structured interviews. Unstructured observation and filed notes were other methods for data collection. The data were subjected to qualitative content analysis and analyzed using the MAXQDA-10 software. Results: Five categories and sixteen subcategories were identified. The five main categories related to patient autonomy were: Intrapersonal factors, physical health status, supportive family and friends, communication style, and organizational constraints. Conclusions: In summary, this study uncovered contextual factors that the care team, managers, and planners in the health field should target in order to improve patient autonomy in Iranian hospitals. PMID:27186203

  9. TPRV-1 expression in human preeclamptic placenta.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Nora; Abán, Cyntia E; Leguizamón, Gustavo F; Damiano, Alicia E; Farina, Mariana G

    2016-04-01

    Preeclampsia is a multisystem disorder unique to human pregnancy, characterized by abnormal placentation. Although its causes remain unclear, it is known that the expression of several transporters is altered. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV-1) is a nonselective cation channel, present in human placenta. Here, we evaluated the expression of TRPV-1 in preeclamptic placentas. We observed a deregulation in TRPV-1 expression in these placentas which may explain the impaired Ca(2+) homeostasis found in preeclampsia. PMID:27016779

  10. Genetic analysis and SOD1 mutation screening in Iranian amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Alavi, Afagh; Nafissi, Shahriar; Rohani, Mohammad; Zamani, Babak; Sedighi, Behnaz; Shamshiri, Hosein; Fan, Jian-Bing; Ronaghi, Mostafa; Elahi, Elahe

    2013-05-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal motor neuron disease, and the most common in European populations. Results of genetic analysis and mutation screening of SOD1 in a cohort of 60 Iranian ALS patients are here reported. Initially, linkage analysis in 4 families identified a disease-linked locus that included the known ALS gene, SOD1. Screening of SOD1 identified homozygous p.Asp90Ala causing mutations in all the linked families. Haplotype analysis suggests that the p.Asp90Ala alleles in the Iranian patients might share a common founder with the renowned Scandinavian recessive p.Asp90Ala allele. Subsequent screening in all the patients resulted in identification of 3 other mutations in SOD1, including p.Leu84Phe in the homozygous state. Phenotypic features of the mutation-bearing patients are presented. SOD1 mutations were found in 11.7% of the cohort, 38.5% of the familial ALS probands, and 4.25% of the sporadic ALS cases. SOD1 mutations contribute significantly to ALS among Iranians. PMID:23062701

  11. Identification of four novel potentially Parkinson's disease associated LRRK2 variations among Iranian patients.

    PubMed

    Shojaee, Seyedmehdi; Fazlali, Zeinab; Ghazavi, Farzaneh; Banihosseini, Setareh Sadat; Kazemi, Mohammad Hossein; Parsa, Khosro; Sadeghi, Homa; Sina, Farzad; Shahidi, Gholam-Ali; Ronaghi, Mostafa; Elahi, Elahe

    2009-12-25

    The results of mutation screening of 24 exons of LRRK2 in 60 Iranian Parkinson's Disease patients are presented. The Iranian cohort represents a novel population and was notably young (average age at onset of disease: 36.0 years). Fifty sequence variations were found, seventeen of which are novel. Variations considered possibly associated with disease were screened in available family members, 145 additional patients and 220 control individuals. It was surmised that four novel sequence variations (IVS49+178A>G, p.R1725Q, p.Q1823K, and p.D2175H) may be associated with PD status, albeit they may be very rare non-disease associated variations. The four variations were all observed in the heterozygous state in early onset cases. If one or more of the variations do indeed contribute to disease status, their penetrance is expected to be low. PMID:19800393

  12. Prevalence of occult hepatitis C virus infection in Iranian patients with beta thalassemia major.

    PubMed

    Bastani, Mohammad-Navid; Bokharaei-Salim, Farah; Keyvani, Hossein; Esghaei, Maryam; Monavari, Seyed Hamidreza; Ebrahimi, Mojtaba; Garshasebi, Saba; Fakhim, Shahin

    2016-07-01

    Occult hepatitis C virus infection (OCI) is a new pathological form of chronic hepatitis virus (HCV) infection characterized by the presence of HCV RNA in liver biopsy and/or peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) specimens and the absence of HCV RNA and anti-HCV antibodies (Abs) in plasma samples. β-thalassemia major is a hereditary recessive blood disease with deficiency in the hemoglobin beta chain. Thalassemic patients need blood transfusion therapy; repeated blood transfusion increases the risk of viral blood-borne infection. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of OCI in Iranian patients with β-thalassemia major. From February 2015 to November 2015, a total of 147 Iranian patients with β-thalassemia major were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. After extraction of viral RNA from the plasma and PBMC samples, HCV genomic RNA in the specimens was amplified by RT-nested PCR using primers from the 5'-UTR. The HCV genotypes of the positive specimens were tested using the RFLP assay. To confirm the HCV genotypes, the 5'-UTR fragment was amplified and cloned into the pJET1.2/blunt cloning vector and then sequenced. Out of 147 patients, 106 (72.1 %) were negative for anti-HCV Abs and HCV RNA. HCV RNA was found in PBMC specimens of six (5.7 %) patients, from a total of 106 patients with undetectable plasma HCV RNA and anti-HCV Abs. Therefore, six out of 106 patients had OCI. HCV genotyping revealed that three patients were infected with HCV subtype 1b, two patients were infected with HCV subtype 3a, and one patient was infected with HCV subtype 1a. These results revealed that Iranian patients with beta-thalassemia major might have OCI. Therefore, it seems that the design of a study to identify this infection in patients with β-thalassemia major would provide valuable information. PMID:27132015

  13. Psychometric Properties of the Coping Self-Efficacy Scale Among HIV-Infected Iranian Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoudi, Maryam; Shojaezadeh, Davoud; Dehdari, Tahereh; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim; Taghdisi, Mohammad Hossein; Abbasian, Ladan; Roohi, Mahdiyeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Self-efficacy is an important predicator of coping with stress. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the psychometric characteristics of the coping self-efficacy (CSE) scale among HIV-infected Iranian patients. Patients and Methods: Psychometric properties of the CSE scale were examined by using a cross-sectional study design. One hundred and twenty HIV-infected Iranian patients that had been referred to the Counseling of Behavioral Diseases Center at Imam Khomeini Hospital in Tehran, Iran in 2014 were selected through simple random sampling method. To determine the Content Validity Index (CVI) and the content validity ratio (CVR), a panel of experts (n = 20) reviewed items of CSE scale. Reliability was estimated through the internal consistency (n = 30) and the conformity factor analysis was performed. Results: Iranian version of the CSE scale contained 16 items, including 7 items on the “use of problem-focused coping” method, 5 items on “stopping unpleasant emotions and thoughts”, and 4 items on “getting support from friends and family”. CVI and CVR scores were 0.79, 0.42 and more, respectively. Internal consistencies (range, 0.64 to 0.84) of 3 subscales were acceptable. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that comparative indices of the model, including CFI, IFI, GFI, RMSEA, and Chi-square (χ2/df) were 0.96, 0.95, 0.84, 0.83, and 1.82, respectively, which indicated a good fit for the data. Conclusions: The Iranian version of the CSE scale is a valid instrument to measure the coping self-efficacy among people living with HIV in research and community settings in Iran. PMID:25793120

  14. Prevalence of occult hepatitis C virus infection in the Iranian patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Bokharaei-Salim, Farah; Keyvani, Hossein; Esghaei, Maryam; Zare-Karizi, Shohreh; Dermenaki-Farahani, Sahar-Sadat; Hesami-Zadeh, Khashayar; Fakhim, Shahin

    2016-11-01

    Occult hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a new form of chronic HCV infection described by the presence of the genomic HCV-RNA in liver biopsy and/or peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples, and undetectable levels or absence of HCV-RNA and in the absence or presence of anti HCV antibodies in the plasma specimens. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the occurrence of occult HCV infection (OCI) among Iranian subjects infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) using RT-nested PCR. From March 2014 until April 2015, 109 Iranian patients with established HIV infection were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. After extraction of viral RNA from the plasma and PBMC samples, HCV-RNA status was examined by RT-nested PCR using primers from the 5'-NTR. HCV genotyping was conducted using RFLP analysis. For the confirmation of HCV genotyping by RFLP method, the PCR products were sequenced. Of the 109 patients, 50 were positive for antibodies against HCV. The HCV-RNA was detected in PBMC specimens in 6 (10.2%) out of the total 59 patients negative for anti-HCV Abs and undetectable plasma HCV-RNA and also from 4 (8.0%) out of the total 50 patients positive for anti-HCV Abs and undetectable plasma HCV-RNA. HCV genotyping analysis showed that 6 (60.0%) patients were infected with HCV subtype 3a, 3 (30.0%) were infected with HCV subtype 1a and 1 (10.0%) patient was infected with HCV subtype 1b. This study revealed the incidence of OCI (9.2%) in HIV-infected Iranian patients. Hence, designing prospective studies focusing on the detection of OCI in these patients would provide more information. J. Med. Virol. 88:1960-1966, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27463051

  15. Level of attitude toward complementary and alternative medicine among Iranian patients with multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Harirchian, Mohammad Hossein; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Hosseinkhani, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an unpredictable neurological disease leading to severe disability in young adults. The majority of MS patients use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) as adjunct to conventional therapies. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of CAM utilization among Iranian patients with MS and their attitude toward the CAM usage. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 119 definite MS patients referred to Tehran’s Imam Khomeini and Sina hospitals. A questionnaire was used to examine the association between participants’ health-related factors and usage of CAMs interventions. P value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Among the enrolled patients, 60% of the participants agreed with using CAM, 42% experienced the usage of these treatments; out of whom 41% believed its efficiency and 18% reported exacerbation of symptoms. The mean duration of disease diagnosis and mean time from symptoms onset were both longer in users of CAM (P = 0.001). Most socio-demographic factors had no significant effect on the type of used CAM. However, Yoga was significantly more applied in those with higher degree of education (P = 0.002). Conclusion Regarding the widespread use of CAM by Iranian patients with MS, further researches about the safety and efficacy of each treatment on the special outcomes is recommended. PMID:24800042

  16. Leisure time activities of Iranian patients with multiple sclerosis: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad Sadegh; Asgari, Ali; Rassafiani, Mehdi; Yazdani, Farzaneh; Mazdeh, Mehrdokht

    2016-01-01

    Background: Leisure time is one of the most important aspects of life, especially for people with chronic diseases. The concept and types of leisure have frequently been evaluated in different socio-cultural populations. The aim of this study was to identify the nature of leisure activities among a sample of Iranian patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and classify the identified types of activities in the context of Iranian culture. Methods: In this qualitative study, semi-structured interview was applied to gather data from 34 MS patients that were selected through purposive sampling. The interviews were continued up to the point of saturation. Content analysis was used to explore experiences of the interviewees regarding their leisure activities. Results: Six categories of leisure activities were extracted for the studied patients with MS i.e.physical, social, individual, art/cultural, educational and spiritual/religious. Conclusion: The results represented the range and heterogeneity of leisure activities amongst the MS patients. Considering participation in spiritual/religious and social activities as leisure time undertaking might reflect cultural diversity in the perception and use of time for recreation. For mental health promotion purposes, paying special attention to the types of activities that people of different socio-cultural background choose for their refreshment could help health care providers in giving tailored advice for patients with MS and other chronic debilitating disease. PMID:27123437

  17. Role of Heme Oxygenase, Leptin, Coenzyme Q10 and Trace Elements in Pre-eclamptic Women.

    PubMed

    Abo-Elmatty, Dina M; Badawy, Ehsan A; Hussein, Jihan S; Elela, Somaya Abo; Megahed, Hoda A

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study to evaluate heme oxygenase (COHb), leptin and coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) in pre-eclamptic women. Also Zinc, copper, Iron, total iron binding capacity, Ferritin and uric acid were assessed. 120 female subjects were included in this study. They were divided into, 60 female with normal pregnancy attending the outpatient clinic, 60 pre-eclamptic patients were recruited from obstetrics and gynaecology department El-kasr El-Aini hospital. The results showed that in pre-eclampatic group, leptin level was significantly increased while COHb and CoQ10 was significantly decreased. It is concluded that hemeoxygenase, leptin and coenzyme CoQ10 can be considered as new markers for prediction of pre-eclampsia. PMID:24082464

  18. Microvascular endothelial cells from preeclamptic women exhibit altered expression of angiogenic and vasopressor factors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dennis K; Nevo, Ori

    2016-06-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a severe complication of pregnancy associated with maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The underlying pathophysiology involves maternal systemic vascular and endothelial dysfunction associated with circulating antiangiogenic factors, although the specific etiology of the disease remains elusive. Our aim was to investigate the maternal endothelium in PE by exploring the expression of genes involved with endothelial function in a novel platform of maternal primary endothelial cells. Adipose tissue was sampled at the time of caesarean section from both normal and preeclamptic patients. Maternal microvascular endothelial cells were isolated by tissue digestion and CD31 magnetic Dynabeads. Cell purity was confirmed by immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Western analyses revealed VEGF activation of VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and ERK in primary cells. Quantitative PCR analyses revealed significantly altered mRNA levels of various genes involved with angiogenesis and blood pressure control in preeclamptic cells, including soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1, endoglin, VEGFR2, angiotensin receptor 1, and endothelin compared with cells isolated from normal pregnancies. Overall, maternal endothelial cells from preeclamptic patients exhibit extensive alteration of expression of factors associated with antiangiogenic and vasoconstrictive phenotypes, shedding light on the underlying mechanisms associated with the vascular dysfunction characteristic of PE. PMID:27199113

  19. Comparison of Masculine and Feminine Gender Roles in Iranian Patients with Gender Identity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Alavi, Kaveh; Jalali Nadoushan, Amir Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Gender identity disorders (GID) are heterogeneous disorders that may be influenced by culture and social norms. Aim The aim of this study was to determine masculine and feminine gender roles in a group of Iranian patients with GID and compare these roles with two control groups. Methods Twelve male‐to‐female (MF) and 27 female‐to‐male (FM) individuals with GID referred to Tehran Psychiatric Institute in Tehran, I. R. Iran were evaluated by self‐report inventories and were compared with two groups of healthy controls (81 men and 89 women). Diagnoses were established based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM‐IV) criteria. Data analysis was done using analysis of variance and chi‐squared test. Main Outcome Measures Masculine and feminine gender roles were assessed by two questionnaires: (i) Gender‐Masculine (GM) and Gender‐Feminine (GF) scales derived from the Minnesota Multiphasic Inventory‐2 (MMPI‐2); (ii) Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI). Results In the scales of masculinity, MF‐GID individuals scored as male controls, but lower than female controls. FM‐GID individuals scored similar to female controls and higher than male controls. In femininity scales, MF‐GID individuals and control women seemed similar, and both scored higher than the other groups. FM‐GID persons were considered less feminine than both controls in the GF scale of MMPI‐2, but not in the BSRI. In both scales, FM‐GID persons had higher scores than control women and MF‐GID individuals. Conclusion Iranian FM‐GID individuals were less feminine than normal men. However, MF‐GID individuals were similar to normal women or more feminine. Cultural considerations remain to be investigated. Alavi K, Eftekhar M and Jalali Nadoushan AH. Comparison of masculine and feminine gender roles in Iranian patients with gender identity disorder. Sex Med 2015;3:261–268. PMID:26797060

  20. Three Novel Mutations in Iranian Patients with Tay-Sachs Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jamali, Solmaz; Eskandari, Nasim; Aryani, Omid; Salehpour, Shadab; Zaman, Talieh; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Houshmand, Massoud

    2014-01-01

    Background: Tay-Sachs disease (TSD), or GM2 gangliosidosis, is a lethal autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder, which is caused by a deficiency of beta-hexosaminidase A (HEXA), resulting in lysosomal accumulation of GM2 ganglioside. The aim of this study was to identify the TSD-causing mutations in an Iranian population. Methods: In this study, we examined 31 patients for TSD-causing mutations using PCR, followed by restriction enzyme digestion. Results: Molecular genetics analysis of DNA from 23 patients of TSD revealed mutations that has been previously reported, including four-base duplications c.1274_1277dupTATC in exon 11 and IVS2+1G>A, deletion TTAGGCAAGGGC in exon 10 as well as a few novel mutations, including C331G, which altered Gln>Glu in HEXB, A>G, T>C, and p.R510X in exon 14, which predicted a termination codon or nonsense mutation. Conclusion: In conclusion, with the discovery of these novel mutations, the genotypic spectrum of Iranian patients with TSD disease has been extended and could facilitate definition of disease-related mutations. PMID:24518553

  1. Characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolated from iranian and afghani patients by spoligotyping method

    PubMed Central

    Ramazanzadeh, Rashid; Farnia, Parisa; Amirmozafari, Nour

    2009-01-01

    Designing newer drugs, vaccines, and diagnostic techniques is dependent on better understanding of M. tuberculosis virulence mechanism. In this study the prevalence of pcaA gene was determined in M. tuberculosis strains typed by spoligotyping. The associated risk factors among patients with different nationalities residing in Iran were also determined. The isolated M. tuberculosis strains have been characterized by performing susceptibility tests against four first-line antituberculosis drugs and were then subjected to spoligotyping characterization. PCR was used for detection of pcaA gene and its nucleotide sequence was also determined. Spoligotyping of M. tuberculosis strains resulted in 140 different patterns. One hundred twenty two (87.1%) of these spoligotype isolates were unique and reported for the first time. The remaining18 (12.8%) spoligotype patterns were previously reported from other geographical regions of the world. Haarlem family was most prevalent than other genotype. Antibiotic resistances were higher in those isolated from the Iranian patients. The pcaA gene was detected in M. tuberculosis clinical isolates but not in saprophyte strains such as M. kansasi. The results showed that, spread of M. tuberculosis strains belonging to the Beijing family among Iranian patients has to be considered seriously. This study confirmed the widespread existence of pcaA gene in almost all the clinical isolates. It is also important to undertake studies to identify which factors are the most significant to consider in tuberculosis control program. PMID:24031364

  2. Perceived Quality of Informed Refusal Process: A Cross-Sectional Study from Iranian Patients' Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Farzandipour, Mehrdad; Sheikhtaheri, Abbas; Sadeqi Jabali, Monireh

    2015-12-01

    Patients have the right to refuse their treatment; however, this refusal should be informed. We evaluated the quality of the informed refusal process in Iranian hospitals from patients' viewpoints. To this end, we developed a questionnaire that covered four key aspects of the informed refusal process including; information disclosure, voluntariness, comprehension, and provider-patient relationship. A total of 284 patients who refused their treatment from 12 teaching hospitals in the Isfahan Province, Iran, were recruited and surveyed to produce a convenience sample. Patients' perceptions about the informed refusal process were scored and the mean scores of the four components were calculated. The findings showed that the practice of information disclosure (9.6 ± 6.4 out of 22 points) was perceived to be moderate, however, comprehension (2.3 ± 1.4 out of 4 points), voluntariness (8.7 ± 1.5 out of 12 points) and provider-patient relationship (10.2 ± 5.2 out of 16 points) were perceived to be relatively good. We found that patients, who refused their care before any treatment had commenced, reported a lower quality of information disclosure and voluntariness. Patients informed by nurses and those who had not had a previous related admission, reported lower scores for comprehension and relationship. In conclusion, the process of obtaining informed refusal was relatively satisfactory except for levels of information disclosure. To improve current practices, Iranian patients need to be better informed about; different treatment options, consequences of treatment refusal, costs of not continuing treatment and follow-ups after refusal. Developing more informative refusal forms is needed. PMID:24720479

  3. Service quality of private hospitals: The Iranian Patients' perspective

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Highly competitive market in the private hospital industry has caused increasing pressure on them to provide services with higher quality. The aim of this study was to determine the different dimensions of the service quality in the private hospitals of Iran and evaluating the service quality from the patients' perspective. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between October and November 2010 in Tehran, Iran. The study sample was composed of 983 patients randomly selected from 8 private general hospitals. The study questionnaire was the SERVQUAL questionnaire, consisting of 21 items in service quality dimensions. Results The result of factor analysis revealed 3 factors, explaining 69% of the total variance. The total mean score of patients' expectation and perception was 4.91(SD = 0.2) and 4.02(SD = 0.6), respectively. The highest expectation and perception related to the tangibles dimension and the lowest expectation and perception related to the empathy dimension. The differences between perception and expectation were significant (p < 0.001). There was a significant difference between the expectations scores based on gender, education level, and previous hospitalization in that same hospital. Also, there was a significant difference between the perception scores based on insurance coverage, average length of stay, and patients' health conditions on discharge. Conclusion The results showed that SERVQUAL is a valid, reliable, and flexible instrument to monitor and measure the quality of the services in private hospitals of Iran. Our findings clarified the importance of creating a strong relationship between patients and the hospital practitioners/personnel and the need for hospital staff to be responsive, credible, and empathetic when dealing with patients. PMID:22299830

  4. Effect of Obesity on Mortality and Morbidity After Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Surgery in Iranian Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ardeshiri, Maryam; Faritous, Zahra; Ojaghi Haghighi, Zahra; Hosseini, Shirin; Baghaei, Ramin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Recent years have witnessed the emergence of obesity as a major public health concern. The drastic rise in obesity and its concomitant co-morbidities is a reflection of the recent changes in dietary habits in Iran and many other developing countries. A recent large population study in Tehran reported that 58% and 75% of middle-aged Iranian men and women, respectively, were either overweight or obese. Objectives: Considering the impact of obesity on mortality and morbidity after coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG), we sought to investigate the association between central obesity and the body mass index (BMI) and the post-CABG mortality and morbidity in Iranian patients. Patients and Methods: This prospective study was on 235 adult patients scheduled for isolated CABG in a university hospital. The patients were divided in two groups according to BMI ≥ 30 (obese; n = 60) and BMI < 30 (non-obese; n = 175). In-hospital and late (after 3 months) morbidity and mortality rates were compared between obese and non-obese patients. Results: A total of 235 patients (135 women) with a mean age of 59 ± 9.2 years (range = 29 to 79 years), mean BMI of 27.3 ± 4.2 (range = 17 to 40), and mean waist circumference of 101.2 ± 14.7 cm (range = 55 to 145 cm) were included. By the third postoperative month, wound infection had significantly increased in patients with BMI ≥ 30 (P = 0.022). In-hospital and late morbidity and mortality rates were comparable between the two groups (P > 0.05). Conclusions: In our patients obesity was a risk factor for wound infection but not atelectasis or the need for intra-aortic balloon pump or re-exploration. Obesity was not associated with increased in-hospital or 3 months mortality rates after CABG. PMID:24977121

  5. Rheumatologic Manifestations in Iranian Patients with Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hezarkhani, Sharabeh; Aghaei, Mehrdad; Shamekhi, Maryam; Nomali, Mahin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Autoimmune thyroid diseases (ATDs) are the most common endocrine diseases which result in rheumatologic manifestations. Some studies have shown association between rheumatologic disorders and ATDs. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the frequency of rheumatologic manifestations in patients with ATDs. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive study during 2010 to 2011, 65 patients with ATDs referred to the Rheumatology clinic of 5 Azar Hospital in Gorgan (North of Iran) were studied via systematic random sampling and patients with positive antithyroid peroxides (anti-TPO) were included in the study. These patients were examined by a rheumatologist for diagnosis of rheumatologic manifestations and tested for serum levels of TSH, Free T3 and T4, Anti-Nuclear Antibodies (ANAs) and Rheumatoid Factor (RF). SPSS software (version 16) and descriptive statistics were used for data analysis. Results: Nine males (14.8%) and 56 females (86.2%) with mean age of 38.81±1.44 years were studied. Overall, Rheumatologic manifestations were seen in 86.2 % (n=56). In this study, the most frequent rheumatologic manifestations were Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (36.1%) and Osteoarthritis (23%). Reynaud’s phenomenon (RP) (10.7%), Discopathy (8.9%), Fibromyalgia (5.3%), Myopathy (3.6%), Rheumatoid arthritis (3.6%) and trigger finger (3.6%) were other manifestations, respectively. Conclusion: In this region, there is a high frequency of rheumatologic manifestations in patients with ATDs. Thus, initial evaluation and regular checkings are recommended. PMID:25478383

  6. Assessment of the Human Cytomegalovirus UL97 Gene for Identification of Resistance to Ganciclovir in Iranian Immunosuppressed Patients

    PubMed Central

    Keyvani, Hossein; Taghinezhad Saroukalaei, Sedigheh; Mohseni, Amir Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality among immunocompromised patients. Prolonged antiviral therapy is a cause of mutation and drug resistance in the HCMV genome. Objectives The aim of this study was to identify resistance to ganciclovir (GCV) in Iranian immunosuppressed patients at two different stages of the disease: early (before GCV is initiated) and late (after six months of GCV therapy). Patients and Methods In this study, 87 specimens from Iranian patients were amplified using nested PCR amplification of the UL97 gene. Sequence analyses of products were performed for identifying the mutated codons. Results The present study show that the most frequent GCV-resistant mutations occurred in codons A594V (26.43%), H520Q (18.39%), and M460V (13.79%), consequently occurring at a low frequency in the L595S (2.29%), E596G (1.14%), and Del 594 (1.14%) codons, and with intermediate frequency in the C592G (10.34%), M460I (9.19%), and C603W (6.89%) codons. We describe for the first time a new GCV-resistance mutation, the deletion of codon 594, in the UL97 gene of Iranian HCMV patients after GCV therapy, following renal transplantation. Conclusions The findings of the present study can be utilized to detect GCV resistance patterns among Iranian immunocompromised patients and to treat HCMV infections accordingly. PMID:27540455

  7. Iranian Nurses' Attitudes and Perception towards Patient Advocacy

    PubMed Central

    Motamed-Jahromi, Mohadeseh; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Borhani, Fariba; Zaher, Homa

    2012-01-01

    Patient advocacy is an inherent component of professional nursing ethics; in other words, nurses' enough knowledge would be essential to gain a positive attitude towards nursing advocacy. Using a descriptive-analytic design, this study aimed to assess the correlation between nurses' perception and attitudes towards patient advocacy, amongst 385 nurses in Kerman, Iran; hence, a three-part questionnaire was applied: part I, a demographic data sheet, part II, attitude measuring instrument, and part III, perception measuring instrument in nursing advocacy. The results implied that fairly positive attitudes and perception were found amongst the participants, and nurses' attitudes, in general, were positively correlated to their perception toward nursing advocacy. This means that with an improvement in perception, the attitude would also improve. In addition to our findings, it seems that these nurses needed more advocacy educational programs and support from responsible employers. PMID:23326680

  8. Relation between Voice Handicap Index (VHI) and disease severity in Iranian patients with Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Karkheiran, Siamak; Moradi, Negin; Shahidi, Gholam Ali; Salehi, Masoud

    2012-01-01

    Background One third of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) have mentioned “dysphonia” as their most debilitating communication deficit. Patient-based measurements, such as Voice Handicap Index (VHI) add necessary supplementary information to clinical and physiological assessment. There are a few studies about relation between VHI and disease severity in PD, although none of them showed any significant correlation. The goal of this study was to find correlation between these variables in Iranian PD patients. Method This cross-sectional, analytical and non-interventional study was done on 23 PD patients who reported a voice disorder related to their disease. They were selected from attendants of movement disorders clinic of Hazrat Rasool Akram Hospital. The relationship between disease severity (according to Hoehn and Yahr/H&Y and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-part3 /UPDRS-III) and VHI questionnaire (and its 3 domains) was investigated based on patients’ sex, UPDRS-III score H&Y and VHI. Results Total VHI and its 3 domains had no relationship with disease severity (H&Y) in all patients and by sex separation. However, there was a positive correlation between VHI and disease severity (UPDRS-III) (r = 0.485). There was also a relation between physical and functional domains of VHI and UPDRS (rP=0.530, rF=0.479) while no relationship observed regarding sex differences. 9 out of 18 UPDRS-III items had strong relationship with VHI (total and 3subscales). Conclusion Iranian PD patients feel handicap according to voice disorder caused by PD. Patient satisfaction of voice decreases with the disease severity and progression. A larger sample size is necessary to find relationship in genders. VHI is an important issue could be offered to be used in PD beside other assessments PMID:23482344

  9. Periodic Fever: A Review on Clinical, Management and Guideline for Iranian Patients - Part II

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadinejad, Zahra; Mansouri, Sedigeh; Ziaee, Vahid; Aghighi, Yahya; Moradinejad, Mohammad-Hassan; Fereshteh-Mehregan, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Periodic fever syndromes are a group of diseases characterized by episodes of fever with healthy intervals between febrile episodes. In the first part of this paper, we presented a guideline for approaching patients with periodic fever and reviewed two common disorders with periodic fever in Iranian patients including familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) and periodic fever syndromes except for periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis (PFAPA). In this part, we review other autoinflammatory disorders including hyper IgD, tumor necrosis factor receptor–associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS), cryopyrin associated periodic syndromes, autoinflammatory bone disorders and some other rare autoinflammatory disorders such as Sweet’s and Blau syndromes. In cryopyrin associated periodic syndromes group, we discussed chronic infantile neurologic cutaneous and articular (CINCA) syndrome, Muckle-Wells syndrome and familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome. Autoinflammatory bone disorders are categorized to monogenic disorders such as pyogenic arthritis, pyoderma ;gangraenosum and acne (PAPA) syndrome, the deficiency of interleukine-1 receptor antagonist (DIRA) and Majeed syndrome and polygenic background or sporadic group such as chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) or synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis and osteitis (SAPHO) syndrome are classified in sporadic group. Other autoinflammatory syndromes are rare causes of periodic fever in Iranian system registry. PMID:25562014

  10. Head CT scan in Iranian minor head injury patients: evaluating current decision rules.

    PubMed

    Sadegh, Robab; Karimialavijeh, Ehsan; Shirani, Farzaneh; Payandemehr, Pooya; Bahramimotlagh, Hooman; Ramezani, Mahtab

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study is to select one of the seven available clinical decision rules for minor head injury, for managing Iranian patients. This was a prospective cohort study evaluating medium- or high-risk minor head injury patients presenting to the Emergency Department. Patients with minor head trauma who were eligible for brain imaging based on seven available clinical decision rules (National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE), National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Study (NEXUS)-II, Neurotraumatology Committee of the World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (NCWFNS), New Orleans, American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP) Guideline, Scandinavian, and Canadian computed tomography (CT) head rule) were selected. Subjects were underwent a non-contrast axial spiral head CT scan. The outcome was defined as abnormal and normal head CT scan. Univariate analysis and stepwise linear regression were applied to show the best combination of risk factors for detecting CT scan abnormalities. Five hundred patients with minor head trauma were underwent brain CT scan. The following criteria were derived by stepwise linear regression: Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) less than 15, confusion, signs of basal skull fracture, drug history of warfarin, vomiting more than once, loss of consciousness, focal neurologic deficit, and age over 65 years. This model has 86.15 % (75.33-93.45 %) sensitivity and 46.44 % (46.67-51.25 %) specificity in detecting minor head injury patients with CT scan abnormalities (95 % confidence interval). Of seven decision rules, only the Canadian CT Head Rule possesses seven of the eight high-risk factors associated with abnormal head CT results which were identified by this study. This study underlines the Canadian CT Head Rule's utility in Iranian minor head injury patients. Our study encourages researchers to evaluate available guidelines in different communities. PMID:26407978

  11. Prevalence of hepatic steatosis and associated factors in Iranian patients with chronic hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Poortahmasebi, Vahdat; Emami Aleagha, Mohammad Sajad; Amiri, Mehdi; Qorbani, Mostafa; Farahmand, Mohammad; Asayesh, Hamid; Alavian, Seyed Moayed

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hepatic steatosis is commonly observed in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). Many studies indicate a relationship between steatosis and fibrosis progression. The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of hepatic steatosis and related factors in Iranian CHC patients. Methods: One hundred and fifteen consecutive patients with CHC were enrolled which were treatment- naïve. The patients were divided into groups with and without steatosis according to the result of liver biopsy (58.3% and 41.7%, respectively). Demographic, histological, biochemical and virological factors were examined and compared in all patients. Results: In terms of host factors, body mass index (BMI), triglyceride, fasting blood glucose (FBG), necroinflammatory activity and severity in fibrosis of CHC patients with steatosis was significantly higher than the patients without steatosis. Of viral factors, HCV viral load was not significantly altered in patients with steatosis. Moreover, HCV genotypes did not meet such association. Using multivariate regression analysis, parameters of BMI values, FBG level and stage of fibrosis were independently associated with steatosis. Conclusion: Our data indicate that CHC patients are more susceptible to development of hepatic steatosis. Based on our results, grade of steatosis appears to be associated with hepatic fibrosis progression rate in CHC patients. PMID:27390692

  12. Adherence to prescribed medications of Iranian traditional medicine in a group of patients with chronic disease

    PubMed Central

    Dabaghian, Fataneh Hashem; Rassouli, Maryam; Sadighi, Jila; Ghods, Roshanak

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The extent to which a person's health-related behavior corresponds with medical instructions (adherence) is an important modifier of health system effectiveness. This study was designed to determine the patients’ adherence to Iranian traditional medicine in a group of patients with chronic disease. Methods: Convenience sampling was used to enroll 320 patients with chronic diseases from January 2014 to January 2015 in clinics of traditional medicine affiliated with medical universities in Tehran. Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS) was used to measure the adherence. After describing the variables and the frequency of adherence, logistic regression analysis was used to determine the influencing factors. Findings: Mean age was 40.8 (standard deviation [SD] =13) years. The mean of the duration of disease was 54.6 (SD = 56.1) months and mean of the duration of referring to the clinics 6.5 (SD = 6.9) months. Total score of MMAS was zero in 33 (10.3%) of patients (high adherence), one or two in 128 (40%) of patients (moderate adherence), and more than two in 159 (49.7%) of patients (low adherence). Forgetfulness, bad taste, not availability, and the high cost of the drugs were the most commonly reported causes of non-adherence. Adherence was associated with age (odds ratio [OR] =1.05, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1–1.1), marriage (OR = 10.8, 95% CI 2.05–57.6), number of prescribed drugs (OR = 0.05, 95% CI 0.02–0.14), and duration of disease (OR = 1.01, 95% CI 1–1.02). Conclusion: Considering the low adherence in users of medications of Iranian traditional medicine, health care practitioners need to be trained in adherence and the influencing factors and also to use some interventions to increase the adherence. PMID:26985436

  13. Knowledge of Oral Hygiene among Hemophilic Patients Referred to Iranian Hemophilia Society

    PubMed Central

    Abrisham, Mohammad; Tabrizizadeh, Mehdi; Ghateh, Alireza

    2009-01-01

    Background and aims Hemophilic patients are faced with poor oral hygiene due to concerns about their dental care. The present study assessed the knowledge of hemophilic patients about oral hygiene and the effect of oral hygiene instruction in patients referred to Iranian Hemophilia Society. Materials and methods This cross-sectional study was carried out on 30 hemophilic patients randomly selected from volunteer patients referred to Iran Hemophilia Center. The study was performed by means of a questionnaire submitted to subjects before and after the instructional brochure submission. The questionnaire included demographic data and items regarding hemophilia and oral hygiene. Data was analyzed with McNemar test and paired t-test. Results The mean age of the patients was 21 years; 27 (90%) were males and 3 ones (10%) were females. They were mostly A hemophilia infected. Most patients enjoyed fair knowledge of oral hygiene. Changes in knowledge after reading the bro-chure were significant regarding the appropriate time to replace the toothbrush (P < 0.01), necessary visits for tooth examina-tions (P < 0.04), adjunctive methods of caries prevention (P < 0.001) and factors related to bleeding (P < 0.01); other factors improved slightly without significant changes. Conclusion The knowledge of hemophilic patients was fair regarding oral hygiene while some relevant factors improved after instructions. However, more instruction is needed in order to attain more improvement in some behaviors. PMID:23230484

  14. Fatigue and Depression in Iranian Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Patients in Tehran in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Nazemi, Maryam; Raad, Marjan Hassani; Arzoomanian, Christineh Serob; Ghasemzadeh, Azizreza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease with a progressive and rapid course. Fatigue and depression are common among ALS patients. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between depression and fatigue in Iranian ALS patients. Methods In this 2012 cross-sectional study, 40 ALS patients, including 22 females and 18 males, were selected through consecutive relapsing-remitting, and 40 age- and gender-matched health controls (HCs) were recruited from Loghman Hakim Hospital in Tehran, Iran. The Persian version of the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS-Per) questionnaire and depression substance of Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were used to assess fatigue and depression. Data were analyzed using the Kolmogorov-Sminov Test, Levene’s test, Independent Samples t-test, and Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient. Results We identified a significant and positive relationship between fatigue and depression in patients with ALS (p=0.000). Furthermore, the scores of fatigue and depression in ALS patients were higher than in non-ALS patients. Conclusion The results indicated that there was a relationship between fatigue and depression in ALS patients and that early intervention services can improve these symptoms. Further studies are suggested to investigate the direction of such relationship. PMID:27123230

  15. Mutations of the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene in Iranian patients with phenylketonuria.

    PubMed

    Biglari, Alireza; Saffari, Fatemeh; Rashvand, Zahra; Alizadeh, Safarali; Najafipour, Reza; Sahmani, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an autosomal recessive disease which results from mutations in the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene. The aim of this study was the identification of sixteen different mutations in Iranian patients with hyperphenylalaninemia. The mutations were detected during the characterization of PAH genotypes of 39 PKU patients from Qazvin and Zanjan provinces of Iran. PAH mutations have been analyzed by PCR and direct sequencing of PCR products of the promoter region and all 13 exons of PAH gene, including the splicing sites. A mutation detection rate of 74.3 % was realized. Two mutations were found at high frequencies: R176X (10.25 %) and p.P281L (10.25 %). The frequencies of the other mutations were: IVS2+5G>A (2.56 %), IVS2+5G>C (2.56 %), p.L48S (2.56 %), p.R243Q (2.56 %), p.R252Q (5.12 %), p.R261Q (7.69 %), p.R261X (5.12 %), p.E280K (2.56 %), p.I283N (2.56 %), IVS9+5G>A (2.56 %), IVS9+1G>A (1.28 %), IVS11+1G>C (1.28 %), p.C357R (1.28 %), c.632delC (2.56 %). The present results confirm the high heterogeneity of the PAH locus and contribute to information about the distribution and frequency of PKU mutations in the Iranian population. PMID:26413448

  16. Serum uric acid level in normal pregnant and preeclamptic ladies: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Pramanik, T; Khatiwada, B; Pradhan, P

    2014-09-01

    Preeclampsia is a serious pregnancy complication characterized by hypertension, proteinuria with or without pathological edema. According to some studies, serum uric acid lacks sensitivity and specificity as a diagnostic tool whereas another group of the researchers indicated uricemia as a predictor of preeclampsia in pregnant ladies. The present study was designed to assess whether serum uric acid can be used as a biochemical indicator or not in preeclamptic patients. Pre-eclamptic patients admitted in Nepal Medical College Teaching Hospital from June 2012 to June 2013 were included in this study. Age matched normal healthy pregnant ladies served as control. The record of their blood pressure and serum uric acid level was evaluated. Results showed significantly high blood pressure [SBP 149.42±12.35 vs 109.00±7.93 mm Hg; DBP 96.85±8.32 vs 72.5±7.10 mm Hg], and serum uric acid level [6.27±1.37 vs 4.27±0.61 mg/dl] in pre-eclamptic patients compared to their healthy counterparts. Uric acid is a terminal metabolite of the degradation of nucleotides, which increases their blood levels in patients with preeclampsia increasing its synthesis by damage and death of trophoblastic cells and proliferation. Uricemia in preeclampsia likely results from reduced uric acid clearance from diminished glomerular filtration, increased tubular reabsorption and decreased secretion. Results of the present study indicated association of elevated serum uric acid level with preeclampsia which could be used as a biochemical indicator of preeclampsia in pregnant women. PMID:25799807

  17. Knowledge of attitude toward experience and satisfaction with electroconvulsive therapy in a sample of Iranian patients.

    PubMed

    Malekian, Azadeh; Amini, Zahra; Maracy, Mohammad Reza; Barekatain, Majid

    2009-06-01

    Despite the wide consensus over the safety and efficacy of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), it still faces negative publicity and unfavorable attitudes of patients and families. Little is known about how the experience with ECT affects the patients' and their families' attitude toward it. The aim of this study was to examine a sample of Iranian patients and their families regarding their experience with ECT and to compare their knowledge and attitude toward ECT before and after this experience and their satisfaction with it. We surveyed 22 patients with major depressive disorder about to undergo ECT and 1 family member of each patient for their knowledge and attitude toward ECT and then surveyed them again after the trial of ECT to compare those variables while assessing their experience and satisfaction with ECT. Patients were rated using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Mini-Mental Status Examination before and after the treatment. We found that, before ECT, family members had a more favorable attitude toward ECT than patients, but after ECT, the patients' attitude changed more positively compared with their families. Both patients and their families had a poor knowledge of ECT before the ECT trial, but their total knowledge increased afterward, although not in the areas of indications and therapeutic effects. The majority of patients and their families found ECT to be beneficial and were satisfied with it. Satisfaction with ECT was independent of treatment outcome. There was a high rate of perceived coercion to consent to ECT. Attention should be paid toward educating patients and their families about the ECT process, indications, risks, safety, and effects as well as informing them about their freedom of choice and right to refuse. PMID:18708944

  18. Methyl-CpG-Binding Protein 2 (MECP2) Polymorphism in Iranian Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Alesaeidi, Samira; Karami, Jafar; Mahmoudi, Mahdi; Akbarian, Mahmoud; Poursani, Shiva; Amirzadeh, Azadeh; Haddadi, Nazgol-Sadat; Saffari, Elahe; Jamshidi, Ahmad Reza

    2015-12-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease which involves many organs and presents with various symptoms. It has been shown that genetic and environmental factors play a major role in this disease and may affect the onset, activity, damage, and mortality of the disease. According to recent studies, methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) has been associated with SLE in various populations. Herein, we studied MECP2 polymorphism in Iranian lupus patients and controls. The study included a total of 884 samples of Iranian ancestry (492 independent SLE patients and 392 unrelated healthy controls). Healthy controls were gender-, ethnic-, and age-matched with the patients. Patient and control samples were genotyped for rs1734787, rs1734791, rs1734792, and rs17435 by applying the Allelic Discrimination Real-Time PCR System. Our results showed a significant association between rs1734787 and rs1734791 SNPs and the risk of SLE in the Iranian population (p = 0.028, p = 0.028), but did not show any significant association with rs1734792 and rs17435 SNPs (p = 075, p = 0.75). The rs1734787 C and the rs1734791 T allele frequencies in the patients were significantly higher than the control group (p = 0.014, p = 0.012). In addition, a significant CTAT haplotype frequency was observed in cases with SLE (p = 0.012), and a significant AAAT haplotype frequency was observed in the control group (p = 0.0003). However, there was no significant association between genotype frequencies and SLE patients. Also, there was no significant association between these SNPs and clinical features. The result of this study suggests that polymorphism in the MECP2 locus is associated with the susceptibility of Iranian SLE patients. PMID:26156810

  19. Psychometric properties of the national eye institute refractive error correction quality-of-life questionnaire among Iranian patients

    PubMed Central

    Pakpour, Amir H.; Zeidi, Isa Mohammadi; Saffari, Mohsen; Labiris, Georgios; Fridlund, Bengt

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aim: To evaluate the psychometric properties of the national Eye Institute refractive error correction quality of life questionnaire (NEI-RQL-42) among Iranian patients with refractive errors. Materials and Methods: Two samples of patients (n1 = 296, n2 = 95) were consecutively selected from the eye clinic of the Boo-Ali Hospital, Qazvin. A forward-backward procedure was conducted to translate and cross-culturally adapt the Iranian version of the NEI-RQL-42. A homogeneity, stability, and reliability test was conducted for the first sample after a two-week interval. Convergent validity was computed using the correlation between the NEI-RQL-42 subscale scores, National Eye Institute-Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ-25), and the Short Form-36 (SF-36). Furthermore, Known-group analysis was performed, to determine the discriminant validity between the subgroups of patients with hyperopia, emmetropia, and myopia. Responsiveness to clinical change was tested by administering NEI-RQL-42 on the second sample that was scheduled for surgery. Results: Homogeneity was satisfactory with the Cronbach’s alpha coefficients ranging between 0.70 and 0.92. The 13 subscales of the NEI-RQL-42 showed a considerable stability in intra-class-correlation (ICC) ranging between 0.70 and 0.89. Positive correlation coefficients were found among all subscales of the NEI-RQL-42 and the other quality-of-life instruments (NEI-VFQ-25 and SF-36). The NEI-VFQ-25 displayed excellent discriminant validity to differentiate the subgroups of patients, and was found to be responsive to change after the surgical correction at three months. Conclusions: The Iranian version of the NEI-RQL-42 is a valid and reliable instrument to assess refractive error correction quality-of-life in Iranian patients. Moreover this questionnaire can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions in patients with refractive errors. PMID:23772124

  20. Association of IL-13 single nucleotide polymorphisms in Iranian patients to multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Seyfizadeh, Narges; Kazemi, Tohid; Farhoudi, Mehdi; Aliparasti, Mohammad Reza; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Almasi, Shohreh; Babaloo, Zohreh

    2014-01-01

    MS is an autoimmune disease and interleukin 13 (IL-13) has been proposed to be an important neuroprotective mediator in MS. Because of plausible effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in expression level or biological activity of any cytokine, we sought to investigate association of IL-13 SNPs, C-1112T, A-1512C and G+2044A, with risk to MS. Sixty-eight RRMS patients and 110 healthy controls were involved in this study. After extraction of genomic DNA, frequency of genotypes and alleles were determined by PCR-RFLP and data were analyzed statistically. Results showed significant higher frequency of CC, CC, and AA genotypes and C, C, and A alleles of -1112CT, -1512AC and +2044GA SNPs respectively, in patients group. There was significant association between -1112C allele with onset age of MS. No significant association was seen between any of genotypes or alleles with expanded disability status scale (EDSS) of patients. Our findings showed significant association between three studied SNPs of IL-13 with susceptibility to MS in Iranian patients. More studies should be done on other IL-13 SNPs, and also polymorphisms of IL-13 receptor and other cytokines to determine the exact role of SNPs in protecting or predisposing of individuals for MS. PMID:25628961

  1. Safety and feasibility of intravenous thrombolytic therapy in Iranian patients with acute ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Aghaei, Mahboubeh; Motamed, Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    Background Thrombolytic therapy is the only approved treatment for acute cerebral ischemia. The hemorrhagictransformation is the greatest complication of this treatment, which may occur after recanalization of occludedartery. The aim of this study was to determine factors associated with clinical improvement and worseningin patients with acute ischemic stroke treated with intravenous thrombolysis. Methods Thirty seven patients who were treated with intravenous thrombolysis between August 2010 andAugust 2012 who had the inclusion criteria were studied. In this prospective study, all of the admitted patients instroke unit, monitored for at least 48 hours. We registered all patients’ information in a stroke data registry andfollowed them for at least 6 months. Results Thirty seven patients with acute ischemic stroke who treated with recombinant tissue plasminogenactivator (r-TPA) were studied. There were hemorrhagic transformations in 9 (24%) patients. Seven of them(18%) revealed intracerebral hemorrhages (ICH) within the control brain CT after 24 hours without any deteriorationof neurologic symptoms (asymptomatic ICH). Although outcomes of patients with symptomatic post r-TPA hemorrhages were worse than non-hemorrhagic post r-TPA patients, there were no significant differencesbetween asymptomatic post r-TPA hemorrhages and non-hemorrhagic post r-TPA patients, according to theNational Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) at admission (p = 0.2), after 24 hours (p= 0.07) and after 7days (p= 0.06) post treatment. Conclusion If the r-TPA protocol is followed carefully, the risk of symptomatic hemorrhage is low (about7%). Taking r-TPA was feasible and safe in our study population; thus, it can be applied for other Iranian patients. PMID:24791120

  2. Study of alloimmunization and autoimmunization in Iranian β-thalassemia major patients

    PubMed Central

    Davari, Kambiz; Soltanpour, Mohammad Soleiman

    2016-01-01

    Background: Thalassemia is one of the most common monogenic disorders characterized by reduced production of globin chains. Although regular red blood cell (RBC) transfusion support is the main treatment for these patients, it may be associated with complications such as RBC alloimmunization. Aim: The study aimed to determine the incidence of alloimmunization and autoimmunization to RBC antigens in β-thalassemia major patients from Zanjan, Zanjan Province, Iran. Materials and Methods: A total of 49 β-thalassemia major patients comprising 24 females and 25 males (mean age: 18.59 ± 8.16 years; range: 2-40 years) from Northwest Iran were included in a cross-sectional study. Alloantibody screening and identification were done using 3-cell and 10-cell reagent red blood cells, respectively. Autoantibody detection was performed using direct Coomb's test. Results: The incidence of alloimmunization was 16.32% with 10 alloantibodies identified in 8 patients. The most common clinically significant alloantibody identified in alloimmunized patients was anti-Kell (K-antigen) (60%) followed by anti-Rhesus (Rh) (E, c-antigens). The rate of alloimmunization was significantly lower in patients transfused with leukoreduced RBCs compared with those transfused with nonleukoreduced RBCs (9.53% vs 57.14%, P = 0.001). There was no significant correlation between alloantibody formation and the age, gender, hemoglobin levels, number of transfused units, and splenectomy. Conclusion: Transfusion of leukoreduced and phenotypically matched red blood cells for Kell (K) and Rh (E, c) antigens may help reduce the alloimmunization rate in Iranian β-thalassemia major patients. Moreover, autoimmunization to RBC antigens was rare in our patients. PMID:27011679

  3. The First Macrolide-Resistant Bordetella pertussis Strains Isolated From Iranian Patients

    PubMed Central

    Shahcheraghi, Fereshteh; Nakhost Lotfi, Masoumeh; Nikbin, Vajiheh Sadat; Shooraj, Fahimeh; Azizian, Reza; Parzadeh, Masoumeh; Allahyar Torkaman, Mohammad Reza; Zahraei, Seyed Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Whooping cough was considered as one of the major causes of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. Resistant isolates of Bordetella pertussis to macrolides in some countries have been recently reported. Objectives: Recent reports on macrolide-resistant B. pertussis isolates and lack of evidence for such resistance in clinical isolates of the Iranian patients led the authors of the current study to study antibiotic susceptibility of the collected isolates in the country. Susceptibility of the B. pertussis isolates to three antibiotics was studied. Relatedness of the strains recovered in this research was also examined. Materials and Methods: The antibacterial activities of erythromycin, azithromycin, and clarithromycin antibiotics against the recovered isolates of 779 nasopharyngeal swabs were examined using MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration) method. Relationship of the strains was characterized by Pulsed-field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Results: Among the specimens, 11 cases (1.4%) were culture-positive. Among these isolates, only two isolates had high MIC values for erythromycin and clarithromycin. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of the isolates revealed 6 PFGE profiles (A-F) among which three and two isolates had the same patterns in profiles A and B, respectively. Conclusions: Azithromycin can be a good drug of choice to treat patients infected by B. pertussis in Iran. Clonal relationship of the isolates showed that the same B. pertussis strains were isolated from different patients in Iran. PMID:25371806

  4. Giving information to family members of patients in the intensive care unit: Iranian nurses' ethical approaches.

    PubMed

    Farahani, Mansoureh A; Gaeeni, Mina; Mohammadi, Nooreddin; Seyedfatemi, Naima

    2014-01-01

    Receiving information related to patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit is among the most important needs of the family members of such patients. When health care professionals should decide whether to be honest or to give hope, giving information becomes an ethical challenge We conducted a research to study the ethical approaches of Iranian nurses to giving information to the family members of patients in the intensive care units. This research was conducted in the intensive care units of three teaching hospitals in Iran. It employed a qualitative approach involving semi-structured and in-depth interviews with a purposive sample of 12 nurses to identify the ethical approaches to giving information to family members of the intensive care unit patients. A conventional content analysis of the data produced two categories and five subcategories. The two categories were as follows: a) informational support, and b) emotional support. Informational support had 2 subcategories consisting of being honest in giving information, and providing complete and understandable information. Emotional support in giving information had 3 sub-categories consisting of gradual revelation, empathy and assurance. Findings of the study indicated that ethical approaches to giving information can be in the form of either informational support or emotional support, based on patients' conditions and prognoses, their families' emotional state, the necessity of providing a calm atmosphere in the ICU and the hospital, and other patients and their families' peace. Findings of the present study can be used as a basis for further studies and for offering ethical guidelines in giving information to the families of patients hospitalized in the ICU. PMID:25512830

  5. No Evidence of Human Herpesvirus 8 among Iranian Patients Infected with HIV

    PubMed Central

    RAMEZANI, Amitis; SABOORI, Elham; AZADMANESH, Kayhan; MOHRAZ, Minoo; KAZEMIMANESH, Monireh; KARAMI, Afsaneh; BANIFAZL, Mohammad; GOLCHEHREGAN, Hanieh; AGHAKHANI, Arezoo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Kaposi’s sarcoma is a vascular malignancy, which frequently occurs among immunocompromised individuals such as transplant recipients and patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) is considered the etiological agent of all forms of Kaposi’s sarcoma. Though some seroepidemiological studies conducted on the prevalence of HHV-8 in Iran, there are insufficient data on the prevalence of HHV-8 viremia in HIV infected patients. We therefore, aimed to determine the prevalence of HHV-8 viremia in general population and HIV infected patients without Kaposi’s sarcoma in Tehran, Iran. Methods: We conducted a cross sectional survey on 99 patients with HIV infection referred to Iranian Research Center for HIV/AIDS and 40 healthy controls in Tehran, Iran from January to April 2014. The presence of HHV-8 DNA was detected in buffy coat samples of enrolled subjects using nested PCR assay. Results: A total of 99 HIV infected patients with mean age of 37.9±10 yr and 40 healthy controls with mean age of 39±11.5 yr were enrolled in the study. The mean CD4 count was 410.3± 211.4 cells/mm3. HHV-8 DNA was not detected in both healthy control and HIV patient groups. Conclusion: This survey showed low rate of HHV-8 DNA in healthy controls and HIV patients. Considering our findings HHV-8 infection does not seem to be widespread in our population. Further studies focusing on different regions of Iran appear to be required to have a more accurate estimation. PMID:27517001

  6. Nutrient-rich versus nutrient-poor foods for depressed patients based on Iranian Traditional Medicine resources

    PubMed Central

    Tavakkoli-Kakhki, Mandana; Eslami, Saeid; Motavasselian, Malihe

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Considering the positive effects of certain nutrients on depression, increasingly prevalent in the contemporary societies, we investigated the nutritional content of prescribed and prohibited foodstuffs for depressed patients in Iranian Traditional Medicine resources. Materials and Methods: In order to conduct the study, credible sources of Iranian Traditional Medicine were primarily reviewed for the prescribed and prohibited foodstuffs for depressed patients. USDA database, as a well-known and valuable source, was then visited to determine the amount of effective nutrients in each foodstuff. Finally, the obtained amounts were compared with each other in three food groups, namely vegetables, fruits and nuts and also high protein products. Results: In Iranian Traditional Medicine texts, the following are prescribed for depression management: basil, coriander, spinach, lettuce, squash, peppermint, dill, chicory, celery, chard, quince, cucumber, watermelon, grape, peach, pomegranate, banana, apple, currant, pistachio, dried fig, almond, egg, chicken, lamb, and trout; cabbage, eggplant, onion, garlic, broad beans, lentils, and beef, meanwhile, are prohibited. In this regard, the effective nutritional content of these foodstuffs was obtained and then compared in the three food groups. Conclusion: This study revealed that spinach, lettuce, chicory, and squash (vegetables), pomegranate and almond (fruits and nuts) and ultimately trout (high protein products) are the best effective foodstuffs on depressed patients from nutritional content aspect. PMID:26445711

  7. Giving information to family members of patients in the intensive care unit: Iranian nurses’ ethical approaches

    PubMed Central

    Farahani, Mansoureh A; Gaeeni, Mina; Mohammadi, Nooreddin; Seyedfatemi, Naima

    2014-01-01

    Receiving information related to patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit is among the most important needs of the family members of such patients. When health care professionals should decide whether to be honest or to give hope, giving information becomes an ethical challenge We conducted a research to study the ethical approaches of Iranian nurses to giving information to the family members of patients in the intensive care units. This research was conducted in the intensive care units of three teaching hospitals in Iran. It employed a qualitative approach involving semi-structured and in-depth interviews with a purposive sample of 12 nurses to identify the ethical approaches to giving information to family members of the intensive care unit patients. A conventional content analysis of the data produced two categories and five subcategories. The two categories were as follows: a) informational support, and b) emotional support. Informational support had 2 subcategories consisting of being honest in giving information, and providing complete and understandable information. Emotional support in giving information had 3 sub-categories consisting of gradual revelation, empathy and assurance. Findings of the study indicated that ethical approaches to giving information can be in the form of either informational support or emotional support, based on patients’ conditions and prognoses, their families’ emotional state, the necessity of providing a calm atmosphere in the ICU and the hospital, and other patients and their families’ peace. Findings of the present study can be used as a basis for further studies and for offering ethical guidelines in giving information to the families of patients hospitalized in the ICU. PMID:25512830

  8. Vitamin D and Inflammatory Cytokines in Healthy and Preeclamptic Pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Barrera, David; Díaz, Lorenza; Noyola-Martínez, Nancy; Halhali, Ali

    2015-08-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy disease characterized by hypertension and proteinuria. Among several disorders, the imbalance of inflammatory cytokines and the alteration of vitamin D metabolism have been reported in preeclampsia. The effects of calcitriol upon inflammatory cytokines has been demonstrated. In healthy pregnant women there is a shift toward a Th2 cytokine profile, which is necessary for an adequate pregnancy outcome. As compared with normal pregnancy, high pro-inflammatory and low anti-inflammatory cytokine levels have been observed in preeclamptic women. Preeclampsia has been associated with low calcitriol levels and vitamin D deficiency is correlated with a higher risk of the development of this disease. It has been demonstrated that placenta is a source as well as the target of calcitriol and cytokines and placental dysfunction has been associated with preeclampsia. Therefore, the present manuscript includes a review about serum calcitriol levels in non-pregnant, pregnant, and preeclamptic women as well as a review on the fetoplacental vitamin D metabolism in healthy and preeclamptic pregnancies. In addition, circulating and fetoplacental inflammatory cytokines in healthy and preeclamptic pregnancies are reviewed. Finally, the effects of calcitriol upon placental pro-inflammatory cytokines are also explored. In conclusion, maternal and placental calcitriol levels are low in preeclampsia which may explain, at least in part, high pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in this disease. PMID:26247971

  9. Vitamin D and Inflammatory Cytokines in Healthy and Preeclamptic Pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Barrera, David; Díaz, Lorenza; Noyola-Martínez, Nancy; Halhali, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy disease characterized by hypertension and proteinuria. Among several disorders, the imbalance of inflammatory cytokines and the alteration of vitamin D metabolism have been reported in preeclampsia. The effects of calcitriol upon inflammatory cytokines has been demonstrated. In healthy pregnant women there is a shift toward a Th2 cytokine profile, which is necessary for an adequate pregnancy outcome. As compared with normal pregnancy, high pro-inflammatory and low anti-inflammatory cytokine levels have been observed in preeclamptic women. Preeclampsia has been associated with low calcitriol levels and vitamin D deficiency is correlated with a higher risk of the development of this disease. It has been demonstrated that placenta is a source as well as the target of calcitriol and cytokines and placental dysfunction has been associated with preeclampsia. Therefore, the present manuscript includes a review about serum calcitriol levels in non-pregnant, pregnant, and preeclamptic women as well as a review on the fetoplacental vitamin D metabolism in healthy and preeclamptic pregnancies. In addition, circulating and fetoplacental inflammatory cytokines in healthy and preeclamptic pregnancies are reviewed. Finally, the effects of calcitriol upon placental pro-inflammatory cytokines are also explored. In conclusion, maternal and placental calcitriol levels are low in preeclampsia which may explain, at least in part, high pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in this disease. PMID:26247971

  10. Chromosome abnormality rate among Iranian patients with idiopathic mental retardation from consanguineous marriages

    PubMed Central

    Behjati, Farkhondeh; Ghasemi Firouzabadi, Saghar; Kahrizi, Kimia; Kariminejad, Roxana; Bagherizadeh, Iman; Ansari, Javad; Fallah, Masoumeh; Mojtahedi, Forough; Darvish, Hossein; Bahrami Monajemi, Gholamreza; Abedini, S. Sedigheh; Jamali, Payman; Mojahedi, Faezeh; Zadeh-Vakili, Azita; Najmabadi, Hossein

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Mental retardation (MR) has heterogeneous aetiology mostly with genetic causes. Chromosomal aberrations are one of the most common causes of MR. Reports on chromosome abnormality rate among consanguineous families are sparse. In order to identify the chromosome abnormality rate in idiopathic mental retardation from consanguineous marriages, a total of 322 Iranian families with positive family history for MR were investigated in the Genetics Research Center. Material and methods In the majority of families (92%) at least two sibs were affected with MR and none had specific chromosomal syndromes such as Down syndrome. Standard cytogenetic techniques using high resolution GTG banding were carried out on all the patients. Results The overall chromosome abnormality rate contributing to mental retardation was 1.24% (4 cases), which comprised 46,XY,der(18)t(4;18)(q31.1;q23)mat; 45,XY,-21,-22,+der(22)t(21;22)(q21.1;q13.33)mat; 46,XY,rec(2)dup(2p)inv(2)(p25.1q37.3)pat, and 46,XY,der(11)t(10;11)(q25.2;q25)pat. Conclusions Although the most likely genetic cause of mental retardation in patients with consanguineous parents is autosomal recessive, the fact that 1.24% of our patients had chromosomal abnormalities emphasizes the importance of cytogenetic investigation as the first laboratory genetic tests for all MR patients. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the rate of chromosome abnormality among patients with idiopathic mental retardation from consanguineous marriages. PMID:22291774

  11. Controlled Blood Pressure in Iranian Patients: A Multi-Center Report.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Ezzatollah; Behnood-Rod, Azin; Aerab-Sheibani, Hossein; Shobeiri, Elham; Pourzargar, Pirouz; Ormoz, Ehsan; Sadigh, Nader; Moharamzad, Yashar

    2016-04-01

    We decided to determine the percentage of hypertensive patients whose blood pressure (BP) measurements were within recommended controlled range and to identify predictive factors for controlled BP. In this study carried out in 2014, 280 patients were included consecutively through sampling from both university and private medical centers/pharmacies in four Iranian cities. Demographic data as well as information about duration of HTN and prescribed medications, admission to emergency department (ED) because of HTN crisis, comorbidities, and control of HTN during the last 6 months by a healthcare provider were gathered. Adherence to anti-hypertensives was also determined using the validated Persian version of the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8). Controlled BP was defined as systolic BP< 140 and diastolic BP< 90 mmHg in non-diabetics and < 130/80 mmHg in diabetics. Of 280 patients, 122 subjects (43.6%) had controlled BP. Among 55 diabetics, only two patients (3.6%) had controlled BP. Multiple logistic regression revealed the following variables as significant predictors of controlled BP: higher MMAS-8 score (adjusted odds ratio (OR)= 1.19, P= 0.03), fewer number of comorbid conditions (adjusted OR= 0.71, P = 0.03), having occupation as clerk/military personnel (adjusted OR= 1.03, P= 0.04), and not having history of ED admission during the last 6 months because of HTN crisis (adjusted OR= 2.11, P= 0.01). Considerable number of the studied patients had uncontrolled BP. Regarding the dramatic consequences of uncontrolled high BP in long term, it is advisable that careful attention by health care providers to the aforementioned factors could raise the likelihood of achieving controlled BP. PMID:26573037

  12. Factors Affecting Hemodialysis Adequacy in Cohort of Iranian Patient with End Stage Renal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Shahdadi, Hosein; Balouchi, Abbas; Sepehri, Zahra; Rafiemanesh, Hosein; Magbri, Awad; Keikhaie, Fereshteh; Shahakzehi, Ahmad; Sarjou, Azizullah Arbabi

    2016-01-01

    Background: There are many factors that can affect dialysis adequacy; such as the type of vascular access, filter type, device used, and the dose, and rout of erythropoietin stimulation agents (ESA) used. The aim of this study was investigating factors affecting Hemodialysis adequacy in cohort of Iranian patient with end stage renal disease (ESRD). Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted on 133 Hemodialysis patients referred to two dialysis units in Sistan-Baluchistan province in the cities of Zabol and Iranshahr, Iran. We have looked at, (the effects of the type of vascular access, the filter type, the device used, and the dose, route of delivery, and the type of ESA used) on Hemodialysis adequacy. Dialysis adequacy was calculated using kt/v formula, two-part information questionnaire including demographic data which also including access type, filter type, device used for hemodialysis (HD), type of Eprex injection, route of administration, blood groups and hemoglobin response to ESA were utilized. The data was analyzed using the SPSS v16 statistical software. Descriptive statistical methods, Mann-Whitney statistical test, and multiple regressions were used when applicable. Results: The range of calculated dialysis adequacy is 0.28 to 2.39 (units of adequacy of dialysis). 76.7% of patients are being dialyzed via AVF and 23.3% of patients used central venous catheters (CVC). There was no statistical significant difference between dialysis adequacy, vascular access type, device used for HD (Fresenius and B. Braun), and the filter used for HD (p> 0.05). However, a significant difference was observed between the adequacy of dialysis and Eprex injection and patients’ time of dialysis (p <0.05). Conclusion: Subcutaneous ESA (Eprex) injection and dialysis shift (being dialyzed in the morning) can have positive impact on dialysis adequacy. Patients should be educated on the facts that the type of device used for HD and the vascular access used has no

  13. Controlled Blood Pressure in Iranian Patients: A Multi-Center Report

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Ezzatollah; Behnood-Rod, Azin; Aerab-Sheibani, Hossein; Shobeiri, Elham; Pourzargar, Pirouz; Ormoz, Ehsan; Sadigh, Nader; Moharamzad, Yashar

    2016-01-01

    We decided to determine the percentage of hypertensive patients whose blood pressure (BP) measurements were within recommended controlled range and to identify predictive factors for controlled BP. In this study carried out in 2014, 280 patients were included consecutively through sampling from both university and private medical centers/pharmacies in four Iranian cities. Demographic data as well as information about duration of HTN and prescribed medications, admission to emergency department (ED) because of HTN crisis, comorbidities, and control of HTN during the last 6 months by a healthcare provider were gathered. Adherence to anti-hypertensives was also determined using the validated Persian version of the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8). Controlled BP was defined as systolic BP< 140 and diastolic BP< 90 mmHg in non-diabetics and < 130/80 mmHg in diabetics. Of 280 patients, 122 subjects (43.6%) had controlled BP. Among 55 diabetics, only two patients (3.6%) had controlled BP. Multiple logistic regression revealed the following variables as significant predictors of controlled BP: higher MMAS-8 score (adjusted odds ratio (OR)= 1.19, P= 0.03), fewer number of comorbid conditions (adjusted OR= 0.71, P = 0.03), having occupation as clerk/military personnel (adjusted OR= 1.03, P= 0.04), and not having history of ED admission during the last 6 months because of HTN crisis (adjusted OR= 2.11, P= 0.01). Considerable number of the studied patients had uncontrolled BP. Regarding the dramatic consequences of uncontrolled high BP in long term, it is advisable that careful attention by health care providers to the aforementioned factors could raise the likelihood of achieving controlled BP. PMID:26573037

  14. The likelihood ratio and frequency of DQ2/DQ8 haplotypes in Iranian patients with celiac disease

    PubMed Central

    Khosravi, Asghar; Mansouri, Masoume; Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad; Shahbazkhani, Bijan; Ekhlasi, Golnaz; Kalantari, Ebrahim

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the likelihood ratio and frequency of DQ2 and DQ8 in Iranian patients with celiac disease (CD). Background: The HLA DQ2 and HLA DQ8 are the important mediators in the development of celiac disease. A few studies evaluated the frequency of HLA DQ2 and HLA DQ8 haplotypes among the Iranian population with low sample size. Patients and methods: In this cross-sectional study, to predict HLA–DQ2 and DQ8 haplotypes, 141(73 male, 78 female) confirmed CD patients compared to 151 healthy controls were enrolled into this study during 2013-2014. HLA DQ2/ DQ8 haplotypes was determined in cases and controls using PCR-SSP technique. Results: DQ2 and DQ8 were positive in 80% (n=111) and 49% (n= 69) of CD patients and 36% (n=61) and 13% (n=21) of control group respectively. Moreover, 32% (n=45) of CD patients and 5.3% (n=8) of the control group were carrier of both haplotypes. In the case group about one-third of patients (32.2%) were positive for carrying both DQ2 and DQ8 heterodimers while only 5.3% (n=8) of the control group were carrier. In addition, the positive likelihood ratio of DQ2 and DQ8 were 1.74 (CI: 1.4- 2.1), and 2.6 (CI: 1.8– 2.7), respectively. Conclusion: The result of this study showed that the frequency of DQ8 among our population is higher than those reported by European countries, but it is close to those founded in South America and Middle East. This result suggests that the higher prevalence of HLA DQ8 pattern in Iranian CD patients is similar to non-European patients. PMID:26744610

  15. Enhancement of the HIF-1α/15-LO/15-HETE Axis Promotes Hypoxia-Induced Endothelial Proliferation in Preeclamptic Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qian; Zhang, Yanhua; Li, Huiying; Li, Peiling; Zhu, Daling

    2014-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is an extremely serious condition in pregnant women and the leading cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Despite active research, the etiological factors of this disorder remain elusive. The increased release of 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE) in the placenta of preeclamptic patients has been studied, but its exact role in PE pathogenesis remains unknown. Mounting evidence shows that PE is associated with placental hypoxia, impaired placental angiogenesis, and endothelial dysfunction. In this study, we confirmed the upregulated expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and 15-lipoxygenase-1/2 (15-LO-1/2) in patients with PE. Production of the arachidonic acid metabolite, 15-HETE, also increased in the preeclamptic placenta, which suggests enhanced activation of the HIF-1α–15-LO–15-HETE axis. Furthermore, this study is the first to show that the umbilical cord of preeclamptic women contains significantly higher serum concentrations of 15-HETE than that of healthy pregnant women. The results also show that expression of 15-LO-1/2 is upregulated in both human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) collected from preeclamptic women and in those cultured under hypoxic conditions. Exogenous 15-HETE promotes the migration of HUVECs and in vitro tube formation and promotes cell cycle progression from the G0/G1 phase to the G2/M + S phase, whereas the 15-LO inhibitor, NDGA, suppresses these effects. The HIF-1α/15-LO/15-HETE pathway is therefore significantly associated within the pathology of PE. PMID:24796548

  16. Disease-Related Variables and Depression Among Iranian Patients with Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Shakeri, Jalal; Chaghazardi, Maryam; Abdoli, Nasrin; Arman, Farid; Hoseini, Seyed Davood; Shakeri, Hania

    2015-01-01

    Background: The factors affecting the correlation between Parkinson disease (PD) and depression have remained unclear. Objectives: We assessed the prevalence of depression among patients with PD and the association between PD-related variables and depression severity. Patients and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study performed in Kermanshah Province of Iran. Sampling was based on recruitment of subjects according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. Patients with confirmed Parkinson disease who were referred to clinics of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences participated in this study. Depression was evaluated with Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). Clinical characteristics of PD, including tremor, rigidity, impaired posture, loss of autonomic movement, changes in speech and handwriting, masked face, and hyposmia were indexed. Anhedonia was assessed with Farsi version of Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale. Data were collected between April 2010 and March 2014. Results: A total of 350 patients (52.9% men and 47.1% women) participated in this investigation. Female gender (36.5% in women vs. 13.0% in men, P < 0.0001), impaired posture (27.2% in affected individuals vs. 18.8%, P = 0.002), masked face (39.0% vs. 5.2%, P < 0.0001), and hyposmia (48.7% vs. 21.0%, P = 0.001) were associated with higher susceptibility to profound depression. Lower scores of all domains of Farsi version of Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (including interest/pastimes, social interaction, sensory experience, and food/drink) were related to more severe depression (P < 0.0001 for all subscales). Severe and profound depression was found in 44% of the participants. Conclusions: This study estimated that the prevalence of major depression among Iranian individuals with PD living in Kermanshah as 44%. Major determinants of depression were female gender, rigidity, impaired posture, masked face, hyposmia, and anhedonia. PMID:26568863

  17. Association between Helicobacter pylori and Serum Leptin in Iranian Dyspeptic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hemmasi, Gholamreza; Zamani, Farhad; Khonsari, Mahmoodreza; Sohrabi, Masoudreza; Abdollahi, Nafiseh; Ajdarkosh, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND To investigate any possible relationship between serum leptin level and H. pylori infection in dyspeptic Iranian adults. METHODS A total of 153 dyspeptic patients referring to Firoozgar hospital for esophagogastroduodenoscopy were enrolled in the study. Serum leptin level was measured before endoscopy, after overnight fasting. Two biopsy specimens were taken from antrum for each patient during endoscopy: one to detect H. pylori infection by Rapid Urease Test (RUT) and the other evaluated by an expert pathologist, blind to the RUT results and patients. Serum leptin level was compared between H.pylori-positive negative groups. RESULTS A total of 153 dyspeptic patients with the mean age of 43.2±14.3 years were evaluated. The overall prevalence of H.pylori infection was 49.6%. H.pylori infection was significantly associated with serum leptin level (p<0.001). In addition, we found a significant relationship between serum leptin level and gender (p<0.02). Furthermore, serum leptin level was correlated with age (r=0.17, p=0.0031). However, the H.pylori-positive group was older in comparison to the H.pylori negative group (45.65±13.9 vs. 40.7±14.13, p=0.035). The two groups were not significantly different in terms of gender, height, weight or BMI. CONCLUSION H.pylori infection may influence leptin production. Advanced age might expose the individual to H.pylori infection and consequently influence the leptin level. PMID:24829687

  18. The early efficacy of Heller myotomy in the treatment of Iranian patients with achalasia

    PubMed Central

    Abdi, Saeed; Forotan, Mojgan; Nikzamir, Abdolrahim; Zomorody, Saeedeh; Jahani-Sherafat, Somayeh

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of Heller myotomy for the treatment of achalasia in a referral center in Tehran, and investigate the clinical characteristics, manometric results and treatment responses among three achalasia subtypes in Iranian patients. Background: Esophageal achalasia is an unusual swallowing disorder, characterized by high pressure in the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) on swallowing, failure relaxation of the LES and the absence of peristalsis in esophageal. Patients and methods: In this cross sectional study, clinical symptom and esophageal manometry before and 2 months after treating with Heller myotomy in 20 patients with achalasia who were referred to Taleghani Hospital, Tehran, in 2013 were evaluated. Patients’ demographic, clinical features and response to treatment were analyzed using SPSS software (version 20, Chicago, IL, USA). Results: All the diagnostic criteria measured after the treatment were significantly different (P<0.05) before and after the therapy. The average decline in the length of the esophagus was 1.8 cm and dysphasia score was 7.25 units. Also an average decline in LES Resting Pressure, LES Residual Pressure, PIP, and IRP were 23.2 mmHg, 14.3 mmHg, 3.4 mmHg and 17.8 mmHg, respectively. Conclusion: Results of this study showed that the Heller myotomy is highly effective in relieving dysphasia in patients with achalasia. Also, type II achalasia is the most common subtype of achalasia with a better response to Heller myotomy compared to the other types. PMID:26744612

  19. Prevalence of HLA-B*5701 and Its Relationship with Abacavir Hypersensitivity Reaction in Iranian HIV-Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Baniasadi, Shadi; Shokouhi, Shokoufeh Baradaran; Tabarsi, Payam; Alehashem, Maryam; Khalili, Hossein; Fahimi, Fanak

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hypersensitivity reaction (HSR) is a major adverse effect of abacavir (ABC), which occurs in 5–8% of Caucasians. The relationship between Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) and ABC HSR has been reported in various populations. It has been proposed to administer ABC only to HLA-B*5701 negative patients to avoid this reaction. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of HLA-B*5701 in Iranian HIV positive patients. We also sought to find the relationship between this allele with ABC HSR in patients who received the medication. Materials and Methods: We screened patients for HLA-B*5701 allele using SybrGreen real time PCR-melting method on blood samples from HIV positive patients who were referred to our hospital. The quality of the extracted genome was evaluated by B-globin housekeeping gene as internal control prior to HLA-B*5701 allele screening. Results: Of 198 HIV-infected patients, 6 (3.0%) had the HLA-B*5701 allele (95% CI, 1%–5%). Among the 28 patients who were given ABC, one individual had the HLA-B*5701 allele and experienced ABC HSR. Conclusion: Prevalence of HLA-B*5701 in Iranian patients was lower than that in Caucasians but was comparable with that of other Middle Eastern populations. Screening for HLA-B*5701 before ABC administration as part of antiretroviral therapy may reduce the risk of HSR.

