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Sample records for irbesartan suppressing atherosclerosis

  1. Irbesartan

    MedlinePlus

    ... organs may cause heart disease, a heart attack, heart failure, stroke, kidney failure, loss of vision, and other ... Irbesartan is also used sometimes to treat heart failure (condition in which the heart is unable to pump enough blood to the rest of the body). Talk to your doctor about the ...

  2. Suppression of atherosclerosis by synthetic REV-ERB agonist

    SciTech Connect

    Sitaula, Sadichha; Billon, Cyrielle; Kamenecka, Theodore M.; Solt, Laura A.; Burris, Thomas P.

    2015-05-08

    The nuclear receptors for heme, REV-ERBα and REV-ERBβ, play important roles in the regulation of metabolism and inflammation. Recently it was demonstrated that reduced REV-ERBα expression in hematopoetic cells in LDL receptor null mice led to increased atherosclerosis. We sought to determine if synthetic REV-ERB agonists that we have developed might have the ability to suppress atherosclerosis in this model. A previously characterized synthetic REV-ERB agonist, SR9009, was used to determine if activation of REV-ERB activity would affect atherosclerosis in LDL receptor deficient mice. Atherosclerotic plaque size was significantly reduced (p < 0.05) in mice administered SR9009 (100 mg/kg) for seven weeks compared to control mice (n = 10 per group). SR9009 treatment of bone marrow-derived mouse macrophages (BMDM) reduced the polarization of BMDMs to proinflammatory M1 macrophage while increasing the polarization of BMDMs to anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages. Our results suggest that pharmacological targeting of REV-ERBs may be a viable therapeutic option for treatment of atherosclerosis. - Highlights: • Synthetic REV-ERB agonist treatment reduced atherosclerosis in a mouse model. • Pharmacological activation of REV-ERB decreased M1 macrophage polarization. • Pharmacological activation of REV-ERB increased M2 macrophage polarization.

  3. Irbesartan Ameliorates Diabetic Nephropathy by Suppressing the RANKL-RANK-NF-κB Pathway in Type 2 Diabetic db/db Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiao-Wen; Du, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Yu-Xian; Wang, Jian-Cheng; Liu, Wen-Ting; Chen, Wen-Jing; Li, Hong-Yu; Peng, Fen-Fen; Xu, Zhao-Zhong; Niu, Hong-Xin; Long, Hai-Bo

    2016-01-01

    The receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) and its receptor RANK are overexpressed in focal segmental glomerular sclerosis (FSGS), IgA nephropathy (IgAN), and membranous nephropathy (MN). However, the expression and the potential roles of RANKL and RANK in diabetic nephropathy (DN) remain unclear. Irbesartan (Irb) has beneficial effects against diabetes-induced renal damage, but its mechanisms are poorly understood. Our present study investigated the effects of Irb in DN and whether the renal protective effects of Irb are mediated by RANKL/RANK and the downstream NF-κB pathway in db/db mice. Our results showed that db/db mice revealed severe metabolic abnormalities, renal dysfunction, podocyte injury, and increased MCP-1; these symptoms were reversed by Irb. At the molecular level, RANKL and RANK were overexpressed in the kidneys of db/db mice and Irb downregulated RANKL and RANK and inhibited the downstream NF-κB pathway. Our study suggests that Irb can ameliorate DN by suppressing the RANKL-RANK-NF-κB pathway. PMID:26880862

  4. Irbesartan Ameliorates Diabetic Nephropathy by Suppressing the RANKL-RANK-NF-κB Pathway in Type 2 Diabetic db/db Mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Wen; Du, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Yu-Xian; Wang, Jian-Cheng; Liu, Wen-Ting; Chen, Wen-Jing; Li, Hong-Yu; Peng, Fen-Fen; Xu, Zhao-Zhong; Niu, Hong-Xin; Long, Hai-Bo

    2016-01-01

    The receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) and its receptor RANK are overexpressed in focal segmental glomerular sclerosis (FSGS), IgA nephropathy (IgAN), and membranous nephropathy (MN). However, the expression and the potential roles of RANKL and RANK in diabetic nephropathy (DN) remain unclear. Irbesartan (Irb) has beneficial effects against diabetes-induced renal damage, but its mechanisms are poorly understood. Our present study investigated the effects of Irb in DN and whether the renal protective effects of Irb are mediated by RANKL/RANK and the downstream NF-κB pathway in db/db mice. Our results showed that db/db mice revealed severe metabolic abnormalities, renal dysfunction, podocyte injury, and increased MCP-1; these symptoms were reversed by Irb. At the molecular level, RANKL and RANK were overexpressed in the kidneys of db/db mice and Irb downregulated RANKL and RANK and inhibited the downstream NF-κB pathway. Our study suggests that Irb can ameliorate DN by suppressing the RANKL-RANK-NF-κB pathway. PMID:26880862

  5. Suppression of atherosclerosis by synthetic REV-ERB agonist

    PubMed Central

    Sitaula, Sadichha; Billon, Cyrielle; Kamenecka, Theodore M.; Solt, Laura A.; Burris, Thomas P.

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear receptors for heme, REV-ERBα and REV-ERBβ, play important roles in the regulation of metabolism and inflammation. Recently it was demonstrated that reduced REV-ERBα expression in hematopoetic cells in LDL receptor null mice led to increased atherosclerosis. We sought to determine if synthetic REV-ERB agonists that we have developed might have the ability to suppress atherosclerosis in this model. A previously characterized synthetic REV-ERB agonist, SR9009, was used to determine if activation of REV-ERB activity would affect atherosclerosis in LDL receptor deficient mice. Atherosclerotic plaque size was significantly reduced (p < 0.05) in mice administered SR9009 (100 mg/kg) for seven weeks compared to control mice (n = 10 per group). SR9009 treatment of bone marrow-derived mouse macrophages (BMDM) reduced the polarization of BMDMs to proinflammatory M1 macrophage while increasing the polarization of BMDMs to anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages. Our results suggest that pharmacological targeting of REV-ERBs may be a viable therapeutic option for treatment of atherosclerosis. PMID:25800870

  6. Atherosclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2015 View an animation of atherosclerosis Atherosclerosis, or hardening of the arteries, is a condition in which ... is a general term for the thickening and hardening of arteries. What damage does atherosclerosis cause? Plaque ...

  7. Suppression of high lipid diet induced by atherosclerosis sarpogrelate.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan-Jun; Zhang, Ming; Ji, Lei; Elimban, Vijayan; Chen, Li; Dhalla, Naranjan S

    2012-10-01

    Sarpogrelate (SP), a serotonin (5-HT2A) receptor antagonist, is used as an anti-platelet agent for the treatment of some vascular diseases. SP has been reported to inhibit 5-HT induced coronary artery spasm, increase in intracellular calcium and smooth muscle cells proliferation. This study was undertaken to test that SP suppresses the development of atherosclerosis due to high cholesterol diet (HCD) by decreasing blood viscosity and oxidative stress. For this purpose, 29 rabbits were divided into four groups: control group (normal diet); normal diet group with SP at the dose of 5 mg/kg/day; HCD group fed 1% cholesterol; and HCD group with SP at the dose of 5 mg/kg/day. After 90 days of the experiment, blood samples were collected and the animals were killed; the thoracic aorta was stained by the Oil Red O staining method. The results indicate that plasma levels of cholesterol, triglycerides and malondialdehyde were increased in rabbits fed HCD. Plasma viscosity and whole blood viscosity were also higher in the HCD group than that in normal diet group. Treatment with SP prevented these alterations induced by HCD whereas this agent had no significant effect in rabbits fed normal diet. Morphological examination of the aorta revealed that SP treatment prevented the formation of foam cells and atherosclerotic plaque. It is suggested that the beneficial effects of SP in atherosclerosis may be due to actions on blood viscosity, lipid levels and oxidative stress. PMID:22348587

  8. Atherosclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    Atherosclerosis is a disease in which plaque builds up inside your arteries. Plaque is a sticky substance ... flow of oxygen-rich blood to your body. Atherosclerosis can lead to serious problems, including Coronary artery ...

  9. Effects of Ang II Receptor Blocker Irbesartan on Adipose Tissue Function in Mice with Metabolic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Akinobu; Tamura, Kouichi; Wakui, Hiromichi; Ohsawa, Masato; Azushima, Kengo; Uneda, Kazushi; Kobayashi, Ryu; Tsurumi-Ikeya, Yuko; Kanaoka, Tomohiko; Dejima, Toru; Ohki, Koji; Haku, Sona; Yamashita, Akio; Umemura, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the functional renin-angiotensin system (RAS) exists in the adipose tissue. The adipose tissue RAS is proposed in the pathophysiology of metabolic disorders. In the present study, we examined therapeutic effects of irbesartan, an angiotensin II (Ang II) type 1 receptor (AT1R)-specific blocker, in genetically obese diabetic KKAy mice, a model of human metabolic disorders without any dietary loading, with our focus on the analysis on possible effect of irbesartan on the adipose tissue. The treatment with irbesartan significantly lowered systolic blood pressure with a concomitant decrease in body weight in KKAy mice. In addition, irbesartan significantly decreased the adipose leptin mRNA expression and tended to decrease IL-6 mRNA expression in the adipose tissue of KKAy mice. Furthermore irbesartan preserved the adipose gene expression of AT1R-associated protein (ATRAP), an endogenous inhibitory molecule of tissue AT1R signaling, with a concomitant tendency of up-regulation of adipose tissue ATRAP/AT1R ratio. Collectively, these results suggest that the irbesartan-induced beneficial suppressive effect on the leptin-IL-6 axis in the adipose tissue in KKAy mice is partly mediated by a trend of up-regulation of the adipose ATRAP/AT1R ratio as one of pleiotropic effects of irbesartan. PMID:24834011

  10. Apocynin suppresses the progression of atherosclerosis in apoE-deficient mice by inactivation of macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, Hiroyuki; Matsumura, Takeshi; Ishii, Norio; Fukuda, Kazuki; Senokuchi, Takafumi; Motoshima, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Tatsuya; Taketa, Kayo; Kawasaki, Shuji; Hanatani, Satoko; Takeya, Motohiro; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Araki, Eiichi

    2013-02-08

    Highlights: ► We examined the anti-athrogenic effect of apocynin in atherosclerotic model mice. ► Apocynin prevented atherosclerotic lesion formation. ► Apocynin suppressed ROS production in aorta and in macrophages. ► Apocynin suppressed cytokine expression and cell proliferation in macrophages. ► Apocynin may be beneficial compound for the prevention of atherosclerosis. -- Abstract: Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and other proinflammatory substances by macrophages plays an important role in atherogenesis. Apocynin (4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-acetophenone), which is well known as a NADPH oxidase inhibitor, has anti-inflammatory effects including suppression of the generation of ROS. However, the suppressive effects of apocynin on the progression of atherosclerosis are not clearly understood. Thus, we investigated anti-atherosclerotic effects of apocynin using apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE{sup –/–}) mice in vivo and in mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro. In atherosclerosis-prone apoE{sup –/–} mice, apocynin suppressed the progression of atherosclerosis, decreased 4-hydroxynonenal-positive area in atherosclerotic lesions, and mRNA expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in aorta. In mouse peritoneal macrophages, apocynin suppressed the Ox-LDL-induced ROS generation, mRNA expression of MCP-1, IL-6 and granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and cell proliferation. Moreover, immunohistochemical studies revealed that apocynin decreased the number of proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive macrophages in atherosclerotic lesions of apoE{sup –/–} mice. These results suggested that apocynin suppressed the formation of atherosclerotic lesions, at least in part, by inactivation of macrophages. Therefore, apocynin may be a potential therapeutic material to prevent the progression of atherosclerosis.

  11. Niacin Suppresses Progression of Atherosclerosis by Inhibiting Vascular Inflammation and Apoptosis of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Su, Gang; Sun, Guangli; Liu, Hai; Shu, Liliang; Zhang, Jingchao; Guo, Longhui; Huang, Chen; Xu, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Background Niacin is a broad-spectrum lipid-regulating drug used for the clinical therapy of atherosclerosis; however, the mechanisms by which niacin ameliorates atherosclerosis are not clear. Material/Methods The effect of niacin on atherosclerosis was assessed by detection of atherosclerotic lesion area. Adhesion molecules in arterial endothelial cells were determined by using qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis. The levels of serum inflammatory cytokines in ApoE−/− mice were detected by using ELISA. We detected the expression levels of phosphorylated nuclear factors-κB (NF-κB) p65 in aortic endothelial cells of mice using Western blot analysis. Furthermore, we investigated the anti-inflammation effect and endothelium-protecting function of niacin and their regulatory mechanisms in vitro. Results Niacin inhibited the progress of atherosclerosis and decreased the levels of serum inflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules in ApoE−/− mice. Niacin suppressed the activity of NF-κB and apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Furthermore, niacin induced phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and FAK inhibitor PF-573228 reduced the level of Bcl-2 and elevated the level of cleaved caspase-3 in VSMCs. Conclusions Niacin inhibits vascular inflammation and apoptosis of VSMCs via inhibiting the NF-κB signaling and the FAK signaling pathway, respectively, thus protecting ApoE−/− mice against atherosclerosis. PMID:26712802

  12. Early Atherosclerosis in HIV Infected Subjects on Suppressive Antiretroviral Treatment: Role of Osteoprotegerin

    PubMed Central

    D'Abramo, Alessandra; D'Agostino, Claudia; Oliva, Alessandra; Iannetta, Marco; D'Ettorre, Gabriella; Vullo, Francesco; Mancone, Massimo; Ciardi, Maria Rosa; Mastroianni, Claudio Maria; Vullo, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is increased in HIV-infected patients. Cytokines such as osteoprotegerin are implicated in atherosclerosis. The aim of our study was to evaluate the role of osteoprotegerin in the development and progression of atherosclerosis in HIV infected subjects on suppressive antiretroviral treatment. We enrolled 76 patients; 35 HIV infected men on suppressive Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy with Framingham score <10%; 21 HIV negative individuals matched for age, gender, and Framingham score, and 20 subjects with Framingham score >10% as control groups. HIV positive subjects underwent echocardiography, electrocardiography, and heart multidetector computed tomography, whereas in HIV negative subjects, tomography was only performed in case of any abnormalities either in echocardiography or electrocardiography. In HIV positive patients, computed tomography showed stenosis in 51.4% of the subjects. Osteoprotegerin plasma levels were higher in HIV-infected patients than those in healthy controls but lower than in HIV negative subjects with Framingham score >10%. Higher osteoprotegerin plasma levels were found in HIV positive patients with grade I stenosis than in patients with grade II/III stenosis. In conclusion, in HIV infected subjects with Framingham score <10%, osteoprotegerin plasma concentrations are associated with atherosclerosis, in particular at the early stage of the process. PMID:24383040

  13. MicroRNA-16 suppresses the activation of inflammatory macrophages in atherosclerosis by targeting PDCD4.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xue; Xu, Zhao; Yuan, Meng; Zhang, Yue; Zhao, Bo; Wang, Junqian; Zhang, Aixue; Li, Guangping

    2016-04-01

    Programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) is involved in a number of bioprocesses, such as apoptosis and inflammation. However, its regulatory mechanisms in atherosclerosis remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the role and mechanisms of action of PDCD4 in high-fat diet-induced atherosclerosis in mice and in foam cells (characteristic pathological cells in atherosclerotic lesions) derived from ox-LDL-stimulated macrophages. MicroRNA (miR)-16 was predicted to bind PDCD4 by bioinformatics analysis. In the mice with atherosclerosis and in the foam cells, PDCD4 protein expression (but not the mRNA expression) was enhanced, while that of miR‑16 was reduced. Transfection with miR‑16 mimic decreased the activity of a luciferase reporter containing the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of PDCD4 in the macrophage-derived foam cells. Conversely, treatment with miR‑16 inhibitor enhanced the luciferase activity. However, by introducing mutations in the predicted binding site located in the 3'UTR of PDCD4, the miR‑16 mimic and inhibitor were unable to alter the level of PDCD4, suggesting that miR‑16 is a direct negative regulator of PDCD4 in atherosclerosis. Furthermore, transfection wtih miR‑16 mimic and siRNA targeting PDCD4 suppressed the secretion and mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory factors, such as interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF‑α), whereas it enhanced the secretion and mRNA expression of the anti-inflammatory factor, IL-10. Treatment with miR‑16 inhibitor exerted the opposite effects. In addition, the phosphorylation of p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) expression were altered by miR‑16. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that the targeting of PDCD4 by miR‑16 may suppress the activation of inflammatory macrophages though mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and NF-κB signaling in atherosclerosis; thus, PDCD4 may prove to be a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of atherosclerosis. PMID:26936421

  14. MicroRNA-16 suppresses the activation of inflammatory macrophages in atherosclerosis by targeting PDCD4

    PubMed Central

    LIANG, XUE; XU, ZHAO; YUAN, MENG; ZHANG, YUE; ZHAO, BO; WANG, JUNQIAN; ZHANG, AIXUE; LI, GUANGPING

    2016-01-01

    Programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) is involved in a number of bioprocesses, such as apoptosis and inflammation. However, its regulatory mechanisms in atherosclerosis remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the role and mechanisms of action of PDCD4 in high-fat diet-induced atherosclerosis in mice and in foam cells (characteristic pathological cells in atherosclerotic lesions) derived from ox-LDL-stimulated macrophages. MicroRNA (miR)-16 was predicted to bind PDCD4 by bioinformatics analysis. In the mice with atherosclerosis and in the foam cells, PDCD4 protein expression (but not the mRNA expression) was enhanced, while that of miR-16 was reduced. Transfection with miR-16 mimic decreased the activity of a luciferase reporter containing the 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR) of PDCD4 in the macrophage-derived foam cells. Conversely, treatment with miR-16 inhibitor enhanced the luciferase activity. However, by introducing mutations in the predicted binding site located in the 3′UTR of PDCD4, the miR-16 mimic and inhibitor were unable to alter the level of PDCD4, suggesting that miR-16 is a direct negative regulator of PDCD4 in atherosclerosis. Furthermore, transfection wtih miR-16 mimic and siRNA targeting PDCD4 suppressed the secretion and mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory factors, such as interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), whereas it enhanced the secretion and mRNA expression of the anti-inflammatory factor, IL-10. Treatment with miR-16 inhibitor exerted the opposite effects. In addition, the phosphorylation of p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) expression were altered by miR-16. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that the targeting of PDCD4 by miR-16 may suppress the activation of inflammatory macrophages though mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and NF-κB signaling in atherosclerosis; thus, PDCD4 may prove to be a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of atherosclerosis. PMID:26936421

  15. Angiotensin II receptor blocker irbesartan attenuates cardiac dysfunction induced by myocardial infarction in the presence of renal failure.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Ryo; Suzuki, Jun-Ichi; Wakayama, Kouji; Kumagai, Hidetoshi; Ikeda, Yuichi; Akazawa, Hiroshi; Komuro, Issei; Isobe, Mitsuaki

    2016-04-01

    The activity of the renin-angiotensin system is known to be a key factor in the pathophysiology of heart failure and renal failure. Irbesartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker, has non-hemodynamic cardiovascular and renal protective effects. However, the effect of irbesartan on heart failure complicated by renal failure has not yet been elucidated. Thus the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of irbesartan on the pathophysiology of cardiorenal syndrome in a rat model. Subtotal nephrectomy (NTX) was performed in rats was using a two-step surgical procedure. Twenty-eight days after NTX, myocardial infarction (MI) was induced by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. The animals were orally administered vehicle or irbesartan (10 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) after NTX. The hearts were harvested 28 days after MI. MI with NTX model rats showed an impaired post-MI survival rate and enhanced cardiac inflammation in comparison to MI without NTX rats. Although irbesartan treatment did not improve the survival rate, it suppressed cardiac inflammation, left ventricular function decline, cardiac fibrosis, hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes and renal fibrosis in MI with NTX rats. Moreover, increases in protein expression levels related to oxidative stress and inflammation (NADPH oxidase 4, phospho-nuclear factor-κB and phospho-c-Jun) observed in the hearts of non-treated MI with NTX rats were attenuated by irbesartan treatment. These effects of irbesartan treatment were independent of blood pressure. We conclude that irbesartan has a cardioprotective effect after MI when renal dysfunction is present. PMID:26657004

  16. Suppression of experimental atherosclerosis by the Ca++-antagonist lanthanum. Possible role of calcium in atherogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Kramsch, D M; Aspen, A J; Apstein, C S

    1980-01-01

    Agents inhibiting calcium deposition into arteries are known to suppress atherosclerosis in animals. However, the precise role of calcium in atherogenesis is unknown. In this study, the specific Ca2+-antagonist lanthanum was used to attempt suppression of experimental atherosclerosis and to gain more insight into the possible effects of calcium on atherogenesis. Rabbits were fed an atherogenic diet with and without increasing doses of LaCl3. All cholesterol-fed rabbits showed marked increases in serum cholesterol and ca2+. Untreated atherogenic animals revealed pronounced gross and microscopic atherosclerosis and striking increases in the aortic content of cholesterol, collagen, "elastin," and calcium as well as of elastin calcium, polar amino acids, and cholesterol. With increasing LaCl3 dosage these abnormalities progressively decreased and were completely abolished at the highest dose. The ingested La3+ was absorbed only in small quantities and had no discernible effect on the calcium and connective tissue content of bone, skin, lung, heart, and skeletal muscle nor on myocardial function (left ventricle pressure and left ventricle dp/dt) or myocardial and muscle content in ATP and creatine phosphate. The data suggest that shifts in arterial Ca2+-distribution may play a decisive part in atherogenesis, and provision of arterial calcium homeostasis by La3+ a pivotal role in its prevention, despite hypercholesteremia. Other inhibitors of calcium deposition into arteries may exert their protective effect by similar mechanisms. However, a direct inhibition of atherogenesis by La3+ cannot entirely be ruled out in this study, although no direct effects of La3+ on tissue metabolism have as yet been reported. Images PMID:7364947

  17. Suppression of diet-induced atherosclerosis in low density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice overexpressing lipoprotein lipase.

    PubMed Central

    Shimada, M; Ishibashi, S; Inaba, T; Yagyu, H; Harada, K; Osuga, J I; Ohashi, K; Yazaki, Y; Yamada, N

    1996-01-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is a key enzyme in the hydrolysis of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. Conflicting results have been reported concerning its role in atherogenesis. To determine the effects of the overexpressed LPL on diet-induced atherosclerosis, we have generated low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) knockout mice that overexpressed human LPL transgene (LPL/LDLRKO) and compared their plasma lipoproteins and atherosclerosis with those in nonexpressing LDLR-knockout mice (LDLRKO). On a normal chow diet, LPL/LDLRKO mice showed marked suppression of mean plasma triglyceride levels (32 versus 236 mg/dl) and modest decrease in mean cholesterol levels (300 versus 386 mg/dl) as compared with LDLRKO mice. Larger lipoprotein particles of intermediate density lipoprotein (IDL)/LDL were selectively reduced in LPL/LDLRKO mice. On an atherogenic diet, both mice exhibited severe hypercholesterolemia. But, mean plasma cholesterol levels in LPL/ LDLRKO mice were still suppressed as compared with that in LDLRKO mice (1357 versus 2187 mg/dl). Marked reduction in a larger subfraction of IDL/LDL, which conceivably corresponds to remnant lipoproteins, was observed in the LPL/LDLRKO mice. LDLRKO mice developed severe fatty streak lesions in the aortic sinus after feeding with the atherogenic diet for 8 weeks. In contrast, mean lesion area in the LPL/LDLRKO mice was 18-fold smaller than that in LDLRKO mice. We suggest that the altered lipoprotein profile, in particular the reduced level of remnant lipoproteins, is mainly responsible for the protection by LPL against atherosclerosis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:8692976

  18. Endothelial Dicer promotes atherosclerosis and vascular inflammation by miRNA-103-mediated suppression of KLF4.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Petra; Zhou, Zhe; Natarelli, Lucia; Wei, Yuanyuan; Nazari-Jahantigh, Maliheh; Zhu, Mengyu; Grommes, Jochen; Steffens, Sabine; Weber, Christian; Schober, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs regulate the maladaptation of endothelial cells (ECs) to naturally occurring disturbed blood flow at arterial bifurcations resulting in arterial inflammation and atherosclerosis in response to hyperlipidemic stress. Here, we show that reduced endothelial expression of the RNAse Dicer, which generates almost all mature miRNAs, decreases monocyte adhesion, endothelial C-X-C motif chemokine 1 (CXCL1) expression, atherosclerosis and the lesional macrophage content in apolipoprotein E knockout mice (Apoe(-/-)) after exposure to a high-fat diet. Endothelial Dicer deficiency reduces the expression of unstable miRNAs, such as miR-103, and promotes Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4)-dependent gene expression in murine atherosclerotic arteries. MiR-103 mediated suppression of KLF4 increases monocyte adhesion to ECs by enhancing nuclear factor-κB-dependent CXCL1 expression. Inhibiting the interaction between miR-103 and KLF4 reduces atherosclerosis, lesional macrophage accumulation and endothelial CXCL1 expression. Overall, our study suggests that Dicer promotes endothelial maladaptation and atherosclerosis in part by miR-103-mediated suppression of KLF4. PMID:26837267

  19. Endothelial Dicer promotes atherosclerosis and vascular inflammation by miRNA-103-mediated suppression of KLF4

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Petra; Zhou, Zhe; Natarelli, Lucia; Wei, Yuanyuan; Nazari-Jahantigh, Maliheh; Zhu, Mengyu; Grommes, Jochen; Steffens, Sabine; Weber, Christian; Schober, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs regulate the maladaptation of endothelial cells (ECs) to naturally occurring disturbed blood flow at arterial bifurcations resulting in arterial inflammation and atherosclerosis in response to hyperlipidemic stress. Here, we show that reduced endothelial expression of the RNAse Dicer, which generates almost all mature miRNAs, decreases monocyte adhesion, endothelial C–X–C motif chemokine 1 (CXCL1) expression, atherosclerosis and the lesional macrophage content in apolipoprotein E knockout mice (Apoe−/−) after exposure to a high-fat diet. Endothelial Dicer deficiency reduces the expression of unstable miRNAs, such as miR-103, and promotes Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4)-dependent gene expression in murine atherosclerotic arteries. MiR-103 mediated suppression of KLF4 increases monocyte adhesion to ECs by enhancing nuclear factor-κB-dependent CXCL1 expression. Inhibiting the interaction between miR-103 and KLF4 reduces atherosclerosis, lesional macrophage accumulation and endothelial CXCL1 expression. Overall, our study suggests that Dicer promotes endothelial maladaptation and atherosclerosis in part by miR-103-mediated suppression of KLF4. PMID:26837267

  20. Flow-dependent expression of ectonucleotide tri(di)phosphohydrolase-1 and suppression of atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Kanthi, Yogendra; Hyman, Matthew C.; Liao, Hui; Baek, Amy E.; Visovatti, Scott H.; Sutton, Nadia R.; Goonewardena, Sascha N.; Neral, Mithun K.; Jo, Hanjoong; Pinsky, David J.

    2015-01-01

    The ability of cells to detect and respond to nucleotide signals in the local microenvironment is essential for vascular homeostasis. The enzyme ectonucleotide tri(di)phosphohydrolase-1 (ENTPD1, also known as CD39) on the surface of leukocytes and endothelial cells metabolizes locally released, intravascular ATP and ADP, thereby eliminating these prothrombotic and proinflammatory stimuli. Here, we evaluated the contribution of CD39 to atherogenesis in the apolipoprotein E–deficient (ApoE-deficient) mouse model of atherosclerosis. Compared with control ApoE-deficient animals, plaque burden was markedly increased along with circulating markers of platelet activation in Cd39+/–Apoe–/– mice fed a high-fat diet. Plaque analysis revealed stark regionalization of endothelial CD39 expression and function in Apoe–/– mice, with CD39 prominently expressed in atheroprotective, stable flow regions and diminished in atheroprone areas subject to disturbed flow. In mice, disturbed flow as the result of partial carotid artery ligation rapidly suppressed endothelial CD39 expression. Moreover, unidirectional laminar shear stress induced atheroprotective CD39 expression in human endothelial cells. CD39 induction was dependent upon the vascular transcription factor Krüppel-like factor 2 (KLF2) binding near the transcriptional start site of CD39. Together, these data establish CD39 as a regionalized regulator of atherogenesis that is driven by shear stress. PMID:26121751

  1. Flow-dependent expression of ectonucleotide tri(di)phosphohydrolase-1 and suppression of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kanthi, Yogendra; Hyman, Matthew C; Liao, Hui; Baek, Amy E; Visovatti, Scott H; Sutton, Nadia R; Goonewardena, Sascha N; Neral, Mithun K; Jo, Hanjoong; Pinsky, David J

    2015-08-01

    The ability of cells to detect and respond to nucleotide signals in the local microenvironment is essential for vascular homeostasis. The enzyme ectonucleotide tri(di)phosphohydrolase-1 (ENTPD1, also known as CD39) on the surface of leukocytes and endothelial cells metabolizes locally released, intravascular ATP and ADP, thereby eliminating these prothrombotic and proinflammatory stimuli. Here, we evaluated the contribution of CD39 to atherogenesis in the apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-deficient) mouse model of atherosclerosis. Compared with control ApoE-deficient animals, plaque burden was markedly increased along with circulating markers of platelet activation in Cd39+/-Apoe-/- mice fed a high-fat diet. Plaque analysis revealed stark regionalization of endothelial CD39 expression and function in Apoe-/- mice, with CD39 prominently expressed in atheroprotective, stable flow regions and diminished in atheroprone areas subject to disturbed flow. In mice, disturbed flow as the result of partial carotid artery ligation rapidly suppressed endothelial CD39 expression. Moreover, unidirectional laminar shear stress induced atheroprotective CD39 expression in human endothelial cells. CD39 induction was dependent upon the vascular transcription factor Krppel-like factor 2 (KLF2) binding near the transcriptional start site of CD39. Together, these data establish CD39 as a regionalized regulator of atherogenesis that is driven by shear stress. PMID:26121751

  2. Myeloid Acyl-CoA:Cholesterol Acyltransferase 1 Deficiency Reduces Lesion Macrophage Content and Suppresses Atherosclerosis Progression.

    PubMed

    Huang, Li-Hao; Melton, Elaina M; Li, Haibo; Sohn, Paul; Rogers, Maximillian A; Mulligan-Kehoe, Mary Jo; Fiering, Steven N; Hickey, William F; Chang, Catherine C Y; Chang, Ta-Yuan

    2016-03-18

    Acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase 1 (Acat1) converts cellular cholesterol to cholesteryl esters and is considered a drug target for treating atherosclerosis. However, in mouse models for atherosclerosis, global Acat1 knockout (Acat1(-/-)) did not prevent lesion development. Acat1(-/-) increased apoptosis within lesions and led to several additional undesirable phenotypes, including hair loss, dry eye, leukocytosis, xanthomatosis, and a reduced life span. To determine the roles of Acat1 in monocytes/macrophages in atherosclerosis, we produced a myeloid-specific Acat1 knockout (Acat1(-M/-M)) mouse and showed that, in the Apoe knockout (Apoe(-/-)) mouse model for atherosclerosis, Acat1(-M/-M) decreased the plaque area and reduced lesion size without causing leukocytosis, dry eye, hair loss, or a reduced life span. Acat1(-M/-M) enhanced xanthomatosis in apoe(-/-) mice, a skin disease that is not associated with diet-induced atherosclerosis in humans. Analyses of atherosclerotic lesions showed that Acat1(-M/-M) reduced macrophage numbers and diminished the cholesterol and cholesteryl ester load without causing detectable apoptotic cell death. Leukocyte migration analysis in vivo showed that Acat1(-M/-M) caused much fewer leukocytes to appear at the activated endothelium. Studies in inflammatory (Ly6C(hi)-positive) monocytes and in cultured macrophages showed that inhibiting ACAT1 by gene knockout or by pharmacological inhibition caused a significant decrease in integrin β 1 (CD29) expression in activated monocytes/macrophages. The sparse presence of lesion macrophages without Acat1 can therefore, in part, be attributed to decreased interaction between inflammatory monocytes/macrophages lacking Acat1 and the activated endothelium. We conclude that targeting ACAT1 in a myeloid cell lineage suppresses atherosclerosis progression while avoiding many of the undesirable side effects caused by global Acat1 inhibition. PMID:26801614

  3. Comprehensive overview: efficacy, tolerability, and cost-effectiveness of irbesartan

    PubMed Central

    Gialama, Fotini; Maniadakis, Nikos

    2013-01-01

    Background Hypertension represents a major health problem, affecting more than one billion adults worldwide. Irbesartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker, is considered to be a highly effective treatment in the management of hypertension. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the efficacy, safety and tolerability profile , and cost-effectiveness of treatment with irbesartan in hypertension. Methods A review of the literature was conducted using the electronic PubMed and Cochrane Library databases and the Health Economic Evaluations Database of search terms relating to irbesartan efficacy, tolerability, and cost-effectiveness, and the results were utilized. Results Findings from the present analysis show that irbesartan either as monotherapy or in combination with other antihypertensive agents can achieve significant reductions in blood pressure, both systolic and diastolic, compared with alternative treatment options. Irbesartan was also found to have a renoprotective effect independent of its blood pressure-lowering in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy. Furthermore, irbesartan demonstrated an excellent safety and tolerability profile , with either lower or equal adverse events compared with placebo and other alternative treatments. In terms of economic analyses, compared with other antihypertensive therapy alternatives, irbesartan was found to be a preferred option, that is less costly and more effective. Conclusion The evidence indicates that treating patients with hypertension alone or with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy using irbesartan can control hypertension, prolong life, and reduce costs in relation to existing alternatives. PMID:24124375

  4. Ginkgo suppresses atherosclerosis through downregulating the expression of connexin 43 in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Gong, Hui; Shi, Yi Jun; Zou, Yunzeng

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) EGb761 is widely used for cardiovascular prevention. Here, we investigated the effects of GBE on atherosclerotic lesion development in rabbits with a high-fat diet. Material and methods Forty New Zealand white male rabbits were randomly divided into four groups. The first two were the normal diet group (C) and the high-fat group (HF). The remaining two groups were those who received a high cholesterol diet supplemented with either the standard drug (simvastatin 2 mg/kg/day) or GBE (3 mg/kg/day). At 12 weeks, histopathological and chemical analyses were performed. Results Plasma lipid measurement showed that GBE inhibited high-fat diet-induced increase of serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) by 59.1% (0.9 ±0.2 4 mmol/l vs. 2.2 ±0.4 mmol/l), 18.2% (31.1 ±1.4 mmol/l vs. 38.0 ±0.4 mmol/l) and 15% (28.9 ±1.3 mmol/l vs. 34.0±1.0 mmol/l), respectively, at 12 weeks (p < 0.01). The en face Sudan IV-positive lesion area of the aorta in the GBE group (51.7 ±3.1%) was significantly lower compared with that in the HF group (88.2 ±2.2%; p < 0.01). The mean atherosclerotic lesion area of the GBE group was reduced by 53.2% compared with the HF group (p < 0.01). Immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis showed that GBE markedly suppressed high-fat diet-induced upregulation of connexin 43 (Cx43) in rabbits (p < 0.01). Conclusions Thus, our study revealed that GBE prevented atherosclerosis progress through modulating plasma lipid, suppressing atherosclerotic lesion development, and attenuating the expression of Cx43 protein. PMID:23671447

  5. MiR-129-5p-mediated Beclin-1 suppression inhibits endothelial cell autophagy in atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Zhaohua; Xu, Fei; Zhang, Yiguan

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial cell injury and subsequent death play an essential role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Autophagy of endothelial cells antagonizes the development of atherosclerosis, whereas the underlying molecular mechanisms are unclear. MicroRNA-129-5p (miR-129-5p) is a well-defined tumor suppressorin some types of cancer, while it is unknown whether miR-129-5p may also play a role in the development of atherosclerosis. Here, we addressed this question in the current study. We examined the levels of endothelial cell autophagy in ApoE (-/-) mice suppled with high-fat diet (HFD), a mouse model for atherosclerosis (simplified as HFD mice). We analyzed the levels of Beclin-1 and the levels of miR-129-5p in the purified CD31+ endothelial cells from mouse aorta. Prediction of the binding between miR-129-5p and 3’-UTR of Beclin-1 mRNA was performed by bioinformatics analyses and confirmed by a dual luciferase reporter assay. The effects of miR-129-5p were further analyzed in an in vitro model using oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-treated human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). We found that HFD mice developed atherosclerosisin 12 weeks, while the control ApoE (-/-) mice that had received normal diet (simplified as CTL mice) did not. Compared to CTL mice, HFD mice had significantly lower levels of endothelial cell autophagy, resulting from decreases in Beclin-1 protein, but not mRNA. The decreases in Beclin-1 in endothelial cells were due to HFD-induced increases inmiR-129-5p, which suppressed the translation of Beclin-1 mRNA via 3’-UTR binding. These in vivo findings were reproduced in vitro on ox-LDL-treated HAECs. Together, these data suggest that upregulation of miR-129-5p by HFD may impair the protective effects of endothelial cell autophagy against development of atherosclerosis through suppressing protein translation of Beclin-1. PMID:27186312

  6. Endothelial effects of antihypertensive treatment: focus on irbesartan

    PubMed Central

    Negro, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    The endothelium is characterized by a wide range of important homeostatic functions. It participates in the control of hemostasis, blood coagulation and fibrinolysis, platelet and leukocyte interactions with the vessel wall, regulation of vascular tone, and of blood pressure. Many crucial vasoactive endogenous compounds are produced by the endothelial cells to control the functions of vascular smooth muscle cells and of circulating blood cells. These complex systems determine a fine equilibrium which regulates the vascular tone. Impairments in endothelium-dependent vasodilation lead to the so called endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial dysfunction is then characterized by unbalanced concentrations of vasodilating and vasoconstricting factors, the most important being represented by nitric oxide (NO) and angiotensin II (AT II). High angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity leads to increased AT II generation, reduced NO levels with subsequent vasoconstriction. The net acute effect results in contraction of vascular smooth muscle cells and reduced lumen diameter. Furthermore, when increased ACE activity is chronically sustained, increase in growth, proliferation and differentiation of the vascular smooth muscle cells takes place; at the same time, a decrease in the anti-proliferative action by NO, a decrease in fibinolysis and an increase in platelets aggregation may be observed. AT II is then involved not only in the regulation of blood pressure, but also in vascular inflammation, permeability, smooth muscle cells remodelling, and oxidative stress which in turn lead to atherosclerosis and increased cardiovascular risk. Given the pivotal role exerted by AT II in contributing to alteration of endothelial function, treatment with ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) may be of particular interest to restore a physiological activity of endothelial cells. In this view, the blockade of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), has been shown to positively affect the endothelial function, beyond the antihypertensive action displayed by these compounds. In this review, attention has been specifically focused on an ARB, irbesartan, to examine its effects on endothelial function. PMID:18629353

  7. Inhibition of Nuclear Factor of Activated T-Cells (NFAT) Suppresses Accelerated Atherosclerosis in Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zetterqvist, Anna V.; Berglund, Lisa M.; Blanco, Fabiana; Garcia-Vaz, Eliana; Wigren, Maria; Dunér, Pontus; Andersson, Anna-Maria Dutius; To, Fong; Spegel, Peter; Nilsson, Jan; Bengtsson, Eva; Gomez, Maria F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective of the Study Diabetic patients have a much more widespread and aggressive form of atherosclerosis and therefore, higher risk for myocardial infarction, peripheral vascular disease and stroke, but the molecular mechanisms leading to accelerated damage are still unclear. Recently, we showed that hyperglycemia activates the transcription factor NFAT in the arterial wall, inducing the expression of the pro-atherosclerotic protein osteopontin. Here we investigate whether NFAT activation may be a link between diabetes and atherogenesis. Methodology and Principal Findings Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in apolipoprotein E−/− mice resulted in 2.2 fold increased aortic atherosclerosis and enhanced pro-inflammatory burden, as evidenced by elevated blood monocytes, endothelial activation- and inflammatory markers in aorta, and pro-inflammatory cytokines in plasma. In vivo treatment with the NFAT blocker A-285222 for 4 weeks completely inhibited the diabetes-induced aggravation of atherosclerosis, having no effect in non-diabetic mice. STZ-treated mice exhibited hyperglycemia and higher plasma cholesterol and triglycerides, but these were unaffected by A-285222. NFAT-dependent transcriptional activity was examined in aorta, spleen, thymus, brain, heart, liver and kidney, but only augmented in the aorta of diabetic mice. A-285222 completely blocked this diabetes-driven NFAT activation, but had no impact on the other organs or on splenocyte proliferation or cytokine secretion, ruling out systemic immunosuppression as the mechanism behind reduced atherosclerosis. Instead, NFAT inhibition effectively reduced IL-6, osteopontin, monocyte chemotactic protein 1, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, CD68 and tissue factor expression in the arterial wall and lowered plasma IL-6 in diabetic mice. Conclusions Targeting NFAT signaling may be a novel and attractive approach for the treatment of diabetic macrovascular complications. PMID:23755169

  8. Endothelial NOTCH1 is suppressed by circulating lipids and antagonizes inflammation during atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Briot, Anaïs; Civelek, Mete; Seki, Atsuko; Hoi, Karen; Mack, Julia J.; Lee, Stephen D.; Kim, Jason; Hong, Cynthia; Yu, Jingjing; Fishbein, Gregory A.; Vakili, Ladan; Fogelman, Alan M.; Fishbein, Michael C.; Lusis, Aldons J.; Tontonoz, Peter; Navab, Mohamad; Berliner, Judith A.

    2015-01-01

    Although much progress has been made in identifying the mechanisms that trigger endothelial activation and inflammatory cell recruitment during atherosclerosis, less is known about the intrinsic pathways that counteract these events. Here we identified NOTCH1 as an antagonist of endothelial cell (EC) activation. NOTCH1 was constitutively expressed by adult arterial endothelium, but levels were significantly reduced by high-fat diet. Furthermore, treatment of human aortic ECs (HAECs) with inflammatory lipids (oxidized 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine [Ox-PAPC]) and proinflammatory cytokines (TNF and IL1β) decreased Notch1 expression and signaling in vitro through a mechanism that requires STAT3 activation. Reduction of NOTCH1 in HAECs by siRNA, in the absence of inflammatory lipids or cytokines, increased inflammatory molecules and binding of monocytes. Conversely, some of the effects mediated by Ox-PAPC were reversed by increased NOTCH1 signaling, suggesting a link between lipid-mediated inflammation and Notch1. Interestingly, reduction of NOTCH1 by Ox-PAPC in HAECs was associated with a genetic variant previously correlated to high-density lipoprotein in a human genome-wide association study. Finally, endothelial Notch1 heterozygous mice showed higher diet-induced atherosclerosis. Based on these findings, we propose that reduction of endothelial NOTCH1 is a predisposing factor in the onset of vascular inflammation and initiation of atherosclerosis. PMID:26552708

  9. Endothelial NOTCH1 is suppressed by circulating lipids and antagonizes inflammation during atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Briot, Anaïs; Civelek, Mete; Seki, Atsuko; Hoi, Karen; Mack, Julia J; Lee, Stephen D; Kim, Jason; Hong, Cynthia; Yu, Jingjing; Fishbein, Gregory A; Vakili, Ladan; Fogelman, Alan M; Fishbein, Michael C; Lusis, Aldons J; Tontonoz, Peter; Navab, Mohamad; Berliner, Judith A; Iruela-Arispe, M Luisa

    2015-11-16

    Although much progress has been made in identifying the mechanisms that trigger endothelial activation and inflammatory cell recruitment during atherosclerosis, less is known about the intrinsic pathways that counteract these events. Here we identified NOTCH1 as an antagonist of endothelial cell (EC) activation. NOTCH1 was constitutively expressed by adult arterial endothelium, but levels were significantly reduced by high-fat diet. Furthermore, treatment of human aortic ECs (HAECs) with inflammatory lipids (oxidized 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine [Ox-PAPC]) and proinflammatory cytokines (TNF and IL1β) decreased Notch1 expression and signaling in vitro through a mechanism that requires STAT3 activation. Reduction of NOTCH1 in HAECs by siRNA, in the absence of inflammatory lipids or cytokines, increased inflammatory molecules and binding of monocytes. Conversely, some of the effects mediated by Ox-PAPC were reversed by increased NOTCH1 signaling, suggesting a link between lipid-mediated inflammation and Notch1. Interestingly, reduction of NOTCH1 by Ox-PAPC in HAECs was associated with a genetic variant previously correlated to high-density lipoprotein in a human genome-wide association study. Finally, endothelial Notch1 heterozygous mice showed higher diet-induced atherosclerosis. Based on these findings, we propose that reduction of endothelial NOTCH1 is a predisposing factor in the onset of vascular inflammation and initiation of atherosclerosis. PMID:26552708

  10. Suppressive effects of cacao polyphenols on the development of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Natsume, Midori; Baba, Seigo

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies in humans have shown that the cacao polyphenols, (-)-epicatechin and its oligomers, prevent in vitro and ex vivo low-density lipoprotein oxidation mediated by free radical generators and metal ions and also reduce plasma LDL-cholesterol levels. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of cacao polyphenols on the development of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient (-/-) mice. Mice aged 8 weeks (n = 90) were randomized into three groups, and fed either normal mouse chow (controls) or chow supplemented with 0.25 or 0.40 % cacao polyphenols for 16 weeks. The mean plaque area in cross-sections of the brachiocephalic trunk was measured and found to be lower in the 0.25 % cacao polyphenol group than in the control group (p < 0.05). Pathological observations showed that accumulation of cholesterol crystals in the plaque area was greater in the control group compared with the 0.40 % cacao polyphenol group (p < 0.05). Immunochemical staining in the 0.25 and 0.40 % groups showed that expression of the cell adhesion molecules (VCAM-1 and ICAM-1) and production of oxidative stress markers (4-hydroxynonenal, hexanoyl-lysine, and dityrosine) were reduced in cross-sections of the brachiocephalic trunk. These results suggest that cacao polyphenols inhibit the development of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient (-/-) mice by reducing oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. PMID:24374929

  11. Acidic Polysaccharide Extracts from Gastrodia Rhizomes Suppress the Atherosclerosis Risk Index through Inhibition of the Serum Cholesterol Composition in Sprague Dawley Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kui-Jin; Lee, Ok-Hwan; Han, Chan-Kyu; Kim, Young-Chan; Hong, Hee-Do

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is associated with a broad spectrum of cardio-metabolic disturbances, including atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CDV). A high-fat diet has been shown to cause an elevation of the plasma cholesterol levels in humans, and the control of serum cholesterol has been demonstrated to be important in the prevention of CVD and atherosclerosis. The aims of this study were to demonstrate that crude and acidic polysaccharide extracts from Gastrodia rhizomes suppress atherosclerosis through the regulation of serum lipids in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats fed a high-fat diet. We examined the concentrations of serum lipids, including total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoproteins (HDL) cholesterol, and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) cholesterol, in SD rats fed a high-fat diet and evaluated the atherogenic index. Here, we show that both crude and acidic polysaccharide extracts from Gastrodia rhizomes inhibited the total cholesterol and LDL levels. Moreover, there was a significantly suppressed atherosclerosis risk due to the acidic polysaccharide extract from Gastrodia rhizome. Taken together, our results suggested that acidic polysaccharide extracts from Gastrodia rhizomes might be beneficial for lowering the incidence of CVD and atherosclerosis by reducing the de novo synthesis of total cholesterol and the LDL levels. PMID:22408412

  12. ATF3 protects against atherosclerosis by suppressing 25-hydroxycholesterol–induced lipid body formation

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Elizabeth S.; Ramsey, Stephen A.; Sartain, Mark J.; Selinummi, Jyrki; Podolsky, Irina; Rodriguez, David J.; Moritz, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by the accumulation of lipid-loaded macrophages in the arterial wall. We demonstrate that macrophage lipid body formation can be induced by modified lipoproteins or by inflammatory Toll-like receptor agonists. We used an unbiased approach to study the overlap in these pathways to identify regulators that control foam cell formation and atherogenesis. An analysis method integrating epigenomic and transcriptomic datasets with a transcription factor (TF) binding site prediction algorithm suggested that the TF ATF3 may regulate macrophage foam cell formation. Indeed, we found that deletion of this TF results in increased lipid body accumulation, and that ATF3 directly regulates transcription of the gene encoding cholesterol 25-hydroxylase. We further showed that production of 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-HC) promotes macrophage foam cell formation. Finally, deletion of ATF3 in Apoe−/− mice led to in vivo increases in foam cell formation, aortic 25-HC levels, and disease progression. These results define a previously unknown role for ATF3 in controlling macrophage lipid metabolism and demonstrate that ATF3 is a key intersection point for lipid metabolic and inflammatory pathways in these cells. PMID:22473958

  13. Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Prevents Atherosclerosis by Suppression of Hepatic Sterol Regulatory Element-Binding Protein-2 and Induction of Adiponectin in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Zhuofeng; Pan, Xuebo; Wu, Fan; Ye, Dewei; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Yu; Jin, Leigang; Lian, Qizhou; Huang, Yu; Ding, Hong; Triggle, Chris; Wang, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Background— Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a metabolic hormone with pleiotropic effects on glucose and lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity. It acts as a key downstream target of both peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α and γ, the agonists of which have been used for lipid lowering and insulin sensitization, respectively. However, the role of FGF21 in the cardiovascular system remains elusive. Methods and Results— The roles of FGF21 in atherosclerosis were investigated by evaluating the impact of FGF21 deficiency and replenishment with recombinant FGF21 in apolipoprotein E−/− mice. FGF21 deficiency causes a marked exacerbation of atherosclerotic plaque formation and premature death in apolipoprotein E−/− mice, which is accompanied by hypoadiponectinemia and severe hypercholesterolemia. Replenishment of FGF21 protects against atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E−/−mice via 2 independent mechanisms, inducing the adipocyte production of adiponectin, which in turn acts on the blood vessels to inhibit neointima formation and macrophage inflammation, and suppressing the hepatic expression of the transcription factor sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2, thereby leading to reduced cholesterol synthesis and attenuation of hypercholesterolemia. Chronic treatment with adiponectin partially reverses atherosclerosis without obvious effects on hypercholesterolemia in FGF21-deficient apolipoprotein E−/− mice. By contrast, the cholesterol-lowering effects of FGF21 are abrogated by hepatic expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2. Conclusions— FGF21 protects against atherosclerosis via fine tuning the multiorgan crosstalk among liver, adipose tissue, and blood vessels. PMID:25794851

  14. Sialic Acid-Binding Immunoglobulin-like Lectin G Promotes Atherosclerosis and Liver Inflammation by Suppressing the Protective Functions of B-1 Cells.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Sabrina; Hendrikx, Tim; Tsiantoulas, Dimitrios; Ozsvar-Kozma, Maria; Göderle, Laura; Mallat, Ziad; Witztum, Joseph L; Shiri-Sverdlov, Ronit; Nitschke, Lars; Binder, Christoph J

    2016-03-15

    Atherosclerosis is initiated and sustained by hypercholesterolemia, which results in the generation of oxidized LDL (OxLDL) and other metabolic byproducts that trigger inflammation. Specific immune responses have been shown to modulate the inflammatory response during atherogenesis. The sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin G (Siglec-G) is a negative regulator of the functions of several immune cells, including myeloid cells and B-1 cells. Here, we show that deficiency of Siglec-G in atherosclerosis-prone mice inhibits plaque formation and diet-induced hepatic inflammation. We further demonstrate that selective deficiency of Siglec-G in B cells alone is sufficient to mediate these effects. Levels of B-1 cell-derived natural IgM with specificity for OxLDL were significantly increased in the plasma and peritoneal cavity of Siglec-G-deficient mice. Consistent with the neutralizing functions of OxLDL-specific IgM, Siglec-G-deficient mice were protected from OxLDL-induced sterile inflammation. Thus, Siglec-G promotes atherosclerosis and hepatic inflammation by suppressing protective anti-inflammatory effector functions of B cells. PMID:26947073

  15. Sialic Acid-Binding Immunoglobulin-like Lectin G Promotes Atherosclerosis and Liver Inflammation by Suppressing the Protective Functions of B-1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, Sabrina; Hendrikx, Tim; Tsiantoulas, Dimitrios; Ozsvar-Kozma, Maria; Göderle, Laura; Mallat, Ziad; Witztum, Joseph L.; Shiri-Sverdlov, Ronit; Nitschke, Lars; Binder, Christoph J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Atherosclerosis is initiated and sustained by hypercholesterolemia, which results in the generation of oxidized LDL (OxLDL) and other metabolic byproducts that trigger inflammation. Specific immune responses have been shown to modulate the inflammatory response during atherogenesis. The sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin G (Siglec-G) is a negative regulator of the functions of several immune cells, including myeloid cells and B-1 cells. Here, we show that deficiency of Siglec-G in atherosclerosis-prone mice inhibits plaque formation and diet-induced hepatic inflammation. We further demonstrate that selective deficiency of Siglec-G in B cells alone is sufficient to mediate these effects. Levels of B-1 cell-derived natural IgM with specificity for OxLDL were significantly increased in the plasma and peritoneal cavity of Siglec-G-deficient mice. Consistent with the neutralizing functions of OxLDL-specific IgM, Siglec-G-deficient mice were protected from OxLDL-induced sterile inflammation. Thus, Siglec-G promotes atherosclerosis and hepatic inflammation by suppressing protective anti-inflammatory effector functions of B cells. PMID:26947073

  16. Hydrogen Sulfide Inhibits the Development of Atherosclerosis with Suppressing CX3CR1 and CX3CL1 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Duojiao; Zhang, Alian; Gu, Ting; Wang, Liansheng; Wang, Changqian

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide, as a novel gaseous mediator, has been suggested to play a key role in atherogenesis. However, the precise mechanisms by which H2S affects atherosclerosis remain unclear. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the potential role of H2S in atherosclerosis and the underlying mechanism with respect to chemokines (CCL2, CCL5 and CX3CL1) and chemokine receptors (CCR2, CCR5, and CX3CR1) in macrophages. Mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 or mouse peritoneal macrophages were pre-incubated with saline or NaHS (50 µM, 100 µM, 200 µM), an H2S donor, and then stimulated with interferon-γ (IFN-γ) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). It was found that NaHS dose-dependently inhibited IFN-γ or LPS-induced CX3CR1 and CX3CL1 expression, as well as CX3CR1-mediated chemotaxis in macrophages. Overexpression of cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE), an enzyme that catalyzes H2S biosynthesis resulted in a significant reduction in CX3CR1 and CX3CL1 expression as well as CX3CR1-mediated chemotaxis in stimulated macrophages. The inhibitory effect of H2S on CX3CR1 and CX3CL1 expression was mediated by modulation of proliferators-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) and NF-κB pathway. Furthermore, male apoE−/− mice were fed a high-fat diet and then randomly given NaHS (1 mg/kg, i.p., daily) or DL-propargylglycine (PAG, 10 mg/kg, i.p., daily). NaHS significantly inhibited aortic CX3CR1 and CX3CL1 expression and impeded aortic plaque development. NaHS had a better anti-atherogenic benefit when it was applied at the early stage of atherosclerosis. However, inhibition of H2S formation by PAG increased aortic CX3CR1 and CX3CL1 expression and exacerbated the extent of atherosclerosis. In addition, H2S had minimal effect on the expression of CCL2, CCL5, CCR2 and CCR5 in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, these data indicate that H2S hampers the progression of atherosclerosis in fat-fed apoE−/− mice and downregulates CX3CR1 and CX3CL1 expression on macrophages and in lesion plaques. PMID:22815945

  17. Irbesartan increased PPAR{gamma} activity in vivo in white adipose tissue of atherosclerotic mice and improved adipose tissue dysfunction

    SciTech Connect

    Iwai, Masaru; Kanno, Harumi; Senba, Izumi; Nakaoka, Hirotomo; Moritani, Tomozo; Horiuchi, Masatsugu

    2011-03-04

    Research highlights: {yields} Atherosclerotic apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoEKO) mice were treated with irbesartan. {yields} Irbesartan decreased white adipose tissue weight without affecting body weight. {yields} DNA-binding for PPAR{gamma} was increased in white adipose tissue in vivo by irbesartan. {yields} Irbesartan increased adipocyte number in white adipose tissue. {yields} Irbesatan increased the expression of adiponectin and leptin in white adipose tissue. -- Abstract: The effect of the PPAR{gamma} agonistic action of an AT{sub 1} receptor blocker, irbesartan, on adipose tissue dysfunction was explored using atherosclerotic model mice. Adult male apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoEKO) mice at 9 weeks of age were treated with a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) with or without irbesartan at a dose of 50 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks. The weight of epididymal and retroperitoneal adipose tissue was decreased by irbesartan without changing food intake or body weight. Treatment with irbesartan increased the expression of PPAR{gamma} in white adipose tissue and the DNA-binding activity of PPAR{gamma} in nuclear extract prepared from adipose tissue. The expression of adiponectin, leptin and insulin receptor was also increased by irbesartan. These results suggest that irbesartan induced activation of PPAR{gamma} and improved adipose tissue dysfunction including insulin resistance.

  18. Atherosclerosis (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Atherosclerosis is a disease of the arteries in which fatty material is deposited in the vessel wall, ... muscle leads to symptoms such as chest pain. Atherosclerosis shows no symptoms until a complication occurs.

  19. Long-term use and tolerability of irbesartan for control of hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Forni, Valentina; Wuerzner, Grégoire; Pruijm, Menno; Burnier, Michel

    2011-01-01

    In this review, we discuss the pharmacological and clinical properties of irbesartan, a noncompetitive angiotensin II receptor type 1 antagonist, successfully used for more than a decade in the treatment of essential hypertension. Irbesartan exerts its antihypertensive effect through an inhibitory effect on the pressure response to angiotensin II. Irbesartan 150–300 mg once daily confers a lasting effect over 24 hours, and its antihypertensive efficacy is further enhanced by the coadministration of hydrochlorothiazide. Additionally and partially beyond its blood pressure-lowering effect, irbesartan reduces left ventricular hypertrophy, favors right atrial remodeling in atrial fibrillation, and increases the likelihood of maintenance of sinus rhythm after cardioversion in atrial fibrillation. In addition, the renoprotective effects of irbesartan are well documented in the early and later stages of renal disease in type 2 diabetics. Furthermore, both the therapeutic effectiveness and the placebo-like side effect profile contribute to a high adherence rate to the drug. Currently, irbesartan in monotherapy or combination therapy with hydrochlorothiazide represent a rationale pharmacologic approach for arterial hypertension and early-stage and late-stage diabetic nephropathy in hypertensive type II diabetics. PMID:21949635

  20. Potential of the Angiotensin Receptor Blockers (ARBs) Telmisartan, Irbesartan, and Candesartan for Inhibiting the HMGB1/RAGE Axis in Prevention and Acute Treatment of Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Kiyoshi; Tancharoen, Salunya; Ito, Takashi; Morimoto-Yamashita, Yoko; Miura, Naoki; Kawahara, Ko-ichi; Maruyama, Ikuro; Murai, Yoshinaka; Tanaka, Eiichiro

    2013-01-01

    Stroke is a major cause of mortality and disability worldwide. The main cause of stroke is atherosclerosis, and the most common risk factor for atherosclerosis is hypertension. Therefore, antihypertensive treatments are recommended for the prevention of stroke. Three angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), telmisartan, irbesartan and candesartan, inhibit the expression of the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE), which is one of the pleiotropic effects of these drugs. High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is the ligand of RAGE, and has been recently identified as a lethal mediator of severe sepsis. HMGB1 is an intracellular protein, which acts as an inflammatory cytokine when released into the extracellular milieu. Extracellular HMGB1 causes multiple organ failure and contributes to the pathogenesis of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, thrombosis, and stroke. This is the first review of the literature evaluating the potential of three ARBs for the HMGB1-RAGE axis on stroke therapy, including prevention and acute treatment. This review covers clinical and experimental studies conducted between 1976 and 2013. We propose that ARBs, which inhibit the HMGB1/RAGE axis, may offer a novel option for prevention and acute treatment of stroke. However, additional clinical studies are necessary to verify the efficacy of ARBs. PMID:24065095

  1. Potential of the angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) telmisartan, irbesartan, and candesartan for inhibiting the HMGB1/RAGE axis in prevention and acute treatment of stroke.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Kiyoshi; Tancharoen, Salunya; Ito, Takashi; Morimoto-Yamashita, Yoko; Miura, Naoki; Kawahara, Ko-ichi; Maruyama, Ikuro; Murai, Yoshinaka; Tanaka, Eiichiro

    2013-01-01

    Stroke is a major cause of mortality and disability worldwide. The main cause of stroke is atherosclerosis, and the most common risk factor for atherosclerosis is hypertension. Therefore, antihypertensive treatments are recommended for the prevention of stroke. Three angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), telmisartan, irbesartan and candesartan, inhibit the expression of the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE), which is one of the pleiotropic effects of these drugs. High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is the ligand of RAGE, and has been recently identified as a lethal mediator of severe sepsis. HMGB1 is an intracellular protein, which acts as an inflammatory cytokine when released into the extracellular milieu. Extracellular HMGB1 causes multiple organ failure and contributes to the pathogenesis of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, thrombosis, and stroke. This is the first review of the literature evaluating the potential of three ARBs for the HMGB1-RAGE axis on stroke therapy, including prevention and acute treatment. This review covers clinical and experimental studies conducted between 1976 and 2013. We propose that ARBs, which inhibit the HMGB1/RAGE axis, may offer a novel option for prevention and acute treatment of stroke. However, additional clinical studies are necessary to verify the efficacy of ARBs. PMID:24065095

  2. Extractive-spectrophotometric determination of disopyramide and irbesartan in their pharmaceutical formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdellatef, Hisham E.

    2007-04-01

    Picric acid, bromocresol green, bromothymol blue, cobalt thiocyanate and molybdenum(V) thiocyanate have been tested as spectrophotometric reagents for the determination of disopyramide and irbesartan. Reaction conditions have been optimized to obtain coloured comoplexes of higher sensitivity and longer stability. The absorbance of ion-pair complexes formed were found to increases linearity with increases in concentrations of disopyramide and irbesartan which were corroborated by correction coefficient values. The developed methods have been successfully applied for the determination of disopyramide and irbesartan in bulk drugs and pharmaceutical formulations. The common excipients and additives did not interfere in their determination. The results obtained by the proposed methods have been statistically compared by means of student t-test and by the variance ratio F-test. The validity was assessed by applying the standard addition technique. The results were compared statistically with the official or reference methods showing a good agreement with high precision and accuracy.

  3. Prostacyclin agonists reduce early atherosclerosis in hyperlipidemic hamsters. Octimibate and BMY 42393 suppress monocyte chemotaxis, macrophage cholesteryl ester accumulation, scavenger receptor activity, and tumor necrosis factor production.

    PubMed

    Kowala, M C; Mazzucco, C E; Hartl, K S; Seiler, S M; Warr, G A; Abid, S; Grove, R I

    1993-03-01

    We determined the effects of two prostacyclin agonists (octimibate and BMY 42393) on the progression of the fatty streak in vivo and on macrophage function in vitro. Hamsters were fed chow plus 0.05% cholesterol and 10% coconut oil. Control hamsters were compared with animals receiving either octimibate (10 or 30 mg/kg per day) or BMY 42393 (30 mg/kg per day). After 10 weeks of treatment, octimibate decreased plasma total cholesterol and triglycerides by 43% and 32%, respectively. Neither agonist affected blood pressure or heart rate. Lesion-prone aortic arches were stained with hematoxylin and oil red O and examined en face. Compared with controls, octimibate and BMY 42393 on average decreased mononuclear cells attached to the luminal surface by 44% and reduced subendothelial macrophage-foam cell number by 56%, foam cell size by 38%, and fatty streak area by 63%. Since octimibate is a putative inhibitor of acyl coenzyme A cholesterol acyltransferase, we studied the effect of both agents on cholesteryl ester metabolism in murine macrophages. At 10 microM, octimibate and BMY 42393 decreased cholesteryl ester accumulation in macrophages by 90% and 41%, respectively. Octimibate inhibited cholesteryl ester synthesis by 96% and increased the rate of cholesteryl ester degradation by 52%. Both prostacyclin agonists reduced macrophage scavenger receptor-mediated uptake of acetylated low density lipoprotein by 24-66% and increased cyclic adenosine monophosphate levels. Octimibate and BMY 42393 inhibited the secretion of tumor necrosis factor by 80-88% when macrophages were activated with lipopolysaccharide. At 10 microM, both agents decreased human monocyte chemotaxis to N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine by 64-79%. The in vitro results with octimibate and BMY 42393 are consistent with the low number of small foam cells quantified in vivo. We suggest that octimibate and BMY 42393 suppress monocyte-macrophage atherogenic activity and cytokine production and thus inhibit the development of early atherosclerosis. PMID:8443148

  4. Suppressive effects of cacao liquor polyphenols (CLP) on LDL oxidation and the development of atherosclerosis in Kurosawa and Kusanagi-hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

    PubMed

    Kurosawa, Tohru; Itoh, Fumi; Nozaki, Aiko; Nakano, Yoshihisa; Katsuda, Shin-ichiro; Osakabe, Naomi; Tsubone, Hirokazu; Kondo, Kazuo; Itakura, Hiroshige

    2005-04-01

    We investigated the properties of cacao liquor polyphenols (CLP), which have an antioxidative effect on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and an anti-atherosclerotic effect in the spontaneous familial hypercholesterolemic model, the Kurosawa and Kusanagi-hypercholesterolemic (KHC) rabbit. After 6 months of dietary administration of CLP at 1% (w/w) to the KHC rabbits, a higher total cholesterol concentration was observed in the treatment group compared to the control group. However, no other effects were noted in lipid profiles in plasma or lipoproteins. The plasma concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), which is a lipid-peroxidation index, was significantly decreased 1 month after the start of CLP administration compared to that of the control group. The antioxidative effect of CLP on LDL was observed from 2 to 4 months of administration. The area of atherosclerotic lesions in the aorta in the CLP group (32.01+/-1.58%) was significantly smaller than that in the control group (47.05+/-3.29%), and the tissue cholesterol and TBARS concentrations were lower in the CLP group than in the control group. The anti-atherosclerotic effect of CLP was confirmed both rheologically and histopathologically. An in vitro study using KHC rabbit-derived LDL revealed that CLP significantly prolonged the lag time of LDL oxidation that was induced by a lipophilic azo-radical initiator, 2,2'-azobis(4-methoxy)-2,4-dimethylvaleronitrile (V-70), or Cu(2+) from a low concentration of 0.1 microg/mL. The antioxidative effect of CLP was superior to those of the well-known antioxidative substances, vitamin C, vitamin E and probucol. Therefore, CLP suppressed the generation of atherosclerosis, and its antioxidative effect appeared to have an important role in its anti-atherosclerotic activity. PMID:15777537

  5. Response of cardiac sympathetic nerve activity to intravenous irbesartan in heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Ramchandra, Rohit; Watson, Anna M. D.; Hood, Sally G.

    2010-01-01

    To determine the effect of irbesartan treatment on resting levels and arterial baroreflex control of cardiac sympathetic nerve activity (CSNA) in heart failure (HF), we studied conscious normal sheep and sheep with HF induced by rapid ventricular pacing for 8–10 wk (n = 7 per group). In HF, there is a large increase in CSNA that is detrimental to outcome. The causes of this increase in CSNA and the effect of angiotensin receptor blockers on CSNA in HF are unclear. CSNA, arterial blood pressure, heart rate (HR), and arterial baroreflex curves were recorded during a resting period and after 90 min of irbesartan infusion (12 mg·kg−1·h−1 iv). This dose of irbesartan abolished the pressor response to intravenous ANG II infusion but caused only a slight decrease in the pressor response to centrally administered ANG II. In HF, there was a large increase in CSNA (from 44 ± 3 to 87 ± 3 bursts/100 heartbeats). Irbesartan reduced arterial pressure in the normal and HF groups, but the usual baroreflex-mediated increases in CSNA and HR were prevented. This resulted from a significant leftward shift in the CSNA and HR baroreflex curves in both groups. Irbesartan also decreased the sensitivity of the arterial baroreflex control of CSNA. Short-term treatment with an angiotensin receptor blocker, at a dose that abolished the response to circulating, but not central, ANG II, prevented the reflex increase in CSNA in response to the drug-induced fall in arterial pressure. PMID:20147604

  6. Amelioration of Hyperglycemia with a Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitor Prevents Macrophage-Driven Atherosclerosis through Macrophage Foam Cell Formation Suppression in Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Terasaki, Michishige; Hiromura, Munenori; Mori, Yusaku; Kohashi, Kyoko; Nagashima, Masaharu; Kushima, Hideki; Watanabe, Takuya; Hirano, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    Direct associations between hyperglycemia and atherosclerosis remain unclear. We investigated the association between the amelioration of glycemia by sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2is) and macrophage-driven atherosclerosis in diabetic mice. We administered dapagliflozin or ipragliflozin (1.0 mg/kg/day) for 4-weeks to apolipoprotein E-null (Apoe−/−) mice, streptozotocin-induced diabetic Apoe−/− mice, and diabetic db/db mice. We then determined aortic atherosclerosis, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-induced foam cell formation, and related gene expression in exudate peritoneal macrophages. Dapagliflozin substantially decreased glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and glucose tolerance without affecting body weight, blood pressure, plasma insulin, and lipids in diabetic Apoe−/− mice. Aortic atherosclerotic lesions, atheromatous plaque size, and macrophage infiltration in the aortic root increased in diabetic Apoe−/− mice; dapagliflozin attenuated these changes by 33%, 27%, and 20%, respectively. Atherosclerotic lesions or foam cell formation highly correlated with HbA1c. Dapagliflozin did not affect atherosclerosis or plasma parameters in non-diabetic Apoe−/− mice. In db/db mice, foam cell formation increased by 4-fold compared with C57/BL6 mice, whereas ipragliflozin decreased it by 31%. Foam cell formation exhibited a strong correlation with HbA1c. Gene expression of lectin-like ox-LDL receptor-1 and acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase 1 was upregulated, whereas that of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 was downregulated in the peritoneal macrophages of both types of diabetic mice. SGLT2i normalized these gene expressions. Our study is the first to demonstrate that SGLT2i exerts anti-atherogenic effects by pure glucose lowering independent of insulin action in diabetic mice through suppressing macrophage foam cell formation, suggesting that foam cell formation is highly sensitive to glycemia ex vivo. PMID:26606676

  7. Imaging Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Tarkin, Jason M.; Dweck, Marc R.; Evans, Nicholas R.; Takx, Richard A.P.; Brown, Adam J.; Tawakol, Ahmed; Fayad, Zahi A.

    2016-01-01

    Advances in atherosclerosis imaging technology and research have provided a range of diagnostic tools to characterize high-risk plaque in vivo; however, these important vascular imaging methods additionally promise great scientific and translational applications beyond this quest. When combined with conventional anatomic- and hemodynamic-based assessments of disease severity, cross-sectional multimodal imaging incorporating molecular probes and other novel noninvasive techniques can add detailed interrogation of plaque composition, activity, and overall disease burden. In the catheterization laboratory, intravascular imaging provides unparalleled access to the world beneath the plaque surface, allowing tissue characterization and measurement of cap thickness with micrometer spatial resolution. Atherosclerosis imaging captures key data that reveal snapshots into underlying biology, which can test our understanding of fundamental research questions and shape our approach toward patient management. Imaging can also be used to quantify response to therapeutic interventions and ultimately help predict cardiovascular risk. Although there are undeniable barriers to clinical translation, many of these hold-ups might soon be surpassed by rapidly evolving innovations to improve image acquisition, coregistration, motion correction, and reduce radiation exposure. This article provides a comprehensive review of current and experimental atherosclerosis imaging methods and their uses in research and potential for translation to the clinic. PMID:26892971

  8. An update of irbesartan and renin-angiotensin system blockade in diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    García-Donaire, Jose Antonio; Segura, Julian; Ruilope, Luis Miguel

    2005-08-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a chief cause of pathologies such as cardiovascular disease, nephropathy and retinopathy, and its prevalence is increasing worldwide. Development of renal disease can be slowed by tight glycaemic control and treatment of associated hypertension with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition, as The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial and the UK Prospective Diabetes Study have demonstrated. Recent clinical trials have supported the use of angiotensin II receptor antagonists in the treatment of diabetic nephropathy, resulting in the approval of new therapeutic indications in the US and Europe. The main goal of this review is to demonstrate how results from the Programme for Irbesartan Mortality and Morbidity Evaluation and other recent studies, based on the effects of renin-angiotensin system blockade, can be appropriate in clinical practice, thus displaying benefits of irbesartan therapy at any stage of renal disease in diabetics. PMID:16086646

  9. How Is Atherosclerosis Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Atherosclerosis Diagnosed? Your doctor will diagnose atherosclerosis based on ... Rate This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video What is atherosclerosis? 05/22/2014 Describes how the build-up ...

  10. What Causes Atherosclerosis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Atherosclerosis? The exact cause of atherosclerosis isn't known. ... Rate This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video What is atherosclerosis? 05/22/2014 Describes how the build-up ...

  11. Naringenin and atherosclerosis: a review of literature.

    PubMed

    Orhan, Ilkay E; Nabavi, Seyed F; Daglia, Maria; Tenore, Gian C; Mansouri, Kowsar; Nabavi, Seyed M

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a multifactorial disease mainly caused by deposition of low-density lipoprotein (LD) cholesterol in macrophages of arterial walls. Atherosclerosis leads to heart attacks as well as stroke. Epidemiological studies showed that there is an inverse correlation between fruit and vegetable consumption and the risk of atherosclerosis. The promising effect of high vegetable and fruit containing diet on atherosclerosis is approved by several experimental studies on isolated phytochemicals such as flavonoids. Flavonoids are known to up-regulate endogenous antioxidant system, suppress oxidative and nitrosative stress, decrease macrophage oxidative stress through cellular oxygenase inhibition as well as interaction with several signal transduction pathways and from these ways, have therapeutic effects against atherosclerosis. Naringenin is a well known flavonoid belonging to the chemical class of flavanones. It is especially abundant in citrus fruits, especially grapefruits. A plethora of evidences ascribes to naringenin antiatherosclerotic effects. Naringenin abilities to decrease LDL and triglycerides as well as inhibit glucose uptake; increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL); co-oxidation of NADH; suppress protein oxidation; protect against intercellular adhesion molecule-1(ICAM-1); suppress macrophage inflammation; inhibit leukotriene B4, monocyte adhesion and foam cell formation; induce of HO-1 and G 0/G 1 cell cycle arrest in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) and down regulate atherosclerosis related genes are believed to have crucial role in the promising role against atherosclerosis. In the present review, we have summarized the available literature data on the anti-atherosclerotic effects of naringenin and its possible mechanisms of action. PMID:25483717

  12. Rutaecarpine suppresses atherosclerosis in ApoE−/− mice through upregulating ABCA1 and SR-BI within RCT[S

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yanni; Liu, Qi; Xu, Yang; Liu, Chang; Wang, Xiao; He, Xiaobo; Zhu, Ningyu; Liu, Jikai; Wu, Yexiang; Li, Yongzhen; Li, Ni; Feng, Tingting; Lai, Fangfang; Zhang, Murui; Hong, Bin; Jiang, Jian-Dong; Si, Shuyi

    2014-01-01

    ABCA1 and scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI)/CD36 and lysosomal integral membrane protein II analogous 1 (CLA-1) are the key transporter and receptor in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). Increasing the expression level of ABCA1 and SR-BI/CLA-1 is antiatherogenic. The aim of the study was to find novel antiatherosclerotic agents upregulating expression of ABCA1 and SR-BI/CLA-1 from natural compounds. Using the ABCA1p-LUC and CLA-1p-LUC HepG2 cell lines, we found that rutaecarpine (RUT) triggered promoters of ABCA1 and CLA-1 genes. RUT increased ABCA1 and SR-BI/CLA-1 expression in vitro related to liver X receptor alpha and liver X receptor beta. RUT induced cholesterol efflux in RAW264.7 cells. ApoE-deficient (ApoE−/−) mice treated with RUT for 8 weeks showed ∼68.43, 70.23, and 85.56% less en face lesions for RUT (L), RUT (M), and RUT (H) groups, respectively, compared with the model group. Mouse macrophage-specific antibody and filipin staining indicated that RUT attenuated macrophages and cholesterol accumulations in atherosclerotic lesions, respectively. Additionally, ABCA1 and SR-BI expression was highly induced by RUT in livers of ApoE−/− mice. Meanwhile, RUT treatment significantly increased the fecal 3H-cholesterol excretion, which demonstrated that RUT could promote RCT in vivo. RUT was identified to be a candidate that protected ApoE−/− mice from developing atherosclerosis through preferentially promoting activities of ABCA1 and SR-BI within RCT. PMID:24908654

  13. Vaccination to Modulate Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Takayuki; Tse, Kevin; Sette, Alessandro; Ley, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the artery wall. Adaptive immunity plays a key role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Recently, modulation of the immune response against atherosclerotic plaque antigen(s) has attracted attention as a potentially preventive and therapeutic approach. Here we review a series of studies on immunization with various antigens targeting treatment and prevention of atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis-related antigens include oxidized LDL, apolipoprotein B-100, and heat shock protein 60/65. Accumulating evidence supports the idea that immunization with these antigenic proteins or peptides may reduce atherosclerosis. In this review, we discuss the current status of immunization studies and possible associated mechanisms of atheroprotection. PMID:25683179

  14. Response to angiotensin blockade with irbesartan in a patient with metastatic colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jones, M. R.; Schrader, K. A.; Shen, Y.; Pleasance, E.; Ch'ng, C.; Dar, N.; Yip, S.; Renouf, D. J.; Schein, J. E.; Mungall, A. J.; Zhao, Y.; Moore, R.; Ma, Y.; Sheffield, B. S.; Ng, T.; Jones, S. J. M.; Marra, M. A.; Laskin, J.; Lim, H. J.

