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1

Iron oxyhydroxide mineralization on microbial extracellular polysaccharides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Iron biominerals can form in neutral pH microaerophilic environments where microbes both catalyze iron oxidation and create polymers that localize mineral precipitation. In order to classify the microbial polymers that influence FeOOH mineralogy, we studied the organic and mineral components of biominerals using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM), micro X-ray fluorescence (?XRF) microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). We focused on iron microbial mat samples from a creek and abandoned mine; these samples are dominated by iron oxyhydroxide-coated structures with sheath, stalk, and filament morphologies. In addition, we characterized the mineralized products of an iron-oxidizing, stalk-forming bacterial culture isolated from the mine. In both natural and cultured samples, microbial polymers were found to be acidic polysaccharides with carboxyl functional groups, strongly spatially correlated with iron oxyhydroxide distribution patterns. Organic fibrils collect FeOOH and control its recrystallization, in some cases resulting in oriented crystals with high aspect ratios. The impact of polymers is particularly pronounced as the materials age. Synthesis experiments designed to mimic the biomineralization processes show that the polysaccharide carboxyl groups bind dissolved iron strongly but release it as mineralization proceeds. Our results suggest that carboxyl groups of acidic polysaccharides are produced by different microorganisms to create a wide range of iron oxyhydroxide biomineral structures. The intimate and potentially long-term association controls the crystal growth, phase, and reactivity of iron oxyhydroxide nanoparticles in natural systems.

Chan, Clara S.; Fakra, Sirine C.; Edwards, David C.; Emerson, David; Banfield, Jillian F.

2009-07-01

2

CO? sequestration through mineral carbonation of iron oxyhydroxides.  

PubMed

Carbon dioxide sequestration via the use of sulfide reductants and mineral carbonation of the iron oxyhydroxide polymorphs lepidocrocite, goethite, and akaganeite with supercritical CO(2) (scCO(2)) was investigated using in situ attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The exposure of the different iron oxyhydroxides to aqueous sulfide in contact with scCO(2) at ?70-100 °C resulted in the partial transformation of the minerals to siderite (FeCO(3)) and sulfide phases such as pyrite (FeS(2)). The relative yield of siderite to iron sulfide bearing mineral product was a strong function of the initial sulfide concentration. The order of mineral reactivity with regard to the amount of siderite formation in the scCO(2)/sulfide environment for a specific reaction time was goethite < lepidocrocite ? akaganeite. Given the presence of goethite in sedimentary formations, this conversion reaction may have relevance to the subsurface sequestration and geologic storage of carbon dioxide. PMID:22066460

Lammers, Kristin; Murphy, Riley; Riendeau, Amber; Smirnov, Alexander; Schoonen, Martin A A; Strongin, Daniel R

2011-12-15

3

Density functional theory study of phase stability and defect thermodynamics in iron-oxyhydroxide mineral materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to their high surface area and reactivity toward a variety of heavy metal and oxyanion species of environmental concern, Fe-(oxyhydr)oxide materials play an important role in the geochemical fate of natural and anthropogenic contaminants in soils, aquifers and surface water environments worldwide. In this research, ab initio simulations describe the bulk structure, magnetic properties, and relative phase stability of major Fe-(oxyhydr)oxide materials, including hematite, goethite, lepidocrocite, and ferrihydrite.These bulk models are employed in further studies of point defect and alloy/dopant thermodynamics in these materials, allowing construction of a phase stability model that better replicates the structure and composition of real materials. Li + adsorption at the predominant goethite (101) surface is simulated using ab initio methods, offering energetic and structural insight into the binding mechanisms of metal cations over a range of surface protonation conditions.

Pinney, Nathan Douglas

4

Modified composites based on mesostructured iron oxyhydroxide and synthetic minerals: a potential material for the treatment of various toxic heavy metals and its toxicity.  

PubMed

The composites of mesostructured iron oxyhydroxide and/or commercial synthetic zeolite were investigated for use in the removal of toxic heavy metals, such as cadmium, copper, lead and arsenic, from aqueous solution. Four types of adsorbents, dried alginate beads (DABs), synthetic-zeolite impregnated beads (SZIBs), meso-iron-oxyhydroxide impregnated beads (MIOIBs) and synthetic-zeolite/meso-iron-oxyhydroxide composite beads (SZMIOIBs), were prepared for heavy metal adsorption tests. Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the removal efficiencies of cations and anions of heavy metals and the possibility of regenerating the adsorbents. Among these adsorbents, the MIOIBs can simultaneously remove cations and anions of heavy metals; they have high adsorption capacities for lead (60.1mgg(-1)) and arsenic (71.9mgg(-1)) compared with other adsorbents, such as DABs (158.1 and 0.0mgg(-1)), SZIB (42.9 and 0.0mgg(-1)) and SZMIOIB (54.0 and 5.9mgg(-1)) for lead and arsenic, respectively. Additionally, the removal efficiency was consistent at approximately 90%, notwithstanding repetitive regeneration. The characteristics of meso-iron-oxyhydroxide powder were confirmed by X-ray diffraction, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller and transmission electron microscopy. We also performed a comparative toxicity study that indicated that much lower concentrations of the powdered form of mesostructured iron oxyhydroxide had stronger cytotoxicity than the granular form. These results suggest that the granular form of meso iron oxyhydroxide is a more useful and safer adsorbent for heavy metal treatment than the powdered form. This research provides promising results for the application of MIOIBs as an adsorbent for various heavy metals from wastewater and sewage. PMID:24444456

Chung, Seung-Gun; Ryu, Jae-Chun; Song, Mi-Kyung; An, Byungryul; Kim, Song-Bae; Lee, Sang-Hyup; Choi, Jae-Woo

2014-02-28

5

Iron oxyhydroxide nanostructured in montmorillonite clays: Preparation and characterization.  

PubMed

Akaganéite is a very rare iron oxyhydroxide in nature. It can be obtained by many synthetic routes, but thermohydrolysis is the most common method reported in the literature. In this work, akaganéite-like materials were prepared through the thermohydrolysis of FeCl(3).6H(2)O in water and suspensions containing clay minerals. X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) data show that the clays determine the crystal phase and size of the iron oxyhydroxide crystals. According to XRD and FTIR data, beta-FeO(OH) (akaganéite) is the main metal oxyhydroxide phase. Considering the small basal spacing (d(001)) displacement observed when comparing the XRD patterns of pristine clays with the composites containing beta-FeO(OH), the iron oxyhydroxide should be mostly located on the basal and edge surfaces of the clay minerals. UV-Vis electronic absorption spectra indicate that the preferred phase of the iron oxyhydroxide is determined by the nature of the clay minerals. PMID:20609843

Villalba, Juan Carlo; Constantino, Vera R L; Anaissi, Fauze Jacó

2010-09-01

6

Iron oxyhydroxide colloids stabilized with polysaccharides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutralization of iron salts in aqueous solutions of ?-carrageenan and cellulose sulfate results in iron oxyhydroxide–polysaccharide\\u000a hybrid colloids with unusual pH stability up to pH 13. It is shown that both polysaccharides form a tight polymer layer surrounding\\u000a the inorganic particles, which in the case of ?-carrageenan is cross-linked by helical domains forming a self-assembled nanoreactor.\\u000a The stabilized iron oxyhydroxide

F. Jones; H. Cölfen; M. Antonietti

2000-01-01

7

XAS evidence of As(V) association with iron oxyhydroxides in a contaminated soil at a former arsenical pesticide processing plant.  

PubMed

The molecular-level speciation of arsenic has been determined in a soil profile in the Massif Central near Auzon, France that was impacted by As-based pesticides by combining conventional techniques (XRD, selective chemical extractions) with X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The arsenic concentration is very high at the top (>7000 mg kg(-1)) and decreases rapidly downward to a few hundreds of milligrams per kilogram. A thin layer of schultenite (PbHAsO4), a lead arsenate commonly used as an insecticide until the middle of the 20th century, was found at 10 cm depth. Despite the occurrence of this As-bearing mineral, oxalate extraction indicated that more than 65% of the arsenic was released upon dissolution of amorphous iron oxides, suggesting a major association of arsenic with these phases within the soil profile. Since oxalate extraction cannot unambiguously distinguish among the various chemical forms of arsenic, these results were confirmed by a direct in situ determination of arsenic speciation using XAS analysis. XANES data indicate that arsenic occurs mainly as As(V) along the soil profile except for the topsoil sample where a minor amount (7%) of As(III) was detected. EXAFS spectra of soil samples were fit by linear combinations of model compounds spectra and by a shell-by-shell method. These procedures clearly confirmed that As(V) is mainly (at least 80 wt %) associated with amorphous Fe(III) oxides as coprecipitates within the soil profile. If any, the proportion of schultenite, which was evidenced by XRD in a separate thin white layer, does not account for more than 10 wt % of arsenic in soil samples. This study emphasizes the importance of iron oxides in restricting arsenic dispersal within soils following dissolution of primary As-bearing solids manufactured for use as pesticides and released into the soils. PMID:16475314

Cancès, B; Juillot, F; Morin, G; Laperche, V; Alvarez, L; Proux, O; Hazemann, J L; Brown, G E; Calas, G

2005-12-15

8

Magnetic birefringence of iron oxyhydroxide nanoparticles stabilised by sucrose  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetically induced optical birefringence is used to investigate pharmaceutically important iron-sucrose aqueous suspensions. XRD and TEM measurements of the system of oxyhydroxide particles stabilised by sucrose have shown that this system contains iron oxyhydroxide in the form of 2-5 nm particles. The mineral form of the iron-core is suggested to be akaganeite. Anisotropy of the optical polarizability and magnetic susceptibility of akaganeite nanoparticles are calculated. The permanent dipole moment obtained for the nanoparticles studied was found to be negligible, in agreement with the characteristic superparamagnetic behaviour of the magnetic nanoparticles observed at room temperature. The Neel temperature of these nanoparticles is estimated as below 276 K. The results obtained are discussed against a background of the earlier studies of similar nanoscale systems.

Koralewski, M.; Pochylski, M.; Gierszewski, J.

2011-05-01

9

Biomimetic lithography and deposition kinetics of iron oxyhydroxide thin films  

SciTech Connect

Heterogeneous nucleation and crystal growth on functionalized organic substrates is a critical step in biological hard tissue formation. Self assembled monolayers can be derivatized with various organic functional groups to mimic the ``nucleation proteins`` for induction of mineral growth. Studies of nucleation and growth on SAMs can provide a better understanding of biomineralization and can also form the basis of a superior thin film deposition process. We demonstrate that micron-scale, electron and ion beam, lithographic techniques can be used to pattern SAMs with functional organic groups that either inhibit or promote mineral deposition. Patterned films of iron oxyhydroxide were deposited on the areas patterned with nucleation sites. Studies of the deposition kinetic of these films show that indeed the surface induces heterogeneous nucleation and that film formation does not occur via absorption of polymers or colloidal material formed homogeneously in solution. The nucleus interfacial free energy was calculated to be 24 mJ/m2 on a SAM surface composed entirely of sulfonate groups.

Rieke, P.C.; Wood, L.L.; Marsh, B.M.; Fryxell, G.E.; Engelhard, M.H.; Baer, D.R. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Tarasevich, B.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)]|[Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; John, C.M. [Shaman Pharmaceuticals, San Francisco, CA (United States)

1993-12-01

10

Role of sol with iron oxyhydroxide/sodium dodecyl sulfate composites on Fenton oxidation of sorbed phenanthrene in sand.  

PubMed

In situ Fenton oxidation has been recently used to oxidize sorbed organic contaminants in soil. The objective of present contribution was to study the role of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as anionic surfactant and sol with iron oxyhydroxide/SDS for Fenton oxidation of sorbed phenanthrene in sand. The most effective experimental condition for phenanthrene oxidation was the Fenton-like reaction system with 0.35% H2O2, 30 mM SDS, and 4 mM FeCl2. The Fenton-like reactions under these experimental conditions resulted in the production and sustenance of a stable sol with iron oxyhydroxide/SDS composites over 24 h. The formation of iron oxyhydroxide/SDS composites resulted in stabilization of H2O2, and then the Fenton-like reactions were sustained over 24 h. Furthermore, the sol of iron oxyhydroxide/SDS composites gave suitable sites to sustain oxidations of dissolved phenanthrene over a prolonged reaction span, which is required for in situ chemical oxidation. PMID:23666072

Park, Joo-Yang; Kim, Jung-Hwan

2013-09-15

11

Adsorption of selenium by amorphous iron oxyhydroxide and manganese dioxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work compares and models the adsorption of selenium and other anions on a neutral to alkaline surface (amorphous iron oxyhydroxide) and an acidic surface (manganese dioxide). Selenium adsorption on these oxides is examined as a function of pH, particle concentration, oxidation state, and competing anion concentration in order to assess how these factors might influence the mobility of selenium in the environment. The data indicate that 1) amorphous iron oxyhydroxide has a greater affinity for selenium than manganese dioxide, 2) selenite [Se(IV)] adsorption increases with decreasing pH and increasing particle concentration and is stronger than selenate [Se(VI)] adsorption on both oxides, and 3) selenate does not adsorb on manganese dioxide. The relative affinity of selenate and selenite for the oxides and the lack of adsorption of selenate on a strongly acidic surface suggests that selenate forms outer-sphere complexes while selenite forms inner-sphere complexes with the surfaces. The data also indicate that the competition sequence of other anions with respect to selenite adsorption at pH 7.0 is phosphate > silicate > molybdate > fluoride > sulfate on amorphous iron oxyhydroxide and molybdate ? phosphate > silicate > fluoride > sulfate on manganese dioxide. The adsorption of phosphate, molybdate, and silicate on these oxides as a function of pH indicates that the competition sequences reflect the relative affinities of these anions for the surfaces. The Triple Layer surface complexation model is used to provide a quantitative description of these observations and to assess the importance of surface site heterogeneity on anion adsorption. The modeling results suggest that selenite forms binuclear, innersphere complexes with amorphous iron oxyhydroxide and monodentate, inner-sphere complexes with manganese dioxide and that selenate forms outer-sphere, monodentate complexes with amorphous iron oxyhydroxide. The heterogeneity of the oxide surface sites is reflected in decreasing equilibrium constants for selenite with increasing adsorption density and both experimental observations and modeling results suggest that manganese dioxide has fewer sites of higher energy for selenite adsorption than amorphous iron oxyhydroxide. Modeling and interpreting the adsorption of phosphate, molybdate, and silicate on the oxides are made difficult by the lack of constraint in choosing surface species and the fact that equally good fits can be obtained with different surface species. Finally, predictions of anion competition using the model results from single adsorbate systems are not very successful because the model does not account for surface site heterogeneity. Selenite adsorption data from a multi-adsorbate system could be fit if the equilibrium constant for selenite is decreased with increasing anion adsorption density.

Balistrieri, Laurie S.; Chao, T. T.

1990-03-01

12

Adsorption of selenium by amorphous iron oxyhydroxide and manganese dioxide  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This work compares and models the adsorption of selenium and other anions on a neutral to alkaline surface (amorphous iron oxyhydroxide) and an acidic surface (manganese dioxide). Selenium adsorption on these oxides is examined as a function of pH, particle concentration, oxidation state, and competing anion concentration in order to assess how these factors might influence the mobility of selenium in the environment. The data indicate that 1. 1) amorphous iron oxyhydroxide has a greater affinity for selenium than manganese dioxide, 2. 2) selenite [Se(IV)] adsorption increases with decreasing pH and increasing particle concentration and is stronger than selenate [Se(VI)] adsorption on both oxides, and 3. 3) selenate does not adsorb on manganese dioxide. The relative affinity of selenate and selenite for the oxides and the lack of adsorption of selenate on a strongly acidic surface suggests that selenate forms outer-sphere complexes while selenite forms inner-sphere complexes with the surfaces. The data also indicate that the competition sequence of other anions with respect to selenite adsorption at pH 7.0 is phosphate > silicate > molybdate > fluoride > sulfate on amorphous iron oxyhydroxide and molybdate ??? phosphate > silicate > fluoride > sulfate on manganese dioxide. The adsorption of phosphate, molybdate, and silicate on these oxides as a function of pH indicates that the competition sequences reflect the relative affinities of these anions for the surfaces. The Triple Layer surface complexation model is used to provide a quantitative description of these observations and to assess the importance of surface site heterogeneity on anion adsorption. The modeling results suggest that selenite forms binuclear, innersphere complexes with amorphous iron oxyhydroxide and monodentate, inner-sphere complexes with manganese dioxide and that selenate forms outer-sphere, monodentate complexes with amorphous iron oxyhydroxide. The heterogeneity of the oxide surface sites is reflected in decreasing equilibrium constants for selenite with increasing adsorption density and both experimental observations and modeling results suggest that manganese dioxide has fewer sites of higher energy for selenite adsorption than amorphous iron oxyhydroxide. Modeling and interpreting the adsorption of phosphate, molybdate, and silicate on the oxides are made difficult by the lack of constraint in choosing surface species and the fact that equally good fits can be obtained with different surface species. Finally, predictions of anion competition using the model results from single adsorbate systems are not very successful because the model does not account for surface site heterogeneity. Selenite adsorption data from a multi-adsorbate system could be fit if the equilibrium constant for selenite is decreased with increasing anion adsorption density. ?? 1990.

Balistrieri, L. S.; Chao, T. T.

1990-01-01

13

Molecular Mechanisms of Iron Oxyhydroxide Biomineralization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutrophilic iron-oxidizing microbes such as Gallionella and PV-1 (Emerson and Moyer, 1997) extrude polymers that become encrusted with iron oxides. Little is known about the identity of these polymers, their biological function and the roles they play in mineralization. To this end, we are investigating iron oxidizers in natural terrestrial iron-rich microbial mat communities, culturing and characterizing them in the laboratory and performing abiotic synthesis experiments based on the natural mineralization processes. Our sampling site is in a flooded former lead-zinc mine in Tennyson, WI, which is host to thick reddish-orange microbial mats. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy studies show that the mat is composed of iron oxide-covered stalks and sheaths (like those formed by Gallionella and Leptothrix spp.), as well as tangled masses of mineralized filaments. There is evidence of polymer influence on mineral phase and morphology in the form of extremely thin (few-unit cell wide), microns-long akaganeite (? -FeOOH) crystals at the center of these mineralized filaments. We are using synchrotron-based X-ray spectromicroscopy (PEEM-photoelectron emisson microscopy and STXM-scanning transmission X-ray microscopy), which has the ability to give chemical information on heterogenous samples at high spatial resolutions. Both PEEM and STXM show that these filaments contain polysaccharides, which are likely templating the akaganeite formation. Initial iron oxide synthesis experiments using model microbial polysaccharides support this hypothesis. Further synthesis and characterization by X-ray absorption and infrared spectroscopy methods is being performed in order to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of mineral nucleation and growth.

Chan, C. S.; Fakra, S.; de Stasio, G.; Banfield, J. F.

2003-12-01

14

Humic acid facilitates the transport of ARS-labeled hydroxyapatite nanoparticles in iron oxyhydroxide-coated sand.  

PubMed

Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (nHAP) have been widely used to remediate soil and wastewater contaminated with metals and radionuclides. However, our understanding of nHAP transport and fate is limited in natural environments that exhibit significant variability in solid and solution chemistry. The transport and retention kinetics of Alizarin red S (ARS)-labeled nHAP were investigated in water-saturated packed columns that encompassed a range of humic acid concentrations (HA, 0-10 mg L(-1)), fractional surface coverage of iron oxyhydroxide coatings on sand grains (?, 0-0.75), and pH (6.0-10.5). HA was found to have a marked effect on the electrokinetic properties of ARS-nHAP, and on the transport and retention of ARS-nHAP in granular media. The transport of ARS-nHAP was found to increase with increasing HA concentration because of enhanced colloidal stability and the reduced aggregate size. When HA = 10 mg L(-1), greater ARS-nHAP attachment occurred with increasing ? because of increased electrostatic attraction between negatively charged nanoparticles and positively charged iron oxyhydroxides, although alkaline conditions (pH 8.0 and 10.5) reversed the surface charge of the iron oxyhydroxides and therefore decreased deposition. The retention profiles of ARS-nHAP exhibited a hyperexponential shape for all test conditions, suggesting some unfavorable attachment conditions. Retarded breakthrough curves occurred in sands with iron oxyhydroxide coatings because of time-dependent occupation of favorable deposition sites. Consideration of the above effects is necessary to improve remediation efficiency of nHAP for metals and actinides in soils and subsurface environments. PMID:22316080

Wang, Dengjun; Bradford, Scott A; Harvey, Ronald W; Gao, Bin; Cang, Long; Zhou, Dongmei

2012-03-01

15

Antagonistic effects of humic acid and iron oxyhydroxide grain-coating on biochar nanoparticle transport in saturated sand.  

PubMed

Biochar land application may result in multiple agronomic and environmental benefits (e.g., carbon sequestration, improving soil quality, and immobilizing environmental contaminants). However, our understanding of biochar particle transport is largely unknown in natural environments with significant heterogeneity in solid (e.g., patches of iron oxyhydroxide coating) and solution chemistry (e.g., the presence of natural organic matter), which represents a critical knowledge gap in assessing the environmental impact of biochar land application. Transport and retention kinetics of nanoparticles (NPs) from wheat straw biochars produced at two pyrolysis temperatures (i.e., 350 and 550 °C) were investigated in water-saturated sand columns at environmentally relevant concentrations of dissolved humic acid (HA, 0, 1, 5, and 10 mg L(-1)) and fractional surface coverage of iron oxyhydroxide coatings on sand grains (?, 0.16, 0.28, and 0.40). Transport of biochar NPs increased with increasing HA concentration, largely because of enhanced repulsive interaction energy between biochar NPs and sand grains. Conversely, transport of biochar NPs decreased significantly with increasing ? due to enhanced electrostatic attraction between negatively charged biochar NPs and positively charged iron oxyhydroxides. At a given ? of 0.28, biochar NPs were less retained with increasing HA concentration due to increased electrosteric repulsion between biochar NPs and sand grains. Experimental breakthrough curves and retention profiles were well described using a two-site kinetic retention model that accounted for Langmuirian blocking or random sequential adsorption at one site. Consistent with the blocking effect, the often observed flat retention profiles stemmed from decreased retention rate and/or maximum retention capacity at a higher HA concentration or smaller ?. The antagonistic effects of HA and iron oxyhydroxide grain-coating imparted on the mobility of biochar NPs suggest that biochar colloid transport potential will be dependent on competitive influences exerted by a number of environmental factors (e.g., natural organic matter and metal oxides). PMID:23614641

Wang, Dengjun; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Dongmei

2013-05-21

16

Oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions of pedogenic phyllosilicates and iron oxyhydroxides: Development of modern surface domain arrays and implications for paleotemperature reconstructions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mineralogic, chemical, and oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions of 68 different modern soil and paleosol phyllosilicate and iron oxyhydroxide samples are presented. The chemical and mineralogic data are used in conjunction with published thermodynamic data to calculate hydrogen and oxygen isotope fractionation factors for each sample. These temperature-dependent fractionation values are then combined with modern global oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions of meteoric water and temperature data from the IAEA database to construct modern surface domains (MSD) for each phyllosilicate and iron oxyhydroxide sample with the coordinates dD and d18O. The hydrogen isotopic compositions of the phyllosilicates range from -108S to -24S, whereas the oxygen isotopic compositions range from +10.2S to +22.7S. The hydrogen isotopic compositions of the iron oxyhydroxides range from -113S to -154S, whereas the oxygen isotopic compositions range from +3.1S to -3.2S. All of the phyllosilicate samples from modern soils plot within the MSD and yield equilibrium temperatures of formation similar to measured temperatures at each respective site. These results suggest that published thermodynamic data provide good estimates of natural systems. Paleo-equatorial Permo-Pennsylvanian phyllosilicates and iron oxyhydroxides plot within the MSD, or at slightly higher temperatures than MSD values (25 to 35° C). Eocene kaolinites plot within the MSD with equilibrium temperatures above modern temperatures (22°). Late Triassic iron oxyhydroxides from Argentina plot within the modern surface domain at temperatures of 12° C. However, the phyllosilicate data points plot well outside their respective MSDs, suggesting the phyllosilicate ? D values of these Triassic samples have likely been altered by proton-diffusion.

Tabor, N. J.; Montanez, I. P.

2002-12-01

17

The nanosphere iron mineral(s) in Mars soil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of surface-modified clays containing nanophase (np) iron/oxyhydroxides of extremely small particle sizes, with total iron contents as high as found in Mars soil, were prepared by iron deposition on the clay surface from ferrous chloride solution. Comprehensive studies of the iron mineralogy in these 'Mars-soil analogs' were conducted using chemical extractions, solubility analyses, pH and redox, x ray and electron diffractometry, electron microscopic imaging specific surface area and particle size determinations, differential thermal analyses, magnetic properties characterization, spectral reflectance, and Viking biology simulation experiments. The clay matrix and the procedure used for synthesis produced nanophase iron oxides containing a certain proportion of divalent iron, which slowly converts to more stable, fully oxidized iron minerals. The noncrystalline nature of the iron compounds precipitated on the surface of the clay was verified by their complete extractability in oxalate. Lepidocrocite (gamma-FeOOH) was detected by selected area electron diffraction. It is formed from a double iron Fe(II)/Fe(III) hydroxyl mineral such as 'green rust', or ferrosic hydroxide. Magnetic measurements suggested that lepidocrocite converted to the more stable meaghemite (gamma-Fe203) by mild heat treatment and then to nanophase hematite (aplha-Fe203) by extensive heat treatment. Their chemical reactivity offers a plausible mechanism for the somewhat puzzling observations of the Viking biology experiments. Their unique chemical reactivities are attributed to the combined catalytic effects of the iron oxide/oxyhydroxide and silicate phase surfaces. The mode of formation of these (nanophase) iron oxides on Mars is still unknown.

Banin, A.; Ben-Shlomo, T.; Margulies, L.; Blake, D. F.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Gehring, A. U.

1993-01-01

18

Biotic and abiotic controls on iron oxyhydroxide formation in the gill chamber of the hydrothermal vent shrimp Rimicaris exoculata.  

PubMed

A unique feature of the shrimp, Rimicaris exoculata, from the Rainbow hydrothermal vent field is the abundance of iron oxyhydroxides in its branchial chamber. These minerals accumulate throughout the molting cycle and are intimately associated with the shrimps' epibiotic microflora. In this study, an enhancement of the iron oxidation rate through shrimp swarms in the vicinity of vents is highlighted. This process is sustained by the high molting frequency of the shrimp, and potentially has large biogeochemical and ecological consequences for the associated hydrothermal ecosystem. The calculated rate for abiotic (homogeneous and heterogeneous) iron oxidation suggests that autocatalytic oxidation is the predominant reaction pathway leading to the accumulation of iron oxyhydroxides throughout the molting cycle. The occurrence of iron-oxidizing bacteria is not excluded, but their growth is most probably restricted to the first molting stage when competition with the abiotic iron oxidation is low. The influence of epibiont activity on local oxygen conditions and on the surface properties of the formed mineral, combined with the position of the shrimp in the hydrothermal mixing gradient, is expected to drive the relative contribution of abiogenic and biogenic iron oxidation. PMID:19656216

Schmidt, C; Corbari, L; Gaill, F; Le Bris, N

2009-09-01

19

Associations between iron oxyhydroxide nanoparticle growth and metal adsorption/structural incorporation  

SciTech Connect

The interaction of metal ions and oxyanions with nanoscale mineral phases has not yet been extensively studied despite the increased recognition of their prevalence in natural systems as a significant component of geomedia. A combination of macroscopic uptake studies to investigate the adsorption behavior of As(V), Cu(II), Hg(II), and Zn(II) onto nanoparticulate goethite ({alpha}-FeOOH) as a function of aging time at elevated temperature (75 C) and synchrotron-based X-ray studies to track changes in both the sorption mode and the rate of nanoparticle growth reveal the effects that uptake has on particle growth. Metal(loid) species which sorb quickly to the iron oxyhydroxide particles (As(V), Cu(II)) appear to passivate the particle surface, impeding the growth of the nanoparticles with progressive aging; in contrast, species that sorb more slowly (Hg(II), Zn(II)) have considerably less impact on particle growth. Progressive changes in the speciation of these particular metals with time suggest shifts in the mode of metal uptake with time, possibly indicating structural incorporation of the metal(loid) into the nanoparticle; this is supported by the continued increase in uptake concomitant with particle growth, implying that metal species may transform from surface-sorbed species to more structurally incorporated forms. This type of incorporation would have implications for the long-term fate and mobility of metals in contaminated regions, and affect the strategy for potential remediation/modeling efforts.

Kim, C.S.; Lentini, C.J.; Waychunas, G.A.

2008-09-15

20

Structure of carbohydrate-bound polynuclear iron oxyhydroxide nanoparticles in parenteral formulations.  

PubMed

Intravenous iron therapy is used to treat anemia associated with chronic kidney disease. The chemical structures of parenteral iron agents have not been characterized in detail, and correlations between structure, efficiency of iron delivery, and toxicity via catalysis of oxygen-derived free radical creation remain to be established. In this study, two formulations of parenteral iron have been characterized by absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and elemental analysis. The samples studied were Venofer (Iron Sucrose Injection, USP) and Ferrlecit (Sodium Ferric Gluconate in Sucrose Injection). The 250-800-nm absorption spectra and the XRD patterns showed that both formulations contain a mineral core composed of iron oxyhydroxide in the beta-FeOOH mineral polymorph known as akaganeite. This was further confirmed for each formulation by imaging using TEM and AFM. The average core size for the nanoparticles, after dialysis to remove unbound or loosely bound carbohydrate, was approximately 3+/-2 nm for the iron-sucrose, and approximately 2+/-1 nm for the iron-gluconate. Each of the nanoparticles consists of a mineral core, surrounded by a layer of bound carbohydrate. The overall diameter of the average bead in the dialyzed preparations was approximately 7+/-4 nm for the iron-sucrose, and 3+/-1 nm for the iron-gluconate. Undialyzed preparations have particles with larger average sizes, depending on the extent of dilution of unbound and loosely bound carbohydrate. At a dilution corresponding to a final Fe concentration of 5 mg/mL, the average particle diameter in the iron-sucrose formulation was approximately 22+/-9 nm, whereas that of the iron-gluconate formulation was approximately 12+/-5 nm. PMID:15522403

Kudasheva, Dina S; Lai, Jriuan; Ulman, Abraham; Cowman, Mary K

2004-11-01

21

Characterization of sorption sites on aggregate soil samples using synchrotron x-ray computerized microtomography.  

SciTech Connect

Synchrotron-source X-ray computerized microtomography (CMT) was used to evaluate the adsorptive properties of aggregate soil samples. A linear relationship between measured mean mass attenuation coefficient (s) and mass fraction iron was generated by imaging mineral standards with known iron contents. On the basis of reported stoichiometries of the clay minerals and identifications of iron oxyhydroxides (1), we calculated the mass fraction iron and iron oxyhydroxide in the intergranular material. The mass fractions of iron were estimated to range from 0.17 to 0.22 for measurements made at 18 keV and from 0.18 to 0.21 for measurements made at 26 keV. One aggregate sample also contained regions within the intergranular material with mass fraction iron ranging from 0.29 to 0.31 and from 0.33 to 0.36 for the 18 and 26 keV measurements, respectively. The mass fraction iron oxyhydroxide ranged from 0.18 to 0.35 for the low-iron intergranular material and from 0.40 to 0.59 for the high-iron intergranular material. Using absorption edge difference imaging with CMT, we visualized cesium on the intergranular material, presumably because of adsorption and possible exchange reactions. By characterizing the mass fraction iron, the mass fraction iron oxyhydroxide, and the adsorptive capacity of these soil mineral aggregates, we provide information useful for conceptualization, development, and parameterization of transport models.

Cygan, Randall Timothy; Reno, Marissa Devan; Altman, Susan Jeanne; McLain, Angela A.; Rivers, Mark L. (CARS, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL)

2004-06-01

22

Comparison study on transformation of iron oxyhydroxides: Based on theoretical and experimental data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the catalytic transformation of ferrihydrite, feroxyhyte, and lepidocrocite in the presence of Fe(II). In this paper, the transformation from akaganeite and goethite to hematite in the presence of trace Fe(II) was studied in detail. The result indicates that trace Fe(II) can accelerate the transformation of akaganeite and goethite. Compared with the transformation of other iron oxyhydroxides (e.g., ferrihydrite, feroxyhyte, lepidocrocite, and akaganeite), a complete transformation from goethite to hematite was not observed in the presence of Fe(II). On the basis of our earlier and present experimental results, the transformation of various iron oxyhydroxides was compared based on their thermodynamic stability, crystalline structure, transformation mechanism, and transformation time.

Lu, Bin; Guo, Hui; Li, Ping; Liu, Hui; Wei, Yu; Hou, Denglu

2011-08-01

23

Comparison study on transformation of iron oxyhydroxides: Based on theoretical and experimental data  

SciTech Connect

We have investigated the catalytic transformation of ferrihydrite, feroxyhyte, and lepidocrocite in the presence of Fe(II). In this paper, the transformation from akaganeite and goethite to hematite in the presence of trace Fe(II) was studied in detail. The result indicates that trace Fe(II) can accelerate the transformation of akaganeite and goethite. Compared with the transformation of other iron oxyhydroxides (e.g., ferrihydrite, feroxyhyte, lepidocrocite, and akaganeite), a complete transformation from goethite to hematite was not observed in the presence of Fe(II). On the basis of our earlier and present experimental results, the transformation of various iron oxyhydroxides was compared based on their thermodynamic stability, crystalline structure, transformation mechanism, and transformation time. - Graphical abstract: The transformation of various iron oxyhydroxides in the presence of trace Fe(II) was compared based on experimental results, thermodynamic stability, crystalline structure, and transformation mechanism. Highlights: > Fe(II) can accelerate the transformation from akaganeite to hematite. > Small particles of goethite can transform to hematite in the presence of Fe(II). > Some hematite particles were found to be embedded within the crystal of goethite. > The relationship between structure and transformation mechanism was revealed.

Lu Bin [College of Physics Science and Information Engineering, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050016 (China); College of Chemistry and Material Science, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050016 (China); Guo Hui; Li Ping [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050016 (China); Liu Hui, E-mail: liuhuicn@126.com [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050016 (China); Wei Yu, E-mail: weiyu@mail.hebtu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050016 (China); Hou Denglu [College of Physics Science and Information Engineering, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050016 (China)

2011-08-15

24

Watershed-Scale Geochemical Inventory of Soils by Portable X-Ray Fluorescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatial databases of geochemical data are an excellent source of point-scale information on naturally occurring toxic elements (arsenic, selenium or radon), contamination from industrial processes (lead, mercury, or cesium), mineralogical variability, and the fate of toxic compounds (i.e. sorption of pesticides to iron oxyhydroxide minerals) in soil. Sample preparation time, safety concerns associated with HF or HNO3 acid dissolution, instrument

D. E. Beaudette; L. K. Stupi; A. Swarowsky; A. T. O'Geen; J. F. Chang; B. Gallagher

2009-01-01

25

To improve the performance of sediment microbial fuel cell through amending colloidal iron oxyhydroxide into freshwater sediments.  

PubMed

Effects of iron oxide amendment into freshwater sediments on performance of sediment microbial fuel cell (SMFC) were investigated. It was found that amending amorphous bulk ferric oxyhydroxide, and crystalline goethite and magnetite did not affect SMFC operation. However, amendment of the mixed solution including soluble ferric citrate and colloidal iron oxyhydroxide, stably improved SMFC performance with voltage outputs up to threefolds higher than those without amendment. The enhanced voltage production corresponded to lower anode potential, but was not related to organic matter removal in sediments. Further experiments demonstrated that colloidal iron oxyhydroxide instead of soluble ferric iron played an important role in voltage production through maintaining high-concentration ferrous iron in pore water of sediments as electron shuttle and for chemical oxidation on the anode. Thus, colloidal iron oxyhydroxide amendment was a promising strategy to improve power production from SMFC employed in sediments especially with low content of organic matters. PMID:24657753

Zhou, Yan-Li; Yang, Ying; Chen, Mo; Zhao, Zhi-Wei; Jiang, He-Long

2014-05-01

26

Electron transport in pure and substituted iron oxyhydroxides by small-polaron migration.  

PubMed

Iron oxyhydroxides (FeOOH) are common crystalline forms of iron that play a critical role in technology and the natural environment via a variety of important reduction-oxidation reactions, including electrical semiconduction as an aspect. However, a basic understanding of the electron transport properties of these systems is still lacking. We examine the electron mobility in goethite (?-FeOOH), akaganéite (?-FeOOH), and lepidocrocite (?-FeOOH) polymorphs by means of density functional theory based (DFT+U) calculations. We show that room temperature charge transport should be dominated by the small-polaron hopping type, and that the attendant mobility should be highest for pure goethite and akaganéite. Hopping pathways through the various lattices are discussed in terms of individual electron exchange steps and rates for each. Given the usual occurrence of compositional impurities in natural iron oxyhydroxides, we also investigate the effect of common stoichiometric defects on the electron hopping activation energies such as Al and Cr substitutional cations in goethite, and Cl anions in the channels of akaganéite. PMID:24952554

Alexandrov, Vitaly; Rosso, Kevin M

2014-06-21

27

Electron transport in pure and substituted iron oxyhydroxides by small-polaron migration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Iron oxyhydroxides (FeOOH) are common crystalline forms of iron that play a critical role in technology and the natural environment via a variety of important reduction-oxidation reactions, including electrical semiconduction as an aspect. However, a basic understanding of the electron transport properties of these systems is still lacking. We examine the electron mobility in goethite (?-FeOOH), akaganéite (?-FeOOH), and lepidocrocite (?-FeOOH) polymorphs by means of density functional theory based (DFT+U) calculations. We show that room temperature charge transport should be dominated by the small-polaron hopping type, and that the attendant mobility should be highest for pure goethite and akaganéite. Hopping pathways through the various lattices are discussed in terms of individual electron exchange steps and rates for each. Given the usual occurrence of compositional impurities in natural iron oxyhydroxides, we also investigate the effect of common stoichiometric defects on the electron hopping activation energies such as Al and Cr substitutional cations in goethite, and Cl anions in the channels of akaganéite.

Alexandrov, Vitaly; Rosso, Kevin M.

2014-06-01

28

A new method for preparation of magnetite from iron oxyhydroxide or iron oxide and ferrous salt in aqueous solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, a new method is proposed for the preparation of Fe 3O 4 from iron oxyhydroxides (goethite, akaganeite, lepidocrocite, feroxyhyte and ferrihydrite) or iron oxide (hematite) and ferrous salt in aqueous solution. The product is magnetite with various particle sizes. Products are characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, IR spectra and vibrating sample magnetometery.

Kahani, S. A.; Jafari, M.

2009-07-01

29

Mineralization of a sorbed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in two soils using catalyzed hydrogen peroxide.  

PubMed

Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) catalyzed by soluble iron or naturally occurring soil minerals, (i.e., modified Fenton's reagent) was investigated as a basis for mineralizing sorbed and NAPL-phase benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a hydrophobic and toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, in two soils of different complexity. 14C-Benzo[a]pyrene was added to silica sand and a silt loam soil, and mineralization was investigated using three-level central composite rotatable experimental designs. The effects of H2O2 concentration, slurry volume, and iron(II) amendment were investigated in the silica sand systems. In a Palouse loess silt loam soil, the variables included H2O2 concentration, slurry volume, and pH, with H2O2 catalyzed by naturally occurring iron oxyhydroxides. Regression equations generated from the data were used to develop three-dimensional response surfaces describing BaP mineralization. Based on the recovery of 14C-CO2, 70% BaP mineralization was achieved in the sand within 24 h using 15 M H2O2 and an iron(II) concentration of 6.6 mM with a slurry volume of 0.3 x the field capacity of the sand. For the silt loam soil, 85% mineralization of BaP was observed using 15 M H2O2, no iron amendment, and a slurry volume of 20 x the soil field capacity. The balance of the radiolabeled carbon remained as unreacted BaP in the soil fraction. Gas-purge measurements over 5 d confirmed negligible desorption under nontreatment conditions. However, oxidation reactions were complete within 24 h and promoted up to 85% BaP mineralization, documenting that the natural rate of desorption/dissolution did not control the rate of oxidation and mineralization of the BaP. The results show that catalyzed H2O2 has the ability to rapidly mineralize sorbed/NAPL-phase BaP and that partitioning, which is often the rate-limiting factor in soil remediation, does not appear to limit the rate of vigorous Fenton-like treatment. PMID:12420933

Watts, Richard J; Stanton, Patrick C; Howsawkeng, Jimmy; Teel, Amy L

2002-10-01

30

Mineral nanoparticles in dispersed soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical-mineral composition and morphological features of mineral nanoparticles of clay soils have been studied. In the\\u000a clay soils of the Moscow moraine, nanoparticles are found to be localized in the surface microcavities of sand and silt grains\\u000a covered with clay films. They have predominantly anisometric configurations and comprise mainly mixed-layered clay minerals\\u000a and ferric oxides. The distinctive features of

V. N. Sokolov; M. S. Chernov; V. G. Shlykov; O. V. Razgulina; D. I. Yurkovets; V. V. Krupskaya

2008-01-01

31

Soil organic matter mineralization in frozen soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boreal forest soils are frozen for a large part of the year and soil organic matter mineralization during this period has been shown to significantly influence the C balance of boreal forest ecosystems. Mineralization proceeds through heterotrophic microbial activity, but the understanding of the environmental controls regulating soil organic matter mineralization under frozen conditions is poor. Through a series of investigations we have addressed this issue in order to elucidate to what extent a range of environmental factors control mineralization processes in frozen soils and also the microbial communities potential to oxidize organic substrates and grow under such conditions. The unfrozen water content in the frozen soils was shown to be an integral control on the temperature response of biogenic CO2 production across the freezing point of bulk soil water. We found that osmotic potential was an important contributor to the total water potential and, hence, the unfrozen water content of frozen soil. From being low and negligible in an unfrozen soil, the osmotic potential was found to contribute up to 70% of the total water potential in frozen soil, greatly influencing the volume of liquid water. The specific factors of how soil organic matter composition affected the unfrozen water content and CO2 production of frozen soil were studied by CP-MAS NMR. We concluded that abundance of aromatics and recalcitrant compounds showed a significant positive correlation with unfrozen water content and these were also the major soil organic fractions that similarly correlated with the microbial CO2 production of the frozen soils. Thus, the hierarchy of environmental factors controlling SOM mineralization changes as soils freeze and environmental controls elucidated from studies of unfrozen systems can not be added on frozen conditions. We have also investigated the potential activity of soil microbial communities under frozen conditions in order to elucidate temperature limitations on soil organic matter mineralization. The carbon mineralization was found to proceed down to -4°C and the soil microbial communities were growing at this temperature. At -9°C, the carbon mineralization was insignificant. 13C NMR revealed that the soil microorganisms were able to produce ethylene glycol (anti-freeze medium) under frozen conditions (-4°C). The production of ethylene glycol coincided with an increase in CO2 production that took place after a lag-phase of ca. 41 days. 13C NMR also confirmed that soil microbial anabolic processes continued under frozen conditions. At -4°C, 23% of the used substrate was respired as CO2 and 77% were converted and assimilated by the organisms as e.g. lipids and polysaccharides. This is contradicting to earlier studies that suggest that mainly processes yielding CO2 occurs in soils at <0°C.

Harrysson Drotz, S.; Sparrman, T.; Schleucher, J.; Nilsson, M.; Öquist, M. G.

2009-12-01

32

Mineralization of Iron Oxyhydroxides in the Presence and in the Absence of Bacterial Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because of their small size, iron oxides have a large surface area per unit weight ratio and are believed to play an important role as an adsorbing phase in lake sediments for various molecules, including potentially dangerous ones like heavy metals. They have been observed to form in close association with bacterial cells, by oxidation of ferrous ions. It is thus important to determine whether the presence of the bacterial cells can affect the mineralogy and the mesoscopic structure of the Fe-oxides particles, as well as their reactivity towards heavy metals. We synthesized in the lab nanoparticles of Fe-oxides by oxidation of ferrous ions. This was done in the presence and in the absence of various bacterial strains (Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas Aeruginosa and Bacillus licheniformis) and of inorganic ligands (sulfate, phosphate, silicate). The Fe-oxides particles were then observed by TEM on thin sections and on whole mounts. The chemical composition was estimated by wet chemistry and by EDS. The mineralogy was determined by XRD, SAED and EXAFS. Surface area was investigated by BET. And adsorption of cadmium was also measured at various pH. We observed that the size and the morphology of the particles as well as their mesoscopic spatial organization can be affected by the presence of the cells, whereas the mineralogy is controlled by the chemistry of the solution. The adsorption isotherms of cadmium on the various Fe-oxides will be discussed at the light of these observations.

Châtellier, X.; West, M.; Rose, J.; Fortin, D.; Leppard, G. G.; Ferris, G.

2001-12-01

33

Zn(II) and Cu(II) adsorption and retention onto iron oxyhydroxide nanoparticles: effects of particle aggregation and salinity  

PubMed Central

Background Iron oxyhydroxides are commonly found in natural aqueous systems as nanoscale particles, where they can act as effective sorbents for dissolved metals due to their natural surface reactivity, small size and high surface area. These properties make nanoscale iron oxyhydroxides a relevant option for the remediation of water supplies contaminated with dissolved metals. However, natural geochemical processes, such as changes in ionic strength, pH, and temperature, can cause these particles to aggregate, thus affecting their sorption capabilities and remediation potential. Other environmental parameters such as increasing salinity may also impact metal retention, e.g. when particles are transported from freshwater to seawater. Results After using synthetic iron oxyhydroxide nanoparticles and nanoparticle aggregates in batch Zn(II) adsorption experiments, the addition of increasing concentrations of chloride (from 0.1 M to 0.6 M) appears to initially reduce Zn(II) retention, likely due to the desorption of outer-sphere zinc surface complexes and subsequent formation of aqueous Zn-Cl complexes, before then promoting Zn(II) retention, possibly through the formation of ternary surface complexes (supported by EXAFS spectroscopy) which stabilize zinc on the surface of the nanoparticles/aggregates. In batch Cu(II) adsorption experiments, Cu(II) retention reaches a maximum at 0.4 M chloride. Copper-chloride surface complexes are not indicated by EXAFS spectroscopy, but there is an increase in the formation of stable aqueous copper-chloride complexes as chloride concentration rises (with CuCl+ becoming dominant in solution at ~0.5 M chloride) that would potentially inhibit further sorption or encourage desorption. Instead, the presence of bidentate edge-sharing and monodentate corner-sharing complexes is supported by EXAFS spectroscopy. Increasing chloride concentration has more of an impact on zinc retention than the mechanism of nanoparticle aggregation, whereas aggregation condition is a stronger determinant of copper retention. Conclusions Based on these model uptake/retention studies, iron oxyhydroxide nanoparticles show potential as a strategy to remediate zinc-contaminated waters that migrate towards the ocean. Copper retention, in contrast, appears to be optimized at an intermediate salinity consistent with brackish water, and therefore may release considerable fractions of retained copper at higher (e.g. seawater) salinity levels.

2014-01-01

34

Removal of arsenic by bead cellulose loaded with iron oxyhydroxide from groundwater.  

PubMed

A new adsorbent, bead cellulose loaded with iron oxyhydroxide (BCF), was prepared and applied for the adsorption and removal of arsenate and arsenite from aqueous systems. The continuing loading process of Fe in the cellulose beads was realized through hydrolization of ferric salts when alkaline solution was added dropwise. Spherical BCF had excellent mechanical and hydraulic properties. Akaganeite (beta-FeOOH), the reactive center of BCF that was stably loaded into the cellulose, had a high sensitivity to arsenite as well as arsenate. The maximum content of Fe in BCF reached 50% (w/w). In this study we investigated the adsorption behavior of arsenite and arsenate on BCF, including adsorption isotherms, adsorption kinetics, the influence of pH and competing anions on adsorption, and column experiments. The adsorption data accorded with both Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms. The adsorption capacity for arsenite and arsenate was 99.6 and 33.2 mg/g BCF at pH 7.0 with an Fe content of 220 mg/ mL. Kinetic data fitted well to the pseudo-second-order reaction model. Arsenate elimination was favored at acidic pH, whereas the adsorption of arsenite by BCF was found to be effective in a wide pH range of 5-11. Under the experimental conditions, the addition of sulfate had no effect on arsenic adsorption, whereas phosphate greatly influenced the elimination of both arsenite and aresenate. Silicate moderately decreased the adsorption of arsenite, but not arsenate. Both batch experiments and column experiments indicated that BCF had higher removal efficiency for arsenite than for arsenate. While the influent contaminant concentration was 500 microg/L in groundwater and the empty-bed contact time (EBCT) for arsenite and arsenate was 4.2 and 5.9 min, breakthrough empty-bed volumes at the WHO provisional guideline value of 10 microg/L were 2200 and 5000, respectively. BCF can be effectively regenerated when elution is done with 2 M NaOH solution. The column experiments for four cycles showed that stable and high removal efficiency of arsenic was sustained by BCF after regeneration. PMID:16190243

Guo, Xuejun; Chen, Fuhua

2005-09-01

35

The soils of Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mineralogical model for the Mars fine soil that includes as major components smectite clays absorbed and coated with amorphous iron oxyhydroxides and perhaps mixed with small amounts of better-crystalized iron oxides as separate phases is proposed. Also present as accessory minerals are sulfate minerals such as kieserite (MgSO4.H2O) and/or anhydrite (CaSO4), rutile (TiO2), and maghemite (Fe2O3) or magnetite (Fe3O4), the last two as magnetic components. Carbonates may be present at low concentrations only (less than 1 to 2 pct). However, a prime question to be addressed by a Mars Sample Return Mission shall be related to the mineralogical composition of the soil, and its spatial variability.

Banin, A.

36

The soils of Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mineralogical model for the Mars fine soil that includes as major components smectite clays absorbed and coated with amorphous iron oxyhydroxides and perhaps mixed with small amounts of better-crystalized iron oxides as separate phases is proposed. Also present as accessory minerals are sulfate minerals such as kieserite (MgSO4.H2O) and/or anhydrite (CaSO4), rutile (TiO2), and maghemite (Fe2O3) or magnetite (Fe3O4), the last two as magnetic components. Carbonates may be present at low concentrations only (less than 1 to 2 pct). However, a prime question to be addressed by a Mars Sample Return Mission shall be related to the mineralogical composition of the soil, and its spatial variability.

Banin, A.

1988-01-01

37

The Effects of Wildfires on the Magnetic Properties of Soils in the Everglades  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of an effort to better understand the role of wildfire in the Everglades ecosystem, we are studying the effects of fires on the magnetic properties of Everglades soils. We present results from a suite of soil samples collected at vegetation survey sites within the Cape Sable seaside sparrow (CSSS) habitat in southern Everglades, for which vegetation data, hydrologic data, organic carbon content, iron concentration and the fire history of the sites (burn frequency and time since the most recent burn) are available. We conducted a series of rock magnetic experiments (initial susceptibility, frequency dependent susceptibility, anhysteretic remanence acquisition and isothermal remanence acquisition) designed to identify the magnetic minerals present in these soils. Each of the samples is characterized by contributions from both low and very high-coercivity magnetic components. We interpret these components as magnetite-maghemite and goethite respectively. Following a major fire in the late Spring of 2008, we collected 20 soil cores (10 cm) from within the fire boundary, and 10 cores from nearby unburned sites. Each core was sub-sampled from the surface, and from 2 and 7 cm depths. The sites burned in 2008 showed a consistent pattern defined by a major decrease to complete removal of the very high-coercivity phase iron oxyhydroxides (goethite) in the surface and shallow samples, while greater concentrations of this phase persist at depth. The iron oxyhydroxides appeared to be nearly completely replaced by the more reduced, low-coercivity phase (magnetite/maghemite) in the surface/shallow samples as a result of the fire. Because phosphorous is strongly adsorbed onto iron oxyhydroxides (such as goethite), these results may have important implications for phosphorous cycling in fire-prone environments.

Javier, J.; Clement, B. M.; Sah, J.; Ross, M.

2008-12-01

38

Mechanism of removal of arsenic by bead cellulose loaded with iron oxyhydroxide (beta-FeOOH): EXAFS study.  

PubMed

Bead cellulose loaded with iron oxyhydroxide (BCF) with 47 mass% Fe content was prepared and was successfully applied to the elimination of arsenic from aqueous solutions. A clearer understanding of the arsenic removal mechanism will provide accurate prediction of the arsenic adsorptive properties of the new adsorbent. To study the mechanism of the adsorption process, we measured the extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectra of arsenite and arsenate sorbed onto the adsorbent with different surface coverages. Both arsenite and arsenate were strongly and specifically adsorbed by akaganéite adsorptive centers on BCF by an inner-sphere mechanism. There was no change in oxidation state following interaction between the arsenic species and the BCF surface. The dominant complex of arsenic species adsorbed on akaganéite was bidentate binuclear corner-sharing ((2)C) between As(V) tetrahedra (or As(III) pyramids) and adjacent edge-sharing FeO(6) octahedra. On the basis of the results from EXAFS spectra, the adsorptive characteristics of arsenic, such as the effects of pH and competing anions, were satisfactorily interpreted. PMID:17604042

Guo, Xuejun; Du, Yonghua; Chen, Fuhua; Park, Hung-Suck; Xie, Yaning

2007-10-15

39

Biogenic iron oxyhydroxide formation at mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal vents: Juan de Fuca Ridge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we examine Fe speciation within Fe-encrusted biofilms formed during 2-month seafloor incubations of sulfide mineral assemblages at the Main Endeavor Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. The biofilms were distributed heterogeneously across the surface of the incubated sulfide and composed primarily of particles with a twisted stalk morphology resembling those produced by some aerobic Fe-oxidizing microorganisms. Our objectives

Brandy M. Toner; Cara M. Santelli; Matthew A. Marcus; Richard Wirth; Clara S. Chan; Thomas McCollom; Wolfgang Bach; Katrina J. Edwards

2008-01-01

40

Oxygen K-Edge Emission And Absorption Spectroscopy of Iron Oxyhydroxide Nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect

Transition metal oxide and oxyhydroxide nanoparticles are the focus of considerable current interest in geochemistry. Much progress has been made in understanding the structure and phase relationships in mineral nanoparticles, but the effects of small size and modified surface structure on reactivity remains an outstanding problem. Common environmental nanoparticles have been shown to exhibit enhanced chemical reactivity relative to bulk mineral surfaces, but the origin of this behavior is not well established. We studied the electronic structure component of mineral reactivity by comparing soft x-ray absorption and emission spectra of bulk goethite ({alpha}-FeOOH) with spectra obtained from {approx}6 nm FeOOH nanoparticles and larger FeOOH nanoparticles obtained by hydrothermal coarsening. The semiconductor band gap is reduced in the FeOOH nanoparticles, mainly due to the presence of additional states in the upper valence band. We performed ab initio simulation of the electronic structure of oxygen sites at the 010 surface of goethite, and observe that oxygen sites with reduced metal coordination contribute to the O 2p DOS at higher binding energy. Hence we conclude that FeOOH nanoparticle surfaces are more disordered than the surfaces of goethite, and that this structural component is likely the dominant cause of enhanced rates of reductive dissolution.