  20. Head and Neck Metastatic Tumors: a Retrospective Survey of Iranian Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sadri, Donia; Azizi, Arash; Farhadi, Sareh; Shokrgozar, Hojjat; Entezari, Navid

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem The head and neck region is an uncommon site for metastatic involvement, but it can be the first and only symptom of primary cancer. The incidence of these tumors and their primary origins are limited in Iranian patients. Purpose Therefore, this retrospective study aimed to investigate the frequency and the common related clinical manifestations, as well as, the most common types of cancers and the prevalent sites of the primary tumor. Materials and Method All medical records related to patients with history of head and neck tumors between 1991 and 2011 at Iran Cancer Institute were evaluated and the essential information was statistically analyzed. Results Sixty cases of cervical lymph node metastasis (0.36%) and 26 cases of head and neck metastatic tumors (0.16%) including 17 cases of distant cancer (0.10%) were recorded among all 16232 registered cancers. Out of all distant head and neck metastatic tumors, 4 cases were related to oral and maxillofacial area. Pain, swelling of neck, oral mucosa ulcer and dryness were the chief complaints. Squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma were the most frequent types of cancers. The most common metastatic sites were cervical musculature, scalp and parotid gland, and the most prevalent sites of primary tumor in females were breast and lung in males. Conclusion According to these cases, the incidence rate of head and neck metastatic tumors seems to be low. However, feasible similarity of clinical presentation of oral metastatic lesions to benign lesions might result in misdiagnosis. Hence, biopsy is mandatory in any case with unusual clinical presentation, especially in patients with a known malignant disease. PMID:25759853

  1. Differential Gene Expression of Heat Shock Protein 90 (Hsp90) of Candida albicans obtained from Malaysian and Iranian Patients

    PubMed Central

    Khalili, Vajihe; Shokri, Hojjatollah; Md Akim, Abdah; Khosravi, Ali Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background Candida albicans (C. albicans) has several virulence factors, in particular heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), which is expressed by Hsp90 gene. The purposes of this study were to assess the expression of Hsp90 gene in clinical and control isolates of C. albicans obtained from different geographical regions (Malaysia and Iran), different temperatures (25°C, 37°C and 42°C) and mice with candidiasis. Methods C. albicans isolates were cultured onto sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA). The assessment of the expression of Hsp90 gene was performed using real time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results The results showed a significant increase in the expression of C. albicans Hsp90 gene under high thermal shock (42°C) when compared to other temperatures tested (P-value = 0.001). The mean differences in the expression of Hsp90 gene at 37°C were 0.20 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.13–0.29) between Malaysian and Iranian controls (P-value = 0.040) and 0.47 (95% CI 0.27–0.60) between Malaysian and Iranian patients (P-value = 0.040). Conclusion The results demonstrated that the expression of C. albicans Hsp90 gene varied between Malaysian and Iranian subjects, representing the efficacy of geographical and thermal conditions on virulence gene expression.

  2. Developing a patient satisfaction questionnaire for services provided in Iranian community pharmacies

    PubMed Central

    Yaghoubifard, Saeed; Rashidian, Arash; Kebriaeezadeh, Abbas; Sheidaei, Ali; Varmaghani, Mehdi; Hashemi-Meshkini, Amir; Zekri, Hedieh-Sadat

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To develop a valid and reliable instrument in the Persian language for evaluating patient satisfaction with services provided in community pharmacies. Methods: We selected a valid and reliable instrument from the literature and translated it to the Persian language. Some new items were added to the first draft based on the special characteristics of the Iranian health system. Then, the feasibility of utilizing the new instrument was assessed. In the third step, we conducted a formal content validity study to calculate content validity indices. Having completed the content validity study, the factorial structure of new instruments was determined by implementing a factorial analysis. Finally, the reliability of the instrument was assessed by assessment of Cronbach's alpha coefficient and test-retest reliability. Findings: The developed instrument demonstrated suitable validity and reliability. The final instrument showed desirable content validity, with inter-rater agreement of 94% and 97% for relevance and clarity, respectively. Scale content validity indices for relevance and clarity were calculated as 96% and 92%, respectively, and comprehensiveness was calculated as 100%. Factor analysis resulted in seven factors with a cumulative variance of 62.14%. In internal consistency reliability, Cronbach's alpha for the whole instrument was 0.912. About test-retest reliability, six items showed almost perfect agreement, 18 items showed substantial agreement, and three items showed moderate agreement. Therefore, test-retest reliability assessment too demonstrated appropriate results. Conclusion: The instrument demonstrated excellent validity and reliability for application in Iran. This instrument is useful for evaluating patient satisfaction with services provided in community pharmacies in the Persian-speaking communities. PMID:27162804

  3. Periodic Fever: a review on clinical, management and guideline for Iranian patients - part I.

    PubMed

    Ahmadinejad, Zahra; Mansori, Sedigeh; Ziaee, Vahid; Alijani, Neda; Aghighi, Yahya; Parvaneh, Nima; Mordinejad, Mohammad-Hassan

    2014-02-01

    Periodic fever syndromes are a group of diseases characterized by episodes of fever with healthy intervals between febrile episodes. The first manifestation of these disorders are present in childhood and adolescence, but infrequently it may be presented in young and middle ages. Genetic base has been known for all types of periodic fever syndromes except periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis (PFAPA). Common periodic fever disorders are Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) and PFAPA. In each patient with periodic fever, acquired infection with chronic and periodic nature should be ruled out. It depends on epidemiology of infectious diseases. Some of them such as Familial Mediterranean fever and PFAPA are common in Iran. In Iran and other Middle East countries, brucellosis, malaria and infectious mononucleosis should be considered in differential diagnosis of periodic fever disorders especially with fever and arthritis manifestation. In children, urinary tract infection may be presented as periodic disorder, urine analysis and culture is necessary in each child with periodic symptoms. Some malignancies such as leukemia and tumoral lesions should be excluded in patients with periodic syndrome and weight loss in any age. After excluding infection, malignancy and cyclic neutropenia, FMF and PFAPA are the most common periodic fever disorders. Similar to other countries, Hyper IgD, Chronic Infantile Neurologic Cutaneous and Articular, TRAPS and other auto-inflammatory syndromes are rare causes of periodic fever in Iranian system registry. In part 1 of this paper we reviewed the prevalence of FMF and PFAPA in Iran. In part 2, some uncommon auto-inflammatory disorders such as TRAPS, Hyper IgD sydrome and cryopyrin associated periodic syndromes will be reviewed. PMID:25793039

  4. Periodic Fever: A Review on Clinical, Management and Guideline for Iranian Patients - Part I

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadinejad, Zahra; Mansori, Sedigeh; Ziaee, Vahid; Alijani, Neda; Aghighi, Yahya; Parvaneh, Nima; Mordinejad, Mohammad-Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Periodic fever syndromes are a group of diseases characterized by episodes of fever with healthy intervals between febrile episodes. The first manifestation of these disorders are present in childhood and adolescence, but infrequently it may be presented in young and middle ages. Genetic base has been known for all types of periodic fever syndromes except periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis (PFAPA). Common periodic fever disorders are Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) and PFAPA. In each patient with periodic fever, acquired infection with chronic and periodic nature should be ruled out. It depends on epidemiology of infectious diseases. Some of them such as Familial Mediterranean fever and PFAPA are common in Iran. In Iran and other Middle East countries, brucellosis, malaria and infectious mononucleosis should be considered in differential diagnosis of periodic fever disorders especially with fever and arthritis manifestation. In children, urinary tract infection may be presented as periodic disorder, urine analysis and culture is necessary in each child with periodic symptoms. Some malignancies such as leukemia and tumoral lesions should be excluded in patients with periodic syndrome and weight loss in any age. After excluding infection, malignancy and cyclic neutropenia, FMF and PFAPA are the most common periodic fever disorders. Similar to other countries, Hyper IgD, Chronic Infantile Neurologic Cutaneous and Articular, TRAPS and other auto-inflammatory syndromes are rare causes of periodic fever in Iranian system registry. In part 1 of this paper we reviewed the prevalence of FMF and PFAPA in Iran. In part 2, some uncommon auto-inflammatory disorders such as TRAPS, Hyper IgD sydrome and cryopyrin associated periodic syndromes will be reviewed. PMID:25793039

  5. Targeted gene analysis: increased B-cell lymphoma 6 in preeclamptic placentas.

    PubMed

    Louwen, Frank; Muschol-Steinmetz, Cornelia; Friemel, Alexandra; Kämpf, Anne Kristina; Töttel, Eva; Reinhard, Joscha; Yuan, Juping

    2014-06-01

    Preeclampsia is a leading cause for maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. Microarray-based transcriptional profiling has been widely used for identifying genes responsible for preeclampsia. These studies deliver multiple pictures of gene signatures, implying the complicated pathophysiology. In the present work, we designed our own gene array containing genes involved in various signaling transduction pathways and analyzed placental samples from patients with preeclampsia and controls. We verify that genes associated with angiogenesis and migration pathways are mostly altered in preeclamptic placentas. Interestingly, several genes including B-cell lymphoma 6 have been identified to be linked to preeclampsia. Increased expression of B-cell lymphoma 6 is correlated with enhanced FLT1 and LEPTIN, the hallmarks of preeclampsia. Moreover, the protein level of B-cell lymphoma 6 is elevated in preeclamptic placentas and is predominantly localized in the nucleus of villous cytotrophoblasts lying directly underneath the syncytial layer, suggestive of an involvement in the function of villous trophoblasts. Altered B-cell lymphoma 6, a key oncogene in B-cell lymphomagenesis, may be involved in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia, and further investigations are required to decipher the molecular mechanisms. PMID:24767250

  6. Analysis of the codon 72 polymorphism of TP53 and human papillomavirus infection in Iranian patients with prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Zivar; Hadavi, Mahvash

    2012-09-01

    The TP53 gene is one of the most important tumor suppressor genes controlling DNA transcription and cell regulation. Common polymorphisms in p53 gene may play a role in some cancers. Some studies have reported an association between human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the TP53 codon 72 polymorphism and HPV infection are responsible for susceptibility to prostate cancer in Iranian men. The prostate biopsies were taken during surgery from 68 Iranian prostatic cancer patients, and 85 patients with benign prostate hyperplasia. For genotyping of the p53 polymorphism at codon 72, PCRRFLP methods were used and the PCR products were digested with BstU1. An attempt was also made to detect HPV DNA in benign prostate hyperplasia and prostate cancer specimens. Among cancer cases, the distribution of Arg/Arg, Arg/Pro and Pro/Pro genotypes were 26.5%, 45.4%, and 19.1%, respectively. Among patients with benign prostate hyperplasia, the distribution of Arg/Arg, Arg/Pro, and Pro/Pro genotypes were 27%, 53%, and 20%, respectively. The allele frequencies did not differ significantly between prostate cancer and benign prostate hyperplasia samples. Human papillomavirus was detected only in three patients (4.4%; P = 0.71). The results from this study suggest that the TP53 codon 72 polymorphism and HPV infection do not confer susceptibility to prostate cancer in the Iranian population. Larger population-based studies are needed to clarify the relation between prostate carcinoma and p53 polymorphism and HPV infection. PMID:22825821

  7. Cloning and Expression of L1 Protein Human Papillomavirus Type 31 Isolated from Iranian Patients in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Hajmohammadi, Sameh; Rassi, Hossein

    2016-08-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV), a major pathogen of human cervical cancer, contains a full-length L1 gene encoding its surface capsid protein. One group of potential vaccine candidates against this virus in Iranian patients is based on surface protein components such as HPV31 L1 protein that can make virus-like particles (VLPs). The high immunity response stimulation of this effecter VLP was observed in host, suggesting that the individual characteristics of a particular effecter may require empirical testing for vaccination. In the present study, we decided to clone and express HPV31 L1 protein to investigate its use as a subunit vaccine and furthermore to insert the gene into an Escherichia coli background so as to analyze production of this recombinant protein. We report the presentation of HPV31 in 100 cervical lesion tissue samples based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Type of lesion, age, and other characteristics were reviewed and confirmed by a pathologist. The sequence from L1 genes of HPV was selected using special primers. The gene encoding the major capsid protein L1 was used for subcloning in pTG19-T and pET-32a plasmid. The recombinant protein expression was confirmed by RT-PCR using L1 primers and detected by absorption sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblot testing. The results presented here offer new insights into the in vivo response of HPV31 in Iranian patients and European models. On the other hand, the use of recombinant L1 protein for Iranian patient protection as well as vaccination studies will permit testing of this antigen protection rate and open the way to the discovery of protein biomarkers for monitoring clinical and subclinical cervical cancers. PMID:27244269

  8. Omega-3 and omega-6 content of medicinal foods for depressed patients: implications from the Iranian Traditional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Tavakkoli-Kakhki, Mandana; Motavasselian, Malihe; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud; Esfahani, Mohammad Mahdi; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Nematy, Mohsen; Eslami, Saeid

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Considering the increasing prevalence of depression in modern societies and the positive effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on depression, this study aims to investigate the omega-3 and omega-6 content of various foodstuffs, prescribed or prohibited by Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM). Materials and Methods: Firstly, reliable sources of Iranian Traditional Medicine were reviewed in order to identify the prescribed and prohibited foodstuffs for depressed patients. Afterwards, according to the online database of United States Department of Agriculture (URL: http://ndb.nal.usda.gov/ndb/search/list), the ratio of linoleic acid to alpha linolenic acid (as representatives of omega-6 and omega-3, respectively) was identified in each foodstuff. Finally, the ratios of omega-6 to omega-3 were compared between seven food groups of vegetables, fruits, dry goods, high protein products, dairies, breads, and spices. Results: Based on the resources of Iranian Traditional Medicine, the following foods are prescribed for depressed patients: basil, coriander, spinach, lettuce, squash, peppermint, dill, chicory, celery, beet, quince, cucumber, watermelon, grape, peach, pomegranate, banana, apple, currant, pistachio, dried fig, almond, egg, chicken, lamb, trout, milk, bread without bran, saffron, oregano, and coriander seeds. On the other hand, cabbage, eggplant, onion, garlic, broad beans, lentils, beef, whole wheat bread, and mustard are prohibited. It should be noted that omega-3 content in some prescribed foods is more than that of the prohibited ones. Conclusion: The present study showed that mint, basil, spinach, lettuce, squash, lamb, saffron, oregano, cucumber, pistachio, milk, and also wild trout can be considered as medicinal foods for depressed patients. PMID:25068136

  9. Tenofovir in treatment of Iranian patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection: An open-label case series

    PubMed Central

    Ataei, Behrooz; Khodadoostan, Mahsa; Pouria, Babk; Adibi, Peyman

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Tenofovir is among the first-line treatments for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) virus infection. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of Tenofovir in treatment of Iranian patients with CHB. Methods: Forty treatment-native patients with CHB but without concurrent hepatitis C or human immunodeficiency virus infections were treated with Tenobiovir(™) 300 mg/day. The hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA load, hepatitis B e antigen (HBe Ag), anti-hepatitis B e antibody (HBe Ab), liver enzymes, and creatinine were measured before and at least 3 months after the treatment. Findings: The mean age of patients was 38.1 ± 12.4 years and 65% of them were male. Seventeen (42.5%) patients were HBe Ag-positive and 15 (37.5%) patients had alanine aminotransferase (ALT) of two times above the normal. The HBV DNA load was significantly decreased after the treatment (P < 0.001). Twenty-seven (67.5%) patients had viral load of ≤2000 IU/ml and 22 (55%) patients had undetectable HBV DNA level after the treatment. Among positive HBe Ag patients, the HBe Ag became negative in 15 (88.2%) patients after the treatment and HBe Ab became positive in 3 (17.6%) patients. Liver enzymes’ levels were significantly decreased after the treatment (P <0.05) and ALT transaminase level became normalized in 86.7% (13 out of 15) of cases with baseline levels twice the normal. Conclusion: Treatment response rate to Tenofovir in Iranian patients with CHB was high. The virological and serological response rate and safety of Tenofovir in our population was comparable to other populations. Considering availability and costs, Tenobiovir(™) could be recommended as the first-line therapy of chronic HBV infection in Iran. PMID:27512706

  10. Association of IFN-γ and P2X7 Receptor Gene Polymorphisms in Susceptibility to Tuberculosis Among Iranian Patients.

    PubMed

    Shamsi, Mahdi; Zolfaghari, Mohammad Reza; Farnia, Parissa

    2016-03-01

    Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and P2X7 receptor are crucial for host defence against mycobacterial infections. Recent studies have indicated that IFN-γ, IFN-γ receptor 1 (IFN-γR1) andP2X7 gene polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). However, the relationship between IFN-γ and P2X7 polymorphism and TB susceptibility remains inconclusive in Iranian population. For this reason, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IFN-γ (G+2109A), IFN-γR1 (G-611A) and P2X7 genes (at -762, 1513 position) in patients (n = 100) were assessed using PCR-RFLP. Data were analysed with SPSS version 18. For the 2109 loci of IFN-γ gene, the frequency of mutant alleles between patients and controls were not statistically significant. However, there was a significant difference between the TB patient and controls for -611 alleles of IFN-γR1 (P = 0.01). Additionally, the frequency of P2X7 gene polymorphisms (SNP-762 and 1513) between patients and controls was statistically significant. In conclusions, our study revealed a significant association of IFN-γR1 and P2X7 genes polymorphisms with risk of developing TB in Iranian population. PMID:27020872

  11. The perspectives of iranian physicians and patients towards patient decision aids: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Patient preference is one of the main components of clinical decision making, therefore leading to the development of patient decision aids. The goal of this study was to describe physicians’ and patients’ viewpoints on the barriers and limitations of using patient decision aids in Iran, their proposed solutions, and, the benefits of using these tools. Methods This qualitative study was conducted in 2011 in Iran by holding in-depth interviews with 14 physicians and 8 arthritis patient. Interviewees were selected through purposeful and maximum variation sampling. As an example, a patient decision aid on the treatment of knee arthritis was developed upon literature reviews and gathering expert opinion, and was presented at the time of interview. Thematic analysis was conducted to analyze the data by using the OpenCode software. Results The results were summarized into three categories and ten codes. The extracted categories were the perceived benefits of using the tools, as well as the patient-related and physician-related barriers in using decision aids. The following barriers in using patient decision aids were identified in this study: lack of patients and physicians’ trainings in shared decision making, lack of specialist per capita, low treatment tariffs and lack of an exact evaluation system for patient participation in decision making. Conclusions No doubt these barriers demand the health authorities’ special attention. Hence, despite patients and physicians’ inclination toward using patient decision aids, these problems have hindered the practical usage of these tools in Iran - as a developing country. PMID:24066792

  12. Mutation analysis in exons 22 and 24 of SCN4A gene in Iranian patients with non-dystrophic myotonia

    PubMed Central

    Heidari, Mohammad Mehdi; Khatami, Mehri; Nafissi, Shahriar; Hesami-Zokai, Faezeh; Khorrami, Afshin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Non-dystrophic myotonias are a heterogeneous set of skeletal, muscular channelopathies, which have been associated with point mutations within sodium channel α-subunit (SCN4A) gene. Because exons 22 and 24 of SCN4A gene are recognized as hot spots for this disease, the purpose of the study is to identify mutation in exons 22 and 24 of SCN4A gene in Iranian non-dystrophic myotonias patients. Methods: In this study, 28 Iranian patients with non-dystrophic myotonia analyzed for the mutation scanning in exons 22 and 24 of SCN4A gene by polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and sequencing. Results: We found 29073G>C substitution in SCN4A gene in one case and 31506A>G substitution in seven cases. The 29073G>C substitution causes a missense mutation G1306A, located in the conserved cytoplasmic loop connecting repeat III and IV of the SCN4A channel but, 31506A>G substitution do not alter amino acid in SCN4A protein. Conclusion: G1306A residue is located in functionally important protein region. In “hinged-lid model” for Na+ channel inactivation in which glycines1306 act as the hinge of the lid occluding the channel pore. Mutation in this region slowed fast inactivation. Therefore, it might be a pathogenic mutation. The causal relationship of this mutation with the disease is an object for further discussion. PMID:26885337

  13. Effectiveness of Compassionate Mind Training on Depression, Anxiety, and Self-Criticism in a Group of Iranian Depressed Patients

    PubMed Central

    Noorbala, Fatemeh; Borjali, Ahmad; Ahmadian-Attari, Mohammad Mahdi

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of compassionate mind training (CMT) on symptoms of depression and anxiety in Iranian depressed sufferers. Method Nineteen depressed patients aged 20 to 40 (Beck Depression Inventory value ≥ 20) were randomly assigned into two groups. The experimental group participated in 12 sessions of group therapy based on Paul Gilbert's manual of CMT. The control group was given no intervention. The participants were assessed by Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), Anxiety Scale (AS), and Levels of Self-Criticism (LSCS) questionnaires at the beginning and immediately after the intervention. To follow-up the therapeutic effect of CMT, the three questionnaires were answered again by participants two months after the end of the intervention. Data were analyzed by independent samples t-test. Results The results revealed that CMT significantly decreases depression (P < 0.05) and anxiety score (P < 0.05) in the follow-up study, but not immediately after the intervention. Although CMT decreased self-criticism, this effect was marginally insignificant. Conclusion The findings indicated that CMT could alleviatedepression and anxiety in a group of Iranian depressed patients. PMID:24454419

  14. Prioritizing the Preferences of Iranian Cancer Patients Regarding Acquisition of Health Information: Strategy for Patient Education.

    PubMed

    Zadeh, Jamileh Mahdi; Fard, Farahnaz Ghahreman; Madani, Raihaneh; Iravani, Homa; Kahouei, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Recognizing cancer patients' preferences to obtain health information can help improve and reform the methods of communicating and providing proper services and consequently lead to effective patient education. The present cross-sectional study to prioritize the preferences of cancer patients regarding the acquisition of health informationwas conducted on cancer patients referred to hospitals affiliated to Semnan University of Medical Sciences in 2015. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire was developed. In the field of side effects of medications, 50 (46.7%) reported knowing about weight change, in the area of achieving relative health, 62(57.9%) announced awareness about diet, and 45 (42.1%) reported physical complications as a first regarding information needs. In the area of obtaining information, 50 (46.7%) tended to take their information through means outside of the hospital setting. These results can help with design of clinical information systems, as they inform the most relevant and useful coverage designed for cancer patients. Providing useful information through healthcare providers, the media and clinical information systems can act as a major source of social support for cancer patients. PMID:27356722

  15. Validation of the Persian Version of the 8-Item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8) in Iranian Hypertensive Patients.

    PubMed

    Moharamzad, Yashar; Saadat, Habibollah; Nakhjavan Shahraki, Babak; Rai, Alireza; Saadat, Zahra; Aerab-Sheibani, Hossein; Naghizadeh, Mohammad Mehdi; Morisky, Donald E

    2015-01-01

    The reliability and validity of the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8) was assessed in a sample of Iranian hypertensive patients. In this multi-center study which lasted from August to October 2014, a total of 200 patients who were suffering from hypertension (HTN) and were taking anti-hypertensive medication(s) were included. The cases were accessed through private and university health centers in the cities of Tehran, Karaj, Kermanshah, and Bafgh in Iran and were interviewed face-to-face by the research team. The validated Persian translation of the MMAS-8 was provided by the owner of this scale. This scale contains 7 questions with "Yes" or "No" response choices and an additional Likert-type question (totally 8 questions). The total score ranges from 0 to 8 with higher scores reflecting better medication adherence. Mean (±SD) overall MMAS-8 score was 5.57 (±1.86). There were 108 (54%), 62 (31%), and 30 (15%) patients in the low, moderate, and high adherence groups. Internal consistency was acceptable with an overall Cronbach's ? coefficient of 0.697 and test-retest reliability showed good reproducibility (r= 0.940); P< 0.001. Overall score of the MMAS-8 was significantly correlated with systolic BP (r= - 0.306) and diastolic BP (r= - 0.279) with P< 0.001 for both BP measurements. The Chi-square test showed a significant relationship between adherence level and BP control (P= 0.016). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of the scale were 92.8%, 22.3%, 52.9%, and 76.7%, respectively. The Persian version of the MMAS had acceptable reliability and validity in Iranian hypertensive patients. This scale can be used as a standard and reliable tool in future studies to determine medication adherence of Persian-speaking patients with chronic conditions. PMID:25946926

  16. Landscape of Transcriptional Deregulations in the Preeclamptic Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Vaiman, Daniel; Calicchio, Rosamaria; Miralles, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy disease affecting 5 to 8% of pregnant women and a leading cause of both maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. Because of a default in the process of implantation, the placenta of preeclamptic women undergoes insufficient vascularization. This results in placental ischemia, inflammation and subsequent release of placental debris and vasoactive factors in the maternal circulation causing a systemic endothelial activation. Several microarray studies have analyzed the transcriptome of the preeclamptic placentas to identify genes which could be involved in placental dysfunction. In this study, we compared the data from publicly available microarray analyses to obtain a consensus list of modified genes. This allowed to identify consistently modified genes in the preeclamptic placenta. Of these, 67 were up-regulated and 31 down-regulated. Assuming that changes in the transcription level of co-expressed genes may result from the coordinated action of a limited number of transcription factors, we looked for over-represented putative transcription factor binding sites in the promoters of these genes. Indeed, we found that the promoters of up-regulated genes are enriched in putative binding sites for NFkB, CREB, ANRT, REEB1, SP1, and AP-2. In the promoters of down-regulated genes, the most prevalent putative binding sites are those of MZF-1, NFYA, E2F1 and MEF2A. These transcriptions factors are known to regulate specific biological pathways such as cell responses to inflammation, hypoxia, DNA damage and proliferation. We discuss here the molecular mechanisms of action of these transcription factors and how they can be related to the placental dysfunction in the context of preeclampsia. PMID:23785430

  17. Outcome Measure of Pain in Patients with Lumbar Disc Herniation: Validation Study of the Iranian version of Pain Sensitivity Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Azhari, Shirzad; Shahzadi, Sohrab; Nayeb Aghaei, Hossain; Mohammadi, Hassan Reza; Montazeri, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional. Purpose To translate and culturally adapt an Iranian version of the Pain Sensitivity Questionnaire (PSQ) in Iran. Overview of Literature Instruments measuring patient reported outcomes should satisfy certain psychometric properties. Methods The PSQ was translated following cross-cultural adaptation guidelines. A total of 101 patients with lumbar disc herniation (LDH), and 39 healthy cases were included in the study. All participants completed the PSQ and the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS). The internal consistency, test-retest reliability, known group comparison, criterion validity and item-scale correlations were assessed. Results The mean age of participants was 51.7 years. Reliability, validity and correlation of PSQ and PCS showed satisfactory results. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were 0.81 for PSQ-total, 0.82 for PSQ-minor, and 0.82 for PSQ-moderate. The intraclass correlation coefficients value was 0.84 (0.616–0.932) indicating an excellent test-retest reliability. The instrument discriminated well between sub-groups of patients who differed in a standard predictive measure of LDH surgery (the Finneson–Cooper score). Total PSQ were also significantly correlated with the total scores of the PCS, lending support to its good convergent validity. Additionally, the correlation of each item with its hypothesized domain on the PSQ indicated acceptable results, suggesting that the items had a substantial relationship with their own domains. Conclusions The adapted Iranian PSQ is a valid and reliable questionnaire for the assessment of pain in patients with LDH. PMID:27340527

  18. Physician's acquittal of responsibility in Iranian statutes

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi, Mahmoud; Pirouz, Amir Samavati

    2011-01-01

    The physician's acquittal has obsessed Iranian legislator's mind to a large extent. This is exclusively observed in Iranian statuses and specifically in Shi’ite school of though. Muslim jurists’ opinions play a very important role in enacting legal articles related to it. After reviewing the literature, the authors tried to pick and collect common features of physician's responsibilities and duties to introduce Iranian Acts with respect to the subject. Also, Iranian Acts are analyzed and the challenging medical topics such as emergency situations and infectious diseases are discussed. Iranian legislator didn’t specify a kind of physician's acquittal which received from the patient knowingly and is based on his/her free will. There are also some medical and legal gaps. Patients are not often informed of all exact and scientific information and results of their treatments. Furthermore, the forms prepared to receive the patient's consent do not provide what Iranian legislator meant. PMID:22091234

  19. Differential Expression of Extracellular Matrix and Adhesion Molecules in Fetal-Origin Amniotic Epithelial Cells of Preeclamptic Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Myung-Sun; Yu, Ji Hea; Lee, Min-Young; Kim, Ah Leum; Jo, Mi Hyun; Kim, MinGi; Cho, Sung-Rae; Kim, Young-Han

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a common disease that can occur during human pregnancy and is a leading cause of both maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Inadequate trophoblast invasion and deficient remodeling of uterine spiral arteries are associated with preeclampsia (PE). The development of this syndrome is thought to be related to multiple factors. Recently, we isolated patient-specific human amniotic epithelial cells (AECs) from the placentas of 3 women with normal pregnancy and 3 with preeclamptic pregnancy. Since the characteristics of human AECs in PE are different from those in normal pregnancy, we sought to confirm the genes differentially expressed between preeclamptic pregnancy and normal pregnancy. Therefore, we performed transcriptome analysis to investigate the candidate genes associated with the possible pathophysiology of preeclampsia. Pathway analysis was performed using the Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) online resource. In this study, we selected a total of 12 pathways and focused on extracellular matrix-related and biological adhesion molecules. Using RT-PCR array and real-time PCR, we confirmed that COL16A1, ITGB2, and LAMA3 were significantly up-regulated, but ITGA1, ITGA3, ITGA6, MMP1, MMP3, MMP10 and MMP11 were significantly down-regulated in preeclamptic fetal origin cells. Taken together, we suggest that the genes and pathways identified here may be responsible for the occurrence and development of PE, and controlling their expression may play a role in communication with fetal-maternal placenta to keep normal pregnancy. PMID:27218821

  20. Differential Expression of Extracellular Matrix and Adhesion Molecules in Fetal-Origin Amniotic Epithelial Cells of Preeclamptic Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myung-Sun; Yu, Ji Hea; Lee, Min-Young; Kim, Ah Leum; Jo, Mi Hyun; Kim, MinGi; Cho, Sung-Rae; Kim, Young-Han

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a common disease that can occur during human pregnancy and is a leading cause of both maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Inadequate trophoblast invasion and deficient remodeling of uterine spiral arteries are associated with preeclampsia (PE). The development of this syndrome is thought to be related to multiple factors. Recently, we isolated patient-specific human amniotic epithelial cells (AECs) from the placentas of 3 women with normal pregnancy and 3 with preeclamptic pregnancy. Since the characteristics of human AECs in PE are different from those in normal pregnancy, we sought to confirm the genes differentially expressed between preeclamptic pregnancy and normal pregnancy. Therefore, we performed transcriptome analysis to investigate the candidate genes associated with the possible pathophysiology of preeclampsia. Pathway analysis was performed using the Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) online resource. In this study, we selected a total of 12 pathways and focused on extracellular matrix-related and biological adhesion molecules. Using RT-PCR array and real-time PCR, we confirmed that COL16A1, ITGB2, and LAMA3 were significantly up-regulated, but ITGA1, ITGA3, ITGA6, MMP1, MMP3, MMP10 and MMP11 were significantly down-regulated in preeclamptic fetal origin cells. Taken together, we suggest that the genes and pathways identified here may be responsible for the occurrence and development of PE, and controlling their expression may play a role in communication with fetal-maternal placenta to keep normal pregnancy. PMID:27218821

  1. Quality of life in patients with gastric cancer: translation and psychometric evaluation of the Iranian version of EORTC QLQ-STO22

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Disease and treatment related events, can adversely affect the quality of life of patients with cancer. The purpose of this study was to translate and validate a gastric cancer specific health related quality of life questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-STO22) for Iranian patients suffering from gastric cancer. Methods Forward-backward procedure was applied to translate the English language version of the EORTC QLQ-STO22 into Persian (Iranian language). Then, the questionnaire and the EORTC core quality of life instrument (QLQ-C30) were administered to a sample of patients with confirmed diagnosis of gastric cancer. All patients filled in questionnaires before and after one month of treatment. Patients were divided into two groups based on intension of treatment (curative vs. palliative). Reliability and validity of the module was tested by internal consistency and known group comparisons, respectively. Results In all, 105 patients were entered into the study. Cronbach's alpha for multi-item scales (to test reliability) ranged from 0.54 to 0.87. The questionnaire discriminated well between clinically distinct subgroups of patients both before and after treatment lending support to its convergent and clinical validity. Conclusion Overall, the Iranian version of the EORTC QLQ-STO22 demonstrated a good reliability and clinical validity to support its use in combination with core questionnaire in outcome studies of gastric cancer in Iran. However, using the QLQ-STO22 in a wide range of Iranian patients with gastric cancer should allow further confirmation for its psychometric properties. PMID:19715606

  2. Impact of ATM and SLC22A1 Polymorphisms on Therapeutic Response to Metformin in Iranian Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Shokri, Fazlollah; Ghaedi, Hamid; Ghafouri Fard, Soudeh; Movafagh, Abolfazl; Abediankenari, Saeid; Mahrooz, Abdolkarim; Kashi, Zahra; Omrani, Mir Davood

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome and its pathological sequel, type 2 diabetes are considered as important global health problems. Metformin is the most common drug prescribed for patients with this disorder. Consequently, understanding the genetic pathways involved in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of this drug can have a considerable effect on the personalized treatment of type 2 diabetes. In this study, we evaluated the association between rs11212617 polymorphism of ATM gene and rs628031 of SLC22A1 gene with response to treatment in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients. We genotyped rs11212617 and rs628031 polymorphism by PCR based restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and assessed the role of this polymorphisms on response to treatment in 140 patients who have been recently diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and were under monotherapy with metformin for 6 months. Response to metformin was defined by HbA1c and fasting blood sugar (FBS) values. Based on such evaluations, patients were divided into two groups: responders (n= 63) and non-responders (n= 77). No significant association was found between these polymorphisms and response to treatment (OR= 0.86, [95% CI 0.52–1.41], P= 0.32) for rs11212617 and (OR= 0.45, [95% CI 0.64–1.76], P= 0.45) for rs 628031. The reported gene variants in ATM and SLC22A1 are not significantly associated with metformin treatment response in type 2 diabetic patients in an Iranian population. PMID:27386433

  3. Effect of the Iranian hospital grading system on patients' and general practitioners' behaviour: an examination of awareness, belief and choice.

    PubMed

    Aryankhesal, Aidin; Sheldon, Trevor

    2010-08-01

    There is considerable international interest in the use of performance measurement and their public release in order to improve the quality of care. However, few studies have assessed stakeholders' awareness and use of performance data. Iranian hospitals have been graded annually since 1998 and hospital hotel charges vary by grade, but this system has never been evaluated. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 104 outpatients at eight Teheran hospitals and 103 general practitioners (GPs) to assess the awareness of and attitudes towards hospital grading system. Only 5.8% of patients (95% CI: 1.3-10.3%) and 11.7% of GPs (95% CI: 5.5-17.9%) were aware of grading results. Patients' awareness was positively associated with their education level (P = 0.016). No patient used the grading results for choosing a hospital and only one GP (1%, 95% CI: 0-2%) reported using hospital grade to influence referral decisions. Patients were more influenced by hospitals' public reputation and that of their specialists. GPs believed that the grading system did not reflect the quality of care in hospitals. When developing performance measurement systems, public release of data should be accompanied by evaluation of its impact on awareness and health-care choices. PMID:20702891

  4. Validation of the Persian Version of the 8-Item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8) in Iranian Hypertensive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Moharamzad, Yashar; Saadat, Habibollah; Shahraki, Babak Nakhjavan; Rai, Alireza; Saadat, Zahra; Aerab-Sheibani, Hossein; Naghizadeh, Mohammad Mehdi; Morisky, Donald E.

    2015-01-01

    The reliability and validity of the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8) was assessed in a sample of Iranian hypertensive patients. In this multi-center study which lasted from August to October 2014, a total of 200 patients who were suffering from hypertension (HTN) and were taking anti-hypertensive medication(s) were included. The cases were accessed through private and university health centers in the cities of Tehran, Karaj, Kermanshah, and Bafgh in Iran and were interviewed face-to-face by the research team. The validated Persian translation of the MMAS-8 was provided by the owner of this scale. This scale contains 7 questions with “Yes” or “No” response choices and an additional Likert-type question (totally 8 questions). The total score ranges from 0 to 8 with higher scores reflecting better medication adherence. Mean (±SD) overall MMAS-8 score was 5.57 (±1.86). There were 108 (54%), 62 (31%), and 30 (15%) patients in the low, moderate, and high adherence groups. Internal consistency was acceptable with an overall Cronbach’s α coefficient of 0.697 and test–retest reliability showed good reproducibility (r= 0.940); P< 0.001. Overall score of the MMAS-8 was significantly correlated with systolic BP (r= - 0.306) and diastolic BP (r= - 0.279) with P< 0.001 for both BP measurements. The Chi-square test showed a significant relationship between adherence level and BP control (P= 0.016). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of the scale were 92.8%, 22.3%, 52.9%, and 76.7%, respectively. The Persian version of the MMAS had acceptable reliability and validity in Iranian hypertensive patients. This scale can be used as a standard and reliable tool in future studies to determine medication adherence of Persian-speaking patients with chronic conditions. PMID:25946926

  5. Clinical manifestations and complications of childbirth and replacement therapy in 385 Iranian patients with type 3 von Willebrand disease.

    PubMed

    Lak, M; Peyvandi, F; Mannucci, P M

    2000-12-01

    Type 3 is the most severe form of von Willebrand disease (VWD) transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait. We collected data on the clinical manifestations of type 3 VWD by examining 385 patients from 300 Iranian kindreds, who were compared with 100 age-matched patients with severe haemophilia A. Joint and muscle bleeding was less frequent than in haemophiliacs, perhaps because factor VIII levels were in general higher (median value 4% vs. 1% or less). Mucosal tract haemorrhages such as epistaxis and menorrhagia were the most prevalent symptoms in VWD. Post-circumcision and oral cavity bleeding occurred frequently when prophylactic replacement therapy was not carried out or was inadequate. The course of pregnancy was usually uneventful, but increased bleeding occurred at parturition when affected women were treated with replacement therapy for less than 3-4 d. Ten of 385 (2.6%) of these multitransfused patients developed an alloantibody to VWF and 55% are chronically infected with the hepatitis C virus. PMID:11167767

  6. A Multidisciplinary Work-Related Low Back Pain Predictor Questionnaire: Psychometric Evaluation of Iranian Patient-Care Workers

    PubMed Central

    Sarallah, Shojaei; Jamshidi, Ahmad Reza; Joan, Wagner

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Psychometric evaluation design. Purpose Psychometric evaluation of a multidisciplinary work-related low back pain predictor questionnaire (MWRLBPPQ) of Iranians patient-care workers based on the social cognitive theory. Overview of Literature Healthcare is one of the professions in which work-related musculoskeletal disorders are prevalent. The chronic low back pain experienced by patient caregivers can negatively impact their professional performance, and patient handling in a hospital is the main cause of low back pain in this population. Methods This was a cross-sectional study carried out in Qom, Iran from July 2014 to November 2014. A MWRLBPPQ based on nine concepts of the social cognitive theory and existing literature regarding chronic low back pain was developed. Ten patient-care workers first completed the questionnaire as a pilot test, allowing the ambiguities of the instrument to be resolved. Exploratory factor analysis was used to confirm construct validity. This questionnaire was distributed among 452 patient-care workers in hospitals located in different geographically areas in Qom, Iran. Cronbach's Alpha was calculated to assess reliability. Results In all, 452 caregivers of patients with mean age of 37.71 (standard deviation=8.3) years participated in the study. An exploratory factor analysis loaded seven concepts of self-efficacy, knowledge, outcome perception, self-control, emotional coping, and self-efficacy in overcoming impediments and challenges in the environment. All concepts were jointly accounted for 50.08% of variance of behavior change. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient showed favorable internal consistency (alpha=0.83), and test-retest of the scale with 2-week intervals indicated an appropriate stability for the MWRLBPPQ. Conclusions The MWRLBPPQ is a reliable and valid theory-based instrument that can be used to predict factors influencing work-related low back pain among workers who lift and transfer patients in hospitals

  7. Prospective study of the hemodynamic behavior of ophthalmic arteries in postpartum preeclamptic women: A doppler evaluation.

    PubMed

    Alves Borges, José Hilário; Goes, Daniela A; de Araújo, Lúcio Borges; Dos Santos, Maria Célia; Debs Diniz, Angélica Lemos

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the hemodynamic behavior of the ophthalmic artery by means of the Doppler ultrasound, in postpartum preeclamptic women. It was an observational prospective study with 44 postpartum preeclamptic women (group 1) and 49 postpartum normal women with normal blood pressure and with no previous illnesses known (group 2). All the pregnant women had a Doppler ultrasound exam of the ophthalmic artery in the immediate puerperium, that is, 10 days for the delivery (time 1). Group 1 was then followed prospectively, 26 patients of which returned to the last test in the remote puerperium in 45 days (time 2) and 29 patients returned to the last test in the remote puerperium in 90 days (time 3). All these women had preeclampsia before the delivery. The resistance index (RI), pulsatility index (PI), peak systolic velocity (PSV), end diastolic flow velocity (EDV), second peak of systolic velocity (P2), and the peak ratio (PR) were calculated. The data obtained are expressed in average and standard deviation, by using the Lilliefors test for normality. The average of the Doppler indexes in groups 1 and 2 was compared by means of test t of the student. Group 1 was analyzed separately, comparing the three times, using the test of ANOVA for repetitive measures and Tukey post-hoc range test. In the "Results" section, the statically meaningful differences in RI, PI, P2, RPV, and EDV (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001, p < 0.0009, p < 0.0001, p < 0.0028) were found in the immediate puerperium of group 1 in relation to group 2, indicating the persistence of hyperperfusion and orbital vasodilatation in the immediate postpartum period in patients who had complicated pregnancies previously due to preeclampsia. In the evolutionary analysis of group 1, comparing the Doppler indexes between the immediate and late puerperium, statistically relevant differences between the rates of RI, P2, and PR (p < 0,01) were observed, showing a raise of RI and reduction of P2 and PR

  8. Association of nuclear and mitochondrial genes with audiological examinations in Iranian patients with nonaminoglycoside antibiotics-induced hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Balali, Maryam; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Farhadi, Mohammad; Ahmadipour, Fatemeh; Ashkezari, Mahmoud Dehghani; Hemami, Mohsen Rezaei; Arabzadeh, Hossein; Falah, Masoumeh; Meng, Goh Yong; Houshmand, Massoud

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA mutations play an important role in causing sensorineural hearing loss. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of the mitochondrial genes RNR1, MT-TL1, and ND1 as well as the nuclear genes GJB2 and GJB6 with audiological examinations in nonfamilial Iranians with cochlear implants, using polymerase chain reaction, DNA sequencing, and RNA secondary structure analysis. We found that there were no novel mutations in the mitochondrial gene 12S rRNA (MT-RNR1) in patients with and without GJB2 mutation (GJB2+ and GJB2−, respectively), but a total of six polymorphisms were found. No mutations were observed in tRNALeu(UUR) (MT-TL1). Furthermore, eight polymorphisms were found in the mitochondrial ND1 gene. Additionally, no mutations were observed in the nuclear GJB6 gene in patients in the GJB2− and GJB2+ groups. The speech intelligibility rating and category of auditory perception tests were statistically assessed in patients in the GJB2− and GJB2+ groups. The results indicated that there was a significant difference (P<0.05) between the categories of auditory perception score in the GJB2− group compared to that in the GJB2+ group. Successful cochlear implantation was observed among individuals with GJB2 mutations (GJB2+) and mitochondrial polymorphisms compared to those without GJB2 mutations (GJB2−). In conclusion, the outcome of this study suggests that variation in the mitochondrial and nuclear genes may influence the penetrance of deafness. Therefore, further genetic and functional studies are required to help patients in making the best choice for cochlear implants. PMID:26889084

  9. Principles of Nutrition in Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Iranian Traditional Medicine and Comparison with Modern Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Tansaz, Mojgan; Bahmani, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age with metabolic and gynecological complications. Despite the high prevalence of this disease, many challenges remain regarding its diagnosis and treatment. According to many studies, lifestyle modification especially diet is the first line of the treatment in PCOS patients. The aim of this article was to study the principles of nutrition for PCOS patients in Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) in comparison with modern medicine. Methods: This is a descriptive study done using ITM references such as Canon of Medicine, Exir-e-Azam, Tib-e-Akbari, and the keywords feed, nutrition, lifestyle, and PCOS were searched in modern medicine databases. Results: In ITM resources, the symptoms of PCOS were discussed under the topic of several diseases, including “Ehtebase tams”, “infertility and uterine inflammation” and “urame rahem”. In “Ehtebase tams”, like other diseases, the first line of the treatment is diet based on disease etiology. The most common cause of “Ehtebase tams” is dystemperament of the uterus and ovaries especially cold and wet dystemperament. Conclusion: According to ITM, patients with “Ehtebase tams” should limit cold and wet foods in their diet and more hot, dry, and soft foods are most suitable for them. In modern medicine, reducing of carbohydrates and fats is considered. In other studies, there was no preference for different food groups. These differences may be due to the temperament of foods in the food groups. It seems that by combining ITM guidelines with the findings of modern medicine, a proper diet in these patients can be achieved. PMID:27516680

  10. Association of nuclear and mitochondrial genes with audiological examinations in Iranian patients with nonaminoglycoside antibiotics-induced hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Balali, Maryam; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Farhadi, Mohammad; Ahmadipour, Fatemeh; Ashkezari, Mahmoud Dehghani; Hemami, Mohsen Rezaei; Arabzadeh, Hossein; Falah, Masoumeh; Meng, Goh Yong; Houshmand, Massoud

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA mutations play an important role in causing sensorineural hearing loss. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of the mitochondrial genes RNR1, MT-TL1, and ND1 as well as the nuclear genes GJB2 and GJB6 with audiological examinations in nonfamilial Iranians with cochlear implants, using polymerase chain reaction, DNA sequencing, and RNA secondary structure analysis. We found that there were no novel mutations in the mitochondrial gene 12S rRNA (MT-RNR1) in patients with and without GJB2 mutation (GJB2(+) and GJB2(-), respectively), but a total of six polymorphisms were found. No mutations were observed in tRNA(Leu) (() (UUR) ()) (MT-TL1). Furthermore, eight polymorphisms were found in the mitochondrial ND1 gene. Additionally, no mutations were observed in the nuclear GJB6 gene in patients in the GJB2(-) and GJB2(+) groups. The speech intelligibility rating and category of auditory perception tests were statistically assessed in patients in the GJB2(-) and GJB2(+) groups. The results indicated that there was a significant difference (P<0.05) between the categories of auditory perception score in the GJB2(-) group compared to that in the GJB2(+) group. Successful cochlear implantation was observed among individuals with GJB2 mutations (GJB2(+)) and mitochondrial polymorphisms compared to those without GJB2 mutations (GJB2(-)). In conclusion, the outcome of this study suggests that variation in the mitochondrial and nuclear genes may influence the penetrance of deafness. Therefore, further genetic and functional studies are required to help patients in making the best choice for cochlear implants. PMID:26889084

  11. Analysis of Killer Cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptor Genes and Their HLA Ligands in Iranian Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudi, Mehdi; Jamshidi, Ahmad Reza; Karami, Jafar; Mohseni, Alireza; Amirzargar, Ali Akbar; Farhadi, Elham; Ahmadzadeh, Nooshin; Nicknam, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-02-01

    Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS) is a chronic rheumatic disease which mainly involves the axial skeleton. It seems that non-HLA genes, as well as HLA-B27 gene, are linked to the etiology of the disease. Recently, it has been documented that KIRs and their HLA ligands are contributed to the Ankylosing Spondylitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the KIR genes and their HLA ligands in Iranian AS patients and healthy individuals. The present study includes 200 AS patient samples and 200 healthy control samples. KIR genotyping was performed using the polymerase chain reaction sequence-specific primer (PCR-SSP) method to type the presence or absence of the 16 KIR genes, 6 known specific HLA class I ligands and also, two pseudogenes. Two KIR genes (KIR-2DL3 and KIR2DL5), and among the HLA ligands, two HLA ligands (HLA-C2Lys80 and HLA-B27) genes were significantly different between case and control groups. In addition, we found some interesting KIR/HLA compound genotypes, which were associated with AS susceptibility. Our results suggest that the AS patients present more activating and less inhibitory KIR genes with combination of their HLA ligands than healthy controls. Once the balance of signal transduction between activating and inhibitory receptors is disturbed, the ability of NK cells to identify and lyse the targets in immune responses will be compromised. Accordingly, imbalance of activating and inhibitory KIR genes by up-regulating the activation and losing the inhibition of KIRs signaling or combination of both might be one of the important factors which underlying the pathogenesis of AS. PMID:26996109

  12. The Role of CD14 and CTLA4 Gene Polymorphisms in Risk of Celiac Disease among Patients of Iranian Ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Zamani, Mahdi; Karami, Fatemeh; Shirvani, Fariba; Kia-Lashaki, Laleh; Shahbazkhani, Bizhan

    2014-01-01

    Objective Celiac disease (CD) is developed via autoimmune reactions against gluten which is mainly found in grains. Although HLA DQB1 locus is the most important genetic susceptibility to CD, some other variants such as A49G and G1359T of CTLA4 and CD14 genes respectively have been proposed as CD predisposing genetic factors in many vari- ous studies. We aimed to assess possible roles of A49G and G1359T polymorphisms in CD susceptibility in the Iranian population. Materials and Methods In this case-control, one hundred CD patients and 100 healthy matched controls with average age of 30-33 years were selected. They were genotyped for both A49G and G1359T polymorphisms using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Results There was no association between genotypes of A49G variant of CTLA4 and risk of CD (p<0.05). The G1359T polymorphism of CD14 gene also did not show any significant association with risk of CD among the studied population. However, patients with CD14 T/T genotype were more classified in the severe form (Marsh III) of CD, showing border line significance (p<0.05). Conclusion No association was identified between the combination of 1359T and A49G alleles with risk of CD. These lacks of association could be due to small sample size and considering further studies in various populations and ethnicities seems to be required. PMID:24567947

  13. Identification of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 polymorphisms in Iranian patients who are under warfarin therapy

    PubMed Central

    Poopak, Behzad; Rabieipoor, Saghar; Safari, Nazila; Naraghi, Emadedin; Sheikhsofla, Fatemeh; Khosravipoor, Gelareh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although catalytic properties of different genetic polymorphisms of VKORC1 and CYP2C9 products have been identified, there is limited study available regarding warfarin dose requirement in Iranian patient population. This study investigates the impact of these polymorphisms on 115 patients, referred to Payvand Clinical and Specialty Laboratory for determining the appropriate dose of warfarin. Results of the study may be applicable to individuals who are under warfarin therapy to avoid warfarin resistance or intolerance. Subjects and Methods: PT-INR test was utilized as a screening method. Genotyping were performed for VKORC1 and CYP2C9 using PCR method. Statistical analyses including unpaired t-test or ANOVA and regression were done using SPSS. Results: VKORC1 GA was the most common genotype of VKORC1 allele among the study samples, with a rate of 57.4%. In CYP2C9 variant, 20% and 14.8% of subjects carried CYP2C9*1/*2 and CYP2C9*1/*3 genotyping, respectively. By contrast, the WT *1/*1 genotype was more abundant and dominant. The high frequency of VKORC1 (_1639) GA genotype (57.4%), was significant versus for the rest of the cohort (42.6%). In addition, a significant relationship was found between CYP2C9*1 and drug dose (P>0.021). Conclusion: In this study, samples were characterized by higher frequencies of CYP2C9*1 and VKORC1 G/A, determined as higher warfarin taking doses. The results showed a significant relationship of the VCORC1 and CYP2C9 polymorphisms with warfarin sensitivity and severe side effects. Estimating right doses of warfarin to prescribe can help to reduce the risk of over- or under-anticoagulation and subsequently, the risk of thromboembolism or bleeding. PMID:26865929

  14. Evaluation of Relationship Between Demographics and Dental Status in a Defined Group of Iranian Paediatric Patients Undergoing Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, Hamed; Tashvighi, Maryam; Azizian, Morteza; Khalighi, Hamid Reza; Sabour, Siamak; Movahhedian, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Context Cancer is a major cause of death in children under 15 years of age. Aims This study aimed to evaluate relationship between demographics and dental status in a defined group of Iranian paediatric patients undergoing cancer therapy. Settings and Design This cross-sectional study was accomplished on 161 subjects age ranging 8-12 years. There were 76 cancerous patients hospitalized at Mahak Hospital (one of the major children’s cancer centers in Tehran) as the study group and 85 healthy children attending at Dental School, International Branch of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran from 2012 to 2013. Materials and Methods Demographics were gathered by using data-form. Oral examination and DMFT Index were used to describe teeth status in all teeth and in the first permanent molars. According to Becker’s definition, “D” stands for untreated decayed teeth, “M” indicates missing teeth, and “F” shows Filled teeth. It is noteworthy that full coverage crowns are considered as “F” in this Index. Statistical Analysis Chi-square, Mann-Whitney U, Student’s t-tests and Logistic Regression were used for data analysis. Results The most frequent type of cancer was acute lymphoblastic/lymphocytic leukemia (33.3%). Patients were significantly shorter than controls (p=0.03), and their fathers and mothers were of lower educational achievement (p=0.01, p= 0.001). Although DMFT of all dentition showed significantly higher score in cancerous children (p=0.001), DMFT of four first permanent molars (left, right, upper, and lower) was borderline significantly higher in patients (p= 0.06). Moreover, frequency of cancer was borderline significantly higher in children with lower birth order (p= 0.05). According to Logistic Regression, in as much as patients grew elder 1 year, DMFT index increased 1.5 units. Conclusion Patients under cancer therapy were shorter than healthy ones, and their parents were of lower educational levels. In addition

  15. Association of IL1R polymorphism with HLA-B27 positive in Iranian patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudi, M; Amirzargar, A A; Jamshidi, A R; Farhadi, E; Noori, S; Avraee, M; Nazari, B; Nicknam, M H

    2011-12-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is one of the most common causes of inflammatory arthritis, with an estimated prevalence of 0.1-0.9%. Genetic factors have been strongly implicated in its aetiology, and heritability as assessed by twin studies has been estimated to be >90%. HLA- B27 is almost essential for inheritance of AS; it is not merely sufficient for explaining the pattern of familial recurrence of the disease. This study's purpose is to investigate the association of ankylosing spondylitis with single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the IL-1 family: IL-1a (-889C/T) rs1800587, IL-1b (-511C/T) rs16944, IL-1b (+3962C/T) rs1143634, IL-1R (Pst-1 1970C/T) rs2234650 and IL-1RA (Mspa-1 11100C/T) rs315952. 99 unrelated Iranian AS patients and 217 healthy control subjects were selected. Cytokine typing was performed by the polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primers assay. The allele and genotype frequencies of the polymorphisms were determined: The IL1α rs1800587, IL1β rs16944 and IL1β rs1143634 were not significantly associated with AS. Genotype frequencies at IL1R rs2234650 differed between cases and controls (χ(2)=8.85; p=0.01); the IL1R rs2234650 C/T and T/T genotypes were less common in AS patients than controls. The IL1R rs2234650 C/T genotype was inversely associated with AS comparing with the IL1R rs2234650 C/C genotype (OR=0.48; p=0.005). IL1R rs2234650 C/T genotype was less common in patients than controls (OR=0.37; p=0.02).Furthermore IL1R rs2234650 T allele was strongly associated with HLA-B2702 patients rather than HLA-B2705 but was not associated with HLA-B27 negative patients (OR=0.33; p=0.01). Polymorphisms of IL1α rs1800587, IL1β rs16944 and IL1β rs1143634 were not significantly associated with ankylosing spondylitis but inversely in this study IL1R rs2234650 was significantly associated and carriage of T allele in IL1R rs2234650 seems to be protective, while carriage of C allele result in two fold higher risk of developing AS. PMID

  16. Iranian Nurses’ Views on Barriers and Facilitators in Patient Education: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Ramezanli, Somayeh; Jahromi, Zohreh Badiyepeymaie

    2015-01-01

    Background: As a major factor in patient-centered care, patient education has a great impact on the quality of care provided by nurses; however, clinical nurses’ performance with regard to patient education is not satisfactory. This study is an attempt to investigate barriers and facilitators in patient education from nurses’ point of view. Methods: 122 nurses at Jahrom University of Medical Sciences participated in this descriptive-cross sectional study. Sampling was based on the census method. The questionnaire used to collect data included questions about nurses’ demography, barriers (10 questions), and facilitators (10 questions) in patient education. The questionnaire was designed to be completed independently. To analyze the data, the researchers used descriptive statistics, including frequency, mean and standard deviation. Results: The highest scores related to barriers to patient education were: nurses’ insufficient knowledge, patients’ physical and emotional unpreparedness, and lack of a proper environment for education. The most important facilitators, on the other hand, were: enhancement of instructing nurses’ knowledge and skills, motivating nurses, and a step-by-step approach to patient education. Conclusion: It is important that nurses be prepared and motivated to train their patients. By satisfactory patient education on the part of nurses, patients will be more willing to cooperate in the treatment process. PMID:26156926

  17. Systemic and uteroplacental renin–angiotensin system in normal and pre-eclamptic pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Anton, Lauren

    2009-01-01

    Pregnancy is characterized by an increase in many of the different components of the circulating renin–angiotensin system [RAS]. However, the physiological mechanisms of stimulated RAS activity during pregnancy are unknown. Even less understood is how this system may be altered in pre-eclampsia, a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy. Additional studies have shown the presence of a local tissue specific RAS in the uteroplacental unit of normal and pre-eclamptic pregnancies. Differences in normal pregnant and pre-eclamptic RAS component regulation may provide insight into the mechanisms responsible for the clinical pathological features of pre-eclampsia. Specifically, this review summarizes the key findings in the circulating and uteroplacental RAS in normal and pre-eclamptic pregnancies. PMID:19124433

  18. Assessment of bone densitometry in Iranian patients with multiple sclerosis: A case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Moghaddasi, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Background We compared bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) on interferon with that of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) who were not receiving interferon and healthy age- and sex-matched controls. Methods Overall, 30 patients with RRMS on interferon (treated patients), 30 patients with RRMS but not receiving interferon (untreated patients), and 30 healthy controls were enrolled. The subjects were matched for age, sex, body mass index, physical activity and nutritional habits (as possible), duration of illness, frequency of attacks, and the amount of corticosteroid therapy. BMD was measured at the lumbar spine and proximal femur. The results of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were expressed as BMD (g/cm2), Z-scores, and T-scores. Results Osteopenia in patients with RRMS was 61.7% in proximal femur and 53.3% in lumbar spine (vs. 53.3% and 40% in healthy controls, respectively). There was an inverse relationship between Expanded Disability Status Scale scores and lumbar and femoral BDM in the patients. In treated patients, there was an inverse relationship between the duration of interferon therapy and lumbar and femoral BDM. In untreated patients, there was a similar relation between the duration of the illness and BMD. Moreover, inverse relationships existed between the frequency of attacks and lumbar and femoral BDM in both treated and untreated groups. However, this association was only significant in the untreated group. Conclusion Patients with MS showed reduced BMD in comparison with healthy controls. This reduction was related to the frequency of attacks. We also found lower BMD in untreated patients compared to interferon-treated patients. PMID:24250890

  19. The clinical features and diagnosis of Metachromatic leukodystrophy: A case series of Iranian Pediatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    JABBEHDARI, Sayena; RAHIMIAN, Elham; JAFARI, Narjes; SANII, Sara; KHAYATZADEHKAKHKI, Simin; NEJAD BIGLARI, Habibe

    2015-01-01

    Objective Metachromatic leukodystrophy disorder (MLD) is one of the rare neurometabolic diseases caused due to lack of saposin B and arylsulfatase A enzyme deficiency. Materials & Methods Eighteen patients diagnosed as metachromatic leukodystrophy in the Neurology Department of Mofid Children’s Hospital in Tehran, Iran between 2010 and 2014 were included in our study. The disorder was confirmed by clinical, EMG-NCV, arylsulfatase A enzyme checking and neuroimaging findings along with neurometabolic and genetic assessment from reference laboratory in Iran. We assessed age, gender, past medical history, developmental status, clinical manifestations, and neuroimaging findings of 18 patients with metachromatic leukodystrophy. Results From 18 patients, 80% were offspring from consanguineous marriages. A family history of metachromatic leukodystrophy disease was positive for four patients. Twelve patients had late infantile form of this disorder and six patients had juvenile form. A history of tonic type seizure was positive in 20% of the patients and tonic spasm was confirmed with clinical information. Electromyographgraphy (EMG) in 96% of patients was abnormal with demyelinating sensorimotor neuropathy pattern. MRI in all patients showed the leukodystrophic pattern as arcuate fibers sparing and subcortical rim in white matter and periventricular involvement. Our diagnosis was confirmed by EMG-NCV findings with sensorimotor neuropathy pattern and the assessment of arylsulfatase A enzyme function. Conclusion MLD is an inheritance metabolic disorder, which was confirmed by the assessment of arylsulfatase A enzyme function, peripheral blood leukocyte that assessed in a referral laboratory in Iran. PMID:26401154

  20. Marital Status and Fertility in Adult Iranian Patients with β-Thalassemia Major.

    PubMed

    Miri-Aliabad, Ghasem; Fadaee, Mahsoumeh; Khajeh, Ali; Naderi, Majid

    2016-03-01

    Expecting a family is an important component and a great goal for better quality of life for most of adults with β-thalassemia major. The aim of the present study was to examine the marital status of adults with β-thalassemia major. This cross-sectional study examined the marital status of patients with transfusion-dependent β-thalassemia aged over 15 years. Patients' demographic characteristics including age, gender, marital status, duration of marriage, divorce, having or not having children and spouse's health status were recorded. Information about the disease including cardiac and endocrine complications, ferritin level, splenectomy and viral hepatitis were also recorded. Of 228 patients with transfusion-dependent β-thalassemia major aged over 15 years who were treated at this medical center, 32 (14 %) were married. The mean age of married patients was 25.18 ± 4.74 years. Among the married patients, 8 (25 %) were females and 24 (75 %) patients were males. The mean age of marriage was 22.76 ± 4.16 years. The minimum and maximum marriage age was 15 and 33 years, respectively. The median duration of marriage was one year with the range from 3 months to 11 years. Only 8 (25 %) patients (one female and seven males) had children. Therapeutic advances have led to significantly increased survival and improved quality of life and fertility of patients with β-thalassemia major. According to the results, 14 % of patients over 15 years were married which was slightly higher as compared with other similar studies. PMID:26855517