    2016-01-01

    Background A patient suffering from metastatic colorectal cancer, treatment-related toxicity and resistance to standard chemotherapy and radiation was assessed as part of a personalized oncogenomics initiative to derive potential alternative therapeutic strategies. Patients and methods Whole-genome and transcriptome sequencing was used to interrogate a metastatic tumor refractory to standard treatments of a patient with mismatch repair-deficient metastatic colorectal cancer. Results Integrative genomic analysis indicated overexpression of the AP-1 transcriptional complex suggesting experimental therapeutic rationales, including blockade of the renin–angiotensin system. This led to the repurposing of the angiotensin II receptor antagonist, irbesartan, as an anticancer therapy, resulting in the patient experiencing a dramatic and durable response. Conclusions This case highlights the utility of comprehensive integrative genomic profiling and bioinformatics analysis to provide hypothetical rationales for personalized treatment options. PMID:27022066

  15. Vinpocetine attenuates lipid accumulation and atherosclerosis formation

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Yujun; Li, Jian-Dong; Yan, Chen

    2013-05-10

    Highlights: •Vinpocetine attenuates hyperlipidemia-induced atherosclerosis in a mouse model. •Vinpocetine antagonizes ox-LDL uptake and accumulation in macrophages. •Vinpocetine blocks the induction of ox-LDL receptor LOX-1 in vitro and in vivo. -- Abstract: Atherosclerosis, the major cause of myocardial infarction and stroke, is a chronic arterial disease characterized by lipid deposition and inflammation in the vessel wall. Cholesterol, in low-density lipoprotein (LDL), plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Vinpocetine, a derivative of the alkaloid vincamine, has long been used as a cerebral blood flow enhancer for treating cognitive impairment. Recent study indicated that vinpocetine is a potent anti-inflammatory agent. However, its role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis remains unexplored. In the present study, we show that vinpocetine significantly reduced atherosclerotic lesion formation in ApoE knockout mice fed with a high-fat diet. In cultured murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells, vinpocetine markedly attenuated oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) uptake and foam cell formation. Moreover, vinpocetine greatly blocked the induction of ox-LDL receptor 1 (LOX-1) in cultured macrophages as well as in the LOX-1 level in atherosclerotic lesions. Taken together, our data reveal a novel role of vinpocetine in reduction of pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, at least partially through suppressing LOX-1 signaling pathway. Given the excellent safety profile of vinpocetine, this study suggests vinpocetine may be a therapeutic candidate for treating atherosclerosis.

  16. Genetic Variation and Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Biros, Erik; Karan, Mirko; Golledge, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    A family history of atherosclerosis is independently associated with an increased incidence of cardiovascular events. The genetic factors underlying the importance of inheritance in atherosclerosis are starting to be understood. Genetic variation, such as mutations or common polymorphisms has been shown to be involved in modulation of a range of risk factors, such as plasma lipoprotein levels, inflammation and vascular calcification. This review presents examples of present studies of the role of genetic polymorphism in atherosclerosis. PMID:19424482

  17. Diabetic atherosclerosis mouse models.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kenneth K; Huan, Youming

    2007-04-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) due to atherosclerosis is the leading cause of death in the USA, and accelerated CHD has emerged as a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients in the USA and worldwide. This has highlighted the importance and urgency of studying the mechanism of diabetic atherosclerosis and exploring therapeutic options. Due to its unique advantages over other animal models, the mouse is the most used model for studying the mechanism of diabetes-accelerated atherosclerosis and exploring effective therapeutic approaches. In the past decade, several diabetic atherosclerosis mouse models have been established. Currently, however, there is no ideal animal model for diabetic atherosclerosis. To determine the characteristics of the models that more closely resemble human diabetic atherosclerosis disease, this review focuses on the common diabetic atherosclerosis mouse models with respect to the following issues: (1) whether the mice retain diabetic condition; (2) whether the diabetes accelerates atherosclerosis or increases atherogenic inflammation; (3) whether these factors respond to medical interventions. The discussion is aimed at identifying different diabetic mouse models and their features, in order to heighten awareness of the appropriate models that may provide useful tools for studying the mechanism of diabetes-accelerated atherosclerosis and evaluating therapeutic options. PMID:16979174

  18. Irbesartan/HCTZ fixed combinations in patients of different racial/ethnic groups with uncontrolled systolic blood pressure on monotherapy.

    PubMed Central

    Ofili, Elizabeth O.; Ferdinand, Keith C.; Saunders, Elijah; Neutel, Joel M.; Bakris, George L.; Cushman, William C.; Sowers, James R.; Weber, Michael A.

    2006-01-01

    The IrbesartaN/hydroChlorothiazide (HCTZ) bLood pressUre reductionS In diVErse patient populations (INCLUSIVE) trial was a multicenter, prospective, open-label, single-arm study evaluating the efficacy and safety of irbesartan/HCTZ fixed combinations in patients > or = 18 years old with uncontrolled systolic blood pressure (SBP, 140-159 mmHg; 130-159 mmHg for type-2 diabetes mellitus patients) after > or = 4 weeks of antihypertensive monotherapy. This analysis focused on different racial/ethnic subgroups. Treatment was sequential: placebo (4-5 weeks), HCTZ 12.5 mg (two weeks), irbesartan/HCTZ 150/12.5 mg (eight weeks) and irbesartan/HCTZ 300/25 mg (eight weeks). Overall, 515 Caucasians, 191 African Americans and 119 Hispanics/Latinos completing placebo treatment were enrolled. Mean SBP changes from baseline (placebo treatment end) to week 18 were -21.5 +/- 13.8 mmHg for Caucasians, -20.7 +/- 16.5 mmHg for African Americans and -22.9 +/- 13.2 mmHg for Hispanics/Latinos, respectively (p<0.001 for each). Mean diastolic BP (DBP) changes were statistically significant (p<0.001) and similar among racial/ethnic subgroups. By week 18, 70% (95% CI, 66%, 74%) of Caucasian, 66% (95% CI, 59%, 74%) of African-American and 65% (95% CI, 57%, 74%) of Hispanic/Latino patients achieved dual SBP/DBP goal. Treatments appeared to be well tolerated. In conclusion, irbesartan/HCTZ treatment provided SBP/DBP goal attainment in approximately two-thirds of Caucasian, African-American and Hispanic/Latino patients with SBP uncontrolled on antihypertensive monotherapy. PMID:16623075

  19. Intracranial atherosclerosis following radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, M.H.; Burger, P.C.; Heinz, E.R.; Friedman, A.H.; Halperin, E.C.; Schold, S.C. Jr.

    1988-07-01

    We describe a case of severe intracranial atherosclerosis in a young man who had received therapeutic radiation for a presumed brain neoplasm. Since there was no evidence of vascular disease outside the radiation ports, we speculate that accelerated atherosclerosis was induced by radiation and that hyperlipidemia may have predisposed him to this effect.

  20. [Chromium and atherosclerosis].

    PubMed

    Canonaco, F; Bertolani, P; Cucchi, C

    1986-01-01

    The authors report numerous experimental and clinical studies relating deficiency of chromium in the organism and atherosclerosis. They hope new researches to compute the pool of chromium in the organism and the validity and possibility to utilize this oligoelement in prevention of atherosclerosis. PMID:3537981

  1. Vinpocetine attenuates lipid accumulation and atherosclerosis formation.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yujun; Li, Jian-Dong; Yan, Chen

    2013-05-10

    Atherosclerosis, the major cause of myocardial infarction and stroke, is a chronic arterial disease characterized by lipid deposition and inflammation in the vessel wall. Cholesterol, in low-density lipoprotein (LDL), plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Vinpocetine, a derivative of the alkaloid vincamine, has long been used as a cerebral blood flow enhancer for treating cognitive impairment. Recent study indicated that vinpocetine is a potent anti-inflammatory agent. However, its role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis remains unexplored. In the present study, we show that vinpocetine significantly reduced atherosclerotic lesion formation in ApoE knockout mice fed with a high-fat diet. In cultured murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells, vinpocetine markedly attenuated oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) uptake and foam cell formation. Moreover, vinpocetine greatly blocked the induction of ox-LDL receptor 1 (LOX-1) in cultured macrophages as well as in the LOX-1 level in atherosclerotic lesions. Taken together, our data reveal a novel role of vinpocetine in reduction of pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, at least partially through suppressing LOX-1 signaling pathway. Given the excellent safety profile of vinpocetine, this study suggests vinpocetine may be a therapeutic candidate for treating atherosclerosis. PMID:23583194

  2. Vinpocetine Attenuates Lipid Accumulation and Atherosclerosis Formation

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Yujun; Li, Jian-Dong; Yan, Chen

    2013-01-01

    Atherosclerosis, the major cause of myocardial infarction and stroke, is a chronic arterial disease characterized by lipid deposition and inflammation in the vessel wall. Cholesterol, in low-density lipoprotein (LDL), plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Vinpocetine, a derivative of the alkaloid vincamine, has long been used as a cerebral blood flow enhancer for treating cognitive impairment. Recent study indicated that vinpocetine is a potent inflammatory agent. However, its role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis remains unexplored. In the present study, we show that vinpocetine significantly reduced atherosclerotic lesion formation in ApoE knockout mice fed with a high-fat diet. In cultured murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells, vinpocetine markedly attenuated oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) uptake and foam cell formation. Moreover, vinpocetine greatly blocked the induction of ox-LDL receptor 1 (LOX-1) in cultured macrophages as well as in the LOX-1 level in atherosclerotic lesions. Taken together, our data reveal a novel role of vinpocetine in reduction of pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, at least partially through suppressing LOX-1 signaling pathway. Given the excellent safety profile of vinpocetine, this study suggests vinpocetine may be a therapeutic candidate for treating atherosclerosis PMID:23583194

  3. Animal models of atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Kapourchali, Fatemeh Ramezani; Surendiran, Gangadaran; Chen, Li; Uitz, Elisabeth; Bahadori, Babak; Moghadasian, Mohammed H

    2014-01-01

    In this mini-review several commonly used animal models of atherosclerosis have been discussed. Among them, emphasis has been made on mice, rabbits, pigs and non-human primates. Although these animal models have played a significant role in our understanding of induction of atherosclerotic lesions, we still lack a reliable animal model for regression of the disease. Researchers have reported several genetically modified and transgenic animal models that replicate human atherosclerosis, however each of current animal models have some limitations. Among these animal models, the apolipoprotein (apo) E-knockout (KO) mice have been used extensively because they develop spontaneous atherosclerosis. Furthermore, atherosclerotic lesions developed in this model depending on experimental design may resemble humans’ stable and unstable atherosclerotic lesions. This mouse model of hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis has been also used to investigate the impact of oxidative stress and inflammation on atherogenesis. Low density lipoprotein (LDL)-r-KO mice are a model of human familial hypercholesterolemia. However, unlike apo E-KO mice, the LDL-r-KO mice do not develop spontaneous atherosclerosis. Both apo E-KO and LDL-r-KO mice have been employed to generate other relevant mouse models of cardiovascular disease through breeding strategies. In addition to mice, rabbits have been used extensively particularly to understand the mechanisms of cholesterol-induced atherosclerosis. The present review paper details the characteristics of animal models that are used in atherosclerosis research. PMID:24868511

  4. Animal models of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kapourchali, Fatemeh Ramezani; Surendiran, Gangadaran; Chen, Li; Uitz, Elisabeth; Bahadori, Babak; Moghadasian, Mohammed H

    2014-05-16

    In this mini-review several commonly used animal models of atherosclerosis have been discussed. Among them, emphasis has been made on mice, rabbits, pigs and non-human primates. Although these animal models have played a significant role in our understanding of induction of atherosclerotic lesions, we still lack a reliable animal model for regression of the disease. Researchers have reported several genetically modified and transgenic animal models that replicate human atherosclerosis, however each of current animal models have some limitations. Among these animal models, the apolipoprotein (apo) E-knockout (KO) mice have been used extensively because they develop spontaneous atherosclerosis. Furthermore, atherosclerotic lesions developed in this model depending on experimental design may resemble humans' stable and unstable atherosclerotic lesions. This mouse model of hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis has been also used to investigate the impact of oxidative stress and inflammation on atherogenesis. Low density lipoprotein (LDL)-r-KO mice are a model of human familial hypercholesterolemia. However, unlike apo E-KO mice, the LDL-r-KO mice do not develop spontaneous atherosclerosis. Both apo E-KO and LDL-r-KO mice have been employed to generate other relevant mouse models of cardiovascular disease through breeding strategies. In addition to mice, rabbits have been used extensively particularly to understand the mechanisms of cholesterol-induced atherosclerosis. The present review paper details the characteristics of animal models that are used in atherosclerosis research. PMID:24868511

  5. [Epigenetics in atherosclerosis].

    PubMed

    Guardiola, Montse; Vallvé, Joan C; Zaina, Silvio; Ribalta, Josep

    2016-01-01

    The association studies based on candidate genes carried on for decades have helped in visualizing the influence of the genetic component in complex diseases such as atherosclerosis, also showing the interaction between different genes and environmental factors. Even with all the knowledge accumulated, there is still some way to go to decipher the individual predisposition to disease, and if we consider the great influence that environmental factors play in the development and progression of atherosclerosis, epigenetics is presented as a key element in trying to expand our knowledge on individual predisposition to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Epigenetics can be described as the discipline that studies the mechanisms of transcriptional regulation, independent of changes in the sequence of DNA, and mostly induced by environmental factors. This review aims to describe what epigenetics is and how epigenetic mechanisms are involved in atherosclerosis. PMID:26088002

  6. Infection and Atherosclerosis Development.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Lee Ann; Rosenfeld, Michael E

    2015-07-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic disease hallmarked by chronic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction and lipid accumulation in the vasculature. Although lipid modification and deposition are thought to be a major source of the continuous inflammatory stimulus, a large body of evidence suggests that infectious agents may contribute to atherosclerotic processes. This could occur by either direct effects through infection of vascular cells and/or through indirect effects by induction of cytokine and acute phase reactant proteins by infection at other sites. Multiple bacterial and viral pathogens have been associated with atherosclerosis by seroepidemiological studies, identification of the infectious agent in human atherosclerotic tissue, and experimental studies demonstrating an acceleration of atherosclerosis following infection in animal models of atherosclerosis. This review will focus on those infectious agents for which biological plausibility has been demonstrated in animal models and on the challenges of proving a role of infection in human atherosclerotic disease. PMID:26004263

  7. Systematic Approach for Trace Level Quantification of 2-N-butyl-4-spirocyclopentane-2-imidazole-5-one Genotoxic Impurity in Irbesartan Using LC-MS/MS

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, A. Vijaya Bhaskar; Venugopal, N.; Madhavi, G.; Madhavi, V.; Reddy, K. Gangadhara

    2013-01-01

    2-N-butyl-4-spirocyclopentane-2-imidazoline-5-one has been highlighted as a potential genotoxic impurity in irbesartan. A sensitive LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the determination of 2-N-butyl-4-spirocyclopentane-2-imidazoline-5-one in irbesartan. Good separation between 2-N-butyl-4-spirocyclopentane-2-imidazoline-5-one and irbesartan was achieved with Symmetry C18 (100×4.6 mm, 3.5 μm) column using 65:35 v/v mixture of 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile as mobile phase with a flow rate of 0.7 ml/min. The proposed method was specific, linear, accurate, and precise. The calibration curve shows good linearity over the concentration range of 0.1-2.0 μg/ml, which matches the range of limit of quantitation-20×limit of quantitation of estimated permitted level (1.0 μg/ml) of 2-N-butyl-4-spirocyclopentane-2-imidazoline-5-one. The method was validated as per International Conference on Harmonization guidelines and was able to quantitate 2-N-butyl-4-spirocyclopentane-2-imidazoline-5-one impurity at 1.0 μg/ml with respect to 2 mg/ml of irbesartan. 2-N-butyl-4-spirocyclopentane-2-imidazoline-5-one was not present in the three studied pure and formulation batches of irbesartan and the developed method was a good quality control tool for quantitation of 2-N-butyl-4-spirocyclopentane-2-imidazole-5-one at very low levels in irbesartan. PMID:24403649

  8. Prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis with flaxseed-derived compound secoisolariciresinol diglucoside.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Kailash; Jadhav, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is the primary cause of coronary artery disease, heart attack, strokes, and peripheral vascular disease. Alternative/complimentary medicines, although are unacceptable by medical community, may be of great help in suppression, slowing of progression and regression of atherosclerosis. Numerous natural products are in use for therapy in spite of lack of evidence. This paper discusses the basic mechanism of atherosclerosis, risk factors for atherosclerosis, and prevention, slowing of progression and regression of atherosclerosis with flaxseed-derived secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG). SDG content of flaxseed varies from 6mg/g to 18 mg/g. Flaxseed is the richest source of SDG. SDG possesses antioxidant, antihypertensive, antidiabetic, hypolipidemic, anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic activities. SDG content of some commonly used food has been described. SDG in very low dose (15 mg/ kg) suppressed the development of hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis by 73 % and this effect was associated with reduction in serum total cholesterol, LDL-C, and oxidative stress, and an increase in the levels HDL-C. A summary of the effects of flaxseed and its components on hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis has been provided. Reduction in hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis by flaxseed, CDC-flaxseed, flaxseed oil, flax lignan complex and SDG are 46 %, 69 %, 0 %, 34 % and 73 % respectively in dietary cholesterol -induced rabbit model of atherosclerosis. SDG slows the progression of atherosclerosis in animal model. Long-term use of SDG regresses hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis. It is interesting that regular diet following high cholesterol diet accelerates in this animal model of atherosclerosis. In conclusion SDG suppresses, slow the progression and regresses the atherosclerosis. It could serve as an alternative medicine for the prevention, slowing of progression and regression of atherosclerosis and hence for the treatment of coronary artery disease, stroke and peripheral arterial vascular diseases. PMID:26561066

  9. Chitinase Inhibition Promotes Atherosclerosis in Hyperlipidemic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kitamoto, Shiro; Egashira, Kensuke; Ichiki, Toshihiro; Han, Xinbing; McCurdy, Sara; Sakuda, Shohei; Sunagawa, Kenji; Boisvert, William A.

    2014-01-01

    Chitinase 1 (CHIT1) is secreted by activated macrophages. Chitinase activity is raised in atherosclerotic patient sera and is present in atherosclerotic plaque. However, the role of CHIT1 in atherosclerosis is unknown. Preliminary studies of atherosclerosis in cynomolgous monkeys revealed CHIT1 to be closely correlated with areas of macrophage infiltration. Thus, we investigated the effects of a chitinase inhibitor, allosamidin, on macrophage function in vitro and on atherosclerotic development in vivo. In RAW264.7 cells, allosamidin elevated monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 and tumor necrosis factor alpha expression, and increased activator protein 1 and nuclear factor-κB transcriptional activity. Although inducible nitric oxide synthase, IL-6, and IL-1β expression were increased, Arg1 expression was decreased by chitinase inhibition, suggesting that suppression of CHIT1 activity polarizes macrophages into a M1 phenotype. Allosamidin decreased scavenger receptor AI, CD36, ABCA1, and ABCG1 expression which led to suppression of cholesterol uptake and apolipoprotein AI-mediated cholesterol efflux in macrophages. These effects were confirmed with CHIT1 siRNA transfection and CHIT1 plasmid transfection experiments in primary macrophages. Apolipoprotein E-deficient hyperlipidemic mice treated for 6 weeks with constant administration of allosamidin and fed an atherogenic diet showed aggravated atherosclerotic lesion formation. These data suggest that CHIT1 exerts protective effects against atherosclerosis by suppressing inflammatory responses and polarizing macrophages toward an M2 phenotype, and promoting lipid uptake and cholesterol efflux in macrophages. PMID:23685110

  10. Macrophage Autophagy in Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Maiuri, Maria Chiara; Grassia, Gianluca; Platt, Andrew M.; Carnuccio, Rosa; Ialenti, Armando; Maffia, Pasquale

    2013-01-01

    Macrophages play crucial roles in atherosclerotic immune responses. Recent investigation into macrophage autophagy (AP) in atherosclerosis has demonstrated a novel pathway through which these cells contribute to vascular inflammation. AP is a cellular catabolic process involving the delivery of cytoplasmic contents to the lysosomal machinery for ultimate degradation and recycling. Basal levels of macrophage AP play an essential role in atheroprotection during early atherosclerosis. However, AP becomes dysfunctional in the more advanced stages of the pathology and its deficiency promotes vascular inflammation, oxidative stress, and plaque necrosis. In this paper, we will discuss the role of macrophages and AP in atherosclerosis and the emerging evidence demonstrating the contribution of macrophage AP to vascular pathology. Finally, we will discuss how AP could be targeted for therapeutic utility. PMID:23401644

  11. Molecular imaging in atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Glaudemans, Andor W. J. M.; Slart, Riemer H. J. A.; Bozzao, Alessandro; Bonanno, Elena; Arca, Marcello; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.

    2010-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is the major cause of cardiovascular disease, which still has the leading position in morbidity and mortality in the Western world. Many risk factors and pathobiological processes are acting together in the development of atherosclerosis. This leads to different remodelling stages (positive and negative) which are both associated with plaque physiology and clinical presentation. The different remodelling stages of atherosclerosis are explained with their clinical relevance. Recent advances in basic science have established that atherosclerosis is not only a lipid storage disease, but that also inflammation has a fundamental role in all stages of the disease. The molecular events leading to atherosclerosis will be extensively reviewed and described. Further on in this review different modalities and their role in the different stages of atherosclerosis will be discussed. Non-nuclear invasive imaging techniques (intravascular ultrasound, intravascular MRI, intracoronary angioscopy and intravascular optical coherence tomography) and non-nuclear non-invasive imaging techniques (ultrasound with Doppler flow, electron-bean computed tomography, coronary computed tomography angiography, MRI and coronary artery MR angiography) will be reviewed. After that we focus on nuclear imaging techniques for detecting atherosclerotic plaques, divided into three groups: atherosclerotic lesion components, inflammation and thrombosis. This emerging area of nuclear imaging techniques can provide measures of biological activity of atherosclerotic plaques, thereby improving the prediction of clinical events. As we will see in the future perspectives, at present, there is no special tracer that can be called the diagnostic tool to diagnose prospective stroke or infarction in patients. Nevertheless, we expect such a tracer to be developed in the next few years and maybe, theoretically, it could even be used for targeted therapy (in the form of a beta-emitter) to combat cardiovascular disease. PMID:20306036

  12. Alcohol and atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    daLuz, P L; Coimbra, S R

    2001-03-01

    Atherosclerosis is manifested as coronary artery disease (CAD), ischemic stroke and peripheral vascular disease. Moderate alcohol consumption has been associated with reduction of CAD complications. Apparently, red wine offers more benefits than any other kind of drinks, probably due to flavonoids. Alcohol alters lipoproteins and the coagulation system. The flavonoids induce vascular relaxation by mechanisms that are both dependent and independent of nitric oxide, inhibits many of the cellular reactions associated with atherosclerosis and inflammation, such as endothelial expression of vascular adhesion molecules and release of cytokines from polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Hypertension is also influenced by the alcohol intake. Thus, heavy alcohol intake is almost always associated with systemic hypertension, and hence shall be avoided. In individuals that ingest excess alcohol, there is higher risk of coronary occlusion, arrhythmias, hepatic cirrhosis, upper gastrointestinal cancers, fetal alcohol syndrome, murders, sex crimes, traffic and industrial accidents, robberies, and psychosis. Alcohol is no treatment for atherosclerosis; but it doesn't need to be prohibited for everyone. Thus moderate amounts of alcohol (1-2 drinks/day), especially red wine, may be allowed for those at risk for atherosclerosis complications. PMID:11246269

  13. Blood Pressure Response to Zofenopril or Irbesartan Each Combined with Hydrochlorothiazide in High-Risk Hypertensives Uncontrolled by Monotherapy: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled, Parallel Group, Noninferiority Trial

    PubMed Central

    Malacco, Ettore; Omboni, Stefano; Parati, Gianfranco

    2015-01-01

    In this randomized, double-blind, controlled, parallel group study (ZENITH), 434 essential hypertensives with additional cardiovascular risk factors, uncontrolled by a previous monotherapy, were treated for 18 weeks with zofenopril 30 or 60 mg plus hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) 12.5 mg or irbesartan 150 or 300 mg plus HCTZ. Rate of office blood pressure (BP) response (zofenopril: 68% versus irbesartan: 70%; p = 0.778) and 24-hour BP response (zofenopril: 85% versus irbesartan: 84%; p = 0.781) was similar between the two treatment groups. Cardiac and renal damage was equally reduced by both treatments, whereas the rate of carotid plaque regression was significantly larger with zofenopril. In conclusion, uncontrolled monotherapy treated hypertensives effectively respond to a combination of zofenopril or irbesartan plus a thiazide diuretic, in terms of either BP response or target organ damage progression. PMID:26347187

  14. Efficacy and safety of early versus late titration of fixed-dose irbesartan/hydrochlorothiazide: ACTUAL study.

    PubMed

    Girerd, Xavier; Rosenbaum, David; Aoun, Joseph

    2011-12-01

    Hypertension management guidelines recommend titrating antihypertensive drugs stepwise every 4-6 weeks.We compared efficacy and safety of early versus late titration after 10 weeks' treatment with irbesartan/hydrochlorothiazide. Hypertensive patients uncontrolled on monotherapy were randomized into two groups. In the early titration group (E), patients received irbesartan/hydrochlorothiazide 150/12.5 mg for 2 weeks; uncontrolled patients were up-titrated to 300/25 mg at weeks 2 and 6. In the late titration group (L), patients received 150/12.5 mg for 6 weeks; uncontrolled patients were up-titrated to 300/25 mg at week 6 (W6). The change of mean systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) from baseline to week 10 (W10) were studied using a covariance analysis model. The percentage of controlled patients at W10 was compared between groups using Fisher's exact test. Of 833 patients enrolled from 14 countries, the intent-to-treat (ITT) population included 795 (mean age 58 +/- 12 years, female 60%, obesity 38%, diabetes 22%). AtW6, mean SBP decrease was: E - 28.8 mmHg vs L - 26.3 mmHg (p = 0.02). At W10, there was similar mean SBP decrease: E - 29.5 mmHg vs L- 31.0 mmHg (p = 0.14). The control rate at W10 was 58% (E) and 64% (L), p = 0.06. Serious adverse events were more frequent in E (2.5% vs 0.7%, p= 0.044). Both early and late titration regimens provide similar BP decrease and control rate. PMID:22352122

  15. Lymphocytes in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Wigren, Maria; Nilsson, Jan; Kolbus, Daniel

    2012-10-01

    It is well established that atherosclerosis is caused by an inflammatory process in the arterial intima. However, it is only in recent years that it has become clear that this inflammation is modulated by immune responses against plaque antigens. These antigens are primarily believed to be modified self-antigens such as oxidized LDL. The immune system is challenged to determine whether these antigens should be regarded self and tolerated or non-self and eliminated. The latter will result in plaque development while the first will be protective. T cells are key effectors of both types of responses. An activation of regulatory T cells inhibits auto-reactive T effector cells and is anti-inflammatory. In contrast, if Th1 cells become activated in the plaque this is associated with increased inflammation and disease progression. The role of B cells in atherosclerosis remains to be clarified but some species of athero-protective antibodies have been identified. The elucidation of role of immune system in atherosclerosis has revealed new targets for intervention and both vaccines and antibody-based therapies are presently in or due to enter clinical testing. PMID:22565046

  16. Atherosclerosis induced by arsenic in drinking water in rats through altering lipid metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Tain-Junn; Chuu, Jiunn-Jye; Chang, Chia-Yu; Tsai, Wan-Chen; Chen, Kuan-Jung; Guo, How-Ran

    2011-10-15

    Arsenic in drinking water is a global environmental health problem, and the exposure may increase cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases mortalities, most likely through causing atherosclerosis. However, the mechanism of atherosclerosis formation after arsenic exposure is still unclear. To study the mechanism of atherosclerosis formation after arsenic exposure and explore the role of high cholesterol diet (HCD) in this process, we fed spontaneous hypertensive rats and Wistar Kyoto rats with basal diet or HCD and provided with them drinking water containing arsenic at different ages and orders for 20 consecutive weeks. We measured high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol, triglycerides, heat shock protein 70 (HSP 70), and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) at predetermined intervals and determined expressions of cholesteryl ester transfer protein-1 (CETP-1) and liver X receptor {beta} (LXR{beta}) in the liver. Atherosclerosis was determined by examining the aorta with hematoxylin and eosin stain. After 20 weeks, we found arsenic, alone or combined with HCD, may promote atherosclerosis formation with transient increases in HSP 70 and hs-CRP. Early combination exposure decreased the HDL-C/LDL-C ratio without changing the levels of total cholesterol and triglyceride until 30 weeks old. Both CETP-1 and LXR{beta} activities were suppressed, most significantly in early combination exposure. In conclusion, arsenic exposure may induce atherosclerosis through modifying reverse cholesterol transport in cholesterol metabolism and suppressing LXR{beta} and CEPT-1 expressions. For decreasing atherosclerosis related mortality associated with arsenic, preventing exposure from environmental sources in early life is an important element. - Highlights: > Arsenic causes cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases through atherosclerosis. > Arsenic may promote atherosclerosis with transient increase in HSP 70 and hs-CRP. > Arsenic exposure and high cholesterol diet early in life suppress CEPT-1 and LXR? > Arsenic may induce atherosclerosis by modifying reverse cholesterol transport. > Prevent arsenic exposure in early life is important to decreasing atherosclerosis.

  17. Endothelial progenitor cells in atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Du, Fuyong; Zhou, Jun; Gong, Ren; Huang, Xiao; Pansuria, Meghana; Virtue, Anthony; Li, Xinyuan; Wang, Hong; Yang, Xiao-Feng

    2012-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are involved in the maintenance of endothelial homoeostasis and in the process of new vessel formation. Experimental and clinical studies have shown that atherosclerosis is associated with reduced numbers and dysfunction of EPCs; and that medications alone are able to partially reverse the impairment of EPCs in patients with atherosclerosis. Therefore, novel EPC-based therapies may provide enhancement in restoring EPCs population and improvement of vascular function. Here, for a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying EPC impairment in atherosclerosis, we provide a comprehensive overview on EPC characteristics, phenotypes, and the signaling pathways underlying EPC impairment in atherosclerosis. PMID:22652782

  18. Therapy with the Combination of Amlodipine and Irbesartan Has Persistent Preventative Effects on Stroke Onset Associated with BDNF Preservation on Cerebral Vessels in Hypertensive Rats.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Yu; Nakagawa, Takashi; Uekawa, Ken; Ma, Mingjie; Lin, Bowen; Kusaka, Hiroaki; Katayama, Tetsuji; Sueta, Daisuke; Toyama, Kensuke; Koibuchi, Nobutaka; Kim-Mitsuyama, Shokei

    2016-02-01

    Although calcium channel blockers, angiotensin II receptor blockers, and combination therapy are effective for hypertensive patients, the significant differences among them against stroke onset are undetermined. In this study, we investigated the significant beneficial effects of the combination therapy using amlodipine and irbesartan against stroke onset in hypertensive rats. The animals were fed an 8 % sodium diet and assigned to (1) vehicle, (2) amlodipine (2 mg/kg/day), (3) irbesartan (20 mg/kg/day), and (4) amlodipine + irbesartan groups. The drugs were given orally until 35 days, and incidences of stroke-related signs and mortality and blood pressure (BP) were monitored. Cerebral blood flow (CBF), brain water content, weight of the brain and left ventricle, and histological evaluations were conducted for the treated groups at 42 days after the start of the high-salt diet. Amlodipine and the combination therapy significantly reduced BP compared with the vehicle. Although the rates of stroke-related signs and mortality were high in the vehicle group, the rats in the treatment groups were mostly healthy until 35 days. After all drugs were discontinued, stroke onset was frequently seen in the monotherapy groups until 42 days, but no signs were observed in the combination therapy group. Although there were no significant differences in CBF or brain edema, the combination therapy reduced blood-brain barrier disruption, white matter injury, and reactive astrocytes compared with irbesartan, and the combination also inhibited left ventricular hypertrophy and preserved brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression on cerebral vessels compared to the monotherapies. These data suggest that the combination therapy had a persistent preventive effect on stroke onset in hypertensive rats, and the effects might be associated with BDNF preservation on cerebral vessels. PMID:25533877

  19. Ectasia and Severe Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Adiloglu, Ali K.; Can, Rabia; Nazli, Cem; Ocal, Ahmet; Ergene, Oktay; Tinaz, Gulgun; Kisioglu, Nesimi

    2005-01-01

    To date, there has been no convincing evidence for an association between Chlamydia pneumoniae or Helicobacter pylori and ectasia. In this case-control study, we have investigated the association of H. pylori and C. pneumoniae seropositivity with ectasia, severe coronary atherosclerosis, and normal vessels, which were so classified by coronary angiography. We have also evaluated the influence of these infections on inflammatory markers such as high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and interleukin 6 (IL-6). Of the 796 patients undergoing coronary angiography for suspected ischemic heart disease, 244 patients were recruited. Of these, 91 had normal vessels, 88 had 3 or more obstructed vessels, and 65 had ectatic vessels without atherosclerosis. Eighty-seven atherosclerotic patients (98.9%) were positive for C. pneumoniae IgG, as were 64 ectatic patients (98.5%) and 76 controls (83.5%) (P < 0.001). Forty-two atherosclerotic patients (47.7%) were positive for C. pneumoniae IgM, as were 43 ectatic patients (66.2%) and 43 controls (47.3%) (P = 0.036). Seventy-two atherosclerotic patients (81.8%) were positive for H. pylori IgA, as were 26 ectatic patients (40.0%) and 44 controls (48.4%) (P < 0.001). High-sensitive CRP levels were significantly higher in ectatic patients (5.639 mg/L) than in controls (4.390 mg/L) (P = 0.032), and IL-6 levels were significantly higher in atherosclerotic patients (33.92 U/L) than in controls (14.01 U/L) (P < 0.001). Interleukin-6 levels were higher in H. pylori seropositive patients, and hsCRP levels were higher in C. pneumoniae seropositive patients, when compared with seronegatives. We suggest that, as in atherosclerosis, C. pneumoniae infection is related to ectasia, with raised CRP levels. PMID:15902817

  20. B Cell Subsets in Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Heather M.; Bender, Timothy P.; McNamara, Coleen A.

    2012-01-01

    Atherosclerosis, the underlying cause of heart attacks and strokes, is a chronic inflammatory disease of the artery wall. Immune cells, including lymphocytes modulate atherosclerotic lesion development through interconnected mechanisms. Elegant studies over the past decades have begun to unravel a role for B cells in atherosclerosis. Recent findings provide evidence that B cell effects on atherosclerosis may be subset-dependent. B-1a B cells have been reported to protect from atherosclerosis by secretion of natural IgM antibodies. Conventional B-2 B cells can promote atherosclerosis through less clearly defined mechanism that may involve CD4 T cells. Yet, there may be other populations of B cells within these subsets with different phenotypes altering their impact on atherosclerosis. Additionally, the role of B cell subsets in atherosclerosis may depend on their environmental niche and/or the stage of atherogenesis. This review will highlight key findings in the evolving field of B cells and atherosclerosis and touch on the potential and importance of translating these findings to human disease. PMID:23248624

  1. Neutrophil's weapons in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Chistiakov, Dimitry A; Bobryshev, Yuri V; Orekhov, Alexander N

    2015-12-01

    Neutrophils are important components of immunity associated with inflammatory responses against a broad spectrum of pathogens. These cells could be rapidly activated by proinflammatory stimuli and migrate to the inflamed and infected sites where they release a variety of cytotoxic molecules with antimicrobial activity. Neutrophil antibacterial factors include extracellular proteases, redox enzymes, antimicrobial peptides, and small bioactive molecules. In resting neutrophils, these factors are stored in granules and released upon activation during degranulation. These factors could be also secreted in a neutrophil-derived microparticle-dependent fashion. Neutrophils exhibit a unique property to produce neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) composed of decondensed chromatin and granular proteins to catch and kill bacteria. Neutrophil-released factors are efficient in inactivation and elimination of pathogens through oxidation-dependent or independent damage of bacterial cells, inactivation and neutralization of virulence factors and other mechanisms. However, in chronic atherosclerosis-associated inflammation, protective function of neutrophils could be impaired and misdirected against own cells. This could lead to deleterious effects and progressive vascular injury. In atherogenesis, a pathogenic role of neutrophils could be especially seen in early stages associated with endothelial dysfunction and induction of vascular inflammation and in late atherosclerosis associated with plaque rupture and atherothrombosis. Assuming a prominent impact of neutrophils in cardiovascular pathology, developing therapeutic strategies targeting neutrophil-specific antigens could have a promising clinical potential. PMID:26551083

  2. MicroRNAs and atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Madrigal-Matute, Julio; Rotllan, Noemi; Aranda, Juan F.; Fernández-Hernando, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small (~22nucleotide) sequences of RNA that regulate gene expression at posttranscriptional level. MiRNA/mRNA base pairing complementarity provokes mRNA decay and consequent gene silencing. These endogenous gene expression inhibitors were primarily described in cancer but recent exciting findings have also demonstrated a key role in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) including atherosclerosis. MiRNAs controls endothelial cell (EC), vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) and macrophage functions, and thereby regulate the progression of atherosclerosis. MiRNAs expression is modulated by different stimuli involved in every stage of atherosclerosis and conversely miRNAs modulates several pathways implicated in plaque development such as cholesterol metabolism. In the present review, we focus on the importance of miRNAs in atherosclerosis and we further discuss their potential use as biomarkers and therapeutic targets in CVDs. PMID:23512606

  3. Tooth Loss and Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Asai, K.; Yamori, M.; Yamazaki, T.; Yamaguchi, A.; Takahashi, K.; Sekine, A.; Kosugi, S.; Matsuda, F.; Nakayama, T.; Bessho, K.

    2015-01-01

    Several epidemiologic studies have suggested that oral disease is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, whether a clinically significant association exists between the 2 disorders remains controversial. Here, we investigated the association between tooth loss, as an indicator of oral disease, and arterial stiffness, as a marker of atherosclerosis, in Japanese adults. Cross-sectional data were collected for 8,124 persons aged 30 to 75 y with no history of tooth loss for noninflammatory reasons, such as orthodontic treatment, malposition, and trauma. Participants received a comprehensive dental examination and extensive in-person measurements of CVD risk factors, and arterial stiffness was evaluated using the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI). We examined the association between CAVI and tooth loss using general linear models with adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, smoking status, hemoglobin A1c, and a history of insulin or hypoglycemic medication depending on the model. In addition, we performed an analysis that included interaction terms of the centered variables tooth loss, sex, and age. The results of the multiple regression analysis that included the interaction terms detected that the relationship between CAVI and tooth loss was dependent on sex, with only men showing a positive correlation (β for interaction = 0.04; 95% confidence interval, 0.02–0.06). The findings from this study suggest that a linear relationship exists between tooth loss and degree of arterial stiffness and that the association differed depending on sex. PMID:25406168

  4. Proteomic Biomarkers of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Vivanco, F.; Padial, L.R.; Darde, V.M.; de la Cuesta, F.; Alvarez-Llamas, G.; Diaz-Prieto, Natacha; Barderas, M.G.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Biomarkers provide a powerful approach to understanding the spectrum of cardiovascular diseases. They have application in screening, diagnostic, prognostication, prediction of recurrences and monitoring of therapy. The omics tool are becoming very useful in the development of new biomarkers in cardiovascular diseases. Among them, proteomics is especially fitted to look for new proteins in health and disease and is playing a significant role in the development of new diagnostic tools in cardiovascular diagnosis and prognosis. This review provides an overview of progress in applying proteomics to atherosclerosis. First, we describe novel proteins identified analysing atherosclerotic plaques directly. Careful analysis of proteins within the atherosclerotic vascular tissue can provide a repertoire of proteins involved in vascular remodelling and atherogenesis. Second, we discuss recent data concerning proteins secreted by atherosclerotic plaques. The definition of the atheroma plaque secretome resides in that proteins secreted by arteries can be very good candidates of novel biomarkers. Finally we describe proteins that have been differentially expressed (versus controls) by individual cells which constitute atheroma plaques (endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, macrophages and foam cells) as well as by circulating cells (monocytes, platelets) or novel biomarkers present in plasma. PMID:19578499

  5. [Atherosclerosis and nutrition].

    PubMed

    Daubresse, J C

    2000-09-01

    Atherosclerosis is the main cause of mortality in industrialized countries and even in poorly developed ones. It is linked to age and gender and also to a number of well identified risk factors: lipids anomalies, arterial hypertension, diabetes, smoking and weight excess among others. Risk factors improvement significantly reduces cardiovascular events. It is evident that nutrition plays an important role as it can modulate the evolution of body weight and blood pressure. Nutrition is also able to reduce the prevalence and severity of hyperlipidemias and diabetes. Saturated fatty acids (excepted stearic acid), trans poly-unsaturated acids as well as cholesterol increase serum LDL-cholesterol. Mono- and poly-unsaturated and classical cis-mono-unsaturated acids do the opposite. N-3 poly-unsaturated acids reduce serum triglyceride levels and cardiovascular events. Carbohydrates with a low glycemic index are important determinants of serum HDL-cholesterol levels and reduce cardiovascular risk. Animal proteins bring essential amino-acids to the body but also saturated fats. It seems interesting to eat vegetal proteins among which those derived from soya look promising. Our diet will include enough fiber and phytosterols-containing margarines look interesting as well. Modest alcohol consumption improves cardiovascular mortality in the majority of the prospective studies. PMID:11068494

  6. Targeting hydrogen sulfide as a promising therapeutic strategy for atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Suowen; Liu, Zhiping; Liu, Peiqing

    2014-03-15

    Physiological concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) have multiple protective effects in the cardiovascular system. Recent studies have implicated hydrogen sulfide (H2S) as a new member of vasculoprotective gasotransmitter family, behaving similarly to NO and CO. H2S has been demonstrated to inhibit multiple key aspects of atherosclerosis, including atherogenic modification of LDL, monocytes adhesion to the endothelial cells, macrophage-derived foam cell formation and inflammation, smooth muscle cell proliferation, neointimal hyperplasia, vascular calcification, and thrombogenesis. H2S also decreases plasma homocysteine levels in experimental animal models. In the human body, H2S production is predominantly catalyzed by cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE). CSE is the primary H2S-producing enzyme in the vasculature. Growing evidence suggests that atherosclerosis is associated with vascular CSE/H2S deficiency and that H2S supplementation by exogenous H2S donors (such as NaHS and GYY4137) attenuates, and H2S synthesis suppression by inhibitors (such as D, L-propargylglycine) aggravates the development of atherosclerotic plaques. However, it remains elusive whether CSE deficiency plays a causative role in atherosclerosis. A recent study (Circulation. 2013; 127: 2523-2534) demonstrates that decreased endogenous H2S production by CSE genetic deletion accelerates atherosclerosis in athero-prone ApoE-/- mice, pinpointing that endogenously produced H2S by CSE activation may be of benefit in the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis. This study will facilitate the development of H2S-based pharmaceuticals with therapeutic applications in atherosclerosis-related cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24491853

  7. Microdomains, Inflammation, and Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Sorci-Thomas, Mary G; Thomas, Michael J

    2016-02-19

    Elevated levels of cholesteryl ester (CE)-enriched apoB containing plasma lipoproteins lead to increased foam cell formation, the first step in the development of atherosclerosis. Unregulated uptake of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol by circulating monocytes and other peripheral blood cells takes place through scavenger receptors and over time causes disruption in cellular cholesterol homeostasis. As lipoproteins are taken up, their CE core is hydrolyzed by liposomal lipases to generate free cholesterol (FC). FC can be either re-esterified and stored as CE droplets or shuttled to the plasma membrane for ATP-binding cassette transporter A1-mediated efflux. Because cholesterol is an essential component of all cellular membranes, some FC may be incorporated into microdomains or lipid rafts. These platforms are essential for receptor signaling and transduction, requiring rapid assembly and disassembly. ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 plays a major role in regulating microdomain cholesterol and is most efficient when lipid-poor apolipoprotein AI (apoAI) packages raft cholesterol into soluble particles that are eventually catabolized by the liver. If FC is not effluxed from the cell, it becomes esterified, CE droplets accumulate and microdomain cholesterol content becomes poorly regulated. This dysregulation leads to prolonged activation of immune cell signaling pathways, resulting in receptor oversensitization. The availability of apoAI or other amphipathic α-helix-rich apoproteins relieves the burden of excess microdomain cholesterol in immune cells allowing a reduction in immune cell proliferation and infiltration, thereby stimulating regression of foam cells in the artery. Therefore, cellular balance between FC and CE is essential for proper immune cell function and prevents chronic immune cell overstimulation and proliferation. PMID:26892966

  8. How Can Atherosclerosis Be Prevented or Delayed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Can Atherosclerosis Be Prevented or Delayed? Taking action to control ... Rate This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video What is atherosclerosis? 05/22/2014 Describes how the build-up ...

  9. Spectroscopic and spectrofluorimetric studies on the interaction of irbesartan with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone and iodine.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, K; Balraj, C; Elango, K P

    2011-09-01

    Raman, UV-vis, 1H NMR, FT-IR, mass and fluorescence spectral techniques were employed to investigate the mechanism of interaction of irbesartan (IRB) drug with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ) and iodine. Interaction of IRB with iodine yields triiodide ion and its formation was confirmed by electronic and Raman spectra. The peaks appeared in Raman spectrum of the isolated product at 143, 113 and 76 cm(-1) are assigned to νas(I-I), νs(I-I) and δ(I3-) respectively, confirmed the presence of I3- ion. The interaction of DDQ with irbesartan was found to proceed through the formation of outer complex and its conversion to the CT complex. Formation constant (K), molar extinction coefficient (ɛ) and thermodynamic properties ΔH#, ΔS# and ΔG# were determined and discussed. Fluorescence quenching studies indicated that the interaction between the IRB and the acceptors are spontaneous and the IRB-DDQ interaction is found to be stronger than that the other system. Solvent variation studies indicated that the binding constant increased with an increase in polarity of the medium. PMID:21684193

  10. Long noncoding RNAs and atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tian; Ding, Jia-Wang; Wang, Xin-An; Zheng, Xia-Xia

    2016-05-01

    Atherosclerosis is universally recognized as a chronic lipid-induced inflammation of the vessel wall in response to dyslipidemia and haemodynamic stress involving dysfunction and activation of resident vascular cells as well as infiltration of leukocytes. As members of nonprotein-coding RNAs, the long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are implicated in various biological processes. Accumulating evidences suggest that lncRNAs regulate the function of vascular wall, activation of macrophages, lipid metabolism and immune response. Here, we review the effects of lncRNAs on the progress of atherosclerosis. PMID:26987066

  11. Pathway analysis of coronary atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    King, Jennifer Y; Ferrara, Rossella; Tabibiazar, Raymond; Spin, Joshua M; Chen, Mary M; Kuchinsky, Allan; Vailaya, Aditya; Kincaid, Robert; Tsalenko, Anya; Deng, David Xing-Fei; Connolly, Andrew; Zhang, Peng; Yang, Eugene; Watt, Clifton; Yakhini, Zohar; Ben-Dor, Amir; Adler, Annette; Bruhn, Laurakay; Tsao, Philip; Quertermous, Thomas; Ashley, Euan A

    2005-09-21

    Large-scale gene expression studies provide significant insight into genes differentially regulated in disease processes such as cancer. However, these investigations offer limited understanding of multisystem, multicellular diseases such as atherosclerosis. A systems biology approach that accounts for gene interactions, incorporates nontranscriptionally regulated genes, and integrates prior knowledge offers many advantages. We performed a comprehensive gene level assessment of coronary atherosclerosis using 51 coronary artery segments isolated from the explanted hearts of 22 cardiac transplant patients. After histological grading of vascular segments according to American Heart Association guidelines, isolated RNA was hybridized onto a customized 22-K oligonucleotide microarray, and significance analysis of microarrays and gene ontology analyses were performed to identify significant gene expression profiles. Our studies revealed that loss of differentiated smooth muscle cell gene expression is the primary expression signature of disease progression in atherosclerosis. Furthermore, we provide insight into the severe form of coronary artery disease associated with diabetes, reporting an overabundance of immune and inflammatory signals in diabetics. We present a novel approach to pathway development based on connectivity, determined by language parsing of the published literature, and ranking, determined by the significance of differentially regulated genes in the network. In doing this, we identify highly connected "nexus" genes that are attractive candidates for therapeutic targeting and followup studies. Our use of pathway techniques to study atherosclerosis as an integrated network of gene interactions expands on traditional microarray analysis methods and emphasizes the significant advantages of a systems-based approach to analyzing complex disease. PMID:15942018

  12. Vitamin K Intake and Atherosclerosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been hypothesized that insufficient intake of vitamin K may increase soft tissue calcification due to impaired gamma-carboxylation of the vitamin K-dependent protein, matrix gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (MGP). The evidence to support this putative role of vitamin K intake in atherosclerosis is ...

  13. Epigenetics in atherosclerosis and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Wierda, Rutger J; Geutskens, Sacha B; Jukema, J Wouter; Quax, Paul HA; van den Elsen, Peter J

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Atherosclerosis is a multifactorial disease with a severe burden on western society. Recent insights into the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis underscore the importance of chronic inflammation in both the initiation and progression of vascular remodelling. Expression of immunoregulatory molecules by vascular wall components within the atherosclerotic lesions is accordingly thought to contribute to the ongoing inflammatory process. Besides gene regulatory proteins (transcription factors), epigenetic mechanisms also play an essential and fundamental role in the transcriptional control of gene expression. These epigenetic mechanisms change the accessibility of chromatin by DNA methylation and histone modifications. Epigenetic modulators are thus critically involved in the regulation of vascular, immune and tissue-specific gene expression within the atherosclerotic lesion. Importantly, epigenetic processes are reversible and may provide an excellent therapeutic target. The concept of epigenetic regulation is gradually being recognized as an important factor in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Recent research provides an essential link between inflammation and reprogramming of the epigenome. In this review we therefore discuss the basis of epigenetic regulation – and the contribution thereof in the regulation of inflammatory processes in general and during atherosclerosis in particular. Moreover we highlight potential therapeutic interventions based on epigenetic mechanisms. PMID:20132414

  14. Transmission of Atherosclerosis Susceptibility with Gut Microbial Transplantation*

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Jill C.; Buffa, Jennifer A.; Org, Elin; Wang, Zeneng; Levison, Bruce S.; Zhu, Weifei; Wagner, Matthew A.; Bennett, Brian J.; Li, Lin; DiDonato, Joseph A.; Lusis, Aldons J.; Hazen, Stanley L.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies indicate both clinical and mechanistic links between atherosclerotic heart disease and intestinal microbial metabolism of certain dietary nutrients producing trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO). Here we test the hypothesis that gut microbial transplantation can transmit choline diet-induced TMAO production and atherosclerosis susceptibility. First, a strong association was noted between atherosclerotic plaque and plasma TMAO levels in a mouse diversity panel (n = 22 strains, r = 0.38; p = 0.0001). An atherosclerosis-prone and high TMAO-producing strain, C57BL/6J, and an atherosclerosis-resistant and low TMAO-producing strain, NZW/LacJ, were selected as donors for cecal microbial transplantation into apolipoprotein e null mice in which resident intestinal microbes were first suppressed with antibiotics. Trimethylamine (TMA) and TMAO levels were initially higher in recipients on choline diet that received cecal microbes from C57BL/6J inbred mice; however, durability of choline diet-dependent differences in TMA/TMAO levels was not maintained to the end of the study. Mice receiving C57BL/6J cecal microbes demonstrated choline diet-dependent enhancement in atherosclerotic plaque burden as compared with recipients of NZW/LacJ microbes. Microbial DNA analyses in feces and cecum revealed transplantation of donor microbial community features into recipients with differences in taxa proportions between donor strains that were transmissible to recipients and that tended to show coincident proportions with TMAO levels. Proportions of specific taxa were also identified that correlated with plasma TMAO levels in donors and recipients and with atherosclerotic lesion area in recipients. Atherosclerosis susceptibility may be transmitted via transplantation of gut microbiota. Gut microbes may thus represent a novel therapeutic target for modulating atherosclerosis susceptibility. PMID:25550161

  15. Statins stimulate atherosclerosis and heart failure: pharmacological mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Okuyama, Harumi; Langsjoen, Peter H; Hamazaki, Tomohito; Ogushi, Yoichi; Hama, Rokuro; Kobayashi, Tetsuyuki; Uchino, Hajime

    2015-03-01

    In contrast to the current belief that cholesterol reduction with statins decreases atherosclerosis, we present a perspective that statins may be causative in coronary artery calcification and can function as mitochondrial toxins that impair muscle function in the heart and blood vessels through the depletion of coenzyme Q10 and 'heme A', and thereby ATP generation. Statins inhibit the synthesis of vitamin K2, the cofactor for matrix Gla-protein activation, which in turn protects arteries from calcification. Statins inhibit the biosynthesis of selenium containing proteins, one of which is glutathione peroxidase serving to suppress peroxidative stress. An impairment of selenoprotein biosynthesis may be a factor in congestive heart failure, reminiscent of the dilated cardiomyopathies seen with selenium deficiency. Thus, the epidemic of heart failure and atherosclerosis that plagues the modern world may paradoxically be aggravated by the pervasive use of statin drugs. We propose that current statin treatment guidelines be critically reevaluated. PMID:25655639

  16. CD8{sup +}CD25{sup +} T cells reduce atherosclerosis in apoE(−/−) mice

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Jianchang; Dimayuga, Paul C.; Zhao, Xiaoning; Yano, Juliana; Lio, Wai Man; Trinidad, Portia; Honjo, Tomoyuki; Cercek, Bojan; Shah, Prediman K.; Chyu, Kuang-Yuh

    2014-01-17

    Highlights: •The role of a sub-population of CD8{sup +} T cells with suppressor functions was investigated in atherosclerosis. •CD8{sup +}CD25{sup +} T cells from adult apoE(−/−) mice had phenotype characteristics of T suppressor cells. •These CD8{sup +}CD25{sup +} T cells reduced CD4{sup +} T cell proliferation and CD8{sup +} cytotoxic activity in vitro. •Adoptive transfer of CD8{sup +}CD25{sup +} T cells significantly reduced atherosclerosis. •CD8{sup +}CD25{sup +} T cells have a suppressive function in atherosclerosis. -- Abstract: Background: It is increasingly evident that CD8{sup +} T cells are involved in atherosclerosis but the specific subtypes have yet to be defined. CD8{sup +}CD25{sup +} T cells exert suppressive effects on immune signaling and modulate experimental autoimmune disorders but their role in atherosclerosis remains to be determined. The phenotype and functional role of CD8{sup +}CD25{sup +} T cells in experimental atherosclerosis were investigated in this study. Methods and results: CD8{sup +}CD25{sup +} T cells were observed in atherosclerotic plaques of apoE(−/−) mice fed hypercholesterolemic diet. Characterization by flow cytometric analysis and functional evaluation using a CFSE-based proliferation assays revealed a suppressive phenotype and function of splenic CD8{sup +}CD25{sup +} T cells from apoE(−/−) mice. Depletion of CD8{sup +}CD25{sup +} from total CD8{sup +} T cells rendered higher cytolytic activity of the remaining CD8{sup +}CD25{sup −} T cells. Adoptive transfer of CD8{sup +}CD25{sup +} T cells into apoE(−/−) mice suppressed the proliferation of splenic CD4{sup +} T cells and significantly reduced atherosclerosis in recipient mice. Conclusions: Our study has identified an athero-protective role for CD8{sup +}CD25{sup +} T cells in experimental atherosclerosis.

  17. [Vitamin E, antioxidants and atherosclerosis].

    PubMed

    Lecerf, J M; Luc, G; Fruchart, J C

    1994-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a process in which lipid and factors are mixed. When LDL are oxydized, they are catabolized by the macrophage's pathway, leading to foam cells which constitute the fatty streak, the earliest lesion in atherogenesis, and they have cytotoxic, chemotactic effects. Many protective devices against free radicals and oxydation mechanisms exist, particularly antioxydant vitamins and other natural dietary antioxydants. After a brief recall of their mechanisms, epidemiological, experimental and clinical data are reviewed. To day it seems necessary to take into consideration these factors in prevention and therapeutic of atherosclerosis and dylipidaemia. Many inquiries keep going, particularly about susceptible of LDL to oxydation. One is waiting for intervention surveys in order to conclude about nutritional and medical treatments. PMID:7800984

  18. Testin on Atherosclerosis in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yue; Yuan, Meng; Li, Hong-Min; Lao, Mi; Xu, Zhao; Li, Guang-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Background: The expression of TES, a novel tumor suppressor gene, is found to be down-regulated in the left anterior descending aorta of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) compared with non-CAD subjects. This study aimed to investigate the expression of TES during the development of atherosclerosis in rabbits. Methods: Thirty-two New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into a normal diet (ND) and high-fat diet (HFD) groups. Body weight and serum lipid levels were measured at 0, 4, and 12 weeks after diet treatment. The degree of atherosclerosis in thoracic aortas was analyzed by histological examinations. The expression of Testin in the tissue samples was inspected via immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence confocal microscopy. Real time-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis were performed to evaluate the expression of TES/Testin at mRNA and protein levels in the aortic tissues. Results: After 12 weeks postenrollment, rabbits in HFD group had a higher level of serum lipids and atherosclerotic plaque compared to ND group (P < 0.05). Testin expression was detected at high levels in the endothelium and a weak expression on the subendothelium area. The expression of TES mRNA was markedly reduced by 10-fold in the aortic tissues in the HFD group compared with the ND group (P = 0.015), and the protein level was also significantly decreased in the HFD group (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Reduced TES/Testin expression is associated with the development of atherosclerosis, implicating a potentially important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. PMID:26063370

  19. Obesity and atherosclerosis: mechanistic insights.

    PubMed

    Lovren, Fina; Teoh, Hwee; Verma, Subodh

    2015-02-01

    Obesity is a multifactorial chronic disease characterized by an accumulation of visceral and subcutaneous fat, which leads to a predisposition toward cardiometabolic diseases. A plethora of mechanisms, including abnormalities in lipid metabolism, insulin resistance, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, adipokine imbalance, and inflammasome activation have been suggested to underlie the relationship between obesity and atherosclerosis. More recent data point toward an emerging role of impaired autophagy and altered gut microbiome homeostasis as potentially contributing factors. This review provides an overview of this area. PMID:25661552

  20. Immunity, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Atherosclerosis, the major cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD), is a chronic inflammatory condition with immune competent cells in lesions producing mainly pro-inflammatory cytokines. Dead cells and oxidized forms of low density lipoproteins (oxLDL) are abundant. The major direct cause of CVD appears to be rupture of atherosclerotic plaques. oxLDL has proinflammatory and immune-stimulatory properties, causes cell death at higher concentrations and contains inflammatory phospholipids with phosphorylcholine (PC) as an interesting epitope. Antibodies against PC (anti-PC) may be atheroprotective, one mechanism being anti-inflammatory. Bacteria and virus have been discussed, but it has been difficult to find direct evidence, and antibiotic trials have not been successful. Heat shock proteins could be one major target for atherogenic immune reactions. More direct causes of plaque rupture include pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and lipid mediators. To prove that inflammation is a cause of atherosclerosis and CVD, clinical studies with anti-inflammatory and/or immune-modulatory treatment are needed. The potential causes of immune reactions and inflammation in atherosclerosis and how inflammation can be targeted therapeutically to provide novel treatments for CVD are reviewed. PMID:23635324

  1. Endothelial primary cilia inhibit atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Dinsmore, Colin; Reiter, Jeremy F

    2016-02-01

    Primary cilia are microtubule-based structures present on most mammalian cells that are important for intercellular signaling. Cilia are present on a subset of endothelial cells where they project into the vessel lumen and are implicated as mechanical sensors of blood flow. To test the in vivo role of endothelial cilia, we conditionally deleted Ift88, a gene required for ciliogenesis, in endothelial cells of mice. We found that endothelial primary cilia were dispensable for mammalian vascular development. Cilia were not uniformly distributed in the mouse aorta, but were enriched at vascular branch points and sites of high curvature. These same sites are predisposed to the development of atherosclerotic plaques, prompting us to investigate whether cilia participate in atherosclerosis. Removing endothelial cilia increased atherosclerosis in Apoe(-/-) mice fed a high-fat, high-cholesterol diet, indicating that cilia protect against atherosclerosis. Removing endothelial cilia increased inflammatory gene expression and decreased eNOS activity, indicating that endothelial cilia inhibit pro-atherosclerotic signaling in the aorta. PMID:26769565

  2. Lecithin: Cholesterol Acyltransferase and Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Rader, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Plasma concentrations of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are strongly, consistently, and independently inversely associated with risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD).1 A series of animal studies in the 1990s, primarily involving overexpression of the major HDL protein apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) with subsequent increases in HDL-C, showed reduced progression or even regression of atherosclerosis, fitting nicely with the “HDL hypothesis” that raising HDL-C is causally associated with benefit. However, the last decade has seen several observations that do not follow this simple script. Some examples include the following: (1) the demonstration that scavenger receptor class BI knockout mice have increased HDL-C but increased atherosclerosis2; (2) the suggestion that some persons with high HDL-C levels have “dysfunctional” HDL that may not be protective3; and (3) the observation that the cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitor torcetrapib raised HDL-C levels considerably but did not decrease, and indeed increased, cardiovascular risk.4,5 These developments have brought into major question the simple hypothesis that higher HDL-C directly and causally results in reduced atherosclerosis and challenge the approach of developing therapies that raise HDL-C levels. PMID:19652089

  3. Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells in Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Döring, Yvonne; Zernecke, Alma

    2012-01-01

    Atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory disease of the vessel wall and the underlying cause of cardiovascular disease, is initiated and maintained by innate and adaptive immunity. Accumulating evidence suggests an important contribution of autoimmune responses to this disease. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), a specialized cell type known to produce large amounts of type I interferons (IFNs) in response to bacterial and viral infections, have recently been revealed to play important roles in atherosclerosis. For example, the development of autoimmune complexes consisting of self-DNA and antimicrobial peptides, which trigger chronic type I IFN production by pDCs, promote early atherosclerotic lesion formation. pDCs and pDC-derived type I IFNs can also induce the maturation of conventional DCs and macrophages, and the development of autoreactive B cells and antibody production. These mechanisms, known to play a role in the pathogenesis of other autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus and psoriasis, may also affect the development and progression of atherosclerotic lesion formation. This review discusses emerging evidence showing a contribution of pDCs in the onset and progression of atherosclerosis. PMID:22754539

  4. Atherosclerosis in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Jednacz, Ewa; Rutkowska-Sak, Lidia

    2012-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the arteries. Clinical consequences of the atherosclerotic process occur in the adult population, however atherosclerotic process begins in childhood. The classic risk factors for atherosclerosis include obesity, dyslipidaemia, age, gender or family history. In recent years, attention has been drawn to the similarity between atherosclerotic inflammatory processes and inflammatory changes in the course of systemic connective tissue disease, in particular systemic lupus etythematosus (SLE) or rheumatoid arthritis (RA). There is also observed the similarity of the pathogenetic background of development of atherosclerosis and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines are observed in the course of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Also homocysteine concentrations, which may play a significant role in the development of atherosclerotic lesions, are observed higher in patients with JIA. Some studies revealed higher carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) index values in children with JIA. In view of the fact that atherosclerotic process begins as early as in childhood, the introduction of appropriate preventive measures in children is a matter of utmost importance. PMID:22933832

  5. Intestinal Microbiota Metabolism and Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tian-Xing; Niu, Hai-Tao; Zhang, Shu-Yang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This review aimed to summarize the relationship between intestinal microbiota metabolism and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and to propose a novel CVD therapeutic target. Data Sources: This study was based on data obtained from PubMed and EMBASE up to June 30, 2015. Articles were selected using the following search terms: “Intestinal microbiota”, “trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO)”, “trimethylamine (TMA)”, “cardiovascular”, and “atherosclerosis”. Study Selection: Studies were eligible if they present information on intestinal microbiota metabolism and atherosclerosis. Studies on TMA-containing nutrients were also included. Results: A new CVD risk factor, TMAO, was recently identified. It has been observed that several TMA-containing compounds may be catabolized by specific intestinal microbiota, resulting in TMA release. TMA is subsequently converted to TMAO in the liver. Several preliminary studies have linked TMAO to CVD, particularly atherosclerosis; however, the details of this relationship remain unclear. Conclusions: Intestinal microbiota metabolism is associated with atherosclerosis and may represent a promising therapeutic target with respect to CVD management. PMID:26481750

  6. Sex Differences in Inflammation During Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Fairweather, DeLisa

    2014-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of death in the United States and worldwide, yet more men die from atherosclerosis than women, and at a younger age. Women, on the other hand, mainly develop atherosclerosis following menopause, and particularly if they have one or more autoimmune diseases, suggesting that the immune mechanisms that increase disease in men are different from those in women. The key processes in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis are vascular inflammation, lipid accumulation, intimal thickening and fibrosis, remodeling, and plaque rupture or erosion leading to myocardial infarction and ischemia. Evidence indicates that sex hormones alter the immune response during atherosclerosis, resulting in different disease phenotypes according to sex. Women, for example, respond to infection and damage with increased antibody and autoantibody responses, while men have elevated innate immune activation. This review describes current knowledge regarding sex differences in the inflammatory immune response during atherosclerosis. Understanding sex differences is critical for improving individualized medicine. PMID:25983559

  7. Regulatory T cells in atherosclerosis: critical immune regulatory function and therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Spitz, Charlotte; Winkels, Holger; Bürger, Christina; Weber, Christian; Lutgens, Esther; Hansson, Göran K; Gerdes, Norbert

    2016-03-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease that is mediated by innate and adaptive immune responses. The disease is characterized by sub-endothelial accumulation and modification of lipids in the artery wall triggering an inflammatory reaction which promotes lesion progression and eventual plaque rupture, thrombus formation, and the respective clinical sequelae such as myocardial infarction or stroke. During the past decade, T-cell-mediated immune responses, especially control of pro-inflammatory signals by regulatory T cells (Tregs), have increasingly attracted the interest of experimental and clinical researchers. By suppression of T cell proliferation and secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor-β, Tregs exert their atheroprotective properties. Atherosclerosis-prone, hyperlipidemic mice harbor systemically less Tregs compared to wild-type mice, suggesting an imbalance of immune cells which affects local and systemic inflammatory and potentially metabolic processes leading to atherogenesis. Restoring or increasing Treg frequency and enhancing their suppressive capacity by various modulations may pose a promising approach for treating inflammatory conditions such as cardiovascular diseases. In this review, we briefly summarize the immunological basics of atherosclerosis and introduce the role and contribution of different subsets of T cells. We then discuss experimental data and current knowledge pertaining to Tregs in atherosclerosis and perspectives on manipulating the adaptive immune system to alleviate atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. PMID:26518635

  8. A multimodal Darwinian strategy for alleviating the atherosclerosis pandemic.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Geetha; Thambi, Magith; Unnikrishnan, M K

    2014-02-01

    The conflict between our 'primitive' genes and 'modern' lifestyle probably lies at the root of several disorders that afflict modern man. Atherosclerosis, which is relatively unknown among contemporary hunter-gatherer populations, has reached pandemic proportions in recent times. Being an evolutionary problem with several inter-related pathologies, current therapeutic strategy for treating atherosclerosis has inherent limitations. Reviewing evolution-linked risk factors suggests that there are four aspects to the etiology of atherosclerosis namely, decreased intestinal parasitism, oversensitivity of evolutionarily redundant mast cells, chronic underactivation of AMPK (cellular energy sensor) and a deficiency of vitamin D. A combination of these four causes appear to have precipitated the atherosclerosis pandemic in modern times. Man and worms co-existed symbiotically in the past. Massive de-worming campaigns could have disrupted this symbiosis, increasing nutritional availability to man (pro-obesity) at the cost of decreased immunotolerance (pro-atherogenicity). A reduction in helminth-induced chronic TH2 activation could also have enhanced TH1 polarization, eventually disrupting the reciprocal regulation of TH1/TH2 balance and resulting in atherosclerosis. The riddance of helminth infestations may have rendered mast cells immunologically redundant, making them oversensitive to inflammatory stimuli, thereby playing a pro-atherogenic role. AMPK activation exerts pleiotropic anti-atherogenic effects, such as suppression of fatty acid, cholesterol, protein synthesis, reduction of vascular smooth muscle proliferation, etc. As energy deficit is the chief stimulus for AMPK activation, the over-nourished modern man appears to be suffering from chronic underactivation of AMPK, legitimising the unrivalled supremacy of metformin, the oldest prescribed antidiabetic drug. The fact that humans evolved in the sunny tropics suggests that humans are selected for high vitamin D levels. Vitamin D deficiency is now linked to several conditions including increased risk of CV disorders, diabetes, etc. The manifold decrease in vitamin D levels in modern man justifies a need for supplementation. We therefore hypothesize that a judicious combination of mast cell stabilization, AMPK activation, vitamin D supplementation, and moderation in hygiene practices could be an evolution-based multimodal strategy for both preventing and mitigating the pandemic of atherosclerosis. PMID:24355423

  9. Cholesterol-Lowering Atherosclerosis Study (CLAS)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-12-12

    Arterial Occlusive Diseases; Cardiovascular Diseases; Carotid Artery Diseases; Cerebral Arteriosclerosis; Cerebrovascular Disorders; Coronary Arteriosclerosis; Coronary Disease; Heart Diseases; Myocardial Ischemia; Atherosclerosis

  10. Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-02

    Atherosclerosis; Cardiovascular Diseases; Heart Diseases; Coronary Artery Disease; Coronary Disease; Stroke; Myocardial Infarction; Heart Failure; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2; Hypertension; Diabetes Mellitus

  11. Does iron inhibit calcification during atherosclerosis?

    PubMed Central

    Rajendran, Reshmi; Minqin, Ren; Ronald, John A.; Rutt, Brian K.; Halliwell, Barry; Watt, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in the etiology of atherosclerosis and even held responsible for plaque calcification. Transition metals such as iron aggravate oxidative stress. To understand the relation between calcium and iron in atherosclerotic lesions, a sensitive technique is required that is quantitatively accurate and avoids isolation of plaques or staining/fixing tissue, because these processes introduce contaminants and redistribute elements within the tissue. In this study, the three ion-beam techniques of scanning transmission ion microscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, and particle-induced X-ray emission have been combined in conjunction with a high-energy (MeV) proton microprobe to map the spatial distribution of the elements and quantify them simultaneously in atherosclerotic rabbit arteries. The results show that iron and calcium within the atherosclerotic lesions exhibit a highly significant spatial inverse correlation. It may be that iron accelerates the progression of atherosclerotic lesion development, but suppresses calcification. Alternatively, calcification could be a defense mechanism against atherosclerotic progression by excluding iron. PMID:22940067

  12. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Atherosclerosis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Twitter. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Atherosclerosis? Atherosclerosis usually doesn't cause signs and symptoms ... Rate This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video What is atherosclerosis? 05/22/2014 Describes how the build-up ...

  13. Oxyradical Stress, Endocannabinoids, and Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Anberitha T.; Ross, Matthew K.

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is responsible for most cardiovascular disease (CVD) and is caused by several factors including hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and chronic inflammation. Oxidants and electrophiles have roles in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis and the concentrations of these reactive molecules are an important factor in disease initiation and progression. Overactive NADPH oxidase (Nox) produces excess superoxide resulting in oxidized macromolecules, which is an important factor in atherogenesis. Although superoxide and reactive oxygen species (ROS) have obvious toxic properties, they also have fundamental roles in signaling pathways that enable cells to adapt to stress. In addition to inflammation and ROS, the endocannabinoid system (eCB) is also important in atherogenesis. Linkages have been postulated between the eCB system, Nox, oxidative stress, and atherosclerosis. For instance, CB2 receptor-evoked signaling has been shown to upregulate anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative pathways, whereas CB1 signaling appears to induce opposite effects. The second messenger lipid molecule diacylglycerol is implicated in the regulation of Nox activity and diacylglycerol lipase β (DAGLβ) is a key biosynthetic enzyme in the biosynthesis eCB ligand 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG). Furthermore, Nrf2 is a vital transcription factor that protects against the cytotoxic effects of both oxidant and electrophile stress. This review will highlight the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in intracellular signaling and the impact of deregulated ROS-mediated signaling in atherogenesis. In addition, there is also emerging knowledge that the eCB system has an important role in atherogenesis. We will attempt to integrate oxidative stress and the eCB system into a conceptual framework that provides insights into this pathology. PMID:26702404

  14. Rapid Progression of Coronary Atherosclerosis: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Priyank; Bajaj, Sharad; Virk, Hartaj; Bikkina, Mahesh; Shamoon, Fayez

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is chronic disease, the prevalence of which has increased steadily as the population ages. Vascular injury is believed to be critical initiating event in pathogenesis of spontaneous atherosclerosis. Syndrome of accelerated atherosclerosis has been classically described in patients undergoing heart transplantation, coronary artery bypass graft, and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. In contrast to spontaneous atherosclerosis, denuding endothelial injury followed by thrombus formation and initial predominant smooth muscle cell proliferation is believed to be playing a significant role in accelerated atherosclerosis. There is no universal definition of rapid progression of atherosclerosis. However most studies describing the phenomenon have used the following definition: (i) > or = 10% diameter reduction of at least one preexisting stenosis > or = 50%, (ii) > or = 30% diameter reduction of a preexisting stenosis <50%, and (iii) progression of a lesion to total occlusion within few months. Recent studies have described the role of coronary vasospasm, human immunodeficiency virus, various inflammatory markers, and some genetic mutations as predictors of rapid progression of atherosclerosis. As research in the field of vascular biology continues, more factors are likely to be implicated in the pathogenesis of rapid progression of atherosclerosis. PMID:26823982

  15. Endothelium Preserving Microwave Treatment for Atherosclerosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Patrick; Arndt, G. D.; Ngo, Phong

    2003-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of microwave technology for treating Atherosclerosis while preserving the endothelium. The system uses catheter antennas as part of the system that is intended to treat atherosclerosis. The concept is to use a microwave catheter for heating the atherosclerotic lesions, and reduce constriction in the artery.

  16. Quantification of carotid vessel atherosclerosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Bernard; Egger, Micaela; Spence, J. D.; Parraga, Grace; Fenster, Aaron

    2006-03-01

    Atherosclerosis is characterized by the development of plaques in the arterial wall, which ultimately leads to heart attacks and stroke. 3D ultrasound (US) has been used to screen patients' carotid arteries. Plaque measurements obtained from these images may aid in the management and monitoring of patients, and in evaluating the effect of new treatment options. Different types of measures for ultrasound phenotypes of atherosclerosis have been proposed. Here, we report on the development and application of a method used to analyze changes in carotid plaque morphology from 3D US images obtained at two different time points. We evaluated our technique using manual segmentations of the wall and lumen of the carotid artery from images acquired in two US scanning sessions. To incorporate the effect of intraobserver variability in our evaluation, manual segmentation was performed five times each for the arterial wall and lumen. From this set of five segmentations, the mean wall and lumen surfaces were reconstructed, with the standard deviation at each point mapped onto the surfaces. A correspondence map between the mean wall and lumen surfaces was then established, and the thickness of the atherosclerotic plaque at each point in the vessel was estimated to be the distance between each correspondence pairs. The two-sample Student's t-test was used to judge whether the difference between the thickness values at each pair corresponding points of the arteries in the two 3D US images was statistically significant.

  17. Role of LCAT in Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ossoli, Alice; Simonelli, Sara; Vitali, Cecilia; Franceschini, Guido; Calabresi, Laura

    2016-02-01

    Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) is the only enzyme capable of esterifying cholesterol in plasma, thus determining the maturation of high-density lipoproteins. Because it maintains an unesterified cholesterol gradient between peripheral cells and extracellular acceptors, for a long time, LCAT has been considered as a key enzyme in reverse cholesterol transport. However, despite the fact that it has been more than 50 years since the identification of LCAT, the role of this enzyme in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is still debated. A number of studies have been conducted in different animal models, with contradictory results. Studies in humans, in particular in the general population, in subjects at high cardiovascular risk, and in carriers of genetic LCAT deficiency in an excellent model to evaluate the correlation between the reduction of LCAT activity and atherosclerosis also gave conflicting results. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the controversial findings obtained in animals and humans, strengthening the necessity of further investigation to establish how LCAT could be regulated in a promising therapeutic strategy to reduce cardiovascular risk. PMID:26607351

  18. Vasa Vasorum in Atherosclerosis and Clinical Significance

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Junyan; Lu, Xiaotong; Shi, Guo-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease that leads to several acute cardiovascular complications with poor prognosis. For decades, the role of the adventitial vasa vasorum (VV) in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis has received broad attention. The presence of VV neovascularization precedes the apparent symptoms of clinical atherosclerosis. VV also mediates inflammatory cell infiltration, intimal thickening, intraplaque hemorrhage, and subsequent atherothrombosis that results in stroke or myocardial infarction. Intraplaque neovessels originating from VV can be immature and hence susceptible to leakage, and are thus regarded as the leading cause of intraplaque hemorrhage. Evidence supports VV as a new surrogate target of atherosclerosis evaluation and treatment. This review provides an overview into the relationship between VV and atherosclerosis, including the anatomy and function of VV, the stimuli of VV neovascularization, and the available underlying mechanisms that lead to poor prognosis. We also summarize translational researches on VV imaging modalities and potential therapies that target VV neovascularization or its stimuli. PMID:26006236

  19. BIOLOGICAL IMAGING OF ATHEROSCLEROSIS: MOVING BEYOND ANATOMY

    PubMed Central

    Verjans, Johan W.; Jaffer, Farouc A.