Gilbert, B.; Kim, C.S.; Dong, C.-L.; Guo, J.; Nico, P.S.; Shuh, D.K.

2009-06-04

41

Adsorption of antimony onto iron oxyhydroxides: Adsorption behavior and surface structure.  

PubMed

Antimony is detected in soil and water with elevated concentration due to a variety of industrial applications and mining activities. Though antimony is classified as a pollutant of priority interest by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and Europe Union (EU), very little is known about its environmental behavior and adsorption mechanism. In this study, the adsorption behaviors and surface structure of antimony (III/V) on iron oxides were investigated using batch adsorption techniques, surface complexation modeling (SCM), X-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS). The adsorption isotherms and edges indicated that the affinity of Sb(V) and Sb(III) toward the iron oxides depended on the Sb species, solution pH, and the characteristics of iron oxides. Sb(V) adsorption was favored at acidic pH and decreased dramatically with increasing pH, while Sb(III) adsorption was constant over a broad pH range. When pH is higher than 7, Sb(III) adsorption by goethite and hydrous ferric oxide (HFO) was greater than Sb(V). EXAFS analysis indicated that the majority of Sb(III), either adsorbed onto HFO or co-precipitated by FeCl3, was oxidized into Sb(V) probably due to the involvement of O2 in the long duration of sample preservation. Only one Sb-Fe subshell was filtered in the EXAFS spectra of antimony adsorption onto HFO, with the coordination number of 1.0-1.9 attributed to bidentate mononuclear edge-sharing ((2)E) between Sb and HFO. PMID:24910911

Guo, Xuejun; Wu, Zhijun; He, Mengchang; Meng, Xiaoguang; Jin, Xin; Qiu, Nan; Zhang, Jing

2014-07-15

42

Biological Control on Mineral Transformation in Soils ?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weathering of primary minerals is commonly linked to biological processes through the production of carbonic and organic acids. Plants can also play a role in weathering by removing soluble constituents and enhancing diffusion gradients within the soil. Here we investigate the synthesis of secondary minerals and the role of plants in removing elements that act as building blocks for these minerals. In order to minimize losses from leaching, we have sampled a chronosequence of soils forming on lava flows on Hawaii Island that receive about 200 mm of rain annually and have never been subjected to high levels of rainfall. The P concentration in the soils drops from almost 3000 mg/kg on a 1.5 ky lava flow to around 1000 mg/kg on a 350 ky lava flow. This loss of P can only be ascribed to P-uptake by plants with subsequent removal through the loss of above ground biomass through fire and/or wind removal. Over the same time frame the amount of plagioclase in the soils drops from around 22% of the <2 mm soil fraction on the youngest lava flow to virtually 0% on the 350 ky flow, suggesting a substantial release of Si. Elevated silicon in arid, basaltic soil environments often leads to formation of smectite, a feature not observed along the chronosequence. In fact, plagioclase is replaced by the kaolin mineral halloysite with allophane as an apparent precursor. Kaolin minerals are associated with moderate to intense leaching environments rather than the mild leaching conditions that influence these soils. We selected an intermediate age soil profile (170 ky lava flow) to conduct an in-depth investigation of the soil mineral composition. We detected a strong dominance of halloysite, the presence of gibbsite, but no smectite. Secondary halloysite formation is preferred over smectite formation when Si activities are relatively low, and the pH is acidic rather than alkaline. Although this mineral assemblage seems to imply formation under a wetter climatic regime, the oxygen isotopic composition of the halloysite suggests formation under soil environmental conditions similar to the present. The Si concentration in grass and tree leaves in the vicinity of the soil contain between 3 and 8% Si. Loss of these leaves to the nearby ocean (either as dried or burned residue) could be responsible for considerable Si removal in a manner similar to the P-removal. The resulting Si-deficient soil-water favors the formation of halloysite over smectite as is demonstrated by construction of mineral stability diagrams using the soil-water data from the soils along the chronosequence.

Ziegler, K.; Hsieh, J. C.; Chadwick, O. A.; Kelly, E. F.

2001-12-01

43

Mineralization of the allelochemical sorgoleone in soil.  

PubMed

The allelochemical sorgoleone is produced in and released from the root hairs of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). Studies have confirmed that it is the release of sorgoleone that causes the phytotoxic properties of sorghum, and sorgoleone has a potential to become a new natural herbicide, or the weed suppressive activity of sorghum can be utilized in integrated weed management. Since sorgoleone is released into soil, knowledge of the fate of sorgoleone in soil is essential if it is to be utilized as an herbicide. Fate studies will characterize the persistence and mobility of the compound. Three types of radioactively labelled sorgoleone were produced and used to study mineralization (complete degradation to CO(2)) of this lipid benzoquinone in four soils, two from the United States of America (Mississippi) and two from Denmark. The studies showed that sorgoleone was mineralized in all soils tested. The methoxy group of sorgoleone was readily mineralized, whereas mineralization of the remaining molecule was slower. Mineralization kinetics indicated that microorganisms in American soils were able to use sorgoleone as a source of energy. PMID:19493559

Gimsing, Anne Louise; Baelum, Jacob; Dayan, Franck E; Locke, Martin A; Sejerø, Lisbeth Hanefeld; Jacobsen, Carsten Suhr

2009-08-01

44

Soil pore structure and substrate C mineralization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our aim was to investigate the complex interactions between soil pore structure, soil biota and decomposition of added OM substrates. We report on a lab incubation experiment in which CO2 respiration from soil cores was monitored (headspace GC analysis) and an X-ray CT approach yielded soil pore size distributions. Such combined use of X-ray CT with soil incubation studies was obstructed, until now, by many practical constraints such as CT-volume quality, limited resolution, scanning time and complex soil pore network quantification, which have largely been overcome in this study. We incubated a sandy loam soil (with application of ground grass or sawdust) in 18 small aluminium rings (Ø 1 cm, h 1 cm). Bulk density was adjusted to 1.1 or 1.3 Mg m-3 (compaction) and 6 rings were filled at a coarser Coarse Sand:Fine Sand:Silt+Clay ratio. While compaction induced a strong reduction in the cumulative C mineralization for both grass and sawdust substrates, artificial change to a coarser soil texture only reduced net C mineralization from the added sawdust. There thus appears to be a strong interaction effect between soil pore structure and substrate type on substrate decomposition. Correlation coefficients between the C mineralization rates and volumes of 7 pore size classes (from the X-ray CT data) also showed an increasing positive correlation with increasing pore size. Since any particulate organic matter initially present in the soil was removed prior to the experiment (sieving, ashing the >53µm fraction and recombining with the <53µm fraction), the added OM can be localized by means of X-ray CT. Through on-going image analysis the surrounding porosity of the added grass or sawdust particles is being quantified to further study the interaction between the soil pore structure and substrate decomposition.

Sleutel, Steven; Maenhout, Peter; Vanhoorebeke, Luc; Cnudde, Veerle; De Neve, Stefaan

2014-05-01

45

Organic matter dynamics and N mineralization in grassland soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of this study are i) to improve our understanding of the interactions between soil texturelsoil structure, soil organic matter, soil biota and mineralization in grassland soils, ii) to develop a procedure that yields soil organic matter fractions that can be determined directly and can be used in soil organic matter models, iii) to develop a model that predicts

J. Hassink

1995-01-01

46

Poliovirus adsorption by 34 minerals and soils.  

PubMed

The adsorption of radiolabeled infectious poliovirus type 2 by 34 well-defined soils and mineral substrates was analyzed in a synthetic freshwater medium containing 1 mM CaCl(2) and 1.25 mM NaHCO(3) at pH 7. In a model system, adsorption of poliovirus by Ottawa sand was rapid and reached equilibrium within 1 h at 4 degrees C. Near saturation, the adsorption could be described by the Langmuir equation; the apparent surface saturation was 2.5 x 10(6) plaque-forming units of poliovirus per mg of Ottawa sand. At low surface coverage, adsorption was described by the Freundlich equation. The soils and minerals used ranged from acidic to basic and from high in organic content to organic free. The available negative surface charge on each substrate was measured by the adsorption of a cationic polyelectrolyte, polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride. Most of the substrates adsorbed more than 95% of the virus. In general, soils, in comparison with minerals, were weak adsorbents. Among the soils, muck and Genesee silt loam were the poorest adsorbents; among the minerals, montmorillonite, glauconite, and bituminous shale were the least effective. The most effective adsorbents were magnetite sand and hematite, which are predominantly oxides of iron. Correlation coefficients for substrate properties and virus adsorption revealed that the elemental composition of the adsorbents had little effect on poliovirus uptake. Substrate surface area and pH, by themselves, were not significantly correlated with poliovirus uptake. A strong negative correlation was found between poliovirus adsorption and both the contents of organic matter and the available negative surface charge on the substrates as determined by their capacities for adsorbing the cationic polyelectrolyte, polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride. PMID:6274259

Moore, R S; Taylor, D H; Sturman, L S; Reddy, M M; Fuhs, G W

1981-12-01

47

Poliovirus Adsorption by 34 Minerals and Soils  

PubMed Central

The adsorption of radiolabeled infectious poliovirus type 2 by 34 well-defined soils and mineral substrates was analyzed in a synthetic freshwater medium containing 1 mM CaCl2 and 1.25 mM NaHCO3 at pH 7. In a model system, adsorption of poliovirus by Ottawa sand was rapid and reached equilibrium within 1 h at 4°C. Near saturation, the adsorption could be described by the Langmuir equation; the apparent surface saturation was 2.5 × 106 plaque-forming units of poliovirus per mg of Ottawa sand. At low surface coverage, adsorption was described by the Freundlich equation. The soils and minerals used ranged from acidic to basic and from high in organic content to organic free. The available negative surface charge on each substrate was measured by the adsorption of a cationic polyelectrolyte, polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride. Most of the substrates adsorbed more than 95% of the virus. In general, soils, in comparison with minerals, were weak adsorbents. Among the soils, muck and Genesee silt loam were the poorest adsorbents; among the minerals, montmorillonite, glauconite, and bituminous shale were the least effective. The most effective adsorbents were magnetite sand and hematite, which are predominantly oxides of iron. Correlation coefficients for substrate properties and virus adsorption revealed that the elemental composition of the adsorbents had little effect on poliovirus uptake. Substrate surface area and pH, by themselves, were not significantly correlated with poliovirus uptake. A strong negative correlation was found between poliovirus adsorption and both the contents of organic matter and the available negative surface charge on the substrates as determined by their capacities for adsorbing the cationic polyelectrolyte, polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride.

Moore, Rebecca S.; Taylor, Dene H.; Sturman, Lawrence S.; Reddy, Michael M.; Fuhs, G. Wolfgang

1981-01-01

48

Application of solution-mineral equilibrium chemistry to solution mining of uranium ores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern methods of uranium solution mining are typically accompanied by gains and losses of mass through reagent consumption by rock-forming minerals, with subsequent formation of clay minerals, gypsum, carbonates, and iron oxyhydroxides. A systematic approach to alleviate such problems involves the application of leach solutions that are in equilibrium with the host-rock minerals but in disequilibrium with the ore-forming minerals.

A. C. Riese; C. J. Propp

1980-01-01

49

Adsorption of reovirus by minerals and soils.  

PubMed Central

Adsorption of [35S]methionine-labeled reovirus by 30 dry soils, minerals, and finely ground rocks suspended in synthetic freshwater at pH 7 was investigated to determine the conditions necessary for optimum virus removal during land application of wastewaters. All of the minerals and soils studied were excellent adsorbents of reovirus, with greater than 99% of the virus adsorbed after 1 h at 4 degrees C. Thereafter, virus remaining in suspension was significantly inactivated, and within 24 h a three to five log10 reduction in titer occurred. The presence of divalent cations, i.e., Ca2+ and Mg2+, in synthetic freshwater enhanced removal, whereas soluble organic matter decreased the amount of virus adsorbed in secondary effluent. The amount of virus adsorbed by these substrates was inversely correlated with the amount of organic matter, capacity to adsorb cationic polyelectrolyte, and electrophoretic mobility. Adsorption increased with increasing available surface area, as suspended infectivity was reduced further by the more finely divided substrates. However, the organic content of the soils reduced the level of infectious virus adsorbed below that expected from surface area measurements alone. The inverse correlation between virus adsorption and substrate capacity for cationic polyelectrolyte indicates that the adsorption of infectious reovirus particles is predominately a charged colloidal particle-charged surface interaction. Thus, adsorption of polyelectrolyte may be useful in predicting the fate of viruses during land application of sewage effluents and sludges.

Moore, R S; Taylor, D H; Reddy, M M; Sturman, L S

1982-01-01

50

The effect of distribution of iron-oxyhydroxide grain coatings on the transport of bacterial cells in porous media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the demonstrated processes influencing the transport of bacteria through aquifers, the deposition of cells on mineral\\u000a surfaces is one of the most important. For example, understanding the transport of introduced bacteria through aquifers is\\u000a essential to designing some in situ bioremediation schemes. The impact of the presence and distribution of Fe(III)-oxyhydroxide-coated\\u000a sand grains on bacterial transport through porous media

E. P. Knapp; Janet S. Herman; George M. Hornberger; Aaron L. Mills

1998-01-01

51

Hydrogeomorphology influences soil nitrogen and phosphorus mineralization in floodplain wetlands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Conceptual models of river–floodplain systems and biogeochemical theory predict that floodplain soil nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) mineralization should increase with hydrologic connectivity to the river and thus increase with distance downstream (longitudinal dimension) and in lower geomorphic units within the floodplain (lateral dimension). We measured rates of in situ soil net ammonification, nitrification, N, and P mineralization using monthly incubations of modified resin cores for a year in the forested floodplain wetlands of Difficult Run, a fifth order urban Piedmont river in Virginia, USA. Mineralization rates were then related to potentially controlling ecosystem attributes associated with hydrologic connectivity, soil characteristics, and vegetative inputs. Ammonification and P mineralization were greatest in the wet backswamps, nitrification was greatest in the dry levees, and net N mineralization was greatest in the intermediately wet toe-slopes. Nitrification also was greater in the headwater sites than downstream sites, whereas ammonification was greater in downstream sites. Annual net N mineralization increased with spatial gradients of greater ammonium loading to the soil surface associated with flooding, soil organic and nutrient content, and herbaceous nutrient inputs. Annual net P mineralization was associated negatively with soil pH and coarser soil texture, and positively with ammonium and phosphate loading to the soil surface associated with flooding. Within an intensively sampled low elevation flowpath at one site, sediment deposition during individual incubations stimulated mineralization of N and P. However, the amount of N and P mineralized in soil was substantially less than the amount deposited with sedimentation. In summary, greater inputs of nutrients and water and storage of soil nutrients along gradients of river–floodplain hydrologic connectivity increased floodplain soil nutrient mineralization rates.

Noe, Gregory B.; Hupp, Cliff R.; Rybicki, Nancy B.

2013-01-01

52

Relationship between carbon and nitrogen mineralization in a subtropical soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In most soils, more than 90% nitrogen is bonded with carbon in organic forms. This indicates that carbon mineralization should be closely coupled with nitrogen mineralization, showing a positive correlation between carbon and nitrogen mineralization. To test this hypothesis above, we conducted an incubation using a subtropical soil for 10 days at 15 °C and 25 °C. 13C-labeled glucose and 15N-labeled ammonium or nitrate was used to separate CO2 and mineral N released from mineralization of soil organic matter and added glucose or inorganic nitrogen. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) and four exoenzymes (i.e. ?-1,4- Glucosaminidase, chitinase, acid phosphatase, ?-1,4-N- acetyl glucosamine glycosidase) were also analyzed to detect change in microbial activities during the incubation. Our results showed that CO2 release decreased with increasing nitrogen mineralization rates. Temperature did not change this relationship between carbon and nitrogen mineralization. Although some changes in PLFA and the four exoenzymes were observed, these changes did not contribute to changes in carbon and nitrogen mineralization. These findings indicates that carbon and nitrogen mineralization in soil are more complicated than as previously expected. Future investigation should focus on why carbon and nitrogen mineralization are coupled in a negative correlation not in a positive correlation in many soils for a better understanding of carbon and nitrogen transformation during their mineralization.

Li, Qianru; Sun, Yue; Zhang, Xinyu; Xu, Xingliang; Kuzyakov, Yakov

2014-05-01

53

Coexisting Bacterial Populations Responsible for Multiphasic Mineralization Kinetics in Soil  

PubMed Central

Experiments were conducted to study populations of indigenous microorganisms capable of mineralizing 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) in two soils. Previous kinetic analyses indicated the presence of two coexisting populations of DNP-mineralizing microorganisms in a forest soil (soil 1). Studies in which eucaryotic and procaryotic inhibitors were added to this soil indicated that both populations were bacterial. Most-probable-number counts with media containing different concentrations of DNP indicated that more bacteria could mineralize low concentrations of DNP than could metabolize high concentrations of it. Enrichments with varying concentrations of DNP and various combinations of inhibitors consistently resulted in the isolation of the same two species of bacteria from soil 1. This soil contained a large number and variety of fungi, but no fungi capable of mineralizing DNP were isolated. The two bacterial isolates were identified as a Janthinobacterium sp. and a Rhodococcus sp. The Janthinobacterium sp. had a low ?max and a low Km for DNP mineralization, whereas the Rhodococcus sp. had much higher values for both parameters. These differences between the two species of bacteria were similar to differences seen when soil was incubated with different concentrations of DNP. Values for ?max from soil incubations were similar to ?max values obtained in pure culture studies. In contrast, Ks and Km values showed greater variation between soil and pure culture studies. The results of this study help to confirm predictions that two physiologically distinct bacterial populations are responsible for the multiphasic mineralization kinetics observed in the soil studied.

Schmidt, S. K.; Gier, M. J.

1990-01-01

54

Relevance of mineral-organic associations in cryoturbated permafrost soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Enhanced microbial decomposition of deep buried organic matter (OM) increase the release of CO2and CH4from high latitude ecosystems, thus being an uncertain but potentially crucial positive feedback to global warming. The role of soil minerals as stabilization agents of OM against microbial attack gain in importance as soon abiotic soil conditions will change in permafrost soils. We investigated changes in storage and turnover of soil organic carbon (OC) and total nitrogen (TN) associated with minerals in 27 cryoturbated permafrost soils from the west to the east Siberian Arctic. Furthermore, we studied the mineral composition and the potential of OM to interact with soil minerals via different binding mechanisms. Mineral-associated organic matter (MOM) was separated from particulate plant debris by density fractionation in sodium polytungstate (density cut-off 1.6 g cm-3). Their apparent 14C ages were determined by accelerator mass spectrometry and potential mineralization rates were analyzed in a 180 days incubation experiments at 5 and 15° C. The mineral composition was analyzed by X-ray diffraction and selective extractions. Desorption experiments (stepwise extraction with KCl and NaH2PO4) using the permafrost soils as well as reference soils from temperate regions (three Stagnolsols from Germany) were performed to study OM sorbed to mineral surfaces or complexed with polyvalent metal ions. The proportion of OC associated with minerals (MOC) ranged from 5.1 to 14.9 kg m-2 (average: 11.0 kg m-2), corresponding to ~55% from the total soil OC storage (average: 20.2 ± 8.0 kg m-2) in the first meter of the Cryosols. In contrast to temperate soils, where maximum MOC concentrations are present in topsoils, cambic, or spodic horizons, cryoturbation in permafrost soils leads to high MOC concentrations within the whole solum. Cryoturbated OM-rich pockets in the subsoil store 18% (2.0 ± 1.3 kg m-2) of the MOC while another 34% (3.8 ± 3.5 kg m-2) was located in the uppermost permafrost. In topsoil horizons, mineralization rates showed a similar pattern for MOM and the bulk soil controls. In contrast, even higher MOM respiration rates then the bulk control were found in the cryoturbated OM-rich pockets and permafrost horizons. These findings deviate from temperate soil environments where MOM is considered to contribute to a 'stabilized pool' with mean residence times from hundreds to thousands of years. Statistical analysis indicated that mineral-organic interactions primarily occurred with poorly crystalline Fe and Al phases and Fe/Al-OM complexes. However, the minor desorption of organic polyelectrolytes by NaH2PO4 in permafrost soils indicated that significantly lower amounts of OC were bound by ligand exchange to Fe and Al minerals or the edges of clay minerals in permafrost soils compared to the temperate reference soils. Therefore, stabilization of OM by mineral surfaces or polyvalent metal ions appears to be of minor relevance in arctic environments compared to temperate soils.

Gentsch, Norman; Mikutta, Robert; Bárta, Ji?í; ?apek, Petr; Gittel, Antje; Richter, Andreas; Šantr??ková, Hanna; Schnecker, Jörg; Shibistova, Olga; Urich, Tim; Wild, Birgit; Guggenberger, Georg

2014-05-01

55

Review of XRD-based quantitative analyses of clay minerals in soils: the suitability of mineral intensity factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The determination of the types and relative amounts of the minerals present in soil forms an essential component of most soil characterization efforts. This paper reviews protocols for XRD-based quantitative clay mineral analysis in soils, with emphasis on methods using mineral intensity factors in combination with the so-called 100% approach. We summarize methodological differences and characteristic features and give information

Maren Kahle; Markus Kleber; Reinhold Jahn

2002-01-01

56

Uranium Sequestration by Aluminum Phosphate Minerals in Unsaturated Soils  

SciTech Connect

A mineralogical and geochemical study of soils developed from the unmined Coles Hill uranium deposit (Virginia) was undertaken to determine how phosphorous influences the speciation of uranium in an oxidizing soil/saprolite system typical of the eastern United States. This paper presents mineralogical and geochemical results that identify and quantify the processes by which uranium has been sequestered in these soils. It was found that uranium is not leached from the saturated soil zone (saprolites) overlying the deposit due to the formation of a sparingly soluble uranyl phosphate mineral of the meta-autunite group. The concentration of uranium in the saprolites is approximately 1000 mg uranium per kg of saprolite. It was also found that a significant amount of uranium was retained in the unsaturated soil zone overlying uranium-rich saprolites. The uranium concentration in the unsaturated soils is approximately 200 mg uranium per kg of soil (20 times higher than uranium concentrations in similar soils adjacent to the deposit). Mineralogical evidence indicates that uranium in this zone is sequestered by a barium-strontium-calcium aluminum phosphate mineral of the crandallite group (gorceixite). This mineral is intimately inter-grown with iron and manganese oxides that also contain uranium. The amount of uranium associated with both the aluminum phosphates (as much as 1.4 weight percent) has been measured by electron microprobe micro-analyses and the geochemical conditions under which these minerals formed has been studied using thermodynamic reaction path modeling. The geochemical data and modeling results suggest the meta-autunite group minerals present in the saprolites overlying the deposit are unstable in the unsaturated zone soils overlying the deposit due to a decrease in soil pH (down to a pH of 4.5) at depths less than 5 meters below the surface. Mineralogical observations suggest that, once exposed to the unsaturated environment, the meta-autunite group minerals react to form U(VI)- bearing aluminum phosphates. (author)

Jerden, James L. Jr. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL, 60439 (United States)

2007-07-01

57

Mineralization of biochars in soils of contrasting mineral composition from Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biochar application to soils is considered an attractive management strategy because of its agronomic benefits and mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions in some soils. However, the stability of biochars in soils with varying mineral composition has not been comprehensively evaluated. In this study, we measured the stability of two wood biochars (450 and 550°C; Eucalyptus saligna; ?13C ~-36‰) at three incubation temperatures (20, 40 and 60°C). The biochars (2% w/w) were incubated in the laboratory at 70% WHC with four soils (Inceptisol, Vertisol, Oxisol, Entisol) of contrasting soil properties including mineralogical composition. The results show that between 0.3 and 7% of added biochar C was mineralised during 12-month period. The lowest mineralization was observed in the Vertisol amended with the 550°C biochar incubated at 20°C, while the highest value occurred in the same soil amended with the 450°C biochar incubated at 60°C. The mineralization rate of biochar-C increased with increasing incubation temperature, and the mineralisation rate of 450°C biochar was consistently higher than the 550°C biochar in all soils. Biochar C stability was also influenced by soil types particularly at higher temperatures (40 and 60°C). The biochar application in the Inceptisol caused a positive priming of soil-C at all incubation temperatures; whereas in the other soils with higher clay content, biochar suppressed the mineralisation of soil-C over time.

Fang, Y. Y.; Singh, B.; Singh, B. P.; Krull, E.

2012-04-01

58

Acid rains`s dirty business: Stealing minerals from soil  

SciTech Connect

This article describes the hidden environmental effects of acid rain - leaching of base mineral ions from the soil, often changing soil chemistry dramatically. The primary information comes from Ecosystem studies at Hubbard Brook of Likens and Buso. The article also discusses both other opinions and possible solutions.

Kaiser, J.

1996-04-12

59

Mineralization of nitrogen by protozoan activity in soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In general, more than 95% of the nitrogen in soils is present in organic forms. This nitrogen is not directly available to plants unless microbial decomposition takes place with the release of mineral nitrogen. In modern agriculture, nitrogen is often applied to arable soils as a fertilizer to support high levels of crop production. Nitrogen is one of the essential

P. J. Kuikman

1990-01-01

60

Stability of Soil Carbon Fractions - Aggregation Versus Mineral Association  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models that seek to describe the dynamics of soil organic C typically distinguish between two or more C fractions according to differences of biochemical and microbial degradation. The rates are a consequence of recalcitrance, accessibility and interactions. Soil aggregation is an important mechanism controlling the accessibility of substrates by microbes and enzymes and thus the dynamics of minerals bound C

C. W. Mueller; I. Koegel-Knabner

2007-01-01

61

Soil mineral surfaces of paddy soils are accessible for organic carbon accumulation after decalcification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied organic carbon (OC) accumulation due to organo-mineral associations during soil development on calcareous parent material. Two chronosequences in Zhejiang Province, PR China, were investigated; one under paddy cultivation with a maximum soil age of 2000 years, and the other under upland crops where the oldest soil was 700 years old. Bulk soils and soil fractions of the uppermost A horizons were analyzed for OC concentrations and radio carbon contents. Total pedogenic iron (Fed) concentration was determined by dithionite extraction and the proportion of oxalate extractable iron (Feox) was extracted by using the method of Schwertmann (1964). The specific surface area (SSA) of soil minerals was measured by the BET-N2 method (Brunauer et al., 1938) under four conditions: untreated, after organic matter removal, after iron removal and after removal of both. Within 700/2000 years of pedogenesis, we observed no change in clay mineral composition and no additional formation of the SSA of soil minerals. But the soils differed in the degree of decalcification, OC accumulation and in the formation of iron. Paddy soil management led to an enhanced decalcification and larger OC accumulation. Management-induced redox cycles caused larger proportions of Feox in paddy soils. Their large SSA, added to the surface area of clay minerals, provided additional options for OC covering. Unexpectedly, there was no evidence of formation of secondary minerals during soil development, which could provide new surfaces for OC accumulation. However, the study revealed higher OC coverings of mineral surfaces after decalcification in paddy soils. As carbonate and Ca2+ ions seemed to interconnect clay minerals, making their surface accessible to OC, the faster dissolution of carbonate and leaching of Ca2+ ions in paddy soils made additional clay mineral surfaces available to OC. In contrast, the surface area of minerals in non-paddy soils, in which decalcification was much lower, seemed to be partly inaccessible for OC covering due to strong microaggregation by cementation with carbonate and Ca2+-bridging. The smaller accumulation of mineral-associated SOM in non-paddy soils was additionally confirmed by the retarded replacement of the inherited carbon. The accelerated decalcification of paddy soils led to enhanced accessibility of mineral surfaces for OC covering, which intensified OC accumulation from the early stages of soil formation onward. References Brunauer, S., Emmett, P.H., Teller, E., (1938). Adsorption of gases in multimolecular layers. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 60 (2), 309-319. Schwertmann, U., 1964. Differenzierung der Eisenoxide des Bodens durch Extraktion mit Ammoniumoxalat-Lösung. Zeitschrift für Pflanzenernährung, Düngung, Bodenkunde 105 (3), 194-202.

Wissing, Livia

2013-04-01

62

Soil microbial activity and structure in mineralized terranes of the Western US  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mineralized terranes (areas enriched in metal-bearing minerals) occur throughout the Western US, and are characterized by highly variable soil trace metal concentrations across small spatial scales. Assuming that non-lithologic (extrinsic) soil forming factors are relatively constant between mineralized and unmineralized zones, these mineralized areas allowed us to evaluate the effect of lithology on soil microbial activity. We established the following

S. W. Blecker; L. L. Stillings; N. Decrappeo; J. Ippolito

2009-01-01

63

Soil variables vs. mineral analyses of citrus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaf and root samples from 120 citrus trees, representing four species from each of six different locations in Egypt, were assayed for mineral elements with an emission spectrograph. The areas represented newly reclaimed lands as well as established orchards in the Nile River Delta. There were symptoms of Zn, Mn, and Fe deficiencies at some, but not all, of the

A. Wallace; M. Naguib; E. M. Romney; G. V. Alexander

1977-01-01

64

Characterizing regional soil mineral composition using spectroscopyand geostatistics  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This work aims at improving the mapping of major mineral variability at regional scale using scale-dependent spatial variability observed in remote sensing data. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and statistical methods were combined with laboratory-based mineral characterization of field samples to create maps of the distributions of clay, mica and carbonate minerals and their abundances. The Material Identification and Characterization Algorithm (MICA) was used to identify the spectrally-dominant minerals in field samples; these results were combined with ASTER data using multinomial logistic regression to map mineral distributions. X-ray diffraction (XRD)was used to quantify mineral composition in field samples. XRD results were combined with ASTER data using multiple linear regression to map mineral abundances. We testedwhether smoothing of the ASTER data to match the scale of variability of the target sample would improve model correlations. Smoothing was donewith Fixed Rank Kriging (FRK) to represent the mediumand long-range spatial variability in the ASTER data. Stronger correlations resulted using the smoothed data compared to results obtained with the original data. Highest model accuracies came from using both medium and long-range scaled ASTER data as input to the statistical models. High correlation coefficients were obtained for the abundances of calcite and mica (R2 = 0.71 and 0.70, respectively). Moderately-high correlation coefficients were found for smectite and kaolinite (R2 = 0.57 and 0.45, respectively). Maps of mineral distributions, obtained by relating ASTER data to MICA analysis of field samples, were found to characterize major soil mineral variability (overall accuracies for mica, smectite and kaolinite were 76%, 89% and 86% respectively). The results of this study suggest that the distributions of minerals and their abundances derived using FRK-smoothed ASTER data more closely match the spatial variability of soil and environmental properties at regional scale.

Mulder, V.L.; de Bruin, S.; Weyermann, J.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Schaepman, M.E.

2013-01-01

65

A disconnect between O horizon and mineral soil carbon - Implications for soil C sequestration  

SciTech Connect

Changing inputs of carbon to soil is one means of potentially increasing carbon sequestration in soils for the purpose of mitigating projected increases in atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations. The effect of manipulations of aboveground carbon input on soil carbon storage was tested in a temperate, deciduous forest in east Tennessee, USA. A 4.5-year experiment included exclusion of aboveground litterfall and supplemental litter additions (three times ambient) in an upland and a valley that differed in soil nitrogen availability. The estimated decomposition rate of the carbon stock in the O horizon was greater in the valley than in the upland due to higher litter quality (i.e., lower C/N ratios). Short-term litter exclusion or addition had no effect on carbon stock in the mineral soil, measured to a depth of 30 cm, or the partitioning of carbon in the mineral soil between particulate- and mineral-associated organic matter. A two-compartment model was used to interpret results from the field experiments. Field data and a sensitivity analysis of the model were consistent with little carbon transfer between the O horizon and the mineral soil. Increasing aboveground carbon input does not appear to be an effective means of promoting carbon sequestration in forest soil at the location of the present study because a disconnect exists in carbon dynamics between O horizon and mineral soil. Factors that directly increase inputs to belowground soil carbon, via roots, or reduce decomposition rates of organic matter are more likely to benefit efforts to increase carbon sequestration in forests where carbon dynamics in the O horizon are uncoupled from the mineral soil.

Garten Jr, Charles T [ORNL

2009-01-01

66

Nitrogen Mineralization of Cover Crop Residues in Calcareous Gravelly Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tropical legumes like sunn hemp (Crotolaria juncea L.) and aeschynomene (Aeschynomene evenia L.) have potential as alternative cover crops in tropical regions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the N mineralization rates of three cover crops [aeschynomene (AE), sorghum sudangrass (Sorghum sudanense L.), and sunn hemp (SH)] residues used to amend a calcareous gravelly soil in order to

R. B. Rao; Y. C. Li

2003-01-01

67

Mycobacterium Diversity and Pyrene Mineralization in Petroleum-Contaminated Soils  

PubMed Central

Degradative strains of fast-growing Mycobacterium spp. are commonly isolated from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soils. Little is known, however, about the ecology and diversity of indigenous populations of these fast-growing mycobacteria in contaminated environments. In the present study 16S rRNA genes were PCR amplified using Mycobacterium-specific primers and separated by temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE), and prominent bands were sequenced to compare the indigenous Mycobacterium community structures in four pairs of soil samples taken from heavily contaminated and less contaminated areas at four different sites. Overall, TGGE profiles obtained from heavily contaminated soils were less diverse than those from less contaminated soils. This decrease in diversity may be due to toxicity, since significantly fewer Mycobacterium phylotypes were detected in soils determined to be toxic by the Microtox assay than in nontoxic soils. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of prominent TGGE bands indicated that novel strains dominated the soil Mycobacterium community. Mineralization studies using [14C]pyrene added to four petroleum-contaminated soils, with and without the addition of the known pyrene degrader Mycobacterium sp. strain RJGII-135, indicated that inoculation increased the level of degradation in three of the four soils. Mineralization results obtained from a sterilized soil inoculated with strain RJGII-135 suggested that competition with indigenous microorganisms may be a significant factor affecting biodegradation of PAHs. Pyrene-amended soils, with and without inoculation with strain RJGII-135, experienced both increases and decreases in the population sizes of the inoculated strain and indigenous Mycobacterium populations during incubation.

Cheung, Pui-Yi; Kinkle, Brian K.

2001-01-01

68

Anaerobic N mineralization in paddy soils in relation to inundation management, physicochemical soil fractions, mineralogy and soil properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anaerobic N mineralization measured from (saturated) repacked soil cores from 25 paddy fields in Bangladesh and was previously found to negatively related to soil N content on a relative basis. This suggests that other factors like soil organic matter (SOM) quality or abiotic factors instead control the anaerobic N mineralization process. We therefore assessed different physical and chemical fractions of SOM, management factors and various soil properties as predictors for the net anaerobic N mineralization. 1° First, we assessed routinely analyzed soil parameters (soil N and soil organic carbon, texture, pH, oxalate- and pyrophosphate-extractable Fe, Al, and Mn, fixed-NH4 content). We found no significant influences of neither soil mineralogy nor the annual length of inundation on soil N mineralization. The anaerobic N mineralization correlated positively with Na-pyrophosphate-extractable Fe and negatively with pH (both at P<0.01). At this stage it is, however, not known if these relations between net evolution of NH4 and pH and Fe content are causal or indirect. 2° Second, the 25 samples collected from farmers' fields were physically fractionated into particulate OM and silt and clay associated OM. The silt and clay sized OM was further chemically fractionated by oxidation with 6%NaOCl to isolate an oxidation-resistant OM fraction, followed by extraction of mineral bound OM with 10%HF thereby isolating the HF-resistant OM. None of the physicochemical SOM fractions were found useful predictors anaerobic N mineralization. The linkage between these chemical soil N fractions and N supplying processes actually occurring in the soil thus appears to be weak. Regardless, we hypothesize that variation in strength of N-mineral and N-OM linkages is likely to explain variation in bio-availability of organic N and proneness to mineralization. Yet, in order to separate kinetically different soil N fractions we then postulated that an alternative approach would be required, which instead isolates soil N fractions on the basis of bonding strength. In this respect bonding strength should be seen as opposite of proneness to dissolution of released N into water, the habitat of soil microorganisms mediating soil N mineralization. We hypothesize that soil N extracted by water at increasing temperatures would reflect such N fractions with increasing bonding strength, in turn equivalent to decreasing bio-availability. Although water has frequently been used to extract labile SOM, its use has mostly been limited to 100°C. 3° Third we developed sub critical water extraction (SCWE) at 100°C, 150°C and 200°C to isolate SOM fractions from the set of 25 paddy soil samples. In all cases, SCWE organic carbon (SCWE-OC) and N (SCWE-N) increased exponentially with the increase of temperature. SCWE preferentially extracted N over OC with increasing temperature. The efficiency of SCWE and the selectivity towards N were both lower in soils with increasingly reactive clay mineralogy. No correlations were found between the SCWE fractions and anaerobic N mineralization rate. In conclusion, SOM quantity and SOM quality, here represented by C and N distribution over physicochemical fractions, don't seem to dominantly determine anaerobic N mineralization in primarily young floodplain paddy soils. Other factors with exceeding control (pH and pyrophosphate extractable Fe) appear to exist. Possibly, the specific young genesis stage of most of the soils included (termed 'floodplain' soils) results in a limited availability of readily reducible Fe. Being an important alternative electron acceptor under submerged conditions, the availability of Fe, which is also controlled by pH, may be a bottleneck in the anaerobic N mineralization process. This needs to be further investigated by controlled incubation experiments with detailed follow-up of pH, redox potential, Fe in solution and mineral N.

Sleutel, Steven; Kader, Mohammed Abdul; Ara Begum, Shamim; De Neve, Stefaan

2013-04-01

69

Sampling and Substrate Application Methods for Pesticide Mineralization Experiments in Undisturbed Soil Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different strategies for pesticide mineralization experiments have been proposed in the literature. The structural state of the soil as well as the method for applying pesticide to the soil can be anticipated to affect the mineralization of the pesticide. Also the soil water content during mineralization is important for the degradation of pesticide. The present study focused on different sampling

Inge S. Fomsgaard; Gitte Felding; Per Schjønning

1998-01-01

70

Mineralization of soil and legume nitrogen in soils treated with metal-contaminated sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighty percent of urban sewage sludge in southeastern Australia is destined to be reused on agricultural land to improve soil fertility. However, this sludge is usually contaminated with industrial pollutants, in particular with heavy metals. As heavy metals are known to be toxic to microorganisms, concern has been raised that treating soils with these sludges may adversely affect the mineralization

K. J Munn; J Evans; P. M Chalk

2000-01-01

71

Interactions between Carbon and Nitrogen Mineralization and Soil Organic Matter Chemistry in Arctic Tundra Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used long-term laboratory incubations and chemical fractionation to characterize the mineralization dynamics of organic\\u000a soils from tussock, shrub, and wet meadow tundra communities, to determine the relationship between soil organic matter (SOM)\\u000a decomposition and chemistry, and to quantify the relative proportions of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in tundra SOM that are\\u000a biologically available for decomposition. In all soils

Michael N. Weintraub; Joshua P. Schimel

2003-01-01

72

Identification of iron oxide and hydroxide in soil clays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clay fractions of soils collected at different depths from the foothills of Karbi Anglong, Assam (India), have been analysed by Mössbauer spectroscopy. Mössbauer data, recorded at room and liquid nitrogen temperatures, show the presence of iron oxide (alpha-Fe2O3, hematite) and iron oxyhydroxide (alpha-FeOOH, goethite) in the form of fine particles\\/Al-substituted. All samples exhibited strong superparamagnetism, characteristic of the fine size

S. P. Taneja; D. Raj

1993-01-01

73

Stability of Soil Carbon Fractions - Aggregation Versus Mineral Association  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Models that seek to describe the dynamics of soil organic C typically distinguish between two or more C fractions according to differences of biochemical and microbial degradation. The rates are a consequence of recalcitrance, accessibility and interactions. Soil aggregation is an important mechanism controlling the accessibility of substrates by microbes and enzymes and thus the dynamics of minerals bound C are interacting with soil aggregate dynamics. In this study we focused on C fractions isolated by particle size fractionation. The main objective of our study was to differentiate between C stabilization of soil fractions due to accessibility/aggregation or to association with minerals. For a detailed understanding of these processes and the sources of respired soil CO2 we combined the measurement of heterotrophic respiration, CO2-13C analyses and radiocarbon dating of the respired CO2 in a long-term laboratory mineralization experiment. For the experiment we took soil material from the A horizon of an Albic Luvisol under Norway spruce forest (Picea abies) in southern Germany. The air dried bulk soil (< 2000 µm) was subjected to ultrasonication (1st step 60 J ml-1; 2nd step 440 J ml-1) and separated according to particle size in three fractions: > 63 µm to 2000 µm - sand, > 6.3 µm to 63 µm - silt and silt/clay fraction < 6.3 µm - clay. Solid-state 13C-CPMAS NMR spectroscopy was used to analyze the composition of bulk soil and fractions. The incubation of the three fractions and the bulk soil was done for 250 days in triplicate at 20 degree Celsius and 70% of maximal water holding capacity. A relative enrichment of alkyl C and an increase of the alkyl / O/N-alkyl C ratios in the order of sand < silt < clay were observed by 13C-NMR. On a long term the sand fraction and the bulk soil showed a sustained C bioavailability. For the silt and clay fraction similar respiration rates and a low C bioavailability were detected. The recombined fractions (by calculation) showed 35% higher amounts of respired CO2-C than the bulk soil. This difference accounts for the absence of restricted accessibility due to soil aggregation. Because of the high amounts of mineral bound C the main source of CO2-C (70%) in the recombined fraction is the clay fraction. Nevertheless the recalcitrance of mineral bound C is restricting the positive effects of aggregate disruption on the C turnover. The small fast decomposing C pool of the sand fraction is of minor importance to the total soil respiration balance. CO2-13C signatures showed higher values of the silt and clay fractions in contrast to the sand fraction, indicating a lower bioavailability of 13C-depleted carbon sources in the small fractions. The analyses of CO2-14C showed a shift to the utilization of older C sources with time.

Mueller, C. W.; Koegel-Knabner, I.

2007-12-01

74

Recovery of Minerals in Martian Soils Via Supercritical Fluid Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are investigating the use of supercritical fluids to extract mineral and\\/or carbonaceous material from Martian surface soils and its igneous crust. Two candidate supercritical fluids are carbon dioxide and water. The Martian atmosphere is composed mostly of carbon dioxide (approx. 95.3%) and could therefore provide an in-situ source of carbon dioxide. Water, although present in the Martian atmosphere at

Kenneth A. Debelak; John A. Roth

2001-01-01

75

Biogenic dissolution of a soil cerium-phosphate mineral  

Microsoft Academic Search

The productivity of many terrestrial ecosystems is controlled or limited by phosphorus bioavailability. Within these ecosystems, nearly all of the bioavailable phosphate is ultimately derived via the weathering of apatite (Ca5(PO4)3 (OH,F,Cl)). Highly insoluble lanthanide phosphate minerals form during apatite weathering and are important secondary phosphorus repositories in soils. Prior studies indicate that these phases can be dissolved via biologically-mediated

JAVIERA CERVINI-SILVA; DAVID A. FOWLE; JILLIAN BANFIELD

2005-01-01

76

Temperature sensitivity of microbial respiration, nitrogen mineralization, and potential soil enzyme activities in organic alpine soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigations focusing on the temperature sensitivity of microbial activity and nutrient turnover in soils improve our understanding of potential effects of global warming. This study investigates the temperature sensitivity of C mineralization, N mineralization, and potential enzyme activities involved in the C and N cycle (tyrosine amino-peptidase, leucine amino-peptidase, ß-glucosidase, ß-xylosidase, N-acetyl-ß-glucosaminidase). Four different study sites in the Austrian alpine zone were selected, and soils were sampled in three seasons (summer, autumn, and winter). A simple first-order exponential equation was used to calculate constant Q10 values for the C and N mineralization over the investigated temperature range (0-30°C). The Q10 values of the C mineralization (average 2.0) for all study sites were significantly higher than for the N mineralization (average 1.7). The Q10 values of both activities were significantly negatively related to a soil organic matter quality index calculated by the ratios of respiration to the organic soil carbon and mineralized N to the total soil nitrogen. The chemical soil properties or microbial biomass did not affect the Q10 values of C and N mineralization. Moreover, the Q10 values showed no distinct pattern according to sampling date, indicating that the substrate quality and other factors are more important. Using a flexible model function, the analysis of relative temperature sensitivity (RTS) showed that the temperature sensitivity of activities increased with decreasing temperature. The C and N mineralization and potential amino-peptidase activities (tyrosine and leucine) showed an almost constant temperature dependence over 0-30°C. In contrast, ß-glucosidase, ß-xylosidase, and N-acetyl-ß-glucosaminidase showed a distinctive increase in temperature sensitivity with decreasing temperature. Low temperature at the winter sampling date caused a greater increase in the RTS of all microbial activities than for the autumn and summer sampling dates. Our results indicate (1) a disproportion of the RTS for potential enzyme activities of the C and N cycle and (2) a disproportion of the RTS for easily degradable C compounds (ß-glucose, ß-xylose) compared with the C mineralization of soil organic matter. Thus temperature may play an important role in regulating the decay of different soil organic matter fractions due to differences in the relative temperature sensitivities of enzyme activities.

Koch, Oliver; Tscherko, Dagmar; Kandeler, Ellen

2007-12-01

77

Enhancement of pyrene mineralization in soil by wood-decaying fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mineralization of [14C]pyrene in sterilized and non-sterile soil was investigated using the wood-decaying fungi Kuehneromyces mutabilis and Agrocybe aegerita in a period of 63 days. In sterilized soil 5.1% and 1.5% of the pyrene was mineralized to 14CO2 by K. mutabilis and by A. aegerita, respectively. In non-sterile soil, 27.3% of pyrene was mineralized by indigenous soil microflora including

Ute Sack; Wolfgang Fritsche

1997-01-01

78

Carbon and N mineralization as affected by soil cultivation and crop residue in a calcareous wetland ecosystem in Central Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mineralization of soil organic matter plays a key role in supplying nutrient elements essential to plant growth. Soil cultivation and crop residue affect C mineralization and nutrient availability in wetland ecosystems. This study evaluated the combined impacts of soil cultivation and crop residue on C and N mineralization in a calcareous wetland soil (Luvic Calcisol) in Central Iran. Soil samples

Fayez Raiesi

2006-01-01

79

Vertical profile measurements of soil air suggest immobilization of gaseous elemental mercury in mineral soil.  

PubMed

Evasion of gaseous elemental Hg (Hg(0)g) from soil surfaces is an important source of atmospheric Hg, but the volatility and solid-gas phase partitioning of Hg(0) within soils is poorly understood. We developed a novel system to continuously measure Hg(0)g concentrations in soil pores at multiple depths and locations, and present a total of 297 days of measurements spanning 14 months in two forests in the Sierra Nevada mountains, California, U.S. Temporal patterns showed consistent pore Hg(0)g concentrations below levels measured in the atmosphere (termed Hg(0)g immobilization), ranging from 66 to 94% below atmospheric concentrations throughout multiple seasons. The lowest pore Hg(0)g concentrations were observed in the deepest soil layers (40 cm), but significant immobilization was already present in the top 7 cm. In the absence of sinks or sources, pore Hg(0)g levels would be in equilibrium with atmospheric concentrations due to the porous nature of the soil matrix and gas diffusion. Therefore, we explain decreases in pore Hg(0)g in mineral soils below atmospheric concentrations--or below levels found in upper soils as observed in previous studies--with the presence of an Hg(0)g sink in mineral soils possibly related to Hg(0)g oxidation or other processes such as sorption or dissolution in soil water. Surface chamber measurements showing daytime Hg(0)g emissions and nighttime Hg(0)g deposition indicate that near-surface layers likely dominate net atmospheric Hg(0)g exchange resulting in typical diurnal cycles due to photochemcial reduction at the surface and possibly Hg(0)g evasion from litter layers. In contrast, mineral soils seem to be decoupled from this surface exchange, showing consistent Hg(0)g uptake and downward redistribution--although our calculations indicate these fluxes to be minor compared to other mass fluxes. A major implication is that once Hg is incorporated into mineral soils, it may be unlikely subjected to renewed Hg(0)g re-emission from undisturbed, background soils emphasizing the important role of soils in sequestering past and current Hg pollution loads. PMID:24428735

Obrist, Daniel; Pokharel, Ashok K; Moore, Christopher

2014-02-18

80

Mineral materials as feasible amendments to stabilize heavy metals in polluted urban soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four minerals, agricultural limestone (AL), rock phosphate (RP), palygorskite (PG), and calcium magnesium phosphate (CMP), were evaluated by means of chemical fractions of heavy metals in soils and concentrations of heavy metals in leachates from columns to determine their ability to stabilize heavy metals in polluted urban soils. Two urban soils (calcareous soil and acidic soil) polluted with cadmium, copper,

Mingkui Zhang; Jincheng Pu

2011-01-01

81

Winter cover cropping influence on nitrogen mineralization, presidedress soil nitrate test, and corn yields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mineralization and availability of cover crop N to the succeeding crop are critical components in the management of soil N to reduce N leaching. The effects of several leguminous and non-leguminous cover crops on soil N availability, N mineralization potential, and corn (Zea mays L.) yield were examined. The cover crops had variable effects on soil N availability and

S. Kuo; U. M. Sainju; E. Jellum

1996-01-01

82

Characterization of Humic Acid Fractions Improves Estimates of Nitrogen Mineralization Kinetics for Lowland Rice Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boone, 1994). Despite these efforts, no single fraction- ation method has been shown to cleanly distinguish Nitrogen mineralization in irrigated lowland rice (Oryza sativa L.) SOM fractions based on their contributions to soil N soils is poorly predicted by total soil C and N. To improve its predic- tion, two humic acid fractions were extracted with NaOH from lowland mineralization

Nguyen Bao Ve; D. C. Olk; K. G. Cassman

2004-01-01

83

Mineral exploration and soil analysis using in situ neutron activation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A feasibility study has been made to operate by remote control an unshielded portable positive-ion accelerator type neutron source to induce activities in the ground or rock by "in situ" neutron irradiation. Selective activation techniques make it possible to detect some thirty or more elements by irradiating the ground for periods of a few minutes with either 3-MeV or 14-MeV neutrons. The depth of penetration of neutrons, the effect of water content of the soil on neutron moderation, gamma ray attenuation in the soil and other problems are considered. The analysis shows that, when exploring for most elements of economic interest, the reaction 2H(d,n)3He yielding ??? 3-MeV neutrons is most practical to produce a relatively uniform flux of neutrons of less than 1 keV to a depth of 19???-20???. Irradiation with high energy neutrons (??? 14 MeV) can also be used and may be better suited for certain problems. However, due to higher background and lower sensitivity for the heavy minerals, it is not a recommended neutron source for general exploration use. Preliminary experiments have been made which indicate that neutron activation in situ is feasible for a mineral exploration or qualititative soil analysis. ?? 1976.

Senftle, F. E.; Hoyte, A. F.

1966-01-01

84

[Fluoride emission from different soil minerals at high temperatures].  

PubMed

The emission characteristics of fluoride pollutants from montmorillonite, kaolinite, vermiculite, geothite and allophane were studied to elucidate the mechanism of fluoride-releasing from soils during brick and tile making at high temperatures from 300 degrees C to 1000 degrees C. The rate of fluoride emission varied with temperature, mineral type, heating time, specific surface area and cations added to minerals. The escape of crystalline water resulting from crystal lattice collapse at a certain high temperature was found to affect the rate of fluoride emission. Calcium compounds could decrease fluoride emission rate from montmorillonite. At 800 degrees C, the rate of fluoride emission from Ca-treated montmorillonite decreased by 59.6% compared to untreated montmorillonite. The order for fluoride-fixing capacity of the 5 calcium compounds at 800 degrees C was as follows: CaCO3 > CaO > Ca3(PO4)2 > Ca(OH)2 > CaSO4. PMID:11432054

Wu, W; Xie, Z; Xu, J; Liu, C

2001-03-01

85

Interaction of root exudates with the mineral soil constituents and their effect on mineral weathering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plants release significant amounts of high and low molecular weight organic compounds into the rhizosphere. Among these exudates organic acids (e.g. citric acid, malic acid, oxalic acid), phenolic compounds (e.g. flavonoids), amino acids and siderophores of microbial and/or plant origin strongly influence and modify the biogeochemical cycles of several elements, thus causing changes in their availability for plant nutrition. One class of these elements is composed by the trace elements; some of them are essential for plants even if in small concentrations and are considered micronutrients, such as Fe, Zn, Mn. Their solubility and bioavailability can be influenced, among other factors, by the presence in soil solution of low molecular weight root exudates acting as organic complexing agents that can contribute to the mineral weathering and therefore, to their mobilization in the soil solution. The mobilized elements, in function of the element and of its concentration, can be either important nutrients or toxic elements for plants. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of several root exudates (citric acid, malic acid, oxalic acid, genistein, quercetin and siderophores) on the mineralogy of two different soils (an agricultural calcareous soil and an acidic polluted soil) and to evaluate possible synergic or competitive behaviors. X-ray diffraction (XRD) coupled with Electron Probe Micro Analysis (EPMA) was used to identify the crystalline and amorphous phases which were subjected to mineral alteration when exposed to the action of root exudates. Solubilization of trace metals such as Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Pb, Cd as well as of major elements such as Si, Al, Fe and Mn was assessed by means of Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Soil microorganisms have proven to decrease mineral weathering by reducing the concentration of active root exudates in solution. Results obtained are an important cornerstone to better understand the biogeochemical processes acting in the rhizosphere which can play an important role in the availability of trace elements (either nutrient or toxic) for plant uptake. Research is supported by MIUR - FIRB "Futuro in ricerca", internal grant of Unibz (TN5031 & TN5046) and the Autonomous Province of Bolzano (Rhizotyr TN5218).

Mimmo, T.; Terzano, R.; Medici, L.; Lettino, A.; Fiore, S.; Tomasi, N.; Pinton, R.; Cesco, S.