  1. Serum Vitamin D Status in Iranian Fibromyalgia Patients: according to the Symptom Severity and Illness Invalidation

    PubMed Central

    Maafi, Alireza Amir; Haghdoost, Afrooz; Aarabi, Yasaman; Hajiabbasi, Asghar; Shenavar Masooleh, Irandokht; Zayeni, Habib; Ghalebaghi, Babak; Hassankhani, Amir; Bidari, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background This study was designed to assess serum vitamin D status (25-OHD) in the fibromyalgia (FM) patients and to compare it with a healthy control group. It also aimed to investigate the correlation of serum vitamin D level with FM symptom severity and invalidation experiences. Methods A total of 74 consecutive patients with FM and 68 healthy control participants were enrolled. The eligible FM patients completed the Illness Invalidation Inventory (3*I), the Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQR) and a short-form health survey (SF-12). Venous blood samples were drawn from all participants to evaluate serum 25-OHD levels. Mann-Whitney tests and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed and Spearman's correlations were calculated. Results 88.4% of FM patients had low levels of serum 25-OHD. FM patients had significantly higher level of serum 25-OHD than the control group (17.24 ± 13.50 and 9.91 ± 6.47 respectively, P = 0.0001). There were no significant correlations between serum 25-OHD levels and the clinical measures of disease impact, invalidation dimensions, and health status. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that an increased discounting of the disease by the patient's spouse was associated with a 4-fold increased risk for vitamin D deficiency (OR = 4.36; 95% CI, 0.95–19.87, P = 0.05). Conclusions This study showed that although high rates of vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency were seen among FM patients and healthy non-FM participants, but it seems there was no intrinsic association between FM and vitamin D deficiency. Addressing of invalidation experience especially by the patient's spouse is important in management of FM. PMID:27413482

  2. Detection of West Nile virus genome and specific antibodies in Iranian encephalitis patients.

    PubMed

    Chinikar, S; Javadi, A; Ataei, B; Shakeri, H; Moradi, M; Mostafavi, E; Ghiasi, S M

    2012-08-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus which circulates in birds, horses and humans. An estimated 80% of WNV infections are asymptomatic. Fewer than 1% of infected persons develop neuroinvasive disease, which typically presents as encephalitis, meningitis, or acute flaccid paralysis. This study was conducted from January 2008 to June 2009 in Isfahan, Iran. Patients attending the emergency department with fever and loss of consciousness were consecutively included. Cerebrospinal fluids (CSF) were initially analysed through bacteriology and biochemistry examinations, resulting in those with evidence of meningitis being excluded. Patients' CSF and serum were diagnosed by serological and molecular assays. A total of 632 patients with fever and loss of consciousness were tested by CSF analyses. Samples of the remaining patients (39·4%) were referred for WNV investigation. Three (1·2%) of the patients were positive for both serum and CSF by RT-PCR, and six (2·4%) were positive only for IgG antibodies. History of insect bite, and blood transfusion and transplantation were risk factors for being positive by RT-PCR (P=0·048) and being IgG positive (P=0·024), respectively. The results of this study showed that the prevalence of West Nile fever is low in patients with encephalitis. PMID:22008154

  3. Hope of patient recovery in the ICU from the viewpoint of Iranian nurses: concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Jahantigh, Mojgan; Rezaee, Nasrin; Rezaei, Nahid

    2014-11-01

    Nurses' care quality for patients in the ICU depends on their degree/ level of hope to improving patient, but there is no consensus on the concept "hoping to improve patient." The purpose of the present study is to analyze the concept nurses hoping to improving patient in the ICU. To analyze this concept, hybrid model is used which consists of theoretical phase, field work phase, and final analytical phase. In field phase work, semi-structured, face to face and individual interviews were done for nurses working in the ICU, and the data gathered from the interviews were analyzed using inductive content analysis. In theoretical phase, the concept hoping to improve patient was characterized by being available, being professional, expecting positively, and being future- oriented. The scientific definition of this concept was explained through properties which are necessary for qualified nursing care. In field work phase, the categories include nursing care, inner feeling, belief and consequences. In final analytical phase, final definition of the concept was explained through properties such as dynamic expectation, being realistic, and being goal- oriented which is a better function and attitude in effective nursing care accompanying peace of mind for nurses. Concept analysis showed that nurse's awareness of hoping to improve patient helps the nurse do his job in the best way and with peace of mind. PMID:25363116

  4. The Motivations of Iranian Patients With Cardiovascular Disease to Seek Health Information: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Gholami, Mohammad; Fallahi Khoshknab, Masoud; Khankeh, Hamid Reza; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Maddah, Sadat Seyed Bagher; Mousavi Arfaa, Nazila

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular patients need information to preserve and promote their health, but not all of them have the necessary motivation to seek relevant health knowledge. Objectives The present study analyzed experiences of patients, family caregivers, and healthcare providers to explore the motivating factors that cause cardiovascular patients to seek important health information. Patients and Methods This study was conducted using a qualitative approach and conventional qualitative content analysis method. Thirty-six people, including 18 cardiovascular patients, 7 family caregivers, and 11 healthcare providers (from multidisciplinary backgrounds) participated in the study. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews and purposeful sampling and continued until data saturation. Data collection and analysis proceeded simultaneously and with constant comparison; this study was carried out from May 2012 to May 2013. Results During the analysis process, three main themes were extracted that characterized participants’ experiences, perceptions, and motivations to seek health information. The themes were “Optimizing quality of life, “Desire for personal rights to be respected,” and “Gaining confidence through consultation.” Conclusions Our findings showed that, through seeking information, patients try to achieve well-being and realize their personal rights as well as their right to security. They should also be encouraged to enhance their quality of life by using the Knowles’ learning theory to formulate their needs and learning priorities. PMID:27437128

  5. BCL-1 Gene Rearrangements in Iranian Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Tohidirad, Manoush; Estiar, Mehrdad Asghari; Rezamand, Azim; Ghorbian, Saeid; Andalib, Sasan; Jahanzad, Issa; Bahrami, Tayyeb; Sakhinia, Ebrahim

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, our aim was to assess the incidence of BCL-1 gene rearrangements in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL). The BIOMED-2 protocol was applied to assess the BCL-1 gene rearrangements in NHL patients. PCR amplification was carried out on FFPE in 100 patients with B-cell lymphoma including 89 cases with diffused large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) (15 cases under 18 years old) and 11 cases with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). Out of the 100 patients, 19 cases (19%) were identified to have concurrent translocation involving BCL-1. The significant association was seen between BCL-1 gene rearrangements and the lymphomas in patients older than 55 years (P<0.05). Out of 100 cases, 80 cases were positive and 20 cases were negative regarding CD20. No significant association was found between DLBCL lymphoma in patients under 18 years old and BCL-1 gene rearrangements (P>0.05). In addition, the positive and negative expressions of LCA/CD45 marker were 76% (76/100) and 26% (26/100), respectively. Our findings revealed that BCL-1 gene rearrangement assays using BIOMED-2 protocol can be considered as a valuable approach in detection of the lymphomas. PMID:27045402

  6. The Outcome of Agitation in Poisoned Patients in an Iranian Tertiary Care University Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Sabzghabaee, Ali Mohammad; Yaraghi, Ahmad; Khalilidehkordi, Elham; Mirhosseini, Seyyed Mohammad Mahdy; Beheshtian, Elham; Eizadi-Mood, Nastaran

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. This study was conducted to evaluate and document the frequency and causes of agitation, the symptoms accompanying this condition in intoxications, relationship between agitation score on admission and different variables, and the outcome of therapy in a tertiary care referral poisoning center in Iran. Methods. In this prospective observational study which was done in 2012, 3010 patients were screened for agitation at the time of admission using the Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale. Demographic data including age, gender, and the drug ingested were also recorded. The patients' outcome was categorized as recovery without complications, recovery with complications (hyperthermia, renal failure, and other causes), and death. Results. Agitation was observed in 56 patients (males, n = 41), mostly aged 19–40 years (n = 38) and more frequently in illegal substance (stimulants, opioids and also alcohol) abusers. Agitation score was not significantly related to the age, gender, and previous history of psychiatric disorders. Forty nine patients had recovery without any complication. The need for mechanical ventilation was the most frequent complication. None of the patients died. Conclusion. Drug abuse seems to be a must-to-consider etiology for patients presenting with acute agitation and its morbidity and mortality could be low in agitated poisoning cases if prompt supportive care is performed. PMID:25548668

  7. High Prevelance of Rifampin-Monoresistant Tuberculosis: A Retrospective Analysis among Iranian Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Velayati, Ali Akbar; Farnia, Parissa; Mozafari, Mohadese; Sheikholeslami, Maryam Fatemeh; Karahrudi, Mona Afraei; Tabarsi, Payam; Hoffner, Sven

    2014-01-01

    We determined the prevalence of rifampin-monoresistant tuberculosis (RMR-TB) in Iran. Because development of RMR-TB is not common, we also identified the major risk factors associated with RMR-TB reported from different provinces of Iran. Data for 3,020 TB patients who remained or became smear positive after two, four, six, and nine months of standard first-line chemotherapy were retrospectively analyzed. Of 3,020 patients, 1,242 patients (41.1%) were culture and DNA positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Of these patients, 73 (7.4%) patients had monoresistant isolates to rifampin, which was significantly higher than that for multidrug-resistant TB (5.8%). The average rate of RMR-TB in the studied population ranged from 5% to 10%. Classical investigation showed that 33.6% of patients had either a previous or family history of TB. Molecular epidemiology methods (i.e., spoligotyping and Mycobacterium intespersed repetitive unit–variable number tandem repeat), defined transmission link in three clusters (13%). These results outline the urgent need for a comprehensive plan for detection and treatment of RMR-TB cases. PMID:24189362

  8. Sources of hope: Perception of Iranian family members of patients in the Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Gaeeni, Mina; Farahani, Mansoureh A; Mohammadi, Nooredin; Seyedfatemi, Naima

    2014-01-01

    Background: Admission to an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) is recognized as a situation with emotional strain, uncertainty, and fear of losing the patient. In such stressful situations, it is hope that can promote psychological stability in the patient's family members. Related literature revealed that sources of hope in this situation have still not been discussed well in studies. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the sources of hope from the perspective of families of ICU patients in Iran. Materials and Methods: In this qualitative study that was carried out adopting the conventional qualitative content analysis approach, 19 family members of 13 patients hospitalized in the ICU from three teaching hospitals were selected, through purposive sampling. Semi-structured interviews were used for data collection. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using conventional content analysis, through the process of data reduction and condensation, coding, and also generating categories and subcategories. Results: Analysis of the data revealed sources of hope in families of ICU patients. These sources appeared as two main categories- internal sources and external sources. The internal sources had two subcategories consisting of ’religious-spirituality beliefs’ and ’positive attitude’. The external sources had four subcategories consisting of healthcare professionals’ interactions, empathy of families and friends, patient's condition, and participation in care. Conclusions: The results of this study showed the sources of hope in the families of the patients in the ICU. These sources, as moderating factors, could reduce physical and psychological damages caused to the families. In the present study, the categorizations of the participants’ in-depth experience could develop a new horizon for healthcare professionals, especially nurses, on the sources of hope, based on culture. PMID:25558262

  9. Identification of a novel de novo mutation in the NIPBL gene in an Iranian patient with Cornelia de Lange syndrome: A case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cornelia de Lange syndrome is characterized by dysmorphic facial features, hirsutism, severe growth and developmental delay. Germline mutations in the NIPBL gene with an autosomal dominant pattern and in the SMC1A gene with an X-linked pattern have been identified in Cornelia de Lange syndrome. Case presentation A two-month-old Iranian boy who showed multiple congenital anomalies was referred to the genetic center of a welfare organization in southwest Iran. He was the second child of a non-consanguineous marriage, born after full term with normal delivery. His birth weight was 3110 g, his length was 46 cm and his head circumference was 30 cm. Both parents were clinically asymptomatic, with no positive history of any deformity in their respective families. Conclusions Sequencing of the NIPBL gene from our patient revealed a single-base deletion of thymidine in exon 10 (c.516delT). This mutation presumably results in premature termination at codon 526. We did not observe this mutation in the parents of our patient with Cornelia de Lange syndrome. The results presented here enlarge the spectrum of NIPBL gene mutations associated with Cornelia de Lange syndrome by identifying a novel de novo mutation in an Iranian patient with Cornelia de Lange syndrome and further support the hypothesis that NIPBL mutations are disease-causing mutations leading to Cornelia de Lange syndrome. PMID:21707975

  10. Lack of Association between Toll Like Receptor-2 and Toll Like Receptor-4 Gene Polymorphisms and Other Feature in Iranian Asthmatics Patients.

    PubMed

    Bahrami, Hamid; Daneshmandi, Saeed; Heidarnazhad, Hasan; Pourfathollah, Ali Akbar

    2015-02-01

    Asthma as a chronic inflammatory airway disease is considered to be the most common chronic disease that is involving genetic and environmental factors. Toll like receptors (TLRs) and other inflammatory mediators are important in modulation of inflammation. In this study, we evaluated the role of TLR2 Arg753Gln and TLR4 Asp299Gly polymorphisms in the asthma susceptibility, progress, control levels and lung functions in Iranian patients. On 99 asthmatic patients and 120 normal subjects, TLR2 Arg753Gln and TLR4 Asp299Gly polymorphisms were evaluated by PCR-RFLP method recruiting Msp1 and Nco1 restriction enzymes, respectively. IgE serum levels by ELISA technique were determined and asthma diagnosis, treatment and control levels were considered using standard schemes and criteria. Our results indicated that the genotype and allele frequencies of the TLR2 Arg753Gln and TLR4 Asp299Gly polymorphisms were not significantly different between control subjects and asthmatics and were not related to in asthma features such as IgE levels, asthma history and pulmonary factors. Wherease some previous studies indicated TLRs and their polymorphisms might have some role in asthma incidence and features, our data demonstrated that TLR2 Arg753Gln and TLR4 Asp299Gly gene variants were not risk factors for asthma or its features in Iranian patients. Genetic complexity, ethnicity, influence of other genes or polymorphisms may overcome these polymorphisms in our asthmatics. PMID:25530138

  11. Incidence Assessment of MTHFR C677T and A1298C Polymorphisms in Iranian Non-syndromic Cleft Lip and/or Palate Patients.

    PubMed

    Ebadifar, Asghar; Ameli, Nazila; Khorramkhorshid, Hamid Reza; Salehi Zeinabadi4, Mehdi; Kamali, Kourosh; Khoshbakht, Tayyebeh

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. The aim of the present study is to determine the incidence of MTHFR C677 T and A1298C muta-tions in Iranian patients with cleft lip and/or cleft palate. Materials and methods. We screened 61 Iranian patients with cleft lip and/or cleft palate for mutations in the two alleles of MTHFR gene associated with cleft lip and/or palate: A1298C and C677T, using Polymerase Chain Reaction following by RFLP. Results. The 677T and 1298C homozygote genotypes showed a frequency of 36.1% and 11.4%, respectively. Combined genotype frequencies in newborns having oral clefts showed that the highest genotype was 677TT/1298AA (22.9%) and 677TT/1298CC genotypes were not observed. Conclusion. The results showed that 65.6% of all patients had at least one T mutant allele in C677T and 58.9% C mutant allele for A1298C. According to the frequencies of homozygosity of mutant alleles, it could be said that MTHFR genotype of 677TT shows a greater role in having oral clefts. PMID:26236436

  12. Incidence Assessment of MTHFR C677T and A1298C Polymorphisms in Iranian Non-syndromic Cleft Lip and/or Palate Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ebadifar, Asghar; Ameli, Nazila; Khorramkhorshid, Hamid Reza; Salehi Zeinabadi4, Mehdi; Kamali, Kourosh; Khoshbakht, Tayyebeh

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. The aim of the present study is to determine the incidence of MTHFR C677 T and A1298C muta-tions in Iranian patients with cleft lip and/or cleft palate. Materials and methods. We screened 61 Iranian patients with cleft lip and/or cleft palate for mutations in the two alleles of MTHFR gene associated with cleft lip and/or palate: A1298C and C677T, using Polymerase Chain Reaction following by RFLP. Results. The 677T and 1298C homozygote genotypes showed a frequency of 36.1% and 11.4%, respectively. Combined genotype frequencies in newborns having oral clefts showed that the highest genotype was 677TT/1298AA (22.9%) and 677TT/1298CC genotypes were not observed. Conclusion. The results showed that 65.6% of all patients had at least one T mutant allele in C677T and 58.9% C mutant allele for A1298C. According to the frequencies of homozygosity of mutant alleles, it could be said that MTHFR genotype of 677TT shows a greater role in having oral clefts. PMID:26236436

  13. Outcome Measures of Functionality, Social Interaction, and Pain in Patients with Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy: A Validation Study for the Iranian Version of the Copenhagen Neck Functional Disability Scale

    PubMed Central

    Nayeb Aghaei, Hossein; Shahzadi, Sohrab; Azhari, Shirzad; Mohammadi, Hassan Reza; Alizadeh, Pooyan; Montazeri, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional. Purpose To translate and validate the Iranian version of the Copenhagen Neck Functional Disability Scale (CNFDS). Overview of Literature Instruments measuring patient-reported outcomes should satisfy certain psychometric properties. Methods Ninety-three cases of cervical spondylotic myelopathy were entered into the study and completed the CNFDS pre and postoperatively at the 6 month follow-up. The modified Japanese Orthopedic Association Score was also completed. The internal consistency, test-retest, convergent validity, construct validity (item scale correlation), and responsiveness to change were assessed. Results Mean age of the patients was 54.3 years (standard deviation, 8.9). The Cronbach α coefficient was satisfactory (α=0.84). Test-retest reliability as assessed by the intraclass correlation coefficient analysis was 0.95 (95% confidence interval, 0.92-0.98). The modified Japanese Orthopedic Association score correlated strongly with the CNFDS score, lending support to its good convergent validity (r=-0.80; p<0.001). Additionally, the correlation of each item with its hypothesized domain on the CNFDS was acceptable, suggesting that the items had a substantial relationship with their own domains. These results also indicate that the instrument was responsive to change (p<0.0001). Conclusions The findings suggest that the Iranian version of the CNFDS is a valid measure to assess functionality, social interaction, and pain among patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy. PMID:26713123

  14. Detection of Hepatitis B Virus Covalently Closed Circular DNA in the Plasma of Iranian HBeAg-Negative Patients With Chronic Hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Tajik, Zahra; Keyvani, Hossein; Bokharaei-Salim, Farah; Zolfaghari, Mohammad Reza; Fakhim, Shahin; Keshvari, Maryam; Alavian, Seyed Moayed

    2015-01-01

    Background: Covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a marker of HBV replication in the liver of patients infected with HBV. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the association between the presence of cccDNA in the plasma samples of Iranian treatment-naive patients with chronic hepatitis B infection and HBV viral load and HBsAg levels. Patients and Methods: From April 2012 to May 2015, 106 treatment-naive patients with chronic hepatitis B infection were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. The HBsAg titer was measured by the Roche HBsAg II assay on the Cobas e411 system, and HBV DNA quantitation was performed using the COBAS TaqMan 48 kit. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed for the detection of HBV cccDNA. Results: The mean (SD) age of the patients was 41.1 ± 12.4 years (range, 20 - 62 years). From a total of 106 study participants, 67 (63.2%) were males. The HBV cccDNA was detected in plasma specimens in 19 (17.9%) out of the total 106 patients, and a significant relationship was found between the presence of cccDNA in plasma sample of males (23.9%) and females (7.7%) (P = 0.039). Also, a significant correlation was found between the presence of cccDNA in plasma sample of the patients and HBV viral load level (P < 0.0001) and HBsAg titer (P = 0.0043). Conclusions: This study showed that cccDNA can be detected in the plasma specimen of 17.9% of Iranian treatment-naive patients with chronic hepatitis B infection. Therefore, designing prospective studies focusing on the detection of cccDNA in these patients would provide more information. PMID:26504471

  15. Knowledge and attitude assessment of Iranian multiple sclerosis patients receiving interferon beta

    PubMed Central

    Abolfazli, Roya; Elyasi, Azam; Javadi, Mohammad Reza; Gholami, Kheirollah; Torkamandi, Hassan; Amir-Shahkarami, Mohammad; Etemadifar, Masoud; Nasr, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients permanently confronted with serious challenges from treatment regimen. Developing a new questionnaire in MS management, through evaluation of patients’ perspectives and knowledge regarding treatment will help to identify the sources of tension, and to build a therapeutic alliance. We purposed to describe MS patients’ understanding of their treatments. Methods: About 425 completed and returned questionnaire were assessed of a total of 500 recruited MS patients. The knowledge of correct using interferon-beta (IFN-β) and attitude toward medical care were assessed using self-reported questionnaires consisted of 25 items with validity of multidisciplinary panel and pre-testing on 20 patients. Results: Knowledge about IFN-β therapy was very low; however, attitude was at a high level. Female patients, self-injection ability, higher educational level, normal functional status, delay from the start of diagnostic workup to definite diagnosis, and being younger were related to a higher level of knowledge. Attitude was associated with functional status, family history of disease and the summary of knowledge variable. Conclusion: Developing educational interventions are needed for MS patients regarding to their low levels of knowledge. PMID:25422736

  16. The Most Common Cow's Milk Allergenic Proteins with Respect to Allergic Symptoms in Iranian Patients.

    PubMed

    Shokouhi Shoormasti, Raheleh; Fazlollahi, Mohammad Reza; Barzegar, Saeedeh; Teymourpour, Pegah; Yazdanyar, Zahra; Lebaschi, Zahra; Nourizadeh, Maryam; Tazesh, Behnaz; Movahedi, Masoud; Kashani, Homa; Pourpak, Zahra; Moin, Mostafa

    2016-04-01

    Cow's milk allergy (CMA) is an immunological response to cow's milk proteins such as casein, α-lactalbumin and β lactoglobulin. The aim of this study was to determine the most common cow's milk allergenic proteins in patients with CMA and identify the most effective proteins in different allergic symptoms. Eighty seven patients (≤18 years) with allergy to cow's milk from 2006 to 2013 entered this study. They had a positive history of allergic reactions to cow's milk and a positive specific IgE test to whole cow's milk. The patients' symptoms were divided into four groups. Serum specific IgEs against four different main proteins of cow's milk were measured using RIDA Allergy Screen. Among 87 patients, 53 (60.5%) were male and the median age was 2.5 years. The frequency of respiratory, skin, gastrointestinal symptoms, and anaphylaxis were 63.3%, 55.7%, 20.3%, and 13.4%, respectively. Specific IgEs to total cow's milk protein (n=75, 89.3%), and the main Cow's Milk Proteins including α-lactalbumin (n=65, 77.4%), casein (n=64, 75.3%), β-lactoglobulin (n=52, 62.7%), and bovine serum albumin (n=35, 44.9%) were detected. Specific IgE tests to β-lactoglobulin were positive in 90% of the patients with anaphylaxis. Moreover, significant relationship was found between specific IgE to β-lactoglobulin and anaphylaxis (p=0.04). Although it is presumed that α-lactalbumin and casein are the most common allergenic proteins of cow's milk, in this study there is a significant relationship between the anaphylaxis and the presence of β-lactoglobulin-specific IgE. Therefore, more precautions are recommended due to possible anaphylactic reactions in patients with a positive test history for β-lactoglobulin specific IgE. PMID:27090370

  17. Coronary atherosclerosis evaluation among Iranian patients with zero coronary calcium score in computed tomography coronary angiography

    PubMed Central

    Moradi, Maryam; Varasteh, Elham

    2016-01-01

    Background: Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is a specific indicator of and a sensitive marker for the atherosclerotic disease process. However, calcium scoring may miss noncalcified plaques with clinical importance. The present study aimed to identify the presence and extent of coronary plaques in computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) in patients with a zero CAC score and the secondary endpoint was to evaluate the association between coronary risk factors and the presence of noncalcified plaques. Materials and Methods: In a retrospective descriptive-analytic study, a total of 2000 consecutive patients who undergone CTCA between September 2012 and September 2014 at Alzahra Hospital in Isfahan, Iran were analyzed. Three hundred and eighty-five patients with a zero calcium score were included in the study. The demographic information and coronary artery disease (CAD), risk factors including diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smoking, and family history of CAD, were obtained from the questionnaire. Furthermore, the presence of plaques and extent of stenosis were evaluated in patients with zero CAC score. Results: Of the 385 patients with a zero calcium score, 16 (4.2%) had atherosclerotic plaques. Among them, 6 (1.6%) had significant (>50%) coronary stenosis, and 10 (2.6%) had no significant (<50%) coronary stenosis. Hyperlipidemia, DM, and smoking were significantly associated with obstructive CAD. Furthermore, in patients with zero calcium score, DM, hyperlipidemia, and smoking had odds ratios of 5.9, 14, and 32.5 for the development of coronary artery plaques, respectively. Conclusion: Although, CAC scoring is a noninvasive and valuable method to evaluate CAD; but zero CAC score does not absolutely exclude the CAD, especially in the presence of risk factors such as diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and smoking. PMID:26962526

  18. Genotype-phenotype correlation in Iranian patients with Hb H disease.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimkhani, Saedieh; Azarkeivan, Azita; Bayat, Nooshin; Houry-Parvin, Mahdieh; Jalil-Nejad, Sayeh; Zand, Shima; Golkar, Zahra; Hadavi, Valeh; Imanian, Hashem; Oberkanins, Christian; Najmabadi, Hossein

    2011-01-01

    Thalassemia is the most common genetic disorder in Iran. Some α-globin genotypes leading to Hb H disease may cause severe anemia and dependence on regular blood transfusions. In this study, 40 patients were analyzed for the molecular basis and the genotype-phenotype correlation of Hb H disease in Iran. α-Globin molecular analysis was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by agarose gel electrophoresis, reverse hybridization test strips or DNA sequencing. The most frequently observed α-globin genotypes were -α(3.7)/- -(MED) in 10 patients (25%), - -(20.5)/α(-5nt)α in six patients (15%) and - -(20.5)/-α(3.7) in four patients (10%). A subset of the identified Hb H genotypes, including - -(MED)/α(CS)α, - -(MED)/α(PolyA2)α and α(CS)α/α(CS)α, was associated with a need for regular or irregular blood transfusions. Our findings provide a basis for predicting phenotype severity by identifying the Hb H genotype and making more selective decisions for prenatal diagnosis. PMID:21250880

  19. Polymorphisms of genes encoding interleukin-4 and its receptor in Iranian patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Ziaee, Vahid; Rezaei, Arezou; Harsini, Sara; Maddah, Marzieh; Zoghi, Samaneh; Sadr, Maryam; Moradinejad, Mohammad Hassan; Rezaei, Nima

    2016-08-01

    As cytokines, including interleukin-4 (IL-4), seem to have a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), this study is aimed at investigating of association of polymorphisms in IL-4 and IL-4 receptor α (IL-4RA) genes with susceptibility to JIA. A case-control study was conducted on 53 patients with JIA and 139 healthy unrelated controls. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of IL-4 gene at positions -1098, -590, and -33, as well as IL-4RA gene at position +1902 were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primers method and compared between patients and healthy individuals. At the allelic level, C allele at IL-4 -33 was found to be more frequent in patients compared to control (P value <0.01). At the genotypic level, CC genotype at IL-4 -590 (P value <0.01), together with CC and TT genotypes at IL-4 -33 (P value <0.01), were significantly higher in patients with JIA, while TC genotypes at IL-4 -590 and -33 positions were found to be lower in case group (P value <0.01). At the haplotypic level, IL-4 (positions -1098, -509, -33) TTC, GCC, and TTT haplotypes were significantly lower than controls (P value <0.01, P value = 0.03, and P value = 0.04, respectively). Although, TCC haplotype at the same positions was found to be higher in patients (P value <0.01). Polymorphic site of +1902 IL-4RA gene did not differ between cases and controls. Polymorphisms in promoter region of IL-4 but not IL-4RA genes confer susceptibility to JIA and may predispose individuals to adaptive immune responses. PMID:26951255

  20. Unusual Recovery of Aphasia in a Polyglot Iranian Patient after Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Mehrpour, Masoud; Motamed, Mohammad R.; Aghaei, Mahboubeh; Jalali, Nazanin; Ghoreishi, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Aphasia is a language disorder resulting from a lesion in the cerebral cortex. In this case report, we present a polyglot patient who recovered from aphasia by speaking his newly active learned language Case Report A 69 years old male referred with acute onset right hemiparesis and global aphasia. After imaging, he treated with 75 mg r-TPA (0.9 mg/kg). After the fourth day of hospitalization, he could name some objects and some short phrases but interestingly only in French language (although his mother language was Persian). Discussion In our patient, recovery was first in the last learned language and his learning memory was recovered earlier than his native languages. As in our case, we can expect to have different recovery theory that means active learning language could be the first part of recovery in aphasia. PMID:25337377

  1. Bioimpacts of dialyzer variety on phosphorus level in Iranian hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Pezeshgi, Aiyoub; Moharrami, Bahareh; Kolifarhood, Goodarz; Sadeghi, Alireza; Asadi-Khiavi, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Cardiovascular events are the major cause of death in patients with chronic renal failure. About half of dialysis patients because of reduced phosphorus clearance have hyperphosphatemia. Hyperphosphatemia and following secondary hyperparathyroidism lead to some cardiovascular changes. Hemodialysis (HD) partly removes phosphorus during each dialysis session. Objectives: Presented study was designed to evaluate dialyzer variation effect on phosphorus level as a prognostic factor after dialysis using. Materials and Methods: Six kinds of dialyzer were used for dialysis; low flux (LF) dialyzer (F7 and F8), high flux (HF) dialyzer (F70 and F80) and finally hollow-fiber dialyzers including polyethersulfone (PES) 130 HF and polysulfone (PS) 13 LF. Fifty-seven patients were divided into 6 matched groups included three groups of 10 people and 3 groups of 9 persons in groups: A (F70), B (F80), C (F7), D (F8), E (PES 130 HF) and F (PS 13 LF). Patients were treated for one month with these dialyzers. At the end of the month, blood samples were taken again for phosphorus level before dialysis handling. Results: The mean pre-dialysis serum phosphorus was 5.03, 5.4, 5.2, 4.6, 4.95 and 5.1 mg/dl and the mean phosphorus was 5.43, 5.01, 4.9, 4.18, 4.17 and 5.3 mg/dl after one month of dialysis, respectively in groups A to F without any statistically differences between pre- and after one month dialysis values respectively. Discussion: The findings indicate dialyzer type in the control of serum phosphorus has not been effective in the short-term HD. We suggest a study with more duration time. PMID:27471742

  2. Frequency and pattern of idiopathic osteosclerosis and condensing osteitis lesions in panoramic radiography of Iranian patients

    PubMed Central

    Farhadi, Farrokh; Ruhani, Mohammad Razavi; Zarandi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate of radiographic pattern and relative frequency of idiopathic osteosclerosis (IO) and condensing osteitis (CO) in panoramic radiographs. Materials and Methods: Totally 411 panoramic radiographies were randomly selected from patients referred to Radiology Department of Faculty of Dentistry, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. Descriptive characteristics of radiopacities, including shape, border, localization, and dental relationship, were recorded. The Chi-squared test was used. Results: IO was detected in 31 (7.5%) patients and 22 (68.8%) lesions had exact border while their shape was mostly irregular. About 17 (53.1%) lesions were apical, and 13 (40.6%) lesions had no relation to the teeth. The most involved teeth were the second premolar (28.1%) and first molar (25%). Moreover, CO was detected in 32 (7.8%) patients. 17 (53.1%) lesions had an ill-defined border, and their shape was mostly irregular (65.6%) with ill-defined border. Around 18 (56.3%) lesions were apical, and 11 (34.4) lesions were apical and interradicular. The most involved teeth were the second premolar (59.4%) and the first molar (21.9%). Conclusion: The results demonstrated that relative frequency of IO in the selected population was 7.5% and for CO, it was 7.8%.

  3. A clinic-based screening of mutations in exons 31, 34, 35, 41, and 48 of LRRK2 in Iranian Parkinson's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Shojaee, Seyedmehdi; Sina, Farzad; Farboodi, Niloofar; Fazlali, Zeinab; Ghazavi, Farzaneh; Ghorashi, Seyed Ali; Parsa, Khosro; Sadeghi, Homa; Shahidi, Gholam-Ali; Ronaghi, Mostafa; Elahi, Elahe

    2009-05-15

    We present results of mutation screening of exons 31, 34, 35, 41, and 48 of LRRK2 in 205 Iranian Parkinson's disease patients. Sixteen percent of the cases were familial. Although age was not a factor in patient recruitment, the Iranian cohort was relatively young (average age at onset of disease: 48.9 years). A notably high male to female ratio (2.96:1) and earlier age at onset (by 2.9 years) in men were observed. A known disease-associated variation, c.C4321T causing R1441C, and IVS31 + 3A > G, a variation that may be associated, were observed. Therefore, disregarding IVS31 + 3A > G, disease status in at least 0.5% of our young cohort and in 3.5% of the familial cases was associated with a mutation in the five exons of LRRK2 screened. Interestingly, the variation causing p.G2019S was not observed. PMID:19353692

  4. Comparison of Serum Calcium and Magnesium Between Preeclamptic and Normotensive Pregnant Nigerian Women in Abakaliki, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ugwuja, EI; Famurewa, AC; Ikaraoha, CI

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidence suggests the involvement of calcium and magnesium metabolism in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. However, findings from studies are heterogenous and inconsistent. Aim: The study aimed to compare the total serum calcium and magnesium levels in preeclamptic women with that of normotensive pregnant women. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional subjects of eighty pregnant women living in Abakaliki, Ebonyi state, South-East Nigeria, were recruited into the study. The present study compared serum calcium and magnesium in forty preeclamptic (cases) and forty normotensive (control) pregnant women matched for age, parity, and socioeconomic status. Serum calcium and magnesium levels were measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS Version 20 statistical software. Differences between means were compared using Student's t-test with P < 0.05 considered as statistically significant. Results: While the mean serum calcium was comparable between preeclamptic and normotensive pregnant women (13.99 [3.29] vs. 14.02 [5.68] μg/dl), the preeclamptic pregnant women have significantly (P < 0.001) lower serum magnesium in comparison to their normotensive counterparts (3.22 [1.05] vs. 4.15 [0.78]). Conclusion: It may be concluded that serum magnesium seems to play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia in this environment. PMID:27144074

  5. Major depressive disorder: a qualitative study on the experiences of Iranian patients.

    PubMed

    Amini, Kourosh; Negarandeh, Reza; Cheraghi, Mohammad Ali; Eftekhar, Mehrdad

    2013-09-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one the most common mental disorders; it affects about 5-10% of the world population. This study explores the experiences of people with major depressive disorder in Zanjan, Iran. In order to identify recurring themes and patterns in individuals' experiences of major depressive disorder, semi-structured interviews with 18 patients were recorded and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were then analyzed based on conventional qualitative content analysis. Five main categories emerged. The first category was called emotional paralysis and included the subcategories feeling severely depressed; feeling anxious; feeling impatient and irritable; and having dyshedonia. The second category was disturbance of thinking and was comprised of the subcategories of preoccupation, instable spiritual beliefs, and guilt. Cognitive decline was the third identified category and was further divided into subcategories of frustration, unawareness of the disorder, negative evaluation, indecisiveness, and loss of focus and loss of memory. Another major category was physical illnesses with the subcategories of physical discomfort, sleep problems, appetite disturbance, facial changes, sexual dysfunction, and medical conditions. The final category was failure in life, which had failure in personal affairs, jeopardized interpersonal relations, and unstable work life as subcategories. These findings provide a base for further research in this area. They also have clinical relevance for health care providers working with patients with MDD. Related cultural issues also are discussed. PMID:24004363

  6. Evaluation of Iranian pediatric specialists’ attitude and knowledge regarding approach to patients with acute otitis media

    PubMed Central

    Ghalehbaghi, Babak; Asghari, Alimohamad; Ahmadvand, Alireza; Moradi, Yasaman; Kamrava, Kamran; Motiei, Mir Abolfazl

    2012-01-01

    Background The ministry of health and medical education of Iran and many other countries advice physicians to use this guideline for diagnosis and treatment of acute otitis media (AOM), but there is not any evaluation of effectiveness and obedience of this guideline, so the aim of this study was to evaluate the attitude of pediatricians, the most important group that interfere with these patients in treatment of acute otitis media. Methods A total of 120 anonymous surveys were mailed to 120 pediatrician in Tehran (Iran) to evaluate pattern of diagnosis and treatment of AOM in these physicians. Age, gender, place of work, attitude of diagnosis and treatment were asked by anonymous survey. Results Sixty-two completed surveys were received, for a response rate of 51%. There was no significant difference between responders in these survey and scenarios, according to sex, age, practice setting, graduation year or the number of AOM patients visiting each month. Conclusion Our study seems to add new insights to the previous literature on management of AOM according to guideline. We can assess the impact of guidelines on the usual practice of practitioners in evidenced-based management of AOM. PMID:23483781

  7. Assessment of Attention to Clothing and Impact of Its Restrictive Factors in Iranian Patients with Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury (ACIRF-SCI): Introduction of a New Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Laleh, Leila; Koushki, Davood; Matin, Marzieh; Javidan, Abbas Norouzi; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) deal with various restrictive factors regarding their clothing, such as disability and difficulty with access to shopping centers. Objectives: We designed a questionnaire to assess attention to clothing and impact of its restrictive factors among Iranian patients with SCI (ACIRF-SCI). Methods: The ACIRF-SCI has 5 domains: functional, medical, attitude, aesthetic, and emotional. The first 3 domains reflect the impact of restrictive factors (factors that restrict attention to clothing), and the last 2 domains reflect attention to clothing and fashion. Functional restrictive factors include disability and dependence. Medical restrictive factors include existence of specific medical conditions that interfere with clothing choice. Construct validity was assessed by factorial analysis, and reliability was expressed by Cronbach’s alpha. Results: A total of 100 patients (75 men and 25 women) entered this study. Patients with a lower injury level had a higher total score (P < .0001), and similarly, patients with paraplegia had higher scores than those with tetraplegia (P < .0001), which illustrates an admissible discriminant validity. Postinjury duration was positively associated with total scores (r = 0.21, P = .04). Construct validity was 0.97, and Cronbach’s alpha was 0.61. Conclusion: Iranian patients with SCI who have greater ability and independence experience a lower impact of restrictive factors related to clothing. The ACIRF-SCI reveals that this assumption is statistically significant, which shows its admissible discriminant validity. The measured construct validity (0.97) and reliability (internal consistency expressed by alpha = 0.61) are acceptable. PMID:26363593

  8. Diagnostic Value of D-Dimer’s Serum Level in Iranian Patients with Cerebral Venous Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Hashami, Leila; Rakhshan, Vahid; Karimian, Hoda; Moghaddasi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a long-term debilitating vascular brain disease with high morbidity and mortality. It may be associated with rise in D-dimer level. The aim of this study was to examine this potential association and identify the critical D-dimer cut-off level corresponding to increase the risk of CVT. This case-control study was conducted on two groups of patients with and without CVT attending the Rasool Akram Hospital (Iran) during 2014 and 2015. D-dimer levels were measured by the rapid sensitive D-dimer assay. Data were analyzed by Spearman’s correlation coefficient test, independent-samples t-test, backward-selection multiple linear regression and multiple binary logistic regression analyses. Sensitivity-specificity tests were used to detect D-dimer cut-off for CVT. Differences between the D-dimer levels of the case and control groups were significant (P<0.001). It showed that each level of increase in the number of symptoms could increase the risk of thrombosis occurrence for about 3.5 times. All symptom types except for headache were associated with D-dimer level, while headache has negative association with D-dimer level. D-dimer cut-off point for CVT diagnosis was estimated at 350 ng/mg. We concluded that D-dimer serum level significantly rises in CVT patients. A rounded cut-off point of 350 ng/mg can be used as a diagnostic criterion for CVT prediction. PMID:27441064

  9. Haplotype analysis of BRCA1 intragenic markers in Iranian patients with familial breast and ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Miresmaeili, Seyed Mohsen; Kordi Tamandani, Dor Mohammad; Kalantar, Seyed Mehdi; Moshtaghioun, Seyed Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. Breast Cancer Type 1 Susceptibility gene (BRCA1) is a tumor suppressor gene, involved in DNA damage repair and in 81% of the breast-ovarian cancer families were due to BRCA1. In some clinically investigated genes, the intragenic marker polymorphism is important and the screening of such mutations is faster by using short tandem repeat (STR) polymorphism. Individual polymorphism of STR is a good evidence for following inheritance of repeat polymorphism. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate three intragenic BRCA1 marker polymorphisms in families, which have two or more patients with breast/ovarian cancer in comparison to healthy women. Materials and Methods: A total of 107 breast and/or ovarian cancer patients and 93 unrelated healthy women with no clinical phenotype of any malignancy or familial cancer history constitute the study groups. Haplotyping analysis, at 3 intragenic BRCA1 microsatellite markers (D17S855, D17S1322 and D17S1323), were performed for all subject and control groups using labeled primers. Results: After fragment analysis, significance differences were observed as follows: two alleles of D17S855; allele 146 (p=0.02) and 150 (p=0.006), and two alleles of D17S1322, allele 121 (p=0.015) and 142 (p=0.043). These differences were compared with control group. There was significance difference in 8 di/tri allelic haplotypes in present experimental subjects. Some haplotypes were observed to have approximately twice the relation risk for breast cancer. Conclusion: According to recent results, assessment of presence or absence of mentioned alleles in BRCA1 microsatellite can be used for prognosis in individuals, suspected of having or not having the breast cancer. PMID:27351029

  10. Cardiovascular biomarker midregional proatrial natriuretic peptide during and after preeclamptic pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Sugulle, Meryam; Herse, Florian; Hering, Lydia; Mockel, Martin; Dechend, Ralf; Staff, Anne Cathrine

    2012-02-01

    Preeclampsia is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Midregional proatrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP), a precursor of the atrial natriuretic peptide, is a biomarker for cardiovascular disease. We obtained plasma from 184 pregnant women in gestational weeks 24 to 42 (normotensive pregnancies: n=77, preeclampsia: n=107), from 25 of these women at 5 to 8 years after index pregnancy (normotensive pregnancies: n=11, preeclampsia: n=14), and from 49 normotensive, nonpregnant women and analyzed them by immunoassay for MR-proANP. To investigate potential sources, placental and decidual atrial natriuretic peptide mRNA expression levels were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR in 21 normotensive and 23 preeclamptic pregnancies, as well as in human heart and kidney samples. For further confirmation, we measured circulating MR-proANP and performed expression studies in a transgenic rat model for preeclampsia. MR-proANP was significantly elevated in maternal plasma in preeclampsia compared with normotensive pregnancies (135 versus 56 pmol/L; P<0.001). However, 5 to 8 years after pregnancy, there was no difference (formerly preeclamptic women versus formerly normotensive in pregnancy: 53 versus 49 pmol/L; P=0.5). Our preeclamptic rat model confirmed the acute MR-proANP differences between preeclamptic and normotensive pregnancies (10.9±1.9 versus 4.3±0.3 pmol/L; P=0.05). Atrial natriuretic peptide expression was high in the heart but negligible in the uteroplacental unit in both normotensive humans and rats, whereas expression in maternal and fetal hearts in the preeclamptic rats was significantly increased, compared with controls. MR-proANP is a serviceable biomarker in preeclampsia, both in humans and a rat model, probably reflecting cardiovascular hemodynamic stress. PMID:22184318

  11. Detrimental arterial inflammatory effect of microparticles circulating in preeclamptic women: ex vivo evaluation in human arteries.

    PubMed

    Boisramé-Helms, Julie; Meziani, Ferhat; Sananès, Nicolas; Boisramé, Thomas; Langer, Bruno; Schneider, Francis; Ragot, Thierry; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson; Tesse, Angela

    2015-10-01

    Elevated plasmatic levels of lympho-monocyte and platelet microparticles (MPs) have been reported in preeclampsia. Previous studies suggest that MPs could participate in preeclampsia vascular impairment. In this study, we investigated the ex vivo vascular effects of MPs from preeclamptic women on arteries from normotensive pregnant women. Omental arteries were collected from normal pregnant women undergoing cesarean section and incubated during 24 h with MPs from normal pregnant or preeclamptic women. Vascular contraction to serotonin and phenylephrine was studied on a wire myograph with or without pharmacological selective inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and/or cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2). Expression of iNOS, COX-2, and NF-κB and production of superoxide anion and 8-isoprostane were also assessed by immunohistological or biochemical staining and/or Western blot or ELISA assay, respectively. Microparticles from preeclamptic women, but not those from normal pregnant women, induced hyporeactivity to vasocontracturant agonists in omental arteries. Selective inhibitor of iNOS partially restored this arterial contraction, suggesting that nitric oxide (NO) is involved in vascular contractility alteration. Conversely, COX-2 induced 8-isoprostane release, a vasoconstricting metabolite modulating the agonist-induced contraction. COX-2 selective inhibitor almost abolished the arterial contraction in the same vessels. Interestingly, the association of iNOS and COX-2 selective inhibitors restored the contraction to control levels. Moreover, iNOS, COX-2, and NF-κB expressions are upregulated and superoxide anion levels increased in vessels incubated with MPs from preeclamptic women. In conclusion, circulating MPs from preeclamptic women induce vascular inflammation and enhance oxidative stress. These results suggest a possible role of MPs during preeclampsia-induced arterial dysfunction. PMID:26213341

  12. Rare large homozygous CFTR gene deletion in an Iranian patient with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Farjadian, Shirin; Moghtaderi, Mozhgan; Zuntini, Roberta; Ferrari, Simona

    2014-08-16

    Cystic fibrosis, a common autosomal recessive genetic disorder among Caucasians, is caused by defects in the transmembrane conductance regulatory (CFTR) gene. The analysis of CFTR gene mutations is useful to better characterize the disease, and for preconceptional screening, prenatal and preimplantation genetic diagnosis. Here we report the results of a genetic analysis in a 16-year-old boy from southwestern Iran diagnosed as having cystic fibrosis in infancy based on gastrointestinal and pulmonary manifestations, with positive sweat chloride tests. He lacked both normal and mutant forms of the fragment corresponding to the ∆F508 allele in initial genetic studies. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification-based testing revealed a homozygous deletion spanning exons 4 to 10 of the CFTR gene. We predict an in-frame deletion removing 373 amino acids based on our sequencing results. Determining CFTR gene mutations in patients and their family members would be helpful to prevent the occurrence of new cases, especially in populations in which consanguinity is common. PMID:25133155

  13. Identification of a Novel Cassette Array in Integronbearing Helicobacter Pylori Strains Isolated from Iranian Patients.

    PubMed

    Goudarzi, Mehdi; Seyedjavadi, Sima Sadat; Fazeli, Maryam; Roshani, Maryam; Azad, Mehdi; Heidary, Mohsen; Navidinia, Masoumeh; Goudarzi, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori as the second most common cause of gastric cancer in the world infects approximately half of the developed countries population and 80% of the population living in developing countries. Integrons as genetic reservoirs play major roles in dissemination of antimicrobial resistance genes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report carriage of class 1 and 2 integrons and associated gene cassettes in H. pylori isolates from Iran. This crosssectional study was conducted in Tehran among 110 patients with H. pylori infection. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) for H. pylori strains were assessed by the micro broth dilution method. Class 1 and 2 integrons were detected using PCR. In order to determine gene cassettes, amplified fragments were subjected to DNA sequencing of both amplicon strands. The prevalence of resistance to clarithromycin, metronidazole, clarithromycin, tetracycline, amoxicillin, rifampin, and levofloxacin were 68.2% (n=75), 25.5% (n=28), 24.5% (n=27), 19.1% (n=21), 18.2% (n=20) and 16.4% (n=18), respectively. Frequency of multidrug resistance among H. pylori isolates was 12.7%. Class 2 integron was detected in 50 (45.5%) and class 1 integron in 10 (9.1%) H. pylori isolates. The most predominant gene cassette arrays in class 2 integron bearing H. pylori were included sateraaadA1, dfrA1sat2aadA1, blaoxa2 and, aadB whereas common gene cassette arrays in class 1 integron were aadBaadA1cmlA6, aacA4, blaoxa2, and catB3. The high frequency of class 2 integron and multidrug resistance in the present study should be considered as a warning for clinicians that continuous surveillance is necessary to prevent the further spread of resistant isolates. PMID:27509968

  14. Loss of heterozygosity and microsatellite instability as predictive markers among Iranian esophageal cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Forghanifard, Mohammad Mahdi; Vahid, Elham Emami; Dadkhah, Ezzat; Gholamin, Mehran; Noghabi, Samaneh Broumand; Ghahraman, Martha; Farzadnia, Mehdi; Abbaszadegan, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Variation in microsatellite sequences that are dispersed in the genome has been linked to a deficiency in cellular mismatch repair system and defects in several genes of this system are involved in carcinogenesis. Our aim in this study was to illustrate microsatellite DNA alteration in esophageal cancer. Materials and Methods: DNA was extracted from formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissues from surgical and matched margin-normal samples. Microsatellite instability (MSI) and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) were studied in 50 cases of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) by amplifying six microsatellite markers: D13S260 (13q12.3), D13S267 (13q12.3), D9S171 (9p21), D2S123 (2p), D5S2501 (5q21) and TP53 (17p13.1) analyzed on 6% denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results: Statistical analysis indicated a near significant reverse correlation between grade and LOH (P= 0.068, correlation coefficient= -0.272). Specifically, increased LOH in tumor DNA has a significant correlation with increased differentiation from poorly differentiated to well differentiated tumors (P= 0.002 and P= 0.016 respectively). In addition, higher number of chromosomal loci with LOH showed a reverse correlation with lymph node metastasis (P= 0.026, correlation coefficient= -0.485). Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between addiction and MSI (P= 0.026, correlation coefficient= 0.465). Conclusion: Microsatellite DNA alterations may be a prognostic tool for detection and the evolution of prognosis in patients with SCC of esophagus. It can be concluded that regional lymph node metastasis would be less likely with increased heterozygote loci and addiction with any of opium, cigarette, water pipe or alcohol can be a susceptibility factor(s) for MSI.

  15. Born from pre-eclamptic pregnancies predisposes infants to altered cortisol metabolism in the first postnatal year

    PubMed Central

    Broughton Pipkin, Fiona; Mistry, Hiten D; Roy, Chandrima; Dick, Bernhard; Waugh, Jason; Chikhi, Rebecca; Kurlak, Lesia O; Mohaupt, Markus G

    2015-01-01

    Pre-eclampsia leads to disturbed fetal organ development, including metabolic syndrome, attributed to altered pituitary-adrenal feedback loop. We measured cortisol metabolites in infants born from pre-eclamptic and normotensive women and hypothesised that glucocorticoid exposure would be exaggerated in the former. Twenty-four hour urine was collected from infants at months 3 and 12. Cortisol metabolites and apparent enzyme activities were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. From 3 to 12 months, excretion of THS, THF and pregnandiol had risen in both groups; THF also rose in the pre-eclamptic group. No difference was observed with respect to timing of the visit or to hypertensive status for THE or total F metabolites (P>0.05). All apparent enzymes activities, except 17α-hydroxylase, were lower in infants at 12 compared to 3 months in the normotensive group. In the pre-eclamptic group, only 11β-HSD activities were lower at 12 months.17α-hydroxylase and 11β-HSD activities of tetrahydro metabolites were higher in the pre-eclamptic group at 3 months (P<0.05). 11β-hydroxylase activity increased in the pre-eclamptic group at 12 months. Cortisol excretion, determined by increased 11β-hydroxylase, compensates for high 11β-HSD-dependent cortisol degradation at 3 months and at 12 months counterbalances the reduced cortisol substrate availability in infants born from pre-eclamptic mothers. PMID:26378058

  16. Clinical characteristics, management and 1-year outcomes of patients with acute coronary syndrome in Iran: the Iranian Project for Assessment of Coronary Events 2 (IPACE2)

    PubMed Central

    Kassaian, Seyed Ebrahim; Masoudkabir, Farzad; Sezavar, Hashem; Mohammadi, Mohammad; Pourmoghaddas, Ali; Kojouri, Javad; Ghaffari, Samad; Sanaati, Hamidreza; Alaeddini, Farshid; Pourmirza, Bahin; Mir, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess contemporary data on characteristics, management and 1-year postdischarge outcomes in Iranian patients hospitalised with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Setting 11 tertiary care hospitals in 5 major cities in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Participants Patients aged ≥20 and ≤80 years discharged alive with confirmed diagnosis of ACS including ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), non-STEMI (NSTEMI) and high-risk unstable angina (HR-UA). Primary and secondary outcome measures Patients were followed up regarding the use of medications and the end points of the study at 1 month and 1 year after discharge. The primary end point of the study was 1-year postdischarge major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCEs), defined as mortality (cardiac and non-cardiac), ACS and cerebrovascular attack (stroke and/or transient ischaemic attack). The secondary end points were hospital admission because of congestive heart failure, revascularisation by coronary artery bypass grafting surgery or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), and major and minor bleeds. Results A total of 1799 patients (25.7% STEMI and 74.3% HR-UA/NSTEMI) discharged alive with confirmed diagnosis of ACS were included in the final analysis. During hospitalisation, the majority of the patients received aspirin (98.6%), clopidogrel (91.8%), anticoagulants (93.4%), statins (94.3%) and β-blockers (89.3%). Reperfusion therapy was performed in 62.6% of patients with STEMI (46.3% thrombolytic therapy and 17.3% primary PCI). The mean door-to-balloon and door-to-needle times were 82.9 and 45.6 min, respectively. In our study, 64.7% and 79.5% of the patients in HR-UA/NSTEMI and STEMI groups, respectively, underwent coronary angiography. During the 12 months after discharge, MACCEs occurred in 15.0% of all patients. Conclusions Our study showed that the composition of Iranian patients with ACS regarding the type of ACS is similar to that in developed European

  17. Dihydropteroate synthase gene mutation rates in Pneumocystis jirovecii strains obtained from Iranian HIV-positive and non-HIV-positive patients.

    PubMed

    Sheikholeslami, Maryam-Fatemeh; Sadraei, Javid; Farnia, Parisa; Forozandeh Moghadam, Mehdi; Emadikochak, Hamid

    2015-05-01

    The dihydropteroate sulfate (DHPS) gene is associated with resistance to sulfa/sulfone drugs in Pneumocystis jirovecii. We investigated the DHPS mutation rate in three groups of Iranian HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients by polymerase chain reaction-restricted fragment length polymorphism analysis. Furthermore, an association between P. jirovecii DHPS mutations and strain typing was investigated based on direct sequencing of internal transcribed spacer region 1 (ITS1) and ITS2. The overall P. jirovecii DHPS mutation rate was (5/34; 14.7%), the lowest rate identified was in HIV-positive patients (1/16; 6.25%) and the highest rate was in malignancies patients (3/11; 27.3%). A moderate rate of mutation was detected in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients (1/7; 14.3%). Most of the isolates were wild type (29/34; 85.3%). Double mutations in DHPS were detected in patients with malignancies, whereas single mutations at codons 55 and 57 were identified in the HIV-positive and COPD patients, respectively. In this study, two new and rare haplotypes were identified with DHPS mutations. Additionally, a positive relationship between P. jirovecii strain genotypes and DHPS mutations was identified. In contrast, no DHPS mutations were detected in the predominant (Eg) haplotype. This should be regarded as a warning of an increasing incidence of drug-resistant P. jirovecii strains. PMID:25631478

  18. WHO quality of life-BREF 26 questionnaire: reliability and validity of the Persian version and compare it with Iranian diabetics quality of life questionnaire in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Jahanlou, Alireza Shahab; Karami, Nader Alishan

    2011-07-01

    There are several tools for the assessment of quality of life (QOL) in diabetes mellitus. In the current research, two standard questionnaires for evaluating of QOL were selected. First one was a questionnaire from the World Health Organization quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF 26) and the second one, The Iranian diabetics quality of life (IRDQOL). The first aim of this study was to reliability and validity of the Persian Version of WHOQOL-BREF 26. The second aims compare it with IRDQOL questionnaire in diabetic patients. A random sample of Iranian adult outpatient diabetics (n=387) was selected and they completed the WHOQOL and IRDQOL assessment instruments. In addition HbA1c was measured in these patients by calorimetric method. Data analysis was carried out by the use of T-test, Spearman correlation coefficient, Pearson's correlation coefficient. Data analysis based on Pearson correlations in the two questionnaires showed all subscales and total QOL have highly acceptable test-retest reliability. Comparison of total QOL and similar domains in the two questionnaires showed physical domain score in IRDQOL was lower than in WHOQOL and it was significant (P<.0001). Total QOL is more highly correlated with social domain and environmental domain in IRDQOL and WHOQOL, respectively. In IRDQOL, spiritual domain is not correlated with physical domain. Calculated parameters of reliability in the questionnaires indicated that stability present promising results in total QOL. In this study, WHOQOL domains have a logical relationship between glycemic control and QOL, but this logical relationship cannot be found in IRDQOL questionnaire. In IRDQOL spiritual domain is a very unreliable domain. We recommend more questions to be added spiritual domain in IRDQOL questionnaire and also distribution of items to be some how equal in four domains. By these, it may help to find some rational relations between afore-mentioned domains and glycemic control. PMID:21481660

  19. Screening Preeclamptic Cord Plasma for Proteins Associated with Decreased Breast Cancer Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Low, Hoi Pang; Tiwari, Ashutosh; Janjanam, Jagadeesh; Qiu, Li; Chang, Chien-I; Strohsnitter, William C.; Norwitz, Errol R.; Tam, Sun W.; Evans, James E.; Green, Karin M.; Paulo, Joao A.; Lambe, Mats; Hsieh, Chung-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Preeclampsia, a complication of pregnancy characterized by hypertension and proteinuria, has been found to reduce the subsequent risk for breast cancer in female offspring. As this protective effect could be due to exposure to preeclampsia-specific proteins during intrauterine life, the proteomic profiles of umbilical cord blood plasma between preeclamptic and normotensive pregnancies were compared. Umbilical cord plasma samples, depleted of 14 abundant proteins, were subjected to proteomic analysis using the quantitative method of nanoACQUITY ultra performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry with elevated energy mode of acquisitionE (NanoUPLC-MSE). Sixty-nine differentially expressed proteins were identified, of which 15 and 6 proteins were only detected in preeclamptic and normotensive pregnancies, respectively. Additionally, expression of 8 proteins (gelsolin, complement C5, keratin type I cytoskeletal 10, pigment epithelium-derived factor, complement factor B, complement component C7, hemoglobin subunit gamma-2 and alpha-fetoprotein) were up-regulated in preeclampsia with a fold change of ⩾2.0 when compared to normotensive pregnancies. The identification of alpha-fetoprotein in preeclamptic umbilical cord blood plasma supported the validity of this screen as alpha-fetoprotein has anti-estrogenic properties and has previously been linked to preeclampsia as well as a reduced breast cancer risk. The findings of this pilot study may provide new insights into the mechanistic link between preeclampsia and potentially reduced breast cancer susceptibility in adult life. PMID:24296084

  20. Screening preeclamptic cord plasma for proteins associated with decreased breast cancer susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Low, Hoi Pang; Tiwari, Ashutosh; Janjanam, Jagadeesh; Qiu, Li; Chang, Chien-I; Strohsnitter, William C; Norwitz, Errol R; Tam, Sun W; Evans, James E; Green, Karin M; Paulo, Joao A; Lambe, Mats; Hsieh, Chung-Cheng

    2013-12-01

    Preeclampsia, a complication of pregnancy characterized by hypertension and proteinuria, has been found to reduce the subsequent risk for breast cancer in female offspring. As this protective effect could be due to exposure to preeclampsia-specific proteins during intrauterine life, the proteomic profiles of umbilical cord blood plasma between preeclamptic and normotensive pregnancies were compared. Umbilical cord plasma samples, depleted of 14 abundant proteins, were subjected to proteomic analysis using the quantitative method of nanoACQUITY ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry with elevated energy mode of acquisition(E) (NanoUPLC-MS(E)). Sixty-nine differentially expressed proteins were identified, of which 15 and 6 proteins were only detected in preeclamptic and normotensive pregnancies, respectively. Additionally, expression of 8 proteins (gelsolin, complement C5, keratin type I cytoskeletal 10, pigment epithelium-derived factor, complement factor B, complement component C7, hemoglobin subunit gamma-2 and alpha-fetoprotein) were up-regulated in preeclampsia with a fold change of ≥2.0 when compared to normotensive pregnancies. The identification of alpha-fetoprotein in preeclamptic umbilical cord blood plasma supported the validity of this screen as alpha-fetoprotein has anti-estrogenic properties and has previously been linked to preeclampsia as well as a reduced breast cancer risk. The findings of this pilot study may provide new insights into the mechanistic link between preeclampsia and potentially reduced breast cancer susceptibility in adult life. PMID:24296084

  1. Gene expression profiling of pre-eclamptic placentae by RNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Kaartokallio, Tea; Cervera, Alejandra; Kyllönen, Anjuska; Laivuori, Krista

    2015-01-01

    Pre-eclampsia is a common and complex pregnancy disorder that often involves impaired placental development. In order to identify altered gene expression in pre-eclamptic placenta, we sequenced placental transcriptomes of nine pre-eclamptic and nine healthy pregnant women in pools of three. The differential gene expression was tested both by including all the pools in the analysis and by excluding some of the pools based on phenotypic characteristics. From these analyses, we identified altogether 53 differently expressed genes, a subset of which was validated by qPCR in 20 cases and 19 controls. Furthermore, we conducted pathway and functional analyses which revealed disturbed vascular function and immunological balance in pre-eclamptic placenta. Some of the genes identified in our study have been reported by numerous microarray studies (BHLHE40, FSTL3, HK2, HTRA4, LEP, PVRL4, SASH1, SIGLEC6), but many have been implicated in only few studies or have not previously been linked to pre-eclampsia (ARMS2, BTNL9, CCSAP, DIO2, FER1L4, HPSE, LOC100129345, LYN, MYO7B, NCMAP, NDRG1, NRIP1, PLIN2, SBSPON, SERPINB9, SH3BP5, TET3, TPBG, ZNF175). Several of the molecules produced by these genes may have a role in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia, and some could qualify as biomarkers for prediction or detection of this pregnancy complication. PMID:26388242

  2. Gene expression profiling of pre-eclamptic placentae by RNA sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Kaartokallio, Tea; Cervera, Alejandra; Kyllönen, Anjuska; Laivuori, Krista; Laivuori, Hannele; Heinonen, Seppo; Kajantie, Eero; Kere, Juha; Kivinen, Katja; Pouta, Anneli

    2015-01-01

    Pre-eclampsia is a common and complex pregnancy disorder that often involves impaired placental development. In order to identify altered gene expression in pre-eclamptic placenta, we sequenced placental transcriptomes of nine pre-eclamptic and nine healthy pregnant women in pools of three. The differential gene expression was tested both by including all the pools in the analysis and by excluding some of the pools based on phenotypic characteristics. From these analyses, we identified altogether 53 differently expressed genes, a subset of which was validated by qPCR in 20 cases and 19 controls. Furthermore, we conducted pathway and functional analyses which revealed disturbed vascular function and immunological balance in pre-eclamptic placenta. Some of the genes identified in our study have been reported by numerous microarray studies (BHLHE40, FSTL3, HK2, HTRA4, LEP, PVRL4, SASH1, SIGLEC6), but many have been implicated in only few studies or have not previously been linked to pre-eclampsia (ARMS2, BTNL9, CCSAP, DIO2, FER1L4, HPSE, LOC100129345, LYN, MYO7B, NCMAP, NDRG1, NRIP1, PLIN2, SBSPON, SERPINB9, SH3BP5, TET3, TPBG, ZNF175). Several of the molecules produced by these genes may have a role in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia, and some could qualify as biomarkers for prediction or detection of this pregnancy complication. PMID:26388242

  3. Perceived ethical values by Iranian nurses.

    PubMed

    Shahriari, Mohsen; Mohammadi, Eesa; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Bahrami, Masoud; Fooladi, Marjaneh M

    2012-01-01

    Nursing, a scientific and practical discipline, faces continuing challenges of finding new direction in order to decipher its core values and develop current ethical codes for nursing practice. In 2009-10, 28 nurses were purposely selected and interviewed using a semi-structured format in focus groups and individually. Thematic Content Analysis helped explore the perception of Iranian nurses on ethical values in patient care. Seven major themes emerged: respect for dignity, professional integrity, professional commitment, developing human relationships, justice, honesty, and promoting individuals and the nursing profession. Iranian nurses revealed a unique and culture-based set of ethical values. This study found that Iranian nurses place a greater emphasis on preserving the dignity of those accompanying the patient and in showing regard for patients' religious beliefs in a gender appropriate environment. PMID:22140186

  4. The Study of HFE Genotypes and Its Expression Effect on Iron Status of Iranian Haemochromatosis, Iron Deficiency Anemia Patients, Iron-Taker and Non Iron-Taker Controls.

    PubMed

    Beiranvand, Elham; Abediankenari, Saeid; Rostamian, Mosayeb; Beiranvand, Behnoush; Naazeri, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    The role of HFE gene mutations or its expression in regulation of iron metabolism of hereditary haemochromatosis (HH) patients is remained controversial. Therefore here the correlation between two common HFE genotype (p.C282Y, p.H63D) and HFE gene expression with iron status in HH, iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and healthy Iranian participants was studied. For this purpose genotype determination was done by polymerase chain reaction--restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Real-Time PCR was applied for evaluation of HFE gene expression. Biochemical parameters and iron consumption were also assessed. Homozygote p.H63D mutation was seen in all HH patients and p.C282Y was not observed in any member of the population. A significant correlation was observed between serum ferritin (SF) level and gender or age of HH patients. p.H63D homozygote was seen to be able to significantly increase SF and transferrin saturation (TS) level without affecting on liver function. Our results also showed that iron consumption affects on TS level increasing. HFE gene expression level of IDA patients was significantly higher than other groups. Also the HFE gene expression was negatively correlated with TS. Finally, the main result of our study showed that loss of HFE function in HH is not derived from its gene expression inhibition and much higher HFE gene expression might lead to IDA. However we propose repeating of the study for more approval of our finding. PMID:25687342

  5. MicroRNA-141 is upregulated in preeclamptic placentae and regulates trophoblast invasion and intercellular communication.

    PubMed

    Ospina-Prieto, Stephanie; Chaiwangyen, Wittaya; Herrmann, Jörg; Groten, Tanja; Schleussner, Ekkehard; Markert, Udo R; Morales-Prieto, Diana M

    2016-06-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is one of the leading causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Abnormal expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) occurs in several pregnancy diseases including PE. Placental trophoblast cells express a specific set of miRNAs which changes during pregnancy. These miRNAs can be released within extracellular vesicles (EVs) and mediate intercellular communication. miR-141 is a pregnancy-related miRNA which is expressed by trophoblast cells at increased levels in maternal plasma in the third trimester. We hypothesize that miR-141 is abnormally expressed in PE placentae, controls trophoblast, and immune cell functions and is involved in the intercellular communication between fetal trophoblast and maternal immune cells. Expression of miR-141 was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) in normal and preeclamptic placentae and in 2 different trophoblastic cell lines, JEG-3 and HTR-8/SVneo. Changes in JEG-3 and HTR-8/SVneo cell proliferation and invasion were investigated after miR-141 inhibition and overexpression by MTS-, BrdU-, and Matrigel assays. EVs from miR-141 transfected cells were isolated from supernatants and characterized by NanoSight analysis and qPCR. Proliferation of Jurkat T cells and invasion of HTR-8/SVneo cells were investigated after treatment with EVs containing different miR-141 levels. miR-141 expression was higher in placentae from PE patients compared with those from normal pregnancies. miR-141 inhibition in trophoblastic cells resulted in decreased cell viability and reduced invasion capability. After transfection with miR-141-mimic, trophoblastic cells secreted EVs with increased miR-141 content. These vesicles did not exert effects on trophoblastic cell invasion but reduced Jurkat T cell proliferation. In conclusion, miR-141 regulates major functions of trophoblastic and immune cells. Trophoblast cells release EVs whose miRNA content can be modified by transfection of origin cells. Furthermore

  6. Quality of life among human immunodeficiency virus-1 infected and human immunodeficiency virus-1/hepatitis C virus co-infected individuals in Iranian patients

    PubMed Central

    Sabouri, Sarah; Delavar, Ali; Jabbari, Hossain

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to compare the quality of life (QOL) of people infected with both hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The study design was a cross sectional descriptive survey, using self administered questionnaires. Materials and Methods: A convenience sample of 242 patients (131 of them HIV/HCV), Iranian adults (aged 18–57) living with HIV/AIDS, was recruited from outpatient referring to Imam Khomeini Hospital behavioral counseling center in Tehran city, Iran. The instruments included the Multidimensional QOL HIV (MQoL HIV) and a demographic section. Results: The majority of the samples were male and single. The mean age was 36.52 years (standard deviation = 8.5). HIV mono infected patients reported higher scores in social support and physical functioning, but lower scores in physical health compared with HIV/HCV co infected individuals. There was no significant difference in overall MQOL HIV score between HIV and HIV/HCV patients. Conclusion: Future studies will need to explore the impact of HCV on HIV infected individuals' QOL.