    2013-01-01

    Biological or molecular imaging is now providing exciting new strategies to study atherosclerosis in both animals and humans. These technologies hold the promise to provide disease-specific, molecular information within the context of a systemic or organ-specific disease beyond traditional anatomical-based imaging. By integration of biological, chemical and anatomical imaging knowledge into diagnostic strategies, a more comprehensive and predictive picture of atherosclerosis is likely to emerge. As such, biological imaging is well-positioned to study different stages of atherosclerosis and its treatment, including the sequence of atheroma initiation, progression, and plaque rupture. In this review we describe the evolving concepts in atherosclerosis imaging with a focus on coronary artery disease, and we provide an overview of recent exciting translational developments in biological imaging. The illuminated examples and discussions will highlight how biological imaging is providing new clinical approaches to identify high-risk plaques, and to streamline the development process of new atherosclerosis therapies. PMID:23733542

  20. The roles of macrophage autophagy in atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Bo-zong; Han, Bin-ze; Zeng, Yan-xia; Su, Ding-feng; Liu, Chong

    2016-01-01

    Although various types of drugs and therapies are available to treat atherosclerosis, it remains a major cause of mortality throughout the world. Macrophages are the major source of foam cells, which are hallmarks of atherosclerotic lesions. Consequently, the roles of macrophages in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis are increasingly investigated. Autophagy is a self-protecting cellular catabolic pathway. Since its discovery, autophagy has been found to be associated with a variety of diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, malignant tumors, neurodegenerative diseases, and immune system disorders. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that autophagy plays an important role in inhibiting inflammation and apoptosis, and in promoting efferocytosis and cholesterol efflux. These facts suggest the induction of autophagy may be exploited as a potential strategy for the treatment of atherosclerosis. In this review we mainly discuss the relationship between macrophage autophagy and atherosclerosis and the molecular mechanisms, as well as the recent advances in targeting the process of autophagy to treat atherosclerosis. PMID:26750103

  1. Chapter 5. Atherosclerosis and sudden death

    PubMed Central

    Matova, E. E.

    1976-01-01

    The prevalence of complicated and calcified lesions and coronary stenosis, the mean heart weight, and the extent of atherosclerosis in the aorta and coronary arteries were greater in the “sudden heart death” group than in the high atherosclerosis group. In the “other sudden death” group, which included sudden deaths without myocardial infarction or coronary occlusion, all the above variables, except heart weight, were found to be lower than in the low atherosclerosis group and were close to those in the standardized average atherosclerosis group. The mean heart weight in the “other sudden death” group was lower than in the “sudden heart death” group but significantly higher than in the three reference atherosclerosis groups. PMID:1087191

  2. Atherosclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... hardens and narrows your arteries. This limits the flow of oxygen-rich blood to your organs and other parts ... your neck (the carotid arteries). These arteries supply oxygen-rich blood to your brain. If blood flow to your brain is reduced or blocked, you ...

  3. Atherosclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... heart health as EPA and DHA. Red yeast rice. A common seasoning in Asian countries, red yeast rice may help reduce the amount of cholesterol your ... Talk to your doctor before taking red yeast rice, especially if you take another cholesterol-lowering medicine ...

  4. Flax lignan complex slows down the progression of atherosclerosis in hyperlipidemic rabbits.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Kailash

    2009-03-01

    Flax lignan complex suppresses the development of hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis. However, it is not known whether flax lignan complex would slow down the progression of hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis. This study was carried out to determine whether flax lignan complex slows down the progression of already developed atherosclerosis, and whether this effect is associated with reductions in serum lipids and oxidative stress. The studies were conducted in 4 groups of rabbits: group I, regular diet (2 months); group II, 0.25% cholesterol diet (2 months); group III, 0.25% cholesterol diet (4 months); group IV, 0.25% cholesterol diet (2 months) followed by 0.25% cholesterol diet plus flax lignan complex (2 months). Serum lipids and oxidative stress parameters (malondialdehyde, antioxidant reserve, white blood cell chemiluminescence) were measured before and at monthly intervals thereafter on their respective diets. Aortas were removed at the end of the protocol for assessment of atherosclerosis and oxidative stress. Atherosclerosis in group II was associated with hyperlipidemia and increased oxidative stress. Significant areas of the aortic intimal surfaces from group II (37.76% + 7.96%), group III (76.6% + 9.04%), and group IV (52.95% + 10.29%) were covered with atherosclerotic plaques. Group IV rabbits had 40% more atherosclerotic lesions than group II but 31% fewer lesions than group III. The flax lignan complex-induced reduction in the progression of atherosclerosis was associated with reductions in oxidative stress. In conclusion, flax lignan complex was effective in slowing down the progression of atherosclerosis by 31%, and this effect was associated with a reduction in oxidative stress. PMID:19246336

  5. Platelets and the complement cascade in atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Patzelt, Johannes; Verschoor, Admar; Langer, Harald F.

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis and its late sequels are still the number one cause of death in western societies. Platelets are a driving force not only during the genesis of atherosclerosis, but especially in its late stages, as evidenced by complications such as arterial thrombosis, myocardial infarction, and ischemic stroke. Atherosclerosis is increasingly recognized as an inflammatory disease, influenced by various immune mechanisms. The complement system is part of our innate immune system, and its diverse roles in atherosclerosis have become evident over the past years. In this review we identify points of intersection between platelets and the complement system and discuss their relevance for atherosclerosis. Specifically, we will focus on roles for platelets in the onset as well as progression of the disease, a possible dual role for complement in the genesis and development of atherosclerosis, and review emerging literature revealing previously unrecognized cross-talk between platelets and the complement system and discuss its possible impact for atherosclerosis. Finally, we identify limitations of current research approaches and discuss perspectives of complement modulation in the control of the disease. PMID:25784879

  6. Noninvasive Assessment of Preclinical Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Helen A; Smith, Jamie C; Davies, J Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Initially considered as a semipermeable barrier separating lumen from vessel wall, the endothelium is now recognised as a complex endocrine organ responsible for a variety of physiological processes vital for vascular homeostasis. These include the regulation of vascular tone, luminal diameter, and blood flow; hemostasis and thrombolysis; platelet and leucocyte vessel-wall interactions; the regulation of vascular permeability; and tissue growth and remodelling. The endothelium modulates arterial stiffness, which precedes overt atherosclerosis and is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events. Unsurprisingly, dysfunction of the endothelium may be considered as an early and potentially reversible step in the process of atherogenesis and numerous methods have been developed to assess endothelial status and large artery stiffness. Methodology includes flow-mediated dilatation of the brachial artery, assessment of coronary flow reserve, carotid intimamedia thickness, pulse wave analysis, pulse wave velocity, and plethysmography. This review outlines the various modalities, indications, and limitations of available methods to assess arterial dysfunction and vascular risk. PMID:17319466

  7. Aging, Atherosclerosis, and IGF-1

    PubMed Central

    Higashi, Yusuke; Sukhanov, Sergiy; Anwar, Asif; Shai, Shaw-Yung

    2012-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is an endocrine and autocrine/paracrine growth factor that circulates at high levels in the plasma and is expressed in most cell types. IGF-1 has major effects on development, cell growth and differentiation, and tissue repair. Recent evidence indicates that IGF-1 reduces atherosclerosis burden and improves features of atherosclerotic plaque stability in animal models. Potential mechanisms for this atheroprotective effect include IGF-1–induced reduction in oxidative stress, cell apoptosis, proinflammatory signaling, and endothelial dysfunction. Aging is associated with increased vascular oxidative stress and vascular disease, suggesting that IGF-1 may exert salutary effects on vascular aging processes. In this review, we will provide a comprehensive update on IGF-1's ability to modulate vascular oxidative stress and to limit atherogenesis and the vascular complications of aging. PMID:22491965

  8. Hypercholesterolemia links hematopoiesis with atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Soehnlein, Oliver; Swirski, Filip K

    2013-03-01

    Atherosclerosis is characterized by the progressive accumulation of lipids and leukocytes in the arterial wall. Leukocytes such as macrophages accumulate oxidized lipoproteins in the growing atheromata and give rise to foam cells, which can then contribute to the necrotic core of lesions. Lipids and leukocytes also interact in other important ways. In experimental models, systemic hypercholesterolemia is associated with severe neutrophilia and monocytosis. Recent evidence indicates that cholesterol-sensing pathways control the proliferation of hematopoietic stem-cell progenitors. Here we review some of the studies that are forging this particular link between metabolism and inflammation, and propose several strategies that could target this axis for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. PMID:23228326

  9. Use of Mouse Models in Atherosclerosis Research.

    PubMed

    Getz, Godfrey S; Reardon, Catherine A

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of death in most developed nations and the social and economic burden of this disease is quite high. Atherosclerosis is a major underlying basis for most cardiovascular diseases including myocardial infarction and stroke. Genetically modified mouse models, particularly mice deficient in apoprotein E or the LDL receptor, have been widely used in preclinical atherosclerosis studies to gain insight into the mechanisms underlying this pathology. This chapter reviews several mouse models of atherosclerosis progression and regression as well as the role of immune cells in disease progression and the genetics of murine atherogenesis. PMID:26445778

  10. Methylarginines in Mice with Experimental Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Gilinsky, M A; Sukhovershin, R A; Cherkanova, M S

    2015-11-01

    We studied the dynamics of indexes for the system of endogenous regulation of NO bioavailability. The content of NO synthase inhibitors (monomethylarginine and asymmetric dimethylarginine) in the blood of mice was measured after intraperitoneal injections of a nonionic surfactant poloxamer 407 for 2 and 14 weeks. The concentrations of both methylarginines in animals with atherosclerosis due to 14-week administration of poloxamer were much higher than in control specimens. The amount of arginine and symmetric dimethylarginine practically did not differ from the control. Poloxamer-induced model of atherosclerosis is characterized by increased content of NO synthase inhibitors. These changes contribute to the development of endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. PMID:26601840

  11. Vasoprotective Effects of Urocortin 1 against Atherosclerosis In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Shirai, Remina; Watanabe, Rena; Yamamoto, Keigo; Watanabe, Kaho; Nohtomi, Kyoko; Hirano, Tsutomu; Watanabe, Takuya

    2014-01-01

    Aim Atherosclerosis is the complex lesion that consists of endothelial inflammation, macrophage foam cell formation, vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration and proliferation, and extracellular matrix production. Human urocortin 1 (Ucn1), a 40-amino acid peptide member of the corticotrophin-releasing factor/urotensin I family, has potent cardiovascular protective effects. This peptide induces potent and long-lasting hypotension and coronary vasodilation. However, the relationship of Ucn1 with atherosclerosis remains unclear. The present study was performed to clarify the effects of Ucn1 on atherosclerosis. Methods We assessed the effects of Ucn1 on the inflammatory response and proliferation of human endothelial cells (ECs), human macrophage foam cell formation, migration and proliferation of human VSMCs, extracellular matrix expression in VSMCs, and the development of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient (Apoe?/?) mice. Results Ucn1 significantly suppressed cell proliferation without inducing apoptosis, and lipopolysaccharide-induced up-regulation of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in human ECs. Ucn1 significantly reduced oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced foam cell formation with a significant down-regulation of CD36 and acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase 1 in human monocyte-derived macrophages. Ucn1 significantly suppressed the migration and proliferation of human VSMCs and increased the activities of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) and MMP9 in human VSMCs. Intraperitoneal injection of Ucn1 into Apoe?/? mice for 4 weeks significantly retarded the development of aortic atherosclerotic lesions. Conclusions This study provided the first evidence that Ucn1 prevents the development of atherosclerosis by suppressing EC inflammatory response and proliferation, macrophage foam cell formation, and VSMC migration and proliferation. Thus, Ucn1 could serve as a novel therapeutic target for atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25462164

  12. MRI of Atherosclerosis: Diagnosis and Monitoring Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Justin D.; Kramer, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Atherosclerosis is a prevalent disease affecting millions of Americans. Despite our advances in diagnosis and treatment, atherosclerosis is the leading cause of death in America. High resolution MRI has overcome the limitations of current angiographic techniques and has emerged as a leading noninvasive imaging modality of atherosclerotic disease. Atherosclerosis of the arterial wall of human carotid, aortic, peripheral, and coronary arteries have all been successfully evaluated. In addition, the power of MRI to differentiate the major components of atherosclerotic plaque has been validated. The ability to image the vessel wall and risk stratify atherosclerotic plaque will create management decisions not previously faced and has the potential to change the way atherosclerosis is treated. PMID:17187458

  13. Atherosclerosis and the internal mammary arteries

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, R.N.

    1983-06-01

    One hundred and fifty patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), 14 (9.3%) of whom had coexisting peripheral vascular disease, underwent bilateral internal mammary arteriography to study the incidence and extent of atherosclerosis in these vessels. Significant atherosclerosis of the internal mammary arteries (IMAs) was present in three patients (2%), of whom one had coexisting peripheral vascular disease. Lesions in the IMAs were found either proximally, close to the origin or distally, around the terminal bifurcation. Six of the 14 patients with peripheral vascular disease (4% of total subjects) had significant atherosclerosis of the brachiocephalic arteries. Atherosclerotic involvement of the IMA is very unusual and rarely interferes with the use of these vessels for coronary bypass. More common, however, is atherosclerosis of the subclavian arteries, a contraindication for IMA grafting if the lesion is proximal to the IMA origin.

  14. Cytokines and Immune Responses in Murine Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kusters, Pascal J H; Lutgens, Esther

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease of the vessel wall characterized by activation of the innate immune system, with macrophages as the main players, as well as the adaptive immune system, characterized by a Th1-dominant immune response. Cytokines play a major role in the initiation and regulation of inflammation. In recent years, many studies have investigated the role of these molecules in experimental models of atherosclerosis. While some cytokines such as TNF or IFNγ clearly had atherogenic effects, others such as IL-10 were found to be atheroprotective. However, studies investigating the different cytokines in experimental atherosclerosis revealed that the cytokine system is complex with both disease stage-dependent and site-specific effects. In this review, we strive to provide an overview of the main cytokines involved in atherosclerosis and to shed light on their individual role during atherogenesis. PMID:26445779

  15. Prevention of induced atherosclerosis by peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Caravaca, J; Dimond, E G; Sommers, S C; Wenk, R

    1967-03-10

    Hepatocatalase peroxidase, an active peroxidase-oxidase subunit isolated from beef-liver catalase, prevents cholesterol deposition and aortic atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits and has no apparent toxicity or undesirable de effects. No allergic or immunological reactions have been observed. The participation of this enzymatic subunit in homeostatic control mechanisms and its potential pharmacological value in the control of human atherosclerosis are suggested. PMID:6018653

  16. Flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 as a potential player in diabetes-associated atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Ji; Ling, Alisha V.; Manthena, Praveen V.; Gearing, Mary E.; Graham, Mark J.; Crooke, Rosanne M.; Croce, Kevin J.; Esquejo, Ryan M.; Clish, Clary B.; Torrecilla, Esther; Vázquez, Gumersindo Fernández; Rubio, Miguel A.; Cabrerizo, Lucio; Barabash, Ana; Pernaute, Andrés Sánchez; Torres, Antonio J.; Vicent, David; Biddinger, Sudha B.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the well-documented association between insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease, the key targets of insulin relevant to the development of cardiovascular disease are not known. Here, using non-biased profiling methods, we identify the enzyme flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (Fmo3) to be a target of insulin. FMO3 produces trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), which has recently been suggested to promote atherosclerosis in mice and humans. We show that FMO3 is suppressed by insulin in vitro, increased in obese/insulin resistant male mice and increased in obese/insulin-resistant humans. Knockdown of FMO3 in insulin-resistant mice suppresses FoxO1, a central node for metabolic control, and entirely prevents the development of hyperglycaemia, hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. Taken together, these data indicate that FMO3 is required for FoxO1 expression and the development of metabolic dysfunction. PMID:25849138

  17. Periodontal innate immune mechanisms relevant to atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Amar, S; Engelke, M

    2015-06-01

    Atherosclerosis is a common cardiovascular disease in the USA where it is a leading cause of illness and death. Atherosclerosis is the most common cause for heart attack and stroke. Most commonly, people develop atherosclerosis as a result of diabetes, genetic risk factors, high blood pressure, a high-fat diet, obesity, high blood cholesterol levels, and smoking. However, a sizable number of patients suffering from atherosclerosis do not harbor the classical risk factors. Ongoing infections have been suggested to play a role in this process. Periodontal disease is perhaps the most common chronic infection in adults with a wide range of clinical variability and severity. Research in the past decade has shed substantial light on both the initiating infectious agents and host immunological responses in periodontal disease. Up to 46% of the general population harbors the microorganism(s) associated with periodontal disease, although many are able to limit the progression of periodontal disease or even clear the organism(s) if infected. In the last decade, several epidemiological studies have found an association between periodontal infection and atherosclerosis. This review focuses on exploring the molecular consequences of infection by pathogens that exacerbate atherosclerosis, with the focus on infections by the periodontal bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis as a running example. PMID:25388989

  18. Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells in Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Martin R; Sinha, Sanjay; Owens, Gary K

    2016-02-19

    The historical view of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in atherosclerosis is that aberrant proliferation of VSMCs promotes plaque formation, but that VSMCs in advanced plaques are entirely beneficial, for example preventing rupture of the fibrous cap. However, this view has been based on ideas that there is a homogenous population of VSMCs within the plaque, that can be identified separate from other plaque cells (particularly macrophages) using standard VSMC and macrophage immunohistochemical markers. More recent genetic lineage tracing studies have shown that VSMC phenotypic switching results in less-differentiated forms that lack VSMC markers including macrophage-like cells, and this switching directly promotes atherosclerosis. In addition, VSMC proliferation may be beneficial throughout atherogenesis, and not just in advanced lesions, whereas VSMC apoptosis, cell senescence, and VSMC-derived macrophage-like cells may promote inflammation. We review the effect of embryological origin on VSMC behavior in atherosclerosis, the role, regulation and consequences of phenotypic switching, the evidence for different origins of VSMCs, and the role of individual processes that VSMCs undergo in atherosclerosis in regard to plaque formation and the structure of advanced lesions. We think there is now compelling evidence that a full understanding of VSMC behavior in atherosclerosis is critical to identify therapeutic targets to both prevent and treat atherosclerosis. PMID:26892967

  19. Nitric oxide function in atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Matthys, K. E.

    1997-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory process in the intima of conduit arteries, which disturbs the endothelium-dependent regulation of the vascular tone by the labile liposoluble radical nitric oxide (NO) formed by the constitutive endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). This defect predisposes to coronary vasospasm and cardiac ischaemia, with anginal pain as the typical clinical manifestation. It is now appreciated that endothelial dysfunction is an early event in atherogenesis and that it may also involve the microcirculation, in which atherosclerotic lesions do not develop. On the other hand, the inflammatory environment in atherosclerotic plaques may result in the expression of the inducible NO synthase (iNOS) isozyme. Whether the dysfunction in endothelial NO production is causal to, or the result of, atherosclerotic lesion formation is still highly debated. Most evidence supports the hypothesis that constitutive endothelial NO release protects against atherogenesis e.g. by preventing smooth muscle cell proliferation and leukocyte adhesion. Nitric oxide generated by the inducible isozyme may be beneficial by replacing the failing endothelial production but excessive release may damage the vascular wall cells, especially in combination with reactive oxygen intermediates. PMID:18472828

  20. Superoxide and peroxynitrite in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed Central

    White, C R; Brock, T A; Chang, L Y; Crapo, J; Briscoe, P; Ku, D; Bradley, W A; Gianturco, S H; Gore, J; Freeman, B A

    1994-01-01

    The role of reactive oxygen species in the vascular pathology associated with atherosclerosis was examined by testing the hypothesis that impaired vascular reactivity results from the reaction of nitric oxide (.NO) with superoxide (O2-), yielding the oxidant peroxynitrite (ONOO-). Contractility studies were performed on femoral arteries from rabbits fed a cholesterol-supplemented diet. Cholesterol feeding shifted the EC50 for acetylcholine (ACh)-induced relaxation and impaired the maximal response to ACh. We used pH-sensitive liposomes to deliver CuZn superoxide dismutase (SOD; superoxide:superoxide oxidoreductase, EC 1.15.1.1) to critical sites of .NO reaction with O2-. Intravenously injected liposomes (3000 units of SOD per ml) augmented ACh-induced relaxation in the cholesterol-fed group to a greater extent than in controls. Quantitative immunocytochemistry demonstrated enhanced distribution of SOD in both endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells as well as in the extracellular matrix. SOD activity in vessel homogenates of liposome-treated rabbits was also increased. Incubation of beta very low density lipoprotein with ONOO- resulted in the rapid formation of conjugated dienes and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances. Our results suggest that the reaction of O2- with .NO is involved in the development of atherosclerotic disease by yielding a potent mediator of lipoprotein oxidation, as well as by limiting .NO stimulation of vascular smooth muscle guanylate cyclase activity. Images PMID:8302829

  1. Advances in MRI for the evaluation of carotid atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Makris, G C; Teng, Z; Patterson, A J; Lin, J-M; Young, V; Graves, M J; Gillard, J H

    2015-08-01

    Carotid artery atherosclerosis is an important source of mortality and morbidity in the Western world with significant socioeconomic implications. The quest for the early identification of the vulnerable carotid plaque is already in its third decade and traditional measures, such as the sonographic degree of stenosis, are not selective enough to distinguish those who would really benefit from a carotid endarterectomy. MRI of the carotid plaque enables the visualization of plaque composition and specific plaque components that have been linked to a higher risk of subsequent embolic events. Blood suppressed T1 and T2 weighted and proton density-weighted fast spin echo, gradient echo and time-of-flight sequences are typically used to quantify plaque components such as lipid-rich necrotic core, intraplaque haemorrhage, calcification and surface defects including erosion, disruption and ulceration. The purpose of this article is to review the most important recent advances in MRI technology to enable better diagnostic carotid imaging. PMID:25826233

  2. [Health campaign for atherosclerosis prevention].

    PubMed

    Schoberberger, Rudolf; Modes, Michaela

    2005-07-01

    The goal of the campaign "plus leben", a project designed to run for at least 5 years, is to heighten the awareness of patients at risk of heart disease and to provide them with an appropriate prevention program. During the first two years of the campaign 20,000 visitors were registered on the homepage, 400,000 tests for risk of heart disease were distributed, and more than 3,000 health information brochures were requested. Thus, a survey of patients was designed to provide information on the extent to which preventive measures are effective. The survey, which was carried out by mail, had a response rate of 28%, or 230 participants. In the random sample, consisting of about 60% men and 40% women, only 16% are younger than 50 years of age. Thus the survey provides a representative picture of the affected target group. The test for risk of cardiac disease provided by "plus leben" led to an increase in awareness of preventive measures in more than two thirds of the respondents, and 60% also completed the test. Although only a fourth of the patients are regularly informed by their physician about preventive measures, the campaign has led about 90% of the respondents to make fundamental or at least partial changes in their lifestyle. In connection with the study it was shown that the media play an important role in providing information on preventive measures. Communication in the doctor's office as an important building block in raising consciousness about atherosclerosis prevention could be further improved. PMID:16092040

  3. Cyclodextrin promotes atherosclerosis regression via macrophage reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    Zimmer, Sebastian; Grebe, Alena; Bakke, Siril S.; Bode, Niklas; Halvorsen, Bente; Ulas, Thomas; Skjelland, Mona; De Nardo, Dominic; Labzin, Larisa I.; Kerksiek, Anja; Hempel, Chris; Heneka, Michael T.; Hawxhurst, Victoria; Fitzgerald, Michael L; Trebicka, Jonel; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Westerterp, Marit; Tall, Alan R.; Wright, Samuel D.; Espevik, Terje; Schultze, Joachim L.; Nickenig, Georg; Lütjohann, Dieter; Latz, Eicke

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease linked to elevated blood cholesterol levels. Despite ongoing advances in the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death worldwide. Continuous retention of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins in the subendothelial space causes a local overabundance of free cholesterol. Since cholesterol accumulation and deposition of cholesterol crystals (CCs) triggers a complex inflammatory response, we tested the efficacy of the cyclic oligosaccharide 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (CD), a compound that increases cholesterol solubility, in preventing and reversing atherosclerosis. Here we show that CD treatment of murine atherosclerosis reduced atherosclerotic plaque size and CC load, and promoted plaque regression even with a continued cholesterol-rich diet. Mechanistically, CD increased oxysterol production in both macrophages and human atherosclerotic plaques, and promoted liver X receptor (LXR)-mediated transcriptional reprogramming to improve cholesterol efflux and exert anti-inflammatory effects. In vivo, this CD-mediated LXR agonism was required for the anti-atherosclerotic and anti-inflammatory effects of CD as well as for augmented reverse cholesterol transport. Since CD treatment in humans is safe and CD beneficially affects key mechanisms of atherogenesis, it may therefore be used clinically to prevent or treat human atherosclerosis. PMID:27053774

  4. Cyclodextrin promotes atherosclerosis regression via macrophage reprogramming.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Sebastian; Grebe, Alena; Bakke, Siril S; Bode, Niklas; Halvorsen, Bente; Ulas, Thomas; Skjelland, Mona; De Nardo, Dominic; Labzin, Larisa I; Kerksiek, Anja; Hempel, Chris; Heneka, Michael T; Hawxhurst, Victoria; Fitzgerald, Michael L; Trebicka, Jonel; Björkhem, Ingemar; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Westerterp, Marit; Tall, Alan R; Wright, Samuel D; Espevik, Terje; Schultze, Joachim L; Nickenig, Georg; Lütjohann, Dieter; Latz, Eicke

    2016-04-01

    Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease linked to elevated blood cholesterol concentrations. Despite ongoing advances in the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death worldwide. Continuous retention of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins in the subendothelial space causes a local overabundance of free cholesterol. Because cholesterol accumulation and deposition of cholesterol crystals (CCs) trigger a complex inflammatory response, we tested the efficacy of the cyclic oligosaccharide 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (CD), a compound that increases cholesterol solubility in preventing and reversing atherosclerosis. We showed that CD treatment of murine atherosclerosis reduced atherosclerotic plaque size and CC load and promoted plaque regression even with a continued cholesterol-rich diet. Mechanistically, CD increased oxysterol production in both macrophages and human atherosclerotic plaques and promoted liver X receptor (LXR)-mediated transcriptional reprogramming to improve cholesterol efflux and exert anti-inflammatory effects. In vivo, this CD-mediated LXR agonism was required for the antiatherosclerotic and anti-inflammatory effects of CD as well as for augmented reverse cholesterol transport. Because CD treatment in humans is safe and CD beneficially affects key mechanisms of atherogenesis, it may therefore be used clinically to prevent or treat human atherosclerosis. PMID:27053774

  5. Oxidative theory of atherosclerosis and antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Salvayre, R; Negre-Salvayre, A; Camaré, C

    2016-06-01

    Atherosclerosis is a multifactorial process that begins early in infancy and affects all the humans. Early steps of atherogenesis and the evolution towards complex atherosclerotic plaques are briefly described. After a brief history of the 'Lipid theory of atherosclerosis', we report the most prominent discoveries on lipoproteins, their receptors and metabolism, and their role in atherogenesis. The main focus is the 'oxidative theory of atherosclerosis', with emphasis on free radicals and reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation and LDL oxidation, biological properties of oxidized LDL and their potential role in atherogenesis. Then, we report the properties of antioxidants and antioxidant systems and their effects in vitro, on cultured cells, in animal models and in humans. The surprising discrepancy between the efficacy of antioxidants in vitro and in animal models of atherosclerosis and the lack of protective effect against cardiovascular events and death in epidemiological study and clinical trials are discussed. In contrast, epidemiological studies seem to indicate that the Mediterranean diet may protect (in part) against atherosclerosis complications (myocardial infarction and cardiovascular death). PMID:26717905

  6. Atherosclerosis: Process, Indicators, Risk Factors and New Hopes

    PubMed Central

    Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Setorki, Mahbubeh; Doudi, Monir; Baradaran, Azar; Nasri, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Atherosclerosis is the major cause of morbidities and mortalities worldwide. In this study we aimed to review the mechanism of atherosclerosis and its risk factors, focusing on new findings in atherosclerosis markers and its risk factors. Furthermore, the role of antioxidants and medicinal herbs in atherosclerosis and endothelial damage has been discussed and a list of important medicinal plants effective in the treatment and prevention of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis is presented. Methods: The recently published papers about atherosclerosis pathogenesis and herbal medicines effective in the treatment and prevention of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis were searched. Results: Inflammation has a crucial role in pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The disease is accompanied by excessive fibrosis of the intima, fatty plaques formation, proliferation of smooth muscle cells, and migration of a group of cells such as monocytes, T cells, and platelets which are formed in response to inflammation. The oxidation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) to Ox-LDL indicates the first step of atherosclerosis in cardiovascular diseases. Malondialdehyde factor shows the level of lipoperoxidation and is a sign of increased oxidative pressure and cardiovascular diseases. In special pathological conditions such as severe hypercholesterolemia, peroxynitrite concentration increases and atherosclerosis and vascular damage are intensified. Medicinal plants have shown to be capable of interacting these or other pathogenesis factors to prevent atherosclerosis. Conclusions: The pathogenesis factors involved in atherosclerosis have recently been cleared and the discovery of these factors has brought about new hopes for better prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis. PMID:25489440

  7. Nanoparticles Containing a Liver X Receptor Agonist Inhibit Inflammation and Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xue-Qing; Even-Or, Orli; Xu, Xiaoyang; van Rosmalen, Mariska; Lim, Lucas; Gadde, Suresh

    2015-01-01

    Liver X receptor (LXR) signaling pathways regulate lipid metabolism and inflammation, which has generated widespread interest in developing synthetic LXR agonists as potential therapeutics for the management of atherosclerosis. In this study, we demonstrate that nanoparticles (NPs) containing the synthetic LXR agonist GW3965 (NP-LXR) exert anti-inflammatory effects and inhibit the development of atherosclerosis without causing hepatic steatosis. These NPs were engineered through self-assembly of a biodegradable diblock poly(lactide-co-glycolide)-b-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLGA-b-PEG) copolymer. NP-LXR was significantly more effective than free GW3965 at inducing LXR target gene expression and suppressing inflammatory factors in macrophages in vitro and in vivo. Addtionally, the NPs elicited negligible lipogenic gene stimulation in the liver. Using the Ldlr−/− mouse model of atherosclerosis, we saw abundant co-localization of fluorescently labeled NPs within plaque macrophages following systemic administration. Notably, six intravenous injections of NP-LXR over two weeks markedly reduced the CD68-positive cell (macrophage) content of plaques (by 50%) without increasing total cholesterol or triglycerides in the liver and plasma. Together, these findings identify GW3965-encapsulated PLGA-b-PEG NPs as a promising nanotherapeutic approach to combat atherosclerosis, providing the benefits of LXR agonists without their adverse effects on hepatic and plasma lipid metabolism. PMID:25156796

  8. A study on regression of hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis in rabbits by flax lignan complex.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Kailash

    2007-12-01

    Flax lignan complex (FLC) isolated from flaxseed suppresses the development of hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis. The objectives of this study were to investigate if FLC produces regression of atherosclerosis and if regression is associated with reductions in serum lipids and oxidative stress. The studies were conducted in 4 groups of rabbits: group I, control diet (2 months); group II, 0.25% cholesterol diet (2 months); group III, 0.25% cholesterol diet (2 months) followed by regular diet (4 months); and group IV, 0.25% cholesterol diet (2 months) followed by regular diet and FLC (4 months). Serum lipids and oxidative stress parameters were measured before and at various intervals thereafter on their respective diets. The aortas were removed at the end of the protocol for assessment of atherosclerotic plaques and oxidative parameters. Atherosclerosis in group II was associated with hyperlipidemia and increased oxidative stress. Atherosclerotic changes were accelerated in group III, and this was associated with reductions in serum lipids and oxidative stress. Atherosclerotic lesions in group IV were similar to group II, but significantly smaller than those in group III, and were associated with reductions in serum lipids and oxidative stress similar to that in group III. These results indicate that FLC does not produce regression but prevents the acceleration of atherosclerosis due to the removal of cholesterol in the diet. These effects of FLC are not associated with reductions in serum lipids and oxidative stress. PMID:18172225

  9. Functionally Defective High-Density Lipoprotein and Paraoxonase: A Couple for Endothelial Dysfunction in Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Eren, Esin; Yilmaz, Necat; Aydin, Ozgur

    2013-01-01

    The endothelium is the primary target for biochemical or mechanical injuries caused by the putative risk factors of atherosclerosis. Endothelial dysfunction represents the ultimate link between atherosclerotic risk factors that promote atherosclerosis. HDL-C is thought to exert at least some parts of its antiatherogenic facilities via stimulating endothelial NO production, nearby inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammation. HDL-C is capable of opposing LDL's inductive effects and avoiding the ox-LDL's inhibition of eNOS. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is an HDL-associated enzyme esterase which appears to contribute to the antioxidant and antiatherosclerotic capabilities of HDL-C. “Healthy HDL,” namely the particle that contains the active Paraoxonase 1, has the power to suppress the formation of oxidized lipids. “Dysfunctional HDL,” on the contrary, has reduced Paraoxonase 1 enzyme activity and not only fails in its mission but also potentially leads to greater formation of oxidized lipids/lipoproteins to cause endothelial dysfunction. The association of HDL-C PON1 and endothelial dysfunction depends largely on the molecules with exact damaging effect on NO synthase coupling. Loss of nitric oxide bioavailability has a pivotal role in endothelial dysfunction preceding the appearance of atherosclerosis. Analyses of HDL-C and Paraoxonase1 would be more important in the diagnosis and treatment of atherosclerosis in the very near future. PMID:24222847

  10. The thyromimetic T-0681 protects from atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Tancevski, Ivan; Wehinger, Andreas; Demetz, Egon; Hoefer, Julia; Eller, Philipp; Huber, Eva; Stanzl, Ursula; Duwensee, Kristina; Auer, Kristina; Schgoer, Wilfried; Kuhn, Volker; Fievet, Catherine; Stellaard, Frans; Rudling, Mats; Foeger, Bernhard; Patsch, Josef R.; Ritsch, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    This report describes studies in hyperlipidemic New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits investigating the impact of the liver-selective thyromimetic T-0681 on lipoprotein metabolism and the development of atherosclerosis. Prolonged treatment with T-0681 increased the hepatic expression of both LDL receptor and scavenger receptor class B, type I without affecting cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity. Upregulation of hepatic lipoprotein receptors was accompanied by a marked decrease of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins, reflected by a 60% reduction of plasma cholesterol and a >70% reduction of plasma triglyceride levels. Most importantly, T-0681 reduced the development of atherosclerosis by 80% in NZW rabbits on high-cholesterol chow. Our data suggest that liver-selective thyromimetics, such as T-0681, may prove to be useful therapeutic agents against the development of atherosclerosis in humans. PMID:19106072

  11. Atherosclerosis, arterial stiffness and antihypertensive drug therapy.

    PubMed

    Safar, Michel E; Smulyan, Harold

    2007-01-01

    Increased aortic stiffness is a consequence of cardiovascular (CV) aging and may be observed in the elderly with or without hypertension. Hypertension and arterial stiffness are independent risk factors for CV events, but such events may also be complicated by atherosclerosis, especially in the older population. The purpose of this chapter is to determine whether, in the presence of atherosclerosis, systolic hypertension in the elderly requires specific drug therapy. It will be shown that, in addition to the targeted drug treatment of associated hypercholesterolemia and/or hyperglycemia, the major problem nowadays is to find specific antihypertensive drugs causing a selective reduction of systolic blood pressure (SBP). PMID:17075219

  12. Adipokines, diabetes and atherosclerosis: an inflammatory association

    PubMed Central

    Freitas Lima, Leandro C.; Braga, Valdir de Andrade; do Socorro de França Silva, Maria; Cruz, Josiane de Campos; Sousa Santos, Sérgio H.; de Oliveira Monteiro, Matheus M.; Balarini, Camille de Moura

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases can be considered the most important cause of death in diabetic population and diabetes can in turn increase the risk of cardiovascular events. Inflammation process is currently recognized as responsible for the development and maintenance of diverse chronic diseases, including diabetes and atherosclerosis. Considering that adipose tissue is an important source of adipokines, which may present anti and proinflammatory effects, the aim of this review is to explore the role of the main adipokines in the pathophysiology of diabetes and atherosclerosis, highlighting the therapeutic options that could arise from the manipulation of these signaling pathways both in humans and in translational models. PMID:26578976

  13. HIV, inflammation, and calcium in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Sadeep; Irvin, Marguerite R; Grunfeld, Carl; Arnett, Donna K

    2014-02-01

    Atherosclerosis is consistently higher among the HIV-positive patients, with or without treatment, than among the HIV-negative population. Risk factors linked to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in HIV infection are both traditional and HIV specific although the underlying mechanisms are not fully delineated. Three key sequential biological processes are postulated to accelerate progression of atherosclerosis in the context of HIV: (1) inflammation, (2) transformation of monocytes to macrophages and then foam cells, and (3) apoptosis of foam cells leading to plaque development through Ca(2+)-dependent endoplasmic reticulum stress. These proatherogenic mechanisms are further affected when HIV interacts with the genes involved in various phases within this network. PMID:24265418

  14. Possible roles of platelet-derived microparticles in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-Ting; Wang, Zi; Hu, Yan-Wei

    2016-05-01

    Platelets and platelet-derived microparticles (PMPs) play important roles in cardiovascular diseases, especially atherosclerosis. Continued research has revealed that PMPs have numerous functions in atherosclerosis, not only in thrombosis formation, but also by induction of inflammation. PMPs also induce formation of foam cells. Recent evidence strongly indicates a significant role of PMPs in atherosclerosis. Here, current research on the function of PMPs in atherosclerosis is reviewed. PMID:26978582

  15. Non-coding RNAs and atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Hernando, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) represent a class of RNA molecules that typically do not code for proteins. Emerging data suggest that ncRNAs play an important role in several physiological and pathological conditions such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) including atherosclerosis. The best-characterized ncRNAs are the microRNAs (miRNAs), which are small, ~22 nucleotide (nt) sequences of RNA that regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level through transcript degradation or translational repression. MiRNAs control several aspects of atherosclerosis including endothelial cell, vascular smooth cell, and macrophage functions as well as lipoprotein metabolism. Apart from miRNAs, recently ncRNAs, especially long ncRNAs (lncRNAs), have emerged as important potential regulators of the progression of atherosclerosis. However, the molecular mechanism of their regulation and function as well as significance of other ncRNAs such as small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) during atherogenesis is largely unknown. In this review, we summarize the recent findings in the field, highlighting the importance of ncRNAs in atherosclerosis and discuss their potential use as therapeutic targets in CVDs. PMID:24623179

  16. ATHEROSCLEROSIS RISK IN COMMUNITIES STUDY (ARIC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiology Study -- ARIC is a large-scale, long-term prospective study that measures associations of established and suspected coronary heart disease risk factors with both atherosclerosis and new CHD events in men and women from four geographically diverse communities. The pro...

  17. Infectious burden and atherosclerosis: A clinical issue

    PubMed Central

    Sessa, Rosa; Pietro, Marisa Di; Filardo, Simone; Turriziani, Ombretta

    2014-01-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases, chronic inflammatory diseases of multifactorial etiology, are the leading cause of death worldwide. In the last decade, more infectious agents, labeled as “infectious burden”, rather than any single pathogen, have been showed to contribute to the development of atherosclerosis through different mechanisms. Some microorganisms, such as Chlamydia pneumoniae (C. pneumoniae), human cytomegalovirus, etc. may act directly on the arterial wall contributing to endothelial dysfunction, foam cell formation, smooth muscle cell proliferation, platelet aggregation as well as cytokine, reactive oxygen specie, growth factor, and cellular adhesion molecule production. Others, such as Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), influenza virus, etc. may induce a systemic inflammation which in turn may damage the vascular wall (e.g., by cytokines and proteases). Moreover, another indirect mechanism by which some infectious agents (such as H. pylori, C. pneumoniae, periodontal pathogens, etc.) may play a role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is molecular mimicry. Given the complexity of the mechanisms by which each microorganism may contribute to atherosclerosis, defining the interplay of more infectious agents is far more difficult because the pro-atherogenic effect of each pathogen might be amplified. Clearly, continued research and a greater awareness will be helpful to improve our knowledge on the complex interaction between the infectious burden and atherosclerosis. PMID:25032197

  18. Nanomedicine for Atherosclerosis: Molecular Imaging and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Karagkiozaki, Varvara; Logothetidis, Stergios; Pappa, Anna-Maria

    2015-02-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and the underlying process of atherosclerosis are considered to be the most frequent causes of mortality and morbidity in developed societies. Atherosclerosis constitutes a systemic, chronic and progressive inflammatory disease that is initiated by early endothelial dysfunction and is subsequently amplified by oxidative stress, lipid deposition and monocyte recruitment. An interplay occurs among diverse cells, chemoattractants, adhesion molecules and low-density lipoproteins in the subendothelium. Due to the complexity of its pathogenesis, effective therapeutic strategies have not yet been applied in routine clinical practice. With the advent of nanotechnology, nanoparticulate systems with diagnostic and therapeutic moieties for the site-specific targeting of atherosclerotic lesions as well as nanomaterials that are suitable for cardiovascular implants may offer possible solutions to certain shortfalls of current treatment regimens. This article describes the recent advances that involve different types of nanoparticles for the early detection and concurrent therapy of atherosclerotic lesions. Moreover, it provides a state-of-the-art overview of stent technology in the restoration of normal blood flow to ischemic myocardial sites and underscores its drawbacks in light of substantial nanotechnology-based improvements. Emphasis is placed on the contribution of nanomedicine to the development of novel and effective therapies for atherosclerosis, ranging from 'nanotheranostic' strategies for vulnerable plaques to the nanoporous and nanoparticulate drug-delivery platforms that have been applied to stent technology. By striking a balance between the efficacy and the potential toxicity of nanotechnology-enabled systems, new frontiers in atherosclerosis treatment will emerge. PMID:26349296

  19. Ribosomal Protein L13a Deficiency in Macrophages Promotes Atherosclerosis by Limiting Translation Control-Dependent Retardation of Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Abhijit; Poddar, Darshana; Robinet, Peggy; Smith, Jonathan D.; Febbraio, Maria; Baldwin, William M.; Mazumder, Barsanjit

    2014-01-01

    Objective Unresolved inflammatory response of macrophages plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Previously we showed that ribosomal protein L13a-dependent translational silencing suppresses the synthesis of a cohort of inflammatory proteins in monocytes and macrophages. We also found that genetic abrogation of L13a expression in macrophages significantly compromised the resolution of inflammation in a mouse model of LPS-induced endotoxemia. However, its function in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is not known. Here, we examine whether L13a in macrophage has a protective role against high fat diet-induced atherosclerosis. Approach and Results We bred the macrophage-specific L13a knockout mice L13a Flox+/+ Cre+/+ onto apoE?/? background and generated the experimental double knockout (KO) mice L13a Flox+/+ Cre+/+ apoE?/?. L13a Flox+/+ Cre?/? mice on apoE?/? background were used as controls. Control and KO mice were subjected to high-fat diet for 10 weeks. Evaluation of aortic sinus sections and entire aorta by en face showed significantly higher atherosclerosis in the KO mice. Severity of atherosclerosis in KO mice was accompanied by thinning of the smooth muscle cell (SMC) layer in the media, larger macrophage area in the intimal plaque region and higher plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines. In addition, macrophages isolated from KO mice had higher polyribosomal abundance of several target mRNAs, thus showing defect in translation control. Conclusion Our data demonstrate that loss of L13a in macrophages increases susceptibility to atherosclerosis in apoE?/? mice, revealing an important role of L13a-dependent translational control as an endogenous protection mechanism against atherosclerosis. PMID:24436370

  20. Phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein 1 in vacular endothelial cell autophagy and atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Li, HaiYing; Zhang, JinFeng; Lu, Wei; Zhao, Jing; Su, Le; Zhao, BaoXiang; Zhang, Yun; Zhang, ShangLi; Miao, JunYing

    2013-01-01

    We previously found that phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC) was a key inducing element of atherosclerosis, and might negatively regulate human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) autophagy. To further investigate the mechanism of PC-PLC action, we initially identified phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein 1 (PEBP1) as a binding partner of PC-PLC by using mass spectrometry (MS, MALDI-TOF/TOF). We found that PEBP1 positively regulated PC-PLC activity in HUVECs, and inhibition of PC-PLC by its inhibitor D609 suppressed PEBP1 expression dramatically. Moreover, both PC-PLC and PEBP1 negatively regulated HUVEC autophagy independently of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Furthermore, the PEBP1 level was elevated during the development of atherosclerosis, while D609 significantly decreased the upregulated PEBP1 level in apoE−/− mice. PMID:23959677

  1. Immune Activation, Immunosenescence, and Osteoprotegerin as Markers of Endothelial Dysfunction in Subclinical HIV-Associated Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    D'Abramo, Alessandra; Zingaropoli, Maria Antonella; Oliva, Alessandra; D'Agostino, Claudia; Al Moghazi, Samir; De Luca, Giulia; Iannetta, Marco; Mastroianni, Claudio Maria; Vullo, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    HIV-infected patients have a significantly greater risk of cardiovascular disease. Several markers including osteoprotegerin have been shown to be involved in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. We investigated the relationship between T-cell phenotype, osteoprotegerin, and atherosclerosis evaluated by carotid intima-media thickness (c-IMT) in 94 HIV+ patients on suppressive antiretroviral therapy with Framingham score <10%. As for the control group, 24 HIV-negative subjects were enrolled. c-IMT was assessed by ultrasound. CD4+/CD8+ T-cell activation (CD38+ HLADR+) and senescence (CD57+ CD28−) were measured by flow cytometry. IL-6 and OPG levels were measured by ELISA kit. c-IMT was higher in HIV+ than in controls. Among HIV+ patients, 44.7% had pathological c-IMT (≥0.9 mm). CD8+ T-cell activation and senescence and OPG plasma levels were higher in HIV+ patients than in controls. Subjects with pathological c-IMT exhibited higher CD8+ immune activation and immunosenescence and OPG levels than subjects with normal c-IMT. Multivariate analysis showed that age, CD8+ CD38+ HLADR+, and CD8+ CD28− CD57+ were independently associated with pathological c-IMT. Several factors have been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in HIV patients. Immune activation and immunosenescence of CD8+ T cell together with OPG plasma levels might be associated with the development and progression of early atherosclerosis, even in the case of viral suppression. PMID:25374442

  2. Coronary atherosclerosis, low-density lipoproteins and markers of thrombosis, inflammation and endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Whayne, Thomas F

    2007-01-01

    Available information regarding the relation among atherosclerosis, low-density lipoproteins, markers of thrombosis, inflammation and endothelial dysfunction has accumulated, but is still very limited, making only minimal contributions to clinical decision-making. Many more clinical trials are needed, but unless there is a relationship between atherosclerosis prevention, specific markers and a pharmaceutical product, financial support for such trials will be difficult to obtain. The anti-inflammatory effect of statins is well established. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors are generally not thought of as having anti-inflammatory effects, but the European Trial on Reduction of Cardiac Events with Perindopril in Stable Coronary Artery Disease (EUROPA) study observed extensive RR reduction with perindopril. It was explained not simply by control of hypertension, but by reduced activity of multiple factors, supported by specific substudies. The 'cardiovascular continuum' is an excellent unifying term to explain atherosclerosis mechanisms, relate mechanisms to clinical understanding, and assist the clinician in selecting the appropriate prevention and control therapies. This so-called continuum actually describes a relationship among different biochemical, enzymatic and hormonal factors that affect the cardiovascular system. It can be seen in the downregulation of the angiotensin II receptor type 1 by statins, which contributes to hypertension control while lowering low-density lipoproteins. Peroxisome proliferator activator receptor-gamma also demonstrates the cardiovascular continuum with activation of the receptor by glitazones. The glitazones increase insulin sensitivity for diabetes control. Activation of the peroxisome proliferator activator receptor-gamma inhibits inflammation, which is possibly related to atherosclerosis, normalization of endothelial function, suppression of metalloproteinases and a decrease in smooth muscle cell migration. All of these effects may decrease atherosclerosis production while improving control of diabetes mellitus, a key disease in the cardiovascular continuum for development of atherosclerosis. Consideration of such interrelationships is just scratching the surface. Nevertheless, it can be seen that the complicated process of atherosclerosis development has a multifaceted explanation that has been minimally defined, but holds the key to prevention and control of this major medical problem faced in modern society. PMID:22477242

  3. Conjugated linoleic acid and atherosclerosis in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Lee, K N; Kritchevsky, D; Pariza, M W

    1994-07-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) consists of a series of positional and geometric dienoic isomers of linoleic acid that occur naturally in foods. CLA exhibits antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo. To assess the effect of CLA on atherosclerosis, 12 rabbits were fed a semi-synthetic diet containing 14% fat and 0.1% cholesterol for 22 weeks. For 6 of these rabbits, the diet was augmented with CLA (0.5 g CLA/rabbit per day). Blood samples were taken monthly for lipid analysis. By 12 weeks total and LDL cholesterol and triglycerides were markedly lower in the CLA-fed group. Interestingly, the LDL cholesterol to HDL cholesterol ratio and total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol ratio were significantly reduced in CLA-fed rabbits. Examination of the aortas of CLA-fed rabbits showed less atherosclerosis. PMID:7980704

  4. Molecular intravascular imaging approaches for atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Press, Marcella Calfon; Jaffer, Farouc A.

    2014-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is an inflammatory process that results in buildup of atherosclerosis, typically lipid-rich plaque in the arterial wall. Progressive narrowing of the vessel wall and subsequent plaque rupture can lead to myocardial infarction and death. Recent advances in intravascular fluorescence imaging techniques have provided exciting coronary artery-targeted platforms to further characterize the molecular changes that occur within the vascular wall as a result of atherosclerosis and following coronary stent-induced vascular injury. This review will summarize exciting recent developments in catheter-based imaging of coronary arterial-sized vessels; focusing on two-dimensional near-infrared fluorescence imaging (NIRF) molecular imaging technology as an approach to specifically identify inflammation and fibrin directly within coronary artery-sized vessels. Intravascular NIRF is anticipated to provide new insights into the in vivo biology underlying high-risk plaques, as well as high-risks stents prone to stent restenosis or stent thrombosis. PMID:25221639

  5. Connecting the Lines between Hypogonadism and Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Fahed, Akl C.; Gholmieh, Joanna M.; Azar, Sami T.

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies show that atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and point to gender differences with ageing males being at highest risk. Atherosclerosis is a complex process that has several risk factors and mediators. Hypogonadism is a commonly undiagnosed disease that has been associated with many of the events, and risk factors leading to atherosclerosis. The mechanistic relations between testosterone levels, atherosclerotic events, and risk factors are poorly understood in many instances, but the links are clear. In this paper, we summarize the research journey that explains the link between hypogonadism, each of the atherosclerotic events, and risk factors. We look into the different areas from which lessons could be learned, including epidemiological studies, animal and laboratory experiments, studies on androgen deprivation therapy patients, and studies on testosterone-treated patients. We finish by providing recommendations for the clinician and needs for future research. PMID:22518131

  6. Heat-shock proteins and atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, M Branco; Carlos, A G Palma

    2002-06-01

    In this review the authors focus on the possible role of heat-shock proteins (hsp) in the immune pathogenesis of the atherosclerotic process. The authors discuss evidence showing increased expression of these proteins in the vascular wall of stressed and atherosclerotic vessels and the immune mechanisms which could justify some of the inflammatory aspects that are now currently recognized in atherosclerosis, namely some of the possible hsp immune activating properties and also the possibility of hsp representing an innocent auto-antigen which could be the unwanted target of an immune response, initially directed against microbial heat-shock proteins. Epidemiological evidence linking atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases to soluble hsp levels as well as the intensity of anti-hsp immune response is also reviewed. PMID:12134643

  7. Translational Coronary Atherosclerosis Imaging with PET.

    PubMed

    Adamson, Philip D; Newby, David E; Dweck, Marc R

    2016-02-01

    Although still in its infancy, coronary atherosclerosis imaging with PET holds promise in improving understanding of the pathophysiologic processes that underlie plaque progression and adverse cardiovascular events. Fludeoxyglucose F 18 offers the potential to measure inflammatory activity within the plaque itself whereas fluoride F 18 allows detection of microcalcification, both of which are key characteristics of plaques at risk of rupture. Further work is required to improve these imaging techniques and to assess their ability to predict cardiac events prospectively. PMID:26590788

  8. Experimental models of atherosclerosis (the insudative theory).

    PubMed

    Virág, S

    1980-04-01

    Atherosclerosis, a disease of multifactorial origin, can be promoted or caused experimentally by a wide variety of methods. The leading role of altered endothelial permeability, as well as different experimental techniques for producing changes in permeability, have been discussed by selecting the insudative theory as a working hypothesis. An attempt has been made to prove that by altering the endothelial permeability with different types of injuries, atherosclerotic vascular damage can be provoked with or without hypercholesterolemia. PMID:7040859

  9. Computer assessment of atherosclerosis from angiographic images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selzer, R. H.; Blankenhorn, D. H.; Brooks, S. H.; Crawford, D. W.; Cashin, W. L.

    1982-01-01

    A computer method for detection and quantification of atherosclerosis from angiograms has been developed and used to measure lesion change in human clinical trials. The technique involves tracking the vessel edges and measuring individual lesions as well as the overall irregularity of the arterial image. Application of the technique to conventional arterial-injection femoral and coronary angiograms is outlined and an experimental study to extend the technique to analysis of intravenous angiograms of the carotid and cornary arteries is described.

  10. Lifestyle effects on hematopoiesis and atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Nahrendorf, Matthias; Swirski, Filip K.

    2015-01-01

    Diet, exercise, stress and sleep are receiving attention as environmental modifiers of chronic inflammatory diseases, including atherosclerosis, the culprit condition of myocardial infarction and stroke. Accumulating data indicate that psychosocial stress and a high-fat, high-cholesterol diet aggravate cardiovascular disease, whereas regular physical activity and healthy sleeping habits help prevent it. Here we raise the possibility that inflammation-associated leukocyte production plays a causal role in lifestyle effects on atherosclerosis progression. Specifically, we explore whether and how potent real-life disease modifiers influence hematopoiesis’ molecular and cellular machinery. Lifestyle, we hypothesize, may rearrange hematopoietic topography, diverting production from the bone marrow to the periphery, thus propagating a quantitative and qualitative drift of the macrophage supply chain. These changes may involve progenitor-extrinsic and intrinsic communication nodes that connect organ systems along neuro-immune and immuno-metabolic axes, ultimately leading to an altered number and phenotype of lesional macrophages. We propose that, in conjunction with improved public health policy, future therapeutics could aim to modulate the quantitative and qualitative output, as well as the location, of the hematopoietic tree to decrease the risk of atherosclerosis complications. PMID:25722442

  11. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Reduce Murine Atherosclerosis Development

    PubMed Central

    Frodermann, Vanessa; van Duijn, Janine; van Pel, Melissa; van Santbrink, Peter J.; Bot, Ilze; Kuiper, Johan; de Jager, Saskia C. A.

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have regenerative properties, but recently they were also found to have immunomodulatory capacities. We therefore investigated whether MSCs could reduce atherosclerosis, which is determined by dyslipidaemia and chronic inflammation. We adoptively transferred MSCs into low-density lipoprotein-receptor knockout mice and put these on a Western-type diet to induce atherosclerosis. Initially after treatment, we found higher levels of circulating regulatory T cells. In the long-term, overall numbers of effector T cells were reduced by MSC treatment. Moreover, MSC-treated mice displayed a significant 33% reduction in circulating monocytes and a 77% reduction of serum CCL2 levels. Most strikingly, we found a previously unappreciated effect on lipid metabolism. Serum cholesterol was reduced by 33%, due to reduced very low-density lipoprotein levels, likely a result of reduced de novo hepatic lipogenesis as determined by a reduced expression of Stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 and lipoprotein lipase. MSCs significantly affected lesion development, which was reduced by 33% in the aortic root. These lesions contained 56% less macrophages and showed a 61% reduction in T cell numbers. We show here for the first time that MSC treatment affects not only inflammatory responses but also significantly reduces dyslipidaemia in mice. This makes MSCs a potent candidate for atherosclerosis therapies. PMID:26490642

  12. Lifestyle effects on hematopoiesis and atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Nahrendorf, Matthias; Swirski, Filip K

    2015-02-27

    Diet, exercise, stress, and sleep are receiving attention as environmental modifiers of chronic inflammatory diseases, including atherosclerosis, the culprit condition of myocardial infarction and stroke. Accumulating data indicate that psychosocial stress and a high-fat, high-cholesterol diet aggravate cardiovascular disease, whereas regular physical activity and healthy sleeping habits help prevent it. Here, we raise the possibility that inflammation-associated leukocyte production plays a causal role in lifestyle effects on atherosclerosis progression. Specifically, we explore whether and how potent real-life disease modifiers influence hematopoiesis' molecular and cellular machinery. Lifestyle, we hypothesize, may rearrange hematopoietic topography, diverting production from the bone marrow to the periphery, thus propagating a quantitative and qualitative drift of the macrophage supply chain. These changes may involve progenitor-extrinsic and intrinsic communication nodes that connect organ systems along neuroimmune and immunometabolic axes, ultimately leading to an altered number and phenotype of lesional macrophages. We propose that, in conjunction with improved public health policy, future therapeutics could aim to modulate the quantitative and qualitative output, as well as the location, of the hematopoietic tree to decrease the risk of atherosclerosis complications. PMID:25722442

  13. [Mitogen-activated protein kinases in atherosclerosis].

    PubMed

    Bryk, Dorota; Olejarz, Wioletta; Zapolska-Downar, Danuta

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular signalling cascades, in which MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinases) intermediate, are responsible for a biological response of a cell to an external stimulus. MAP kinases, which include ERK1/2 (extracellular signalling-regulated kinase), JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase) and p 38 MAPK, regulate the activity of many proteins, enzymes and transcription factors and thus have a wide spectrum of biological effects. Many basic scientific studies have defined numerous details of their pathway organization and activation. There are also more and more studies suggesting that individual MAP kinases probably play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. They may mediate inflammatory processes, endothelial cell activation, monocyte/macrophage recruitment and activation, smooth muscle cell proliferation and T-lymphocyte differentiation, all of which represent crucial mechanisms involved in pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The specific inhibition of an activity of the respective MAP kinases may prove a new therapeutic approach to attenuate atherosclerotic plaque formation in the future. In this paper, we review the current state of knowledge concerning MAP kinase-dependent cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying atherosclerosis. PMID:24491891

  14. Atherosclerosis and Atheroma Plaque Rupture: Normal Anatomy of Vasa Vasorum and Their Role Associated with Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is primarily a degenerative disorder related to aging with a chronic inflammatory component. There are differences in expression among different vascular beds, inflicting a range of vascular diseases. The majority of studies focus on the inner and medial vascular layers, which are affected at the development of atherosclerosis. Recent evidence shows that the outer layer of blood vessels, composed of the adventitial layer and the vasa vasorum, not only plays a significant role in maintaining vessel integrity, but also reacts to atheroma. What is not clear is the extent of contribution of the outer layer to the process of atherosclerosis. Is it involved in the initiation, progression, and clinical expression of atheroma? Is the inflammation associated with atheroma limited to being merely reactive or is there a proactive element? This paper provides an overview of the normal anatomy of vasa vasorum and potential mechanism of plaque formation due to vascular injury (vasa vasorum) and microhemorrhage. PMID:24790560

  15. The role of the vascular dendritic cell network in atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Alberts-Grill, Noah; Denning, Timothy L.; Rezvan, Amir

    2013-01-01

    A complex role has been described for dendritic cells (DCs) in the potentiation and control of vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis. Resident vascular DCs are found in the intima of atherosclerosis-prone vascular regions exposed to disturbed blood flow patterns. Several phenotypically and functionally distinct vascular DC subsets have been described. The functional heterogeneity of these cells and their contributions to vascular homeostasis, inflammation, and atherosclerosis are only recently beginning to emerge. Here, we review the available literature, characterizing the origin and function of known vascular DC subsets and their important role contributing to the balance of immune activation and immune tolerance governing vascular homeostasis under healthy conditions. We then discuss how homeostatic DC functions are disrupted during atherogenesis, leading to atherosclerosis. The effectiveness of DC-based “atherosclerosis vaccine” therapies in the treatment of atherosclerosis is also reviewed. We further provide suggestions for distinguishing DCs from macrophages and discuss important future directions for the field. PMID:23552284

  16. LDL biochemical modifications: a link between atherosclerosis and aging

    PubMed Central

    Alique, Matilde; Luna, Carlos; Carracedo, Julia; Ramírez, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is an aging disease in which increasing age is a risk factor. Modified low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is a well-known risk marker for cardiovascular disease. High-plasma LDL concentrations and modifications, such as oxidation, glycosylation, carbamylation and glycoxidation, have been shown to be proatherogenic experimentally in vitro and in vivo. Atherosclerosis results from alterations to LDL in the arterial wall by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Evidence suggests that common risk factors for atherosclerosis raise the likelihood that free ROS are produced from endothelial cells and other cells. Furthermore, oxidative stress is an important factor in the induction of endothelial senescence. Thus, endothelial damage and cellular senescence are well-established markers for atherosclerosis. This review examines LDL modifications and discusses the mechanisms of the pathology of atherosclerosis due to aging, including endothelial damage and oxidative stress, and the link between aging and atherosclerosis. PMID:26637360

  17. Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Protects against Atherosclerosis via Fine-Tuning the Multiorgan Crosstalk.

    PubMed

    Jin, Leigang; Lin, Zhuofeng; Xu, Aimin

    2016-02-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a metabolic hormone with pleiotropic effects on energy metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Besides its antiobese and antidiabetic activity, FGF21 also possesses the protective effects against atherosclerosis. Circulating levels of FGF21 are elevated in patients with atherosclerosis, macrovascular and microvascular complications of diabetes, possibly due to a compensatory upregulation. In apolipoprotein E-deficient mice, formation of atherosclerotic plaques is exacerbated by genetic depletion of FGF21, but is attenuated upon replenishment with recombinant FGF21. However, the blood vessel is not the direct target of FGF21, and the antiatherosclerotic activity of FGF21 is attributed to its actions in adipose tissues and liver. In adipocytes, FGF21 promotes secretion of adiponectin, which in turn acts directly on blood vessels to reduce endothelial dysfunction, inhibit proliferation of smooth muscle cells and block conversion of macrophages to foam cells. Furthermore, FGF21 suppresses cholesterol biosynthesis and attenuates hypercholesterolemia by inhibiting the transcription factor sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 in hepatocytes. The effects of FGF21 on elevation of adiponectin and reduction of hypercholesterolemia are also observed in a phase-1b clinical trial in patients with obesity and diabetes. Therefore, FGF21 exerts its protection against atherosclerosis by fine-tuning the interorgan crosstalk between liver, brain, adipose tissue, and blood vessels. PMID:26912152

  18. Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Protects against Atherosclerosis via Fine-Tuning the Multiorgan Crosstalk

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Leigang; Lin, Zhuofeng

    2016-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a metabolic hormone with pleiotropic effects on energy metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Besides its antiobese and antidiabetic activity, FGF21 also possesses the protective effects against atherosclerosis. Circulating levels of FGF21 are elevated in patients with atherosclerosis, macrovascular and microvascular complications of diabetes, possibly due to a compensatory upregulation. In apolipoprotein E-deficient mice, formation of atherosclerotic plaques is exacerbated by genetic depletion of FGF21, but is attenuated upon replenishment with recombinant FGF21. However, the blood vessel is not the direct target of FGF21, and the antiatherosclerotic activity of FGF21 is attributed to its actions in adipose tissues and liver. In adipocytes, FGF21 promotes secretion of adiponectin, which in turn acts directly on blood vessels to reduce endothelial dysfunction, inhibit proliferation of smooth muscle cells and block conversion of macrophages to foam cells. Furthermore, FGF21 suppresses cholesterol biosynthesis and attenuates hypercholesterolemia by inhibiting the transcription factor sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 in hepatocytes. The effects of FGF21 on elevation of adiponectin and reduction of hypercholesterolemia are also observed in a phase-1b clinical trial in patients with obesity and diabetes. Therefore, FGF21 exerts its protection against atherosclerosis by fine-tuning the interorgan crosstalk between liver, brain, adipose tissue, and blood vessels. PMID:26912152

  19. Beyond the joint: Subclinical atherosclerosis in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Scarno, Antongiulio; Perrotta, Fabio Massimo; Cardini, Francesca; Carboni, Alessia; Annibali, Gianmarco; Lubrano, Ennio; Spadaro, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease associated with increased cardiovascular risk and higher mortality in respect to general population. Beyond joint disease, inflammation is the major determinant of accelerated atherosclerosis observed in rheumatoid arthritis. We review the relationship between inflammation, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk in rheumatoid arthritis, focusing on the assessment of subclinical atherosclerosis by functional and morphological methods. These tools include flow mediated dilatation, carotid intima-media thickness, ankle/brachial index, coronary calcium content, pulse wave analysis and serum biomarker of subclinical atherosclerosis. PMID:25035836

  20. Is the Use of Fullerene in Photodynamic Therapy Effective for Atherosclerosis?

    SciTech Connect

    Nitta, Norihisa Seko, Ayumi; Sonoda, Akinaga; Ohta, Shinichi; Tanaka, Toyohiko; Takahashi, Masashi; Murata, Kiyoshi; Takemura, Shizuki; Sakamoto, Tsutomu; Tabata, Yasuhiko

    2008-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate Fullerene as a therapeutic photosensitizer in the treatment of atherosclerosis. An atherosclerotic experimental rabbit model was prepared by causing intimal injury to bilateral external iliac arteries using balloon expansion. In four atherosclerotic rabbits and one normal rabbit, polyethylene glycol-modified Fullerene (Fullerene-PEG) was infused into the left external iliac artery and illuminated by light emitting diode (LED), while the right external iliac artery was only illuminated by LED. Two weeks later, the histological findings for each iliac artery were evaluated quantitatively and comparisons were made among atherosclerotic Fullerene+LED artery (n = 4), atherosclerotic light artery (n = 4), normal Fullerene+LED artery (n = 1), and normal light artery (n = 1). An additional two atherosclerotic rabbits were studied by fluorescence microscopy, after Fullerene-PEG-Cy5 complex infusion into the left external iliac artery, for evaluation of Fullerene-PEG incorporated within the atherosclerotic lesions. The degree of atherosclerosis in the atherosclerotic Fullerene+LED artery was significantly (p < 0.05) more severe than that in the atherosclerotic LED artery. No pathological change was observed in normal Fullerene+LED and LED arteries. In addition, strong accumulation of Fullerene-PEG-Cy5 complex within the plaque of the left iliac artery of the two rabbits was demonstrated, in contrast to no accumulation in the right iliac artery. We conclude that infusion of a high concentration of Fullerene-PEG followed by photo-illumination resulted not in a suppression of atherosclerosis but in a progression of atherosclerosis in experimental rabbit models. However, this intervention showed no adverse effects on the normal iliac artery.

  1. Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor-2 function in myeloid cells regulates vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Skoura, Athanasia; Michaud, Jason; Im, Dong-Soon; Thangada, Shobha; Xiong, Yuquan; Smith, Jonathan; Hla, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Objective Sphingomyelin deposition and metabolism occurs in the atherosclerotic plaque, leading to the formation of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), which activates G protein-coupled receptors to regulate vascular and immune cells. The role of S1P receptors in atherosclerosis has not been examined. Methods and Results We tested the hypothesis that Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor-2 (S1PR2) regulates atherosclerosis. Apoe−/−S1pr2−/− mice showed greatly attenuated atherosclerosis compared to the Apoe−/− mice. Bone marrow transplant experiments indicate that S1PR2 function in the hematopoietic compartment is critical. S1PR2 is expressed in bone marrow-derived macrophages and in macrophage-like foam cells in atherosclerotic plaques. Reduced macrophage-like foam cells were found in the atherosclerotic plaques of Apoe−/−S1pr2−/− mice, suggesting that S1PR2 retains macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques. Lipoprotein profiles, plasma lipids and oxidized LDL uptake by bone marrow-derived macrophages were not altered by the S1pr2 genotype. In contrast, endotoxin-induced inflammatory cytokine (IL-1β, IL-18) levels in the serum of S1PR2 knockout mice were significantly reduced. Further, treatment of wild-type mice with S1PR2 antagonist JTE-013 suppressed IL-1β and IL-18 levels in plasma. Conclusion These data suggest that S1PR2 signaling in the plaque macrophage regulates macrophage retention and inflammatory cytokine secretion, thereby promoting atherosclerosis. PMID:20947824

  2. Imaging and nanomedicine in inflammatory atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Willem J M; Jaffer, Farouc A; Fayad, Zahi A; Nahrendorf, Matthias

    2014-06-01

    Bioengineering provides unique opportunities to better understand and manage atherosclerotic disease. The field is entering a new era that merges the latest biological insights into inflammatory disease processes with targeted imaging and nanomedicine. Preclinical cardiovascular molecular imaging allows the in vivo study of targeted nanotherapeutics specifically directed toward immune system components that drive atherosclerotic plaque development and complication. The first multicenter trials highlight the potential contribution of multimodality imaging to more efficient drug development. This review describes how the integration of engineering, nanotechnology, and cardiovascular immunology may yield precision diagnostics and efficient therapeutics for atherosclerosis and its ischemic complications. PMID:24898749

  3. Imaging and Nanomedicine in Inflammatory Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Mulder, Willem J. M.; Jaffer, Farouc A.; Fayad, Zahi A.; Nahrendorf, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Bioengineering provides unique opportunities to better understand and manage atherosclerotic disease. The field is entering a new era that merges the latest biological insights into inflammatory disease processes with targeted imaging and nanomedicine. Preclinical cardiovascular molecular imaging allows the in vivo study of targeted nanotherapeutics specifically directed toward immune system components that drive atherosclerotic plaque development and complication. The first multicenter trials highlight the potential contribution of multimodality imaging to more efficient drug development. This review describes how the integration of engineering, nanotechnology, and cardiovascular immunology may yield precision diagnostics and efficient therapeutics for atherosclerosis and its ischemic complications. PMID:24898749

  4. MicroRNA-26a prevents endothelial cell apoptosis by directly targeting TRPC6 in the setting of atherosclerosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Qin, Wei; Zhang, Longyin; Wu, Xianxian; Du, Ning; Hu, Yingying; Li, Xiaoguang; Shen, Nannan; Xiao, Dan; Zhang, Haiying; Li, Zhange; Zhang, Yue; Yang, Huan; Gao, Feng; Du, Zhimin; Xu, Chaoqian; Yang, Baofeng

    2015-03-01

    Atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory disease, is the major cause of life-threatening complications such as myocardial infarction and stroke. Endothelial apoptosis plays a vital role in the initiation and progression of atherosclerotic lesions. Although a subset of microRNAs (miRs) have been identified as critical regulators of atherosclerosis, studies on their participation in endothelial apoptosis in atherosclerosis have been limited. In our study, we found that miR-26a expression was substantially reduced in the aortic intima of ApoE-/- mice fed with a high-fat diet (HFD). Treatment of human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) with oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) suppressed miR-26a expression. Forced expression of miR-26a inhibited endothelial apoptosis as evidenced by MTT assay and TUNEL staining results. Further analysis identified TRPC6 as a target of miR-26a, and TRPC6 overexpression abolished the anti-apoptotic effect of miR-26a. Moreover, the cytosolic calcium and the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway were found to mediate the beneficial effects of miR-26a on endothelial apoptosis. Taken together, our study reveals a novel role of miR-26a in endothelial apoptosis and indicates a therapeutic potential of miR-26a for atherosclerosis associated with apoptotic cell death.

  5. Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 Prevents Atherosclerosis via Inhibition of Intestinal Cholesterol Absorption in Apolipoprotein E-Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jinfeng; Quan, Guihua; Wang, Xiaojun; Yang, Longfei; Zhong, Lili

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 on the development of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE−/−) mice. Eight-week-old ApoE−/− mice were fed a Western diet with or without L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 daily for 16 weeks. L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 protected ApoE−/− mice from atherosclerosis by reducing their plasma cholesterol levels from 923 ± 44 to 581 ± 18 mg/dl, likely via a marked decrease in cholesterol absorption caused by modulation of Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1). In addition, suppression of cholesterol absorption induced reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) in macrophages through the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor/liver X receptor (PPAR/LXR) pathway. Fecal lactobacillus and bifidobacterium counts were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 treatment groups than in the control groups. Furthermore, L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 was detected in the rat small intestine, colon, and feces during the feeding trial. The bacterial levels remained high even after the administration of lactic acid bacteria had been stopped for 2 weeks. These results suggest that administration of L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 can protect against atherosclerosis through the inhibition of intestinal cholesterol absorption. Therefore, L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 may be a potential therapeutic material for preventing the progression of atherosclerosis. PMID:25261526

  6. Oral FTY720 administration induces immune tolerance and inhibits early development of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Huang, K; Li, S Q; Wang, W J; Liu, L S; Jiang, Y G; Feng, P N; Wang, Y Q; Wang, S M

    2012-01-01

    Orally administered immunomodulatory drugs have recently demonstrated the ability to induce an oral tolerance via inhibition of effector T cells and induction of certain subsets of regulatory T cells (Tregs) which have the potential to prevent several autoimmune diseases. In the present study, we hypothesized that short-term, low-dose, oral FTY720 administration may induce latency-associated peptide (LAP) Tregs and CD4(+) Foxp3(+) Tregs in atherogenesis, potentially resulting in remission of early development of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient (APOE(-/-)) mice. FTY720 was orally administered to APOE(-/-) mice 4 weeks of age on a high-cholesterol diet and atherosclerosis was assessed at 8 weeks of age. Oral administration of FTY720 significantly reduced atherosclerotic lesion formation compared with control mice. We observed a significant increase in LAP(+) and Foxp3(+) cells in the CD4+T-cell population of FTY720-treated mice in association with increased production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) as well as suppressed T-helper type 1 immune responses. Our findings reveal that short-term, low-dose oral FTY720 treatment had great benefits in inhibiting early development of atherosclerosis in mice via induction of a regulatory T-cell response and inhibition of effector T responses. These findings suggest that oral immune modulation may represent an attractive therapeutic approach to atherosclerosis. PMID:22697071

  7. Atherosclerosis: a chronic inflammatory disease mediated by mast cells

    PubMed Central

    Shaik-Dasthagirisaeb, Yazdami

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is a process that plays an important role in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis and immune disease, involving multiple cell types, including macrophages, T-lymphocytes, endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells and mast cells. The fundamental damage of atherosclerosis is the atheromatous or fibro-fatty plaque which is a lesion that causes several diseases. In atherosclerosis the innate immune response, which involves macrophages, is initiated by the arterial endothelial cells which respond to modified lipoproteins and lead to Th1 cell subset activation and generation of inflammatory cytokines and chemoattractant chemokines. Other immune cells, such as CD4+ T inflammatory cells, which play a critical role in the development and progression of atherosclerosis, and regulatory T cells [Treg], which have a protective effect on the development of atherosclerosis are involved. Considerable evidence indicates that mast cells and their products play a key role in inflammation and atherosclerosis. Activated mast cells can have detrimental effects, provoking matrix degradation, apoptosis, and enhancement as well as recruitment of inflammatory cells, which actively contributes to atherosclerosis and plaque formation. Here we discuss the relationship between atherosclerosis, inflammation and mast cells. PMID:26648785

  8. Modulation of atherosclerosis by N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have reviewed literature regarding the effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on risk factors for atherosclerosis in human subjects. Dietary intervention with long chain n-3 PUFA decreased some risk factor (s) for atherosclerosis in most human studies reviewed. These benefits resulted ...

  9. Carotid Intima-Media Thickness for Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Nezu, Tomohisa; Hosomi, Naohisa; Aoki, Shiro; Matsumoto, Masayasu

    2016-01-01

    The carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) is a widely used surrogate marker for atherosclerosis worldwide. The carotid IMT can be simply, noninvasively, and reproducibly measured through B-mode carotid ultrasound. The carotid IMT is also a strong predictor of future cerebral and cardiovascular events. In addition, regressions of increased carotid IMT by lipid-lowering and antihypertensive drugs have been reported. Despite the strong association between increased carotid IMT and cardiovascular disease, it remains unclear whether routine carotid IMT measurement is useful for the detection of subclinical atherosclerosis in clinical practice. Researches should consider other methodological aspects, such as the definition of carotid plaques, the choice of measurement sites on the common or internal carotid artery, and the assessment of maximum or minimum IMT. The detailed guidelines for measuring carotid IMT vary by county. Thus, the usefulness of the carotid IMT may be assessed in different countries taking racial differences into account. Other important parameters revealed by carotid ultrasound, such as artery stenosis and the characteristics and size of plaques, should also be considered. Physicians should comprehensively interpret the results of carotid ultrasonography. Therefore, carotid ultrasonography is an essential tool for assessing cardiovascular risk in clinical settings. PMID:26460381

  10. Cardiac CT: atherosclerosis to acute coronary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Munnur, Ravi Kiran; Cameron, James D.; Ko, Brian S.; Meredith, Ian T.