2012-04-01

86

Mineralization of a sorbed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in two soils using catalyzed hydrogen peroxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) catalyzed by soluble iron or naturally occurring soil minerals, (i.e., modified Fenton's reagent) was investigated as a basis for mineralizing sorbed and NAPL-phase benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a hydrophobic and toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, in two soils of different complexity. 14C-Benzo[a]pyrene was added to silica sand and a silt loam soil, and mineralization was investigated using three-level central composite

Richard J. Watts; Patrick C. Stanton; Jimmy Howsawkeng; Amy L. Teel

2002-01-01

87

Mineralization-immobilization of soil organic S and oxidation of elemental S in subtropical soils under flooded and nonflooded conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information on the influence of soil moisture on elemental sulphur (S0) oxidation and transformation into organic S in semi-arid subtropical soils is scarce. We studied the impact of three moisture regimes on the mineralization of soil organic S, and the oxidation and immobilization of S0 in acidic (pH 4.9), neutral (pH 7.1) and alkaline (pH 10.2) subtropical soils. Repacked soil

Milkha S. Aulakh; Ramesh C. Jaggi; R. Sharma

2002-01-01

88

Carbon and nitrogen mineralization dynamics in different soils of the tropics amended with legume residues and contrasting soil moisture contents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal drought in tropical agroecosystems may affect C and N mineralization of organic residues. To understand this effect,\\u000a C and N mineralization dynamics in three tropical soils (Af, An1, and An2) amended with haricot bean (HB; Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and pigeon pea (PP; Cajanus cajan L.) residues (each at 5 mg g?1 dry soil) at two contrasting soil moisture contents (pF2.5 and

Girma Abera; Endalkachew Wolde-meskel; Lars R. Bakken

89

Reanalysis of boron adsorption on soils and soil minerals using the constant capacitance model  

SciTech Connect

Inclusion of microscopic information improved the ability of the constant capacitance model to provide a quantitative description of B adsorption on various Al and Fe oxides, clay minerals, and arid-zone soils as a function of solution pH. The same set of B surface complexation reactions was used for all adsorbing surfaces. This study tests the ability of the model to describe B adsorption using surface configurations that had been observed experimentally. In the present model application, both trigonal, B(OH){sub 3}, and tetrahedral, B(OH){sub 4}{sup {minus}}, B surface complexes are postulated, consistent with experimental spectroscopic results. Boron surface complexation constants for Al and Fe oxides and kaolinites are not statistically significantly different from each other. Boron surface complexation constants for kaolinites are statistically significantly different from those for 2:1 clays and soils. Boron surface complexation constants for 2:1 clays and soils are not statistically significantly different from each other, reflecting the dominance of 2:1 clay minerals in B adsorption reactions in arid-zone soils. Average sets of B surface complexation constants provided adequate descriptions of B adsorption behavior on all adsorbents studied, indicating some predictive capability. The constant capacitance model was able to predict B adsorption behavior on additional arid-zone soils using the average set of B surface complexation constants.

Goldberg, S.

1999-08-01

90

Kinetics of di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate mineralization in sludge-amended soil  

SciTech Connect

Sewage sludge is frequently used as a soil fertilizer although it may contain elevated concentrations of priority pollutants including di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP). In the present study, the kinetics of microbial [[sup 14]C]DEHP mineralization was studied in laboratory microcosms with sewage sludge and agricultural soil. A biphasic model with two independent kinetic expressions was used to fit the mineralization data. The initial mineralization activity was described well by first-order kinetics, whereas mineralization in long-term incubations was described better by fractional power kinetics. The mineralization activity was much lower in the late phase presumably due to a decline in the bioavailability of DEHP caused by diffusion-limited desorption. The initial DEHP mineralization rate in sludge-amended soil varied between 3.7 and 20.3 ng of DEHP (g dw)[sup [minus]1]d[sup [minus]1] depending on incubation conditions. Aerobic DEHP mineralization was 4--5 times faster than anaerobic mineralization, DEHP mineralization in sludge-amended soil was much more temperature sensitive than was DEHP mineralization in soil without sludge. Indigenous microorganisms in the sewage sludge appeared to dominate DEHP degradation in sludge-amended soil. It was estimated that > 41% of the DEHP in sludge-amended soil will have escaped mineralization after 1 year. In the absence of oxygen, > 68% of the DEHP will not be mineralized within 1 year. Collectively, the data suggest that a significant fraction of the DEHP in sludge-amended soils may escape mineralization under in situ conditions.

Madsen, P.L.; Thyme, J.B.; Henriksen, K.; Moeldrup, P.; Roslev, P. (Aalborg Univ. (Denmark). Environmental Engineering Lab.)

1999-08-01

91

Prolonged leaching of mineral forest soils with dilute HC1 solutions: the solubility of A1 and soil organic matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term acidification has been shown to result in a considerable decrease in the amount of organically bound soil Al and in a gradual decrease in the solubility of Al. We examined the solubility of soil organic matter (SOM) and Al in four acid mineral soils (one Arenosol Ah, two Podzol Bh, and one Podzol Bs) as they were leached sequentially

D. Berggren; J. Mulder; R. Westerhof

1998-01-01

92

Antarctic Dry Valley mineral soils contain unexpectedly high levels of microbial biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have applied bioluminescent ATP detection methods to microbial enumeration in Antarctic Dry Valley mineral soils, and validated our ATP data by two independent methods. We have demonstrated that ATP measurement is a valid means of determining microbial biomass in such sites, and that the desiccated surface mineral soils of the Antarctic Dry Valleys contain cell numbers over four orders

Don A. CowanNick; Nick J. Russell; Adam Mamais; Devon M. Sheppard

2002-01-01

93

Heavy metal adsorption by different minerals: application to the remediation of polluted soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the heavy-metal adsorption capacity of various minerals in order to evaluate their potential for the reduction of metal mobility and bioavailability and their possible application for the remediation of polluted soils in the Guadiamar valley. The study (batch tests) of zinc adsorption capacity of clays (sepiolites, palygorskites, and bentonite from different mineral deposits) and a soil unaffected by

A. Garc??a-Sánchez; A. Alastuey; X. Querol

1999-01-01

94

Kinetics of Mineralization of Organic Compounds at Low Concentrations in Soil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The kinetics of mineralization of carbon 14-labeled phenol and aniline were measured at initial concentrations ranging from .32 to 5,000 microgram of soil, respectively. Mineralization of phenol at concentrations < or = 32 ng/g of soil and of aniline at a...

K. M. Scow S. Simkins M. Alexander

1986-01-01

95

Statistical analysis of mineral soils in the Odra valley  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this article is to present the results of statistical analyses of laboratory experiment results obtained from an ITB ZW-K2 apparatus, Kamie?ski tubes and grain-size distribution curves. Beside basic statistical parameters (mean, sum, minimum and maximum), correlation analysis and multivariate analysis of variance at significance levels ? < 0.01 and ? < 0.05 were taken into account, as well as calculations of LSD confidence half-intervals. The research material was collected from the valley of the Odra river near the town of S?ubice in Lubuskie province. The research involved mineral, non-rock fine-grained, non-cohesive soils lying at the depth of 0.3-1.5 m.

Hudak, Magda; Rojna, Arkadiusz

2012-10-01

96

Indigenous and enhanced mineralization of pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene, and carbazole in soils.  

PubMed Central

We studied the mineralization of pyrene, carbazole, and benzo[a]pyrene in soils obtained from three abandoned coal gasification plants in southern Illinois. The soils had different histories of past exposure to hydrocarbon contamination and different amounts of total organic carbon, microbial biomass, and microbial activity. Mineralization was measured by using serum bottle radiorespirometry. The levels of indigenous mineralization of 14C-labeled compounds ranged from 10 to 48% for pyrene, from undetectable to 46% for carbazole, and from undetectable to 25% for benzo[a]pyrene following long-term (greater than 180-day) incubations. Pyrene and carbazole were degraded with short or no lag periods in all soils, but benzo[a]pyrene mineralization occurred after a 28-day lag period. Mineralization was not dependent on high levels of microbial biomass and activity in the soils. Bacterial cultures that were capable of degrading pyrene and carbazole were isolated by enrichment, grown in pure culture, and reintroduced into soils. Reintroduction of a pyrene-degrading bacterium enhanced mineralization to a level of 55% within 2 days, compared with a level of 1% for the indigenous population. The carbazole degrader enhanced mineralization to a level of 45% after 7 days in a soil that showed little indigenous carbazole mineralization. The pyrene and carbazole degraders which we isolated were identified as a Mycobacterium sp. and a Xanthamonas sp., respectively. Our results indicated that mineralization of aromatic hydrocarbons can be significantly enhanced by reintroducing isolated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria.

Grosser, R J; Warshawsky, D; Vestal, J R

1991-01-01

97

Potential net soil N mineralization and decomposition of glycine-13C in forest soils along an elevation gradient  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research was to better understand patterns of soil nitrogen (N) availability and soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition in forest soils across an elevation gradient (235-1670 m) in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Laboratory studies were used to determine the potential rate of net soil N mineralization and in situ studies of {sup 13}C-labelled glycine were used to infer differences in decomposition rates. Nitrogen stocks, surface soil (0-5 cm) N concentrations, and the pool of potentially mineralizable surface soil N tended to increase from low to high elevations. Rates of potential net soil N mineralization were not significantly correlated with elevation. Increasing soil N availability with elevation is primarily due to greater soil N stocks and lower substrate C-to-N ratios, rather than differences in potential net soil N mineralization rates. The loss rate of {sup 13}C from labelled soils (0-20 cm) was inversely related to study site elevation (r = -0.85; P < 0.05) and directly related to mean annual temperature (+0.86; P<0.05). The results indicated different patterns of potential net soil N mineralization and {sup 13}C loss along the elevation gradient. The different patterns can be explained within a framework of climate, substrate chemistry, and coupled soil C and N stocks. Although less SOM decomposition is indicated at cool, high-elevation sites, low substrate C-to-N ratios in these N-rich systems result in more N release (N mineralization) for each unit of C converted to CO{sub 2} by soil microorganisms.

Garten Jr, Charles T [ORNL

2004-09-01

98

RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY OF PHOSPHATES OF THE VARISCITE MINERAL GROUP I: IMPLICATIONS FOR SOIL CHEMISTRY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports on Raman and IR spectra of the variscite phosphate minerals and relates the vibrational spectra to the mineral structure. The application of the spectroscopy is in the possible determination of colloidal variscite minerals in soils. The variscite mineral group are orthorhombic arsenates and phosphate with the general formula AXO4.2H2O, where A = Al 3+ , Fe3+, Cr3+

O. Carmody; M Weier; R. Frost

99

[Compositional characteristics and roles of soil mineral substances in depressions between hills in karst region].  

PubMed

Based on the investigation and analysis of seven soil mineral substance variables, nine vegetation factors, four topographical factors, and ten soil physicochemical factors in the 200 m x 40 m dynamic monitoring plots in farmland, forest plantation, secondary forest, and primary forest in the depressions between hills in karst region, and by using traditional statistical analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), and canonical correlation analysis (CCA), this paper studied the compositional characteristics and roles of soil mineral substances as well as the coupling relationships between the mineral substances and the vegetation, topography, and other soil properties. In the depressions, soil mineral substances were mainly composed of SiO2, Al2O3, K2O, and Fe2O3, whose contents were obviously lower than the mean background values of the soils in the world and in the zonal red soils at the same latitudes. The soil CaO and MgO contents were at medium level, while the soil MnO content was very low. The composition of soil mineral substances and their variation degrees varied with the ecosystems, and the soil development degree also varied. There was a positive correlation between vegetation origin and soil origin, suggesting the potential risk of rock desertification. Due to the high landscape heterogeneity of the four ecosystems, PCA didn't show good effect in lowering dimension. In all of the four ecosystems, soil mineral substances were the main affecting factors, and had very close relationships with vegetation, topography, and other soil properties. Especially for SiO2, CaO, and MnO, they mainly affected the vegetation species diversity and the soil organic matter, total nitrogen, and total potassium. This study indicated that soil mineral substances were the one of the factors limiting the soil fertility and vegetation growth in the depressions between hills in karst region. To effectively use the soil mineral resources and rationally apply mineral nutrients would have significances in the restoration and reconstruction of karst degraded ecosystems. PMID:22720612

Han, Mei-Rong; Song, Tong-Qing; Peng, Wan-Xia; Huang, Guo-Qin; Du, Hu; Lu, Shi-Yang; Shi, Wei-Wei

2012-03-01

100

Persistence of four pyrethroid insecticides in a mineral and an organic soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Permethrin, cypermethrin, fenpropanate and fenvalerate (emulsifiable concentrates) were applied at 280 g AI\\/ha and incorporated into mineral and organic soil contained in small field plots. Radishes and carrots were grown to serve as indicators of insecticide uptake. Similar plots were treated with the same insecticides at 140 g AI\\/ha and the soil surface was left undisturbed following application. Soil cores

R. A. Chapman; C. R. Harris

1981-01-01

101

Interplay between physical movements of soils and mineral grains and chemical weathering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most soil biogeochemistry studies treat the soils and their inorganic and organic constituents as physically immobile. Those soil materials, however, are in perpetual motion due to the conversion of bedrock to soils, colluvial transport, and vertical mixing by various biophysical perturbations of the soils. Subsequently, a soil is continuously replaced by the materials from the neighboring soils and the underlying parent material, while its individual horizons are gradually mixed with the materials in the neighboring horizons. The movements of bulk soil materials are ultimately driven by moving individual mineral grains. While rarely appreciated, these physical movements of soil's mineral components operate in the presence of strong vertical and topographic gradients of the rates of mineral dissolution and leaching. The result is that the physical movement of soil constituents affects chemical weathering. The fluxes of soil materials (via physical movements and solute fluxes) in and out of a soil system defined by a researcher determine the time length that the materials reside in the system. The residence time, together with the system-specific rates of chemical weathering, determine the degree of weathering of the materials within the system. This presentation provides a new mathematical framework to consistently quantify the residence times of minerals, individual soil horizons, soil profiles, and an entire soil within a watershed boundary. Soil age, which is equivalent of the time length since the cessation of erosion or deposition on level grounds, becomes a special case of the residence time. The model is combined with empirical data to quantitatively illustrate the impacts that the physical motion of soil constituents have on the rates of chemical weathering. The data are drawn from ongoing field and laboratory studies focusing on the impact of river incision, colluvial flux, bioturbation, and agricultural tillage on the vertical and lateral variation of elemental composition within the soils.

Yoo, K.

2007-12-01

102

Effect of sulfate and carbonate minerals on particle-size distributions in arid soils  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Arid soils pose unique problems during measurement and interpretation of particle-size distributions (PSDs) because they often contain high concentrations of water-soluble salts. This study investigates the effects of sulfate and carbonate minerals on grain-size analysis by comparing analyses in water, in which the minerals dissolve, and isopropanol (IPA), in which they do not. The presence of gypsum, in particular, substantially affects particle-size analysis once the concentration of gypsum in the sample exceeds the mineral’s solubility threshold. For smaller concentrations particle-size results are unaffected. This is because at concentrations above the solubility threshold fine particles cement together or bind to coarser particles or aggregates already present in the sample, or soluble mineral coatings enlarge grains. Formation of discrete crystallites exacerbates the problem. When soluble minerals are dissolved the original, insoluble grains will become partly or entirely liberated. Thus, removing soluble minerals will result in an increase in measured fine particles. Distortion of particle-size analysis is larger for sulfate minerals than for carbonate minerals because of the much higher solubility in water of the former. When possible, arid soils should be analyzed using a liquid in which the mineral grains do not dissolve, such as IPA, because the results will more accurately reflect the PSD under most arid soil field conditions. This is especially important when interpreting soil and environmental processes affected by particle size.

Goossens, Dirk; Buck, Brenda J.; Teng, Yuazxin; Robins, Colin; Goldstein, Harland L.

2014-01-01

103

Effect of soil characteristics on N mineralization capacity in 112 native and agricultural soils from the northwest of Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

N mineralization capacity and its main controlling factors were studied in a large variety (n=112) of native (forest, bush) and agricultural (pasture, cultivated) soils from several climatic zones in Spain. The available inorganic N content, net N mineralization, and net N mineralization rate were determined after 6 weeks of aerobic incubation. NHinf4sup+-N largely predominated over NOinf3sup--N (ratio near 10:1) except

S. J. González-Prieto; A. Cabaneiro; M. C. Villar; T. Carballas; M. Carballas

1996-01-01

104

X-ray digital imaging petrography of lunar mare soils: modal analyses of minerals and glasses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is essential that accurate modal (i.e., volume) percentages of the various mineral and glass phases in lunar soils be used for addressing and resolving the effects of space weathering upon reflectance spectra, as well as for their calibration such data are also required for evaluating the resource potential of lunar minerals for use at a lunar base. However, these data are largely lacking. Particle-counting information for lunar soils, originally obtained to study formational processes, does not provide these necessary data, including the percentages of minerals locked in multi-phase lithic fragments and fused-soil particles, such as agglutinates. We have developed a technique for modal analyses, sensu stricto, of lunar soils, using digital imaging of X-ray maps obtained with an energy-dispersive spectrometer mounted on an electron microprobe. A suite of nine soils (90 to 150 micrometers size fraction) from the Apollo 11, 12, 15, and 17 mare sites was used for this study. This is the first collection of such modal data on soils from all Apollo mare sites. The abundances of free-mineral fragments in the mare soils are greater for immature and submature soils than for mature soils, largely because of the formation of agglutinitic glass as maturity progresses. In considerations of resource utilization at a lunar base, the best lunar soils to use for mineral beneficiation (i.e., most free-mineral fragments) have maturities near the immature/submature boundary (Is/FeO approximately or = 30), not the mature soils with their complications due to extensive agglutination. The particle data obtained from the nine mare soils confirm the generalizations for lunar soils predicted by L.A. Taylor and D.S. McKay (1992, Lunar Planet Sci. Conf. 23rd, pp. 1411-1412 [Abstract]).

Taylor, L. A.; Patchen, A.; Taylor, D. H.; Chambers, J. G.; McKay, D. S.

1996-01-01

105

MECHANISTIC ROLES OF SOIL HUMUS AND MINERALS IN THE SORPTION OF NONIONIC ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM AQUEOUS AND ORGANIC SOLUTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Mechanistic roles of soil humus and soil minerals and their contributions to soil sorption of nonionic organic compounds from aqueous and organic solutions are illustrated. Parathion and lindane are used as model solutes on two soils that differ greatly in their humic and mineral...

106

Coexisting bacterial populations responsible for multiphasic mineralization kinetics in soil. [Janthinobacterium sp. Rhodococcus sp  

SciTech Connect

Experiments were conducted to study populations of indigenous microorganisms capable of mineralizing 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) in two soils. Previous kinetic analyses indicated the presence of two coexisting populations of DNP-mineralizing microorganisms in a forest soil (soil 1). Studies in which eucaryotic and procaryotic inhibitors were added to this soil indicated that both populations were bacterial. Most-probable-number counts with media containing different concentrations of DNP indicated that more bacteria could mineralize low concentrations of DNP than could metabolize high concentrations of it. Enrichments with varying concentrations of DNP and various combinations of inhibitors consistently resulted in the isolation of the same two species of bacteria from soil 1. This soil contained a large number and variety of fungi, but no fungi capable of mineralizing DNP were isolated. The two bacterial isolates were identified as a Janthinobacterium sp. and a Rhodococcus sp. The Janthinobacterium sp. had a low {mu}{sub max} and a low K{sub m} for DNP mineralization, whereas the Rhodococcus sp. had much higher values for both parameters. These differences between the two species of bacteria were similar to differences seen when soil was incubated with different concentrations of DNP. Values for {mu}{sub max} from soil incubations were similar to {mu}{sub max} values obtained in pure culture studies. In contrast, K{sub s} and K{sub m} values showed greater variation between soil and pure culture studies.

Schmidt, S.K.; Gier, M.J. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (USA))

1990-09-01

107

Temperature Sensitivity of Soil Organic Carbon Mineralization along an Elevation Gradient in the Wuyi Mountains, China  

PubMed Central

Soil organic carbon (SOC) actively participates in the global carbon (C) cycle. Despite much research, however, our understanding of the temperature sensitivity of soil organic carbon (SOC) mineralization is still very limited. To investigate the responses of SOC mineralization to temperature, we sampled surface soils (0–10 cm) from evergreen broad-leaf forest (EBF), coniferous forest (CF), sub-alpine dwarf forest (SDF), and alpine meadow (AM) along an elevational gradient in the Wuyi Mountains, China. The soil samples were incubated at 5, 15, 25, and 35°C with constant soil moisture for 360 days. The temperature sensitivity of SOC mineralization (Q10) was calculated by comparing the time needed to mineralize the same amount of C at any two adjacent incubation temperatures. Results showed that the rates of SOC mineralization and the cumulative SOC mineralized during the entire incubation significantly increased with increasing incubation temperatures across the four sites. With the increasing extent of SOC being mineralized (increasing incubation time), the Q10 values increased. Moreover, we found that both the elevational gradient and incubation temperature intervals significantly impacted Q10 values. Q10 values of the labile and recalcitrant organic C linearly increased with elevation. For the 5–15, 15–25, and 25–35°C intervals, surprisingly, the overall Q10 values for the labile C did not decrease as the recalcitrant C did. Generally, our results suggest that subtropical forest soils may release more carbon than expected in a warmer climate.

Xu, Xia; Ruan, Honghua; Wang, Jiashe

2013-01-01

108

Degradation and mineralization of atrazine by a soil bacterial isolate.  

PubMed Central

An atrazine-degrading bacterial culture was isolated from an agricultural soil previously impacted by herbicide spills. The organism was capable of using atrazine under aerobic conditions as the sole source of C and N. Cyanuric acid could replace atrazine as the sole source of N, indicating that the organism was capable of ring cleavage. Ring cleavage was confirmed in 14CO2 evolution experiments with [U-14C-ring]atrazine. Between 40 and 50% of ring-14C was mineralized to 14CO2. [14C]biuret and [14C]urea were detected in spent culture media. Cellular assimilation of 14C was negligible, in keeping with the fully oxidized valence of the ring carbon. Chloride release was stoichiometric. The formation of ammonium during atrazine degradation was below the stoichiometric amount, suggesting a deficit due to cellular assimilation and metabolite-N accumulation. With excess glucose and with atrazine as the sole N source, free ammonium was not detected, suggesting assimilation into biomass. The organism degraded atrazine anaerobically in media which contained (i) atrazine only, (ii) atrazine and glucose, and (iii) atrazine, glucose, and nitrate. To date, this is the first report of a pure bacterial isolate with the ability to cleave the s-triazine ring structure of atrazine. It was also concluded that this bacterium was capable of dealkylation, dechlorination, and deamination in addition to ring cleavage.

Radosevich, M; Traina, S J; Hao, Y L; Tuovinen, O H

1995-01-01

109

Differences of natural radioactivity and radon emanation fraction among constituent minerals of rock or soil.  

PubMed

We examined differences in the radioactive characteristics among the main minerals forming granite materials. Using a non-toxic high-density agent, minerals were separated from rock (granite-gneiss) and soil (weathered granite) samples. The natural radioactivity ((238)U and (226)Ra) and radon emanation fraction of the minerals were then studied by gamma-ray spectrometry. The radon emanation fractions (27-43%) of the minerals from the soil were much higher than those (0.6-4.6%) of the rock minerals. Additionally, the emanation fractions differed greatly among the minerals separated from both the bulk rock and soil. These results were discussed in terms of the differences of surface area and radium distribution in the mineral grains. It was noticeable that a higher emanation fraction than expected for quartz was commonly observed in the rock and soil samples. We then estimated the contribution of each constituent mineral to the total radon exhalation from the bulk samples. The result depended not only on the radon emanation fraction, but also on the (226)Ra activity and the mineral content. Furthermore, using the obtained data, we also discussed the effect of grain size on radon emanation and why this has been reported to vary markedly in previous studies. PMID:20117007

Sakoda, Akihiro; Nishiyama, Yuichi; Hanamoto, Katsumi; Ishimori, Yuu; Yamamoto, Yuki; Kataoka, Takahiro; Kawabe, Atsushi; Yamaoka, Kiyonori

2010-06-01

110

Influence of a soil enzyme on iron-cyanide complex speciation and mineral adsorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyanide is commonly found as ferrocyanide [FeII(CN)6]?4 and in the more mobile form, ferricyanide [FeIII(CN)6]?3 in contaminated soils and sediments. Although soil minerals may influence ferrocyanide speciation, and thus mobility, the possible influence of soil enzymes has not been examined. In a series of experiments conducted under a range of soil-like conditions, laccase, a phenoloxidase enzyme derived from the fungi

Andrew R. Zimmerman; Dong-Hee Kang; Mi-Youn Ahn; Seunghun Hyun; M. Katherine Banks

2008-01-01

111

Sorption-desorption behavior of PCP on soil organic matter and clay minerals.  

PubMed

Pentachlorophenol (PCP) contamination is a severe environmental problem due to its widespread occurrence, toxicity and recalcitrance. In order to gain a better understanding of the fate of PCP in soils, the role of the soil organic matter (SOM) and clay minerals in the PCP sorption-desorption was studied on two bulk field soils, two subsoils (i.e., SOM or clay-removed soil) and two artificial soils. The two field soils used were a silty loam from New Mexico (NM) containing 10% clay and a sandy-clay-loam from Colombia (CO) South America comprised of 18% clay minerals. The bulk CO soil containing kaolinite sorbed significantly less PCP than the NM soil. All soils depicted an apparent hysteresis during sorption. The CO bulk and subsoils desorbed 14-20% and 15-26% of the sorbed PCP respectively whereas the NM bulk and subsoils desorbed only 4-12% and 5-16%, respectively. Experiments conducted with pure clay and artificial soils indicated that the expandable clay minerals were key sorbent material. Additional studies to investigate the interaction between SOM and clay minerals are needed to fully understand sorptive phenomena. PMID:16473390

Pu, Xunchi; Cutright, Teresa J

2006-08-01

112

Influence of crop residues on trifluralin mineralization in a silty clay loam soil.  

PubMed

Trifluralin is typically applied onto crop residues (trash, stubble) at the soil surface, or onto the bare soil surface after the incorporation of crop residues into the soil. The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of the type and amount of crop residues in soil on trifluralin mineralization in a Wellwood silty clay loam soil. Leaves and stubble of Potato (Solanum tuberosum) (P); Canola (Brassica napus) (C), Wheat (Triticum aestivum) (W), Oats (Avena sativa), (O), and Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) (A) were added to soil microcosms at rates of 2%, 4%, 8% and 16% of the total soil weight (25 g). The type and amount of crop residues in soil had little influence on the trifluralin first-order mineralization rate constant, which ranged from 3.57E-03 day(-1) in soil with 16% A to 2.89E-02 day(-1) in soil with 8% W. The cumulative trifluralin mineralization at 113 days ranged from 1.15% in soil with 16% P to 3.21% in soil with 4% C, again demonstrating that the observed differences across the treatments are not of agronomic or environmental importance. PMID:17454379

Farenhorst, Annemieke

2007-01-01

113

DYNAMICS OF MINERAL STRUCTURES AND THE FATE OF METALS IN SOILS AND SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Significant progress has been made in elucidating sorption reactions that control the partitioning of metals from solution to mineral surfaces in contaminated soil/sediment systems. Surface complexation models have been developed to quantify the forward reaction with reasonable ...

114

THE INFLUENCE OF MINERAL REACTIONS ON THE ENVIRONMENTAL FATE OF METALS IN SOILS AND SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Significant progress has been made in elucidating sorption reactions that control the partitioning of metals from solution to mineral surfaces in contaminated soil/sediment systems. Surface complexation models have been developed to quantify the forward reaction, however, these ...

115

Factors affecting microbial 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene mineralization in contaminated soil  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The influence of selected environmental factors on microbial TNT mineralization in soils collected from a TNT-contaminated site at Weldon Spring, MO, was examined using uniformly ring-labeled [14C]TNT. Microbial TNT mineralization was significantly inhibited by the addition of cellobiose and syringate. This response suggests that the indigenous microorganisms are capable of metabolizing TNT but preferentially utilize less recalcitrant substrates when available. The observed inhibition of TNT mineralization by TNT concentrations higher than 100 ??mol/kg of soil and by dry soil conditions suggests that toxic inhibition of microbial activity at high TNT concentrations and the periodic drying of these soils have contributed to the long-term persistence of TNT at Weldon Spring. In comparison to aerobic microcosms, mineralization was inhibited in anaerobic microcosms and in microcosms with a headspace of air amended with oxygen, suggesting that a mosaic of aerobic and anaerobic conditions may optimize TNT degradation at this site.

Bradley, P. M.; Chapelle, F. H.

1995-01-01

116

Mineralization of Three Organic Manures Used as Nitrogen Source in a Soil Incubated under Laboratory Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rate and timing of manure application when used as nitrogen (N) fertilizer depend on N?releasing capacity (mineralization) of manures. A soil incubation study was undertaken to establish relative potential rates of mineralization of three organic manures to estimate the value of manure as N fertilizer. Surface soil samples of 0–15 cm were collected and amended with cattle manure (CM), sheep

M. Kaleem Abbasi; Munazza Hina; Abdul Khalique; Sumyya Razaq Khan

2007-01-01

117

Stabilization of Soil Organic Matter: Association with Minerals or Chemical Recalcitrance?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil organic matter (OM) can be stabilized against decomposition by association with minerals, by its inherent recalcitrance\\u000a and by occlusion in aggregates. However, the relative contribution of these factors to OM stabilization is yet unknown. We\\u000a analyzed pool size and isotopic composition (14C, 13C) of mineral-protected and recalcitrant OM in 12 subsurface horizons from 10 acidic forest soils. The results

Robert Mikutta; Markus Kleber; Margaret S. Torn; Reinhold Jahn

2006-01-01

118

Nutrient Mineralization from Deoiled Neem Seed in a Savanna Soil from Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mineralization of nutrients from deoiled neem seed (neem seed cake), the residue left after oil extraction, was examined in a typical savanna soil with a view to determining its potential for fertility improvement. The neem seed cake (NSC) application rates were 0, 2.5, and 5.0 g kg soil (0, 5, and 10 tons ha). The concentrations of ammonium?nitrogen (NH4?N) and nitrate (NO3)?N mineralized

John O. Agbenin; Stephen O. Ibitoye; Abel S. Agbaji

2008-01-01

119

Kinetics of di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate mineralization in sludge-amended soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage sludge is frequently used as a soil fertilizer although it may contain elevated concentrations of priority pollutants including di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP). In the present study, the kinetics of microbial [[sup 14]C]DEHP mineralization was studied in laboratory microcosms with sewage sludge and agricultural soil. A biphasic model with two independent kinetic expressions was used to fit the mineralization data. The initial

Peter Lindequist Madsen; Jesper Bandsholm Thyme; Kaj Henriksen; P. Moeldrup; Peter Roslev

1999-01-01

120

In-situ LIF analysis of polynuclear aromatic compounds (PAC) and mineral oils in soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present paper results of our LIF measurements of mineral oils on soil surfaces are briefly described. In order to characterize the influence of the analytes on the LIF signals we have measured the photophysical properties of different mineral oils in solution. An attempt to correlate the analytical parameters of the LIF calibration curves on soil surfaces with the photophysical properties in solution is presented.

Loehmannsroeben, Hans-Gerd; Roch, Thomas

1996-11-01

121

Clay mineralogy of weathering rinds and possible implications concerning the sources of clay minerals in soils.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Weathering rinds on volcanic clasts in Quaternary deposits in the western US contain only very fine-grained and poorly crystalline clay minerals. Rinds were sampled from soils containing well-developed argillic B horizons in deposits approx 105 yr old or more. The clay-size fraction of the rinds is dominated by allophane and iron hydroxy-oxides, whereas the B horizons contain abundant well-crystallized clay minerals. The contrast between the clay mineralogy of the weathering rinds, in which weathering is isolated from other soil processes, and that of the associated soil matrices suggests a need to reassess assumptions concerning the rates at which clay minerals form and the sources of clay minerals in argillic B horizons. It seems that crystalline clay minerals form more slowly in weathering rinds than is generally assumed for soil environments and that the weathering of primary minerals may not be the dominant source of crystalline clay minerals in Middle to Late Pleistocene soil.-A.P.

Colman, S. M.

1982-01-01

122

Effects of redox conditions on the adsorption of dissolved organic matter to soil minerals and differently aged paddy soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effects of redox conditions on the adsorption of dissolved organic matter to soil minerals and differently aged paddy soils Meike Sauerwein1, Alexander Hanke2, Klaus Kaiser3, Karsten Kalbitz2 1) Dept. of Soil Ecology, Bayreuth Centre of Ecology and Environmental Research (BayCEER), University of Bayreuth, 95440 Bayreuth, Germany, meike.sauerwein@gmail.com 2) Institute of ecosystem dynamics and biodiversity, University of Amsterdam, 1018 WV, Netherlands, a.hanke@uva.nl, k.kalbitz@uva.nl 3) Soil Sciences, Martin Luther University Halle, 06099 Halle, Germany, klaus.kaiser@landw.uni-halle.de Current knowledge on dissolved organic matter (DOM) in soils is based mainly on observations and experiments in aerobic environments. Adsorption to soil minerals is an important mechanism of DOM retention and stabilization against microbial decay under oxic conditions. Under anoxic conditions where hydrous iron oxides, the potential main adsorbents of DOM, possibly dissolve, the importance of adsorption seems questionable. Therefore, we studied the adsorption of DOM to selected soil minerals and to mineral soils under oxic and anoxic conditions. In detail, we tested the following hypotheses: 1. Minerals and soils adsorb less DOM under anoxic conditions than under oxic ones. 2. The reduced adsorption under anoxic conditions is result of the smaller adsorption to hydrous Fe oxides whereas adsorption to clay minerals and Al hydroxides is not sensitive to changes in redox conditions 3. DOM adsorption will increase with the number of redox cycles, thus time of soil formation, due to increasing contents of poorly crystalline Fe oxides. This will, however, cause a stronger sensitivity to redox changes as poor crystalline Fe oxides are more reactive. 4. Aromatic compounds, being preferentially adsorbed under oxic conditions, will be less strongly adsorbed under anoxic conditions. We chose paddy soils as models because their periodically and regular exposure to changing redox cycles, with anoxic conditions during the rice growing period and oxic conditions during harvest and growth of other crops. Soils of a unique chronosequence of paddy soils (50, 300, 700 and 2000 years) in China were studied in direct comparison to non-paddy soils of the same age. In additions, selected soil minerals (goethite, ferrihydrite, amorphous Al hydroxide, hydrobiotite, nontronite and ripodolite), differing in their response to changes in redox conditions, were studied in order to indentify those mineral constituents responsible for redox-induced changes in DOM adsorption to the test soils. The DOM for the adsorption was extracted from composted rice straw as a surrogate for DOM percolating in paddy soils. Batch adsorption experiments were carried out with DOM pre-incubated to give oxic and anoxic conditions and maintaining these redox conditions during the whole procedure. The redox potential resulting from anoxic pre-incubation was about 100 mV, thus in the range of Fe reduction. Besides of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), we determined changes in the composition of DOM by the specific UV absorbance. We also analyzed main cations, anions and redox-sensitive elements to give a comprehensive picture of the effects of changing redox conditions on the dynamics of organic C, N, P, S, Fe and Al. First results indicated indeed less adsorption of DOM to Fe oxides under anoxic than under oxic conditions, with a more pronounced effect for ferrihydrite than for goethite. Maximum adsorption of DOM was more than 50% larger under oxic than under anoxic conditions. The effect was less pronounced but still detectable for clay minerals such as hydrobiotite, nontronite, and ripodolite. The specific UV absorbance of DOM contact with minerals was 20-50% stronger under anoxic than under oxic conditions. These changes in DOM composition indicated that preferential adsorption of aromatic compounds might be limited to aerated soils. We conclude that adsorption, although less strong than under oxic conditions, is an important mechanism of DOM retention also under anoxic conditions. Decreasi

Sauerwein, Meike; Hanke, Alexander; Kaiser, Klaus; Kalbitz, Karsten

2010-05-01

123

Relationships between mineral surfaces and organic carbon concentrations in soils and sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relationships between mineral specific surface area and organic carbon (OC) concentration are examined for sediments and soil A-horizons from throughout the world. I found (published elsewhere) that continental shelf sediments from many different regions exhibit downcore loss of OC to a refractory background level which shows a consistent relationship with mineral surface area (slope = 0.8 6 mg m- 20C

Lawrence M. Mayer

1994-01-01

124

Soil Mineral–Organic Matter--Microorganism Interactions: Fundamentals and Impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Minerals, organic matter, and microorganisms are integral parts of the pedosphere and related environments. These three components are not separate entities but rather a united system constantly in association and interactions with each other in the terrestrial environment. Interactions of these components mediated by soil solution and atmosphere govern mechanisms of mineral weathering reactions, formation of short-range ordered (SRO) metal

P. M. Huang

2004-01-01

125

Nitrogen Mineralization in Soils Related to Initial Extractable Organic Nitrogen: Effect of Temperature and Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important source of nitrogen (N) for crops is mineralization of soil organic matter during the growing season. Awareness is growing that dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) plays an important role in mineralization and plant uptake. We studied the influence of temperature and time on extractable organic nitrogen (EON) levels, which is a measure of DON, and their relationship with N

Mabel M. Bregliani; Gerard H. Ros; Erwin J. M. Temminghoff; Willem H. van Riemsdijk

2010-01-01

126

Resources for a lunar base: Rocks, minerals, and soil of the Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rocks and minerals of the Moon will be included among the raw materials used to construct a lunar base. The lunar regolith, the fragmental material present on the surface of the Moon, is composed mostly of disaggregated rocks and minerals, but also includes glassy fragments fused together by meteorite impacts. The finer fraction of the regolith (i.e., less than 1 cm) is informally referred to as soil. The soil is probably the most important portion of the regolith for use at a lunar base. For example, soil can be used as insulation against cosmic rays, for lunar ceramics and abodes, or for growing plants. The soil contains abundant solar-wind-implanted elements as well as various minerals, particularly oxide phases, that are of potential economic importance. For example, these components of the soil are sources of oxygen and hydrogen for rocket fuel, helium for nuclear energy, and metals such as Fe, Al, Si, and Ti.

Taylor, Lawrence A.

1992-09-01

127

Mineral Soil Carbon in Managed Hardwood Forests of the Northeastern US  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New England is characterized by extensive forest cover and large reservoirs of soil carbon (C). In northern hardwood forests, mineral soil C can account for up to 50% of total ecosystem C. There has been an increasing demand for forests to serve both as a C sink and a renewable energy source, and effective management of the ecosystem C balance relies on accurate modeling of each compartment of the ecosystem. However, the dynamics of soil C storage with respect to forest use are variable and poorly understood, particularly in mineral soils. For example, current regional models assume C pools after forest harvesting do not change, while some studies suggest that belowground mineral soil C pools can be affected by disturbances at the soil surface. We quantified mineral soil C pools in previously clear-cut stands in seven research or protected forests across New York, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, and Vermont. The ages of the sites sampled ranged from recently cleared to those with no disturbance history, with 21 forest stands represented in the study. Within each research forest studied, physical parameters such as soil type, forest type, slope and land-use history (aside from forest harvest) did not vary between the stands of different ages. Soil samples were collected to a depth of 60 cm below the mineral-organic boundary using a gas-powered augur and 9.5-cm diameter drill bit. Samples were collected in 10-cm increments in shallow mineral soil and 15-cm increments from 30-60 cm depth. Carbon, nitrogen (N), pH, texture and soil mineralogy were measured across the regional sites. At Bartlett Experimental Forest (BEF) in New Hampshire, mineral soil biogeochemistry in cut and uncut sites was studied at a finer scale. Measurements included soil temperature to 55 cm depth, carbon compound analyses using Py-GCMS and soil microbial messenger RNA extractions from mineral soil. Finally, we simulated C dynamics after harvesting by building a model in Stella, with a particular interest in the role that priming effects may play if C is transported from organic to mineral soil layers after forest harvest. Laboratory analyses were conducted at Dartmouth College and at the University of New Hampshire. For the regional study, mineral soil C and N concentrations, and in some cases, pools were highest at locations that had never been harvested. Although sites represented different stages of succession after clearing, there were no significant patterns over time since harvest. At BEF, soil temperature at 55 cm depth in a recently cleared stand was on average 1.5° C higher than surrounding forested sites between June and September, and shallower depths had greater temperature discrepancies. Our model, which was parameterized using published field data from Bartlett and Hubbard Brook forests, showed that inputs of labile C to mineral soil after harvest could prime the decomposition of preexisting mineral soil C and account for up to 40% of the observed difference in C pools between harvested and undisturbed sites.

Vario, C.; Friedland, A.; Hornig, C.

2013-12-01

128

A simple method to determine mineralization of (14) C-labeled compounds in soil.  

PubMed

Degradation of organic compounds in soil is often determined by measuring the decrease of the parent compound and analyzing the occurrence of its metabolites. However, determining carbon species as end products of parent compound dissipation requires using labeled materials that allow more accurate determination of the environmental fate of the compound of interest. The current conventional closed system widely used to monitor degradation of (14) C-labeled compounds in soil is complex and expensive and requires a specialized apparatus and facility. In the present study, the authors describe a simple system that facilitates measurement of mineralization of (14) C-labeled compounds applied to soil samples. In the system, soda lime pellets to trap mineralized (14) C-carbon species, including carbon dioxide, were placed in a cup, which was then inserted above the treated soil sample in a tube. Mineralization of [(14) C]2,4-D applied to soil samples in the simple system was compared with that in the conventional system. The simple system provided an equivalent detection of (14) C-carbon species mineralized from the parent compound. The results demonstrate that this cost- and space-effective simple system is suitable for examining degradation and mineralization of (14) C-labeled compounds in soil and could potentially be used to investigate their mineralization in other biological matrices. PMID:24677225

Myung, Kyung; Madary, Michael W; Satchivi, Norbert M

2014-06-01

129

Is the geological concept of clay minerals appropriate for soil science? A literature-based and philosophical analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data in the literature for soils that are dominated by each of the main types of clay minerals were examined and compared with those for reference clay minerals of the same types to determine the extent to which the nature and properties of clay-size minerals in soils could be explained by those of clay minerals with the same name from non-soil, ‘geological’ environments. Published information on soils from Australia, New Zealand and Iran was sourced for this study. The clay fractions of each of the soils are dominated by either one of the common phyllosilicates: kaolinite, halloysite, illite/mica, vermiculite, smectite, and palygorskite, or by the nanocrystalline mineral, allophane. Data for samples of kaolinite that had been extracted from soils from several countries (Australia, Thailand, Indonesia and Brazil) and purified before characterization have also been examined. In soils, each dominant clay mineral is generally associated with other materials, including iron oxides, other phyllosilicates and/or nanocrystalline minerals and organic matter. As the most studied example of an extracted phyllosilicate, kaolinite shows a wide range of properties in different soils, but a narrower range of properties within a particular locality. However, almost all of the soil kaolinites studied have larger specific surface areas and higher cation exchange capacities than reference kaolinites. The literature also reveals that, among phyllosilicates in soils, illites have a wide range of potassium contents, expandable minerals (vermiculites and smectites) may be interlayered by hydroxy-Al species particularly, and smectitic layers often occur interstratified with other layers, including those of illite, kaolinite and halloysite. The variability of soil phyllosilicates and their common association with other, often poorly crystallized but highly reactive minerals and compounds can be explained by their formation in the highly heterogeneous and dynamic soil environment. Phyllosilicates from non-soil or geological sources are poor models for the representation of secondary clay-size minerals in soils. In philosophical terms, the reduction of soil mineralogy to mineralogy as it is practiced within geology is misleading because of the differences between the minerals formed in soil and geological environments. In other words, clay minerals as they are defined as mineralogical entities for geology are of a different ‘kind’ to clay minerals in soils and cannot serve as ‘types’ or ‘stereotypes’ to enable explanation of the contribution of secondary clay-size minerals to soil properties or behavior. It is more useful to view clay minerals in soils as secondary inorganic compounds of clay-size than to follow their definition for non-soil purposes as plastic phyllosilicate minerals.

Churchman, G. Jock

130

SULFUR DYNAMICS IN MINERAL HORIZONS OF TWO NORTHERN HARDWOOD SOILS A COLUMN STUDY WITH 35S  

EPA Science Inventory

Sulfur dynamics of two Spodosols were ascertained using soil columns constructed from homogenized mineral soil from northern hardwood ecosystems at the Huntington Forest (HF) in the Adirondack Mountains of New York and Bear Brook Watershed in Maine (BBWM). olumns were leached for...

131

Soil Fertility and Mineral Nutrition of a Biodynamic Avocado Plantation in Tenerife  

Microsoft Academic Search

The soil fertility of a biodynamic avocado plantation in Tenerife and its relation to mineral nutrition was studied and compared with similar variables investigated previously in conventional plantations. The surface soils of the biodynamic plantation showed pH, organic matter and available P, Ca, Mg and K averages significantly higher than those of the conventional plantations. As regards the foliar nutrient

C. García; C. E. Alvarez; A. Carracedo; E. Iglesias

1989-01-01

132

Mineral ion composition of halophytes and associated soils in Western Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mineral ion contents of seven halophytic species in the family Chenopodiaceae, and associated soils were examined. Each species was found growing in soils with wide ranges of salinity, sodicity and salt ion composition. Absolute concentrations of Na, Ca, Mg, K, Cl and SO4 in shoot tissue differed significantly among species. Species were classified into two groups: (1) chloride halophytes,

R. E. Redmann; P. Fedec

1987-01-01

133

Zn speciation in the organic horizon of a contaminated soil by micro-X-ray fluorescence, micro- and powder-EXAFS spectroscopy, and isotopic dilution.  

PubMed

Soils that have been acutely contaminated by heavy metals show distinct characteristics, such as colonization by metal-tolerant plant species and topsoil enrichment in weakly degraded plant debris, because biodegradation processes are strongly inhibited by contamination. Such an organic topsoil, located downwind of an active zinc smelter and extremely rich in Zn (approximately 2%, dry weight), was investigated by X-ray diffraction, synchrotron-based X-ray microfluorescence, and powder- and micro-extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy for Zn speciation and by isotopic dilution for Zn lability. EXAFS spectra recorded on size fractions and on selected spots of thin sections were analyzed by principal component analysis and linear combination fits. Although Zn primary minerals (franklinite, sphalerite, and willemite) are still present (approximately 15% of total Zn) in the bulk soil, Zn was found to be predominantly speciated as Zn-organic matter complexes (approximately 45%), outer-sphere complexes (approximately 20%), Zn-sorbed phosphate (approximately 10%), and Zn-sorbed iron oxyhydroxides (approximately 10%). The bioaccumulated Zn fraction is likely complexed to soil organic matter after the plants' death. The proportion of labile Zn ranges from 54 to 92%, depending on the soil fraction, in agreement with the high proportion of organically bound Zn. Despite its marked lability, Zn seems to be retained in the topsoil thanks to the huge content of organic matter, which confers to this horizon a high sorption capacity. The speciation of Zn in this organic soil horizon is compared with that found in other types of soils. PMID:15212252

Sarret, Géraldine; Balesdent, Jérome; Bouziri, Lamia; Garnier, Jean-Marie; Marcus, Matthew A; Geoffroy, Nicolas; Panfili, Frédéric; Manceau, Alain

2004-05-15

134

Mineral Contamination from Cemetery Soils: Case Study of Zandfontein Cemetery, South Africa  

PubMed Central

The burial of coffins may pose an environmental and health hazard since the metals that are used in coffin-making may corrode or degrade into harmful toxins. These may leach into the surrounding soils and groundwater. Very little research has been conducted world-wide on the mineral contamination potential of cemeteries, and virtually none in South Africa. The aim of the study is to determine whether burial practices affect the mineral content of soils in cemeteries. This was done by comparing the mineral concentrations of soils within the Zandfontein Cemetery in Tshwane (Gauteng, South Africa) to those off-site as well as those in zones with high burial loads with those zones with fewer burials. Twenty three soil samples were collected from various sites on- and off-site and analyzed for 31 minerals using ICP-AES. It was found that mineral concentrations of soils within the Zandfontein Cemetery were considerably higher than those off-site. Soil samples in multiple burials blocks also have elevated metal concentrations. These excess metals are probably of anthropogenic origin associated with burial practices and could pose an environmental and human health hazard. Strict monitoring of water quality in boreholes in the vicinity of the cemetery is recommended.

Jonker, Cornelia; Olivier, Jana

2012-01-01

135

Microbial biomass and mineralization-immobilization of nitrogen in some agricultural soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chloroform fumigation-incubation method (CFIM) was used to measure the microbial biomass of 17 agricultural soils from Punjab Pakistan which represented different agricultural soil series. The biomass C was used to calculate biomass N and the changes occurring in NH4+-N and NO3--N content of soils were studied during the turnover of microbial biomass or added C source. Mineral N released

F. Azam; K. A. Malik; F. Hussain

1986-01-01

136

Clay Mineral Formation and Transformation in Rocks and Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three mechanisms for clay mineral formation (inheritance, neoformation, and transformation) operating in three geological environments (weathering, sedimentary, and diagenetic-hydrothermal) yield nine possibilities for the origin of clay minerals in nature. Several of these possibilities are discussed in terms of the rock cycle. The mineralogy of clays neoformed in the weathering environment is a function of solution chemistry, with the most

D. D. Eberl; V. C. Farmer; R. M. Barrer

1984-01-01

137

Comparison of soil CO2 emission in poorly and well-drained mineral soil at a small agricultural hillside scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increase of greenhouse gases (GHG) in the atmosphere and the climate change which results from it, will have major effects in the 21th century. In agricultural landscapes and others ecosystems, soil CO2 emissions are controlled by thermal and hydrological regimes, but their relative importance seems to be dependant of soil drainage conditions. The purpose of this study was to measure and model soil CO2 emissions at the scale of a hillslope presenting a gradient of soil drainage conditions. The studied hillslope is located in the Kervidy-Naizin headwater catchment (Brittany, France, 48°00'N 2°50W) and corresponds to an agricultural field cropped in a maize / winter wheat rotation. Soil CO2 emissions were measured once per week from February 2013 to March 2014, in two locations contrasting by soil drainage condition: (1) well-drained mineral (WDM) soil classified as Cambisol in upslope position, (2) poorly-drained mineral (PDM) soil classified as Haplic Albeluvisol and which undergoes continuous or periodic saturation and reduction conditions in downslope position. The measurement sites of 9m2 were equipped for continuous measurement of soil water content (TDR probes) and soil temperature. Soil CO2 emissions were measured with the infrared gas analyzer (IRGA) Li-8100A (Li-Cor, Lincoln, USA) until now. Results showed that PDM soils were waterlogged in winter and autumn inducing a low CO2 emission (average of 1.1±0.2µmol.m-2.s-1) which was two times lower than CO2 emissions in WDM soil. A shift of soil moisture to field capacity leading to an availability of oxygen in soil in the spring and summer induced an increase of soil CO2 emissions in PDM soil with a maximum of 5.03±0.5µmol.m-2.s-1 at the end of July. In WDM soil, CO2 emissions were high at the end of spring (average of 7µmol.m-2.s-1) and decreased of 65% at the end of summer because of the drought conditions. The modeling of temporal variability of soil CO2 emission by temperature and moisture empirical functions showed that the combined effect of soil temperature and soil moisture explained 77% (61% by T° and 39% by SWC) of soil CO2 emission variability in PDM soil, against 63% (53% by T° and 47% by SWC) in WDM soil. Others factors such as C input, and oxygen availability due to soil management may also controlled soil CO2 emission and mostly in WDM soil. The integration of these factors in model could help to well understand the difference in soil CO2 emission in Poorly-drained mineral soil compared with well-drained soil at agricultural hillside scale.

TETE, Emmanuel; Viaud, Valerie; Flechard, Chris; Walter, Christian

2014-05-01

138

Recovery of Minerals in Martian Soils Via Supercritical Fluid Extraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are investigating the use of supercritical fluids to extract mineral and/or carbonaceous material from Martian surface soils and its igneous crust. Two candidate supercritical fluids are carbon dioxide and water. The Martian atmosphere is composed mostly of carbon dioxide (approx. 95.3%) and could therefore provide an in-situ source of carbon dioxide. Water, although present in the Martian atmosphere at only approx. 0.03%, is also a candidate supercritical solvent. Previous work done with supercritical fluids has focused primarily on their solvating properties with organic compounds. Interestingly, the first work reported by Hannay and Hogarth at a meeting of the Royal Society of London in 1879 observed that increasing or decreasing the pressure caused several inorganic salts e.g., cobalt chloride, potassium iodide, and potassium bromide, to dissolve or precipitate in supercritical ethanol. In high-pressure boilers, silica, present in most boiler feed waters, is dissolved in supercritical steam and transported as dissolved silica to the turbine blades. As the pressure is reduced the silica precipitates onto the turbine blades eventually requiring the shutdown of the generator. In supercritical water oxidation processes for waste treatment, dissolved salts present a similar problem. The solubility of silicon dioxide (SiO2) in supercritical water is shown. The solubility curve has a shape characteristic of supercritical systems. At a high pressure (greater than 1750 atmospheres) increasing the temperature results in an increase in solubility of silica, while at low pressures, less than 400 atm., the solubility decreases as temperature increases. There are only a few studies in the literature where supercritical fluids are used in extractive metallurgy. Bolt modified the Mond process in which supercritical carbon monoxide was used to produce nickel carbonyl (Ni(CO)4). Tolley and Tester studied the solubility of titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) in supercritical CO2. They reported complete miscibility of TiCl4 with supercritical CO2 (infinite solubility). At 1500 psig, TiCl4 and CO2 form a single liquid phase below 50 C. Tolley et al. also reported on the solubility and thermodynamics of tin tetrachloride in supercritical CO2. Some of their data for TiC14 are shown. Three criteria have been suggested to predict which materials are suitable for supercritical extraction: 1) Hydrocarbons or lipophilic compounds of low molecular weight and polarity are easily extracted with supercritical CO2. 2) Compounds with polar groups are not easily extracted with supercritical CO2. 3) Separation of mixtures is facilitated if components differing mass, vapor pressure, or polarity.

Debelak, Kenneth A.; Roth, John A.

2001-03-01

139

Effects of simulated acid rain on glucose mineralization and some physicochemical properties of forest soils  

SciTech Connect

To study the effects of acid rain, samples of forest soils were exposed to a continuous application of 100 cm of simulated acid rain (pH 3.2-4.1) at 5 cm/hour, or to intermittent 1-hour applications of 5 cm of simulated acid rain three times per week for 7 weeks. The major effects of the simulated acid rain were localized at the top of the soil and included lower pH values and glucose mineralization rates, and higher exchangeable Al and total and exchange acidity. The acidity penetrated further in the more acid soils. The mineralization of /sup 14/C-glucose was measured at concentrations of 1.5-54 ..mu..g glucose/g of soil. Glucose mineralization in the test soils (pH values of 4.4-7.1) was inhibited by the continuous exposure to simulated acid rain at pH 3.2 but not a pH 4.1. The extent of inhibition depended on the soil and the initial glucose concentration. Exposure of one soil to 7 weeks of intermittent applications of simulated acid rain at pH 3.2 reduced the mineralization rate at the three glucose concentrations tested. These data suggest that acid rain may have a significant impact on microbial activity.

Strayer, R.F. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN); Alexander, M.