  7. Lack of Association between ESR1 and CYP1A1 Gene Polymorphisms and Susceptibility to Uterine Leiomyoma in Female Patients of Iranian Descent

    PubMed Central

    Taghizade Mortezaee, Fatemeh; Tabatabaiefar, Mohammad Amin; Hashemzadeh Chaleshtori, Morteza; Miraj, Sepideh

    2014-01-01

    Uterine leiomyoma (UL) is the most common benign smooth muscle cell tumor with as yet unknown etiology and pathogenesis. This study was carried out to investigate the association of ESR1-351 A>G, ESR1 -397 T>C and CYP1A1 (Ile462Val) polymorphisms with UL in female patients of Iranian origin. In this case-control study, 276 patients with UL and 156 healthy women were recruited. The genetic polymorphisms ESR1-351 A>G, ESR1-397 T>C and CYP1A1 (Ile462Val) were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction- restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). No significant difference were found in frequencies of both genotypes and alleles of ESR1-351 A>G, ESR1-397 T>C and CYP1A1 (Ile462Val) polymorphisms between the two groups (p>0.05). Our findings indicated that these ESR1 and CYP1A1 polymorphisms were not associated with the development of UL in the cases reported here. PMID:24567938

  8. An Outcome Measure of Functionality and Pain in Patients with Low Back Disorder: A Validation Study of the Iranian version of Low Back Outcome Score

    PubMed Central

    Nayeb Aghaei, Hossein; Azhari, Shirzad; Shazadi, Sohrab; Khayat Kashany, Hamid; Mohammadi, Hassan Reza; Montazeri, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional study. Purpose This study aimed to cross-culturally translate and validate the low back outcome score (LBOS) in Iran. Overview of Literature Lumbar disc hernia (LDH) is the most common diagnoses of low back pain and imposes a heavy burden on both individual and society. Instruments measuring patient reported outcomes should satisfy cetain psychometric properties. Methods The translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the original questionnaire was performed using Beaton's guideline. A total of 163 patients with LDH were asked to respond to the questionnaire at three points in time: preoperative and twice within 1-week interval after surgery assessments. The Oswestry disabilty index (ODI) was also completed. The internal consistency, test-retest, convergent validity, and responsiveness to change were assessed. Responsiveness to change also was assessed comparing patients' pre- and postoperative scores. Results The mean age of the cohort was 49.8 years (standard deviation=10.1). The Cronbach's alpha coefficients for the LBOS at preoperative and postoperative assessments ranged from 0.77 to 0.79, indicating good internal consistency. Test-retest reliability as performed by intraclass correlation coefficient was found to be 0.82 (0.62–0.91). The instrument discriminated well between sub-groups of patients who differed in the Finneson-Cooper score. The ODI correlated strongly with the LBOS score, lending support to its good convergent validity (r=––0.83; p<0.001). Further analysis also indicated that the questionnaire was responsive to change (p<0.001). Conclusions The Iranian version of LBOS performed well and the findings suggest that it is a valid measure of back pain treatment evaluation among LDH patients. PMID:27559453

  9. Treatment with sildenafil prevents impairment of learning in rats born to pre-eclamptic mothers.

    PubMed

    Cauli, O; Herraiz, S; Pellicer, B; Pellicer, A; Felipo, V

    2010-12-01

    Pre-eclampsia is an important hypertensive pregnancy disorder and a main cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Children born from mothers with pre-eclampsia may present cognitive deficits. The mechanisms leading to this cognitive impairment remain unclear and no treatments to improve it have been tested. Pre-eclampsia is associated with impaired regulation of the nitric oxide-3'-5'guanosine monophosphate cyclic (cGMP) pathway, which modulates some cognitive functions. We hypothesized that alterations in the NO-cGMP pathway would be involved in the mechanisms leading to cognitive impairment in rats born to pre-eclamptic mothers and that treatment with sildenafil, an inhibitor of the phosphodiesterase that degrades cGMP, could restore their cognitive function. To test these hypotheses, we used an animal model of pre-eclampsia in rats: pregnant rats treated with l-nitro-arginine methyl ester, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. Using this model, we assessed: (1) whether rats born to pre-eclamptic mothers show reduced learning ability and/or altered motor activity or coordination when they are 2 months-old; (2) whether cognitive impairment is associated with reduced function of the glutamate-NO-cGMP pathway in brain in vivo; and (3) whether treatment of the mothers with sildenafil prevents this cognitive and motor alterations. The results reported show that the ability to learn a conditional discrimination task in a Y maze is reduced in rats born to pre-eclamptic mothers. This impairment was associated with reduced function of the glutamate-NO-cGMP pathway in brain in vivo, as assessed by microdialysis in freely moving rats. Treatment with sildenafil restores the function of this pathway and learning ability. PMID:20832451

  10. The Prevalence of Hepatitis C Virus Core Amino Acid 70 Substitution and Genotypes of Polymorphisms Near the IFNL3 Gene in Iranian Patients With Chronic Hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Kadjbaf, Danesh; Keshvari, Maryam; Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Pouryasin, Ali; Behnava, Bita; Salimi, Shima; Mehrnoush, Leila; Karimi Elizee, Pegah; Sharafi, Heidar

    2016-01-01

    Background Molecular studies have demonstrated that the hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype and host genetics play predictive roles in the management of patients infected with HCV. Objectives This study aimed to investigate the HCV genotype, core amino acid (aa) 70 substitution, and polymorphisms near the IFNL3 gene (including rs12979860 and rs8099917) among Iranian patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). Patients and Methods In this cross-sectional study, the molecular profiles of the HCV genotype, core aa 70 substitution, and rs12979860 and rs8099917 polymorphisms and plasma HCV RNA levels were determined in 429 CHC patients including 141 hemophilic, 84 thalassemic, and 204 non-hemophilic, non-thalassemic patients. Results The hepatitis C virus subtype 1a was the most common subtype in the study population. Core aa substitution Arg70Gln was strongly associated with cirrhosis (OR = 2.49; 95% CI = 1.13 - 5.50; P = 0.020). Core aa 70 substitutions were more frequently observed in patients with the HCV subtype 1b than in patients with any other HCV subtypes (P < 0.001). Core aa 70 substitutions were also more common in patients with the rs12979860 TT genotype than in patients with non-TT genotypes (17.3% vs. 8.5%, P = 0.022) and also in rs8099917 non-TT genotypes than in the TT genotype (14.0% vs. 7.0%, P = 0.026). The HCV genotypes and rs8099917 polymorphisms were correlated in which HCV subtype 1b was in favor of rs8099917 GG and HCV subtype 3a favored rs8099917 TT (P = 0.021). Furthermore, the rs12979860 TT and rs8099917 GG genotypes showed significantly lower HCV RNA levels than the other genotypes (P < 0.001). Conclusions There is an as yet unexplained association between HCV and host parameters with unknown mechanisms in patients with chronic HCV infection. The assessments of core aa 70 substitution and polymorphisms near the IFNL3 gene could offer promising steps to improve the management of patients with HCV.

  11. Iranian Library Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, John F.

    1973-01-01

    The development of library education in Iran is presented in some detail. In addition, the origins, purposes, operations and services of the Iranian Documentation Centre and the Tehran Book Processing Centre are described. (7 references) (KE)

  12. Determination of Vitamin D Serum Levels and Status of the C3435T Polymorphism of Multidrug Resistance 1 Gene in Southeastern Iranian Patients with Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Mojgan; Zahedi, Mohammad Javad; Nikpoor, Amin Reza; Nazem, Mehdi; Khazaeli, Payam; Hayatbakhsh, Mohammad Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a multi-factorial autoimmune disease. P-glycoprotein is encoded by the multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) gene. The C3435T polymorphism in the MDR1 gene is correlated with low P-glycoprotein expression. Additionally, vitamin D has regulatory effects on the immune system. The aim of our study was to determine the association between the C3435T MDR1 polymorphism and UC and to detect the vitamin D serum levels in patients with UC. METHODS One hundred healthy controls and 85 patients with UC were evaluated. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCRRFLP) was used to detect the C3435T MDR1 polymorphisms. Serum levels of vitamin D were measured by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The research was performed in Kerman, Iran, from 2011 to 2013. RESULTS We could not find any association between the C3435T MDR1 polymorphism and susceptibility to UC. There was a significant decrease in serum levels of vitamin D in patients with UC compared with healthy controls (p<0.001). CONCLUSION Controversies regarding the association between the C3435T MDR1 polymorphism with UC have been reported in different populations. The difference between our results and others may be attributed to the heterogeneity of the Iranian population and the sample size. Additionally, our data indicated that UC might be correlated with vitamin D insufficiency. Therefore, the administration of vitamin D might be suggested as a valuable treatment for patients with UC. PMID:26609354

  13. The NRAMP1, VDR, TNF-α, ICAM1, TLR2 and TLR4 gene polymorphisms in Iranian patients with pulmonary tuberculosis: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Mohammad; Nasiri, Mohammad Reza; Sanaei, Roozbeh; Anoosheh, Saber; Farnia, Parisa; Sepanjnia, Adel; Tajik, Nader

    2016-04-01

    The innate immune response drives early events in Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Since human genetic variation is an important determinant in the outcome of infection with M. tuberculosis, we typed polymorphisms in the innate immune molecules, such as natural-resistance-associated macrophage protein 1 (NRAMP1), Vitamin D receptor (VDR), Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), intercellular adhesion molecule1 (ICAM-1), Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in a case-control study of pulmonary tuberculosis in Iranian population. We conducted an association study and included 96 patients and 122 matched healthy individuals. We used single ARMS-PCR technique to simultaneously genotype fourteen polymorphisms in this survey. Among all fourteen polymorphisms that were examined, three polymorphisms were significantly different between case and control groups. The TNF -308A polymorphism showed significant increase in allele and genotype frequencies among patients compared to control individuals [-308A allele: 19.3 vs. 9.4%, GA genotype: 28.1 vs. 17.2%, AA genotype: 5.2 vs. 0.8%; Corrected P (Pc)<0.05], and the TLR4 variant allele and genotypes prevalence (D299G and T399I) were significantly higher among patients compared to controls [DG genotype: 14.6 vs. 5.7%, Pc<0.05 and I399 allele: 4.2 vs. 0.8%, TI genotype: 8.3 vs. 1.6%; Pc<0.05], respectively. In conclusion, our data suggest that TLR4 (D299G and T399I) and TNF (-308G/A) genetic polymorphisms may influence the risk of developing tuberculosis after exposure to Mycobacterium. PMID:26774366

  14. Fecal Calprotectin is an Accurate Tool and Correlated to Seo Index in Prediction of Relapse in Iranian Patients With Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Seyed Vahid; Jafari, Peyman; Taghavi, Seyed Alireza; Safarpour, Ali Reza; Rezaianzadeh, Abbas; Moini, Maryam; Mehrabi, Manoosh

    2015-01-01

    . Besides, FC level of 341 μg/g was identified as the cut-off point with 11.2% and 79.7% relapse rate below and above this point, respectively. Additionally, Pearson correlation coefficient (r) between FC and the Seo index was significant in prediction of relapse (r = 0.63, P < 0.001). Conclusions: As a simple and noninvasive marker, FC is highly accurate and significantly correlated to the Seo activity index in prediction of relapse in the course of quiescent UC in Iranian patients. PMID:25793117

  15. Increased Oxidative DNA Damage in Placenta Contributes to Cadmium-Induced Preeclamptic Conditions in Rat.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaojie; Xu, Zhangye; Lin, Feng; Wang, Fan; Ye, Duyun; Huang, Yinping

    2016-03-01

    To explore the possible mechanisms of cadmium (Cd)-induced preeclamptic conditions in rats. In the present study, we introduced the in vivo model of preeclampsia by giving intraperitoneal injections of cadmium chloride (CdCl2) to pregnant rats from gestational day (GD) 4 to 19. Maternal body weights were recorded on GD 0, 14, and 20, while their systolic blood pressures (SBPs) monitored on GD 3, 11, and 18. On GD 20, rats were sacrificed and the specimens were collected. The morphological changes of placenta and kidney tissues of pregnant rats were examined by hematoxylin and eosin staining assay. Blood Cd level was detected by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was evaluated using FRAP method and total nitrite (NOx) was detected with Griess reagent. Antioxidative factors and DNA damage/repair biomarkers were measured by real-time qPCR, western blot or immunohistochemistry study. The current results showed that CdCl2-treated pregnant rats developed preeclampsia (PE)-like manifestations, such as hypertension, albuminuria, with decreased TAC and increased blood Cd level, and pro-oxidative/antioxidative or DNA damage/repair biomarkers. Our study demonstrated that increased oxidative DNA damage in placenta could contribute to Cd-induced preeclamptic conditions in rat. PMID:26194818

  16. Growing Isolation Frustrates Iranian Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labi, Aisha

    2008-01-01

    Before the Islamic Revolution of 1979, Iranian graduate students and academics frequently studied or worked in the United States. That year, for example, the 51,300 Iranian students in the United States were the single largest group of foreign students in the country. Many, if not most, Iranian professors received their doctorates from American…

  17. Utero-placental cellular and nuclear expression of bradykinin B2 receptors in normal and preeclamptic pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Valdés, Gloria; Acuña, Stephanie; Munizaga, Alejandro; Soto, Gloria X; Figueroa, Carlos D

    2016-01-01

    The bradykinin type 2 receptor (B2R), main effector of the pleiotropic kallikrein-kinin system (KKS), has been localized in the key sites related to placentation in human, rat and guinea pig utero-placental units. The present study was directed to characterize the content, the cellular and subcellular localization of B2R in the villi and basal plate of placentas from normal and preeclamptic pregnancies by means of western blotting, immunohistochemistry and immunoelectron microscopy. The protein content of B2R was demonstrated in both placental zones. The villous placenta of normal and preeclamptic pregnancies expressed B2R in syncytiotrophoblast and fetal endothelium; the basal plate displayed B2R in extravillous trophoblasts and decidual cells. Lastly, immunogold electron microscopy revealed B2R in fetal endothelium, syncytiotrophoblast, extravillous cytotrophoblasts and decidual cells; in all cell types the receptor was mainly located in the cytosol and nucleus. The protein content of placental homogenates and the immunoreactivity in the different cells types did not differ between both study groups; however the abundance of nuclear immunogold B2R positive beads in extravillous trophoblasts was greater in the normal than in the preeclamptic placentas. The purpose of describing nuclear B2R in the utero-placental unit, and its increment in normal extravillous trophoblasts, is to stimulate the study of the functional pathways that may be relevant to understand the local role of the B2R in normal and preeclamptic gestation. PMID:26955769

  18. Characterization of Molecular Evolution in Multi-Drug Resistant of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by rpoB Gene in Patient with Active Pulmonary Tuberculosis from Iranian Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Zaker Bostanabad; Karim, Rahimi Mohammad; Parvaneh, Adimi; Zahra, Tayebee; Mozhgan, Masoumi; Shahin, Pourazar; Esmail, Jabbarzadeh; Mehdi, Shekarabi; Azarmidokht, Pourmand; Konstantina, Sourkova Larisa; Petrovich, Titov Leonid

    2009-01-01

    This is the first genetic biodiversity study of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Iran. Thus, we investigated the genetic patterns of strains isolated in the first survey of anti-tuberculosis drug-resistance by rpoB gene as part of the Global Project of Anti-tuberculosis Drug Resistance Surveillance (IAU, Iran). A 411-bp fragment of the rpoB gene, containing the sequence of the 81-bp rpoB fragment, was amplified by PCR and the rpoB gene fragments of tuberculosis strains were sequenced using the Amersham auto sequencer. For analysing tree evolution used method UPGMA and Neighbour-Joining. Clinical isolates (34/163) were analyzed by using sequencing gene rpoB and genotyped by program MEGA. The results were compared with the international database. Multi-drug resistant (MDR) was 14% in never treated patients and 8% in previously treated patients. Mutations in rpoB gene and katG genes were detected in 95% and 84% of the MDR strains, respectively. Two clusters were found to be identical by the four different analysis methods, presumably representing cases of recent transmission of MDR tuberculosis. The other strains are divided into 2 groups: group A – similar to the standard and Eastern strains (China, Taiwan) and group B – strains of another genotype. They are grouped separately on the dendrogram and became prevalent in Iran (they are called Iranian residential strains). This study gives a first overview of the M. tuberculosis strains circulating in Iran during the first survey of anti-tuberculosis drug-resistance. It may aid in the creation of a national database that will be a valuable support for further studies. PMID:23675155

  19. Determination of IL1 R2, ANTXR2, CARD9, and SNAPC4 single nucleotide polymorphisms in Iranian patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Momenzadeh, Parisa; Mahmoudi, Mahdi; Beigy, Maani; Garshasbi, Masoud; Vodjdanian, Mahdi; Farazmand, Ali; Jamshidi, Ahmad Reza

    2016-03-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of unknown origin, while both genetic and environmental factors have been demonstrated to be etiologically involved. Recent genome-wide association and replication studies have suggested that anthrax toxin receptor 2 (ANTXR2), interleukin-1 receptor 2 (IL1R2), caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 9 (CARD9), and small nuclear RNA-activating complex polypeptide 4 (SNAPC4) seem to be associated with AS pathogenesis. This case-control study was performed on 349 unrelated AS patients and 469 age- and gender-matched healthy controls, to investigate whether these non-MHC genes (IL1R2 rs2310173, ANTXR2 rs4333130, CARD9 rs4077515, and SNAPC4 rs3812571) influence the AS risk in Iranian population. ANTXR2 rs4333130 allele C (p = 0.0328; OR 0.744, 95% CI 0.598-0.927) and genotype CC (p = 0.0108; OR 0.273, 95% CI 0.123-0.605) were found to be significantly protective against AS. No other associations were found between AS and studied genes. The association between ANTXR2 rs4333130 and AS was independent of HLA-B27 status. Moreover, we found clinical disease severity scores (BASDAI and BASFI) and pain score were higher in ANTXR2 rs4333130 CT genotype. However, we observed that CARD9 allele C (p = 0.012) and genotype CC (p = 0.012) were significant protective factors against AS only in HLA-B27-negative patients, and IL1R2 rs2310173 genotype GT was mildly protective against AS only in HLA-B27-negative status. These findings support the role of non-MHC pathogenic pathways in susceptibility to AS and warrants more comprehensive studies focusing on these non-MHC pathways for developing novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:26590821

  20. Burden of coronary heart disease on the Iranian oil industry (1999-2000).

    PubMed

    Larijani, B; Fakhrzadeh, H; Mohaghegh, M; Pourebrahim, R; Akhlaghi, M R

    2003-01-01

    To estimate the direct cost of coronary heart disease (CHD) to the Iranian oil industry, we calculated the cost of essential services for 1253 CHD patients admitted to the National Iranian Oil Corporation (NIOC) Central Hospital. The direct cost of CHD at the Hospital was 10940 million rials (US$ 1 = 8000 rials), or 8.7 million rials per patient. The direct cost of CHD to the Iranian oil industry was estimated at 22 770 million rials. Working days lost to workers hospitalized for CHD amounted to 62 832. The heavy burden of CHD on the Iranian oil industry necessitates the introduction of an industry-wide prevention programme. PMID:16450520

  1. Shiga Toxigenic Escherichia coli in Iranian Pediatric Patients With and Without Diarrhea: O-Serogroups, Virulence Factors and Antimicrobial Resistance Properties

    PubMed Central

    Dormanesh, Banafshe; Siroosbakhat, Soheila; Karimi Goudarzi, Peyman; Afsharkhas, Ladan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli is an important human pathogen cause of diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, hemolytic uremic syndrome and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura in humans is a significant public health. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the molecular characteristics and antimicrobial resistance properties of Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) strains with respect to their seasonal, age and geographical distributions in Iranian pediatric patients with and without diarrhea. Patients and Methods: Four hundred and eighty swab samples were taken from pediatric patients with and without diarrhea of four major provinces of Iran. Swab samples were immediately cultured and the positive culture samples were analyzed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Finally, antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the disk diffusion method in Mueller-Hinton agar. Results: In total, 118 out of 200 diarrheic stool samples (59%) and 77 out of 280 non-diarrheic stool samples (27.5%) were positive for E. coli. Samples taken from one to ten months old cases (73.33%) and those from Shiraz province (81.13%) were the most commonly infected. Samples taken in the summer season (91.66%) were the most commonly infected. A significant difference was shown between AEEC and EHEC strains of E. coli. The genes encoding Shiga toxins and intimin protein were the most commonly detected in all strains. O26 (33.33%), O111 (18.18%) and O91 (12.12%) serogroups had the highest incidence in patients with and without diarrhea. Prevalence of the genes that encode resistance against ampicillin (CITM), gentamicin (aac(3)-IV) and tetracycline (tetA) were 80.30%, 75.75% and 65.15%, respectively. The STEC strains harbored the highest levels of resistance against ampicillin (84.84%), gentamycin (78.78%), tetracycline (50%) and sulfamethoxazole (40.90%) antibiotics. We found that 55.08% of diarrheic and 1.29% of non-diarrheic E. coli isolates were

  2. Life in Limbo: Experiences of Iranian Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Recipient Patients and Nurses in a Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Zamanzadeh, Vahid; Valizadeh, Leila; Sayadi, Leila; Taleghani, Fariba; Jeddian, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    Background This study explored the state of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipient patients and problems experienced by them and nurse about these state and problems, in Iran. Methods Qualitative content analysis was used for analyzing semi-structured interviews with 12 HSCT recipient patients and 18 nurses. Results Three main categories described the HSCT state and problems: shadow of death, living with uncertainty, and immersion in problems. Patients treated with risk variety in continuity with probability of death. The patients lived with uncertainty. Consequently these resulted immersion in problems with four sub-categories including: (a) Physical problems, (b) money worries, (c) life disturbances, and (d) emotional strain. Conclusion HSCT patients live in a state of limbo between life and death with multidimensional problems. Establish centers for supporting and educating of patients and their families, education of health care providers, enhancement of public knowledge about HSCT along with allocating more budgets to take care of these patients can help patients for passing from this limbo. PMID:24505532

  3. Dysphoria and somatization in Iranian culture.

    PubMed Central

    Pliskin, K L

    1992-01-01

    Iranians express dysphoria through an undifferentiated term called narahati, meaning depressed, ill at ease, nervous, inconvenienced, or anxious. People try masking this emotion or express it in specific ways nonverbally, such as sulking or not eating. Two other dysphoric affects, sadness and anger, are not masked. Because of the social conception of persons being emotionally sensitive, the expression of narahati is guarded: expressing it not only could show that one is socially vulnerable, it could also make another sensitive empathic person narahat. The body is also sensitive, but to the physical world. Physical health is maintained by balancing a diet of "hot" and "cold" foods and avoiding exposure to cold and moisture. With the social and cultural problems brought on by revolution, war, immigration, and accommodation to a new society, Iranian refugees experience changes in family, role, status, finances, language, and other sociocultural ways of being that cause them to feel narahat and to express it verbally, nonverbally, or through somatization. Understanding Iranian conceptions of emotional and physical sensitivity will help clinicians in treating Iranian patients. PMID:1413773

  4. CYP2U1 mutations in two Iranian patients with activity induced dystonia, motor regression and spastic paraplegia

    PubMed Central

    Kariminejad, A.; Schöls, L.; Schüle, R.; Tonekaboni, S.H.; Abolhassani, A.; Fadaee, M.; Rosti, R.O.; Gleeson, J.G.

    2016-01-01

    Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) is a heterogeneous condition characterized by progressive spasticity and weakness in the lower limbs. It is divided into two major groups, complicated and uncomplicated, based on the presence of additional features such as intellectual disability, ataxia, seizures, peripheral neuropathy and visual problems. SPG56 is an autosomal recessive form of HSP with complicated and uncomplicated manifestations, complicated being more common. CYP2U1 gene mutations have been identified as responsible for SPG56. Intellectual disability, dystonia, subclinical sensory motor neuropathy, pigmentary degenerative maculopathy, thin corpus callosum and periventricular white-matter hyperintensities were additional features noted in previous cases of SPG56. Here we identified two novel mutations in CYP2U1 in two unrelated patients by whole exome sequencing. Both patients had complicated HSP with activity-induced dystonia, suggesting dystonia as an additional finding in SPG56. Two out of 14 previously reported patients had dystonia, and the addition of our patients suggests dystonia in a quarter of SPG56 patients. Developmental regression has not been reported in SPG56 patients so far but both of our patients developed motor regression in infancy. PMID:27292318

  5. CYP2U1 mutations in two Iranian patients with activity induced dystonia, motor regression and spastic paraplegia.

    PubMed

    Kariminejad, A; Schöls, L; Schüle, R; Tonekaboni, S H; Abolhassani, A; Fadaee, M; Rosti, R O; Gleeson, J G

    2016-09-01

    Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) is a heterogeneous condition characterized by progressive spasticity and weakness in the lower limbs. It is divided into two major groups, complicated and uncomplicated, based on the presence of additional features such as intellectual disability, ataxia, seizures, peripheral neuropathy and visual problems. SPG56 is an autosomal recessive form of HSP with complicated and uncomplicated manifestations, complicated being more common. CYP2U1 gene mutations have been identified as responsible for SPG56. Intellectual disability, dystonia, subclinical sensory motor neuropathy, pigmentary degenerative maculopathy, thin corpus callosum and periventricular white-matter hyperintensities were additional features noted in previous cases of SPG56. Here we identified two novel mutations in CYP2U1 in two unrelated patients by whole exome sequencing. Both patients had complicated HSP with activity-induced dystonia, suggesting dystonia as an additional finding in SPG56. Two out of 14 previously reported patients had dystonia, and the addition of our patients suggests dystonia in a quarter of SPG56 patients. Developmental regression has not been reported in SPG56 patients so far but both of our patients developed motor regression in infancy. PMID:27292318

  6. Pharmacogenetic Study on the Impact of Rivastigmine Concerning Genetic Variants of A2M and IL-6 Genes on Iranian Alzheimer's Patients.

    PubMed

    Zamani, Mahdi; Mohammadi, Masomeh; Zamani, Hamid; Tavasoli, Alireza

    2016-09-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a polygenic and multifactorial disease with a complex inheritance caused by the formation of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain. Increasing evidence indicates that many genes including interleukin-6 (IL-6) and alpha 2-macroglobulin (A2M) may contribute to the pathogenesis of AD. The A2M gene encodes α2-macroglobulin which specifically binds with the beta-amyloid peptides and prevents fibril formation. Protein of the IL-6 gene linked to beta-amyloid (βA) aggregation was detected in βA plaques in the brain of AD patients. The aim of the present study is to investigate the relationship of the IL-6 and A2M gene polymorphisms with AD and also the impact of rivastigmine on AD patients regarding their genotypes on IL-6 and A2M genes in 150 Iranian AD patients under rivastigmine therapy and 150 matched healthy controls. The results indicated that IL-6 G and C alleles had significant positive and negative association with AD, respectively, (P = 0.0001, relative risks (RR) = 1.39) and frequency of AD patients carrying IL-6 GG genotype was significantly in higher proportion in familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) patients compared to controls (P = 0.02, RR = 2.25), and the IL-6 CC genotype was significantly protective against AD (P = 0.0003, RR = 0.65). Genotype analysis of A2M gene showed a significant positive correlation between A2M AA genotype and the AD patients (sporadic Alzheimer's disease (SAD) and FAD) (P = 0.001, RR = 1.56), proposing it as a possible risk factor for AD. Drug response from pharmacogenetic viewpoint after 3-year follow-up of AD patients and Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) analysis demonstrated that AD patients carrying bigenic genotype IL-6 CC-A2M AG (ΔCDR = 4.5) and male patients with IL-6 CC genotype (ΔCDR = 3.83) provided the best response and the A2M GG genotype (ΔCDR = 7.97) and bigenic genotype IL-6 GG-A2M GG (ΔCDR = 8.5) conferred the worst

  7. The correlation between Ki-67 with other prognostic factors in breast cancer: A study in Iranian patients

    PubMed Central

    Madani, Seyed-Hamid; Payandeh, Mehrdad; Sadeghi, Masoud; Motamed, Hajar; Sadeghi, Edris

    2016-01-01

    Context: Despite the fact that breast cancer (BC) is a major health issue, very few studies describe its characteristics in the Middle East. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the use and value of Ki-67 as a prognostic marker in BC and associations between Ki-67, clinical, and histopathological parameters were evaluated. Subjects and Methods: In a retrospective study, 260 BC women and invasive ductal carcinoma were included to our study in Kermanshah city, Iran. Age, tumor size, lymph node involvement, histological grade, nuclear grade, and vascular invasion were other factors that determined in a lot of patients. Results: The mean age at diagnosis was 47.6 years (range, 24-84 years) with 100% female. Of 243 patients that tumor size was determined for them, 207 patients (85.2%) had tumor size ≥2 cm, and 36 patients (14.8%) had size <2 cm and also of 237 patients, 47 patients (19.8%), 140 (59.1%), and 50 (21.1%) had histological grades I, II, and III, respectively. There is significant correlation between Ki-67 with nuclear grade, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), and p53 (P < 0.05). Based on this result, more patients with Ki-67 ≥20% have higher nuclear grade, p53-positive, and HER2-positive. There was correlation between Ki-67 with type of tumor (P = 0.009). Conclusions: The higher Ki-67 has a direct significant correlation with higher nuclear grade, p53-positive, and HER2-positive. Furthermore, triple negative patients have higher Ki-67 compared to other subtypes. PMID:27168707

  8. Prolonged rupture of membranes, pre-eclamptic toxaemia, and respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Chiswick, M L

    1976-01-01

    A retrospective analysis was made of the incidence and severity of the idiopathic respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in babies of less than 35 weeks' gestation born at this hospital from January 1967-December 1974. There was a lower incidence of RDS in babies born after pregnancies complicated only by prolonged rupture of membranes (PRM) (19%) and in babies born vaginally after pregnancies complicated only by pre-eclamptic toxaemia (PET) (18%) compared with the incidence of RDS after uncomplicated pregnancies (35%). Babies born vaginally who developed RDS after pregnancies complicated by PRM or PET had less severe disease compared with those who developed RDS after uncomplicated pregnancies. Mortality in babies who developed severe RDS was not influenced by the occurrence of PRM or PET. The biological implication of the study is that certain complications of pregnancy may accelerate pulmonary surfactant production in preterm babies. PMID:1036670

  9. Amniotic mesenchymal cells from pre-eclamptic placentae maintain immunomodulatory features as healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Pianta, Stefano; Magatti, Marta; Vertua, Elsa; Bonassi Signoroni, Patrizia; Muradore, Ivan; Nuzzo, Anna Maria; Rolfo, Alessandro; Silini, Antonietta; Quaglia, Federico; Todros, Tullia; Parolini, Ornella

    2016-01-01

    Pre-eclampsia (PE) is one of the most severe syndromes in human pregnancy, and the underlying mechanisms of PE have yet to be determined. Pre-eclampsia is characterized by the alteration of the immune system's activation status, an increase in inflammatory Th1/Th17/APC cells, and a decrease in Th2/Treg subsets/cytokines. Moreover, inflammatory infiltrates have been detected in the amniotic membranes of pre-eclamptic placentae, and to this date limited data are available regarding the role of amniotic membrane cells in PE. Interestingly, we and others have previously shown that human amniotic mesenchymal stromal cells (hAMSC) possess anti-inflammatory properties towards almost all immune cells described to be altered in PE. In this study we investigated whether the immunomodulatory properties of hAMSC were altered in PE. We performed a comprehensive study of cell phenotype and investigated the in vitro immunomodulatory properties of hAMSC isolated from pre-eclamptic pregnancies (PE-hAMSC), comparing them to hAMSC from normal pregnancies (N-hAMSC). We demonstrate that PE-hAMSC inhibit CD4/CD8 T-cell proliferation, suppress Th1/Th2/Th17 polarization, induce Treg and block dendritic cells and M1 differentiation switching them to M2 cells. Notably, PE-hAMSC generated a more prominent induction of Treg and higher suppression of interferon-γ when compared to N-hAMSC, and this was associated with higher transforming growth factor-β1 secretion and PD-L2/PD-L1 expression in PE-hAMSC. In conclusion, for the first time we demonstrate that there is no intrinsic impairment of the immunomodulatory features of PE-hAMSC. Our results suggest that amniotic mesenchymal stromal cells do not contribute to the disease, but conversely, could participate in offsetting the inflammatory environment which characterizes PE. PMID:26515425

  10. Higher filtration fraction in formerly early-onset preeclamptic women without comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Toering, Tsjitske J; van der Graaf, Anne Marijn; Visser, Folkert W; Groen, Henk; Faas, Marijke M; Navis, Gerjan; Lely, A Titia

    2015-04-15

    Formerly preeclamptic women have an increased risk for developing end-stage renal disease, which has been attributed to altered renal hemodynamics and abnormalities in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Whether this is due to preeclampsia itself or to comorbid conditions is unknown. Renal hemodynamics and responsiveness to ANG II during low Na(+) intake (7 days, 50 mmol Na(+)/24 h) and high Na(+) (HS) intake (7 days, 200 mmol Na(+)/24 h) were studied in 18 healthy normotensive formerly early-onset preeclamptic women (fPE women) and 18 healthy control subjects (fHP women), all selected for absence of comorbidity. At the end of each diet, renal hemodynamics and blood pressure were measured before and during graded ANG II infusion. Both HS intake and former preeclampsia increased filtration fraction (FF) without an interaction between the two. FF was highest during HS intake in fPE women [0.31 ± 0.12 vs. 0.29 ± 0.11 in fHP women, generalized estimating equation analysis (body mass index corrected), P = 0.03]. The renal response to ANG II infusion was not different between groups. In conclusion, fPE women have a higher FF compared with fHP women. As this was observed in the absence of comorbidity, preeclampsia itself might exert long-term effects on renal hemodynamics. However, we cannot exclude the presence of prepregnancy alterations in renal function, which, in itself, lead to an increased risk for preeclampsia. In experimental studies, an elevated FF has been shown to play a pathogenic role in the development of hypertension and renal damage. Future studies, however, should evaluate whether the subtle differences in renal hemodynamics after preeclampsia contribute to the increased long-term renal risk after preeclampsia. PMID:25694481

  11. Investigation of tRNALys/Leu and ATPase 6/8 gene mutations in Iranian ataxia telangiectasia patients

    PubMed Central

    Houshmand, Massoud; Kasraie, Sadaf; Etemad Ahari, Solmaz; Moin, Mostafa; Bahar, Mohammadali; Zamani, Akram

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Ataxia telangiectasia (AT) is a rare human neurodegenerative autosomal recessive multisystem disease. AT is the result of mutations in the AT-mutated (ATM) gene. ATM protein is required for radiation-induced apoptosis and acts before mitochondrial collapse. The tRNA genes are considered one of the hot spots for mutations causing mitochondrial disorders. Due to the important role of ATM in apoptosis and its effect on the cell cycle it might be possible that it has a central role in mtDNA mutations. On the other hand, the tRNALys/Leu gene and also ATPase6 and ATPase8 genes are important for many mitochondrial diseases and many causative mutations have been reported from these genes. Material and methods In the present research, we performed mutation screening for these genes in 20 patients who were diagnosed with ataxia telangiectasia by a PCR sequencing method. Results The results showed a significant level of mtDNA variations in AT patients. Among 20 patients in this study, 12 patients (60%) were detected with point mutations, among which 8 mutations (40%) belonged to the MT-ATP6 gene. There was probably a second effect of mtDNA mutations in AT disease and mtDNA plays a main role in establishment of AT. Conclusions MtDNA mutations might be responsible for the decline of mitochondrial function in AT patients. Mitochondrial investigation can help to understand the mechanism of damage in AT disease. PMID:22295039

  12. No evidence of persistent parvovirus B19 viremia among Iranian patients with HIV after a 1-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Aghakhani, Arezoo; Mohraz, Minoo; Azadmanesh, Kayhan; Moayedi-Nia, Saeedeh; Kazemimanesh, Monireh; Mamishi, Setareh; Banifazl, Mohammad; Ramezani, Amitis

    2016-05-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that, in common with other latent viruses, parvovirus B19 infection can be controlled by the host immune response but may persist in some places such as the bone marrow. Persistent B19 infection has been found in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals, such as patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, there is limited data regarding long-term B19 viremia in HIV patients. In this study, we investigated virological and hematological findings, and also the clinical outcome, of seven cases of HIV/B19 coinfection (confirmed by PCR) after one year. These cases were provided from a previous study on patients with HIV infection that found B19 DNA in 13 cases. Seven of these 13 patients were available after 1 year, and we retested them for B19 viremia and B19-specific antibodies. B19 IgG was tested by ELISA, and B19 DNA was assessed by nested PCR. Anemia was not observed in these cases. All subjects had cleared viremia, but B19 IgG seroconversion occurred in two cases. No significant changes in CD4 and hemoglobin occurred. The results of this study indicate that B19 infection in HIV patients is a subtle infection and that B19 viremia is not a long-term event. PMID:26860911

  13. of Iranian EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rashidi, Nasser; Mortazavi, Fariba

    2012-01-01

    This research investigated the relationship between vocabulary learning strategies and vocabulary size of Iranian university EFL students. Participants in the present study were a total of 67 EFL learners, studying at Shiraz Azad University as senior English Translation students. The instruments utilized for data collection were three tests: A…

  14. Safety and Efficacy of MLC601 in Iranian Patients after Stroke: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Harandi, A. A.; Abolfazli, R.; Hatemian, A.; Ghragozlee, K.; Ghaffar-Pour, M.; Karimi, M.; Shahbegi, S.; Pakdaman, H.; Tabasi, M.; Tabatabae, A. L.; Nourian, A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the safety and efficacy of MLC601 (NeuroAid) as a traditional Chinese medicine on motor recovery after ischemic stroke. Methods. This study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial on 150 patients with a recent (less than 3 month) ischemic stroke. All patients were given either MLC601 (100 patients) or placebo (50 patients), 4 capsules 3 times a day, as an add-on to standard stroke treatment for 3 months. Results. Sex, age, elapsed time from stroke onset, and risk factors in the treatment group were not significantly different from placebo group at baseline (P > .05). Repeated measures analysis showed that Fugl-Meyer assessment was significantly higher in the treatment group during 12 weeks after stroke (P < .001). Good tolerability to treatment was shown, and adverse events were mild and transient. Conclusion. MLC601 showed better motor recovery than placebo and was safe on top of standard ischemic stroke medications especially in the severe and moderate cases. PMID:21776364

  15. Safety and Efficacy of MLC601 in Iranian Patients after Stroke: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Harandi, A A; Abolfazli, R; Hatemian, A; Ghragozlee, K; Ghaffar-Pour, M; Karimi, M; Shahbegi, S; Pakdaman, H; Tabasi, M; Tabatabae, A L; Nourian, A

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the safety and efficacy of MLC601 (NeuroAid) as a traditional Chinese medicine on motor recovery after ischemic stroke. Methods. This study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial on 150 patients with a recent (less than 3 month) ischemic stroke. All patients were given either MLC601 (100 patients) or placebo (50 patients), 4 capsules 3 times a day, as an add-on to standard stroke treatment for 3 months. Results. Sex, age, elapsed time from stroke onset, and risk factors in the treatment group were not significantly different from placebo group at baseline (P > .05). Repeated measures analysis showed that Fugl-Meyer assessment was significantly higher in the treatment group during 12 weeks after stroke (P < .001). Good tolerability to treatment was shown, and adverse events were mild and transient. Conclusion. MLC601 showed better motor recovery than placebo and was safe on top of standard ischemic stroke medications especially in the severe and moderate cases. PMID:21776364

  16. Neutralizing Antibody Response after Intramuscular Purified Vero Cell Rabies Vaccination (PVRV) in Iranian Patients with Specific Medical Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Pooneh; Vahabpour, RouhAllah; Aghasadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Sadat, Syed Mehdi; Howaizi, Nader; Mostafavi, Ehsan; Eslamifar, Ali; Fallahian, Vida

    2015-01-01

    Objective Post exposure prophylaxis using one of the WHO-approved vaccines is the method of choice for preventing rabies. Abnormal immune function in patients with some specific medical conditions, such as pregnancy, chronic hepatitis B virus infection, different types of cancers like lymphoma, diabetes I and II, corticosteroid consumption by patients with rheumatoid arthritis and lupus erythematosus, could impair the immunologic response to various vaccines. The immune response to rabies vaccination has never been examined in patients with any of these described medical conditions. This study purposed to evaluate the neutralyzing antibody response after vaccination with purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) according to the WHO-recommended Post–Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP) "ESSEN" regimen. Methods Thirty healthy volunteers and 50 volunteers with different medical conditions who were exposed to a suspected rabid animal in the 2nd or 3rd category of exposure received 5 doses of PVRV under the ESSEN protocol. Three blood samples were collected on days 0 (before the first dose), 14, and 35. The anti-rabies antibody titer was measured using the Rapid Fluorescent Foci Inhibition Test (RFFIT) and an ELISA Bio-Rad, Platelia, Rabies II kit. Results All subjects reached NAb titers above 0.5 IU/ml by day 14 after vaccination. On day 35 (1 week after receiving the last rabies vaccine), anti-rabies antibodies were in the protective level (>0.5 IU/ml) in both groups. There was no statistically significant difference in anti-rabies antibody response due to the type of exposure (category 2 or 3), and successful seroconversion was confirmed in both groups. Conclusion In conclusion, the ESSEN protocol using the PVRV vaccine is sufficient for rabies prophylaxis in patients with specific medical conditions. PMID:26440665

  17. Iranian family caregivers’ challenges and issues in caring of multiple sclerosis patients: A descriptive explorative qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Masoudi, Reza; Abedi, Heidar Ali; Abedi, Parvin; Mohammadianinejad, Seyed Ehsan

    2014-01-01

    Background: The broad spectrum of problems caused by multiple sclerosis (MS) imposes heavy responsibility to caregivers in caring of their patients. Therefore, they encounter many issues and challenges in this situation. The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences and challenges of MS family caregivers. Materials and Methods: A qualitative design, based on a thematic analysis approach, was used to reach the study aim. Data were collected and analyzed concurrently through in-depth unstructured interviews, field notes, and observations that were held with 23 participants (14 family caregivers and 9 MS patients) at two referral centers in Ahvaz, Iran. Findings: Three major themes were extracted from the analysis of the transcripts: “emotional exhaustion of caregivers,” “uncertain atmosphere of caring,” and “insularity care.” The first theme consisted of three subthemes: “stressful atmosphere of caring,” “conflict and animism,” and “continuing distress affecting the caregiver.” The second theme consisted of three subthemes: “unstable and complicacy of disease,” “caring with trial and error,” and “frequent hospitalization of patients,” and the third theme consisted of two subthemes: “caring gap and disintegration” and “lack of sufficient support.” Conclusions: This study will be useful to healthcare system for managing the challenges of MS patients’ family caregivers. Improving the conditions and performance of family caregivers is crucial in order to provide high-quality care to people with MS. PMID:25183985

  18. Incidence of Potential Drug-Drug Interaction and Related Factors in Hospitalized Neurological Patients in two Iranian Teaching Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Namazi, Soha; Pourhatami, Shiva; Borhani-Haghighi, Afshin; Roosta, Sareh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Reciprocal drug interactions are among the most common causes of adverse drug reactions. We investigated the incidence and related risk factors associated with mutual drug interactions in relation to prescriptions written in the neurology wards of two major teaching hospitals in Shiraz, southern Iran. Methods: Data was collected from hand-written prescriptions on a daily basis. Mutual drug interactions were identified using Lexi-Comp 2012 version 1.9.1. Type D and X drug interactions were considered as potential drug-drug interactions. The potential risk factors associated with drug-drug interactions included the patient’s age and gender, number of medications and orders, length of hospitalization and the type of neurological disorder. To determine potential drug-drug interactions, relevant interventions were suggested to the physicians or nurses and the outcome of the interventions were documented. Results: The study comprised 589 patients, of which 53% were males and 47% females, with a mean age of 56.65±18.19 SD years. A total of 4942 drug orders and 3784 medications were prescribed among which 4539 drug-drug interactions were detected, including 4118 type C, 403 type D, and 18 type X. Using a logistic regression model, the number of medications, length of hospitalization and non-vascular type of the neurological disorder were found to be significantly associated with potential drug-drug interactions. From the total interventions, 74.24% were accepted by physicians and nurses. Conclusion: Potentially hazardous reciprocal drug interactions are common among patients in neurology wards. Clinical pharmacists can play a critical role in the prevention of drug-drug interactions in hospitalized patients. PMID:25429173

  19. Quality Of Life in Reflux and Dyspepsia (QOLRAD) Questionnaire in Iranian Patients with GERD: A Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Tofangchiha, S; Razjouyan, H; Nasseri-Moghaddam, S

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Symptoms of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) affect health-related quality of life (HRQOL). When a questionnaire is translated into a new language, linguistic validation is necessary, yet insufficient, unless the psychometric characteristics have been verified. The aim of this study is to document the translation and psychometric validation of the Persian translation of the Quality of Life in Reflux and Dyspepsia (QOLRAD) questionnaire. METHODS After translation and cultural adaptation of QOLRAD to Persian, fifty patients with clinical GERD from the Prospective Acid Reflux Study of Iran (PARSI) database who had at least one of the symptoms of acid regurgitation, heartburn, non-cardiac chest pain, or dysphagia for at least four weeks over the past three months completed the QOLRAD and Short Form Health Survey-36 (SF-36). After two weeks, QOLRAD was again completed by the patients. Cronbach alpha and Intra-class Correlation Coefficient (ICC) were used to test reliability and Pearson correlation was used to compare the dimensions of SF-36 and QOLRAD. RESULTS The translation was approved by MAPI Research Institute. Fifty patients completed the SF-36 and QOLRAD questionnaires at the first visit. Mean (SD) age of the participants was 38.4 (14.6) years and 68% were females. The internal consistency and reliability of QOLRAD ranged from 0.78–0.92. The test-retest reliability of QOLRAD was from 0.87–0.93. Relevant QOLRAD domains significantly correlated with the majority of SF-36 domains, with the exception of sleep disturbance. CONCLUSION The psychometric characteristics of the Persian translation of QOLRAD were found to be good, with satisfactory reliability and validity. PMID:25197518

  20. Plasma total homocysteine level in association with folate, pyridoxine, and cobalamin status among Iranian primary breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Pirouzpanah, Saeed; Taleban, Forough-Azam; Mehdipour, Parvin; Atri, Morteza; Foroutan-Ghaznavi, Mitra

    2014-01-01

    Recently the elevated plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentration has been concerned as the secondary feature of tumoral proliferation and enhances the likelihood of thrombogenesis in cancer patients. The objective of this study was to determine the associations between folate, cobalamin, and pyridoxine with fasting plasma tHcy concentration in breast cancer (BC) patients. The intake levels of nutrients were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire in 141 newly diagnosed BC patients. The plasma tHcy and pyridoxal-5-phosphate were measured using high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector. Plasma tHcy levels were observed to be significantly higher among BC participants with Stage III where the plasma concentrations of folate was also comparatively less (P < 0.05) than other stages. Dietary pyridoxine was even being consumed less at this stage (P < 0.05). The plasma, dietary, and residual variables of folate were inversely correlated with plasma tHcy concentration (P < 0.05). Dietary cobalamin was also associated negatively with tHcy (P < 0.05). The odds ratio of comparing the highest tertile of plasma cobalamin (>394 pmol/l) and folate (>11.4 ng/ml) vs. the lowest categories were associated with reduced odds of high tHcy occurrence with 0.20 (95% confidence interval: 0.04-0.98) and 0.14 (95% confidence interval: 0.03-0.64), respectively. In conclusion, nutrition-related methyl-group insufficiency could lead to imbalance in tHcy metabolism, as a possible cancer marker. PMID:25157842

  1. A novel splice site mutation in the GNPTAB gene in an Iranian patient with mucolipidosis II α/β.

    PubMed

    Hashemi-Gorji, Feyzollah; Ghafouri-Fard, Soudeh; Salehpour, Shadab; Yassaee, Vahid Reza; Miryounesi, Mohammad

    2016-08-01

    Mucolipidosis type II α/β (ML II α/β) and mucolipidosis type III α/β (ML III α/β) have been shown to be caused by an absence or reduced level of uridine diphosphate (UDP)-N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphotransferase enzyme (EC 2.7.8.17) activity, respectively. Both disorders are caused by mutations in the GNPTAB gene and are inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. Here we report a 2-year-old female patient being diagnosed as a case of ML II α/β due to coarse face, severe developmental delay, multiple dysostosis, noticeable increase of multiple lysosomal enzymes activity in plasma and normal acid mucopolysaccharides in urine. Mutational analysis of the GNPTAB gene has revealed a novel homozygous mutation in the patient (c.3250-2A>G) with both parents being heterozygote. Transcript analyses showed that this novel splice site mutation leads to exon 17 skipping and a frameshift afterwards (p.P1084_R1112del F1113Vfs*1). Consequently, we confirmed the association of this mutation with ML II α/β. Our finding expands the number of reported cases of this rare metabolic disorder and adds to the GNPTAB mutation database. PMID:27180337

  2. Iranian Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Registry

    PubMed Central

    Fahimi, Fanak; Sharif-Kashani, Babak; Malek Mohammad, Majid; Saliminejad, Leila; Monjazebi, Fateme

    2015-01-01

    Background: Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) is a fatal disorder with a prevalence of 8.6 per million. We introduce a registry website for IPAH and PAH patients ( www.IPAH.ir) for access and efficient delivery of government-aided and subsidized antihypertensive medications. Materials and Methods: The IPAH registry was opened in November 2009. Information of IPAH and PAH patients with a username and password were uploaded in the site. Data entry was possible only via the physicians and healthcare organizations via internet that were given a personalized username and password for entry. Following the patients’ profile submission, a scientific committee composed of a cardiologist and a pulmonologist who were selected by the Ministry of Health of Iran (MOH), evaluated the data. The eligibility of the patient to receive the medications was confirmed after evaluation. If the patient was eligible, 82% of the Bosentan cost was paid by MOH. Results: To date, one hundred and sixteen patients (82 females, 34 males) have been registered. The mean pulmonary artery pressure by right heart catheterization was 69.24±17 mmHg (ranging from 35 to 110 mmHg). Conclusion: The first online Iranian registry program for IPAH and PAH patients is believed to supply essential information for health care providers in the field. PMID:26528365

  3. Predictive Factors of Delay in Contact with a Psychiatrist in Depressive Disorders: A Sample of Iranian Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Seyedeh Sahar; Rejali, Mehri; Kheirabadi, Gholam Reza; Aliyari, Roqayeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: The different duration of delay to first contact with a psychiatrist in depressive disordered patients has been observed in western and non western cultures. This study aimed to examine the duration and predictive factors of delay in contact with a psychiatrist in depressive patients in Isfahan city of Iran. Methods: In This cross sectional study 156 depressive patients were recruited from various outpatient clinics in Isfahan city between January 2013 and February 2013. We used the Anderson Socio-Behavioral Model (ASBM) for examine the role of various factors influencing delay in help seeking. In this models there were three categories variables (predisposing, enabling and need factors). Quintile regression model was used to study the predictors. Results: The median duration between symptom onset and first contact with a psychiatrist was 1 year. In the first step (predisposing model), age at onset of depressive symptoms and never married were negative predictors for delay, but widowed or divorced statues was positive predictors for delay. In the enabling model past contact with health provider was positively associated with duration of delay. In the need model, neither variable had a significant effect on duration of delay. In the full model, younger age at onset, widowed or divorced statues and past contact with health provider increased duration of delay. Conclusions: More delay of help seeking by children and adolescence and probability of maladaptive coping style such as substance use and complicating of situation need to earlier diagnosis of depression in young group and earlier treatment for decrease DALLY for MDD, Therefore we suggest the mental health awareness programs for adolescent in school, and more ever for the influenced roles of parent and other family members and teachers on teen and young person's life, the education for families and teachers on adolescent mental health problems can be effective. First help seeking contact with non

  4. Cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 in human placenta and placental bed after normal and pre-eclamptic pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Wetzka, B; Nüsing, R; Charnock-Jones, D S; Schäfer, W; Zahradnik, H P; Smith, S K

    1997-10-01

    In pre-eclampsia, the ratio of prostacyclin:thromboxane production rate is decreased favouring the vasoconstrictive thromboxane. One of the rate-limiting steps in prostaglandin synthesis is cyclooxygenase (COX) activity. Therefore, we investigated the expression of COX-1 and COX-2 in human placenta and placental bed. Tissue specimens from the 29th to 40th week of pregnancy were obtained from Caesarean sections after uncomplicated and pre-eclamptic pregnancies before the onset of labour. COX-1 and COX-2 were localized immunohistochemically with the identification of positive cells by double immunofluorescence staining. The protein and mRNA levels were analysed by immunoblotting and quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Expression of both COX-1 and COX-2 could be observed in placenta and placental bed. COX-1-like immunoreactivity was observed in most cell types with strongest staining in macrophages. Only macrophages, endothelium, vascular leiomyocytes and fibroblasts stained positively for COX-2. In placenta, COX-1 and -2 expression was unchanged after pre-eclampsia. In placental bed, protein and mRNA levels of COX-1 were increased in the pre-eclamptic group (P < 0.05), whereas COX-2 expression did not differ significantly from normal pregnancies. An increased expression of COX-1 could be involved in the pathophysiology of pre-eclamptic changes within the placental bed. A therapy with drugs inhibiting COX-1 might be beneficial in this condition. PMID:9402302

  5. The DSM-5 Levels of Personality Functioning and Severity of Iranian Patients With Antisocial and Borderline Personality Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Amini, Mehdi; Pourshahbaz, Abbas; Mohammadkhani, Parvaneh; Khodaie Ardakani, Mohammad Reza; Lotfi, Mozhgan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fundamental problems with Personality Disorders (PD) diagnostic system in the previous version of DSM, led to the revision of DSM. Therefore, a multidimensional system has been proposed for diagnosis of personality disorder features in DSM-5. In the dimensional approach of DSM-5, personality disorders diagnosis is based on levels of personality functioning (Criteria A) and personality trait domains (Criteria B). Objectives: The purpose of this study was firstly, to examine the DSM-5 levels of personality functioning in antisocial and borderline personality disorders, and second, to explore which levels of personality functioning in patients with antisocial and borderline personality disorders can better predicted severity than others. Patients and Methods: This study had a cross sectional design. The participants consisted of 252 individuals with antisocial (n = 122) and borderline personality disorders (n = 130). They were recruited from Tehran prisoners, and clinical psychology and psychiatry centers of Razi and Taleghani Hospitals, Tehran, Iran. The sample was selected based on judgmental sampling. The SCID-II-PQ, SCID-II and DSM-5 levels of personality functioning were used to diagnose and assess personality disorders. The data were analyzed by correlation and multiple regression analysis. All statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS 16 software. Results: Firstly, it was found that DSM-5 levels of personality functioning have a strong correlation with antisocial and borderline personality symptoms, specially intimacy and self-directedness (P < 0.001). Secondly, the findings showed that identity, intimacy and self-directedness significantly predicted antisocial personality disorder severity (P < 0.0001). The results showed that intimacy and empathy were good predictors of borderline personality disorder severity, as well (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Overall, our findings showed that levels of personality functioning are a significant

  6. Chemical Society Reinstates Iranian Chemists; Iranian-American Scholar Arrested

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bollag, Burton

    2007-01-01

    The frosty relationship between the United States and Iran has created a chill in many areas of scholarly endeavor. One resulting battle, over whether Iranian scholars can belong to the American Chemical Society, has been largely resolved. But a new imbroglio looms with the arrest of a prominent U.S.-Iranian scholar who was visiting Tehran. The…

  7. Development of the Draft Clinical Guideline on How to Resuscitate Dying Patients in the Iranian Context: A Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Cheraghi, Mohammad Ali; Bahramnezhad, Fatemeh; Mehrdad, Neda; Zendehdel, Kazem

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The guidelines can be used as a model to guide the implementation of the best options and a suitable framework for clinical decisions. Even a guideline can largely help in challenging problems such as not to resuscitate with high cultural and value load. The guidelines try to improve the health care quality through reducing the treatment costs and variety of care measures. This study aimed to prepare a draft of clinical guidelines with the main aim of designing and drafting the clinical guideline on resuscitation in dying patients. Methodology: After selecting the subject of this guideline, in the first meeting of the team members of drafting the guideline, the guideline scope was determined. Then, the literature review done without time limitation, through searching electronic bibliographic information and internet databases and sites such as Medline, EMBASE, Springer, Blackwell Synergy, Elsevier, Scopus, Cochran Library and also databases including SID, Iran Medex, and Magiran. The experts will be the interviewed, and the interviews are directed content analysis. Conclusion: Finally, recommendations will be formed by nominal group technique. This study protocol includes informative information for designing and conducting of health professionals intending to create a direct on qualitative, theoretical, philosophical, spiritual, and moral health aspects. PMID:27559265

  8. Exploring Iranian nurses’ experiences of missed nursing care: a qualitative study: a threat to patient and nurses’ health

    PubMed Central

    Dehghan-Nayeri, Nahid; Ghaffari, Fatemeh; Shali, Mahboubeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: The main objective of nursing is to provide comprehensive nursing care that is appropriate to patients’ needs. However, the incidence of missed nursing care compromises the provision of comprehensive and safe care and threatens patients’ lives. Thus, this in-depth qualitative study aimed to explore nurses’ experiences of missed care and factors affecting it. The aim of this study was to describe nurses’ experiences of missed care in clinical practice. Methods: In this study, qualitative research methodology, with a content analysis approach was used. The sample included 23 nurses in referral teaching hospitals. Data were collected through focus group discussions, face-to-face and telephonic interviews, using semi-structured questions. Results: Three themes, comprising several sub-themes, emerged, and included contextual conditions, coercion, and deprivation. Conclusion: The results indicated that organizational and personal factors facilitate the incidence of coerced, missed nursing care. High quality of care, the prevention of missed care incidences and patient safety depend on the provision of adequate staff, appropriate equipment and a sense of responsibility for patients’ care needs among nurses. PMID:26793667

  9. The −514C/T Polymorphism of Hepatic Lipase Gene among Iranian Patients with Coronary Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ghatreh Samani, K; Noori, M; Nobar, M Rohbani; Chaleshtory, M Hashemzadeh; Farrokhi, E; Amin, M Darabi

    2012-01-01

    Background: The T allele of the hepatic lipase (HL) C-514T polymorphism was previously found to be associated with lower plasma HL activity. Here, we examined the association between this polymorphism and plasma HDL-cholesterol concentrations in patients with coronary arteries stenosis. Methods: We studied 342 subjects undergoing coronary angiography in two groups of non CAD (n=146) and CAD (n=196). −514C→T polymorphism was determined using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Results: After adjustment for age, smoking and body mass index, HDL-cholesterol concentrations were significantly higher in men with the C/T&T/T genotype than those with the C/C genotype(mean 38.6 and 34.7 respectively P=0.01). The frequency of T allele in non CAD was 0.136 and 0.226 in female and male respectively and 0.170 and 0.223 for female and male in CAD subjects. There was no difference in T allele frequency in CAD and none CAD groups in male and female (P=0.466 and 0.722 respectively). Conclusion: −514C→T of LIPC gene have a positive effect on HDL-C concentration especially in male gender. However, no difference was determined in frequency of T allele between CAD and normal arteries subjects. PMID:23113123

  10. The Iranian model of living renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Mahdavi-Mazdeh, Mitra

    2012-09-01

    Organ shortage for transplantation remains a worldwide serious problem for kidney patients with end-stage renal failure, and several countries have tried different models to address this issue. Iran has 20 years of experience with one such model that involves the active role of the government and charity foundations. Patients with a desperate demand for a kidney have given rise to a black market of brokers and other forms of organ commercialism only accessible to those with sufficient financial resources. The current Iranian model has enabled most of the Iranian kidney transplant candidates, irrespective of socioeconomic class, to have access to kidney transplantation. The Iranian government has committed a large budget through funding hospital and staff at the Ministry of Health and Medical Education by supporting the brain death donation (BDD) program or redirecting part of the budget of living unrelated renal donation (LURD) to the BDD program. It has been shown that it did not prevent the development and progression of a BDD program. However, the LURD program is characterized by several controversial procedures (e.g., confrontation of donor and recipient at the end of the evaluation procedure along with some financial interactions) that should be ethically reviewed. Operational weaknesses such as the lack of a registration system and long-term follow-up of the donors are identified as the 'Achilles heel of the model'. PMID:22673884

  11. Polyglandular autoimmune syndrome type I among Iranian Jews.

    PubMed Central

    Zlotogora, J; Shapiro, M S

    1992-01-01

    Polyglandular autoimmune syndrome (PAS) has been well characterised and the accepted criteria for diagnosis are the presence of at least two of the three major components: hypoparathyroidism (HPT), candidiasis, and adrenal insufficiency (AI). HPT may, however, be the only manifestation of the syndrome. Iranian Jews, having a high rate of consanguinity, appear to be a community in which PAS type I is frequent. We report on 19 families of patients with HPT from the Iranian Jewish community assuming that they are in fact affected with PAS type I. In the 19 families, 23 patients were affected, including 11 males and 12 females. All the patients but one had HPT (96%), and most were diagnosed by the age of 20 years (91%). AI was diagnosed in five of our patients; in all cases but one it appeared after HPT. Mild oral candidiasis was present in four patients and six of the patients (three males and three females) had hypogonadism. Other features of the syndrome found in some of our patients were pernicious anaemia, hypothyroidism, and alopecia. The disease is autosomal recessive and the calculated prevalence among the Iranian Jews is 1:6500 to 1:9000. The disease is also found with a very high incidence among Finns. A comparison of the symptoms between the two groups showed clinical differences including the relative rarity of candidiasis and absence of keratopathy among the Iranian Jews. PMID:1453436

  12. Impacts of international sanctions on Iranian pharmaceutical market.

    PubMed

    Cheraghali, Abdol Majid

    2013-01-01

    Iran in recent decade faced several regional and international sanctions in foreign trade, financial and banking services. Iran national pharmaceutical industry has always played a major role in providing medicines to the Iranian patients. However, following the sanctions it has faced profound difficulties for importing of both finished products and pharmaceutical raw materials. Although medicines are exempted from sanctions, due to restriction on money transaction and proper insurance Iranian pharmaceutical companies have to pay cash in advance for imports of medicines and raw materials or to secure offshore funds at very high risks. Current situation in Iran pharmaceutical market confirms that the sanctions against Iran are affecting ordinary citizens and national health sector which resulted to reduction of availability of lifesaving medicines in the local market and has caused increasing pain and suffering for Iranian patients. PMID:23902642

  13. Expression of prostacyclin and thromboxane synthases in placenta and placental bed after pre-eclamptic pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Wetzka, B; Charnock-Jones, D S; Viville, B; Cooper, J C; Nüsing, R; Zahradnik, H P; Smith, S K

    1996-11-01

    Prostacyclin and thromboxane are potent antagonistic regulators of vascular tone and platelet aggregation. In pre-eclampsia, the ratio of their metabolites is decreased. Little is known about the local regulation of intrauterine prostacyclin and thromboxane production in this condition. Placenta and placental bed biopsies were obtained from uncomplicated and pre-eclamptic pregnancies. Prostacyclin synthase (PCS) and thromboxane synthase (TXS) and their mRNA's were localized by immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibodies and in situ hybridization. Protein and mRNA levels were quantified by immunoblot and RNase protection assay. PCS-like immunoreactivity was found in endothelial cells and leiomyocytes, whereas fetal and maternal macrophages showed positive staining for TXS. Their mRNA was localized to trophoblast and endothelium, and TXS mRNA could also be detected in macrophages. Quantitative analysis showed no significant difference in intrauterine protein or mRNA expression after pre-eclampsia. The prostacyclin and thromboxane production seems to be compartmentalized within the uteroplacental unit. The expression of their synthesizing enzymes might be regulated post-transcriptionally. Additional regulation of prostaglandin production could be metabolically or on the substrate level and requires further elucidation. PMID:8916205

  14. Iranian Common Attitude Toward Opium Consumption.

    PubMed

    Zarghami, Mehran

    2015-06-01

    Iran is suffering from the 2(nd) most severe addiction to opioids in the world. While the explanation of this enormous drug problem is refutably related to drug trafficking, the drug dilemma also illustrates the chain reaction of the imposed war with Iraq in 1980 - 88; the problems of poverty, unemployment, urbanization, homelessness, adultery, family crises, divorce, domestic violence, and runaway children. Although opium addiction often linked to these factors, drug use is common among all social classes. It seems that a positive traditional attitude is another reason for widespread raw opium use in this country. A survey in Iranian literature reveals that famous Iranian poets, who have a substantial contribution on cultural attitude formation of Iranian population, have used the phrase "Teriac" (raw opium) as a means of "antidote" a substance that treats every disease. It seems that a concrete deduction from the literature has been leaden to a positive attitude towards opium consumption in Persian culture. Recent research also supports this idea. Many patients use raw opium as a pain killer or for treating hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes and other chronic diseases; most of them had started the use after developing the disease and the remaining had increased the consumption after developing the disease. Regarding this superstitious common belief, drug control headquarters should focus on education and correction of the faulty unhealthy attitude toward opium consumption. PMID:26288642

  15. Iranian Common Attitude Toward Opium Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Zarghami, Mehran

    2015-01-01

    Iran is suffering from the 2nd most severe addiction to opioids in the world. While the explanation of this enormous drug problem is refutably related to drug trafficking, the drug dilemma also illustrates the chain reaction of the imposed war with Iraq in 1980 - 88; the problems of poverty, unemployment, urbanization, homelessness, adultery, family crises, divorce, domestic violence, and runaway children. Although opium addiction often linked to these factors, drug use is common among all social classes. It seems that a positive traditional attitude is another reason for widespread raw opium use in this country. A survey in Iranian literature reveals that famous Iranian poets, who have a substantial contribution on cultural attitude formation of Iranian population, have used the phrase “Teriac” (raw opium) as a means of “antidote” a substance that treats every disease. It seems that a concrete deduction from the literature has been leaden to a positive attitude towards opium consumption in Persian culture. Recent research also supports this idea. Many patients use raw opium as a pain killer or for treating hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes and other chronic diseases; most of them had started the use after developing the disease and the remaining had increased the consumption after developing the disease. Regarding this superstitious common belief, drug control headquarters should focus on education and correction of the faulty unhealthy attitude toward opium consumption. PMID:26288642

  16. Organizational Citizenship Behavior Among Iranian Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Dargahi, H; Alirezaie, S; Shaham, G

    2012-01-01

    Background: Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) is defined as “individual behavior that is discretionary, not directly or explicitly recognized by the formal reward system, and that in the aggregate, promotes the effective functioning of organization”. OCB, enhance job satisfaction among nursing employees. According to several findings, nurses’ OCB have a positive and significant influence on job satisfaction. This research is aimed to study OCB among Iranian nurses. Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical study was conducted among 510 nurses working in 15 teaching hospitals in Tehran, Iran to be selected by stratified random sampling. The respondents were asked to complete Netemeyer’s organizational citizenship behavior questionnaire that encompassed four dimensions of OCB including Sportsmanship, Civil Virtue, Conscientiousness, Altruism and selected each item of OCB dimensions and identified their attitudes about OCB items were observed in hospitals of Tehran. The data was analyzed by T-test, ANOVA and Pearson statistical methods. Results: The results of this research showed that most of the nurses who studied in this study, had OCB behaviors. Also, we found that there was significant correlation between Iranian nurses’ marriage status, qualifications and gender with sportsmanship, altruism and civic virtue. Conclusion: This research demonstrates the existence of OCB among Iranian nurses that are essential in developing patient – oriented behavior. The results can be used to develop further nursing management strategies for enhancement of OCB. Finally, the present study indicates new possibilities for future researches such as analysis and comparison of OCB between different hospitals and how nursing policy-makers can enhance these behaviors in Iranian hospitals. PMID:23113181

  17. Is the atherosclerotic phenotype of preeclamptic placentas due to altered lipoprotein concentrations and placental lipoprotein receptors? Role of a small-for-gestational-age phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Hentschke, Marta R.; Poli-de-Figueiredo, Carlos E.; Pinheiro da Costa, Bartira E.; Kurlak, Lesia O.; Williams, Paula J.; Mistry, Hiten D.

    2013-01-01

    Atherosis of spiral arteries in uteroplacental beds from preeclamptic women resemble those of atherosclerosis, characterized by increased plasma lipids and lipoproteins. We hypothesized that: 1) lipoprotein receptors/transporters in the placenta would be upregulated in preeclampsia, associated with increased maternal and fetal lipoprotein concentrations; and 2) expression of these would be reduced in preeclamptic placentae from women delivering small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants. Placental biopsies and maternal and umbilical serum samples were taken from 27 normotensive and 24 preeclamptic women. Maternal/umbilical cord serum LDL, HDL, total cholesterol, and triglycerides were measured. Placental mRNA expression of lipoprotein receptors/transporters were quantified using quantitative RT-PCR. Protein localization/expression of LDL receptor-related protein 1 (LRP-1) in the preeclamptic placentae with/without SGA was measured by immunohistochemistry. Placental mRNA expression of all genes except paraoxonase-1 (PON-1), microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP), and protein disulfide isomerase family A member 2 (PDIA2) were observed. No differences for any lipoprotein receptors/transporters were found between groups; however, in the preeclamptic group placental LRP-1 expression was lower in SGA delivering mothers (n = 7; P = 0.036). LRP-1 protein was localized around fetal vessels and Hofbauer cells. This is the first detailed study of maternal/fetal lipoprotein concentrations and placental lipoprotein receptor mRNA expression in normotensive and preeclamptic pregnancies. These findings do not support a role of altered lipid metabolism in preeclampsia, but may be involved in fetal growth. PMID:23898049

  18. Report of limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2a in 6 Iranian patients, one with a novel deletion in CAPN3 gene.