    2014-01-01

    Coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) is a robust non-invasive method to assess coronary artery disease (CAD). Qualitative and quantitative assessment of atherosclerotic coronary stenosis with CCTA has been favourably compared with invasive coronary angiography (ICA) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). Importantly, it allows the study of preclinical stages of atherosclerotic disease, may help improve risk stratification and monitor the progressive course of the disease. The diagnostic accuracy of CCTA in the assessment of coronary artery bypass grafts (CABG) is excellent and the constantly improving technology is making the evaluation of stents feasible. Novel techniques are being developed to assess the functional significance of coronary stenosis. The excellent negative predictive value of CCTA in ruling out disease enables early and safe discharge of patients with suspected acute coronary syndromes (ACS) in the Emergency Department (ED). In addition, CCTA is useful in predicting clinical outcomes based on the extent of coronary atherosclerosis and also based on individual plaque characteristics such as low attenuation plaque (LAP), positive remodelling and spotty calcification. In this article, we review the role of CCTA in the detection of coronary atherosclerosis in native vessels, stented vessels, calcified arteries and grafts; the assessment of plaque progression, evaluation of chest pain in the ED, assessment of functional significance of stenosis and the prognostic significance of CCTA. PMID:25610801

  11. Macrophage-mediated cholesterol handling in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Chistiakov, Dimitry A; Bobryshev, Yuri V; Orekhov, Alexander N

    2016-01-01

    Formation of foam cells is a hallmark at the initial stages of atherosclerosis. Monocytes attracted by pro-inflammatory stimuli attach to the inflamed vascular endothelium and penetrate to the arterial intima where they differentiate to macrophages. Intimal macrophages phagocytize oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL). Several scavenger receptors (SR), including CD36, SR-A1 and lectin-like oxLDL receptor-1 (LOX-1), mediate oxLDL uptake. In late endosomes/lysosomes of macrophages, oxLDL are catabolysed. Lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) hydrolyses cholesterol esters that are enriched in LDL to free cholesterol and free fatty acids. In the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), acyl coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase-1 (ACAT1) in turn catalyses esterification of cholesterol to store cholesterol esters as lipid droplets in the ER of macrophages. Neutral cholesteryl ester hydrolases nCEH and NCEH1 are involved in a secondary hydrolysis of cholesterol esters to liberate free cholesterol that could be then out-flowed from macrophages by cholesterol ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters ABCA1 and ABCG1 and SR-BI. In atherosclerosis, disruption of lipid homoeostasis in macrophages leads to cholesterol accumulation and formation of foam cells. PMID:26493158

  12. Periodontitis as a Risk Factor of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Bartova, Jirina; Sommerova, Pavla; Lyuya-Mi, Yelena; Mysak, Jaroslav; Janatova, Tatjana; Podzimek, Stepan

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades, the amount of evidence corroborating an association between dental plaque bacteria and coronary diseases that develop as a result of atherosclerosis has increased. These findings have brought a new aspect to the etiology of the disease. There are several mechanisms by which dental plaque bacteria may initiate or worsen atherosclerotic processes: activation of innate immunity, bacteremia related to dental treatment, and direct involvement of mediators activated by dental plaque and involvement of cytokines and heat shock proteins from dental plaque bacteria. There are common predisposing factors which influence both periodontitis and atherosclerosis. Both diseases can be initiated in early childhood, although the first symptoms may not appear until adulthood. The formation of lipid stripes has been reported in 10-year-old children and the increased prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents is a risk factor contributing to lipid stripes development. Endothelium damage caused by the formation of lipid stripes in early childhood may lead to bacteria penetrating into blood circulation after oral cavity procedures for children as well as for patients with aggressive and chronic periodontitis. PMID:24741613

  13. Nox enzymes and oxidative stress in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Manea, Adrian; Simionescu, Maya

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a major contributor to the etiology of all severe vascular pathologies, such as atherosclerosis. NADPH oxidases (Nox) are a class of multicomponent enzymes whose unique function is the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the vascular cells and in circulating immune cells interacting with blood vessels. Physiological production of Nox-derived ROS contributes to the maintenance of vascular homeostasis. In pathological states, hyperactivity of Nox induces oxidative stress. Nox-derived ROS interact and stimulate other enzymatic sources of oxygen/nitrogen reactive intermediates, and amplify the initial response to insults. In atherosclerosis, Nox-induced lipid peroxidation is highly deleterious and expands the free radical reactions initially produced by activated Nox. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms of Nox regulation, vascular and subcellular compartmentalization of ROS production and its subsequent biological significance, may lead to a focused and effective anti-oxidative stress therapy. We present here, recent advances in Nox regulation in the vasculature and discuss novel potential intrinsic feedback mechanisms and current and pharmacological perspectives to target Nox, which may have an impact in vascular health and disease. PMID:22202083

  14. How hyperglycemia promotes atherosclerosis: molecular mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Aronson, Doron; Rayfield, Elliot J

    2002-01-01

    Both type I and type II diabetes are powerful and independent risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD), stroke, and peripheral arterial disease. Atherosclerosis accounts for virtually 80% of all deaths among diabetic patients. Prolonged exposure to hyperglycemia is now recognized a major factor in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in diabetes. Hyperglycemia induces a large number of alterations at the cellular level of vascular tissue that potentially accelerate the atherosclerotic process. Animal and human studies have elucidated three major mechanisms that encompass most of the pathological alterations observed in the diabetic vasculature: 1) Nonenzymatic glycosylation of proteins and lipids which can interfere with their normal function by disrupting molecular conformation, alter enzymatic activity, reduce degradative capacity, and interfere with receptor recognition. In addition, glycosylated proteins interact with a specific receptor present on all cells relevant to the atherosclerotic process, including monocyte-derived macrophages, endothelial cells, and smooth muscle cells. The interaction of glycosylated proteins with their receptor results in the induction of oxidative stress and proinflammatory responses 2) oxidative stress 3) protein kinase C (PKC) activation with subsequent alteration in growth factor expression. Importantly, these mechanisms may be interrelated. For example, hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress promotes both the formation of advanced glycosylation end products and PKC activation. PMID:12119059

  15. Genetic Basis of Atherosclerosis: Insights from Mice and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Stylianou, Ioannis M.; Bauer, Robert C.; Reilly, Muredach P.; Rader, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a complex and heritable disease involving multiple cell types and the interactions of many different molecular pathways. The genetic and molecular mechanisms of atherosclerosis have in part been elucidated by mouse models; at least 100 different genes have been shown to influence atherosclerosis in mice. Importantly, unbiased genome-wide association studies have recently identified a number of novel loci robustly associated with atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD). Here we review the genetic data elucidated from mouse models of atherosclerosis, as well as significant associations for human CAD. Furthermore, we discuss in greater detail some of these novel human CAD loci. The combination of mouse and human genetics has the potential to identify and validate novel genes that influence atherosclerosis, some of which may be candidates for new therapeutic approaches. PMID:22267839

  16. Suppression of adrenal ?arrestin1-dependent aldosterone production by ARBs: head-to-head comparison.

    PubMed

    Dabul, Samalia; Bathgate-Siryk, Ashley; Valero, Thairy Reyes; Jafferjee, Malika; Sturchler, Emmanuel; McDonald, Patricia; Koch, Walter J; Lymperopoulos, Anastasios

    2015-01-01

    The known angiotensin II (AngII) physiological effect of aldosterone synthesis and secretion is mediated by either Gq/11 proteins or ?arrestin1 (?arr1), both of which can couple to its type 1 receptors (AT?Rs), present in adrenocortical zona glomerulosa (AZG) cell membranes. In the present study, we examined the relative potencies of all the currently used in the clinic AT?R antagonist drugs (angiotensin receptor blockers, ARBs, or sartans) at preventing activation of these two signaling mediators (G proteins and ?arrs) at the AngII-bound AT1R and, consequently, at suppression of aldosterone in vitro. All ARBs were found to be potent inhibitors of G protein activation at the AT?R. However, candesartan and valsartan were the most potent at blocking AngII-induced ?arr activation at this receptor, among the tetrazolo-biphenyl-methyl derivatives, translating into excellent efficacies at aldosterone suppression in H295R cells. Conversely, irbesartan and losartan were largely G protein-selective inhibitors at the AT?R, with very low potency towards ?arr inhibition. As a result, they were very weak suppressors of ?arr1-dependent aldosterone production in H295R cells. These findings provide important pharmacological insights into the drug class of ARBs and medicinal chemistry insights for future drug development in the field of AngII antagonism. PMID:25631300

  17. Intranasal immunization with heat shock protein 60 induces CD4(+) CD25(+) GARP(+) and type 1 regulatory T cells and inhibits early atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Y; Tang, H; Wang, X; Zeng, Q; Liu, Y; Zhao, X I; Yu, K; Shi, H; Zhu, R; Mao, X

    2016-03-01

    Atherosclerosis is an autoimmune inflammatory disease involving both innate and adaptive immune mechanisms. Immune tolerance induction may have therapeutic potential for the suppression of atherosclerosis. Current interest is directed towards mucosal tolerance induction, especially nasal tolerance. Previous studies have shown that heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) is recognized as an important autoantigen in atherosclerosis, and nasal or oral HSP60 can induce tolerance and ameliorate atherosclerosis by inducing several subsets of regulatory T cells (Tregs ) such as latency-associated peptide (LAP)(+) and forkhead box transcription factor 3 (FoxP3)(+) Tregs . However, little is known regarding the detailed mechanisms of nasal tolerance. Here, we again investigated the impact of nasal HSP60 on atherosclerosis and the mechanisms underlying the anti-atherosclerosis responses. We found that nasal HSP60 caused a significant 33·6% reduction in plaque size at the aortic root in the early stages of atherosclerosis (P < 0·001). Notably, a significant increase in activated CD4(+) CD25(+) glycoprotein A repetitions predominant (GARP)(+) Tregs , type 1 Tregs (Tr1 cells), and CD4(+) CD25(+) FoxP3(+) Tregs , as well as a marked decrease in the numbers of type 1 and 17 T helper cells was detected in the spleens and cervical lymph nodes of HSP60-treated mice. Moreover, nasal HSP60 increases the production of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β and interleukin (IL)-10 and decreases the secretion of IFN-γ and IL-17. Interestingly, the atheroprotective role of nasal HSP60 treatment was abrogated partly by the neutralization of IL-10. Our findings show that nasal administration of HSP60 can attenuate atherosclerotic formation by inducing GARP(+) Tregs , Tr1 cells and FoxP3(+) Tregs , and that these Tregs maintain immune homeostasis by secreting IL-10 and TGF-β. PMID:26452441

  18. The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis: atherogenesis and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Munro, J M; Cotran, R S

    1988-03-01

    Current concepts of the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis have been reviewed, emphasizing some of the similarities of the mechanisms and events involved to those in inflammation. Figure 2 is a schematic summary of these events. Hyperlipidemia, or some component of hyperlipidemic serum, as well as other risk factors, are thought to cause endothelial injury, resulting in adhesion of platelets and/or monocytes and release of PDGF (and other growth factors), which leads to smooth muscle migration and proliferation. It is clear that endothelial injury need not be denuding, and in fact may consist of altered endothelial function (dysfunction); adhesion of monocytes, increased permeability of endothelium, and disturbances in growth control can occur without morphologically obvious endothelial injury. Hyperlipidemia, hypertension, smoking, immune injury, and other risk factors may contribute to this endothelial dysfunction in different ways and sometimes in combination. Smooth muscle cells produce large amounts of collagen, elastin, and proteoglycans and these form part of the atheromatous plaque. Hyperlipidemia contributes in a number of ways (as discussed earlier), and indeed, in the severely hypercholesterolemic patient, such as one with familial hypercholesterolemia, is alone sufficient to cause atherosclerosis in the absence of other risk factors. Foam cells of atheromatous plaques are derived both from macrophages and from smooth muscle cells; from macrophages via the beta-VLDL receptor and also possibly by way of LDL modification, recognized by the acetyl-LDL receptor (such as oxidized LDL); and from smooth muscle cells by less certain mechanisms. Extracellular lipid is derived from insudation from the lumen, particularly in the presence of hypercholesterolemia, and also from degenerating foam cells. Cholesterol accumulation in the plaque should be viewed as reflecting imbalance between influx and efflux, and it is possible that high-density lipoprotein is the molecule which helps clear the cholesterol from these accumulations (134). The diagram (right) also depicts the possibility that smooth muscle proliferation may occur without endothelial injury at all. There are several postulated mechanisms for such an occurrence: loss of growth control, direct smooth muscle injury (such as by LDL), and autonomous proliferation by the mechanisms suggested by Benditt. The theoretical scheme presented is based largely on in vitro work, only partly substantiated by experimental and human studies, and does not explain the precise mechanisms by which all risk factors increase the susceptibility to atherosclerosis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3279259

  19. Ginseng Extracts Restore High-Glucose Induced Vascular Dysfunctions by Altering Triglyceride Metabolism and Downregulation of Atherosclerosis-Related Genes

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Gabriel Hoi-huen; Law, Betty Yuen-kwan; Chu, John Man-tak; Yue, Kevin Kin-man; Jiang, Zhi-hong; Lau, Chi-wai; Huang, Yu; Chan, Shun-wan; Ying-kit Yue, Patrick; Wong, Ricky Ngok-shun

    2013-01-01

    The king of herbs, Panax ginseng, has been used widely as a therapeutic agent vis-à-vis its active pharmacological and physiological effects. Based on Chinese pharmacopeia Ben Cao Gang Mu and various pieces of literature, Panax ginseng was believed to exert active vascular protective effects through its antiobesity and anti-inflammation properties. We investigated the vascular protective effects of ginseng by administrating ginseng extracts to rats after the induction of diabetes. We found that Panax ginseng can restore diabetes-induced impaired vasorelaxation and can reduce serum triglyceride but not cholesterol level in the diabetic rats. The ginseng extracts also suppressed the expression of atherosclerosis-related genes and altered the expression of lipid-related genes. The results provide evidence that Panax ginseng improves vascular dysfunction induced by diabetes and the protective effects may possibly be due to the downregulation of atherosclerosis-related genes and altered lipid metabolism, which help to restore normal endothelium functions. PMID:24194784

  20. HDL signaling and protection against coronary artery atherosclerosis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Trigatti, Bernardo L; Fuller, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Atherosclerosis is a leading underlying factor in cardiovascular disease and stroke, important causes of morbidity and mortality across the globe. Abundant epidemiological studies demonstrate that high levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL) are associated with reduced risk of atherosclerosis and preclinical, animal model studies demonstrate that this association is causative. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the protective effects of HDL will allow more strategic approaches to development of HDL based therapeutics. Recent evidence suggests that an important aspect of the ability of HDL to protect against atherosclerosis is its ability to trigger signaling responses in a variety of target cells including endothelial cells and macrophages in the vessel wall. These signaling responses require the HDL receptor, scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SR-B1), an adaptor protein (PDZK1) that binds to the cytosolic C terminus of SR-B1, Akt1 activation and (at least in endothelial cells) activation of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS). Mouse models of atherosclerosis, exemplified by apolipoprotein E or low density lipoprotein receptor gene inactivated mice (apoE or LDLR KO) develop atherosclerosis in their aortas but appear generally resistant to coronary artery atherosclerosis. On the other hand, inactivation of each of the components of HDL signaling (above) in either apoE or LDLR KO mice renders them susceptible to extensive coronary artery atherosclerosis suggesting that HDL signaling may play an important role in protection against coronary artery disease. PMID:26642235

  1. Correlation between Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen and Severity of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Dorighello, Gabriel G.; Paim, Bruno A.; Kiihl, Samara F.; Ferreira, Mônica S.; Catharino, Rodrigo R.; Vercesi, Anibal E.; Oliveira, Helena C. F.

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis has been associated with mitochondria dysfunction and damage. Our group demonstrated previously that hypercholesterolemic mice present increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen (mtROS) generation in several tissues and low NADPH/NADP+ ratio. Here, we investigated whether spontaneous atherosclerosis in these mice could be modulated by treatments that replenish or spare mitochondrial NADPH, named citrate supplementation, cholesterol synthesis inhibition, or both treatments simultaneously. Robust statistical analyses in pooled group data were performed in order to explain the variation of atherosclerosis lesion areas as related to the classic atherosclerosis risk factors such as plasma lipids, obesity, and oxidative stress, including liver mtROS. Using three distinct statistical tools (univariate correlation, adjusted correlation, and multiple regression) with increasing levels of stringency, we identified a novel significant association and a model that reliably predicts the extent of atherosclerosis due to variations in mtROS. Thus, results show that atherosclerosis lesion area is positively and independently correlated with liver mtROS production rates. Based on these findings, we propose that modulation of mitochondrial redox state influences the atherosclerosis extent. PMID:26635912

  2. Atherosclerosis and Rheumatoid Arthritis: More Than a Simple Association

    PubMed Central

    Cavagna, Lorenzo; Boffini, Nicola; Cagnotto, Giovanni; Inverardi, Flora; Grosso, Vittorio; Caporali, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    In the last decades a large amount of evidence linked rheumatoid arthritis (RA) to atherosclerosis. In fact, RA patients have an increased risk of cardiovascular events that is not fully explained by other classic cardiovascular risk factors. RA and atherosclerosis may share several common pathomechanisms and inflammation undoubtedly plays a primary role. The proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6, involved in the pathogenesis of RA, are also independently predictive of subsequent cardiovascular disease (CVD). In RA, inflammation alters HDL constituents and the concentration of LDL and HDL, thus facilitating atherosclerosis and CVD events. On the other hand, also the increase of oxidative processes, frequently observed in RA, induces atherosclerosis. Interestingly, some genetic polymorphisms associated with RA occurrence enhance atherosclerosis, however, other polymorphisms associated with RA susceptibility do not increase CVD risk. Several other mechanisms may influence atherosclerotic processes in RA. Moreover, atherosclerosis may be directly mediated also by underlying autoimmune processes, and indirectly by the occurrence of metabolic syndrome and impaired physical activity. Finally, the effects of RA therapies on cardiovascular system in general and on atherosclerosis in particular are really wide and different. However, the starting point of every RA treatment is that disease control, or better remission, is the best way we have for the reduction of CVD occurrence. PMID:23024462

  3. Role of Matrix Metalloproteinase-8 in Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Lenglet, Sébastien; Mach, François; Montecucco, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    Plaque rupture is the main cause of acute myocardial infarction and stroke. Atherosclerotic plaques have been described to be vulnerable and more prone to rupture when they are characterized by thin, highly inflamed, and collagen-poor fibrous caps and contain elevated levels of proteases, including metalloproteinases (MMPs). Initiation of collagen breakdown in plaques requires interstitial collagenases, a MMP subfamily consisting of MMP-1, MMP-8, and MMP-13. Previous reports demonstrated that MMP-1 and MMP-13 might be overexpressed in both human and experimental atherosclerosis. Since neutrophils have been only recently reported in atherosclerotic plaques, the role of MMP-8 (formerly known as “neutrophil collagenase”) was only marginally evaluated. In this paper, we will update and comment on evidence of the most relevant regulatory pathways and activities mediated by MMP-8 in atherogenesis. PMID:23365489

  4. Autophagy: An Exposing Therapeutic Target in Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yun; Lu, Shan; Zhou, Ping; Ai, Qi-Di; Sun, Gui-Bo; Sun, Xiao-Bo

    2016-03-01

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process whereby the cytoplasmic contents of a cell are sequestered within autophagosomes through a lysosome-dependent pathway. Increasing evidence shows that this process is of great importance in a wide range of diseases, including atherosclerosis (AS). Autophagy can be modulated in advanced AS plaques by cytokines, reactive lipids, lipopolysaccharides, advanced glycation end products, and microRNAs. Autophagy exerts both protective and detrimental functions in vascular disorders. However, despite an increasing interest in autophagy, it remains an underestimated and overlooked phenomenon in AS. Therefore, the precise role of autophagy and its relationship with apoptosis need to be described. This review highlights recent findings on the autophagy activities and signaling pathways in endothelial cells, macrophages, and smooth muscle cells that are accompanied by apoptosis in AS. We conclude with recent studies on autophagy modulation as a new therapeutic approach to treat AS. PMID:26580134

  5. Imaging Atherosclerosis and Risk of Plaque Rupture

    PubMed Central

    Osborn, Eric A; Jaffer, Farouc A

    2013-01-01

    Atherosclerosis imaging strategies can delineate characteristics of plaques at risk of rupture and thrombosis. Structural plaque imaging identifies high-risk plaque features including lipid pools, thin fibrous caps, and intraplaque hemorrhage, among others. New molecular imaging techniques complement structural imaging approaches by illuminating important features of plaque biology, with a prominent focus on detecting inflammation as a high-risk phenotype. As we unravel the molecular and structural characteristics underlying thrombosis-prone plaques, there is significant promise for eventual early identification and prediction of atherosclerotic plaque complications before they occur. Here we focus on recent imaging insights into high-risk arterial plaques, the etiologic agent of acute myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and sudden cardiac death. PMID:23982263

  6. AAV-mediated gene therapy for atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Lehrke, Michael; Lebherz, Corinna

    2014-09-01

    The prognosis of patients with coronary artery disease and stroke has improved substantially over the last decade as a result of advances in primary and secondary preventive care as well as novel interventional approaches, including the development of drug-eluting stents and balloons. Despite this progress, however, cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death in industrialized nations. Sustained efforts to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of atherogenesis, reperfusion-induced cardiac injury, and ischemic heart failure have led to the identification of several target genes as key players in the development and progression of atherosclerotic vascular disease. This knowledge has now enabled genetic therapeutic modulation not only for inherited diseases with a single gene defect, such as familial hypercholesterolemia, but also for multifactorial disorders. This review will focus on approaches in adeno-associated viral (AAV)-mediated gene therapy for atherosclerosis and its long-term sequelae. PMID:25085755

  7. Atherosclerosis staging: imaging using FLIM technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicchieri, Leticia B.; Barioni, Marina Berardi; Silva, Mônica Nascimento; Monteiro, Andrea Moreira; Figueiredo Neto, Antonio Martins; Ito, Amando S.; Courrol, Lilia C.

    2014-03-01

    In this work it was used fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) to analyze biochemical composition of atherosclerotic plaque. For this purpose an animal experimentation was done with New Zealand rabbits divided into two groups: a control group of 4 rabbits that received a regular diet for 0, 20, 40 and 60 days; and an experimental group of 9 rabbits, divided in 3 subgroups, that were fed with 1% cholesterol diet for 20, 40 and 60 days respectively. The aortas slices stained with europium chlortetracycline were analyzed by FLIM exciting samples at 440 nm. The results shown an increase in the lifetime imaging of rabbits fed with cholesterol. It was observed that is possible to detect the metabolic changes associated with atherosclerosis at an early stage using FLIM technique exciting the tissue around 440 nm and observing autofluorescence lifetime. Lifetimes longer than 1.75 ns suggest the presence of porphyrins in the tissue and consequently, inflammation and the presence of macrophages.

  8. Atherosclerosis risk factors in pigeon squabs

    SciTech Connect

    Klumpp, S.A.; Clarkson, T.B.

    1986-03-01

    The basis for atherosclerosis susceptibility of White Carneau (WC) and resistance of Show Racer (SR) pigeons is not known. Body weight (BW), total serum cholesterol (TSC), growth of the aorta and replication of endothelial cells of the distal thoracic aorta (lesion prone site) of 1, 2 and 4 week old squabs were studied. Aortic measurements were determined morphometrically, and endothelial cell replication was quantitated by 24-hour /sup 3/H-thymidine labeling and whole-mount SEM autoradiography. From hatching to 4 weeks, BW increased more in WC than SR (22 to 473 gm in WC vs 19 to 416 gm in SR, p < 0.05) in WC than SR (197, 243 and 338 mg/dl in WC and 125, 194 and 282 mg/dl in SR). Surface area of the aorta between 1 and 4 weeks increased by 63% (109, 154 and 178 mm/sup 2/) in WC and 44% (101, 140 and 146 mm/sup 2/) in SR. Aortic surface area was significantly larger (0 = 0.002) in the 4 week WC than 4 week SR. /sup 3/H-thymidine labeled endothelial cells at 1, 2 and 4 weeks were 783, 387 and 53 in WC and 674, 283 and 27 cells/mm/sup 2/ in SR. Endothelial replication in the 4 week WC was twice that of the SR and significantly different between breeds at 2 and 4 weeks (p = 0.04; p = 0.02, respectively). Higher TSC, endothelial cell replication and larger aortic surface area in the WC may be contributing factors to increased atherosclerosis susceptibility.

  9. Effects and mechanisms of icariin on atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yanwu; Liu, Kai; Yan, Mengtong; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Yadi; Ren, Liqun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Icariin, a flavonoid isolated from the traditional Chinese herbal medicine Epimedium brevicornum Maxim, has been shown to process anti-inflammatory, antioxidative actions and anti-atherosclerosis activity in vivo and in vitro. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects and mechanisms of icariin on atherosclerosis by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Methods: The effects of icariin on the activity of HUVECs induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) were detected by MTT assay. Then we studied the effects of icariin on the adhesion of monocyte with HUVECs induced by ox-LDL. The secretion of E-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) by HUVECs were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Finally the mRNA levels of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-selectin of HUVECs were analyzed by real time RT-PCR. Results: MTT result indicated that icariin (10, 20, 40 μmol/L) could inhibit HUVECs injury induced by ox-LDL in a concentration-dependent manner (P < 0.05). The adhesion of monocyte with HUVECs induced by ox-LDL was inhibited by icariin in a concentration-dependent manner (P < 0.05). The levels of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-selectin of icariin groups were significantly decreased in a concentration-dependent manner compared with ox-LDL-simulated group (P < 0.05). The mRNA expressions of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-selectin of icariin groups were also downregulated significantly compared with ox-LDL-simulated group (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Icariin can prevent atherosclerotic lesion. Its mechanism may be that it can defend against the oxidation damage to HUVECs, inhibit the adhesion of monocyte to HUVECs, and reduce the secretion and expression of adhesion molecules including ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-selectin. PMID:26064253

  10. Antihypercholesterolemic and antioxidant efficacies of zerumbone on the formation, development, and establishment of atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Hemn, Hassan Othman; Noordin, Muhammad Mustapha; Rahman, Heshu Sulaiman; Hazilawati, Hamza; Zuki, Abubakr; Chartrand, Max Stanley

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the high incidence of cholesterol-induced cardiovascular disease, particularly atherosclerosis, the current study was designed to investigate the preventive and therapeutic efficacies of dietary zerumbone (ZER) supplementation on the formation and development of atherosclerosis in rabbits fed with a high cholesterol diet. A total of 72 New Zealand white rabbits were divided randomly on two experimental studies carried out 8 weeks apart. The first experiment was designed to investigate the prophylactic efficacy of ZER in preventing early developed atheromatous lesion. The second experimental trial was aimed at investigating the therapeutic effect of ZER in reducing the atherosclerotic lesion progression and establishment. Sudanophilia, histopathological, and ultrastructural changes showed pronounced reduction in the plaque size in ZER-medicated aortas. On the other hand, dietary supplementation of ZER for almost 10 weeks as a prophylactic measure indicated substantially decreasing lipid profile values, and similarly, plaque size in comparison with high-cholesterol non-supplemented rabbits. Furthermore, the results of oxidative stress and antioxidant biomarker evaluation indicated that ZER is a potent antioxidant in suppressing the generation of free radicals in terms of atherosclerosis prevention and treatment. ZER significantly reduced the value of malondialdehyde and augmented the value of superoxide dismutase. In conclusion, our data indicated that dietary supplementation of ZER at doses of 8, 16, and 20 mg/kg alone as a prophylactic measure, and as a supplementary treatment with simvastatin, significantly reduced early plague formation, development, and establishment via significant reduction in serum lipid profile, together with suppression of oxidative damage, and therefore alleviated atherosclerosis lesions. PMID:26347047

  11. Dataset of mitochondrial genome variants associated with asymptomatic atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Sazonova, Margarita A.; Zhelankin, Andrey V.; Barinova, Valeria A.; Sinyov, Vasily V.; Khasanova, Zukhra B.; Postnov, Anton Y.; Sobenin, Igor A.; Bobryshev, Yuri V.; Orekhov, Alexander N.

    2016-01-01

    This dataset report is dedicated to mitochondrial genome variants associated with asymptomatic atherosclerosis. These data were obtained using the method of next generation pyrosequencing (NGPS). The whole mitochondrial genome of the sample of patients from the Moscow region was analyzed. In this article the dataset including anthropometric, biochemical and clinical parameters along with detected mtDNA variants in patients with carotid atherosclerosis and healthy individuals was presented. Among 58 of the most common homoplasmic mtDNA variants found in the observed sample, 7 variants occurred more often in patients with atherosclerosis and 16 variants occurred more often in healthy individuals. PMID:27222855

  12. Dataset of mitochondrial genome variants associated with asymptomatic atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Sazonova, Margarita A; Zhelankin, Andrey V; Barinova, Valeria A; Sinyov, Vasily V; Khasanova, Zukhra B; Postnov, Anton Y; Sobenin, Igor A; Bobryshev, Yuri V; Orekhov, Alexander N

    2016-06-01

    This dataset report is dedicated to mitochondrial genome variants associated with asymptomatic atherosclerosis. These data were obtained using the method of next generation pyrosequencing (NGPS). The whole mitochondrial genome of the sample of patients from the Moscow region was analyzed. In this article the dataset including anthropometric, biochemical and clinical parameters along with detected mtDNA variants in patients with carotid atherosclerosis and healthy individuals was presented. Among 58 of the most common homoplasmic mtDNA variants found in the observed sample, 7 variants occurred more often in patients with atherosclerosis and 16 variants occurred more often in healthy individuals. PMID:27222855

  13. Roles of antibody against oxygenized low density lipoprotein in atherosclerosis: recent advances

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Wang, Daxin; He, Shenghu

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic immune inflammatory disease. Atherosclerosis and relevant disease are threatening human life and health. Oxygenized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) is a molecular basis in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and able to induce inflammation, stimulate immune system and interfere with lipid metabolism in the occurrence and development of atherosclerosis. Antibody against oxLDL has been an important molecule in the immune related pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In available studies on atherosclerosis, antibody against oxLDL has been a focus, but how oxLDL acts to affect the atherosclerosis and relevant diseases, whether oxLDL is protective or detrimental, and whether oxLDL acts in different ways at different stages of atherosclerosis are still unclear. This paper focuses on the role of antibody against oxLDL in the atherosclerosis and relevant diseases, and summarizes the advances in this field, aiming to provide new clue and new methods for the therapy of atherosclerosis. PMID:26550105

  14. Coronary Atherosclerosis: Pathophysiologic Basis for Diagnosis and Management.

    PubMed

    Boudoulas, Konstantinos Dean; Triposciadis, Filippos; Geleris, Paraschos; Boudoulas, Harisios

    2016-01-01

    Coronary atherosclerosis is a long lasting and continuously evolving disease with multiple clinical manifestations ranging from asymptomatic to stable angina, acute coronary syndrome (ACS), heart failure (HF) and sudden cardiac death (SCD). Genetic and environmental factors contribute to the development and progression of coronary atherosclerosis. In this review, current knowledge related to the diagnosis and management of coronary atherosclerosis based on pathophysiologic mechanisms will be discussed. In addition to providing state-of-the-art concepts related to coronary atherosclerosis, special consideration will be given on how to apply data from epidemiologic studies and randomized clinical trials to the individual patient. The greatest challenge for the clinician in the twenty-first century is not in absorbing the fast accumulating new knowledge, but rather in applying this knowledge to the individual patient. PMID:27091673

  15. Overexpression of lysosomal acid lipase and other proteins in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Zschenker, Oliver; Illies, Till; Ameis, Detlev

    2006-07-01

    Atherosclerosis is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in the western world. The existing data of elevated expression levels of proteins like DNA damage and DNA repair enzymes in human atherosclerotic plaques are reviewed. From the literature, the effect of overexpression of different proteins using adenoviral vectors or the model of transgenic mice on the development of atherosclerosis will be discussed. Special focus is placed on the lysosomal acid lipase (LAL), because LAL connects extra-cellular with intra-cellular lipid metabolism and is the only hydrolase for cleavage of cholesteryl esters delivered to the lysosomes. Patients with a deficiency of LAL show an accumulation of lipids in the cells and develop pre-mature atherosclerosis. To answer the question of the influence of LAL in atherosclerosis if overexpressed, we show for the first time data of transgenic mice overexpressing LAL and the effect on the lipid level. PMID:16877765

  16. Local Bone Marrow Renin-Angiotensin System and Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Beyazit, Yavuz; Purnak, Tugrul; Guven, Gulay Sain; Haznedaroglu, Ibrahim C.

    2011-01-01

    Local hematopoietic bone marrow (BM) renin-angiotensin system (RAS) affects the growth, production, proliferation differentiation, and function of hematopoietic cells. Angiotensin II (Ang II), the dominant effector peptide of the RAS, regulates cellular growth in a wide variety of tissues in pathobiological states. RAS, especially Ang II and Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R), has considerable proinflammatory and proatherogenic effects on the vessel wall, causing progression of atherosclerosis. Recent investigations, by analyzing several BM chimeric mice whose BM cells were positive or negative for AT1R, disclosed that AT1R in BM cells participates in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Therefore, AT1R blocking not only in vascular cells but also in the BM could be an important therapeutic approach to prevent atherosclerosis. The aim of this paper is to review the function of local BM RAS in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. PMID:21234405

  17. Children and Heart Disease (Atherosclerosis) (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePlus

    ... fat or nonfat dairy products, beans, fish, and lean proteins can help to meet this goal. Children ... children is available separately. (See "Overview of the management of the child at risk for atherosclerosis" .) HIGH ...

  18. Spontaneous hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis in a titi monkey.

    PubMed

    Roberts, J; Line, S; Blanchard, P

    1986-01-01

    An adult male Callicebus moloch was presented for acute congestive heart failure. Therapy was unsuccessful and necropsy showed severe systemic atherosclerosis. Analysis of serum revealed hypercholesterolemia with specific elevation of the betalipoprotein fraction. PMID:3959060

  19. Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) - Ancillary Eye Study

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-05

    Atherosclerosis; Cardiovascular Diseases; Coronary Arteriosclerosis; Coronary Disease; Cerebrovascular Disorders; Heart Failure, Congestive; Myocardial Infarction; Heart Diseases; Diabetes Mellitus, Non-insulin Dependent; Hypertension; Diabetic Retinopathy; Macular Degeneration; Diabetes Mellitus

  20. Atherosclerosis and aortic aneurysm - is inflammation a common denominator?

    PubMed

    Peshkova, Iuliia O; Schaefer, Giulia; Koltsova, Ekaterina K

    2016-05-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the major cause of death in developed countries. Various risk factors including host genetics and, more importantly, environmental factors such as lifestyle, diet and smoking influence CVD progression. Two common forms of CVD are atherosclerosis and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Emerging evidence suggests that inflammation plays a pivotal role in CVD. However, it remains unclear whether the same inflammatory pathways prove essential for atherosclerosis and AAA because, in some cases, the same mechanisms uniformly promote both diseases, while in others they function in opposite ways. Cytokines, key mediators of inflammation, play an important role in the development of atherosclerosis but have only been scarcely studied in AAA. In this review, we discuss the importance of immune-mediated mechanisms and cytokines in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and AAA. PMID:26700480

  1. Mild Renal Dysfunction and Metabolites Tied to Low HDL Cholesterol Are Associated With Monocytosis and Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Ganda, Anjali; Magnusson, Martin; Yvan-Charvet, Laurent; Hedblad, Bo; Engström, Gunnar; Ai, Ding; Wang, Thomas J.; Gerszten, Robert E.; Melander, Olle; Tall, Alan R.

    2014-01-01

    Background The number of circulating blood monocytes impacts atherosclerotic lesion size, and in mouse models, elevated levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol suppress blood monocyte counts and atherosclerosis. We hypothesized that individuals with mild renal dysfunction at increased cardiovascular risk would have reduced high-density lipoprotein levels, high blood monocyte counts, and accelerated atherosclerosis. Methods and Results To test whether mild renal dysfunction is associated with an increase in a leukocyte subpopulation rich in monocytes that has a known association with future coronary events, we divided individuals from the Malmö Diet and Cancer study (MDC) into baseline cystatin C quintiles (n=4757). Lower levels of renal function were accompanied by higher monocyte counts, and monocytes were independently associated with carotid bulb intima-media thickness cross-sectionally (P=0.02). Cystatin C levels were positively and plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels negatively associated with monocyte counts at baseline, after adjustment for traditional risk factors. Several amino acid metabolites tied to low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and insulin resistance measured in a subset of individuals (n=752) by use of liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry were independently associated with a 22% to 34% increased risk of being in the top quartile of monocytes (P<0.05). Conclusions A low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, insulin resistance phenotype occurs in subjects with mild renal dysfunction and is associated with elevated monocytes and atherosclerosis. High blood monocyte counts may represent a previously unrecognized mechanism underlying the strong relationship between cystatin C and cardiovascular risk. PMID:23378299

  2. IL-17-dependent Autoimmunity to Collagen Type V in Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Dart, Melanie L.; Jankowska-Gan, Ewa; Huang, Guorui; Roenneburg, Drew A.; Keller, Melissa R.; Torrealba, Jose R.; Rhoads, Aaron; Kim, Byoungjae; Bobadilla, Joseph L.; Haynes, Lynn D.; Wilkes, David S.; Burlingham, William J.; Greenspan, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale Considerable evidence shows atherosclerosis to be a chronic inflammatory disease in which immunity to self-antigens contributes to disease progression. We recently identified the collagen V [col(V)] α1(V) chain as a key autoantigen driving the Th17-dependent cellular immunity underlying another chronic inflammatory disease, obliterative bronchiolitis. Since specific induction of α1(V) chains has previously been reported in human atheromas, we postulated involvement of col(V) autoimmunity in atherosclerosis. Objective To determine whether col(V) autoimmunity may be involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Methods and Results Here we demonstrate Th17-dependent anti-col(V) immunity to be characteristic of atherosclerosis in human coronary artery disease (CAD) patients and in apolipoprotein E null (ApoE−/−) atherosclerotic mice. Responses were α1(V)-specific in CAD with variable Th1 pathway involvement. In early atherosclerosis in ApoE−/− mice, anti-col(V) immunity was tempered by an IL-10-dependent mechanism. In support of a causal role for col(V) autoimmunity in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, col(V)-sensitization of ApoE−/− mice on a regular chow diet overcame IL-10-mediated inhibition of col(V) autoimmunity, leading to increased atherosclerotic burden in these mice and local accumulation of IL-17 producing cells, particularly in the col(V)-rich adventitia subjacent to the atheromas. Conclusions These findings establish col(V) as an autoantigen in human CAD and show col(V) autoimmunity to be a consistent feature in atherosclerosis in humans and mice. Furthermore, data are consistent with a causative role for col(V) in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. PMID:20814021

  3. Insulin decreases atherosclerosis by inducing endothelin receptor B expression

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyoungmin; Mima, Akira; Li, Qian; Rask-Madsen, Christian; He, Pingnian; Mizutani, Koji; Katagiri, Sayaka; Maeda, Yasutaka; Wu, I-Hsien; Khamaisi, Mogher; Preil, Simone Rordam; Maddaloni, Ernesto; Sørensen, Ditte; Rasmussen, Lars Melholt; Huang, Paul L.; King, George L.

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial cell (EC) insulin resistance and dysfunction, caused by diabetes, accelerates atherosclerosis. It is unknown whether specifically enhancing EC-targeted insulin action can decrease atherosclerosis in diabetes. Accordingly, overexpressing insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1) in the endothelia of Apoe−/− mice (Irs1/Apoe−/−) increased insulin signaling and function in the aorta. Atherosclerosis was significantly reduced in Irs1/ApoE−/− mice on diet-induced hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia. The mechanism of insulin’s enhanced antiatherogenic actions in EC was related to remarkable induction of NO action, which increases endothelin receptor B (EDNRB) expression and intracellular [Ca2+]. Using the mice with knockin mutation of eNOS, which had Ser1176 mutated to alanine (AKI), deleting the only known mechanism for insulin to activate eNOS/NO pathway, we observed that IRS1 overexpression in the endothelia of Aki/ApoE−/− mice significantly decreased atherosclerosis. Interestingly, endothelial EDNRB expression was selectively reduced in intima of arteries from diabetic patients and rodents. However, endothelial EDNRB expression was upregulated by insulin via P13K/Akt pathway. Finally EDNRB deletion in EC of Ldlr−/− and Irs1/Ldlr−/− mice decreased NO production and accelerated atherosclerosis, compared with Ldlr−/− mice. Accelerated atherosclerosis in diabetes may be reduced by improving insulin signaling selectively via IRS1/Akt in the EC by inducing EDNRB expression and NO production. PMID:27200419

  4. Human aldose reductase expression accelerates diabetic atherosclerosis in transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Vikramadithyan, Reeba K.; Hu, Yunying; Noh, Hye-Lim; Liang, Chien-Ping; Hallam, Kellie; Tall, Alan R.; Ramasamy, Ravichandran; Goldberg, Ira J.

    2005-01-01

    Direct evidence that hyperglycemia, rather than concomitant increases in known risk factors, induces atherosclerosis is lacking. Most diabetic mice do not exhibit a higher degree of atherosclerosis unless the development of diabetes is associated with more severe hyperlipidemia. We hypothesized that normal mice were deficient in a gene that accelerated atherosclerosis with diabetes. The gene encoding aldose reductase (AR), an enzyme that mediates the generation of toxic products from glucose, is expressed at low levels in murine compared with human tissues. Mice in which diabetes was induced through streptozotocin (STZ) treatment, but not nondiabetic mice, expressing human AR (hAR) crossed with LDL receptor–deficient (Ldlr–/–) C57BL/6 male mice had increased aortic atherosclerosis. Diabetic hAR-expressing heterozygous LDL receptor–knockout mice (Ldlr+/–) fed a cholesterol/cholic acid–containing diet also had increased aortic lesion size. Lesion area at the aortic root was increased by STZ treatment alone but was further increased by hAR expression. Macrophages from hAR-transgenic mice expressed more scavenger receptors and had greater accumulation of modified lipoproteins than macrophages from nontransgenic mice. Expression of genes that regulate regeneration of glutathione was reduced in the hAR-expressing aortas. Thus, hAR increases atherosclerosis in diabetic mice. Inhibitors of AR or other enzymes that mediate glucose toxicity could be useful in the treatment of diabetic atherosclerosis. PMID:16127462

  5. Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Hypertension, and Their Additive Effects on Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Damiani, Mario Francesco; Zito, Annapaola; Carratù, Pierluigi; Falcone, Vito Antonio; Bega, Elioda; Scicchitano, Pietro; Ciccone, Marco Matteo; Resta, Onofrio

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims. It is widely accepted that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is independently associated with atherosclerosis. Similar to OSA, hypertension (HTN) is a condition associated with atherosclerosis. However, to date, the impact of the simultaneous presence of OSA and HTN on the risk of atherosclerosis has not been extensively studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the consequences of the coexistence of OSA and HTN on carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and on inflammatory markers of atherosclerosis (such as interleukin- [IL-] 6 and pentraxin- [PTX-] 3). Methods. The study design allowed us to define 4 groups: (1) controls (n = 30); (2) OSA patients without HTN (n = 30); (3) HTN patients without OSA (n = 30); (4) patients with OSA and HTN (n = 30). In the morning after portable monitoring (between 7 am and 8 am), blood samples were collected, and carotid IMT was measured. Results. Carotid IMT, IL-6, and PTX-3 in OSA normotensive patients and in non-OSA HTN subjects were significantly higher compared to control subjects; in addition, in OSA hypertensive patients they were significantly increased compared to OSA normotensive, non-OSA HTN, or control subjects. Conclusions. OSA and HTN have an additive role in the progression of carotid atherosclerosis and in blood levels of inflammatory markers for atherosclerosis, such as interleukin-6 and pentraxin-3. PMID:26697221

  6. Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Rheumatoid Arthritis and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Salmon, Jane E.; Roman, Mary J.

    2008-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are associated with increased mortality, largely as a consequence of cardiovascular disease. Increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with RA and SLE cannot be entirely explained by traditional risk factors, suggesting that the systemic inflammation that characterizes these diseases may accelerate atherosclerosis. We used carotid ultrasonography to investigate the prevalence and correlates to preclinical atherosclerosis in patients with RA and SLE. Because atherosclerosis is a systemic disease, assessment of carotid plaque by ultrasonography provides a robust, direct measure of systemic atherosclerosis. We observed a substantially increased prevalence of carotid plaque in RA and SLE patients compared with age- and sex-matched controls, which remained after adjustment for traditional risk factors. The presence of carotid atherosclerosis was associated with disease duration in both RA and SLE and damage in SLE. These data support the hypothesis that inflammation associated with RA and SLE contributes to accelerated atherosclerosis and argue that RA and SLE disease activity should be more aggressively managed. PMID:18926167

  7. Macrophage Phenotype and Function in Different Stages of Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Tabas, Ira; Bornfeldt, Karin E

    2016-02-19

    The remarkable plasticity and plethora of biological functions performed by macrophages have enticed scientists to study these cells in relation to atherosclerosis for >50 years, and major discoveries continue to be made today. It is now understood that macrophages play important roles in all stages of atherosclerosis, from initiation of lesions and lesion expansion, to necrosis leading to rupture and the clinical manifestations of atherosclerosis, to resolution and regression of atherosclerotic lesions. Lesional macrophages are derived primarily from blood monocytes, although recent research has shown that lesional macrophage-like cells can also be derived from smooth muscle cells. Lesional macrophages take on different phenotypes depending on their environment and which intracellular signaling pathways are activated. Rather than a few distinct populations of macrophages, the phenotype of the lesional macrophage is more complex and likely changes during the different phases of atherosclerosis and with the extent of lipid and cholesterol loading, activation by a plethora of receptors, and metabolic state of the cells. These different phenotypes allow the macrophage to engulf lipids, dead cells, and other substances perceived as danger signals; efflux cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein; proliferate and migrate; undergo apoptosis and death; and secrete a large number of inflammatory and proresolving molecules. This review article, part of the Compendium on Atherosclerosis, discusses recent advances in our understanding of lesional macrophage phenotype and function in different stages of atherosclerosis. With the increasing understanding of the roles of lesional macrophages, new research areas and treatment strategies are beginning to emerge. PMID:26892964

  8. Intestinal microbiota metabolism of L-carnitine, a nutrient in red meat, promotes atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Koeth, Robert A.; Wang, Zeneng; Levison, Bruce S.; Buffa, Jennifer A.; Org, Elin; Sheehy, Brendan T.; Britt, Earl B.; Fu, Xiaoming; Wu, Yuping; Li, Lin; Smith, Jonathan D.; DiDonato, Joseph A.; Chen, Jun; Li, Hongzhe; Wu, Gary D.; Lewis, James D.; Warrier, Manya; Brown, J. Mark; Krauss, Ronald M.; Tang, W. H. Wilson; Bushman, Frederic D.; Lusis, Aldons J.; Hazen, Stanley L.

    2013-01-01

    Intestinal microbiota metabolism of choline/phosphatidylcholine produces trimethylamine (TMA), which is further metabolized to a proatherogenic species, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). Herein we demonstrate that intestinal microbiota metabolism of dietary L-carnitine, a trimethylamine abundant in red meat, also produces TMAO and accelerates atherosclerosis. Omnivorous subjects are shown to produce significantly more TMAO than vegans/vegetarians following ingestion of L-carnitine through a microbiota-dependent mechanism. Specific bacterial taxa in human feces are shown to associate with both plasma TMAO and dietary status. Plasma L-carnitine levels in subjects undergoing cardiac evaluation (n = 2,595) predict increased risks for both prevalent cardiovascular disease (CVD) and incident major adverse cardiac events (MI, stroke or death), but only among subjects with concurrently high TMAO levels. Chronic dietary L-carnitine supplementation in mice significantly altered cecal microbial composition, markedly enhanced synthesis of TMA/TMAO, and increased atherosclerosis, but not following suppression of intestinal microbiota. Dietary supplementation of TMAO, or either carnitine or choline in mice with intact intestinal microbiota, significantly reduced reverse cholesterol transport in vivo. Intestinal microbiota may thus participate in the well-established link between increased red meat consumption and CVD risk. PMID:23563705

  9. Purification, structure features and anti-atherosclerosis activity of a Laminaria japonica polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Peng, Fu-Hua; Zha, Xue-Qiang; Cui, Shao-Hua; Asghar, Muhammad-Naeem; Pan, Li-Hua; Wang, Jun-Hui; Luo, Jian-Ping

    2015-11-01

    A homogeneous polysaccharide (LJP12) was isolated from Laminaria japonica by diethylaminoethyl-cellulose and Sephacryl S-500 chromatography, with a molecular weight of 2.31×10(6)Da. Monosaccharide analysis showed that LJP12 was mainly composed of arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose and galactose in a molar ratio of 1:0.17:1.54:2.64:0.18. For these monosaccharides, mannose was suggested to be 1,4-linked and 1,3,6-linked while glucose was linked by 1,6-glycosidic bond. The xylose, arabinose and galactose were suggested to be the terminal residues. To study the effects of LJP12 on protecting against atherosclerosis, LJP12 was administered to LDL receptor-deficient (LDLr(-/-)) mice (50, 100 and 200mg/kg/day, n=30 for each experimental group). Results showed that LJP12 exhibited the ability to inhibit high-fat-cholesterol diet (HFD)-induced formation of atherosclerotic plaques and plasma lipid levels in a dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile, both the HFD-induced systemic inflammation and local inflammation at the site of atherosclerotic lesion were significantly attenuated by LJP12, which were accompanied by the suppression of the activation of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signaling pathways. Taken together, we concluded that long-term oral administration of LJP12 protects against atherosclerosis in LDLr(-/-) mice via inhibiting NF-κB/MAPKs-mediated inflammatory responses. PMID:26394383

  10. Intestinal microbiota metabolism of L-carnitine, a nutrient in red meat, promotes atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Koeth, Robert A; Wang, Zeneng; Levison, Bruce S; Buffa, Jennifer A; Org, Elin; Sheehy, Brendan T; Britt, Earl B; Fu, Xiaoming; Wu, Yuping; Li, Lin; Smith, Jonathan D; DiDonato, Joseph A; Chen, Jun; Li, Hongzhe; Wu, Gary D; Lewis, James D; Warrier, Manya; Brown, J Mark; Krauss, Ronald M; Tang, W H Wilson; Bushman, Frederic D; Lusis, Aldons J; Hazen, Stanley L

    2013-05-01

    Intestinal microbiota metabolism of choline and phosphatidylcholine produces trimethylamine (TMA), which is further metabolized to a proatherogenic species, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). We demonstrate here that metabolism by intestinal microbiota of dietary L-carnitine, a trimethylamine abundant in red meat, also produces TMAO and accelerates atherosclerosis in mice. Omnivorous human subjects produced more TMAO than did vegans or vegetarians following ingestion of L-carnitine through a microbiota-dependent mechanism. The presence of specific bacterial taxa in human feces was associated with both plasma TMAO concentration and dietary status. Plasma L-carnitine levels in subjects undergoing cardiac evaluation (n = 2,595) predicted increased risks for both prevalent cardiovascular disease (CVD) and incident major adverse cardiac events (myocardial infarction, stroke or death), but only among subjects with concurrently high TMAO levels. Chronic dietary L-carnitine supplementation in mice altered cecal microbial composition, markedly enhanced synthesis of TMA and TMAO, and increased atherosclerosis, but this did not occur if intestinal microbiota was concurrently suppressed. In mice with an intact intestinal microbiota, dietary supplementation with TMAO or either carnitine or choline reduced in vivo reverse cholesterol transport. Intestinal microbiota may thus contribute to the well-established link between high levels of red meat consumption and CVD risk. PMID:23563705

  11. 3-Nitrotyrosine Modified Proteins in Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of premature death worldwide, and atherosclerosis is the main contributor. Lipid-laden macrophages, known as foam cells, accumulate in the subendothelial space of the lesion area and contribute to consolidate a chronic inflammatory environment where oxygen and nitrogen derived oxidants are released. Oxidatively modified lipids and proteins are present both in plasma as well as atherosclerotic lesions. A relevant oxidative posttranslational protein modification is the addition of a nitro group to the hydroxyphenyl ring of tyrosine residues, mediated by nitric oxide derived oxidants. Nitrotyrosine modified proteins were found in the lesion and also in plasma from atherosclerotic patients. Despite the fact of the low yield of nitration, immunogenic, proatherogenic, and prothrombotic properties acquired by 3-nitrotyrosine modified proteins are in agreement with epidemiological studies showing a significant correlation between the level of nitration found in plasma proteins and the prevalence of cardiovascular disease, supporting the usefulness of this biomarker to predict the outcome and to take appropriate therapeutic decisions in atherosclerotic disease. PMID:25814781

  12. Endothelium Preserving Microwave Treatment for Atherosclerosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carl, James R. (Inventor); Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor); Beer, N. Reginald (Inventor); Henry, Phillip D. (Inventor); Pacifico, Antonio (Inventor); Raffoul, George W. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided to treat atherosclerosis wherein the artery is partially closed by dilating the artery while preserving the vital and sensitive endothelial layer thereof Microwave energy having a frequency from 3 GHz to 300 GHz is propagated into the arterial wall to produce a desired temperature profile therein at tissue depths sufficient for thermally necrosing connective tissue and softening fatty and waxy plaque while limiting heating of surrounding tissues including the endothelial laser and/or other healthy tissue, organs, and blood. The heating period for raising the temperature a potentially desired amount, about 20 C., within the atherosclerotic lesion may be less than about one second. In one embodiment of the invention, a radically beveled waveguide antenna is used to deliver microwave energy at frequencies from 25 GHz or 30 GHz to about 300 GHz and is focused towards a particular radial sector of the artery. Because the atherosclerotic lesions are often asymmetrically disposed, directable of focussed heating preserves healthy sectors of the artery and applies energy to the asymmetrically positioned lesion faster than a non-directed beam. A computer simulation predicts isothermic temperature profiles for the given conditions and man be used in selecting power, pulse duration, beam width, and frequency of operation to maximize energy deposition and control heat rise within the atherosclerotic lesion without harming healthy tissues or the sensitive endothelium cells.

  13. Molecular Imaging of Inflammation in Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Wildgruber, Moritz; Swirski, Filip K.; Zernecke, Alma

    2013-01-01

    Acute rupture of vulnerable plaques frequently leads to myocardial infarction and stroke. Within the last decades, several cellular and molecular players have been identified that promote atherosclerotic lesion formation, maturation and plaque rupture. It is now widely recognized that inflammation of the vessel wall and distinct leukocyte subsets are involved throughout all phases of atherosclerotic lesion development. The mechanisms that render a stable plaque unstable and prone to rupture, however, remain unknown and the identification of the vulnerable plaque remains a major challenge in cardiovascular medicine. Imaging technologies used in the clinic offer minimal information about the underlying biology and potential risk for rupture. New imaging technologies are therefore being developed, and in the preclinical setting have enabled new and dynamic insights into the vessel wall for a better understanding of this complex disease. Molecular imaging has the potential to track biological processes, such as the activity of cellular and molecular biomarkers in vivo and over time. Similarly, novel imaging technologies specifically detect effects of therapies that aim to stabilize vulnerable plaques and silence vascular inflammation. Here we will review the potential of established and new molecular imaging technologies in the setting of atherosclerosis, and discuss the cumbersome steps required for translating molecular imaging approaches into the clinic. PMID:24312156

  14. Endothelium Preserving Microwave Treatment for Atherosclerosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carl, James R. (Inventor); Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor); Beer, N. Reginald (Inventor); Henry, Phillip D. (Inventor); Pacifico, Antonio (Inventor); Raffoul, George W. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided to treat atherosclerosis wherein the artery is partially closed by dilating the artery while preserving the vital and sensitive endothelial layer thereof. Microwave energy having a frequency from 3 GHz to 300 GHz is propagated into the arterial wall to produce a desired temperature profile therein at tissue depths sufficient for thermally necrosing connective tissue and softening fatty and waxy plaque while limiting heating of surrounding tissues including the endothelial layer and/or other healthy tissue, organs, and blood. The heating period for raising the temperature a potentially desired amount, about 20 C. within the atherosclerotic lesion may be less than about one second. In one embodiment of the invention, a radically beveled waveguide antenna is used to deliver microwave energy at frequencies from 25 GHz or 30 GHz to about 300 GHz and is focused towards a particular radial sector of the artery. Because the atherosclerotic lesions are often asymmetrically disposed directable or focussed heating preserves healthy sectors of the artery and applies energy to the asymmetrically positioned lesion faster than a non-directed beam. A computer simulation predicts isothermic temperature profiles for the given conditions and may be used in selecting power, pulse duration, beam width, and frequency of operation to maximize energy deposition and control heat rise within the atherosclerotic lesion without harming healthy tissues or the sensitive endothelium cells.

  15. Particulate matter air pollution and atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Brook, Robert D; Rajagopalan, Sanjay

    2010-09-01

    Particulate matter (PM) air pollution less than 2.5 microm in diameter (PM(2.5)), which is now an all-pervading element of modern-day society, is associated with heightened cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Not only can short-term PM(2.5) exposure trigger acute cardiovascular events, but longer-term exposure over years augments cardiovascular risk to an even greater extent. One biological mechanism capable of explaining this observation is that chronic exposure may promote the progression and vulnerability of atherosclerotic plaques. Indeed, recent epidemiologic studies have demonstrated an association between ambient PM(2.5) exposure and the presence or extent of atherosclerosis in humans. Several animal experiments have provided corroborating evidence that chronic exposures in fact do enhance the progression and perhaps vulnerability of atherosclerotic lesions. Due to the billions of people continually exposed to PM(2.5), the long-term pro-atherosclerotic effects of this ubiquitous air pollutant are likely to be of enormous and growing global public health importance. PMID:20617466

  16. Atherosclerosis in a dog with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Sottiaux, J

    1999-12-01

    A seven-year-old male Pomeranian with unstable insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus developed atherosclerosis. Hyperlipidaemia, consisting of hypertriglyceridaemia and hypercholesterolaemia, was diagnosed concurrently with the onset of lipid-laden aqueous humour. Serum lipoprotein analysis was characterised by the presence of chylomicrons, an increase in the very low density lipoprotein fraction, with a broad very low density lipoprotein-low density lipoprotein band, and a reduced high density lipoprotein fraction. The dog developed ketoacidosis one year later and died. At postmortem examination, atherosclerotic plaques were observed in the terminal aorta and in medium-sized arteries, including the coronary arteries, renal and arcuate arteries, and arteries of the brain. Mineralised plaques or complicated plaques were not observed. The absence of clinical signs of organ ischaemia was thought to be associated with the absence of thrombosis and/or complete occlusion of all vessels examined. Signs of chronic organ hypoxia, although considered likely owing to the severe vessel lumen reduction, were restricted to only a low voltage QRS complex on the electrocardiogram. PMID:10664956

  17. Atherosclerosis: from biology to pharmacological treatment

    PubMed Central

    Riccioni, Graziano; Sblendorio, Valeriana

    2012-01-01

    A recent explosion in the amount of cardiovascular risk has swept across the globe. Primary prevention is the preferred method to lower cardiovascular risk. Lowering the prevalence of obesity is the most urgent matter, and is pleiotropic since it affects blood pressure, lipid profiles, glucose metabolism, inflammation, and atherothrombotic disease progression. Given the current obstacles, success of primary prevention remains uncertain. At the same time, the consequences of delay and inaction will inevitably be disastrous, and the sense of urgency mounts. Pathological and epidemiological data confirm that atherosclerosis begins in early childhood, and advances seamlessly and inexorably throughout life. Risk factors in childhood are similar to those in adults, and track between stages of life. When indicated, aggressive treatment should begin at the earliest indication, and be continued for many years. For those patients at intermediate risk according to global risk scores, C-reactive protein, coronary artery calcium, and carotid intima-media thickness are available for further stratification. Using statins for primary prevention is recommended by guidelines, is prevalent, but remains under prescribed. Statin drugs are unrivaled, evidence-based, major weapons to lower cardiovascular risk. Even when low density lipoprotein cholesterol targets are attained, over half of patients continue to have disease progression and clinical events. Though clinical evidence is incomplete, altering or raising the blood high density lipoprotein cholesterol level continues to be pursued. The aim of this review is to point out the attention of key aspects of vulnerable plaques regarding their pathogenesis and treatment. PMID:23097661

  18. Genomic correlates of atherosclerosis in ancient humans.

    PubMed

    Zink, Albert; Wann, L Samuel; Thompson, Randall C; Keller, Andreas; Maixner, Frank; Allam, Adel H; Finch, Caleb E; Frohlich, Bruno; Kaplan, Hillard; Lombardi, Guido P; Sutherland, M Linda; Sutherland, James D; Watson, Lucia; Cox, Samantha L; Miyamoto, Michael I; Narula, Jagat; Stewart, Alexandre F R; Thomas, Gregory S; Krause, Johannes

    2014-06-01

    Paleogenetics offers a unique opportunity to study human evolution, population dynamics, and disease evolution in situ. Although histologic and computed x-ray tomographic investigations of ancient mummies have clearly shown that atherosclerosis has been present in humans for more than 5,000 years, limited data are available on the presence of genetic predisposition for cardiovascular disease in ancient human populations. In a previous whole-genome study of the Tyrolean Iceman, a 5,300-year-old glacier mummy from the Alps, an increased risk for coronary heart disease was detected. The Iceman's genome revealed several single nucleotide polymorphisms that are linked with cardiovascular disease in genome-wide association studies. Future genetic studies of ancient humans from various geographic origins and time periods have the potential to provide more insights into the presence and possible changes of genetic risk factors in our ancestors. The study of ancient humans and a better understanding of the interaction between environmental and genetic influences on the development of heart diseases may lead to a more effective prevention and treatment of the most common cause of death in the modern world. PMID:25667090

  19. Endothelium Preserving Microwave Treatment for Atherosclerosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carl, James R. (Inventor); Arndt, Dickey (Inventor); Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor); Beer, Reginald (Inventor); Henry, Phillip D. (Inventor); Pacifico, Antonio (Inventor); Raffoul, George W. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided to treat atherosclerosis wherein the artery is partially closed by dilating the artery while preserving the vital and sensitive endothelial layer thereof. Microwave energy having a frequency from 3 GHz to 300 GHz is propagated into the arterial wall to produce a desired temperature profile therein at tissue depths sufficient for thermally necrosing connective tissue and softening fatty and waxy plaque while limiting heating of surrounding tissues including the endothelial layer and/or other healthy tissue, organs, and blood. The heating period for raising the temperature a potentially desired amount, about 20 C. within the atherosclerotic lesion may be less than about one second. In one embodiment of the invention, a radically beveled waveguide antenna is used to deliver microwave energy at frequencies from 25 GHz or 30 GHz to about 300 GHz and is focused towards a particular radial sector of the artery. Because the atherosclerotic lesions are often asymmetrically disposed, directable or focussed heating preserves healthy sectors or the artery and applies energy to the asymmetrically positioned lesion faster than a non-directed bean. A computer simulation predicts isothermic temperature profiles for the given conditions and may be used in selecting power, pulse duration, beam width, and frequency of operation to maximize energy deposition and control heat rise within the atherosclerotic lesion without harming healthy tissues or the sensitive endothelium cells.

  20. Tooth loss and atherosclerosis: the Nagahama Study.

    PubMed

    Asai, K; Yamori, M; Yamazaki, T; Yamaguchi, A; Takahashi, K; Sekine, A; Kosugi, S; Matsuda, F; Nakayama, T; Bessho, K

    2015-03-01

    Several epidemiologic studies have suggested that oral disease is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, whether a clinically significant association exists between the 2 disorders remains controversial. Here, we investigated the association between tooth loss, as an indicator of oral disease, and arterial stiffness, as a marker of atherosclerosis, in Japanese adults. Cross-sectional data were collected for 8,124 persons aged 30 to 75 y with no history of tooth loss for noninflammatory reasons, such as orthodontic treatment, malposition, and trauma. Participants received a comprehensive dental examination and extensive in-person measurements of CVD risk factors, and arterial stiffness was evaluated using the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI). We examined the association between CAVI and tooth loss using general linear models with adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, smoking status, hemoglobin A1c, and a history of insulin or hypoglycemic medication depending on the model. In addition, we performed an analysis that included interaction terms of the centered variables tooth loss, sex, and age. The results of the multiple regression analysis that included the interaction terms detected that the relationship between CAVI and tooth loss was dependent on sex, with only men showing a positive correlation (β for interaction = 0.04; 95% confidence interval, 0.02-0.06). The findings from this study suggest that a linear relationship exists between tooth loss and degree of arterial stiffness and that the association differed depending on sex. PMID:25406168

  1. Shear stress, arterial identity and atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Lehoux, Stephanie; Jones, Elizabeth A

    2016-02-29

    In the developing embryo, the vasculature first takes the form of a web-like network called the vascular plexus. Arterial and venous differentiation is subsequently guided by the specific expression of genes in the endothelial cells that provide spatial and temporal cues for development. Notch1/4, Notch ligand delta-like 4 (Dll4), and Notch downstream effectors are typically expressed in arterial cells along with EphrinB2, whereas chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor II (COUP-TFII) and EphB4 characterise vein endothelial cells. Haemodynamic forces (blood pressure and blood flow) also contribute importantly to vascular remodelling. Early arteriovenous differentiation and local blood flow may hold the key to future inflammatory diseases. Indeed, despite the fact that atherosclerosis risk factors such as smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, and diabetes all induce endothelial cell dysfunction throughout the vasculature, plaques develop only in arteries, and they localise essentially in vessel branch points, curvatures and bifurcations, where blood flow (and consequently shear stress) is low or oscillatory. Arterial segments exposed to high blood flow (and high laminar shear stress) tend to remain plaque-free. These observations have led many to investigate what particular properties of arterial or venous endothelial cells confer susceptibility or protection from plaque formation, and how that might interact with a particular shear stress environment. PMID:26676959

  2. Lipids and atherosclerosis: clinical management of hypercholesterolaemia.

    PubMed

    Chin-Dusting, J P; Shaw, J A

    2001-03-01

    Hypercholesterolaemia is a major risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis which, in turn, underlies most ischaemic heart disease (IHD). This review deals briefly with the pathophysiology of lipids in humans and follows with a discussion of current lipid-lowering therapies. In those patients with a history of myocardial infarction (MI) or unstable angina, appropriate lipid-lowering therapy has been convincingly shown to reduce not only cardiac events but also overall mortality. The advent of the HMG CoA reductase inhibitors in the late 1980s has had a revolutionary impact in the clinical management of hypercholesterolaemia, not only because of their efficacy but especially because they are well-tolerated. The use of other treatments such as the fibrates and bile acid resins are also discussed. Given the successful use of the statins, it is felt that an emergence of a different class of LDL-cholesterol lowering compound is unlikely in the near future and rather that compounds which can increase HDL-cholesterol while lowering LDL will be of greater impact. There may also be a shifting trend towards such naturally occurring compounds as plant stanols and phytoestrogens. PMID:11336596

  3. Loss of Reelin protects against atherosclerosis by reducing leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion and lesion macrophage accumulation.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yinyuan; Huang, Linzhang; Xian, Xunde; Yuhanna, Ivan S; Wasser, Catherine R; Frotscher, Michael; Mineo, Chieko; Shaul, Philip W; Herz, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    The multimodular glycoprotein Reelin controls neuronal migration and synaptic transmission by binding to apolipoprotein E receptor 2 (Apoer2) and very low density lipoprotein receptor (Vldlr) on neurons. In the periphery, Reelin is produced by the liver, circulates in blood, and promotes thrombosis and hemostasis. To investigate if Reelin influences atherogenesis, we studied atherosclerosis-prone low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (Ldlr(-/-)) mice in which we inducibly deleted Reelin either ubiquitously or only in the liver, thus preventing the production of circulating Reelin. In both types of Reelin-deficient mice, atherosclerosis progression was markedly attenuated, and macrophage content and endothelial cell staining for vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) were reduced at the sites of atherosclerotic lesions. Intravital microscopy revealed decreased leukocyte-endothelial adhesion in the Reelin-deficient mice. In cultured human endothelial cells, Reelin enhanced monocyte adhesion and increased ICAM1, VCAM1, and E-selectin expression by suppressing endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity and increasing nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activity in an Apoer2-dependent manner. These findings suggest that circulating Reelin promotes atherosclerosis by increasing vascular inflammation, and that reducing or inhibiting circulating Reelin may present a novel approach for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. PMID:26980442

  4. Atherosclerosis following renal injury is ameliorated by pioglitazone and losartan via macrophage phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Suguru; Zhong, Jiayong; Yancey, Patricia G.; Zuo, Yiqin; Linton, MacRae F.; Fazio, Sergio; Yang, Haichun; Narita, Ichiei; Kon, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    Objective Chronic kidney disease (CKD) amplifies atherosclerosis, which involves renin-angiotensin system (RAS) regulation of macrophages. RAS influences peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), a modulator of atherogenic functions of macrophages, however, little is known about its effects in CKD. We examined the impact of combined therapy with a PPARγ agonist and angiotensin receptor blocker on atherogenesis in a murine uninephrectomy model. Methods Apolipoprotein E knockout mice underwent uninephrectomy (UNx) and treatment with pioglitazone (UNx + Pio), losartan (UNx + Los), or both (UNx + Pio/Los) for 10 weeks. Extent and characteristics of atherosclerotic lesions and macrophage phenotypes were assessed; RAW264.7 and primary peritoneal mouse cells were used to examine pioglitazone and losartan effects on macrophage phenotype and inflammatory response. Results UNx significantly increased atherosclerosis. Pioglitazone and losartan each significantly reduced the atherosclerotic burden by 29.6% and 33.5%, respectively; although the benefit was dramatically augmented by combination treatment which lessened atherosclerosis by 55.7%. Assessment of plaques revealed significantly greater macrophage area in UNx + Pio/Los (80.7 ± 11.4% vs. 50.3 ± 4.2% in UNx + Pio and 57.2 ± 6.5% in UNx + Los) with more apoptotic cells. The expanded macrophage-rich lesions of UNx + Pio/Los had more alternatively activated, Ym-1 and arginine 1-positive M2 phenotypes (Ym-1: 33.6 ± 8.2%, p < 0.05 vs. 12.0 ± 1.1% in UNx; arginase 1: 27.8 ± 0.9%, p < 0.05 vs. 11.8 ± 1.3% in UNx). In vitro, pioglitazone alone and together with losartan was more effective than losartan alone in dampening lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine production, suppressing M1 phenotypic change while enhancing M2 phenotypic change. Conclusion Combination of pioglitazone and losartan is more effective in reducing renal injury-induced atherosclerosis than either treatment alone. This benefit reflects mitigation in macrophage cytokine production, enhanced apoptosis, and a shift toward an anti-inflammatory phenotype. PMID:26184694

  5. Suppression of adrenal βarrestin1-dependent aldosterone production by ARBs: head-to-head comparison

    PubMed Central

    Dabul, Samalia; Bathgate-Siryk, Ashley; Valero, Thairy Reyes; Jafferjee, Malika; Sturchler, Emmanuel; McDonald, Patricia; Koch, Walter J.; Lymperopoulos, Anastasios

    2015-01-01

    The known angiotensin II (AngII) physiological effect of aldosterone synthesis and secretion is mediated by either Gq/11 proteins or βarrestin1 (βarr1), both of which can couple to its type 1 receptors (AT1Rs), present in adrenocortical zona glomerulosa (AZG) cell membranes. In the present study, we examined the relative potencies of all the currently used in the clinic AT1R antagonist drugs (angiotensin receptor blockers, ARBs, or sartans) at preventing activation of these two signaling mediators (G proteins and βarrs) at the AngII-bound AT1R and, consequently, at suppression of aldosterone in vitro. All ARBs were found to be potent inhibitors of G protein activation at the AT1R. However, candesartan and valsartan were the most potent at blocking AngII-induced βarr activation at this receptor, among the tetrazolo-biphenyl-methyl derivatives, translating into excellent efficacies at aldosterone suppression in H295R cells. Conversely, irbesartan and losartan were largely G protein-selective inhibitors at the AT1R, with very low potency towards βarr inhibition. As a result, they were very weak suppressors of βarr1-dependent aldosterone production in H295R cells. These findings provide important pharmacological insights into the drug class of ARBs and medicinal chemistry insights for future drug development in the field of AngII antagonism. PMID:25631300

  6. [Aortic expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) gene in rabbits with experimental atherosclerosis].