1981-10-01

140

Impact of lead and sewage sludge on soil microbial biomass and carbon and nitrogen mineralization  

SciTech Connect

Sewage sludge disposal on arable land is viewed as a method to reduce waste accumulation and to enrich soil fertility. However, such disposal can degrade soil ecosystems due to the presence of potentially harmful substances, such as heavy metals. Pb has assumed greater significance because currently its dispersal through anthropogenic activities has exceeded the inputs from natural sources by about 17 fold. Several soil variables such as texture, organic matter content, clay, cation exchange capacity, soil pH, and CaCO{sub 3} content influence the toxic effects of heavy metals on sol microbes and their activities. Microbes have an essential function in cycling of nutrients through mineralization activities. However, the addition of 375 and 1500 {mu}g Pb g{sup -1} soil in sandy loam and clay loam has been reported to cause a 15% decrease in soil microbial respiration. Contrarily, in an organic soil microbial respiration and enzyme activities were observed to remain unaltered by the addition of 1000 {mu}g Pb g{sup -1} soil. While the nitrification process in a sandy loam soil has been reported to be significantly inhibited at 100 {mu}g Pb g{sup -1} soil, the addition of similar amount of Pb to alluvial and clay loam had no effect on nitrification and ammonifying and nitrifying bacteria. This study assesses the effects of lead and sewages sludge on microbial biomass and mineralization processes in soils of varied texture and organic matter content. 17 refs., 4 tabs.

Dar, G.H. [Haryana Agricultural Univ., Hisar (India)] [Haryana Agricultural Univ., Hisar (India)

1997-02-01

141

Clay minerals and its influence on soil respiration in southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon dioxide is the greenhouse gas with the highest concentration increases in the last century caused by human activities. Despite all the efforts, new investigations should be conducted in order to understand how agricultural management and its variations would impact on soil respiration and consequently in soils potential for carbon sequestration. Soil iron content is an important aspect of tropical soils, especially in sugarcane fields, that are located in regions where iron content in soil is among the highest concentrations in world. In this work we show that as iron content increases and changes its constitution FCO2 decreases monotonically. A transect was established on an acid oxisol in a direction where soil color changed from a yellow (10 YR), passing to a red (5 YR) and finishing with a dark red latosol (2.5 YR), in just 420 meters. Soil respiration was taken each 10 meters (42 points) while soil samples were extracted (0-20 cm) in each point for further soil property analysis. X-ray analysis shows that the goethite per hematite ratio and kaolinite per gibbsite ratio are directly related to soil respiration rates, and this is confirmed by spectroreflectance analysis performed in the same samples. Also, soils with iron clay minerals having lower degree of cristalinity were the ones having the higher soil respirations. Our study suggests a more complex relationship between clay minerals and biological activity, including soil iron level as an important factor in order to infer the ecological impact of tropical soil management in the biosphere. Due to the distinguishable characteristics of the Brazilian soils in terms of iron level, new experiments are needed to elucidate the relationship of iron content and CO2 loss in different classes of soils.

Marques, José, Jr.; Tadeu Pereira, Gener; La Scala, Newton, Jr.

2010-05-01

142

Thermal properties of peat, marshy and mineral soils in relation to soil moisture status in Polesie and Biebrza wetlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge of thermal properties of soil helps in estimating heat fluxes as an important component of the heat balance. The research was conducted to evaluate spatial distribution of the soil thermal properties (thermal conductivity, heat capacity and thermal diffusivity) in relation to soil wetness and bulk density in wetland soils of Polesie and Biebrza regions (Poland). Soil moisture content and bulk density together with soil temperature and texture data, were used for determination of thermal properties. The thermal conductivity was measured, by KD2 Pro Decagon, and calculated by the physical-statistical model of Usowicz, and the heat capacity - was calculated with empirical formulae, and the thermal diffusivity was determined by the ratio of thermal conductivity to the heat capacity. The thermal conductivity of wetland and marsh soils increases with increasing moisture content and density of the soil to higher extent in soils richer in minerals - mostly quartz. Maximum thermal conductivity of the wetland soils at different density did not exceed the value of the thermal conductivity of water. However, for mineral soil at the natural density (1.31 Mg m-3) and with the quartz content of 96%, the thermal conductivity is about four times greater than the thermal conductivity of water. This is due to that the thermal conductivity of quartz is sixteen times greater than that of water. Dependence of the soil thermal conductivity on moisture content is non-linear and the shape of the non-linearity largely depends on the density of the soil. Particular components of soil bring their contribution to the conductivity respectively to their fractions and compounds being dominant in the ground contribute mostly to the effective slope of the thermal conductivity versus the water content at a given soil density. The heat capacity of the soil substrate is linearly dependent on the water content. Soils containing more organic matter within low specific densities, usually are characterized by less or minimal available heat capacity values in dry conditions, while they can also be characterized by highest or maximal heat capacity values, in highly wet conditions approaching the saturation with water. The increase in soil density caused a parallel shift of the characteristics of the heat capacity in the direction of higher values. This was associated with an increase in solids content per unit volume of the substrate and the reduction of the water content and the specific heat capacity of the individual components of the soil. Thermal diffusivity of soils exhibits characteristic extremes. In organic soils characteristic minimal or maximal extremes may occur, while mineral soils achieve only maximal diffusivity values on regular basis. Extremes of the thermal diffusivity are mainly due to the changes in the intensity of the thermal conductivity of the substrate due to change in soil moisture content and density. The heat capacity of the soil increases with increasing moisture content at the constant rate. The value of soil thermal diffusivity depends highly on quartz content. Thermal diffusivity of the soil with the same moisture content was greater for the higher densities, and minimum or maximum thermal diffusivity tends to move toward the lower moisture content for higher densities. The observed extremes are so distinctive that they determine the value of soil moisture and density, at which the temperature wave travels the slowest and the fastest in the soil. The question of determining and sensing the water capacity is also affected by the texture and porosity. Simple volumetric measures of porosity are used, but with distinguishing the volume of pores filled by air and other part filled with water. Practically, porosity is treated simply and is included to assessments by effects on the thermal properties. We prove that thermal properties are very good variables for a sensitive indicator of the water content, and accounting the impact from porosity. Thermal properties gather effects from the texture and porosity cumulatively. Therefo

Usowicz, Boguslaw; ?ukowski, Mateusz; Marczewski, Wojciech; Usowicz, Jerzy B.; Lipiec, Jerzy; Stankiewicz, Krystyna

2013-04-01

143

High temperature and salinity enhance soil nitrogen mineralization in a tidal freshwater marsh.  

PubMed

Soil nitrogen (N) mineralization in wetlands is sensitive to various environmental factors. To compare the effects of salinity and temperature on N mineralization, wetland soils from a tidal freshwater marsh locating in the Yellow River Delta was incubated over a 48-d anaerobic incubation period under four salinity concentrations (0, 10, 20 and 35‰) and four temperature levels (10, 20, 30 and 40°C). The results suggested that accumulated ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N) increased with increasing incubation time under all salinity concentrations. Higher temperatures and salinities significantly enhanced soil N mineralization except for a short-term (?10 days) inhibiting effect found under 35‰ salinity. The incubation time, temperature, salinity and their interactions exhibited significant effects on N mineralization (P<0.001) except the interactive effect of salinity and temperature (P>0.05), while temperature exhibited the greatest effect (P<0.001). Meanwhile, N mineralization processes were simulated using both an effective accumulated temperature model and a one-pool model. Both models fit well with the simulation of soil N mineralization process in the coastal freshwater wetlands under a range of 30 to 40°C (R2?=?0.88-0.99, P<0.01). Our results indicated that an enhanced NH4+-N release with increasing temperature and salinity deriving from the projected global warming could have profound effects on nutrient cycling in coastal wetland ecosystems. PMID:24733366

Gao, Haifeng; Bai, Junhong; He, Xinhua; Zhao, Qingqing; Lu, Qiongqiong; Wang, Junjing

2014-01-01

144

Mineral mapping of tropical soils in land degradation areas through ASTER thermal infrared data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increasing loss of harvest areas in tropical humid and sub-humid regions is a comprehensive problem, but still underestimated. The main land degradation processes in these regions is related to erosion of arenitic rocks and formation of structured sandy soils, locally called in Brazil as “arenization”, but also generically called desertification. Such processes introduce several environmental damages such as increased erosion, reduction in soil fertility and decline of agricultural land use. The present work uses ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) Thermal Infrared data (TIR - 10 to 14 bands - 8.125-10.95 µm) to map quartz and clay minerals in areas of land degradation in the southern portion of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Using ASTER/TIR data it was possible to replicate important spectral diagnostic features related to the SiO reststrahlen band from clay minerals and quartz. The mapping of mineral abundance was produced using spectral index and band ratio methods. The results show that ASTER/TIR data were able to map these minerals in the tropical soil and to reveal the degree of mixtures among quartz, clay minerals and other land cover features. Areas simultaneously mapped as quartz-rich and with lower proportion of clay minerals indicate a wealth of sandy soils, scarce cover vegetation and excessive drainage, that leads to large nutrient losses. This approach allows a more precise and quantitative mapping of land degradation characteristics with important implications to the study of its dynamics in tropical environments.

Vicente, L. E.; Souza Filho, C. R.

2009-12-01

145

High Temperature and Salinity Enhance Soil Nitrogen Mineralization in a Tidal Freshwater Marsh  

PubMed Central

Soil nitrogen (N) mineralization in wetlands is sensitive to various environmental factors. To compare the effects of salinity and temperature on N mineralization, wetland soils from a tidal freshwater marsh locating in the Yellow River Delta was incubated over a 48-d anaerobic incubation period under four salinity concentrations (0, 10, 20 and 35‰) and four temperature levels (10, 20, 30 and 40°C). The results suggested that accumulated ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N) increased with increasing incubation time under all salinity concentrations. Higher temperatures and salinities significantly enhanced soil N mineralization except for a short-term (?10 days) inhibiting effect found under 35‰ salinity. The incubation time, temperature, salinity and their interactions exhibited significant effects on N mineralization (P<0.001) except the interactive effect of salinity and temperature (P>0.05), while temperature exhibited the greatest effect (P<0.001). Meanwhile, N mineralization processes were simulated using both an effective accumulated temperature model and a one-pool model. Both models fit well with the simulation of soil N mineralization process in the coastal freshwater wetlands under a range of 30 to 40°C (R2?=?0.88–0.99, P<0.01). Our results indicated that an enhanced NH4+-N release with increasing temperature and salinity deriving from the projected global warming could have profound effects on nutrient cycling in coastal wetland ecosystems.

Gao, Haifeng; Bai, Junhong; He, Xinhua; Zhao, Qingqing; Lu, Qiongqiong; Wang, Junjing

2014-01-01

146

Mineralization of desorption-resistant 1,4-dichlorobenzene in wetland soils.  

PubMed

Laboratory studies were conducted to investigate the biologically mediated, aerobic mineralization of both freshly added and artificially aged, desorption-resistant 1,4-dichlorobenzene (1,4-DCB). The adsorption and desorption of 1,4-DCB isotherms were established in three wetland soils using decant-refill batch techniques. Significant nonlinearity and hysteresis were observed in the isotherms with a hysteresis index ranging from 0.11 (relatively low hysteresis) in a marsh soil to 2.26 (relatively high hysteresis) in a bottomland hardwood soil from the Petro Processor (PPI) Superfund site. Mineralization of freshly added 1,4-DCB was observed in all three soils without lag after the addition of a 1,4-DCB degrading culture. Mineralization curves were plotted above theoretical lines predicted from a first-order model assuming instantaneous desorption, indicating that the microbial population had access to sorbed 1,4-DCB. In separate experiments, mineralization of artificially aged, desorption-resistant 1,4-DCB was also observed. Mineralization curves in these studies also indicated that the microbial population could directly access sorbed 1,4-DCB. The extent and rate of mineralization of desorption-resistant 1,4-DCB decreased significantly, including rate constants decreasing from approximately 0.01 d-1 in the freshly added treatments to approximately 0.002 d-1 in the desorption-resistant treatments. Although sorption/desorption partitioning helped explain mineralization patterns in the treatments with freshly added 1,4-DCB, no differences were observed in mineralization curves in the desorption-resistant treatments between soils with widely varying sorption/desorption properties. PMID:14551994

Lee, Sangjin; Pardue, John H; Moe, William M; Valsaraj, Kalliat T

2003-10-01

147

Organic matter protection as affected by the mineral soil matrix: allophanic vs. non-allophanic volcanic ash soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volcanic ash soils (Andosols) contain the largest amounts of organic carbon of all mineral soil types. Chemical (complexes of organic matter with allophane, Al/Fe) and physical (aggregation) mechanisms are protecting the carbon from decomposition. While allophanic Andosols are dominated by short range order minerals such as allophane, imogolite and ferrihydrite, organic matter-Al/Fe complexes dominate non-allophanic Andosols. Consequently, chemical interactions between the mineral soil matrix and organic matter differ between these two soil types. This difference could potentially lead to different organic matter compositions. In this study, the organic matter of Ah horizons of an allophanic Andosol with a non-allophanic Andosol from Madeira Island is compared using analytical pyrolysis. Both volcanic soil types showed a relative decrease of lignin-derived pyrolysis products with depth, but this decrease was more pronounced in the allophanic Andosol. Polysaccharides were more abundant in the allophanic Ah horizon, particularly at lower depth, and this was also the case for the non-plant-derived N-containing polysaccharide chitin. Most likely, these biopolymers are adsorbed onto short range order minerals such as allophane and therefore were better protected in the allophanic Andosol. In addition, the higher chitin contents combined with the more pronounced lignin degradation suggests a higher fungal activity. Aliphatic pyrolysis products (n-alkenes/n-alkanes, fatty acids) were relatively more enriched in the non-allophanic Andosol. Lower microbial activity caused by the more acidic pH and higher levels of (toxic) aluminium are the most plausible reasons for the accumulation of these compounds in the non-allophanic Andosol. Although the allophanic and non-allophanic Andosol resembled each other in containing biopolymer groups of the same orders of magnitudes, in particular the contents of chitin and aliphatic compounds were distinctly affected by the differences in organic matter stabilizing properties and capacity of the mineral soil matrices.

Nierop, K. G. J.; Kaal, J.; Jansen, B.; Naafs, D. F. W.

2009-04-01

148

Mineral Cycling in Soil and Litter Arthropod Food Chains. Progress Report, November 1, 1980-October 31, 1981.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Progress and current status are reported for research projects concerned with mineral element and nutrient dynamics in soil arthropod food chains. Research is performed within the larger context of terrestrial decomposition, in which soil arthropods may a...

D. A. Crossley

1980-01-01

149

Effects of amendment of different biochars on soil physical and biological properties related to carbon mineralization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biochar addition to soils potentially affects various soil properties, and these effects are dependent on biochars derived from different feedstock materials and pyrolysis processes. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of amendment of different biochars on soil physical and biological properties. Biochars were produced with dairy manure and woodchip at temperatures of 300, 500, and 700°C, respectively. Each biochar was mixed at 5% (w/w) with a forest soil and the mixture was incubated for 180 days, during which soil physical and biological properties, and soil respiration rates were measured. Results showed that the biochar addition significantly enhanced the formation of soil macroaggregates at the early incubation time. The biochar application significantly reduced soil bulk density, increased the amount of soil organic matter, and stimulated microbial activity and soil respiration rates at the early incubation stage. Biochar applications improved water retention capacity, with stronger effects by biochars produced at higher pyrolysis temperatures. At the same suction, the soil with woodchip biochars possessed higher water content than with the dairy manure biochars. Biochar addition significantly affected the soil physical and biological properties, which resulted in different soil carbon mineralization rates.

Zhang, Renduo; Zhu, Shuzhi; Ouyang, Lei

2014-05-01

150

Soil sorption and leaching of active ingredients of Lumax® under mineral or organic fertilization.  

PubMed

The study describes the soil sorption of the herbicide Lumax®, composed of S-metolachlor (MTC), terbuthylazine (TBZ), and mesotrione (MST), as influenced by mineral and organic fertilizers. The investigation was performed on a sandy soil of an agricultural area designated as a Nitrate Vulnerable Zone, where mineral and organic fertilizers were applied for many years. Two organic fertilizers, cattle manure and slurry, respectively, and a mineral fertilizer with a nitrification inhibitor, Entec®, were compared. According to the experiments, performed with a batch method, the sorption conformed to Freundlich model. The extent of sorption of Lumax® ingredients was closely related to their octanol-water partition coefficient Kow. The respective desorption was hysteretic. Leaching trials were carried out by using water or solutions of DOM or Entec® as the eluants. Only the elution with the mineral fertilizer promoted the leaching of Lumax® active ingredients. PMID:24997942

Pinna, Maria Vittoria; Roggero, Pier Paolo; Seddaiu, Giovanna; Pusino, Alba

2014-09-01

151

Changes in the Mineral Assemblage of Paddy Soils upon Redox Cycles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rice is one of the major cereal crops of global agriculture. World wide more than 10% of the arable land is used for rice production, mainly under temporarily waterlogged conditions. This leads to distinct redox cycles, governing the biogeochemistry of paddy soils. Yet, long-term effects of alternating redox conditions on the soil mineral matrix and properties are still not fully understood. The objective of the project is to elucidate the processes of mineral transformation as related to changing redox conditions and to time of rice cultivation. Long-term effects of rice cultivation on the mineral assemblage were studied along a chronosequence of paddy soils (100, 700 and 2000a paddy soils) developed in comparable parent material in the province of Zhejiang, China. Top soils were analysed for the mineral assemblage and physicochemical properties using x-ray diffraction and chemical analyses, respectively. All studied clay fractions showed a similar clay mineral assemblage (illite, chlorite, kaolinite, vermiculite, smectite). Differences among the paddy sites though could not be related to the time of cultivation. The CECpot of the clay fraction slightly increased from 100 to 2000 a paddy usage, which was partly attributed to a concurrent increase of Corg. With age the Feo/Fed-ratio in both the Alp and Ardp-horizon increased, with a maximum in the Ardp of the 2000 a paddy field. We conclude, that due to an increasing number of redox-cycles, long-term cultivation enhances the formation of microcrystalline Fe-hydroxides in the A-horizons of paddy soils. Chronological changes in the clay mineral assemblage could not be observed in this study.

Vogelsang, Vanessa; Fiedler, Sabine; Jahn, Reinhold

2010-05-01

152

Microbial Composition in Decomposing Pine Litter Shifts in Response to Common Soil Secondary Minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A range of environmental and biotic factors have been identified that drive microbial community structure in soils - carbon substrates, redox conditions, mineral nutrients, salinity, pH, and species interactions. However, soil mineralogy has been largely ignored as a candidate in spite of recent studies that indicate that minerals have a substantial impact on soil organic matter stores and subsequent fluxes from soils. Given that secondary minerals and organic colloids govern a soil's biogeochemical activity due to surface area and electromagnetic charge, we propose that secondary minerals are a strong determinant of the communities that are responsible for process rates. To test this, we created three microcosms to study communities during decomposition using pine forest litter mixed with two common secondary minerals in soils (goethite and gibbsite) and with quartz as a control. Changes in bacterial and fungal communities were tracked over the 154-day incubation by pyrosequencing fragments of the bacterial 16S and fungal 18S rRNA genes. Ordination using nonmetric multidimensional scaling showed that bacterial communities separated on the basis of minerals. Overall, a single generalist - identified as an Acidobacteriaceae isolate - dominated all treatments over the course of the experiment, representing roughly 25% of all communities. Fungal communities discriminated between the quartz control alone and mineral treatments as a whole. Again, several generalists dominated the community. Coniochaeta ligniaria dominated communities with abundances ranging from 29 to 40%. The general stability of generalist populations may explain the similarities between treatment respiration rates. Variation between molecular fingerprints, then, were largely a function of unique minor members with abundances ranging from 0.01 to 8%. Carbon availability did not surface as a possible mechanism responsible for shifts in fingerprints due to the relatively large mass of needles in the incubation. Other possible mechanisms include the presence of soluble Fe as an alternative energy source in the goethite treatment, the presence of toxic soluble Al in the gibbsite treatment, the loss of available phosphorus in the secondary mineral treatments due to sorption by secondary mineral surfaces, and variations in mineral surfaces as microhabitats. These findings suggest that Al and Fe oxides, such as goethite or gibbsite, are a factor in determining microbial community structure.

Welty-Bernard, A. T.; Heckman, K.; Vazquez, A.; Rasmussen, C.; Chorover, J.; Schwartz, E.

2011-12-01

153

Carbon Mineralization in Acidic, Xeric Forest Soils: Induction of New Activities †  

PubMed Central

Carbon mineralization was examined in Lakehurst and Atsion sands collected from the New Jersey Pinelands and in Pahokee muck from the Everglades Agricultural Area. Objectives were (i) to estimate the carbon mineralization capacities of acidic, xeric Pinelands soils in the absence of exogenously supplied carbon substrate (nonamended carbon mineralization rate) and to compare these activities with those of agriculturally developed pahokee muck, and (ii) to measure the capacity for increased carbon mineralization in the soils after carbon amendment. In most cases, nonamended carbon mineralization rates were greater in samples of the acid- and moisture-stressed Pinelands soils than in Pahokee muck collected from a fallow (bare) field. Carbon amendment resulted in augmented catabolic activity in Pahokee muck samples, suggesting that the microbial community was carbon limited in this soil. With many of the substrates, no stimulation of the catabolic rate was detected after amendment of Pinelands soils. This was documented by the observation that amendment of Pahokee muck with an amino acid mixture, glucose, or acetate resulted in a 3.0-, 3.9-, or 10.5-fold stimulation of catabolic activity, respectively, for the added substrate. In contrast, amendment of the Pinelands soils resulted in increased amino acid and acetate catabolic rates in Lakehurst sand and increased acetate metabolism only in Atsion sand. Other activities were unchanged. The increased glucose respiration rates resulted from stimulation of existing microbial activity rather than from microbial proliferation since no change in the microbial growth rate, as estimated by the rate of incorporation of 14C-labeled acetate into cell membranes, occurred after glucose amendment of the soils. A stimulation of microbial growth rate was recorded with glucose-amended Lakehurst sand collected from the B horizon.

Tate, Robert L.

1985-01-01

154

Organic matter mineralization in frozen boreal soils-environmental constraints on catabolic and anabolic microbial activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heterotrophic microbial mineralization of soil organic matter (SOM) and associated production and emission of atmospheric trace gases proceed during the winter months in the frozen soils of high latitude ecosystems. However, in what ways this microbial activity is constrained by the environmental conditions prevailing in a frozen soil matrix is uncertain. This presentation will address how temperature, water availability and substrate availability combine to regulate rates of microbial activity at below freezing temperatures and the implications of this activity for SOM mineralization in the surface layers of boreal forest soils experiencing seasonal freezing. We show that the amount and availability of liquid water is an integral factor regulating rates of microbial activity in the frozen soil matrix and can also explain frequently observed deviations in the temperature responses of biogenic CO2 production in frozen soils, as compared to unfrozen soils. Using stable isotope labeling (13C) we also show that the partitioning of substrate carbon, in the form of monomeric sugar (glucose), for catabolic and anabolic metabolism remain constant in the temperature range of -4C to 9C. This confirms that microbial growth may proceed even when soils are frozen. In addition we present corresponding data for organisms metabolizing polymeric substrates (cellulose) requiring exoenzymatic activity prior to substrate uptake. We conclude that the metabolic response of soil microorganism to controlling factors may change substantially across the freezing point of soil water, and also the patterns of interaction among controlling factors are affected. Thus, it is evident that metabolic response functions derived from investigations of unfrozen soils cannot be superimposed on frozen soils. Nonetheless, the soil microbial population appear very adapted to seasonal freezing with respect to their metabolic performance.

Oquist, Mats G.; Sparrman, Tobias; Schleucher, Jürgen; Nilsson, Mats B.

2014-05-01

155

Influence of soil minerals on chromium(VI) reduction by sulfide under anoxic conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of soil minerals on chromate (CrVIO42-, noted as Cr(VI)) reduction by sulfide were investigated in the pH range of 7.67 to 9.07 under the anoxic condition. The examined minerals included montmorillonite (Swy-2), illite (IMt-2), kaolinite (KGa-2), aluminum oxide (?-Al2O3), titanium oxide (TiO2, P-25, primarily anatase), and silica (SiO2). Based on their effects on Cr(VI) reduction, these minerals were

Yeqing Lan; Baolin Deng; Chulsung Kim; Edward C Thornton

2007-01-01

156

Organic Matter Development and Turnover depending on Mineral Composition in an Artificial Soil Incubation Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent research indicates that minerals play an important role in the formation and stabilization of soil organic matter (SOM). However, it is difficult to determine the effect of mineral composition on SOM development in natural soils where mineral composition is usually not well defined and initial conditions are generally unknown. Therefore, we performed an incubation experiment with so-called "artificial soils" composed of mixtures of clean and well-defined model materials where the development of organic matter could be followed from known initial conditions. The artificial soils were composed of 8 different mixtures of quartz, illite, montmorillonite, ferrihydrite, boehmite and charcoal, manure as carbon substrate and a microbial inoculum extracted from a natural arable soil. These mixtures were incubated in the dark and sampled 4 times over a total incubation time of 18 months. The organic matter (OM) turnover during incubation was followed by measuring CO2 respiration and C and N contents and distribution over particle size fractions with time. Solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and acid hydrolysis were used to determine the development of OM composition. The artificial soil mixtures developed quickly into complex, aggregated, soil-like materials. CO2 respiration was the same for all artificial soil compositions, indicating that microbial degradation was probably limited by nutrient or substrate availability. With increasing incubation time, nitrogen-rich, proteinaceous material, became enriched in the smallest particle size fraction, indicating the accumulation of microbial debris. There was some difference in the distribution of hydrolysable and non-hydrolysable N and organic carbon after 3 months of incubation depending on the type of clay mineral and charcoal presence. However, the artificial soils developed towards more similar systems with increasing incubation time. The artificial soil incubation experiment provided a useful system where the decay and turnover of the original manure substrate under the influence of microbial degradation could be studied. Because of the well-defined composition of the artificial soils this experiment gives us new insight into the dynamics of interactions between specific minerals, OM and charcoal during the decay and turnover of organic matter in a soil-like system.

Pronk, G. J.; Heister, K.; Kogel-Knabner, I.

2012-12-01

157

Effects of acidification and liming on carbon and nitrogen mineralization and soil organisms in mor humus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim was to determine if changes in C and N mineralization after acidification and liming could be explained by changes in the soil organism biomass. Intact soil cores from F\\/H layers in a Norway spruce (C:N=31) and a Scots pine (C:N=44) stand in central Sweden were treated in the laboratory for 55 days with deionized water (control), weak H2SO4

Tryggve Persson; Helens Lundkvist; Anders Wirén; Riitta Hyvönen; Bengt Wessén

1989-01-01

158

Concurrent measurements of net mineralization, nitrification, denitrification and leaching from field incubated soil cores  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved method is described for incubating intact soil cores in the field, which permits concurrent measurement of net\\u000a mineralization, nitrification, denitrification and leaching. Cores were enclosed in PVC tubes with minimal disturbance to\\u000a the physical state or to the natural cycles of wetting\\/drying, soil temperature and aeration during an incubation lasting\\u000a 4–5 days. An example of the application of

D. J. Hatch; S. C. Jarvis; R. J. Parkinson

1998-01-01

159

The attenuation of chemical elements in acidic leachates from coal mineral wastes by soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical attenuation of acidity and selected elements (aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, fluorine,\\u000a iron, manganese, nickel, and zinc) in acidic leachates from coal mineral wastes by four natural subsurface soils has been\\u000a investigated using laboratory column methods Leachate solutions were allowed to percolate through the soils under simulated\\u000a natural flow conditions, and the elemental concentrations in the influents

Lawrence E. Wangen; Marianne M. Jones

1984-01-01

160

Carbon delivery to deep mineral horizons in Hawaiian rain forest soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aimed to better understand the mechanisms for soil organic matter delivery to and accumulation in mineral horizons of tropical rain forest, volcanic soils. We used soil morphology, lysimetry, isotopes, and spectroscopy to investigate the role of preferential flow paths in the delivery of carbon (C) to the subsoil. High rainfall, high primary productivity, and the dominance of highly reactive, short-range-order minerals combine to sequester substantial stocks of soil C with long mean residence times. The soils have large peds, separated by wide cracks, which form a network of channels propagating downward through the top 40 to 60 cm, facilitating macropore flow. The channel infillings and crack surfaces were enriched in organic material (OM) with lower C:N ratios, and had higher ammonium oxalate-extractable Al, and lower ammonium oxalate-extractable Fe than the adjacent mineral bulk soil. CP MAS 13C-NMR spectra of OM accumulating at depth showed strong signal intensities in the carboxyl and carbonyl C regions, indicative of organic acids, while decaying roots showed greater contributions of aromatic and O-alkyl C. The ratios of alkyl-to-O-alkyl C in the organic infillings were more similar to those of the bulk Bh and to dissolved organic matter than to those of decaying roots. Radiocarbon-based ages of OM infillings at >50 cm depth were significantly younger than the mineral soil (2000 years versus 7000 years). Respired CO2 from incubated soils showed that OM accumulating at depth is a mixture of modern and much older C, providing further evidence for the downward movement of fresh C.

Marin-Spiotta, Erika; Chadwick, Oliver A.; Kramer, Marc; Carbone, Mariah S.

2011-09-01

161

Characterization of minerals: From the classroom to soils to talc deposits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation addresses different methods and challenges surrounding characterizing and identifying minerals in three environments: in the classroom, in soils, and in talc deposits. A lab manual for a mineralogy and optical mineralogy course prepares students for mineral characterization and identification by giving them the methods and tools to identify any mineral. Students begin with familiarizing themselves with the tools (e.g. Polarizing Light Microscope and refractive index liquids) and the methods (e.g. defining properties) needed to identify a mineral. Next, they work through characterizing the most common minerals to hone their skills. The students finish the semester with two projects: characterizing single mineral grains with a spindle stage and creating a mineral collection. Evaluation of mineralogical data from selected sand or silt fraction of soils from the USDA-NRCS National Cooperative Soil Survey database, show that soils in all states (except for Rhode Island) contain amphiboles. Forty-one of the fifty states had 10 % or more sampled pedons containing amphiboles. Overall, about 13 % of pedons sampled in the USA contained amphiboles. While amphibole asbestos deposits occur in mafic and ultramafic provinces, soil amphiboles occur evenly distributed across the USA. The majority of the amphiboles found in the soils would probably not meet the mineralogical definition of asbestos (i.e., they would not have been derived from asbestiform amphiboles); however, the majority would probably meet a commonly used regulatory definition to be considered a fiber (i.e., are over 5 microns in length with a greater that 3 to 1 aspect ratio). Furthermore, chemical and morphological characterization was done on minerals in talc deposits and R. T. Vanderbilt Co. processed talc products from the Gouverneur Mining District, New York. The main mineral phases detected within the samples are tremolite, anthophyllite, and talc. Compositional analyses were preformed by WDS via electron microprobe. Morphological analyses were done using the PLM and electron microprobe. Amounts of each mineralogical phase were calculated by the Reitveld method using X-ray diffraction scans.

McNamee, Brittani D.

162

The influence of biological soil crusts on mineral uptake by associated vascular plants  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Soil surfaces dominated by cyanobacteria and cyanolichens (such as Collema sp.) are widespread in deserts of the world. The influence of these biological soil crusts on the uptake of bioessential elements is reported for the first time for six seed plants of the deserts of Utah. This sample almost doubles the number of species for which the influence of biological soil crusts on mineral uptake of associated vascular plants is known. These new case studies, and others previously published, demonstrate that cyanobacterial or cyanobacteria- Collema crusts significantly alter uptake by plants of many bioessential elements. In studies now available, these crusts always increase the N content of associated seed plants. Uptake of Cu, K, Mg, and Zn is usually (>70% of reported cases) increased in the presence of the biological soil crusts. Soil crusts are generally negatively associated with Fe and P levels in associated seed plant tissue, while plant tissue levels of Ca, Mn, and Na are positively as often as negatively associated with the presence of soil crusts. Increases in bioessential elements in vascular plant tissue from biologically-crusted areas are greatest for short-lived herbs that are rooted primarily within the surface soil, the horizon most influenced by crustal organisms. The mineral content of a deeply rooted shrub (Coleogyne ramosissima) was less influenced by co-occurrence of biological soil crusts.

Harper, K. T.; Belnap, Jayne

2001-01-01

163

A conceptual model of organo-mineral interactions in soils: self-assembly of organic molecular fragments into zonal structures on mineral surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a structure for organo-mineral associations in soils based on recent insights concerning the molecular\\u000a structure of soil organic matter (SOM), and on extensive published evidence from empirical studies of organo-mineral interfaces.\\u000a Our conceptual model assumes that SOM consists of a heterogeneous mixture of compounds that display a range of amphiphilic\\u000a or surfactant-like properties, and are

M. Kleber; P. Sollins; R. Sutton

2007-01-01

164

Nitrogen mineralization and nitrate leaching of a sandy soil amended with different organic wastes.  

PubMed

Organic wastes can be recycled as a source of plant nutrients, enhancing crop production by improving soil quality. However, the study of the dynamic of soil nutrient, especially the N dynamic, after soil application of any organic material is vital for assessing a correct and effective use of the material, minimizing the losses of nitrate in leachates and avoiding the negative environmental effects that it may cause in groundwater. To estimate the effect of three organic materials, a municipal solid waste compost (MWC), a non-composted paper mill sludge (PS), and an agroforest compost (AC) on the N dynamic of a sandy soil two experiments were carried out: an incubation experiment and a column experiment. The incubation experiment was conducted to estimate the N mineralization rate of the different soil-amendment mixtures. The soil was mixed with the organic amendments at a rate equivalent to 50,000 kg ha(-1) and incubated during 40 weeks at constant moisture content (70% of its water-holding capacity) and temperature (28 degrees C) under aerobic conditions. Organic amendment-soil samples showed an immobilization of N during the first weeks, which was more noticeable and longer in the case of PS-treated soil compared to the other two amendments due to its high C/N ratio. After this immobilization stage, a positive mineralization was observed for all treatment, especially in MWC treated soil. Contemporaneously a 1-year column (19 cm diameter and 60 cm height) experiment was carried out to estimate the nitrate losses from the soil amended with the same organic materials. Amendments were mixed with the top soil (0-15 cm) at a rate equivalent to 50,000 kg ha(-1). The columns were periodically irrigated simulating rainfall in the area of study, receiving in total 415 mm of water, and the water draining was collected during the experimental period and analysed for NO3-N. At the end of the experimental period NO3-N content in soil columns at three depths (0-20, 20-35 and 35-50 cm) was determined. The nitrate concentration in drainage water confirmed the results obtained in the incubation experiment: nitrate leaching was higher in soil treated with MWC due to its higher N-mineralization rate. Nevertheless, the nitrate losses represented a low amount compared with the total nitrogen added to soil. No clear signs of water-draining contamination were observed during the first year after the application of AC and PS; however, the nitrate leaching in soil treated with MWC slightly exceeded the limit allowed for the Drinking Water Directive 98/83/CE. PMID:16634232

Burgos, Pilar; Madejón, Engracia; Cabrera, Francisco

2006-04-01

165

Reactive Clay Minerals in a land use sequence of disturbed soils of the Belgian Loam Belt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clay minerals play a key role in soil biogeochemistry. They can stabilize organic matter, improve water storage, increase cation exchange capacity of the soil (CEC) and lower nutrient leaching. Phytoliths - the biogenic silica bodies (BSi) deposited in cell walls of plants - are important Si pools in soil horizons due to their higher solubility compared to minerals. They provide the source of Si for plant uptake in short time scales, as litter dissolves within soils. In a recent study, we analyzed the BSi pool differences across a set of different land uses (forests, pastures, croplands) in 6 long-term disturbed (multiple centuries) soil sites in the Belgium Loam Belt. Results from a simultaneous chemical extraction in 0.5M NaOH of Si and Al, showed that soils were depleted in the BSi pool while showing high levels of reactive secondary clay minerals, mainly in the deeper horizons and especially in the forests and the croplands. During the extraction, clays were similar in reactivity to the biogenic pool of phytoliths. In order to study the kinetics in a more natural environment, batch dissolution experiments were conducted. Samples from different soil depths for each land use site (0.5 g) were mixed with 0.5 L of demineralised water modified to pH 4, 7 and 10. Subsamples of 2 ml were taken during 3 months. In the end of the period, results for pH 7 showed that in the pastures, where reactive clays were almost absent, the ratio Si/RSi (defined as the Si concentration in the end of the batch experiment divided by the reactive silica extracted from the soil with the alkaline extraction) was lower than 0.005%. The same ratio was higher in the mineral horizons of forests (Si/RSi>0.01%) and croplands (0.005% < Si/RSi <0.01%) where clay minerals were the dominant fraction. These preliminary results highlight the clay minerals' strong potential for Si mobilization. More attention should be paid to this important fraction as it can contribute strongly to Si availability, in close competition with phytoliths and other soluble amorphous Si forms, strongly interfering with frequently applied methods to quantify biogenic Si in soils.

Barao, Lucia; Vandevenne, Floor; Ronchi, Benedicta; Meire, Patrick; Govers, Gerard; Struyf, Eric

2014-05-01

166

Degradation and Mineralization of Atrazine by a Soil Bacterial Isolate  

Microsoft Academic Search

An atrazine-degrading bacterial culture was isolated from an agricultural soil previously impacted by herbicide spills. The organism was capable of using atrazine under aerobic conditions as the sole source of C and N. Cyanuric acid could replace atrazine as the sole source of N, indicating that the organism was capable of ring cleavage. Ring cleavage was confirmed in 14CO2 evolution

MARK RADOSEVICH; SAMUEL J. TRAINA; YUE-LI HAO; ANDOLLI H. TUOVINEN

1995-01-01

167

Forest Liming on Mineral Soils. Results of Finnish Experiments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The chemical properties of the soil, nutrient status of the trees and stand production are examined in approximately 20-year-old liming experiment in the study. The material consist of 96 experiments in the pine and spruce stands.The following treatments ...

J. Derome Kukkola M. E. Maelkoenen

1986-01-01

168

Soil organic nitrogen mineralization across a global latitudinal gradient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding and accurately predicting the fate of carbon and nitrogen in the terrestrial biosphere remains a central goal in ecosystem science. Amino acids represent a key pool of C and N in soil, and their availability to plants and microorganisms has been implicated as a major driver in regulating ecosystem functioning. Because of potential differences in biological diversity and litter

D. L. Jones; K. Kielland; R. A. Dahlgren; K. K. Newsham; J. F. Farrar; D. V. Murphy

2009-01-01

169

Plant Root Responses to Three Abundant Soil Minerals: Silicon, Aluminum and Iron  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silicon (Si), aluminum (Al), and iron (Fe) are the three most abundant minerals in soil; however, their effects on plants differ because they are beneficial, toxic, and essential to plant growth, respectively. High accumulation of silicon in the shoots helps some plants to overcome a range of biotic and abiotic stresses. However, plants vary in their ability to take up

Jian Feng Ma

2005-01-01

170

Low dissolved organic carbon input from fresh litter to deep mineral soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) leached from recent litter in the forest floor has been suggested to be an important source of C to the mineral soil of forest ecosystems. In order to determine the rate at which this flux of C occurs we have taken advantage of a local release of 14C at Oak Ridge National Laboratory Reservation, USA (latitude

Mats J Froeberg; Philip M Jardine; Paul J Hanson; Christopher Swanston; Donald E Todd Jr; Jana Randolph Phillips; Charles T Garten Jr

2007-01-01

171

Characterization of Malaysian sewage sludge and nitrogen mineralization in three soils treated with sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies to determine the chemical composition of sewage sludges produced in Malaysia and the potentially mineralizable nitogen (No) and mineralization rate constant (k) of sewage sludge in three Malaysian soils are reported. Analyses of the sludges collected from 10 wastewater treatment plants in Malaysia are acidic in nature and the N. P, Ca, K and Mg contents is variable. The

A. B. Rosenani; D. R. Kala; C. I. Fauziah

172

Lead dynamics in the forest floor and mineral soil in south-central Ontario  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have suggested that the residence time of Pb in the forest floor may not be as long as previously thought, and there is concern that the large pulse of atmospheric Pb deposited in the 1960s and early 1970s may move rapidly through mineral soils and eventually contaminate groundwater. In order to assess Pb mobility at a woodland (JMOEC)

Shaun A. Watmough; Thomas C. Hutchinson; Peter J. Dillon

2005-01-01

173

Nanoparticulate Iron Oxide Minerals in Soils and Sediments: Unique Properties and Contaminant Scavenging Mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanoparticulate goethite, akaganeite, hematite, ferrihydrite and schwertmannite are important constituents of soils, sediments and mine drainage outflows. These minerals have high sorption capacities for metal and anionic contaminants such as arsenic, chromium, lead, mercury and selenium. Contaminant sequestration is accomplished mainly by surface complexation, but aggregation of particles may encapsulate sorbed surface species into the multigrain interior interfaces, with significant

Glenn A. Waychunas; Christopher S. Kim; Jillian F. Banfield

2005-01-01

174

Nitrogen Mineralization from Humic Acid Fractions in Rice Soils Depends on Degree of Humification  

Microsoft Academic Search

such effects, especially for chemically extracted SOM fractions. In this study, we explore the relationship be- Although the chemical nature of soil organic matter (SOM) is tween the chemical nature of extracted HA fractions thought to affect the mineralization rate of N bound in SOM, little direct evidence exists for such effects. To test the hypothesis that the and their

Nguyen Bao Ve; D. C. Olk; K. G. Cassman

2004-01-01

175

Mineral composition of native woody plants growing on a serpentine soil in California  

SciTech Connect

Using optical emission spectrography, we analyzed leaves of five native plant species (Adenostoma fasciculatum, Arctostaphylos viscida, Cupressus macnabiana, Cupressus sargentii, and Quercus durata) for mineral elements. There were 112 plants in all. In these plants, which are reasonably adapted to serpentine soil conditions, the calcium:magnesium ratios were normal in contrast to plants not adapted to such soil conditions. The nickel concentrations in the leaves were low for serpentine soil conditions, and there was no tendency for accumulation of chromium or cobalt. Strontium varied, as did calcium.

Wallace, A.; Jones, M.B.; Alexander, G.V.

1982-07-01

176

Origin and Reactivity of the Martian Soil: A 2003 Micromission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The role of water in the development of the martian surface remains a fundamental scientific question. Did Mars have one or more "warm and wet" climatic episodes where liquid water was stable at the surface? If so, the mineral phases present in the soils should be consistent with a history of aqueous weathering. More generally, the formation of hydrated mineral phases on Mars is a strong indicator of past habitable surface environments. The primary purpose of this investigation is to help resolve the question of whether such aqueous indicators are present on Mars by probing the upper meter for diagnostic mineral species. According to Burns [1993], the formation of the ferric oxides responsible for the visible color of Mars are the result of dissolution of Fe (+2) phases from basalts followed by aqueous oxidation and precipitation of Fe" mineral assemblages. These precipitates likely included iron oxyhydroxides such as goethite (a-FeOOH) and lepidocrocite (g-FeOOH), but convincing evidence for these phases at the surface is still absent. The stability of these minerals is enhanced beneath the surface, and thus we propose a subsurface search for hydroxylated iron species as a test for a large-scale chemical weathering process based on interactions with liquid water. It is also possible that the ferric minerals on Mars are not aqueous alteration products of the rocks. A chemical study of the Pathfinder landing site concluded that the soils are not directly derived from the surrounding rocks and are enhanced in Mg and Fe. The additional source of these elements might be from other regions of Mars and transported by winds, or alternatively, from exogenic sources. Gibson [1970] proposed that the spectral reflectivity of Mars is consistent with oxidized meteoritic material. Yen and Murray [1998] further extend Gibson's idea and show, in the laboratory, that metallic iron can be readily oxidized to maghemite and hematite under present-day martian surface conditions (in the absence of liquid water). A test for a meteoritic component of the soil can be conducted, as described below, by searching for the presence of Ni at the martian surface. The average abundance of nickel in an Fe-Ni meteorite is about 7% and, if present at measurable levels in the soil, would be indicative of an exogenic contribution. In addition, it may be possible to directly search for mineral phases common in meteorites. An understanding of the formation and evolution of the martian soil would not be complete without addressing the unusual reactivity discovered by the Viking Landers The presence of an inorganic oxidant, possibly one produced as a results of photochemical processes, is the most widely accepted explanation of the Viking results. Are these chemical species simply adsorbed on soil grains, or have they reacted with the metal oxide substrates and altered the mineral structures? Could a completely different (non-photochemical) process be responsible for the soil reactivity? The various ideas for the nature of this putative oxidant could be constrained by a measurement of the change in reactivity with depth. Different compositions will have different lifetimes and mobilities and thus will have different vertical profiles. Because the oxidizing compounds are believed to actively destroy organic molecules, determination of the reactivity gradient also has significant implications for the search for life on Mars. A DS2-based microprobe system can be instrumented for a 2003 micromission to investigate the origin and reactivity of the martian soil. These measurements would provide invaluable information regarding the climate history and exobiological potential of the planet. The NMR, X ray and chemiresistor measurement approach described embodies a highly synergistic and general set of soil interrogation methods for elements, compounds, and crystal structures and can also be applied to other geologic questions of interest. For example, if the capability for precise targeting of the probes is available, then in-situ investigations of suspec

Yen, Albert S.; Kim, S. Sam; Marshall, John; Murray, Bruce C.

1999-01-01

177

Degradation and mineralization kinetics of acephate in humid tropic soils of Malaysia.  

PubMed

Acephate is poorly sorbed to soil, thus the risk of leaching to the aquatic environment is high if it is not quickly degraded. The effect of soil moisture, temperature, microbial activity and application rate on acephate degradation has been studied in three Malaysian soils to examine and identify critical variables determining its degradation and mineralization kinetics. First-order kinetics could be used to describe degradation in all cases (r(2)>0.91). Acephate degraded faster in air-dry (t((1/2)) 9-11 d) and field capacity (t((1/2)) 10-16d) soils than in the wet soils (t((1/2)) 32-77 d). The activation energy of degradation was in the range 17-28 kJ mol(-1) and significantly higher for the soil with higher pH and lower clay and iron oxide contents. Soil sterilization caused a 3- to 10-fold decrease in degradation rates compared to non-sterile soils (t((1/2)) 53-116 d) demonstrating that acephate degradation is mainly governed by microbial processes. At 5-fold increase in application rates (25 microg g(-1)), half-life increased slightly (t((1/2)) 13-19 d) or was unaffected. Half-life from acephate mineralization was similar to those from degradation but much longer at the 5-fold increase in acephate application rates (t((1/2)) 41-96 d) demonstrating that degradation of metabolites is rate limiting. Thus, application of acephate should be restricted or avoided during wet seasons with heavy rainfall and flooded soil as in paddy cultivation. Sandy soils with low microbial activity are more prone to acephate leaching than clay soils rich in humic matter. PMID:20189217

Chai, Lian-Kuet; Wong, Mee-Hua; Mohd-Tahir, Norhayati; Hansen, Hans Christian Bruun

2010-04-01

178

Atmospheric ice nucleation by fertile soil dusts particles: Relative importance of mineral and biological components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dusts emitted from agricultural soils may represent a significant source of atmospheric particulates at mid-latitudes. Such dusts, which can be aerosolised by anthropogenic agricultural activities, have previously been estimated to be present in the atmosphere at sufficient number densities that they could potentially compete with other known ice nuclei (IN). In contrast to soils from arid regions, such as the Sahara, fertile soils contain a larger fraction of biological material, which can lead to an enhancement in the ice nucleating ability of their associated dusts. However, considerable uncertainties remain regarding the relative efficacy of soil dust particles from fertile soils as IN. Using an experimental methodology designed to increase sensitivity to a wide range of ice nucleation efficiencies, we have characterized the immersion mode ice nucleating activities of sub 11 ?m particles extracted from surface soils collected in four locations around England. By using a variety of droplet sizes, from pico-to micro-litre, we have been able to characterize the ice active site densities in soils (estimated using a time-independent framework) at temperatures ranging from -5°C down to the homogeneous limit of freezing at ~ -36°C. At temperatures below -15°C, we find that the ice active site densities tend towards those expected from the mineral components in the soils, suggesting that the inorganic fraction of soil dusts becomes increasingly important in the initiation of the ice phase at large supercoolings. Conversely, above -15°C we find that the ice nucleating activity of the soils dusts was larger than expected from the mineral composition of the soils. The sites responsible for this high temperature ice nucleating activity were sensitive to heat treatment and digestion with hydrogen peroxide, suggesting that they are biological in origin. We conclude that although only being a relatively minor contributor to the global atmospheric dust burden, the enhanced IN activities of dusts generated from agricultural activities may impact upon cloud glaciation, particularly at temperatures above -15°C.

O'Sullivan, Daniel; Murray, B. J.; Malkin, T. L.; Webb, M. E.; Whale, T. F.; Atkinson, J. D.; Baustian, K. J.

2013-05-01

179

The biological factors influence on the conversion of mineral components of Extremely Arid Desert Soils (Kazakhstan)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extremely arid soils of stony deserts (hamadas) along the southern periphery of the Ili Depression are considered to be analogous to extremely arid soils of Mongolia, also named as "ultra-arid primitive gray-brown soils." In general, the morphology of extremely arid soils of hamadas in the Ili Depression is similar to that of the soils of stony deserts in other parts of the world, including the Gobi, Atacama, and Tarim deserts. The diagnostics of the active communities of microorganisms were performed according to the method of Rybalkina-Kononenko. The exact identification of the living forms of microorganisms to the species level is not always possible with the use of this method. However, it allows us to study the physiological role of the microorganisms and their ecological functions, including the relationships with the soil matrix and other organisms. In particular, it is possible to estimate the contribution of the microorganisms to the transformation of mineral soil components. The obtained materials allow us to conclude that the extremely arid desert soils are characterized by the very high biological activity during short periods of the increased soil moistening after rare and strong rains. The diversity of living forms is very considerable; both prokaryotes (cyanobacteria, actinomycetes, and iron bacteria) and protists (green algae, diatoms, and dinoflagellates) are developed in the soil. Thus, during a short period after the rains, these microorganisms pass from the stage of anabiosis to the stage of active growth and reproduction. Then, upon drying of the soil, the biotic activity of the soil slows down and, finally, terminates. The organisms remain in the state of anabiosis until the next rain. During the period of active growth, the microorganisms compose a specific consortium of different species and exert a profound impact on the soil properties. They participate in the transformation of the soil minerals with the formation of amorphous substances that are clearly seen in biofilms on the surface of gravels of the desert pavement and on the walls of vesicular pores in the crust and subcrust (AKL) horizons of the soil. The organomineral compounds are accumulated in the vesicular pores due to the synthesis and mineralization of the microbial biomass. This is a specific feature of the humus-accumulative process in the extremely arid desert soils. The biogenic transformation of iron-containing minerals, the mobility of iron, and its accumulation in films and coagulated microforms is largely due to the living activity of iron bacteria. These iron pedofeatures are specific of the extremely arid desert soils. We suppose that some part of vesicular pores in the AKL horizon has a microbiological origin, because separate bacterial cells may form intracellular gas vacuoles and extracellular gas bulbs, as well as membrane sacs and cell dilatations that can shape the vesicular pores. In general, our data indicate that soils, including extremely arid desert soils, serve as reservoirs of the microbial diversity and ensure the development and preservation of diverse microorganisms with specific mechanisms of adaptation to the sharp changes in the environmental conditions. This biota-protecting role of soils is particularly well pronounced during the climatic pessimum. This study was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, project no. 12-04-00990a.

Kutovaya, Olga; Vasilenko, Elena; Lebedeva, Marina; Tkhakakhova, Azida

2013-04-01

180

Repeated freeze–thaw cycles and their effects on mineralization of hexadecane and phenanthrene in cold climate soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arctic soil samples were experimentally subjected to freeze–thaw cycles (FTC) between +5 °C and ?5 °C and to stable temperature regimes of +5 °C and ?5 °C to investigate how the microorganisms' ability to mineralize oil contamination is affected by different temperature regimes. Hydrocarbon mineralization was monitored in oil contaminated soil microcosms spiked with radiolabeled hexadecane and phenanthrene. Both fertilized and unfertilized soils were

M. H. Børresen; D. L. Barnes; A. G. Rike

2007-01-01

181

Transformation and mineralization of 14C-labeled cellulose, peptidoglycan, and protein by the soil-feeding termite Cubitermes orthognathus  

Microsoft Academic Search

We performed feeding trials with the soil-feeding termite Cubitermes orthognathus using soil spiked by uniformly 14C-labeled preparations of cellulose, peptidoglycan, protein, and bacterial cells (Bacillus megaterium and Escherichia coli). When incubated in soil for 8 days in the absence of termites, cellulose and peptidoglycan showed low mineralization rates\\u000a (0.5% and 0.2%, respectively). However, when termites were present, their mineralization rates

R. Ji; A. Brune

2001-01-01

182

Secondary mineral phases of metallic lead in soils of shooting ranges from Örebro County, Sweden  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In some countries Pb-containing shotgun pellets have become one of the sources of soil contamination in shooting range areas. Pb pellets from eight shooting ranges in central Sweden were mineralogically analysed and the results show that when the Pb pellets come into contact with soil, about 10% of them are decomposed and transformed into secondary lead minerals as encrustations. The encrustation consists of two concentric rims: a 50 to 150 ?m wide outer rim of hydrocerussite (Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2) and a 10 to 30 ?m wide inner-rim of massicot (PbO). Anglesite (PbSO4) occurs locally in the inner rim. The growing relationship between lead mineral phases suggests that replacement took place. The podzols of the shooting ranges studied are favorable for the formation of lead carbonate. Lead carbonate provides effective controls on the retention of lead in the upper soil layers.

Lin, Zhixun

1996-06-01

183

Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This slide show provides students with basic information on mineralogy. It explains how the term "mineral" is defined, the properties that are used to identify minerals, their importance in daily life, and some general facts. For each identifying property, an example mineral and photograph are provided. Addresses to websites with additional information are also included.

Passow, Michael

184

Influence of edaphic factors on the mineralization of neem oil coated urea in four Indian soils.  