    PubMed

    Fadaee, Mahsa; Kariminejad, Ariana; Fattahi, Zohreh; Nafissi, Shahriar; Godarzi, Hamed Reza; Beheshtian, Maryam; Vazehan, Raheleh; Akbari, Mohammad Reza; Kahrizi, Kimia; Najmabadi, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Calpain3 is a calcium-dependent intracellular protease involved in an autosomal recessive form of muscular dystrophy known as limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A. Many pathogenic mutations have been identified in calpain3, encoded by the CAPN3 gene, which leads to weakness of the pelvic and shoulder girdle muscles. In the present study, whole exome sequencing was performed on six unrelated Iranian families who presented with progressive muscle weakness, with a strong suspicion of Calpainopathies. Genetic analysis of CAPN3 gene revealed five causative variants which had not been reported in the Iranian population before including a novel 6 bp deletion (c.795_800delCATTGA) and four previously reported mutations (c.1939G > T, c.2243G > A, c.2257delGinsAA, and c.2380 + 2T > G). Our findings indicate that exome sequencing can be a very effective and affordable method to diagnose heterogeneous muscular dystrophies, especially in consanguineous populations such as Iran. PMID:27020652

  19. 31 CFR 560.518 - Transactions in Iranian-origin and Iranian Government property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transactions in Iranian-origin and... Iranian-origin and Iranian Government property. (a) Except for transactions involving the Government of Iran, all domestic transactions with respect to Iranian-origin goods located in the United States...

  20. Epigenetics and Preeclampsia: Defining Functional Epimutations in the Preeclamptic Placenta Related to the TGF-β Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Elizabeth; Ray, Paul D.; Smeester, Lisa; Grace, Matthew R.; Boggess, Kim; Fry, Rebecca C.

    2015-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a potentially fatal pregnancy disorder affecting millions of women around the globe. Dysregulation in gene and protein expression within key biological pathways controlling angiogenesis has been implicated in the development of preeclampsia. Altered CpG methylation, a type of epimutation, may underlie this pathway dysregulation. In the present study, placental tissue from preeclamptic cases and normotensive controls was analyzed for genome-wide differential CpG methylation and concomitant changes in gene expression. A set of 123 genes, representing 19.9% of all genes with altered CpG methylation, was associated with functional changes in transcript levels. Underscoring the complex relationships between CpG methylation and gene expression, here hypermethylation was never associated with gene silencing, nor was hypomethylation always associated with gene activation. Moreover, the genomic region of the CpG mark was important in predicting the relationship between CpG methylation and gene expression. The 123 genes were enriched for their involvement in the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signaling pathway, a known regulator of placental trophoblast invasion and migration. This is the first study to identify CpG hypomethylation as an activator of TGF-β-associated gene expression in the preeclamptic placenta. The results suggest functional epimutations are associated with preeclampsia disease status and the identified genes may represent novel biomarkers of disease. PMID:26510177

  1. 31 CFR 560.320 - Iranian accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Iranian accounts. 560.320 Section 560.320 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 560.320 Iranian accounts. The term Iranian accounts means accounts of persons who are...

  2. 31 CFR 560.320 - Iranian accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Iranian accounts. 560.320 Section 560.320 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 560.320 Iranian accounts. The term Iranian accounts means accounts of persons who are...

  3. JAK2V617F Allele Burden Measurement in Peripheral Blood of Iranian Patients with Myeloproliferative Neoplasms and Effect of Hydroxyurea on JAK2V617F Allele Burden

    PubMed Central

    Ferdowsi, Shirin; Ghaffari, Seyed H.; Amirizadeh, Naser; Azarkeivan, Azita; Atarodi, Kamran; Faranoush, Mohammad; Toogeh, Gholamreza; Shirkoohi, Reza; Vaezi, Mohammad; Maghsoodlu, Mahtab; Alimoghaddam, Kamran; Ghavamzadeh, Ardeshir; Teimori Naghadeh, Hosein

    2016-01-01

    Background: Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are clonal malignant diseases that represent a group of conditions including polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). The aim of this study was to evaluate possible correlations between JAK2V617F allele burden and clinicohematologic characteristics in Iranian patients with MPNs. We also aimed at determining the correlation between JAK2V617F allele burden and use of cyto reductive treatment (hydroxyurea). Materials and Methods: We performed ARMS-PCR for all MPNs samples and subsequently performed real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) for JAK2V617F allele burden measurement using DNA from peripheral blood leukocytes. Results: Two distinct groups of patients were examined at a single time point: group A (n=40; 20 PV, 20 ET) was examined at the time of diagnosis; group B (n=85; 40 PV, 30 ET and 15 PMF) while under treatment with hydroxyurea (HU). The median allele burden of the JAK2 V617F was 72% for PV and 49% for ET patients at the time of diagnosis (p=0.01). For patients with HU treatment, we determined the median JAK2V617F allele burden to be 43%, 40%, and 46.5 % in PV, ET and PMF patients; respectively. HU-treated PV patients had a significant lower %JAK2V617F than PV patients at the time of diagnosis (43% vs. 72%, p=0.005). In ET group, the relationship between the JAK2 V617F allele burden and leukocyte count was significant (p=0.02 and p=0.01 in untreated and treated patients, respectively). Conclusions: Our results showed that patients with PV have a higher JAK2V617F allele burden. Moreover, our study demonstrated that the JAK2V617F allele burden correlates with clinical features in ET group. We also showed hydroxyurea can affect the JAK2V617F allele burden in PV patients. PMID:27252806

  4. Downregulated miR-195 Detected in Preeclamptic Placenta Affects Trophoblast Cell Invasion via Modulating ActRIIA Expression

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Yang; Yang, Weiwei; Yang, Hui-xia; Liao, Qinping; Ye, Gang; Fu, Guodong; Ji, Lei; Xu, Peng; Wang, Hao; Li, Yu-xia; Peng, Chun; Wang, Yan-ling

    2012-01-01

    Background Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy-specific syndrome manifested by on-set of hypertension and proteinuria after 20 weeks of gestation. Abnormal placenta development has been generally accepted as initial cause of the disorder. Recently, miR-195 was found to be down-regulated in preeclamptic placentas compared with normal pregnant ones, indicating possible association of this small molecule with placental pathology of preeclampsia. By far the function of miR-195 in the development of placenta remains unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings Bioinformatic assay predicted ActRIIA as one of the targets for miR-195. By using Real-time PCR, Western blotting and Dual Luciferase Assay, we validated that ActRIIA was the direct target of miR-195 in human trophoblast cells. Transwell insert invasion assay showed that miR-195 could promote cell invasion in trophoblast cell line, HTR8/SVneo cells, and the effect could be abrogated by overexpressed ActRIIA. In preeclamptic placenta tissues, pri-miR-195 and mature miR-195 expressions were down-regulated, whereas ActRIIA level appeared to be increased when compared with that in gestational-week-matched normal placentas. Conclusions/Significance This is the first report on the function of miR-195 in human placental trophoblast cells which reveals an invasion-promoting effect of the small RNA via repressing ActRIIA. Aberrant expression of miR-195 may contribute to the occurrence of preeclampsia through interfering with Activin/Nodal signaling mediated by ActRIIA in human placenta. PMID:22723898

  5. Iranian EFL Learners' Compliment Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allami, Hamid; Montazeri, Maryam

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed at examining the knowledge of Iranian EFL learners in responding to compliments in English, with a focus on the variables of gender, age and educational background. The data were collected through a 24-item English Discourse Completion Task (DCT) to which 40 male and female EFL learners were asked to provide short…

  6. Diseases Led to Refer Iranian Pilgrims From Hajj in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, Seyyed Mostafa; Torkan, Ali; Tabatabaei, Aminreza; Shamspour, Navvab; Heidari, Saeid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Some Iranian pilgrims are referred to Iran because of catching a new disease or exacerbation of their disease during the Hajj ceremony. These diseases need prolonged and specialized treatments. Investigation of the reasons led to their return to Iran is useful and effective in policy-making and planning of preventive health services. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the causes of referring Iranian patients to Iran during Hajj in 2010. Patients and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, all Iranian pilgrim cases in Hajj (2012) who referred to Iran were studied, and data analysis was performed. Demographic data and the causes of return to Iran during and after Hajj rituals were analyzed. Results: A total of 106 cases were referred Iran during Hajj 2012. Psychiatric problems, with 26.4% allocated the highest rate of return to Iran during Hajj days, and significant difference was observed in the reasons before and after performing Hajj rituals (P = 0.001). Conclusions: Psychiatric, neurological, gastrointestinal, and respiratory diseases are the most frequent reasons of referring patients to Iran. More accuracy in screening and care of patients are recommended before Hajj in order to prevent references to Iran and its complications. PMID:26421162

  7. [24-hour blood pressure measurement in normal pregnancy in hypertensive pregnant patients].

    PubMed

    Rath, W; Schrader, J; Guhlke, U; Buhr-Schinner, H; Haupt, A; Kramer, A; Kuhn, W

    1990-08-01

    Noninvasive 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was performed in 17 normotensive and 19 preeclamptic pregnant women. The normotensive women showed a significant nightly decline in their systolic and diastolic blood pressure. In contrast, the preeclamptic women demonstrated either an attenuated circadian rhythm or no circadian rhythm at all. This result was even more pronounced in patients with severe hypertension, some of whom had a nocturnal increase in blood pressure in spite of being treated with antihypertensive drugs in an evening dose. The lack of nocturnal blood pressure decrease was also found 24 hours post partum. In summary, these results suggest that preeclamptic women are endangered by hypertensive emergencies mostly during the night. Therefore blood pressure controls should be extended into the night, and antihypertensive drugs should also be given in a sufficient evening dose. PMID:2214601

  8. Iranian Joint Registry (Iranian National Hip and Knee Arthroplasty Registry)

    PubMed Central

    Aslani, Hamidreza; Nourbakhsh, Seyed Taghi; Lahiji, Farivar A.; Heydarian, Keykavoos; Jabalameli, Mahmood; Ghazavi, Mohammad Taghi; Tahmasebi, Mohammad Naghi; Fayyaz, Mahmoud Reza; Sazegari, Mohammad Ali; Mohaddes, Maziar; Rajabpour, Mojtaba; Emami, Mohammad; Jazayeri, Seyyed Mohammad; Madadi, Firooz; Farahini, Hossein; Mirzatoloee, Fardin; Gharahdaghi, Mohammad; Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad Hossein; Ebrahimian, Mohammadreza; Mirvakili, Hossein; Bashti, Kaveh; Almasizadeh, Mohtasham; Abolghasemian, Mansour; Taheriazam, Afshin; Motififard, Mehdi; Yazdi, Hamidreza; Mobarakeh, Mahmood Karimi; Shayestehazar, Masoud; Moghtadae, Mehdi; Siavashi, Babak; Sajjadi, Mohammadreza M.; Rasi, Alireza Manafi; Chabok, Seyyed Kazem; Zafarani, Zohreh; Salehi, Shahin; Ahmadi, Monireh; Mohammadi, Amin; Shahsavand, Mohammad Ebrahim

    2016-01-01

    Periodic evaluation and monitoring the health and economic outcome of joint replacement surgery is a common and popular process under the territory of joint registries in many countries. In this article we introduce the methodology used for the foundation of the National Iranian Joint Registry (IJR) with a joint collaboration of the Social Security Organization (SSO) and academic research departments considering the requirements of the Iran’s Ministry of Health and Education. PMID:27200403

  9. Identification of Chromosome Abnormalities in Subtelomeric Regions Using Multiplex Ligation Dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) Technique in 100 Iranian Patients With Idiopathic Mental Retardation

    PubMed Central

    Behjati, Farkhondeh; Ghasemi Firouzabadi, Saghar; Sajedi, Firoozeh; Kahrizi, Kimia; Najafi, Mostafa; Ebrahimizade Ghasemlou, Behruz; Shafeghati, Yousef; Behnia, Fatemeh; Mohammadi Arya, Ali Reza; Karimi, Hossein; Hadipour, Fatemeh; Hadipour, Zahra; Jamali, Peyman; Kariminejad, Roxana; Darvish, Hossein; Bahman, Ideh; Bagherizadeh, Eiman; Najmabadi, Hossein; Vameghi, Roshanak

    2013-01-01

    Background Mental retardation/Developmental delay (MR/DD) is present in 1 - 3% of the general population (1, 2). MR is defined as a significant impairment of both cognitive (IQ < 70) and social adaptive functions, with onset before 18 years of age. Objectives The purpose was to determine the results of subtelomeric screening by the Multiplex Ligation Dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) Technique in 100 selected patients with idiopathic mental retardation (IMR) in Iran. Materials and Methods A number of 100 patients with IMR, normal karyotypes and negative fragile-X and metabolic tests were screened for subtelomeric abnormalities using MLPA technique. Results Nine of 100 patients showed subtelomeric abnormalities with at least one of the two MLPA kits. Deletion in a single region was found in 3 patients, and in two different subtelomeric regions in 1 patient. Duplication was only single and was present in 2 patients. Three patients were found to have both a deletion and duplication.MLPA testing in the parental samples of 7 patients which was accessible showed that 4 patients were de novo, 2 patients had inherited from a clinically normal mother, and one had inherited from a clinically normal father. Screening with the two MLPA kits (SALSA P036 and SALSA P070) proved abnormality in only five of the 9 patients. Conclusions So, the prevalence rate of abnormal subtelomeres using MLPA technique in patients with idiopathic MR in our study was 5 - 9%, the higher limit referring to the positive results of one of the two MLPA kits, and the lower limit representing the results of positive double-checking with the two MLPA kits. PMID:24693374

  10. Fears and concerns of Iranian diabetic women: A phenomenological study.

    PubMed

    Aghamohammadi-Kalkhoran, Masoumeh; Valizadeh, Sousan

    2016-07-01

    This study explored the fears and concerns of 19 Iranian diabetic women using a phenomenological approach. Semistructured individual interviews were conducted; each interview was transcribed verbatim and analyzed simultaneously using Van Manen's method. Data analysis resulted in the emergence of two main themes: (1) "a vague and uncertain future" with sub-themes of "fears of dependency," "loneliness," "disease complications," and "children's future"; and (2) "changing lifestyles" with sub-themes of "dietary restrictions" and "insulin injection." Psychological concerns are common in Iranian diabetic women. These concerns can contribute to poor disease self-management. Thus, it is hoped that identifying these concerns can lead to better management of these issues and a better outcome in diabetic patients. PMID:25305192

  11. Mycosis fungoides in Iranian population: an epidemiological and clinicopathological study.

    PubMed

    Fatemi Naeini, Farahnaz; Abtahi-Naeini, Bahareh; Sadeghiyan, Hamidreza; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Najafian, Jamshid; Pourazizi, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Background. Mycosis fungoides (MF) is the most common subtype of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Extensive studies on Iranian MF patients are absent. The present study aimed to produce updated clinical information on Iranian MF patients. Methods. This was a retrospective, descriptive, single-center study, including all cases of MF seen in the Department of Dermatology, University Hospital of Isfahan, Iran, between 2003 and 2013. Data systematically recorded for each patient included clinical, biological, histological, and molecular findings. Results. Eighty-six patients with clinical and histologic diagnosis of MF were included in the study. Thirty-nine patients (45.3%) were male. Female predominance was observed in patients (male : female ratio is 1 : 1.2). Patients were between 7 and 84 years of age (median: 41). The interval from disease onset to diagnosis ranged from 0 to 55 years (median: 1 year). Eighteen cases (20.9%) had unusual variants of MF. The most common types included hypopigmented and poikilodermatous MF. Childhood cases of MF constituted 5.8% (5/86) of all patients. The early stages were seen in 82 cases (95.34%). Conclusion. The major differences in epidemiologic characteristics of MF in Iran are the lack of male predominance and the lower age of patients at the time of diagnosis. PMID:25694829

  12. Mycosis Fungoides in Iranian Population: An Epidemiological and Clinicopathological Study

    PubMed Central

    Fatemi Naeini, Farahnaz; Abtahi-Naeini, Bahareh; Sadeghiyan, Hamidreza; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Najafian, Jamshid; Pourazizi, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Background. Mycosis fungoides (MF) is the most common subtype of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Extensive studies on Iranian MF patients are absent. The present study aimed to produce updated clinical information on Iranian MF patients. Methods. This was a retrospective, descriptive, single-center study, including all cases of MF seen in the Department of Dermatology, University Hospital of Isfahan, Iran, between 2003 and 2013. Data systematically recorded for each patient included clinical, biological, histological, and molecular findings. Results. Eighty-six patients with clinical and histologic diagnosis of MF were included in the study. Thirty-nine patients (45.3%) were male. Female predominance was observed in patients (male : female ratio is 1 : 1.2). Patients were between 7 and 84 years of age (median: 41). The interval from disease onset to diagnosis ranged from 0 to 55 years (median: 1 year). Eighteen cases (20.9%) had unusual variants of MF. The most common types included hypopigmented and poikilodermatous MF. Childhood cases of MF constituted 5.8% (5/86) of all patients. The early stages were seen in 82 cases (95.34%). Conclusion. The major differences in epidemiologic characteristics of MF in Iran are the lack of male predominance and the lower age of patients at the time of diagnosis. PMID:25694829

  13. Content Analysis of Articles Published in Iranian Scientific Nursing Journals From 2009 Through 2011

    PubMed Central

    Tahamtan, Iman; Bagheri, Zeinab; Janani, Payman; Majidi, Somayye; Ghasemi, Elham; Negarandeh, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the features of Iranian nursing journals, specifically the subject areas used in articles, study designs, sampling methods, international collaboration of Iranian nursing scholars, specialty and academic rank of authors, and the most frequently contributing academic institutions in articles. Objectives: The aim of this study was to analyze the content of the articles published in Iranian scientific nursing journals. Materials and Methods: Quantitative content analysis was implemented to study Iranian nursing journals, which were approved by the commission for accreditation and improvement of Iranian medical journals in 2011. Thus, 763 articles from six journals, published from 2009 through 2011, were investigated. Data were extracted from the abstracts and when necessary, from the full-text of articles by visiting the websites of these journals. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. Results: The main subjects of published articles in Iranian scientific nursing journals were consecutively renal dialysis (n = 21), intensive care unit (n = 16), nursing education (n = 15), patient satisfaction (n = 13), quality of life (n = 12), health education (n = 11), patient education (n = 11), pain (n = 10), and education (n = 9). The majority of authors had nursing and midwifery specialty (52.59%) followed by epidemiology/biostatistics specialty (7.72%). Isfahan, Tehran, Shahid Beheshti, Iran, Baqiyatallah, and Urmia universities of medical sciences had consecutively the largest number of publications in the studied journals. Only three papers (0.39%) were published by the international collaboration. Conclusions: Iranian nursing journals should publish special issues in the neglected subject areas. These journals should encourage authors to publish research evidence with higher quality. PMID:25741512

  14. Iranian Women: Between Education and Repression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bousalis, Rina

    2012-01-01

    Iranian women have endured more than 30 years of an Islamist dictatorship that uses religion as a validation for unjust control. Human rights violations against women in Iran are a tragic phenomenon for an otherwise highly developed civilization. Invisible and powerless in a male-dominated society, Iranian women are discouraged from becoming…

  15. 31 CFR 560.303 - Iran; Iranian.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Iran; Iranian. 560.303 Section 560.303... Iran; Iranian. The term Iran means the territory of Iran, and any other territory or marine area, including the exclusive economic zone and continental shelf, over which the Government of Iran...

  16. 31 CFR 560.303 - Iran; Iranian.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Iran; Iranian. 560.303 Section 560.303... Definitions § 560.303 Iran; Iranian. The term Iran means the territory of Iran and any other territory or... Iran claims sovereignty, sovereign rights, or jurisdiction, provided that the Government of...

  17. 31 CFR 560.303 - Iran; Iranian.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Iran; Iranian. 560.303 Section 560.303... Iran; Iranian. The term Iran means the territory of Iran, and any other territory or marine area, including the exclusive economic zone and continental shelf, over which the Government of Iran...

  18. 31 CFR 560.303 - Iran; Iranian.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Iran; Iranian. 560.303 Section 560... § 560.303 Iran; Iranian. The term Iran means the territory of Iran, and any other territory or marine area, including the exclusive economic zone and continental shelf, over which the Government of...

  19. 31 CFR 560.303 - Iran; Iranian.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Iran; Iranian. 560.303 Section 560.303... Definitions § 560.303 Iran; Iranian. The term Iran means the territory of Iran and any other territory or... Iran claims sovereignty, sovereign rights, or jurisdiction, provided that the Government of...

  20. How Creative Are Iranian EFL Teachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khany, Reza; Boghayeri, Mahnaz

    2014-01-01

    The study of creativity has been of great interest to educationalists in general and language teaching practitioners in particular. With all these, very little if any has been reported on the issue in Iranian EFL context. Having this in mind and drawing on the latest profile of creativity, effort was made to see how creative Iranian EFL teachers…

  1. Menorrhagia Management in Iranian Traditional Medicine.

    PubMed

    Tansaz, Mojgan; Memarzadehzavareh, Hajar; Qaraaty, Marzieh; Eftekhar, Tahereh; Tabarrai, Malihe; Kamalinejad, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Menorrhagia is a common problem. Medical management for menorrhagia includes hormonal and nonhormonal treatments. These treatments have different side effects, which reduce quality of life. Complementary and traditional medicines have been used to handle menorrhagia for centuries in many cultures. There is a lot of information and data in Iranian traditional documents or books about medicinal herbs that are used by Iranian traditional medicine scientists for the treatment of menorrhagia. The aim of this study was to review the approaches to menorrhagia in Iranian traditional medicine texts. In this study, some main Iranian traditional medicine manuscripts including Canon of Medicine and Al-Havi of Rhazes were studied to extract important information about menorrhagia management. Iranian traditional medicine physicians have relied on an organized system of etiological theories and treatments for menorrhagia. Their methods for menorrhagia management may be able to convince the desire of many women to preserve their uterus and avoid hormonal therapy. PMID:26072222

  2. Assessment of the Quality of Delivered Care for Iranian patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis by Using Comprehensive Quality Measurement Model in Health Care (CQMH)

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Saeed; Safiri, Saeid; Bayat, Mahboubeh; Mottaghi, Payman; Shokri, Azad; Moosazadeh, Mahmood; Fattahi, Hamed

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Quality of care has become increasingly critical in the evaluation of healthcare and healthcare services. The aim of this study was to assess quality of delivered care among patients with rheumatoid arthritis using a model of Comprehensive Quality Measurement in Health Care (CQMH). Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 172 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who were received care from private clinics of Isfahan University of medical sciences in 2013. CQMH questionnaires were used for assessing the quality of care. Data were analyzed using SPSS for Windows. Results: The mean scores of Quality Index, Service Quality (SQ), Technical Quality (TQ), and Costumer Quality (CQ) were 72.70, 79.09, 68.54 and 70.25 out of 100, respectively. For CQ only 19.8% of participations staying the course of action even under stress and financial constraints, there is a significant gap between what RA care they received with what was recommended in the guideline for TQ. Scores of service quality was low in majority of aspects especially in "availability of support group" section. Conclusion: Study shows paradoxical findings and expresses that quality scores of service delivery for patients with arthritis rheumatoid from patient's perspective is relatively low. Therefore, for fixing this paradoxical problem, improving the participation of patients and their family and empowering them for self-management and decision should be regarded by health systems. PMID:26744728

  3. Evaluation of the Persian Transcript of the COPD Assessment Test in the Measurement of COPD Health Status in Iranian COPD Patients

    PubMed Central

    Azargoon, Alireza; Gholami, Mohammadreza; Farhadi, Ali; Chegni, Maryam Hadi; Zendedel, Abolfazl

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a completely irreversible obstructive airway disease. The COPD assessment test (CAT) is one of the standard methods for the clinical assessment of the disease, which is translated into Persian. This study investigated the reliability of the test and its relationship with the severity of the disease. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 120 patients filled out the Persian transcript of the test. After two weeks, the patients filled out the CAT test again. Obstruction severity was determined for all the patients using spirometry, and the patients were categorized into four groups according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria. The relationship between the test scores and the disease severity wan validated. Results: The mean age of the patients was 51.5 years. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of the Persian transcript of the test was 0.872 in the first time, and 0.885 in the second time. Intragroup reliability, test re-test and intragroup correlations were significant for all the questions (<0.001). The relationship between the test mean score and obstruction severity was significant, and the correlation between disease categorization in accordance with obstruction severity and categorization according to the test score was significant as well. Conclusion: The Persian transcript of the assessment test for COPD was reliable and is directly related to the disease severity according to airflow limitation. PMID:26652077

  4. Microparticles from preeclamptic women induce vascular hyporeactivity in vessels from pregnant mice through an overproduction of NO.

    PubMed

    Tesse, Angela; Meziani, Ferhat; David, Eric; Carusio, Nunzia; Kremer, Helene; Schneider, Francis; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson

    2007-07-01

    Preeclampsia is associated with an increase of circulating levels of microparticles (MPs), but their role in vascular dysfunction during the course of preeclampsia is not understood. Inasmuch as preeclampsia is a gestational disease, we tested the effect of MPs from preeclamptic women (PrMPs) and MPs from normal pregnant women (CMPs) on vessels from pregnant mice. We exposed aortic rings from pregnant mice to circulating levels of PrMPs or CMPs for 24 h and evaluated their response to serotonin (5-HT). PrMPs, but not CMPs, were able to induce hyporeactivity in response to 5-HT in aortas from pregnant mice. The nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor N(G)-nitro-l-arginine strongly enhanced the response to 5-HT in PrMP-treated vessels but had no significant effect on CMP-treated vessels. The 5-HT-induced contraction in PrMP-treated vessels was completely abolished by the selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor NS-398 but was only reduced in CMP-treated vessels, suggesting an increased participation of COX-2 vasoconstrictor products in the effect of PrMPs. Consistent with this hypothesis, PrMPs enhanced levels of 8-isoprostane and PGE(2) in vessels, despite reduction of thromboxane B(2). These results strengthen the main concept that MPs in preeclampsia could act as vectors to stimulate intracellular cascades in vascular cells, leading to an enhanced NO production to counteract increased COX-2 vasoconstrictor metabolites by taking into account pregnancy. PMID:17369461

  5. Development and Validation of the First Iranian Questionnaire to Assess Quality of Life in Patients With Heart Failure: IHF-QoL

    PubMed Central

    Naderi, Nasim; Bakhshandeh, Hooman; Amin, Ahmad; Taghavi, Sepideh; Dadashi, Masoumeh; Maleki, Majid

    2012-01-01

    Background: In its Constitution of 1948, WHO defined health as “a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity” . In 1994, the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research published clinical practice guidelines recommending providers to routinely evaluate patients’ HRQoL (Health Related Quality of Life) and use their assessment to modify and guide patient care. Objectives: to create a valid, sensitive, disease-specific Persian health status quality of life questionnaire for patients with chronic heart failure in Iran. Materials and Methods: Considering the existing relevant inventories and scientific literature, the authors designed the first draft of questionnaire which was modified and validated, using expert opinions and finalized in a session of expert panel. The questionnaire was processed among 130 patients with heart failure. Construct validity evaluated by principle component factor analysis, and promax method was used for factor rotation. MacNew quality of life questionnaire was selected to assess convergence validity, and the agreements were measured in 60 patients. Discriminant validity was also assessed. Thirty patients were followed for 3 months and responsiveness of questionnaire was measured. Cronbach's alpha, item analysis, and Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used to investigate reliability of questionnaire. SPSS 15 for Windows was applied for statistical analysis. Results: Principle component factor analysis revealed 4 main components. Sub-group analysis suggested that IHF-QoL questionnaire demonstrated an acceptable discriminant validity. High conformity between this inventory and MacNew questionnaire revealed an appropriate convergence validity. Cronbach's alpha (α) for the overall questionnaire was equal to 0.922. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) for all components were significant (from. 708 to. 883; all P values < 0.001). Patients fallow

  6. HLA-DRA is associated with Parkinson's disease in Iranian population.

    PubMed

    Jamshidi, J; Movafagh, A; Emamalizadeh, B; Zare Bidoki, A; Manafi, A; Ghasemi Firouzabadi, S; Shahidi, G-A; Kazeminasab, S; Petramfar, P; Fazeli, A; Motallebi, M; Mortazavi-Tabatabaei, S A; Kowsari, A; Jafarian, Z; Darvish, H

    2014-12-01

    The rs3129882, a noncoding variant in HLA-DR, was found to be associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) using several genome-wide association studies. The aim of this replication study was to explore the relationship between this variant and PD in Iranian population. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples, and the rs3129882 SNP was genotyped using a PCR-RFLP method in 520 PD patients and 520 healthy Iranian controls. Significant differences were found in allele frequencies between patients and controls (χ(2) = 4.64, P = 0.031). Under additive and dominant models, the association of the SNP with PD risk is significant, where the A allele was observed to be protective. The results suggest that rs3129882 polymorphism may be a risk factor for PD in Iranian. This is the first study reporting such an association in this population. More replication studies are needed to confirm this data. PMID:25319953

  7. Seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus among Iranian soldiers

    PubMed Central

    Izadi, Morteza; Esfahani, Ali Aliakbar; Hassannia, Hadi; Jonaidi Jafari, Nematollah; Rahmati Najarkolaei, Fatemeh; Rezaee-Zavareh, Mohammad Saeid

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study aims to investigate the seroprevalence of HAV immunity among Iranian soldiers and determine whether vaccination should be given to military draftees. Background: Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is highly contagious in individuals living in crowded conditions such as military centers. To the best of our knowledge, there are limited data about HAV prevalence among Iranian soldiers. Patients and methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 1554 soldiers were recruited through a random clustering sampling. Serum anti-HAV antibody was measured by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS. Results: A total of 1554 male soldiers with age ranged from 18 to 34 years (mean age: 21.2±1.9 years) at baseline were evaluated. Overall, 80.3% of the analyzed specimens were anti-HAV seropositive. Seroprevalence rates significantly increased with the age. Conclusion: Our results suggest that vaccination for HAV is not necessary for Iranian military draftees. However, the vaccination is recommended for high-risk groups, including anti-HAV seronegative soldiers. PMID:27099669

  8. The Attitude of Iranian Nurses About Do Not Resuscitate Orders

    PubMed Central

    Mogadasian, Sima; Abdollahzadeh, Farahnaz; Rahmani, Azad; Ferguson, Caleb; Pakanzad, Fermisk; Pakpour, Vahid; Heidarzadeh, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Do not resuscitate (DNR) orders are one of many challenging issues in end of life care. Previous research has not investigated Muslim nurses’ attitudes towards DNR orders. Aims: This study aims to investigate the attitude of Iranian nurses towards DNR orders and determine the role of religious sects in forming attitudes. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive-comparative study, 306 nurses from five hospitals affiliated to Tabriz University of Medical Sciences (TUOMS) in East Azerbaijan Province and three hospitals in Kurdistan province participated. Data were gathered by a survey design on attitudes on DNR orders. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL) software examining descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: Participants showed their willingness to learn more about DNR orders and highlights the importance of respecting patients and their families in DNR orders. In contrast, in many key items participants reported their negative attitude towards DNR orders. There were statistical differences in two items between the attitude of Shiite and Sunni nurses. Conclusions: Iranian nurses, regardless of their religious sects, reported negative attitude towards many aspects of DNR orders. It may be possible to change the attitude of Iranian nurses towards DNR through education. PMID:24600178

  9. Factors Influencing the Successful Aging of Iranian Old Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Javadi Pashaki, Nazila; Mohammadi, Farahnaz; Jafaraghaee, Fateme; Mehrdad, Neda

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aging is an irreversible natural process characterized by a decline in both the physical and mental status of individuals. Because of multiple factors, this process and its consequences vary greatly between individuals. A successful aging (SA) is the target of current health policies and well-being of individuals. Knowing the factors that contribute to SA and its barriers would translate in measurements that increase the quality of life of elderly and reduce health costs. Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore barriers and facilitators to Iranian elderly women’s SA. Patients and Methods: A purposive sample of 16 elderly women, aged 61 - 96 years, was recruited for this qualitative content analysis study. Study data were collected during 2012 -.2013 by conducting 16 face-to-face semi-structured in-depth interviews. We continued the data collection until reaching saturation. Study data were analyzed concurrently with data collection, by using the conventional qualitative content analysis approach. Results: Barriers and facilitators to Iranian elderly women’s SA fell into five main categories, including availability of support systems, state of health, personal capabilities, personality characteristics, and lifestyle. Conclusions: Availability of support systems, state of health, personal capabilities, personality characteristics, and lifestyle were the main interrelated factors affecting Iranian elderly women’s SA. Accordingly, providing elderly women with strong educational, emotional, financial, cultural, and social supports can help facilitate their SA. PMID:26421171

  10. Major gene is responsible for anencephaly among Iranian Jews

    SciTech Connect

    Zlotogora, J.

    1995-03-13

    Anencephaly is relatively frequent in Jews originating from Iran, in particular when its incidence is compared to that of open spina bifida in the same population (12 cases of anencephaly out of 14 cases of neural tube defects). The high incidence of this disorder in Iranian Jews, a relatively isolated community with a very high rate of consanguinity, suggests that anencephaly is caused by a major recessive gene. This possibility is supported by the sex ratio among these patients, which was significantly different from that observed for patients with anencephaly in other populations. 10 refs.

  11. SCN1A and SCN1B gene polymorphisms and their association with plasma concentrations of carbamazepine and carbamazepine 10, 11 epoxide in Iranian epileptic patients

    PubMed Central

    Namazi, Soha; Azarpira, Negar; Javidnia, Katayoon; Emami, Mehrdad; Rahjoo, Rahimeh; Berahmand, Razieh; Borhani-Haghighi, Afshin

    2015-01-01

    Objective (s): From a genetic point of view, epilepsy is a polygenic multifactorial syndrome. The SCN1A and B genes belong to a family of genes that provide instructions for making sodium channels. Understanding the relevance of SCN1A and SCN1B gene polymorphisms to plasma concentration of carbamazepine (CBZ) and ’its active metabolite carbamazepine 10, 11 epoxide (CBZE), may shed more light on inter-individual variations in response to CBZ. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, genotype distribution and allele frequency of six non-synonymous exonic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the SCN1A and B genes were selected and determined using PCR-RFLP in 70 epileptic patients treated with CBZ for at least 6 months. The patients had no hepatic or renal diseases and received no medications known to have a major interaction with CBZ. Serum concentrations of CBZ and CBZE were measured using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Results: The AA, AG and GG alleles of SCN1A were found in 23, 37 and 10 patients, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in the mean (± standard deviation) of plasma concentrations of CBZ (P=0.8) and CBZE (P=0.1) among these 3 groups. Likewise, there was no statistically significant relationship between SCN1A polymorphisms and CBZ concentration/dose ratio (P=0.7). A significant association was found between CBZ plasma level and CBZ concentration/dose with CBZ daily dose. All patients had the same genotype of SCN1B gene(CC). and no statistical analysis was performed. Conclusion: No significant association between SCN1A gene polymorphisms and plasma levels of CBZ and CBZE were found[u1]. PMID:26877851

  12. Relationship between the elongated styloid process in panoramic radiographs and some of the general health conditions in patients over 40 years of age in the Iranian population

    PubMed Central

    Ghafari, Roshanak; Hosseini, Bahareh; Shirani, Amir Mansour; Manochehrifar, Hamed; Saghaie, Sima

    2012-01-01

    Background: The styloid process and the attached ligaments have the potential for calcification and ossification in specific conditions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the elongated styloid process (ESP) frequency and some of the systemic health factors of patients over 40 years of age. Materials and Methods: In this analytical-descriptive study, 296 panoramic radiographs of patients over 40 years of age (165 female and 131 male) referred to the Dental School of Khorasgan Azad University were selected. The length of the styloid process was measured by a special ruler and recorded in a questionnaire form. Other data such as sex, age, height, weight, blood pressure, heartbeat and the number of teeth present in the mouth were also recorded. The lengths equal to or more than 30 mm on the radiographs were considered as ESP. Data analysis were done by independent t-test, Pearson correlation coefficient and Chi-square test at a significance level of < 0.05. Results: ESP was observed in 135 cases (45.6%). There was a significant relationship between ESP and the body height, weight and the blood pressure, but there was no significant correlation between ESP, the heartbeat and the number of teeth present in the mouth. Conclusion: Because of the significant relationship between the length of the styloid process and the blood pressure, height and weight it is reasonable to evaluate a patient's systemic health conditions when radiographic signs of ESP are observed. PMID:23814562

  13. The pattern and risk factors associated with adverse drug reactions induced by Reteplase in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction: The first report from Iranian population

    PubMed Central

    Aslanabadi, Naser; Safaie, Naser; Shadfar, Faezeh; Taban-Sadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Feizpour, Hossein; Mashayekhi, Simin Ozar; Hamishehkar, Hadi; Aghdam, Naser Khezerlou; Dousti, Samaneh; Namdar, Hossein; Entezari-Maleki, Taher

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is one of the main leading causes of mortality and morbidity. Reteplase is a fibrin-specific thrombolytic which is used in the treatment of AMI. There is a limited number of studies reporting the postmarketing adverse drug reactions (ADRs) induced by reteplase. This study was aimed to examine the reteplase pattern of ADR and its associated risk factors in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Methods: A cross-sectional, prospective study in an 8-month period was done at the University affiliated referral cardiovascular center. The Naranjo probability scale and World Health Organization criteria for severity of ADRs were used for assessing the ADRs. The linear regression and logistic regression tests were used to evaluate the correlation between ADRs and risk factors. Findings: The all 20 patients who received reteplase during the study period were entered. The majority of patients (n = 17) experienced at least one ADR. The results showed that the incidence of ADRs was mainly associated with gender and age, and the number of ADRs was associated with the history of diabetes and taking anti-diabetic agents. The gender was the main predictor in the occurrence of ADRs (odds ratio: 32, 95% confidence interval: 1.38–737.45; P = 0.030). Conclusion: The results showed that gender, age, diabetes mellitus, and using of anti-diabetes medications are the risk factors associated with the incidence of ADRs by reteplase. PMID:26645027

  14. Hyperhidrosis in Iranian Traditional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Shahroodi, Aniseh Saffar; Shirbeigi, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Background: Excessive sweating is a medical condition in which a person sweats much more than needed. The medical name of this disorder is hyperhidrosis known as a common dermal problem that affects people of all ages and leads to negative impact on the quality of life. During the last decades, several studies have shown that in many cases of hyperhidrosis there is no evidence of systemic disease. Therefore, most treatments are temporary and symptomatic therapy. According to Iranian traditional medicine (ITM), different approaches are mentioned for hyperhidrosis. Methods: This study has reviewed ITM textbooks, such as “Canon of Medicine and Exir-e-azam” as well as scientific references and databases of modern medicine (ISI, PubMed, etc.) with specific keywords. Contents and related concepts were classified and results prepared. Results: In modern medicine, hyperhidrosis has been defined as an abnormal excessive sweating, which is either primary (idiopathic) or secondary to other systemic diseases such as hyperthyroidism, neurological condition or heart disease. Current modalities for treatment are topical anti-perspiration, iontophoresis, Botox injection (Botulinum toxin type A) and eventually thoracic sympathectomy as the last therapeutic modalities. From the viewpoint of the Iranian traditional medicine as a holistic doctrine, hyperhidrosis etiologies include overfilled and repletion of body due to the accumulation of humors, excessive intake of food, excessive dilated skin pores, vigorous exercise, or physical activity. Therefore, therapeutic plan for hyperhidrosis was based on its cause, which includes reduction in the amount of food, increasing physical activity, purging the body from the excess humors and adjustment in temperament. Conclusion: Hyperhidrosis is not an important or dangerous disorder; however, due to the negative impact on quality of life and failure to achieve perfect answer in modern medicine treatments it seems that the recommendations

  15. Motivating factors among Iranian nurses

    PubMed Central

    Negarandeh, Reza; Dehghan-Nayeri, Nahid; Ghasemi, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Background: One of the most important challenges of Iranian health care system is “quality of care,” and it is assumed that motivated nurses are more ready to provide better care. There are limited studies investigating Iranian nurses’ motivations; however, factors which motivate them have not been studied yet. Identifying the motivating factors enables nurse managers to inspire nurses for continuous quality improvement. The aim of this study was to identify motivating factors for Iranian hospital nurses. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study in which 310 nurses working at 14 hospitals of Tehran University of Medical Sciences were selected by proportionate stratified random sampling. Data were collected in 2010 by a researcher-developed questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and independent t-test, analysis of variance, Tukey post-hoc test, Chi-Square and Fisher's exact test were used for statistical analysis by Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16. Results: The mean score of motivation was 90.53 ± 10.76 (range: 59–121). Four motivating factors including “career development” (22.63 ± 5.66), “job characteristics” (34.29 ± 4), “job authority” (18.48 ± 2.79), and “recognition” (15.12 ± 2.5) were recognized. The least mean of the motivation score, considering the number of items, was 3.23 for career development, while the highest mean was 3.81 for job characteristics. Conclusions: The findings showed that motivation of nurses was at a medium level, which calls for improvement. The factors that have the greatest potential to motivate nurses were identified in this study and they can help managers to achieve the goal of continuous quality improvement. PMID:26257797

  16. Lived Experiences of Iranian Nurses Caring for Brain Death Organ Donor Patients: Caring as “Halo of Ambiguity and Doubt”

    PubMed Central

    Keshtkaran, Zahra; Sharif, Farkhondeh; Navab, Elham; Gholamzadeh, Sakineh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Brain death is a concept in which its criteria have been expressed as documentations in Harvard Committee of Brain Death. The various perceptions of caregiver nurses for brain death patients may have effect on the chance of converting potential donors into actual organ donors. Objective: The present study has been conducted in order to perceive the experiences of nurses in care-giving to the brain death of organ donor patients. Methods: This qualitative study was carried out by means of Heidegger’s hermeneutic phenomenology. Eight nurses who have been working in ICU were interviewed. The semi-structured interviews were recorded by a tape-recorder and the given texts were transcribed and the analyses were done by Van-Mannen methodology and (thematic) analysis. Results: One of the foremost themes extracted from this study included ‘Halo of ambiguity and doubt’ that comprised of two sub-themes of ‘having unreasonable hope’ and ‘Conservative acceptance of brain death’. The unreasonable hope included lack of trust (uncertainty) in diagnosis and verification of brain death, passing through denial wall, and avoidance from explicit and direct disclosure of brain death in patients’ family. In this investigation, the nurses were involved in a type of ambiguity and doubt in care-giving to the potentially brain death of organ donor patients, which were also evident in their interaction with patients’ family and for this reason, they did not definitely announce the brain death and so far they hoped for treatment of the given patient. Such confusion and hesitance both caused annoyance of nurses and strengthening the denial of patients’ family to be exposed to death. Conclusion: The results of this study reveal the fundamental perceived care-giving of brain death in organ donor patients and led to developing some strategies to improve care-giving and achievement in donation of the given organ and necessity for presentation of educational and

  17. Rasch Analysis of the Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT) and the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) in an Iranian Sample of Prostate Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chung-Ying; Pakpour, Amir H.; Burri, Andrea; Montazeri, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background Male sexual dysfunction is an increasing problem across a variety of general and clinical populations, such as cancer populations; especially among prostate cancer patients who tend to receive treatments that often result in erectile dysfunction (ED) and/or premature ejaculation (PE). Therefore, in order to diagnose ED and PE in these populations, adequate and efficient instruments such as the International Index of Erectile Function 5-item version (IIEF-5) and the Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT) are needed. However, since this is an important topic additional evidence of psychometric properties of the IIEF-5 and the PEDT in such samples are required. Thus the aim of the present study was to use Rasch models to investigate the construct validity, local dependency, score order, and differential item functioning (DIF) of both questionnaires in a sample of prostate cancer patients. Methods Prostate cancer patients (n = 1058, mean±SD age = 64.07±6.84 years) who visited urology clinics were invited to fill out the IIEF-5 and the PEDT. Construct validity was examined using infit and outfit mean square (MnSq) and local dependency using correlations between each two residual Rasch scores. Score order was investigated using step and average measures of difficulty and DIF using DIF contrast. Results All IIEF-5 and PEDT items had acceptable infit and outfit MnSq. Step measures revealed that all but two items had disordered categories in terms of scores 1 to 3. Only one local dependency was found, and no items displayed DIF across age, educational level, and help seeking. Conclusions The results showed that both the IIEF-5 and the PEDT had sound psychometric properties in the Rasch analyses, although some score disordering could be detected in both instruments. The results of no DIF items in both instruments suggest using them to compare ED and PE across age and educational level is adequate. PMID:27336626

  18. Analysis of the IL-10, IL-12, and TNF-α Gene Polymorphisms in Patients With Vesicoureteral Reflux Among the Southeast Iranian Population

    PubMed Central

    Kordi Tamandani, Dor Mohammad; Naeimi, Nasim; Ghasemi, Ali; Baranzahi, Taybe; Sadeghi-Bojd, Simin

    2016-01-01

    Background Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is a common childhood disorder that is characterized by the abnormal movement of urine from the bladder into the ureters or kidneys. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine whether the genetic polymorphisms of the IL-10, IL-12, and TNF-α genes are involved in the development of VUR. Patients and Methods The tetra amplification mutation refractory system-polymerase chain reaction (Tetra-ARMS PCR) was applied to analyze the four polymorphic sites of the IL-10AG-1082, IL-10CA597, IL-12CA1188, and TNF308GA genes in 124 VUR children and 110 healthy controls. Results A significant, highly increased risk of VUR disease was found for the CA, AA, and combined genotypes of IL-10CA597 (OR = 5.2, 95% CL: 1.80 - 18.25; P = 0.0006, OR = 9.1, 95% CL: 1.11 - 122.75; P = 0.02, OR = 5.3, 95% CL: 1.82 - 18.61; P = 0.00052, respectively); the AG, GG, and AG + GG genotypes of IL-10AG-1082 (OR = 12.8, 95% CL; 2.9 - 113.9; P = 0.00003, OR = 12.62, 95% CL: 2.93 - 114.53; P = 0.00003, respectively); and the AA genotype of IL-12 (AA, OR = 0.19, 95% CL: 0.5 - 0.55; P = 0.0006). The frequency of the C allele in both IL-10CA and IL-12CA was greater in patients with VUR than in the healthy controls. No association was found between TNF308GA and the risk of VUR. Conclusions The results demonstrated significant associations between the IL-10 (AG-1089, IL-10CA) and IL-12 (AA) gene polymorphisms and a highly increased risk of VUR. PMID:27247930

  19. Heme Oxygenase-1 Is Not Decreased in Preeclamptic Placenta and Does Not Negatively Regulate Placental Soluble fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase-1 or Soluble Endoglin Secretion.

    PubMed

    Tong, Stephen; Kaitu'u-Lino, Tu'uhevaha J; Onda, Kenji; Beard, Sally; Hastie, Roxanne; Binder, Natalie K; Cluver, Cathy; Tuohey, Laura; Whitehead, Clare; Brownfoot, Fiona; De Silva, Manarangi; Hannan, Natalie J

    2015-11-01

    Elevated placental release of the antiangiogenic factors, soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) and soluble endoglin (sENG), is central to the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. It is widely accepted that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is decreased in preeclamptic placenta and negatively regulates sFlt-1 and sENG production. We set out to verify these contentions. There was no difference in HO-1 mRNA or protein levels in preterm preeclamptic placentas (n=17) compared with gestationally matched controls (n=27). In silico analysis of microarray studies did not identify decreased placental HO-1 expression in preeclamptic placenta. Silencing HO-1 in primary trophoblasts did not affect sFlt-1 protein secretion after 24 or 48 hours. Silencing nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (transcription factor that upregulates HO-1) in trophoblasts also did not affect sFlt-1 secretion. Administering tin protoporphyrin IX dichloride (HO-1 inhibitor) or cobalt protoporphyrin (HO-1 inducer) into placental explants did not affect sFlt-1 or sENG secretion. Silencing HO-1 in 2 types of primary endothelial cells (human umbilical vein endothelial and uterine microvascular endothelial cells) significantly increased sFlt-1 secretion but not sENG secretion. However, HO-1 silencing selectively increased mRNA expression of sFlt-1 i13 (generically expressed sFlt-1 variant) but not of sFlt-1 e15a (sFlt-1 variant mainly expressed in placenta). Furthermore, adding tin protoporphyrin IX dichloride decreased sFlt-1, whereas adding HO-1 inducers (cobalt protoporphyrin, dimethyl fumarate, and rosiglitazone) either had no effect or increased sFlt-1 or sENG secretion (these trends are opposite to what is expected). We conclude that HO-1 expression is not decreased in preeclamptic placenta and HO-1 does not negatively regulate placental sFlt-1 and sENG secretion in placental or endothelial cells. PMID:26324507

  20. Impaired sodium-dependent adaptation of arterial stiffness in formerly preeclamptic women: the RETAP-vascular study.

    PubMed

    van der Graaf, Anne Marijn; Paauw, Nina D; Toering, Tsjitske J; Feelisch, Martin; Faas, Marijke M; Sutton, Thomas R; Minnion, Magdalena; Lefrandt, Joop D; Scherjon, Sicco A; Franx, Arie; Navis, Gerjan; Lely, A Titia

    2016-06-01

    Women with a history of preeclampsia have an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases later in life. Persistent vascular alterations in the postpartum period might contribute to this increased risk. The current study assessed arterial stiffness under low sodium (LS) and high sodium (HS) conditions in a well-characterized group of formerly early-onset preeclamptic (fPE) women and formerly pregnant (fHP) women. Eighteen fHP and 18 fPE women were studied at an average of 5 yr after pregnancy on 1 wk of LS (50 mmol Na(+)/day) and 1 wk of HS (200 mmol Na(+)/day) intake. Arterial stiffness was measured by pulse-wave analysis (aortic augmentation index, AIx) and carotid-femoral pulse-wave velocity (PWV). Circulating markers of the renin-angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS), extracellular volume (ECV), nitric oxide (NO), and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) were measured in an effort to identify potential mechanistic elements underlying adaptation of arterial stiffness. AIx was significantly lower in fHP women on LS compared with HS while no difference in AIx was apparent in fPE women. PWV remained unchanged upon different sodium loads in either group. Comparable sodium-dependent changes in RAAS, ECV, and NO/H2S were observed in fHP and fPE women. fPE women have an impaired ability to adapt their arterial stiffness in response to changes in sodium intake, independently of blood pressure, RAAS, ECV, and NO/H2S status. The pathways involved in impaired adaptation of arterial stiffness, and its possible contribution to the increased long-term risk for cardiovascular diseases in fPE women, remain to be investigated. PMID:27059075

  1. Comparison of Normal and Pre-Eclamptic Placental Gene Expression: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Brew, O; Sullivan, M H F; Woodman, A

    2016-01-01

    Pre-eclampsia (PE) is a serious multi-factorial disorder of human pregnancy. It is associated with changes in the expression of placental genes. Recent transcription profiling of placental genes with microarray analyses have offered better opportunities to define the molecular pathology of this disorder. However, the extent to which placental gene expression changes in PE is not fully understood. We conducted a systematic review of published PE and normal pregnancy (NP) control placental RNA microarrays to describe the similarities and differences between NP and PE placental gene expression, and examined how these differences could contribute to the molecular pathology of the disease. A total of 167 microarray samples were available for meta-analysis. We found the expression pattern of one group of genes was the same in PE and NP. The review also identified a set of genes (PE unique genes) including a subset, that were significantly (p < 0.05) down-regulated in pre-eclamptic placentae only. Using class prediction analysis, we further identified the expression of 88 genes that were highly associated with PE (p < 0.05), 10 of which (LEP, HTRA4, SPAG4, LHB, TREM1, FSTL3, CGB, INHA, PROCR, and LTF) were significant at p < 0.001. Our review also suggested that about 30% of genes currently being investigated as possibly of importance in PE placenta were not consistently and significantly affected in the PE placentae. We recommend further work to confirm the roles of the PE unique and associated genes, currently not being investigated in the molecular pathology of the disease. PMID:27560381

  2. Comparison of Normal and Pre-Eclamptic Placental Gene Expression: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Pre-eclampsia (PE) is a serious multi-factorial disorder of human pregnancy. It is associated with changes in the expression of placental genes. Recent transcription profiling of placental genes with microarray analyses have offered better opportunities to define the molecular pathology of this disorder. However, the extent to which placental gene expression changes in PE is not fully understood. We conducted a systematic review of published PE and normal pregnancy (NP) control placental RNA microarrays to describe the similarities and differences between NP and PE placental gene expression, and examined how these differences could contribute to the molecular pathology of the disease. A total of 167 microarray samples were available for meta-analysis. We found the expression pattern of one group of genes was the same in PE and NP. The review also identified a set of genes (PE unique genes) including a subset, that were significantly (p < 0.05) down-regulated in pre-eclamptic placentae only. Using class prediction analysis, we further identified the expression of 88 genes that were highly associated with PE (p < 0.05), 10 of which (LEP, HTRA4, SPAG4, LHB, TREM1, FSTL3, CGB, INHA, PROCR, and LTF) were significant at p < 0.001. Our review also suggested that about 30% of genes currently being investigated as possibly of importance in PE placenta were not consistently and significantly affected in the PE placentae. We recommend further work to confirm the roles of the PE unique and associated genes, currently not being investigated in the molecular pathology of the disease. PMID:27560381

  3. US university reverses Iranian student ban

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Administrators at the University of Massachusetts have backtracked on plans to ban Iranian students from entering a number of programmes in physics and chemistry as well as computer and electrical engineering.

  4. 77 FR 66918 - Iranian Financial Sanctions Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-08

    ...The Department of the Treasury's Office of Foreign Assets Control is amending the Iranian Financial Sanctions Regulations in order to implement sections 214 through 216 of the Iran Threat Reduction and Syria Human Rights Act of...

  5. Measuring Iranian women's sexual behaviors: Expert opinion.

    PubMed

    Ghorashi, Zohreh; Merghati-Khoei, Effat; Yousefy, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    The cultural compatibility of sexually related instruments is problematic because the contexts from which the concepts and meanings were extracted may be significantly different from related contexts in a different society. This paper describes the instruments that have been used to assess sexual behaviors, primarily in Western contexts. Then, based on the instruments' working definition of 'sexual behavior' and their theoretical frameworks, we will (1) discuss the applicability or cultural compatibility of existing instruments targeting women's sexual behaviors within an Iranian context, and (2) suggest criteria for sexually related tools applicable in Iranian settings. Iranian women's sexual scripts may compromise the existing instruments' compatibility. Suggested criteria are as follows: understanding, language of sexuality, ethics and morality. Therefore, developing a culturally comprehensive measure that can adequately examine Iranian women's sexual behaviors is needed. PMID:25250346

  6. Measuring Iranian women's sexual behaviors: Expert opinion

    PubMed Central

    Ghorashi, Zohreh; Merghati-Khoei, Effat; Yousefy, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    The cultural compatibility of sexually related instruments is problematic because the contexts from which the concepts and meanings were extracted may be significantly different from related contexts in a different society. This paper describes the instruments that have been used to assess sexual behaviors, primarily in Western contexts. Then, based on the instruments’ working definition of ‘sexual behavior’ and their theoretical frameworks, we will (1) discuss the applicability or cultural compatibility of existing instruments targeting women's sexual behaviors within an Iranian context, and (2) suggest criteria for sexually related tools applicable in Iranian settings. Iranian women's sexual scripts may compromise the existing instruments’ compatibility. Suggested criteria are as follows: understanding, language of sexuality, ethics and morality. Therefore, developing a culturally comprehensive measure that can adequately examine Iranian women's sexual behaviors is needed. PMID:25250346

  7. Compliance of Iranian dentists with safety standards of oral radiology

    PubMed Central

    Shahab, S; Kavosi, A; Nazarinia, H; Mehralizadeh, S; Mohammadpour, M; Emami, M

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Dentists use radiographs in their daily practice. Their knowledge and behaviour towards radiographic examination can affect patients' exposure to radiation. The aim of this study was to survey the knowledge and behaviour of Iranian dentists regarding oral radiology safety standards. Methods 1000 questionnaires were given to the participants of the 48th Annual Congress of the Iranian Dental Association, of which 700 were returned. The participants were asked about demographic data, primary knowledge of radiation protection, selection criteria, radiographic equipment and technique, methods of patient and personnel protection and management of radiographic waste. Descriptive analysis of data was performed. Results 44% of respondents said the initial radiograph they took was of the periapical view of a limited area. 12% preferred the periapical paralleling technique. F-speed film was used by 9% and E-speed film by 62%. Only 2% had digital receptors. Proper exposure time was selected by 26.5%. The use of long and rectangular collimators was 15% and 6%, respectively. 34% occasionally covered their patients with both thyroid shields and lead aprons. 36% used the position and distance rule correctly for their own protection. Proper disposal of the used processing solutions and the lead foils were done by only 1% and 3%, respectively. Conclusions It can be concluded that the majority of dentists in the study group did not select the proper method, material and equipment in order to minimize the exposure of their patient to unnecessary radiation in dental radiography. PMID:22301640

  8. 31 CFR 560.518 - Transactions in Iranian-origin and Iranian Government property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Iran, all domestic transactions with respect to Iranian-origin goods located in the United States are... services of Iranian origin or owned or controlled by the Government of Iran that are located or to be... owned or controlled by the Government of Iran, except that the following transactions are authorized:...

  9. 31 CFR 560.518 - Transactions in Iranian-origin and Iranian Government property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Iran, all domestic transactions with respect to Iranian-origin goods located in the United States are... services of Iranian origin or owned or controlled by the Government of Iran that are located or to be... owned or controlled by the Government of Iran, except that the following transactions are authorized:...

  10. 31 CFR 535.301 - Iran; Iranian Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Iran; Iranian Entity. 535.301 Section... § 535.301 Iran; Iranian Entity. (a) The term Iran and Iranian Entity includes: (1) The state and the Government of Iran as well as any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof or any...

  11. 31 CFR 535.301 - Iran; Iranian Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Iran; Iranian Entity. 535.301 Section... § 535.301 Iran; Iranian Entity. (a) The term Iran and Iranian Entity includes: (1) The state and the Government of Iran as well as any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof or any...

  12. 31 CFR 535.301 - Iran; Iranian Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Iran; Iranian Entity. 535.301 Section... § 535.301 Iran; Iranian Entity. (a) The term Iran and Iranian Entity includes: (1) The state and the Government of Iran as well as any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof or any...

  13. 31 CFR 535.301 - Iran; Iranian Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Iran; Iranian Entity. 535.301 Section... § 535.301 Iran; Iranian Entity. (a) The term Iran and Iranian Entity includes: (1) The state and the Government of Iran as well as any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof or any...

  14. 31 CFR 535.301 - Iran; Iranian Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Iran; Iranian Entity. 535.301 Section... § 535.301 Iran; Iranian Entity. (a) The term Iran and Iranian Entity includes: (1) The state and the Government of Iran as well as any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof or any...

  15. DOCK8 deficiency in six Iranian patients.

    PubMed

    Saghafi, Shiva; Pourpak, Zahra; Nussbaumer, Franziska; Fazlollahi, Mohammad Reza; Houshmand, Massoud; Hamidieh, Amir Ali; Bemanian, Mohammad Hassan; Nabavi, Mohammad; Parvaneh, Nima; Grimbacher, Bodo; Moin, Mostafa; Glocker, Cristina

    2016-06-01

    DOCK8 deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive combined immunodeficiency with high IgE level, eosinophilia, severe eczema, extensive cutaneous viral, and respiratory bacterial infections, mostly in populations with higher prevalence of consanguinity. Molecular diagnosis of this gene is a useful approach for early diagnosis and timely HSCT due to deleterious consequences. PMID:27398204

  16. Gene expression profiling of human placentas from preeclamptic and normotensive pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Hansson, S R; Chen, Y; Brodszki, J; Chen, M; Hernandez-Andrade, E; Inman, J M; Kozhich, O A; Larsson, I; Marsál, K; Medstrand, P; Xiang, C C; Brownstein, M J

    2006-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate patterns of gene expression in placental samples from patients with preeclampsia (PE), persistent bilateral uterine artery notching (without PE), and normal controls. This study included placental tissue from nine women with PE, seven with uncomplicated pregnancies and five with bilateral uterine artery notching in Doppler velocimetry tracings. Human cDNA microarrays with 6500 transcripts/genes were used and the results verified with real-time PCR and in-situ hybridization. Multidimensional scaling method and random permutation technique demonstrated significant differences among the three groups examined. Within the 6.5K arrays, 6198 elements were unique cDNA clones representing 5952 unique UniGenes and 5695 unique LocusLinks. Multidimensional scaling plots showed 5000 genes that met our quality criteria; among these, 366 genes were significantly different in at least one comparison. Differences in three genes of interest were confirmed with real-time PCR and in-situ hybridization; acid phosphatase 5 was shown to be overexpressed in PE samples and calmodulin 2 and v-rel reticuloendotheliosis viral oncogene homolog A (RELA) were downregulated in PE and uterine artery notch placentas. In conclusion downregulation of RELA and calmodulin 2 might represent an attempt by the placenta to compensate for elevations in intracellular calcium, possibly caused by hypoxia and/or apoptosis, in both pregnancies with uterine artery notching and preeclampsia. PMID:16556680

  17. Visual representations of Iranian transgenders.

    PubMed

    Shakerifar, Elhum

    2011-01-01

    Transsexuality in Iran has gained much attention and media coverage in the past few years, particularly in its questionable depiction as a permitted loophole for homosexuality, which is prohibited under Iran's Islamic-inspired legal system. Of course, attention in the West is also encouraged by the “shock” that sex change is available in Iran, a country that Western media and society delights in portraying as monolithically repressive. As a result, Iranian filmmakers inevitably have their own agendas, which are unsurprisingly brought into the film making process—from a desire to sell a product that will appeal to the Western market, to films that endorse specific socio-political agendas. This paper is an attempt to situate sex change and representations of sex change in Iran within a wider theoretical framework than the frequently reiterated conflation with homosexuality, and to open and engage with a wider debate concerning transsexuality in Iran, as well as to specifically analyze the representation of transexuality, in view of its current prominent presence in media. PMID:21910275

  18. Barriers to and Facilitators of Research Utilization among Iranian Nurses: a Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Heydari, Abbas; Emami Zeydi, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Research utilization (RU), is an important strategy to promote the quality of patient care. The aim of this study was to present a comprehensive literature review describing barriers and facilitators of RU among Iranian nurses. Methods: Literature review was undertaken using the international databases including Pub Med/Medline, Scopus, Science Direct, and Google Scholar. Also, Persian electronic databases such as Magiran, SID and Iran Medex were searched up to May 2014. The search was limited to articles in the English and Persian languages that evaluate the barriers or facilitators of RU among Iranian nurses. Results: A total of 11 articles were in the final dataset. The most important barriers to RU among Iranian nurses were related to the organization factors such as inadequate facilities; insufficient time on the job, lack of authority, physician cooperation, and administrative support. The most frequent facilitators of RU were education in enhancing nurses knowledge and skills in research evaluation, support from knowledgeable nursing colleagues and nursing faculty in the clinical setting, access to an expert committee for clinical appraisal, improving skills in English language and searching for articles, sufficient economic resources to carry out research, and having access to more facilities such as internet. Conclusion: Iranian nurses encounter with the same difficulties as to other countries regarding RU; while setting related barriers were the predominant obstacles to RU among them. Therefore, health managers are expected to plan appropriate strategies to smooth the progress of RU by nurses in their practice. PMID:25717456

  19. Cost-Effectiveness of Three Rounds of Mammography Breast Cancer Screening in Iranian Women

    PubMed Central

    Haghighat, Shahpar; Akbari, Mohammad Esmaeil; Yavari, Parvin; Javanbakht, Mehdi; Ghaffari, Shahram

    2016-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the most common cancer in Iranian women as is worldwide. Mammography screening has been introduced as a beneficial method for reducing mortality and morbidity of this disease. Objectives We developed an analytical model to assess the cost effectiveness of an organized mammography screening program in Iran for early detection of the breast cancer. Patients and Methods This study is an economic evaluation of mammography screening program among Iranian woman aged 40 - 70 years. A decision tree and Markov model were applied to estimate total quality adjusted life years (QALY) and lifetime costs. Results The results revealed that the incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) of mammography screening in Iranian women in the first round was Int. $ 37,350 per QALY gained. The model showed that the ICER in the second and third rounds of screening program were Int. $ 141,641 and Int. $ 389,148 respectively. Conclusions Study results identified that mammography screening program was cost-effective in 53% of the cases, but incremental cost per QALY in the second and third rounds of screening are much higher than the accepted payment threshold of Iranian health system. Thus, evaluation of other screening strategies would be useful to identify more cost-effective program. Future studies with new national data can improve the accuracy of our finding and provide better information for health policy makers for decision making. PMID:27366315

  20. Stress Among Iranian Nurses in Critical Wards

    PubMed Central

    Hashemian, Seyed Mohammad Reza; Farzanegan, Behrooz; Fathi, Mohammad; Ardehali, Seyed Hossein; Vahedian-Azimi, Amir; Asghari-Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Hajiesmaeili, Mohammadreza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Stress has been recognized as a significant psychosocial and physiologic component in educational and practical processes. Objectives: The purpose of present study was to survey stress among Iranian nurses in critical wards. Patients and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 3643 anonymous questionnaires were disseminated among nurses in different hospitals in Tehran, Iran, by utilizing multistage random sampling. The questionnaire consisted of two sections: demographic characteristics and a 22-item list on a five-point Likert scale. The association of variables with stress was evaluated using hierarchical logistic regression. Results: A total of 3043 completed questionnaires were completed and returned (response rate, 83.53%). Age (> 33 years, 1571 (51.63%); < 33 years old, 1472 (48.37%)), marital status (single, 188 (6.18%); married, 2685 (88.24%); and widow, 170 (5.59%)), working shift (morning, 605 (19.88%); evening, 631 (20.74%); night, 603 (19.82%); and rotation, 1204 (39.57%)), and the years of experience of nurses (1 - 5 years, 413 (13.57%); 6 - 10 years, 589 (19.36%); 11 - 15 years, 832 (27.34%); 16 - 20 years, 758 (24.91%); and 21-25 years, 451 (14.82%)) had significant association with the level of stress (P < 0.05 for all parameters). However, sex (male, 937 (30.79%); and female, 2106 (69.21%)), education (associate, 444 (14.59%); baccalaureate, 2250 (73.94%); and master, 349 (11.47%)), and body mass index (> 24.6 kg/m2, 2514 (49.75%); and < 24.6 kg/m2, 1529 (50.25%)) showed no significant association with the level of stress (P > 0.05 for all parameters). Conclusions: Considering the personal and background characteristics of personnel and understanding their association with stress and stressful situations encompasses the ability to persevere and adapt to contextual stressors. PMID:26380798

  1. Health Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Iranian Pilgrims

    PubMed Central

    Tabatabaei, Aminreza; Mortazavi, Seyyed Mostafa; Shamspour, Navvab; Shushtarizadeh, Naser

    2015-01-01

    Background: Iran has the highest number of Umrah pilgrims among Islamic countries. Health care plays a major role in fulfilling the Umrah rites. Pilgrims' health situation depends on their health knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP). Objectives: In this study, we aimed to determine the health KAP among Iranian Umrah pilgrims. Patients and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 157 Iranian Umrah pilgrims were randomly selected in Mecca, Saudi Arabia in June 2011. Data were collected using a questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of demographic information (sex, age, degree of education, and resource of health knowledge), health knowledge (5 questions), health attitude (5 questions) and health practice (10 questions). Results: Level of knowledge were very low in 12.1%, low in 25.2%, average in 38.1%, good in 20.4% and very good in 4.2% of respondents. Mean and standard deviation of attitude score was 18.58 ± 2.20 out of 25 (ranged between 13.00 and 25.00). The pilgrims were given 74.2 % out of total score. The Mean and standard deviation of practice score was 8.19 ± 1.32 out of 10 (ranged between 3 and 10). Although the old and low educated pilgrims had little knowledge of health tips, they had a good health attitude and practice. Conclusions: Educational strategy to improve knowledge regarding health-related problems and to develop health practices among pilgrims is needed. PMID:25838929

  2. The PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitory pathway is altered in pre-eclampsia and regulates T cell responses in pre-eclamptic rats.