    PubMed

    Sekalska, Beata

    2003-01-01

    The theory of Ross describes atherosclerosis as a process induced by inflammatory reactions involving cytokines, cell adhesion molecules, and chemokines. The latter have been identified as the principal mediator of cell recruitment into the vascular wall when accumulating monocytes become a source of foam cells. The most potent monocyte attractant among known chemokines is the monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1). This protein is synthesized in vivo by cells of the vascular wall and its expression is largely controlled by NF-kB nuclear transcription factor. The importance of inflammation for the induction and progression of atherosclerosis suggests that anti-inflammatory drugs could be a useful modality in this condition. The present work was undertaken to: 1) adapt the RT-PCR technique to measurements of MCP-1 gene expression in rabbit aorta, 2) assess MCP-1 gene expression in rabbit aorta during atherosclerosis induced with a cholesterol-rich diet, 3) evaluate the effect of ibuprofen on MCP-1 gene expression in rabbit aorta during atherosclerosis induced with a cholesterol-rich diet. The study was done in 72 rabbits assigned to eight even groups on the basis of body weight and starting cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in serum. All rabbits were fed a standard chow. In some groups, the diet was supplemented with cholesterol and/or ibuprofen. Two months later rabbits in four groups, i.e. control (K2), control with ibuprofen (IK2), cholesterol-rich (M2) and cholesterol-rich with ibuprofen (IM2) were weighed and blood was sampled for measurements of cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in serum. The liver, heart, kidneys and adrenals were collected at autopsy and weighed. Additionally, a fragment of the ascending aorta was obtained for RT-PCR. The extent of atherosclerosis in aorta was determined using planimetry. Another month later this procedure was repeated for the remaining groups K3, IK3, M3 and IM3. RT-PCR was applied to measure MCP-1 gene expression in relation to constitutive expression of the GAPDH gene. Significantly lower expression was found in rabbits given ibuprofen (groups IK2, IK3, IM3) as compared with groups K2, K3 and M2 (Tab. 1, Fig. 1). Significantly higher concentrations of cholesterol and triglycerides, as well as liver and adrenal mass indices were revealed in rabbits fed a cholesterol-rich diet with or without ibuprofen, in comparison to groups K2, K3, IK2 and IK3. No atherosclerotic lesions were disclosed in control groups. Atheromatous lesions were demonstrated in rabbits fed a cholesterol-rich diet with or without ibuprofen, occupying more than 60% of the intimal surface. The following conclusions were made: 1) RT-PCR corrected for contamination of RNA samples with genomic DNA is a reliable technique for studying MCP-1 gene expression in rabbit aorta, 2) Three months of cholesterol-rich diet is without effect on MCP-1 gene expression in rabbit aorta, 3) Ibuprofen suppresses MCP-1 gene expression in the aorta without affecting the progression of atherosclerosis induced with the cholesterol-rich diet. PMID:15552841

  7. Serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants (SSRIs) against atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Wozniak, Greta; Toska, Aikaterini; Saridi, Maria; Mouzas, Odysseas

    2011-01-01

    Summary Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of drug widely used for treatment of mood disorders, including depression and cardiovascular disease. A search for related articles in the PubMed database was attempted. It covered studies, reports, reviews and editorials of the last 5 years. Pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-1 and IL-6, stimulate central serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission and are over-expressed in depression, which has been linked with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) hyperactivity. They have also been implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of other stress-induced disorders, like myocardial infarction (MI) and coronary heart disease (CHD), as they seem to modulate cardiovascular function by a variety of mechanisms. Biological mechanisms like these may explain the link between depression and CHD. There are a variety of environmental factors as well as genetic factors that might influence the pharmacogenetics of antidepressant drugs. New generation selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants (SSRIs) causing a reduced cardiovascular morbidity and mortality may be related to serotonin platelet abnormalities in depressed patients that are effectively treated by SSRIs. SSRIs such as fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline and citalopram are not only considered to be free from the cardiotoxicity of their predecessors but also to function as safe and efficacious agents against depression, platelet activation, atherosclerosis and development and prognosis of coronary heart disease. However, there is a need for more studies in order to establish the exact biochemical mechanisms that are responsible for these diseases and the immunoregulatory effects of chronic use of SSRI medications. PMID:21873959

  8. Homocysteine Metabolism, Atherosclerosis, and Diseases of Aging.

    PubMed

    McCully, Kilmer S

    2015-01-01

    The importance of homocysteine in vascular function and arteriosclerosis was discovered by demonstration of arteriosclerotic plaques in children with homocystinuria caused by inherited enzymatic deficiencies of cystathionine synthase, methionine synthase, or methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase. According to the homocysteine theory of arteriosclerosis, an elevated blood homocysteine level is an important risk factor for atherosclerosis in subjects without these rare enzymatic abnormalities. The homocysteine theory is supported by demonstration of arterial plaques in experimental animals with hyperhomocysteinemia, by discovery of a pathway for conversion of homocysteine thiolactone to sulfate in cell cultures from children with homocystinuria, and by demonstration of growth promotion by homocysteic acid in normal and hypophysectomized animals. Studies with cultured malignant cells revealed abnormal homocysteine thiolactone metabolism, resulting in homocysteinylation of proteins, nucleic acids, and glycosaminoglycans, explaining the abnormal oxidative metabolism, abnormalities of cellular membranes, and altered genetic expression observed in malignancy. Abnormal homocysteine metabolism in malignant cells is attributed to deficiency of thioretinamide, the amide synthesized from retinoic acid and homocysteine thiolactone. Two molecules of thioretinamide combine with cobalamin to form thioretinaco. Based on the molecular structure of thioretinaco, a theory of oxidative phosphorylation was proposed, involving oxidation to a disulfonium derivative by ozone, and binding of oxygen, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and phosphate as the active site of adenosine triphosphate synthesis in mitochondria. Obstruction of vasa vasorum by aggregates of microorganisms with homocysteinylated low-density lipoproteins is proposed to cause ischemia of arterial wall and a microabscess of the intima, the vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque. 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:471-505, 2016. PMID:26756640

  9. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound: clinical applications in patients with atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Schinkel, Arend F L; Kaspar, Mathias; Staub, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is increasingly being used to evaluate patients with known or suspected atherosclerosis. The administration of a microbubble contrast agent in conjunction with ultrasound results in an improved image quality and provides information that cannot be assessed with standard B-mode ultrasound. CEUS is a high-resolution, noninvasive imaging modality, which is safe and may benefit patients with coronary, carotid, or aortic atherosclerosis. CEUS allows a reliable assessment of endocardial borders, left ventricular function, intracardiac thrombus and myocardial perfusion. CEUS results in an improved detection of carotid atherosclerosis, and allows assessment of high-risk plaque characteristics including intraplaque vascularization, and ulceration. CEUS provides real-time bedside information in patients with a suspected or known abdominal aortic aneurysm or aortic dissection. The absence of ionizing radiation and safety of the contrast agent allow repetitive imaging which is particularly useful in the follow-up of patients after endovascular aneurysm repair. New developments in CEUS-based molecular imaging will improve the understanding of the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis and may in the future allow to image and directly treat cardiovascular diseases (theragnostic CEUS). Familiarity with the strengths and limitations of CEUS may have a major impact on the management of patients with atherosclerosis. PMID:26206524

  10. Lanatoside C Promotes Foam Cell Formation and Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Huairui; Mao, Xiaobo; Zhong, Yucheng; Liu, Yuzhou; Zhao, Xiaoqi; Yu, Kunwu; Zhu, Ruirui; Wei, Yuzhen; Zhu, Jianghao; Sun, Haitao; Mao, Yi; Zeng, Qiutang

    2016-01-01

    Lanatoside C’s impact on atherosclerosis is poorly understood. The present study was conducted to determine whether lanatoside C affects the development of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE–/–) mice. ApoE–/– mice were administered either phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) containing 0.1% DMSO (the vehicle control group) or lanatoside C at low (1 mg/kg per day) or high (2 mg/kg per day) doses, and fed a Western diet for 12 weeks. Lanatoside C dose-dependently aggravated the development of atherosclerosis in the ApoE–/– mice compared with the vehicle control group. In an effort to determine the mechanism by which lanatoside C increased atherosclerosis, we found that lanatoside C significantly promoted the uptake of oxidised low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and increased foam-cell formation by upregulation of scavenger receptor class A (SR-A) and the class B scavenger receptor (CD36) in macrophages. Meanwhile, the effects of lanatoside C were abolished using small interfering RNA (siRNA) inhibition of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors β/δ (PPARβ/δ). Overall, our data demonstrate that lanatoside C aggravates the development of atherosclerosis by inducing PPARβ/δ expression, which mediates upregulation of SR-A and CD36, and promotes oxLDL uptake and foam-cell formation. PMID:26821916

  11. Yindanxinnaotong, a Chinese compound medicine, synergistically attenuates atherosclerosis progress

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Long; Pan, Guo-feng; Zhang, Xiao-dong; Wang, Jian-lu; Wang, Wan-dan; Zhang, Jian-yong; Wang, Hui; Liang, Ri-xin; Sun, Xiao-bo

    2015-01-01

    Yindanxinnaotong (YD), a traditional Chinese medicine, has been introduced to clinical medicine for more than a decade, while its pharmacological properties are still not to be well addressed. This report aimed to explore the anti-atherosclerosis properties and underlying mechanisms of YD. We initially performed a computational prediction based on a network pharmacology simulation, which clued YD exerted synergistically anti-atherosclerosis properties by vascular endothelium protection, lipid-lowering, anti-inflammation, and anti-oxidation. These outcomes were then validated in atherosclerosis rats. The experiments provided evidences indicating YD’s contribution in this study included, (1) significantly reduced the severity of atherosclerosis, inhibited reconstruction of the artery wall and regulated the lipid profile; (2) enhanced antioxidant power, strengthened the activity of antioxidant enzymes, and decreased malondialdhyde levels; (3) significantly increased the viability of umbilical vein endothelial cells exposed to oxidative stress due to pretreatment with YD; (4) significantly reduced the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines; (5) significantly down-regulated NF-kB/p65 and up-regulated IkB in the YD-treated groups. Overall, these results demonstrated that YD intervention relieves atherosclerosis through regulating lipids, reducing lipid particle deposition in the endothelial layer of artery, enhancing antioxidant power, and repressing inflammation activity by inhibiting the nuclear factor-kappa B signal pathway. PMID:26196108

  12. Antigen-induced immunomodulation in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Milioti, Natalia; Bermudez-Fajardo, Alexandra; Penichet, Manuel L; Oviedo-Orta, Ernesto

    2008-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disorder characterised by the accumulation of monocytes/macrophages, smooth muscle cells, and lymphocytes within the arterial wall in response to the release of proinflammatory molecules. Such accumulation results in the formation of the atherosclerotic plaque, which would eventually evolve to complications such as total artery occlusion, rupture, calcification, or aneurysm. Although the molecular mechanism responsible for the development of atherosclerosis is not completely understood, it is clear that the immune system plays a key role in the development of the atherosclerotic plaque and in its complications. There are multiple antigenic stimuli that have been associated with the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Most of these stimuli come from modified self-molecules such as oxidised low-density lipoproteins (oxLDLs), beta2glycoprotein1 (beta2GP1), lipoprotein a (LP(a)), heat shock proteins (HSPs), and protein components of the extracellular matrix such as collagen and fibrinogen in the form of advanced glycation-end (AGE) products. In addition, several foreign antigens including bacteria such as Porphyromonas gingivalis and Chlamydia pneumoniae and viruses such as enterovirus and cytomegalovirus have been associated with atherosclerosis as potentially causative or bystander participants, adding another level of complexity to the analysis of the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis. The present review summarises the most important scientific findings published within the last two decades on the importance of antigens, antigen stimulation, and adaptive immune responses in the development of atherosclerotic plaques. PMID:18551190

  13. Hematopoietic Akt2 deficiency attenuates the progression of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Rotllan, Noemi; Chamorro-Jorganes, Aránzazu; Araldi, Elisa; Wanschel, Amarylis C; Aryal, Binod; Aranda, Juan F; Goedeke, Leigh; Salerno, Alessandro G; Ramírez, Cristina M; Sessa, William C; Suárez, Yajaira; Fernández-Hernando, Carlos

    2015-02-01

    Atherosclerosis is the major cause of death and disability in diabetic and obese subjects with insulin resistance. Akt2, a phosphoinositide-dependent serine-threonine protein kinase, is highly express in insulin-responsive tissues; however, its role during the progression of atherosclerosis remains unknown. Thus, we aimed to investigate the contribution of Akt2 during the progression of atherosclerosis. We found that germ-line Akt2-deficient mice develop similar atherosclerotic plaques as wild-type mice despite higher plasma lipids and glucose levels. It is noteworthy that transplantation of bone marrow cells isolated from Akt2(-/-) mice to Ldlr(-/-) mice results in marked reduction of the progression of atherosclerosis compared with Ldlr(-/-) mice transplanted with wild-type bone marrow cells. In vitro studies indicate that Akt2 is required for macrophage migration in response to proatherogenic cytokines (monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and macrophage colony-stimulating factor). Moreover, Akt2(-/-) macrophages accumulate less cholesterol and have an alternative activated or M2-type phenotype when stimulated with proinflammatory cytokines. Together, these results provide evidence that macrophage Akt2 regulates migration, the inflammatory response and cholesterol metabolism and suggest that targeting Akt2 in macrophages might be beneficial for treating atherosclerosis. PMID:25392271

  14. Aberrant DNA methylation in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Hai, Zhang; Zuo, Wang

    2016-05-01

    Atherosclerosis, a multifactorial disease of large- and intermediate-sized arteries, is characterized by the accumulation of lipids and the proliferation of arterial smooth muscle cells, chronic inflammatory cells, and fibrous materials. DNA methylation involves inherent and acquired gene transcription changes, which occur independently of the DNA sequence. DNA methylation in the genome plays a major role in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. DNA methylation is a distinct and crucial mechanism that regulates genes governing cell proliferation, thereby linking environmental insults with gene regulation. DNA methyltransferases are crucial in maintaining endothelial cell integrity, promoting smooth muscle cell proliferation, and inducing the formation of arteriosclerosis in animal models. These enzymes, which influence DNA methylation in vascular cells, may be utilized to develop new diagnoses and treatments for atherosclerosis-related diseases. In this review, we focus on recent advances in the description and functional interpretation of the DNA methylome of cells and tissues involved in atherosclerosis. We also discuss the regulatory mechanism and the involvement of DNA methylation in the development and pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. PMID:26944567

  15. Heat shock protein 60 and immune inflammatory responses in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Grundtman, Cecilia; Kreutmayer, Simone B; Almanzar, Giovanni; Wick, Marius C; Wick, Georg

    2011-05-01

    Hallmarks of inflammation in various cardiovascular diseases, notably atherosclerosis, have been observed for a long time. However, evidence for an (auto)antigen-driven process at these sites of inflammation has come forward only recently. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) have been identified as playing either immunologically mediated disease promoting or protective roles. HSP60 has been shown to trigger innate and adaptive immune responses that initiate the earliest still reversible inflammatory stage of atherosclerosis. HSP60 is structurally highly conserved and abundantly expressed by prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells under stressful conditions. Beneficial protective immunity to microbial HSP60 acquired by infection or vaccination and bona fide autoimmunity to biochemically altered autologous HSP60 is present in all humans. In vitro and in vivo experiments have demonstrated that classical atherosclerosis risk factors can act as endothelial stressors that provoke the simultaneous expression of adhesion molecules and of HSP60 in mitochondria, in cytoplasm, and on the cell surface, where it acts as a "danger signal" for cellular and humoral immune reactions. Hence, protective, preexisting anti-HSP60 immunity may have to be "paid for" by harmful (auto)immune cross-reactive attack on arterial endothelial cells maltreated by atherosclerosis risk factors. These experimentally and clinically proven findings are the basis for the autoimmune concept of atherosclerosis. PMID:21508342

  16. The role of infection and immunity in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Gurfinkel, E; Lernoud, V

    2006-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases account for 20% of deaths worldwide, rising to 50% in developed countries. Current understanding of atherosclerosis derives from a combination of research in animals and cell cultures, analysis of human lesions, clinical investigations of patients with acute coronary syndromes and epidemiological studies of coronary artery disease. By measuring serologic titers in the serum of patients after cardiovascular events, it was observed that the greater the infectious exposure of a patient, the larger the atherosclerotic lesion extension. In addition, gene targeting or pharmacological inhibition of certain cytokines aggravates atherosclerosis in animal experiments. Other animal experiments have succeeded in proving that B cells play a protective role in atherosclerosis through induced immunity against oxidized low-density lipoprotein and other epitopes. Molecular mimicry might respond to the question of how infection may trigger vulnerability in previously stable atherosclerotic lesions. The FLU Vaccination Acute Coronary Syndromes trial enhanced the debate on atherosclerosis prevention by the application of antiflu vaccine. So far, antibiotics have failed to reduce cardiovascular risk, as recent trials could not demonstrate a statistically significant risk reduction. Having assumed atherosclerosis to be an inflammatory disease, the WHO considered the possible role of secondary prevention with antiflu vaccine. PMID:16375635

  17. Lanatoside C Promotes Foam Cell Formation and Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Huairui; Mao, Xiaobo; Zhong, Yucheng; Liu, Yuzhou; Zhao, Xiaoqi; Yu, Kunwu; Zhu, Ruirui; Wei, Yuzhen; Zhu, Jianghao; Sun, Haitao; Mao, Yi; Zeng, Qiutang

    2016-01-01

    Lanatoside C's impact on atherosclerosis is poorly understood. The present study was conducted to determine whether lanatoside C affects the development of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice. ApoE(-/-) mice were administered either phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) containing 0.1% DMSO (the vehicle control group) or lanatoside C at low (1 mg/kg per day) or high (2 mg/kg per day) doses, and fed a Western diet for 12 weeks. Lanatoside C dose-dependently aggravated the development of atherosclerosis in the ApoE(-/-) mice compared with the vehicle control group. In an effort to determine the mechanism by which lanatoside C increased atherosclerosis, we found that lanatoside C significantly promoted the uptake of oxidised low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and increased foam-cell formation by upregulation of scavenger receptor class A (SR-A) and the class B scavenger receptor (CD36) in macrophages. Meanwhile, the effects of lanatoside C were abolished using small interfering RNA (siRNA) inhibition of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors β/δ (PPARβ/δ). Overall, our data demonstrate that lanatoside C aggravates the development of atherosclerosis by inducing PPARβ/δ expression, which mediates upregulation of SR-A and CD36, and promotes oxLDL uptake and foam-cell formation. PMID:26821916

  18. Role of Helicobacter pylori infection in pathogenesis of atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Vijayvergiya, Rajesh; Vadivelu, Ramalingam

    2015-01-01

    Though a century old hypothesis, infection as a cause for atherosclerosis is still a debatable issue. Epidemiological and clinical studies had shown a possible association but inhomogeneity in the study population and study methods along with potential confounders have yielded conflicting results. Infection triggers a chronic inflammatory state which along with other mechanisms such as dyslipidemia, hyper-homocysteinemia, hypercoagulability, impaired glucose metabolism and endothelial dysfunction, contribute in pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Studies have shown a positive relations between Cytotoxic associated gene-A positive strains of Helicobacter pylori and vascular diseases such as coronary artery disease and stroke. Infection mediated genetic modulation is a new emerging theory in this regard. Further large scale studies on infection and atherosclerosis focusing on multiple pathogenetic mechanisms may help in refining our knowledge in this aspect. PMID:25810813

  19. Redox balance and blood elemental levels in atherosclerosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Napoleão, P.; Lopes, P. A.; Santos, M.; Steghens, J.-P.; Viegas-Crespo, A. M.; Pinheiro, T.

    2006-08-01

    Oxidation of lipids and proteins represents a causative event for atherogenesis, which can be opposed by antioxidant activity. Elements, such as, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se can be involved in both mechanisms. Thus, evaluation of blood elemental levels, easily detected by PIXE, and of redox parameters may be useful in assessing the risk of atherosclerosis. A group of stable patients suffering from atherosclerosis, was matched with a cohort of normo-tensive and -lipidemic volunteers. Although no major discrepancies were observed for trace elemental levels in blood, increased concentrations of K and Ca were found in atherosclerotic group. Patients presented enhance levels of antioxidant (α-tocopherol) and decreased of protein oxidation (protein carbonyls), while for the lipid oxidation marker (malondialdehyde) no variation was observed. This study contributes to a better understanding of atherosclerosis development and its relationship with blood elemental levels, and set basis for further clinical trials with pathological groups in acute phase.

  20. Symptomatic atherosclerosis is associated with an altered gut metagenome

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Fredrik H.; Fåk, Frida; Nookaew, Intawat; Tremaroli, Valentina; Fagerberg, Björn; Petranovic, Dina; Bäckhed, Fredrik; Nielsen, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Recent findings have implicated the gut microbiota as a contributor of metabolic diseases through the modulation of host metabolism and inflammation. Atherosclerosis is associated with lipid accumulation and inflammation in the arterial wall, and bacteria have been suggested as a causative agent of this disease. Here we use shotgun sequencing of the gut metagenome to demonstrate that the genus Collinsella was enriched in patients with symptomatic atherosclerosis, defined as stenotic atherosclerotic plaques in the carotid artery leading to cerebrovascular events, whereas Roseburia and Eubacterium were enriched in healthy controls. Further characterization of the functional capacity of the metagenomes revealed that patient gut metagenomes were enriched in genes encoding peptidoglycan synthesis and depleted in phytoene dehydrogenase; patients also had reduced serum levels of β-carotene. Our findings suggest that the gut metagenome is associated with the inflammatory status of the host and patients with symptomatic atherosclerosis harbor characteristic changes in the gut metagenome. PMID:23212374

  1. Internal mammary artery atherosclerosis: an ultrastructural study of two cases.

    PubMed

    Perrotta, Ida; Sciangula, Alfonso; Concistrè, Giovanni; Mazzulla, Sergio; Aquila, Saveria; Agnino, Alfonso

    2014-05-01

    Atherosclerosis of the internal mammary artery (IMA) is generally regarded as a rare (but existent) pathological entity with only a few cases reported in the most recent literature. The only study which to our knowledge has investigated the ultrastructural features of IMA atherosclerosis, demonstrate the presence of endothelial cells loss, defects of internal elastic lamina with no evidence of lipid accumulation. In the present study, we describe two cases of IMA atherosclerosis in which ultrastructural analysis revealed the presence of a typical atherosclerotic plaque morphology with infiltration of inflammatory cells, formation of intraplaque lipid pools, and accumulation of lipid-laden foam cells throughout the thickened intima, never described in this rare lesion before. Microscopically, the lesions were also characterized by intimal thickening, invagination of endothelial cells, migration of smooth muscle cells with splitting, fenestration and/or fragmentation of the elastic sheets. Our observations add new data to the scarce and contradictory literature and to this largely understudied vascular disorder. PMID:24467374

  2. Endogenous hydrogen sulfide is involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Qiao, Wang; Chaoshu, Tang; Key Laboratory of Molecular Cardiovascular Medicine, Ministry of Education ; Hongfang, Jin; Junbao, Du

    2010-05-28

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic, complex, and progressive pathological process in large and medium sized arteries. The exact mechanism of this process remains unclear. Hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), a novel gasotransmitter, was confirmed as playing a major role in the pathogenesis of many cardiovascular diseases. It plays a role in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and apoptosis, participates in the progress of hyperhomocysteinemia (HHCY), inhibits atherogenic modification of LDL, interferes with vascular calcification, intervenes with platelet function, and there are interactions between H{sub 2}S and inflammatory processes. The role of H{sub 2}S in atherosclerotic pathogenesis highlights the mysteries of atherosclerosis and inspires the search for innovative therapeutic strategies. Here, we review the studies to date that have considered the role of H{sub 2}S in atherosclerosis.

  3. Lymphocytes and the Adventitial Immune Response in Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Kirsti A.; Lipinski, Michael J.; Doran, Amanda C.; Skaflen, Marcus D.; Fuster, Valentin; McNamara, Coleen A.

    2012-01-01

    Though much of the research on atherosclerosis has focused on the intimal accumulation of lipids and inflammatory cells, there is an increasing amount of interest in the role of the adventitia in coordinating the immune response in atherosclerosis. In this review of the contributions of the adventitia and adventitial lymphocytes to the development of atherosclerosis, we discuss recent research on the formation and structural nature of adventitial immune aggregates, potential mechanisms of crosstalk between the intima, media, and adventitia, specific contributions of B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes, and the role of the vasa vasorum and surrounding perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT). Furthermore, we highlight techniques for the imaging of lymphocytes in the vasculature. PMID:22427326

  4. Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis: Insights from Large Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Vilahur, Gemma; Padro, Teresa; Badimon, Lina

    2011-01-01

    Atherosclerosis and its thrombotic complications are responsible for remarkably high numbers of deaths. The combination of in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo experimental approaches has largely contributed to a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the atherothrombotic process. Indeed, different animal models have been implemented in atherosclerosis and thrombosis research in order to provide new insights into the mechanisms that have already been outlined in isolated cells and protein studies. Yet, although no model completely mimics the human pathology, large animal models have demonstrated better suitability for translation to humans. Indeed, direct translation from mice to humans should be taken with caution because of the well-reported species-related differences. This paper provides an overview of the available atherothrombotic-like animal models, with a particular focus on large animal models of thrombosis and atherosclerosis, and examines their applicability for translational research purposes as well as highlights species-related differences with humans. PMID:21274431

  5. SUSCEPTIBILITY TO ATHEROSCLEROSIS IN AORTAS AND CORONARY ARTERIES OF SWINE WITH VON WILLEBRAND'S DISEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of coronary and aortic atherosclerosis was determined after balloon catheter injury of coronary arteries and administration of an atherogenic diet in normal pigs and pigs that were homozygous and heterozygous for von Willebrand's disease. Coronary atherosclerosis ...

  6. Hematopoietic Akt2 deficiency attenuates the progression of atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Rotllan, Noemi; Chamorro-Jorganes, Aránzazu; Araldi, Elisa; Wanschel, Amarylis C.; Aryal, Binod; Aranda, Juan F.; Goedeke, Leigh; Salerno, Alessandro G.; Ramírez, Cristina M.; Sessa, William C.; Suárez, Yajaira; Fernández-Hernando, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is the major cause of death and disability in diabetic and obese subjects with insulin resistance. Akt2, a phosphoinositide-dependent serine-threonine protein kinase, is highly express in insulin-responsive tissues; however, its role during the progression of atherosclerosis remains unknown. Thus, we aimed to investigate the contribution of Akt2 during the progression of atherosclerosis. We found that germ-line Akt2-deficient mice develop similar atherosclerotic plaques as wild-type mice despite higher plasma lipids and glucose levels. It is noteworthy that transplantation of bone marrow cells isolated from Akt2−/− mice to Ldlr−/− mice results in marked reduction of the progression of atherosclerosis compared with Ldlr−/− mice transplanted with wild-type bone marrow cells. In vitro studies indicate that Akt2 is required for macrophage migration in response to proatherogenic cytokines (monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and macrophage colony-stimulating factor). Moreover, Akt2−/− macrophages accumulate less cholesterol and have an alternative activated or M2-type phenotype when stimulated with proinflammatory cytokines. Together, these results provide evidence that macrophage Akt2 regulates migration, the inflammatory response and cholesterol metabolism and suggest that targeting Akt2 in macrophages might be beneficial for treating atherosclerosis.—Rotllan, N., Chamorro-Jorganes, A., Araldi, E., Wanschel, A. C., Aryal, B., Aranda, J. F., Goedeke, L., Salerno, A. G., Ramírez, C. M., Sessa,W. C., Suárez, Y., Fernández-Hernando, C. Hematopoietic Akt2 deficiency attenuates the progression of atherosclerosis. PMID:25392271

  7. Mice deficient in PKCβ and apolipoprotein E display decreased atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Harja, Evis; Chang, Jong Sun; Lu, Yan; Leitges, Michael; Zou, Yu Shan; Schmidt, Ann Marie; Yan, Shi-Fang

    2009-01-01

    Endothelial activation is a central initiating event in atheroma formation. Evidence from our laboratory and others has demonstrated links between activation of early growth response-1 (Egr-1) and atherosclerosis and also has demonstrated that activated protein kinase C (PKC) βII is a critical upstream regulator of Egr-1 in response to vascular stress. We tested the role of PKCβ in regulating key events linked to atherosclerosis and show that the aortas of apoE−/− mice display an age-dependent increase in PKCβII antigen in membranous fractions vs. C57BL/6 animals with a ∼2-fold increase at age 6 wk and a ∼4.5-fold increase at age 24 wk. Consistent with important roles for PKCβ in atherosclerosis, a significant decrease in atherosclerotic lesion area was evident in PKCβ−/−/apoE−/− vs. apoE−/− mice by ∼5-fold, in parallel with significantly reduced vascular transcripts for Egr-1 and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 antigen and activity vs. apoE−/− mice. Significant reduction in atherosclerosis of ∼2-fold was observed in apoE−/− mice fed ruboxistaurin chow (PKCβ inhibitor) vs. vehicle. In primary murine and human aortic endothelial cells, the PKCβ-JNK mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway importantly contributes to oxLDL-mediated induction of MMP2 expression. Blockade of PKCβ may be beneficial in mitigating endothelial perturbation and atherosclerosis.—Harja, E., Chang, J. S., Lu, Y., Leitges, M., Zou, Y. S., Schmidt, A. M., Yan, S.-F. Mice deficient in PKCβ and apolipoprotein E display decreased atherosclerosis. PMID:19036858

  8. MAOA Genotype, Childhood Trauma and Subclinical Atherosclerosis: A Twin Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jinying; Bremner, James D.; Goldberg, Jack; Quyyumi, Arshed A.; Vaccarino, Viola

    2013-01-01

    Objective A functional promoter polymorphism in the MAOA gene has been implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders and also moderates the association between early life stress and mental disorders, which often co-occur with cardiovascular disease. No study has examined the relationship between MAOA genotype, childhood trauma and subclinical atherosclerosis. The objective of this investigation was to examine whether childhood trauma moderates the association between MAOA genotype and subclinical atherosclerosis. Methods A sample including 289 middle-aged male twin pairs was studied. Subclinical atherosclerosis was assessed by brachial flow-mediated dilation (FMD) using ultrasound. Childhood trauma, before age 18, was measured with the Early Trauma Inventory and included physical, emotional, and sexual abuse as well as general trauma. Generalized estimating equation models were used to test the main and interactive effects of the MAOA genotype and each domain of childhood trauma on FMD, adjusting for known risk factors. Results General trauma was the most prevalent childhood trauma (28.4%), followed by physical abuse (25.0%), emotional abuse (19.4%) and sexual abuse (11.6%). MAOA genotype was not associated with any domain of childhood trauma (? ? 0.36). There was no significant evidence for a main effect for the MAOA genotype (? = 0.02, p = 0.82) or childhood trauma (0.005 < ? < 0.10, p > 0.54) on early atherosclerosis. However, a significant interaction was observed between MAOA genotype and physical (?interaction = 0.37, p = 0.026) or emotional abuse (?interaction = 0.43, p = 0.025) on subclinical atherosclerosis. Conclusion This study provides initial evidence that childhood trauma modulates the impact of MAOA variant on subclinical atherosclerosis, independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:23723362

  9. Basic Mechanisms in Atherosclerosis: The Role of Calcium.

    PubMed

    Kalampogias, Aimilios; Siasos, Gerasimos; Oikonomou, Evangelos; Tsalamandris, Sotirios; Mourouzis, Konstantinos; Tsigkou, Vasiliki; Vavuranakis, Manolis; Zografos, Thodoris; Deftereos, Spyridon; Stefanadis, Christodoulos; Tousoulis, Dimitris

    2016-01-01

    In the beginning, atherosclerosis was considered to be the result of passive lipid accumulation in the vascular walls. After tremendous technological advancements in research, we are now able to almost admire the complexity of the atherosclerotic process. Atherosclerosis is a chronicinflammatory condition that begins with the formation of calcified plaque, influenced by a number of different factors inside the vascular wall in large and mid-sized arteries. Calcium mineralization of the lumen in the atherosclerotic artery promotes and solidifies plaque formation causing narrowing of the vessel. Soft tissue calcification associated with tissue denegation or necrosis is a passive precipitation event. The process of atherogenesis is mainly driven by CD4+ T cells, CD40L, macrophages, foam cells with elevated transcription of many matrix metalloproteinases, osteoblasts, cytokines, selectins, myeloperoxidases, vascular adhesion molecules (VCAM), and smooth muscle cells. Our knowledge in the genesis of atherosclerosis has changed dramatically in the last few years. New imaging techniques such as intravascular ultrasound or IVUS have made possible to investigate atherosclerosis in early stages. Arterial calcification emerges from two different types, the medial-elastin dependent and the intimal, both of which are directly related to atherosclerosis due to osteoblast differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells. The deposition of minerals in the form of calcium (Ca(2+)) initially emerges from the inorganing mineral octacalcium phosphate [Ca8H2(PO4)6.5H2O] to the form of Hydroxylapatite [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2]. This review is devoted to broaden the understanding regarding atherosclerosis and the central role of calcium in the development of the condition. PMID:26411606

  10. Metabonomic Changes Associated with Atherosclerosis Progression for LDLR(-/-) Mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Zhang, Lulu; Dong, Fangcong; Liu, Yan; Li, Ning; Li, Huihui; Lei, Hehua; Hao, Fuhua; Wang, Yulan; Zhu, Yi; Tang, Huiru

    2015-05-01

    Atherosclerosis resulting from hyperlipidemia causes many serious cardiovascular diseases. To understand the systems changes associated with pathogenesis and progression of atherosclerosis, we comprehensively analyzed the dynamic metabonomic changes in multiple biological matrices of LDLR(-/-) mice using NMR and GC-FID/MS with gene expression, clinical chemistry, and histopathological data as well. We found that 12 week "Western-type" diet (WD) treatment caused obvious aortic lesions, macrophage infiltration, and collagen level elevation in LDLR(-/-) mice accompanied by up-regulation of inflammatory factors including aortic ICAM-1, MCP-1, iNOS, MMP2, and hepatic TNFα and IL-1β. The WD-induced atherosclerosis progression was accompanied by metabonomic changes in multiple matrices including biofluids (plasma, urine) and (liver, kidney, myocardial) tissues involving multiple metabolic pathways. These included disruption of cholesterol homeostasis, disturbance of biosynthesis of amino acids and proteins, altered gut microbiota functions together with metabolisms of vitamin-B3, choline, purines, and pyrimidines. WD treatment caused down-regulation of SCD1 and promoted oxidative stress reflected by urinary allantoin elevation and decreases in hepatic PUFA-to-MUFA ratio. When switching to normal diet, atherosclerotic LDLR(-/-) mice reprogrammed their metabolisms and reversed the atherosclerosis-associated metabonomic changes to a large extent, although aortic lesions, inflammation parameters, macrophage infiltration, and collagen content were only partially alleviated. We concluded that metabolisms of fatty acids and vitamin-B3 together with gut microbiota played crucially important roles in atherosclerosis development. These findings offered essential biochemistry details of the diet-induced atherosclerosis and demonstrated effectiveness of the integrated metabonomic analysis of multiple biological matrices for understanding the molecular aspects of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25784267

  11. Heme Oxygenase-1, Oxidation, Inflammation, and Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Araujo, Jesus A.; Zhang, Min; Yin, Fen

    2012-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory process of the vascular wall characterized by the infiltration of lipids and inflammatory cells. Oxidative modifications of infiltrating low-density lipoproteins and induction of oxidative stress play a major role in lipid retention in the vascular wall, uptake by macrophages and generation of foam cells, a hallmark of this disorder. The vasculature has a plethora of protective resources against oxidation and inflammation, many of them regulated by the Nrf2 transcription factor. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a Nrf2-regulated gene that plays a critical role in the prevention of vascular inflammation. It is the inducible isoform of HO, responsible for the oxidative cleavage of heme groups leading to the generation of biliverdin, carbon monoxide, and release of ferrous iron. HO-1 has important antioxidant, antiinflammatory, antiapoptotic, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory effects in vascular cells, most of which play a significant role in the protection against atherogenesis. HO-1 may also be an important feature in macrophage differentiation and polarization to certain subtypes. The biological effects of HO-1 are largely attributable to its enzymatic activity, which can be conceived as a system with three arms of action, corresponding to its three enzymatic byproducts. HO-1 mediated vascular protection may be due to a combination of systemic and vascular local effects. It is usually expressed at low levels but can be highly upregulated in the presence of several proatherogenic stimuli. The HO-1 system is amenable for use in the development of new therapies, some of them currently under experimental and clinical trials. Interestingly, in contrast to the HO-1 antiatherogenic actions, the expression of its transcriptional regulator Nrf2 leads to proatherogenic effects instead. This suggests that a potential intervention on HO-1 or its byproducts may need to take into account any potential alteration in the status of Nrf2 activation. This article reviews the available evidence that supports the antiatherogenic role of HO-1 as well as the potential pathways and mechanisms mediating vascular protection. PMID:22833723

  12. Changes in transcriptome of macrophages in atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Chistiakov, Dimitry A; Bobryshev, Yuri V; Orekhov, Alexander N

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages display significant phenotypic heterogeneity. Two growth factors, macrophage colony-stimulating factor and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 4, drive terminal differentiation of monocytes to M0 and M4 macrophages respectively. Compared to M0 macrophages, M4 cells have a unique transcriptome, with expression of surface markers such as S100A8, mannose receptor CD206 and matrix metalloproteinase 7. M4 macrophages did not express CD163, a scavenger receptor for haemoglobin/haptoglobin complex. Depending on the stimuli, M0 macrophages could polarize towards the proinflammatory M1 subset by treatment with lipopolysaccharide or interferon-γ. These macrophages produce a range of proinflammatory cytokines, nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species and exhibit high chemotactic and phagocytic activity. The alternative M2 type could be induced from M0 macrophage by stimulation with interleukin (IL)-4. M2 macrophages express high levels of CD206 and produce anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 and transforming growth factor-β. M1, M2 and M4 macrophages could be found in atherosclerotic plaques. In the plaque, macrophages are subjected to the intensive influence not only by cytokines and chemokines but also with bioactive lipids such as cholesterol and oxidized phospholipids. Oxidized phospholipids induce a distinct Mox phenotype in murine macrophages that express a unique panel of antioxidant enzymes under control of the redox-regulated transcription factor Klf2, resistant to lipid accumulation. In unstable human lesions, atheroprotective M(Hb) and HA-mac macrophage subsets could be found. These two subsets are induced by the haemoglobin/haptoglobin complex, highly express haeme oxygenase 1 and CD163, and are implicated in clearance of haemoglobin and erythrocyte remnants. In atherogenesis, the macrophage phenotype is plastic and could therefore be switched to proinflammatory (i.e. proatherogenic) and anti-inflammatory (i.e. atheroprotective). The aim of this review was to characterize changes in macrophage transcriptome in atherosclerosis and discuss key markers that characterize different phenotypes of macrophages present in atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:25973901

  13. In-111 platelet scintigraphy: carotid atherosclerosis and stroke

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, W.J.

    1984-05-01

    An association between atherosclerosis of the internal carotid artery and ischemia or infarction of the ipsilateral cerebral hemisphere has been demonstrated by numerous radiographic and pathologic studies. The precise mechanism by which carotid atherosclerosis causes these problems, however, remains unclear. Several observations suggest that fibrin-platelet thrombi form on atherosclerotic plaques in the neck arteries and then embolize distally into the intracranial circulation. Unfortunately, platelet embolization does not adequately explain a variety of clinical and pathological findings in patients with cerebrovascular disease. This editorial will discuss these findings. It is obvious that the understanding of the role of platelets in the pathogenesis of ischemic cerebrvascular disease is far from complete.

  14. What can ancient mummies teach us about atherosclerosis?

    PubMed

    Wann, Samuel; Thomas, Gregory S

    2014-10-01

    Ancient mummies have captivated a wide variety of audiences for centuries. In order to better understand the evolution and causative features of atherosclerosis, the Horus group is applying modern scientific methods to study ancient mummies. We have used CT scanning to detect calcification in arteries as an indication of the presence of atherosclerosis, and are correlating these results with cultural and lifestyle features of various populations of ancient people as represented by their ancient mummified remains. We are also pursuing related studies of ancient DNA to define genotypes associated with atherosclerotic phenotypes. PMID:25106086

  15. Recent insights into the cellular biology of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Tabas, Ira; García-Cardeña, Guillermo; Owens, Gary K

    2015-04-13

    Atherosclerosis occurs in the subendothelial space (intima) of medium-sized arteries at regions of disturbed blood flow and is triggered by an interplay between endothelial dysfunction and subendothelial lipoprotein retention. Over time, this process stimulates a nonresolving inflammatory response that can cause intimal destruction, arterial thrombosis, and end-organ ischemia. Recent advances highlight important cell biological atherogenic processes, including mechanotransduction and inflammatory processes in endothelial cells, origins and contributions of lesional macrophages, and origins and phenotypic switching of lesional smooth muscle cells. These advances illustrate how in-depth mechanistic knowledge of the cellular pathobiology of atherosclerosis can lead to new ideas for therapy. PMID:25869663

  16. Molecular mechanisms linking diabetes to the accelerated development of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Zeadin, Melec G; Petlura, Christina I; Werstuck, Geoff H

    2013-10-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease, and both type 1 and type 2 diabetes have been shown to accelerate the development of atherosclerosis, the underlying cause of most myocardial infarctions. Despite the profound clinical importance of vascular disease in patients with diabetes mellitus, our understanding of the relative contributions of insulin resistance and hyperglycemia to atherogenesis is not complete. Furthermore, the molecular and cellular pathways that are involved in disease progression are not clear. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of the potential mechanisms that link diabetes to atherosclerosis and indicate existing gaps in our knowledge. PMID:24500563

  17. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Atherosclerosis: Recent Data and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Mehanna, Emile; Hamik, Anne; Josephson, Richard A

    2016-05-01

    Historically, the relationship between exercise and the cardiovascular system was viewed as unidirectional, with a disease resulting in exercise limitation and hazard. This article reviews and explores the bidirectional nature, delineating the effects, generally positive, on the cardiovascular system and atherosclerosis. Exercise augments eNOS, affects redox potential, and favorably affects mediators of atherosclerosis including lipids, glucose homeostasis, and inflammation. There are direct effects on the vasculature as well as indirect benefits related to exercise-induced changes in body composition and skeletal muscle. Application of aerobic exercise to specific populations is described, with the hope that this knowledge will move the science forward and improve individual patient outcome. PMID:27005804

  18. Fetal programming of atherosclerosis: possible role of the mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Leduc, Line; Levy, Emile; Bouity-Voubou, Maurice; Delvin, Edgard

    2010-04-01

    Growing evidence indicates that being small size at birth from malnutrition is associated with an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D), metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease in adulthood. Atherosclerosis is common to these aforementioned disorders, and oxidative stress and chronic inflammation are now considered as initiating events in its development, with endothelial cell dysfunction being an early, fundamental step. According to the fetal programming hypothesis, growth-restricted neonates exposed to placental insufficiency exhibit endothelial cell dysfunction very early in life that later on predisposes them to atherosclerosis. Although many investigations have reported early alterations in vascular function in children and adolescents with low birth weight, the mechanisms of such fetal programming of atherosclerosis remain largely unknown. Experimental studies have demonstrated that low birth weight infants are prenatally subjected to conditions of oxidative stress and inflammation that might be involved in the later occurrence of atherosclerosis. Arterial endothelial dysfunction has been encountered in term infants, children and young adults with low birth weight. The loss of appropriate endothelium function with decreased nitric oxide production or activity, manifested as impaired vasodilatation, is considered a basic step in atherosclerosis development and progression. Several lines of evidence indicate that mitochondrial damage is central to this process and that reactive oxygen species (ROS) may act as a double-edged sword. On the one hand, it is well-accepted that the mitochondria are a major source of chronic ROS production under physiological conditions. On the other hand, it is known that ROS generation damages lipids, proteins and mitochondrial DNA, leading to dysregulated mitochondrial function. Elevated mitochondrial ROS production is associated with endothelial cell dysfunction as well as vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and apoptosis. Smoking, obesity, insulin-resistant T2D, hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycaemia and hypertriglyceridaemia, major, traditional precursors of atherosclerosis, are all linked to mitochondrial dysfunction. This review focuses on proof of in utero programming resulting from chronic exposure to oxidative stress and inflammation as a cause of atherosclerosis. Endothelial cell dysfunction may be the initial injury arising from adverse antenatal conditions and responsible for the early changes in vascular function seen in children. After considering the critical role of the mitochondria in atherogenesis through endothelial function abnormalities, we propose that placental mitochondrial dysfunction is present in cases of placental insufficiency and may be critical in fetal programming of atherosclerosis. PMID:20053495

  19. Perspectives and opportunities for nanomedicine in the management of atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Lobatto, Mark E.; Fuster, Valentin; Fayad, Zahi A.; Mulder, Willem J. M.

    2013-01-01

    The use of nanotechnology for medical purposes — nanomedicine — has grown exponentially over the past few decades. This is exemplified by the US Food and Drug Administration’s approval of several nanotherapies for various conditions, as well as the funding of nanomedical programmes worldwide. Although originally the domain of anticancer therapy, recent advances have illustrated the considerable potential of nanomedicine in the diagnosis and treatment of atherosclerosis. This Review elaborates on nanoparticle-targeting concepts in atherosclerotic disease, provides an overview of the use of nanomedicine in atherosclerosis, and discusses potential future applications and clinical benefits. PMID:22015921

  20. Potential cell-specific functions of CXCR4 in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Weber, Christian; Döring, Yvonne; Noels, Heidi

    2016-05-10

    The chemokine CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 form an important axis contributing to cellular functions in homeostasis and disease. In addition, the atypical CXCL12 receptor CXCR7 may shape the availability and function of CXCL12. Further to their role through progenitor cell mobilization, CXCL12 and CXCR4 may affect native atherogenesis by modifying atherosclerosis-relevant cellular functions. This short review intends to provide a concise summary of current knowledge with regards to cell-specific functions of CXCL12 and its receptors CXCR4 and CXCR7 with potential implications for the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. PMID:25586789

  1. Targeting and Therapeutic Peptides in Nanomedicine for Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Eun Ji

    2016-01-01

    Peptides in atherosclerosis nanomedicine provide structural, targeting, and therapeutic functionality, and can assist in overcoming delivery barriers of traditional pharmaceuticals. Moreover, their inherent biocompatibility and biodegradability make them especially attractive as materials intended for use in vivo. In this review, an overview of nanoparticle-associated targeting and therapeutic peptides for atherosclerosis are provided, including peptides designed for cellular targets such as endothelial cells, monocytes, and macrophages as well as for plaque components such as collagen and fibrin. An emphasis is placed on recent advances in multimodal strategies and a discussion on current challenges and barriers for clinical applicability is presented. PMID:27022138

  2. Leukocyte behavior in atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, and heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Swirski, Filip K.; Nahrendorf, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases claim more lives worldwide than any other. Etiologically, the dominant trajectory involves atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory process of lipid-rich lesion growth in the vascular wall that can cause life-threatening myocardial infarction (MI). Those who survive MI can develop congestive heart failure, a chronic condition of inadequate pump activity that is frequently fatal. Leukocytes – white blood cells – are important participants at the various stages of cardiovascular disease progression and complication. This review will discuss leukocyte function in atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, and heart failure. PMID:23307733

  3. Recent insights into the cellular biology of atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    García-Cardeña, Guillermo; Owens, Gary K.

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis occurs in the subendothelial space (intima) of medium-sized arteries at regions of disturbed blood flow and is triggered by an interplay between endothelial dysfunction and subendothelial lipoprotein retention. Over time, this process stimulates a nonresolving inflammatory response that can cause intimal destruction, arterial thrombosis, and end-organ ischemia. Recent advances highlight important cell biological atherogenic processes, including mechanotransduction and inflammatory processes in endothelial cells, origins and contributions of lesional macrophages, and origins and phenotypic switching of lesional smooth muscle cells. These advances illustrate how in-depth mechanistic knowledge of the cellular pathobiology of atherosclerosis can lead to new ideas for therapy. PMID:25869663

  4. The Influence of Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses on Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Witztum, Joseph L.; Lichtman, Andrew H.

    2014-01-01

    Both the chronic development of atherosclerotic lesions and the acute changes in lesion phenotype that lead to clinical cardiovascular events are significantly influenced by the innate and adaptive immune responses to lipoprotein deposition and oxidation in the arterial wall. The rapid pace of discovery of mechanisms of immunologic recognition, effector functions, and regulation has significantly influenced the study of atherosclerosis, and our new knowledge is beginning to affect how we treat this ubiquitous disease. In this review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of how innate and adaptive immunity contribute to atherosclerosis, as well as therapeutic opportunities that arise from this knowledge. PMID:23937439

  5. Management of radiation-induced accelerated carotid atherosclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Loftus, C.M.; Biller, J.; Hart, M.N.; Cornell, S.H.; Hiratzka, L.F.

    1987-07-01

    Patients with long survival following cervical irradiation are at risk for accelerated carotid atherosclerosis. The neurologic presentation in these patients mimics naturally occurring atheromatous disease, but patients often present at younger ages and with less concurrent coronary or systemic vascular disease. Hypercholesterolemia also contributes to this accelerated arteriosclerosis. Angiographic findings in this disorder include disproportionate involvement of the distal common carotid artery and unusually long carotid lesions. Pathologic findings include destruction of the internal elastic lamina and replacement of the normal intima and media with fibrous tissue. This article describes two surgical patients with radiation-induced accelerated carotid atherosclerosis who typify the presentation and characteristics of this disease.

  6. IRF5 deficiency ameliorates lupus but promotes atherosclerosis and metabolic dysfunction in a mouse model of lupus-associated atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Amanda A.; Yasuda, Kei; Wilson, Gabriella E.; Aprahamian, Tamar; Xie, Yao; Maganto-Garcia, Elena; Shukla, Prachi; Oberlander, Lillian; Laskow, Bari; Menn-Josephy, Hanni; Wu, Yuanyuan; Duffau, Pierre; Fried, Susan K.; Lichtman, Andrew H.; Bonegio, Ramon G.; Rifkin, Ian R.

    2015-01-01

    Premature atherosclerosis is a severe complication of lupus and other systemic autoimmune disorders. Gain-of-function polymorphisms in interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) are associated with an increased risk of developing lupus and IRF5 deficiency in lupus mouse models ameliorates disease. However, whether IRF5 deficiency also protects against atherosclerosis development in lupus is not known. Here we addressed this question using the gld.apoE−/− mouse model. IRF5 deficiency markedly reduced lupus disease severity. Unexpectedly, despite the reduction in systemic immune activation, IRF5-deficient mice developed increased atherosclerosis and also exhibited metabolic dysregulation characterized by hyperlipidemia, increased adiposity and insulin resistance. Levels of the atheroprotective cytokine IL-10 were reduced in aortae of IRF5-deficient mice and in vitro studies demonstrated that IRF5 is required for IL-10 production downstream of TLR7 and TLR9 signaling in multiple immune cell types. Chimera studies showed that IRF5 deficiency in bone marrow-derived cells prevents lupus development and contributes in part to the increased atherosclerosis. Notably, IRF5 deficiency in non-bone marrow-derived cells also contributes to the increased atherosclerosis through the generation of hyperlipidemia and increased adiposity. Together, our results reveal a protective role for IRF5 in lupus-associated atherosclerosis that is mediated through the effects of IRF5 in both immune and non-immune cells. These findings have implications for the proposed targeting of IRF5 in the treatment of autoimmune disease as global IRF5 inhibition may exacerbate cardiovascular disease in these patients. PMID:25595782

  7. Inhibiting macrophage proliferation suppresses atherosclerotic plaque inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jun; Lobatto, Mark E.; Hassing, Laurien; van der Staay, Susanne; van Rijs, Sarian M.; Calcagno, Claudia; Braza, Mounia S.; Baxter, Samantha; Fay, Francois; Sanchez-Gaytan, Brenda L.; Duivenvoorden, Raphaël; Sager, Hendrik B.; Astudillo, Yaritzy M.; Leong, Wei; Ramachandran, Sarayu; Storm, Gert; Pérez-Medina, Carlos; Reiner, Thomas; Cormode, David P.; Strijkers, Gustav J.; Stroes, Erik S. G.; Swirski, Filip K.; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Fisher, Edward A.; Fayad, Zahi A.; Mulder, Willem J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation drives atherosclerotic plaque progression and rupture, and is a compelling therapeutic target. Consequently, attenuating inflammation by reducing local macrophage accumulation is an appealing approach. This can potentially be accomplished by either blocking blood monocyte recruitment to the plaque or increasing macrophage apoptosis and emigration. Because macrophage proliferation was recently shown to dominate macrophage accumulation in advanced plaques, locally inhibiting macrophage proliferation may reduce plaque inflammation and produce long-term therapeutic benefits. To test this hypothesis, we used nanoparticle-based delivery of simvastatin to inhibit plaque macrophage proliferation in apolipoprotein E–deficient mice (Apoe−/−) with advanced atherosclerotic plaques. This resulted in the rapid reduction of plaque inflammation and favorable phenotype remodeling. We then combined this short-term nanoparticle intervention with an 8-week oral statin treatment, and this regimen rapidly reduced and continuously suppressed plaque inflammation. Our results demonstrate that pharmacologically inhibiting local macrophage proliferation can effectively treat inflammation in atherosclerosis. PMID:26295063

  8. Brown fat activation reduces hypercholesterolaemia and protects from atherosclerosis development

    PubMed Central

    Berbée, Jimmy F. P.; Boon, Mariëtte R; Khedoe, P. Padmini S. J.; Bartelt, Alexander; Schlein, Christian; Worthmann, Anna; Kooijman, Sander; Hoeke, Geerte; Mol, Isabel M.; John, Clara; Jung, Caroline; Vazirpanah, Nadia; Brouwers, Linda P.J.; Gordts, Philip L.S.M.; Esko, Jeffrey D.; Hiemstra, Pieter S.; Havekes, Louis M.; Scheja, Ludger; Heeren, Joerg; Rensen, Patrick C.N.

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) combusts high amounts of fatty acids, thereby lowering plasma triglyceride levels and reducing obesity. However, the precise role of BAT in plasma cholesterol metabolism and atherosclerosis development remains unclear. Here we show that BAT activation by β3-adrenergic receptor stimulation protects from atherosclerosis in hyperlipidemic APOE*3-Leiden.CETP mice, a well-established model for human-like lipoprotein metabolism that unlike hyperlipidemic Apoe−/− and Ldlr−/− mice expresses functional apoE and LDLR. BAT activation increases energy expenditure and decreases plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that BAT activation enhances the selective uptake of fatty acids from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins into BAT, subsequently accelerating the hepatic clearance of the cholesterol-enriched remnants. These effects depend on a functional hepatic apoE-LDLR clearance pathway as BAT activation in Apoe−/− and Ldlr−/− mice does not attenuate hypercholesterolaemia and atherosclerosis. We conclude that activation of BAT is a powerful therapeutic avenue to ameliorate hyperlipidaemia and protect from atherosclerosis. PMID:25754609

  9. Cell signaling by reactive nitrogen and oxygen species in atherosclerosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, R. P.; Moellering, D.; Murphy-Ullrich, J.; Jo, H.; Beckman, J. S.; Darley-Usmar, V. M.

    2000-01-01

    The production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species has been implicated in atherosclerosis principally as means of damaging low-density lipoprotein that in turn initiates the accumulation of cholesterol in macrophages. The diversity of novel oxidative modifications to lipids and proteins recently identified in atherosclerotic lesions has revealed surprising complexity in the mechanisms of oxidative damage and their potential role in atherosclerosis. Oxidative or nitrosative stress does not completely consume intracellular antioxidants leading to cell death as previously thought. Rather, oxidative and nitrosative stress have a more subtle impact on the atherogenic process by modulating intracellular signaling pathways in vascular tissues to affect inflammatory cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, and differentiation. Furthermore, cellular responses can affect the production of nitric oxide, which in turn can strongly influence the nature of oxidative modifications occurring in atherosclerosis. The dynamic interactions between endogenous low concentrations of oxidants or reactive nitrogen species with intracellular signaling pathways may have a general role in processes affecting wound healing to apoptosis, which can provide novel insights into the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.

  10. Endothelial function and atherosclerosis: circulatory markers with clinical usefulness.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Fernando; Alves, Alberto J; Teixeira, Madalena; Ribeiro, Vasco; Duarte, Jos A; Oliveira, Jos

    2009-10-01

    The healthy endothelium secretes and expresses at the surface various molecules which help maintain vascular wall structure and vascular homeostasis, as well as regulating vascular tone and leukocyte traffic. In response to various aggressive stimuli, the endothelial cell modulates its properties to restore vascular homeostasis. Usually, changes in the endothelial cell phenotype are transient and do not compromise the subsequent re-establishment of endothelial function. However, in certain pathological conditions, such as atherosclerosis, endothelial function is chronically disturbed, and this alteration is a critical step in the progression of the disease. In recent years, advances in knowledge have improved our understanding of the physiopathology of atherosclerosis, which is now known to be a dynamic and progressive process proceeding from endothelial dysfunction and inflammation of the vascular wall. The evolution and prognosis of atherosclerosis, along with the efficacy of therapeutic modalities, can be assessed by measuring the circulating levels of various biomarkers expressed or released by the endothelium. The purpose of this review is to reappraise the evidene concerning endothelial function under physiological conditions and in atherosclerosis, and to analyze markers of endothelial function with clinical applicability. PMID:20058778

  11. Lipoicmethylenedioxyphenol Reduces Experimental Atherosclerosis through Activation of Nrf2 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Zhekang; Chen, Minjie; Xie, Xiaoyun; Wang, Xiaoke; Kherada, Nisharahmed; Desikan, Rajagopal; Mihai, Georgeta; Burns, Patrick; Sun, Qinghua; Rajagopalan, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Objective Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, and Nrf2 is the transcriptional factor central in cellular antioxidant responses. In the present study, we investigate the effect of a dihydrolipoic acid derivative lipoicmethylenedioxyphenol (LMDP) on the progression of atherosclerosis and test whether its effect on atherosclerosis is mediated by Nrf2. Methods and Results Both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning and en face analysis reveal that 14 weeks of treatment with LMDP markedly reduced atherosclerotic burden in a rabbit balloon vascular injury model. Myograph analyses show decreased aortic contractile response to phenylephrine and increased aortic response to acetylcholine and insulin in LMDP-treated animals, suggesting that LMDP inhibits atherosclerosis through improving vascular function. A role of Nrf2 signaling in mediating the amelioration of vascular function by LMDP was supported by increased Nrf2 translocation into nuclear and increased expression of Nrf2 target genes. Furthermore, chemotaxis analysis with Boydem chamber shows that leukocytes isolated from LMDP-treated rabbits had reduced chemotaxis, and knock-down of Nrf2 significantly reduced the effect of LMDP on the chemotaxis of mouse macrophages. Conclusion Our results support that LMDP has an anti-atherosclerotic effect likely through activation of Nrf2 signaling and subsequent inhibition of macrophage chemotaxis. PMID:26859892

  12. Plasma fibronectin deficiency impedes atherosclerosis progression and fibrous cap formation.

    PubMed

    Rohwedder, Ina; Montanez, Eloi; Beckmann, Karsten; Bengtsson, Eva; Dunér, Pontus; Nilsson, Jan; Soehnlein, Oliver; Fässler, Reinhard

    2012-07-01

    Atherosclerotic lesions are asymmetric focal thickenings of the intima of arteries that consist of lipids, various cell types and extracellular matrix (ECM). These lesions lead to vascular occlusion representing the most common cause of death in the Western world. The main cause of vascular occlusion is rupture of atheromatous lesions followed by thrombus formation. Fibronectin (FN) is one of the earliest ECM proteins deposited at atherosclerosis-prone sites and was suggested to promote atherosclerotic lesion formation. Here, we report that atherosclerosis-prone apolipoprotein E-null mice lacking hepatocyte-derived plasma FN (pFN) fed with a pro-atherogenic diet display dramatically reduced FN depositions at atherosclerosis-prone areas, which results in significantly smaller and fewer atherosclerotic plaques. However, the atherosclerotic lesions from pFN-deficient mice lacked vascular smooth muscle cells and failed to develop a fibrous cap. Thus, our results demonstrate that while FN worsens the course of atherosclerosis by increasing the atherogenic plaque area, it promotes the formation of the protective fibrous cap, which in humans prevents plaques rupture and vascular occlusion. PMID:22514136

  13. Ageing induced vascular smooth muscle cell senescence in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Uryga, Anna K; Bennett, Martin R

    2016-04-15

    Atherosclerosis is a disease of ageing in that its incidence and prevalence increase with age. However, atherosclerosis is also associated with biological ageing, manifest by a number of typical hallmarks of ageing in the atherosclerotic plaque. Thus, accelerated biological ageing may be superimposed on the effects of chronological ageing in atherosclerosis. Tissue ageing is seen in all cells that comprise the plaque, but particularly in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Hallmarks of ageing include evidence of cell senescence, DNA damage (including telomere attrition), mitochondrial dysfunction, a pro-inflammatory secretory phenotype, defects in proteostasis, epigenetic changes, deregulated nutrient sensing, and exhaustion of progenitor cells. In this model, initial damage to DNA (genomic, telomeric, mitochondrial and epigenetic changes) results in a number of cellular responses (cellular senescence, deregulated nutrient sensing and defects in proteostasis). Ultimately, ongoing damage and attempts at repair by continued proliferation overwhelm reparative capacity, causing loss of specialised cell functions, cell death and inflammation. This review summarises the evidence for accelerated biological ageing in atherosclerosis, the functional consequences of cell ageing on cells comprising the plaque, and the causal role that VSMC senescence plays in atherogenesis. PMID:26174609

  14. Evaluation of the biomechanics of atherosclerosis by acoustic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saijo, Yoshifumi; Nitta, Shin-ichi; Schiott Jorgensen, Claus; Falk, Erling

    2001-07-01

    Acoustic microscopy provides not only the morphology, but also the biomechanical properties of the biological soft tissues. The biomechanics of atherosclerosis is important because the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis is closely related with mechanical properties and mechanical stress. Rupture of the fibrous cap of atheromatous plaque is the initial event in acute coronary syndrome such as acute myocardial infarction or unstable angina. In addition to extrinsic physical stresses to the plaque, the intrinsic biomechanical property of the plaque is important for assessing the mechanism of the rupture. Two sets of SAMs operating in 100 to 200 MHz and in 800 MHz to 1.3 GHz were equipped to measure the acoustic properties of atherosclerosis of human or mouse arteries. The values of attenuation and sound speed in the tissue components of atherosclerosis were measured by analyzing the frequency dependent characteristics of the amplitude and phase signals. Both values were highest in calcification and lowest in lipid pool. Although attenuation and sound speed were relatively high in intimal fibrosis, the inhomogeneity of acoustic parameters was found within the fibrous cap. Polarized microscopy for the collagen stained with Picrosirius red showed that the attenuation of ultrasound was significantly higher in type I collagen with orange polarized color compared to type III collagen with green color. SAM has shown the possibility to detect the plaque vulnerability and it might improve our understanding of the sudden rupture from micro-mechanical point of view.

  15. CD36, a scavenger receptor implicated in atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young Mi

    2014-01-01

    CD36 is a membrane glycoprotein that is present on various types of cells, including monocytes, macrophages, microvascular endothelial cells, adipocytes and platelets. Macrophage CD36 participates in atherosclerotic arterial lesion formation through its interaction with oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), which triggers signaling cascades for inflammatory responses. CD36 functions in oxLDL uptake and foam cell formation, which is the initial critical stage of atherosclerosis. In addition, oxLDL via CD36 inhibits macrophage migration, which may be a macrophage-trapping mechanism in atherosclerotic lesions. The role of CD36 was examined in in vitro studies and in vivo experiments, which investigated various functions of CD36 in atherosclerosis and revealed that CD36 deficiency reduces atherosclerotic lesion formation. Platelet CD36 also promotes atherosclerotic inflammatory processes and is involved in thrombus formation after atherosclerotic plaque rupture. Because CD36 is an essential component of atherosclerosis, defining the function of CD36 and its corresponding signaling pathway may lead to a new treatment strategy for atherosclerosis. PMID:24903227

  16. Animal Models in Cardiovascular Research: Hypertension and Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Chun-Yi; Jaarin, Kamsiah

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension and atherosclerosis are among the most common causes of mortality in both developed and developing countries. Experimental animal models of hypertension and atherosclerosis have become a valuable tool for providing information on etiology, pathophysiology, and complications of the disease and on the efficacy and mechanism of action of various drugs and compounds used in treatment. An animal model has been developed to study hypertension and atherosclerosis for several reasons. Compared to human models, an animal model is easily manageable, as compounding effects of dietary and environmental factors can be controlled. Blood vessels and cardiac tissue samples can be taken for detailed experimental and biomolecular examination. Choice of animal model is often determined by the research aim, as well as financial and technical factors. A thorough understanding of the animal models used and complete analysis must be validated so that the data can be extrapolated to humans. In conclusion, animal models for hypertension and atherosclerosis are invaluable in improving our understanding of cardiovascular disease and developing new pharmacological therapies. PMID:26064920

  17. The role of oxidative stress and autophagy in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Perrotta, Ida; Aquila, Saveria

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a multifactorial, multistep disorder of large- and medium-sized arteries involving, in addition to age, gender and menopausal status, a complex interplay between lifestyle and genetic risk factors. Atherosclerosis usually begins with the diffusion and retention of atherogenic lipoproteins into the subendothelial space of the artery wall where they become oxidized by local enzymes and accumulate, leading to the formation of a cushion called atheroma or atheromatous or fibrofatty plaque, composed of a mixture of macrophages, lymphocytes, smooth muscle cells (SMCs), cholesterol cleft, necrotic debris, and lipid-laden foam cells. The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis still remains incompletely understood but emerging evidence suggests that it may involve multiple cellular events, including endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction, inflammation, proliferation of vascular SMCs, matrix (ECM) alteration, and neovascularization. Actually, a growing body of evidence indicates that autophagy along with the chronic and acute overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is integral to the development and progression of the disease and may represent fruitful avenues for biological investigation and for the identification of new therapeutic targets. In this review, we give an overview of ROS and autophagy in atherosclerosis as background to understand their potential role in this vascular disease. PMID:25866599

  18. The Role of Oxidative Stress and Autophagy in Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Perrotta, Ida; Aquila, Saveria

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a multifactorial, multistep disorder of large- and medium-sized arteries involving, in addition to age, gender and menopausal status, a complex interplay between lifestyle and genetic risk factors. Atherosclerosis usually begins with the diffusion and retention of atherogenic lipoproteins into the subendothelial space of the artery wall where they become oxidized by local enzymes and accumulate, leading to the formation of a cushion called atheroma or atheromatous or fibrofatty plaque, composed of a mixture of macrophages, lymphocytes, smooth muscle cells (SMCs), cholesterol cleft, necrotic debris, and lipid-laden foam cells. The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis still remains incompletely understood but emerging evidence suggests that it may involve multiple cellular events, including endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction, inflammation, proliferation of vascular SMCs, matrix (ECM) alteration, and neovascularization. Actually, a growing body of evidence indicates that autophagy along with the chronic and acute overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is integral to the development and progression of the disease and may represent fruitful avenues for biological investigation and for the identification of new therapeutic targets. In this review, we give an overview of ROS and autophagy in atherosclerosis as background to understand their potential role in this vascular disease. PMID:25866599

  19. Macrophage autophagy regulated by miR-384-5p-mediated control of Beclin-1 plays a role in the development of atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Beiyun; Zhong, Yuan; Huang, Dong; Li, Jingbo

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages play an essential and complicated role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. However, the regulation of macrophage autophagy as well as it role in the development of atherosclerosis is unclear. MicroRNA-384-5p (miR-384-5p) is a new miRNA that attracted attention very recently, while its effects on Beclin-1 and cell autophagy has not been reported. Here, we studied macrophage autophagy in ApoE (-/-) mice suppled with high-fat diet (HFD), a mouse model for atherosclerosis (simplified as HFD mice). We analyzed the levels of Beclin-1 and the levels of miR-384-5p in the purified F4/80+ macrophages from mouse aorta. Prediction of the binding between miR-384-5p and 3’-UTR of Beclin-1 mRNA was performed by bioinformatics analyses and confirmed by a dual luciferase reporter assay. We found that HFD mice developed atherosclerosis in 12 weeks, while the control ApoE (-/-) mice that had received normal diet (simplified as NOR mice) did not. Compared to NOR mice, HFD mice had significantly lower levels of macrophage autophagy, and significantly higher levels of macrophage death, resulting from decreases in Beclin-1. The decreases in Beclin-1 in macrophages were due to HFD-induced increases in miR-384-5p, which suppressed the translation of Bectlin-1 mRNA via 3’-UTR binding. Together, our study suggests that upregulation of miR-384-5p by HFD may impair the Beclin-1-mediated protection of macrophages through autophagy to accelerate the development of atherosclerosis. PMID:27158352

  20. Beyond vascular inflammation--recent advances in understanding atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Dennis; Zirlik, Andreas; Ley, Klaus

    2015-10-01

    Atherosclerosis is the most life-threatening pathology worldwide. Its major clinical complications, stroke, myocardial infarction, and heart failure, are on the rise in many regions of the world--despite considerable progress in understanding cause, progression, and consequences of atherosclerosis. Originally perceived as a lipid-storage disease of the arterial wall (Die cellularpathologie in ihrer begründung auf physiologische und pathologische gewebelehre. August Hirschwald Verlag Berlin, [1871]), atherosclerosis was recognized as a chronic inflammatory disease in 1986 (New Engl J Med 314:488-500, 1986). The presence of lymphocytes in atherosclerotic lesions suggested autoimmune processes in the vessel wall (Clin Exp Immunol 64:261-268, 1986). Since the advent of suitable mouse models of atherosclerosis (Science 258:468-471, 1992; Cell 71:343-353, 1992; J Clin Invest 92:883-893, 1993) and the development of flow cytometry to define the cellular infiltrate in atherosclerotic lesions (J Exp Med 203:1273-1282, 2006), the origin, lineage, phenotype, and function of distinct inflammatory cells that trigger or inhibit the inflammatory response in the atherosclerotic plaque have been studied. Multiphoton microscopy recently enabled direct visualization of antigen-specific interactions between T cells and antigen-presenting cells in the vessel wall (J Clin Invest 122:3114-3126, 2012). Vascular immunology is now emerging as a new field, providing evidence for protective as well as damaging autoimmune responses (Int Immunol 25:615-622, 2013). Manipulating inflammation and autoimmunity both hold promise for new therapeutic strategies in cardiovascular disease. Ongoing work (J Clin Invest 123:27-36, 2013; Front Immunol 2013; Semin Immunol 31:95-101, 2009) suggests that it may be possible to develop antigen-specific immunomodulatory prevention and therapy-a vaccine against atherosclerosis. PMID:26100516

  1. Fatty acyl composition of lysophosphatidylcholine is important in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Akerele, O A; Cheema, S K

    2015-12-01

    Atherosclerosis is a major cause of death for mankind. Although the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis is a complex and multifactorial process, growing body of evidence has identified phospholipids-mediated signaling as an important factor in the induction and progression of atherosclerosis. Lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) is a major phospholipid in oxidized low-density lipoprotein, and is generally considered to be atherogenic. However, some studies have shown anti-atherogenic properties of LPC. The controversial findings surrounding the pro- or anti-atherogenic properties of LPC appear to be due to the chain length and the degree of saturation of the fatty acyl moiety of LPC. Studies have suggested that the presence of omega (n)-polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) at the sn-1 position of LPC modulates the inflammatory response thereby making LPC anti-atherogenic. We have recently shown that feeding a diet high in n-3 PUFA resulted in the enrichment of LPC in both plasma and liver of C57BL/6 mice with n-3 PUFA. Others have also shown that supplementation with fish oil leads to preferential incorporation of n-3 PUFA into LPC. We also found that plasma obtained from mice fed a diet high in n-3 PUFA showed higher cholesterol efflux capacity compared to animals fed a low n-3 PUFA diet, despite no changes in high-density lipoprotein concentrations. We are therefore hypothesizing that n-3 PUFA enriched LPC has anti-atherogenic properties by promoting cholesterol efflux from macrophages and by reducing inflammation. Our anticipated long term objective is to establish that the fatty acyl moiety of LPC can be used as a potential biomarker for the risk of developing atherosclerosis. Validating this hypothesis would have a substantial impact on the public health with respect to early diagnosis of cardiovascular risks, and designing dietary based therapeutic strategies for the prevention and management of atherosclerosis and other heart related diseases. PMID:26604024

  2. Gradient Echo MRI Characterization of Development of Atherosclerosis in the Abdominal Aorta in Watanabe Heritable Hyperlipidemic Rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yi-Xiang J. Kuribayashi, Hideto; Wagberg, Maria; Holmes, Andrew P.; Tessier, Jean J.; Waterton, John C.

    2006-08-15

    Purpose. The Watanabe Heritable Hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbit provides an important model of spontaneous atherosclerosis. With a strain of WHHL rabbits which do not develop abdominal aorta lumen stenosis even with advanced atherosclerosis, we studied the MRI-histology correlation, and the natural progression of atherosclerosis in the abdominal aorta. In addition, intra-reader segmentation repeatability and scan-rescan reproducibility were assessed. Methods. Two batches of female WHHL rabbits were used. The first batch of 6 rabbits was scanned at 20 weeks old. A second batch of 17 rabbits was scanned at 50 weeks old and then randomly divided into two subgroups: 8 were killed for histologic investigation; 9 were kept alive for follow-up, with repeat scanning a week later to assess scan-rescan reproducibility, and again at 73 weeks old to assess disease progression. MR images were acquired at 4.7 T using a chemical shift selective fat suppression gradient echo with a saturation band suppressing blood signal within the aortic lumen. Five slices per animal were acquired, centered around the renal artery region of the abdominal aorta, with in-plane resolution of 0.195 mm and slice thickness of 3 mm. Results. The coefficient of variation for intra-reader reproducibility for aortic wall thickness measurements was 2.5% for repeat segmentations of the same scans on the same day, but segmentations of these same scans made 8 months later showed a systematic change, suggesting that intra-reader bias as well as increased variability could compromise assessments made over time. Comparative analyses were therefore performed in one postprocessing session. The coefficient of variation for scan-rescan reproducibility for aortic wall thickness was 5.5% for nine pairs of scans acquired a week apart and segmented on the same day. Good MRI-histology correlation was obtained. The MRI-measured mean aortic wall thickness of animals at 20 weeks of age was 76% that of animals at 50 weeks of age (p < 0.001). There was a small increase in aortic wall thickness between 50 and 73 weeks of age, but this was not significant (p > 0.05). The corresponding differences in lumen cross-sectional areas at 20, 50, and 73 weeks of age were not significant. These results were consistent with in-house historical histology data on this strain of rabbits. Conclusions. High-resolution gradient echo MRI can follow disease progression in the WHHL rabbit spontaneous atherosclerosis disease model.

  3. E-selectin-targeting delivery of microRNAs by microparticles ameliorates endothelial inflammation and atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shuangtao; Tian, Xiao Yu; Zhang, Yunrong; Mu, Chaofeng; Shen, Haifa; Bismuth, Jean; Pownall, Henry J; Huang, Yu; Wong, Wing Tak

    2016-01-01

    E-selectin is a surface marker of endothelial cell (EC) inflammation, one of the hallmarks of atherogenesis. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that delivery of microRNA (miR)-146a and miR-181b with an E-selectin-targeting multistage vector (ESTA-MSV) to inflamed endothelium covering atherosclerotic plaques inhibits atherosclerosis. Cy5-conjugated miR-146a and miR-181b were packaged in polyethylene glycol-polyethyleneimine (PEG/PEI) nanoparticles and loaded into ESTA-MSV microparticles. Both miRs were downregulated in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-treated ECs. Transfection of TNF-α-treated mouse aortas and cultured ECs with miRs was more efficient with ESTA-MSV than with the PEG/PEI. Likewise, miR-146a/-181b packaged in ESTA-MSV efficiently suppressed the chemokines, CCL2, CCL5, CCL8, and CXCL9, and monocyte adhesion to ECs. Complementary in vivo tests were conducted in male apolipoprotein E-deficient mice fed a Western diet and injected intravenously with the particles prepared as above biweekly for 12 weeks. Treatment with miRs packaged in ESTA-MSV but not in PEG/PEI reduced atherosclerotic plaque size. Concurrently, vascular inflammation markers, including macrophages in aortic root lesions and chemokine expression in aortic tissues were reduced while the vascular smooth muscle cells and collagen increased in plaques from ESTA-MSV/miRs-treated vs. vehicle-treated mice. Our data supported our hypothesis that ESTA-MSV microparticle-mediated delivery of miR-146a/-181b ameliorates endothelial inflammation and atherosclerosis. PMID:26956647

  4. E-selectin-targeting delivery of microRNAs by microparticles ameliorates endothelial inflammation and atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Shuangtao; Tian, Xiao Yu; Zhang, Yunrong; Mu, Chaofeng; Shen, Haifa; Bismuth, Jean; Pownall, Henry J.; Huang, Yu; Wong, Wing Tak

    2016-01-01

    E-selectin is a surface marker of endothelial cell (EC) inflammation, one of the hallmarks of atherogenesis. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that delivery of microRNA (miR)-146a and miR-181b with an E-selectin-targeting multistage vector (ESTA-MSV) to inflamed endothelium covering atherosclerotic plaques inhibits atherosclerosis. Cy5-conjugated miR-146a and miR-181b were packaged in polyethylene glycol-polyethyleneimine (PEG/PEI) nanoparticles and loaded into ESTA-MSV microparticles. Both miRs were downregulated in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-treated ECs. Transfection of TNF-α-treated mouse aortas and cultured ECs with miRs was more efficient with ESTA-MSV than with the PEG/PEI. Likewise, miR-146a/-181b packaged in ESTA-MSV efficiently suppressed the chemokines, CCL2, CCL5, CCL8, and CXCL9, and monocyte adhesion to ECs. Complementary in vivo tests were conducted in male apolipoprotein E-deficient mice fed a Western diet and injected intravenously with the particles prepared as above biweekly for 12 weeks. Treatment with miRs packaged in ESTA-MSV but not in PEG/PEI reduced atherosclerotic plaque size. Concurrently, vascular inflammation markers, including macrophages in aortic root lesions and chemokine expression in aortic tissues were reduced while the vascular smooth muscle cells and collagen increased in plaques from ESTA-MSV/miRs-treated vs. vehicle-treated mice. Our data supported our hypothesis that ESTA-MSV microparticle-mediated delivery of miR-146a/-181b ameliorates endothelial inflammation and atherosclerosis. PMID:26956647

  5. Strong correlation between early stage atherosclerosis and electromechanical coupling of aorta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X. Y.; Yan, F.; Niu, L. L.; Chen, Q. N.; Zheng, H. R.; Li, J. Y.

    2016-03-01

    Atherosclerosis is the underlying cause of cardiovascular diseases that are responsible for many deaths in the world, and the early diagnosis of atherosclerosis is highly desirable. The existing imaging methods, however, are not capable of detecting the early stage of atherosclerosis development due to their limited spatial resolution. Using piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM), we show that the piezoelectric response of an aortic wall increases as atherosclerosis advances, while the stiffness of the aorta shows a less evident correlation with atherosclerosis. Furthermore, we show that there is strong correlation between the coercive electric field necessary to switch the polarity of the artery and the development of atherosclerosis. Thus by measuring the electromechanical coupling of the aortic wall, it is possible to probe atherosclerosis at the early stage of its development, not only improving the spatial resolution by orders of magnitude, but also providing comprehensive quantitative information on the biomechanical properties of the artery.

  6. Strong correlation between early stage atherosclerosis and electromechanical coupling of aorta.

    PubMed

    Liu, X Y; Yan, F; Niu, L L; Chen, Q N; Zheng, H R; Li, J Y

    2016-03-24

    Atherosclerosis is the underlying cause of cardiovascular diseases that are responsible for many deaths in the world, and the early diagnosis of atherosclerosis is highly desirable. The existing imaging methods, however, are not capable of detecting the early stage of atherosclerosis development due to their limited spatial resolution. Using piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM), we show that the piezoelectric response of an aortic wall increases as atherosclerosis advances, while the stiffness of the aorta shows a less evident correlation with atherosclerosis. Furthermore, we show that there is strong correlation between the coercive electric field necessary to switch the polarity of the artery and the development of atherosclerosis. Thus by measuring the electromechanical coupling of the aortic wall, it is possible to probe atherosclerosis at the early stage of its development, not only improving the spatial resolution by orders of magnitude, but also providing comprehensive quantitative information on the biomechanical properties of the artery. PMID:26972797

  7. Growth hormone suppression test

    MedlinePlus

    The growth hormone suppression test determines whether growth hormone production is being suppressed by high blood sugar. ... away. The lab measures the glucose and growth hormone (GH) levels in each sample.

  8. Dexamethasone suppression test

    MedlinePlus

    DST; ACTH suppression test; Cortisol suppression test ... During this test, you will receive dexamethasone. This is a strong man-made (synthetic) glucocorticoid medication. Afterward, your blood is drawn ...

  9. Interferon-beta attenuates angiotensin II-accelerated atherosclerosis and vascular remodeling in apolipoprotein E deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Le-Ning; Velichko, Sharlene; Vincelette, Jon; Fitch, Richard M; Vergona, Ronald; Sullivan, Mark E; Croze, Ed; Wang, Yi-Xin

    2008-03-01

    Atherosclerotic vascular disease is an inflammatory disease. Interferon-beta (IFN-beta) is an important immune modulator. However, the role of IFN-beta in atherosclerotic vascular disease is still not clear. The present study is designed to determine the effects of IFN-beta on atherosclerosis, abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) formation and proliferative vascular remodeling in apolipoprotein E (apoE) deficient mice. Six-month-old male apoE deficient mice fed a normal chow underwent ligation of the common left carotid artery, and were randomly assigned to receive either vehicle or angiotensin II (Ang II, 1.4 mg/kg daily) via a subcutaneously implanted osmotic infusion pump. The animals were further assigned to groups that were subjected to subcutaneous injection of vehicle or murine IFN-beta (10 MIU/kg, daily). Ang II increased atherosclerotic area in the non-ligated carotid artery and aortic arch, induced AAA, and exacerbated ligation-induced adventitial proliferation and neointimal hyperplasia characterized by smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation and macrophage infiltration in the ligated carotid artery. Co-treatment with IFN-beta, had no effects by itself, significantly attenuated Ang II-accelerated increase in the areas of neointima, adventitia, SMC and macrophage in the ligated carotid artery and suppressed Ang II-exacerbated atherosclerosis, but did not affect Ang II-induced AAA formation. These data indicate that IFN-beta can play a prominent anti-atherosclerosis, anti-inflammation, and anti-proliferation role of vasculoprotection. PMID:17466308

  10. Large animal models of atherosclerosis--new tools for persistent problems in cardiovascular medicine.

    PubMed

    Shim, J; Al-Mashhadi, R H; Sørensen, C B; Bentzon, J F

    2016-01-01

    Coronary heart disease and ischaemic stroke caused by atherosclerosis are leading causes of illness and death worldwide. Small animal models have provided insight into the fundamental mechanisms driving early atherosclerosis, but it is increasingly clear that new strategies and research tools are needed to translate these discoveries into improved prevention and treatment of symptomatic atherosclerosis in humans. Key challenges include better understanding of processes in late atherosclerosis, factors affecting atherosclerosis in the coronary bed, and the development of reliable imaging biomarker tools for risk stratification and monitoring of drug effects in humans. Efficient large animal models of atherosclerosis may help tackle these problems. Recent years have seen tremendous advances in gene-editing tools for large animals. This has made it possible to create gene-modified minipigs that develop atherosclerosis with many similarities to humans in terms of predilection for lesion sites and histopathology. Together with existing porcine models of atherosclerosis that are based on spontaneous mutations or severe diabetes, such models open new avenues for translational research in atherosclerosis. In this review, we discuss the merits of different animal models of atherosclerosis and give examples of important research problems where porcine models could prove pivotal for progress. PMID:26414760

  11. Probing nanoparticle translocation across the permeable endothelium in experimental atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, YongTae; Lobatto, Mark E.; Kawahara, Tomohiro; Lee Chung, Bomy; Mieszawska, Aneta J.; Sanchez-Gaytan, Brenda L.; Fay, Francois; Senders, Max L.; Calcagno, Claudia; Becraft, Jacob; Tun Saung, May; Gordon, Ronald E.; Stroes, Erik S. G.; Ma, Mingming; Farokhzad, Omid C.; Fayad, Zahi A.; Mulder, Willem J. M.; Langer, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic and diagnostic nanomaterials are being intensely studied for several diseases, including cancer and atherosclerosis. However, the exact mechanism by which nanomedicines accumulate at targeted sites remains a topic of investigation, especially in the context of atherosclerotic disease. Models to accurately predict transvascular permeation of nanomedicines are needed to aid in design optimization. Here we show that an endothelialized microchip with controllable permeability can be used to probe nanoparticle translocation across an endothelial cell layer. To validate our in vitro model, we studied nanoparticle translocation in an in vivo rabbit model of atherosclerosis using a variety of preclinical and clinical imaging methods. Our results reveal that the translocation of lipid–polymer hybrid nanoparticles across the atherosclerotic endothelium is dependent on microvascular permeability. These results were mimicked with our microfluidic chip, demonstrating the potential utility of the model system. PMID:24395808

  12. Angiotensin-(1-7): new perspectives in atherosclerosis treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng; Liu, Jun; Li, Su-Fang; Song, Jun-Xian; Ren, Jing-Yi; Chen, Hong

    2015-11-01

    Angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7) is recognized as a new bioactive peptide in renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Ang-(1-7) is a counter-regulatory mediator of Ang-II which appears to be protective against cardiovascular disease. Recent studies have found that Ang-(1-7) played an important role in reducing smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration, improving endothelial function and regulating lipid metabolism, leading to inhibition of atherosclerotic lesions and increase of plaque stability. Although clinical application of Ang-(1-7) is restricted due to its pharmacokinetic properties, identification of stabilized compounds, including more stable analogues and specific delivery compounds, has enabled clinical application of Ang-(1-7). In this review, we discussed recent findings concerning the biological role of Ang-(1-7) and related mechanism during atherosclerosis development. In addition, we highlighted the perspective to develop therapeutic strategies using Ang-(1-7) to treat atherosclerosis. PMID:26788046

  13. Conjugated linoleic acid and atherosclerosis: studies in animal models.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Patricia L; McLeod, Roger S

    2008-08-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are isomeric forms of linoleic acid (LA) containing two conjugated sites of unsaturation. The most abundant dietary form of CLA is the cis-9,trans-11 (c-9,t-11) isomer that is found in the fatty tissues and milk of ruminant animals. CLA can also be acquired by ingestion of supplements, which are usually equimolar mixtures of the c-9,t-11 and t-10,c-12 CLA. For more than a decade, the potential for CLA to modify atherosclerosis in animal models has been examined. However, to date, the studies have failed to reach consensus on whether CLA can be effective in reducing the incidence or severity of atherosclerotic lesions, or whether or not plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels can be improved with CLA supplementation. This review will examine the evidence for and against a role for CLA in atherosclerosis, with a focus on the rabbit, the hamster, and the apoE-deficient mouse. PMID:18756324

  14. Intravascular multispectral optoacoustic tomography of atherosclerosis: prospects and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, Amir; Jaffer, Farouc A; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2012-01-01

    The progression of atherosclerosis involves complex changes in the structure, composition and biology of the artery wall. Currently, only anatomical plaque burden is routinely characterized in living patients, whereas compositional and biological changes are mostly inaccessible. However, anatomical imaging alone has proven to be insufficient for accurate diagnostics of the disease. Multispectral optoacoustic tomography offers complementary data to anatomical methods and is capable of imaging both tissue composition and, via the use of molecular markers, the biological activity therein. In this paper we review recent progress in multispectral optoacoustic tomography imaging of atherosclerosis with specific emphasis on intravascular applications. The potential capabilities of multispectral optoacoustic tomography are compared with those of established intravascular imaging techniques and current challenges on the road towards a clinically viable imaging modality are discussed. PMID:23144663

  15. Defects in regulation of local immune responses resulting in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ferencík, Miroslav; Stvrtinová, Viera; Hulín, Ivan

    2005-09-01

    Atherosclerosis is nowadays generally accepted as an inflammatory disease but the mechanism of its origin and development have not yet been fully clarified. The present review focuses on the role of the local immune system as one of the key players in the pathogenesis of the complex process. Its part represented by vascular-associated lymphoid tissue (VALT) within the arterial wall participates directly in the vascular wall's homeostatis. Its inordinate activation during ontogenic development of an individual, this formerly defensive and physiologic mechanism transform into a pathological process resulting in an impairing inflammation. Hsp60, CRP and oxidized or otherwise modified LDL are serious candidates for triggering these pathological changes. The principal role is played by anti-Hsp60 antibodies and by shear stress originating on the surface of endothelium due to blood flow. The experimental and clinical data supporting this immunological hypothesis of atherosclerosis are discussed. PMID:16295529

  16. Role of diabetes, hypertension, and cigarette smoking on atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Ram K.