PubMed

The utility of neem (Azadirachta indica A Juss) oil coated urea as a value-added nitrogenous fertilizer has been now widely accepted by Indian farmers and the fertilizer industry. In the present study, the expeller grade (EG) and hexane-extracted (HE) neem oils, the two most common commercial grades, were used to prepare neem oil coated urea (NOCU) of various oil doses, for which mineralization rates were assessed in four soils at three incubation temperatures (20, 27, and 35 degrees C). Neem oil dose-dependent conservation of ammonium N was observed in NOCU treatments in all of the soils. However, a longer incubation period and a higher soil temperature caused depletion of ammonium N. Overall, the nitrification in NOCU treatment averaged 56.6% against 77.3% for prilled urea in four soils. NOCU prepared from EG neem oil was consistently superior to that derived from hexane-extracted oil. The performance of NOCUs was best in coarse-textured soil and poorest in sodic soil. The nitrification rate (NR) of the NOCUs in the soils followed the order sodic > fine-textured > medium-textured > coarse-textured. The influence of edaphic factors on NR of NOCUs has been highlighted. The utility of the present study in predicting the performance of NOCU in diverse Indian soils was highlighted through the use of algorithms for computation of the optimum neem oil dose that would cause maximum inhibition of nitrification in any soil. PMID:18841982

Kumar, Rajesh; Devakumar, C; Kumar, Dinesh; Panneerselvam, P; Kakkar, Garima; Arivalagan, T

2008-11-12

185

Effects of Temperature and Nitrogen Addition on Microbial Respiration and Nitrogen Mineralization in Soils of Northern Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Warming is expected to accelerate soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition and nutrient mineralization, which in turn will increase the supply rates of nutrients to plants and thereby increase plant productivity and ecosystem carbon storage. Simultaneously, increased soil nutrient availability may decrease carbon storage by stimulating microbial decomposition of SOM. Although soil microorganisms have an important role in controlling the carbon

M. Lavoie; M. C. Mack; E. A. Schurr

2008-01-01

186

A proposed use of ion exchange resins to measure nitrogen mineralization and nitrification in intact soil cores  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure is proposed for measuring nitrogen mineralization and nitrification in intact soil cores. The method relies on ion exchange resins to trap ammonium and nitrate entering and leaving cores of soil otherwise open at the top and bottom. Changes in soil concentrations plus an accounting of ions trapped by the lower resin after field incubations, indicate rates of nitrogen

J. Fco. DiStefano; H. L. Gholz

1986-01-01

187

Effects of Biological Soil Crusts on Seedling Growth and Mineral Content of Four Semiarid Herbaceous Plant Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing body of evidence indicates that biological soil crusts of arid and semiarid lands contribute significantly to ecosys- tem stability by means of soil stabilization, nitrogen fixation, and improved growth and establishment of vascular plant species. In this study, we examined growth and mineral content of Bromus tectorum, Elymus elymoides, Gaillardia pulchella, and Sphaeralcea munroana grown in soil amended

R. L. Pendleton; B. K. Pendleton; G. L. Howard; S. D. Warren

188

Mineral contents and their interrelationships in soil–forage system along a transhumant route of nomadic pastoralists in Southern Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was undertaken to determine the mineral status of selected soils and forage along a transhumant route of nomadic pastoralists in the derived savanna of Southern Nigeria. The interrelationships among nutrients in the soil–forage system were also determined. Thus, soil and forage samples were collected along the route at the same time. The forage sampled were Centrosema pubsescens and

A. U. Omoregie; A. A. Oshineye

2002-01-01

189

WEATHERING OF IRONBEARING MINERALS IN SOILS AND SAPROLITE ON THE NORTH CAROLINA BLUE RIDGE FRONT: II. CLAY MINERALOGY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mineralogy of the clay fraction was studied for soils and saprolite on two Blue Ridge Front mountain slopes. The clay fraction contained the weathering products of primary minerals in the mica gneiss and schist parent rocks. Gibbsite is most abundant in the saprolite and residual soil horizons, where only chemical weathering has been operable. In colluvial soil horizons, where

D. D. AMARASIRIWARDENA; S. W. BUOL

190

17-? estradiol and testosterone mineralization and incorporation into organic matter in broiler litter-amended soils.  

PubMed

The presence of the hormones estradiol and testosterone in the environment is of concern because they adversely affect vertebrate sexual characteristics. Land spreading broiler litter introduces these hormones into the environment. We conducted two studies. The first study determined the mineralization of C-labeled estradiol and testosterone at three water potentials and three temperatures in four broiler litter-amended soils. With a few exceptions, the mineralization of each hormone either stayed the same or increased with increasing water content (both hormones) and increasing (estradiol) or decreasing (testosterone) temperature. Mineralization was dependent on soil type. The second study determined the incorporation of C-labeled estradiol and testosterone into (i) three soil organic matter (SOM) fractions (fulvic acid, humic acid, and humin) at two water potentials, two temperatures, and one sampling time, and (ii) at one water potential, one temperature, and seven sampling times. As time increased, higher temperature and water potential decreased percentages of C estradiol and testosterone in water- and acetone-soluble fractions and increased percentages in SOM fractions. However, the distribution of the two hormones in SOM fractions differed. For estradiol, higher temperature and water potential increased the percentage in all three SOM fractions. For testosterone, higher temperature and water potential increased the percentage of hormone in fulvic acid and humin. Although the mineralization studies suggest the potential for these hormones to still have environmental effects, the incorporation of the two hormones into SOM suggest that land spreading these hormones may actually be less of an environmental concern. PMID:23128749

Durant, Michelle B; Hartel, Peter G; Cabrera, Miguel L; Vencill, William K

2012-01-01

191

N Isotope Composition of the Soil Microbial Biomass Reflects N Mineralization and C and N Availability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been an open question for several decades whether N mineralization is a fractionating process. This question is important for N cycling in terrestrial ecosystems because even a small fractionation during N mineralization could potentially have a large influence on the N isotope composition of other ecosystem N pools, since N mineralization represents the largest N flux in ecosystems. Fractionation during N mineralization should result in a difference between the N isotope composition of the soil microorganisms and that of its substrates. We analyzed the N isotope composition of the soil microbial biomass in a variety of ecosystems, and found that it was 15N enriched compared to that of other soil N pools, such as soil soluble, organic and inorganic N (Dijkstra et al. 2006a,b). We observed a negative correlation between the 15N enrichment of the microorganisms and the relative C and N availability for soil from ecosystems in Hawaii and Arizona, across a broad range of climates, grasslands and forests, and more than four million years of ecosystem development. This result suggests that during N dissimilation (and associated transaminations) and N export, the lighter 14N isotope is preferentially removed in a manner similar to that proposed for animals and ectomycorrhizae. This was further confirmed by the positive correlation between microbial 15N enrichment and net N mineralization rate (Dijkstra et al. 2008) and by culture experiments with Escherichia coli (Collins et al 2008). Since mineralization is the largest flux of N in ecosystems, fractionation during N mineralization has the potential to influence and even determine the N isotope composition of other N pools, such as inorganic N, plant N and soil organic matter N. We will show that the N isotope composition of these ecosystem N pools exhibit differences that are consistent with fractionation during N mineralization. Collins JG, Dijkstra P, Hart SC, Hungate BA, Flood NM and Schwartz E. 2008. Nitrogen source influences natural abundance 15N of Escherichia coli. FEMS Microbiol Lett 282: 246-250 Dijkstra, P, Ishizu A, Doucett RR, Hart SC, Schwartz E, Menyailo OV and Hungate BA 2006a. 13C and 15N natural abundances of soil microbial biomass. Soil Biol Biochem 38:3257-3266. Dijkstra, P, Menyailo OV, Doucett RR, Hart SC, Schwartz E and Hungate BA 2006b. C and N availability affects the 15N natural abundance of the soil microbial biomass across a cattle manure gradient. Eur J Soil Sci 57:468-475. Dijkstra P, LaViolette CM, Coyle JS, Doucett RR, Schwartz E, Hart SC and Hungate BA 2008. 15N enrichment as an integrator of the effects of C and N on microbial metabolism and ecosystem function. Ecol Lett 11: 389-397.

Dijkstra, P.; Hungate, B. A.; Schwartz, E.; Hart, S. C.

2009-04-01

192

Watershed-Scale Geochemical Inventory of Soils by Portable X-Ray Fluorescence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatial databases of geochemical data are an excellent source of point-scale information on naturally occurring toxic elements (arsenic, selenium or radon), contamination from industrial processes (lead, mercury, or cesium), mineralogical variability, and the fate of toxic compounds (i.e. sorption of pesticides to iron oxyhydroxide minerals) in soil. Sample preparation time, safety concerns associated with HF or HNO3 acid dissolution, instrument availability, and cost are all common constraints that limit the scale at which new geochemical surveys can be conducted. We used a Thermo-Fisher Niton portable X-Ray fluorescence (XRF) meter to perform comparatively rapid geochemical surveys in soils of two (35 ha) watersheds. The watersheds have contrasting parent materials, one formed from metavolcanic rock and the other from granite. The X-Ray fluorescence inventory of genetic soil horizons (n=660) was used to identify trends in soil development and landscape processes. Since soil samples are usually sieved and ground for standard laboratory characterization, the additional time required to prepare samples for XRF analysis was minimal, approximately 2 minutes for sample preparation and 6 minutes for machine scan time per sample. Preliminary analysis of the resulting geochemical data show strong spatial trends in watershed- and hillslope-scale variability in weathering indices (FeCBD:FeTotal and K:Ti), inferred mineralogy (Si:Al, Si:Al+Fe), and geologic signatures (multivariate analysis of 20 common elements). Depth trends and spatial patterns were correlated with common terrain-shape indices (slope, upslope contributing area, surface curvatures, local prominence, etc.), degree of soil development, parent material, and hydrological conditions. For example, Si:Al was higher in soils with greater upslope contributing area, and in seasonally saturated soils (Fig 1). Our findings demonstrate that portable XRF technology is a promising new tool for rapid lab-based and in situ geochemical surveys of soils. Ratio of silicon to aluminum (molecular mass) at six depth ranges, within a Sierra Foothill watershed. Watershed area is approximately 35ha, north is aligned with the y-axis.

Beaudette, D. E.; Stupi, L. K.; Swarowsky, A.; O'Geen, A. T.; Chang, J. F.; Gallagher, B.

2009-12-01

193

Spatial variability of isoproturon mineralizing activity within an agricultural field: geostatistical analysis of simple physicochemical and microbiological soil parameters.  

PubMed

We assessed the spatial variability of isoproturon mineralization in relation to that of physicochemical and biological parameters in fifty soil samples regularly collected along a sampling grid delimited across a 0.36 ha field plot (40 x 90 m). Only faint relationships were observed between isoproturon mineralization and the soil pH, microbial C biomass, and organic nitrogen. Considerable spatial variability was observed for six of the nine parameters tested (isoproturon mineralization rates, organic nitrogen, genetic structure of the microbial communities, soil pH, microbial biomass and equivalent humidity). The map of isoproturon mineralization rates distribution was similar to that of soil pH, microbial biomass, and organic nitrogen but different from those of structure of the microbial communities and equivalent humidity. Geostatistics revealed that the spatial heterogeneity in the rate of degradation of isoproturon corresponded to that of soil pH and microbial biomass. PMID:16979806

El Sebai, T; Lagacherie, B; Soulas, G; Martin-Laurent, F

2007-02-01

194

Sorption and Transport of Pharmaceutical chemicals in Organic- and Mineral-rich Soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pharmaceutical, active ingredients in personal care products (PhACs), and their derivative compounds are increasingly ubiquitous in surface waters across the world. Sorption and transport of four relatively common PhACs (naproxen, ibuprofen, cetirizine, and triclosan) in different natural soils was measured. All of these compounds are relatively hydrophobic (log KOW>2) and have acid/base functional groups, including one compound that is zwitterionic (cetirizine.) The main goal of this study was to correlate organic matter (OM) and clay content in natural soils and sediment with sorption and degradation of PhACs and ultimately their potential for transport within the subsurface environment. A- and B-horizon soils were collected from four sub-regions within a pristine managed forested watershed near Charleston, SC, with no apparent sources of anthropogenic contamination. These four soil series had varying OM content (fOC) between 0.4-9%, clay mineral content between 6-20%, and soil pH between 4.5-6. The A-horizon soils had higher fOC and lower clay content than the B-horizon soils. Sorption isotherms measured from batch sorption experimental data indicated a non-linear sorption relationship in all A- and B-horizon soils - stronger sorption was observed at lower PhAC concentrations and lower sorption at higher concentrations. Three PhACs (naproxen, ibuprofen, and triclosan) sorbed more strongly with higher fOC A-horizon soils compared with the B-horizon soils. These results show that soil OM had a significant role in strongly binding these three PhACs, which had the highest KOW values. In contrast, cetirizine, which is predominantly positively charged at pH below 8, strongly sorbed to soils with higher clay mineral content and least strongly to higher fOC soils. All sorption isotherms fitted well to the Freundlich model. For naproxen, ibuprofen, and triclosan, there was a strong and positive linear correlation between the Freundlich adsorption constant, Kf, and fOC, again indicating that these PhACs preferentially partition into the soil OM. Such a correlation was absent for cetirizine. Breakthrough curves of PhACs measured in homogeneous packed soil columns indicated that PhAC transport was affected by chemical nonequilibrium processes depending on the soil and PhAC chemistry. The shape of the breakthrough curves indicated that there were two distinct sorption sites - OM and clay minerals - which influence nonequilibrium transport of these compounds. The retardation factor estimated using the distribution coefficient, Kd, measured from the sorption experiments was very similar to the measured value. While the sorption and transport data do not provide mechanistic information regarding the nature of PhAC interaction with chemical reactive components within geological materials, they do provide important information regarding potential fate of such compounds in the environment. The results also show the role that soil OM and mineral surfaces play in sequestering or transporting these chemicals. These insights have implications to the quality of the water resources in our communities.

Vulava, V. M.; Schwindaman, J.; Murphey, V.; Kuzma, S.; Cory, W.

2011-12-01

195

Linking Annual N2O Emission in Organic Soils to Mineral Nitrogen Input as Estimated by Heterotrophic Respiration and Soil C/N Ratio.  

PubMed

Organic soils are an important source of N2O, but global estimates of these fluxes remain uncertain because measurements are sparse. We tested the hypothesis that N2O fluxes can be predicted from estimates of mineral nitrogen input, calculated from readily-available measurements of CO2 flux and soil C/N ratio. From studies of organic soils throughout the world, we compiled a data set of annual CO2 and N2O fluxes which were measured concurrently. The input of soil mineral nitrogen in these studies was estimated from applied fertilizer nitrogen and organic nitrogen mineralization. The latter was calculated by dividing the rate of soil heterotrophic respiration by soil C/N ratio. This index of mineral nitrogen input explained up to 69% of the overall variability of N2O fluxes, whereas CO2 flux or soil C/N ratio alone explained only 49% and 36% of the variability, respectively. Including water table level in the model, along with mineral nitrogen input, further improved the model with the explanatory proportion of variability in N2O flux increasing to 75%. Unlike grassland or cropland soils, forest soils were evidently nitrogen-limited, so water table level had no significant effect on N2O flux. Our proposed approach, which uses the product of soil-derived CO2 flux and the inverse of soil C/N ratio as a proxy for nitrogen mineralization, shows promise for estimating regional or global N2O fluxes from organic soils, although some further enhancements may be warranted. PMID:24798347

Mu, Zhijian; Huang, Aiying; Ni, Jiupai; Xie, Deti

2014-01-01

196

Linking Annual N2O Emission in Organic Soils to Mineral Nitrogen Input as Estimated by Heterotrophic Respiration and Soil C/N Ratio  

PubMed Central

Organic soils are an important source of N2O, but global estimates of these fluxes remain uncertain because measurements are sparse. We tested the hypothesis that N2O fluxes can be predicted from estimates of mineral nitrogen input, calculated from readily-available measurements of CO2 flux and soil C/N ratio. From studies of organic soils throughout the world, we compiled a data set of annual CO2 and N2O fluxes which were measured concurrently. The input of soil mineral nitrogen in these studies was estimated from applied fertilizer nitrogen and organic nitrogen mineralization. The latter was calculated by dividing the rate of soil heterotrophic respiration by soil C/N ratio. This index of mineral nitrogen input explained up to 69% of the overall variability of N2O fluxes, whereas CO2 flux or soil C/N ratio alone explained only 49% and 36% of the variability, respectively. Including water table level in the model, along with mineral nitrogen input, further improved the model with the explanatory proportion of variability in N2O flux increasing to 75%. Unlike grassland or cropland soils, forest soils were evidently nitrogen-limited, so water table level had no significant effect on N2O flux. Our proposed approach, which uses the product of soil-derived CO2 flux and the inverse of soil C/N ratio as a proxy for nitrogen mineralization, shows promise for estimating regional or global N2O fluxes from organic soils, although some further enhancements may be warranted.

Mu, Zhijian; Huang, Aiying; Ni, Jiupai; Xie, Deti

2014-01-01

197

Vadose zone modelling as a tool to develop a generic framework for the re-use of soil or mineral waste onto soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Slightly contaminated soil that is excavated during building or land management projects can be re-used at other locations either as soil or as building material. Likewise, mineral waste products re-usable as building material can be applied onto soil, e.g. in roadworks or building foundation layers. In order to ensure that this is done in a safe manner without compromising soil

I. Joris; M. Quaghebeur; K. Broos; P. Seuntjens; G. van Gestel; L. Debaene; D. Dedecker

2009-01-01

198

Exchangeable and secondary mineral reactive pools of aluminium in coastal lowland acid sulfate soils.  

PubMed

The use of coastal floodplain sulfidic sediments for agricultural activities has resulted in the environmental degradation of many areas worldwide. The generation of acidity and transport of aluminium (Al) and other metals to adjacent aquatic systems are the main causes of adverse effects. Here, a five-step sequential extraction procedure (SEP) was applied to 30 coastal lowland acid sulfate soils (CLASS) from north-eastern New South Wales, Australia. This enabled quantification of the proportion of aluminium present in 'water-soluble', 'exchangeable', 'organically-complexed', 'reducible iron(III) (oxyhydr)oxide/hydroxysulfate-incorporated' and 'amorphous Al mineral' fractions. The first three extractions represented an average of 5% of 'aqua regia' extractable Al and their cumulative concentrations were extremely high, reaching up to 4000mg·kg(-1). Comparison of Al concentrations in the final two extractions indicated that 'amorphous Al minerals' are quantitatively a much more important sink for the removal of aqueous Al derived from the acidic weathering of these soils than reducible Fe(III) minerals. Correlations were observed between soil pH, dissolved and total organic carbon (DOC and TOC) and Al concentrations in organic carbon-rich CLASS soil horizons. These results suggest that complexation of Al by dissolved organic matter significantly increases soluble Al concentrations at pH values >5.0. As such, present land management practices would benefit with redefinition of an 'optimal' soil from pH ?5.5 to ~4.8 for the preservation of aquatic environments adjacent to organic-rich CLASS where Al is the sole or principle inorganic contaminant of concern. Furthermore, it was observed that currently-accepted standard procedures (i.e. 1M KCl extraction) to measure exchangeable Al concentrations in these types of soils severely underestimate exchangeable Al and a more accurate representation may be obtained through the use of 0.2M CuCl2. PMID:24727041

Yvanes-Giuliani, Yliane A M; Waite, T David; Collins, Richard N

2014-07-01

199

Pathogenic prion protein is degraded by a manganese oxide mineral found in soils  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Prions, the aetiological agents of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, exhibit extreme resistance to degradation. Soil can retain prion infectivity in the environment for years. Reactive soil components may, however, contribute to the inactivation of prions in soil. Members of the birnessite family of manganese oxides (MnO2) rank among the strongest natural oxidants in soils. Here, we report the abiotic degradation of pathogenic prion protein (PrPTSE) by a synthetic analogue of naturally occurring birnessite minerals. Aqueous MnO2 suspensions degraded the PrPTSE as evidenced by decreased immunoreactivity and diminished ability to seed protein misfolding cyclic amplification reactions. Birnessite-mediated PrPTSE degradation increased as a solution's pH decreased, consistent with the pH-dependence of the redox potential of MnO2. Exposure to 5.6 mg MnO2 ml-1 (PrPTSE:MnO2=1 : 110) decreased PrPTSE levels by ???4 orders of magnitude. Manganese oxides may contribute to prion degradation in soil environments rich in these minerals. ?? 2009 SGM.

Russo, F.; Johnson, C. J.; Johnson, C. J.; McKenzie, D.; Aiken, J. M.; Pedersen, J. A.

2009-01-01

200

Geochemical soil sampling for deeply-buried mineralized breccia pipes, northwestern Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Thousands of solution-collapse breccia pipes crop out in the canyons and on the plateaus of northwestern Arizona; some host high-grade uranium deposits. The mineralized pipes are enriched in Ag, As, Ba, Co, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, V and Zn. These breccia pipes formed as sedimentary strata collapsed into solution caverns within the underlying Mississippian Redwall Limestone. A typical pipe is approximately 100 m (300 ft) in diameter and extends upward from the Redwall Limestone as much as 1000 m (3000 ft). Unmineralized gypsum and limestone collapses rooted in the Lower Permian Kaibab Limestone or Toroweap Formation also occur throughout this area. Hence, development of geochemical tools that can distinguish these unmineralized collapse structures, as well as unmineralized breccia pipes, from mineralized breccia pipes could significantly reduce drilling costs for these orebodies commonly buried 300-360 m (1000-1200 ft) below the plateau surface. Design and interpretation of soil sampling surveys over breccia pipes are plagued with several complications. (1) The plateau-capping Kaibab Limestone and Moenkopi Formation are made up of diverse lithologies. Thus, because different breccia pipes are capped by different lithologies, each pipe needs to be treated as a separate geochemical survey with its own background samples. (2) Ascertaining true background is difficult because of uncertainties in locations of poorly-exposed collapse cones and ring fracture zones that surround the pipes. Soil geochemical surveys were completed on 50 collapse structures, three of which are known mineralized breccia pipes. Each collapse structure was treated as an independent geochemical survey. Geochemical data from each collapse feature were plotted on single-element geochemical maps and processed by multivariate factor analysis. To contrast the results between geochemical surveys (collapse structures), a means of quantifying the anomalousness of elements at each site was developed. This degree of anomalousness, named the "correlation value", was used to rank collapse features by their potential to overlie a deeply-buried mineralized breccia pipe. Soil geochemical results from the three mineralized breccia pipes (the only three of the 50 that had previously been drilled) show that: (1) Soils above the SBF pipe contain significant enrichment of Ag, Al, As, Ba, Ga, K, La, Mo, Nd, Ni, Pb, Sc, Th, U and Zn, and depletion in Ca, Mg and Sr, in contrast to soils outside the topographic and structural rim; (2) Soils over the inner treeless zone of the Canyon pipe show Mo and Pb enrichment anf As and Ga depletion, in contrast to soils from the surrounding forest; and (3) The soil survey of the Mohawk Canyon pipe was a failure because of the rocky terrane and lack of a B soil horizon, or because the pipe plunges. At least 11 of the 47 other collapse structures studied contain anomalous soil enrichments similar to the SBF uranium ore-bearing pipe, and thus have good potential as exploration targets for uranium. One of these 11, #1102, does contain surface mineralized rock. These surveys suggest that soil geochemical sampling is a useful tool for the recognition of many collapse structures with underlying ore-bearing breccia pipes. ?? 1994.

Wenrich, K. J.; Aumente-Modreski, R. M.

1994-01-01

201

Soft X-ray Spectromicroscopy Study of Mineral-Organic Matter Associations in Pasture Soil Clay Fractions.  

PubMed

There is a growing acceptance that associations with soil minerals may be the most important overarching stabilization mechanism for soil organic matter. However, direct investigation of organo-mineral associations has been hampered by a lack of methods that can simultaneously characterize organic matter (OM) and soil minerals. In this study, STXM-NEXAFS spectroscopy at the C 1s, Ca 2p, Fe 2p, Al 1s, and Si 1s edges was used to investigate C associations with Ca, Fe, Al, and Si species in soil clay fractions from an upland pasture hillslope. Bulk techniques including C and N NEXAFS, Fe K-edge EXAFS spectroscopy, and XRD were applied to provide additional information. Results demonstrated that C was associated with Ca, Fe, Al, and Si with no separate phase in soil clay particles. In soil clay particles, the pervasive C forms were aromatic C, carboxyl C, and polysaccharides with the relative abundance of carboxyl C and polysaccharides varying spatially at the submicrometer scale. Only limited regions in the soil clay particles had aliphatic C. Good C-Ca spatial correlations were found for soil clay particles with no CaCO3, suggesting a strong role of Ca in organo-mineral assemblage formation. Fe EXAFS showed that about 50% of the total Fe in soils was contained in Fe oxides, whereas Fe-bearing aluminosilicates (vermiculite and Illite) accounted for another 50%. Fe oxides in the soil were mainly crystalline goethite and hematite, with lesser amounts of poorly crystalline ferrihydrite. XRD revealed that soil clay aluminosilicates were hydroxy-interlayered vermiculite, Illite, and kaolinite. C showed similar correlation with Fe to Al and Si, implying a similar association of Fe oxides and aluminosilicates with organic matter in organo-mineral associations. These direct microscopic determinations can help improve understanding of organo-mineral interactions in soils. PMID:24837340

Chen, Chunmei; Dynes, James J; Wang, Jian; Karunakaran, Chithra; Sparks, Donald L

2014-06-17

202

Effect of freezing-thawing on nitrogen mineralization in vegetation soils of four landscape zones of Changbai Mountain  

Microsoft Academic Search

• Introduction\\u000a   We studied the effect of freezing-thawing on nitrogen (N) mineralization of four vegetation soils from typical vegetation\\u000a zones of Changbai Mountain with a laboratory incubation experiment. The soils were treated with two levels of soil water content,\\u000a representing the low and high soil water contents found during late autumn and early spring in Changbai Mountain, respectively,\\u000a and underwent

Wangming Zhou; Hua Chen; Li Zhou; Bernard J. Lewis; Yujing Ye; Jie Tian; Guowei Li; Limin Dai

203

Nitrogen mineralization, denitrification, and nitrate ammonification by soil-feeding termites: a 15 N-based approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil-feeding termites are abundant and play important roles in the biogeochemical processes in tropical soils. Previous studies\\u000a indicated that they preferentially utilize the peptidic components of soil organic matter as a nutrient resource. Here, we\\u000a determined the corresponding mineralization fluxes and elucidated other N transformation processes that occur during soil\\u000a gut passage using 15N tracer techniques. Termite-based rates of N

David Kamanda Ngugi; Rong Ji; Andreas Brune

2011-01-01

204

Effect of various amendments on heavy mineral oil bioremediation and soil microbial activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine the effects of amendments on the degradation of heavy mineral oil, we conducted a pilot-scale experiment in the field for 105 days. During the experiment, soil samples were collected and analyzed periodically to determine the amount of residual hydrocarbons and evaluate the effects of the amendments on microbial activity. After 105 days, the initial level of contamination (7490±480mg

Sang-Hwan Lee; Bang-Il Oh; Jeong-gyu Kim

2008-01-01

205

Organo-mineral associations of Fe oxides and soil organic matter: Formation, properties and functions.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many soils, Fe oxides and oxyhydroxides are assumed to be the most important substrates for the formation of organo-mineral associations. While field studies often report correlations between organic C and the amount of Fe oxides, laboratory experiments confirm high organic matter loadings on Fe oxides and different possible interaction mechanisms. In spite of their small mass proportion within soils, the particular importance of Fe oxides as organic matter carriers might be explained by their usual occurrence as poorly crystalline, nanoparticulate minerals: This leads to large specific surface areas of 100-700 m2 g-1, which may dominate a soils total mineral surface area. Another reason for their high reactivity towards organic matter is seen in the fact that the surface of Fe oxides is covered by conditionally charged hydroxyl groups. Implications of the formation of Fe-oxide organic matter associations for pedogenesis are manifold and severe. On one hand, it will influence organic matter composition and development. Dissolved organic matter and extracellular polymeric substances are believed to be important sources for mineral associated organic matter. These complex mixtures usually fractionate during their association with Fe oxides. The associated fraction is supposed to be stabilized, whereas the non-associated fraction remains mobile and available to degradation by microorganisms. On the other hand, the organic coating will completely change the interface properties of Fe oxides such as solubility, charge and hydrophobicity. This in turn will affect their reactivity towards nutrients and pollutants, adsorption of new organic matter, the availability of ferric Fe towards microorganisms, the aggregation behavior and mobility of Fe oxides. In other words, for many soil forming processes it makes a big difference, whether the Fe oxide surfaces are coated by organic matter or not.

Eusterhues, Karin; Totsche, Kai Uwe

2013-04-01

206

Pristine soils mineralize 3-chlorobenzoate and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate via different microbial populations.  

PubMed Central

Biodegradation of two chlorinated aromatic compounds was found to be a common capability of the microorganisms found in the soils of undisturbed, pristine ecosystems. We used 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate (2,4-D) and 3-chlorobenzoate (3CBA) as enrichment substrates to compare populations of degrading bacteria from six different regions making up two ecosystems. We collected soil samples from four Mediterranean (California, central Chile, the Cape region of South Africa, and southwestern Australia) and two boreal (northern Saskatchewan and northwestern Russia) ecosystems that had no direct exposure to pesticides or to human disturbance. Between 96 and 120 samples from each of the six regions were incubated with 50 ppm of [U-14C]2,4-D or [U-14C]3CBA. Soils from all regions samples mineralized both 2,4-D and 3CBA, but 3CBA was mineralized without a lag period, while 2,4-D was generally not mineralized until the second week. 3CBA degradative capabilities were more evenly distributed spatially than those for 2,4-D. The degradative capabilities of the soils were readily transferred to fresh liquid medium. 3CBA degraders were easily isolated from most soils. We recovered 610 strains that could release carbon dioxide from ring-labeled 3CBA. Of these, 144 strains released chloride and degraded over 80% of 1 mM 3CBA in 3 weeks or less. In contrast, only five 2,4-D degraders could be isolated, although a variety of methods were used in an attempt to culture the degraders. The differences in the distribution and culturability of the bacteria responsible for 3CBA and 2,4-D degradation in these ecosystems suggest that the two substrates are degraded by different populations. We also describe a 14C-based microtiter plate method that allows efficient screening of a large number of samples for biodegradation activity.

Fulthorpe, R R; Rhodes, A N; Tiedje, J M

1996-01-01

207

Mineralization and changes in microbial biomass in water-saturated soil amended with some tropical plant residues  

Microsoft Academic Search

An incubation experiment was conducted in the laboratory at 25 and 35°C during 56 d to analyze the mineralization patterns and the changes in microbial biomass in water-saturated soils amended with 6 types of organic materials (O.M.) including residues from 4 tropical plants. C and N mineralization in amended and non-amended soils was influenced by the temperature, A significantly positive

Abul Kalam Mohammad Azmal; Takuya Marumoto; Hamo Shindo; Masaya Nishiyama

1996-01-01

208

Minerals vs. Microbes: Biogeochemical Controls on Carbon Storage in Humid Tropical Forest Soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Humid tropical forest soils contain a substantial portion (~500 Pg) of the terrestrial carbon (C) pool, yet their response to climate change remains unclear due to mechanistic uncertainty in the biogeochemical controls on soil C storage in these ecosystems. Poorly-crystalline minerals have long been known to stabilize soil C, but few studies have explored their relative importance in comparison with other likely controls such as rhizosphere processes, oxygen deficiency (anaerobiosis), and C quality. We examined relationships among soil C and a suite of biogeochemical variables measured in 162 samples from surface soils (ultisols and oxisols) collected over scales of landforms to landscapes (m - km) in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico. We measured iron (Fe), aluminum (Al), and manganese (Mn) oxides in 0.5M hydrochloric acid (HCl), sodium citrate/ascorbic acid (CA), and citrate/dithionite (CD) extractions, along with clay content, root biomass, C quality (C/N ratios), and anaerobiosis using HCl-extractable reduced iron (Fe(II)) concentrations as a proxy. We used mixed-effects models to compare the relative importance of the above variables (normalized by mean and standard deviation) as predictors of soil C, with random effects to account for spatial structure. Poorly-crystalline Al oxide concentrations (CA extraction), soil C/N ratio, and Fe(II) concentrations each had highly significant (p < 0.0001) positive relationships with soil C concentrations that conveyed equivalent explanatory power, assessed by comparing standardized regression coefficients. The optimal mixed model explained 82 % of the variation of the residual sum of squares of soil C concentrations, which varied between 2 - 20 % C among samples. Fine root biomass had a weak but significantly positive association with soil C concentrations (p < 0.05), while crystalline Fe oxide concentrations (CD extraction) displayed a negative correlation (p < 0.01), and clay contents had no significant relationship. The latter results are surprising given the documented role of Fe oxides and clay minerals in C stabilization, yet may indicate the importance of C supply via roots in controlling C concentrations in humid tropical ecosystems. Samples associated with high concentrations of crystalline Fe and high clay contents may represent soils from deeper in the soil profile exposed by landslides, characterized by poorly-developed aggregate structure and fewer C inputs since disturbance. Our optimal mixed model suggested an equivalent importance of soil mineralogy, anaerobiosis, and C quality as correlates of soil C concentrations across tropical forest ecosystems varying in temperature, precipitation, and community composition. Whereas soil mineralogy may be relatively static over timescales of years to decades, O2 availability and the chemical composition of soil C inputs and can potentially vary more rapidly. Our model suggests that changes in temperature and precipitation regimes that alter O2 availability and/or increase the lability of C inputs may lead to decreased soil C storage in humid tropical forest soils.

Hall, S. J.; Silver, W. L.

2012-12-01

209

Potassium and magnesium in clay minerals of some Brazilian soils as indicated by A sequential extraction procedure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total contents of potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg) in selected Brazilian soils (Oxisols, Ultisols, Inceptsols, and Alfisols) developed from different parent materials were investigated to estimate the contribution of clay minerals to K and Mg reserves. Total K and Mg contents in the Na-saturated clay were determined by HF total digestion. The contribution of each mineral species to the

V. F. Melo; C. E. G. R. Schaefer; R. F. Novais; B. Singh; M. P. F. Fontes

2002-01-01

210

Carbon Mineralization of Soils from Native Evergreen Broadleaf Forest and Three Plantations in Mid?subtropic China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mineralization of soil organic carbon (C) plays a key role in supplying nutrient elements essential to plant growth. Changes of C mineralization of mixed stands of Chinese fir and Michelia macclurei (a broadleaf tree), pure M. macclurei stands, and pure Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) stands established in 1983 after clear?felling of a first?generation Chinese fir forest were analyzed in Huitong,

Jian Zhang

2009-01-01

211

Iron isotope fractionation in oxic soils by mineral weathering and podzolization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stable iron isotope ratios in three soils (two Podzols and one Cambisol) were measured by MC-ICPMS to investigate iron isotope fractionation during pedogenic iron transformation and translocation processes under oxic conditions. Podzolization is a soil forming process in which iron oxides are dissolved and iron is translocated and enriched in the subsoil under the influence of organic ligands. The Cambisol was studied for comparison, representing a soil formed by chemical weathering without significant translocation of iron. A three-step sequential extraction procedure was used to separate operationally-defined iron mineral pools (i.e., poorly-crystalline iron oxides, crystalline iron oxides, silicate-bound iron) from the soil samples. Iron isotope ratios of total soil digests were compared with those of the separated iron mineral pools. Mass balance calculations demonstrated excellent agreement between results of sequential extractions and total soil digestions. Systematic variations in the iron isotope signature were found in the Podzol profiles. An enrichment of light iron isotopes of about 0.6‰ in ? 57Fe was found in total soil digests of the illuvial Bh horizons which can be explained by preferential translocation of light iron isotopes. The separated iron mineral pools revealed a wide range of ? 57Fe values spanning more than 3‰ in the Podzol profiles. Strong enrichments of heavy iron isotopes in silicate-bound iron constituting the residue of weathering processes, indicated the preferential transformation of light iron isotopes during weathering. Iron isotope fractionation during podzolization is probably linked to the ligand-controlled iron translocation processes. Comparison of iron isotope data from eluvial and illuvial horizons of the Podzol profiles revealed that some iron must have been leached out of the profile. However, uncertainties in the initial iron content and iron isotopic composition of the parent materials prevented thorough mass balance calculations of iron fluxes within the profiles. In contrast to the Podzol profiles, the Cambisol profile displayed uniform ? 57Fe values across soil depth and showed only a small enrichment of light iron isotopes of about 0.4‰ in the poorly-crystalline iron oxide pool extracted by 0.5 M HCl. This work demonstrates that significant iron isotope fractionations can occur during pedogenesis in oxic environments under the influence of organic ligands. Our findings provide new insights into fractionation mechanisms of iron isotopes and will help in the development of stable iron isotopes as tracers for biogeochemical iron cycling in nature.

Wiederhold, Jan G.; Teutsch, Nadya; Kraemer, Stephan M.; Halliday, Alex N.; Kretzschmar, Ruben

2007-12-01

212

Maxwell-Wagner relaxation in common minerals and a desert soil at low water contents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Penetration of 100- to 1000-MHz ground-penetrating radar (GPR) signals is virtually non-existent in arid and desert soils despite their low water content and moderate conductivity, the latter of which cannot explain the loss. Under the hypothesis that strong dielectric relaxation supplements DC conductivity to cause high intrinsic attenuation rates, we compared the complex permittivity of a desert soil sample with that of controlled samples of quartz, feldspars, calcite, coarse and crystallite gypsum, kaolinite and montmorillonite. The soil had 80% quartz, 10% feldspars and 10% gypsum by weight, with the latter composed of crystallites and crustations. All samples had 4-7% volumetric water content. We measured permittivity most accurately from 1.6 MHz to 4 GHz with Fourier Transform time domain reflectometry, and used grain sizes less than 53 ?m. All samples show low-frequency dispersion with the soil, gypsum crystallites and montmorillonite having the strongest below 100 MHz, the highest attenuation rates, and conductivity values unable to account for these rates. The soil rate exceeded 100 dB m- 1 by 1 GHz. Through modeling we find that a broadened relaxation centered from 2 to 16 MHz sufficiently supplements losses caused by conductivity and free water relaxation to account for loss rates in all our samples, and accounts for low-frequency dispersion below 1 GHz. We interpret the relaxation to be of the Maxwell-Wagner (MW) type because of the 2- to 16-MHz values, relaxation broadening, the lack of salt, clay and magnetic minerals, and insufficient surface area to support adsorbed water. The likely MW dipolar soil inclusions within the predominantly quartz matrix were gypsum particles coated with water containing ions dissolved from the gypsum, and the conducting water layers themselves. The inclusions for the monomineralic soils were likely ionized partially or completely water-filled interstices, and partially filled galleries for the montmorillonite. The low water content may be necessary to help isolate these inclusions. For our common, low conductivity minerals, the MW contributions to attenuation rates are significant above 10 MHz, whereas they are significant above about 100 MHz for the more conductive minerals and soil.

Arcone, Steven A.; Boitnott, Ginger E.

2012-06-01

213

Bioremediation of experimental petroleum spills on mineral soils in the Vestfold Hills, Antarctica  

SciTech Connect

The effect of nutrient and water enhancement on the biodegradation of petroleum was tested in Antarctic mineral soils. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were applied in solution, with or without gum xanthan or plastic covers, to sites artificially contaminated with distillate. The effectiveness of these procedures was assessed by measuring changes in total petroleum hydrocarbons; heptadecane/pristane and octadecane/phytane ratios; in concentrations of major hydrocarbon components and in microbial numbers and activity. Significantly lower hydrocarbon concentration were recorded after one year in soils treated with fertilizer solutions, but only in the surface 3 cm. These soils also showed lowered heptadecane/pristane and octadecane/phytane ratios and had the highest levels of microbial activity relative to other plots. Soils treated with gum xanthan or covered with plastic had the highest residual hydrocarbon levels. Both treatments inhibited evaporative loss of hydrocarbon, and there were indications that gum xanthan was utilized by the microbiota as an alternative carbon source to distillate. Higher temperatures were recorded under the plastic but no stimulation of biodegradation was detected. Estimated numbers of metabolically active bacteria were in the range 10[sup 7] to 10[sup 8] g[sup [minus]1] dry weight of soil, with an estimated biomass of 0.03 to 0.26 mg g[sup [minus]1] soil. Estimated numbers of amoebae were in the range 10[sup 6] 10[sup 7] g[sup [minus]1] soil (biomass of 2 to 4 mg g[sup [minus]1]). The highest populations were recorded in fertilized, contaminated soils, the only soils where petroleum degradation was demonstrated. 23 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

Kerry, E. (Univ. of Tasmania (Australia))

1993-01-01

214

Carbonation of Artificial Silicate Minerals in Soils: Passive Removal of Atmospheric CO2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sequestration of CO2 in global soils is a widely recognised phenomenon, which is amenable to an environmental engineering approach. It is proposed that the use of direct soil engineering, promoting CO2 sequestration by accelerating the activity of reactive mineral substrates, has the potential to harness the significant carbon turnover of the global pedologic system (75 x 10^15 gC/yr [1]) [2][3][4]. Estimates of C capture potential through this process are 100-1000 MTa-1. This study focuses on the ambient carbonation of high-Ca residues as agents of mineral CCS. A synergy of contemporary field observations is presented, alongside data acquired from laboratory testing (acid digestion, optical petrography, SEM, IRMS) of carbonated material recovered from urban brown-field and former industrial sites in north east England. It is demonstrated that urban soils may accumulate ~30 kg/m2 (300 T/ha) of carbon over 10 years as inorganic calcium carbonate, approximately twice the typical organic C content of rural soils, ~17.5 kg/m2 in the UK. Stable isotope data (?13C and ?18O) confirm that over 90% of the carbon is derived from the atmosphere. Economic and mechanical constraints on experimental performance in industrial batch reactor settings have strongly influenced the contemporary view on the efficacy of mineral CCS for large-scale environmental application [5][6][7]. Effective, low-energy field-scale implementation of mineral CCS through soil engineering would counter many of these concerns. Proof of principle for carbon capture efficacy of artificial silicates in soil engineering has been demonstrated [4]; proof of field scale feasibility will be demonstrated though continuing empirical field observation, engineered field cell construction and laboratory investigation. [1] Schlesinger, W. H., et al. (2000), Biogeochemistry, Vol. 48: 7-20. [2] Lal, R. (2003), Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences, 22, pp. 151-184. [3] Manning, D. A. C., (2008), Mineralogical Magazine, Mineralogical Society, Vol. 72: 639-649. [4] Renforth, P., et al., (2009), Applied Geochemistry, Vol. 24(9): 1757-1764 [5] Butt, D. P., Lackner, K.S., Wendt, C.H., et al. (1997), Global Warming International Conference, Columbia University, NY. [6] Huijgen, W. J. J., et al. (2005), Environmental Science and Technology Vol. 39: 9676-9682. [7] Lackner, K. S., et al. (1997), Energy Conversion and Management Vol. 38: S259-S264.

Washbourne, C.; Renforth, P.; Manning, D. A.

2010-12-01

215

Beryllium geochemistry in soils: Evaluation of 10Be/9Be ratios in authigenic minerals as a basis for age models  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Soils contain a diverse and complex set of chemicals and minerals. Being an 'open system', both in the chemical and nuclear sense, soils have defied quantitative nuclear dating. However, based on the published studies of the cosmogenic atmospheric 10Be in soils, its relatively long half-life (1.5 Ma), and the fact that 10Be gets quickly incorporated in most soil minerals, this radionuclide appears to be potentially the most useful for soil dating. We therefore studied the natural variations in the specific activities of 10Be with respect to the isotope 9Be in mineral phases in eight profiles of diverse soils from temperate to tropical climatic regimes and evaluated the implications of the data for determining the time of formation of soil minerals, following an earlier suggestion [Lal et al., 1991. Development of cosmogenic nuclear methods for the study of soil erosion and formation rates. Current Sci. 61, 636-639.]. We find that the 10Be/9Be ratios in both bulk soils and in the authigenic mineral phases are confined within a narrower range than in 10Be concentrations. Also, the highest 10Be/9Be ratios in authigenic minerals are observed at the soil-rock interface as predicted by the model. We present model 10Be/9Be ages of the B-horizon and the corresponding soil formation rates for several soil profiles. The present study demonstrates that the 10Be/9Be ratios in the authigenic phases, e.g. clay and Fe-hydroxides, can indeed be used for obtaining useful model ages for soils younger than 10-15 Ma. However, the present work has to be pushed considerably further, to take into account more realistic age models in which, for instance, downward transport of 10Be and clays, and in-situ dissolution of clay minerals at depths, altering the 10Be/9Be ratios of the acidic solutions, are included. We show that in the case of younger soils (< 1 Ma) studied here, their 10Be inventories and 10Be/9Be ratios have been significantly disturbed possibly by mixing with transported soils. ?? 1997 Elsevier Science B.V.

Barg, E.; Lal, D.; Pavich, M. J.; Caffee, M. W.; Southon, J. R.

1997-01-01

216

Influence of pH and electrolyte composition on adsorption of poliovirus by soils and minerals.  

PubMed Central

The pH and the nature an concentration of simple electrolytes influenced the interaction of poliovirus type 2 with three soils, a sand, and a clay mineral. In electrolytes above pH 9 the virus was not adsorbed extensively to the substrates, but below pH 7 almost all virus was bound. For each adsorbent there was a characteristic pH region of transition from strong to weak uptake. Differences between the soils in virus uptake were shown to parallel their pH-dependent mineral. In electrolytes above pH 9 the virus was not adsorbed extensively to the substrates, but below pH 7 almost all virus was bound. For each adsorbent there was a characteristic pH region of transition from strong to weak uptake. Differences between the soils in virus uptake were shown to parallel their pH-dependent mineral. In electrolytes above pH 9 the virus was not adsorbed extensively to the substrates, but below pH 7 almost all virus was bound. For each adsorbent there was a characteristic pH region of transition from strong to weak uptake. Differences between the soils in virus uptake were shown to parallel their pH-dependent charge properties, as determined by whole-particle microelectrophoresis. Only when the pH was close to or above the critical region was uptake increased with electrolyte concentration. The transition region for all substrates was above pH 7.5 the isoelectric point of the virus. Thus, it appears that when both the virus and substrate are highly negative charged, repulsive electrostatic effects may exceed inherent attractive interactions, thereby inhibiting adsorption.

Taylor, D H; Moore, R S; Sturman, L S

1981-01-01

217

Andic soils : mineralogical effect onto organic matter dynamics, organic matter effect onto mineral dynamics, or both?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From a strictly mineralogical point of view, weathering of volcanic glass produces secondary phases that are short range ordered alumino-silicates (SRO-AlSi). These are imogolite tubes (2 to 3 nm of diameter) and allophane supposedly spheres (3.5 to 5 nm). Their local structure is composed of a curved gibbsite Al layer and Si tetrahedra in the vacancies (Q0). Proto-imogolites have the same local structure but are roof-shape nanoparticles likely representing the precursors of imogolite and allophanes (Levard et al. 2010). These structures and sizes give to the SRO-AlSi large specific surfaces and high reactivities. In some natural sites, imogolites and allophanes are formed in large quantities. Aging of these phases may lead to the formation of more stable minerals (halloysite, kaolinite and gibbsite) (Torn et al 1997). In natural environments, when the weathering of volcanic glass is associated with the establishment of vegetation, the soils formed are generally andosols. These soils are particularly rich in organic matter (OM), which is explained by the high ability of SRO-AlSi mineral phases to form bonds with organic compounds. In a first order "bulk" approach, it is considered that these bonds strongly stabilize the organic compounds as their mean age can reach more than 10 kyrs in some studied sites (Basile-Doelsch et al. 2005; Torn et al. 1997). However, the structure of the mineral phases present in andosols deserves more attention. Traditionally, the presence in the SRO-AlSi andosols was shown by selective dissolution approaches by oxalate and pyrophosphate. Using spectroscopic methods, mineralogical analysis of SRO-AlSi in andosols samples showed that these mineral phases were neither imogolites nor allophanes as originally supposed, but only less organized structures remained in a state of proto-imogolites (Basile-Doelsch al. 2005 ; Levard et al., 2012). The presence of OM would have an inhibitory effect on the formation of secondary mineral phases, by blocking the crystal growth of SRO-AlSi. Conversely, the effect of minerals on the dynamics of organic compounds also deserves to be studied in greater detail. If the "bulk" approaches showed that proto-imogolites involve long-term stabilized OM, other approaches such as densimetric fractionation and C3/C4 chronosequences (Basile-Doelsch et al. 2007; De Junet et al. 2013) led us to consider a new model involving two types of organo-mineral interactions: (1) OM stabilized by strong bonds to proto-imogolite, leading to a slow OM turnover and (2) OM retained within the porosity of the 3D structure formed by the proto-imogolite (similar to a gel structure), leading to a faster OM turnover. Understanding the mechanisms of organo-mineral interactions in andosols will open new research directions for understanding the mechanisms of stabilization of OM in any type of soil (Bonnard et al. 2012). Basile-Doelsch et al., Geoderma, 137, 477-489, 2007. Basile-Doelsch et al., European Journal of Soil Science, 56, 689-703, 2005. Bonnard et al., European Journal of Soil Science, 63, 5, 625-636, 2012. de Junet, et al., Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 99, 92-10, 2013, Levard et al, Geoderma, 183-184, 100-108, 2012. Levard et al. Chemistry Of Materials, 22, 2466-2473, 2010 Torn et al. Nature, London, 389, 170-173, 1997.

Basile-Doelsch, Isabelle; Amundson, Ronald; Balesdent, Jérome; Borschneck, Daniel; Bottero, Jean-Yves; Colin, Fabrice; de Junet, Alexis; Doelsch, Emmanuel; Legros, Samuel; Levard, Clément; Masion, Armand; Meunier, Jean-Dominique; Rose, Jérôme

2014-05-01

218

Carbon mineralization in the soils under different cover crops and residue management in an intensive protected vegetable cultivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous cropping under plastic greenhouses, a common practice in intensive Chinese vegetable production systems, has led to the decline of soil productivity and crop yields. A 4-year greenhouse experiment on cucumber double-cropping systems was conducted in Changping country, Beijing, China, to investigate the effects of summer cover crops and residue management on soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC), C mineralization and

Yongqiang Tian; Juan Liu; Xuhui Wang; Lihong Gao

2011-01-01

219

Surface Soil Aggregation, Trace, and Heavy Metal Enrichment Under Long-Term Application of Farm Yard Manure and Mineral Fertilizers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DNPK trial was started at Samaru in 1950 to assess the nutrient imbalances resulting from the increasing use of mineral fertilizers on some poorly buffered soils, improve and optimize productivity of these soils under intensive agricultural land use. Aggregation, trace, and heavy metals enrichment were studied in some selected plots under this trial, with a view to identify treatment(s)

J. O. Ogunwole; P. O. Ogunleye

2004-01-01

220

Mineral cycling in soil and litter arthropod food chains. Progress report, November 1, 1979October 31, 1980  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent progress and current status are reported for research concerned with mineral element dynamics in soil arthropod food chains. Research is performed within the larger context of terrestrial decomposition systems, in which soil arthropods may act as regulators of nutrient dynamics during decomposition. Research is measuring rates of nutrient accumulation and excretion by using radioactive tracer techniques with radioactive analogs

Crossley; D. A. Jr

1980-01-01

221

Mineral cycling in soil and litter arthropod food chains. Progress report, November 1, 1980October 31, 1981  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progress and current status are reported for research projects concerned with mineral element and nutrient dynamics in soil arthropod food chains. Research is performed within the larger context of terrestrial decomposition, in which soil arthropods may act as regulators of nutrient dynamics during decomposition. Research is measuring rates of nutrient accumulation and excretion by using radioactive tracer analogs of nutrients.

Crossley; D. A. Jr

1980-01-01

222

Accumulation and turnover of carbon in organic and mineral soils of the BOREAS northern study area  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Rates of input, accumulation, and turnover of C differ markedly within soil profiles and in soils with different drainage in the BOREAS northern study area. Soil C storage increases from ???3 kg C m-2 in well-drained, sandy soils to greater than 100 kg C m-2 in wetlands. Two modes of C accumulation were observed in upland soil profiles. Large annual C inputs (0.06-0.1 kg C m-2 yr-1) and slow decomposition (turnover times of 6-250 years) lead to rapid C accumulation in regrowing surface moss and detrital layers following fire. Deep organic layers that have accumulated over the millennia since the initiation of soil development, and are located below the most recent charred horizon, show slower rates of input (0.015-0.03 kg C m-2 yr-1) and turnover (100-1600 years) and accumulate C about 10 times slower than surface detrital layers. Rates of C input to soils derived from C and 14C data were in accord with net primary production estimates, with highest rates of input (0.14-0.6 kg C m-2 yr-1) in wetlands. Turnover times for C in surface detrital layers were 6-15 years for well-drained sand soils that showed highest soil temperatures in summer, 30-40 years for wetlands, and 36-250 years for uplands with thick moss cover and black spruce trees. Long (>100 years) turnover times in upland black spruce/clay soils most likely reflect the influence of woody debris incorporated into detrital layers. Turnover times for deep organic and mineral layer C were controlled by drainage, with fastest turnover (80-130 years) in well-drained sand soils and slowest turnover (>3000 years) in wetlands. Total C accumulation rates, which account for C losses from both deep organic and surface detrital layers, are close to zero for sand/jack pine soils, 0.003-0.01 kg C m-2 yr-1 for moderately to poorly drained sites in mature forest stands, and 0.03 kg C m-2 yr-1 for a productive fen. Decomposition of organic matter more than several decades old accounts for 9-22% of total heterotrophic respiration at these sites. The rates of C accumulation derived here are decadal averages for specific stands and will vary as stands age or undergo disturbance. Extrapolation to larger regions and longer timescales, where burning offsets C gains in moss layers, will yield smaller rates of C storage.

Trumbore, S. E.; Harden, J. W.

1997-01-01

223

Microbial biomass, enzyme and mineralization activity in relation to soil organic C, N and P turnover influenced by acid metal stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focused on the potential of using soil microbial biomass, enzyme and mineralization activities involved in organic C, N and P turnover, to evaluate the quality of a subtropical agricultural soil affected by long-term acid metal stress. Fractions of C, N and P involved in soil organic matter, microbial biomass and mineralization processes were estimated. Total enzyme activity (FDA)

Yong-Tao Li; Corrine Rouland; Marc Benedetti; Fang-bai Li; Anne Pando; Patrick Lavelle; Jun Dai

2009-01-01

224

Carbon and nitrogen mineralization in a vineyard soil amended with grape marc vermicompost.  

PubMed

Vineyard soils in many areas suffer from low organic matter contents, which can be the cause of negative effects such as increasing the risk of erosion, so the use of organic amendments must be considered a good agricultural practice. Even more, if grape marc is recycled as a soil amendment in the vineyards, benefits from a good waste management strategy are also obtained. In the present study, a grape marc from the wine region of Valdeorras (north-west Spain) was used for the production of vermicompost, and this added to a vineyard soil of the same area in a laboratory study. Mixtures of soil and grape marc vermicompost (2 and 4%, dry weight) were incubated for ten weeks at 25°C and the mineralization of C and N studied. The respiration data were fitted to a first-order kinetic model. The rates of grape marc vermicompost which should be added to the vineyard soil in order to maintain the initial levels of organic matter were estimated from the laboratory data, and found to be 1.7?t?ha(-1)?year(-1) of bulk vermicompost (if the present mean temperature is considered) and 2.1?t?ha(-1)?year(-1) of bulk vermicompost (if a 2°C increment in temperature is considered), amounts which could be obtained recycling the grape marc produced in the exploitation. PMID:20837558

Paradelo, Remigio; Moldes, Ana Belén; Barral, María Teresa

2011-11-01

225

Stimulating effect of earthworm excreta on the mineralization of nitrogen compounds in soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of excreta of earthworm species Aporrectodea caliginosa and Eisenia fetida on the mineralization of nitrogen compounds in soils has been studied. A single application of excreta obtained from three earthworms in one day increased the formation of nitrate nitrogen compounds in the soil by 10 50%. The application of ammonium nitrogen (in the form of NH4Cl) in amounts equivalent to the ammonium nitrogen content in the daily excreta of three earthworms had the same effect on the mineralization of nitrogen compounds. The effect of earthworm excreta, as well as the effect of ammonium nitrogen, on the nitrification process was an order of magnitude higher than their contribution to the formation of nitrates due to the oxidation of the introduced ammonium. Hence, ammonium—an important component of the earthworm excreta—can exert a stimulating effect on nitrification processes in the soil and produce long-term cumulative effects that are much more significant than the direct effect of this nitrogen compound.