    PubMed

    Tian, Mei; Zhang, Yonghong; Liu, Zhaozhao; Sun, Guoqiang; Mor, Gil; Liao, Aihua

    2016-01-01

    The programmed cell death-1(PD-1)/PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1) pathway is critical to immune homeostasis by promoting regulatory T (Treg) development and inhibiting effector T (such as Th17) cell responses. However, the association between the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway and the Treg/Th17 imbalance has not been fully investigated in pre-eclampsia (PE). In this study, we observed an inverse correlation between the percentages of Treg and Th17 cells, and the expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 on the two subsets also changed in PE compared with normal pregnancy. We further explored their relationship in vivo using the L-NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester (L-NAME) induced PE-like rat models, also characterized by Treg/Th17 imbalance. Administration of PD-L1-Fc protein provides a protective effects on the pre-eclamptic models, both to the mother and the fetuses, by reversing Treg/Th17 imbalance through inhibiting PI3K/AKT/m-TOR signaling and enhancing PTEN expression. In addition, we also observed a protective effect of PD-L1-Fc on the placenta by reversing placental damages. These results suggested that altered PD-1/PD-L1 pathway contributed to Treg/Th17 imbalance in PE. Treatment with PD-L1-Fc posed protective effects on pre-eclamptic models, indicating that the use of PD-L1-Fc might be a potential therapeutic target in PE treatment. PMID:27277012

  3. The PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitory pathway is altered in pre-eclampsia and regulates T cell responses in pre-eclamptic rats

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Mei; Zhang, Yonghong; Liu, Zhaozhao; Sun, Guoqiang; Mor, Gil; Liao, Aihua

    2016-01-01

    The programmed cell death-1(PD-1)/PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1) pathway is critical to immune homeostasis by promoting regulatory T (Treg) development and inhibiting effector T (such as Th17) cell responses. However, the association between the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway and the Treg/Th17 imbalance has not been fully investigated in pre-eclampsia (PE). In this study, we observed an inverse correlation between the percentages of Treg and Th17 cells, and the expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 on the two subsets also changed in PE compared with normal pregnancy. We further explored their relationship in vivo using the L-NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester (L-NAME) induced PE-like rat models, also characterized by Treg/Th17 imbalance. Administration of PD-L1-Fc protein provides a protective effects on the pre-eclamptic models, both to the mother and the fetuses, by reversing Treg/Th17 imbalance through inhibiting PI3K/AKT/m-TOR signaling and enhancing PTEN expression. In addition, we also observed a protective effect of PD-L1-Fc on the placenta by reversing placental damages. These results suggested that altered PD-1/PD-L1 pathway contributed to Treg/Th17 imbalance in PE. Treatment with PD-L1-Fc posed protective effects on pre-eclamptic models, indicating that the use of PD-L1-Fc might be a potential therapeutic target in PE treatment. PMID:27277012

  4. A Novel Method for Pulsometry Based on Traditional Iranian Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Yousefipoor, Farzane; Nafisi, Vahidreza

    2015-01-01

    Arterial pulse measurement is one of the most important methods for evaluation of healthy conditions. In traditional Iranian medicine (TIM), physician may detect radial pulse by holding four fingers on the patient's wrist. By using this method, under standard condition, the detected pulses are subjective and erroneous, in case of weak and/or abnormal pulses, the ambiguity of diagnosis may rise. In this paper, we present an equipment which is designed and implemented for automation of traditional pulse detection method. By this novel system, the developed noninvasive diagnostic method and database based on the TIM are way forward to apply traditional medicine and diagnose patients with present technology. The accuracy for period measuring is 76% and systolic peak is 72%. PMID:26955566

  5. Language Choice among Iranians in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Namei, Shidrokh

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the language choice among Iranians in Sweden, both inside and outside the home domain. The data are collected from 188 participants through structured interviews and questionnaires. The results show that Persian is the main instrument of communication in the home domain between parents and children. However, some Swedish is…

  6. Teachability of Communication Strategies: An Iranian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maleki, Ataollah

    2007-01-01

    The possibility of teaching communication strategies and the feasibility of incorporating them into school syllabi have been a controversial issue. In the current study, 60 Iranian students were divided into two thirty-member classes; then two different textbooks, one with specific CS and the other without them, were chosen to be taught in the…

  7. 75 FR 48562 - Iranian Transactions Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-11

    ... Government of Iran, as that term is defined in the Iranian Transactions Regulations. The names of these... Iran was actively supporting terrorism as an instrument of state policy, the President prohibited the... policies of the Government of Iran, including its support for international terrorism, its efforts...

  8. Apology Strategies of Iranian Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tehrani, Mohammad Dadkhah; Rezaei, Omid; Dezhara, Salman; Kafrani, Reza Soltani

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the different primary and secondary strategies the Iranian EFL students use in different situations and the effect of gender on this. A questionnaire was developed based on Sugimoto's (1995) to compare the apology strategies used by male and female students, only gender was examined as a variable. The results showed that…

  9. The Feminisation of Iranian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shavarini, Mitra K.

    2005-01-01

    The number of women attending institutions of higher education in Iran has been steadily increasing since 1989. Growing enrollment rates for women in colleges and universities have sparked wide social and political debates in that country. The basic question of why young Iranian women might even choose to pursue tertiary education, however, has…

  10. 78 FR 16403 - Iranian Financial Sanctions Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ...The Department of the Treasury's Office of Foreign Assets Control is amending the Iranian Financial Sanctions Regulations (the ``IFSR'') to implement sections 503 and 504 of the Iran Threat Reduction and Syria Human Rights Act of 2012, which amended section 1245 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2012; and section 1, portions of section 6, and other related provisions of......

  11. Iranian Validation of the Identity Style Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Shokri, Omid

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate the Iranian version of the Identity Style Inventory (ISI). Participants were 376 (42% males) university students. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed a clear three-factor structure of identity style and a mono-factor structure of commitment in the overall sample as well as in gender subgroups. Convergent…

  12. The Iranian Version of the Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale (ESES): Factor Structure, Internal Consistency and Construct Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noroozi, Azita; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Heydarnia, Ali Reza; Nabipour, Iraj; Tahmasebi, Rahim; Tavafian, Sedighe Sadat

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The exercise self-efficacy scale (ESES) is largely used among diabetic patients to enhance exercise behaviour. However, the Iranian version of ESES was not available. The aim of this study was to validate ESES in this country. Method: Data were collected from 348 women who referred to a diabetes institute in Iran through convenience…

  13. Studying the Effectiveness of One Type of Iranian Traditional Massage on Lumbar Radiculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi, Mamak; Jafarian, Ali Akbar; tofighi, Shahram; Mahluji, Kamran; Halabchi, Farzin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Low-back pain is one of the most common human morbidities worldwide, which is damaging individually, socially and economically. Recent studies have shown that its prevalence is rising. Most of the low-back pains are non-specific though specific ones need more complicated and more expensive treatments. Sciatica or lumbar radiculopathy is one of these specific low-back pains and is explained in Iranian traditional medicine textbooks in detail. Massage is one of the therapeutic modalities, advised for sciatica. Due to different aspects of sciatica in modern medicine, massage is not indicated as treatment, but it is advised in Iranian traditional medicine. In Iran, many patients resort to traditional massage for sciatica and are satisfied. Thus, the effectiveness of one type of Iranian traditional massage “Kermanshahi family” and conventional treatment were compared based on three outcomes of pain, disability, and quality of life score. Methods: A total of 50 patients were observed in two groups (25 per group) of case (massage) and control (classic treatment) in a non-randomized controlled clinical trial. Patients suffering from lumbar radicular pain for 8 weeks or longer, before referring to each center (neurosurgery or traditional massage clinic), were enrolled continuously. In the case group, patients underwent traditional massage sessions whereas in the control group they were prescribed as routine. Three outcomes were observed during three periods of before intervention, 1-month, and 3-month after intervention. Results: The mean difference of pain severity decrease in both groups was meaningful (P=0/007). The mean difference of disability decrease in both groups was meaningful (P=0/003). However, the mean difference of quality of life increase in both groups was not meaningful. Conclusion: Iranian traditional massage may be useful for the treatment of non-acute sciatica, but more studies are required to confirm and clarify the protocols.

  14. Psychometric Properties of the Iranian Version of the Diabetes Numeracy Test-15

    PubMed Central

    Moradi, Yousef; Baradaran, Hamid Reza; Khamseh, Mohammad Ebrahim

    2016-01-01

    Background: Low health literacy (HL) of patients has obtained more attention as a risk factor for poor adherence to treatment and adverse outcomes in chronic disease's management particular in diabetes care. Diabetes Numeracy Test-15 (DNT-15) has been developed specifically for this purpose. The objective of the current study is to evaluate psychometric properties of Iranian (Persian) version of the DNT-15. Methods: The shortened version of the DNT (15-items) was completed by 120 patients with diabetes. The Kuder–Richardson Formula 20 for internal consistency was conducted. Content validity, criterion-related validity, and construct validity were also evaluated. Results: The average score on the DNT was 72% and took an average of 25 minutes to complete. The DNT-15 had a very good internal reliability (KR-20 = 0.90) and also content validity (content validity ratio: 089 and content validity index: 0.86). Conclusions: The DNT-15 (Persian version) is a reliable and valid measure of diabetes-related numeracy skills for Iranian patients with diabetes; however, additional studies are needed to further explore the association between diabetes-specific numeracy and acculturation and their impact on diabetes-related outcomes in Iranian population. PMID:27076881

  15. Working experiences of Iranian retired nurses: a content analysis study.

    PubMed

    Nobahar, Monir; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Alhani, Fatemah; Fallahi Khoshknab, Masood

    2013-10-01

    Understanding the experiences of retired nurses can be useful in increasing self-confidence, motivation to work and work enthusiasm among nurses. The purpose of this study was to explore the work experiences of Iranian retired nurses. A qualitative design was conducted using a content analysis approach. Purposive sampling was used to choose the study participants. Semi-structured interviews were held to collect the perspectives of 20 retired nurses (10 female and 10 male). Two main themes emerged in the data analysis: 'work problems and unpleasant experiences in a sense' with subthemes 'exhausting work', 'insufficient salary', 'inappropriate relation' and 'unsuitable social position'; and 'job satisfaction and pleasant experiences in a sense' with subthemes 'divine satisfaction and religious belief', 'satisfaction of patients and their companions' and 'love of nursing profession and relaxation experience'. The findings indicate the challenges that nurses face after retirement. These experiences will help nurse managers to adopt appropriate measures to support nurses after retirement. PMID:24093736

  16. Components of Adult Class III Malocclusion in an Iranian Population

    PubMed Central

    Koodaryan, Roodabeh; Rafighi, Ali; Hafezeqoran, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Background and aims Class III malocclusions are considered complex and difficult orthodontic problems to diagnose and treat. The purpose of this study was to investigate the morphologic characteristics of the craniofacial complex of adults with Class III malocclusion in an Iranian population. Materials and methods Lateral cephalometric radiographs of 50 patients with Class III malocclusion (20 males and 30 females; age range of 18-27 years) were selected on the basis of molar relationship, concave profile and an overjet of ≤ 0 mm. The standard values of 19 soft tissue measurements were determined using McNamara, Burstone and Viazis methods. Results Adults with Class III malocclusion exhibited distinct craniofacial morphologic characteristics manifested by a com-bination of retrusion of maxilla and protrusion of mandible. Conclusion The most prevalent component was mandibular prognathism, normal maxilla and LAFH on the basis of the component analysis. PMID:23230476

  17. Association of Health and Food Expenditures Inequality With Health Outcomes: A Case Study on Iranian Rural Households

    PubMed Central

    Naghdi, Seyran; Ghiasvand, Hesam; Shaarbafchi Zadeh, Nasrin; Azami, Saeidreza; Moradi, Tayebeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Inequality in households’ and individuals' consumption expenditures is one of the most important aspects of health status difference among households and individuals. Objectives: We investigated the impact of some macro-economic factors specially inequality factors on the Iranian rural health status since 1986 through 2012. Patients and Methods: We conducted a longitudinal ecological and analytical study. The average sample size was 14602 households whom Iranian Statistics Center selected by a multi-stages clustering sampling approach. All required data has been collected from Iranian Statistics Centre and Deputy for Curial Affaires of Iranian Ministry of Health. We calculated the Gini coefficients for the rural food and health expenditures, then conducted a transloge autoregressive order one (AR1) to investigate the association between the Iranian rural households' key mortality rates and the food and health expenditure Gini coefficients, time trend, GDP per capita (PPP), and GDP per capita Gini coefficients. Results: The mean of Gini coefficients were 0.137 and 0.21 for the rural food expenditures inequality based on current and constant price, respectively. In addition, the mean of Gini coefficients were 0.26 and 0.31 for the rural health expenditures inequality based on current and constant price, respectively. The time trend, transloged form of Gini coefficients for health expenditures and GDP per capita Gini coefficients presented a significant negative correlation with transloged form of neonatal mortality rate. With regard to the transloged form of under five mortality we observed a significant negative correlation with time trend and transloged form of Gini coefficients for health expenditure and GDP per capita. Finally, there was a significant negative correlation between transloged forms of maternal mortality rate. Conclusions: Iranian policy makers should consider the rural health and food expenditures inequality and try to adopt more

  18. Body Satisfaction and Management in Iranian Students

    PubMed Central

    Garousi, Saeide; Garrusi, Behshid; Divsalar, Fatemeh; Divsalar, Kouros

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Despite the importance of body satisfaction on self concept and well being, there is little study about it or its consequences in Iranian populations, a part of Asian culture. The aim of this study was the assessment of body satisfaction and body management strategies in Iranian university students. Work method: This survey was performed based on a self-administrated questionnaire in 535 university and post graduate students. Work results: About 2/3rd of the students had moderate to severe body dissatisfaction and 40% of the students were using body management methods. Rhinoplasty and heavy exercise were the most frequent body management methods in women and men, respectively. Conclusion: Widespread research on body satisfaction prevalence and its management behaviors in the general population can be effective in reducing the negative health, social and economic consequences of harmful behaviors. PMID:23922514

  19. Comparison of Visual Status of Iranian Military and Commercial Drivers

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemi, Mohammad; Hoseini Yazdi, Seyed Hosein; Heravian, Javad; Jafarzadehpur, Ebrahim; Rezaee, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is no legal requirement for Iranian military truck drivers to undergo regular visual checkups as compared to commercial truck drivers. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the impact of drivers’ visual checkups by comparing the visual function of Iranian military and commercial truck drivers. Patients and Methods: In this comparative cross-sectional study, two hundred military and 200 commercial truck drivers were recruited and their Visual Acuity (VA), Visual Field (VF), color vision and Contrast Sensitivity (CS) were assessed and compared using the Snellen chart, confrontation screening method, D15 test and Pelli-Robson letter chart, respectively. A questionnaire regarding driving exposure and history of motor-vehicle crashes (MVCs) was also filled by drivers. Results were analyzed using an independent samples t-test, one-way ANOVA (assessing difference in number of MVCs across different age groups), chi-square test and Pearson correlation at statistical significance level of P < 0.05. Results: Mean age was 41.6 ± 9.2 for the military truck drivers and 43.4 ± 10.9 for commercial truck drivers (P > 0.05). No significant difference between military and commercial drivers was found in terms of driving experience, number of MVCs, binocular VA, frequency of color vision defects and CS scores. In contrast, the last ocular examination was significantly earlier in military drivers than commercial drivers (P < 0.001). In addition, 4% of military drivers did not meet the national standards to drive as opposed to 2% of commercial drivers. There was a significant but weak correlation between binocular VA and age (r = 0.175, P < 0.001). However, CS showed a significantly moderate correlation with age (r = -0.488, P < 0.001). Conclusions: The absence of legal requirement for regular eye examination in military drivers caused the incompetent drivers to be missed in contrast to commercial drivers. The need for scientific revision of VA standard for

  20. Substance Abuse among Iranian High School Students

    PubMed Central

    Momtazi, Saeed; Rawson, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review In this study, we reviewed data on drug use among high school students in Iran. Recent findings Published epidemiological studies in international and domestic journals show that drug use/abuse is a serious mental health problem in Iran. There is cultural support for opium in Iran, and also there is cultural tolerance for tobacco smoking, especially as water pipe smoking, in Iranian families. Alcohol, opium, and cannabis are the most frequently used illicit drugs, but there are new emerging problems with anabolic steroids, ecstasy, and stimulant substances, such as crystal methamphetamine. Summary There is serious drug abuse problem among Iranian high school students. It could be due to role-modeling by parents – mainly fathers – and also cultural tolerance of some substances. Early onset of tobacco smoking, with a daily use rate between 4.4% and 12.8% in high school students, is an important risk factor for other drug abuse problems. Use of all types of drugs, except prescription drugs, is more prevalent among boys. Alcohol is the most frequently abused substance, with a lifetime rate of at least 9.9%. Lifetime rates of opiate use – mostly opium – were between 1.2 an 8.6% in different parts of the country. As drug abuse is a frequent problem among Iranian high school students, it is necessary to design and implement drug prevention programs to protect them. Such programs, including life skills training and drug education, have been operating in recent years for Iranian students from kindergarten to the university level. PMID:20308905

  1. Aftershock Decay Rates in the Iranian Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ommi, S.; Zafarani, H.; Zare, M.

    2016-07-01

    Motivated by the desire to have more information following the occurrence of damaging events, the main purpose of this article is to study aftershock sequence parameters in the Iranian plateau. To this end, the catalogue of the Iranian earthquakes between 2002 to the end of 2013 has been collected and homogenized among which 15 earthquakes have been selected to study their aftershock decay rates. For different tectonic provinces, the completeness magnitudes ( M c) of the earthquake catalogue have been calculated in different time intervals. Also, the M c variability in spatial and temporal windows has been determined for each selected event. For major Iranian earthquakes, catalogue of aftershocks has been collected thanks to three declustering methods: first, the classical windowing method of Gardner and Knopoff (Bull Seismol Soc Am 64:1363-1367, 1974); second, a modified version of this using spatial windowing based on the Wells and Coppersmith (Bull Seismol Soc Am 84:974-1002, 1994) relations; and third, the Burkhard and Grünthal (Swiss J Geosci 102:149-188, 2009) scheme. Effects of the temporal windows also have been investigated using the time periods of 1 month, 100 days, and 1 year in the declustering method of Gardner and Knopoff (Bull Seismol Soc Am 64:1363-1367, 1974). In the next step, the modified Omori law coefficients have been calculated for the 15 selected earthquakes. The calibrated regional generic model describing the temporal and magnitude distribution of aftershocks is of interest for time-dependent seismic hazard forecasts. The regional characteristics of the aftershock decay rates have been studied for the selected Iranian earthquakes in the Alborz, Zagros and Central Iran regions considering their different seismotectonics regimes. However, due to the lack of sufficient data, no results have been reported for the Kopeh-Dagh and Makran seismotectonic regions.

  2. Complete Mitochondrial DNA Diversity in Iranians

    PubMed Central

    Derenko, Miroslava; Malyarchuk, Boris; Bahmanimehr, Ardeshir; Denisova, Galina; Perkova, Maria; Farjadian, Shirin; Yepiskoposyan, Levon

    2013-01-01

    Due to its pivotal geographical location and proximity to transcontinental migratory routes, Iran has played a key role in subsequent migrations, both prehistoric and historic, between Africa, Asia and Europe. To shed light on the genetic structure of the Iranian population as well as on the expansion patterns and population movements which affected this region, the complete mitochondrial genomes of 352 Iranians were obtained. All Iranian populations studied here exhibit similarly high diversity values comparable to the other groups from the Caucasus, Anatolia and Europe. The results of AMOVA and MDS analyses did not associate any regional and/or linguistic group of populations in the Anatolia/Caucasus and Iran region pointing to close genetic positions of Persians and Qashqais to each other and to Armenians, and Azeris from Iran to Georgians. By reconstructing the complete mtDNA phylogeny of haplogroups R2, N3, U1, U3, U5a1g, U7, H13, HV2, HV12, M5a and C5c we have found a previously unexplored genetic connection between the studied Iranian populations and the Arabian Peninsula, India, Near East and Europe, likely the result of both ancient and recent gene flow. Our results for Persians and Qashqais point to a continuous increase of the population sizes from ∼24 kya to the present, although the phase between 14-24 kya is thought to be hyperarid according to the Gulf Oasis model. Since this would have affected hunter-gatherer ranges and mobility patterns and forced them to increasingly rely on coastal resources, this transition can explain the human expansion across the Persian Gulf region. PMID:24244704

  3. Complete mitochondrial DNA diversity in Iranians.

    PubMed

    Derenko, Miroslava; Malyarchuk, Boris; Bahmanimehr, Ardeshir; Denisova, Galina; Perkova, Maria; Farjadian, Shirin; Yepiskoposyan, Levon

    2013-01-01

    Due to its pivotal geographical location and proximity to transcontinental migratory routes, Iran has played a key role in subsequent migrations, both prehistoric and historic, between Africa, Asia and Europe. To shed light on the genetic structure of the Iranian population as well as on the expansion patterns and population movements which affected this region, the complete mitochondrial genomes of 352 Iranians were obtained. All Iranian populations studied here exhibit similarly high diversity values comparable to the other groups from the Caucasus, Anatolia and Europe. The results of AMOVA and MDS analyses did not associate any regional and/or linguistic group of populations in the Anatolia/Caucasus and Iran region pointing to close genetic positions of Persians and Qashqais to each other and to Armenians, and Azeris from Iran to Georgians. By reconstructing the complete mtDNA phylogeny of haplogroups R2, N3, U1, U3, U5a1g, U7, H13, HV2, HV12, M5a and C5c we have found a previously unexplored genetic connection between the studied Iranian populations and the Arabian Peninsula, India, Near East and Europe, likely the result of both ancient and recent gene flow. Our results for Persians and Qashqais point to a continuous increase of the population sizes from ∼24 kya to the present, although the phase between 14-24 kya is thought to be hyperarid according to the Gulf Oasis model. Since this would have affected hunter-gatherer ranges and mobility patterns and forced them to increasingly rely on coastal resources, this transition can explain the human expansion across the Persian Gulf region. PMID:24244704

  4. Aftershock Decay Rates in the Iranian Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ommi, S.; Zafarani, H.; Zare, M.

    2016-04-01

    Motivated by the desire to have more information following the occurrence of damaging events, the main purpose of this article is to study aftershock sequence parameters in the Iranian plateau. To this end, the catalogue of the Iranian earthquakes between 2002 to the end of 2013 has been collected and homogenized among which 15 earthquakes have been selected to study their aftershock decay rates. For different tectonic provinces, the completeness magnitudes (M c) of the earthquake catalogue have been calculated in different time intervals. Also, the M c variability in spatial and temporal windows has been determined for each selected event. For major Iranian earthquakes, catalogue of aftershocks has been collected thanks to three declustering methods: first, the classical windowing method of uc(Gardner) and uc(Knopoff) (Bull Seismol Soc Am 64:1363-1367, 1974); second, a modified version of this using spatial windowing based on the uc(Wells) and uc(Coppersmith) (Bull Seismol Soc Am 84:974-1002, 1994) relations; and third, the uc(Burkhard) and uc(Grünthal) (Swiss J Geosci 102:149-188, 2009) scheme. Effects of the temporal windows also have been investigated using the time periods of 1 month, 100 days, and 1 year in the declustering method of uc(Gardner) and uc(Knopoff) (Bull Seismol Soc Am 64:1363-1367, 1974). In the next step, the modified Omori law coefficients have been calculated for the 15 selected earthquakes. The calibrated regional generic model describing the temporal and magnitude distribution of aftershocks is of interest for time-dependent seismic hazard forecasts. The regional characteristics of the aftershock decay rates have been studied for the selected Iranian earthquakes in the Alborz, Zagros and Central Iran regions considering their different seismotectonics regimes. However, due to the lack of sufficient data, no results have been reported for the Kopeh-Dagh and Makran seismotectonic regions.

  5. Association of Htra1 gene polymorphisms with the risk of developing AMD in Iranian population

    PubMed Central

    Askari, Mohammad; Nikpoor, Amin Reza; Gorjipour, Fazel; Mazidi, Mohsen; Sanati, Mohammad Hosein; Aryan, Hajar; Irani, Alireza; Ghasemi Falavarjani, Khalil; Nazari, Hossein; Mousavizadeh, Kazem

    2015-01-01

    Background: Half of the cases of vision loss in people under 60 years of age have been attributed to age-related macular degeneration (AMD). This is a multifactorial disease with late onset. It has been demonstrated that many different genetic loci are implicated in the risk of developing AMD in different populations. In the current study, we investigated the association of high-temperature ‎requirement A-1 (HTRA1) gene polymorphisms with the risk of developing AMD in the Iranian population. Methods: Genomic DNA samples were extracted from 120 patients with AMD and 120 healthy age- and sex-matched controls. A 385 base-pair fragment of the HTRA1 gene promoter region was amplified using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique and sequenced. The frequencies of the alleles were calculated and statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software. Results: Our study demonstrated that the rate of polymorphisms rs11200638 -625 G>A and rs2672598 -487T>C were significantly greater in AMD patients than in healthy controls from the Iranian population. Conclusions: The results of our study indicate that HTRA1 gene promoter region polymorphisms are associated with the risk of developing AMD in the Iranian population. PMID:26989749

  6. Determination of Helicobacter pylori virulence by analysis of the cag pathogenicity island isolated from Iranian population

    PubMed Central

    Baghaei, Kaveh; Shokrzadeh, Leila; Jafari, Fereshteh; Dabiri, Hossein; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Bolfion, Mehdi; Zojaji, Homayon; Aslani, Mehdi; Zali, Mohammad Reza

    2009-01-01

    Background The cag pathogenicity island (PAI), which can divide into two parts: cagI and cagII, is the most well-known virulence factor of Helicobacter pylori. Aims We investigated the association between genetic variations within the cag PAI (cagA and cagE in the cagI and cagT in the cagII) and clinical outcomes in Iranian population. Subjects A total of 231 patients including 182 patients with gastritis, 41 with peptic ulcer and 8 with gastric cancer. Methods The presences of the cagA, cagE and cagT genes were measured by polymerase chain reaction and the results were compared with clinical outcomes and gastric histology. Results The cagA, cagE and cagT genes were found in 154 (66.7%), 90 (39.0%) and 70 (30.3%) of clinical isolates. At least 144 (62.3%) strains possessed partially deleted cag PAI (e.g., 69 [29.9%] strains were cagA-positive, but cagE and cagT-negative). Conclusion The simple gene as well as the combination of the genes in the cag PAI appeared not to be useful markers to predict H. pylori-related diseases in Iranian population. The genomic sequences of the cag PAI in Iranian strains might be considerably different from those in other geographic locations. PMID:19261552

  7. The Most Frequent Causes of Hospitalization of Iranian Pilgrims in Iraq During a 5-Month Period in 2012, and Their Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Soleiman; Heidari, Ali; Fazli, Hosein; Rezaei, Mashallah; Sheikhzadeh, Javad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Investigating the prevalence of diseases and causes of hospitalization of Iranian pilgrims in Iraq can be helpful for healthcare programmers in scheduling a healthy and joyful trip for pilgrims and reducing their mortality and morbidity. Objectives: The main purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of Iranian pilgrims’ referral cases to Karbala and Najaf hospitals in Iraq during a 5-month period in 2012. Patients and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, medical records of all patients referred to Iraqi hospitals from Iranian clinics during a 5-month period from 16 January 2012 until 14 June 2012 was recorded. A checklist, including demographic data and diagnostic causes were prepared and completed by general practitioners. Then, the completed forms were checked and delivered to health surveillance supervisors. Results: A total of 177 referral cases from Iranian clinics to Iraqi hospitals were recorded in 5 months. Most of these referrals were due to cardiovascular diseases with 38.6%, then comes trauma with 26.55%, and finally renal failure in need of dialysis with 12.43%. About 80.2% of the patients were discharged, 13% of them were sent to Iran, and 6.2% died. Around 90% of deaths were due to heart diseases. Conclusions: Considering the high prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and fractures in Iranian pilgrims, the necessity of self-care education to diminish such rates is substantial. PMID:26730348

  8. Demotivating Factors Affecting EFL Learning of Iranian Seminary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabatabaei, Omid; Molavi, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, an attempt has been made to determine the demotives affecting EFL learning of Iranian Islamic seminary students and also to distinguish the motivated and demotivated EFL learners in terms of their EFL learning as the major focus of this study. Fifty Iranian EFL seminary students were investigated using two validated…

  9. The Effect of Collaboration on Iranian EFL Learners' Writing Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jafari, Narges; Ansari, Dariush Nejad

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at finding the effect of group work on Iranian EFL learners' writing accuracy. Moreover, the effect of gender on text production has also been investigated. Over a month, sixty Iranian EFL learners were chosen as the participants of this study. They were divided into two groups. The experimental group wrote collaboratively while…

  10. Iranian Critical ELT: A Belated but Growing Intellectual Shift in Iranian ELT Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aghagolzadeh, Ferdows; Davari, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Reviewing and discussing the development of critical studies in the field of applied linguistics in general and English language teaching (ELT) in particular in Iran, this paper attempts to highlight the main contributions in this field. Introducing a new growing critical-oriented shift in Iranian ELT community as the one which has been mostly…

  11. Association of Transforming Growth Factor Alpha Polymorphisms with Nonsyndromic Cleft Lip and Palate in Iranian Population

    PubMed Central

    Ebadifar, Asghar; Hamedi, Roya; Khorram Khorshid, Hamid Reza; Saliminejad, Kioomars; Kamali, Koorosh; Aghakhani Moghadam, Fatemeh; Esmaeili Anvar, Nazanin; Ameli, Nazilla

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) is one of the most common congenital anomalies and the etiology of orofacial clefts is multifactorial. Transforming growth factor alpha (TGFA) is expressed at the medial edge epithelium of fusing palatal shelves during craniofacial development. In this study, the association of two important TGFA gene polymorphisms, BamHI (rs11466297) and RsaI (rs3732248), with CL/P was evaluated in an Iranian population. Methods: The frequencies of BamHI and RsaI variations were determined in 105 unrelated Iranian subjects with nonsyndromic CL/P and 218 control subjects using PCR and RFLP methods, and the results were compared with healthy controls. A p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The BamHI AC genotype was significantly higher (p=0.016) in the patients (12.4%) than the control group (5.0%). The BamHI C allele was significantly higher (p=0.001; OR=3.4, 95% CI: 1.6–7.4) in the cases (8.0%) compared with the control group (2.5%). Conclusion: Our study showed that there was an association between the TGFA BamHI variation and nonsyndromic CL/P in Iranian population. PMID:26605011

  12. Vitamin D Deficiency in Healthy Male Population: Results of the Iranian Multi- Center Osteoporosis Study

    PubMed Central

    Rahnavard, Z; Eybpoosh, S; Homami, M Rezaei; Meybodi, HR Aghaei; Azemati, B; Heshmat, R; Larijani, B

    2010-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its causative factors has been estimated more frequently in elder population, women, and patients with osteoporosis in different countries, but this issue is less defined in male population within different age groups especially in Asian countries. Therefore, we studied the role of effective factors in vitamin D deficiency and its prevalence in Iranian healthy men. Methods: This study was a multi center and carried out in five metropolitans in Iran. Serum 25 Hydroxy vitamin D and other biochemical variables were determined in 2396 healthy men in late winter of 2001. Results: 68.8% of participants suffered from vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D levels were the highest in Bushehr (n= 111, 40.3%) (P< 0.05) and between Shiraz and Tabriz, Shiraz had the better values (P< 0.05). Tehran had the highest prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (n= 380, n= 85.7%). Geographical zone independently predicted vitamin D status (P< 0.05). There was not any association among age (r= 0.035, P> 0.05), physical activity (r= 0.023, P> 0.05), and exposure of face & hands to sunlight (r= 0.022, P> 0.05) with vitamin D levels. Conclusion: Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Iranian male population is high, considering Iranian cultural and geographical zones, food fortification and life style modification is recommended. PMID:23113022

  13. The Iranian physicians attitude toward the do not resuscitate order

    PubMed Central

    Fallahi, Masood; Banaderakhshan, Homayion; Abdi, Alireza; Borhani, Fariba; Kaviannezhad, Rasool; Karimpour, Hassan Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background Physicians are responsible for making decisions about the do not resuscitate (DNR) order of patients; however, most of them are faced with some uncertainty in decision making and ethical aspects. Moreover, there are differences on decision making related to the DNR order among physicians, which may be related to the different attitudes toward this issue. Considering the lack of information, this study was performed to investigate doctors’ attitude about DNR order for patients in their final phases of life. Methods In a descriptive–analytical study, 152 physicians were enrolled as quota sampling subjects from educational hospitals affiliated to the Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences. The tool used was a researcher-developed questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16 software by descriptive and inferential statistics. Results The mean of attitude toward DNR was 3.22, for which the univariate t-test showed a significant positive attitude toward DNR (P=0.002); the mean of attitude number toward DNR was higher in physicians with higher education level (P=0.002). But this difference was not found in terms of age group, sex, and experiences in participating in DNR decisions. Conclusion Due to the positive attitude of doctors toward DNR orders and lack of identified guidance, clear guidelines that comply with the Iranian Islamic culture are necessary to be established. Implementing this directive requires comprehensive training to various groups, including patients, doctors, nurses, administrators, and policy makers of the health system. PMID:27418832

  14. Iranians and Their Pride: Modalities of Political Sovereignty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moaddel, Mansoor

    In 2000, we asked a nationally representative sample of 2,532 Iranian adults "which of the following best describes you: I am an Iranian, above all; I am a Muslim, above all; I am an Arab, a Kurd, a Turk, a Baluch, etc., above all?" We also asked them how proud they are to be Iranian; (1) very proud, (2) proud, (3) not proud, and (4) not proud at all. In the 2005 survey of a nationally representative sample of 2,667 Iranian adults, we asked these questions again. The first question was intended to measure national identity and the second national pride. The results showed that between the two surveys the percent of Iranians who defined themselves as "Iranians, above all" went up significantly-from 35% in 2000 to 42% in 2005. Those who said that they were very proud to be Iranian, on the other hand, went down considerably-from 89% in 2000 to 64% in 2005. What is more, national identity and national pride displayed opposing relationships with the norms and values that were rigorously promoted by Iran's religious regime and these relationships grew stronger between 2000 and 2005. The feeling of national pride was positively linked to attitudes toward gender inequality, religiosity, and religious intolerance, but negatively to attitudes toward the West, while national identity had just the opposite relationships with these variables.

  15. Iranian physicist 'defects' to the US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2010-05-01

    An Iranian physicist who disappeared last June during a pilgrimage to Mecca in Saudi Arabia has apparently defected to the US, where he is working for the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). Shahram Amiri, who did research in nuclear physics at Malek Ashtar University of Technology in Tehran, is thought to be co-operating with the CIA to confirm their intelligence assessments about Iran's nuclear-weapons programme. The CIA has so far kept quiet on the issue and it remains unclear whether Amiri had any connections with Iran's nuclear programme.

  16. Molecular and clinical characterization of Waardenburg syndrome type I in an Iranian cohort with two novel PAX3 mutations.

    PubMed

    Jalilian, Nazanin; Tabatabaiefar, Mohammad Amin; Farhadi, Mohammad; Bahrami, Tayeb; Emamdjomeh, Hesam; Noori-Daloii, Mohammad Reza

    2015-12-15

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is a disease of abnormal neural-crest derived melanocyte development characterized by hearing loss and pigmentary disturbances in hair, eyes and skin. WS is subdivided into four major types, WS1-WS4, where WS1 is recognized by the presence of dystopia canthorum, with PAX3 being the only known gene involved. This study aimed at investigating PAX3 mutations and clinical characteristics of WS1 in a group of Iranian patients. A total of 12 WS1 patients from four unrelated Iranian families were enrolled. Waardenburg consortium guidelines were used for WS1 diagnosis. A detailed family history was traced and a thorough clinical examination was performed for all participants. Furthermore, WS1 patients underwent screening for PAX3 mutations using PCR-sequencing. Dystopia canthorum, broad high nasal root and synophrys were observed in all patients. Early graying, hair discoloration, hypoplastic blue eyes (characteristic brilliant blue iris) and hearing loss were the most common features observed, while heterochromia iridis was the least frequently observed sign among the studied Iranian WS1 patients. Genetic analysis of PAX3 revealed four mutations including c.667C>T, c.784C>T, c.951delT and c.451+3A>C. Two of the four mutations reported here (c.951delT and c.451+3A>C) are being reported for the first time in this study. Our data provide insight into genotypic and phenotypic spectrum of WS1 in an Iranian series of patients. Our results expand the spectrum of PAX3 mutations and may have implications for the genetic counseling of WS in Iran. PMID:26275939

  17. Psychological Factors Explaining the Referral Behavior of Iranian Family Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Mohaghegh, Bahram; Seyedin, Hesam; Rashidian, Arash; Ravaghi, Hamid; Khalesi, Nader; Kazemeini, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Background: The recently developed policy of the family practice program in rural regions of Iran faced some challenges such as inefficient referral system. The health insurance organizations (purchaser) and health policy makers are concerned about the high rate of patient referrals from family physicians to specialists due to imposing unnecessary services and costs. Objectives: This study examined utility of the theory of planned behavior to explain intention of Iranian family physicians to reduce referral rate of patients with respiratory diseases to medical specialist. Patients and Methods: An exploratory cross-sectional study, employing a correlational design directed by the theory of planned behavior was conducted. A questionnaire was developed based on an eliciting study and review of literature. One hundred and seventy-four family physicians working at primary care centers in two provinces of Iran completed the questionnaire (response rate of 86%). Results: The finding revealed that intention of family physicians to reduce referral rate of patients to specialists was significantly related to two theory-based variables of subjective norms (r = 0.38, P < 0.001) and perceived behavioral control (r = 0.43, P < 0.001), and not to attitudes. A stepwise regression entering direct measures of the theory variables explained 35% of the variance on the intention, with perceived behavioral control being the strongest predictor. Adding background variables to the model achieved further 5% by variables of practice size and past referral rate behavior. Conclusions: The results indicated that psychological variables of the theory of planned behavior could explain a noticeable proportion of variance in family physician's intention to decrease the rate of referring patients with respiratory diseases to medical specialists. The intention is primarily influenced by normative and control considerations. These findings contribute to a better understanding of referral decisions by

  18. Analysis of Iranian Potato virus S isolates.

    PubMed

    Salari, Khadijeh; Massumi, Hossein; Heydarnejad, Jahangir; Hosseini Pour, Akbar; Varsani, Arvind

    2011-10-01

    Two hundred forty potato samples with one or more symptoms of leaf mosaic, distortion, mottling and yellowing were collected between 2005 and 2008 from seven Iranian provinces. Forty-four of these samples tested positive with double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (DAS-ELISA) using a Potato virus S (PVS) polyclonal antibody. Of these 12 isolates of PVS were selected based on the geographical location for biological and molecular characterization. The full coat protein (CP) and 11K genes from 12 PVS isolates were PCR amplified, cloned and sequenced. All 12 PVS isolates showed mosaic symptoms on Nicotiana debneyii and N. tabacum cv. Whiteburly and local lesion on Chenopodium amaranticolor, C. quinoa and C. album. The Iranian isolates share between 93 and 100% pairwise nucleotide identity with other PVS(O) isolates. Based on maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis coupled with pairwise identity analysis, we propose 15 genotypes for the PVS(O) strain and 3 genotypes for the PVS(A) strain. PMID:21567245

  19. The Lived Experience of Iranian Women Confronting Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Mehrabi, Esmat; Hajian, Sepideh; Simbar, Masoomeh; Hoshyari, Mohammad; Zayeri, Farid

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The populations who survive from breast cancer are growing; nevertheless, they mostly encounter with many cancer related problems in their life, especially after early diagnosis and have to deal with these problems. Except for the disease entity, several socio-cultural factors may affect confronting this challenge among patients and the way they deal with. Present study was carried out to prepare clear understanding of Iranian women's lived experiences confronting breast cancer diagnosis and coping ways they applied to deal with it. Methods: This study was carried out by using qualitative phenomenological design. Data gathering was done through purposive sampling using semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 18 women who survived from breast cancer. The transcribed interviews were analyzed using Van Manen’s thematic analysis approach. Results: Two main themes were emerged from the interviews including "emotional turbulence" and "threat control". The first, comprised three sub themes including uncertainty, perceived worries, and living with fears. The second included risk control, recurrence control, immediate seeking help, seeking support and resource to spirituality. Conclusion: Emotional response was the immediate reflection to cancer diagnosis. However, during post-treatment period a variety of emotions were not uncommon findings, patients' perceptions have been changing along the time and problem-focused coping strategies have replaced. Although women may experience a degree of improvement and adjustment with illness, the emotional problems are not necessarily resolved, they may continue and gradually engender positive outcomes. PMID:26989665

  20. POSTOPERATIVE PAIN: MANAGEMENT AND DOCUMENTATION BY IRANIAN NURSES

    PubMed Central

    Rafati, Foozieh; Soltaninejad, Maryam; Aflatoonian, Mohamad Reza; Mashayekhi, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pain is one of the most common symptoms experienced by patients after surgeries. Inadequate postoperative pain management is an international problem and the need to improve its management is well documented. The aim of the study was to assess nursing reports related to the patients’ pain intensity and quality, concomitant symptoms, use of scales in pain assessment, and compliance with the national guideline after surgery. Methods: This study was a retrospective cohort; samples were nurse records of patients who had elective surgery. Result: Only 6% of the patients’ pain records included pain intensity which was not measured with standard scales. More than half of all injections were opioid analgesic which is in contrast to the guidelines of the Iranian Ministry of Health. Pain assessment was higher in women and by nurses with more than 15 years of working experience. Conclusion: to conclude, the patients’ pain was not assessed properly in terms of intensity, quality, and associated symptoms. Therefore, training and motivating nurses is very important in this context and should be incorporated in nurses’ academic and continuous educational courses. PMID:27047265

  1. Defining the Best Nasal Tip Projection among Iranian Women

    PubMed Central

    Mohebbi, Alireza; Jahandideh, Hesam; Faham, Zhaleh; Jafari, Morteza

    2016-01-01

    Rhinoplasty is one of the most complicated aesthetic surgeries. One important factor in nasal profile analysis before surgery is the NTP (Nasal Tip Projection). There has been controversy over defining the best tip projection and due to cultural differences there is a need to find the best formulation for Iranian noses. We selected 50 randomized patients. Lateral nasal views were captured from all of the patients. In order to equalize the photos, all tip rotations changed first to 105. We selected four methods for measuring NTP (Goode, Crumley 1, Crumley 2, and Powell and Humphreys). Based on these methods NTP was shown in four pictures. A questionnaire was designed for rating the pictures. Questionnaires were filled in by 3 different groups: rhinoplasty surgeons, general people, and artists. A total of 73 questionnaires were filled in. The analysis and comparison were done. Crumley 2 is the best NTP measurement method from the surgeons' and artists' view. Goode is the method preferred by general people. Powell & Humphreys method seems to be the worst method from all 3 groups' view. It seems that general people prefer smaller noses, because projection in Goode method is almost less than Crumley 2. PMID:27293886

  2. A Retrospective Analysis of Oral Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis in an Iranian Population: a 20-year Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Atarbashi Moghadam, Saede; Lotfi, Ali; Piroozhashemi, Batool; Mokhtari, Sepideh

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Langerhans cell histiocytosis is a rare disease with unknown pathogenesis and is characterized by local or disseminated proliferation of Langerhans cells. There is no previous investigation on prevalence of oral Langerhans cell histiocytosis in Iranian population. Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess the relative frequency of oral Langerhans cell histiocytosis in an Iranian population and to compare the data with previous reports. Materials and Method Pathology files of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology Department of Dental School of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences from 1992 to 2012 were searched for cases recorded as oral Langerhans cell histiocytosis. A total number of 20 cases were found and the clinical information of patients was recorded. Results The relative frequency of oral Langerhans cell histiocytosis was 0.34% and the most common location was the posterior mandible. In addition, the mean age of patients was 27 years and there was a definite male predominance. Most lesions were localized and tooth mobility was the most common oral presentation. Conclusion In Iranian population as in many other countries, the relative frequency of oral Langerhans cell histiocytosis is low. Moreover, tooth mobility and periodontal lesions are the frequent early signs of disease. Therefore, in patients with periodontal problems, good oral health, and no response to the treatment; Langerhans cell histiocytosis must be considered. Additionally, although most cases of oral Langerhans cell histiocytosis are localized, systemic involvement must also be considered and dental professionals have an important role in early detection of the disease. PMID:26535408

  3. An annotated catalog of the Iranian Reduvioidea (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Cimicomorpha).

    PubMed

    Ghahari, Hassan; Moulet, Pierre; Cai, Wanzhi; Karimi, Javad

    2013-01-01

    An updated list of Iranian Reduvioidea Latreille (families Pachynomidae, Reduviidae) is presented and discussed in this paper. For Iranian fauna, there are records of one species of Pachynomidae and 109 species and subspecies of assassin bugs (Reduviidae) distributed in 24 genera and subgenera, and seven subfamilies, Emesinae, Harpactorinae, Holoptilinae, Peiratinae, Phymatinae, Reduviinae, and Stenopodainae. We report 6 new country records and one new species, Empicoris baerensprungi (Dohrn, 1863) for Asian fauna. Synonyms and distribution data are also given. PMID:26258220

  4. Challenges of Iranian Adolescents for Preventing Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Fallahi, Arezoo; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Malekafzali, Beheshteh; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oral health plays a vital role in people’s general health and well-being. With regard to the costly treatments of oral diseases, preventive programs need to be designed for dental caries based on children’s perspectives. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to describe and explore challenges for caring dental health based on children’s perspectives. Patients and Methods: A qualitative design with content analysis approach was applied to collect and analyze the perspectives of students about factors influencing oral and dental care. Eighteen Iranian students in 8 guidance schools were chosen through the purposive sampling. Semi-structured interviews were held for data gathering. In order to support the validity and rigor of the data, different criteria such as acceptability, confirmability, and transferability were utilized. Results: During data analysis, four main themes developed: “barriers to dental health,” “maintaining dental health,” “uncertainty in decision-making” and “supportive factors”. “Uncertainty in decision-making” and “barriers to dental health” were the main challenges for preventing dental caries among adolescents. Conclusions: “Certainty in decision-making” to maintain dental health depends on overcoming the barriers of dental health. Further research is needed to confirm the findings of this study. PMID:25593720

  5. Knowledge and attitude towards HIV/AIDS among Iranian students

    PubMed Central

    Tavoosi, Anahita; Zaferani, Azadeh; Enzevaei, Anahita; Tajik, Parvin; Ahmadinezhad, Zahra

    2004-01-01

    Background Young people are of particular importance in state policies against Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). We intended to assess the knowledge and attitude of high school students regarding AIDS in Iran. Methods Through a cluster-sampling, 4641 students from 52 high schools in Tehran were assessed by anonymous questionnaires in February 2002. Results The students identified television as their most important source of information about AIDS. Only a few students answered all the knowledge questions correctly, and there were many misconceptions about the routes of transmission. Mosquito bites (33%), public swimming pools (21%), and public toilets (20%) were incorrectly identified as routes of transmission. 46% believed that Human Immunodeficiency Virus positive (HIV positive) students should not attend ordinary schools. Most of the students wanted to know more about AIDS. In this study knowledge level was associated with students' attitudes and discipline (p < 0.001). Conclusion Although the knowledge level seems to be moderately high, misconceptions about the routes of transmission were common. There was a substantial intolerant attitude towards AIDS and HIV positive patients. We recommend that strategies for AIDS risk reduction in adolescents be developed in Iranian high schools. PMID:15157281

  6. Cultural Concepts and Themes of Suicidal Attempt Among Iranian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bazrafshan, Mohammad Rafi; Sharif, Farkhondeh; Molazem, Zahra; Mani, Arash

    2015-01-01

    Background: Suicide attempts are more common among adolescents than other age groups. Although suicide is considered a worldwide problem, but the related factors, to suicidal behavior are different in various cultures. Objectives: The purpose of this study is to identify themes that explain suicide attempt process among adolescents in Iran. Patients and Methods: This is a qualitative study carried out based on grounded theory. Key informants were 16 adolescents referred to two hospitals in Shiraz after suicide attempts. Also, 4 family members, a nurse, a psychologist, and a psychiatrist participated in this study. Sampling started with purposive sampling method and continued with theoretical sampling. Data were collected using semi-structured in-depth interviews. Data analysis was carried out using Strauss and Corbin approach and constant comparative method until the point of data saturation. Results: Five main categories, including personal factors and life experiences; family factors, social and educational factors, psychological-emotional problems, and stress control strategies were extracted from the data. The central concept in the data was to escape the painful psychological condition, which was in connection with other concepts describing the process of suicide attempts in adolescents. Conclusions: This study identified 5 categories of concepts as main themes that can be used to explain suicidal attempt process among Iranian adolescents. PMID:25883919

  7. Hepatitis B Knowledge Among Iranian Adolescents: A National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Roushan, Nader; Nasiri Toosi, Mohsen; Meysamie, Alipasha; Esteghamati, Abdoul-Reza; Hajrassuliha, Homazad

    2013-01-01

    Background: Hepatitis B is the most prevalent chronic infectious liver disease worldwide with serious sequelae. Prevention of the infection can be provided by universal vaccination and improvement in knowledge and behavior about disease transmission. Provision of any educational program requires inquiry about target group baseline knowledge. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess Iranian adolescents’ knowledge about hepatitis B (HBV) and associated factors. Patients and Methods: We conducted a questionnaire-based national survey of 18-year-old adolescents according to stratified cluster random sampling in Iran during 2007. Results: Response rate was 87%. Most adolescents (60%) knew that HBV infects the liver. Percentage of adolescents who gave correct answers to major routes of HBV transmission were as follows: spouse of an infected person 59%, multi-partners 66%, intravenous drug use 73%, body piercing 55% and personal belongings 55%. Higher levels of education, living in rural areas, marriage and (except for body piercing) female gender were associated with better knowledge. The knowledge of HBV infected individuals about major routes of HBV transmission was low (P < 0.001). Conclusions: There are important deficits in adolescents’ knowledge about HBV that requires attention of health educators to tailor educational programs for specific groups. PMID:24693383

  8. “Musculoskeletal problem”: Its prevalence among Iranian dentists

    PubMed Central

    Nokhostin, Mohammad Reza; Zafarmand, A. Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Musculoskeletal problems (MSPs) are a major complication for practitioners in the field of dentistry. The present study is designed to define the prevalence of MSPs among Iranian dentists. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey conducted on 600 dentists. The questions were about demographic characteristics, headache, and physical problems of different parts of the body. Data were analyzed using logistic regression analysis. Results: Of all dentists studied, 67.5% had physical problems. These MSPs were observed in neck (51.87%), wrist (92.96%), waist (11.11%), and shoulder (7.40%) of the practitioners. Some practitioners took leave of absence (18.52%), while others (7.40%) underwent medical care. There was a direct correlation between age (P = 0.0001), high body mass index (BMI; P = 0.021), total number of daily under-care patients (P = 0.002), and little physical activity (P = 0.0001) with MSPs. Conclusion: The prevalence of MSPs is very high among dentists. Awareness about preventive care is necessary for dentists. The dental curriculum also should address ergonomic issues for dental educators. PMID:27195226

  9. Catalogue of the Iranian Microgastrinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    PubMed

    Gadallah, Neveen S; Ghahari, Hassan; Peris-Felipo, Francisco Javier

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the Iranian Microgastrinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) fauna is summarized. It is based on a detailed study of all available published data and new material collected. In total 99 species belonging to 8 genera are from Iran: Apanteles Förster, 1862 (36 species), Cotesia Cameron, 1891 (34 species), Deuterixys Mason, 1981 (1 species), Diolcogaster Ashmead, 1900 (4 species), Microgaster Latreille, 1804 (4 species), Microplitis Förster, 1862 (11 species), Pholesetor Mason, 1981 (4 species) and Protapanteles Ashmead, 1898 (5 species) in 4 tribes (Apantilini, Cotesiini, Microgastrini and Microplitini). A faunistic list with distribution data, and host records are given. Four species are new records for the fauna of Iran: Apanteles brunnistigma Abdinbekova, 1969, A. ingenuoides Papp, 1971, Microplitis decipiens Prell, 1925 and M. marshallii Kokujev, 1898. PMID:26624699

  10. 31 CFR 560.512 - Iranian Government missions in the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to, the Iranian Interests Section of the Embassy of Pakistan (or any successor protecting power) in... United States, and to employees of the Iranian Interests Section of the Embassy of Pakistan (or...

  11. 31 CFR 560.512 - Iranian Government missions in the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to, the Iranian Interests Section of the Embassy of Pakistan (or any successor protecting power) in... United States, and to employees of the Iranian Interests Section of the Embassy of Pakistan (or...

  12. 31 CFR 560.512 - Iranian Government missions in the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... to, the Iranian Interests Section of the Embassy of Pakistan (or any successor protecting power) in... United States, and to employees of the Iranian Interests Section of the Embassy of Pakistan (or...

  13. Characterizing of Four Common BCR-ABL Kinase Domain Mutations (T315I, Y253H, M351T and E255K) in Iranian Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Patients With Imatinib Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Rejali, Leili; Poopak, Behzad; Hasanzad, Mandana; Sheikhsofla, Fatemeh; Varnoosfaderani, Ameneh Saadat; Safari, Nazila; Rabieipoor, Saghar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is a kind of hematopoietic stem-cell cancer. A significant number of CML patients who do not achieve an acceptable response to therapy, show acquired resistance against Imatinib. One of the most considerable causes of resistance against Imatinib as the first line of therapy, are BCR-ABL kinase domain mutations. Objectives: One of the most considerable causes of resistance against Imatinib as the first line of therapy, are BCR-ABL kinase domain mutations. Patients and Methods: The study was performed on 39 CML patients with Imatinib resistance. Basic hematologic parameters in blood samples were checked to identify hematologic response. To identify molecular response, BCR-ABL/ABL ratio was assessed by Real-time PCR. The ABL kinase domain amplification was performed by PCR. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) was performed to detect four common mutations (T315I, Y253H, E255K and M351T). Finally the results were approved by direct sequencing. Results: In this study, the Y253H mutation, detected by RFLP method and confirmed by direct sequencing, was the prevalent ABL kinase domain mutation in these 39 CML patients. The G250E, V379I and L384M mutations were found in three different cases with failure molecular response. CML patients with these four ABL kinase domain mutations cannot achieve major molecular response (MMR). In addition, complete hematologic response (CHR) was observed only in the V379I mutated case and not in other mutated patients. Conclusions: Identification of ABL kinase domain mutations may be used as a proper and useful method for improving therapeutic strategies, avoiding delay in treatment and excessive expenditure in CML patients with Imatinib resistance. PMID:26413254

  14. Methionine synthase A2756G variation is associated with the risk of retinoblastoma in Iranian children.

    PubMed

    Akbari, Mohammad Taghi; Naderi, Asieh; Saremi, Leila; Sayad, Arezou; Irani, Shiva; Ahani, Ali

    2015-12-01

    Association of epigenetic modifications with cancer has been widely studied. Gene-specific hypermethylation and global DNA hypomethylation are the most frequently observed patterns in great number of tumors. The methionine synthase (MTR) gene plays key role in maintaining adequate intracellular folate, methionine and normal homocysteine concentrations and, its polymorphism have been associated with the risk of retinoblastoma and other neoplasms. We evaluated the association of MTR A2756G polymorphism with the risk of retinoblastoma in an Iranian population. Totally, 150 retinoblastoma patients and 300 individuals with no family history of cancer as control were included in this study. Genotyping of the A2756G polymorphism was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) using the restriction enzymes HaeIII. Our results showed that the "G" was the minor allele with a frequency of 31.7% and 20.3% in both retinoblastoma and control groups, respectively. The frequency of the 2756GG genotype (P=0.023) and 2756G allele (P=0.0001) were significantly higher in the patients than control group, respectively. Individual with the 2756GG genotype had a 2.99 fold increased risk for retinoblastoma. According to our results, the MTR A2756G polymorphism was associated with the risk of retinoblastoma in Iranian patients. PMID:26595280

  15. Hepatitis A Is a Health Hazard for Iranian Pilgrims Who Go to Holly Karbala: A Preliminary Report

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemian, Roya; Babamahmoodi, Farhang; Ahangarkani, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Background Iraq is a highly endemic area for the prevalence of hepatitis A and annually hosts a large number of Iranian pilgrims, most of whom are susceptible to infection with the hepatitis A virus (HAV). Objectives This study reports the health hazard of hepatitis A for Iranian pilgrims who go to holly Karbala from the Mazandaran province. Patients and Methods In this cross-sectional study, the data of all patients with acute hepatitis A admitted in the Razi teaching hospital from November 23, 2014 to January 24, 2015, with a history of recently returning from holly Karbala or being exposed to Karbala pilgrims, were registered. Results A total number of nine patients were registered. Seven patients were male and two were female. The mean age was 30.11 ± 10.09.Two patients were from the same family. All patients had typical symptoms of acute hepatitis A. None of the patients died nor did fulminant occur in any patients. In addition, all patients were treated with supportive treatment and subsequently recovered. Conclusions This number of pilgrim patients with acute hepatitis A from a single province compels us to conduct more evaluations and follow up monitoring on all persons travelling to Karbala and be sensitive to early diagnoses of the pilgrims. In the future, it is important to be mindful of administering the HAV vaccine and Ig.

  16. Oral Lymphoma Prevalence in Iranian Population: A Multicenter Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Akbari, Mohammad Esmaeil; Bastani, Zahra; Mokhtari, Sepideh; Atarbashi Moghadam, Saede

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oral lymphoma is the second most common malignancy of the head and neck region after malignant epithelial tumors. Objectives: Considering the lack of a multicenter study on the frequency of oral lymphoma in Iran, this study aimed to assess the relative frequency of oral lymphomas in Iran during a 6-year period. Materials and Methods: This multicenter, retrospective, cross-sectional study was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, cases of oral lymphoma registered in the cancer research center (CRC) of Shahid Beheshti university of medical sciences were extracted. The patient records and pathology reports of these patients were retrieved from the archives and age, sex and microscopic type site of the lesions were evaluated. Results: Oral lymphoma accounts for 1% of head and neck malignancies and 8% of all lymphomas. From 2003 to 2008, a total of 437 new cases of oral lymphomas had been registered in the CRC. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma was found to be the most common form of oral lymphoma in the 6-year period with 240 (54.9%) registered cases. The majority of detected cases were in the 6th and 7th decades of life with a male to female ratio of 1:84. Tonsils were the most common site of occurrence of lymphoma in the oral cavity (77.8%). Conclusions: The age of onset, site of involvement, sex of patients, and histopathological subtype of oral lymphomas in the Iranian population were found to be similar to those of most other countries. PMID:26855724

  17. 31 CFR 560.549 - Policy governing Iranian news organizations' offices in the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Policy governing Iranian news... Policy § 560.549 Policy governing Iranian news organizations' offices in the United States. Specific... operation of news bureaus in the United States by Iranian organizations whose primary purpose is...

  18. 31 CFR 560.549 - Policy governing Iranian news organizations' offices in the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Policy governing Iranian news... Policy § 560.549 Policy governing Iranian news organizations' offices in the United States. Specific... operation of news bureaus in the United States by Iranian organizations whose primary purpose is...

  19. Transnational Learning: The Integration of Jugyou Kenkyuu into Iranian Teacher Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arani, Mohammad Reza Sarkar

    2006-01-01

    I clarify in this chapter what Iran can learn from Japan's experience of jugyou kenkyuu(lesson study) model, and what we can apply to the Iranian educational context. The chapter also discusses the process, progress and challenges of incorporating jugyou kenkyuu into Iranian teacher training. I examine how Iranian teachers and school…

  20. 31 CFR 535.579 - Authorization of new transactions concerning certain Iranian property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... which Iran or an Iranian entity has an interest are authorized where: (1) The property comes within the... of the United States after January 19, 1981, or (2) The interest in the property of Iran or an Iranian entity (e.g. exports consigned to Iran or an Iranian entity) arises after January 19, 1981....

  1. 31 CFR 535.579 - Authorization of new transactions concerning certain Iranian property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... which Iran or an Iranian entity has an interest are authorized where: (1) The property comes within the... of the United States after January 19, 1981, or (2) The interest in the property of Iran or an Iranian entity (e.g. exports consigned to Iran or an Iranian entity) arises after January 19, 1981....

  2. 31 CFR 535.579 - Authorization of new transactions concerning certain Iranian property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... which Iran or an Iranian entity has an interest are authorized where: (1) The property comes within the... of the United States after January 19, 1981, or (2) The interest in the property of Iran or an Iranian entity (e.g. exports consigned to Iran or an Iranian entity) arises after January 19, 1981....

  3. 31 CFR 535.579 - Authorization of new transactions concerning certain Iranian property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... which Iran or an Iranian entity has an interest are authorized where: (1) The property comes within the... of the United States after January 19, 1981, or (2) The interest in the property of Iran or an Iranian entity (e.g. exports consigned to Iran or an Iranian entity) arises after January 19, 1981....

  4. 31 CFR 535.579 - Authorization of new transactions concerning certain Iranian property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... which Iran or an Iranian entity has an interest are authorized where: (1) The property comes within the... of the United States after January 19, 1981, or (2) The interest in the property of Iran or an Iranian entity (e.g. exports consigned to Iran or an Iranian entity) arises after January 19, 1981....

  5. Attitudes toward English & English Learning at an Iranian Military University: A Preliminary Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahdavi Zafarghandi, Amir; Jodai, Hojat

    2012-01-01

    This study intends to represent attitudes toward English and English learning at an Iranian military university. Iranian military staff is required to study English in a social environment where there is little immediate need or opportunity to use the language for real communicative purposes.The subjects included 34 Iranian military personnel who…

  6. 31 CFR 560.413 - Letter of credit payments by Iranian banks in the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Letter of credit payments by Iranian... TRANSACTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 560.413 Letter of credit payments by Iranian banks in the United... Iranian bank's branch or agency pursuant to the terms of the letter of credit or other financing...

  7. 3 CFR - Delegation of Certain Functions Under Section 1264 of the Victims of Iranian Censorship Act...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of the Victims of Iranian Censorship Act (Public Law 111-84, Subtitle D of the National Defense... 21, 2010 Delegation of Certain Functions Under Section 1264 of the Victims of Iranian Censorship Act... 1264 of the Victims of Iranian Censorship Act (Public Law 111-84, subtitle D) to make the...

  8. Blood Coagulation Parameters and Platelet Indices: Changes in Normal and Preeclamptic Pregnancies and Predictive Values for Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongmei; Zou, Jiaqun; Yang, Zhiling; Han, Jian; Huang, Wei; Yu, Lili; Zheng, Yingru; Li, Li

    2014-01-01

    Background Preeclampsia (PE) is an obstetric disorder with high morbidity and mortality rates but without clear pathogeny. The dysfunction of the blood coagulation-fibrinolysis system is a salient characteristic of PE that varies in severity, and necessitates different treatments. Therefore, it is necessary to find suitable predictors for the onset and severity of PE. Objectives We aimed to evaluate blood coagulation parameters and platelet indices as potential predictors for the onset and severity of PE. Methods Blood samples from 3 groups of subjects, normal pregnant women (n = 79), mild preeclampsia (mPE) (n = 53) and severe preeclampsia (sPE) (n = 42), were collected during early and late pregnancy. The levels of coagulative parameters and platelet indices were measured and compared among the groups. The receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves of these indices were generated, and the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated. The predictive values of the selected potential parameters were examined in binary regression analysis. Results During late pregnancy in the normal pregnancy group, the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), thrombin time (TT) and platelet count decreased, while the fibrinogen level and mean platelet volume (MPV) increased compared to early pregnancy (p<0.05). However, the PE patients presented with increased APTT, TT, MPV and D-dimer (DD) during the third trimester. In the analysis of subjects with and without PE, TT showed the largest AUC (0.743) and high predictive value. In PE patients with different severities, MPV showed the largest AUC (0.671) and ideal predictive efficiency. Conclusion Normal pregnancy causes a maternal physiological hypercoagulable state in late pregnancy. PE may trigger complex disorders in the endogenous coagulative pathways and consume platelets and FIB, subsequently activating thrombopoiesis and fibrinolysis. Thrombin time and MPV may serve as early monitoring

  9. Dietary compliance in Iranian children and adolescents with celiac disease

    PubMed Central

    Taghdir, Maryam; Honar, Naser; Mazloomi, Seyed Mohammad; Sepandi, Mojtaba; Ashourpour, Mahkameh; Salehi, Musa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Celiac disease (CD) is caused due to intake of gluten, a protein component in wheat, barley, and rye. The only treatment currently available for CD is strict lifetime adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD) which is a diet that excludes wheat, barley, and rye. There is limited information on barriers to following a GFD. The present study aimed to investigate the compliance with a GFD, barriers to compliance, and the impact of compliance on the quality of life (QOL) in Iranian children and adolescents suffering from CD. Methods In this cross-sectional study, a total of 65 known cases of CD (both males and females), diagnosed in Namazi Hospital, a large referral center in south of Iran, selected by census were studied in 2014. Dietary compliance was assessed using a questionnaire. A disease-specific QOL questionnaire for children with CD (the celiac disease DUX [CDDUX]) was used. Comparisons between categorical variables were performed using chi-square test. Results Sixty-five patients, 38 females (58.5%) and 27 (41.5%) males, were surveyed. Mean (± standard deviation [SD]) age of the respondents was 11.3 (±3.8) years. Dietary compliance was reported by 35 (53.8%) patients. The mean (± SD) CDDUX score was higher in dietary-compliant patients (33.5 [±19.4] vs 26.7 [±13.6], respectively, P=0.23). The score of CDDUX in parents of patients in dietary-compliant group was more than the noncompliant patients (28.1 [±13.5] vs 22.1 [±14], respectively, P=0.1). Barriers to noncompliance were poor or unavailability (100%), high cost (96.9%), insufficient labeling (84.6%), poor palatability (76.9%), and no information (69.23%). Conclusion Approximately half of the patients with CD reported dietary compliance. Poor or unavailability was found to be the most important barrier contributing to noncompliance. The QOL was better in compliant patients. Proposed strategies to improve compliance are greater availability of gluten-free products, better food labeling, and

  10. Distribution of Human Papillomavirus Genotypes in Iranian Women According to the Severity of the Cervical Lesion

    PubMed Central

    Salehi-Vaziri, Mostafa; Sadeghi, Farzin; Hashemi, Firoozeh Sadat; Haeri, Hayedeh; Bokharaei-Salim, Farah; Monavari, Seyed Hamidreza; Keyvani, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background Persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) has been recognized as a major cause of cervical cancer. Distribution of HPV genotypes may differ according to the geographic region and the severity of the cervical lesion. Determining HPV genotypes’ specific distribution is useful for HPV surveillance and control programs. However, little is known about the distribution of HPV genotypes in Iranian women. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of HPV genotypes in Iranian women with different grades of cervical lesions. Patients and Methods From 2011 to 2013, a total of 436 Iranian women with convenience sampling strategy were included in this cross-sectional study. In detail, 287 women negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy, 32 with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), 50 with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), 44 with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL), and 23 with cervical cancer were evaluated in this investigation. HPV genotypes were determined by INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Extra assay. Results In total, HPV infection was detected in 45.4% of the cases. The most common high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) genotype was HPV-16 (32.8%), followed by HPV-53 (9.1%). Within low-risk (LR-HPV) genotypes HPV-6 (22.2%) and HPV-44 (6.1%) were the most prevalent. HPV-16 was the predominant genotype in cases with cervical cancer (56.5%), ASCUS (34.4%), and HSIL (34.1%). HPV-6 was the most common genotype in normal cases (9.1%) and LSIL patients (18%). The prevalence of HPV positivity was significantly higher in cases with high-grade lesions (≥ HSIL) (64.2%) than in normal/LSIL (37.3%) (P = 0.033). The rate of HR-HPV infection was significantly higher in ≥ HSIL cases (61.2%) than normal/LSIL (27.9%) (P = 0.003). Conclusions This study describes robust information on the distribution of HPV genotypes among Iranian women with and without cervical lesions. The present data

  11. Delayed neurological complications of sulphur mustard and tabun poisoning in 43 Iranian veterans.

    PubMed

    Darchini-Maragheh, Emadodin; Nemati-Karimooy, Habibollah; Hasanabadi, Hosein; Balali-Mood, Mahdi

    2012-12-01

    Delayed neurotoxic complications of chemical warfare agents (CWA), such as sulphur mustard (SM) and tabun, in human beings have not been reported in detail. We thus aimed to investigate possible neurotoxic complications of these agents in Iranian veterans 22-27 years after exposure. After co-ordination with the veteran foundation and obtaining the approval of the medical research ethics committee, 43 Iranian veterans with late complications of CWA exposure during the Iran-Iraq conflict were studied after obtaining signed written informed consent. Demographic and clinical findings were recorded on pre-designed forms. Neurological examination was performed by a neurologist. Routine biochemical tests were performed for all the patients. Electromyography (EMG), nerve conduction velocity (NCV) and electroencephalography (EEG) were carried out as clinically indicated. The majority of the patients (38) had been exposed to SM and only five patients to tabun. Hyperaesthesia was the most objective finding (72.1%). Fatigue (93%), paraesthesia (88.3%) and headache (83.7%) were the most common subjective findings in the patients. Sensory nerve impairments, including paraesthesia (88.3%), hyperaesthesia (72.1%) and hypoesthesia (11.6%), were the most common observed clinical complications. EMG and NCV were impaired in seven patients (16.3%) who were all SM-exposed patients but did not show any significant correlation with organ complications. EEG was negative even in the seized patients. Cholesterol, LDL and triglyceride levels were significantly above the normal ranges. Late neurological complications of CWA, particularly SM poisoning, are considerable even after three decades of exposure and require medical attention. PMID:22762514

  12. TGFBR1 polymorphism and risk of breast cancer in Iranian women.

    PubMed

    Kamali, Elahe; Hemmati, Simin; Safari, Forouzan; Tavassoli, Manoochehr

    2015-01-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies have evaluated the association between transforming growth factor beta receptor type 1 (TGFBR1) polymorphisms and the risk of cancer; however, the results remain inconclusive and controversial. To determine the association between breast cancer risk and the *6A polymorphism of the TGFBR1 gene, a case-control study of 280 breast cancer patients and 280 controls was performed in Iranian women. Our study demonstrates that women who carry the TGFBR1*6A allele are at lower risk of developing breast cancer. The highest protection against breast cancer was observed in 6A/6A homozygotes (OR = 0.32, p = 0.04). A lower frequency of the TGFBR1*6A allele in breast cancer patients may be an important genetic determinant that contributes to a lower risk of breast cancer in Iranian women. The results also showed that the allelic length of TGFBR1 polymorphisms had no significant association with the age at onset or the grade of disease, nor with the expression of progesterone and estrogen receptors and HER2. PMID:26165686

  13. A Revised Iranian Model of Organ Donation as an Answer to the Current Organ Shortage Crisis.

    PubMed

    Hamidian Jahromi, Alireza; Fry-Revere, Sigrid; Bastani, Bahar

    2015-09-01

    Kidney transplantation has become the treatment of choice for patients with end-stage renal disease. Six decades of success in the field of transplantation have made it possible to save thousands of lives every year. Unfortunately, in recent years success has been overshadowed by an ever-growing shortage of organs. In the United States, there are currently more than 100 000 patients waiting for kidneys. However, the supply of kidneys (combined cadaveric and live donations) has stagnated around 17 000 per year. The ever-widening gap between demand and supply has resulted in an illegal black market and unethical transplant tourism of global proportions. While we believe there is much room to improve the Iranian model of regulated incentivized live kidney donation, with some significant revisions, the Iranian Model could serve as an example for how other countries could make significant strides to lessening their own organ shortage crises. PMID:26338158

  14. An Outcome Study of Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion among Iranian Population

    PubMed Central

    Haghnegahdar, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim. First-line treatment strategy for managing cervical disc herniation is conservative measures. In some cases, surgery is indicated either due to signs/symptoms of severe/progressive neurological deficits, or because of persistence of radicular pain despite 12 weeks of conservative treatment. Success for treatment of cervical disc herniation using ACDF has been successfully reported in the literature. We aim to determine the outcome of ACDF in treatment of cervical disc herniation among Iranians. Methods and Materials/Patients. In a retrospective cohort study, we evaluated 68 patients who had undergone ACDF for cervical disc herniation from March 2006 to March 2011. Outcome tools were as follows: (1) study-designed questionnaire that addressed residual and/or new complaints and subjective satisfaction with the operation; (2) recent (one week prior to the interview) postoperative VAS for neck and upper extremity radicular pain; (3) Japanese Orthopaedic Association Myelopathy Evaluation Questionnaire (JOACMEQ) (standard Persian version); and (4) follow-up cervical Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and lateral X-ray. Results. With mean follow-up time of 52.93 (months) ± 31.89 SD (range: 13–131 months), we had success rates with regard to ΔVAS for neck and radicular pain of 88.2% and 89.7%, respectively. Except QOL functional score of JOAMEQ, 100% success rate for the other 4 functional scores of JOAMEQ was achieved. Conclusion. ACDF is a successful surgical technique for the management of cervical disc herniation among Iranian population.