    2010-01-01

    Hyperosmolar food causes atherosclerosis. Hyperosmolal food hypothesis encompasses all the factors involved under one heading and, that is, the generation of heat in the body. The involvement of cigarette smoking is obvious. High glycemic index food and diabetes result in high levels of blood glucose, which raises the core body temperature. The ingestion of hyperosmolal salt, glucose, and amino acids singularly or synergistically raise the core body temperature, forcing abdominal aorta to form an insulation wall of fatty material causing atherosclerotic plaques. The osmolarity of food, that is glucose, salt, and amino acids is reduced when water is ingested with food. The incidence of atherosclerosis goes down with increasing intake of water. PMID:20877688

  17. The Impact of Organokines on Insulin Resistance, Inflammation, and Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyung Mook

    2016-03-01

    Immoderate energy intake, a sedentary lifestyle, and aging have contributed to the increased prevalence of obesity, sarcopenia, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. There is an urgent need for the development of novel pharmacological interventions that can target excessive fat accumulation and decreased muscle mass and/or strength. Adipokines, bioactive molecules derived from adipose tissue, are involved in the regulation of appetite and satiety, inflammation, energy expenditure, insulin resistance and secretion, glucose and lipid metabolism, and atherosclerosis. Recently, there is emerging evidence that skeletal muscle and the liver also function as endocrine organs that secrete myokines and hepatokines, respectively. Novel discoveries and research into these organokines (adipokines, myokines, and hepatokines) may lead to the development of promising biomarkers and therapeutics for cardiometabolic disease. In this review, I summarize recent data on these organokines and focus on the role of adipokines, myokines, and hepatokines in the regulation of insulin resistance, inflammation, and atherosclerosis. PMID:26996418

  18. Clinical imaging in anti-atherosclerosis drug development.

    PubMed

    Ehlgen, Alexander; Bylock, Anders; Kreuzer, Jörg; Koslowski, Michael; Gantner, Florian; Niessen, Heiko G

    2015-11-01

    The development of novel drugs for the treatment of atherosclerosis faces many challenges, particularly caused by the need for large and costly outcome trials. When predictive biochemical biomarkers are not available, clinical imaging data can serve as intermediate Phase II endpoints to demonstrate mechanistic and anti-atherosclerotic activity of new compounds. These data can support risk mitigation before continuing development in large Phase III outcome trials. Imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound [intima-media thickness (IMT) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)] can provide detailed information on vascular plaque volume and morphology, whereas functional changes can potentially be captured by positron emission tomography (PET) techniques in the vessel wall. We will review the application and operational aspects of clinical imaging methods and endpoints used in interventional atherosclerosis trials. PMID:26151479

  19. Angiotensin-(1-7): new perspectives in atherosclerosis treatment

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Feng; Liu, Jun; Li, Su-Fang; Song, Jun-Xian; Ren, Jing-Yi; Chen, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7) is recognized as a new bioactive peptide in renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Ang-(1-7) is a counter-regulatory mediator of Ang-II which appears to be protective against cardiovascular disease. Recent studies have found that Ang-(1-7) played an important role in reducing smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration, improving endothelial function and regulating lipid metabolism, leading to inhibition of atherosclerotic lesions and increase of plaque stability. Although clinical application of Ang-(1-7) is restricted due to its pharmacokinetic properties, identification of stabilized compounds, including more stable analogues and specific delivery compounds, has enabled clinical application of Ang-(1-7). In this review, we discussed recent findings concerning the biological role of Ang-(1-7) and related mechanism during atherosclerosis development. In addition, we highlighted the perspective to develop therapeutic strategies using Ang-(1-7) to treat atherosclerosis. PMID:26788046

  20. The Impact of Organokines on Insulin Resistance, Inflammation, and Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Immoderate energy intake, a sedentary lifestyle, and aging have contributed to the increased prevalence of obesity, sarcopenia, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. There is an urgent need for the development of novel pharmacological interventions that can target excessive fat accumulation and decreased muscle mass and/or strength. Adipokines, bioactive molecules derived from adipose tissue, are involved in the regulation of appetite and satiety, inflammation, energy expenditure, insulin resistance and secretion, glucose and lipid metabolism, and atherosclerosis. Recently, there is emerging evidence that skeletal muscle and the liver also function as endocrine organs that secrete myokines and hepatokines, respectively. Novel discoveries and research into these organokines (adipokines, myokines, and hepatokines) may lead to the development of promising biomarkers and therapeutics for cardiometabolic disease. In this review, I summarize recent data on these organokines and focus on the role of adipokines, myokines, and hepatokines in the regulation of insulin resistance, inflammation, and atherosclerosis. PMID:26996418

  1. Imaging of coronary atherosclerosis and identification of the vulnerable plaque

    PubMed Central

    de Feyter, P.J.; Serruys, P. W.; Nieman, K.; Mollet, N.; Cademartiri, F.; van Geuns, R. J.; Slager, C.; van der Steen, A.F.W.; Krams, R.; Schaar, J.A.; Wielopolski, P.; Pattynama, P.M.T.; Arampatzis, A.; van der Lugt, A.; Regar, E.; Ligthart, J.; Smits, P.

    2003-01-01

    Identification of the vulnerable plaque responsible for the occurrence of acute coronary syndromes and acute coronary death is a prerequisite for the stabilisation of this vulnerable plaque. Comprehensive coronary atherosclerosis imaging in clinical practice should involve visualisation of the entire coronary artery tree and characterisation of the plaque, including the three-dimensional morphology of the plaque, encroachment of the plaque on the vessel lumen, the major tissue components of the plaque, remodelling of the vessel and presence of inflammation. Obviously, no single diagnostic modality is available that provides such comprehensive imaging and unfortunately no diagnostic tool is available that unequivocally identifies the vulnerable plaque. The objective of this article is to discuss experience with currently available diagnostic modalities for coronary atherosclerosis imaging. In addition, a number of evolving techniques will be briefly discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7 PMID:25696244

  2. Adropin is associated with hyperhomocysteine and coronary atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, LIANG-PING; YOU, TAO; CHAN, SIEW-PANG; CHEN, JIAN-CHANG; XU, WEI-TING

    2016-01-01

    Homocysteine has been recognized as a risk factor for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Adropin is a newly-identified energy homeostasis protein with a potential protective effect against coronary artery disease (CAD). This study attempted to measure the correlation between serum homocysteine and adropin levels in patients with CAD, and to ascertain how the two hormones could affect the severity of coronary atherosclerosis. A cohort of CAD patients who had undergone coronary angiography was prospectively recruited. The serum homocysteine and adropin levels of the patients were measured and the severity of coronary atherosclerosis was quantified with the SYNTAX score. The data were analyzed with a generalized structural equation model. In total, 170 consecutive patients were recruited with a mean serum homocysteine level of 15.9±8.3 µmol/l, and 76 (44.7%) patients were identified as hyperhomocysteinemic with a serum homocysteine level >15 µmol/l. Serum homocysteine level was found to be significantly negatively correlated with serum adropin level (r=−0.169, P=0.028). Patients with hyperhomocysteinemia had lower serum adropin levels and higher SYNTAX scores than patients without hyperhomocysteinemia. Further analysis with a generalized structural equation model showed that adropin was significantly associated with hyperhomocysteinemia (adjusted odds ratio: 0.95, 95% confidence interval: 0.93 to 0.98; P=0.002), which in turn was significantly associated with the SYNTAX score (coefficient: 4.71, 95% confidence interval: 1.39 to 8.03; P=0.005). In conclusion, the serum homocysteine level was inversely correlated with the serum adropin level in patients with CAD. A low serum adropin level was associated with hyperhomocysteinemia and more severe coronary atherosclerosis, as reflected by a higher SYNTAX score. PMID:26998038

  3. Molecular Imaging of Atherosclerosis: Clinical State-of-the-Art

    PubMed Central

    Jaffer, Farouc A.; Verjans, Johan W.

    2014-01-01

    Molecular imaging is a burgeoning field that aims to image molecular and cellular detail in living subjects. In cardiovascular research, many exciting approaches have emerged, and several are utilized in the clinic or are in the process of translation. Here, we discuss high priority clinical developments in molecular imaging of atherosclerosis, and showcase examples that may enable improved detection of high-risk plaques, clinical risk stratification, and biological assessment of pharmacotherapeutic approaches. PMID:24365664

  4. Premenopausal Antimullerian Hormone Concentration is Associated with Subsequent Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Appt, Susan E.; Chen, Haiying; Clarkson, Thomas B.; Kaplan, Jay R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine if premenopausal ovarian reserve is associated with susceptibility for atherosclerosis. Methods Female cynomologus macaques (n = 66, women’s equivalent age = 45 yrs) consumed an atherogenic diet for ~5 months prior to the measurement of a marker of ovarian reserve (antimüllerian hormone, AMH), plasma lipids, follicular phase estradiol (E2) and body weight (BW). Monkeys were then ovariectomized (OVX, n =17) remained premenopausal (PRE, n=20) or induced to have reduce ovarian reserve (ROR, n=29). After 26 additional months on the diet, atherosclerosis measurements and risk variables were reassessed. Results No differences in baseline AMH, plasma lipids, BW, E2 or post-diet lipids and BW, were observed among the groups subsequently assigned to OVX, PRE or ROR conditions. Post-diet measurements of atherosclerosis extent did not differ among the groups. However, analysis of plaque size by tertile of baseline AMH revealed that plaques were largest in monkeys that began the experiment with the lowest baseline AMH, followed by those in the middle and high tertiles (plaque extent mm2: Low AMH = 0.76 ± 0.12, Mid AMH = 0.46 ± 0.1, High AMH = 0.34 ± 0.08, p=0.02). Baseline AMH and plaque size were also correlated negatively (r = −0.31, p = 0.01). Plasma lipids were also correlated significantly with plaque extent (all p’s <0.01), but not with AMH. Conclusions We report for the first time an inverse relationship between a marker of ovarian reserve (AMH) and subsequent atherosclerosis risk. PMID:22929037

  5. Attenuation of the development of hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis by thymoquinone

    PubMed Central

    Ragheb, Ahmed; Elbarbry, Fawzy; Prasad, Kailash; Mohamed, Adel; Ahmed, Mohamed S; Shoker, Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    Thymoquinone (TQ), derived from Nigella sativa seed, is an antioxidant. The present study investigated whether TQ attenuates the development of atherosclerosis, and/or reduces the serum lipid levels and oxidative stress in rabbits. New Zealand white female rabbits were assigned to four groups of six animals each: group I, control; group II, 1% cholesterol diet; group III, 1% cholesterol plus TQ (10 mg/kg/day; through a nasogastric tube) diet; and group IV, 1% cholesterol plus TQ (20 mg/kg/day; through a nasogastric tube) diet. Blood samples were collected at baseline and after four and eight weeks on the experimental diets for measurement of serum lipids, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), TC/HDL-C ratio and oxidative stress biomarkers (malondialdehyde [MDA] and protein carbonyls). At the end of the eight weeks, the aorta was removed for the assessment of atherosclerotic changes, MDA and protein carbonyls. Group II animals developed atherosclerosis (45%11% of the intimal surface of aorta was covered with atherosclerotic plaques), which was associated with an increase in the serum TC, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C, TC/HDL-C, MDA and protein carbonyls. In group III, TQ decreased serum TC, LDL-C, MDA and protein carbonyls by 26%, 29%, 85% and 62%, respectively, and aortic MDA by 73%, which was associated with a 40% reduction of the development of aortic atherosclerosis. The higher dose of TQ in group IV had effects similar to the lower dose (group III), except that this dose further decreased serum TG. It is concluded that TQ attenuates hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis and this effect is associated with a decrease in serum lipids and oxidative stress. PMID:22477447

  6. Inflammation, oxidative stress and renin angiotensin system in atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Husain, Kazim; Hernandez, Wilfredo; Ansari, Rais A; Ferder, Leon

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease associated with cardiovascular dysfunction including myocardial infarction, unstable angina, sudden cardiac death, stroke and peripheral thromboses. It has been predicted that atherosclerosis will be the primary cause of death in the world by 2020. Atherogenesis is initiated by endothelial injury due to oxidative stress associated with cardiovascular risk factors including diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cigarette smoking, dyslipidemia, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. The impairment of the endothelium associated with cardiovascular risk factors creates an imbalance between vasodilating and vasoconstricting factors, in particular, an increase in angiotensin II (Ang II) and a decrease in nitric oxide. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS), and its primary mediator Ang II, also have a direct influence on the progression of the atherosclerotic process via effects on endothelial function, inflammation, fibrinolytic balance, and plaque stability. Anti-inflammatory agents [statins, secretory phospholipase A2 inhibitor, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 inhibitor, 5-lipoxygenase activating protein, chemokine motif ligand-2, C-C chemokine motif receptor 2 pathway inhibitors, methotrexate, IL-1 pathway inhibitor and RAS inhibitors (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors)], Ang II receptor blockers and ranin inhibitors may slow inflammatory processes and disease progression. Several studies in human using anti-inflammatory agents and RAS inhibitors revealed vascular benefits and reduced progression of coronary atherosclerosis in patients with stable angina pectoris; decreased vascular inflammatory markers, improved common carotid intima-media thickness and plaque volume in patients with diagnosed atherosclerosis. Recent preclinical studies have demonstrated therapeutic efficacy of vitamin D analogs paricalcitol in ApoE-deficient atherosclerotic mice. PMID:26322175

  7. Bisphenol A Exposure Enhances Atherosclerosis in WHHL Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Chao; Ning, Bo; Waqar, Ahmed Bilal; Niimi, Manabu; Li, Shen; Satoh, Kaneo; Shiomi, Masashi; Ye, Ting; Dong, Sijun; Fan, Jianglin

    2014-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an environmental endocrine disrupter. Excess exposure to BPA may increase susceptibility to many metabolic disorders, but it is unclear whether BPA exposure has any adverse effects on the development of atherosclerosis. To determine whether there are such effects, we investigated the response of Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbits to 400-µg/kg BPA per day, administered orally by gavage, over the course of 12 weeks and compared aortic and coronary atherosclerosis in these rabbits to the vehicle group using histological and morphometric methods. In addition, serum BPA, cytokines levels and plasma lipids as well as pathologic changes in liver, adipose and heart were analyzed. Moreover, we treated human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and rabbit aortic smooth muscle cells (SMCs) with different doses of BPA to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in BPA action(s). BPA treatment did not change the plasma lipids and body weights of the WHHL rabbits; however, the gross atherosclerotic lesion area in the aortic arch was increased by 57% compared to the vehicle group. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses revealed marked increases in advanced lesions (37%) accompanied by smooth muscle cells (60%) but no significant changes in the numbers of macrophages. With regard to coronary atherosclerosis, incidents of coronary stenosis increased by 11% and smooth muscle cells increased by 73% compared to the vehicle group. Furthermore, BPA-treated WHHL rabbits showed increased adipose accumulation and hepatic and myocardial injuries accompanied by up-regulation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and inflammatory and lipid metabolism markers in livers. Treatment with BPA also induced the expression of ER stress and inflammation related genes in cultured HUVECs. These results demonstrate for the first time that BPA exposure may increase susceptibility to atherosclerosis in WHHL rabbits. PMID:25333893

  8. IL-25 Inhibits Atherosclerosis Development in Apolipoprotein E Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mantani, Polyxeni T.; Dunér, Pontus; Bengtsson, Eva; Alm, Ragnar; Ljungcrantz, Irena; Söderberg, Ingrid; Sundius, Lena; To, Fong; Nilsson, Jan; Björkbacka, Harry; Fredrikson, Gunilla Nordin

    2015-01-01

    Objective IL-25 has been implicated in the initiation of type 2 immunity and in the protection against autoimmune inflammatory diseases. Recent studies have identified the novel innate lymphoid type 2 cells (ILC2s) as an IL-25 target cell population. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if IL-25 has any influence on atherosclerosis development in mice. Methods and Results Administration of 1 μg IL-25 per day for one week to atherosclerosis-prone apolipoprotein (apo)E deficient mice, had limited effect on the frequency of T cell populations, but resulted in a large expansion of ILC2s in the spleen. The expansion was accompanied by increased levels of anti-phosphorylcholine (PC) natural IgM antibodies in plasma and elevated levels of IL-5 in plasma and spleen. Transfer of ILC2s to apoE deficient mice elevated the natural antibody-producing B1a cell population in the spleen. Treatment of apoE/Rag-1 deficient mice with IL-25 was also associated with extensive expansion of splenic ILC2s and increased plasma IL-5, suggesting ILC2s to be the source of IL-5. Administration of IL-25 in IL-5 deficient mice resulted in an expanded ILC2 population, but did not stimulate generation of anti-PC IgM, indicating that IL-5 is not required for ILC2 expansion but for the downstream production of natural antibodies. Additionally, administration of 1 μg IL-25 per day for 4 weeks in apoE deficient mice reduced atherosclerosis in the aorta both during initiation and progression of the disease. Conclusions The present findings demonstrate that IL-25 has a protective role in atherosclerosis mediated by innate responses, including ILC2 expansion, increased IL-5 secretion, B1a expansion and natural anti-PC IgM generation, rather than adaptive Th2 responses. PMID:25629516

  9. Relationship of the apolipoprotein E polymorphism with carotid artery atherosclerosis.

    PubMed Central

    de Andrade, M; Thandi, I; Brown, S; Gotto, A; Patsch, W; Boerwinkle, E

    1995-01-01

    From the cohort taking part in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, a multicenter investigation of atherosclerosis and its sequelae in women and men ages 45-64 years, a sample of 145 subjects with significant carotid artery atherosclerosis but without clinically recognized coronary heart disease was identified along with 224 group-matched control subjects. The aim of this paper is to measure the association of the apolipoprotein (apo) E polymorphism with the prevalence of significant carotid artery atherosclerotic disease (CAAD) after considering the contribution of established risk factor variables. The first model used a stepwise selection procedure to define a group of significant physical and lifestyle characteristics and a group of significant plasma lipid, lipoprotein, and apolipoprotein variables that were predictive of CAAD status in this sample. Those variables selected included age (years), body mass index (BMI; kg/m2), consumption of cigarettes (CigYears; number of cigarettes/d x the number of smoking years), hypertension status, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (mg/dl), total cholesterol (mg/dl), and Lp[a] (micrograms/ml). The second model was built by forcing into the equation an a priori set of demographic, anthropometric, and lipoprotein variables, which were age, BMI, CigYears, hypertensive status, LDL-cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol. In both models, the apo E genotype epsilon 2/3 was related to CAAD status. For both models, the estimated odds ratio of being a CAAD case associated with the apo E genotype epsilon 2/3 was > 2:1. The mechanism of the observed association between the epsilon 2/3 genotype and carotid atherosclerosis is unknown, but it is likely due to the known effects of the E2 isoform in causing delayed clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. PMID:7762561

  10. Epicardial adipose excision slows the progression of porcine coronary atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In humans there is a positive association between epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) volume and coronary atherosclerosis (CAD) burden. We tested the hypothesis that EAT contributes locally to CAD in a pig model. Methods Ossabaw miniature swine (n = 9) were fed an atherogenic diet for 6 months to produce CAD. A 15 mm length by 3–5 mm width coronary EAT (cEAT) resection was performed over the middle segment of the left anterior descending artery (LAD) 15 mm distal to the left main bifurcation. Pigs recovered for 3 months on atherogenic diet. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) was performed in the LAD to quantify atheroma immediately after adipectomy and was repeated after recovery before sacrifice. Coronary wall biopsies were stained immunohistochemically for atherosclerosis markers and cytokines and cEAT was assayed for atherosclerosis-related genes by RT-PCR. Total EAT volume was measured by non-contrast CT before each IVUS. Results Circumferential plaque length increased (p < 0.05) in the proximal and distal LAD segments from baseline until sacrifice whereas plaque length in the middle LAD segment underneath the adipectomy site did not increase. T-cadherin, scavenger receptor A and adiponectin were reduced in the intramural middle LAD. Relative to control pigs without CAD, 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11βHSD-1), CCL19, CCL21, prostaglandin D2 synthase, gp91phox [NADPH oxidase], VEGF, VEGFGR1, and angiotensinogen mRNAs were up-regulated in cEAT. EAT volume increased over 3 months. Conclusion In pigs used as their own controls, resection of cEAT decreased the progression of CAD, suggesting that cEAT may exacerbate coronary atherosclerosis. PMID:24387639

  11. Curcumin analog L3 alleviates diabetic atherosclerosis by multiple effects.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Bin; Yang, Liu; Wen, Caixia; Huang, Xiuwang; Xu, Chenxia; Lee, Kuan-Han; Xu, Jianhua

    2016-03-15

    L3, an analog of curcumin, is a compound isolated from a traditional Chinese medicine Turmeric. In this paper, we aims to explore the efficacy of L3 on diabetic atherosclerosis and the related mechanism. The effect of L3 was studied on glucose and lipid metabolism, antioxidant status, atherosclerosis-related indexes and pathological changes of main organs in the mice model of diabetes induced by streptozotocin and high-fat diet. The results showed that L3 treatment could meliorate dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia, reduce oxidative stress, enhance the activity of antioxidases, increase the nitric oxide level in plasma and aortic arch, decrease the production of reactive oxygen species in pancreas and lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 expression in aortic arch, and meliorate the fatty and atherosclerotic degeneration in aortic arch, thereby preventing the development of diabetes and its complications. These results suggested that L3 can alleviate the diabetic atherosclerosis by multiple effects. This study provided scientific basis for the further research and clinical application of L3. PMID:26852952

  12. Obstructive sleep apnea, immuno-inflammation, and atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Arnaud, Claire; Dematteis, Maurice; Pepin, Jean-Louis; Baguet, Jean-Philippe; Lvy, Patrick

    2009-06-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a highly prevalent sleep disorder leading to cardiovascular and metabolic complications. OSA is also a multicomponent disorder, with intermittent hypoxia (IH) as the main trigger for the associated cardiovascular and metabolic alterations. Indeed, recurrent pharyngeal collapses during sleep lead to repetitive sequences of hypoxia-reoxygenation. This IH induces several consequences such as hemodynamic, hormonometabolic, oxidative, and immuno-inflammatory alterations that may interact and aggravate each other, resulting in artery changes, from adaptive to degenerative atherosclerotic remodeling. Atherosclerosis has been found in OSA patients free of other cardiovascular risk factors and is related to the severity of nocturnal hypoxia. Early stages of artery alteration, including functional and structural changes, have been evidenced in both OSA patients and rodents experimentally exposed to IH. Impaired vasoreactivity with endothelial dysfunction and/or increased vasoconstrictive responses due to sympathetic, endothelin, and renin-angiotensin systems have been reported and also contribute to vascular remodeling and inflammation. Oxidative stress, inflammation, and vascular remodeling can be directly triggered by IH, further aggravated by the OSA-associated hormonometabolic alterations, such as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and adipokine imbalance. As shown in OSA patients and in the animal model, genetic susceptibility, comorbidities (obesity), and life habits (high fat diet) may aggravate atherosclerosis development or progression. The intimate molecular mechanisms are still largely unknown, and their understanding may contribute to delineate new targets for prevention strategies and/or development of new treatment of OSA-related atherosclerosis, especially in patients at risk for cardiovascular disease. PMID:19404644

  13. Lasting monitoring of immune state in patients with coronary atherosclerosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinova, Lidia I.; Denisova, Tatyana P.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2007-02-01

    Immune state monitoring is an expensive, invasive and sometimes difficult necessity in patients with different disorders. Immune reaction dynamics study in patients with coronary atherosclerosis provides one of the leading components to complication development, clinical course prognosis and treatment and rehabilitation tactics. We've chosen intravenous glucose injection as metabolic irritant in the following four groups of patients: men with proved coronary atherosclerosis (CA), non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), men hereditary burden by CA and NIDDM and practically healthy persons with longlivers in generation. Immune state parameters such as quantity of leukocytes and lymphocytes, circulating immune complexes levels, serum immunoglobulin levels, HLA antigen markers were studied at 0, 30 and 60 minutes during glucose loading. To obtain continues time function of studied parameters received data were approximated by polynomials of high degree with after going first derivatives. Time functions analyze elucidate principally different dynamics studied parameters in all chosen groups of patients, which couldn't be obtained from discontinuous data compare. Leukocyte and lymphocyte levels dynamics correlated HLA antigen markers in all studied groups. Analytical estimation of immune state in patients with coronary atherosclerosis shows the functional "margin of safety" of immune system state under glucose disturbance. Proposed method of analytical estimation also can be used in immune system monitoring in other groups of patients.

  14. Plasma IL-5 concentration and subclinical carotid atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, Angela; McLeod, Olga; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Gertow, Karl; Sennblad, Bengt; Baldassarre, Damiano; Veglia, Fabrizio; Deleskog, Anna; Persson, Jonas; Leander, Karin; Gigante, Bruna; Kauhanen, Jussi; Rauramaa, Rainer; Smit, Andries J.; Mannarino, Elmo; Giral, Philippe; Gustafsson, Sven; Söderberg, Stefan; Öhrvik, John; Humphries, Steve E.; Tremoli, Elena; de Faire, Ulf; Hamsten, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Objective Genetic variants robustly associated with coronary artery disease were reported in the vicinity of the interleukin (IL)-5 locus, and animal studies suggested a protective role for IL-5 in atherosclerosis. Therefore, we set this work to explore IL-5 as a plasma biomarker for early subclinical atherosclerosis, as determined by measures of baseline severity and change over time of carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT). Methods We used biobank and databases of IMPROVE, a large European prospective cohort study of high-risk individuals (n = 3534) free of clinically overt cardiovascular disease at enrollment, in whom composite and segment-specific measures of cIMT were recorded at baseline and after 15 and 30 months. IL-5 was measured with an immunoassay in plasma samples taken at baseline. Results IL-5 levels were lower in women than in men, lower in the South than in North of Europe, and showed positive correlations with most established risk factors. IL-5 showed significant inverse relationships with cIMT change over time in the common carotid segment in women, but no significant relationships to baseline cIMT in either men or women. Conclusions Our results suggest that IL-5 may be part of protective mechanisms operating in early atherosclerosis, at least in women. However, the relationships are weak and whereas IL-5 has been proposed as a potential molecular target to treat allergies, it is difficult to envisage such a scenario in coronary artery disease. PMID:25587992

  15. Mineralocorticoid Receptors in the Pathophysiology of Vascular Inflammation and Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Mary E.; Jaffe, Iris Z.

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the vasculature that causes significant morbidity and mortality from myocardial infarction, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease. Landmark clinical trials revealed that mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonists improve outcomes in cardiovascular patients. Conversely, enhanced MR activation by the hormone aldosterone is associated with increased risk of MI, stroke, and cardiovascular death. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of the role of aldosterone and the MR in the pathogenesis of vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis as it proceeds from risk factor-induced endothelial dysfunction and inflammation to plaque formation, progression, and ultimately rupture with thrombosis, the cause of acute ischemia. The role of the MR in converting cardiac risk factors into endothelial dysfunction, in enhancing leukocyte adhesion and infiltration into the vasculature, in promoting systemic inflammation and vascular oxidative stress, and in plaque destabilization and thrombosis are discussed. A greater understanding of the mechanisms by which the MR promotes atherosclerosis has substantial potential to identify novel treatment targets to improve cardiovascular health and decrease mortality. PMID:26441842

  16. Atomic Force Microscopy Study of Atherosclerosis Progression in Arterial Walls.

    PubMed

    Timashev, Peter S; Kotova, Svetlana L; Belkova, Galina V; Gubar'kova, Ekaterina V; Timofeeva, Lidia B; Gladkova, Natalia D; Solovieva, Anna B

    2016-04-01

    Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Here we suggest a novel approach for tracking atherosclerosis progression based on the use of atomic force microscopy (AFM). Using AFM, we studied cross-sections of coronary arteries with the following types of lesions: Type II-thickened intima; Type III-thickened intima with a lipid streak; Type IV-fibrotic layer over a lipid core; Type Va-unstable fibrotic layer over a lipid core; Type Vc-very thick fibrotic layer. AFM imaging revealed that the fibrotic layer of an atherosclerotic plaque is represented by a basket-weave network of collagen fibers and a subscale network of fibrils that become looser with atherosclerosis progression. In an unstable plaque (Type Va), packing of the collagen fibers and fibrils becomes even less uniform than that at the previous stages, while a stable fibrotic plaque (Vc) has significantly tighter packing. Such alterations of the collagen network morphology apparently, led to deterioration of the Type Va plaque mechanical properties, that, in turn, resulted in its instability and propensity to rupture. Thus, AFM may serve as a useful tool for tracking atherosclerosis progression in the arterial wall tissue. PMID:26843417

  17. Macrophages in Vascular Inflammation – From Atherosclerosis to Vasculitis

    PubMed Central

    Shirai, Tsuyoshi; Hilhorst, Marc; Harrison, David G.; Goronzy, Jörg J.; Weyand, Cornelia M.

    2015-01-01

    The spectrum of vascular inflammatory disease ranges from atherosclerosis and hypertension, widespread conditions affecting large proportions of the population, to the vasculitides, rare syndromes leading to fast and irreversible organ failure. Atherosclerosis progresses over decades, inevitably proceeding through multiple phases of disease and causes its major complications when the vessel wall lesion ruptures, giving rise to lumen-occlusive atherothrombosis. Vasculitides of medium and large arteries progress rapidly, causing tissue ischemia through lumen-occlusive intimal hyperplasia. In both disease entities, macrophages play a decisive role in pathogenesis, but function in the context of other immune cells that direct their differentiation and their functional commitments. In atherosclerosis, macrophages are involved in the removal of lipids and tissue debris and make a critical contribution to tissue damage and wall remodeling. In several of the vasculitides, macrophages contribute to granuloma formation, a microstructural platform optimizing macrophage-T cell interactions, antigen containment and inflammatory amplification. By virtue of their versatility and plasticity, macrophages are able to promote a series of pathogenic functions, ranging from the release of cytokines and enzymes, the production of reactive oxygen species, presentation of antigen and secretion of tissue remodeling factors. However, as short-lived cells that lack memory, macrophages are also amendable to reprogramming, making them promising targets for anti-inflammatory interventions. PMID:25811915

  18. LOX-1 in atherosclerosis: biological functions and pharmacological modifiers

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Suowen; Ogura, Sayoko; Chen, Jiawei; Little, Peter J.; Moss, Joel; Liu, Peiqing

    2013-01-01

    Lectin-like oxidized LDL (oxLDL) receptor-1 (LOX-1, also known as OLR-1), is a class E scavenger receptor that mediates the uptake of oxLDL by vascular cells. LOX-1 is involved in endothelial dysfunction, monocyte adhesion, the proliferation, migration, and apoptosis of smooth muscle cells, foam cell formation, platelet activation, as well as plaque instability; all of these events are critical in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. These LOX-1-dependent biological processes contribute to plaque instability and the ultimate clinical sequelae of plaque rupture and life-threatening tissue ischemia. Administration of anti-LOX-1 antibodies inhibits atherosclerosis by decreasing these cellular events. Over the past decade, multiple drugs including naturally occurring antioxidants, statins, antiinflammatory agents, antihypertensive and antihyperglycemic drugs have been demonstrated to inhibit vascular LOX-1 expression and activity. Therefore, LOX-1 represents an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of human atherosclerotic diseases. This review aims to integrate the current understanding of LOX-1 signaling, regulation of LOX-1 by vasculoprotective drugs, and the importance of LOX-1 in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. PMID:23124189

  19. IKKβ links vascular inflammation to obesity and atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Sui, Yipeng; Park, Se-Hyung; Xu, Jinxian; Monette, Sébastien; Helsley, Robert N.; Han, Seong-Su

    2014-01-01

    IκB kinase β (IKKβ), a central coordinator of inflammatory responses through activation of NF-κB, has been implicated in vascular pathologies, but its role in atherogenesis remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that IKKβ functions in smooth muscle cells (SMCs) to regulate vascular inflammatory responses and atherosclerosis development. IKKβ deficiency in SMCs driven by a SM22Cre-IKKβ-flox system rendered low density lipoprotein receptor-null mice resistant to vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis induced by high-fat feeding. Unexpectedly, IKKβ-deficient mice were also resistant to diet-induced obesity and metabolic disorders. Cell lineage analysis revealed that SM22Cre is active in primary adipose stromal vascular cells and deficiency of IKKβ diminished the ability of these cells to differentiate, leading to accumulation of adipocyte precursor cells in adipose tissue. Mechanistically, reduction of IKKβ expression or pharmacological inhibition of IKKβ inhibited proteasome-mediated β-catenin ubiquitination and degradation in murine preadipocytes, resulting in elevated β-catenin levels and impaired adipocyte differentiation. Further, chronic treatment of mice with a potent IKKβ inhibitor decreased adipogenesis and ameliorated diet-induced obesity. Our findings demonstrate a pivotal role of IKKβ in linking vascular inflammation to atherosclerosis and adipose tissue development, and provide evidence for using appropriate IKKβ inhibitors in the treatment of obesity and metabolic disorders. PMID:24799533

  20. Hematopoietic knockdown of PPAR? reduces atherosclerosis in LDLR-/- mice.

    PubMed

    Li, G; Chen, C; Laing, S D; Ballard, C; Biju, K C; Reddick, R L; Clark, R A; Li, S

    2016-01-01

    PPAR? (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?) mediates inflammation in response to lipid accumulation. Systemic administration of a PPAR? agonist can ameliorate atherosclerosis. Paradoxically, genetic deletion of PPAR? in hematopoietic cells led to a reduction of atherosclerosis in murine models, suggesting that downregulation of PPAR? expression in these cells may mitigate atherogenesis. To advance this finding forward to potential clinical translation through hematopoietic stem cell transplantation-based gene therapy, we employed a microRNA (miRNA) approach to knock down PPAR? expression in bone marrow cells followed by transplantation of the cells into LDLR-/- mice. We found that knockdown of PPAR? expression in the hematopoietic system caused a dramatic reduction in aortic atherosclerotic lesions. In macrophages, a key component in atherogenesis, knockdown of PPAR? led to decreased expression of multiple pro-inflammatory factors, including monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-6. Expression of CCR2, a receptor for MCP-1, was also decreased. The downregulation of pro-inflammatory factors is consistent with significant reduction of macrophage presence in the lesions, which may also be attributable to elevation of ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette, subfamily A, member 1) and depression of adipocyte differentiate-related protein. Furthermore, the abundance of both MCP-1 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 proteins was reduced in plaque areas. Our results demonstrate that miRNA-mediated PPAR? knockdown in hematopoietic cells is able to ameliorate atherosclerosis. PMID:26204499

  1. Reversal of atherosis and sclerosis. The two components of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Blankenhorn, D H; Kramsch, D M

    1989-01-01

    In 1904, Marchand recognized the consistent association of fatty degeneration and vessel stiffening and introduced the term "atherosclerosis" to indicate this combination. Current research is focused principally on the lipid component, but there is evidence that both aspects are reversible. Atheromatous lipids add significantly to the volume of lesions and thus contribute to vascular obstruction and end-organ damage. Reversal of atherosis has been observed in all the major species used in atherosclerosis research; rabbits, swine, dogs, chicks, pigeons, and subhuman primates. Direct evidence for reversal in humans is based on angiographic trials and is less extensive. One femoral artery and one coronary artery trial indicate that the lesions can be stabilized. CLAS, the largest angiographic trial to date, indicates that coronary lesion reversal is possible. Clinical effects of sclerosis are more subtle, and there is little evidence that sclerosis alone leads to end-organ damage. However, it should be noted that atherosclerotic lesions producing end-organ damage invariably have a major fibrous component. Sclerotic vessels have reduced systolic expansion and abnormally rapid pulse wave propagation, which can be measured noninvasively. Primate studies indicate that sclerosis is induced by hypercholesterolemic diets and is reversible when these diets are withdrawn. Changes in sclerosis may be another useful indicator of the formation and reversal of lesions and may involve changes in EDRF. Future studies of atherosclerosis reversal should use a combination of measures to evaluate both atherosis and sclerosis. PMID:2642753

  2. Targeted nanoparticles containing the proresolving peptide Ac2-26 protect against advanced atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic mice.

    PubMed

    Fredman, Gabrielle; Kamaly, Nazila; Spolitu, Stefano; Milton, Jaclyn; Ghorpade, Devram; Chiasson, Raymond; Kuriakose, George; Perretti, Mauro; Farokhzad, Omid; Farokzhad, Omid; Tabas, Ira

    2015-02-18

    Chronic, nonresolving inflammation is a critical factor in the clinical progression of advanced atherosclerotic lesions. In the normal inflammatory response, resolution is mediated by several agonists, among which is the glucocorticoid-regulated protein called annexin A1. The proresolving actions of annexin A1, which are mediated through its receptor N-formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2/ALX), can be mimicked by an amino-terminal peptide encompassing amino acids 2-26 (Ac2-26). Collagen IV (Col IV)-targeted nanoparticles (NPs) containing Ac2-26 were evaluated for their therapeutic effect on chronic, advanced atherosclerosis in fat-fed Ldlr(-/-) mice. When administered to mice with preexisting lesions, Col IV-Ac2-26 NPs were targeted to lesions and led to a marked improvement in key advanced plaque properties, including an increase in the protective collagen layer overlying lesions (which was associated with a decrease in lesional collagenase activity), suppression of oxidative stress, and a decrease in plaque necrosis. In mice lacking FPR2/ALX in myeloid cells, these improvements were not seen. Thus, administration of a resolution-mediating peptide in a targeted NP activates its receptor on myeloid cells to stabilize advanced atherosclerotic lesions. These findings support the concept that defective inflammation resolution plays a role in advanced atherosclerosis, and suggest a new form of therapy. PMID:25695999

  3. Targeted nanoparticles containing the proresolving peptide Ac2-26 protect against advanced atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic mice

    PubMed Central

    Spolitu, Stefano; Milton, Jaclyn; Ghorpade, Devram; Chiasson, Raymond; Kuriakose, George; Perretti, Mauro; Farokzhad, Omid; Tabas, Ira

    2015-01-01

    Chronic, nonresolving inflammation is a critical factor in the clinical progression of advanced atherosclerotic lesions. In the normal inflammatory response, resolution is mediated by several agonists, among which is the glucocorticoid-regulated protein called annexin A1. The proresolving actions of annexin A1, which are mediated through its receptor N-formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2/ALX), can be mimicked by an amino-terminal peptide encompassing amino acids 2–26 (Ac2-26). Collagen IV (Col IV)–targeted nanoparticles (NPs) containing Ac2-26 were evaluated for their therapeutic effect on chronic, advanced atherosclerosis in fat-fed Ldlr−/− mice. When administered to mice with preexisting lesions, Col IV–Ac2-26 NPs were targeted to lesions and led to a marked improvement in key advanced plaque properties, including an increase in the protective collagen layer overlying lesions (which was associated with a decrease in lesional collagenase activity), suppression of oxidative stress, and a decrease in plaque necrosis. In mice lacking FPR2/ALX in myeloid cells, these improvements were not seen. Thus, administration of a resolution-mediating peptide in a targeted NP activates its receptor on myeloid cells to stabilize advanced atherosclerotic lesions. These findings support the concept that defective inflammation resolution plays a role in advanced atherosclerosis, and suggest a new form of therapy. PMID:25695999

  4. Habitual fish intake and clinically silent carotid atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fish consumption is recommended as part of a healthy diet. However, there is a paucity of data concerning the relation between fish consumption and carotid atherosclerosis. We investigated the association between habitual fish consumption and asymptomatic carotid atherosclerosis, defined as the presence of plaques and/or increased intima-media thickness (? 0.90mm), in non-diabetic participants. Methods Nine hundred-sixty-one (range of age: 1889yrs; 37.1% males) adult participants without clinically known atherosclerotic disease were randomly recruited among the customers of a shopping mall in Palermo, Italy, and cross-sectionally investigated. Each participant answered a food frequency questionnaire and underwent high-resolution ultrasonographic evaluation of both carotid arteries. Routine laboratory blood measurements were obtained in a subsample of 507 participants. Results Based on habitual fish consumption, participants were divided into three groups: non-consumers or consumers of less than 1 serving a week (24.0%), consumers of 1 serving a week (38.8%), and consumers of???2 servings a week (37.2%). Age-adjusted prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis (presence of plaques or intima media thickness???0.9mm) was higher in the low fish consumption group (13.3%, 12.1% and 6.6%, respectively; P?=?0.003). Multivariate analysis evidenced that carotid atherosclerosis was significantly associated with age (OR?=?1.12; 95% CI?=?1.09-1.14), hypertension on pharmacologic treatment (OR?=?1.81; 95% CI?=?1.16-2.82), and pulse pressure (OR?=?1.03; 95% CI?=?1.01-1.04), while consuming ?2 servings of fish weekly was protective compared with the condition of consumption of <1 serving of fish weekly (OR?=?0.46; 95% CI?=?0.26-0.80). Conclusions High habitual fish consumption seems to be associated with less carotid atherosclerosis, though adequate interventional trials are necessary to confirm the role of fish consumption in prevention of cardiovascular disease. PMID:24405571

  5. Atherosclerosis, cholesterol, nutrition, and statins--a critical review.

    PubMed

    Gebbers, Jan-Olaf

    2007-01-01

    Atherosclerosis, which causes approximately half of all deaths of adults over age 60 in industrialized nations, is a pandemic among inappropriately nourished and/or physically hypoactive children, adolescents, and adults world wide. Although nowadays statins are widely prescribed to middle age and elderly adults with high blood lipid levels as pharmacological prevention for the late complications of atherosclerosis, from a critical point of view statins seem not to solve the problem, especially when compared with certain natural ingredients of our nutrition like micronutrients as alternative strategy. Statin ingestion is associated with lowering of serum cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein concentrations; some prospective studies have shown statistical associations with subsequent modest reduction of mortality from cardiovascular disease. However, specific biochemical pathways and pharmacological roles of statins in prevention of atherosclerosis, if any, are unknown. Moreover, there have been no systematic cost-benefit analyses of life-style prophylaxis versus statin prophylaxis versus combined life-style plus statin prophylaxis versus neither life-style nor statin prophylaxis for clinically significant complications of cardiovascular diseases in the elderly. Further, in the trials of effectiveness statins were not compared with management of nutrition, which is the most appropriate alternative intervention. Such studies seem to be important, as the ever increasing world population, especially in developing countries, now demand expensive statins, which may be unaffordable for mitigating the pandemic. Studies of this kind are necessary to identify more precisely those patients for whom cardiovascular benefits will outweigh the risks and costs of the statin treatment in comparison with nutritional interventions. Against the background of the current pathogenetic concept of atherogenesis some of its possible risk factors, particularly the roles of cholesterol and homocysteine, and the effects of statins versus nutritional (micronutrients) interventions in prevention and treatment of the disease are discussed. The prevailing opinion that serum cholesterol as a mediator of the disease is increased by eating saturated fats and decreased by eating polyunsaturated fats is being challenged. Evidently, the beneficial effects of statins in atherosclerosis are not mainly due to its cholesterol lowering effect, rather than to its "pleiotropic effects". Other pathogenetic factors in atherosclerosis are involved, like inflammatory and immunologic processes, that can be modulated by statins as well as by other drugs or by the Mediterranean-style nutrition and by micronutrients (folate, B-vitamins). PMID:19675712

  6. "State-of-Art" paper of the Italian Working Group on Atherosclerosis: Preclinical assessment of early coronary atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Madonna, Rosalinda; Selvaggio, Stefano; Selvaggio, Giancarlo; Coronelli, Maurizio; Cocco, Nino

    2016-07-01

    Although the early diagnosis and treatment for acute myocardial infarction have improved over the past decades, the morbidity and mortality from coronary artery disease (CAD) remain significant in Europe and worldwide. It is estimated that the majority of people in the developed countries who die suddenly from CAD, have no prior manifestation of disease, and the majority of these individuals are not considered to be at high risk. Accurate identification of individuals at risk of such events before the clinical manifestations is therefore required. This "State-of-Art" paper of the Italian Working Group on Atherosclerosis aims to i. provide an overview of both the traditional and emerging non-invasive imaging techniques used to detect early atherosclerosis in the general population with moderate cardiovascular risk; ii. identify the rationale for screening asymptomatic patients with preclinical atherosclerotic lesions and the optimal algorithm that should be used to detect them; iii. discuss the future directions of atherosclerosis research, with special focus on nanotechnology, aimed at early identification and treatment of low- and intermediate-risk patients. PMID:27093681

  7. A Translational Model for Diet-related Atherosclerosis: Effect of Statins on Hypercholesterolemia and Atherosclerosis in a Minipig.

    PubMed

    Amuzie, Chidozie; Swart, John R; Rogers, Christopher S; Vihtelic, Thomas; Denham, Steven; Mais, Dale E

    2016-04-01

    Models of atherosclerosis are used in preclinical studies but often fail to translate to humans. A model that better reflects human atherosclerosis is necessary. We recently engineered the ExeGen™ low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) miniswine, in which the LDL receptor gene is modified to drive hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis, and showed diet-related exacerbation of these phenotypes. Five groups of animals, either wild type (+/+) or heterozygous (+/-), were fed either a normal or high-fat diet for 6 months. One group of heterozygous pigs fed a high-fat diet was also administered atorvastatin at 3 mg/kg/day. Clinical chemistry and anatomic pathology parameters were measured biweekly and at termination. The high-fat diet resulted in increased adiposity and interspersion of adipocytes within the salivary glands. The heterozygous pigs on the high-fat diet gained more weight and had significant increases in total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, and LDL compared to wild-type animals or heterozygous animals fed a normal diet. Atorvastatin attenuated these parameters, indicating the statin had a beneficial effect, even in a high-fat diet scenario. Atorvastatin treatment also reduced the intensity of Oil Red O staining in pigs on high-fat diet. Atorvastatin-related amelioration of several indices of cardiovascular pathophysiology in this model underscores its utility for drug discovery. PMID:26883155

  8. Detailed analysis of association between common single nucleotide polymorphisms and subclinical atherosclerosis: The Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Jose D; Manichaikul, Ani; Wang, Xin-Qun; Rich, Stephen S; Rotter, Jerome I; Post, Wendy S; Polak, Joseph F; Budoff, Matthew J; Bluemke, David A

    2016-06-01

    Previously identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genome wide association studies (GWAS) of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in participants of mostly European descent were tested for association with subclinical cardiovascular disease (sCVD), coronary artery calcium score (CAC) and carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). The data in this data in brief article correspond to the article Common Genetic Variants and Subclinical Atherosclerosis: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis [1]. This article includes the demographic information of the participants analyzed in the article as well as graphical displays and data tables of the association of the selected SNPs with CAC and of the meta-analysis across ethnicities of the association of CIMT-c (common carotid), CIMT-I (internal carotid), CAC-d (CAC as dichotomous variable with CAC>0) and CAC-c (CAC as continuous variable, the log of the raw CAC score plus one) and CVD. The data tables corresponding to the 9p21 fine mapping experiment as well as the power calculations referenced in the article are also included. PMID:26958643

  9. Detailed analysis of association between common single nucleotide polymorphisms and subclinical atherosclerosis: The Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Jose D.; Manichaikul, Ani; Wang, Xin-Qun; Rich, Stephen S.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Post, Wendy S.; Polak, Joseph F.; Budoff, Matthew J.; Bluemke, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Previously identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genome wide association studies (GWAS) of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in participants of mostly European descent were tested for association with subclinical cardiovascular disease (sCVD), coronary artery calcium score (CAC) and carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). The data in this data in brief article correspond to the article Common Genetic Variants and Subclinical Atherosclerosis: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis [1]. This article includes the demographic information of the participants analyzed in the article as well as graphical displays and data tables of the association of the selected SNPs with CAC and of the meta-analysis across ethnicities of the association of CIMT-c (common carotid), CIMT-I (internal carotid), CAC-d (CAC as dichotomous variable with CAC>0) and CAC-c (CAC as continuous variable, the log of the raw CAC score plus one) and CVD. The data tables corresponding to the 9p21 fine mapping experiment as well as the power calculations referenced in the article are also included. PMID:26958643

  10. Dietary Cocoa Powder Improves Hyperlipidemia and Reduces Atherosclerosis in apoE Deficient Mice through the Inhibition of Hepatic Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Hua; Lin, Yan; Bai, Liang; An, Yingfeng; Shang, Jianan; Wang, Zhao; Zhao, Sihai; Fan, Jianglin

    2016-01-01

    Cocoa powder is rich in flavonoids, which have many beneficial effects on human health, including antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of our study was to investigate whether the intake of cocoa powder has any influence on hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis and examine the underlying molecular mechanisms. We fed apoE knockout mice a Western diet supplemented with either 0.2% (low group) or 2% (high group) cocoa powder for 12 weeks. The groups fed dietary cocoa powder showed a significant reduction in both plasma cholesterol levels and aortic atherosclerosis compared to the control group. Analysis of mRNA profiling of aortic atherosclerotic lesions revealed that the expression of several genes related to apoptosis, lipid metabolism, and inflammation was significantly reduced, while the antiapoptotic gene Bcl2 was significantly increased in the cocoa powder group compared to the control. RT-PCR analysis along with Western blotting revealed that a diet containing cocoa powder inhibited the expression of hepatic endoplasmic reticulum stress. These data suggest that cocoa powder intake improves hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis, and such beneficial effects are possibly mediated through the suppression of hepatic endoplasmic reticulum stress. PMID:26980943

  11. Dietary Cocoa Powder Improves Hyperlipidemia and Reduces Atherosclerosis in apoE Deficient Mice through the Inhibition of Hepatic Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress.

    PubMed

    Guan, Hua; Lin, Yan; Bai, Liang; An, Yingfeng; Shang, Jianan; Wang, Zhao; Zhao, Sihai; Fan, Jianglin; Liu, Enqi

    2016-01-01

    Cocoa powder is rich in flavonoids, which have many beneficial effects on human health, including antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of our study was to investigate whether the intake of cocoa powder has any influence on hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis and examine the underlying molecular mechanisms. We fed apoE knockout mice a Western diet supplemented with either 0.2% (low group) or 2% (high group) cocoa powder for 12 weeks. The groups fed dietary cocoa powder showed a significant reduction in both plasma cholesterol levels and aortic atherosclerosis compared to the control group. Analysis of mRNA profiling of aortic atherosclerotic lesions revealed that the expression of several genes related to apoptosis, lipid metabolism, and inflammation was significantly reduced, while the antiapoptotic gene Bcl2 was significantly increased in the cocoa powder group compared to the control. RT-PCR analysis along with Western blotting revealed that a diet containing cocoa powder inhibited the expression of hepatic endoplasmic reticulum stress. These data suggest that cocoa powder intake improves hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis, and such beneficial effects are possibly mediated through the suppression of hepatic endoplasmic reticulum stress. PMID:26980943

  12. Atherosclerosis profile and incidence of cardiovascular events: a population-based survey

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Jennifer G; Fox, Kathleen M; Bullano, Michael F; Grandy, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Background Atherosclerosis is a chronic progressive disease often presenting as clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. This study evaluated the characteristics of individuals with a diagnosis of atherosclerosis and estimated the incidence of CVD events to assist in the early identification of high-risk individuals. Methods Respondents to the US SHIELD baseline survey were followed for 2 years to observe incident self-reported CVD. Respondents had subclinical atherosclerosis if they reported a diagnosis of narrow or blocked arteries/carotid artery disease without a past clinical CVD event (heart attack, stroke or revascularization). Characteristics of those with atherosclerosis and incident CVD were compared with those who did not report atherosclerosis at baseline but had CVD in the following 2 years using chi-square tests. Logistic regression model identified characteristics associated with atherosclerosis and incident events. Results Of 17,640 respondents, 488 (2.8%) reported having subclinical atherosclerosis at baseline. Subclinical atherosclerosis was associated with age, male gender, dyslipidemia, circulation problems, hypertension, past smoker, and a cholesterol test in past year (OR = 2.2) [all p < 0.05]. Incident CVD was twice as high in respondents with subclinical atherosclerosis (25.8%) as in those without atherosclerosis or clinical CVD (12.2%). In individuals with subclinical atherosclerosis, men (RR = 1.77, p = 0.050) and individuals with circulation problems (RR = 2.36, p = 0.003) were at greatest risk of experiencing CVD events in the next 2 years. Conclusion Self-report of subclinical atherosclerosis identified an extremely high-risk group with a >25% risk of a CVD event in the next 2 years. These characteristics may be useful for identifying individuals for more aggressive diagnostic and therapeutic efforts. PMID:19754940

  13. Atherosclerosis associated with pericardial effusion in a central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps).

    PubMed

    Schilliger, Lionel; Lemberger, Karin; Chai, Norin; Bourgeois, Aude; Charpentier, Maud

    2010-09-01

    Atherosclerosis is a common disease in pet birds, particularly in psittacines, and is frequently found when performing postmortem examinations on adult and old dogs, in which it is mainly associated with endocrine diseases, such as hypothyroidism and diabetes mellitus. However, atherosclerosis is poorly documented in reptiles and consequently poorly understood. In the current case report, atherosclerosis and pericardial effusion were diagnosed in a 2-year-old male central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) based on ultrasound visualization, necropsy, and histologic examination. PMID:20807945

  14. Why did ancient people have atherosclerosis?: from autopsies to computed tomography to potential causes.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Gregory S; Wann, L Samuel; Allam, Adel H; Thompson, Randall C; Michalik, David E; Sutherland, M Linda; Sutherland, James D; Lombardi, Guido P; Watson, Lucia; Cox, Samantha L; Valladolid, Clide M; Abd El-Maksoud, Gomaa; Al-Tohamy Soliman, Muhammad; Badr, Ibrahem; el-Halim Nur el-Din, Abd; Clarke, Emily M; Thomas, Ian G; Miyamoto, Michael I; Kaplan, Hillard S; Frohlich, Bruno; Narula, Jagat; Stewart, Alexandre F R; Zink, Albert; Finch, Caleb E

    2014-06-01

    Computed tomographic findings of atherosclerosis in the ancient cultures of Egypt, Peru, the American Southwest and the Aleutian Islands challenge our understanding of the fundamental causes of atherosclerosis. Could these findings be true? Is so, what traditional risk factors might be present in these cultures that could explain this apparent paradox? The recent computed tomographic findings are consistent with multiple autopsy studies dating as far back as 1852 that demonstrate calcific atherosclerosis in ancient Egyptians and Peruvians. A nontraditional cause of atherosclerosis that could explain this burden of atherosclerosis is the microbial and parasitic inflammatory burden likely to be present in ancient cultures inherently lacking modern hygiene and antimicrobials. Patients with chronic systemic inflammatory diseases of today, including systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and human immunodeficiency virus infection, experience premature atherosclerosis and coronary events. Might the chronic inflammatory load of ancient times secondary to infection have resulted in atherosclerosis? Smoke inhalation from the use of open fires for daily cooking and illumination represents another potential cause. Undiscovered risk factors could also have been present, potential causes that technologically cannot currently be measured in our serum or other tissue. A synthesis of these findings suggests that a gene-environmental interplay is causal for atherosclerosis. That is, humans have an inherent genetic susceptibility to atherosclerosis, whereas the speed and severity of its development are secondary to known and potentially unknown environmental factors. PMID:25667093

  15. Peak inflammation in atherosclerosis, primary biliary cirrhosis and autoimmune arthritis is counter-intuitively associated with regulatory T cell enrichment

    PubMed Central

    Garetto, Stefano; Trovato, Anna Elisa; Lleo, Ana; Sala, Federica; Martini, Elisa; Betz, Alexander G.; Norata, Giuseppe D.; Invernizzi, Pietro; Kallikourdis, Marinos

    2015-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Treg) influence the development of autoimmunity and their use is increasingly proposed for clinical applications. The well-characterized suppressive potential of Treg frequently leads to the assumption that Treg presence in prevailing numbers is indicative of immunosuppression. We hypothesized that this assumption may be false. We examined models of three different diseases caused by organ-specific autoimmune responses: primary biliary cirrhosis, atherosclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We examined indicators of relative abundance of Treg compared to pro-inflammatory T cells, during peak inflammation. In all cases, the results were compatible with a relative enrichment of Treg at the site of inflammation or its most proximal draining lymph node. Conversely, in healthy mice or mice successfully protected from disease via a Treg-mediated mechanism, the data did not suggest that any Treg accumulation was occurring. This counter-intuitive finding may appear to be at odds with the immunosuppressive nature of Treg. Yet extensive previous studies in RA show that an accumulation of Treg occurs at peak inflammation, albeit without resulting in suppression, as the Treg suppressive function is overcome by the cytokine-rich environment. We suggest that this is a ubiquitous feature of autoimmune inflammation. Treg abundance in patient samples is increasingly used as an indicator of a state of immunosuppression. We conclude that this strategy should be revisited as it may potentially be a source of misinterpretation. PMID:25770018

  16. Fire Suppression and Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruff, Gary A.

    2004-01-01

    This report is concerned with the following topics regarding fire suppression:What is the relative effectiveness of candidate suppressants to extinguish a representative fire in reduced gravity, including high-O2 mole fraction, low -pressure environments? What are the relative advantages and disadvantages of physically acting and chemically-acting agents in spacecraft fire suppression? What are the O2 mole fraction and absolute pressure below which a fire cannot exist? What effect does gas-phase radiation play in the overall fire and post-fire environments? Are the candidate suppressants effective to extinguish fires on practical solid fuels? What is required to suppress non-flaming fires (smoldering and deep seated fires) in reduced gravity? How can idealized space experiment results be applied to a practical fire scenario? What is the optimal agent deployment strategy for space fire suppression?

  17. MafB promotes atherosclerosis by inhibiting foam-cell apoptosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, Michito; Nakamura, Megumi; Tran, Mai Thi Nhu; Moriguchi, Takashi; Hong, Cynthia; Ohsumi, Takayuki; Dinh, Tra Thi Huong; Kusakabe, Manabu; Hattori, Motochika; Katsumata, Tokio; Arai, Satoko; Nakashima, Katsuhiko; Kudo, Takashi; Kuroda, Etsushi; Wu, Chien-Hui; Kao, Pei-Han; Sakai, Masaharu; Shimano, Hitoshi; Miyazaki, Toru; Tontonoz, Peter; Takahashi, Satoru

    2014-01-01

    MafB is a transcription factor that induces myelomonocytic differentiation. However, the precise role of MafB in the pathogenic function of macrophages has never been clarified. Here we demonstrate that MafB promotes hyperlipidemic atherosclerosis by suppressing foam-cell apoptosis. Our data show that MafB is predominantly expressed in foam cells found within atherosclerotic lesions, where MafB mediates the oxidized LDL-activated LXR/RXR-induced expression of apoptosis inhibitor of macrophages (AIM). In the absence of MafB, activated LXR/RXR fails to induce the expression of AIM, a protein that is normally responsible for protecting macrophages from apoptosis; thus, Mafb-deficient macrophages are prone to apoptosis. Haematopoietic reconstitution with Mafb-deficient fetal liver cells in recipient LDL receptor-deficient hyperlipidemic mice revealed accelerated foam-cell apoptosis, which subsequently led to the attenuation of the early atherogenic lesion. These findings represent the first evidence that the macrophage-affiliated MafB transcription factor participates in the acceleration of atherogenesis.

  18. A Crucial Role for CDC42 in Senescence-Associated Inflammation and Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Takashi K.; Yokoyama, Masataka; Yoshida, Yohko; Nojima, Aika; Kassai, Hidetoshi; Oishi, Kengo; Okada, Sho; Kinoshita, Daisuke; Kobayashi, Yoshio; Fruttiger, Marcus; Aiba, Atsu; Minamino, Tohru

    2014-01-01

    Risk factors for atherosclerosis accelerate the senescence of vascular endothelial cells and promote atherogenesis by inducing vascular inflammation. A hallmark of endothelial senescence is the persistent up-regulation of pro-inflammatory genes. We identified CDC42 signaling as a mediator of chronic inflammation associated with endothelial senescence. Inhibition of CDC42 or NF-κB signaling attenuated the sustained up-regulation of pro-inflammatory genes in senescent human endothelial cells. Endothelium-specific activation of the p53/p21 pathway, a key mediator of senescence, also resulted in up-regulation of pro-inflammatory molecules in mice, which was reversed by Cdc42 deletion in endothelial cells. Likewise, endothelial-specific deletion of Cdc42 significantly attenuated chronic inflammation and plaque formation in atherosclerotic mice. While inhibition of NF-κB suppressed the pro-inflammatory responses in acute inflammation, the influence of Cdc42 deletion was less marked. Knockdown of cdc-42 significantly down-regulated pro-inflammatory gene expression and restored the shortened lifespan to normal in mutant worms with enhanced inflammation. These findings indicate that the CDC42 pathway is critically involved in senescence-associated inflammation and could be a therapeutic target for chronic inflammation in patients with age-related diseases without compromising host defenses. PMID:25057989

  19. Kv1.3 potassium channel mediates macrophage migration in atherosclerosis by regulating ERK activity.

    PubMed

    Kan, Xiao-Hong; Gao, Hai-Qing; Ma, Zhi-Yong; Liu, Lin; Ling, Ming-Ying; Wang, Yuan-Yuan

    2016-02-01

    Ion channels expressed in macrophages have been tightly related to atherosclerosis by coupling cellular function. How the voltage-gated potassium channels (Kv) affect macrophage migration remain unknown. The aim of our study is to investigate whether Kv1.3-ERK signaling pathway plays an important role in the process. We explored the expression of Kv1.3 in coronary atherosclerotic heart disease and found Kv1.3 channel was increased in acute coronary syndrome patients. Treatment of RAW264.7 cells with Kv1.3 small interfering RNA, suppressed cell migration. The expression of phosphorylated ERK1/2 also decreased after knockdown of Kv1.3. On the other hand, overexpression of Kv1.3 channel promoted cell migration and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. U-0126, the mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors, could reverse macrophage migration induced by Kv1.3 channel overexpression. Downregulation of Kv1.3 channel by siRNA could not further inhibit cell migration when cells were treated with U-0126. It means that ERK is downstream signal of Kv1.3 channel. We concluded that Kv1.3 may stimulate macrophage migration through the activation of ERK. PMID:26748289

  20. Fluorescence spectroscopic detection of virus-induced atherosclerosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Wei-dong; Perk, Masis; Nation, Patric N.; Power, Robert F.; Liu, Liying; Jiang, Xiuyan; Lucas, Alexandra

    1994-07-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence (LF) has been developed as a diagnostic tool for the detection of atherosclerosis. We have examined the use of LF for the identification of accelerated atherosclerotic plaque growth induced by Marek's Disease Virus (MDV) infection in White Leghorn rooster chicks (R) as well as plaque regression after treatment. Twenty-eight newborn R were infected with 12,000 cfu of MDV. Twelve parallel control R had saline injection. LF spectra were recorded from the arteries in vitro with a CeramOptec laser angioplasty catheter during 308 nm XeCl excimer laser excitation. Significant differences were detected at 440 to 475, 525, 550, 600, and 650 nm in MDV-R (p<0.05). In a subsequent study, 60 R were infected with 5,000 cfu of MDV, and were then treated with either Pravastatin (PRV) or placebo at 3 months post infection. These PRV-R were followed for 6 months to detect changes in atherosclerotic plaque development. PRV reduced intimal proliferation produced by MDV infection on histological examination (PRV-R 128.0+/- 44.0 micrometers , placebo-R 412.2+/- 91.5 micrometers , pequals0.007). MDV infected, PRV treated R were examined for LF changes that correlated with decreased atherosclerosis. There was an associated significant increase in LF intensity in PRV-R at 405 to 425 nm (p<0.001). In conclusion, LF can detect intimal proliferation in virus- induced atherosclerosis and atherosclerotic plaque regression after PRV therapy.

  1. The occurrence of dental caries is associated with atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Glodny, Bernhard; Nasseri, Parinaz; Crismani, Adriano; Schoenherr, Elisabeth; Luger, Anna K.; Bertl, Kristina; Petersen, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have suggested that marginal periodontitis is a risk factor for developing atherosclerosis. The objective of this study was to determine whether caries may also be associated with atherosclerosis. METHODS: The computed tomography data sets of 292 consecutive patients, 137 women and 155 men with a mean age of 54.117.3 years, were analyzed. Caries were quantified based on the number of decayed surfaces of all the teeth, and periodontitis was quantified on the basis of the horizontal bone loss in the jaw. The presence of chronic apical periodontitis (CAP) was assessed, and the aortic atherosclerotic burden was quantified using a calcium scoring method. RESULTS: The patients with <1 caries surfaces/tooth had a lower atherosclerotic burden (0.130.61 mL) than patients with ?1 caries surfaces/tooth. The atherosclerotic burden was greater in patients with a higher number of lesions with pulpal involvement and more teeth with chronic apical periodontitis. In the logistical regression models, age (Wald 49.3), number of caries per tooth (Wald 26.4), periodontitis (Wald 8.6), and male gender (Wald 11) were found to be independent risk factors for atherosclerosis. In the linear regression analyses, age and the number of decayed surfaces per tooth were identified as influencing factors associated with a higher atherosclerotic burden, and the number of restorations per tooth was associated with a lower atherosclerotic burden. CONCLUSION: Dental caries, pulpal caries, and chronic apical periodontitis are associated positively, while restorations are associated inversely, with aortic atherosclerotic burden. Prospective studies are required to confirm these observations and answer the question of possible causality. PMID:23917658

  2. Influence of chronic exercise on carotid atherosclerosis in marathon runners

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Beth A; Zaleski, Amanda L; Capizzi, Jeffrey A; Ballard, Kevin D; Troyanos, Christopher; Baggish, Aaron L; D'Hemecourt, Pierre A; Dada, Marcin R; Thompson, Paul D

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The effect of habitual, high-intensity exercise training on the progression of atherosclerosis is unclear. We assessed indices of vascular health (central systolic blood pressure (SBP) and arterial stiffness as well as carotid intima-medial thickness (cIMT)) in addition to cardiovascular risk factors of trained runners versus their untrained spouses or partners to evaluate the impact of exercise on the development of carotid atherosclerosis. Setting field study at Boston Marathon. Participants 42 qualifiers (mean age±SD: 46±13 years, 21 women) for the 2012 Boston Marathon and their sedentary domestic controls (46±12 years, n=21 women). Outcomes We measured medical and running history, vital signs, anthropometrics, blood lipids, C reactive protein (CRP), 10 years Framingham risk, central arterial stiffness and SBP and cIMT. Results Multiple cardiovascular risk factors, including CRP, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, heart rate, body weight and body mass index (all p<0.05), were reduced in the runners. The left and right cIMT, as well as central SBP, were not different between the two groups (all p>0.31) and were associated with age (all r≥0.41; p<0.01) and Framingham risk score (all r≥0.44; p<0.01) independent of exercise group (all p>0.08 for interactions). The amplification of the central pressure waveform (augmentation pressure at heart rate 75 bpm) was also not different between the two groups (p=0.07) but was related to age (p<0.01) and group (p=0.02) in a multiple linear regression model. Conclusions Habitual endurance exercise improves the cardiovascular risk profile, but does not reduce the magnitude of carotid atherosclerosis associated with age and cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:24531453

  3. Inverse relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and carotid atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Rauramaa, R; Rankinen, T; Tuomainen, P; Väisänen, S; Mercuri, M

    1995-01-20

    The association between cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) and carotid atherosclerosis was analyzed in 163 men, aged 50 to 60 years. VO2max was assessed using breath-by-breath respiratory gas analyses during maximal exercise stress test. Atherosclerosis was evaluated quantitatively as intima-media thickness (IMT) of the right and left carotid arteries by high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography. Mean VO2max was 29.6 ml/kg per min (95%CI 28.7;30.5), common carotid IMT 1.04 mm (95%CI 1.01;1.07) and carotid bifurcation IMT 1.73 mm (95%CI 1.66;1.81). VO2max correlated inversely with carotid bifurcation IMT (r = -0.31, P < 0.001), but not with common carotid IMT (r = -0.13, P = 0.102). Men in the highest quartile of VO2max had lower (P < 0.001) bifurcation IMT 1.51 mm (95%CI 1.41;1.61) than men in the lowest (1.95 mm (95%CI 1.75;2.16)) and in the second lowest VO2max quartile (1.79 mm (1.63; 1.95)). The difference persisted (P = 0.014) after controlling for age, LDL-cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, saturated fat intake, current health status and exercise-induced ST-segment depression. These data suggest that cardiorespiratory fitness is an important independent predictor of carotid atherosclerosis in middle-aged men. PMID:7772080

  4. Experimental diet-induced atherosclerosis in Quaker parrots (Myiopsitta monachus).

    PubMed

    Beaufrère, H; Nevarez, J G; Wakamatsu, N; Clubb, S; Cray, C; Tully, T N

    2013-11-01

    Spontaneous atherosclerosis is common in psittaciformes, and clinical signs associated with flow-limiting stenosis are encountered in pet birds. Nevertheless, a psittacine model of atherosclerosis has not been developed for research investigations. Sixteen captive-bred Quaker parrots (Myiopsitta monachus) were used in this study. While 4 control birds were fed a maintenance diet, 12 other birds were fed an atherogenic diet composed of 1% cholesterol controlling for a calorie-to-protein ratio for periods ranging from 2 to 8 months. The birds were euthanized at the end of their respective food trial period. Histopathology, transmission electron microscopy, and cholesterol measurement were performed on the ascending aorta and brachiocephalic and pulmonary arteries. Plasma lipoproteins, cholesterol, and triglycerides were also measured on a monthly basis. Significant atherosclerotic lesions were induced within 2 months and advanced atherosclerotic lesions within 4 to 6 months. The advanced lesions were histologically similar to naturally occurring lesions identified in the same parrot species with a lipid core and a fibrous cap. Ultrastructurally, there were extracellular lipid, foam cell, and endothelial changes. Arterial cholesterol content increased linearly over time. Plasma cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) significantly increased over time by an average of 5- and 15-fold, respectively, with a shift from high-density lipoprotein to LDL as the main plasma lipoprotein. Quaker parrots also exhibited high plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity that increased, although not significantly, over time. This experiment demonstrates that in Quaker parrots fed 1% cholesterol, advanced atherosclerosis can be induced relatively quickly, and lesions resemble those found in other avian models and humans. PMID:23696447

  5. Splenocytes Seed Bone Marrow of Myeloablated Mice: Implication for Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lai; Yang, Mingjie; Arias, Ana; Song, Lei; Li, Fuqiang; Tian, Fang; Qin, Minghui; Yukht, Ada; Williamson, Ian K.; Shah, Prediman K.; Sharifi, Behrooz G.

    2015-01-01

    Extramedullary hematopoiesis has been shown to contribute to the pathogenesis of a variety of diseases including cardiovascular diseases. In this process, the spleen is seeded with mobilized bone marrow cells that augment its hematopoietic ability. It is unclear whether these immigrant cells that are produced/reprogrammed in spleen are similar or different from those found in the bone marrow. To begin to understand this, we investigated the relative potency of adult splenocytes per se to repopulate bone marrow of lethally-irradiated mice and its functional consequences in atherosclerosis. The splenocytes were harvested from GFP donor mice and transplanted into myeloablated wild type recipient mice without the inclusion of any bone marrow helper cells. We found that adult splenocytes repopulated bone marrow of myeloablated mice and the transplanted cells differentiated into a full repertoire of myeloid cell lineages. The level of monocytes/macrophages in the bone marrow of recipient mice was dependent on the cell origin, i.e., the donor splenocytes gave rise to significantly more monocytes/macrophages than the donor bone marrow cells. This occurred despite a significantly lower number of hematopoietic stem cells being present in the donor splenocytes when compared with donor bone marrow cells. Atherosclerosis studies revealed that donor splenocytes displayed a similar level of atherogenic and atheroprotective activities to those of donor bone marrow cells. Cell culture studies showed that the phenotype of macrophages derived from spleen is different from those of bone marrow. Together, these results demonstrate that splenocytes can seed bone marrow of myeloablated mice and modulate atherosclerosis. In addition, our study shows the potential of splenocytes for therapeutic interventions in inflammatory disease. PMID:26038819

  6. Role of ezetimibe in the management of patients with atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Paul

    2009-03-01

    Lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol is central to the management of patients at risk of atherosclerosis. Traditional treatment has focused on modifying the endogenous lipid pathway using statins. Ezetimibe, a selective inhibitor of cholesterol absorption, has proved to be highly effective in lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and its use has soared, especially in the United States. Unfortunately, there is currently no evidence proving that treatment with ezetimibe is linked to a reduction in cardiovascular events; therefore, its choice as a drug to lower cholesterol is currently controversial. PMID:19106797

  7. Studies of atherosclerosis determinants and precursors during childhood and adolescence*

    PubMed Central

    Tell, G. S.; Tuomilehto, J.; Epstein, F. H.; Strasser, T.

    1986-01-01

    At a Meeting of Investigators on Epidemiological Studies of Atherosclerosis Determinants and Precursors, which was held in Geneva on 7-9 November 1983, representatives from 26 countries reviewed the current status of epidemiological studies in this area. Particular interest was shown in the following determinants of cardiovascular disease: blood pressure, blood lipid levels, body weight, pathological studies, and tobacco use. Working papers on each determinant were prepared, and recommendations were made on areas for research, and on the need for prevention programmes and pathological studies. This article summarizes the work of the meeting. PMID:3490929

  8. Imaging Techniques for Diagnosis of Thoracic Aortic Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Jansen Klomp, Wouter W.; Brandon Bravo Bruinsma, George J.; van 't Hof, Arnoud W.; Grandjean, Jan. G.; Nierich, Arno P.