Bityutskii, N. P.; Solov'eva, A. N.; Lukina, E. I.; Oleinik, A. S.; Zavgorodnyaya, Yu. A.; Demin, V. V.; Byzov, B. A.

2007-04-01

226

Ice Nucleation by Soil Dusts: Relative Importance of Mineral Dust and Biogenic Components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agricultural dust emissions have been estimated to contribute around 20 % to the global dust burden. In contrast to dusts from arid source regions, the ice-nucleating abilities of which have been relatively well studied, soil dusts from fertile sources often contain a substantial fraction of organic matter. Using an experimental methodology which is sensitive to a wide range of ice nucleation efficiencies, we have characterised the immersion mode ice-nucleating activities of dusts extracted from fertile soils collected at four locations around England. By controlling droplet sizes, which ranged in volume from pico- to micro- Liter , we have been able to determine the ice nucleation behaviour of soil dust particles at temperatures ranging from 267 K (-6 °C) down to the homogeneous limit of freezing at about 237 K (-36 °C). At temperatures above 258 K (-15 °C) we find that the ice-nucleating activity of soil dusts is diminished by heat treatment or digestion with hydrogen peroxide, suggesting that the ice nuclei stem from biogenic components in the soil. However, below 258 K, we find that the ice active site densities tend towards those expected from the mineral components in the soils, suggesting that the inorganic fraction of soil dusts, in particular the K-feldspar fraction, becomes increasingly important in the initiation of the ice phase at lower temperatures. We conclude that although only a relatively minor contributor to the global atmospheric dust burden, the enhanced IN activities of dusts generated from agricultural activities may play an important role in cloud glaciation, particularly at temperatures above 258 K.

Murray, B. J.; O'Sullivan, D.; Malkin, T. L.; Whale, T.; Umo, N.; Atkinson, J.; Price, H.; Baustian, K. J.; Browse, J.; Webb, M. E.

2013-12-01

227

Ice nucleation by soil dusts: relative importance of mineral dust and biogenic components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agricultural dust emissions have been estimated to contribute around 20% to the global dust burden. In contrast to dusts from arid source regions, the ice-nucleating abilities of which have been relatively well studied, soil dusts from fertile sources often contain a substantial fraction of organic matter. Using an experimental methodology which is sensitive to a wide range of ice nucleation efficiencies, we have characterised the immersion mode ice-nucleating activities of dusts extracted from fertile soils collected at four locations around England. By controlling droplet sizes, which ranged in volume from 10-12 to 10-6 L, we have been able to determine the ice nucleation behaviour of soil dust particles at temperatures ranging from 267 K (-6 °C) down to the homogeneous limit of freezing at about 237 K (-36 °C). At temperatures above 258 K (-15 °C) we find that the ice-nucleating activity of soil dusts is diminished by heat treatment or digestion with hydrogen peroxide, suggesting that the ice nuclei stem from biogenic components in the soil. However, below 258 K, we find that the ice active site densities tend towards those expected from the mineral components in the soils, suggesting that the inorganic fraction of soil dusts, in particular the K-feldspar fraction, becomes increasingly important in the initiation of the ice phase at lower temperatures. We conclude that although only a relatively minor contributor to the global atmospheric dust burden, the enhanced IN activities of dusts generated from agricultural activities may play an important role in cloud glaciation, particularly at temperatures above 258 K.

O'Sullivan, D.; Murray, B. J.; Malkin, T. L.; Whale, T.; Umo, N. S.; Atkinson, J. D.; Price, H. C.; Baustian, K. J.; Browse, J.; Webb, M. E.

2013-08-01

228

Measurement of net nitrogen and phosphorus mineralization in wetland soils using a modification of the resin-core technique  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A modification of the resin-core method was developed and tested for measuring in situ soil N and P net mineralization rates in wetland soils where temporal variation in bidirectional vertical water movement and saturation can complicate measurement. The modified design includes three mixed-bed ion-exchange resin bags located above and three resin bags located below soil incubating inside a core tube. The two inner resin bags adjacent to the soil capture NH4+, NO3-, and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) transported out of the soil during incubation; the two outer resin bags remove inorganic nutrients transported into the modified resin core; and the two middle resin bags serve as quality-control checks on the function of the inner and outer resin bags. Modified resin cores were incubated monthly for a year along the hydrogeomorphic gradient through a floodplain wetland. Only small amounts of NH4+, NO3-, and SRP were found in the two middle resin bags, indicating that the modified resin-core design was effective. Soil moisture and pH inside the modified resin cores typically tracked changes in the surrounding soil abiotic environment. In contrast, use of the closed polyethylene bag method provided substantially different net P and N mineralization rates than modified resin cores and did not track changes in soil moisture or pH. Net ammonification, nitrifi cation, N mineralization, and P mineralization rates measured using modified resin cores varied through space and time associated with hydrologic, geomorphic, and climatic gradients in the floodplain wetland. The modified resin-core technique successfully characterized spatiotemporal variation of net mineralization fluxes in situ and is a viable technique for assessing soil nutrient availability and developing ecosystem budgets.

Noe, Gregory B.

2011-01-01

229

Temporal dynamics of available and microbial phosphorus and organic phosphorus mineralization in a grassland soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Turnover of phosphorus (P) through the microbial biomass and P mineralization have been reported as two main biological factors controlling P availability in soils. This is particularly true for grassland soils where organic matter is accumulated in the topsoil and microbial activity is high. The amounts of plant available inorganic P and microbial P can fluctuate over the season, but their interaction and responses to changes in environmental conditions, fertilization and cutting are not yet well understood. Also, gross P mineralization has not yet been measured in grassland soils. We studied P mineralization and immobilization in a species rich grassland managed at low intensity (with three harvests per season) under different P inputs. The trial was established in 1992 in Watt (Switzerland). Three different P input treatments were selected: no P (NK), mineral P (NPK) and organic P (NPKorg) fertilization, with 17 kg P ha-1yr-1 applied as superphosphate and slurry, respectively (rates according to Swiss fertilizer recommendations). We used two different approaches. Firstly, available (anion exchange resin extractable) and microbial P (hexanol labile P) were measured in fresh samples periodically taken throughout the vegetation period. Secondly, an isotopic dilution technique was applied on composite topsoil samples (0-5 cm) to determine rates of basal P mineralization and microbial immobilization of P in an incubation experiment. During the season available P ranged from 0.9-3.5, 5.3-11.2 and 1.9-6.7 mg kg-1 soil-1 and microbial P from 20-44, 43-59 and 61-93 mg kg-1 soil-1 in NK, NPK and NPKorg, respectively. Thus, microbial P was highest in NPKorg whereas available P was highest in NPK. Both P pools were lowest in NK. Average annual yield was lowest in NK (4.5 t ha-1), NPKorg (6.5 kg ha-1) and highest in NPK (7.5 t ha-1). However, no consistent relationship between changes in microbial and available P and plant productivity was found. Changes in weather conditions were reflected by changes in available and microbial P measured in the field. Phosphorus flushes were observed after dry periods (microbial P reduced and available P increased). Whereas fluctuations show microbial P release and P immobilization, an expected counteraction of microbial and available P could not be fully confirmed. In the incubation experiment microbial and available P were similar to average values in the field. A higher respiration rate measured in NPKorg indicated a higher microbial activity than in the other two treatments. Despite the differences in microbial P and respiration, the 33P recovery in the microbial biomass between 3 and 30 days of incubation was about 30% in all treatments. In conclusion we found complex interactions of available and microbial P with climate, fertilization, sward cutting and plant growth. An increased immobilization of P indicated by higher microbial P in the organic fertilized treatment was not confirmed in the isotope study. Gross and net mineralization data are still under analysis and will be presented at the conference.

Liebisch, Frank; Keller, Fabrizio; Frossard, Emmanuel; Huguenin-Elie, Olivier; Oberson, Astrid; Bünemann, Else

2010-05-01

230

A mineral support and biotic catalyst are essential in the formation of highly polymeric soil humic substances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hypothesis was proposed that highly polymeric humic substances in the mineral horizons of soils in a temperate humid climate originate from polymerization of water-soluble structural precursors directly on mineral surfaces under the catalytic effect of immobilized phenoloxidases (heterophasic biocatalysis). This hypothesis was confirmed by a laboratory experiment using a mixture of monomeric phenols and nitrogenous compounds as structural precursors, fungal laccase as a biotic catalyst, and a hydroxyaluminum-kaolinite complex as a mineral support. Enzymic oxidation of phenolic precursors on the mineral surface was substantially more rapid than abiotic oxidation and led to synthesis of a highly polymeric fraction with a molecular weight over 75 kDa. These products were not produced on the mineral with an absence of laccase (abiotic catalysis) or in solution without the mineral matrix (homogeneous catalysis).

Zavarzina, A. G.

2006-12-01

231

Mineral magnetic measurements as a particle size proxy for urban roadside soil pollution (part 1).  

PubMed

The use of mineral magnetic concentration parameters (?LF, ?ARM and SIRM) as a potential particle size proxy for soil samples collected from Wolverhampton (UK) is explored as an alternative means of normalizing particle size effects. Comparison of soil-related analytical data by correlation analyses between each magnetic parameter and individual particle size classes (i.e. sand, silt and clay), more discrete intervals within classes (e.g. fine sand or medium silt) and cumulative size fractions (e.g. clay + fine silt) are reported. ?LF, ?ARM and SIRM parameters reveal significant (p < 0.05; p < 0.001 n = 60), moderate negative (rs = -0.3 to -0.557) associations with clay, silt and sand content. Contrary to earlier research findings which found positive relationships, this indicates that magnetic measurements cannot always provide a predictable particle size proxy and it is only certain environments and/or specific settings that are appropriate for granulometric normalization by this technique. However, if future researchers working in other soil settings can identify a formal predictable relationship, the technique is known to offer a simple, reliable, rapid, sensitive, inexpensive and non-destructive approach that could be a valuable proxy for normalizing particle size effects in soil contamination studies. PMID:24365865

Crosby, C J; Booth, C A; Fullen, M A

2014-03-01

232

Impact of surface roughness and soil texture on mineral dust emission fluxes modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dust production models (DPM) used to estimate vertical fluxes of mineral dust aerosols over arid regions need accurate data on soil and surface properties. The Laboratoire Inter-Universitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques (LISA) data set was developed for Northern Africa, the Middle East, and East Asia. This regional data set was built through dedicated field campaigns and include, among others, the aerodynamic roughness length, the smooth roughness length of the erodible fraction of the surface, and the dry (undisturbed) soil size distribution. Recently, satellite-derived roughness length and high-resolution soil texture data sets at the global scale have emerged and provide the opportunity for the use of advanced schemes in global models. This paper analyzes the behavior of the ERS satellite-derived global roughness length and the State Soil Geographic data base-Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (STATSGO-FAO) soil texture data set (based on wet techniques) using an advanced DPM in comparison to the LISA data set over Northern Africa and the Middle East. We explore the sensitivity of the drag partition scheme (a critical component of the DPM) and of the dust vertical fluxes (intensity and spatial patterns) to the roughness length and soil texture data sets. We also compare the use of the drag partition scheme to a widely used preferential source approach in global models. Idealized experiments with prescribed wind speeds show that the ERS and STATSGO-FAO data sets provide realistic spatial patterns of dust emission and friction velocity thresholds in the region. Finally, we evaluate a dust transport model for the period of March to July 2011 with observed aerosol optical depths from Aerosol Robotic Network sites. Results show that ERS and STATSGO-FAO provide realistic simulations in the region.

Menut, Laurent; PéRez, Carlos; Haustein, Karsten; Bessagnet, Bertrand; Prigent, Catherine; Alfaro, StéPhane

2013-06-01

233

The use of volcanic soil as mineral landfill liner--I. Physicochemical characterization and comparison with zeolites.  

PubMed

The main physicochemical characteristics of the volcanic soil of Southern Chile, with allophane as the main pedogenic mineral phase were analysed and compared with common zeolites (clinoptilolite) of the European market. The ultimate goal of this study was to test volcanic soil for the use as mineral landfill liner. The main results indicated that the clay and silt fractions together of the volcanic soil were between 38 and 54%. The buffering capacity of the volcanic soil was higher compared with the studied zeolites, whereas the cationic exchange capacity of the volcanic soil (between 5.2 and 6.5 cmol + kg(-1)) is of the same order of magnitude of the studied zeolites (between 9.7 and 11.4 cmol + kg(-1)). Moreover, the anionic exchange capacity of the volcanic soil was higher compared to the zeolites analysed. The hydraulic conductivity of the volcanic soil, measured in the laboratory at maximum proctor density, ranges between 5.16 x 10(-9) and 6.48 x 10(-9) m s(-1), a range that is comparable to the value of 4.51 x 10(-9) m s(-1) of the studied zeolite. The Proctor densities of the volcanic soil are in a lower range (between 1.11 and 1.15 g ml(-1)) compared with zeolites (between 1.19 and 1.34 g ml(-1)). The volcanic soil physicochemical characteristics are comparable to all the requirements established in the Austrian landfill directive (DVO, 2000). Therefore, the use as mineral landfill basal sealing of the analysed volcanic soil appears reasonable, having a pollutant adsorption capacity comparable to zeolites. It is of special interest for Southern Chile, because there are no alternative mineral raw materials for basal liners of landfills. PMID:15988944

Navia, Rodrigo; Hafner, Georg; Raber, Georg; Lorber, Karl E; Schöffmann, Elke; Vortisch, Walter

2005-06-01

234

Pig slurry and mineral fertilization strategies' effects on soil quality: macroaggregate stability and organic matter fractions.  

PubMed

Applying pig slurry to the land as fertilizer at appropriate agronomic rates is important to close nutrient cycles and optimize the value of organic matter. However a long-term discussion has taken place about its effects on soil quality. In the north-east of Spain, eight fertilization strategies were evaluated on the soil quality parameters' aggregate stability, soil organic matter (SOM) physical fractions and soil microbial biomass (SMB). Six strategies used different pig slurries (PS) which provided organic matter from 1.7 to 2.6 t ha(-1)yr(-1), the rest (mineral N fertilization and a control) did not. Pig slurries were applied at sowing and/or at cereal tillering, as sidedressing. Field experiments were maintained for an 8-year period, in a silty loam soil devoted to a rainfed winter cereal. Soil samples were taken once, before the last sidedressing in 2011. Aggregate stability was quantified using the standard water-stable aggregate method but including a modification which meant that pre-wetting was avoided (WSA(MOD)). When using the WSA(MOD) method, we found a tendency for the percentage of water-stable aggregates to increase due to PS application (differences of up to 74% in the increment) and it was more marked the nearer they were measured to the application time (3 months vs. 12 months). The strategies which include PS show a positive effect on the SOM amount, mainly in the 0.05-0.2 mm light fraction, which increased by up to 34% with every 10 t ha(-1) organic C applied, and on SMB (up to 53% increment). There is a positive and significant linear relationship (p < 0.05, R(2) = 0.75) between the SOM light fraction (%) and the water-stable aggregates soil content (%, WSA(MOD)). Thus, the introduction of PS in fertilization strategies improves soil quality parameters. However, the soil quality benefits need to be balanced with any other potential environmental impact. PMID:23000547

Yagüe, María R; Bosch-Serra, Àngela D; Antúnez, Montserrat; Boixadera, Jaume

2012-11-01

235

A kinetic approach to evaluate salinity effects on carbon mineralization in a plant residue-amended soil*  

PubMed Central

The interaction of salinity stress and plant residue quality on C mineralization kinetics in soil is not well understood. A laboratory experiment was conducted to study the effects of salinity stress on C mineralization kinetics in a soil amended with alfalfa, wheat and corn residues. A factorial combination of two salinity levels (0.97 and 18.2 dS/m) and four levels of plant residues (control, alfalfa, wheat and corn) with three replications was performed. A first order kinetic model was used to describe the C mineralization and to calculate the potentially mineralizable C. The CO2-C evolved under non-saline condition, ranged from 814.6 to 4842.4 mg CO2-C/kg in control and alfalfa residue-amended soils, respectively. Salinization reduced the rates of CO2 evolution by 18.7%, 6.2% and 5.2% in alfalfa, wheat and corn residue-amended soils, respectively. Potentially mineralizable C (C 0) was reduced significantly in salinized alfalfa residue-treated soils whereas, no significant difference was observed for control treatments as well as wheat and corn residue-treated soils. We concluded that the response pattern of C mineralization to salinity stress depended on the plant residue quality and duration of incubation.

Nourbakhsh, Farshid; Sheikh-Hosseini, Ahmad R.

2006-01-01

236

Patterns of spatial distribution of mineral components of the complex of gray forest soils Vladimir opolye  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the work is the analysis of spatial distribution of soil fundamental characteristics - fine fractions content (less than 1, 1-5, 5-10 and more than 10 mkm) and their mineralogical composition. The experiments were carried out on the experimental field in Suzdal region in a trench (22 m length and 2 m depth) laid in upland, well-drained conditions. Soil samples from 5 different soil profiles were collected. Fractions were obtained by Gorbunov method. Mineralogical analysis were carried out by universal X-ray diffractometer (Carl Zeiss Jena, Germany). The dominant fraction is a coarse silt fraction, the sand fraction content is negligible. The soil is characterized by medium-textured loam composition from the above and a sandy loam composition in the bottom. Textural differentiation occured due to the distribution of clay fraction. The content of this fraction in plough horizons varies depending on addition of part of other horizons during plowing. The plogh-layer of the residual-carbonate agrogrey soil is characterized by higher (20-23 %) amount of fraction less than 1 mkm, in comparison with plough horizon above the second humus horizon (SHH ), where the amount of silt is 15-16 %. The main components of the fraction derived from the rock are complex mixed- lattice formations dominated by mica - smectite with a high proportion of smectite packages, mica - smectites with low content of smectite packages were in subordinate quantity. The next component is hydromica - a mixture of dioctahedral and trioctahedral varieties. Smectite phase and hydromica add up to 85-90 % of the silt component. The amount of kaolinite and chlorite usually range in 7-13 %. Kaolinite is generally imperfect, chlorite is magnesia-ferric. The presence of fine quartz and feldspars (less amount) is revealed. During the soil formation the redistribution of the above minerals whose behavior is caused by the type of soil is occurring. Agrogrey heavy-textured soils are characterized by textural differentiation of the profile. The main carrier of this differentiation is the silt fraction, mainly its component - the swelling phase. Smectite phase dominates in silt fraction and it is eluvially distributed within the soil profile. Silty fraction of loess loam contains 72 % of the smectite phase. Behavior of minerals constituting the sum of kaolinite and chlorite content indicates its relatively uniform distribution. A slight increase in their content is noted in the eluvial part of the profile, mainly due to increasing in the proportion of kaolinite. The amount of hydromica reduces down the profile from 44.2 % to 19.8% in loess loam (soil-forming rock). The ratio of dioctahedral structures of hydromica to trioctahedral changes within the soil profile: trioctahedral varieties are more abundant in the upper part of the profile.

Karpova, Dina; Chizhikova, Natalya; Starokozhko, Natalya; Hadyushina, Viktorya; Korotaeva, Valentina

2014-05-01

237

Extraction Pattern of Arsenic Species with Mineral Composition in Contaminated Soils in Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Specific determination of various arsenic species is gaining increasing attention because the toxicity of arsenic differs with chemical forms such as organic (MMA, DMA) or inorganic (arsenite, arsenate). Knowledge of extraction method for arsenic speciation in contaminated soils then notified and tested by many researchers. However, the analytical technique for separation of different arsenic species has been always challenging in different environmental samples. A achieving correct analytical results and resolving the lowest detection limit is also desirable. Extraction method for arsenic speciation have been studied by many researchers with the use of a variety of extractants such as H3PO4, HCl, Na2CO3, EDTA 'in soils and sediments including plenty of clay. We, in this study, reported a benign extraction method and presented the pattern of arsenic in contaminated soils of different mineral compositions. Soil samples were collected from tailings of 2 places (Kyungbuk, Jeonnam); both were from abandoned metal mines in Korea. Samples were air dried at room temperature and separated by mechanical sieving to three fractions (2mm_200 ?m, 200_64?m, <64?m). Prepared samples were examined for total arsenic analysis used by KBSI method and modified Garcia-Manyes method for arsenic speciation. We extracted arsenic species from the soils by using a mixture of 1M phosphoric acid and 0.1% ascorbic acid. 0.2g of sample was placed in microwave digestion vessels along with 10ml extraction solution and treated for 15min at 60w microwave power. After the microwave stage, the contents were transferred to 30ml sample bottles and diluted to 16ml with deionized water, then centrifuged for 15min at 2500rpm. Total arsenic concentration of sample was analyzed by using ICP-AES (ICP-OES, Ultima2C, Jobin Yvon) and the arsenic species were analyzed by hyphenated system, SPE-HG-ICP-AES. To identify the mineral phases in bulk soil samples, we used XRD (Phillips X'Pert MPD) under 40kV/30mA condition. XRD data was collected between 5 and 70° 2theta values using CuK? target.

Park, M.; Shin, M.; Yoon, H.; Kim, Y.; Kim, K.; Ko, I.

2006-12-01

238

Mineral cycling in soil and litter arthropod food chains. Annual progress report, February 1, 1983-January 31, 1984  

SciTech Connect

This annual report describes progress in research on the influence of soil fauna on the general process of terrestrial decomposition. The major goal is to investigate the regulation of decomposition by soil arthropods. Methods have included radioactive tracer measurements of food chain dynamics, rates of nutrient or mineral element flow during decomposition, and simulation modeling. This year's report describes significant progress in defining the influence of soil arthropods in stimulating microbial immobilization of nutrients. Preliminary efforts to define the importance of the soil-litter macroarthropods are also reported.

Crossley, D.A. Jr.

1983-09-30

239

Potential for Rapid Physical Protection of Wood and Pyrolyzed Carbon in the Mineral Soil Matrix: Effects of Soil Type, Depth, and Temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To determine how soil type, depth, and temperature affect the stabilization of biochar and wood in soils, we conducted an incubation study using soils from a moist tropical forest in Tabonuco, Puerto Rico and from a Mediterranean grassland in Hopland, California, collected from surface and from deep horizons. To these four soil types we added ground 13C-labeled biochar (or the wood from which it was derived) and incubated at ambient (14 °C for the Hopland and 20 °C for the Tabonuco soil) and elevated (ambient +6 °C) temperatures at field gravimetric moisture content (20% for Hopland and 80% for Tabonuco) for 13 months. Preliminary analysis of the 13CO2 evolution from these soils indicates that wood was mineralized faster than biochar. Differences in the matrix of the soils - greater clay and iron oxide content in the Tabonuco Oxisol than in the Hopland Ultisol, but also greater clay and iron oxide content in the deep compared to the surface Hopland soil - lead to the expectation that the potential for physical protection of organic carbon substrates from mineralization is greater in the tropical soils and also greater in the deeper horizons. Here we present results from 13C analyses of density fractionations conducted on the soils after they incubated for 13 months, and thereby quantify the extent to which the introduced 13C was mobilized from the free particulate fraction, where it was added, to the intra-aggregate particulate fraction and the mineral-associated fraction. Our results will enable better predictions of the environmental conditions under which biochar (and wood) is more likely to contribute to stable soil carbon pools.

Castanha, C.; Tas, N.; Reichl, K.; Jansson, J. K.; Brodie, E. L.; Fischer, M. L.; Torn, M. S.

2012-12-01

240

Application of calcium carbonate slows down organic amendments mineralization in reclaimed soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A field experiment was set up in Cartagena-La Unión Mining District, SE Spain, aimed at evaluating the short-term effects of pig slurry (PS) amendment alone and together with marble waste (MW) on organic matter mineralization, microbial activity and stabilization of heavy metals in two tailing ponds. These structures pose environmental risk owing to high metals contents, low organic matter and nutrients, and null vegetation. Carbon mineralization, exchangeable metals and microbiological properties were monitored during 67 days. The application of amendments led to a rapid decrease of exchangeable metals concentrations, except for Cu, with decreases up to 98%, 75% and 97% for Cd, Pb and Zn, respectively. The combined addition of MW+PS was the treatment with greater reduction in metals concentrations. The addition of PS caused a significant increase in respiration rates, although in MW+PS plots respiration was lower than in PS plots. The mineralised C from the pig slurry was low, approximately 25-30% and 4-12% for PS and MW+PS treatments, respectively. Soluble carbon (Csol), microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and ?-galactosidase and ?-glucosidase activities increased after the application of the organic amendment. However, after 3 days these parameters started a decreasing trend reaching similar values than control from approximately day 25 for Csol and MBC. The PS treatment promoted highest values in enzyme activities, which remained high upon time. Arylesterase activity increased in the MW+PS treatment. Thus, the remediation techniques used improved soil microbiological status and reduced metal availability. The combined application of PS+MW reduced the degradability of the organic compounds. Keywords: organic wastes, mine soils stabilization, carbon mineralization, microbial activity.

Zornoza, Raúl; Faz, Ángel; Acosta, José A.; Martínez-Martínez, Silvia; Ángeles Muñoz, M.

2014-05-01

241

The relationship between N mineralization or microbial biomass N with micromorphological properties in beech forest soils with different texture and pH  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test relationships between net N-mineralization, organic matter and soil organisms, we combined micromorphology with laboratory\\u000a incubation experiments over a soil gradient. Microbial biomass N generally increased with pH, and from sandy to loamy soil,\\u000a but net N-mineralization showed the opposite, and was highest in acid, sandy soil. Twenty-two micromorphological characteristics\\u000a were analyzed with principal component analysis. PC1 had high

A. M. Kooijman; J. M. van Mourik; M. L. M. Schilder

2009-01-01

242

Does temperature of charcoal creation affect subsequent mineralization of soil carbon and nitrogen?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest fire is the most common form of natural disturbance of boreal forest ecosystems and has primordial influence on successional processes. This may be due in part to the pre-disturbance vegetation development stage and species composition, but these successional pathways could also vary with differences in fire behavior and consequently in fire intensity, defined as the energy released during various phases of a fire. Fire intensity may also affect soil C and N cycling by affecting the quality of the charcoal that is produced. For example, the porosity of coal tends to increase with increasing temperature at which it is produced Higher porosity would logically increase the surface area to which dissolved soil molecules, such as tannins and other phenolics, may be adsorbed. We report on a microcosm study in which mineral and organic soils were jointly incubated for eight weeks with a full factorial array of treatments that included the addition of Kalmia tannins, protein, and wood charcoal produced at five different temperatures. A fourth experimental factor comprised the physical arrangement of the material (stratified vs. mixed), designed to simulate the effect of soil scarification after fire and salvage harvest. We examined the effects of these treatments on soil C and N mineralisation and soil microbial biomass. The furnace temperature at which the charcoal was produced had a significant effect on its physico-chemical properties; increasing furnace temperatures corresponded to a significant increase in % C (P<0.001), and a significant decrease in %O (P<0.001) and %H (P<0.001). Temperature also had significant impacts on microporosity (surface area and volume). Temperature of production had no effect (P=0.1355) on soil microbial biomass. We observed a linear decreasing trend (P<0.001) in qCO2 with increasing temperature of production, which was mainly reflected in a decline in basal respiration. Finally, we found a significant interaction (P=0.010) between temperature of charcoal production x soil mixing in controlling post incubation NH4+ concentrations. We discuss the results in relation to potential implications for changing fire regime and C and N cycles.

Pelletier-Bergeron, S.; Bradley, R.; Munson, A. D.

2012-04-01

243

Sources of C and N contributing to the flush in mineralization upon freeze–thaw cycles in soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

In mid-latitude climatic regions (35–65°) soils may be subjected to freeze–thaw cycles (FTC) which can occur frequently in late winter and early spring. FTC often results in flushes in C and N mineralization and could therefore be an important factor controlling C and N mineralization rates. Laboratory experiments were carried out to characterize the source of organic matter that becomes

Anke Herrmann; Ernst Witter

2002-01-01

244

Vertical gradients of mineral elements in Pinus sylvestris crown in alkalised soil.  

PubMed

Alkalisation of soil has been assumed to be the principal cause of changes in vertical gradients of nutrients in Pinus sylvestris crown. The long-term influence of alkaline dust pollution (pHH2O 12.3-12.6) emitted from a cement plant on the element composition of soil and needles of Scots pine in different canopy layers was studied. In the polluted area, the pH of soils was >7, and high amounts of Ca, K and Mg were measured in the upper layers of soil (0-30 cm), while the mobility and solubility of some contaminants have decreased, nutrition processes have become complicated, and imbalance of mineral composition of trees was revealed. Reduced N and increased K, Ca and Mg concentrations in needles were observed in the heavily polluted area. Vertical gradients of elements and their ratios in canopies varied depending on the alkalisation level of soil. Needles on the upper-crown shoots had higher concentrations of N, C, Ca and Mg and lower concentrations of P and K compared to the lower layer of the crown. In the unpolluted area, higher concentrations of N, P, K and Ca were found in lower-crown needles and of C and Mg in needles at the top of the canopy. The P/N ratio below 0.125 indicated P deficiency in pines. The ratios N/Ca, N/Mg and N/K had significantly decreased, while the ratios Ca/Mg, K/Mg and K/Ca had a tendency to increase in heavily polluted sample plots. Magnitude of changes of element ratios indicates on the disbalances of availability and translocation of nutrients in the crown of trees. PMID:19015943

Mandre, Malle

2009-12-01

245

Substrate quality alters microbial mineralization of added substrate and soil organic carbon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rate and extent of decomposition of soil organic carbon (SOC) is dependent on substrate chemistry and microbial dynamics. Our objectives were to understand the influence of substrate chemistry on microbial processing of carbon (C), and to use model fitting to quantify differences in pool sizes and mineralization rates. We conducted an incubation experiment for 270 days using four uniformly-labeled 14C substrates (glucose, starch, cinnamic acid and stearic acid) on four different soils (a temperate Mollisol, a tropical Ultisol, a sub-arctic Andisol, and an arctic Gelisol). The 14C labeling enabled us to separate CO2 respired from added substrates and from native SOC. Microbial gene copy numbers were quantified at days 4, 30 and 270 using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Substrate C respiration was always higher for glucose than other substrates. Soils with cinnamic and stearic acid lost more native SOC than glucose- and starch-amended soils, despite an initial delay in respiration. Cinnamic and stearic acid amendments also exhibited higher fungal gene copy numbers at the end of incubation compared to unamended soils. We found that 270 days was sufficient to model decomposition of simple substrates (glucose and starch) with three pools, but was insufficient for more complex substrates (cinnamic and stearic acid) and native SOC. This study reveals that substrate quality imparts considerable control on microbial decomposition of newly added and native SOC, and demonstrates the need for multi-year incubation experiments to constrain decomposition parameters for the most recalcitrant fractions of SOC and added substrates.

Jagadamma, S.; Mayes, M. A.; Steinweg, J. M.; Schaeffer, S. M.

2014-03-01

246

Modeling of Phenoxy Acid Herbicide Mineralization and Growth of Microbial Degraders in 15 Soils Monitored by Quantitative Real-Time PCR of the Functional tfdA Gene  

PubMed Central

Mineralization potentials, rates, and kinetics of the three phenoxy acid (PA) herbicides, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA), and 2-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)propanoic acid (MCPP), were investigated and compared in 15 soils collected from five continents. The mineralization patterns were fitted by zero/linear or exponential growth forms of the three-half-order models and by logarithmic (log), first-order, or zero-order kinetic models. Prior and subsequent to the mineralization event, tfdA genes were quantified using real-time PCR to estimate the genetic potential for degrading PA in the soils. In 25 of the 45 mineralization scenarios, ?60% mineralization was observed within 118 days. Elevated concentrations of tfdA in the range 1 × 105 to 5 × 107 gene copies g?1 of soil were observed in soils where mineralization could be described by using growth-linked kinetic models. A clear trend was observed that the mineralization rates of the three PAs occurred in the order 2,4-D > MCPA > MCPP, and a correlation was observed between rapid mineralization and soils exposed to PA previously. Finally, for 2,4-D mineralization, all seven mineralization patterns which were best fitted by the exponential model yielded a higher tfdA gene potential after mineralization had occurred than the three mineralization patterns best fitted by the Lin model.

Baelum, Jacob; Prestat, Emmanuel; David, Maude M.; Strobel, Bjarne W.

2012-01-01

247

Linking dynamics of soil microbial phospholipid fatty acids to carbon mineralization in a 13C natural abundance experiment: Impact of heavy metals and acid rain  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 13C natural abundance experiment including GC-c-IRMS analysis of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) was conducted to assess the temporal dynamics of the soil microbial community and carbon incorporation during the mineralization of plant residues under the impact of heavy metals and acid rain. Maize straw was incorporated into (i) control soil, (ii) soil irrigated with acid rain, (iii) soil amended

Michael Stemmer; Andrea Watzinger; Karl Blochberger; Georg Haberhauer; Martin H. Gerzabek

2007-01-01

248

Accelerated Mineralization of Pentachlorophenol in Soil upon Inoculation with Mycobacterium chlorophenolicum PCP1 and Sphingomonas chlorophenolica RA2  

PubMed Central

Mineralization of pentachlorophenol (PCP) was studied in nonsterile soil from a PCP-contaminated site upon inoculation with two PCP-degrading bacterial strains. At spiked [(sup14)C]PCP concentrations of 30 and 100 mg/kg, the effects of organism type, different inoculation techniques, including structural amendment with sawdust and cell attachment to polyurethane (PU), as well as the effect of different inoculum sizes of 10(sup4) to 10(sup8) cells per g (dry weight) of soil were compared with PCP mineralization by indigenous bacteria. Gas chromatographic analysis was used to monitor PCP disappearance and to check mass balances. The survival and activity of the released bacteria were examined by immunofluorescence microscopy and respiking experiments. Noninoculated soil completely mineralized 30 mg of PCP per kg within 7 months but showed no or only low degradation activity at 100 mg/kg in the same period. Structural amendment with PU or sawdust initiated slow mineralization after half a year. Soil inoculation with Sphingomonas chlorophenolica RA2 shortened the mineralization time drastically to 1 month at 30 mg of PCP per kg using 10(sup8) cells per g, with approximately 80% of the added radioactivity being converted to CO(inf2). The inoculated cells disappeared rapidly, with a count of 2 x 10(sup6) cells per g after 2.3 months and nondetectability after 7 months. At 100 mg/kg, mineralization was slower because of PCP toxicity but approached completion within 7.5 months. The inhibition could be overcome by addition of sawdust (1 g/kg of soil), resulting in a mineralization rate of 3 to 4 mg/kg(middot)d. PU had the opposite effect. Lower inoculum densities resulted in prolonged lag phases and lower rates, although mineralization was still enhanced over the background level. At 30 mg of PCP per kg, inoculation with Mycobacterium chlorophenolicum PCP1 increased mineralization slightly over the indigenous bacterial activity, regardless of inoculum size, but only when the organisms were attached to PU. At 100 mg of PCP per kg, only 27% were mineralized within 7.5 months. After 7 months, the original strain PCP1 inoculum of 10(sup8) cells per g was recovered at 5 x 10(sup6) to 3 x 10(sup7) cells per g, depending on the PCP concentration, but independent of PU amendment. Amendment with sawdust had no effect on the performance of this organism. Possible reasons for the poor performance of this strain include its sensitivity to PCP and its preference for slightly acidic soil conditions.

Miethling, R.; Karlson, U.

1996-01-01

249

Long term effect of land reclamation from lake on chemical composition of soil organic matter and its mineralization.  

PubMed

Since the late 1950s, land reclamation from lakes has been a common human disturbance to ecosystems in China. It has greatly diminished the lake area, and altered natural ecological succession. However, little is known about its impact on the carbon (C) cycle. We conducted an experiment to examine the variations of chemical properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and C mineralization under four land uses, i.e. coniferous forest (CF), evergreen broadleaf forest (EBF), bamboo forest (BF) and cropland (CL) in a reclaimed land area from Taihu Lake. Soils and lake sediments (LS) were incubated for 360 days in the laboratory and the CO2 evolution from each soil during the incubation was fit to a double exponential model. The DOM was analyzed at the beginning and end of the incubation using UV and fluorescence spectroscopy to understand the relationships between DOM chemistry and C mineralization. The C mineralization in our study was influenced by the land use with different vegetation and management. The greatest cumulative CO2-C emission was observed in BF soil at 0-10 cm depth. The active C pool in EBF at 10-25 cm had longer (62 days) mean residence time (MRT). LS showed the highest cumulative CO2-C and shortest MRT comparing with the terrestrial soils. The carbohydrates in DOM were positively correlated with CO2-C evolution and negatively correlated to phenols in the forest soils. Cropland was consistently an outlier in relationships between DOM chemistry and CO2-evolution, highlighting the unique effects that this land use on soil C cycling, which may be attributed the tillage practices. Our results suggest that C mineralization is closely related to the chemical composition of DOM and sensitive to its variation. Conversion of an aquatic ecosystem into a terrestrial ecosystem may alter the chemical structure of DOM, and then influences soil C mineralization. PMID:24905998

He, Dongmei; Ruan, Honghua

2014-01-01

250

Long Term Effect of Land Reclamation from Lake on Chemical Composition of Soil Organic Matter and Its Mineralization  

PubMed Central

Since the late 1950s, land reclamation from lakes has been a common human disturbance to ecosystems in China. It has greatly diminished the lake area, and altered natural ecological succession. However, little is known about its impact on the carbon (C) cycle. We conducted an experiment to examine the variations of chemical properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and C mineralization under four land uses, i.e. coniferous forest (CF), evergreen broadleaf forest (EBF), bamboo forest (BF) and cropland (CL) in a reclaimed land area from Taihu Lake. Soils and lake sediments (LS) were incubated for 360 days in the laboratory and the CO2 evolution from each soil during the incubation was fit to a double exponential model. The DOM was analyzed at the beginning and end of the incubation using UV and fluorescence spectroscopy to understand the relationships between DOM chemistry and C mineralization. The C mineralization in our study was influenced by the land use with different vegetation and management. The greatest cumulative CO2-C emission was observed in BF soil at 0–10 cm depth. The active C pool in EBF at 10–25 cm had longer (62 days) mean residence time (MRT). LS showed the highest cumulative CO2-C and shortest MRT comparing with the terrestrial soils. The carbohydrates in DOM were positively correlated with CO2-C evolution and negatively correlated to phenols in the forest soils. Cropland was consistently an outlier in relationships between DOM chemistry and CO2-evolution, highlighting the unique effects that this land use on soil C cycling, which may be attributed the tillage practices. Our results suggest that C mineralization is closely related to the chemical composition of DOM and sensitive to its variation. Conversion of an aquatic ecosystem into a terrestrial ecosystem may alter the chemical structure of DOM, and then influences soil C mineralization.

He, Dongmei; Ruan, Honghua

2014-01-01

251

Carbon mineralization of flooded boreal soil and vegetation under different temperature and oxygen conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flooding of terrestrial ecosystems significantly alters carbon (C) mineralization rates, which results in increasing emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4). To better understand the changes after water impoundment, C mineralization under flooded conditions needs to be investigated. This study investigates CO2 and CH4 fluxes from flooded boreal soil and vegetation, compares them to the fluxes of non- flooded treatment, and examines how environmental factors affect the fluxes. We conducted short-term in vitro experiments using boreal forest soil (FH layer), peat soil (0 to 5 and 5 to 15 cm) layer, and black spruce needles and small twigs, and shrub, sedge, lichen, and moss tissues. Flooded samples were incubated in 1- L Mason jars without light, under three temperatures (5, 12, and 24degC) and 0 and 50 percent of ambient oxygen (O2) concentration, and non-flooded ones were incubated in 1-L plastic containers under same light and temperature conditions to those of flooded samples and ambient oxygen concentration. We collected gas samples after flushing with nitrogen gas and air, and the fluxes of CO2 and CH4 were determined by gas chromatography. The average CO2 and CH4 fluxes in all materials were 200 and 0.8 microgram C/g organic matter/day, with smaller CO2 fluxes and larger CH4 fluxes than the fluxes of non-flooding (CO2 and CH4: 370 and 0.2 microgram C/g organic matter/day). Among the flooded samples, forest and peatland ground vegetation showed much high CO2 fluxes, and peat soils released more CH4 than other materials. Higher temperatures increased emissions of both CO2 and CH4, and the lower O2 concentration increased CH4 emissions. These results suggest the flooded vegetation and peat soil largely contribute to the total C emission in the flooded ecosystem and that spatial and temporal variability in CO2 and CH4 emissions can be related to substrate type, temperature and O2 concentration.

Kim, Y.; Ullah, S.; Roulet, N.; Moore, T.

2009-05-01

252

Nitrogen mineralization and transformation from composts and biosolids during field incubation in a sandy soil  

SciTech Connect

Field evaluation of nutrient release from composts is important to estimate nutrient contribution to crops, potential leaching of nutrients, and, ultimately, to determine optimum application rates, timing, and placement of composts. Field incubation and laboratory analyses were conducted to evaluate the mineralization rate and transformation of N in biosolids (BSD), yard waste (YW), and West Palm Beach co-compost (WPCC). Each of the composts or biosolids was packed into PVC columns and inserted vertically into the upper layer of an Oldsmar fine sand of raised citrus beds. The top end of the PVC column was capped to prevent excessive leaching of nutrients from the columns. The moisture equilibrium between the incubated sample and the soil in the field was attained through the bottom and four side holes of each column, which were separated from the contacting soil by 400-mesh nylon screen. A set of the incubated columns was removed at monthly intervals, and the soil underlying each column was sampled to analyze for KCl-extractable NH{sub 4}-N and NO{sub 3}-N. Total C and N of the incubated samples were determined at the end of the 1-year incubation.

He, Z.L.; Alva, A.K.; Yan, P.; Li, Y.C.; Calvert, D.V.; Stoffella, P.J.; Banks, D.J.

2000-02-01

253

Accumulation of organic matter in the mineral layers of permafrost-affected soils of coastal lowlands in East Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the basis of a large volume of literature and original data, the high content (1-7%) of organic matter in the mineral layer of loamy permafrost-affected soils of coastal lowlands in East Siberia (from the lower reaches of the Lena River to the lower reaches of the Kolyma River) has been statistically proved. In most cases, the reserves of Corg in the mineral layer of these soils exceed those in the surface organic horizons and constitute 60-90% of the total soil pool of Corg. The enrichment of the mineral layer with Corg is due to the cryogenic retention (retenization) of humus (the illuviation and accumulation of colorless humic substances above permafrost) and the cryogenic mass exchange (mechanical admixture of organic matter from the upper organic horizons into the mineral layers). The analysis of 60 soil profiles showed that the accumulation of organic matter above the permafrost table is observed in 43% of cases; in general, the organic matter distribution in the soil profiles is highly variable. A specific type of colorless humus is accumulated above the permafrost table. The mechanisms of its precipitation and transformation in the profile require further studies.

Mergelov, N. S.; Targulian, V. O.

2011-03-01

254

Storage and stability of organic carbon in soils as related to depth, occlusion within aggregates, and attachment to minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conceptual models suggest that stability of organic carbon (OC) in soil depends on the source of plant litter, occlusion within aggregates, incorporation in organo-mineral complexes, and location within the soil profile. Density fractionation is a useful tool to study the relevance of OC stabilization in aggregates and in association with minerals, but it has rarely been applied to full soil profiles. We aim to determine factors shaping the depth profiles of physically unprotected and mineral associated OC and test their relevance for OC stability across a range of European soils that vary in vegetation, soil types, parent material, and land use. At each of the 12 study sites, 10 soil cores were sampled to 60 cm depth and subjected to density separation. Bulk soil samples and density fractions (free light fractions - fLF, occluded light fractions - oLF, heavy fractions - HF) were analysed for OC, total nitrogen (TN), ?14C, and ?14C. Bulk samples were also incubated to determine CO2 evolution per g OC in the samples (specific mineralization rates) as an indicator for OC stability. Depth profiles of OC in the light fraction (LF-OC) matched those of roots for undisturbed grassland and forest sites, suggesting that roots are shaping the depth distribution of LF-OC. Organic C in the HF declined less with soil depth than LF-OC and roots, especially at grassland sites. The decrease in ?14C (increase in age) of HF-OC with soil depth was related to soil pH as well as to dissolved OC fluxes. This indicates that dissolved OC translocation contributes to the formation of subsoil HF-OC and shapes the ?14C profiles. The LF at three sites were rather depleted in 14C, indicating the presence of fossil material such as coal and lignite, probably inherited from the parent material. At the other sites, modern ?14C signatures and positive correlations between specific mineralization rates and fLF-OC indicate the fLF is a potentially available energy and nutrient source for subsurface microorganisms throughout the profile. Declining specific mineralization rates with soil depth confirm greater stability of OC in subsoils across sites. The overall importance of OC stabilization by binding to minerals was demonstrated by declining specific mineralization rates with increasing contributions of HF-OC to bulk soil OC, and the low ?14C values of HF-OC. The stability of HF-OC was greater in subsoils than in topsoils; nevertheless, a portion of HF-OC was active throughout the profile. While quantitatively less important than OC in the HF, consistent older ages of oLF-OC than fLF-OC suggest that occlusion of LF-OC in aggregates also contributes to OC stability in subsoils. Overall, our results indicate that association with minerals is the most important factor in stabilization of OC in soils, irrespective of vegetation, soil type, and land use.

Schrumpf, M.; Kaiser, K.; Guggenberger, G.; Persson, T.; Kögel-Knabner, I.; Schulze, E.-D.

2013-03-01

255

Isolation from Agricultural Soil and Characterization of a Sphingomonas sp. Able To Mineralize the Phenylurea Herbicide Isoproturon  

Microsoft Academic Search

A soil bacterium (designated strain SRS2) able to metabolize the phenylurea herbicide isoproturon, 3-(4- isopropylphenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (IPU), was isolated from a previously IPU-treated agricultural soil. Based on a partial analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and the cellular fatty acids, the strain was identified as a Sphingomonas sp. within the -subdivision of the proteobacteria. Strain SRS2 was able to mineralize IPU

S. R. Sorensen; ZEEV RONEN; JENS AAMAND

2001-01-01

256

Near infrared spectroscopy as a potential tool to monitor the mineralization of exogenous organic matter within the soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many studies have shown that near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is an effective method to characterize various soil properties and endogenous or exogenous organic matter. However, the ability of NIRS to monitor the dynamics of organic matter incorporated into the soil has not yet been tested. This method has a great potential as it can be faster, cheaper and more accessible than conventional techniques dealing with this topic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of the visible near infrared (Vis-NIR: 400-2500nm) to monitor the mineralization of organic matter added to the soil by quantifying, over time, its degradation products. This study focused on 2 types of soils, one from France (Neoluvisol developed on silt wind) and the other from Tunisia (Vertic Xerofluvents). Both soils received two types of organic input, poultry manure (C/N = 17.8) and composted pig manure on straw (C/N = 20.6). Moreover, a sample from each soil type, with no organic input, was kept as a reference. The samples were wetted up to field capacity and were incubated at 25°C during 58 days. Analytical data characterizing the mineralization of organic matter, as mineral carbon (C-CO2) and mineral nitrogen (N-NH4 and N-NO3) were collected following periodic measurements. The soil samples spectra were recorded at the same time using an ASD Fieldspec Pro (350-2500 nm). Principal components analysis (PCA) was performed with the analytical data and spectra to find correlations between the mineralization dynamics and changes of spectra, in relation to the exogenous organic matter degradation. Partial least squares (PLS) algorithm was used to calibrate models linking different mineralization parameters to spectral response. Owing to the low number of available samples (28 samples), the models were adjusted using leave one out cross-validation. Direct observation of the spectra as shown that the level of spectral reflectance of soil samples has evolved over time, which means that the state of degradation of organic matter affects soil reflectance in the Vis-NIR. PCA performed with the analytical data discriminates the time according to the 1st axis that explains 50.1% of the observed variance. PCA performed with the reflectance spectra did not show any significant correlation with the time parameter in the 1st factorial plane. However, the 2nd axis of this factorial plane differentiates between soil types. The models calibrated by the mean of PLS to predict direct analytical data (C-CO2, N-NH4 and N-NH3) were quite precise for the cumulative carbon and the mineral nitrogen produced after mineralization of the exogenous organic matter. The performance of these models were R²=0.68-0.78, RMSE=64.92mg C/kg-109.91mg N/kg and ME=3.47mg C/kg-13.94mg N/kg, respectively. Moreover, we have calibrated models to predict the organic carbon (R² = 0.89, RMSE = 352.57 mg C / kg and ME = -50.16mg C / kg) and organic nitrogen (R² = 0.79, RMSE = 9.46% and ME = 0.69%) remaining in the soil samples. The predictions of these indirect variables related to mineralization process were satisfactory. These first results are promising towards the development of a non-intrusive, cheaper and flexible tool to monitor the mineralization of exogenous organic matter within the soil.

Fouad, Youssef; Walter, Christian; Morvan, Thierry; Zaouchi, Yousr; Sanaa, Mustapha

2010-05-01

257

Decomposition of clay minerals in model experiments and in soils: Possible mechanisms, rates, and diagnostics (analysis of literature)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The analysis of model experiments on the dissolution of clay minerals showed that, beginning from a certain moment, this process reaches a steady state and proceeds at a constant rate. The minimum dissolution rate was observed in a neutral environment, where this value varied in the range from n × 10-14- n × 10-12 mol/(m2 s). Under acidic and alkaline conditions, this value increased to n × 10-12 or n × 10-10 mol/(m2s) for most clay minerals. The first stage of the dissolution mechanism involved the formation of protonated (in an acidic environment) and deprotonated (in an alkaline environment) complexes, which destabilized and polarized metal-oxygen (or metal-hydroxyl) bonds in the crystal lattice. At the second stage, the rupture of Si-O and Al-O bonds and the release of these components into the solution occurred at a specific concentration of these complexes, and this stage largely controlled the dissolution rate of the mineral. The presence of organic ligands forming mononuclear polydentate complexes on the surface of the mineral particles at the same solution pH increased the dissolution rate of the minerals by several times and sometimes by an order of magnitude proportionally to the concentration of these complexes on the surface of the particles. It was found that the dissolution rates of kaolinite, illite, and smectite in the podzolic horizon of loamy podzolic soil calculated from the losses of clay minerals in the soil profile with consideration for the soil age exceeded the corresponding values obtained in model laboratory experiments at the same pH values by several orders of magnitude. The revealed differences could be related to the long-term functioning of biota in native soils and the existing uncertainties in the assessment of the active surface of mineral particles.

Sokolova, T. A.

2013-02-01

258

Genetically biodiverse potato cultivars grown on a suitable agricultural soil under compost amendment or mineral fertilization: yield, quality, genetic and epigenetic variations, soil properties.  

PubMed

The use of compost for soil amendment is a promising agricultural practice environmentally and economically viable. In the framework of a wide research project designed to evaluate the effects of soil amendment with municipal solid waste compost in comparison with traditional mineral fertilization practices, 54 different cultivars (Cvs) of potatoes were AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) molecularly fingerprinted. The seven most genetically biodiverse potato Cvs were used to establish an experimental field in southern Italy. The field area was divided into two portions fertilized with compost (20Mgha(-1)) or with ammonium sulphate (200kgha(-1)). No significant differences in productivity, organoleptic characteristics and element concentrations were observed between the potato tubers obtained with both kinds of soil fertilization, while the tubers grown on compost amended soil showed, on average, higher K concentrations with respect to those grown on mineral fertilised soil. cDNA-AFLP (complementary DNA-AFLP) and MSAP (methylation sensitive amplified polymorphism) analyses were carried out on both leaves and tubers of one selected Cv to estimate if any transcriptome alterations or epigenetic modifications were induced by the two kinds of fertilization, however no variations were detected. Chemical and biological soil qualities (i.e., microbial respiration, FDA hydrolysis, alkaline and acid phosphatase) were assessed on soil samples at the start of the experiment and at the end of potato crop cycle. No significant differences in soil pH and limited ones, in the available fraction of some trace elements, were observed; while conductivity was much higher for the compost amended portion of the experimental field. Microbial respiration, FDA hydrolysis and acid phosphatase activities were significantly increased by compost amendment, in comparison with mineral fertilization. Finally, a sensory panel of potato Cvs detected no significant differences among qualitative descriptors and among potatoes coming from the two differently fertilized soils. PMID:25016108

Cicatelli, Angela; Baldantoni, Daniela; Iovieno, Paola; Carotenuto, Maurizio; Alfani, Anna; De Feis, Italia; Castiglione, Stefano

2014-09-15

259

Establishment of Critical Sap and Soil Nitrate Concentrations using a Cardy Nitrate Meter for Two Carrot Cultivars Grown on Organic and Mineral Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrate (NO3 ) meters have been used effectively for crop nitrogen (N) management in many crops, including corn and cabbage. The use of a Cardy NO3 meter to assess the N status of the carrot crop could improve the utilization of applied N, but critical NO3?N concentrations are required. Two carrot cultivars were grown on mineral and organic soils over

Sean M. Westerveld; Mary Ruth McDonald; Alan W. McKeown

2007-01-01

260

Applications of PIXE to mineral characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article illustrates the application of the proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique to detailed documentation of mineral assemblages, with emphasis on base-metal ores. Some of the investigations aided by the PIXE laboratory at Guelph since 1993 include determinations of the distribution of minor and trace elements in magmatic Ni-Cu ores, volcanogenic massive sulphide Cu-Pb-Zn-(Ag-Au) ores and lode Au-(Ag) deposits. Minor elements of importance include possible by-products or co-products of metal refining, as well as deleterious impurities in mill-feed, e.g. Cd, In, Sn, As, Se, Te, Tl and Hg. Weathering products of primary sulphide mineralization, including tropical laterites and other oxidized assemblages, have been analysed successfully and can contain a wide range of minor elements which reflect the bedrock style of mineralization. The iron oxyhydroxide goethite, ?-FeO(OH), contains trace levels of many elements, and in some cases 1 wt.% or more of base metals and arsenic, elements which are invisible in reflected-light microscopy. Other metals such as Ag are of sporadic occurrence in oxidized ores: they may be found as discrete mineral species, not incorporated into the dominant oxyhydroxides. A summary of findings from three base-metal deposits in Canada, the Philippines and Portugal serves to illustrate the manner in which PIXE data benefit our knowledge of metal distributions in metallic ores. PIXE can contribute to several facets of mineral-deposit research, such as: (1) the development of ore textures, and specifically the distribution of elements within zoned crystals, or between multiple generations of a particular mineral; (2) the location of precious metals, Ag being in general the simplest case; and (3) pinpointing elements that may have implications for ore genesis, environmental quality or metal refining, such as Cr, As and Se.