  15. Iranian-Islamic traditional medicine: An ancient comprehensive personalized medicine.

    PubMed

    Zeinalian, Mehrdad; Eshaghi, Mehdi; Naji, Homayoun; Marandi, Sayyed Mohammad Masoud; Sharbafchi, Mohammad Reza; Asgary, Sedigheh

    2015-01-01

    Personalized medicine (PM) is a novel term used for a medical model in which all diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic aspects of a disease are individualized for a patient using specific molecular testing. In Iranian-Islamic traditional medicine (IITM) an ancient paradigm for PM has been described which has been introduced in this paper. We reviewed the ancient resources of IITM and many valid recent studies on personalized medicine and described an ancient feature of personalized medicine in comparison with new ones. According to IITM scholars, every person has an individual temperament which is concluded of four basic humors combination. The individual temper is influenced by internal and external factors such as age, gender, ethnicity, season, and environment. This variability leads to different physical and mental behaviors toward a particular condition; so if we could identify the patient's temper, we would predict his/her health-related behaviors rather than predisposition and prognosis to different diseases, and select the best treatment. This holistic viewpoint of IITM to the human health and disease justifies the variable phenotypes among similar illnesses; the fact around which more advanced high-tech researches are being developed to explore all specific molecular pathways. IITM offers an ancient comprehensive PM (APM) which is more available and inexpensive compared to the modern PM (MPM). Moreover, APM focuses more on fitness than illness in comparison to MPM. It seems more attention to APM introduced by IITM could help us to promote health community. Design studies using high-tech MPM techniques would likely lead to clarification of most molecular aspects of APM. PMID:26605230

  16. Iranian-Islamic traditional medicine: An ancient comprehensive personalized medicine

    PubMed Central

    Zeinalian, Mehrdad; Eshaghi, Mehdi; Naji, Homayoun; Marandi, Sayyed Mohammad Masoud; Sharbafchi, Mohammad Reza; Asgary, Sedigheh

    2015-01-01

    Personalized medicine (PM) is a novel term used for a medical model in which all diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic aspects of a disease are individualized for a patient using specific molecular testing. In Iranian-Islamic traditional medicine (IITM) an ancient paradigm for PM has been described which has been introduced in this paper. We reviewed the ancient resources of IITM and many valid recent studies on personalized medicine and described an ancient feature of personalized medicine in comparison with new ones. According to IITM scholars, every person has an individual temperament which is concluded of four basic humors combination. The individual temper is influenced by internal and external factors such as age, gender, ethnicity, season, and environment. This variability leads to different physical and mental behaviors toward a particular condition; so if we could identify the patient's temper, we would predict his/her health-related behaviors rather than predisposition and prognosis to different diseases, and select the best treatment. This holistic viewpoint of IITM to the human health and disease justifies the variable phenotypes among similar illnesses; the fact around which more advanced high-tech researches are being developed to explore all specific molecular pathways. IITM offers an ancient comprehensive PM (APM) which is more available and inexpensive compared to the modern PM (MPM). Moreover, APM focuses more on fitness than illness in comparison to MPM. It seems more attention to APM introduced by IITM could help us to promote health community. Design studies using high-tech MPM techniques would likely lead to clarification of most molecular aspects of APM. PMID:26605230

  17. Coping Work Strategies and Job Satisfaction Among Iranian Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Ghiyasvandian, Shahrzad; Adera Gebra, Addis

    2014-01-01

    Context: Nursing is a stressful job that could create physical and psychological disorders. Many studies presented information on stress, effects of coping strategies, and job satisfaction of nurses within health setting. We aimed to identify and describe nursing stresses, coping strategies and job satisfaction of Iranian nurses who are working or worked in different wards. Evidence Acquisition: In this review, we studied peer-reviewed journal articles on the field of stress, coping strategies and job satisfaction in nursing practice, especially Iranian nurses, which were published between 2000 and 2013. In this regard, we searched databases of PubMed, Elsevier, Google, BMJ, PMC, and MEDLINE. Results: The majority of the studies (60%) had analyzed the effect of coping strategies, experiences and perception of job-related stresses in Iranian nurses working in hospitals. In some of the reviewed studies (60%), the majority of the samples enrolled Iranian nurses. Forty percent of studies selected a maximum sample size of 565 (44%) participants in 2011. Nursing stress scale employed at 30% of the studies was the most commonly used strategy. This reviewed studies also revealed a combined measurement (60% of studies), based on categorical stress measurement, effects of coping strategies, and job satisfaction methods. Three studies explored the relationship between job stress and job satisfaction. For instance, the majority (74.4%) of nurses reported job satisfaction. Conclusions: Effect of coping strategies and job satisfaction on Iranian nurses is a well-accepted issue and has important positive outcomes on several areas of health discipline. PMID:25068050

  18. Regional Disparities in Sedentary Behaviors and Meal Frequency in Iranian Adolescents: The CASPIAN-III Study

    PubMed Central

    Baygi, Fereshteh; Heshmat, Ramin; Kelishadi, Roya; Mohammadi, Fatemeh; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmail; Ardalan, Gelayol; Asayesh, Hamid; Larijani, Bagher; Qorbani, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of obesity is increasing among Iranian youngsters like other developing countries. Objectives: This study was conducted to assess regional disparities in sedentary behaviors and meal frequency in Iranian adolescents. Patients and Methods: In this national survey, 5682 students aged 10 - 18 years from urban and rural districts of 27 provinces of Iran were selected via stratified multi-stage sampling method. The country was classified into four sub-national regions, based on criteria of the combination of geography and socioeconomic status (SES). Mean of meal frequency and physical activity levels as well as prevalence of omitting meals and sedentary behavior were compared across regions with different SES after stratifying with sex and age group. Results: Meal frequency in lower socio-economic regions was significantly higher than two other regions in 10 - 13 and 10 - 18 years old groups (P trend < 0.001). However, the mean of working hours with computer was linearly increased with increasing the SES in studied regions (P trend < 0.001), whereas the corresponding figure was not significant for the mean of watching TV (P trend > 0.05). Frequency of adolescents omitting their meals was higher in higher SES regions especially in West Iran (P < 0.001) in 10 - 13 years old age group. Having personal computer and working with it more than two hours per day mainly was observed in central Iran which ranked as the highest SES group. Conclusions: Efforts to ensure Iranian youth meet healthy food habits and screen time guidelines include limiting access to screen technologies and encouraging parents to monitor their own screen time is required. PMID:26195993

  19. The frequency of follicle stimulating hormone receptor gene polymorphisms in Iranian infertile men with azoospermia

    PubMed Central

    Gharesi-Fard, Behrouz; Ghasemi, Zahra; Shakeri, Saeed; Behdin, Shabnam; Aghaei, Fatemeh; Malek-Hosseini, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Azoospermia is the medical condition of a man not having any measurable level of sperm in his semen. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is a member of the glycoprotein hormone family that plays an important role in human reproduction because of its essential role in normal spermatogenesis. Various Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) have been reported within FSH receptor (FSHR) gene that may affect the receptor function. Objective: The present study aimed to investigate the correlation between two FSHR SNPs at positions A919G, A2039G, and susceptibility to azoospermia in a group of Iranian azoospermic men. The association between FSH levels within the sera and A919G and A2039G alleles and genotypes were also investigated. Materials and Methods: This case control study was performed on 212 men with azoospermia (126 non-obstructive and 86 obstructive) and 200 healthy Iranian men. Two FSHR gene SNPs were genotyped using PCR-RFLP method. The relationship between FSH levels within the sera and A919G and A2039G alleles and genotypes were also investigated. Results: Statistical analysis indicated that at A919G position, AA genotype and A allele were more frequent in obstructive azoospermia cases compared to non-obstructive or normal men (p=0.001). Regarding A2039G polymorphisms, no significant difference was observed between both azoospermia groups and the controls. The mean level of serum FSH was higher in the non-obstructive men compared to the obstructive patients (23.8 versus 13.8, respectively, p= 0.04). Conclusion: The results of the present study indicated that the genetic polymorphisms in the FSHR gene might increase the susceptibility to azoospermia in Iranian men. PMID:26730241

  20. 31 CFR 560.306 - Iranian-origin goods or services; goods or services owned or controlled by the Government of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Iranian-origin goods or services..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRANIAN TRANSACTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 560.306 Iranian-origin... of Iranian origin and Iranian-origin goods include: (1) Goods grown, produced,...

  1. Patellofemoral pain syndrome in Iranian female athletes.

    PubMed

    Nejati, Parisa; Forogh, Bijan; Moeineddin, Reza; Baradaran, Hamid Reza; Nejati, Mina

    2011-01-01

    Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is the most common overuse syndrome in athletes. It is one of the causes of anterior knee pain in athletic population who come to the sports medicine clinic. Patellofemoral pain is more common among female athletes especially adolescents and young adults. Symptoms include: persistent pain behind the patella or peripatella. Pain increases on ascending and descending stairs and squatting and prolonged sitting. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of PFPS in Iranian female athletes. 418 female athletes aged 15-35 years were examined in five sports: Soccer (190), volleyball (103), running (42), fencing (45) and rock climbing (38). The athletes who had non- traumatic onset anterior knee pain of at least 3 months that increased in descending and ascending stairs and squatting, had no other causes of anterior knee pain such as ligament instability, bursitis, meniscal injury, tendonitis and arthritis and no history of knee surgery during the one past year were diagnosed as PFPS. 26/190 (13.68 %) soccer players, 21/103(20.38 %) volleyball players, 7/42 (16.66 %) runners, 6/45(13.33 %) fencers and 10/38 (26.31%) rock climbers had patellofemoral pain. Among the 418 female athletes who were evaluated 70 had PFPS. Rock climbers were the most common athletes with PFPS followed by volleyball players and runners. PMID:21681705

  2. The Feminisation of Iranian Higher Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shavarini, Mitra K.

    2005-07-01

    The number of women attending institutions of higher education in Iran has been steadily increasing since 1989. Growing enrollment rates for women in colleges and universities have sparked wide social and political debates in that country. The basic question of why young Iranian women might even choose to pursue tertiary education, however, has not been adequately addressed in the critical literature. This study gives voice to young women who explain for themselves why they are interested in higher education. It reveals that college or university studies represent for female students many things: a sphere of hope, a refuge, and a place to experience limited freedom beyond restrictive family environments; an asset that can increase a woman's value in the marriage market; a right that may make possible financial independence; and a vehicle that can earn respect for women. On the whole, the desire for higher education illuminates the challenges facing women in Muslim nations and the ways in which Muslim women are using this institution to change their social status.

  3. Patience and Mental Health in Iranian Students

    PubMed Central

    Aghababaei, Naser; Tabik, Mohammad Taghi

    2015-01-01

    Background: While the role of some personality traits has been comprehensively explored, scientific study of others, such as patience has been neglected. Psychologists have paid scant attention to patience as a personality trait, character strength or virtue. Objectives: The current study examined the relationship between patience and life satisfaction, mental health, and personality. Materials and Methods: A sample of 252 Iranian college students (129 females and 123 males) completed the 3-factor patience scale, satisfaction with life scale, general health questionnaire, anxiety and depression scales and mini international personality item pool-big five. Results: The three types of patience (interpersonal, life hardship, and daily hassles) were associated with higher levels of life satisfaction and lower levels of depression, anxiety and psychological dysfunction. Patience also showed moderate relationship with the Big-Five factors of personality. After controlling the personality factors, patience managed to explain additional unique variance in life satisfaction and mental health indicators. Conclusions: Patience is a unique predictor of mental well-being. It is suggested that long-term patience is more important for depression and general health, whereas short-term patience is more beneficial for hedonic well-being. PMID:26576165

  4. Attitudes of Iranian infertile couples toward surrogacy

    PubMed Central

    Kian, Ensiyeh Mohebbi; Riazi, Hedieh; Bashirian, Saeid

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Surrogacy arrangements are multifaceted in nature, involving multiple controversial aspects and engaging ethical, moral, psychological and social issues. Successful treatment in reproductive medicine is strongly based on the mutual agreement of both partners, especially in Iran where men often make the final decision for health-related problems of this nature. AIM: The aim of the following study is to assess the attitudes of Iranian infertile couples toward surrogacy. SETTING AND DESIGN: This descriptive study was conducted at the infertility clinic of Hamadan university of medical sciences, Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study sample consisted of 150 infertile couples selected using a systematic randomized method. Data collection was based on responses to a questionnaire consisting of 22 questions. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: P <0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. RESULTS: While 33.3% of men and 43.3% of women surveyed insisted on not using surrogacy, the overall attitudes toward surrogacy were positive (53.3% of women and 54.6% of men surveyed). CONCLUSION: Although, there was not a significant difference between the overall positive attitudes of infertile women and men toward surrogacy, the general attitude toward using this method is not strongly positive. Therefore, further efforts are required to increase the acceptability of surrogacy among infertile couples. PMID:24829531

  5. Challenges of Implementing Iranian National Laboratory Standards

    PubMed Central

    Safadel, N; Dahim, P; Anjarani, S; Rahnamaye Farzami, M; Samiee, S Mirab; Amini, R; Farsi, Sh; Mahdavi, S; Khodaverdian, K; Rashed Marandi, F

    2013-01-01

    After four years of publishing the Iranian National Laboratory Standard and following a strategic plan to implement its requirements, it was decided to review the taken actions, evaluating the achievements and the failures, as well as analyzing the gaps and planning the interventional activities to resolve the problems. A thorough evaluation revealed that the progress of implementation process varies considerably in different provinces, as well as in laboratories in different public and private sectors. Diversity and heterogeneousity of laboratories throughout the country is one of unresolvable problems. Although we encounter shortage of resources in the country, improper allocation or distribution of resources and budgets make the problems more complicated. Inadequacy of academic training in laboratory sciences has resulted in necessity of holding comprehensive post-graduate training courses. Revising academic curriculum of laboratory sciences could be mostly helpful, moreover there should be organized, training courses with pre-determined practical topics. providing specific technical guidelines, to clarify the required technical details could temporarily fill the training gaps of laboratory staff. Inadequate number of competent auditors was one of the difficulties in universities. Another important challenge returns to laboratory equipment, developing the national controlling system to manage the laboratory equipment in terms of quality and accessibility has been planned in RHL. At last cultural problems and resistance to change are main obstacles that have reduced the pace of standardization, it needs to rationalize the necessity of establishing laboratory standards for all stakeholders. PMID:23865029

  6. Quality measurement indicators for Iranian Health Centers

    PubMed Central

    Moslehi, Shandiz; Atefi Manesh, Pezhman; Sarabi Asiabar, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recently, quality is a serious concern in development of organizations. There are various indicators to assess quality and the purpose of this study was to identify the main indicators for quality measurement of Iranian health centers. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted in three stages: first, review of the literature was performed to identify different indicators for quality measurement in health centers; second, a tworound Delphi process was used with participation of 18 experts in both rounds; third, Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method was applied to give weights to each indicator. Results: Twenty-seven indicators were identified from the literature review stage. The Delphi method reduced the list to 4 indicators. Developing a quality plan in the health center had the highest weight (38%) and percentage of followed complaints the lowest (12%). The consistency rate was 7.2% indicating appropriateness of the data. Conclusion: This list of indicators can be used as a template for measuring quality of health centers in Iran and possibly in other developing countries. PMID:26034730

  7. Designing an Electronic Personal Health Record for Professional Iranian Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Abdolkhani, Robab; Halabchi, Farzin; Safdari, Reza; Dargahi, Hossein; Shadanfar, Kamran

    2014-01-01

    Background: By providing sports organizations with electronic records and instruments that can be accessed at any time or place, specialized care can be offered to athletes regardless of injury location, and this makes the follow-up from first aid through to full recovery more efficient. Objectives: The aim of this study was to develop an electronic personal health record for professional Iranian athletes. Patients and Methods: First, a comparative study was carried out on the types of professional athletes’existing handheld and electronic health information management systems currently being used in Iran and leading countries in the field of sports medicine including; Australia, Canada and the United States. Then a checklist was developed containing a minimum dataset of professional athletes’ personal health records and distributed to the people involved, who consisted of 50 specialists in sports medicine and health information management, using the Delphi method. Through the use of data obtained from this survey, a basic paper model of professional athletes' personal health record was constructed and then an electronic model was created accordingly. Results: Access to information in the electronic record was through a web-based, portal system. The capabilities of this system included: access to information at any time and location, increased interaction between the medical team, comprehensive reporting and effective management of injuries, flexibility and interaction with financial, radiology and laboratory information systems. Conclusions: It is suggested that a framework should be created to promote athletes’ medical knowledge and provide the education necessary to manage their information. This would lead to improved data quality and ultimately promote the health of community athletes. PMID:25741410

  8. How Does a Group of Iranian Youth Conceptualize Their Risky Sexual Experiences?

    PubMed Central

    Noroozi, Mahnaz; Merghati Khoei, Effat-al-Sadat; Taleghani, Fariba; Tavakoli, Mahgol; Gholami, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: There are restrictions as well as lawful and religious prohibition for sexual relationships in Iranian society. Objectives: This study explores the varied experiential reality of Iranian youth and their risky sexual experiences. Patients and Methods: Data collection is based on semi-structured interviews with 30 single young men and women. Observation of interactions of youth in different settings has been another source of information. Interviews were microscopically content analyzed. Results: The accounts of risky sexual experiences included gendered behavioral, cultural, and cognitive factors. In the re-contextualizing process, these accounts were categorized by two main themes: “gendered sexual script” and “cultural scenarios of interpersonal interactions”. The notion of “male power” was evident in the responses provided by the participants. Women seldom asked for condom use due to limited knowledge about STIs-HIV/AIDS and unpleasant experiences with condoms. Men had limited knowledge about various sexual modes of HIV and STIs transmission and did not use condoms consistently because they had not seen themselves at risk of STIs or HIV as well as their belief about the decrease of sexual pleasure. Conclusions: Rising youth awareness, creating a positive attitude, and appropriate knowledge about safe sex practices are seminal. It is also vital to ensure access to gender specific sexual and reproductive health services for youths, empower women, and strengthen their sexual assertiveness as well as the elimination of all forms of gender-based inequalities. PMID:25838931

  9. Cerebrovascular Dysfunction in Preeclamptic Pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Erica S.; Cipolla, Marilyn J.

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a hypertensive, multi-system disorder of pregnancy that affects several organ systems, including the maternal brain. Cerebrovascular dysfunction during preeclampsia can lead to cerebral edema, seizures, stroke and potentially maternal mortality. This review will discuss the effects of preeclampsia on the cerebrovasculature that may adversely affect the maternal brain, including cerebral blood flow (CBF) autoregulation and blood-brain barrier disruption, and the resultant clinical outcomes including posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) and maternal stroke. Potential long-term cognitive outcomes of preeclampsia and the role of the cerebrovasculature are also reviewed. PMID:26126779

  10. Analysis of novel mutations in BRCA1 in Iranian families with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Sadr-Nabavi, Ariane; Dastpak, Mahtab; Homaei-Shandiz, Fatemeh; Bahrami, Ahmad Reza; Bidkhori, Hamid-Reza; Raeesolmohaddeseen, Mahmood

    2014-06-01

    In Iran and the rest of the world, breast cancer (BC) is the most common malignancy in women. Familial history and age are significant risk factors for the development of this disease in Iran. Most hereditary BCs are associated with inherited mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Some recent studies demonstrated that BRCA1 mutations are seen in high-risk women with family histories of BC. In this report we investigated all BRCA1 exons from 40 female patients with family histories of BC and one BC twin, and report a novel mutation in this gene in one patient. As controls, BRCA1 exons from 100 normal women and the BC-free twin of the BC twin were also examined for this mutation. None of the women in the normal group harbored the mutation. Whether this variation is specific for the Iranian population or for special subgroups remains to be determined. PMID:25041116

  11. Laboratory Diagnosis of Factor XIII Deficiency in Developing Countries: An Iranian Experience.

    PubMed

    Dorgalaleh, Akbar; Tabibian, Shadi; Shams, Mahmood; Tavasoli, Behnaz; Gheidishahran, Maryam; Shamsizadeh, Morteza

    2016-08-01

    Factor XIII (FXIII) deficiency is an extremely rare bleeding disorder with an approximately 12-times higher than the rest of the world. The International Society for Thrombosis and Hemostasis (ISTH) suggested a standard algorithm for precise diagnosis and classification of FXIII deficiency (FXIIID). However, due to lack of investment in proper equipment and procedures in Iran, almost no part of this algorithm can be used to diagnose Iranian patients. Thus, this study proposes a guideline for accurate molecular and laboratory diagnosis of FXIIID based on the available tools. Because this study suggests a simple and reliable algorithm for early diagnosis, it can therefore, reduce the rates of morbidity and mortality of FXIIID patients with this condition. PMID:27346867

  12. Travel for transplantation in iran: pros and cons regarding Iranian model.

    PubMed

    Ossareh, Shahrzad; Broumand, Behrooz

    2015-04-01

    Transplant tourism is one of the main unacceptable aspects of medical tourism, implicating travel to another country to receive an allograft. Organ shortages in wealthier countries have persuaded patients to preclude organ waiting lists and travel to other countries for getting organs especially kidneys. On the other hand, in many countries, there is no transplant program, and hemodialysis is expensive. Hence, patients with end-stage kidney disease may have to travel to get a kidney allograft for the sake of their lives. In Iran, a legal compensated and regulated living unrelated donor kidney transplant program has been adopted since 1988, in which recipients are matched with liveunrelated donors through the Iran Kidney Foundation and the recipients are compensated dually by the government and the recipient. In this model regulations were adopted to prevent transplant tourism: foreigners were not allowed to receive a kidney from Iranian donors or donate a kidney to Iranian patients; however, they could be transplanted from donors of their own nationality, after full medical workup, with the authorization of the Ministry of Health. This was first considered as a humanitarian assistance to patients of the countries with no transplant program and limited and low quality dialysis. However, the policy of "foreign nationality transplant" gradually established a spot where residents of many countries, where living-unrelated donor transplant was illegal, could bring their donors and be transplanted mainly in private hospitals, with high incentives for the transplant teams. By June 2014, six hundred eight foreign nationality kidney transplants were authorized by Ministry of Health for citizens for 17 countries. In this review, we examine the negative aspects of transplant for foreign citizens in Iran and the reasons that changed "travel for transplant" to "transplant tourism " in our country and finally led us to stop the program after more than 10 years. PMID:25894134

  13. Seismic Waveform Tomography of the Iranian Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggi, A.; Priestley, K.; Jackson, J.

    2001-05-01

    Surprisingly little is known about the detailed velocity structure of Iran, despite the region's importance in the tectonics of the Middle East. Previous studies have concentrated mainly on fundamental mode surface wave dispersion measurements along isolated paths (e.g.~Asudeh, 1982; Cong & Mitchell, 1998; Ritzwoller et.~al, 1998), and the propagation characteristics of crust and upper mantle body waves (e.g. Hearn & Ni 1994; Rodgers et.~al 1997). We use the partitioned waveform inversion method of Nolet (1990) on several hundred regional waveforms crossing the Iranian region to produce a 3-D seismic velocity map for the crust and upper mantle of the area. The method consists of using long period seismograms from earthquakes with well determined focal mechanisms and depths to constrain 1-D path-averaged shear wave models along regional paths. The constraints imposed on the 1-D models by the seismograms are then combined with independent constraints from other methods (e.g.~Moho depths from reciever function analysis etc.), to solve for the 3-D seismic velocity structure of the region. A dense coverage of fundamental mode rayleigh waves at a period of 100~s ensures good resolution of lithospheric scale structure. We also use 20~s period fundamental mode rayleigh waves and some Pnl wavetrains to make estimates of crustal thickness variations and average crustal velocities. A few deeper events give us some coverage of higher mode rayleigh waves and mantle S waves, which sample to the base of the upper mantle. Our crustal thickness estimates range from 45~km in the southern Zagros mountains, to 40~km in central Iran and 35~km towards the north of the region. We also find inconsistencies between the 1-D models required to fit the vertical and the tranverse seismograms, indicating the presence of anisotropy.

  14. Coping Strategies of Iranian Elderly Women: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagheri-Nesami, Masoumeh; Rafii, Forough; Oskouie, Seyede Fatemeh H.

    2010-01-01

    Successful aging is a process through which older people actively deal with their age-related changes. This study, as a part of more extensive research, explored and describes coping strategies used by Iranian elderly women in response to age-related changes. Grounded theory was used as method. Nineteen participates were recruited. The…

  15. Iranian Students' Performance on the IELTS: A Question of Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghaemi, Farid; Daftarifard, Parisa; Shirkhani, Servat

    2011-01-01

    Reading comprehension has won much effort on the part of teachers, testers, and researchers in Iran due to the fact that the immediate need of Iranian students at different university levels is the ability to read in order to get new information on the topic they are studying. The question raised is how much reading practice can move learners…

  16. Iranian Journal of Language Studies (IJLS). Volume 1, Issue 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Iranian Journal of Language Studies (IJLS) is devoted to all areas of language and linguistics. Its aim is to present work of current interest in all areas of language study. No particular linguistic theories or scientific trends are favored: scientific quality and scholarly standing are the only criteria applied in the selection of papers…

  17. A Model for Implementing E-Learning in Iranian Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghaeni, Emad; Abdehagh, Babak

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the current status of information and communications technology (ICT) usage and provides a comprehensive outlook on e-learning in both virtual universities and organizations in Iran. A model for e-learning implementation is presented. This model tries to address specific issues in Iranian organizations. (Contains 1 table and 2…

  18. Female Empowerment in Iran: The Voice of Iranian University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fereidouni, Somayeh; Mehran, Golmar; Mansourian, Yasdan

    2015-01-01

    In line with global trends, the rate of Iranian female students' enrolment in higher education has increased. However, some policy makers have been concerned about this and without considering the female voice, they have implemented strategies to balance the labour market, which has led to a decrease in female students in certain majors. The…

  19. Studying the Impacts of Globalization on Iranian Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chahardahcheriki, Mitra Abdolahi; Shahi, Sakine

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the degree of globalization of important indicators of education system in Iran including teaching approaches, educational tools and facilities, curriculums and contents, and education management. Findings suggest that the situation of Iranian education system has some distance with the globalized level and…

  20. Integrating CALL into an Iranian EAP Course: Constraints and Affordances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehran, Parisa; Alizadeh, Mehrasa

    2015-01-01

    Iranian universities have recently displayed a growing interest in integrating Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) into teaching/learning English. The English for Academic Purposes (EAP) context, however, is not keeping pace with the current changes since EAP courses are strictly text-based and exam-oriented, and little research has thus…

  1. Iranian Journal of Language Studies (IJLS). Volume 1, Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmani-Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Iranian Journal of Language Studies (IJLS) is a quarterly journal devoted to all areas of language and linguistics. Its aim is to present work of current interest in all areas of language study. No particular linguistic theories or scientific trends are favored: scientific quality and scholarly standing are the only criteria applied in the…

  2. A Historical Overview of Iranian Music Pedagogy (1905-2014)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastaninezhad, Arya

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the recent developments and changes concerning Iranian music education from the constitutional revolution of 1905 to 2014. This concentrates on the five major chronological events referred to as Nationalism, Modernism, Conservatism, Neo-Traditionalism (Shirin-navazi) and Revivalism of the Traditions. This provides a source of…

  3. Iranian Dietary Patterns and Risk of Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Azizi, Hosein; Asadollahi, Khairollah; Davtalab Esmaeili, Elham; Mirzapoor, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Role of diet on colorectal cancer (CRC) has been considered in terms of single foods and nutrients, but less frequently in terms of dietary patterns in Iran. The objective of this study was to determine the association between Iranian dietary patterns and CRC. Methods: This case–control study was conducted in four hospitals in Tabriz City of Iran including 414 participants aged 35–75 years:207 cases with CRC confirmed by pathology and colonoscopy findings were selected and 207 controls free of neoplastic conditions and diet-related chronic diseases (from the same hospital at the same period for the cases). Dietary data were assessed using a 123-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Two dietary patterns were found by using of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) method;“Healthy pattern”and “Iranian pattern”. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (OR) for relationship between dietary patterns and colorectal cancer. Results: After adjusting for confounding factors, the Iranian dietary pattern was significantly associated with an increased odds of colorectal cancer (OR= 1.46; 95% Confidenec Interval (CI)=1.05–2.19) while a reduced odds of colorectal cancer was observed with the Healthy dietary pattern (OR=0.18; 95% CI= 0.091-0.47). Conclusion: Iranian dietary pattern (IDP) seems to increase the odds of colorectal cancer and protective effect of Healthy dietary pattern. PMID:26000248

  4. Multiple Intelligences Theory and Iranian Textbooks: An Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taase, Yoones

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate locally designed ELT textbooks in the light of multiple intelligences theory. Three textbooks (grade 1.2.3) used in guidance school of Iranian educational system were analyzed using MI checklist developed by Botelho, Mario do Rozarioand. Catered for kinds of intelligences in the activities and exercises…

  5. Construct Validity of MSRT Reading Comprehension Module in Iranian Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sichani, Elham Fallahian; Tabatabaei, Omid

    2015-01-01

    Many researchers were interested in validity of the language proficiency tests in the previous decades. The present study aims to study the construct validity of the Ministry of Science, Research, and Technology Reading Comprehension module (MSRT) in the Iranian context. After administering a standard language proficiency test (OPT) 65…

  6. Emotional Intelligence Moderates Perfectionism and Test Anxiety among Iranian Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdollahi, Abbas; Abu Talib, Mansor

    2015-01-01

    Test anxiety is one of the common forms of anxiety for students. Thus, it is necessary to improve our knowledge regarding the etiology of test anxiety. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between perfectionism, emotional intelligence, and test anxiety among Iranian students. This study also was conducted to test emotional…

  7. Common Error Types of Iranian Learners of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nezami, Ali; Najafi, Mousa Sadraie

    2012-01-01

    This paper aimed at obtaining a clear understanding of Iranian EFL learners' L2 writing error types. To develop such an understanding, a research question was formulated to see whether there is any significant difference between the participants' language proficiency level and their error types in writing. To this end, a sample version of the…

  8. 77 FR 75845 - Iranian Transactions and Sanctions Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ...The Department of the Treasury's Office of Foreign Assets Control (``OFAC'') is amending the Iranian Transactions and Sanctions Regulations (the ``ITSR'') to implement section 218 and portions of sections 602 and 603 of the Iran Threat Reduction and Syria Human Rights Act of 2012; section 5, portions of section 6, and other related provisions of Executive Order 13622 of July 30, 2012; and......

  9. Vocabulary Learning Strategies of Iranian Upper-Intermediate EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khatib, Mohammad; Hassanzadeh, Mohammad; Rezaei, Saeed

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the preferred vocabulary learning strategies of Iranian upper-intermediate EFL learners. In order to identify the aforementioned group in terms of language proficiency, a TOEFL test was administered to a population of 146 undergraduate EFL students at the university of Vali-e-Asr in Rafsanjan, Iran. Those scoring above 480 were…

  10. Voices from the Voiceless: Iranian EFL Students' Attitudes toward English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghavamnia, Maedeh; Ketabi, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Some recent research has focused on the students' silence and inviting more student voice. This paper investigated the reasons behind Iranian undergraduate students' silence in English classes and stepped further to give voice to those students' attitudes toward English with the belief that inviting and including student voice could improve the…

  11. Feasibility of Adopting English-Medium Instruction at Iranian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghorbani, Mohammad Reza; Alavi, Sahar Zahed

    2014-01-01

    This study was an attempt to explore the potential possibilities of implementing English as the medium of instruction (EMI) at Iranian universities. The sequential exploratory mixed methods design was used to collect the perspectives of both students and content-area lecturers at the state University of Bojnord through e-mail interviews and survey…

  12. The Status of Pragmatics among Iranian EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammad-Bagheri, Mehri

    2015-01-01

    The present study attempted to investigate the status of pragmatics among Iranian EFL learners. Status of pragmatics was analyzed in terms of the amount of pragmatic knowledge EFL learners believed to have and the amount of pragmatic knowledge they believed to receive from teachers, classmates, course books, and exams. Additionally, attempts were…

  13. Iranian Journal of Language Studies (IJLS). Volume 1, Issue 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Iranian Journal of Language Studies (IJLS) is devoted to all areas of language and linguistics. Its aim is to present work of current interest in all areas of language study. No particular linguistic theories or scientific trends are favored: scientific quality and scholarly standing are the only criteria applied in the selection of papers…

  14. Iranian Journal of Language Studies (IJLS). Volume 2, Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmani-Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    "Iranian Journal of Language Studies" ("IJLS") is devoted to all areas of language and linguistics. Its aim is to present work of current interest in all areas of language study. No particular linguistic theories or scientific trends are favored: scientific quality and scholarly standing are the only criteria applied in the selection of papers…

  15. Iranian Journal of Language Studies (IJLS). Volume 2, Issue 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmani-Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    Iranian Journal of Language Studies (IJLS) is devoted to all areas of language and linguistics. Its aim is to present work of current interest in all areas of language study. No particular linguistic theories or scientific trends are favored: scientific quality and scholarly standing are the only criteria applied in the selection of papers…

  16. Iranian Journal of Language Studies (IJLS). Volume 1, Issue 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmani-Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Iranian Journal of Language Studies" ("IJLS") is a quarterly journal devoted to all areas of language and linguistics. Its aim is to present work of current interest in all areas of language study. No particular linguistic theories or scientific trends are favored: scientific quality and scholarly standing are the only criteria applied in the…

  17. Iranian Journal of Language Studies (IJLS). Volume 2, Issue 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmani-Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    Iranian Journal of Language Studies (IJLS) is devoted to all areas of language and linguistics. Its aim is to present work of current interest in all areas of language study. No particular linguistic theories or scientific trends are favored: scientific quality and scholarly standing are the only criteria applied in the selection of papers…

  18. An Empirical Investigation of Entrepreneurship Intensity in Iranian State Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazdeh, Mohammad Mahdavi; Razavi, Seyed-Mostafa; Hesamamiri, Roozbeh; Zahedi, Mohammad-Reza; Elahi, Behin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to propose a framework to evaluate the entrepreneurship intensity (EI) of Iranian state universities. In order to determine EI, a hybrid multi-method framework consisting of Delphi, Analytic Network Process (ANP), and VIKOR is proposed. The Delphi method is used to localize and reduce the number of criteria extracted…

  19. Error Analysis in Composition of Iranian Lower Intermediate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taghavi, Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    Learners make errors during the process of learning languages. This study examines errors in writing task of twenty Iranian lower intermediate male students aged between 13 and 15. A subject was given to the participants was a composition about the seasons of a year. All of the errors were identified and classified. Corder's classification (1967)…

  20. Ethnographic Households and Archaeological Interpretations: A Case from Iranian Kurdistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Carol

    1982-01-01

    Shows how archaeological interpretation based strictly on the evidence of architectural remains may lead to inaccurate conclusions about social patterns in extinct societies. An ethnographic study of an Iranian Kurdish village is used to illustrate the possible variations of residential social relationships within buildings with similar…

  1. Medicinal Herbs Affecting Gray Hair in Iranian Traditional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Rameshk, Maryam; Khandani, Shahram Kalantari; Raeiszadeh, Mahboobeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: The presence of hair plays an important role in people’s overall physical appearance and self-perception. As a result of increased life expectancy, the desire to look youthful plays a bigger role than ever.The use of medicinal plants is as old as mankind and the market will face many new products containing natural oils and herbs in coming years. In traditional Iranian medicine, many plants and herbal formulations are reported for hair growth as well as the improvement in hair quality. The aim of this article is to introduce effective medicinal plants in traditional Iranian medicine to prevent gray hair and advocate them as the new products. Methods: The present investigation is an overview study and has been codified by library search in the main sources of traditional Iranian medicine. Results: In traditional Iranian medicine, three types of formulations are proposed to prevent gray hair, namely (i) treatment compounds, (ii) preventive compounds, and (iii) hair dyes to color gray hairs. Our search showed that the main parts of a plant that is used in the treatment and preventive compounds are seeds and fruits. These are primarily in the form of topical oil or oral compound (electuary). The majority of plant parts used in hair dyes is from the fruit and/or leaves. Conclusion: Natural products are highly popular and the use of plant extracts in formulations is on the rise. This is because synthetic based product may cause health hazards with several side effects. Considering the increased popularity of herbal drugs in hair care, it is worthwhile to conduct systemic investigation on the production and efficacy of these drugs. We trust that our investigation would encourage the use of traditional Iranian medicine in future hair care products. PMID:27516675

  2. Perception of Alzheimer Disease in Iranian Traditional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Saifadini, Rostam; Tajadini, Haleh; Choopani, Rasool; Mehrabani, Mitra; Kamalinegad, Mohamad; Haghdoost, Aliakbar

    2016-01-01

    Context: Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia. In regards to the world’s aging population, control and treatment of AD will be one of the major concerns of global public health in the next century. Alzheimer disease was not mentioned with the same phrase or its equivalent in traditional medical texts. The main of present paper was to investigate symptoms and causes of alzheimer disease from the view point of Iranian traditional medicine. Evidence Acquisition: In this qualitative study, we searched reliable sources of Iranian traditional medicine such as Canon of Medicide by Avicenna (Al-Quanon fi- tibb), Aghili cure by Aghili’s (Molajat-E-aghili), Tib-E-Akbari, Exire -E-Aazam and Sharh-E-Asbab and some reliable resources of neurology were probed base on keywords to find a disease that had the most overlap in terms of symptoms with alzheimer disease. By taking from the relevant materials, the extracted texts were compared and analyzed. Results: Findings showed that alzheimer disease has the most overlap with Nesyan (fisad-e-zekr, fisad-e-fekr and fisad-e-takhayol) symptoms in Iranian traditional medicine. Although this is not a perfect overlap and there are causes, including coldness and dryness of the brain or coldness and wetness that could also lead to alzheimer disease according to Iranian traditional medicine. Conclusions: According to Iranian traditional medicine, The brain dystemperement is considered the main causes of alzheimer disease. By correcting the brain dystemperement, alzheimer can be well managed. This study helps to suggest a better strategy for preventing and treating alzheimer in the future. PMID:27247784

  3. Association study of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase A1298C mutation with cerebral venous thrombosis risk in an Iranian population

    PubMed Central

    Habib, Ghaznavi; Zahra, Soheili; Shahram, Samiei; Soltanpour, Mohammad Soleiman

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is an uncommon condition characterized by severe clinical manifestations and high mortality rate. There is limited data on the role of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) A1298C mutation as a risk factor for CVT development in Iranians. Aim: The aim was to investigate a possible association between fasting plasma homocysteine (Hcy) levels, MTHFR A1298C mutation, and CVT in Iranian population. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 50 patients with a diagnosis of CVT (20–63 years old) and 75 healthy subjects (18–65 years old) as control. Genotyping of the MTHFR A1298C mutation and Hcy measurement was carried out by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique and enzyme immunoassay method, respectively. Results: Fasting plasma total Hcy levels were significantly higher in CVT patients than controls (P = 0.015). No significant differences were observed in the MTHFR A1298C genotypes frequency between CVT patients and controls (P > 0.05). The frequency of the 1298C allele was 36% and 37.5% in CVT patients and controls, respectively and did not differ significantly between the two groups (P = 0.16). Conclusions: Our study demonstrated that MTHFR A1298Cmutation is not a significant risk factor for CVT. PMID:26539365

  4. Polymorphic AAAG repeat length in estrogen-related receptor gamma (ERRγ) and risk of breast cancer in Iranian women.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Padideh; Hematti, Simin; Safari, Foruzan; Tavassoli, Manoochehr

    2013-11-01

    Estrogen-related receptors (ERRs) alpha, beta, and gamma are orphan nuclear receptors that modulate the estrogen signaling pathway and play roles in the regulation of breast cancer cell growth. To determine the association between breast cancer risk and alleles of the tetranucleotide repeat (AAAG)n in the intron of ERRγ gene, a case-control study of 200 breast cancer patients and 200 controls was performed in Iranian women. Our results demonstrate that women with short AAAG repeat are at higher risk of breast cancer (OR 7). This result suggests a possible involvement of polymorphic AAAG repeat of ERRγ gene in regulating its expression. PMID:24125170

  5. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30): translation and validation study of the Iranian version.

    PubMed

    Montazeri, A; Harirchi, I; Vahdani, M; Khaleghi, F; Jarvandi, S; Ebrahimi, M; Haji-Mahmoodi, M

    1999-11-01

    The objective of this study was to test the reliability and validity of the Iranian version of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ-C30). The English-language version of the questionnaire was translated into Persian (Iranian language), and its final form was approved by the EORTC Study Group on Quality of Life before it was used in this study. The questionnaire was administered at two time points to a consecutive sample of 168 newly diagnosed breast cancer patients, and almost all of them (99%) found the questions easy to understand and acceptable. Crohnbach's alpha coefficient for multi-item scales (to test reliability) ranged from 0.48 to 0.95 at baseline and from 0.52 to 0.98 at follow-up administration of the questionnaire. Validity was checked using two methods: inter-scale correlation and known-groups comparison. Almost all inter-scale correlations were statistically significant in the expected direction. Known-groups comparison analysis showed that all functioning and symptom scales discriminated between subgroups of patients differing in clinical status as defined by their performance status and disease stage. In general, the findings of this study indicate that the Iranian version of the EORTC QLQ-C30 is a reliable and valid measure of quality of life in cancer patients and can be used in clinical trials and studies of outcome research in oncology. PMID:10541982

  6. Investigating Knowledge and Attitude of Nursing Students Towards Iranian Traditional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Khorasgani, Sahar Rabani; Moghtadaie, Leila

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed at Investigating the knowledge and attitude of Nursing Students towards Iranian Traditional Medicine in universities of Tehran in 2012-2013. 300 students of nursing studying at different universities in Tehran participated in this descriptive, cross-sectional study. The data was collected through a standard questionnaire with an acceptable validity and reliability. The questionnaire was made of five sections including demographic, general knowledge of the Iranian traditional medicine, general attitude towards it, resources of the Iranian traditional medicine and the barriers to it. The results revealed that general knowledge of the students about Iranian traditional medicine and complementary medicine is low. The attitude of the students towards including Iranian traditional medicine and complementary medicine in their curriculum is positive. General attitude of students towards Iranian traditional medicine is positive too. The majority of the participants had not passed any course on Iranian traditional medicine. There was no relationship between participants’ attitude towards Iranian traditional medicine and the number of semesters they had passed. Considering the participants’ positive attitude and their low level of knowledge, it seems necessary for the university policy makers to provide nursing students with different training courses on Iranian traditional medicine and complementary medicine in order to increase their knowledge. PMID:25363119

  7. Bladder Tumor in Women with Microscopic Hematuria: An Iranian Experience and a Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Abbaszadeh, Shahin; Taheri, Saeed; Nourbala, Mohammad Hossein

    2009-01-01

    Aim. In this study we report our experience with microhematuria and its relation with bladder tumors in Iranian women. Materials and Methods. Overall 249 women were evaluated. Microscopic hematuria was defined as three or more red blood cells per high-power field on at least two different occasions. Patients with a history of gross hematuria or coagulation disorders, having organic diseases, urinary stones, urinary tract infections, nephrological diseases, and local lesions such as urethral caruncle were excluded from the study population. Final diagnosis of malignant tumors was done with cystoscopy and biopsy specimen pathological assessment in all cases. Results. Age for the study population was 49.7 ± 11.8 years. 95 (38%) of patients were identified during routine check up and presenting symptoms in other patients were frequency, dysuria, stress urge incontinence, urge incontinence, feeling of incomplete urine emptying, and flunk pain, respectively. Finally, 7 (2.8%) of study subjects were confirmed as having bladder tumors. One of tumor cases was diagnosed 24 months after initial assessments. Patients with bladder tumor were significantly older; more frequently had diverticulum in their bladder wall (P < .05). Conclusion. Female microscopic hematuria is relevant and deserves evaluations, especially in elderly patients. Patients whose reason for microhematuria would not be diagnosed at the initial evaluations should be followed. PMID:19639044

  8. Root-Crown Ratio in Permanent Dentition Using Panoramic Radiography in a Selected Iranian Population

    PubMed Central

    Haghanifar, Sina; Moudi, Ehsan; Abbasi, Shirin; Bijani, Ali; Poorsattar Bejeh Mir, Arash; Ghasemi, Nafiseh

    2014-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: Determining the crown-root ratio is crucial in many dental clinical decisions. There are no reliable data presented for Iranian population. Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the root-crown ratio of permanent teeth with regards to the relationship of gender and jaw type using panoramic radiographs. The reliability of method was also assessed. Materials and Method: The crown and root lengths of teeth were measured by a digital caliper on panoramic radiographs of 185 individuals except for the third molars. A total of 1994 teeth was studied and 50.8% of the teeth belonged to males and 49.2% belonged to females. The modified Lind method was applied. Results: The highest mean root-crown ratios in both arches of both genders were obtained in the second premolars, followed by the first premolars and canines. In both genders, the lowest root-crown ratios were found in the maxillary central incisors. In male patients, the mean root-crown ratio was higher (p= 0.003) than that of females. Using Bland-Altman analysis, a non-significant difference of 0.006 (95% CI: -0.012-0.024) and 0.0002 (95% CI: -0.011-0.011) were found for intra-observer and inter-observer agreement, respectively. Conclusion: Assessment of the root-crown ratio in permanent dentition could be performed on panoramic radiographs with acceptable reproducibility in an Iranian Population. Considering observed differences, our findings suggest that for the accurate assessment, this ratio must be calculated for male and female patients and also for the upper and lower jaws, separately. PMID:25469356

  9. Antimicrobial resistance pattern of bacterial isolates from burn wounds in an Iranian University Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Sabzghabaee, Ali Mohammad; Abedi, Daryoush; Fazeli, Hossein; Javadi, Abbasali; Jalali, Mohammad; Maracy, Mohammad Reza; Soltani, Rasool; Karamyafti, Mohammad Javad

    2012-01-01

    Objective: About 73% of death cases in the first 5 days after burning are due to infection complications. The aim of this study was to identify the causing agents of infections in burn patients and the sensitivity pattern of them to the commonly used antimicrobials in an Iranian Burn center University Hospital. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, patients who were admitted to one of the Iranian Burn center University hospitals in 2009 and had nosocomial infection due to burn wound, whom received antimicrobial agents for therapeutic reasons, with a hospitalization period of more than 48 hours were enrolled. Gram stain analyses were performed to help identifying growing colonies. Differential tests for identification of pathogenic bacteria species were performed following primary tests. E-test strips of each antimicrobial were placed on the culture medium plate in order to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration Studied antimicrobials for isolated Gram-negative bacteria were meropenem, piperacillin/tazobactam, ceftriaxone, cotrimoxazole, and for Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin, piperacillin/tazobactam, cotrimoxazole, and cephalothin. Findings: Only 16% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa species were sensitive to meropenem, and 13% were sensitive to piperacillin/tazobactam. Ten out of 29 Klebsiella species (34%) were sensitive to meropenem and piperacillin/tazobactam. All isolated strains of Staphylococcus aureus were sensitive to vancomycine while they were all resistant to cotrimoxazole. Conclusion: Pseudomona, Klebsiella and Staphylococcoci are the most common species causing burn infection in this medical center. Results showed the importance of limiting irrational use of wide-spectrum antimicrobials and recommends strict management of infections in burn injury centers. PMID:24991585

  10. Squamous Cell Carcinoma as the Most Common Lesion of the Tongue in Iranians: a 22-Year Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Shamloo, Nafiseh; Lotfi, Ali; Motazadian, Hamid Reza; Mortazavi, Hamed; Baharvand, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    The tongue has been globally considered as an indicator of general health for millennia. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and distribution of tongue lesions in an Iranian population. In this retrospective study, data from 6,435 oral biopsy reports over a 22-year period (1992-2014) were retrieved from archives of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology Department, Shahid Beheshti Dental School, Tehran, Iran. These reports were analyzed according to age, sex, type of lesion and location. Prevalence of tongue lesions were reported as percentages. Out of total oral lesions, 238 (3.7%) were found in the tongue, with the incidence peak (42%) being between 41-60 years. Men constituted 53% and women 47%of patients. The youngest patient was a 3-year-old girl with pyogenic granuloma and the oldest one was a 93-year-old man with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). SCC was the most common (25%) lesion generally found in the lateral border of the tongue with a male predilection. The second and third most prevalent lesions of the tongue were benign keratosis (frictional keratosis) (13.4%) and leukoplakia (13%).White-red lesions (38.6%) were the most frequent subgroup followed by neoplastic lesions (28%). Moreover, irritation fibroma, non-specific ulcers, squamous papilloma, and hemangioma were found as the most frequent lesions in their related subgroups.Given the high rate of SCC of the tongue in Iranian patients, this area should be examined more carefully by dental practitioners and physicians. PMID:27039782

  11. Facial injuries in Iranian veterans during the Iraq-Iran war (1980-88): differences from recent conflicts.

    PubMed

    Khosravi, M H; Akhavan, A

    2015-12-01

    Our aim was to identify the pattern and mechanism of facial injuries in Iranian veterans during the Iraq-Iran war and to assess the effectiveness of current protective equipment by retrospectively evaluating 100 Iranian veterans of that war. We randomly included veterans with injuries to various parts of the face, with or without injuries to other organs. None died. We recorded anatomical distribution, incidence, and mechanism of injury as well as injury scores using common references scales. Data are expressed as mean (SD) or number. Fragmentation injuries were the most common (n=40) followed by blast (n=37), shock wave (n=18), and gunshots (n=5). Thirty-five patients had mandibular fractures with a mean (SD) score of 3.7 (1.4). Fifteen patients had injuries to the upper face and 79 to the midface. Twenty-four patients had facial lacerations more than 10 cm long, with a mean facial injury score of 2.4 (2.0). Nineteen had ocular injuries with a mean (SD) ocular trauma score of 64.9 (12.9). Despite recent developments in protective equipment we have seen no significant reduction in the incidence of facial injuries in battle, which could indicate that we need better facial support equipment and more effective education in its use. However, using protective equipment such as goggles and a mandibular protector is highly recommended. PMID:26187368

  12. Association between Ala379Val polymorphism of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 and migraine without aura in Iranian population

    PubMed Central

    Haghdoost, Faraidoon; Gharzi, Mahsa; Faez, Farough; Hosseinzadeh, Elinaz; Tajaddini, Mohamadhasan; Rafiei, Laleh; Asgari, Fatemeh; Banihashemi, Mahboobeh; Masjedi, Samaneh Sadat; Zandifar, Alireza; Haghjooy-Javanmard, Shaghayegh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Migraine is a common neurovascular disorder with multifactorial and polygenic inheritance. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of a migraine without aura and Ala379Val polymorphism of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) gene in the Iranian population. Methods: In this study, 103 migraine patients and 100 healthy controls were enrolled. DNA samples were extracted and the Ala379Val polymorphism of Lp-PLA2 gene was investigated. To assess severity of a headache, patients filled out the headache impact test (HIT-6) and migraine severity (MIGSEV) questionnaires. Results: Allele V had significantly lower frequency in the case group than control subjects [P = 0.001, odds ratio (OR) = 0.25, confidence interval (CI): 0.15-0.40]. The frequency of migraine patients that were a carrier of V allele (V/V and A/V) was statistically significant lower than the control group (P = 0.003, OR = 2.39, CI: 1.35-4.23). There was no significant difference of alleles frequency between three grades of MIGSEV (P = 0.316). Furthermore, total HIT-6 score was not significantly different between different genotypes (P = 0.466). Conclusion: Our results showed that Ala379Val gene polymorphism of LP-PLA2 is associated with lower risk of migraine but not with severity of headaches in an Iranian population. PMID:27326362

  13. Types of Nasal Delivery Drugs and Medications in Iranian Traditional Medicine to Treatment of Headache

    PubMed Central

    Ghorbanifar, Zahra; Delavar Kasmaei, Hosein; Minaei, Bagher; Rezaeizadeh, Hossein; Zayeri, Farid

    2014-01-01

    Context: Headache is a common symptom throughout the world. The main purpose of patient-centered approaches is the utilization of useful and simple treatment. Nowadays, there is a rising propensity toward herbal remedies. Nasal route is one of the ancient and topical prescriptions used in headache. In Iranian traditional medicine, physicians such as Avicenna were prescribing herbal drugs through the nose to treat a variety of central nervous system diseases like headache. In this review paper, authors have attempted to introduce different types of nasal administrations which were used in Iranian traditional medicine for the treatment of headaches. Evidence Acquisition: Initially, we studied two different types of Canon and separated all herbs used in the treatment of headache. Next, all plants were classified according to the method of prescription. Then, we pick out all the plants which were nasally utilized in the treatment of headache and divided them based on the method of administration. In order to find scientific names of herbs, we used two different botany references. Moreover, we conducted various researches in scientific databases with the aim of finding results concerning the analgesic and antinociceptive effects of herbs. Throughout the research, key terms were “analgesic” and “antinociceptive “with the scientific names of all herbs separately. The databases searched included PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane library and SID. Results: 35 plants were prescribed for the treatment of headaches, which were all nasally used. These plants took either the form of powder, liquid or gas (steam). They were divided in to six categories according to the method of prescription. The Percentage of usage for each method was as follows: 62% Saoot (nasal drop), 25% Shamoom (smell), 17% Inkabab (vapor), 11% Nafookh (snuff), 11% Nashooq (inhaling) and 2% Bokhoor (smoke). Conclusions: Medications that are used via nasal delivery have greater effect than oral medications

  14. Herbal Remedies for Functional Dyspepsia and Traditional Iranian Medicine Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Babaeian, Mahmoud; Naseri, Mohsen; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Ghaffari, Farzaneh; Emadi, Fatemeh; Feizi, Awat; Hosseini Yekta, Nafiseh; Adibi, Peyman

    2015-01-01

    Context: Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a functional gastro-intestinal disorder with high prevalence. Among various treatment options, treatment by complementary and alternative medicines especially herbal remedies also practiced. Traditional Iranian medicine (TIM), a valuable resource of valid applied studies of ancient Iranian scholars, recommends numerous medicinal plants to treat dyspepsia symptoms. In this study, through investigation of TIM references, we aimed to identify medicinal plants for treatment of digestion insufficiency. Evidence Acquisition: In this qualitative study, dyspepsia symptoms including fullness, early satiety, bloating, nausea, and belching were checked under reliable sources of traditional medicine. Then medicinal plants recommended for the treatment of the symptoms were extracted from the books. Likewise, for investigating the pharmacological properties of medicinal plants used for the relieving of dyspepsia symptoms, electronic databases such as PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar and some Iranian databases like SID and IranMedex were employed. Results: The study yielded 105 plants from 37 families which could treat various dyspepsia symptoms; fifty-seven plants, mainly from Apiaceae, Lamiaceae, Amaryllidaceae and Zingiberaceae had digestive effects. In this research, based on the information in TIM reference texts, we obtained 58 plants effective for bloating, 40 for nausea, 37 for appetite loss and 7 for belching. In human clinical trials conducted on medicinal plants effective for FD symptoms, 7 single plants were used. Conclusions: Finding the medicinal plants effective on digestion insufficiency based on TIM could suggest a better strategy for the relieving of dyspepsia symptoms. Traditional Iranian medicine prescribes medicinal plants based on each patient’s personal characteristics and practices multiple target therapies. PMID:26734483

  15. Drug Use among Iranian Drivers Involved in Fatal Car Accidents

    PubMed Central

    Assari, Shervin; Moghani Lankarani, Maryam; Dejman, Masoumeh; Farnia, Marzieh; Alasvand, Ramin; Sehat, Mahmood; Roshanpazooh, Mohsen; Tavakoli, Mahmood; Jafari, Firoozeh; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although the problem of substance use among drivers is not limited to certain parts of the world, most epidemiological reports on this topic have been published from industrial world. Aim: To investigate pattern of drug use among Iranian drivers who were involved in fatal road accidents. Methods: This study enrolled 51 Iranian adults who were involved in fatal vehicle accidents and were imprisoned thereafter. Data came from a national survey of drug abuse that was done among Iranian prisoners. The survey collected data at the entry to seven prisons in different regions of the country during a 4-month period in 2008. Self-reported lifetime, last year, and last month drug use was measured. Commercial substance screening tests were applied to detect recent substance use (opioids, cannabinoids, methamphetamines, and benzodiazepines). Results: The commercial substance screening test showed three distinct patterns of recent illicit drug use: opioids (37.3%), cannabinoids (2.0%), opioids and cannabinoids (13.7%). 29.4% were also positive for benzodiazepines. The substance use screening test detected 23.5% of participants who had used drugs but did not disclose any substance use. Conclusion: Opioids are the most common illicit drugs being used by Iranian drivers who are involved in fatal car accidents. The high rate of substance use prior to fatal car accidents in Iran advocates for the need for drug use control policies and programs as major strategies for injury prevention in Iran. There is also a need for substance screening among all drivers involved in fatal car accidents in Iran, as more than 20% of users may not disclose substance use. PMID:25221521

  16. 31 CFR 535.504 - Certain judicial proceedings with respect to property of Iran or Iranian entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... respect to property of Iran or Iranian entities. 535.504 Section 535.504 Money and Finance: Treasury... § 535.504 Certain judicial proceedings with respect to property of Iran or Iranian entities. (a) Subject... existed an interest of Iran or an Iranian entity. (b) This section does not authorize: (1) Any...

  17. 31 CFR 535.504 - Certain judicial proceedings with respect to property of Iran or Iranian entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... respect to property of Iran or Iranian entities. 535.504 Section 535.504 Money and Finance: Treasury... § 535.504 Certain judicial proceedings with respect to property of Iran or Iranian entities. (a) Subject... existed an interest of Iran or an Iranian entity. (b) This section does not authorize: (1) Any...

  18. 31 CFR 535.504 - Certain judicial proceedings with respect to property of Iran or Iranian entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... respect to property of Iran or Iranian entities. 535.504 Section 535.504 Money and Finance: Treasury... § 535.504 Certain judicial proceedings with respect to property of Iran or Iranian entities. (a) Subject... existed an interest of Iran or an Iranian entity. (b) This section does not authorize: (1) Any...

  19. 31 CFR 535.504 - Certain judicial proceedings with respect to property of Iran or Iranian entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... respect to property of Iran or Iranian entities. 535.504 Section 535.504 Money and Finance: Treasury... § 535.504 Certain judicial proceedings with respect to property of Iran or Iranian entities. (a) Subject... existed an interest of Iran or an Iranian entity. (b) This section does not authorize: (1) Any...

  20. A high prevalence of cumulative trauma disorders in Iranian instrumentalists

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Shahram; Kazemi, Behrooz; Shooshtari, Seyed Mostafa Jazayeri; Bidari, Ali; Jafari, Peyman

    2004-01-01

    Background Cumulative trauma disorders (CTDs) are common in musicians and their prevalence has been the subject of a number of studies in most western countries. Such studies are scarce in developing countries despite the possibility that CTDs may have a different prevalence in these countries, especially when considering traditional musical instruments and different methods of playing. Although not formally studied before, according to our experience the prevalence of CTDs seemed to be high among Iranian instrumentalists. We proposed this study to determine the prevalence of CTDs in amateur music students playing one of the two traditional Iranian instruments: Daf and Setar. Methods In a prospective cross sectional study, we interviewed and examined the students of three music training centers in Iran. Seventy eight instrumentalists, who were playing Daf or Setar and twelve students who had not started playing yet were regarded as case and control groups respectively. Some of them also underwent electrodiagnostic studies. Results Forty-seven percent (17 of 36) of the Setar players and 57% (24 of 42) of the Daf players and fifty-three percent (41 of 78) of the instrumentalists as a whole had CTDs. None of them had carpal tunnel syndrome. Conclusions Our study revealed that the prevalence of CTDs in Iranian instrumentalists was unusually high. In addition to age, other variables may be contributory. This needs to be further studied. PMID:15485578

  1. First identification of Sarcocystis hominis in Iranian traditional hamburger.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, M Moghaddam; Hajimohammadi, B; Eslami, G; Oryan, A; Yasini Ardakani, S A; Zohourtabar, A; Zare, S

    2015-12-01

    Zoonotic concerns of cattle sarcocystosis are of importance, because humans are the final host for Sarcocystis hominis. Therefore the meat products containing beef may encompass sarcocysts which endanger food safety. In this study, we described the first report of molecular identification of S. hominis in Iranian traditional hamburgers using PCR-RFLP. Throughout a pilot research that was carried out to setup a molecular approach to identify the Sarcocystis spp., using PCR-RFLP, a sample of raw Iranian traditional hamburger was purchased from a street food seller located in Yazd, central Iran in May 2013. DNA extraction was done, by salting out method; briefly, the sample was lysed with NET buffer. The DNA purification and precipitation was then performed. Amplicon and digestion results were analyzed, using gel agarose electrophoresis. The results showed a PCR product with 926 bp in length after amplification and 376 and 550 bp in length after digestion. This product was identified as S. hominis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of S. hominis infection in Iranian hamburger. PMID:26688649

  2. Proteomics Approaches Shed New Light on Traditional Iranian Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Movahhed, Mina; Poursaleh, Zohreh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Until now, Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) had been extensively based on Iranian philosophy in theoretical approach in diagnosis and treatment, with doubts on academic medicine. Nevertheless, the diagnosis of temperaments, herbal standardization, and quality control had been with the obscurity of functional molecules and their action mechanisms. Proteomics is a potent board to the mechanistic investigation of ITM and has been comprehensively applied profile drug-regulated proteins. In this review, we assessed the application of this modern molecular biological method in the identification of temperaments and drug targets of ITM. Methods: All available studies related to proteomics in traditional medicine, alternative and complementary medicine, including books, journals, and other references were studied and assessed. Results: The present review showed the phenotypes of the various temperaments in healthy individuals, that is to say, same proteins with different dynamic properties. Therefore, the usefulness of proteomics seems authoritative to understand the means by which the molecular pathways protected in ITM. This might be also the key clinical viewpoint on this new approach for enabling the integration of Iranian traditional medicine and modern biological science and technology, as well for upholding the internationalization of ITM. Conclusion: Proteomics, as a powerful tool for systems biology, is an essential research methodology for understanding the mechanisms of traditional medicine. Further investigation on the applications of advanced proteomics in temperaments, herbal standardization, and quality control in ITM is recommended. PMID:27516684

  3. Body Weight Concerns and Antifat Attitude in Iranian Children

    PubMed Central

    Garousi, Saideh

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is increasing evidence that children are showing body image issues in recent years. Body image disturbances in childhood must be taken seriously. The thin ideal is becoming more prominent in Asian countries; however, there is little research examining how this issue affects Iranian children. This study explores body weight concerns and associated factors among children in Iranian elementary schools. Methods: This study was conducted in 500 elementary schools. An assessment of body image and antifat attitudes was undertaken using the figure rating scale. In addition, body mass index (BMI) and demographic variables were assessed. Results: Nearly, 27.4% of children were underweight, and 13.3% were obese. There was a significant difference between the mean score of body dissatisfaction (BD) between boys and girls (P < 0.05). There were no differences between BD and education of parents, age, and academic grades. In girls, antifat attitudes were significantly related to BMI. Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrate the paramount importance of undertaking further research in order to identify the predictive factors of body concerns and its consequences among Iranian children. In addition, researchers must plan prevention and educational program for these children. PMID:25709795

  4. Pharmacological treatment of catarrh in Iranian traditional medicine

    PubMed Central

    Choopani, Rasool; Sadr, Saeed; Kaveh, Shahpar; Kaveh, Narges; Dehghan, Sohrab

    2015-01-01

    Catarrh is a condition that is carefully explained in Iranian traditional medicine. Medieval Iranian physicians used some medicinal plants in the treatment of the catarrh. Some of these substances are used in treatment today, although still more of these materials can be used in modern medicine. In this study we searched known sources of Iranian traditional medicine and collected the ideas of former great scholars and physicians about medicinal plants that are used for treatment of catarrh. Then we searched PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, and Web of Science databases and found 10 medicinal herbs that have the ability to treat catarrh. Plants discussed in this study are consistent with new research and can be used in modern treatments. According to rising bacterial resistance to antibiotics and complications of antibiotic and anti-inflammatory drugs, it seems that the various components of the medicinal herbs can be beneficial in producing new drugs. Also it is hoped that more investigations on medicinal plants will be conducted in the future treatment of catarrh and other diseases related to it. PMID:26151014

  5. Assessment of the level of health literacy among fertile Iranian women with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Haghighi, Soheila Tontab; Lamyian, Minoor; Granpaye, Loabat

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Health literacy is one of the main determinants of health promotion. Regarding the influential role of the women in a society, enhancing their critical health literacy would be a prerequisite for the promotion of public health. The aims of this study were to determine the level of health literacy among fertile Iranian women with breast cancer and to determine the relationship between the health literacy level and socio demographic factors, such as age, educational level, occupation, age of marriage, duration of marriage, and several clinical factors, including taking psychiatric medication and the type of breast surgery among breast cancer patients. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 260 fertile patients with breast cancer from screening and monitoring centers and breast cancer clinics in Tehran from August 2014 to August 2015. Data were collected using socio demographic and clinical questionnaires developed by the researchers and the questionnaire for health literacy for Iranian adults (HELIA).The results were analyzed using SPSS-IBM version 20 and the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient, along with Kido’s correlation test. Results The mean age of the participants was 43.32. Most of the participants (68.5%) had high school diplomas or lower school degrees (based on educational system in Iran). The mean score of health literacy was 75.73. The levels of health literacy among the different groups of participants were as follows: insufficient health literacy (6.9% of patients), barely enough health literacy (18.8% of patients), enough health literacy (38.8% of patients) and excellent health literacy (35.1% of patients). Also, significant relationships were found between the level of health literacy and the participants’ age of marriage, duration of marriage, educational level, and occupation (p < 0.05). Conclusion This study showed that the level of health literacy was high among women with breast cancer. This indicates

  6. 31 CFR 535.528 - Certain transactions with respect to Iranian patents, trademarks and copyrights authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Certain transactions with respect to Iranian patents, trademarks and copyrights authorized. 535.528 Section 535.528 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRANIAN ASSETS...

  7. 31 CFR 535.528 - Certain transactions with respect to Iranian patents, trademarks and copyrights authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Certain transactions with respect to Iranian patents, trademarks and copyrights authorized. 535.528 Section 535.528 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRANIAN ASSETS...

  8. 31 CFR 535.528 - Certain transactions with respect to Iranian patents, trademarks and copyrights authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Certain transactions with respect to Iranian patents, trademarks and copyrights authorized. 535.528 Section 535.528 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRANIAN ASSETS...