    2016-01-01

    The most severe complications after cardiac surgery are neurological complications including stroke which is often caused by emboli merging from atherosclerosis in the ascending aorta to the brain. Information about the thoracic aorta is crucial in reducing the embolization risk for both surgical open and closed chest procedures such as transaortic heart valve implantation. Several techniques are available to screen the ascending aorta, for example, transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), epiaortic ultrasound, TEE A-view method, manual palpation, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. This paper provides a description of the advantages and disadvantages of these imaging techniques. PMID:26966580

  9. Recent Advances of Radionuclide-based Molecular Imaging of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Kazuma, Soraya M.; Sultan, Deborah; Zhao, Yongfeng; Detering, Lisa; You, Meng; Luehmann, Hannah P.; Abdalla, Dulcineia S.P.; Liu, Yongjian

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a systemic disease characterized by the development of multifocal plaque lesions within vessel walls and extending into the vascular lumen. The disease takes decades to develop symptomatic lesions, affording opportunities for accurate detection of plaque progression, analysis of risk factors responsible for clinical events, and planning personalized treatment. Of the available molecular imaging modalities, radionuclide-based imaging strategies have been favored due to their sensitivity, quantitative detection and pathways for translational research. This review summarizes recent advances of radiolabeled small molecules, peptides, antibodies and nanoparticles for atherosclerotic plaque imaging during disease progression. PMID:26369676

  10. Fluorescent Molecular Tomography for In Vivo Imaging of Mouse Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Arranz, Alicia; Rudin, Markus; Zaragoza, Carlos; Ripoll, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Optical imaging technologies such as fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) are gaining great relevance in cardiovascular research. The main reason is the increased number of available fluorescent agents, especially those termed "activatable probes," which remain quenched under baseline conditions and are fluorescent when a specific enzymatic activity is present. A major characteristic of FMT is the possibility of obtaining quantitative data of fluorescence signal distribution in a noninvasive fashion and using nonionizing radiation, making FMT an invaluable tool for longitudinal studies with biomedical applications. Here, we describe a standard procedure to perform FMT experiments in atherosclerosis mouse models, from the handling of the animals to the reconstruction of the 3D images. PMID:26445804

  11. Sexual dimorphism in rodent models of hypertension and atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Bubb, Kristen J; Khambata, Rayomand S; Ahluwalia, Amrita

    2012-01-01

    Approximately one third of all deaths are attributed to cardiovascular disease (CVD), making it the biggest killer worldwide. Despite a number of therapeutic options available, the burden of CVD morbidity continues to grow indicating the need for continued research to address this unmet need. In this respect, investigation of the mechanisms underlying the protection that premenopausal females enjoy from cardiovascular-related disease and mortality is of interest. In this review, we discuss the essential role that rodent animal models play in enabling this field of research. In particular, we focus our discussion on models of hypertension and atherosclerosis. PMID:22582712

  12. Imaging Techniques for Diagnosis of Thoracic Aortic Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Jansen Klomp, Wouter W; Brandon Bravo Bruinsma, George J; van 't Hof, Arnoud W; Grandjean, Jan G; Nierich, Arno P

    2016-01-01

    The most severe complications after cardiac surgery are neurological complications including stroke which is often caused by emboli merging from atherosclerosis in the ascending aorta to the brain. Information about the thoracic aorta is crucial in reducing the embolization risk for both surgical open and closed chest procedures such as transaortic heart valve implantation. Several techniques are available to screen the ascending aorta, for example, transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), epiaortic ultrasound, TEE A-view method, manual palpation, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. This paper provides a description of the advantages and disadvantages of these imaging techniques. PMID:26966580

  13. FDG PET/CT Imaging of Carotid Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ali, Abdelrahman; Tawakol, Ahmed

    2016-02-01

    Atherosclerosis is a complex inflammatory process and an integral component of myocardial infarction and stroke. Atherosclerotic plaques can be detected using ultrasonography, myocardial perfusion imaging, coronary angiography, multidetector computed tomography (CT), and MR imaging. These modalities assess the luminal encroachment of the plaques or the structural features. Imaging plaque biology in concert with plaque structure may provide important insights. PET scanning using (18)F fluorodeoxyglucose. ((18)F FDG-PET) is commonly combined with CT scanning to characterize oncological processes. This review examines the role of (18)F FDG-PET/CT imaging in the characterization of atherosclerotic plaque biology. PMID:26610659

  14. Current siRNA Targets in Atherosclerosis and Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan-Nabzdyk, Leena; Huang, Chenyu; Logerfo, Frank W.; Nabzdyk, Christoph S.

    2014-01-01

    Atherosclerosis (ATH) and aortic aneurysms (AA) remain challenging chronic diseases that confer high morbidity and mortality despite advances in medical, interventional, and surgical care. RNA interference represents a promising technology that may be utilized to silence genes contributing to ATH and AA. Despite positive results in preclinical and some clinical feasibility studies, challenges such as target/sequence validation, tissue specificity, transfection efficiency, and mitigation of unwanted off-target effects remain to be addressed. In this review the most current targets and some novel approaches in siRNA delivery are being discussed. Due to the plethora of investigated targets, only studies published between 2010 and 2014 were included. PMID:24882715

  15. Aortic Root Calcification: A Possible Imaging Biomarker of Coronary Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Nafakhi, Hussein; Al-Nafakh, Hasan A; Al-Mosawi, Abdulameer A

    2016-04-01

    It has been reported that coronary atherosclerosis risk assessment using coronary artery calcium and thoracic aorta calcium quantification may improve risk stratification as it can lead to the reclassification of persons at increased risk. The aortic root has been characterized by its close anatomical proximity to the ostial origins of the right and left coronary arteries, and it can be evaluated using multi-detector computed tomography without additional radiation exposure and the use of contrast. The correlations between aortic root calcification and coronary atherosclerotic markers as well as cardiac risk factors have been analyzed. PMID:27195236

  16. Periodontal Disease-Induced Atherosclerosis and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Kurita-Ochiai, Tomoko; Jia, Ru; Cai, Yu; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    Periodontal disease is a highly prevalent disorder affecting up to 80% of the global population. Recent epidemiological studies have shown an association between periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease, as oxidative stress plays an important role in chronic inflammatory diseases such as periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease. In this review, we focus on the mechanisms by which periodontopathic bacteria cause chronic inflammation through the enhancement of oxidative stress and accelerate cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, we comment on the antioxidative activity of catechin in atherosclerosis accelerated by periodontitis. PMID:26783845

  17. Rotating stall suppression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Franklin K. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Rotating stall in an axial-flow compressor is suppressed by the positioning of a fixed inlet flow divider in the annular inlet flow passage upstream of the compressor. The inlet flow divider is aligned with the flow of fluid through the duct and acts to block or interfere with any rotating wave in the inlet and thereby suppresses rotating stall in the compressor.

  18. Association of Endothelial and Oxidative Stress with Metabolic Syndrome and Subclinical Atherosclerosis: Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Vaidya, Dhananjay; Szklo, Moyses; Cushman, Mary; Holvoet, Paul; Polak, Joseph; Bahrami, Hossein; Jenny, Nancy Swords; Ouyang, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    Objectives A cluster of metabolic abnormalities termed metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with vascular endothelial dysfunction and oxidative internal milieu. We examined whether the association of MetS with subclinical atherosclerosis is explained by biomarkers of endothelial damage and oxidative stress. Methods MESA is a population based study of 45-84 year old individuals of four US ethnicities without clinical cardiovascular disease. A random sample of 997 MESA participants had data on the following biomarkers: von Willebrand Factor, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM1), CD40 ligand, soluble thrombomodulin, E-selectin, and oxidized LDL (oxLDL). We examined whether the associations of MetS with B-mode ultrasound-defined common and internal carotid intimal medial thickness (IMT) and coronary artery calcium (CAC) measured using computerized tomography were explained by the biomarkers using multiple regression methods. Results MetS was associated with higher levels of each of the biomarkers (p<0.001, CD40L suggestive association p=0.004), with greater IMT (p<0.001), and with greater extent of CAC in those in whom CAC was detectable (p=0.01). The association of MetS with measures of subclinical atherosclerosis remained unchanged after adjustment for the biomarkers. After adjusting for MetS, oxLDL was suggestively associated with greater prevalence of detectable CAC (p=0.005) and thicker internal carotid IMT (p=0.002), while sICAM-1was significantly associated with greater prevalence of detectable CAC (p=0.001). Conclusions The association of MetS with subclinical atherosclerosis was independent of its association with biomarkers of endothelial damage and oxidative stress, suggesting that metabolic abnormalities and oxidative endothelial damage may lead to atherosclerotic disease through distinct mechanisms. PMID:21505504

  19. Caveolae and Caveolin-1 Integrate Reverse Cholesterol Transport and Inflammation in Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Li; Zhu, Neng; Ao, Bao-Xue; Liu, Chan; Shi, Ya-Ning; Du, Ke; Chen, Jian-Xiong; Zheng, Xi-Long; Liao, Duan-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Lipid disorder and inflammation play critical roles in the development of atherosclerosis. Reverse cholesterol transport is a key event in lipid metabolism. Caveolae and caveolin-1 are in the center stage of cholesterol transportation and inflammation in macrophages. Here, we propose that reverse cholesterol transport and inflammation in atherosclerosis can be integrated by caveolae and caveolin-1. PMID:27011179

  20. The epidemiology of atherosclerosis in 1987: unraveling a common-source epidemic.

    PubMed

    Kuller, L H; Orchard, T J

    1988-01-01

    Epidemiologists studying the risk factors of coronary heart disease, as indicated by a heart attack, often presume that these risk factors combine in a susceptible host to increase the risk of the heart attack. The "biological" basis for the interaction of the key risk factors is often not considered in the analysis. A more rational model for the study of clinical heart disease, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease would be to separate the epidemiology of atherosclerosis from that of the clinical event. In the past, this has been extremely difficult because of the absence of techniques for the measurement of atherosclerosis in vivo, especially in well-defined populations. However, in recent years, greater emphasis on the quantification of atherosclerosis and its relationship to specific risk factors has improved our ability to study the underlying pathology that is atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is an example of a common-source epidemic. The environmental agent is the intake of cholesterol and saturated fat. The interaction of specific dietary factors and genetic determinants is the key to the evolution of atherosclerosis. There are marked variations in the evolution of the disease in different vascular beds as well as among individuals exposed to similar environmental factors. In the future, we will probably be able to study atherosclerosis as a continuous variable in populations and to relate the rate of progression, the extent of disease at any point in time, and topical distribution of atherosclerosis within individual vascular beds to specific genetic and environmental determinants. PMID:3042199

  1. Caveolae and Caveolin-1 Integrate Reverse Cholesterol Transport and Inflammation in Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Qin, Li; Zhu, Neng; Ao, Bao-Xue; Liu, Chan; Shi, Ya-Ning; Du, Ke; Chen, Jian-Xiong; Zheng, Xi-Long; Liao, Duan-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Lipid disorder and inflammation play critical roles in the development of atherosclerosis. Reverse cholesterol transport is a key event in lipid metabolism. Caveolae and caveolin-1 are in the center stage of cholesterol transportation and inflammation in macrophages. Here, we propose that reverse cholesterol transport and inflammation in atherosclerosis can be integrated by caveolae and caveolin-1. PMID:27011179

  2. Prevention of Coronary Atherosclerosis: The Role of a College Health Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manchester, Ralph A.; Greenland, Philip

    1987-01-01

    This paper reviews the concept of behavioral risk factors for atherosclerosis which become entrenched in adolescence or young adulthood. Evidence favoring intervention in the adolescent years and a screening program at the University of Rochester Health Service are described. A preliminary strategy for prevention of atherosclerosis on campus is…

  3. Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor-2 Gene Polymorphisms Associate With Coronary Atherosclerosis in Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jia; Liu, Rong-Le; Luo, Xin-Ping; Shi, Hai-ming; Ma, Duan; Pan, Jun-Jie; Ni, Huan-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 (TFPI-2) may play critical roles in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association between TFPI-2 gene polymorphisms and coronary atherosclerosis. Four hundred and seven patients with coronary atherosclerosis and 306 individuals with normal coronary artery were enrolled in the present study. Nine single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs3763473, rs59805398, rs60215632, rs59999573, rs59740167, rs34489123, rs4517, rs4264, and rs4271) were detected with polymerase chain reaction-direct sequencing method. Severity of coronary atherosclerosis was assessed by Gensini score. After the baseline investigation, patients with coronary atherosclerosis were followed up for incidence of cardiovascular events (CVEs). Eight SNPs were in accordance with the Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium, and 8 haplotypes were constructed based on rs59999573, rs59740167, and rs34489123 after linkage disequilibrium and haplotype analysis. Two SNPs (rs59805398 and rs34489123) and 5 haplotypes correlated with coronary atherosclerosis even after adjustment by Gensini score. At follow-up (median 53 months, range 1–60 months), 85 patients experienced CVE. However, there was no strong association between the gene polymorphisms and the occurrence of CVE. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 gene polymorphisms were associated with coronary atherosclerosis in the Chinese population, suggesting that the information about TFPI-2 gene polymorphisms was useful for assessing the risk of developing coronary atherosclerosis, but there was not enough evidence showing it could predict occurrence of CVE. PMID:26496276

  4. Carotid atherosclerosis and cognitive decline in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Silvestrini, Mauro; Gobbi, Beatrice; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; Bartolini, Marco; Baruffaldi, Roberto; Lanciotti, Chiara; Cerqua, Raffaella; Altamura, Claudia; Provinciali, Leandro; Vernieri, Fabrizio

    2009-08-01

    Aim of the study was to explore the correlation between the progression of carotid atherosclerosis and the evolution of cognitive impairment in 66 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). They underwent cognitive status evaluation and ultrasonography (US) to investigate carotid arteries intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaque index (PI). After a 12-month follow-up period, neuropsychological and US examinations were repeated to assess the progression of carotid atherosclerosis and of cognitive decline [in terms of changes in Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores]. MMSE score changes were related to baseline IMT (p=0.018), changes in IMT (p<0.001) and PI (p=0.006), and "antihypertensive drug intake" (p<0.001). While the first three variables correlated with increased cognitive impairment, the last one was associated with a reduced extent of MMSE score decline. Results show a link between progression of carotid wall changes and of cognitive decline, and suggest a possible protective role of antihypertensive therapy. Given the potential clinical implications, our preliminary findings could stimulate further investigations into the role of vascular impairment in patients with AD. PMID:18077061

  5. Circulating Endothelial Microparticles: A Key Hallmark of Atherosclerosis Progression

    PubMed Central

    Panth, Nisha; Kim, Dong-Wook

    2016-01-01

    The levels of circulating microparticles (MPs) are raised in various cardiovascular diseases. Their increased level in plasma is regarded as a biomarker of alteration in vascular function. The prominent MPs present in blood are endothelial microparticles (EMPs) described as complex submicron (0.1 to 1.0 μm) vesicles like structure, released in response to endothelium cell activation or apoptosis. EMPs possess both physiological and pathological effects and may promote oxidative stress and vascular inflammation. EMPs release is triggered by inducer like angiotensin II, lipopolysaccharide, and hydrogen peroxide leading to the progression of atherosclerosis. However, there are multiple physiological pathways for EMPs generation like NADPH oxidase derived endothelial ROS formation, Rho kinase pathway, and mitogen-activated protein kinases. Endothelial dysfunction is a key initiating event in atherosclerotic plaque formation. Atheroemboli, resulting from ruptured carotid plaques, is a major cause of stroke. Increasing evidence suggests that EMPs play an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease, acting as a marker of damage, either exacerbating disease progression or triggering a repair response. In this regard, it has been suggested that EMPs have the potential to act as biomarkers of disease status. This review aims to provide updated information of EMPs in relation to atherosclerosis pathogenesis. PMID:27066292

  6. Smoking and atherosclerosis: mechanisms of disease and new therapeutic approaches.

    PubMed

    Siasos, Gerasimos; Tsigkou, Vasiliki; Kokkou, Eleni; Oikonomou, Evangelos; Vavuranakis, Manolis; Vlachopoulos, Charalambos; Verveniotis, Alexis; Limperi, Maria; Genimata, Vasiliki; Papavassiliou, Athanasios G; Stefanadis, Christodoulos; Tousoulis, Dimitris

    2014-01-01

    It has been clear that at least 1 billion adults worldwide are smokers and at least 700 million children are passive smokers at home. Smoking exerts a detrimental effect to many organ systems and is responsible for illnesses such as lung cancer, pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cancer of head and neck, cancer of the urinary and gastrointestinal tract, periodontal disease, cataract and arthritis. Additionally, smoking is an important modifiable risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease such as coronary artery disease, stable angina, acute coronary syndromes, sudden death, stroke, peripheral vascular disease, congestive heart failure, erectile dysfunction and aortic aneurysms via initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. A variety of studies has proved that cigarette smoking induces oxidative stress, vascular inflammation, platelet coagulation, vascular dysfunction and impairs serum lipid pro-file in both current and chronic smokers, active and passive smokers and results in detrimental effects on the cardiovascular system. The aim of this review is to depict the physical and biochemical properties of cigarette smoke and, furthermore, elucidate the main pathophysiological mechanisms of cigarette-induced atherosclerosis and overview the new therapeutic approaches for smoking cessation and augmentation of cardiovascular health. PMID:25174928

  7. Lipid droplet-associated proteins in atherosclerosis (Review)

    PubMed Central

    AYYAPPAN, JANEESH PLAKKAL; PAUL, ANTONI; GOO, YOUNG-HWA

    2016-01-01

    Accumulation of atherosclerotic plaques in arterial walls leads to major cardiovascular diseases and stroke. Macrophages/foam cells are central components of atherosclerotic plaques, which populate the arterial wall in order to remove harmful modified low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles, resulting in the accumulation of lipids, mostly LDL-derived cholesterol ester, in cytosolic lipid droplets (LDs). At present, LDs are recognized as dynamic organelles that govern cellular metabolic processes. LDs consist of an inner core of neutral lipids surrounded by a monolayer of phospholipids and free cholesterol, and contain LD-associated proteins (LDAPs) that regulate LD functions. Foam cells are characterized by an aberrant accumulation of cytosolic LDs, and are considered a hallmark of atherosclerotic lesions through all stages of development. Previous studies have investigated the mechanisms underlying foam cell formation, aiming to discover therapeutic strategies that target foam cells and intervene against atherosclerosis. It is well established that LDAPs have a major role in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases caused by dysfunction of lipid metabolism, and several studies have linked LDAPs to the development of atherosclerosis. In this review, several foam cell-targeting pathways have been described, with an emphasis on the role of LDAPs in cholesterol mobilization from macrophages. In addition, the potential of LDAPs as therapeutic targets to prevent the progression and/or facilitate the regression of the disease has been discussed. PMID:27082419

  8. Antioxidant vitamins in atherosclerosis--animal experiments and clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Ozkanlar, Seckin; Akcay, Fatih

    2012-01-01

    Atherosclerotic heart diseases are universal problems in modern society. Oxidative damage to lipids is a primary cause of atherosclerosis. There are many choices for treatment, but no definite recommendations to prevent the occurrence of the disease. There is a relationship between atherosclerotic risk factors and increased vascular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Oxidized low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and ROS may directly cause endothelial dysfunction by reducing endothelial nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Vitamin E can to some degree prevent the consequences of oxidized LDL, and vitamin C provides NO synthase activity. Although prolonged use of vitamin A, C, and E supplementation in pharmaceutical forms has been proven to be effective in preventing atherosclerosis in animal experiments, this has not yet been demonstrated in clinical trials with human beings. It should be taken into account that the evidence has been gathered from young/adult experimental animals with early stages of arthrosclerosis and from in-vitro studies, while most of the clinical trials have involved older patients with late stages of the disease. Prolonged use of vitamins in the diet has not yet been recommended in human beings. There is some indication that a diet rich in antioxidant fruit and vegetables may be beneficial in the prevention of cardiovascular events. PMID:23214308

  9. BHUx: A Patent Polyherbal Formulation to Prevent Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Ayurvedic medicine is a time-tested system of medicine which has been in clinical use for centuries in India. Being a time-tested system, it has an edge over other existing systems of health management, especially for dealing with chronic disorders such as coronary artery disease, which is of a complex multi-etiological nature. Recently, we have shown that BHUx, a patented polyherbal formulation consisting of the aqueous fraction of five medicinal plants of the ayurvedic system, has significant anti-inflammatory properties through inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 and lipoxygenase-15. Here we have investigated its effect on diet-induced atherosclerosis in albino rabbits. BHUx was given orally for 3 months to rabbits pre-treated with an atherogenic diet for 3 months. After 6 months, the dorsal aorta was processed for histological studies for calcium and collagen content. The results demonstrated a remarkable reduction in intimal thickening in the treated animals. In addition, there was less calcification at the intima–medial interface and increased intensity of collagen cap on the surface along with an increase in survival, compared with the sham control. We suggest that BHUx is a potent, multi-factorial formulation against atherosclerosis. PMID:15937563

  10. Macrophage Heterogeneity and Plasticity: Impact of Macrophage Biomarkers on Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Joselyn; Salazar, Juan; Martínez, María Sofía; Palmar, Jim; Bautista, Jordan; Chávez-Castillo, Mervin; Gómez, Alexis; Bermúdez, Valmore

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a global epidemic, currently representing the worldwide leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Atherosclerosis is the fundamental pathophysiologic component of CVD, where the immune system plays an essential role. Monocytes and macrophages are key mediators in this aspect: due to their heterogeneity and plasticity, these cells may act as either pro- or anti-inflammatory mediators. Indeed, monocytes may develop heterogeneous functional phenotypes depending on the predominating pro- or anti-inflammatory microenvironment within the lesion, resulting in classic, intermediate, and non-classic monocytes, each with strikingly differing features. Similarly, macrophages may also adopt heterogeneous profiles being mainly M1 and M2, the former showing a proinflammatory profile while the latter demonstrates anti-inflammatory traits; they are further subdivided in several subtypes with more specialized functions. Furthermore, macrophages may display plasticity by dynamically shifting between phenotypes in response to specific signals. Each of these distinct cell profiles is associated with diverse biomarkers which may be exploited for therapeutic intervention, including IL-10, IL-13, PPAR-γ, LXR, NLRP3 inflammasomes, and microRNAs. Direct modulation of the molecular pathways concerning these potential macrophage-related targets represents a promising field for new therapeutic alternatives in atherosclerosis and CVD. PMID:26491604

  11. Conjugated linoleic acid modulation of risk factors associated with atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Yukiko K; Flintoff-Dye, Nichole; Omaye, Stanley T

    2008-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been the subject of extensive investigation regarding its possible benefits on a variety of human diseases. In some animal studies, CLA has been shown to have a beneficial effect on sclerotic lesions associated with atherosclerosis, be a possible anti-carcinogen, increase feed efficiency, and act as a lean body mass supplement. However, the results have been inconsistent, and the effects of CLA on atherogenesis appear to be dose-, isomer-, tissue-, and species-specific. Similarly, CLA trials in humans have resulted in conflicting findings. Both the human and animal study results may be attributed to contrasting doses of CLA, isomers, the coexistence of other dietary fatty acids, length of study, and inter-and/or intra-species diversities. Recent research advances have suggested the importance of CLA isomers in modulating gene expression involved in oxidative damage, fatty acid metabolism, immune/inflammatory responses, and ultimately atherosclerosis. Although the possible mechanisms of action of CLA have been suggested, they have yet to be determined. PMID:18718021

  12. Monitoring SERS-based contrast agents in atherosclerosis experimental models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machtoub, Lina H.

    2011-03-01

    There have been enormous progresses in developing a class of multimodal contrast agents, which combine MRI with optical imaging. Contrast agent targeting can provide enhanced diagnostic information, allowing differentiation between variable and stable atherosclerotic plaques. Recently an intensive efforts have been working on the development of contrast agents that can improve the ability to detect and characterize atherosclerosis in clinical and preclinical applications. Earlier studies on hyperlipidemic rabbits using in vivo MRI have shown accumulation of USPIOs in plaques with a high macrophage content that induces magnetic resonance (MR) signal changes correlated to the absolute iron content in the aortic arch. A potent new class of nanoparticles contrast agents have recently drawn much attention for its wide diverse diagnostic and potential therapeutic applications particularly in monitoring the inflammatory responses. In our previous studies we have investigated SPIO contrast agents uptakes in hepatic and spleen tissues taken from NZW rabbits. The scope of this work encompasses application of an emerging hybrid imaging modality, SERSbased nonlinear optical microscopy, in investigating atherosclerosis experimental models. In this work experiments are performed on contrast treated tissue sections taken from aortic arch of atherosclerotic animal model. Marked contrast enhancement has been observed in the treated aortic sections compared with the untreated control. The obtained images are compared with immunohistochemistry .The work presented can be promising for future studies on in vivo detection of macrophages in human plaques and early detection of atherosclerotic diseases.

  13. Association between atherosclerosis and osteoporosis, the role of vitamin D

    PubMed Central

    Stojanovic, Olivera Ilić; Lazovic, Milica; Lazovic, Marko; Vuceljic, Marina

    2011-01-01

    The latest data support the correlation of atherosclerosis and osteoporosis, indicating the parallel progression of two tissue destruction processes with increased fatal and non-fatal coronary events, as well as higher fracture risk. Vitamin D inadequacy associated with low bone mineral density increases fall and fracture risk, leads to secondary hyperparathyroidism, calcifies coronary arteries and significantly increases cardiovascular disease. Randomized clinical trial evidence related to extraskeletal vitamin D outcomes was limited and generally uninformative. A recent recommendation on vitamin D dietary requirements for bone health is 600 IU/d for ages 1-70 years and 800 IU/d for 71 years and older, corresponding to a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level of at least 20 ng/ml (50 nmol/l). Further large randomized controlled trials are needed to reassess laboratory ranges for 25-hydroxyvitamin D in both diseases, in order to avoid under- and over-treatment problems, and completely clarify the relationship between atherosclerosis and osteoporosis. PMID:22291755

  14. Aortic smooth muscle cell proteoglycan synthesis in relation to atherosclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, I.J.

    1989-01-01

    Proteoglycans (PG) are implicated in atherogenesis by their effects on tissue permeability and cell proliferation and their interaction with plasma low density lipoproteins. Using the pigeon model in which an atherosclerosis-susceptible (WC) and -resistant (SR) breed can be compared, PG synthesis by cultured aortic smooth muscle cells was examined by the use of ({sup 35}S)-sodium sulfate and ({sup 3}H)-serine or ({sup 3}H)-glucosamine as labeling precursors. In both SR and WC cells, the majority of newly synthesized PG were secreted into the media. Chondroitin sulfate (CS) PG and dermatan sulfate (DS) PG were the major PG produced. Total PG production was consistently lower in WC compared to SR cultures due in part to reduce PG synthesis but also to degradation of newly synthesized PG. Since increased DS-PG accompanines atherosclerosis progression, experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that macrophages modulate smooth muscle cell metabolism to cause increase DS-PG production. Cultured WC aortic smooth muscle cells were exposed to the media of cholesteryl ester-loaded pigeon peritoneal macrophages or a macrophage cell line P388D1 and the production of PG examined. Increasing concentration of conditioned media from both types of macrophages caused increased incorporation of {sup 35}S-sulfate into secreted PG, but no change in cell-associated PG. Lipopolysaccharide activation of P388D1 cells enhanced the effect.

  15. Xanthine oxidoreductase in atherosclerosis pathogenesis: not only oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Battelli, Maria Giulia; Polito, Letizia; Bolognesi, Andrea

    2014-12-01

    Endothelial xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) together with NAD(P)H oxidase and nitric oxide (NO) synthase plays a physiologic role in inflammatory signalling, the regulation of NO production and vascular function. The oxidative stress generated by these enzymes may induce endothelial dysfunction, leading to atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndrome. XOR activity creates both oxidant and anti-oxidant products that are implicated in the development of hypertension, smoking vascular injury, dyslipidemia and diabetes, which are the main risk factors of atherosclerosis. In particular, uric acid may have a protective as well as a detrimental role in vascular alterations, thus justifying the multi-directional effects of XOR inhibition. Moreover, XOR products are associated with cell differentiation, leading to adipogenesis and foam cell formation, as well as to the production of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 from arterial smooth muscle cells, after proliferation and migration. The role of XOR in adipogenesis is also connected with insulin resistance and obesity, two main features of type 2 diabetes. PMID:25463089

  16. Effects of niacin on atherosclerosis and vascular function

    PubMed Central

    Ruparelia, Neil; Digby, Janet E; Choudhury, Robin P

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of Review Niacin has been used for over fifty years in the management of atherosclerosis and is associated with improved patient outcomes. The routine use of niacin has been superseded in recent years with the advent of newer lipid-modulating interventions. Recently however, there has been a renewed interest in its use due to the appreciation of its many beneficial effects on atherosclerosis and endothelial function both ‘lipid-targeted’ and ‘pleiotropic’. This review will consider the effects of niacin in the setting of clinical trials and will critically evaluate proposed mechanisms of action. Recent Findings The identification of the GPR109A receptor has promoted a greater insight into niacin’s mechanism of action, with demonstrated beneficial effects on endothelial function and inflammation, in addition to its lipid modulation role. Summary Whether niacin itself is used routinely in the future will depend on the outcomes of two large outcome trials (AIM-HIGH and HPS2-THRIVE). In the future however, with even better understanding of niacin pharmacology, new drugs may be able to be engineered to capture aspects of niacin that capitalise on the benefits more specifically and also more selectively, to avoid troublesome side effects. PMID:21045681

  17. Molecular chaperones and heat shock proteins in atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qingbo; Metzler, Bernhard; Jahangiri, Marjan

    2012-01-01

    In response to stress stimuli, mammalian cells activate an ancient signaling pathway leading to the transient expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs). HSPs are a family of proteins serving as molecular chaperones that prevent the formation of nonspecific protein aggregates and assist proteins in the acquisition of their native structures. Physiologically, HSPs play a protective role in the homeostasis of the vessel wall but have an impact on immunoinflammatory processes in pathological conditions involved in the development of atherosclerosis. For instance, some members of HSPs have been shown to have immunoregulatory properties and modification of innate and adaptive response to HSPs, and can protect the vessel wall from the disease. On the other hand, a high degree of sequence homology between microbial and mammalian HSPs, due to evolutionary conservation, carries a risk of misdirected autoimmunity against HSPs expressed on the stressed cells of vascular endothelium. Furthermore, HSPs and anti-HSP antibodies have been shown to elicit production of proinflammatory cytokines. Potential therapeutic use of HSP in prevention of atherosclerosis involves achieving optimal balance between protective and immunogenic effects of HSPs and in the progress of research on vaccination. In this review, we update the progress of studies on HSPs and the integrity of the vessel wall, discuss the mechanism by which HSPs exert their role in the disease development, and highlight the potential clinic translation in the research field. PMID:22058161

  18. Accelerated atherosclerosis with apolipoprotein(a) and oxidized low-density lipoprotein deposition in acute rejection of transplanted kidney: analogous to atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Shimoyamada, Hiroaki; Fan, Jianglin; Watanabe, Teruo; Nagata, Michio

    2002-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory process affecting mainly elastic and muscular arteries. Although small arteries and arterioles are usually spared, atherosclerosis can occur in these small vasculatures for a very short period. Here we report a case of atherosclerosis-like lesions that occurred in a transplanted kidney showing acute accelerated rejection in a 43-year-old man. Histologically, biopsy specimens at 14 and 28 days and nephrectomy material at 52 days post-transplantation showed atherosclerosis-like lesions in various-sized arteries. The lesions were characterized by the intimal infiltration of inflammatory cells, including foamy macrophages and a variable number of T-lymphocytes, with smooth muscle cell proliferation. Immunohistochemistry disclosed that the foam cells expressing CD68 contained oxidized LDL. In addition, apolipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)), another major atherogenic lipoprotein, was found in the intimal smooth muscle layer, suggesting that Lp(a) induced smooth muscle cell proliferation in the rejected kidney as a mechanism of atherosclerosis. This case shows that immunoinflammatory reactions during a relatively short period can mimic the chronic atherosclerotic process even in small arteries and arterioles. Furthermore, the deposition of atherogenic lipoproteins, Lp(a) and oxidized LDL in lesions of rejected tissue present an analogy between vascular rejection in transplanted kidney and atherosclerosis. PMID:12464130

  19. Cholesterol suppresses cellular TGF-β responsiveness: implications in atherogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chun-Lin; Liu, I-Hua; Fliesler, Steven J.; Han, Xianlin; Huang, Shuan Shian; Huang, Jung San

    2007-01-01

    Summary Hypercholesterolemia is a major causative factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The molecular mechanisms by which cholesterol initiates and facilitates the process of atherosclerosis are not well understood. Here, we demonstrate that cholesterol treatment suppresses or attenuates TGF-β responsiveness in all cell types studied as determined by measuring TGF-β-induced Smad2 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation, TGF-β-induced PAI-1 expression, TGF-β-induced luciferase reporter gene expression and TGF-β-induced growth inhibition. Cholesterol, alone or complexed in lipoproteins (LDL, VLDL), suppresses TGF-β responsiveness by increasing lipid raft and/or caveolae accumulation of TGF-β receptors and facilitating rapid degradation of TGF-β and thus suppressing TGF-β-induced signaling. Conversely, cholesterol-lowering agents (fluvastatin and lovastatin) and cholesterol-depleting agents (β-cyclodextrin and nystatin) enhance TGF-β responsiveness by increasing non-lipid raft microdomain accumulation of TGF-β receptors and facilitating TGF-β-induced signaling. Furthermore, the effects of cholesterol on the cultured cells are also found in the aortic endothelium of ApoE-null mice fed a high-cholesterol diet. These results suggest that high cholesterol contributes to atherogenesis, at least in part, by suppressing TGF-β responsiveness in vascular cells. PMID:17878231

  20. Studies on the cellular basis of atherosclerosis: the effects of atherosclerosis risk factors on platelets and the vascular endothelium.

    PubMed

    Wall, R T; Rubenstein, M D; Cooper, S L

    1981-01-01

    Thrombosis is a well-recognized complication of atherosclerosis and may be a factor in initial lesion formation. Experimental endothelial cell injury results in activation of the coagulation mechanism and therefore may be a critical aspect of the pathogenesis of occlusive vascular disease. If this is so, then risk factors for atherosclerosis should affect the endothelium either by causing cell injury, inhibiting repair mechanisms, or altering its thromboresistant properties. To test this, we studied the effect of several risk factors on endothelial cell behavior in vitro. Since the smooth muscle cell is the major cellular component of human atherosclerotic plaque and since a primary smooth muscle cell lesion is suggested by the clonal nature of human plaque, we also studied the effect of risk factors on arterial smooth muscle behavior. We have found that homocysteine directly injures human endothelium, which may account for the premature arterial disease in homocystinuria. Serum from patients with familial hypercholesterolemia inhibits the critical function of endothelial cell migration, as well as arterial smooth muscle cell migration. Moderate hypoxia has no effect on endothelial cell or smooth muscle cell viability, proliferation, or migration. Platelet factors are shown to affect human smooth muscle cell proliferation and both endothelial cell and smooth muscle cell migration. Preliminary study of platelet activation in diabetes with retinopathy suggests a relation to glucose control, but might reflect underlying vessel disease rather than direct platelet effect. PMID:7297772

  1. Differentially expressed genes in aortic smooth muscle cells from atherosclerosis-susceptible and atherosclerosis-resistant pigeons.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J L; Taylor, R L; Smith, E C; Thomas, W K; Smith, S C

    2012-06-01

    Susceptibility to spontaneous atherosclerosis in the White Carneau (WC-As) pigeon shows autosomal recessive inheritance. Aortic smooth muscle cells (SMC) cultured from susceptible WC-As and resistant Show Racer (SR-Ar) pigeons exhibit developmental and degenerative features corresponding to the respective SMC at atherosclerosis-prone sites in vivo. We used representational difference analysis to identify differentially expressed genes between WC-As and SR-Ar aortic SMC. Total RNA was extracted from cultured primary SMC of each breed, converted to double-stranded cDNA, followed by direct comparison in reciprocal representational difference analysis experiments. Difference products were cloned, sequenced, and identified by BLAST against the chicken genome. Six putative biochemical pathways were distinctly different between breeds with genes involved in energy metabolism and contractility exhibiting the most striking disparity. Genes associated with glycolysis and a synthetic SMC phenotype were expressed in WC-As cells. In contrast, SR-Ar cells expressed genes indicative of oxidative phosphorylation and a contractile SMC phenotype. In WC-As cells, the alternatives of insufficient ATP production limiting contractile function or the lack of functional contractile elements downregulating ATP synthesis cannot be distinguished due to the compressed in vitro versus in vivo developmental time frame. However, the genetic potential for effectively coupling energy production to muscle contraction present in the resistant SR-Ar was lacking in the susceptible WC-As. PMID:22582288

  2. [CHRONIC FLUORIDE INTOXICATION AS A RISK FACTOR FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF ATHEROSCLEROSIS].

    PubMed

    Korotenko, O Yu; Panev, N I; Zakharenkov, V V; Filimonov, S N; Semenova, E A; Panev, R N

    2015-01-01

    In workers employed in the aluminum industry, the main harmful production factor is exposure to fluoride salts, which can cause chronic fluoride intoxication. For the assessment of the impact of chronic fluoride intoxication on the development of atherosclerosis, we conducted a comprehensive survey of 87 aluminum-metal makers with chronic fluoride intoxication and 43 aluminum-metal makers without occupational diseases, mean age--52.1 ± 0.4 years. There were considered the presence and severity of atherosclerosis of brachiocephalic arteries, and the arteries of the lower extremities in the studied group, there was evaluated the effect of other risk factors for atherosclerosis (smoking, presence of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia). With the use of Doppler ultrasound of the arteries it was revealed that in metallurgists with chronic fluoride intoxication atherosclerosis was detected in 73.6% versus 55.8% in persons of the comparison group. The performed analysis of the prevalence of main risk factors for atherosclerosis showed that in metal makers with chronic fluoride intoxication in combination with atherosclerosis hypertension is more common (in 54.7%) than in metallurgists with chronic fluoride intoxication without atherosclerosis--only 26.1%. According to the frequency of occurrence of smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertriglyceridemia, there were no significant differences between the metallurgists with chronic fluoride intoxication, with and without atherosclerosis, and the control group, the increase in LDL cholesterol occurs significantly more often in metal-makers with chronic fluoride intoxication in combination with atherosclerosis if compared to workers without occupational diseases. Thus, chronic fluoride intoxication acts as a risk factor in the development of atherosclerosis: atherosclerosis in metal-makers with chronic fluoride intoxication occurs more frequently than in workers who do not have professional pathology. Hypertension and elevated levels of LDL cholesterol were established to increase the relative risk of developing atherosclerosis in metallurgists with chronic fluoride intoxication. At that there are no significant differences in the prevalence of common risk factors for atherosclerosis (smoking, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia). PMID:26625626

  3. Piperlongumine inhibits atherosclerotic plaque formation and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation by suppressing PDGF receptor signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Son, Dong Ju; Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA ; Kim, Soo Yeon; Han, Seong Su; Kim, Chan Woo; Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA; Department of Bioinspired Science, Ehwa Womans University, Seoul ; Kumar, Sandeep; Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA ; Park, Byeoung Soo; Lee, Sung Eun; Yun, Yeo Pyo; Jo, Hanjoong; Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA; Department of Bioinspired Science, Ehwa Womans University, Seoul ; Park, Young Hyun

    2012-10-19

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anti-atherogenic effect of PL was examined using partial carotid ligation model in ApoE KO mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PL prevented atherosclerotic plaque development, VSMCs proliferation, and NF-{kappa}B activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Piperlongumine reduced vascular smooth muscle cell activation through PDGF-R{beta} and NF-{kappa}B-signaling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PL may serve as a new therapeutic molecule for atherosclerosis treatment. -- Abstract: Piperlongumine (piplartine, PL) is an alkaloid found in the long pepper (Piper longum L.) and has well-documented anti-platelet aggregation, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer properties; however, the role of PL in prevention of atherosclerosis is unknown. We evaluated the anti-atherosclerotic potential of PL in an in vivo murine model of accelerated atherosclerosis and defined its mechanism of action in aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in vitro. Local treatment with PL significantly reduced atherosclerotic plaque formation as well as proliferation and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) activation in an in vivo setting. PL treatment in VSMCs in vitro showed inhibition of migration and platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB)-induced proliferation to the in vivo findings. We further identified that PL inhibited PDGF-BB-induced PDGF receptor beta activation and suppressed downstream signaling molecules such as phospholipase C{gamma}1, extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 and Akt. Lastly, PL significantly attenuated activation of NF-{kappa}B-a downstream transcriptional regulator in PDGF receptor signaling, in response to PDGF-BB stimulation. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate a novel, therapeutic mechanism by which PL suppresses atherosclerosis plaque formation in vivo.

  4. Atherosclerosis in psoriatic disease: latest evidence and clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Eder, Lihi; Gladman, Dafna D.

    2015-01-01

    It is widely accepted that atherosclerosis is caused by chronic low-grade inflammation that results from an interaction between immune mechanisms and metabolic abnormalities within the vessel wall. Population-based studies have found an increased cardiovascular risk in patients with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis (PsA). This risk is higher in patients with severe disease phenotypes, such as those with severe psoriasis and with musculoskeletal inflammation. Higher levels of inflammatory biomarkers also predict the development of clinical cardiovascular events in these patients. The effect of medications used for PsA on cardiovascular risk is limited to observational studies. Antitumor necrosis factor agents and methotrexate have been associated with reduced cardiovascular risk. These data highlight the importance of screening for cardiovascular risk factors in these patients. PMID:26425147

  5. Extracellular matrix synthesis in vascular disease: hypertension, and atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Ponticos, Markella; Smith, Barbara D.

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) within the vascular network provides both a structural and regulatory role. The ECM is a dynamic composite of multiple proteins that form structures connecting cells within the network. Blood vessels are distended by blood pressure and, therefore, require ECM components with elasticity yet with enough tensile strength to resist rupture. The ECM is involved in conducting mechanical signals to cells. Most importantly, ECM regulates cellular function through chemical signaling by controlling activation and bioavailability of the growth factors. Cells respond to ECM by remodeling their microenvironment which becomes dysregulated in vascular diseases such hypertension, restenosis and atherosclerosis. This review examines the cellular and ECM components of vessels, with specific emphasis on the regulation of collagen type I and implications in vascular disease. PMID:24474961

  6. Are Genetic Tests for Atherosclerosis Ready for Routine Clinical Use?

    PubMed

    Paynter, Nina P; Ridker, Paul M; Chasman, Daniel I

    2016-02-19

    In this review, we lay out 3 areas currently being evaluated for incorporation of genetic information into clinical practice related to atherosclerosis. The first, familial hypercholesterolemia, is the clearest case for utility of genetic testing in diagnosis and potentially guiding treatment. Already in use for confirmatory testing of familial hypercholesterolemia and for cascade screening of relatives, genetic testing is likely to expand to help establish diagnoses and facilitate research related to most effective therapies, including new agents, such as PCSK9 inhibitors. The second area, adding genetic information to cardiovascular risk prediction for primary prevention, is not currently recommended. Although identification of additional variants may add substantially to prediction in the future, combining known variants has not yet demonstrated sufficient improvement in prediction for incorporation into commonly used risk scores. The third area, pharmacogenetics, has utility for some therapies today. Future utility for pharmacogenetics will wax or wane depending on the nature of available drugs and therapeutic strategies. PMID:26892961

  7. HDL functionality and crystal-based sterile inflammation in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Eren, Esin; Ellidag, Hamit Yasar; Aydin, Ozgur; Yilmaz, Necat

    2015-01-15

    Change is inevitable. In early evolution, due to the limited availability of resources, the sole purpose of living organisms was to survive long enough to transmit their genes to the next generation. During their short lifetime, organisms used pathogen-associated and damage-associated molecular pattern pathways as an inflammatory response against pathogens (exogenous factors) and tissue damage (endogenous factors), respectively. Despite advances in human lifespan, it appears that an increasing number of diseases such as atherosclerosis are associated with inflammation. Excessive glucose, lipid and protein intake leads to the formation of endogenous crystals, i.e., cholesterol, which can induce a sterile inflammatory immune response that manifests as a vicious cycle. In this review, we evaluate the possible relationship between crystal-based sterile inflammatory response and HDL functionality. PMID:25278350

  8. Solid Lipid Nanoparticles for Image-Guided Therapy of Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Oumzil, Khalid; Ramin, Michael A; Lorenzato, Cyril; Hémadou, Audrey; Laroche, Jeanny; Jacobin-Valat, Marie Josée; Mornet, Stephane; Roy, Claude-Eric; Kauss, Tina; Gaudin, Karen; Clofent-Sanchez, Gisèle; Barthélémy, Philippe

    2016-03-16

    Although the application of nanotechnologies to atherosclerosis remains a young field, novel strategies are needed to address this public health issue. In this context, the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approach has been gradually investigated in order to enable image-guided treatments. In this contribution, we report a new approach based on nucleoside-lipids allowing the synthesis of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) loaded with iron oxide particles and therapeutic agents. The insertion of nucleoside-lipids allows the formation of stable SLNs loaded with prostacycline (PGI2) able to inhibit platelet aggregation. The new SLNs feature better relaxivity properties in comparison to the clinically used contrast agent Feridex, indicating that SLNs are suitable for image-guided therapy. PMID:26751997

  9. Atherosclerosis - do we know enough already to prevent it?

    PubMed

    Aluganti Narasimhulu, Chandrakala; Fernandez-Ruiz, Irene; Selvarajan, Krithika; Jiang, Xeuting; Sengupta, Bhaswati; Riad, Aladdin; Parthasarathy, Sampath

    2016-04-01

    In this review, we have briefly summarized the characteristics of lipids and lipoproteins and the atherosclerotic process. The development of atherosclerosis is a continuous process that involves numerous cellular and acellular processes that influence the behavior of each other. These include oxidative stress, lipoprotein modifications, macrophage polarization, macrophage lipid accumulation, generation of pro- and anti-inflammatory components, calcification, cellular growth and proliferation, and plaque rupture. The precise role(s) of many of these are unknown. Understanding the events at each particular stage might shed more light onto the process as a whole and could potentially reveal targets for intervention. Therapeutic modalities that work at one stage may have little to no influence on other stages of the disease. PMID:26974701

  10. Emerging Roles of GPER in Diabetes and Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Matthias; Prossnitz, Eric R.

    2015-01-01

    G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) is a 7-transmembrane receptor implicated in rapid estrogen signaling. Originally cloned from vascular endothelial cells, GPER plays a central role in the regulation of vascular tone and cell growth, as well as lipid and glucose homeostasis. This review highlights our knowledge of the physiological and pathophysiological functions of GPER in the pancreas, peripheral and immune tissues, and the arterial vasculature. Recent findings of its roles in obesity, diabetes, and atherosclerosis, including the GPER-dependent regulation of lipid metabolism and inflammation, are presented. The therapeutic potential of targeting GPER-dependent pathways in chronic diseases such as coronary artery disease and diabetes and in the context of menopause is also discussed. PMID:25767029

  11. Cystatin C deficiency in human atherosclerosis and aortic aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Guo-Ping; Sukhova, Galina K.; Grubb, Anders; Ducharme, Anique; Rhode, Luis H.; Lee, Richard T.; Ridker, Paul M.; Libby, Peter; Chapman, Harold A.

    1999-01-01

    The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and abdominal aortic aneurysm involves breakdown of the elastic laminae. Elastolytic cysteine proteases, including cathepsins S and K, are overexpressed at sites of arterial elastin damage, but whether endogenous local inhibitors counterbalance these proteases is unknown. We show here that, whereas cystatin C is normally expressed in vascular wall smooth muscle cells (SMCs), this cysteine protease inhibitor is severely reduced in both atherosclerotic and aneurysmal aortic lesions. Furthermore, increased abdominal aortic diameter among 122 patients screened by ultrasonography correlated inversely with serum cystatin C levels. In vitro, cytokine-stimulated vascular SMCs secrete cathepsins, whose elastolytic activity could be blocked when cystatin C secretion was induced by treatment with TGF-β1. The findings highlight a potentially important role for imbalance between cysteine proteases and cystatin C in arterial wall remodeling and establish that cystatin C deficiency occurs in vascular disease. PMID:10545518

  12. Egg Consumption and Carotid Atherosclerosis in the Northern Manhattan Study

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Sharon; Gardener, Hannah; Tiozzo, Eduard; Kuen, Cheung Ying; Elkind, Mitchell SV; Sacco, Ralph L.; Rundek, Tatjana

    2014-01-01

    Background The evidence supporting recommendations to limit intake of cholesterol rich foods is inconclusive. We aimed to examine the association between egg consumption and carotid atherosclerosis phenotypes, and the association with clinical vascular events in a prospective, urban, multi-ethnic population. Methods and Results The Northern Manhattan Study is a population based cohort to determine stroke incidence, risk factors and prognosis. A sub-cohort of 1,429 NOMAS participants with both carotid ultrasounds and comprehensive dietary information was evaluated (mean±SD age of participants 65.80±8.80, 40% male, 18% white, 20% black, 60% Hispanic). The association between egg consumption and carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) was assessed with linear regression. Logistic and quantile regression was used to examine the association between egg consumption and carotid plaque presence, thickness, and area. The relation between egg consumption and clinical vascular events (N=2669) was examined with Cox models. The mean total cIMT was 0.91±0.08 mm and 58% had carotid plaque present. Increasing egg consumption was inversely associated with cIMT, plaque presence, thickness, and area, in models adjusted for demographics, vascular risk factors and diet. For every additional egg consumed per week, the risk of plaque decreased by 11% (95% CI 3%-18%). No association was detected between egg consumption and risk of clinical vascular outcomes, over a mean follow up of 11 years and after adjustment for covariates. Conclusions Frequency of egg consumption in the low to moderate range was inversely related to several markers of carotid atherosclerosis. No association with clinical vascular events, including stroke, was detected. Our findings do not support current vascular health guidelines suggesting the extreme limitation or avoidance of egg consumption due to its cholesterol content. PMID:24887016

  13. Biodegradable synthetic high-density lipoprotein nanoparticles for atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Marrache, Sean; Dhar, Shanta

    2013-06-01

    Atherosclerosis remains one of the most common causes of death in the United States and throughout the world because of the lack of early detection. Macrophage apoptosis is a major contributor to the instability of atherosclerotic lesions. Development of an apoptosis targeted high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-mimicking nanoparticle (NP) to carry contrast agents for early detection of vulnerable plaques and the initiation of preventative therapies that exploit the vascular protective effects of HDL can be attractive for atherosclerosis. Here, we report the construction of a synthetic, biodegradable HDL-NP platform for detection of vulnerable plaques by targeting the collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential that occurs during apoptosis. This HDL mimic contains a core of biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid), cholesteryl oleate, and a phospholipid bilayer coat that is decorated with triphenylphosphonium (TPP) cations for detection of mitochondrial membrane potential collapse. The lipid layer provides the surface for adsorption of apolipoprotein (apo) A-I mimetic 4F peptide, and the core contains diagnostically active quantum dots (QDs) for optical imaging. In vitro uptake, detection of apoptosis, and cholesterol binding studies indicated promising detection ability and therapeutic potential of TPP-HDL-apoA-I-QD NPs. In vitro studies indicated the potential of these NPs in reverse cholesterol transport. In vivo biodistribution and pharmacokinetics indicated favorable tissue distribution, controlled pharmacokinetic parameters, and significant triglyceride reduction for i.v.-injected TPP-HDL-apoA-I-QD NPs in rats. These HDL NPs demonstrate excellent biocompatibility, stability, nontoxic, and nonimmunogenic properties, which prove to be promising for future translation in early plaque diagnosis and might find applications to prevent vulnerable plaque progression. PMID:23671083

  14. Soluble TWEAK independently predicts atherosclerosis in renal transplant patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular risk is increased in the early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and also found to be ongoing in renal transplant (Rtx) patients. As a sign of atherosclerosis, increased carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) has been widely accepted as a strong predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality in CKD patients. A novel markers, soluble tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (sTWEAK) and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) were introduced as potential markers in inflammatory disorders including CKD. The role of Rtx in terms of atherogenesis is still unclear. We aimed to investigate the relationship between sTWEAK, NLR and CIMT in Rtx patients without overt CVD and to compare these results with those obtained from healthy subjects. Methods Cross-sectional analysis in which CIMT measurements, NLR and serum TWEAK levels were assessed in 70 Rtx patients (29 females; mean age, 40.6 ± 12.4 years) and 25 healthy subjects (13 females, mean age; 37.4±8.8 years). Results sTWEAK levels were significantly decreased (p=0.01) and hs-CRP, NLR and CIMT levels of Rtx patients were significantly increased compared to healthy subjects (p<0.0001, p=0.001, p<0.0001, respectively). sTWEAK was also found to be decreased when eGFR was decreased (p=0.04 between all groups). CIMT was positively correlated with sTWEAK and NLR in Rtx patients (r=0.81, p<0.0001 and r=0.33, p=0.006, respectively). sTWEAK was also positively correlated with NLR (r=0.37, p=0.002). In the multivariate analysis only sTWEAK was found to be an independent variable of increased CIMT. Conclusion sTWEAK might have a role in the pathogenesis of ongoing atherosclerosis in Rtx patients. PMID:23849432

  15. Chapter 2. Atherosclerosis of the aorta in five towns

    PubMed Central

    Vihert, A. M.

    1976-01-01

    Fatty streak was always present in both the thoracic aorta and the abdominal aorta in the youngest subjects studied (aged 10-14 years). Fibrous plaque was present in a small proportion of these young subjects, but a rapid increase in prevalence occurred as early as the fourth decade. Complicated and calcified lesions appeared as early as the age of 20-25 years but a rapid increase in prevalence was seen after age 40 for complicated lesions and after age 50 for calcified lesions. There were differences in the prevalence of severe lesions among the five towns. There was little increase in the extent of atherosclerosis in the thoracic aorta before the age of 40 and in the abdominal aorta before the age of 20. The increase was more rapid after those ages. When atherosclerosis had affected about 50% of the intimal surface of the thoracic aorta and 70% of the intimal surface of the abdominal aorta, the increase slowed down considerably. In contrast to other types of lesion, the extent of fatty streak increased only up to 30 years of age, when it occupied 25-30% of the intimal surface. Then it declined and in the older age groups did not exceed 4-5% in men or women. The extent of fibrous plaque and complicated lesions was at all ages greater in men than in women, while the extent of fatty streak and calcified lesions in older age groups was greater in women. There were marked differences in the extent of atherosclerotic lesions in the five towns. PMID:1087188

  16. Biodegradable synthetic high-density lipoprotein nanoparticles for atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Marrache, Sean; Dhar, Shanta

    2013-01-01

    Atherosclerosis remains one of the most common causes of death in the United States and throughout the world because of the lack of early detection. Macrophage apoptosis is a major contributor to the instability of atherosclerotic lesions. Development of an apoptosis targeted high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-mimicking nanoparticle (NP) to carry contrast agents for early detection of vulnerable plaques and the initiation of preventative therapies that exploit the vascular protective effects of HDL can be attractive for atherosclerosis. Here, we report the construction of a synthetic, biodegradable HDL-NP platform for detection of vulnerable plaques by targeting the collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential that occurs during apoptosis. This HDL mimic contains a core of biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid), cholesteryl oleate, and a phospholipid bilayer coat that is decorated with triphenylphosphonium (TPP) cations for detection of mitochondrial membrane potential collapse. The lipid layer provides the surface for adsorption of apolipoprotein (apo) A-I mimetic 4F peptide, and the core contains diagnostically active quantum dots (QDs) for optical imaging. In vitro uptake, detection of apoptosis, and cholesterol binding studies indicated promising detection ability and therapeutic potential of TPP-HDL-apoA-I-QD NPs. In vitro studies indicated the potential of these NPs in reverse cholesterol transport. In vivo biodistribution and pharmacokinetics indicated favorable tissue distribution, controlled pharmacokinetic parameters, and significant triglyceride reduction for i.v.-injected TPP-HDL-apoA-I-QD NPs in rats. These HDL NPs demonstrate excellent biocompatibility, stability, nontoxic, and nonimmunogenic properties, which prove to be promising for future translation in early plaque diagnosis and might find applications to prevent vulnerable plaque progression. PMID:23671083

  17. The assessment of cardiac autonomic functions in adolescents with a family history of premature atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Dursun, Huseyin; Kilicaslan, Baris; Aydin, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Subclinical atherosclerosis has been recently detected in adolescents with a family history of premature atherosclerosis. However, no studies in the literature have assessed the cardiac autonomic functions of these adolescents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cardiac autonomic functions of adolescents with a family history of premature atherosclerosis compared with those of age- and gender-matched adolescents without a family history of atherosclerosis. METHOD: We evaluated the cardiac autonomic functions of 36 adolescents with a family history of premature atherosclerosis (Group 1) and compared them with those of 31 age- and gender-matched adolescents whose parents did not have premature atherosclerosis (Group 2). Twenty-four-hour time domain (standard deviation of all normal sinus RR intervals [SDNN], standard deviation of the mean of normal RR intervals in each 5-minute segment [SDANN], root-mean-square differences in successive RR intervals) and frequency domain (very low frequency, low frequency, high frequency, low frequency/high frequency) parameters of heart rate variability were used for the evaluation of cardiac autonomic functions. RESULTS: There were no differences in the time and frequency domain parameters of heart rate variability between the two groups. Heart rate was negatively correlated with SDNN (r = -0.278, p = 0.035), while age was significantly correlated with root-mean-square differences in successive RR intervals, high frequency, low frequency and low frequency/high frequency (r = -0.264, -0.370, 0.265 and 0.374, respectively; p<0.05 for all). CONCLUSION: We found that the cardiac autonomic functions of adolescents with a family history of premature atherosclerosis were not different compared with those of adolescents without a positive family history of premature atherosclerosis. It appears that subclinical atherosclerosis does not reach a critical value such that it can alter cardiac autonomic functions in adolescence. PMID:25627994

  18. Soluble epoxide hydrolase is involved in the development of atherosclerosis and arterial neointima formation by regulating smooth muscle cell migration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qingjie; Huo, Leijun; He, Jinlong; Ding, Wenshuang; Su, Hang; Tian, Dongping; Welch, Carrie; Hammock, Bruce D; Ai, Ding; Zhu, Yi

    2015-12-01

    Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) have beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease. Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) metabolizes EETs to less active diols, thus diminishing their biological activity. sEH inhibitors can suppress the progression of atherosclerotic lesions in animal models. However, the regulation of sEH in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and role of sEH in patients with atherosclerosis have not been evaluated. We hypothesize that sEH in VSMCs plays a pivotal role in atherosclerosis and injury-induced neointima formation. In this study, sEH expression in human autopsy atherosclerotic plaque was determined by immunohistochemistry. In cultured rat and human VSMCs, the phenotypic switching marker and sEH expression induced by platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) were examined by Western blot analysis. Carotid-artery balloon injury was performed after adenovirus-mediated overexpression of sEH or oral administration of a potent sEH inhibitor in Sprague-Dawley rats. sEH was highly expressed in VSMCs of the intima and media within human atherosclerotic plaque. In vitro, PDGF-BB upregulated the expression in VSMCs after transcription and promoted cell proliferation and migration; the latter effect could be largely attenuated by an sEH inhibitor. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of sEH could mimic the effect of PDGF-BB and induce VSMC proliferation and migration. In vivo, the sEH inhibitor led to a significant decrease in injury-induced neointima formation in a rat carotid-artery injury model. These data establish the effect of sEH expression on atherosclerotic progression and vascular remodeling after injury, thus identifying a novel integrative role for sEH in VSMC phenotypic modulation and migration. Blocking sEH activity may be a potential therapeutic approach for ameliorating vascular occlusive disease. PMID:26453326

  19. A historical perspective towards a non-invasive treatment for patients with atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Slijkhuis, W.; Mali, W.; Appelman, Y.

    2009-01-01

    The history of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease dates back to ancient times. From the teachings of Galen to the response-to-injury hypothesis of Russel Ross, we have now arrived at the concept of the vulnerable plaque. Next to the development of new treatment options for patients with atherosclerosis, also novel diagnostic imaging techniques have been developed to visualise the arterial wall and to characterise plaque composition. In this article the historical context of atherosclerosis and the attempts towards a noninvasive therapy for patients with atherosclerotic diseases are described. (Neth Heart J 2009;17:140-4.19421359) PMID:19421359

  20. Significantly increased risk of carotid atherosclerosis with arsenic exposure and polymorphisms in arsenic metabolism genes

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, Yi-Chen; Lien, Li-Ming; School of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Neurology, Shin Kong WHS Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan ; Chung, Wen-Ting; Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan ; Hsieh, Fang-I; Hsieh, Pei-Fan; Wu, Meei-Maan; Graduate Institute of Basic Medicine, College of Medicine, Fu-Jen Catholic University, Taipei, Taiwan ; Tseng, Hung-Pin; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Chen, Chien-Jen

    2011-08-15

    Individual susceptibility to arsenic-induced carotid atherosclerosis might be associated with genetic variations in arsenic metabolism. The purpose of this study is to explore the interaction effect on risk of carotid atherosclerosis between arsenic exposure and risk genotypes of purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), arsenic (+3) methyltransferase (As3MT), and glutathione S-transferase omega 1 (GSTO1) and omega 2 (GSTO2). A community-based case-control study was conducted in northeastern Taiwan to investigate the arsenic metabolic-related genetic susceptibility to carotid atherosclerosis. In total, 863 subjects, who had been genotyped and for whom the severity of carotid atherosclerosis had been determined, were included in the present study. Individual well water was collected and arsenic concentration determined using hydride generation combined with flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The result showed that a significant dose-response trend (P=0.04) of carotid atherosclerosis risk associated with increasing arsenic concentration. Non-significant association between genetic polymorphisms of PNP Gly51Ser, Pro57Pro, As3MT Met287Thr, GSTO1 Ala140Asp, and GSTO2 A-183G and the risk for development of carotid atherosclerosis were observed. However, the significant interaction effect on carotid atherosclerosis risk was found for arsenic exposure (>50 {mu}g/l) and the haplotypes of PNP (p=0.0115). A marked elevated risk of carotid atherosclerosis was observed in subjects with arsenic exposure of >50 {mu}g/l in drinking water and those who carried the PNP A-T haplotype and at least either of the As3MT risk polymorphism or GSTO risk haplotypes (OR, 6.43; 95% CI, 1.79-23.19). In conclusion, arsenic metabolic genes, PNP, As3MT, and GSTO, may exacerbate the formation of atherosclerosis in individuals with high levels of arsenic concentration in well water (>50 {mu}g/l). - Highlights: {yields}Arsenic metabolic genes might be associated with carotid atherosclerosis. {yields} A case-control study was conducted to investigate the arsenic metabolic-related genetic susceptibility to carotid atherosclerosis. {yields} Arsenic metabolic genes, PNP, As3MT, and GSTO, may exacerbate atherosclerosis risk in individuals with high levels of arsenic in well water.

  1. MicroRNA-33-dependent regulation of macrophage metabolism directs immune cell polarization in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ouimet, Mireille; Ediriweera, Hasini N; Gundra, U Mahesh; Sheedy, Frederick J; Ramkhelawon, Bhama; Hutchison, Susan B; Rinehold, Kaitlyn; van Solingen, Coen; Fullerton, Morgan D; Cecchini, Katharine; Rayner, Katey J; Steinberg, Gregory R; Zamore, Phillip D; Fisher, Edward A; Loke, P'ng; Moore, Kathryn J

    2015-12-01

    Cellular metabolism is increasingly recognized as a controller of immune cell fate and function. MicroRNA-33 (miR-33) regulates cellular lipid metabolism and represses genes involved in cholesterol efflux, HDL biogenesis, and fatty acid oxidation. Here, we determined that miR-33-mediated disruption of the balance of aerobic glycolysis and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation instructs macrophage inflammatory polarization and shapes innate and adaptive immune responses. Macrophage-specific Mir33 deletion increased oxidative respiration, enhanced spare respiratory capacity, and induced an M2 macrophage polarization-associated gene profile. Furthermore, miR-33-mediated M2 polarization required miR-33 targeting of the energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), but not cholesterol efflux. Notably, miR-33 inhibition increased macrophage expression of the retinoic acid-producing enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase family 1, subfamily A2 (ALDH1A2) and retinal dehydrogenase activity both in vitro and in a mouse model. Consistent with the ability of retinoic acid to foster inducible Tregs, miR-33-depleted macrophages had an enhanced capacity to induce forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) expression in naive CD4(+) T cells. Finally, treatment of hypercholesterolemic mice with miR-33 inhibitors for 8 weeks resulted in accumulation of inflammation-suppressing M2 macrophages and FOXP3(+) Tregs in plaques and reduced atherosclerosis progression. Collectively, these results reveal that miR-33 regulates macrophage inflammation and demonstrate that miR-33 antagonism is atheroprotective, in part, by reducing plaque inflammation by promoting M2 macrophage polarization and Treg induction. PMID:26517695

  2. Explosion suppression system

    DOEpatents

    Sapko, Michael J.; Cortese, Robert A.

    1992-01-01

    An explosion suppression system and triggering apparatus therefor are provided for quenching gas and dust explosions. An electrically actuated suppression mechanism which dispenses an extinguishing agent into the path ahead of the propagating flame is actuated by a triggering device which is light powered. This triggering device is located upstream of the propagating flame and converts light from the flame to an electrical actuation signal. A pressure arming device electrically connects the triggering device to the suppression device only when the explosion is sensed by a further characteristic thereof beside the flame such as the pioneer pressure wave. The light powered triggering device includes a solar panel which is disposed in the path of the explosion and oriented between horizontally downward and vertical. Testing mechanisms are also preferably provided to test the operation of the solar panel and detonator as well as the pressure arming mechanism.

  3. Practice guidelines for electron beam tomography: a report of the Society of Atherosclerosis Imaging.

    PubMed

    Hecht, H S

    2000-09-15

    Practice guidelines for the use of electron beam tomography to detect and quantitate coronary atherosclerotic plaque burden have been formulated by the Society of Atherosclerosis Imaging using American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association classifications of indications. PMID:10980233

  4. Emerging engineered magnetic nanoparticulate probes for molecular MRI of atherosclerosis: how far have we come?

    PubMed

    Kanwar, Rupinder K; Chaudhary, Rajneesh; Tsuzuki, Takuya; Kanwar, Jagat R

    2012-06-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic, progressive, immunoinflammatory disease of the large and medium-sized arteries, and a major cause of cardiovascular diseases. Atherosclerosis often progresses silently for decades until the occurrence of a major catastrophic clinical event such as myocardial infarction, cardiac arrest and stroke. The main challenge in the diagnosis and management of atherosclerosis is to develop a safe, noninvasive technique that is accurate and reproducible, which can detect the biologically active high-risk vulnerable plaques (with ongoing active inflammation, angiogenesis and apoptosis) before the occurrence of an acute clinical event. This article reviews the events involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in light of recently advanced understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of the disease. Next, we elaborate on the interesting developments in molecular MRI, by describing the recently engineered magnetic nanoparticulate probes targeting clinically promising molecular and cellular players/processes, involved in early atherosclerotic lesion formation to plaque rupture and erosion. PMID:22715913

  5. [Protein Interaction Network Construction and Biological Pathway Analysis Related to Atherosclerosis].

    PubMed

    Li, Quhuan; Gu, Shanshan; Li, Na; Li, Zhenyang; Lai, Wenlong; Zeng, Yang

    2015-12-01

    Atherosclerosis is a complex disease characterized by lipid accumulation in the vascular wall and influenced by multiple genetic and environmental factors. To understand the mechanisms of molecular regulation related to atherosclerosis better, a protein interaction network was constructed in the present study. Genes were collected in nucleotide database and interactions were downloaded from Biomolecular Object Network Database (BOND). The interactional data were imported into the software Cytoscape to construct the interaction network, and then the degree characteristics of the network were analyzed for Hub proteins. Statistical significance pathways and diseases were figured out by inputting Hub proteins to KOBAS2. 0. The complete pathway network related to atherosclerosis was constructed. The results identified a series of key genes related to atherosclerosis, which would be the potential promising drug targets for effective prevention. PMID:27079097

  6. Understanding the Role of B cells in Atherosclerosis: Potential Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Morris-Rosenfeld, Samuel; Lipinski, Michael J.; McNamara, Coleen A.

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a progressive inflammatory disease of the medium to large arteries that is the largest contributor to cardiovascular disease (CVD). B cell subsets have been shown in animal models of atherosclerosis to have both atherogenic and atheroprotective properties. In this review we highlight the research that developed our understanding of the role of B cells in atherosclerosis both in humans and mice. From this we discuss the potential clinical impact B cells could have both as diagnostic biomarkers and as targets for immunotherapy. Finally, we recognize the inherent difficulty in translating findings from animal models into humans given the differences in both cardivascular disease and the immune system between mice and humans, making the case for greater efforts at addressing the role of B cells in humans atherosclerosis. PMID:24308836

  7. Chapter 14. Atherosclerosis of the aorta and coronary arteries in coronary heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Vihert, A. M.

    1976-01-01

    Aortic and coronary atherosclerosis and the prevalence of coronary stenosis and thrombosis were studied in subjects who had died of fresh or recurrent myocardial infarction or had suffered from myocardial infarction in the past. In general, severe atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries with stenosis and calcification was almost a prerequisite for the development of coronary heart disease. The frequency of coronary heart disease varied widely both in different countries and in different towns in the same country. Considerable variations were found among the various towns in the frequency of stenosis and thrombosis in those who had died of coronary heart disease. This finding indicates that although atherosclerosis is indeed a prerequisite for the development of myocardial infarction, other factors may play a significant role in its occurrence. The weight of the heart in persons (excluding hypertensives) with coronary stenosis or a first fresh myocardial infarction was considerably greater than that in the low atherosclerosis group. PMID:1087200

  8. Neutrophil extracellular traps license macrophages and Th17 cells for cytokine production in atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Warnatsch, Annika; Ioannou, Marianna; Wang, Qian; Papayannopoulos, Venizelos

    2016-01-01

    Secretion of the cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) by macrophages, a major driver of pathogenesis in atherosclerosis, requires two steps. First, priming signals promote transcription of immature IL-1β and then, endogenous “danger” signals activate innate immune signaling complexes called inflammasomes, to process IL-1β processing for secretion. While cholesterol crystals act as danger signals in atherosclerosis, what primes IL-1β transcription remains elusive. Using a murine model of atherosclerosis, we show that cholesterol crystals acted both as priming and danger signals for IL-1β production. Cholesterol crystals triggered neutrophils to release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). NETs primed macrophages for cytokine release, activating Th-17 cells that amplify immune cell recruitment in atherosclerotic plaques. Therefore, danger signals may drive sterile inflammation, such as that seen in atherosclerosis, through their interactions with neutrophils. PMID:26185250

  9. Genetic network identifies novel pathways contributing to atherosclerosis susceptibility in the innominate artery

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Atherosclerosis, the underlying cause of cardiovascular disease, results from both genetic and environmental factors. Methods In the current study we take a systems-based approach using weighted gene co-expression analysis to identify a candidate pathway of genes related to atherosclerosis. Bioinformatic analyses are performed to identify candidate genes and interactions and several novel genes are characterized using in-vitro studies. Results We identify 1 coexpression module associated with innominate artery atherosclerosis that is also enriched for inflammatory and macrophage gene signatures. Using a series of bioinformatics analysis, we further prioritize the genes in this pathway and identify Cd44 as a critical mediator of the atherosclerosis. We validate our predictions generated by the network analysis using Cd44 knockout mice. Conclusion These results indicate that alterations in Cd44 expression mediate inflammation through a complex transcriptional network involving a number of previously uncharacterized genes. PMID:25115202

  10. Promotion of atherosclerosis by Helicobacter cinaedi infection that involves macrophage-driven proinflammatory responses

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Shahzada; Rahman, H. N. Ashiqur; Okamoto, Tatsuya; Matsunaga, Tetsuro; Fujiwara, Yukio; Sawa, Tomohiro; Yoshitake, Jun; Ono, Katsuhiko; Ahmed, Khandaker Ahtesham; Rahaman, Md Mizanur; Oyama, Kohta; Takeya, Motohiro; Ida, Tomoaki; Kawamura, Yoshiaki; Fujii, Shigemoto; Akaike, Takaaki

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter cinaedi is the most common enterohepatic Helicobacter species that causes bacteremia in humans, but its pathogenicity is unclear. Here, we investigated the possible association of H. cinaedi with atherosclerosis in vivo and in vitro. We found that H. cinaedi infection significantly enhanced atherosclerosis in hyperlipidaemic mice. Aortic root lesions in infected mice showed increased accumulation of neutrophils and F4/80+ foam cells, which was due, at least partly, to bacteria-mediated increased expression of proinflammatory genes. Although infection was asymptomatic, detection of cytolethal distending toxin RNA of H. cinaedi indicated aorta infection. H. cinaedi infection altered expression of cholesterol receptors and transporters in cultured macrophages and caused foam cell formation. Also, infection induced differentiation of THP-1 monocytes. These data provide the first evidence of a pathogenic role of H. cinaedi in atherosclerosis in experimental models, thereby justifying additional investigations of the possible role of enterohepatic Helicobacter spp. in atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. PMID:24732347

  11. 2015 Russell Ross Memorial Lecture in Vascular Biology: Protective Autoimmunity in Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ley, Klaus

    2016-03-01

    Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease of the arterial wall. It is accompanied by an autoimmune response against apolipoprotein B-100, the core protein of low-density lipoprotein, which manifests as CD4 T cell and antibody responses. To assess the role of the autoimmune response in atherosclerosis, the nature of the CD4 T cell response against apolipoprotein B-100 was studied with and without vaccination with major histocompatibility complex-II-restricted apolipoprotein B-100 peptides. The immunologic basis of autoimmunity in atherosclerosis is discussed in the framework of theories of adaptive immunity. Older vaccination approaches are also discussed. Vaccinating Apoe(-/-) mice with major histocompatibility complex-II-restricted apolipoprotein B-100 peptides reduces atheroma burden in the aorta by ?40%. The protective mechanism likely includes secretion of interleukin-10. Protective autoimmunity limits atherosclerosis in mice and suggests potential for developing preventative and therapeutic vaccines for humans. PMID:26821946

  12. Oxidative stress in atherosclerosis: the role of microRNAs in arterial remodeling.

    PubMed

    Zampetaki, Anna; Dudek, Katarzyna; Mayr, Manuel

    2013-09-01

    Atherosclerosis is the underlying condition in most cardiovascular diseases. Among the highly specific cellular and molecular responses, endothelial dysfunction plays a key role in disease initiation and progression. These events coincide with the occurrence of oxidative stress. Increased reactive oxygen species production and oxidization of low-density lipoprotein are detected throughout atherosclerosis progression. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as important regulators of gene expression that posttranscriptionally modify cellular responses and function. Accumulating studies indicate an integrated miRNA network in the molecular mechanisms that control cellular homeostasis, vascular inflammation, and metabolism. Experimental models of atherosclerosis highlight a direct link between altered miRNA expression profiles and the pathophysiology of the disease and identify putative miRNA candidates for the development of novel therapeutic strategies. In this review, we provide an overview of the role of miRNA regulatory networks in oxidative stress in atherosclerosis and arterial remodeling and discuss their potential therapeutic implications. PMID:23797034

  13. Apple Polyphenols Decrease Atherosclerosis and Hepatic Steatosis in ApoE−/− Mice through the ROS/MAPK/NF-κB Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhe-Rong; Li, Jin-You; Dong, Xin-Wei; Tan, Zhong-Ju; Wu, Wei-Zhen; Xie, Qiang-Min; Yang, Yun-Mei

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effects of apple polyphenols (APs) on hyperlipidemia, atherosclerosis, hepatic steatosis and endothelial function and investigated the potential mechanisms. ApoE−/− mice were fed a western-type diet and orally treated with APs (100 mg/kg) or atorvastatin (10 mg/kg) for 12 weeks. Hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis in the aortic sinuses and, and hepatic lipidosis were measured. The treatment with APs or atorvastatin induced a remarkable reduction in the atherosclerotic lesions and hepatic steatosis and decreased the levels of low-density lipoprotein, triglyceride, CCL-2 and VCAM-1 levels in the plasma. Conversely, the APs significantly increased the plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and markedly up-regulated the glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels in liver tissues. Moreover, the APs treatment modulated lipid metabolism by up-regulating the transcription of associated hepatic genes including PPARα, while down-regulating the transcription of SCAP and its downstream genes associated with lipid synthesis in the liver. Histological assessment showed that the APs treatment also reduced the macrophage infiltration in the aortic root plaque and the inflammatory cells infiltrations to the liver tissues. Moreover, we confirmed that the APs treatment greatly reduced the ox-LDL-induced endothelial dysfunction and monocyte adhesion to rat aortic endothelial cells (RAECs). Mechanistically, the APs treatment suppressed the ROS/MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathway, and consequently, reduced CCL-2, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression. Our results suggest that the APs are a beneficial nutritional supplement for the attenuation of atherosclerosis. PMID:26305254

  14. New therapy via targeting androgen receptor in monocytes/macrophages to battle atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chiung-Kuei; Pang, Haiyan; Wang, Lin; Niu, Yuanjie; Luo, Jie; Chang, Eugene; Sparks, Janet D; Lee, Soo Ok; Chang, Chawnshang

    2014-06-01

    The male sex has a higher risk to develop coronary artery diseases, including atherosclerosis. The androgen receptor (AR) is expressed in several atherosclerosis-associated cell types, including monocytes/macrophages, endothelial cells (ECs), and smooth muscle cells (SMCs), but its pathophysiological role in each cell type during the development of atherosclerotic lesions remains unclear. Using the Cre-loxP system, we selectively knocked out AR in these 3 cell types and the resultant AR knockout (ARKO) mice, monocyte/macrophage ARKO, EC-ARKO, and SMC-ARKO, were then crossed with the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) deficient (LDLR(-/-)) mice to develop monocyte/macrophage ARKO-LDLR(-/-), EC-ARKO-LDLR(-/-), and SMC-ARKO-LDLR(-/-) mice for the study of atherosclerosis. The results showed that the monocyte/macrophage ARKO-LDLR(-/-) mice had reduced atherosclerosis compared with the wild-type-LDLR(-/-) control mice. However, no significant difference was detected in EC-ARKO-LDLR(-/-) and SMC-ARKO-LDLR(-/-) mice compared with wild-type-LDLR(-/-) mice, suggesting that the AR in monocytes/macrophages, and not in ECs and SMCs, plays a major role to promote atherosclerosis. Molecular mechanism dissection suggested that AR in monocytes/macrophages upregulated the tumor necrosis factor-α, integrin β2, and lectin-type oxidized LDL receptor 1 molecules that are involved in 3 major inflammation-related processes in atherosclerosis, including monocytes/macrophages migration and adhesion to human umbilical vein ECs, and subsequent foam cell formation. Targeting AR via the AR degradation enhancer, ASC-J9, in wild-type-LDLR(-/-) mice showed similar effects as seen in monocyte/macrophage ARKO-LDLR(-/-) mice with little influence on lipid profile. In conclusion, the AR in monocytes/macrophages plays key roles in atherosclerosis and targeting AR with ASC-J9 may represent a new potential therapeutic approach to battle atherosclerosis. PMID:24688120

  15. Visceral fat thickness is associated with carotid atherosclerosis in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi Jung; Shin, Dong Ho; Kim, Seung Jun; Oh, Hyung Jung; Yoo, Dong Eun; Kim, Jwa-Kyung; Park, Jung Tak; Han, Seung Hyeok; Kang, Shin-Wook; Choi, Kyu Hun; Yoo, Tae-Hyun

    2012-06-01

    Visceral fat has been known to associate with atherosclerosis, inflammation, and insulin resistance. However, the influence of visceral fat on cardiovascular disease (CVD) in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients has never been elucidated. We investigated whether visceral fat thickness (VFT) has a predictive role in carotid atherosclerosis determined by carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in PD patients. A cross-sectional study was undertaken in 88 prevalent PD patients. BMI and waist circumference (WC) were measured as anthropometric indexes of obesity. VFT and subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT) were determined by sonographic measurement of abdominal fat. Carotid atherosclerosis was defined as increased cIMT (>1.0 mm) or presence of plaque. Thirty-two (36.3%) patients had carotid atherosclerosis. Patients with carotid atherosclerosis showed significantly higher VFT, BMI, and WC. In univariate logistic analysis, BMI, WC, and VFT except SFT were significant risk factors of carotid atherosclerosis. However, multivariate analysis revealed VFT was an independent factor associated with carotid atherosclerosis after adjusting for demographic, biochemical parameters, and anthropometric indexes (per 1 mm increase, odds ratio (OR) = 2.294, 95% confidence interval: 1.048-5.021, P = 0.038). When the patients were divided into three groups according to VFT, log high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA(IR)) were both higher in the third tertile compared to other tertiles. In conclusion, VFT, not SFT, is independently associated with carotid atherosclerosis in PD patients. Therefore sonographic measurement of VFT could be useful to stratify the risk of cardiovascular disease in PD patients. PMID:21818151

  16. Relation between Birth Weight, Growth, and Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Valente, Maria Helena; Gomes, Filumena Maria da Silva; Benseñor, Isabela Judith Martins; Brentani, Alexandra Valéria Maria; Escobar, Ana Maria de Ulhôa; Grisi, Sandra J. F. E.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives. Adverse conditions in the prenatal environment and in the first years of life are independently associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease. This paper aims to study the relation between birthweight, growth in the first year of life, and subclinical atherosclerosis in adults. Methods. 88 adults aged between 20 and 31 were submitted to sociodemographic qualities, anthropometric data, blood pressure measurements, metabolic profile, and evaluation of subclinical atherosclerosis. Results. Birthweight <2,500 grams (g) was negatively correlated with (a) increased waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), according to regression coefficient (RC) equal to −0.323, 95% CI [−0.571, −0.075] P < 0.05; (b) diastolic blood pressure (RC = −4.744, 95% CI [−9.017, −0.470] P < 0.05); (c) low HDL-cholesterol (RC = −0.272, 95% CI [−0.516, −0.029] P < 0.05); (d) frequency of intima-media thickness (IMT) of left carotid >75th percentile (RC = −0.242, 95% CI [−0.476, −0.008] P < 0.05). Birthweight >3,500 g was associated with (a) BMI >25.0 kg/m2, (RC = 0.317, 95% CI [0.782, 0.557] P < 0.05); (b) increased waist circumference (RC = 0.284, 95% CI [0.054, 0.513] P < 0.05); (c) elevated WHR (RC = 0.280, 95% CI [0.054, 0.505] P < 0.05); (d) minimum subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) (RC = 4.354, 95% CI [0.821, 7.888] P < 0.05); (e) maximum SAT (RC = 7.095, 95% CI [0.608, 13.583] P < 0.05); (f) right lobe of the liver side (RC = 6.896, 95% CI [1.946, 11.847] P < 0.001); (g) frequency's right lobe of the liver >75th percentile (RC = 0.361, 95% CI [0.169, 0.552] P < 0.001). Weight gain in the first year of life was inversely correlated with (a) mean IMT of left carotid (RC = −0.046, 95% CI [−0.086, −0.006] P < 0.05; (b) frequency IMT of left carotid >75th percentile (RC = −0.253, 95% CI [−0.487, −0.018] P < 0.05); (c) mean IMT (RC = −0.038, 95% CI [0.073, −0.002] P < 0.05); (d) the frequency of the mean IMT >75th percentile (RC = −0.241, 95% CI [−0.442, −0.041] P < 0.05). Conclusions. Adults birthweight <2,500 g and >3,500 g and with insufficient weight gain in the first year of life have showed different metabolic phenotypes, but all of them were related to subclinical atherosclerosis. PMID:25648854

  17. Sensory suppression during feeding

    PubMed Central

    Foo, H.; Mason, Peggy

    2005-01-01

    Feeding is essential for survival, whereas withdrawal and escape reactions are fundamentally protective. These critical behaviors can compete for an animal's resources when an acutely painful stimulus affects the animal during feeding. One solution to the feeding-withdrawal conflict is to optimize feeding by suppressing pain. We examined whether rats continue to feed when challenged with a painful stimulus. During feeding, motor withdrawal responses to noxious paw heat either did not occur or were greatly delayed. To investigate the neural basis of sensory suppression accompanying feeding, we recorded from brainstem pain-modulatory neurons involved in the descending control of pain transmission. During feeding, pain-facilitatory ON cells were inhibited and pain-inhibitory OFF cells were excited. When a nonpainful somatosensory stimulus preactivated ON cells and preinhibited OFF cells, rats interrupted eating to react to painful stimuli. Inactivation of the brainstem region containing ON and OFF cells also blocked pain suppression during eating, demonstrating that brainstem pain-modulatory neurons suppress motor reactions to external stimulation during homeostatic behaviors. PMID:16275919

  18. Pdcd4 deficiency enhances macrophage lipoautophagy and attenuates foam cell formation and atherosclerosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, L; Jiang, Y; Song, X; Guo, C; Zhu, F; Wang, X; Wang, Q; Shi, Y; Wang, J; Gao, F; Zhao, W; Chen, Y H; Zhang, L

    2016-01-01

    Macrophage foam cells, a major component of the atherosclerotic lesion, have vital roles in the development of atherosclerosis. Lipoautophagy, a type of autophagy characterized by selective delivery of lipid droplet for lysosomal degradation, may impact atherosclerosis by regulating macrophage foam cell formation. Previously, we reported that programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4), a tumor suppressor, negatively regulated autophagy in tumor cells. However, its roles in macrophage lipoautophagy, foam cell formation and atherosclerosis remain to be established. Here we found that Pdcd4 deficiency clearly improved oxidized low-density lipoproteins-impaired autophagy efflux, promoted autophagy-mediated lipid breakdown in murine macrophages and thus prevented macrophage conversion into foam cells. Importantly, Pdcd4 deficiency in mice significantly upregulated macrophage autophagy in local plaques along with attenuated lipid accumulation and atherosclerotic lesions in high-fat-fed Apolipoprotein E knockout mice. Bone marrow transplantation experiment demonstrated that PDCD4-mediated autophagy in hematopoietic cells contributed to the development of atherosclerosis. These results indicate that endogenous PDCD4 promotes for macrophage foam cell formation and atherosclerosis development via inhibiting autophagy and provides new insights into atherogenesis, suggesting that promoting macrophage autophagy through downregulating PDCD4 expression may be beneficial for treating atherosclerosis. PMID:26775706

  19. The role of endothelial mechanosensitive genes in atherosclerosis and omics approaches.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Rachel D; Kumar, Sandeep; Jo, Hanjoong

    2016-02-01

    Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the U.S., and is a multifactorial disease that preferentially occurs in regions of the arterial tree exposed to disturbed blood flow. The detailed mechanisms by which d-flow induces atherosclerosis involve changes in the expression of genes, epigenetic patterns, and metabolites of multiple vascular cells, especially endothelial cells. This review presents an overview of endothelial mechanobiology and its relation to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis with special reference to the anatomy of the artery and the underlying fluid mechanics, followed by a discussion of a variety of experimental models to study the role of fluid mechanics and atherosclerosis. Various in vitro and in vivo models to study the role of flow in endothelial biology and pathobiology are discussed in this review. Furthermore, strategies used for the global profiling of the genome, transcriptome, miR-nome, DNA methylome, and metabolome, as they are important to define the biological and pathophysiological mechanisms of atherosclerosis. These "omics" approaches, especially those which derive data based on a single animal model, provide unprecedented opportunities to not only better understand the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis development in a holistic and integrative manner, but also to identify novel molecular and diagnostic targets. PMID:26686737

  20. Mutation in KERA Identified by Linkage Analysis and Targeted Resequencing in a Pedigree with Premature Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    van Capelleveen, Julian C.; Bot, Ilze; de Jager, Saskia C.; van Eck, Miranda; Jolley, Jennifer; Kuiper, Johan; Stephens, Jonathon; Albers, Cornelius A.; Vosmeer, C. Ruben; Kruize, Heleen; Geerke, Daan P.; van der Wal, Allard C.; van der Loos, Chris M.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Trip, Mieke D.