Wilson, Graham C.; Rucklidge, John C.; Campbell, John L.; Nejedly, Zdenek; Teesdale, William J.

2002-04-01

261

The effects of soil mineral phases on the abiotic degradation of selected organic compounds. Annual progress report  

SciTech Connect

Tetraphonylboron (TPB) will be used to precipitate radioactive 137Cs from high level nuclear waste water, at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) which is operated by the US Department of Energy (US DOE), at the Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC. The decontaminated wastewater will contain millimolar quantities of TPB that will be processed into salt concretions. The waste processing operations will require about 3{times}l0{sup 5} kg/yr of TPB during its full scale operation. The transportation and use of large amounts of TPB can potentially result in the release of TPB into soil or aquatic environments where its degradation will take place. Previous studies have shown that TPB degrades abiotically in soils; however, the role of specific mineral surfaces in mediating the reaction kinetics and mechanisms for the abiotic degradation of TPB are not clearly known. Laboratory studies have been undertaken to evaluate the surface facilitated degradation of TPB by aluminum silicate clay minerals-kaolinite and montmorillonite. Preliminary results indicate that the rate of degradation of TPB is much higher in kaolinite-a single layer mineral-than in montmorillonite - a double layer mineral- and Orangeburg loamy soil. The initial products of TPB degradation in both minerals are diphenylboric acid (DPBA) and biphenyl. However, HPLC monitoring of degradation products of TPB in montmorillonite appears to indicate the presence of phenol and monophenyboric acid (MPBA).

Sandu, S.S.

1992-06-01

262

The effect of increasing salinity and forest mortality on soil nitrogen and phosphorus mineralization in tidal freshwater forested wetlands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tidal freshwater wetlands are sensitive to sea level rise and increased salinity, although little information is known about the impact of salinification on nutrient biogeochemistry in tidal freshwater forested wetlands. We quantified soil nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) mineralization using seasonal in situ incubations of modified resin cores along spatial gradients of chronic salinification (from continuously freshwater tidal forest to salt impacted tidal forest to oligohaline marsh) and in hummocks and hollows of the continuously freshwater tidal forest along the blackwater Waccamaw River and alluvial Savannah River. Salinification increased rates of net N and P mineralization fluxes and turnover in tidal freshwater forested wetland soils, most likely through tree stress and senescence (for N) and conversion to oligohaline marsh (for P). Stimulation of N and P mineralization by chronic salinification was apparently unrelated to inputs of sulfate (for N and P) or direct effects of increased soil conductivity (for N). In addition, the tidal wetland soils of the alluvial river mineralized more P relative to N than the blackwater river. Finally, hummocks had much greater nitrification fluxes than hollows at the continuously freshwater tidal forested wetland sites. These findings add to knowledge of the responses of tidal freshwater ecosystems to sea level rise and salinification that is necessary to predict the consequences of state changes in coastal ecosystem structure and function due to global change, including potential impacts on estuarine eutrophication.

Noe, Gregory B.; Krauss, Ken W.; Lockaby, B. Graeme; Conner, William H.; Hupp, Cliff R.

2013-01-01

263

EFFECT OF ORGANIC AND MINERAL MULCHES ON SOIL PROPERTIES AND GROWTH OF FAIRVIEW FLAME® RED MAPLE TREES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five mineral mulches (crushed red brick, pea gravel, lava rock, carmel rock, and river rock) and 3 or- ganic mulches (finely screened pine bark, pine wood chips, and shredded hardwood bark) were evaluated over 2 years to determine their influence on soil temperature, moisture, and pH, and to quantify their effect on growth of Fairview Flame® red maple (Acer rubrum

Jeffery K. Iles; Michael S. Dosmann

1999-01-01

264

Mineral cycling in soil and litter arthropod food chains. Three-year progress report, February 1, 1984January 31, 1987  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes progress in a three-year research project on the influence of soil arthropods (mites, collembolans, insects, millipedes and others) upon decomposition rates and nutrient dynamics in decaying vegetable matter. Research has concentrated on two aspects of elemental dynamics in decomposing organic matter: Effects of arthropods on rates of decomposition and nutrient loss (mineralization of carbon and other elements),

Crossley; D. A. Jr

1986-01-01

265

Submicron mineral structures control the stabilization of litter-derived organic matter in soils - A NanoSIMS study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sequestration of carbon and nitrogen by clay-sized particles in soils is well established. However, in the most cases, the complex structure of the organo-mineral associations remain a black box due to the common measurements of soil fractions as a whole. By combining nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) with isotopic tracing it is possible to study the formation and spatial heterogeneity of organo-mineral associations. NanoSIMS enables the detection of up to seven secondary ion species (e.g. 13C-, 12N15N-, 27Al16O-, 56Fe16O-) simultaneously, to generate a submicron-scale image of the elemental and isotopic composition (e.g. 13C, 15N, Al and Fe) down to a lateral resolution of ~150 nm. Therefore this technique can be used to study organo-mineral associations at the relevant scale. The aim of our study was to follow the formation of organo-mineral associations over different time steps and the distribution of C and N by imaging the complex arrangement between soil mineral surfaces and litter-derived organic matter (OM). Parallel to the determination of the isotopic N and C composition of bulk soil and soil fractions (combined density and particle size fractionation) using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), the spatial distribution of the OM was investigated by NanoSIMS analysis of the clay-sized fraction. In our study we show that only some of the clay-sized surfaces bind OM. Surprisingly, less than 19% of the mineral areas visible by scanning electron microscopy and NanoSIMS show an OM attachment. We demonstrate that mineral clusters with rough surfaces exhibit the preferential binding spots for OM. By combining NanoSIMS and isotopic tracing, we distinguish between new labelled and pre-existing OM and show that new OM is preferentially attached to already present organo-mineral clusters. Vogel, C., Mueller, C.W., Höschen, C., Buegger, F., Heister, K., Schulz, S., Schloter, M., Kögel-Knabner, I., 2014. Submicron structures provide preferential spots for carbon and nitrogen sequestration in soils. Nature Communications 5. doi:10.1038/ncomms3947

Vogel, Cordula; Mueller, Carsten W.; Höschen, Carmen; Buegger, Franz; Heister, Katja; Schulz, Stefanie; Schloter, Michael; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid

2014-05-01

266

[Effects of litter and mineral nitrogen input on soil organic carbon decomposition in subtropical mixed forest in Dinghu Mountain, South China].  

PubMed

In July-December 2010, a complete factor-controlled experiment was conducted to study the effects of litter and mineral nitrogen addition on soil organic matter decomposition (soil respiration) at the depths of 0-10 cm and 20-30 cm in Dinghu Mountain National Reserve. Coniferous needle litter and broadleaved litter were added, respectively, and 70 g N x m(-2) x yr(-1) of NH4 NO3 was applied to simulate soil nitrogen saturation whereas soil mineral nitrogen was removed by ion-exchange membrane to simulate the decreased nitrogen absorption by root. The addition of both needle litter and broadleaved litter increased the respiration rate of soil-litter system significantly from July to November, but this effect disappeared in December. Both mineral nitrogen application and soil mineral nitrogen removal increased the soil-litter respiration significantly. These results suggest that litter decomposed completely in a short period therefor had limited effects on soil organic matter decomposition and accumulation, and thus, foliar litters could be not the major source of soil organic matter, whereas soil mineral nitrogen removal could obviously promote the soil organic matter decomposition in the system. PMID:22384572

Sun, Li-Juan; Zeng, Hui; Guo, Da-Li

2011-12-01

267

Alaska Geochemical Database (AGDB)-Geochemical data for rock, sediment, soil, mineral, and concentrate sample media  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Alaska Geochemical Database (AGDB) was created and designed to compile and integrate geochemical data from Alaska in order to facilitate geologic mapping, petrologic studies, mineral resource assessments, definition of geochemical baseline values and statistics, environmental impact assessments, and studies in medical geology. This Microsoft Access database serves as a data archive in support of present and future Alaskan geologic and geochemical projects, and contains data tables describing historical and new quantitative and qualitative geochemical analyses. The analytical results were determined by 85 laboratory and field analytical methods on 264,095 rock, sediment, soil, mineral and heavy-mineral concentrate samples. Most samples were collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel and analyzed in USGS laboratories or, under contracts, in commercial analytical laboratories. These data represent analyses of samples collected as part of various USGS programs and projects from 1962 to 2009. In addition, mineralogical data from 18,138 nonmagnetic heavy mineral concentrate samples are included in this database. The AGDB includes historical geochemical data originally archived in the USGS Rock Analysis Storage System (RASS) database, used from the mid-1960s through the late 1980s and the USGS PLUTO database used from the mid-1970s through the mid-1990s. All of these data are currently maintained in the Oracle-based National Geochemical Database (NGDB). Retrievals from the NGDB were used to generate most of the AGDB data set. These data were checked for accuracy regarding sample location, sample media type, and analytical methods used. This arduous process of reviewing, verifying and, where necessary, editing all USGS geochemical data resulted in a significantly improved Alaska geochemical dataset. USGS data that were not previously in the NGDB because the data predate the earliest USGS geochemical databases, or were once excluded for programmatic reasons, are included here in the AGDB and will be added to the NGDB. The AGDB data provided here are the most accurate and complete to date, and should be useful for a wide variety of geochemical studies. The AGDB data provided in the linked database may be updated or changed periodically. The data on the DVD and in the data downloads provided with this report are current as of date of publication.

Granitto, Matthew; Bailey, Elizabeth A.; Schmidt, Jeanine M.; Shew, Nora B.; Gamble, Bruce M.; Labay, Keith A.

2011-01-01

268

How biological crusts are stabilizing the soil surface? The devolpment of organo-mineral interactions in the initial phase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

First colonizers of new land surfaces are cryptogames which often form biological soil crusts (BSC) covering the first millimetre of the top soil in many ecosystems from polar to desert ecosystems. These BSC are assemblages of cyanobacteria, green algae, mosses, liverworts, fungi and/or lichens. The development of soil surface crusts plays a major role for the further vegetation pattern through changes to the physico-chemical conditions and influencing various ecosystem processes. We studied the development of BSC on quaternary substrate of an initial artificial water catchment in Lusatia, Germany. Due to lack of organic matter in the geological substrate, photoautotrophic organisms like green algae and cyanobacteria dominated the initial phases of ecosystem development and, hence, of organo-mineral ineractions. We combined SEM/EDX and FTIR microscopy to study the contact zone of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of green algae and cyanobacteria with quartz, spars and mica on a >40 µm scale in undisturbed biological soil crusts, which had a maximum thickness of approx. 2 mm. SEM/EDX microscopy was used to determine the spatial distribution of S, Ca, Fe, Al, Si and K in the profiles, organic compounds were identified using FTIR microscopy. Exudates of crust organisms served as cementing material between sand particles. The crust could be subdivided into two horizontal layers. The upper layer, which had a thickness of approx. 200 µm, is characterized by accumulation of Al and K, but absence of Fe in microbial derived organic matter, indicating capture of weathering products of feldspars and mica by microbial exudates. The pore space between mineral particles was entirely filled with organic matter here. The underlying layer can be characterized by empty pores and organo-mineral bridges between the sand particles. Contrarily to the upper layer of the crust, Fe, Al and Si were associated with organic matter here but K was absent. Highest similarity of the FTIR spectra of EPS was observed with carbohydrates, using cellulose, dextran and humic acid Na salt as controls. Obviously, humification does not play a key role during this initial phase of soil formation. It was hypothesized that biological soil crusts facilitate the weathering of mineral substrate by (I) circumventing loss of fine particles with erosion, (II) by chemical treatment of minerals and (III) by catching small mineral-particles by glutinous EPS on the soil surface from the surrounding area.

Fischer, T.; Veste, M.; Wiehe, W.; Lange, P.

2009-04-01

269

Water vapor diffusion into a nanostructured iron oxyhydroxide.  

PubMed

Water diffusion through 0.4 nm × 0.4 nm wide tunnels of synthesized akaganéite (?-FeOOH) nanoparticles was studied by a coupled experimental-molecular modeling approach. A sorption isotherm model obtained from quartz crystal microbalance measurements suggests that the akaganéite bulk can accommodate a maximum of 22.4 mg of water/g (44% bulk site occupancy) when exposed to atmospheres of up to 16 Torr water vapor. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy also showed that water molecules interact with (hydr)oxo groups on both the akaganéite bulk and surface. Diffusion reactions through the akaganéite bulk were confirmed through important changes in the hydrogen-bonding environment of bulk hydroxyl groups. Molecular dynamics simulations showed that water molecules are localized in cavities that are bound by eight hydroxyl groups, forming short-lived (<0.5 ps) hydrogen bonds with one another. Diffusion coefficients of water are three orders of magnitude lower than they are in liquid water (D = 0.0-11.1 × 10(-12) m(2)·s(-1)), whereas large integral rotational correlation times are 4 to 15 times higher (?r = 8.4-31.8 ps). Moreover, both of these properties are strongly loading-dependent. The simulations of the interface between the water vapor phase and the (010) surface plane of the akaganéite, where tunnel openings are exposed, revealed sluggish rates of incorporation between interfacial water species and their tunnel counterparts. The presence of defects in the synthesized particles are suspected to contribute to different diffusion rates in the laboratory when compared to those observed in pristine crystalline materials, as studied by molecular modeling. PMID:23701490

Song, Xiaowei; Boily, Jean-François

2013-06-17

270

Effects of Temperature and Nitrogen Addition on Microbial Respiration and Nitrogen Mineralization in Soils of Northern Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Warming is expected to accelerate soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition and nutrient mineralization, which in turn will increase the supply rates of nutrients to plants and thereby increase plant productivity and ecosystem carbon storage. Simultaneously, increased soil nutrient availability may decrease carbon storage by stimulating microbial decomposition of SOM. Although soil microorganisms have an important role in controlling the carbon balance of soils, we have a limited understanding of the interactive effects of warming and nitrogen availability on microbial decomposition. The main objectives of this study were to (1) determine if decomposition of SOM from arctic and boreal ecosystems in Alaska is limited by nitrogen availability; and (2) explore how nitrogen limitation of SOM decomposition responds to temperature. We sampled mineral and/or organic soils from seven high latitude sites in either tundra (Toolik Lake) or boreal forest (Interior) in Alaska, USA. Each soil was incubated at two temperatures (4 and 14°C) for one year. Half of the samples received nitrogen and half received distilled water. Each soil was monitored for carbon dioxide production and nitrogen mineralization via leaching with distilled water or salt extraction. In a subset of sites, we examined the radiocarbon age of bulk soil and CO2. Preliminary results show that CO2 produced by microbial respiration increased significantly with temperature in all soils. The effect of nitrogen addition, however, was variable, and both increased or decreased CO2 production. For one soil in particular, tussock tundra from Toolik Lake, nitrogen addition increased CO2 production at 14 °C but decreased production at 4 °C. Isotopic measurements of CO2 showed that higher temperature decreased the turnover time of SOM, while nitrogen addition decreased SOM turnover time at high temperatures but increased turnover time at low temperatures. Taken together, these results suggest that as arctic and boreal soils warm, SOM will likely be converted into CO2 but potential increases in nitrogen availability arising from future climate warming will be dependent of vegetation and soil types resulting in variable and contrasting effects on SOM decomposition.

Lavoie, M.; Mack, M. C.; Schurr, E. A.

2008-05-01

271

Contribution of the Study of Clay Minerals in Soils from Loesses (Przyczynek Do Poznania Mineralow Ilastych W Glebach Wytworzonych Z Lessow).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Clay minerals may be treated as indexes of soil fertility determining the size of the sorption complex and also indexes of the stage of weathering and the course and subsequence of soil-forming processes, since the geological and soil processes lead - wit...

K. Konecka-Betley

1970-01-01

272

[Temperature sensitivity of CO2 fluxes from rhizosphere soil mineralization and root decomposition in Pinus massoniana and Castanopsis sclerophylla forests].  

PubMed

Rhizospheric and non-rhizospheric soils and the absorption, transition, and storage roots were sampled from the mid-subtropical Pinus massoniana and Castanopsis sclerophylla forests to study the CO2 fluxes from soil mineralization and root decomposition in the forests. The samples were incubated in closed jars at 15 degrees C, 25 degrees C, 35 degrees C, and 45 degrees C, respectively, and alkali absorption method was applied to measure the CO2 fluxes during 53 days incubation. For the two forests, the rhizospheric effect (ratio of rhizospheric to non-rhizospheric soil) on the CO2 flux from soil mineralization across all incubation temperature ranged from 1.12 to 3.09, with a decreasing trend along incubation days. There was no significant difference in the CO2 flux from soil mineralization between the two forests at 15 degrees C, but the CO2 flux was significantly higher in P. massoniana forest than in C. sclerophylla forest at 25 degrees C and 35 degrees C, and in an opposite pattern at 45 degrees C. At all incubation temperature, the CO2 release from the absorption root decomposition was higher than that from the transition and storage roots decomposition, and was smaller in P. massoniana than in C. sclerophylla forest for all the root functional types. The Q10 values of the CO2 fluxes from the two forests were higher for soils (1.21-1.83) than for roots (0.96-1.36). No significant differences were observed in the Q10 values of the CO2 flux from soil mineralization between the two forests, but the Q10 value of the CO2 flux from root decomposition was significantly higher in P. massoniana than in C. sclerophylla forest. It was suggested that the increment of CO2 flux from soil mineralization under global warming was far higher than that from root decomposition, and for P. massoniana than for C. sclerophylla forest. In subtropics of China, the adaptability of zonal climax community to global warming would be stronger than that of pioneer community. PMID:24066532

Liu, Yu; Hu, Xiao-Fei; Chen, Fu-Sheng; Yuan, Ping-Cheng

2013-06-01

273

Leaf litter and roots as sources of mineral soil organic matter in temperate deciduous forest with and without earthworms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We labeled sugar maple trees with 13C to quantify the separate contributions of decaying leaf litter and root turnover/rhizosphere C flux to mineral soil organic matter (SOM). Labeled leaf litter was applied to forest plots with and without earthworms and recovery of the label in SOM was quantified over three years. In parallel, label recovery was quantified in soils from the labeling chambers where all label was supplied by belowground C flux. In the absence of earthworms about half of the label added as leaf litter remained in the surface organic horizons after three years, with about 3% recovered in mineral SOM. The label was most enriched on silt + clay surfaces, representing precipitation of DOC derived from litter. Earthworms mixed nearly all the leaf litter into mineral soil within one year, and after two years the label was most enriched in particulate organic matter held within soil aggregates produced by worms. After three years 15-20% of the added label was recovered in mineral SOM. In the labeling chambers over 75% of belowground C allocation (BCA) was used in root and rhizosphere respiration in the first year after labeling. We recovered only 3.8% of estimated BCA in SOM after 3 years; however, expressed as a proportion of fine root production plus rhizosphere C flux, this value is 15.4%, comparable to that for leaf litter in the presence of earthworms. In conclusion, both roots and leaf litter contribute significantly to the formation of stabilized mineral SOM in temperate deciduous forests, and this process is profoundly altered by the invasion of lumbricid earthworms.

Fahey, T.; Yavitt, J. B.

2012-12-01

274

Changes in the biological diversity and concentration of total DNA under the influence of mineral fertilizers in agrochernozemic soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chernozems represent the most valuable soil resource for Russian agriculture. Their sustainable use in intensive farming systems with preservation of the biological diversity and biological activity of these soils is of crucial importance for the agri-environmental security of Russia. We studied the influence of different rates of mineral fertilizers on the biological activity of chernozems on experimental fields of the Dokuchaev Research Institute of Agriculture in Kamennaya Steppe (Voronezh oblast). Soil samples were taken at the end of April 2013 from the plow horizon on trials with different rates of fertilization: NPK-0, NPK-60, and NPK-120 (kg/ha); a long-term fallow plot was used as an absolute control. The biological activity was analyzed by routine inoculation methods and by the molecular biology techniques based on DNA isolation from the soil samples. Quantitative parameters of the isolated and purified DNA were determined by measuring the fluorescence of the DNA preparations with added intercalating dyes; GelDoc XR system and Image Lab and TotalLab Quant. software were used. Microbiological studies showed the high biological activity of the chernozems soil in all the trials. No significant differences were found between the trials for the microbiological processes of the carbon cycle. There was a weakly expressed tendency for an increase in the activity of actinomycetes from the soil with zero fertilization (5.11 log10CFU/g) to the soil with maximum (NPK-120) fertilization (5.69 log10CFU/g) and the fallow soil (5.73 log10CFU/g); the number of cultivated micromycetes decreased from the soil with zero fertilization (4.76 log10CFU/g) to the soil with maximum fertilization (4.14 log10CFU/g) and to the fallow soil (4.1 log10CFU/g). A less equilibrium state is typical of the microorganisms participating in the nitrogen cycle. The number of cultivated aerobic and anaerobic nitrogen-fixing bacteria somewhat increased in the fertilized trials (NPK-60, NPK-120). The most active development of denitrifiers was in the fallow soil. It is known that cultivated forms comprise only about 1 to 10% of the total number of soil microorganisms. Quantitative analysis by the methods of molecular biology makes it possible to consider the full range of microorganisms. The concentration of extracted DNA can serve as an indicator of the total "biogenity" of the soil, as we isolated the genetic material of all organisms living in the soil. The highest concentration of DNA found in the samples from the fallow soil. Much lower values were found in the soils treated with mineral fertilizers: 38.9% in trial NPK-60 and 53.3% in trials NPK-120 and NPK-0. Thus, to sustain biota in cultivated chernozems and to improve the ecological state of the fields, the rates of mineral fertilizers have to be properly controlled. Moderate rates can be recommended. Features of the soil microbiome can serve as universal and sensitive indicators of the state of the soils under different farming systems. The quantitative analysis of isolated total DNA is an efficient tool to control the ecological state of the soils, especially those involved in agriculture.

Tkhakakhova, Azida; Kutovaya, Olga; Ivanova, Ekaterina; Pavlyuchenko, Anatoly

2014-05-01

275

Natural selection for 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid mineralizing bacteria in agent orange contaminated soil.  

PubMed

Agent Orange contaminated soils were utilized in direct enrichment culture studies to isolate 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) mineralizing bacteria. Two bacterial cultures able to grow at the expense of 2,4,5-T and/or 2,4-D were isolated. The 2,4,5-T degrading culture was a mixed culture containing two bacteria, Burkholderia species strain JR7B2 and Burkholderia species strain JR7B3. JR7B3 was able to metabolize 2,4,5-T as the sole source of carbon and energy, and demonstrated the ability to affect metabolism of 2,4-D to a lesser degree. Strain JR7B3 was able to mineralize 2,4,5-T in pure culture and utilized 2,4,5-T in the presence of 0.01% yeast extract. Subsequent characterization of the 2,4-D degrading culture showed that one bacterium, Burkholderia species strain JRB1, was able to utilize 2,4-D as a sole carbon and energy source in pure culture. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) experiments utilizing known genetic sequences from other 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T degrading bacteria demonstrated that these organisms contain gene sequences similar to tfdA, B, C, E, and R (Strain JRB1) and the tftA, C, and E genes (Strain JR7B3). Expression analysis confirmed that tftA, C, and E and tfdA, B, and C were transcribed during 2,4,5-T and 2,4-D dependent growth, respectively. The results indicate a strong selective pressure for 2,4,5-T utilizing strains under field condition. PMID:15865343

Rice, J F; Menn, F M; Hay, A G; Sanseverino, J; Sayler, G S

2005-12-01

276

Little evidence for niche partitioning among ectomycorrhizal fungi on spruce seedlings planted in decayed wood versus mineral soil microsites.  

PubMed

Ectomycorrhizal fungal (EMF) communities vary among microhabitats, supporting a dominant role for deterministic processes in EMF community assemblage. EMF communities also differ between forest and clearcut environments, responding to this disturbance in a directional manner over time by returning to the species composition of the original forest. Accordingly, we examined EMF community composition on roots of spruce seedlings planted in three different microhabitats in forest and clearcut plots: decayed wood, mineral soil adjacent to downed wood, or control mineral soil, to determine the effect of retained downed wood on EMF communities over the medium and long term. If downed and decayed wood provide refuge habitat distinct from that of mineral soil, we would expect EMF communities on seedlings in woody habitats in clearcuts to be similar to those on seedlings planted in the adjacent forest. As expected, we found EMF species richness to be higher in forests than clearcuts (P ? 0.01), even though soil nutrient status did not differ greatly between the two plot types (P ? 0.05). Communities on forest seedlings were dominated by Tylospora spp., whereas those in clearcuts were dominated by Amphinema byssoides and Thelephora terrestris. Surprisingly, while substrate conditions varied among microsites (P ? 0.03), especially between decayed wood and mineral soil, EMF communities were not distinctly different among microhabitats. Our data suggest that niche partitioning by substrate does not occur among EMF species on very young seedlings in high elevation spruce-fir forests. Further, dispersal limitations shape EMF community assembly in clearcuts in these forests. PMID:23797413

Walker, Jennifer K M; Jones, Melanie D

2013-12-01

277

Basaltic diversity examined through chemical analysis of mineral phases in Apollo 12 soil sample 12023,155.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use major, minor and trace element chemistry in mineral phases to compare 12 basaltic grains in the Apollo 12 soil sample 12023,155 to known basalt groups at the Apollo 12 site. Most samples are identified as Olivine, Pigeonite or Ilmenite basalt fragments, with five exceptions: sample 155_1A has distinct mineral compositions from other samples; samples 155_4A and 5A are believed to represent new additions to the Feldspathic basalt group; sample 155_7A is identified as an exotic fragment (i.e., sourced from a distal lava flow) and sample 155_11A is from a highly fractionated basaltic melt.

Alexander, L.; Snape, J. F.; Crawford, I. A.; Joy, K. H.; Downes, H.

2013-09-01

278

A novel method for soil aggregate stability measurement by laser granulometry with sonication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Regulatory authorities need to establish rapid, cost-effective methods to measure soil physical indicators - such as aggregate stability - which can be applied to large numbers of soil samples to detect changes of soil quality through monitoring. Limitations of sieve-based methods to measure the stability of soil macro-aggregates include: i) the mass of stable aggregates is measured, only for a few, discrete sieve/size fractions, ii) no account is taken of the fundamental particle size distribution of the sub-sampled material, and iii) they are labour intensive. These limitations could be overcome by measurements with a Laser Granulometer (LG) instrument, but this technology has not been widely applied to the quantification of aggregate stability of soils. We present a novel method to quantify macro-aggregate (1-2 mm) stability. We measure the difference between the mean weight diameter (MWD; ?m) of aggregates that are stable in circulating water of low ionic strength, and the MWD of the fundamental particles of the soil to which these aggregates are reduced by sonication. The suspension is circulated rapidly through a LG analytical cell from a connected vessel for ten seconds; during this period hydrodynamic forces associated with the circulating water lead to the destruction of unstable aggregates. The MWD of stable aggregates is then measured by LG. In the next step, the aggregates - which are kept in the vessel at a minimal water circulation speed - are subject to sonication (18W for ten minutes) so the vast majority of the sample is broken down into its fundamental particles. The suspension is then recirculated rapidly through the LG and the MWD measured again. We refer to the difference between these two measurements as disaggregation reduction (DR) - the reduction in MWD on disaggregation by sonication. Soil types with more stable aggregates have larger values of DR. The stable aggregates - which are resistant to both slaking and mechanical breakdown by the hydrodynamic forces during circulation - are disrupted only by sonication. We used this method to compare macro-aggregate (1-2 mm) stability of air-dried agricultural topsoils under conventional tillage developed from two contrasting parent material types and compared the results with an alternative sieve-based technique. The first soil from the Midlands of England (developed from sedimentary mudstone; mean soil organic carbon (SOC) 2.5%) contained a substantially larger amount of illite/smectite (I/S) minerals compared to the second from the Wensum catchment in eastern England (developed from sands and glacial deposits; mean SOC=1.7%). The latter soils are prone to large erosive losses of fine sediment. Both sets of samples had been stored air-dried for 6 months prior to aggregate analyses. The mean values of DR (n=10 repeated subsample analyses) for the Midlands soil was 178?m; mean DR (n=10 repeat subsample analyses) for the Wensum soil was 30?m. The large difference in DR is most likely due to differences in soil mineralogy. The coefficient of variation of mean DR for duplicate analyses of sub-samples from the two topsoil types is around 10%. The majority of this variation is likely to be related to the difference in composition of the sub-samples. A standard, aggregated material could be included in further analyses to determine the relative magnitude of sub-sampling and analytical variance for this measurement technique. We then used the technique to investigate whether - as previously observed - variations (range 1000 - 4000 mg kg-1) in the quantity of amorphous (oxalate extractable) iron oxyhydroxides in a variety of soil samples (n=30) from the Wensum area (range SOC 1 - 2%) could account for differences in aggregate stability of these samples.

Rawlins, B. G.; Lark, R. M.; Wragg, J.

2012-04-01

279

Soil anomalies associated with Cu-Ni mineralization in the South Kawishiwi area, northern Lake County, Minnesota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geochemical sampling in the contact zone between the Giants Range Granite and the Duluth Gabbro Complex along the South Kawishiwi River indicates the presence of extensive soil anomalies associated with the known Cu-Ni-Co-Ag mineralization in the basal part of the Duluth Gabbro Complex. A close spatial relationship was found between the ore bodies and associated anomalies, despite the fact that the parent material of the sampled soils was glacial overburden that mantles the area to a depth of 0-50 feet. The <74 mesh fraction of B-horizon soils was found to be an effective sample type for geochemical exploration in this area. Trace metals are believed to be held primarily by the clay-size hydrated iron oxides and manganese oxide, which are somewhat enriched in the fine fraction of the B-horizon soils.

Alminas, Henry V.

1975-01-01

280

Oxygen isotope fractionation effects in soil water via interaction with cations (Mg, Ca, K, Na) adsorbed to phyllosilicate clay minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In isotope-enabled hydrology, soil and vadose zone sediments have been generally considered to be isotopically inert with respect to the water they host. This is inconsistent with knowledge that clay particles possessing an electronegative surface charge and resulting cation exchange capacity (CEC) interact with a wide range of solutes which, in the absence of clays, have been shown to exhibit ?18O isotope effects that vary in relation to the ionic strength of the solutions. To investigate the isotope effects caused by high CEC clays in mineral-water systems, we created a series of monominerallic-water mixtures at gravimetric water contents ranging from 5% to 32%, consisting of pure deionized water of known isotopic composition with homoionic (Mg, Ca, Na, K) montmorillonite. Similar mixtures were also created with quartz to determine the isotope effect of non-, or very minimally-, charged mineral surfaces. The ?18O value of the water in these monominerallic soil analogs was then measured by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) after direct headspace CO2 equilibration. Mg- and Ca-exchanged homoionic montmorillonite depleted measured ?18O values up to 1.55‰ relative to pure water at 5% water content, declining to 0.49‰ depletion at 30% water content. K-montmorillonite enriched measured ?18O values up to 0.86‰ at 5% water content, declining to 0.11‰ enrichment at 30% water. Na-montmorillonite produces no measureable isotope effect. The isotope effects observed in these experiments may be present in natural, high-clay soils and sediments. These findings have relevance to the interpretation of results of direct CO2-water equilibration approaches to the measurement of the ?18O value of soil water. The adsorbed cation isotope effect may bear consideration in studies of pedogenic carbonate, plant-soil water use and soil-atmosphere interaction. Finally, the observed isotope effects may prove useful as molecular scale probes of the nature of mineral-water interactions.

Oerter, Erik; Finstad, Kari; Schaefer, Justin; Goldsmith, Gregory R.; Dawson, Todd; Amundson, Ronald

2014-07-01

281

Organic carbon and reducing conditions lead to cadmium immobilization by secondary Fe mineral formation in a pH-neutral soil.  

PubMed

Cadmium (Cd) is of environmental relevance as it enters soils via Cd-containing phosphate fertilizers and endangers human health when taken up by crops. Cd is known to associate with Fe(III) (oxyhydr)oxides in pH-neutral to slightly acidic soils, though it is not well understood how the interrelation of Fe and Cd changes under Fe(III)-reducing conditions. Therefore, we investigated how the mobility of Cd changes when a Cd-bearing soil is faced with organic carbon input and reducing conditions. Using fatty acid profiles and quantitative PCR, we found that both fermenting and Fe(III)-reducing bacteria were stimulated by organic carbon-rich conditions, leading to significant Fe(III) reduction. The reduction of Fe(III) minerals was accompanied by increasing soil pH, increasing dissolved inorganic carbon, and decreasing Cd mobility. SEM-EDX mapping of soil particles showed that a minor fraction of Cd was transferred to Ca- and S-bearing minerals, probably carbonates and sulfides. Most of the Cd, however, correlated with a secondary iron mineral phase that was formed during microbial Fe(III) mineral reduction and contained mostly Fe, suggesting an iron oxide mineral such as magnetite (Fe3O4). Our data thus provide evidence that secondary Fe(II) and Fe(II)/Fe(III) mixed minerals could be a sink for Cd in soils under reducing conditions, thus decreasing the mobility of Cd in the soil. PMID:24191747

Muehe, E Marie; Adaktylou, Irini J; Obst, Martin; Zeitvogel, Fabian; Behrens, Sebastian; Planer-Friedrich, Britta; Kraemer, Ute; Kappler, Andreas

2013-12-01

282

Ryegrass Response to Mineral Fertilization and Organic Amendment with Municipal Solid Waste Compost in Two Tropical Agricultural Soils of Mali  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pot experiment was conducted to assess the effect of mineral fertilization and compost on the growth and chemical composition of ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) grown on two Malian agricultural soils coming from Baguinéda, abbreviated as Bgda, (12°23? S, 7°45? W) and Gao (16°18? N, 0°). Treatments included non?fertilized control, NPK alone, NPK + C25, NPK + C50, NPK + C100, PK + C50, NK + C50, NP

M. Soumaré; F. M. G. Tack; M. G. Verloo

2003-01-01

283

Impact of the Invasive Alien Plant Solidago Gigantea on Primary Productivity, Plant Nutrient Content and Soil Mineral Nutrient Concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasion by alien plants can alter ecosystem processes and soil properties. In this study, we compared aboveground productivity, nutrient pools in standing biomass and topsoil (0–0.10 m) mineral nutrient concentrations between plots invaded by Early Goldenrod (Solidago gigantea) and adjacent, uninvaded, vegetation at five sites in Belgium. The five sites were characterised by a resident perennial herbaceous vegetation and spanned a wide

Sonia Vanderhoeven; Nicolas Dassonville; Lydie Chapuis-Lardy; Matthieu Hayez; Pierre Meerts

2006-01-01

284

Mineral cycling in soil and litter arthropod food chains. Three-year progress report, February 1, 1984-January 31, 1987  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes progress in a three-year research project on the influence of soil arthropods (mites, collembolans, insects, millipedes and others) upon decomposition rates and nutrient dynamics in decaying vegetable matter. Research has concentrated on two aspects of elemental dynamics in decomposing organic matter: Effects of arthropods on rates of decomposition and nutrient loss (mineralization of carbon and other elements), and arthropod stimulation of microbial immobilization of nutrient elements during decomposition.

Crossley, D.A. Jr.

1986-08-29

285

Nitrogen, carbon and phosphorus mineralization in soils from semi-arid highlands of central Mexico amended with tannery sludge.  

PubMed

Tannery sludge contains valuable nutrients and could be used as a fertilizer to pioneering vegetation in heavily eroded soils of the semi-arid highlands of central Mexico. Soil collected under and outside the canopy of mesquite (Prosopis laeviginata), huizache (Acacia tortuoso) and catclaw (Mimosa biuncifera), and cultivated with maize (Zea mays) and beans (Phaesolus vulgaris) was amended with 1.5 g tannery sludge kg-1 soil or 210 kg dry sludge ha-1 or left unamended. Amended and unamended soils were incubated aerobically for 70 days at 22 +/- 2 degrees C and CO2 production, available P, and inorganic N concentrations were monitored. The CO2 production rate, total C and P, available P, biomass C and P were larger under the canopy of the vegetation than outside of the canopy. The soils were depleted of N as more than 50 mg N kg-1 soil could not be accounted for in the first days of the incubation. Nitrification showed a lag, which lasted 28 days, and concentration of available P remained constant or increased slightly. Application of tannery sludge to soil increased CO2 production with 6.5 mg CO2 kg-1 soil d-1 and inorganic N with 30 mg N kg-1 soil after 70 days, but available P did not increase. Application of tannery sludge increased C and N mineralization and could thus provide valuable nutrients to a pioneer vegetation. Although no inhibitory effects on the biological functioning of the soil were found, further investigation into possible long-term environmental effects are necessary. PMID:11272018

Barajas-Aceves, M; Dendooven, L

2001-04-01

286

The status of selected minerals in soil, forage and beef cattle tissues in a semi-arid region of Zimbabwe.  

PubMed

Five districts in the Matabeleland region, an arid western area of Zimbabwe, were investigated for the status of Ca, P, Na, Cu and Zn in soil, forage and cattle during the wet and dry seasons over a period of one year. The cattle came from the natural grazing lands and were not supplemented at the time of sampling. Some deficiencies in soil Zn and P were found in the districts of Lupane and Bulilimamangwe, respectively. Dry season soil Ca, Cu and P concentrations were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than rainy season values owing to leaching in all five districts. Most forage samples had mineral concentrations below the critical levels known to be adequate for animal requirements. Forage levels of Ca, Na. Cu and Zn significantly increased (p < 0.05) with advancing maturity, while P significantly decreased (p < 0.05) in almost all the districts. Marked deficiencies of minerals were found in cattle tissues and these levels followed the seasonal trend seen in the forage. These results indicate that cattle in Matebeleland are deficient in P, Ca, Cu and Zn and that grazing areas in the region cannot provide adequate levels of the five minerals studied. PMID:16274010

Ndebele, N; Mtimuni, J P; Mpofu, I D T; Makuza, S; Mumba, P

2005-07-01

287

Carbon Sequestration and Nitrogen Mineralization in Soil Cooperated with Organic Composts and Bio-char During Corn (Zea mays) Cultivation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objectives of this study were to estimate the carbon sequestration and to evaluate nitrogen mineralization and nitrification in soils cooperated with organic composts and bio-char during corn cultivation. For the experiment, the soil used in this study was clay loam types, and application rates of chemical fertilizer and bio-char were recommended amount after soil test and 2 % to soil weight, respectively. The soil samples were periodically taken at every 15 day intervals during the experimental periods. The treatments were consisted of non-application, cow manure compost, pig manure compost, swine digestate from aerobic digestion system, their bio-char cooperation. For the experimental results, residual amount of inorganic carbon was ranged from 51 to 208kg 10a-1 in soil only cooperated with different organic composts. However it was estimated to be highest at 208kg 10a-1 in the application plot of pig manure compost. In addition to bio-char application, it was ranged from 187.8 to 286kg 10a-1, but was greatest accumulated at 160.3kg 10a-1 in the application plot of cow manure compost. For nitrogen mineralization and nitrification rates, it was shown that there were generally low in the soil cooperated with bio-char compared to the only application plots of different organic composts except for 71 days after sowing. Also, they were observed to be highest in the application plot of swine digestate from aerobic digestion system. For the loss of total inorganic carbon (TIC) by run-off water, it was ranged from 0.18 to 0.36 kg 10a-1 in the different treatment plots. Also, with application of bio-char, total nitrogen was estimated to be reduced at 0.42(15.1%) and 0.38(11.8%) kg 10a-1 in application plots of the pig manure compost and aerobic digestate, respectively.

Shin, Joung-Du; Lee, Sun-Ill; Park, Wu-Gyun; Choi, Yong-Su; Hong, Seong-Gil; Park, Sang-Won

2014-05-01

288

Carbon mineralization from composts and food industry wastes added to soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied the short term C mineralization of six wastes from important food industries, one sludge from a biogas plant and three composts. All the wastes were characterized chemically and fractionated according to the Van Soest method. The fresh wastes were incubated under controlled environment conditions to determine the C mineralization rate. Based on first order mineralization kinetics, we

Stefaan De Neve; Steven Sleutel; Georges Hofman

2003-01-01

289

Effects of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on mineralization and mobility of nonylphenol and sodium dodecyl sulfate in agricultural soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanotechnology is one of the major scientific research fields in this decade. One of the most wide-spread nanomaterials are carbon based nanoparticles (CNPs) which are increasingly be used in industry. Several studies shows that CNPs are interacting with other chemical compounds and organic pollutants in the environment. It is assumed that the interactions between CNPs and organic pollutants are affected by solution and aggregate behavior. Based on the knowledge of the behavior of CNPs and organic pollutants in aquatic systems the interactions of CNPs and organic pollutants in agricultural soils have to be studied. As organic pollutants two environmental substances, nonylphenol (NP) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were selected as model substances. They occur frequently in aqueous systems and also show different solubility behavior. As CNP representatives, two different multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) were selected. They differed either in length or outer diameter. Conclusions therefrom are to be closed the influence of length and diameter of the sorption capacity of different organic pollutants. In addition, two agricultural soils (sandy and silty soil) and one forest soil (sandy soil) were chosen. Mineralization and sorption experiments were conducted to provide information about the degradation of organic pollutants in presence of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in soils. To analyze the CNPs mineralization potential, peroxidase activity was measured. Further extraction experiments were conducted to detect the extractable part of organic pollutants. The results show that the surface area of the MWNT has a significant impact on the sorption behav-ior of NP and SDS in soils. The sorption of NP and SDS is much higher than without MWNT. However, the properties of the organic pollutants (different water solubility and hydrophobicity) are equally important and should be noted. The degradation of both pollutants is influenced by MWNT. Due to the strong sorption of NP and SDS on the MWNT, the degradation of these pollutants in soils, is slower than without MWNT. The peroxidase activity did not contribute to NP and SDS degradation. But the peroxidase activity in agricultural soils is higher than in forest soils. The extractable fraction of NP and SDS is very low and amounts to a maximum of 2 %. Due to the lower degradation of NP and SDS in the presence of MWNT a longer retention of the substances in the soils and potential toxic effects for humans and animals, as a result of plant uptake may be taken into account.

Lillotte, Julia; Marschner, Bernd; Stumpe, Britta

2014-05-01

290

Mineral content of grasses and grasslands of the Himalayan region: 1. Trace element distribution in soil profiles and their concentrations in surface soils  

SciTech Connect

Researchers analyzed soil samples, collected from naturally occurring grasslands of the Himalayan region, to investigate trace element distribution in soil profiles and their concentrations in surface soils, as well as to examine frequency and geographical distribution of low and high levels of trace elements. Both chemical and radiochemical analytical techniques were employed to determine the trace elements. This study was part of a research project on the evaluation of mineral content of natural grasslands and grasses and the relationship between the mineral contents in grasses and grasslands. Little or no variation in the content of total Zn, Mn, Cu, Cd, Ni, Pb, Co, and I from surface to subsurface horizons in the soil profiles was observed. However, the concentrations of extractable Zn, Mn, Cu, and B in the surface horizons were higher than in the subsurface horizons. The variations among the profiles were primarily related to the geological material from which the soils derived. Means and ranges of trace elements are given for particular locations and for the whole sample area. Concentrations of most of the trace elements varied greatly among sites at the same location and among locations. There were highly significant correlations between the contents of trace elements, especially total Zn and Mn, and extractable Zn, Fe, Ni, Co, B, and I, and the soil chemical properties, elevation, rainfall, and temperature. Rainfall and temperature showed negative correlations for almost all the trace elements. A number of the trace elements were interrelated in their geochemical origin. On the basis of the critical levels suggested for trace element deficiencies, proportions of the samples that may be considered deficient were about 28% for Zn, 50% for Mn, 20-30% for Cu, 4% for Fe, 56-87% for B, 77% for Mo, and 5-10% for Co.

Singh, B.R.; Mishra, V.K.; Tripathi, B.R.

1987-03-01

291

Effects of de-icing chemicals sodium chloride and potassium formate on cadmium solubility in a coarse mineral soil.  

PubMed

Excessive use of sodium chloride (NaCl) as de-icing chemical causes environmental problems, such as elevated chloride concentrations in groundwater. On vulnerable sites, this can be avoided by using alternative organic de-icing chemicals, such as potassium formate (KHCOO). The environmental impacts of KCHOO are, however, not well known. This study reports the potential effects of NaCl and KCHOO on mechanisms controlling the mobility of cadmium (Cd) in roadside soils as a result of vehicular traffic. Changes in the solubility of Cd in a coarse mineral soil treated with these two de-icing chemicals were studied in a 50-day incubation experiment under four different moisture and temperature combinations and an initial soil Cd concentration of 3 mg kg(-1). After incubation, the distribution of soil Cd into different fractions was analyzed using a sequential extraction method. Soil pH and soil redox potential were recorded and the occurrence of Cd-Cl complexes in the soil was estimated using published stability constants. During incubation, KCHOO lowered the soil redox potential, but this was not accompanied by a decrease in the sorption capacity of oxides and the release of oxide-bound Cd into soil solution. On the other hand, elevated pH (from 4.3 to 6.7-8.5) in the formate treatments increased the sorption of Cd onto the oxide surfaces (up to 80% of total sorbed Cd). In the NaCl treatments, cation competition and formation of Cd-Cl complexes increased the water-soluble Cd fraction. Consequently, the amount of bioavailable Cd was 3.5 times smaller in the KCHOO than in the NaCl treatments. PMID:16165192

Rasa, Kimmo; Peltovuori, Tommi; Hartikainen, Helinä

2006-08-01

292

Thermally induced changes in metal solubility of contaminated soils is linked to mineral recrystallization and organic matter transformations.  

PubMed

Soils are biogeochemical systems under continual modification by biological and chemical processes. Trace element solid-solution partitioning is thus influenced by long-term changes to these solid phases. We study Pb, Cd, Zn, and Cu solution speciation and solid-phase dynamics in two soils of volcanic origin (Te Akatea and Egmont, high in noncrystalline aluminosilicates), an oxisol from Brazil (Oxisol, high in oxides of Al and Fe), and several sludge-treated soils (labeled NYS soils, high in organic materials). Total soluble (by ICP) and labile (by ASV) concentrations of Pb, Cd, Zn, and Cu were determined after incubation of the soils for about 1.5 yr at room (23 degrees C) and elevated (70 degrees C) temperatures. Changes occurring to the solid phases were monitored by FTIR and extraction with oxalate and pyrophosphate. It is shown that induced hydrolysis or decomposition of organic materials in soils results in increases in both labile and total soluble concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn in solution. Labile and total soluble concentrations of Cu and Zn increase concomitantly with dissolved organic carbon (DOC); the nonlabile soluble fraction also increases with increasing DOC. Similarly, the concentration of Cd and Pb in solution increases with increasing DOC; however, most soluble Cd and Pb is asv-labile. Only in the Egmont soil (mineralogy dominated by proto-imogolite allophane) was reduced Pb solubility observed after prolonged equilibration and heating. Lead solubility increased after partial crystallization of amorphous minerals in the Te Akatea and the Oxisol. Thus, for most of the metal-soil systems studied, prolonged thermal treatment at 70 degrees C increased total soluble and asv-labile metals, suggesting that aging effects on metals in contaminated soils could release metals to labile forms in some cases. PMID:11351534

Martínez, C E; Jacobson, A; McBride, M B

2001-03-01

293

Determination of the composition of the organic matter chemically stabilized by agricultural soil clay minerals: Spectroscopy and Density Fractionation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interactions between soil organic matter and clay minerals are considered important processes because of their ability to sequester C in soil for long periods of time, and hence control C in the global C cycle when present. However, differing results have been reported regarding the composition of the soil organic matter - aromatic fractions versus aliphatic fractions - associated with clay minerals. To clarify this critical issue and better understand the C sequestration process in soils, we aimed to determine the nature of the chemically bound natural organic matter on clay surfaces, and to probe the speciation and spatial distribution of C in the soil clay nanoparticles using direct spectroscopic measurements namely solid-state CP-MAS and DP-MAS 13C NMR spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), and scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM). We tested the hypotheses that peptides and polysaccharides are stabilized by the smectite-illite clay while the lipids and black carbon are a separate phase; and that they are evenly distributed on clay surfaces. A soil clay fraction (5.5% organic C) was isolated from the surface of a prairie soil (Mollisol) in southwestern Minnesota, characterized by a pH 6.0, 32.5% clay content, and 3.7% organic carbon, using a sonication-sedimentation-siphoning process in distilled water. Then was subjected to density separation combined with low energy ultrasonic dispersion to separate the free organic and black C (light fraction) from the chemically bound C (heavy fraction). The XRD results indicated a dominance of interstratified smectite-illite clays in soil. The 13C-NMR spectra of the soil clay fraction suggested that polysaccharides and polypeptides are the prevailing components of the organic matter associated with the mineral clay, with only a minor component of aromatic C. The light fraction has strong alkyl C-H bands characteristic of fatty acids plus strong C-O bands characteristic of polysaccharides, including the anomeric C band centered at 105 ppm. The aromatic band at 130 ppm and the phenolic C-O band at 150 pm are strong as well indicating the presence of black carbon and lignin-derived components, contrary to the heavy fraction where they are almost absent. STXM results indicated that the proteins are abundant in the soil clay fraction, separate from lipids, and partially associated with saccharides. The black carbon constitutes a separate phase, but is amply present with lipids and lignin-derived compounds in the light fraction. We conclude that (1) the smectite-illite sheets in our soils preferentially retain peptides, and polysaccharides favoring the protection of these normally readily biodegradable fractions relative to the lignin-derived phenolic components; (2) the black carbon constitutes a major component of the light fraction, and is partially attached to the organic matter bonded with the smectitic clays; and (3) the lipids are associated with soil clay fraction as a separate phase, but are not bound to clay minerals.

Oufqir, Sofia; Bloom, Paul; Toner, Brandy; Hatcher, Patrick

2014-05-01

294

Temperature Effects on Soil Mineralization of Polylactic Acid Plastic in Laboratory Respirometers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A respirometric system was used to analyze the biodegradation of high molecular weight (120,000 to 200,000 g mol-1) polylactic acid (PLA) plastic films in soil under laboratory conditions. The respirometric system consisted of air-conditioning pretraps, a soil reactor, and a carbon dioxide (CO2) posttrap. A 200-g homogeneous soil mixture of all-purpose potting soil : manure soil : sand [1 :

Kai-Lai G. Ho; Anthony L. Pometto III

1999-01-01

295

Capacity of microorganisms to decompose organic carbon affected by an increasing content of reactive mineral phases in a podzolic soil chronosequence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil organic matter stabilization has received considerable interest in the last decades due to the importance of the soil organic carbon (SOC) pool in the global C budget. There is increasing evidence that the formation of organo-mineral associations play a major role in the mechanisms of organic carbon stabilization, indicating that the persistence of organic matter in soils relates primarily to soil physico-chemical and biological conditions than to intrinsic recalcitrance. Al and Fe oxy-hydroxides and short-range ordered aluminosilicates are known for their high capacity to sorb organic carbon. However, the impact of the evolution of these reactive mineral phases over short time scale on the distribution of microorganisms and their ability to decompose SOC is still poorly understood. To further study the short-term evolution of organo-mineral associations, we investigated a 500-year podzolic soil chronosequence which is characterized by an increasing amount of secondary reactive mineral phases with pedogenesis and soil age, and thus by increased organo-mineral associations. In order to determine the impact of these secondary mineral phases on the degradation of SOC by microorganisms, an incubation experiment was carried out using soil horizons up to 1m deep from 6 profiles of different ages along the chronosequence. Furthermore, we used amino sugars and phospholipid fatty acids as tracers of dead and living microbial biomass, respectively, in the incubated samples. Our results show that SOC mineralization was significantly lower in the illuvial Bh/Bhs horizons (which contain more reactive mineral phases) compared to the surface E horizons (depleted in reactive mineral phases), although the content in amino sugars is similar in these horizons. In the deeper Bw and BC horizons, as well as in the young profiles (<300 yrs) that have not yet undergone podzolization and related formation of organo-mineral associations, SOC mineralization rates were the highest. These findings suggest that stabilization of OC through organo-mineral interactions with reactive mineral phases in our study site strongly controls the ability of microorganisms to decompose soil organic matter.

Vermeire, Marie-Liesse; Doetterl, Sebastian; Bode, Samuel; Delmelle, Pierre; Van Oost, Kristof; Cornelis, Jean-Thomas

2014-05-01

296

Influence of soil C stocks and interannual climatic variability on the CO2 and CH4 exchange of maize cultivated on mineral and organic soils in NE Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to its glacially influenced genesis and land use history, the soils of the Great Plain Region of NE-Germany show large differences in groundwater levels and soil carbon (C) stocks over short distances. Although generally featuring a rather dry climate, trace gas exchange at individual sites may be influenced by i) interannual climatic variability, particularly with respect to precipitation; as well as by ii) variability of soil C stocks. However, it is still unclear how these factors affect fluxes of CO2 and CH4, and if there is any positive or negative feedback on the C source or sink function of different soil types. We present measured and modeled CO2 and CH4 fluxes of minerally fertilized grain maize for three sites located near Paulinenaue, within the so-called Rhin-Havelluch, a shallow and drained paludification mire complex in NE Germany. The sites are characterized by a distinct gradient of 0-1 m soil organic C stocks: i) Arenosol (AR: mineral soil/distant groundwater; 8 000 g C m-2), ii) Gleysol (GL: organic soil/groundwater-dependent; 35 000 g C m-2), and iii) Histosol (HS: organic soil/near groundwater; 45 000 g C m-2). CO2 flux measurements of ecosystem respiration (Reco), net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and gross primary production (GPP; calculated as difference between NEE and Reco) were conducted every four weeks using a flow-through non-steady-state closed chamber system. Measurement gaps of Reco and NEE were filled by using temperature or radiation-based models, respectively. CH4 fluxes were measured bi-weekly using a static closed chamber system with interval sampling, with gap filling via linear interpolation. Cumulated fluxes of CO2-C (Reco, GPP, NEE) and CH4-C were calculated for a period of four consecutive years (2007-2010). The intensity of CO2-C fluxes increased with growing soil organic C stocks (AR < GL < HS). Mean annual values of the years 2008-2010 for Reco ranged between 1 500 g C m-2 and 2 000 g C m-2; annual GPP fluxes ranged from -1 400 g C m-2 to -2 300 g C m-2. NEE balances varied from C source on the mineral AR site (65 g C m-2) to C sink for organic sites (nearly -350 g C m-2). Annual CH4 exchange rates were generally very low < 0.3 g C m-2 and negligible compared to annual CO2 exchange. However, the exceptionally wet summer of 2007 (May to July) resulted in drastically increased CH4 emissions from the groundwater-influenced organic soils, particularly at the HS site where CH4 emissions were nearly 100 times higher emissions than in the following years (28 g C m-2). The excess moisture levels in 2007 also appeared to influence ecosystem CO2 exchange - likely through effects on maize growth - resulting in strongly increased Reco and GPP rates at the mineral AR site and drastically decreased Reco and GPP rates at the flooded HS site. The intensity of gaseous C fluxes seems to strongly depend on interactions between soil C stocks and interannual climatic variability. More detailed conclusions about the nature of these interactions require continuation of these measurements, i.e. long-term investigation.