  9. Can Self-Efficacy and Self-Confidence Explain Iranian Female Students' Academic Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rezaei, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Official statistics from several resources in Iran indicate that female enrollment and achievement in Iranian universities has recently exceeded that of male students. Despite the fact that a religious government has been ruling the country for three decades, and despite many regulations against women, Iranian women have managed to overcome…

  10. The Relationship between Iranian EFL Learners' Beliefs about Language Learning and Their Use of Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azar, Fereshteh Khaffafi; Saeidi, Mahnaz

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between Iranian EFL learners' learning strategies use and their language learning beliefs. A sample of 200 Iranian EFL learners who were all English language learners at different language institutes participated in this study. Two instruments, Beliefs about Language Learning Inventory (BALLI) and…

  11. The Relationship between Iranian EFL Learners' Beliefs about Language Learning and Language Learning Strategy Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarei, Abbas Ali; Rahmani, Hanieh

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between Iranian EFL learners' beliefs about language learning and language learning strategy use. A sample of 104 B.A and M.A Iranian EFL learners majoring in English participated in this study. Three instruments, the Michigan Test of English Language Proficiency (MTELP), Beliefs about Language…

  12. 78 FR 37664 - Identification of Entities Pursuant to the Iranian Transactions and Sanctions Regulations and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... names of 38 entities identified as the Government of Iran under the Iranian Transactions and Sanctions... President issued Executive Order 13599, ``Blocking Property of the Government of Iran and Iranian Financial... interests in property of the Government of Iran, including the Central Bank of Iran, that are in the...

  13. A Comparative Study of Iranian and Japanese English Teachers' Demotivational Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baniasad-Azad, Somayeh; Ketabi, Saeed

    2013-01-01

    This study examined demotivational factors among Iranian and Japanese college teachers of English. To achieve the purpose, the study used a 35-item questionnaire and semi-structured interviews. The results were compared with the similar study in Japan by Sugino (2010). The findings of the study revealed that Iranian and Japanese lecturers are much…

  14. 31 CFR 560.209 - Prohibited transactions with respect to the development of Iranian petroleum resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to the development of Iranian petroleum resources. 560.209 Section 560.209 Money and Finance... respect to the development of Iranian petroleum resources. Except as otherwise authorized, and... development of petroleum resources located in Iran, or (2) A guaranty of another person's performance...

  15. 31 CFR 560.209 - Prohibited transactions with respect to the development of Iranian petroleum resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... to the development of Iranian petroleum resources. 560.209 Section 560.209 Money and Finance... transactions with respect to the development of Iranian petroleum resources. Except as otherwise authorized... for the development of petroleum resources located in Iran, or (2) A guaranty of another...

  16. 31 CFR 560.209 - Prohibited transactions with respect to the development of Iranian petroleum resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... to the development of Iranian petroleum resources. 560.209 Section 560.209 Money and Finance... respect to the development of Iranian petroleum resources. Except as otherwise authorized, and... development of petroleum resources located in Iran, or (2) A guaranty of another person's performance...

  17. 31 CFR 560.209 - Prohibited transactions with respect to the development of Iranian petroleum resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... to the development of Iranian petroleum resources. 560.209 Section 560.209 Money and Finance... transactions with respect to the development of Iranian petroleum resources. Except as otherwise authorized... for the development of petroleum resources located in Iran, or (2) A guaranty of another...

  18. 31 CFR 560.209 - Prohibited transactions with respect to the development of Iranian petroleum resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to the development of Iranian petroleum resources. 560.209 Section 560.209 Money and Finance... respect to the development of Iranian petroleum resources. Except as otherwise authorized, and... development of petroleum resources located in Iran, or (2) A guaranty of another person's performance...

  19. CLIL European-Led Projects and Their Implications for Iranian EFL Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabet, Masoud Khalili; Sadeh, Nima

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to examine the European-led projects in the field of Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) and their potential applicability in the Iranian EFL context. This paper tries to introduce various dimensions of CLIL and examine the compatibility of its component with the Iranian context.

  20. Intercultural Communication Patterns of Iranian Students in Public Forums in the U. S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackman, Bernard I.

    A study was conducted to explore aspects of intercultural communication present when Iranians attempted to communicate publicly in the United States. Thirty-six American students with little previous knowledge of Iran were interviewed following their attendance at a public lecture/demonstration sponsored by Iranian students in Texas. The…

  1. Perceived Parenting, Self-Esteem, and General Self-Efficacy of Iranian American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Gila; Plunkett, Scott W.; Otten, Mark P.

    2010-01-01

    We examined whether Iranian American adolescents' perceptions of parental support, parental knowledge, and parental psychological control relate to general self-efficacy directly, and indirectly through positive esteem and self-deprecation. To investigate this, self-report surveys were collected from 158 Iranian American adolescents attending…

  2. A Follow-up Study on U.S.-Trained Iranian Faculty Members: Satisfactions and Dissatisfactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arasteh, Hamidreza

    2009-01-01

    Iran was one of the major contributors to the international student population in the United States. For some years, the number of Iranian students studied in America mounted such that there were more Iranians studying at colleges and universities in the United States than from any other foreign country. This study examined the satisfaction of…

  3. Examining and Dealing with the Issue of Reading Strategy Use by Iranian EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naeini, Ma'ssoumeh Bemani; Rezaei, Reyhaneh

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between Iranian EFL learners' performance on a reading comprehension test and their pattern of using cognitive and metacognitive learning strategies. Analysis of the data obtained from 190 Iranian intermediate EFL learners (70 males and 120 females, aged 17-25) revealed a strong relationship between reading…

  4. Effective Foreign Language Teaching: A Matter of Iranian Students' and Teachers' Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganjabi, Mahyar

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on a study that investigated the beliefs about language learning of 120 Iranian EFL students and 16 EFL teachers. The primary aim of the study was to reveal whether there was any difference between the beliefs of Iranian students and teachers regarding different aspects of language learning such as grammar teaching, error…

  5. Indexing of Iranian Publications in Well-known Endodontic Textbooks: A Scientometric Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kakooei, Sina; Mostafavi, Mahshid; Parirokh, Masoud; Asgary, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Quoting an article in well-known textbooks is held as a credit for that paper. The numbers of Iranian publications mentioned in endodontic textbooks have increased during recent years. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the number of Iranian articles quoted in eminent endodontic textbooks. Methods and Materials: Three known textbooks (Ingle’s Endodontics, Seltzer and Bender’s Dental Pulp and Cohen’s Pathways of the Pulp) were chosen and all the editions of the textbooks since 2000 were investigated for quoted Iranian publications. Only Iranian authors with affiliations from a domestic university were chosen. All references at the end of each chapter were read by hand searching, and results were noted. The trend and percentage of Iranian publications in different editions of the textbooks were also calculated. The number of citations of these publications in Google Scholar and Scopus databases were also obtained. Results: The number of Iranian publications in all well-known textbooks have notably increased since 2000. The number and percentage of Iranian publications in the latest edition of Cohen’s Pathways of the Pulp was higher compared to other textbooks as well as the previous edition of the same text. Conclusion: Number and percentage of Iranian publications in the field of endodontics in all three textbooks have remarkably increased since 2000. PMID:27471523

  6. Possibilities and Limitations of Functional Literacy: The Iranian Experiment. Educational Studies and Documents: No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furter, Pierre

    The study is a description of the activities undertaken within the framework of the work-oriented adult literacy pilot project in Iran, an evaluation of its first measurable results, and an examination of the problems of functional literacy in the light of the Iranian experiment. The first chapter traces the efforts of the Iranian authorities over…

  7. 31 CFR 560.407 - Transactions related to Iranian-origin goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... from third countries of goods containing Iranian-origin raw materials or components is not prohibited if those raw materials or components have been incorporated into manufactured products or... Iranian-origin raw materials or components are not prohibited if those raw materials or components...

  8. 31 CFR 560.407 - Transactions related to Iranian-origin goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... United States from third countries of goods containing Iranian-origin raw materials or components is not prohibited if those raw materials or components have been incorporated into manufactured products or... Iranian-origin raw materials or components are not prohibited if those raw materials or components...

  9. 31 CFR 560.407 - Transactions related to Iranian-origin goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... from third countries of goods containing Iranian-origin raw materials or components is not prohibited if those raw materials or components have been incorporated into manufactured products or... Iranian-origin raw materials or components are not prohibited if those raw materials or components...

  10. Investigating the Relationship between Multiple Intelligences and Professional Identity of Iranian EFL Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaee, Mitra

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between Iranian EFL teachers' Professional Identity and their types of Multiple Intelligences. Moreover, it aimed to see the extent to which their multiple intelligences can predict their professional identity. The participants of the study were 137 Iranian EFL teachers teaching in…

  11. How Iranian Instructors Teach L2 Pragmatics in Their Classroom Practices? A Mixed-Methods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muthasamy, Paramasivam; Farashaiyan, Atieh

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the teaching approaches and techniques that Iranian instructors utilize for teaching L2 pragmatics in their classroom practices. 238 Iranian instructors participated in this study. The data for this study were accumulated through questionnaire and semi-structured interviews. In terms of the instructional approaches, both the…

  12. Developing Guidelines for a New Curriculum for the BA Program in English Translation in Iranian Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razmjou, Leila

    This study helped develop guidelines for modifying the current curriculum of the existing B.A. in English Translation within Iranian universities. Participants were 30 experts in the fields of English language translation, linguistics, and translatology from four Iranian universities. Using the Delphi research methodology, researchers administered…

  13. Podcasts: A Factor to Improve Iranian EFL Learners' Self-Regulation Ability and Use of Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naseri, Somayeh; Motallebzadeh, Khalil

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of listening to podcasts on Iranian upper- intermediate EFL learners' self-regulation ability and their perception toward the use of technology. To meet the objectives of the current study, 54 female Iranian EFL learners were selected. In experimental group they listened to podcast files while in the control…

  14. The Effect of Textual Metafunction on the Iranian EFL Learners' Writing Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paziraie, Mandana Eftekhar

    2013-01-01

    This study is devoted to the effect of "textual metafunction" on the levels of coherence and cohesion in the Iranian EFL learners' English writing performance. Sixty Iranian intermediate EFL learners who were adult females participated in this study were randomly divided into two groups; experimental, and control. They were given a…

  15. Gambling in the Iranian-American Community and an Assessment of Motives: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parhami, Iman; Siani, Aaron; Campos, Michael D.; Rosenthal, Richard J.; Fong, Timothy W.

    2012-01-01

    Nearly half a million United States residents identify themselves as being of Iranian origin, and many in this population are of high socioeconomic status. Although games of chance have been a notable part of Iranian culture for thousands of years, there is almost no research exploring gambling in this population. The objective of this case study…

  16. Iranian EFL Teachers' Perceptions of the Difficulties of Implementing CALL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedayati, Hora; Marandi, S. Susan

    2014-01-01

    Despite the spread of reliable technological tools and the availability of computers in Iranian universities, as well as the mounting evidence of the effectiveness of blended learning, many Iranian language teachers are still reluctant to incorporate such tools in their English as a foreign language (EFL) classes. This study inspected the status…

  17. Sn Attenuation in the Iranian and Tibetan Plateaus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, W.; Kaviani, A.; Bao, X.; Christopher, J.; Sandvol, E. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Iranian and Tibetan plateaus are both part of the Alpine-Himalayan mountain belt and both formed as a result of the continental collision (between Arabian plate, Indian plate and Eurasia plates). The two plateaus illustrate many of the same processes but at different stages of development. The Iranian plateau is a much less mature continental plateau than the Tibetan plateau with about half the elevation and a much thinner crust. In order to better understand the nature of the lithosphere mantle and origin of the measure seismic velocity anomalies we have made detailed measurements of the uppermost mantle attenuation using the high frequency regional phase Sn. In order to measure Sn attenuation. We have collected a large data set consisting of 18 years (1995-2012) of waveforms recorded by 305 permanent and temporary stations in Iran and 3 years (2007-2009) of waveforms recorded by 136 permanent and temporary stations in Tibet separately. We used a bandpass filter (0.1-0.5Hz) to identify efficient longer period Sn phases. In order to determine Sn Q we applied a Two Station Method (TSM) and Reverse Two Station Method (RTM) to eliminate the source effects. We have used the LSQR algorithm to tomographically map Sn attenuation tomography across the Iranian plateau. Our results show moderately low Q values beneath the Iranian plateau (~250) and high Q values beneath the south Caspian sea (~400) and Arabian shield (~400). The pattern we observe is roughly consistent with previous studies. We also observe high Q values beneath the Zagros mountains (~450) that is consistent with the Arabian plate underthrusting beneath the Eurasia plate. In Tibet we find high Q values beneath the Qaidam basin (~500) and low Q values beneath much of the Kunlun fault (~200). We also observe high Q values beneath the Bangong-Nujiang suture (~400) which can be explained that the Indian plate is underthrusting beneath the Eurasia plate. Comparing the Sn Q values beneath the Iranian and

  18. Personality Disorders, Narcotics, and Stimulants; Relationship in Iranian Male Substance Dependents Population

    PubMed Central

    Noorbakhsh, Simasadat; Zeinodini, Zahra; Khanjani, Zeynab; Poorsharifi, Hamid; Rajezi Esfahani, Sepideh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Individuals with certain personality disorders, especially the antisocial and borderline personality disorders, are more prone to substance use disorders. Objectives: Regarding the importance of substance use disorders, this study aimed to explore the association between personality disorders and types of used drugs (narcotics and stimulants) in Iranian male substance users. Patients and Methods: The current study was a correlation study. We evaluated 285 male substance users and excluded 25 according to exclusion criteria. A total of 130 narcotic users and 130 stimulant users were recruited randomly in several phases from January 2013 to October 2013. All participants were referred to Substance Dependency Treatment Clinics in Tehran, Iran. Data collection process was accomplished by means of clinical interview based on DSM-V criteria for substance use disorders, Iranian version of addiction severity index (ASI), and Millon clinical multi-axial inventory-III (MCMI-III). Data were analyzed by SPSS 21 using Pearson correlation coefficient and regression, the. Results: There was a significant correlation between stimulant use and histrionic personality disorder (P < 0.001) and antisocial and narcissistic personality disorders (P < 0.05). In addition, correlation between avoidant, histrionic, and narcissistic personality disorders (P < 0.05) and depressed, antisocial, and borderline personality disorders (P < 0.001) with narcotics consumption were significant. In clusters, there was a significant correlation between cluster B personality disorders, and narcotic and stimulants consumption (P < 0.001). In addition, this association was explored between cluster C personality disorder and narcotics (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The results of this study in terms of personality disorders and types of used drugs were in accordance with the previous studies results. It is necessary to design appropriate treatment plans for medical treatment of those with personality

  19. Role of Iranian Traditional Medicine in the Prevention of Respiratory Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Soroushzadeh, Sayed Mohammad Ali; Khiveh, Ali; Gerayelimalek, Valiollah

    2016-01-01

    Background: In order to define appropriate plans for respiratory infectious diseases, in accordance with Iranian traditional medicine, one should cover the topic of “havae vabai”. “Havae vabai” is related to the epidemics of respiratory infectious diseases. Methods: This study is a review of the role of Iranian traditional medicine in the prevention of respiratory infectious diseases .Resources of traditional medicine with the keyword “havae vabai” were reviewed in Noor digital library. Results: The perspective of traditional medicine for the prevention of disease in “havae vabai” is based on self-recuperation and air modification. Items that are mentioned are; refine the surrounding air, move to a proper space, live in a house with no source of water like fountains and limited flow of air, air-drying, use air freshener, smell fruit sticks, use in-house plants, and place a cloth soaked with vinegar in front of the nose. For self-recuperation, reducing body moisture with proper foods and drugs or with vomiting, diarrhea, phlebotomy, wet-cupping, reduction in food and drink intake, avoiding sexual intercourse, bathing, heavy exercise, inactivity, overeating, hunger, thirst, milk, sweets, fish, fatty foods, fruits especially juicy fruits are recommended. The food that tends to have a sour taste, eating meat cooked with sour taste like vinegar is suggested. Conclusion: The use of the solutions offered in traditional medicine to control air is helpful as it can reduce epidemics, such as influenza; that yearly kills many patients with a heavy financial burden. PMID:27516687

  20. Morphology of proximal tibia in Iranian population and its correlation with available prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Moghtadaei, Mehdi; Moghimi, Javad; Farahini, Hossein; Jahansouz, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Total knee arthroplasty is a complex procedure aiming to relieve pain and improve function. It is critical to select prosthesis that best cover the bone surfaces. Ethnicity may affect fitness of the components mainly designed for Caucasian populations. This study aimed to evaluate morphometric features of proximal tibia in Iranian population. Methods: During 2013, 150 consecutive patients (96 males and 54 females) form orthopedics department of Rasoul-Akram hospital with knee CT scan were randomly enrolled. We entered cases with apparent normal extremity alignment and bone maturity. Cases with history of fracture or conditions affecting knee profile were excluded. Standard cuts were simulated on CT scan. Anteroposterior (AP), mediolateral (ML) and aspect ratio (ML/AP) were measured for general morphology. Medial and lateral AP distance of tibia and their distance to tibial center were measured for checking symmetry. Results: Mean age was 43.0± 10.4 years (rang 11-80). Males showed significantly larger values in ML dimension and aspect ratio than females under a given AP value (p<0.001). However, the aspect ratio was suggestive of similar configuration of proximal tibia profiles among genders. Totally, close correlations were observed among simulated cuts and size-matched tibial components of the prostheses. However, better coverage was provided by some brands via designing interchangeable components for a given dimension. Medial and lateral condyles of tibia were almost symmetrical. Conclusion: Our findings indicated that some alterations in the shape of the components are needed to provide optimal coverage in Iranian population. We propose symmetrical configuration in designing tibial components as well. PMID:26478883

  1. Association Between Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Gene Polymorphisms with Breast Cancer Risk in an Iranian Population

    PubMed Central

    Rezaei, Maryam; Hashemi, Mohammad; Sanaei, Sara; Mashhadi, Mohammad Ali; Taheri, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is one of the most causes of death in women worldwide. It affects Iranian female population approximately a decade earlier than those in other parts of the world. Previous studies have shown that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene variants were associated with BC risk. The current study aimed to evaluate the impact of VEGF rs3025039 (+936C>T), rs2010963 (+405C>G), rs833061 (-460T>C), rs699947 (-2578C>A), and rs35569394 (18-bp I/D) polymorphisms on BC risk in an Iranian population in southeast of Iran. This case–control study was done on 250 BC patients and 215 healthy women. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) or PCR was used to genotype the polymorphisms. Our findings showed that VEGF rs699947 variant increased the risk of BC (OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.15–2.54, P = 0.009, CA vs CC; OR = 2.12, 95% CI = 1.14–3.93, P = 0.021, AA vs CC; OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.22–2.60, P = 0.004, CA+AA vs CC; OR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.12–1.92, P = 0.005, A vs C). The VEGF rs3025039, rs2010963, rs833061, and rs35569394 variants were not associated with risk/protection of BC. In conclusion, our results proposed that VEGF rs699947 polymorphism may increase the risk of BC development. Furthers studies with larger sample sizes and different ethnicities are necessary to confirm our findings. PMID:27398026

  2. In vitro antibacterial activity of some Iranian medicinal plant extracts against Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Hajimahmoodi, M; Shams-Ardakani, M; Saniee, P; Siavoshi, F; Mehrabani, M; Hosseinzadeh, H; Foroumadi, P; Safavi, M; Khanavi, M; Akbarzadeh, T; Shafiee, A; Foroumadi, A

    2011-07-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection causes lifelong chronic gastritis, which can lead to peptic ulcer, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma and gastric cancer. The growing problem of antibiotic resistance by the organism demands the search for novel candidates from plant-based sources. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro anti-H. pylori activity of some selected medicinal plants on clinical isolates of H. pylori. Gastric biopsy samples were obtained from patients presenting with gastroduodenal complications. Helicobacter pylori was isolated from the specimens following standard microbiology procedures. The disc-diffusion method was used to determine the susceptibility of three H. pylori isolates to methanol extracts of 23 Iranian plants. All tests were performed in triplicate. Among them, the extracts of Punica granatum and Juglans regia had remarkable anti-H. pylori activity with mean of inhibition zone diameter of 39 and 16 mm at 100 µg disc⁻¹, respectively. In view of the results obtained with P. granatum (pomegranate), the peel extracts of nine cultivars of pomegranate (Shirin-e-Pust Sefid, Agha Mohammad Ali-e-Shirin, Sefid-e-Shomal, Sefid-e-Torsh, Shirin-e-Malase, Tabestani-e-Torsh, Shirin-e-Saveh Malase, Alak-e-Shirin, Pust Siyah) were further assayed against the clinical isolates of H. pylori. The results revealed that all Iranian pomegranate cultivars, except for Alak-e-Shirin, showed significant in vitro anti-H. pylori activity against the clinical isolates of H. pylori (mean of inhibition zone diameter ranging from 16 to 40 mm at 50 µg disc⁻¹). PMID:21726128

  3. Practice of Iranian Adolescents with Hemophilia in Prevention of Complications of Hemophilia

    PubMed Central

    Valizadeh, Leila; Hosseini, Fahimeh Alsadat; Zamanzadeh, Vahid; Heidarnezhad, Fatemeh; Jasemi, Madineh; Lankarani, Kamran Bagheri

    2015-01-01

    Background: Prerequisite for management of a chronic disease involves knowledge about its complications and their prevention. Hemophilia in adolescents influences all the aspects of their lives and thier performance. Objectives: The present study aimed to determine the performance of Iranian hemophilic adolescents in prevention of disease complications. Patients and Methods: In this descriptive-analytical study, 108 adolescents with hemophilia were selected through convenience sampling. Their performance in preventing the complications of hemophilia was evaluated by sending a semi-structured questionnaire to their addresses throughout Iran. Then, the data was analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software (v. 13) and descriptive and interferential statistics were used. Results: Overall, 32.1% of the participants controlled bleeding during the 1st hour. Inaccessibility of coagulation products was mainly responsible for inhibiting timely and proper bleeding control. In order to relieve bleeding associated pain, only 39.0% of the adolescents used analgesics. On the other hand, 19.8% of the subjects used nonpharmacological methods to relieve pain. The majority of the adolescents did not participate in sport activities (65.4%) others allocated less than 5 hours a week to physical activities (70.5%). In addition, the participants did not have favorable dietary patterns, exercise habits, and dental care. The results showed a significant relationship between the adolescents’ preventive practice with coagulation disorders and utilization of pharmacological pain relief methods. Also, significant relationships were found between severity of the disease; participating in physical activities, number of hours of physical activities; and disease complications. Conclusions: Iranian adolescents did not exhibit favorable practices towards complication prevention. PMID:26600702

  4. A qualitative study of cognitive-behavioral therapy for Iranian migrants with mild/moderate depression in Austria.

    PubMed

    Fathi, Atefeh; Renner, Walter; Juen, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study was carried out to investigate the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for Iranian migrants suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD) and living in Austria for an average of 14 years. The qualitative data were collected through interviews based on the Farsi version of the Structured Clinical Interview for the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). However, to obtain more information from the participants, they were asked to talk in more detail about their childhood and teenage years, reasons for immigration, their lifestyle before and after immigration, and their social activities. Interviews were conducted at four time points: preintervention, postintervention, 1-month follow-up, and 6-month follow-up. Patients who did not complete the interventions were interviewed on a voluntary basis to explain their reasons. Preintervention interviews were conducted to get some useful information about participant's' expectations of psychotherapy, especially group-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (GCBT), and also to assess the reasons for depression from their own point of view. The postintervention interviews were conducted to examine the participants' psychological situations as well as the reasons for positive effects of interventions. The interviews on average lasted 50 minutes, and field notes were taken. The results of this study showed a reduction in depression symptoms after the interventions. However, the effect of treatment was not persistent. The findings suggest that the main reasons behind Iranian migrants' depression in Austria is related to their dysfunctional acculturation attitude. The effectiveness of GCBT for Iranian migrants with depression also may be related to their sociocultural background. PMID:27294588

  5. Excess costs associated with common healthcare-associated infections in an Iranian cardiac surgical unit.

    PubMed

    Nosrati, M; Boroumand, M; Tahmasebi, S; Sotoudeh, M; Sheikhfathollahi, M; Goodarzynejad, H

    2010-12-01

    Healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) following open heart surgery is not only a major cause of mortality and morbidity, but also carries higher costs. There are limited data on the additional costs due to HCAI in non-western countries. To estimate the direct cost of the four most common HCAIs in an Iranian sample, we studied 1191 patients admitted for elective open heart surgery. HCAIs were defined using the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance criteria (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA). The financial costs of length of stay per day in hospital, paraclinical services, medications, instruments, and operating room were provided by the hospital's finance department. The contribution of HCAI to excess direct medical costs in patients with HCAI was assessed by multivariable linear regression. In the study population, the mean age was 57.3±11.9 years, 857 (72.0%) were men, and 64 (5.4%) developed HCAI. In total there were 73 infections of which the most common was surgical site infection (49.3%), followed by urinary tract infection (20.5%), bloodstream infection (16.5%), and pneumonia (13.7%). After adjustment for other confounders HCAI remained associated with excess direct medical costs (β=1707.06, SE=90.84; P < 0.001). The medical costs in patients with HCAI were almost twice those in patients without HCAI. More than half of the excess cost was attributable to prolonged hospitalisation. PMID:20833445

  6. Different Anatomical Distribution of Basal Cell Carcinoma Subtypes in Iranian Population: Association between Site and Subtype

    PubMed Central

    Ghanadan, Alireza; Abdollahi, Pejman; Rabet, Mehrshad; Naraghi, Zahra; Abbasi, Mohammad Amin; Moslehi, Homayun

    2014-01-01

    Background Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common type of human cancer. Despite the high prevalence of these tumors, there is a lack of reliable epidemiological data in some regions including Iran. Objective To assess the relationship between BCC subtypes and anatomical distribution in the Iranian population. Methods There were 876 patients with a single BCC enrolled in this study (March 2007 to March 2010; Razi Dermatology Center, Tehran, Iran). Results Among 876 patients, 544 were males and 332 females. Of the lesions, 43% were nodular, 32.4% mixed type, 3% superficial and rest of other subtypes. In the lesion location, 58.2% were on the face, 29.2% on scalp, 6.2% on ears, 2.3% on neck, 1.7% on trunk and 1.3% on the extremities. There was no significant difference between male and female in the BCC subtypes, but anatomical distribution of the tumor was different (p=0.002). Most of the trunk-arising BCCs were superficial, and most of the facial BCCs were nodular subtype. Also, most of the BCC subtypes occurred in patients between 40 to 80 years old and mostly on the face and scalp (p=0.04). However, superficial BCCs mostly occurred in younger patients over others (p=0.001). Conclusion Subtype is associated with a site, independent of gender or age. Also BCCs occurring on the trunk are mostly of the superficial subtype. PMID:25324646

  7. Alternative Treatment in Prostate Pain Syndrome Based on Iranian Traditional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Latifi, Seied Amirhossein; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Minaiee, Bagher; Bahrami, Mohsen; Gooran, Shahram; Nikbakht Nasrabadi, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Unknown etiology and pathophysiology of prostate pain syndrome (PPS) has led to a lack of proper and competent treatment in modern medicine. According to the guidelines of European Association of Urology (EAU), use of complementary treatments is recommended for PPS. In this preliminary study, analyzing the signs and symptoms of PPS from the viewpoint of Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) was helpful in selecting the appropriate alternative treatment. Case Presentation: Two male patients diagnosed with PPS were evaluated and treated according to the ITM. Each patient took 15 mL oxymel 45 minutes after lunch and dinner. For each patient, four clinical visits were made with one week intervals and the validated Farsi version of international prostate symptom score (IPSS) and numeric pain rating score (NPRS) were completed for them. Conclusions: Considering the fact that other major pathological causes are ruled out, many of the symptoms and signs observed in these patients were similar to those associated with flatulency-related diseases in ITM. Selecting treatment with oxymel was based on this view and led to improvements in the digestive and urinary symptoms according to Farsi version of the IPSS and NPRS. PMID:25237573

  8. Analysis of 3′-end variable region of the cagA gene in Helicobacter pylori isolated from Iranian population

    PubMed Central

    Shokrzadeh, Leila; Baghaei, Kaveh; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Dabiri, Hossein; Jafari, Fereshteh; Sahebekhtiari, Navid; Tahami, Ali; Sugimoto, Mitsushige; Zojaji, Homayon; Zali, Mohammad Reza

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims The 3′ region of the cagA gene, the most well-known virulence factor of Helicobacter pylori, contains Glu-Pro-Ile-Tyr-Ala (EPIYA) motifs. Four segments flanking the EPIYA motifs, EPIYA-A, -B, -C, or -D, were reported to play important roles in H. pylori-related gastroduodenal pathogenesis. The aim was to determine the roles of EPIYA segments in gastroduodenal pathogenesis in an Iranian population. Methods A total of 92 cagA-positive Iranian strains isolated from dyspepsia patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia (n = 77), peptic ulcer (n = 11) and gastric cancer (n = 4) were studied. The EPIYA motif genotyping was determined by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. Results A total of 86 (93.5%) strains had three copies of EPIYA (ABC type), three (3.3%) had four copies (ABCC type) and three (3.3%) had two copies (AB type). The alignment of the deduced protein sequences confirmed that there were no East Asian type EPIYA-D sequences (EPIYATIDFDEANQAG) in Iranian strains. When the prevalence of strains with multiple EPIYA-C segments in Iran was compared with previously published data, it was much lower than that in Colombia and Italy, but was higher than that of Iraq, and the patterns were parallel to the incidence of gastric cancer in these countries. Conclusion The structure of the 3′ region of the cagA gene in Iranian strains was Western type. Although we could not find differences between EPIYA types and clinical outcomes, low prevalence of strains with multiple EPIYA-C segments might be reasons for low incidence of gastric cancer in Iran. PMID:19793167

  9. Lack of FLT3-TKD835 gene mutation in toxicity of sulfur mustard in Iranian veterans

    PubMed Central

    Ayatollahi, Hossein; Rafiee, Mohammad; Keramati, Mohammad-Reza; Balali-Mood, Mahdi; Asgharzadeh, Ali; Sadeghian, Mohammad Hadi; Sheikhi, Maryam; Amini, Nafiseh; Zarmehri, Azam Moradi

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Sulfur mustard (SM) was used by the Iraqi army against the Iranian troops in the Iran-Iraq war from 1983–1988. This chemical gas affects different organs including the skin, lungs and the hematopoietic system. Any exposure to SM increases the risk of chromosomal breaking, hyperdiploidy and hypodiploidy. Studies have shown that the risk for acute myeloblastic and lymphoblastic leukemia increases in veterans exposed to SM. FLT3 mutations including ITD and TKD mutations had been observed in some cases of leukemia. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the frequency of FLT3-TKD835 mutations in the veterans exposed to SM agent. Materials and Methods: We studied 42 patients who were exposed to SM during the war in Khorasan Razavi province, Mashhad, Iran in 2012. As control group, 30 healthy males were selected from first-degree relatives of the patients. For assessment of TKD835 mutation, DNA was extracted and RFLP-PCR was performed. Results: Analysis of RFLP-PCR data showed no FLT-3 TKD mutation in any of the patients. Conclusion: Although contact with SM can increase the risk of malignancy especially hematologic neoplasms, results of the study show that another mechanism of leukemogenesis, other than FLT3-TKD mutation, may be the reason for increased risk of leukemia in SM toxicity. PMID:26523218

  10. Psychiatric nursing as 'different' care: experience of Iranian mental health nurses in inpatient psychiatric wards.

    PubMed

    Zarea, K; Nikbakht-Nasrabadi, A; Abbaszadeh, A; Mohammadpour, A

    2013-03-01

    Patients with mental illness require unique and specific care. The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of nurses, who provide such care for mentally ill people, within the context of Iranian culture. This hermeneutic phenomenological study was carried out in a university-affiliated hospital in an urban area of Iran. We interviewed 10 mental health nurses to capture in detail their experiences in psychiatric units, and the approach developed by Diekelmann et al. was employed to analyse the data. Four themes and five sub-themes were identified: 'being engaged with patients' (sub-themes: 'struggle for monitor/control', 'safety/security concerns', 'supporting physiological and emotional needs'), 'being competent', 'altruistic care' and 'facing difficulties and challenges' (sub-themes: 'socio-cultural' and 'organizational challenges'). The results provide valuable insights and greater understanding of the professional experiences of psychiatric nurses in Iran, and indicate the need for a stable and responsible organizational structure for those nurses who are expected to manage patient care in psychiatric wards. PMID:22384949

  11. Caregiver burden among Iranian heart failure family caregivers: A descriptive, exploratory, qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Bahrami, Masoud; Etemadifar, Shahram; Shahriari, Mohsen; Farsani, Alireza Khosravi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Living with patients of chronic diseases such as heart failure (HF) is a difficult situation for the caregivers. This study explored the Iranian family caregivers’ burden of caregiving for patients with HF. Materials and Methods: Eighteen family caregivers of the HF patients from two governmental medical training centers in Isfahan, Iran were recruited using purposive sampling. Data were collected through face-to-face semi-structured interviews. Each interview was transcribed verbatim and was thematically analyzed concurrently. Results: Four major themes emerged from the analysis of the transcripts: Lack of care-related knowledge, physical exhaustion, psychosocial exhaustion, and lack of support. Family caregivers believed that they have little knowledge about the patients’ disease, drugs, and how to perform caregiving roles. They experienced negative physical and psychosocial consequences of full-time and highly extended caregiving roles, such as musculoskeletal disorder, fatigue, and sleep disturbance, and a high level of anxiety, stress, and social isolation. Caregivers believed that they receive little familial and organizational support on the emotional and financial dimensions of caregiving. Conclusions: The findings of this study can be used by healthcare providers, especially nurses, to provide more effective social, informational, and professional support for family caregivers. PMID:24554961

  12. Correlation between cervical vertebral maturation and chronological age in a group of Iranian females

    PubMed Central

    Safavi, Seyed Mohammadreza; Beikaii, Hanie; Hassanizadeh, Raheleh; Younessian, Farnaz; Baghban, Alireza Akbarzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Correlation between chronological age at different stages of cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) is important in clinical orthodontic practice. The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlation between CVM stage and chronological age in a group of Iranian female patients. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 196 digital lateral cephalometry of female patients with the age ranged 9-14 years. The CVM stage was determined with two calibrated examiners, using the method developed by Baccetti and its correlation with mean chronological age was assessed by the Spearman rank-order. The intra and inter-agreements were evaluated by weighted Kappa statistics in overall diagnosis of stages, in addition to determination of presence or absent of concavities at the lower border of second, third and fourth cervical vertebrae and the shapes of the third and fourth vertebrae. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The correlation coefficient between CVM stages and chronological age was relatively low (r = 0.62). The least amount of inter-observer agreement was determined to be at the clinical decision of the shape of the fourth vertebra. Conclusion: Regarding the low reported correlation, the concomitant usage of other skeletal indicators seems necessary for precise determination of physiological age of the patients. PMID:26604958

  13. Mutation Screening of BRCA Genes in 10 Iranian Males with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zorrieh Zahra, Atieh; Kadkhoda, Sepideh; Behjati, Farkhondeh; Aghakhani Moghaddam, Fatemeh; Badiei, Azadeh; Sirati, Fereidoon; Afshin Alavi, Hossein; Atri, Morteza; Omranipour, Ramesh; Keyhani, Elahe

    2016-01-01

    Male breast cancer is a rare disease with an increasing trend. Due to limited information especially about the genetic basis of the disease in Iran and the lower age of its onset, the disease requires more attention. The aim of this study was to screen the male patients with breast cancer for BRCA mutations as well as tissue markers of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER-2) and cytokeratin 5/6 (CK5/6). Ten Iranian males with breast cancer were selected regardless of their histologic subtypes, age and family history from patients referred to Mehrad, Day and Parsian hospitals in Tehran, Iran, during a two-year period. Paraffin blocks of the tumoral regions were tested for ER, PR, HER-2 and CK5/6 immunostaining. DNA extraction was carried out on the EDTA blood samples followed by Sanger sequencing. Immunohistochemistry results for ER, and PR were negative in 2 out of 10 patients, while the results of HER-2 and CK5/6 were negative in all the cases. A missense mutation in exon 18 of BRCA1 and a nonsense mutation in exon 25 of in BRCA2 were detected in one patient each. Both patients belonged to luminal A subtype. Despite the low number of patients in this study, it could be concluded that mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 occur in male breast cancer patients of luminal A subtype. The negative status of the tissue markers could not be used for the prediction of BRCA mutations. PMID:27478808

  14. A Large Cohort Study of Genotype and Phenotype Correlations of Beta- Thalassemia in Iranian Population

    PubMed Central

    Maryami, Fereshteh; Azarkeivan, Azita; Fallah, Mohammad Sadegh; Zeinali, Sirous

    2015-01-01

    Background: Thalassemia syndromes are the most prevalent single gene disorders in Iran. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different types of beta-globin gene mutations, co-inheritance of alpha-globin gene mutations and/or Xmn1 SNP on disease phenotype in a large cohort of Iranian patients. Subjects and Methods: In total, 433 patients were clinically classified into β-thalassemia major (TM) or intermedia (TI). Multiplex PCR, ARMS-PCR, RFLP-PCR and DNA sequencing were performed to identify both α- and β-globin gene mutations and Xmn1 polymorphism as well. All data were compared and analyzed by SPSS software in TM and TI groups, consequently. Results: A total of 39 different β-globin mutations were identified. Among them, the most common were IVS IInt1 (40.33%) followed by IVS Int5 (9.56%), C30 (7.22%) and Fr8-9(7%). All patients were subjected to evaluate common α-globin gene deletions. The patients inherited concomitant mutations of α- and β-globin, showed no clinical modifications compared with those who had only β-globin mutation. The TI patients showed a significant increase in frequency of both heterozygous and homozygous form of the Xmn1 polymorphism. It was also found that β0/β0 genotype patients, inherited the Xmn1 polymorphism required lesser blood transfusion. Conclusion: No significant differences were observed, on the severity of disease, between patient's inherited defective α- and β-globin genes and ones with just β-globin gene mutation. Taking the results of this research into account, Xmn1 polymorphism can be considered as an important genetic factor modulating the severity of disease. PMID:26865931

  15. Microbial quality survey of sunscreen products in Iranian market

    PubMed Central

    Haftbaradaran, Behnoosh; Abedi, Daryoush; Jalali, Mohammad; Bagherinejad, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Microbial contamination of cosmetic products is very crucial because of their daily use and direct contact with the skin. These products are at high risk for microbial contamination from various sources such as environment, consumer's hands, body sweat and during the time of manufacturing. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the microbial quality of sunscreens products, manufactured in or imported to or formulated in local pharmacies in Iran. Materials and Methods: The microbial quality were determined in three different levels; the intact product (at the time of purchase) and after three and after six months of opening it. Total Aerobic Viable Count (TAVC) and the presence of coliforms, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, molds, and yeasts were studied. Results: At the time of purchase, 40, 73.3 and 43.3 percentage of Iranian made, imported and pharmacy formulated sunscreens were contaminated with at least one of the objectionable microorganisms, respectively. After three months of opening it, 36.6, 70 and 46.6 percentage of Iranian made, imported and pharmacy formulated sunscreens were contaminated with at least one of the objectionable microorganisms, respectively. The percentages of contaminated samples were 36.6, 70 and 50 after six months of opening for Iranian made, imported and pharmacy formulated sunscreens, respectively. Conclusion: Microbial contamination of these sunscreens products is a potential health risk for consumers. It seems that it is necessary to inspect and monitor the products during the manufacturing and shelf life period. It is highly recommended to control and regulate cosmetic products by health organizations to ensure the quality and safety of this kind of products. PMID:25250294

  16. Inconsistent Condom Use among Iranian Male Drug Injectors

    PubMed Central

    Assari, Shervin; Yarmohmmadi Vasel, Mosaieb; Tavakoli, Mahmood; Sehat, Mahmoud; Jafari, Firoozeh; Narenjiha, Hooman; Rafiey, Hassan; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated factors of inconsistent condom use among Iranian male injecting drug users (IDUs). Materials and Methods: Data came from the national Iranian behavioral survey of drug dependence, which sampled 7743 individuals with drug dependence, from medical centers, prisons, and streets in 29 provinces in Iran, in 2007. This study included all individuals who were male, IDUs, and were sexually active (n = 1131). The main outcome was inconsistent condom use which was assessed using a single item. A logistic regression was used to determine the association between socio-economic data, drug use data, and high risk injection behaviors with inconsistent condom use. Result: 83.3% of sexually active IDUs (n = 965) reported inconsistent condom use. Based on the logistic regression, likelihood of inconsistent condom use was higher among those with a history of syringe sharing [Odds Ratio (OR); 1.63, 95% Confidence Interval (CI); 1.13–2.34], but lower among those with higher education levels (OR; 0.34, 95% CI; 0.14–0.82), those who mostly inject at home (OR; 0.09, 95% CI; 0.02–0.47), and those with a history of treatment (OR; 0.54, 95% CI; 0.31–0.94). Conclusion: Because of the link between unsafe sex and risky injecting behaviors among Iranian IDUs, combined programs targeting both sexual and injection behavior may be more appropriate than programs that target sexual or injection behavior. The efficacy of combined programs should be, however, compared with traditional programs that only target sexual or injection behavior of IDUs. PMID:24772093

  17. ML shear wave velocity tomography for the Iranian Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheri-Peyrov, Mehdi; Ghods, Abdolreza; Abbasi, Madjid; Bergman, Eric; Sobouti, Farhad

    2016-04-01

    Iranian Plateau reflects several different tectonic styles of collision, and large-scale strike-slip faults. We calculate a high-resolution 2-D ML shear velocity map for the Iranian Plateau to detect lateral crustal thickness changes associated with different tectonic boundaries. The ML velocity is very sensitive to strong lateral variations of crustal thickness and varies between the velocity of Lg and Sn phases. Our data set consists of 65 795 ML amplitude velocity measurements from 2531 precisely relocated events recorded by Iranian networks in the period 1996-2014. Using a constrained least-squares inversion scheme, we inverted the ML velocities for a 2-D shear velocity map of Iran. Our results show that the Zagros and South Caspian Basin (SCB) have shear wave velocities close to the Sn phase, and are thus Lg-blocking regions. High velocities in the High Zagros and the Simply Folded Belt imply significant crustal undulations within these zones. We note that in the central and south Zagros, the velocity border between the Zagros and central Iran is not coincident with the Zagros suture line that marks underthrusting of the Arabian plate beneath central Iran. The low plains of Gilan and Gorgan to the south of the Caspian Sea show high shear velocities similar to the SCB, implying that they are either underlain by an oceanic type crust or a transitional crust with a strong lateral crustal thickness gradient. The Lut block is an Lg-passing block implying that it is not surrounded by any sudden crustal thickness changes along its borders with central Iran. In the Alborz, NW Iran, Kopeh-Dagh, Binalud and most of the central Iran, low shear velocity near the Lg velocity is attributed to smooth or minor Moho undulations within these regions.

  18. Herbal Medicines for Leucorrhea According to Iranian Traditional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Dehdari, Sahar; Hajimehdipoor, Homa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Leucorrhea or vaginal discharge is a conventional complaint. It is generally whitish, yellowish, or greenish vaginal discharge in females that might be normal or a symptom of infection. It is almost mucus discharge, which exhibit exfoliation of vaginal epithelial cells due to estrogen influence on the vaginal mucosa. It is important to identify the differences between physiologic and pathologic discharges. Leucorrhea is a well-known disease in Iranian traditional medicine (ITM). In their manuscripts, the word “Sayalan-e rahem” was used by Avicenna and some other Iranian traditional practitioners to describe this condition. Ancient practitioners believed that excessive residue (kesrate fozool) and weakness of digestion (Za’afe hazm) were the main causes of leucorrhea, for which herbal therapy was the main proposed treatment. In the present study, medicinal plants used in ITM for leucorrhea are introduced. Methods: In this research, six Iranian traditional textbooks including Canon of Medicine (Avicena 980-1037 AD), A-Hawi (Razes 865-925 AD), Tuhfat ul-Momineen (Mo’men tonekaboni, 17th century), Makhzan-ul-Adwiah (Aghili 18th century), Ikhtiarat Badi’i (Ansari 1329-1404 AD), and al-jāmi li-mufradāt al-adwiyawa al-aghdhiy (Ibn al-Baitar 1197 AD) were studied and searched for anti-leucorrhea medicines. Then the herbal medicines were selected and scored depending on their frequency in the above-mentioned textbooks. Additional attention was paid to provide the most suitable scientific name for each plant. Results: This study introduced many Materia Medica with anti-leucorrhea activity and among them seven herbs including Rubus fruticosus L., Rhus coriaria L., Phoenix dactylifera L., Pimpinella anisum L., Rumex acetosa L., Olea europaea L. and Quercus lusitanica Lam. showed the most repetition in ITM prescriptions. Conclusion: These herbs can be introduced as new anti-leucorrhea herbal medicines for clinical research. PMID:27516669

  19. ARCO and Sun agree to settle Iranian claims

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-24

    This paper reports that ARCO and Sun Co. Inc. have agreed to separate settlements totaling almost $261 million that resolve their claims over oil field assets expropriated by Iran in 1978--80. The agreements are subject to approval by the Iran-U.S. claims tribunal at The Hague. The tribunal was set up in 1981 to resolve foreign claims to assets nationalized by the government of Ayatollah Khomeini following the fall of the Shah of Iran as a result of the 1978-79 Iranian revolution. The settlements are seen as the latest steps Iran has taken to normalize relations with the U.S., notably through petroleum related deals.

  20. US policy and the Iranian threat. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kerstanski, P.

    1995-02-01

    Topics include `dual containment` as it affects Iran, international community thoughts; external pressures being applied on Clinton administration; conventional arms buildup from threat it poses to GCC. Israel and U.S.; external threat poised against a weakened Iran; dangers Iran`s unconventional weapons program pose to GCC, Israel. Iraq and West; why Iran believes such a program is essential to its existence; capability of Iran to export its terrorist and revolutionary zeal. Iran overcoming odds on its domestic front; U.S. - GCC relationship and GCC - Iranian relationship and questioned policy of excluding Iran from regional security agreements.

  1. Improving the status of Iranian women in physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iraji zad, A.; Roshani, F.; Izadi, D.

    2015-12-01

    Iranian women have shown improving contribution in the field of physics as students and researchers in recent years. More than 60% of BSc and MSc students, 47% of PhD students, and 18% of faculty members in the physics departments in Iran are female. However, in higher levels of academic fields and management, participation by women is still below the expected values. The Women in Physics branch of the Physics Society of Iran studies the related cases to find suitable strategies to improve the situation.

  2. Using Queuing Theory and Simulation Modelling to Reduce Waiting Times in An Iranian Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Haghighinejad, Hourvash Akbari; Kharazmi, Erfan; Hatam, Nahid; Yousefi, Sedigheh; Hesami, Seyed Ali; Danaei, Mina; Askarian, Mehrdad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hospital emergencies have an essential role in health care systems. In the last decade, developed countries have paid great attention to overcrowding crisis in emergency departments. Simulation analysis of complex models for which conditions will change over time is much more effective than analytical solutions and emergency department (ED) is one of the most complex models for analysis. This study aimed to determine the number of patients who are waiting and waiting time in emergency department services in an Iranian hospital ED and to propose scenarios to reduce its queue and waiting time. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study in which simulation software (Arena, version 14) was used. The input information was extracted from the hospital database as well as through sampling. The objective was to evaluate the response variables of waiting time, number waiting and utilization of each server and test the three scenarios to improve them. Results: Running the models for 30 days revealed that a total of 4088 patients left the ED after being served and 1238 patients waited in the queue for admission in the ED bed area at end of the run (actually these patients received services out of their defined capacity). The first scenario result in the number of beds had to be increased from 81 to179 in order that the number waiting of the “bed area” server become almost zero. The second scenario which attempted to limit hospitalization time in the ED bed area to the third quartile of the serving time distribution could decrease the number waiting to 586 patients. Conclusion: Doubling the bed capacity in the emergency department and consequently other resources and capacity appropriately can solve the problem. This includes bed capacity requirement for both critically ill and less critically ill patients. Classification of ED internal sections based on severity of illness instead of medical specialty is another solution. PMID:26793727

  3. Association of Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase C677T Polymorphism with Hyperhomocysteinemia and Deep Vein Thrombosis in the Iranian Population

    PubMed Central

    Ghaznavi, Habib; Soheili, Zahra; Samiei, Shahram; Soltanpour, Mohammad Soleiman

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is a common but elusive condition characterized by a high morbidity and mortality rate. The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism with plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) levels and DVT risk in an Iranian population. Materials and Methods: Our study population consisted of 67 patients with a diagnosis of DVT and 67 healthy subjects as controls. Genotyping of MTHFR C677T polymorphism was performed by the polymerase chain reaction technique combined with restriction enzyme fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and measurement of tHcy levels was done by enzyme immunoassay method. Results: Plasma tHcy levels were significantly higher in DVT patients than controls (18.09±7.6 vs. 10.5±4.3, P=0.001). Also, plasma tHcy levels were significantly higher in MTHFR 677TT genotypes compared to 677CC genotypes in both DVT patients (P=0.016) and controls (P=0.03). Neither heterozygote nor homozygote genotypes of MTHFR C677T polymorphism was significantly correlated with DVT (P>0.05). The distribution of MTHFR C677T genotypes was similar between men and women in both DVT patients and controls (P>0.05). Moreover, the frequency of mutant 677T allele did not differ significantly between the two groups (28.3% vs. 21.6%, P=0.15). Conclusion: Based on this study, we propose that hyperhomocysteinemia but not homozygosity for MTHFR C677T polymorphism is a significant risk factor for DVT in the Iranian population. Also, MTHFR 677TT genotype is a determinant of elevated plasma tHcy levels. PMID:26719836

  4. Werner syndrome in an Iranian family.

    PubMed

    Hallaji, Zahra; Barzegari, Massumeh; Kiavash, Katrin

    2010-01-01

    A 49-year-old man was first seen in our department for the evaluation of scleroderma-like skin changes and a nonhealing ulcer on his leg from years before referral. His medical history was of long duration. His growth was stunted at the age of 12. At 21 years of age, the patient noted graying of the scalp hair, most prominent on his temples, and the process was progressively completed by the age of 23. At the same age, atrophy and thinning of the skin and loss of subcutaneous fat resulted in a tense, shining, and adherent appearance of his skin, most obvious on his face and extremities. Soon after, he developed a high-pitched, hoarse voice. He had undergone bilateral cataract surgery at the age of 30. Around the age of 46, he developed a unilateral nonhealing chronic leg ulcer (Figure 1). He had separated from his wife because of infertility. He was the first offspring of his second-degree healthy relative parents. The other 3 siblings had similar signs and symptoms. Our patient gave the history of premature graying of the hair of his younger brother at the age of 18 and his 2 younger sisters at the age of 12 and 16. His brother had recently received diagnoses of bilateral cataract and diabetes mellitus. All of the siblings had ceased growth from early adolescence. On physical examination, our patient's weight was 48 kg and his height was 150 cm. He had normal intelligence. He was speaking with a high-pitched and childish voice. He had a bird-like appearance with a beak-shaped nose. Mottled and diffuse pigmentation and poikiloderma appearance was conspicuous on his neck (Figure 2). The entire skin was smooth, shiny, and scleroderma-like, and a marked decrease in the subcutaneous fat was noted over the extremities. A deep cutaneous ulcer was evident on his slimmed leg. Digital ulcers were not found, and radial and dorsalis pedis pulses were palpable. Clinodactyly of the toes were conspicuous. His nails were dystrophic and he had used dentures from the age of 20. On

  5. University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification on Iranian Population

    PubMed Central

    Kamrava, Seyed Kamran; Farhadi, Mohammad; Jalessi, Maryam; Khosravian, Babak; Pousti, Behzad; Amin Tehran, Ebrahim; Rezaee Hemami, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Background: University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) is one of the most common smell identification tests to assess olfactory function. Objectives: The study was conducted to assess the accuracy of University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) in Iranian population. Materials and Methods: University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test was performed on 30 (50%) female and 30 (50%) male, who were healthy adult volunteers. The total mean score as well as mean scores according to the gender were assessed and compared to the UPSIT classification. Odors considered valid and accurate if its correct identification ability rate was more than 70% among study population. Results: The test score was 25.04 ± 4.92 in female and 23.29 ± 4.23 in male volunteers that all were considered as microsmia according to UPSIT. Sixteen odorants were correctly identified by about 70% of the volunteers and the remains 24 odorants were identified by less than 70%; 7, 5 and 12 odors was identified by60%-70%, 50%-60% and less than 50% of the volunteers, respectively. Conclusions: According to the results of the study, documented that even less than half of the odors (16 out of 40) were identified correctly by the volunteers, which indicating that the UPSIT is not a suitable test to evaluate olfactory function in Iranian population due to the high amount of unfamiliar smells that should be replaced with more familiar ones. PMID:24719716

  6. Knowledge translation in Iranian universities: need for serious interventions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess the status of knowledge translation (KT) in Iranian medical science universities in order to assess the strengths and weaknesses of the most important organizations responsible for producing knowledge in the country. Methods The KT activities were assessed qualitatively and quantitatively in nine universities using the Self-Assessment Tool for Research Institutes. Results The strengths and weaknesses of universities were determined using seven main themes: priority setting; research quality and timeliness; researchers’ KT capacities; interaction with research users; the facilities and prerequisites of KT; the processes and regulations supporting KT; and promoting and evaluating the use of evidence. The quantitative and qualitative results showed that the Iranian universities did not have an appropriate context for KT. There were significant shortcomings in supportive regulations, facilities for KT activities, and the level of interaction between the researchers and research users. Conclusions The shortcomings in KT were mostly in the area of stewardship and policymaking (macro level), followed by planning and implementation at the universities. In order to strengthen KT in Iran, it should occupy a prominent and focused role in the strategies of the country’s health research system. PMID:24225146

  7. Hepatitis A Virus Infection, Vaccination and Iranian Healthcare Workers

    PubMed Central

    Rezaee-Zavareh, Mohammad Saeid; Karimi-Sari, Hamidreza; Dolatimehr, Fardin; Alavian, Seyed Moayed

    2015-01-01

    Context: Hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection is an important public health problem. It is estimated that about 1.4 million cases of HAV infection occur every year worldwide. Non-immune healthcare workers (HCWs) can be at higher risk of HAV infection in comparison to general population and an appropriate preventive method should be considered for them. Evidence Acquisition: For finding related articles, a comprehensive search was performed in Scopus, PubMed and Google Scholar and all appropriate combinations of following keywords were considered; “healthcare provider”, “healthcare personnel”, “healthcare worker”, “nurse” “medical students”, “Iran”, “Hepatitis A” and “vaccination”. Also we did a search in Persian language in Google scholar and scientific information database (SID) to find related Persian literature. Results: A gradual shift in age of HAV infection has been seen from childhood toward adulthood. Data about HAV seropositivity among Iranian HCWs are very limited. However based on the recent studies, it seems that HAV seropositivity has been reduced among HCWs in comparison with the past. All recent studies have suggested HAV vaccination for HCWs. Conclusions: Available limited studies show that Iranian healthcare personnel need HAV vaccination. However, for selecting an appropriate preventive method for this high risk group, more original studies are still needed. PMID:26977171

  8. Fate of aflatoxin M1 in Iranian white cheese processing.

    PubMed

    Kamkar, A; Karim, G; Aliabadi, F Shojaee; Khaksar, R

    2008-06-01

    Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is an important mycotoxin frequently found in milk and dairy products. AFM1 is a major metabolic product of Aflatoxin B1 and is usually excreted in the milk and urine of dairy cattle that have consumed aflatoxin-contaminated feed. The aim of this study was to determine the AFM1 concentration in curd and whey of Iranian white cheese. The cheese milk samples were artificially contaminated with AFM1 in six levels (0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.75microgL(-1)). Cheese was produced according to Iranian traditional recipe. AFM1 distribution between curd, whey and cheese was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using immunoaffinity column clean up and florescence detection. AFM1 was recovered in whey, curd and cheese in the concentrations of 0.43, 1.47 and 1.57microgL(-1),respectively. The level of Aflatoxin M1 in curd and cheese obtained 3.12- and 3.65-fold more than that in whey that shows the affinity of Aflatoxin M1 to the protein fraction of milk. PMID:18433973

  9. Smoking and Its Related Factors Among Iranian High School Students

    PubMed Central

    Chaman, Reza; Khosravi, Ahmad; Sajedinejad, Sima; Nazemi, Saeed; Fereidoon Mohasseli, Khadije; Valizade, Behzad; Vahedi, Hamid; Hosseinzadeh, Ehsan; Amiri, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: In different studies, the prevalence of tobacco consumption has been growing in high schools boys. Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of smoking and its related factors among Iranian high school students in 2011. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 450 male students from 15 high schools of Shahroud (northeast of Iran) were selected for evaluation of the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of students regarding tobacco consumption. Results: Overall, 51% (95% CI: 46.5 - 55.7) of the students had positive history of smoking for at least one time and 7.1% (95% CI: 5 - 10) of them were current smokers. The most prevalent source of information about smoking was TV and radio programs (48%) and friends were the second source (22%). Based on the students’ opinions, entertainment and smoker friends were the most important reasons for smoking tendency. There was significant statistical association between students smoking and positive family history of smoking (P value < 0.05). Conclusions: The prevalence of smoking experince was very high among high school students. The most prevalent source of information about smoking was Iranian broadcasting companies. Positive family history of smoking and smoker friends were the important motivating factors toward smoking. PMID:26834798

  10. Iranian nurses' perceptions of social responsibility: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Faseleh-Jahromi, Mohsen; Moattari, Marzieh; Peyrovi, Hamid

    2014-05-01

    Social responsibility is intertwined with nursing; however, perceptions of Iranian nurses about social responsibility has not been explored yet. This study, as part of a larger qualitative grounded theory approach study, aims to explore Iranian nurses' perception of social responsibility. The study participants included 10 nurses with different job levels. The study data were generated through semi-structured interviews. The participants were selected through purposeful sampling approach, which was then followed by theoretical sampling until reaching the point of data saturation. All the interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed through constant comparative analysis. Positive human characteristics, professional competencies, professional values, solution-focused nursing care, and deployment of professional performance are five categories obtained from the study. The participants believed socially responsible nurses to have positive personality characteristics as well as the necessary skills to do their duties accurately. Such nurses also respect the values, observe the professional principles, and take major steps toward promotion and deployment of the nursing profession in the society. PMID:24036668

  11. Iranian entrepreneur nurses’ perceived barriers to entrepreneurship: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Jahani, Simin; Abedi, Heidarali; Elahi, Nasrin; Fallahi-Khoshknab, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Background: To respond efficiently to the increasing and new needs of people in health issues, it is necessary for nurses to develop their knowledge from hospital to society and to be equipped to play entrepreneur role in different levels of care. The present study was conducted to describe Iranian entrepreneur nurses’ perceived barriers to entrepreneurship, in order to identify the existing barriers. Materials and Methods: This is a qualitative study in which Graneheim and Lundman's content analysis method was employed. Thirteen entrepreneur nurses were chosen purposively, and data were gathered by unstructured interviews. Results: As a result of the data analysis, five major themes were extracted: Traditional nursing structure, legal limitations, traditional attitudes of governmental managers, unprofessional behaviors of colleagues, and immoral business. Conclusions: The findings of the present study show that Iranian nurses are confronted with various problems and barriers to enter entrepreneur nursing and keep going in this area. By focusing on such barriers and applying appropriate changes, policymakers and planners in health can facilitate nurses entering into this activity. PMID:26985222

  12. Evidence of Adverse Selection in Iranian Supplementary Health Insurance Market

    PubMed Central

    Mahdavi, Gh; Izadi, Z

    2012-01-01

    Background: Existence or non-existence of adverse selection in insurance market is one of the important cases that have always been considered by insurers. Adverse selection is one of the consequences of asymmetric information. Theory of adverse selection states that high-risk individuals demand the insurance service more than low risk individuals do. Methods: The presence of adverse selection in Iran’s supplementary health insurance market is tested in this paper. The study group consists of 420 practitioner individuals aged 20 to 59. We estimate two logistic regression models in order to determine the effect of individual’s characteristics on decision to purchase health insurance coverage and loss occurrence. Using the correlation between claim occurrence and decision to purchase health insurance, the adverse selection problem in Iranian supplementary health insurance market is examined. Results: Individuals with higher level of education and income level purchase less supplementary health insurance and make fewer claims than others make and there is positive correlation between claim occurrence and decision to purchase supplementary health insurance. Conclusion: Our findings prove the evidence of the presence of adverse selection in Iranian supplementary health insurance market. PMID:23113209

  13. Concept analysis of professional commitment in Iranian nurses

    PubMed Central

    Jafaragaee, Fateme; Parvizy, Soroor; Mehrdad, Neda; Rafii, Forough

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Professional commitment has been widely discussed during the last decade. There is no comprehensive definition about “professional commitment in Iranian nurses.” Hence, this study was conducted with the aim of analyzing the concept of professional commitment in Iranian nurses. Materials and Methods: Hybrid model was used in three phases. Firstly, in the theoretical phase, data were retrieved from the CINHAl, MEDLINE, PubMed, OVID, Google scholar, and SID databases. The literature search used the keywords “professional commitment” and “nursing.” The final sample included 27 papers published in English between 2001 and 2011.Secondly, in the fieldwork phase, deep interviews with five clinical nurses were carried out, and thirdly, in the final analytical phase, the obtained data from theoretical and fieldwork phases were combined and a comprehensive analysis was conducted. Results: Loyalty and tendency to remain in the profession and responsibility to the professional issues were extracted in theoretical phase. Commitment to promote caring abilities, satisfying of being a nurse, and belonging to the nursing profession were obtained in fieldwork phase. Finally, two main themes including “commitment to offering the best nursing care” and “commitment to promotion of the nursing profession” were extracted. Conclusion: Nursing is a humanistic profession; it has some particular characteristics due to the profession’s nature. In this paper, a definition composed of two main dimensions of professional commitment in nursing has been introduced. PMID:23922592

  14. Adaptation and validation of the Iranian version of Angina Pectoris characteristics questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Najafi-Ghezeljeh, Tahereh; Ekman, Inger; Nikravesh, Mansoureh Yadavar; Emami, Azita

    2008-12-01

    Research aimed at evaluating Angina Pectoris (AP) symptoms in patients with Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) requires a comprehensive assessment tool applicable to this population. Because no single existing measure assessed the full range of symptom characteristics important to our study, we combined two measures (the modified Rose Questionnaire (MRQ), and the Short Form-McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ) and added one item to examine specific aspects of AP symptoms (Accompanying Symptom Checklist). The purposes of this study are: (i) to describe the process of translating the SF-MPQ, MRQ and accompanying symptom checklist from English to the Farsi language; and (ii) to evaluate substantial psychometric works (content and construct validity) for the entire instrument and each part of it (SF-MPQ, MRQ and accompanying symptom checklist). A cross-cultural adaptation of the instrument was carried out before developing the final version of it. To these ends, one hundred and 10 CHD patients with AP were assessed by this hybrid measure in an initial study. An analysis of the results indicated that a content valid instrument had been developed. There was a significantly high correlation between scores in the SF-MPQ and there were associations between items in the MRQ. The Iranian version of AP characteristics questionnaire is valid; it is capable of describing characteristics of AP symptoms. However, the reliability of the instrument needs to be assessed through further research. PMID:19126076

  15. Prevalence and clinical significance of antinuclear antibodies in Iranian women with unexplained recurrent miscarriage

    PubMed Central

    Molazadeh, Morteza; Karimzadeh, Hadi; Azizi, Mohammad R

    2014-01-01

    Background: Antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) in women with recurrent miscarriage have been reported. The presence of moderate to high titers of these antibodies represents an autoimmune condition that can endanger the health of the fetus in pregnant women. Objective: In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of ANAs in Iranian women with a history of two or more unexplained abortion. Materials and Methods: 560 women with unexplained recurrent miscarriage and 560 healthy controls accounted for this study over a period of 13 months. ANAs were detected by indirect immunofluorescence technique. Results: ANAs were detected in 74 of 560 (13.21%) patient with recurrent miscarriage, and in only 5 of 560 (0.9%) controls (p<0.001). ANA positivity was generally found with low-positive results (1.40-1.80) in about 38% of positive cases, whereas moderate titres (1.160-1.320) and high titres (>1.640) were seen in about 46% and 16% of cases respectively. Finally evaluating of microscopic ANA patterns revealed that about half of positive cases had antibodies against DNA- histone complex, associated with systemic lupus erythematosus disease. Conclusion: Antinuclear antibodies are not uncommon in women with unexplained recurrent miscarriage, suggesting the possible role of an autoimmune disorder on abortion, at least in a subgroup of patients. PMID:24799884

  16. Risk of cancer with combined oral contraceptive use among Iranian women.

    PubMed

    Vaisy, Afasaneh; Lotfinejad, Shirin; Zhian, Faegh

    2014-01-01

    Oral contraceptive use is the most common type of contraception. More than 300 million women worldwide take oral contraceptives every day. However, there is a concern about the relationship with the incidence of cancer. This analytical retrospective study aimed to investigate the relationship between the incidence of cervical and breast cancers and oral contraceptive use in 128 Iranian patients with cervical cancer, 235 with breast cancer and equal numbers of controls. Data were collected through interviews with an organized set of questions. Details were also extracted from patient files. Data were analyzed using Student's t-test, chi-square and Fisher's exact tests, and Pearson's correlation analysis. The result revealed correlations between both cervical and breast cancers and history of contraceptive pills use. While cervical cancer significantly correlated with duration of use of pills, breast cancer had significant correlations with the type of oral contraceptive and age at first use. No significant relationships were found between the two types of cancer and age at discontinuation of oral contraceptives, patterns of use, and intervals from the last use. The use of oral contraceptives may triple the incidence of cervical cancer and doubles the incidence of breast cancer. Therefore, performing Pap smears every six months and breast cancer screening are warranted for long-term oral contraceptive users. PMID:25081657

  17. Thoracoscopic Esophageal Atresia with Tracheoesophageal Fistula Repair: The First Iranian Group Report, Passing the Learning Curve

    PubMed Central

    Hiradfar, Mehran; Gharavifard, Mohammad; Shojaeian, Reza; Joodi, Marjan; Nazarzadeh, Reza; Sabzevari, Alireza; Yal, Nazila; Eslami, Reza; Mohammadipour, Ahmad; Azadmand, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: Thoracoscopic treatment of esophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula (EA+TEF) is accepted as a superior technique at least in cosmetic point of view but it is considered as an advance endoscopic procedure that needs a learning curve to be performed perfectly. This is the first report of Iranian group pediatric surgeons in thoracoscopic approach to EA. Methods and Materials: Since 2010, twenty four cases with EA+TEF underwent thoracoscopic approach in Sarvar Children Hospital (Mashhad -Iran). During the first 6 months, thoracoscopic approach to 6 cases of EA+TEF was converted to open procedure because of technical and instrumental problems. The first case of successful thoracoscopic EA repair was accomplished in 2010 and since then, 10 cases of EA+ TEF among 18 patients were treated successfully with thoracoscopic approach Results: Overall conversion rate was 58.3% but conversion rate after the primary learning curve period, was 35.7%. The main conversion causes include difficulties in esophageal anastomosis, limited exposure and deteriorating the patient's condition. Anastomotic leak and stenosis were observed in 20% and 40% respectively. Overall mortality rate was 4.2%. Conclusion: Thoracoscopic repair of esophageal atresia seems feasible and safe with considerable superiorities to the conventional method although acceptable results needs a prolonged learning curve and advanced endoscopic surgical skill. Clear judgment about the best surgical intervention for EA according to all cosmetic and functional outcomes needs further studies. PMID:27471677

  18. Perspectives of Iranian Medical Students About Do-Not-Resuscitate Orders

    PubMed Central

    GHAJARZADEH, Mahsa; HABIBI, Roshanak; AMINI, Neda; NOROUZI-JAVIDAN, Abbas; EMAMI-RAZAVI, Seyed Hassan

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To study the attitudes of Iranian medical students towards the do-not-resuscitate (DNR) decision. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 220 medical students (110 interns and 110 residents) of Tehran University of medical sciences were selected. They asked to answer to the questionnaire which included two items: first item consisted of demographic questions (age, sex, and level of education); second item included questions about DNR Orders which derived from a previous study conducted by Hosaka et al. Results: A total of 185 questionnaires returned (Response rate (RR=84%)). Ninety five were residents and ninety were interns. Seventy four percent of residents and 53% of interns felt that DNR order is sporadically necessary. Near 30% of interns and 40% of residents had participated in DNRs in their study period and the most case was the patient with terminal cancer. The most common person who decided DNR orders were physicians. Most participants believed that DNR cards are useful for establishing in clinical settings. Conclusion: As DNR is definitely a medical decision, it should be clearly discussed with patients and their families. So, it should be provided in standard format in medical situations. PMID:24371495

  19. Attitude of Iranian Medical Oncologists Toward Economic Aspects, and Policy-making in Relation to New Cancer Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Daroudi, Rajabali; Mirzania, Mehrzad; Zendehdel, Kazem

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although medical oncologists can have an important role in controlling the cost of cancer treatment, there is little information about their attitudes toward the cost of cancer treatment and the impact of cost on their treatment recommendations, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). In this study, we assessed the attitude of Iranian medical oncologists toward some economic aspects of new cancer drugs. Methods: We translated a questionnaire that was used in similar studies in the United States and Canada into Persian and modified it according to the local setting in Iran. The face and content validity of the questionnaire were assessed by oncologists before being used in the survey. We distributed the questionnaire and collected the data from 80 oncologists