    2014-01-01

    Aims Genetic factors explain a proportion of the inter-individual variation in the risk for atherosclerotic events, but the genetic basis of atherosclerosis and atherothrombosis in families with Mendelian forms of premature atherosclerosis is incompletely understood. We set out to unravel the molecular pathology in a large kindred with an autosomal dominant inherited form of premature atherosclerosis. Methods and Results Parametric linkage analysis was performed in a pedigree comprising 4 generations, of which a total of 11 members suffered from premature vascular events. A parametric LOD-score of 3.31 was observed for a 4.4 Mb interval on chromosome 12. Upon sequencing, a non-synonymous variant in KERA (c.920C>G; p.Ser307Cys) was identified. The variant was absent from nearly 28,000 individuals, including 2,571 patients with premature atherosclerosis. KERA, a proteoglycan protein, was expressed in lipid-rich areas of human atherosclerotic lesions, but not in healthy arterial specimens. Moreover, KERA expression in plaques was significantly associated with plaque size in a carotid-collar Apoe−/− mice (r2 = 0.69; p<0.0001). Conclusion A rare variant in KERA was identified in a large kindred with premature atherosclerosis. The identification of KERA in atherosclerotic plaque specimen in humans and mice lends support to its potential role in atherosclerosis. PMID:24879339

  1. Pdcd4 deficiency enhances macrophage lipoautophagy and attenuates foam cell formation and atherosclerosis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, L; Jiang, Y; Song, X; Guo, C; Zhu, F; Wang, X; Wang, Q; Shi, Y; Wang, J; Gao, F; Zhao, W; Chen, Y H; Zhang, L

    2016-01-01

    Macrophage foam cells, a major component of the atherosclerotic lesion, have vital roles in the development of atherosclerosis. Lipoautophagy, a type of autophagy characterized by selective delivery of lipid droplet for lysosomal degradation, may impact atherosclerosis by regulating macrophage foam cell formation. Previously, we reported that programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4), a tumor suppressor, negatively regulated autophagy in tumor cells. However, its roles in macrophage lipoautophagy, foam cell formation and atherosclerosis remain to be established. Here we found that Pdcd4 deficiency clearly improved oxidized low-density lipoproteins-impaired autophagy efflux, promoted autophagy-mediated lipid breakdown in murine macrophages and thus prevented macrophage conversion into foam cells. Importantly, Pdcd4 deficiency in mice significantly upregulated macrophage autophagy in local plaques along with attenuated lipid accumulation and atherosclerotic lesions in high-fat-fed Apolipoprotein E knockout mice. Bone marrow transplantation experiment demonstrated that PDCD4-mediated autophagy in hematopoietic cells contributed to the development of atherosclerosis. These results indicate that endogenous PDCD4 promotes for macrophage foam cell formation and atherosclerosis development via inhibiting autophagy and provides new insights into atherogenesis, suggesting that promoting macrophage autophagy through downregulating PDCD4 expression may be beneficial for treating atherosclerosis. PMID:26775706

  2. Asymptomatic Atherosclerosis in Egyptian Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients and Its Relation to Disease Activity

    PubMed Central

    Elshereef, Rawhya R.; Darwish, Aymen; Ali, Amal; Abdel-kadar, Mohammed; Hamdy, Lamiaa

    2015-01-01

    Aim. To detect the frequency of subclinical atherosclerosis in rheumatoid arthritis patients without clinically evident atherosclerosis and to correlate its presence with the disease activity. Patients and Methods. Our study includes 112 RA patients (group 1) and 40 healthy controls (group 11). All patients and controls were subjected to full history taking, clinical examination, and laboratory investigations. Carotid intima media wall thickness (IMT) and carotid plaques were measured in both groups by B-mode ultrasonography; also color duplex Doppler ultrasound of the brachial artery was done to detect endothelial function. Results. There is atherosclerosis in 31.3% of asymptomatic RA patients compared with only 5% in controls (P = 0.003**). A significant difference was detected in patients with and without atherosclerosis regarding duration of the disease (P = 0.0001***) and patient's age (P = 0.01*). There is highly statistical significant correlation between atherosclerosis and disease activity index. Conclusion. The frequency of subclinical atherosclerosis was high in long-term active RA patients. PMID:25737726

  3. Computer densitometry for angiographic assessment of arterial cholesterol content and gross pathology in human atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Crawford, D W; Brooks, S H; Selzer, R H; Barndt, R; Beckenbach, E S; Blankenhorn, D H

    1977-02-01

    Sequential change studies in human atherosclerosis are desirable in disease regression trials but are now limited by dependence on the occurrence of epidemiologic end-points. Prior radiographic studies have pertained to advanced obstructive atherosclerosis. This is a study of measures applied by computer-generated densitometry of angiograms to assess early to advanced nonobstructive atherosclerosis. Measures are based on pathologic and angiographic appearance of all stages of atherosclerosis and include image edge roughness, local width, and local contrast density changes. Femoral angiograms were made in 21 cadavers under simulated clinical conditions, with a pressurized radiopaque casting material. Full-size color photographs were made of 10 cm. segments of opened artery, with matching cast and arterial specimens analyzed for cholesterol content. Four graders, on two occasions, sequenced the photographs in increasing order of disease on the basis of the International Atherosclerosis Grading scheme. The correlation between the two sessions was 0.93. Thirteen computer indices correlated significantly with visual grade and cholesterol and were allowed to compete in a step-wise regression for best indices of prediction. Computer index correlation coefficient for visual grade prediction was 0.86, and for cholesterol content, 0.84. Computer densitometry measurement appears useful in the evaluation of all stages of atherosclerosis as recorded angiographically and obviates the necessity for exacting visual comparisons of large numbers of films. PMID:833474

  4. Allergic lung inflammation promotes atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cong-Lin; Wang, Yi; Liao, Mengyang; Santos, Marcela M; Fernandes, Cleverson; Sukhova, Galina K; Zhang, Jin-Ying; Cheng, Xiang; Yang, Chongzhe; Huang, Xiaozhu; Levy, Bruce; Libby, Peter; Wu, Gongxiong; Shi, Guo-Ping

    2016-05-01

    Inflammation drives asthma and atherosclerosis. Clinical studies suggest that asthmatic patients have a high risk of atherosclerosis. Yet this hypothesis remains uncertain, given that Th2 imbalance causes asthma whereas Th1 immunity promotes atherosclerosis. In this study, chronic allergic lung inflammation (ALI) was induced in mice by ovalbumin sensitization and challenge. Acute ALI was induced in mice by ovalbumin and aluminum sensitization and ovalbumin challenge. Atherosclerosis was produced in apolipoprotein E-deficient (Apoe(-/-)) mice with a Western diet. When chronic ALI and atherosclerosis were produced simultaneously, ALI increased atherosclerotic lesion size, lesion inflammatory cell content, elastin fragmentation, smooth muscle cell (SMC) loss, lesion cell proliferation, and apoptosis. Production of acute ALI before atherogenesis did not affect lesion size, but increased atherosclerotic lesion CD4(+) T cells, lesion SMC loss, angiogenesis, and apoptosis. Production of acute ALI after atherogenesis also did not change atherosclerotic lesion area, but increased lesion elastin fragmentation, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. In mice with chronic ALI and diet-induced atherosclerosis, daily inhalation of a mast cell inhibitor or corticosteroid significantly reduced atherosclerotic lesion T-cell and mast cell contents, SMC loss, angiogenesis, and cell proliferation and apoptosis, although these drugs did not affect lesion area, compared with those that received vehicle treatment. In conclusion, both chronic and acute ALI promote atherogenesis or aortic lesion pathology, regardless whether ALI occurred before, after, or at the same time as atherogenesis. Antiasthmatic medication can efficiently mitigate atherosclerotic lesion pathology. PMID:26898714

  5. 3-(4'-hydroxyl-3',5'-dimethoxyphenyl)propionic acid, an active principle of kimchi, inhibits development of atherosclerosis in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Ju; Lee, Jin Su; Chung, Hae Young; Song, Su Hee; Suh, Hongsuk; Noh, Jung Sook; Song, Yeong Ok

    2007-12-12

    The effects of 3-(4'-hydroxyl-3',5'-dimethoxyphenyl)propionic acid (HDMPPA) originating from Korean cabbage kimchi were investigated, showing an antioxidant effect on the prevention of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Twenty-one 3-month-old rabbits were fed an atherogenic diet containing 0.5% (w/w) cholesterol and 10% (w/w) coconut oil, whereas another two groups were given an atherogenic diet with intravenous injection of either HDMPPA or simvastatin (0.33 mg/kg/day) for 4 weeks. HDMPPA inhibited the oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (IC 50 = 1.4 microg/mL) and increased 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity (IC 50 = 0.78 microg/mL) in a dose-dependent manner. In hypercholesterolemic rabbits, the thickness of intima of aorta of the HDMPPA group was significantly reduced (control versus HDMPPA, 42%; simvastatin, 38%) without a plasma cholesterol-lowering effect. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance formation in the plasma of the HDMPPA group was significantly decreased compared to that of the control group. Furthermore, the generation of vascular reactive oxygen species in HDMPPA group was suppressed as the cyclooxygenase-2 protein level decreased. These findings suggest that HDMPPA prevents the development of aortic atherosclerosis in high-cholesterol-fed rabbits. The antiatherosclerotic effect of HDMPPA may be due to an antioxidative effect at a low dose without cholesterol-lowering effects. PMID:18004805

  6. Paradoxical roles of perivascular adipose tissue in atherosclerosis and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Chang, Lin; Milton, Hamblin; Eitzman, Daniel T; Chen, Y Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) is the fat tissue surrounding most of the vasculature and it has long been considered solely as vessel-supporting connective tissue. There are 2 major types of adipose tissue widely distributed throughout the body: white (WAT) and brown (BAT). PVAT is similar to BAT in rodents, but it was believed that only WAT existed in adult humans and BAT was present only in infants. However, the presence of functional BAT in adult humans is now accepted. The main function of BAT is to generate heat, and it is essential for adaptive thermogenesis and energy expenditure, whereas the main function of WAT is to store lipids. Besides the different functions of WAT and BAT, growing evidence suggests that different depots of adipose tissue have different functions. Similar to other fat depots, PVAT produces various adipokines, growth factors and inhibitors that affect functions of adjacent layers of the vasculature. Pathophysiological conditions such as obesity, vascular injury, aging and infection could cause PVAT dysfunction, leading to vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cell dysfunctions. In this review, we discuss the function and dysfunction of PVAT on atherosclerosis and hypertension. PMID:23207957

  7. Risk factors for subclinical carotid atherosclerosis among current smokers.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Heather M; Piper, Megan E; Jorenby, Douglas E; Fiore, Michael C; Baker, Timothy B; Stein, James H

    2010-01-01

    This study characterized the determinants of carotid atherosclerosis in a large contemporary sample of current smokers. Associations between risk factors, carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), and carotid plaque presence were determined by multivariable regression. Participants included 1504 current smokers (58% female) who were a median (interquartile range) of 44.7 (38-53) years old and smoked 25 (15-40) pack-years; 55% had plaque. Pack-years, age, male sex, nonwhite race, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, small low-density lipoproteins (LDLs), and total high-density lipoproteins were independently associated with CIMT (model R(2) =0.434, P<.001). Pack-years (odds ratio [OR], 1.14 per 10 pack-years; P=.001), age (OR, 1.75 per 10 years; P<.001), body mass index (OR, 0.91 per 5 kg/m(2) ; P=.035), and small LDLs (OR, 1.11 per 100 nmol/L; P<.001) were independently associated with carotid plaque presence (model χ(2) =210.7, P<.001). The association between pack-years and carotid plaque was stronger in women (OR, 1.09 per 10 pack-years, P(interaction) =.018). PMID:20860639

  8. Biomechanical factors in atherosclerosis: mechanisms and clinical implications†

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Brenda R.; Bäck, Magnus; Bochaton-Piallat, Marie-Luce; Caligiuri, Giuseppina; Daemen, Mat J.A.P.; Davies, Peter F.; Hoefer, Imo E.; Holvoet, Paul; Jo, Hanjoong; Krams, Rob; Lehoux, Stephanie; Monaco, Claudia; Steffens, Sabine; Virmani, Renu; Weber, Christian; Wentzel, Jolanda J.; Evans, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    Blood vessels are exposed to multiple mechanical forces that are exerted on the vessel wall (radial, circumferential and longitudinal forces) or on the endothelial surface (shear stress). The stresses and strains experienced by arteries influence the initiation of atherosclerotic lesions, which develop at regions of arteries that are exposed to complex blood flow. In addition, plaque progression and eventually plaque rupture is influenced by a complex interaction between biological and mechanical factors—mechanical forces regulate the cellular and molecular composition of plaques and, conversely, the composition of plaques determines their ability to withstand mechanical load. A deeper understanding of these interactions is essential for designing new therapeutic strategies to prevent lesion development and promote plaque stabilization. Moreover, integrating clinical imaging techniques with finite element modelling techniques allows for detailed examination of local morphological and biomechanical characteristics of atherosclerotic lesions that may be of help in prediction of future events. In this ESC Position Paper on biomechanical factors in atherosclerosis, we summarize the current ‘state of the art’ on the interface between mechanical forces and atherosclerotic plaque biology and identify potential clinical applications and key questions for future research. PMID:25230814

  9. ABCG5/ABCG8 in cholesterol excretion and atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-Hua; Qian, Kun; Jiang, Na; Zheng, Xi-Long; Cayabyab, Francisco S; Tang, Chao-Ke

    2014-01-20

    Cholesterol is essential for the growth and function of all mammalian cells, but abnormally increased blood cholesterol is a major risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters G5 (ABCG5) and G8 (ABCG8) form an obligate heterodimer that limits intestinal absorption and facilitates biliary secretion of cholesterol and phytosterols. Consistent with their function, ABCG5 and ABCG8 are located on the apical membrane of enterocytes and hepatocytes. Liver X receptor is the major positive regulator of ABCG5 and ABCG8 expression. Mutations in either of the two genes cause sitosterolemia, a condition in which cholesterol and plant sterols accumulate in the circulation leading to premature cardiovascular disease. Overexpression of ABCG5 and ABCG8 in mice retards diet-induced atherosclerosis because of reduced circulating and hepatic cholesterol. In the current review, we summarize recent developments and propose a future framework that provides new perspectives on the regulation of cholesterol metabolism and treatment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. PMID:24252657

  10. Vascular health late after Kawasaki disease: implications for accelerated atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD), an acute vasculitis that primarily affects young children, is the most common acquired paediatric cardiovascular disease in developed countries. While sequelae of arterial inflammation in the acute phase of KD are well documented, its late effects on vascular health are increasingly unveiled. Late vascular dysfunction is characterized by structural alterations and functional impairment in term of arterial stiffening and endothelial dysfunction and shown to involve both coronary and systemic arteries. Further evidence suggests that continuous low grade inflammation and ongoing active remodeling of coronary arterial lesions occur late after acute illness and may play a role in structural and functional alterations of the arteries. Potential importance of genetic modulation on vascular health late after KD is implicated by associations between mannose binding lectin and inflammatory gene polymorphisms with severity of peripheral arterial stiffening and carotid intima-media thickening. The changes in cholesterol and lipoproteins levels late after KD further appear similar to those proposed to be atherogenic. While data on adverse vascular health are less controversial in patients with persistent or regressed coronary arterial aneurysms, data appear conflicting in individuals with no coronary arterial involvements or only transient coronary ectasia. Notwithstanding, concerns have been raised with regard to predisposition of KD in childhood to accelerated atherosclerosis in adulthood. Until further evidence-based data are available, however, it remains important to assess and monitor cardiovascular risk factors and to promote cardiovascular health in children with a history of KD in the long term. PMID:25550701

  11. The simulation of magnetic resonance elastography through atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Thomas-Seale, L E J; Hollis, L; Klatt, D; Sack, I; Roberts, N; Pankaj, P; Hoskins, P R

    2016-06-14

    The clinical diagnosis of atherosclerosis via the measurement of stenosis size is widely acknowledged as an imperfect criterion. The vulnerability of an atherosclerotic plaque to rupture is associated with its mechanical properties. The potential to image these mechanical properties using magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) was investigated through synthetic datasets. An image of the steady state wave propagation, equivalent to the first harmonic, can be extracted directly from finite element analysis. Inversion of this displacement data yields a map of the shear modulus, known as an elastogram. The variation of plaque composition, stenosis size, Gaussian noise, filter thresholds and excitation frequency were explored. A decreasing mean shear modulus with an increasing lipid composition was identified through all stenosis sizes. However the inversion algorithm showed sensitivity to parameter variation leading to artefacts which disrupted both the elastograms and quantitative trends. As noise was increased up to a realistic level, the contrast was maintained between the fully fibrous and lipid plaques but lost between the interim compositions. Although incorporating a Butterworth filter improved the performance of the algorithm, restrictive filter thresholds resulted in a reduction of the sensitivity of the algorithm to composition and noise variation. Increasing the excitation frequency improved the techniques ability to image the magnitude of the shear modulus and identify a contrast between compositions. In conclusion, whilst the technique has the potential to image the shear modulus of atherosclerotic plaques, future research will require the integration of a heterogeneous inversion algorithm. PMID:27130475

  12. Pentoxifylline Decreases Serum Level of Adhesion Molecules in Atherosclerosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadpour, Amir Hooshang; Falsoleiman, Homa; Shamsara, Jamal; Abadi, Ghazaleh Allah; Rasooli, Ramin; Ramezani, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Inflammation is involved in development, progression, and complications of atherosclerotic disease. Clinical studies have indicated that the level of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), IL-18, and adhesion molecules correlates with the severity of atherosclerosis and can predict future cardiovascular events. Experimental studies have shown pentoxifylline (PTX) reduces these factors in animal models. The purpose of the present pilot study was to evaluate effect of PTX on a group of inflammatory biomarkers in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods: Forty patients with angiographically documented CAD, who fulfilled inclusion and exclusion criteria, were entered in the double-blind, randomized, pilot clinical study. The patients were randomly given PTX (400 mg three times daily) or placebo (3 tab/day) for 2 months. Serum concentrations of MCP-1, IL-18, intercellular adhesion Molecule 1 (ICAM-1), and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1(VCAM-1) were measured before and at the end of intervention by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay. Results: Our study showed that the serum levels of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 was decreased in the study population after two-month treatment (P<0.05). Conclusion: Based on the results of our pilot study, administration of PTX in CAD patients significantly decreases adhesion molecules levels. PMID:24375159

  13. Atherosclerosis as a disease of failed endogenous repair

    PubMed Central

    Zenovich, Andrey G.; Taylor, Doris A.

    2009-01-01

    As coronary artery disease (CAD) continues to be the primary cause of mortality, a more in-depth understanding of pathophysiology and novel treatments are being sought. The past two decades have established inflammation as a driving force behind CAD – from endothelial dysfunction to heart failure. Recent advances in stem/progenitor cell biology have led to initial applications of progenitor cells in CAD continuum and have revealed that atherosclerosis is, at least in part, a disease of failed endogenous vascular repair. Several key progenitor cell populations including endothelial progenitor cells (AC133+/CD34+ population), vascular progenitors (CD31+/CD45low population), KDR+ cells and other bone marrow subtypes are mobilized for vascular repair. However, age and risk factors negatively impact these cells even prior to clinical CAD. Sex-based differences in progenitor cell capacity for repair have emerged as a new research focus that may offer mechanistic insights into clinical CAD discrepancies between men and women. Quantifying injury and cell-based repair and better defining their interactions should enable us to halt or even prevent CAD by enhancing the repair side of the repair/injury equation. PMID:18508460

  14. Haemostatic factors, atherosclerosis and risk of abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Lee, A J; Fowkes, F G; Lowe, G D; Rumley, A

    1996-10-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms have traditionally been thought to be a consequence of severe atherosclerosis of the arterial wall. To date, the role of haemostatic factors in aneurysmal disease has not been extensively researched. The aim of this study was to see if such factors were independently related to the occurrence of aortic aneurysm. Furthermore, were the associations maintained after taking into account the presence of underlying atherosclerotic disease? Using data from the Edinburgh Artery Study, a nested case-control design was used involving 40 cases of aortic aneurysm, each being matched to five controls by sex and within a 5-year age band. After adjustment for age and sex, both fibrinogen (P < or = 0.01) and fibrin D-dimer (P < or = 0.001) were each associated with a significant increased risk of aneurysm. Further adjustment for packyears, history of cardiovascular disease and the ankle brachial pressure index resulted in odds ratios of 1.51 (95% CI 1.05 to 2.16, P < or = 0.05) for fibrinogen and 3.75 (95% CI 1.80 to 7.82, P < or = 0.001) for fibrin D-dimer. These associations probably arise as a consequence of fibrin deposition and turnover within the aneurysmal sac, although further prospective studies are needed before thrombotic factors can be used in the identification of a group who are at high risk of developing an abdominal aortic aneurysm. PMID:8958392

  15. Atherosclerosis: A Link Between Lipid Intake and Protein Tyrosine Nitration

    PubMed Central

    Upmacis, Rita K.

    2009-01-01

    Atherosclerosis, a disease characterized by plaque formation in the arterial wall that can lead to heart attack and stroke, is a principal cause of death in the world. Since the 1990’s, protein nitrotyrosine formation has been known to occur in the atherosclerotic plaque. This potentially damaging reaction occurs as a result of tyrosine modification by reactive nitrogen species, such as nitrogen dioxide radical, which forms upon peroxynitrite decomposition or nitrite oxidation by hydrogen peroxide-activated peroxidase enzymes. The presence of protein-bound nitrotyrosine can be considered an indicator of a loss in the natural balance of oxidants and antioxidants, and as such, there is an emerging view that protein-bound nitrotyrosine may be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. This review brings together evidence that the accumulation of protein nitrotyrosine during atherogenesis is more widespread than initially thought (as its presence can be detected not only in the lesion but also in the blood stream and other organs) and is closely linked to lipid intake. PMID:20157638

  16. HDL-mimetic PLGA nanoparticle to target atherosclerosis plaque macrophages.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Gaytan, Brenda L; Fay, Francois; Lobatto, Mark E; Tang, Jun; Ouimet, Mireille; Kim, YongTae; van der Staay, Susanne E M; van Rijs, Sarian M; Priem, Bram; Zhang, Liangfang; Fisher, Edward A; Moore, Kathryn J; Langer, Robert; Fayad, Zahi A; Mulder, Willem J M

    2015-03-18

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is a natural nanoparticle that exhibits an intrinsic affinity for atherosclerotic plaque macrophages. Its natural targeting capability as well as the option to incorporate lipophilic payloads, e.g., imaging or therapeutic components, in both the hydrophobic core and the phospholipid corona make the HDL platform an attractive nanocarrier. To realize controlled release properties, we developed a hybrid polymer/HDL nanoparticle composed of a lipid/apolipoprotein coating that encapsulates a poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) core. This novel HDL-like nanoparticle (PLGA-HDL) displayed natural HDL characteristics, including preferential uptake by macrophages and a good cholesterol efflux capacity, combined with a typical PLGA nanoparticle slow release profile. In vivo studies carried out with an ApoE knockout mouse model of atherosclerosis showed clear accumulation of PLGA-HDL nanoparticles in atherosclerotic plaques, which colocalized with plaque macrophages. This biomimetic platform integrates the targeting capacity of HDL biomimetic nanoparticles with the characteristic versatility of PLGA-based nanocarriers. PMID:25650634

  17. HDL-Mimetic PLGA Nanoparticle To Target Atherosclerosis Plaque Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Gaytan, Brenda L.; Fay, Francois; Lobatto, Mark E.; Tang, Jun; Ouimet, Mireille; Kim, YongTae; van der Staay, Susanne E. M.; van Rijs, Sarian M.; Priem, Bram; Zhang, Liangfang; Fisher, Edward A; Moore, Kathryn J.; Langer, Robert; Fayad, Zahi A.; Mulder, Willem J M

    2015-01-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is a natural nanoparticle that exhibits an intrinsic affinity for atherosclerotic plaque macrophages. Its natural targeting capability as well as the option to incorporate lipophilic payloads, e.g., imaging or therapeutic components, in both the hydrophobic core and the phospholipid corona make the HDL platform an attractive nanocarrier. To realize controlled release properties, we developed a hybrid polymer/HDL nanoparticle composed of a lipid/apolipoprotein coating that encapsulates a poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) core. This novel HDL-like nanoparticle (PLGA–HDL) displayed natural HDL characteristics, including preferential uptake by macrophages and a good cholesterol efflux capacity, combined with a typical PLGA nanoparticle slow release profile. In vivo studies carried out with an ApoE knockout mouse model of atherosclerosis showed clear accumulation of PLGA–HDL nanoparticles in atherosclerotic plaques, which colocalized with plaque macrophages. This biomimetic platform integrates the targeting capacity of HDL biomimetic nanoparticles with the characteristic versatility of PLGA-based nanocarriers. PMID:25650634

  18. Secondhand Smoke and Periodontal Disease: Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study

    PubMed Central

    Slade, Gary D.; Beck, James D.; gstsdttir, Helga

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated the relationship between secondhand smoke and periodontal disease in nonsmokers. Methods. We undertook a cross-sectional analysis of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study with 2739 lifetime nonsmokers aged 5374 years, unexposed to other sources of tobacco, who received a complete periodontal examination at visit 4. Exposure was reported as average hours per week in close contact with a smoker in the preceding year. We defined severe periodontitis as 5 or more periodontal sites with probing pocket depth of 5 millimeters or more and clinical attachment levels of 3 millimeters or more in those sites. Other outcomes were extent of periodontal probing depths of 4 millimeters or more and extent of clinical attachment levels of 3 millimeters or more. Results. In a binary logistic regression model, adjusted odds of severe periodontitis for those exposed to secondhand smoke 1 to 25 hours per week increased 29% (95% confidence interval = 1.0, 1.7); for those exposed to secondhand smoke 26 hours per week, the odds were twice as high (95% confidence interval = 1.2, 3.4) as for those who were unexposed. Conclusions. Exposure to secondhand smoke and severe periodontitis among nonsmokers had a dose-dependent relationship. PMID:21551377

  19. An Early-Stage Atherosclerosis Research Model Based on Microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wenfu; Huang, Rong; Jiang, Bo; Zhao, Yuyun; Zhang, Wei; Jiang, Xingyu

    2016-04-01

    The arterial microenvironment plays a vital role in the pathology of atherosclerosis (AS). However, the interplay between the arterial microenvironment and atherogenesis remains unclear, partially due to the gap between cell culture and animal experiments. Addressing this problem, the present study reports a microfluidic AS model reconstituting early-stage AS. Physiological or AS-prone hemodynamic conditions are recapitulated on the model. The on-chip model recaptures the atherogenic responses of endothelial cells (ECs) in ways that the Petri dish could not. Significant cytotoxicity of a clinical anti-atherosclerotic drug probucol is discovered on the model, which does not appear on Petri dish but is supported by previous clinical evidence. Moreover, the anti-AS efficiency of platinum-nanoparticles (Pt-NPs) on the model shows excellent consistency with animal experiments. The early-stage AS model shows an excellent connection between Petri dish and animal experiments and highlights its promising role in bridging fundamental AS research, drug screening, and clinical trials. PMID:26890624

  20. Adipose Tissue in Metabolic Syndrome: Onset and Progression of Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Luna-Luna, María; Medina-Urrutia, Aida; Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto; Coss-Rovirosa, Fernanda; Vargas-Barrón, Jesús; Pérez-Méndez, Óscar

    2015-07-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) should be considered a clinical entity when its different symptoms share a common etiology: obesity/insulin resistance as a result of a multi-organ dysfunction. The main interest in treating MetS as a clinical entity is that the addition of its components drastically increases the risk of atherosclerosis. In MetS, the adipose tissue plays a central role along with an unbalanced gut microbiome, which has become relevant in recent years. Once visceral adipose tissue (VAT) increases, dyslipidemia and endothelial dysfunction follow as additive risk factors. However, when the nonalcoholic fatty liver is present, risk of a cardiovascular event is highly augmented. Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) seems to increase simultaneously with the VAT. In this context, the former may play a more important role in the development of the atherosclerotic plaque than the latter. Hence, EAT may act as a paracrine tissue vis-à-vis the coronary arteries favoring the local inflammation and the atheroma calcification. PMID:26009250

  1. Experimental atherosclerosis in rabbits fed cholesterol-free diets.

    PubMed

    Kritchevsky, D; Tepper, S A; Bises, G; Klurfeld, D M

    1982-02-01

    Rabbits were fed a semipurified, cholesterol-free atherogenic diet containing 40% sucrose, 25% casein, 14% fat, 15% fiber, 5% salt mix and 1% vitamin mix. The fats were corn oil (CO), palm kernel oil (PO), cocoa butter (CB), and coconut oil (CNO). The rabbits were bled at 3, 6, and 9 months and killed at 9 months. Serum lipids of rabbits fed CO were unaffected. Serum cholesterol levels (mg/dl) at 9 months were: CO -- 64; PO -- 436; CB -- 220; and CNO -- 474. HDL-cholesterol (%) was: CO -- 37; PO -- 8.6; CB -- 25.1; and CNO -- 7.0. Average atherosclerosis (arch + thoracic/2) was: CO -- 0.15; PO -- 1.28; CB -- 0.53; and CNO -- 1.60. Cocoa butter (iodine value 33) is significantly less cholesterolemic and atherogenic than palm oil (iodine value 17) or coconut oil (iodine value 6). The difference between the atherogenic effects of cocoa butter and palm oil may lie in the fact that about half of the fatty acids of palm oil are C 16 or shorter, whereas 76% of the fatty acids of cocoa butter are C 18 or longer. PMID:7066076

  2. Nanocrystals, a new tool to study lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Heeren, Joerg; Bruns, Oliver

    2012-02-01

    Nanotechnology deals with structures with a maximum size of 100 nanometers and is applied in various scientific disciplines. The basis for this is its potential to create many new materials such as nanoparticles which are suitable for a vast range of applications in electronics or energy production but also in biomedicine. Nanoparticles have exceptional physical properties useful for different applications ranging from material sciences to biomedical imaging. In life sciences nanoparticles provide a novel tool to study metabolic processes such as the metabolism of lipoproteins or to noninvasively detect diseases in a very early stage. Major hallmarks of early atherosclerotic lesion formation are endothelial dysfunction and accumulation of large amounts of lipoprotein-derived cholesterol esters in macrophages within the vessel wall. Since conventional methods such as plasma marker analyses are not specific and sensitive enough to reliably assess the risk of cardiovascular events at an early stage, nanoparticles-based imaging technologies might provide a valuable tool for the non-invasive assessment of atherosclerotic lesions in the future. In this review, we will give an overview on the characteristics of modern nanoparticles and will emphasize the current studies utilizing nanoparticles for the visualization of both lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis. PMID:21470118

  3. Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase: old friend or foe in atherosclerosis?

    PubMed

    Kunnen, Sandra; Van Eck, Miranda

    2012-09-01

    Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) is a key enzyme that catalyzes the esterification of free cholesterol in plasma lipoproteins and plays a critical role in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism. Deficiency leads to accumulation of nascent pre?-HDL due to impaired maturation of HDL particles, whereas enhanced expression is associated with the formation of large, apoE-rich HDL(1) particles. In addition to its function in HDL metabolism, LCAT was believed to be an important driving force behind macrophage reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) and, therefore, has been a subject of great interest in cardiovascular research since its discovery in 1962. Although half a century has passed, the importance of LCAT for atheroprotection is still under intense debate. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the insights that have been gained in the past 50 years on the biochemistry of LCAT, the role of LCAT in lipoprotein metabolism and the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in animal models, and its impact on cardiovascular disease in humans. PMID:22566575

  4. Pressure suppression containment system

    DOEpatents

    Gluntz, D.M.; Townsend, H.E.

    1994-03-15

    A pressure suppression containment system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel. The wetwell pool includes a plenum for receiving the non-condensable gas carried with steam from the drywell following a loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA). The wetwell plenum is vented to a plenum above the GDCS pool following the LOCA for suppressing pressure rise within the containment vessel. A method of operation includes channeling steam released into the drywell following the LOCA into the wetwell pool for cooling along with the non-condensable gas carried therewith. The GDCS pool is then drained by gravity, and the wetwell plenum is vented into the GDCS plenum for channeling the non-condensable gas thereto. 6 figures.

  5. Pressure suppression containment system

    DOEpatents

    Gluntz, Douglas M.; Townsend, Harold E.

    1994-03-15

    A pressure suppression containment system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel. The wetwell pool includes a plenum for receiving the non-condensable gas carried with steam from the drywell following a loss-of coolant-accident (LOCA). The wetwell plenum is vented to a plenum above the GDCS pool following the LOCA for suppressing pressure rise within the containment vessel. A method of operation includes channeling steam released into the drywell following the LOCA into the wetwell pool for cooling along with the non-condensable gas carried therewith. The GDCS pool is then drained by gravity, and the wetwell plenum is vented into the GDCS plenum for channeling the non-condensable gas thereto.

  6. Denervation suppresses gastric tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chun-Mei; Hayakawa, Yoku; Kodama, Yosuke; Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Westphalen, Christoph B; Andersen, Gøran T; Flatberg, Arnar; Johannessen, Helene; Friedman, Richard A; Renz, Bernhard W; Sandvik, Arne K; Beisvag, Vidar; Tomita, Hiroyuki; Hara, Akira; Quante, Michael; Li, Zhishan; Gershon, Michael D; Kaneko, Kazuhiro; Fox, James G; Wang, Timothy C; Chen, Duan

    2014-08-20

    The nervous system plays an important role in the regulation of epithelial homeostasis and has also been postulated to play a role in tumorigenesis. We provide evidence that proper innervation is critical at all stages of gastric tumorigenesis. In three separate mouse models of gastric cancer, surgical or pharmacological denervation of the stomach (bilateral or unilateral truncal vagotomy, or local injection of botulinum toxin type A) markedly reduced tumor incidence and progression, but only in the denervated portion of the stomach. Vagotomy or botulinum toxin type A treatment also enhanced the therapeutic effects of systemic chemotherapy and prolonged survival. Denervation-induced suppression of tumorigenesis was associated with inhibition of Wnt signaling and suppression of stem cell expansion. In gastric organoid cultures, neurons stimulated growth in a Wnt-mediated fashion through cholinergic signaling. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition or genetic knockout of the muscarinic acetylcholine M3 receptor suppressed gastric tumorigenesis. In gastric cancer patients, tumor stage correlated with neural density and activated Wnt signaling, whereas vagotomy reduced the risk of gastric cancer. Together, our findings suggest that vagal innervation contributes to gastric tumorigenesis via M3 receptor-mediated Wnt signaling in the stem cells, and that denervation might represent a feasible strategy for the control of gastric cancer. PMID:25143365

  7. Denervation suppresses gastric tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kodama, Yosuke; Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Westphalen, Christoph B.; Andersen, Gøran T.; Flatberg, Arnar; Johannessen, Helene; Friedman, Richard A.; Renz, Bernhard W.; Sandvik, Arne K.; Beisvag, Vidar; Tomita, Hiroyuki; Hara, Akira; Quante, Michael; Li, Zhishan; Gershon, Michael D.; Kaneko, Kazuhiro; Fox, James G.; Wang, Timothy C.; Chen, Duan

    2015-01-01

    The nervous system plays an important role in the regulation of epithelial homeostasis and has also been postulated to play a role in tumorigenesis. We provide evidence that proper innervation is critical at all stages of gastric tumorigenesis. In three separate mouse models of gastric cancer, surgical or pharmacological denervation of the stomach (bilateral or unilateral truncal vagotomy, or local injection of botulinum toxin type A) markedly reduced tumor incidence and progression, but only in the denervated portion of the stomach. Vagotomy or botulinum toxin type A treatment also enhanced the therapeutic effects of systemic chemotherapy and prolonged survival. Denervation-induced suppression of tumorigenesis was associated with inhibition of Wnt signaling and suppression of stem cell expansion. In gastric organoid cultures, neurons stimulated growth in a Wnt-mediated fashion through cholinergic signaling. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition or genetic knockout of the muscarinic acetylcholine M3 receptor suppressed gastric tumorigenesis. In gastric cancer patients, tumor stage correlated with neural density and activated Wnt signaling, whereas vagotomy reduced the risk of gastric cancer. Together, our findings suggest that vagal innervation contributes to gastric tumorigenesis via M3 receptor–mediated Wnt signaling in the stem cells, and that denervation might represent a feasible strategy for the control of gastric cancer. PMID:25143365

  8. Menstrual suppression: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Hillard, Paula Adams

    2014-01-01

    Menstrual suppression to provide relief of menstrual-related symptoms or to manage medical conditions associated with menstrual morbidity or menstrual exacerbation has been used clinically since the development of steroid hormonal therapies. Options range from the extended or continuous use of combined hormonal oral contraceptives, to the use of combined hormonal patches and rings, progestins given in a variety of formulations from intramuscular injection to oral therapies to intrauterine devices, and other agents such as gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonists. The agents used for menstrual suppression have variable rates of success in inducing amenorrhea, but typically have increasing rates of amenorrhea over time. Therapy may be limited by side effects, most commonly irregular, unscheduled bleeding. These therapies can benefit women’s quality of life, and by stabilizing the hormonal milieu, potentially improve the course of underlying medical conditions such as diabetes or a seizure disorder. This review addresses situations in which menstrual suppression may be of benefit, and lists options which have been successful in inducing medical amenorrhea. PMID:25018654

  9. Decreased Naive and Increased Memory CD4+ T Cells Are Associated with Subclinical Atherosclerosis: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Nels C.; Doyle, Margaret F.; Jenny, Nancy Swords; Huber, Sally A.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Kronmal, Richard A.; Tracy, Russell P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Adaptive immunity has been implicated in atherosclerosis in animal models and small clinical studies. Whether chronic immune activation is associated with atherosclerosis in otherwise healthy individuals remains underexplored. We hypothesized that activation of adaptive immune responses, as reflected by higher proportions of circulating CD4+ memory cells and lower proportions of naive cells, would be associated with subclinical atherosclerosis. Methods and Findings We examined cross-sectional relationships of circulating CD4+ naive and memory T cells with biomarkers of inflammation, serologies, and subclinical atherosclerosis in 912 participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Circulating CD4+ naive cells were higher in women than men and decreased with age (all p-values <0.0001). European-Americans had higher levels of naive cells and lower levels of memory cells compared with African-Americans and Hispanic-Americans (all p-values ≤0.0005). Lower naive/higher memory cells were associated with interleukin-6 levels. In multivariate models, cytomegalovirus (CMV) and H. Pylori titers were strongly associated with higher memory and lower naive cells (all p-values <0.05). Higher memory cells were associated with coronary artery calcification (CAC) level in the overall population [β-Coefficient (95% confidence interval (CI))  = 0.20 (0.03, 0.37)]. Memory and naive (inversely) cells were associated with common carotid artery intimal media thickness (CC IMT) in European-Americans [memory: β =  0.02 (0.006, 0.04); naive: β = −0.02 (−0.004, −0.03)]. Conclusions These results demonstrate that the degree of chronic adaptive immune activation is associated with both CAC and CC IMT in otherwise healthy individuals, consistent with the known role of CD4+ T cells, and with innate immunity (inflammation), in atherosclerosis. These data are also consistent with the hypothesis that immunosenescence accelerates chronic diseases by putting a greater burden on the innate immune system, and suggest the importance of prospective studies and research into strategies to modulate adaptive immune activation in chronic disease states such as atherosclerosis. PMID:24009662

  10. Impact of Hydroxychloroquine on Atherosclerosis and Vascular Stiffness in the Presence of Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Ashutosh M.; Bose, Chhanda; Karaduta, Oleg K.; Apostolov, Eugene O.; Kaushal, Gur P.; Fahmi, Tariq; Segal, Mark S.; Shah, Sudhir V.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the largest cause of morbidity and mortality among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage kidney disease, with nearly half of all deaths attributed to cardiovascular disease. Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), an anti-inflammatory drug, has been shown to have multiple pleiotropic actions relevant to atherosclerosis. We conducted a proof-of-efficacy study to evaluate the effects of hydroxychloroquine in an animal model of atherosclerosis in ApoE knockout mice with and without chronic kidney disease. Forty male, 6-week-old mice were divided into four groups in a 2 x 2 design: sham placebo group; sham treatment group; CKD placebo group; and CKD treatment group. CKD was induced by a two-step surgical procedure. All mice received a high-fat diet through the study duration and were sacrificed after 16 weeks of therapy. Mice were monitored with ante-mortem ultrasonic echography (AUE) for atherosclerosis and vascular stiffness and with post-mortem histology studies for atherosclerosis. Therapy with HCQ significantly reduced the severity of atherosclerosis in CKD mice and sham treated mice. HCQ reduced the area of aortic atherosclerosis on en face examination by approximately 60% in HCQ treated groups compared to the non-treated groups. Additionally, therapy with HCQ resulted in significant reduction in vascular endothelial dysfunction with improvement in vascular elasticity and flow patterns and better-preserved vascular wall thickness across multiple vascular beds. More importantly, we found that presence of CKD had no mitigating effect on HCQ’s anti-atherosclerotic and vasculoprotective effects. These beneficial effects were not due to any significant effect of HCQ on inflammation, renal function, or lipid profile at the end of 16 weeks of therapy. This study, which demonstrates structural and functional protection against atherosclerosis by HCQ, provides a rationale to evaluate its use in CKD patients. Further studies are needed to define the exact mechanisms through which HCQ confers these benefits. PMID:26414017

  11. The population-based Barcelona-Asymptomatic Intracranial Atherosclerosis Study (ASIA): rationale and design

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Large-artery intracranial atherosclerosis may be the most frequent cause of ischemic stroke worldwide. Traditional approaches have attempted to target the disease when it is already symptomatic. However, early detection of intracranial atherosclerosis may allow therapeutic intervention while the disease is still asymptomatic. The prevalence and natural history of asymptomatic intracranial atherosclerosis in Caucasians remain unclear. The aims of the Barcelona-ASymptomatic Intracranial Atherosclerosis (ASIA) study are (1) to determine the prevalence of ASIA in a moderate-high vascular risk population, (2) to study its prognostic impact on the risk of suffering future major ischemic events, and (3) to identify predictors of the development, progression and clinical expression of this condition. Methods/Design Cross-over and cohort, population-based study. A randomly selected representative sample of 1,503 subjects with a mild-moderate-high vascular risk (as defined by a REGICOR score ≥ 5%) and with neither a history of cerebrovascular nor ischemic heart disease will be studied. At baseline, all individuals will undergo extracranial and transcranial Color-Coded Duplex (TCCD) ultrasound examinations to detect presence and severity of extra and intracranial atherosclerosis. Intracranial stenoses will be assessed by magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Clinical and demographic variables will be recorded and blood samples will be drawn to investigate clinical, biological and genetic factors associated with the presence of ASIA. A long-term clinical and sonographic follow-up will be conducted thereafter to identify predictors of disease progression and of incident vascular events. Discussion The Barcelona-ASIA is a population-based study aiming to evaluate the prevalence and clinical importance of asymptomatic intracranial large-artery atherosclerosis in Caucasians. The ASIA project may provide a unique scientific resource to better understand the dynamics of intracranial atherosclerosis from its early stages and to identify new potential therapeutic targets for this condition. PMID:21329527

  12. T‐Helper Type 1 Bias in Healthy People Is Associated With Cytomegalovirus Serology and Atherosclerosis: The Multi‐Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Tracy, Russell P.; Doyle, Margaret F.; Olson, Nels C.; Huber, Sally A.; Jenny, Nancy S.; Sallam, Reem; Psaty, Bruce M.; Kronmal, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Although T‐helper type 1 (Th1) cells are considered important in atherosclerosis, the relationships between Th1 and Th2 cells and atherosclerosis have not been examined in population‐based studies. Methods and Results We measured Th cells as a percentage of lymphocytes by flow cytometry using CD4 staining (%CD4) in 917 participants of the Multi‐Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. We also measured interferon gamma–positive and interleukin‐4‐positive CD4+ cells, representing Th1 and Th2 subpopulations (%Th1 and %Th2), respectively. We found that %CD4 was 1.5% lower per 10 years of age (P<0.0001). Whites had higher %CD4 and lower %Th1 and %Th2 values than other race/ethnic groups. Body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure were associated with %CD4, but no traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors were associated with %Th1 or %Th2. In multivariable models, the major independent variable associated with %Th1 was cytomegalovirus (CMV) antibody titer, with minor contributions from age, sex, seasonality, and interleukin‐6. In models with coronary artery calcification level as the outcome, significant independent variables included age, sex, smoking status, and %Th1 (β=0.25; P≤0.01). Both %Th1 and %Th2 were associated with common carotid intimal media thickness (β=0.02 and −0.02, respectively; both P<0.05), as were age, sex, race/ethnicity, blood pressure, and BMI. Conclusions Th1 bias is associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in a multiethnic population. The main Th1 correlate was CMV infectious burden. These findings are consistent with a role of Th1 cells in atherosclerosis and suggest the importance of prospective studies of T‐helper cell biasing in CVD. PMID:23688675

  13. Special characteristics of atherosclerosis in chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Amann, K; Tyralla, K; Gross, M L; Eifert, T; Adamczak, M; Ritz, E

    2003-07-01

    Cardiovascular complications are a major clinical problem in patients with chronic kidney disease and end stage renal failure. Death from cardiac causes accounts for 40%-50% of all deaths in these patients and is thus up to 20 times more common in uremic patients than in the general population. Cardiovascular pathology in patients with renal failure is complex, but accelerated atherosclerosis has repeatedly been discussed as one major cause. The prevalence of coronary atheroma in uremic patients is approximately 30% by autopsy and coronary angiography studies. Not only is the prevalence of atherosclerotic lesions very high, but also the case fatality rate of myocardial infarction. Recently, excess mortality in uremic patients having had a myocardial infarct was noted; the one year mortality was 55.4% and 62.3% in uremic patients with and without diabetes, respectively, compared to about 10-15% in non-uremic patients. This study goes beyond the well-known notion that urea is associated with more severe atherosclerosis and shows that, in addition, the adaptation to coronary perfusion deficits is inappropriate. Recent clinical and autoptical studies in pre-dialysis and dialysis cohorts have documented increased intima and media thickness which appear early in the course of renal disease; Vascular wall thickening in renal failure seems to be modified at least in part by parathyroidhormone (PTH) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) which are both elevated in patients with renal failure. In experimental renal failure a direct effect of high phosphorus diet in arterial wall thickening was also documented. In addition to thickening of the vascular wall marked structural alterations were noted in renal failure i.e. a decrease in elastic fibre content and an increase in extracellular matrix. Furthermore, increased calcification of coronary atherosclerotic plaques and of the media of the aorta and some peripheral arteries has been documented in patients with renal failure. Factors contributing to this increased calcification process may be deposition of abundant circulating calcium, microinflammation, oxidative stress, de novo expression of bone morphogenous proteins and lack of inhibitors of calcifcation. These changes in vascular wall composition may alter vessel elasticity and thus contribute to impaired vessel function in renal failure. It is obvious from the above mentioned facts that cardiovascular disease in the renal patient is certainly multifaetorial in origin. There are, however, important issues to adress in the future, like (I) the characterization of vascular morphology in the different vascular beds, (II) the pathomechanisms of vascular and plaque calcification as well as the potential beneficial effect of rigorous control of non-classical risk factors (i.e. high P or Ca x P, inflammation, oxidative stress, etc.), (III) an additive or supraadditive effect of various classical and non-classical risk factors and (IV) the role of diabetes mellitus in modifying these vascular alterations. PMID:12940530

  14. Subendocardial ischemic myocardial lesions associated with severe coronary atherosclerosis.

    PubMed Central

    Geer, J. C.; Crago, C. A.; Little, W. C.; Gardner, L. L.; Bishop, S. P.

    1980-01-01

    Morphologic changes in the subendocardial myocardium that appeared to be caused by severe, chronic subendocardial ischemia were studied in patients with fatal ischemic heart disease admitted to the Specialized Center of Research for Ischemic Heart Disease at the University of Alabama in Birmingham in the period 1970--1977. Thirteen patients were selected for this report on the basis that they had the lesions in the subendocardial myocardium we believe to have been caused by subendocardial ischemia and had no evidence of acute or remote myocardial infarction or other conditions that may have contributed to their terminal illness or death. Clinical findings were unstable angina, congestive heart failure, usually no increase in plasma enzymes indicative of myocardial damage, and electrocardiographic changes consistent with subendocardial ischemia. All 13 patients had 75% or greater stenosis of the three major coronary arteries; none had acute thrombotic or embolic coronary artery occlusion. The left ventricle in all cases was hypertrophied. The subendocardial myocardium showed circumferential pallor, hyperemia, or focal fibrosis without perceptible loss of volume in papillary muscles or trabeculae carneae. Microscopically, acute lesions showed one to two layers of preserved myofibers adjacent to the endocardium, vacuolar change in the deeper fibers, and focal areas of coagulation necrosis of variable size in the myocardium external to the fibers with vacuolar change. Coagulation necrosis was extensive in some cases and usually was not associated with infiltration of neutrophils. The repair reaction involved removal of necrotic sarcoplasm by mononuclear phagocytes, resulting in a reticular-appearing tissue without evidence of stromal collapse. Granulation tissue was not seen. Collagen fibers appeared to be deposited within the area of previous sarcolemmal sheaths. The distribution and morphology of subendocardial myocardial lesions associated with severe coronary atherosclerosis are distinctive and can be distinguished from myocardial necrosis or fibrosis associated with acute total occlusion of a coronary artery. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7361850

  15. Fluorescence spectroscopic detection of early injury-induced atherosclerosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, Alexandra; Perk, Masis; Wen, Yue; Smith, Carol

    1992-08-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy has been used for the detection of advanced atherosclerotic lesions. Angioplasty balloon-mediated injury was examined spectroscopically in order to assess the sensitivity of fluorescence spectroscopy for detection of early atherosclerosis. Abdominal aortic balloon angioplasty was performed via femoral artery cutdown in nine White Leghorn roosters (five normal, four atherogenic diet). Roosters were sacrificed at 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 week intervals. Fluorescence emission spectra (n equals 114) were recorded from each aortic section (XeCl excimer laser, 308 nm, 1.5 - 2.0 mJ/pulse, 5 Hz). Changes in normalized fluorescence emission intensity were correlated with selected sections of histology. All balloon-injured segments showed intimal fibrous proliferation. For intimal thickness measuring > 70 (mu) , fluorescence emission intensity was decreased at 440 - 460 nm (p < 0.0005). Lesions complicated by thrombus also had lower fluorescence emission at 425 - 450 nm when compared to histologically normal aorta (p < 0.009). In injured segments high cholesterol diet resulted in lower recorded fluorescence emission at 440 - 460 nm (p < 0.001) associated with the increase in intimal thickness. Spectra from uninjured elastic aorta (aortic arch and thoracic aorta) had greater fluorescence intensity at 380 - 445 nm than muscular (abdominal) aorta (p < 0.01), therefore, only spectra from injured and uninjured segments of corresponding areas of the aorta were compared. The conclusion is: (1) Early intimal proliferative changes after angioplasty can be detected by fluorescence spectroscopy. (2) Spectra from elastic thoracic aorta differ significantly from the spectra of muscular abdominal aorta.

  16. [Free fatty acids: mediators of insulin resistance and atherosclerosis].

    PubMed

    Castro Cabezas, M; Erkelens, D W; van Dijk, H

    2002-01-19

    Free fatty acids (FFAs) are involved in the transportation of energy; in the postprandial phase to the peripheral tissues and in the postabsorptive phase from the adipose tissue to the liver. In the postprandial phase, FFAs are mainly derived from hydrolysis of triglyceride-rich particles like chylomicrons and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL). The flux of FFAs is directed to peripheral cells such as adipocytes and muscle cells. In the postabsorptive period, FFAs are transported to the liver after being released from intracellular storage in the adipocytes. Complement component 3 (C3) plays an important role in the uptake of free fatty acids by the peripheral cells and their esterification to triglycerides. Since C3 is also involved in the pathogenesis of the insulin resistance syndrome, and since a deviant FFA metabolism with an increased FFA flux to the liver may induce insulin resistance, it is hypothesized that C3 may form the missing link between FFA metabolism and insulin resistance. In addition, recent studies have increasingly indicated that atherosclerosis is in fact an inflammation-based process involving complement-dependent responses, in which FFAs seem to play a role in the complement-dependent pathway. It has recently become apparent that FFAs have a regulatory function in the transcription of DNA, in relation to lipoprotein metabolism. This is where PPAR-gamma and PPAR-alpha agonists ('glitazones' and fibrates respectively) are active (PPAR is an abbreviation for peroxisome proliferation activating receptor). Glitazons may play an important role in the treatment of insulin resistance and related disorders. Acquiring more knowledge about the relationship between complement and FFA metabolism may increase our understanding of these processes and provide openings for the development of new antiatherogenic strategies. PMID:11826668

  17. Regional coronary perfusion and bioenergetics in experimental atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Zwolak, R M; Malik, A B; Morrison, E S; Scott, R F

    1980-04-01

    The effects of experimental coronary atherosclerosis on myocardial high energy phosphates and regional coronary perfusion and oxygen delivery were studied. Hypercholesterolemic (HC) New Zealand white rabbits developed mild to moderate coronary vascular disease in 4 months when serum cholesterol levels were maintained at 1500--2000 mg/dl. Resting left ventricular levels of creatine phosphate, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and the cellular energy charge were unaltered after 2 months of diet but were decreased after 4 and 6 months. Tissue lactate and the lactate/pyruvate ratio were increased after 4 months, suggesting mild tissue ischemia. The regional blood flow rate was measured in rabbits given pentobarbital after 6 months of diet using labeled microspheres, and the response to stress was tested after 5 minutes of hypoxic ventilation (5% O2/N2). The percentage of cardiac output to subendocardium (endo) and subepicardium (epi) in HC rabbits and that in control animals were similar at rest, but unlike that of control animals, the endo perfusion did not increase significantly in HC animals during hypoxic stress. Baseline regional left ventricular oxygen deliveries were similar between groups, but the baseline endo/epi oxygen delivery ratio was reduced in HC rabbits. In control rabbits hypoxia did not alter total O2 delivery, and the endo/epi oxygen delivery ratio was constant, whereas hypoxia in HC animals produced a decrease in total oxygen delivery and a further decrease in the endo/epi oxygen delivery ratio. Thus, moderate long-term coronary occlusive disease produced alterations in the distribution of coronary perfusion that are similar to those after acute partial occlusion, ie, selective reductions in blood flow and oxygen delivery to subendocardium. These results may relate to the pathogenesis of subendocardial infarction in man, which often occurs in the absence of complete coronary occlusion. PMID:7361855

  18. Cytokines and atherosclerosis: a comprehensive review of studies in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kleemann, Robert; Zadelaar, Susanne; Kooistra, Teake

    2008-01-01

    In the past few years, inflammation has emerged as a major driving force of atherosclerotic lesion development. It is now well-established that from early lesion to vulnerable plaque formation, numerous cellular and molecular inflammatory components participate in the disease process. The most prominent cells that invade in evolving lesions are monocyte-derived macrophages and T-lymphocytes. Both cell types produce a wide array of soluble inflammatory mediators (cytokines, chemokines) which are critically important in the initiation and perpetuation of the disease. This review summarizes the currently available information from mouse studies on the contribution of a specified group of cytokines expressed in atherosclerotic lesions, viz. interleukins (IL-1, IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IL-18, IL-20) and macrophage-associated cytokines [tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α); macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF); interferon-γ (IFN-γ); colony stimulating factors G-CSF,-M-CSF,-GM-CSF) to atherogenesis. Emphasis is put on the consistency of the effects of these cytokines, i.e. inasmuch an effect depends on the experimental approach applied (overexpression/deletion, strain, gender, dietary conditions, and disease stage). An important outcome of this survey is (i) that only for a few cytokines there is sufficient consistent data allowing classifying them as typically proatherogenic (IL-1, IL-12, IL-18, MIF, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and M-CSF) or antiatherogenic (IL-10) and (ii) that some cytokines (IL-4, IL-6 and GM-CSF) can exert pro- or anti-atherogenic effects depending on the experimental conditions. This knowledge can be used for improved early detection, prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis. PMID:18487233

  19. LDL apheresis and inflammation--implications for atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Hovland, A; Lappegård, K T; Mollnes, T E

    2012-09-01

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) apheresis is an extracorporeal treatment modality used in high-risk patients when LDL cholesterol levels cannot be reduced adequately with medication. The treatment is highly effective, but could be affected by potential unwanted effects on pro- and anti-inflammatory biomarkers. In this paper, we review the literature regarding the effect of LDL apheresis on pro- and anti-inflammatory biomarkers important in atherosclerosis, also as patients in LDL apheresis have high risk for atherosclerotic complications. We discuss the effect of LDL apheresis on complement, cytokines and finally a group of other selected pro- and anti-inflammatory biomarkers. The complement system is affected by LDL apheresis, and there are differences between different LDL apheresis systems. The plasma separation columns seem to trigger the formation of proinflammatory complement factors including C3a and C5a, while the same anaphylatoxins are adsorbed by the LDL apheresis columns, however, to varying degree. Proinflammatory cytokines are to some extent adsorbed by the LDL apheresis columns, while some of the anti-inflammatory cytokines increase during treatment. Finally, we discuss the effect of apheresis on different biomarkers including C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, adhesion molecules, myeloperoxidase and HDL cholesterol. In conclusion, even if there are differences between pro- and anti-inflammatory biomarkers during LDL apheresis, the consequences for the patients are largely unknown and larger studies need to be performed. Preferably, they should be comparing the effect of different LDL apheresis columns on the total inflammatory profile, and this should be related to clinical endpoints. PMID:22670805

  20. Inhibitors of angiotensin converting enzyme decrease early atherosclerosis in hyperlipidemic hamsters. Fosinopril reduces plasma cholesterol and captopril inhibits macrophage-foam cell accumulation independently of blood pressure and plasma lipids.

    PubMed

    Kowala, M C; Grove, R I; Aberg, G

    1994-07-01

    The effect of two angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors on the development of atherosclerosis was determined in hyperlipidemic hamsters. Preliminary studies indicated that only fosinopril (50 mg/kg) temporarily decreased mean arterial pressure, while after chronic dosing fosinopril and captopril (50 mg/kg) were ineffective. The same dose of fosinopril and captopril inhibited the angiotensin I pressor response, indicating these agents suppressed ACE activity in vivo. In the 3 week atherosclerosis experiment, all hamsters were fed chow supplemented with 0.05% cholesterol and 10% coconut oil. Control hamsters were compared with those receiving either 50 mg/kg per day of fosinopril or 50 mg/kg per day of captopril. After 3 weeks, fosinopril reduced plasma total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL) plus very low density lipoprotein cholesterol and total triglycerides by 17%, 27% and 45%, respectively. Captopril only reduced high density lipoprotein cholesterol by 20%. Neither fosinopril or captopril altered blood pressure at 3 weeks. Atherosclerosis was quantified from en face preparations of the lesion-prone aortic arch that were stained with oil red O (for cholesteryl ester and triglycerides). In control hamsters, oil red O labeled numerous subendothelial macrophage-foam cells located along the inner curvature of the aortic arch. Compared with controls, fosinopril reduced the number of intimal macrophage-foam cells/mm2, foam cell size and the fatty streak area by 85%, 38% and 90%, respectively. Captopril decreased these parameters by 44%, 16% and 53%. Thus captopril decreased early atherosclerosis without affecting plasma LDL cholesterol or blood pressure, which suggested that inhibiting ACE (or kininase II) directly impeded the accumulation and formation of macrophage-foam cells.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7980708

  1. Beneficial effects of soy supplementation on postmenopausal atherosclerosis are dependent on pretreatment stage of plaque progression

    PubMed Central

    Meléndez, Giselle C.; Register, Thomas C.; Appt, Susan E.; Clarkson, Thomas B.; Franke, Adrian A.; Kaplan, Jay R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to use a well-established monkey model of atherosclerosis to determine how life stage and preexisting atherosclerosis influences the effectiveness of high isoflavone soy diet to inhibit the progression of atherosclerosis. Methods Premenopausal monkeys were fed for 34 months an atherogenic diet deriving its protein primarily from either animal sources (casein/lactalbumin (CL), n=37) or high isoflavone soy beans (Soy, n=34). Animals were then ovariectomized (OVX) and randomized to groups consuming the same diet (groups CL-CL, n=20 and Soy-Soy, n=17) or the alternate diet for an additional 34 months (groups CL-Soy, n=17 and Soy-CL=17). At ovariectomy, the left common iliac artery was removed to determine the amount of premenopausal atherosclerosis. At necropsy, the right common iliac (RCI) and coronary arteries were collected and atherosclerosis extent was quantified. The CL-CL condition was considered ‘control’. Results Modeling Asian women that remain in Asia, monkeys consuming soy protein both pre and postmenopausally had markedly reduced extent of coronary artery atherosclerosis relative to CL controls (p=0.008). The subset of animals intended to model Asian women that migrate to a Western country (consuming soy premenopausally and CL postmenopausally) had increased progression of postmenopausal iliac artery atherosclerosis (p=0.003), and were not protected against the development of coronary artery atherosclerosis relative to controls. Relevant to the administration of soy diets to postmenopausal Western women, the monkeys fed CL premenopausally and changed postmenopausally to soy, derived atheroprotective benefits only if they began the postmenopausal treatment period with relatively small (below the median) plaques. Relative to controls, this group (with small plaques at ovariectomy) had reduced progression of iliac atherosclerosis (p=0.038) and smaller coronary artery plaques (p=0.0001) that were less complicated (p=0.05) relative to controls. Conclusions The results suggest that significant atheroprotective benefits of dietary soy follow from treatment that begins premenopausally and continues postmenopausally, or if started during the early postmenopause among individuals whose plaques are still small. PMID:25072952

  2. 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 deficiency in bone marrow-derived cells reduces atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kipari, Tiina; Hadoke, Patrick W F; Iqbal, Javaid; Man, Tak-Yung; Miller, Eileen; Coutinho, Agnes E; Zhang, Zhenguang; Sullivan, Katie M; Mitic, Tijana; Livingstone, Dawn E W; Schrecker, Christopher; Samuel, Kay; White, Christopher I; Bouhlel, M Amine; Chinetti-Gbaguidi, Giulia; Staels, Bart; Andrew, Ruth; Walker, Brian R; Savill, John S; Chapman, Karen E; Seckl, Jonathan R

    2013-04-01

    11?-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type-1 (11?-HSD1) converts inert cortisone into active cortisol, amplifying intracellular glucocorticoid action. 11?-HSD1 deficiency improves cardiovascular risk factors in obesity but exacerbates acute inflammation. To determine the effects of 11?-HSD1 deficiency on atherosclerosis and its inflammation, atherosclerosis-prone apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE-KO) mice were treated with a selective 11?-HSD1 inhibitor or crossed with 11?-HSD1-KO mice to generate double knockouts (DKOs) and challenged with an atherogenic Western diet. 11?-HSD1 inhibition or deficiency attenuated atherosclerosis (74-76%) without deleterious effects on plaque structure. This occurred without affecting plasma lipids or glucose, suggesting independence from classical metabolic risk factors. KO plaques were not more inflamed and indeed had 36% less T-cell infiltration, associated with 38% reduced circulating monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and 36% lower lesional vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). Bone marrow (BM) cells are key to the atheroprotection, since transplantation of DKO BM to irradiated ApoE-KO mice reduced atherosclerosis by 51%. 11?-HSD1-null macrophages show 76% enhanced cholesterol ester export. Thus, 11?-HSD1 deficiency reduces atherosclerosis without exaggerated lesional inflammation independent of metabolic risk factors. Selective 11?-HSD1 inhibitors promise novel antiatherosclerosis effects over and above their benefits for metabolic risk factors via effects on BM cells, plausibly macrophages. PMID:23303209

  3. Anti-inflammatory effects of vinpocetine in atherosclerosis and ischemic stroke: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Linjie; Yang, Li

    2015-01-01

    Immune responses play an important role in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis and ischemic stroke. Atherosclerosis is a common condition that increases the risk of stroke. Hyperlipidemia damages endothelial cells, thus initiating chemokine pathways and the release of inflammatory cytokines-this represents the first step in the inflammatory response to atherosclerosis. Blocking blood flow in the brain leads to ischemic stroke, and deprives neurons of oxygen and energy. Damaged neurons release danger-associated molecular patterns, which promote the activation of innate immune cells and the release of inflammatory cytokines. The nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells κB (NF-κB) pathway plays a key role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and ischemic stroke. Vinpocetine is believed to be a potent anti-inflammatory agent and has been used to treat cerebrovascular disorders. Vinpocetine improves neuronal plasticity and reduces the release of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines from endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, macrophages, and microglia, by inhibiting the inhibitor of the NF-κB pathway. This review clarifies the anti-inflammatory role of vinpocetine in atherosclerosis and ischemic stroke. PMID:25549058

  4. Effect of MTHFR Gene Polymorphism Impact on Atherosclerosis via Genome-Wide Methylation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xuefeng; Zhang, Wei; Lu, Qun; Lei, Xinjun; Wang, Tingzhong; Han, Xuanmao; Ma, Aiqun

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Atherosclerosis seriously threats human health. Homocysteine is an independent risk factor closely related to DNA methylation. MTHFR C667T loci polymorphism is closely associated with homocysteine level. This study aimed to investigate the relationship among MTHFR C667T loci polymorphism, genome-wide methylation, and atherosclerosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS Blood sample was collected from 105 patients with coronary atherosclerosis and 105 healthy controls. Pyrosequencing methylation was used to detect LINE-1 methylation level. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction enzyme fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was used to test MTHFR. RESULTS LINE-1 methylation level in the patient group was significantly lower than in the controls (t=5.007, P<0.001). MTHFR C667T genotype distribution presented marked differences in the 2 groups. TT genotype carriers had significantly increased risk of atherosclerosis (OR=3.56, P=0.009). Three different genotypes of MTHFR C667T loci showed different LINE-1 methylation level between the 2 groups (P<0.01). LINE-1 methylation level in TT and CT genotype carriers was obviously lower than in CC genotype carriers (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS MTHFR C667T loci polymorphism may affect atherosclerosis by regulating genome methylation level. PMID:26828698

  5. Angiopoietin-like 4: A double-edged sword in atherosclerosis and ischemic stroke?

    PubMed

    Xu, Liang; Guo, Zhen-Ni; Yang, Yi; Xu, Jun; Burchell, Sherrefa R; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, Jianmin; Xu, Jing; Zhang, John H

    2015-10-01

    Ischemic stroke is one of the leading causes of death in the world, and thus is a major public health concern. Atherosclerosis, also known as atherogenesis, is a crucial risk factor for cerebral ischemia, yet how it develops remains largely unknown. It has been found, however, that angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4), a protein expressed in vascular endothelial cells, plays a role in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis and may therefore be involved in ischemic stroke. ANGPTL4 activity is associated with endothelial cell integrity, inflammation, oxidative stress, and lipid metabolism. ANGPTL4 also serves as a potent inhibitor of the lipoprotein lipase, and may inhibit atherogenesis via regulating inflammatory signaling and lipid metabolism. In addition, ANGPTL4 plays a role in the regulation of oxidative stress. However, there currently exists a controversy on the role of ANGPTL4 in endothelial cells. Some studies indicate that ANGPTL4 can protect the integrity of endothelial cells, while others have shown that it can be destructive to the endothelium, thereby leading to the initiation of atherosclerosis. Thus, the effects of ANGPTL4 on development of atherosclerosis and thereby ischemic stroke, are undefined. Further research is needed to better understand ANGPTL4-mediated signaling pathways in endothelial function and to determine its potentials as therapeutic target for atherosclerosis and ischemic stroke. PMID:26033474

  6. Early Onset Intrauterine Growth Restriction in a Mouse Model of Gestational Hypercholesterolemia and Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Busso, Dolores; Mascareño, Lilian; Salas, Francisca; Berkowitz, Loni; Santander, Nicolás; Quiroz, Alonso; Amigo, Ludwig; Valdés, Gloria; Rigotti, Attilio

    2014-01-01

    The susceptibility to develop atherosclerosis is increased by intrauterine growth restriction and prenatal exposure to maternal hypercholesterolemia. Here, we studied whether mouse gestational hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis affected fetal development and growth at different stages of gestation. Female LDLR KO mice fed a proatherogenic, high cholesterol (HC) diet for 3 weeks before conception and during pregnancy exhibited a significant increase in non-HDL cholesterol and developed atherosclerosis. At embryonic days 12.5 (E12.5), E15.5, and E18.5, maternal gestational hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis were associated to a 22–24% reduction in male and female fetal weight without alterations in fetal number/litter or morphology nor placental weight or structure. Feeding the HC diet exclusively at the periconceptional period did not alter fetal growth, suggesting that maternal hypercholesterolemia affected fetal weight only after implantation. Vitamin E supplementation (1,000 UI of α-tocopherol/kg) of HC-fed females did not change the mean weight of E18.5 fetuses but reduced the percentage of fetuses exhibiting body weights below the 10th percentile of weight (HC: 90% vs. HC/VitE: 68%). In conclusion, our results showed that maternal gestational hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis in mice were associated to early onset fetal growth restriction and that dietary vitamin E supplementation had a beneficial impact on this condition. PMID:25295255

  7. Potential Mechanisms Linking Atherosclerosis and Increased Cardiovascular Risk in COPD: Focus On Sirtuins

    PubMed Central

    Corbi, Graziamaria; Bianco, Andrea; Turchiarelli, Viviana; Cellurale, Michele; Fatica, Federica; Daniele, Aurora; Mazzarella, Gennaro; Ferrara, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    The development of atherosclerosis is a multi-step process, at least in part controlled by the vascular endothelium function. Observations in humans and experimental models of atherosclerosis have identified monocyte recruitment as an early event in atherogenesis. Chronic inflammation is associated with ageing and its related diseases (e.g., atherosclerosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). Recently it has been discovered that Sirtuins (NAD+-dependent deacetylases) represent a pivotal regulator of longevity and h