Pohl, Madlen; Hagemann, Ulrike; Hoffmann, Mathias; Giebels, Michael; Albiac-Borraz, Elisa; Sommer, Michael; Augustin, Jürgen

2014-05-01

297

Paenibacillus selenitireducens sp. nov., a selenite-reducing bacterium isolated from a selenium mineral soil.  

PubMed

A Gram-stain-positive, rod-shaped, facultatively anaerobic bacterium, designated strain ES3-24(T), was isolated from a selenium mineral soil. The isolate was endospore-forming, nitrate-reducing and motile by means of peritrichous flagella. The major menaquinone was menaquinone 7 (MK-7) and the predominant fatty acids (>5%) were anteiso-C15:0, iso-C16:0, C16:0 and anteiso-C17:0. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and two unknown aminophospholipids. Strain ES3-24(T) contained meso-diaminopimelic acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan and the DNA G+C content was 49.6 mol%. According to phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence, strain ES3-24(T) was most closely related to Paenibacillus terrigena A35(T), with 16S rRNA gene sequence identity of 98.3%, while the other members of the genus Paenibacillus had 16S rRNA gene sequence identities of less than 95.0%. DNA-DNA relatedness between strain ES3-24(T) and P. terrigena CCTCC AB206026(T) was 39.3?%. In addition, strain ES3-24(T) showed obvious differences from closely related species in major polar lipids, nitrate reduction and other physiological and biochemical characteristics. The data from our polyphasic taxonomic study reveal that strain ES3-24(T) represents a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus selenitireducens sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is ES3-24(T) (?=?KCTC 33157(T)?=?CCTCC AB2013097(T)). PMID:24215825

Yao, Rong; Wang, Rui; Wang, Dan; Su, Jing; Zheng, Shixue; Wang, Gejiao

2014-03-01

298

Sphingomonas yantingensis sp. nov., a mineral-weathering bacterium isolated from purplish paddy soil.  

PubMed

A novel type of mineral-weathering bacterium was isolated from purplish soils collected from Yanting (Sichuan, south-western China). Cells of strain 1007(T) were Gram-stain-negative and rod-shaped, motile and yellow-pigmented. The isolate was strictly aerobic, catalase- and oxidase-positive, and grew optimally at 28-30 °C and pH 6.0-7.0. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain 1007(T) was 67±0.7 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain 1007(T) belonged to the genus Sphingomonas and was most closely related to Sphingomonas pruni IFO 15498(T) (97.3?%), Sphingomonas mali IFO 15500(T) (97.2?%), Sphingomonas japonica KC7(T) (97.2?%) and Sphingomonas koreensis JSS26(T) (97.0?%). This affiliation of strain 1007(T) to the genus Sphingomonas was confirmed by the presence of Q-10 as the major ubiquinone, sphingoglycolipid, C14?:?0 2-OH and by the absence of 3-hydroxy fatty acids. The major polyamine was homospermidine. The main cellular fatty acids included summed feature 8 (comprising C18?:?1?7c and/or C18?:?1?6c) and C16?:?0. Based on the low level of DNA-DNA relatedness (ranging from 26.1?% to 58.7?%) to these type strains of species of the genus Sphingomonas and unique phenotypic characteristics, strain 1007(T) represents a novel species of the genus Sphingomonas, for which the name Sphingomonas yantingensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 1007(T) (?=?DSM 27244(T)?=?JCM 19201(T)?=?CCTCC AB 2013146(T)). PMID:24363294

Huang, Jing; Huang, Zhi; Zhang, Zhen-Dong; He, Lin-Yan; Sheng, Xia-Fang

2014-03-01

299

The composition of dissolved organic matter in forest soil solutions: changes induced by seasons and passage through the mineral soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dissolved organic matter in forest soils is a mixture of specific low-molecular-weight compounds and high-molecular-weight polyelectrolytes. The distribution of molecules of different molecular charge, weight, and size controls the reactivity of dissolved organic matter in the soil and, once exported from the soil, in the aqueous environment. The objective of this study was to track changes in the molecular composition

Klaus Kaiser; Georg Guggenberger; Ludwig Haumaier; Wolfgang Zech

2002-01-01

300

Mineral Occurrence, Translocation, and Weathering in Soils Developed on Four Types of Carbonate and Non-carbonate Alluvial Fan Deposits in Mojave Desert, Southeastern California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil geomorphology and mineralogy can reveal important clues about Quaternary climate change and geochemical process occurring in desert soils. We investigated (1) the mineral transformation in desert soils developed on four types of alluvial fans (carbonate and non-carbonate) under the same conditions of climate and landscape evolution; and (2) the effects of age, parent materials, and eolian processes on the transformation and translocation of the minerals. Four types of alluvial-fan deposits along the Providence Mountains piedmonts, Mojave Desert, southeastern California, USA were studied: (1) carbonate rocks, primarily limestone and marble (LS), (2) fine-grained rhyodacite and rhyolitic tuff mixed with plutonic and carbonate rocks (VX), (3) fine- to coarse- grained mixed plutonic (PM) rocks, and (4) coarse-grained quartz monzonite (QM). These juxtaposed fan deposits are physically correlated in a small area (about 20 km by 15 km) and experienced the same climatic changes in the late Pleistocene and Holocene. The soils show characteristic mineral compositions of arid/semiarid soils: calcite is present in nearly all of the samples, and a few of the oldest soils contain gypsum and soluble salts. Parent material has profound influence on clay mineral composition of the soils: (1) talc were observed only in soils developed on the volcanic mixture fan deposits, and talc occurs in all horizons; (2) palygorskite occur mainly in the petrocalcic (Bkm) of old soils developed on the LS and VX fan deposits, indicating pedogenic origin; (3) chlorite was observed mainly in soils developed on VX fan deposits (all ages) and on some LS deposits, but it is absent in soils developed on PM and QM fan deposits; and (4) vermiculite was common throughout soils developed on plutonic rock fan deposits. These mineralogical differences suggest that minerals in the soils are primarily inherited from their parent materials and that mineral weathering in this area was weak. Except the abundance of palygorskite, soils developed on alluvial fans with different ages (4,000 to 200,000 yrs old) did not show other distinct mineralogy difference as a function of age or soil development, which supports the weak weathering of the soils. The results suggest that the clays in the argillic horizons are primarily derived from the accumulation of desert dust, and with time, are translocated into subsoil horizons. The pedogenic accumulation of dust is a soil-geomorphic process common to the Mojave Desert, as well as other deserts in the world.

Deng, Y.; McDonald, E. V.

2007-12-01

301

The role of reaction affinity and secondary minerals in regulating chemical weathering rates at the Santa Cruz Soil Chronosequence, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to explore the reasons for the apparent discrepancy between laboratory and field weathering rates and to determine the extent to which weathering rates are controlled by the approach to thermodynamic equilibrium, secondary mineral precipitation, and flow rates, a multicomponent reactive transport model (CrunchFlow) was used to interpret soil profile development and mineral precipitation and dissolution rates at the 226 ka Marine Terrace Chronosequence near Santa Cruz, CA. Aqueous compositions, fluid chemistry, transport, and mineral abundances are well characterized [White A. F., Schulz M. S., Vivit D. V., Blum A., Stonestrom D. A. and Anderson S. P. (2008) Chemical weathering of a Marine Terrace Chronosequence, Santa Cruz, California. I: interpreting the long-term controls on chemical weathering based on spatial and temporal element and mineral distributions. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta72 (1), 36-68] and were used to constrain the reaction rates for the weathering and precipitating minerals in the reactive transport modeling. When primary mineral weathering rates are calculated with either of two experimentally determined rate constants, the nonlinear, parallel rate law formulation of Hellmann and Tisserand [Hellmann R. and Tisserand D. (2006) Dissolution kinetics as a function of the Gibbs free energy of reaction: An experimental study based on albite feldspar. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta70 (2), 364-383] or the aluminum inhibition model proposed by Oelkers et al. [Oelkers E. H., Schott J. and Devidal J. L. (1994) The effect of aluminum, pH, and chemical affinity on the rates of aluminosilicate dissolution reactions. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta58 (9), 2011-2024], modeling results are consistent with field-scale observations when independently constrained clay precipitation rates are accounted for. Experimental and field rates, therefore, can be reconciled at the Santa Cruz site. Additionally, observed maximum clay abundances in the argillic horizons occur at the depth and time where the reaction fronts of the primary minerals overlap. The modeling indicates that the argillic horizon at Santa Cruz can be explained almost entirely by weathering of primary minerals and in situ clay precipitation accompanied by undersaturation of kaolinite at the top of the profile. The rate constant for kaolinite precipitation was also determined based on model simulations of mineral abundances and dissolved Al, SiO 2(aq) and pH in pore waters. Changes in the rate of kaolinite precipitation or the flow rate do not affect the gradient of the primary mineral weathering profiles, but instead control the rate of propagation of the primary mineral weathering fronts and thus total mass removed from the weathering profile. Our analysis suggests that secondary clay precipitation is as important as aqueous transport in governing the amount of dissolution that occurs within a profile because clay minerals exert a strong control over the reaction affinity of the dissolving primary minerals. The modeling also indicates that the weathering advance rate and the total mass of mineral dissolved is controlled by the thermodynamic saturation of the primary dissolving phases plagioclase and K-feldspar, as is evident from the difference in propagation rates of the reaction fronts for the two minerals despite their very similar kinetic rate laws.

Maher, Kate; Steefel, Carl I.; White, Art F.; Stonestrom, Dave A.

2009-05-01

302

The role of reaction affinity and secondary minerals in regulating chemical weathering rates at the Santa Cruz Soil Chronosequence, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In order to explore the reasons for the apparent discrepancy between laboratory and field weathering rates and to determine the extent to which weathering rates are controlled by the approach to thermodynamic equilibrium, secondary mineral precipitation, and flow rates, a multicomponent reactive transport model (CrunchFlow) was used to interpret soil profile development and mineral precipitation and dissolution rates at the 226 ka Marine Terrace Chronosequence near Santa Cruz, CA. Aqueous compositions, fluid chemistry, transport, and mineral abundances are well characterized [White A. F., Schulz M. S., Vivit D. V., Blum A., Stonestrom D. A. and Anderson S. P. (2008) Chemical weathering of a Marine Terrace Chronosequence, Santa Cruz, California. I: interpreting the long-term controls on chemical weathering based on spatial and temporal element and mineral distributions. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 72 (1), 36-68] and were used to constrain the reaction rates for the weathering and precipitating minerals in the reactive transport modeling. When primary mineral weathering rates are calculated with either of two experimentally determined rate constants, the nonlinear, parallel rate law formulation of Hellmann and Tisserand [Hellmann R. and Tisserand D. (2006) Dissolution kinetics as a function of the Gibbs free energy of reaction: An experimental study based on albite feldspar. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 70 (2), 364-383] or the aluminum inhibition model proposed by Oelkers et al. [Oelkers E. H., Schott J. and Devidal J. L. (1994) The effect of aluminum, pH, and chemical affinity on the rates of aluminosilicate dissolution reactions. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 58 (9), 2011-2024], modeling results are consistent with field-scale observations when independently constrained clay precipitation rates are accounted for. Experimental and field rates, therefore, can be reconciled at the Santa Cruz site. Additionally, observed maximum clay abundances in the argillic horizons occur at the depth and time where the reaction fronts of the primary minerals overlap. The modeling indicates that the argillic horizon at Santa Cruz can be explained almost entirely by weathering of primary minerals and in situ clay precipitation accompanied by undersaturation of kaolinite at the top of the profile. The rate constant for kaolinite precipitation was also determined based on model simulations of mineral abundances and dissolved Al, SiO2(aq) and pH in pore waters. Changes in the rate of kaolinite precipitation or the flow rate do not affect the gradient of the primary mineral weathering profiles, but instead control the rate of propagation of the primary mineral weathering fronts and thus total mass removed from the weathering profile. Our analysis suggests that secondary clay precipitation is as important as aqueous transport in governing the amount of dissolution that occurs within a profile because clay minerals exert a strong control over the reaction affinity of the dissolving primary minerals. The modeling also indicates that the weathering advance rate and the total mass of mineral dissolved is controlled by the thermodynamic saturation of the primary dissolving phases plagioclase and K-feldspar, as is evident from the difference in propagation rates of the reaction fronts for the two minerals despite their very similar kinetic rate laws. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

Maher, K.; Steefel, C. I.; White, A. F.; Stonestrom, D. A.

2009-01-01

303

Treatment of petroleum-contaminated soils using iron mineral catalyzed hydrogen peroxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Naturally-occurring iron minerals, goethite and magnetite, were used to catalyze hydrogen peroxide and initiate Fenton-like reaction of silica sand contaminated with diesel and\\/or kerosene in batch system. Optimum reaction conditions were investigated by varying H2O2 concentrations (0, 1, 7, 15, and 35wt%) and iron mineral contents (0, 1, 5 and 10wt%). Contaminant degradation in silica sand-iron mineral-H2O2 system was identified

Sung-Ho Kong; Richard J. Watts; Jin-Ho Choi

1998-01-01

304

Volatilization, Plant Uptake and Mineralization of Nitrogen in Soils Treated with Sewage Sludge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Field and laboratory experiments were conducted to quantify the amount of ammonia volatilization taking place after application of sewage sludge to the soil surface, evaluate the movement of nitrogen and plant uptake from soils treated with sewage sludge,...

L. E. Sommers C. F. Parker G. J. Meyers

1981-01-01

305

Warming-enhanced preferential microbial mineralization of humified boreal forest soil organic matter: Interpretation of soil profiles along a climate transect using laboratory incubations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Humified soil organic matter storage in boreal forests is large, and its responses to warming over relatively long timescales is critical for predicting soil feedbacks to climate change. To derive information relevant across decades to centuries from manipulative short-term experiments, we conducted incubations of soils from two forested sites along the Newfoundland-Labrador Boreal Ecosystem Latitude Transect in eastern Canada and assessed linkages between incubation data and these sites' profile characteristics. The sites differ in mean annual temperature by 3.4°C, but vegetation and soil types are similar. Organic soils (Oe + Oa) were incubated for 120 days at 15°C and 20°C, with and without a replaced Oi subhorizon possessing a distinct ?13C signature. Laboratory warming induced significantly greater mineralization and leaching of humified SOM relative to replaced Oi, congruent with greater warming-induced increases in phenol oxidase activity relative to enzymes associated with labile C acquisition (percent increases of 101% versus 50%, respectively). These data suggest that warming can influence microbial communities and their enzymatic dynamics such that relative losses of humified SOM are disproportionately enhanced. This is consistent with stable isotopic, C:N, and radiocarbon profile differences between the two sites, which suggest a greater degree of microbial processing and greater relative losses of older SOC over the preceding decades at the warmer site, given our knowledge of organic inputs in these soils. This study is a first step toward linking the divergent timescales represented by soil profiles and laboratory manipulations, an important goal for biogeochemists assessing climate change impacts on SOM dynamics.

Li, Jianwei; Ziegler, Susan; Lane, Chad S.; Billings, Sharon A.

2012-06-01

306

Microbial biomass and mineral N transformations in soil planted with barley, ryegrass, pea or turnip  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants of barley (Hordeum vulgare), ryegrass (Lolium perenne), pea (Pisum sativum) or turnip (Brassica campestris rapifera) were grown in pots of unfertilised soil for 10 weeks together with unplanted control pots. A wide range of soil microbiological parameters was measured on bulk soil samples 2, 4, 7 and 10 weeks after seedlings were transplanted. There was no effect of planting

Ron Wheatley; Karl Ritz; Bryan Griffiths

1990-01-01

307

Root-Parasitic Nematodes Enhance Soil Microbial Activities and Nitrogen Mineralization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obligate root-parasitic nematodes can affect soil microbes positively by enhancing C and nutrient leakage from roots but negatively by restricting total root growth. However, it is unclear how the resulting changes in C availability affect soil microbial activities and N cycling. In a microplot experiment, effects of root-parasitic reniform nematodes (Rotylenchulus reniformis) on soil microbial biomass and activities were examined

C. Tu; S. R. Koenning; S. Hu

2003-01-01

308

INFLUENCE OF SOIL MINERAL COLLOIDS ON METABOLIC PROCESSES, GROWTH, ADHESION, AND ECOLOGY OF MICROBES AND VIRUSES  

EPA Science Inventory

Soil is an extremely complex habitat for microbes because of the heterogeneity of soil particulates, the constantly changing water and gas regimes, the discontinuity between microhabitats, the intermittent supply of nutrients, etc. The complexity of soil is reflected in the heter...

309

[Responses of net soil nitrogen mineralization rate in moss-covered soil to hydrothermic factors in Shapotou regions, northern China].  

PubMed

Undisturbed soil cores were incubated in laboratory at different temperatures (-10, 5, 15, 25, 35 and 40 degrees C) and moistures (29%, 58%, 85% and 170% of field water content, FWC) to analyze the effect of moss crusts, which were sampled from the natural vegetation area of Shapotou, on soil nitrogen transformation and their responses to hydrothermic factors. Results showed that immobilization was the dominant form of nitrogen transformation at the lower temperatures (<15 degrees C), and when the temperature surpassed 25 degrees C, the nitrogen transformation rate significantly increased. The nitrogen transformation rate in the moss-covered soil was more sensitive to temperature variation than in the bare soil, and the highest temperature sensitivity was at 85% FWC. It indicated that the existence and succession of moss crusts facilitated nitrogen transformation. In addition, the nitrogen transformation rates of two microhabitats increased initially and then declined with the increasing moisture, and the maximum nitrogen transformation rate was observed at 85% FWC. Significant interactive effects were found between temperature and moisture in the moss-covered soil. While, the greater enhancement in nitrogen transformation rate appeared at higher temperatures (25-40 degrees C ) and moderate moisture levels (58% FWC and 85% FWC). It was concluded that the existence and succession of moss crusts would increase the ability of soil nitrogen supply, promote nitrogen cycling and even contribute to the restoration of soil ecosystem. PMID:24830238

Hu, Rui; Wang, Xin-Ping; Pan, Yan-Xia; Zhang, Ya-Feng; Zhang, Ke; Zhang, Hao

2014-02-01

310

Mineral magnetic properties of surface soils and sands across four North African transects and links to climatic gradients  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In light of their earlier success in characterizing and differentiating soils, sediments and atmospheric particulates, magnetic measurements were carried out on samples of North African surface soils and sands. The main aims were to document spatial variations in magnetic properties, explore their possible links to climatic gradients and their likely basis, and thereby help to differentiate potential sources for Sahara/Sahel-derived dusts. Samples were collected along four broadly north-to-south orientated transects located in Egypt, Niger, Mali, and Benin and southern Togo. These transects cover major climatic gradients ranging from hyper-arid to tropical. Across the rainfall range spanned by the Niger and Mali Transects (<100 to >800 mm/yr) there are significant north-to-south gradients in magnetic mineral concentrations. This is seen most clearly in the concentrations of the finest ferrimagnetic minerals (magnetite/maghemite), which are strongly represented in the clay fraction. Concentrations of the imperfect antiferromagnetic minerals (predominantly haematite) also increase with increasing rainfall. By analogy with studies spanning a similar rainfall gradient in areas of more uniform lithology, we suggest that the most likely cause for these trends is increased chemical weathering linked to the progressively wetter climate across the Sahara/Sahel transition. Within the set of samples from Egypt (rainfall >100 to <5 mm/yr), there is a marked gradient in the coercivity of remanence in the antiferromagnetic minerals present, with coercivity increasing southwards, paralleling the trend toward increasing aridity. Given the strong spatial discrimination demonstrated, especially in the Niger and Mali transects, these potentially climate-linked gradients hold out the promise of discriminating between dust source regions.

Lyons, Richard; Oldfield, Frank; Williams, Earle

2010-08-01

311

Enumeration and characterization of the soil microflora from hydrocarbon-contaminated soil sites able to mineralize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of a plate screening technique allowed the direct isolation and quantification of polycylic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading bacteria from different soil sites. Bacteria that were able to grow on anthracene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene or pyrene as a sole carbon source were found with numbers between 103 and 105 colony-forming units (cfu)\\/g of soil dry weight, but only in samples that

M. Kästner; M. Breuer-Jammali; B. Mahro

1994-01-01

312

Rock magnetism investigation of highly magnetic soil developed on calcareous rock in Yun-Gui Plateau, China: Evidence for pedogenic magnetic minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed rock-magnetic and pedological analyses were conducted on the highly magnetic soils developed on calcareous rocks in the Yun-Gui Plateau of west-southern China in order to characterize its particular magnetic characteristics and pedogenesis of magnetic minerals. The magnetic concentration and mineralogy in the soils were determined by rock magnetism, powder X-ray diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) with the energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). The highly magnetic soils contained characteristics of highly weathered soils with a hue of 2.5YR, dominantly gibbsite-sesquioxide mineralogy, low organic matter content and high clay and free iron (Fed) content. Soil magnetic susceptibility (?lf) ranged from 2000 × 10 - 8 to 6000 × 10 - 8 m 3 kg - 1 ; but in some layers it exceeded 6000 × 10 - 8 or 6500 × 10 - 8 m 3 kg - 1 , which was the highest magnetic soils so far found in the world. Magnetic measurements indicated that the frequency-dependent susceptibility (?lf - ?hf) ranged from 210 × 10 - 8 to 720 × 10 - 8 m 3 kg - 1 , suggesting the presence of abundant ultrafine magnetic grains. High-temperature magnetization ( M- T) identified the magnetic carriers as maghemite and magnetite with a Curie point ( Tc) at about 230 °C and 580 °C, respectively. XRD patterns showed that the gibbsite and hematite were main clay minerals in these highly weathered soils. HRTEM/EDX analysis showed that the pedogenic nano-scale magnetite/maghemite were responsible for the high magnetic susceptibility value of the soil. These particles varied from 20 to 100 nm in size and exhibited well crystalline nanoparticles. Magnetic enhancement in the soil profile was due to increased concentration of pedogenic superparamagnetic (SP) ferrimagnetic minerals upon pedogenesis. This study provided a strong evidence for the evolution of pedogenic magnetic minerals in the soils formed on non-magnetic parent materials. The identification in magnetic properties and mineralogy of the highly magnetic soils has significance for pedoenvironmental implications.

Lu, S. G.; Chen, D. J.; Wang, S. Y.; Liu, Y. D.

2012-02-01

313

Effects of land use and mineral characteristics on the organic carbon content, and the amount and composition of Na-pyrophosphate soluble organic matter in subsurface soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land use and mineral characteristics affect the balance of organic carbon in surface as well as in subsurface soils and related feedbacks on soil functions like their potential to mitigate the greenhouse effect. Actually, there are less information about the effects of land use as well as soil properties on the amount and composition of organic matter (OM) for subsurface soils as compared to surface soils. Here we aimed to analyze the long-term impact of arable and forest land use and soil mineral characteristics on subsurface soil organic carbon (SOC) contents, as well as on amount and composition of OM sequentially separated by Na-pyrophosphate solution (OM(PY)) from subsurface soil samples. Seven soils different in mineral characteristics were selected within Germany. Soil samples were taken from subsurface horizons of forest and adjacent arable sites continuously used >100 years. The OM(PY) fractions were analysed on their OC content (OCPY) and characterized by FTIR spectroscopy. A distinct influence of the long-term land use on the SOC contents could not be detected because only for four out of seven sites the forest subsurface soils showed larger SOC contents than the adjacent agricultural soils. A generally site independent enhanced OC sequestration in subsurface soils due to differences in land use cannot be expected in the long-term. Multiple regression analyses indicated for the arable subsurface soils significant positive relationships between the SOC contents and combined effects of the i) exchangeable Ca (Caex) and oxalate soluble Fe (Feox), and ii) the Caex and Alox contents. For the arable subsurface soils the increase of OCPY* (OCPY multiplied by the relative C=O content of OM(PY)) by increasing contents of Caex indicated that OM(PY) mainly interacts with Ca2+ cations. For the forest subsurface soils (pH <5), the OCPY contents were found to be related to the contents of Na-pyrophosphate soluble Fe and Al. The long-term arable and forest land use seems to result in different OM(PY)-mineral interactions in subsurfac soils. Based on this we hypothesize that a long-term land use change from arable to forest may lead to a shift from mainly OM(PY)-Ca2+ to mainly OM(PY)-Fe3+ and -Al3+ interactions if the pH of subsurface soils significantly decrease (i.e. <5).

Ellerbrock, R.; Kaiser, M.; Walter, K.; Sommer, M.

2010-12-01

314

Minerals Masquerading As Enzymes: Abiotic Oxidation Of Soil Organic Matter In An Iron-Rich Humid Tropical Forest Soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oxidative reactions play an important role in decomposing soil organic matter fractions that resist hydrolytic degradation, and fundamentally affect the cycling of recalcitrant soil carbon across ecosystems. Microbial extracellular oxidative enzymes (e.g. lignin peroxidases and laccases) have been assumed to provide a dominant role in catalyzing soil organic matter oxidation, while other potential oxidative mechanisms remain poorly explored. Here, we show that abiotic reactions mediated by the oxidation of ferrous iron (Fe(II)) could explain high potential oxidation rates in humid tropical forest soils, which often contain high concentrations of Fe(II) and experience rapid redox fluctuations between anaerobic and aerobic conditions. These abiotic reactions could provide an additional mechanism to explain high rates of decomposition in these ecosystems, despite frequent oxygen deficits. We sampled humid tropical forest soils in Puerto Rico, USA from various topographic positions, ranging from well-drained ridges to riparian valleys that experience broad fluctuations in redox potential. We measured oxidative activity by adding the model humic compound L-DOPA to soil slurries, followed by colorimetric measurements of the supernatant solution over time. Dilute hydrogen peroxide was added to a subset of slurries to measure peroxidative activity. We found that oxidative and peroxidative activity correlated positively with soil Fe(II) concentrations, counter to prevailing theory that low redox potential should suppress oxidative enzymes. Boiling or autoclaving sub-samples of soil slurries to denature any enzymes present typically increased peroxidative activity and did not eliminate oxidative activity, further suggesting the importance of an abiotic mechanism. We found substantial differences in the oxidation products of the L-DOPA substrate generated by our soil slurries in comparison with oxidation products generated by a purified enzyme (mushroom tyrosinase). Tyrosinase generated a red compound (dopachrome) that is the target analyte of the traditional L-DOPA oxidative enzyme assay, whereas our soil slurries generated purple melanin-like compounds that were likely generated by more extensive oxidation. To investigate the importance of Fe(II) for L-DOPA oxidation, we added realistic concentrations of Fe(II) (equivalent to 10 - 500 ?g Fe g-1 soil) to an L-DOPA buffer solution under oxic conditions, and found rates of L-DOPA oxidation comparable to those from soil slurries. Molecular oxygen and Fe(II) are known to generate strong oxidants via Fenton reactions. We decreased L-DOPA oxidation rates in soil slurries by adding catalase and superoxide-dismutase enzymes to scavenge reactive oxygen species, suggesting that a free-radical mechanism contributed to L-DOPA oxidation. We obtained similar results using another humic model compound, tetramethylbenzidine (TMB). Although abiotic oxidative reactions involving iron have been employed to degrade anthropogenic organic contaminants, this study is among the first to demonstrate their potential importance for oxidizing organic matter in natural ecosystems. In soils rich in Fe(II), abiotic reactions could complement, or even obviate, the role of microbial oxidative enzymes in degrading recalcitrant organic compounds.

Hall, S. J.; Silver, W. L.

2010-12-01

315

Mineral Dissolution and Metal Mobility From Rhizosphere and Non-rhizosphere Soils by Low Molecular Weight Organic Acids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research is part of an ongoing investigation of micro-biogeochemistry in the rhizosphere of co-occurring Eucalyptus mannifera and Acacia falciformis on the Southern Tablelands of New South Wales, Australia. While there is still considerable controversy in the literature regarding the roles of low molecular weight organic acids in soil processes there is growing evidence suggesting low molecular weight compounds, especially di-carboxylic acids, have large impacts on mineral dissolution and metal mobility in the rhizosphere. Rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere samples from adjacent E. mannifera and A. falciformis trees were subjected to four separate treatments in sets of 3 replicates; +oxalic acid, +malic acid, +citric acid or +NaCl control solution. These three acids were chosen because they are produced by rhizosphere species and they form stable complexes with nutrient elements such as Phosphorus (P), Iron (Fe), and Calcium (Ca). Solution samples were collected at day 1, day 8 and day 15 for pH measurement and analysed for major and trace elements by ICP-AES and ICP-MS. The results of the preliminary dissolution experiments show that milli-molar concentrations of individual organic acids, malate and oxalate, and in particular citrate, greatly increase the release of major and trace metals to solution compared to inorganic controls. Concentrations of Al and Fe in organic acid solutions were up to 10 times greater than in the inorganic controls. Si concentrations were a factor of 2-5 greater in the organic acid solutions, suggesting preferential weathering of Fe and Al oxyhydroxide phases rather than primary silicate minerals. Dissolution of elements such as Si, Al and Fe from rhizosphere soils were about twice that observed from non-rhizosphere soils, further supporting this. Interestingly Ti and Zr, which are usually considered to be immobile during chemical weathering and are not usually taken up by plants, were also mobilised from the rhizosphere soils, especially in the citric acid solution.

Little, D. A.; Field, J. B.; Welch, S. A.

2005-12-01

316

Mineral ecophysiological evidence for microbial activity in banded iron formation  

SciTech Connect

The phosphorus composition of banded-iron formations (BIFs) has been used as a proxy for Precambrian seawater composition and the paleoeredox state of Earth's surface environment. However, it is unclear whether the phosphorus in BIFs originally entered the sediment as a sorbed component of the iron oxyhydroxide particles, or whether it was incorporated into the biomass of marine phytoplankton. We conducted high-resolution mineral analyses and report here the first detection of an Fe(III) acetate salt, as well as nanocrystals of apatite in association with magnetite, in the 2.48 Ga Dales Gorge Member of the Brockman Iron Formation (a BIF), Hamersley, Western Australia. The clusters of apatite are similar in size and morphology to biogenic apatite crystals resulting from biomass decay in Phanerozoic marine sediments, while the formation of an Fe(III) acetate salt and magnetite not only implies the original presence of biomass in the BIF sediments, but also that organic carbon likely served as an electron donor during bacterial Fe(III) reduction. This study is important because it suggests that phytoplankton may have played a key role in the transfer of phosphorus (and other trace elements) from the photic zone to the seafloor.

Li, Dr. Yi-Liang [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Konhauser, Dr, Kurt [University of Alberta; Cole, David R [ORNL; Phelps, Tommy Joe [ORNL

2011-01-01

317

Non-Ligninolytic TNT Mineralization in Contaminated Soil by Phanerochaete chrysosporium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The explosive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) is widely used and results in widespread soil contamination. The white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has been shown to degrade TNT, using the peroxidase enzyme. In this study, we report peroxidase-independent degradation of TNT by non-ligninolytic P. chrysosporium. Significant disappearance of TNT from highly contaminated soil using P. chrysosporium has been observed. Soil highly contaminated with TNT

Sisir K. Dutta; Michelle M. Jackson; Li Hua Hou; David Powell; Henry E. Tatem

1998-01-01

318

The impact of four ethylene oxide-propylene oxide block copolymers on the surface tension of dispersions of soils and minerals in water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comprehensive series of aqueous solutions of four ethylene oxide-propylene oxide-ethylene oxide block copolymers (EPE) of varying concentrations have been prepared. The EPE molecules are amphiphilic with the P blocks providing the hydrophobic segment of the molecules and the E blocks providing the hydrophilic parts. The surface tension of these solutions has been measured and compared with the surface tension of dispersions of soils (a clay soil and a sandy soil) and minerals (quartz-silica sand, bentonite and kaolinite) in the same aqueous solutions. It is observed that all the block copolymers reduce the surface tension of water; the extent to which it is reduced is determined by the surface activity of the EPE block copolymer, which in turn is related to the balance between the sizes of the P and E blocks. It is further observed that the in the presence of soil the surface tension increases as a result of block copolymer adsorption to the soil/water interface. The extent of adsorption appears to be related to the texture of the soil - the clay soil used in this investigation adsorbs more block copolymer than the sandy soil. In the presence of the mineral phases the surface tension reductions are variable. With bentonite the EPE block copolymers are completely adsorbed at low EPE concentrations as shown by surface tension values that are the same as those measured for pure water. Adsorption to kaolinite is limited and once the adsorption sites have been filled the surface tension of the aqueous phase is approaches the surface tension of the same solution without the presence of bentonite. On the other hand the silica sand is a poor adsorbent. Adsorption to the mineral phases is also dependent upon the relative hydrophobicity of the block copolymer. The more hydrophobic (as inferred by the critical micelle concentration) the copolymer the less readily it is adsorbed by the mineral phases. Thus relatively hydrophobic EPE block copolymers produce a relatively large decrease in surface tension and are less readily adsorbed by the soil and mineral phases. It is concluded that the presence of EPE block copolymers in soils can result in the drainage of soil water from the saturated zone as a result of surface tension reductions. However the extent of drainage is related to the surface activity/molecular composition of the EPE block copolymer; the textural class of the soil and the nature of the minerals present in the soil.

Hagenhoff, Kerstin; Dong, Jingfeng; Chowdhry, Babur; Torres, Luis; Leharne, Stephen

319

Rock types and mineral chemistry of lunar soil from the Mare Crisium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gabbro, dolerite, and basalt are mare-type rocks found in Luna-24 samples, while plagioclase (An 80-96), clinopyroxenes of different composition, and olivine (Fa 23-99) are the main rockforming minerals. The prevalence of other minerals is examined. Two main types of rocks, crystoballite-type gabbro and olivine-type gabbro, are distinguished, while the dolerites are considered to be intermediate. Luna-24 rocks are Al2O3-rich low-titanium

L. S. Tarasov; M. A. Nazarov; I. D. Shevaleevskii; A. F. Kudriashova; A. S. Gaverdovskaia; M. I. Korina

1977-01-01

320

Petrology of basalt and single-mineral fragments in the soil of the Sea of Fertility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Basalt and single-mineral particles, ranging from 150 to 425 microns, from the Luna-16 sample are studied by electron microanalysis, X-ray fluorescence analysis, and petrographic techniques. Three basalt species of different structure are identified. The structure and composition of the individual minerals (in particular of pyroxenes) indicate that the basalts have crystallized under conditions similar to those established for Apollo-11 samples.

Bence, A. E.; Holzwarth, W.; Papike, J. J.

1974-01-01

321

Usefulness of NIR spectroscopy for the estimation of the mineral composition and texture of soils and heavy metal uptake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accumulation of heavy metals in soils from different sources (atmospheric deposition, agricultural practices, urban-industrial activities, etc.) is of a great environmental concern. In this sense, there is a consensus in the literature that the total heavy metals in soil are not a suitable tool for risk assessment regarding heavy metal mobility and bioavailability. Several approaches have been proposed to estimate this bioavailability but controversy exists to define an universal method. The bioavailability is influenced, apart from other properties like pH, organic matter, etc., by the mineral fraction and texture of a soil. However, the determination of these parameters, especially the mineral composition, is laborious, expensive, and time consuming. Thus, the objectives of this work are the estimation of the texture and mineral components of contrasting soils and the heavy metal uptake (Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cr, Cd) by barley after sewage sludge application using NIR spectroscopy. A set of 70 contrasting soils from different parts of Spain were used for the analysis of the texture and mineral composition. The mineralogical characterization of soil samples was carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD) using whole soil random powder, oriented clay on ceramic plates, and clay random powder. Chung method was used for semi-quantitative interpretation of X-ray diffraction patterns of soils, obtaining the percentage of Calcite (Ca), Quartz (Q), Albite (Ab), Potassium Feldspar (FK), phyllosilicates (PS). For the prediction of heavy metal uptake, the 70 soils were divided in two separate sets of 36 (experiment 1) and 34 (experiment 2) soils. The methodology for both experiments, separated in time, was the same. The soils were amended with the same dose of sewage sludge (15.71 g dry weight kg-1) and placed in pots. In these pots, a bioassay with barley, under greenhouse conditions, was carried out. Eight weeks after sowing, the plants were harvested. Roots were dried in an oven at 65°C for 2 days, and total heavy metals were determined. The soil samples (air-dried and ground to pass through 2-mm sieve) were placed in glass Petri-dishes, and scanned on reflectance mode from 12000 to 3800 cm-1. For these measurements, a Fourier-Transform near infrared (FT-NIR) spectrophotometer (MPA, Bruker Optik GmbH, Germany) was used. Partial least squares (PLS) regressions were performed to relate the spectral information with the studied parameters. For the mineral parameters and texture, and according to the RPD value, the following models were obtained: excellent for Ca (R2=90.33; RPD=3.24) and Ab (R2=86.03; RPD=2.70), very good (where quantitative predictions are possible) for silt (R2=77.61; RPD=2.13), sand (R2=75.46; RPD=2.03), Q (R2=75.72; RPD=2.04) and FK (R2=78.97; RPD=2.20), and fair models which may be used for assessment and correlation for clay (R2=68.19; RPD=1.78) and PS (R2=67.63; RPD=1.77). For the case of the estimation of the heavy metal uptake, and using the results obtained in the experiment 1, very good models were obtained for Pb (R2=80.75; RPD=2.31), fair, where only high and low values are distinguishable, Ni (R2=50.13; RPD=1.43) and Cd (R2=57.65; RPD=1.56), and poor for Cu (R2=21.94; RPD=1.15), Zn (R2=1.03; RPD=1.02) and Cr (R2=46.01; RPD=1.38). The models developed with the results obtained in the experiment 2 were classified as follows: excellent for Zn (R2=87.62; RPD=2.89) and Ni (R2=85.67; RPD=2.68), very good for Pb (R2=75.08; RPD=2.04) and Cd (R2=77.37; RPD=2.13), good for Cu (R2=72.54; RPD=1.94), and fair for Cr (R2=54.9; RPD=1.51). Although satisfactory results were found for Cu and Zn in the experiment 2 (surprisingly, after the bad results of the experiment 1), they seemed not to be useful, since they were influenced by just one high value, very different to the rest. However, this was not the case of the rest of studied metals, which seemed to have similar patterns in both experiments, with logical differences due to the different ranges, soils, etc. The results indicate that NIR spectroscopy can be a very usef

Soriano-Disla, J. M.; Gómez, I.; Jordán, M. M.; Guerrero, C.; Navarro-Pedreño, J.; Meseguer, S.; Sanfeliu, T.

2009-04-01

322

Multiscale Assessment of Methylarsenic Reactivity in Soil. 2. Distribution and Speciation in Soil  

SciTech Connect

Methylated forms of arsenic (As), monomethylarsenate (MMA) and dimethylarsenate (DMA), have historically been used as herbicides and pesticides. Because of their large application to agriculture fields and the toxicity of MMA and DMA, the distribution, speciation, and sorption of methylated As to soils requires investigation. Monomethylarsenate and DMA were reacted with a soil up to one year under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Microsynchrotron based X-ray fluorescence ({mu}-SXRF) mapping studies showed that MMA and DMA were heterogeneously distributed in the soil and were mainly associated with iron oxyhydroxides, e.g., goethite, in the soil. Micro-X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra collected from As hotspots showed MMA and DMA were demethylated to arsenate over one year incubation under aerobic conditions. Monomethylarsenate was methylated to DMA, and DMA was maintained as DMA over a 3 month incubation under anaerobic conditions. Arsenic-iron precipitation, such as the formation of scorodite (FeAsO{sub 4} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O), was not observed, indicating that MMA and DMA were mainly associated with Fe-oxyhydroxides as sorption complexes.

M Shimizu; Y Arai; D Sparks

2011-12-31

323

CLAY MINERALS AND THE ACCUMULATION OF SOIL ORGANIC MATTER IN NORTHWESTERN U.S. FORESTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Globally soils are an important terrestrial reservoir of carbon, storing approximately 3 times the carbon held in vegetation and 2 times the amount contained in the atmosphere. With the potential for global climate change it is imperative that world soils continue to be a sink f...

324

DETERMINATION OF KINETICS OF PHOSPHORUS MINERALIZATION IN SOILS UNDER OXIDIZING CONDITIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

In search of a better approach to predict phosphorus movement in soils from applied wastewaters, reactions of added orthophosphates were studied in 9 different soils with widely varying physical and chemical properties. Information obtained on the nature and rate of P reaction wi...

325

Impact of Lead and Sewage Sludge on Soil Microbial Biomass and Carbon and Nitrogen Mineralization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage sludge disposal on arable land is viewed as a method to reduce waste accumulation and to enrich soil fertility. However, such disposal can degrade soil ecosystems due to the presence of potentially harmful substances, such as heavy metals. Pb has assumed greater significance because currently its dispersal through anthropogenic activities has exceeded the inputs from natural sources by about

G. H. Dar

1997-01-01

326

Effect of simulated acid rain on nitrification and nitrogen mineralization in forest soils  

SciTech Connect

To determine the possible microbiological changes in soil resulting from acid rain, columns containing samples of forest soils were leached with either a continuous application of 100cm of simulated acid rain (pH3.2-4.1) at 5 cm/hour or an intermittent 1.5-hour application of 1.2 cm of simulated acid rain twice weekly for 19 weeks. The upper 1.0- to 1.5-cm portions of soil from treated columns were used to determine the changes in inorganic N levels in the soil. Nitrification of added ammonium (NH4(+)) was inhibited following continuous exposure of soil to simulated acid rain of pH 4.1-3.2. The extent of the inhibition was directly related to the acidity of the simulated rain solutions. The production of inorganic N in the absence of added NH(+) was either stimulated or unaffected following continuous treatment of soils with pH 3.2 simulated acid rain. The addition of nitrapyrine, an inhibitor of autotrophic nitrification, caused a decrease in nitrification in water-treated soil but had little effect on nitrification in soil treated with pH 3.2 simulated acid rain.

Strayer, R.F.; Lin, C.J.; Alexander, M.

1981-01-01

327

Chemical and mineral control of soil carbon turnover in abandoned tropical pastures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated changes in soil carbon (C) cycling with reforestation across a long-term, replicated chronosequence of tropical secondary forests regrowing on abandoned pastures. We applied CP MAS 13C NMR spectroscopy and radiocarbon modeling to soil density fractions from the top 10 cm to track changes in C chemistry and turnover during secondary forest establishment on former pastures. Our results showed that

Erika Marín-Spiotta; Christopher W. Swanston; Margaret S. Torn; Whendee L. Silver; Sarah D. Burton

2008-01-01

328

Changes in hot water soil extracts brought about by nitrogen immobilization and mineralization processes during incubation of amended soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

During incubation of an acid cambisol and an alkaline fluvisol, amended with glucose and nitrate, hot water soil extracts were analysed for N content, ultraviolet absorption, and fluorescence. Humic substances in the hot water extracts and in a neutral sodium pyrophosphate extract were fractionated on polyvinylpyrrolidone and measured spectroscopically. Changes in the hot water and pyrophosphate extract compositions were related

G. Redl; C. Hübner; F. Wurst

1990-01-01

329

Extraordinary soils give insight into the role of non-crystalline minerals in soil carbon response to climate and land use changes (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volcanic ash-derived soils often have enormous capacity to store carbon (C) due to complex, amorphous mineralogy. On the Island of Hawaii, a series of acrudoxic Hydrudands present along the windward slopes of Mauna Kea underlie a mosaic of vegetation ranging from undisturbed native forest to grass-dominated pasture and managed Eucalyptus plantations. These soils demonstrate a particularly strong ability to store C, even under scenarios of climate and land use change. We tested the effect of mean annual temperature (MAT) on ecosystem C storage along a 5 °C gradient and found that although fluxes of C belowground increased with MAT, total C storage, radiocarbon-based mean residence time, distribution of C among pools, and temperature sensitivity of decomposition did not change with MAT. Instead of MAT controlling these factors belowground, we identified that organo-Al complexes that were abundant in many of the soils across the gradient were the dominant factor positively associated with exceptional C storage. Further, in a sorption study from the same gradient, these same complexes also were identified as the primary driver of dissolved organic matter retention and of preferential sorption of aromatic compounds. Adjacent to the undisturbed sites, we paired a series of pasture and Eucalyptus plantation plots to determine whether conversion between these land-uses impacted C storage. We found that 10 years of plantation on previous pasture increased total soil C storage by 14.8%. Significant increases in total C occurred in the 18-72 cm depth section, consistent with the tree rooting depth. Further, within this depth increment the C fraction dominated by organo-mineral association significantly increased with plantation. These results collectively suggest the capacity for these extraordinary soils to retain carbon lies within the complex non-crystalline mineralogy and likely will be retained under future scenarios of climate and land use change.

Crow, S. E.; Lazaro, M.; Reeves, M. I.; Litton, C. M.; Giardina, C. P.; Wells, J. M.

2013-12-01

330

Role of soil mineral components in the stabilization of organic matter in Umbric Ferralsols of South Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climatic conditions of subtropical and tropical regions support fast carbon (C) mineralization, and thus an accelerated degradation of soil organic matter (SOM) if compared to temperate region (Sánchez & Logan, 1992). However, even in those regions, there are still soil horizons that show notable C accumulation. Examples for the latter are umbric horizons in typical tropical soils, such as Ferralsols. The occurrence of this soils with thick umbric epipedons (× 100 cm thickness) in areas of South Brazil is a paradox, that still needs a better understanding (Marques et al., 2011), in particular since the processes that are responsible for the thickness and darkness of the umbric horizons are of special interest with respect to the role of soils as carbon sink. One major contributor to SOM stabilization represents the soil mineral phase. Therefore the main goal of this work its to study the impact of this factor on the SOM sequestration in Umbric Ferralsols from Atibaia, Campinas (São Paulo State) and Chapecó (Santa Catarina State) developed under different environmental conditions. With this objective the mineral fractions have been isolated by selective extraction of iron and aluminium oxides with different extracting solutions (sodium pyrophosphate, ammonium oxalate and dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate solution) and related to SOM quality and quantity. The latter was studied by the use of solid-state cross polarisation (CPMAS) 13C NMR spectroscopy after demineralization with hydrofluoric acid (Gonçalves et al., 2003). Quantification of the NMR spectra was performed by integration of the respective chemical shift regions under consideration of the contribution of spinning side bands. For our study the following regions were distinguished (Knicker & Lüdemann, 1995): alkyl C (0-45 ppm), N-alkyl C (45-60ppm), O-alkyl C (60-110 ppm), aryl C (110-160 ppm), carbonyl C (160-245 ppm). Preliminary results show that, the minimum vertical variation of total Fe into the profile is classical in Ferralsols and the behavior of Al points to the high presence of gibbsite in the clay fractions of the deeper horizon of the Campinas soils. The (AlP+FeP)/C ratios, obtained after extraction of the Al and Fe forms with a sodium pyrophosphate solution, were above 0.03 throughout the studied profile. According to Nierop et al. (2002) this points towards the existence of organic-metallic compounds. Most tentatively, they precipitated due to saturation of adsorption site. The solid-state 13C NMR spectra of the Chapecó samples showed that the preserved organic C is dominated by a alkyl C in lipids and amino acids (45 - 0 ppm). Other major intensities are observed between 110 and 45 ppm, in the region of O/N-alkyl C (carbohydrates, amino acids) and carboxyl C (220 to 160 ppm). The missing of a clear signal in the region between 160 and 110 ppm (signal derives from aromatic or olefinic C) indicates that in this soil lignin has minor contributions to its aromatic C content.

Velasco-Molina, Marta; Berns, Anne E.; Macias, Felipe; Knicker, Heike

2013-04-01

331

Compound-specific Sorption of Dissolved Organic Carbon on Soil Minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic carbon (OC) in soil is the largest terrestrial C sink and securely storing this pool appears to be a promising strategy to combat climate change. Sorption of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is considered to be a major process of OC preservation in deeper soils. However the soil and solution parameters and environmental factors controlling the DOC sorption rates and mechanisms are still poorly studied. We tested the influence of different physical and chemical properties of subsurface soils on the DOC sorption capacity of a wide range of temperate soils. Soil samples from B horizons were selected from various sites within the eastern United States (225 samples from 73 soil series). The maximum sorption of DOC was determined by applying different concentrations of solutions of characterized humic acid (0-100 mg/L) to the soils in batch experiments at a solid-to-solution ratio of 1:60 for 48 h and fitting to the Langmuir equation. Multiple regression analysis revealed that clay and Fe-oxide content accounted for 55 % of variation in maximum DOC sorption capacity in Ultisols and, clay content and pH were the major drivers for DOC sorption capacity of Alfisols. The maximum DOC sorption capacity of Mollisols was mainly controlled by clay and total OC content. Results also provide indirect indication that Mollisols preferentially sorb certain OC functional groups from the bulk humic acid solution. Consequently, we hypothesize that chemical nature of OC compounds impart a major control on C cycling and preservation in soils. This hypothesis was tested by studying the specific sorption and desorption of a variety of organic compounds (e.g., carbohydrates, organic acids, amino acids, phenols, and lignin) on Mollisols, Ultisols and Alfisols through batch technique. Preliminary results showed that different soil orders exhibit compound-specific sorption of DOC. The underpinning mechanisms of such sorption specificity at solution and solid phases of soils have currently been explored. This study will provide novel insights on the role of soil OC chemistry as a control for long-term preservation of C in deeper soils.

Jagadamma, S.; Heal, K.; Mayes, M. A.; Phillips, J.; Jardine, P.

2010-12-01

332

Effects of Forest Succession on Exchangeable Cation Concentrations and Nitrogen Mineralization Rates in Soils Following Logging of Eastern Hemlock Forest, Whately, Massachusetts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ecological forest successions associated with invasive species and human disturbance may alter biogeochemical cycles within New England forests. Spread of the invasive insect hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae) to eastern North America is causing mortality of the eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), prompting salvage logging. Regrowth by deciduous hardwood trees is often observed. To evaluate whether changes in nutrient cycling could be altered by forest succession, we investigated exchangeable cation chemistry and nitrogen mineralization rates for soil in a mature, eastern hemlock forest and in a juvenile black birch (Betula lenta) forest in western MA. Eastern hemlock on this property was selectively logged 20 years ago, with black birch regrowth succeeding hemlock. We measured soil pH, exchangeable acidity (Al3+ and H+), exchangeable base cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, and K+), and nitrogen mineralization rates of organic and mineral horizons for 7 incubation periods between May 2011 - July 2012. We also measured the cation exchange capacity and nitrogen mineralization rates of soils from May - July 2012 (2 incubations) in a mature deciduous forest composed primarily of black birch. At each field site, 7 soil cores were collected. Soil horizons (organic and mineral) were separated and homogenized, and 3 replicates of each composite sample were analyzed for soil geochemistry. Organic soils within the juvenile black birch plot (BB) exhibit a low pH (4.3) similar to hemlock organic soils (HEM, pH=4.2). Surprisingly, exchangeable Al3+—the dominant cation in both plots—is significantly greater in organic soils at BB than at HEM (p<.001), and base saturation is less at BB (29%) than at HEM (46%, p<0.001) due to less Ca2+. There are no significant differences in the exchangeable cation chemistry of the mineral horizons at both sites, suggesting that the acidity difference of organic matter is not due to different soil mineralogy. In comparison, organic soil at the mature black birch site (MBB) is less acidic (pH=4.8) than BB, and it has higher base saturation (59%, p<0.001). The dominant exchangeable cation at MBB is Ca2+, and exchangeable Al3+ is significantly less. These results suggest that acidity of hemlock soils increases after logging, despite hemlocks being succeeded by deciduous trees associated with more basic soils. We hypothesize that clear cutting reduces the supply of base cations to soil from throughfall and litter decomposition, enabling more Al3+ to occupy cation exchange sites. No significant differences in nitrogen mineralization rates were observed between organic soils at BB and HEM during the 2011 growing season; nitrification rates were ~1% at both sites. However, nitrogen mineralization was greater at HEM (p<0.05) during the 2012 growing season due to more NH4+. Additionally, nitrogen mineralization rates at MBB were greater (p<0.01) than both BB and HEM, mostly due to much higher nitrification at MBB (41%). The organic composition of what was previously hemlock soil appears to exhibit a strong control on nitrogen cycling beneath a juvenile deciduous successional stage.

Rhodes, A. L.; Sweezy, T.; Zukswert, J. M.; Dwyer, C. H.

2012-12-01

333

Study of current dynamics of soils from a podzol-oxisol sequence in Tahiti (French polynesia) using the test-mineral technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current soil dynamics of a podzol-oxisol climosequence located in Tahiti on basaltic and pyroclastic parent rocks has been investigated using the “test-mineral” technique. The test-mineral, a vermiculite with a high exchange capacity (161 meq\\/100 g) was placed in recoverable bags in the A and B horizons of three members of the sequence, for periods of 1 to 3.5 years.Changes

R. Jamet; B. Guillet; M. Robert; J. Ranger; G. Veneau

1996-01-01

334

Degradation and Mineralization of Nanomolar Concentrations of the Herbicide Dichlobenil and Its Persistent Metabolite 2,6-Dichlorobenzamide by Aminobacter spp. Isolated from Dichlobenil-Treated Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

2,6-Dichlorobenzamide (BAM), a persistent metabolite from the herbicide 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile (dichlo- benil), is the pesticide residue most frequently detected in Danish groundwater. A BAM-mineralizing bacterial community was enriched from dichlobenil-treated soil sampled from the courtyard of a former plant nursery. A BAM-mineralizing bacterium (designated strain MSH1) was cultivated and identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and fatty acid analysis as being

S. R. Sorensen; Maria S. Holtze; Allan Simonsen; Jens Aamand

2007-01-01

335

Depth-Related Changes in Community Structure of Culturable Mineral Weathering Bacteria and in Weathering Patterns Caused by Them along Two Contrasting Soil Profiles  

PubMed Central

Bacteria play important roles in mineral weathering and soil formation. However, few reports of mineral weathering bacteria inhabiting subsurfaces of soil profiles have been published, raising the question of whether the subsurface weathering bacteria are fundamentally distinct from those in surface communities. To address this question, we isolated and characterized mineral weathering bacteria from two contrasting soil profiles with respect to their role in the weathering pattern evolution, their place in the community structure, and their depth-related changes in these two soil profiles. The effectiveness and pattern of bacterial mineral weathering were different in the two profiles and among the horizons within the respective profiles. The abundance of highly effective mineral weathering bacteria in the Changshu profile was significantly greater in the deepest horizon than in the upper horizons, whereas in the Yanting profile it was significantly greater in the upper horizons than in the deeper horizons. Most of the mineral weathering bacteria from the upper horizons of the Changshu profile and from the deeper horizons of the Yanting profile significantly acidified the culture media in the mineral weathering process. The proportion of siderophore-producing bacteria in the Changshu profile was similar in all horizons except in the Bg2 horizon, whereas the proportion of siderophore-producing bacteria in the Yanting profile was higher in the upper horizons than in the deeper horizons. Both profiles existed in different highly depth-specific culturable mineral weathering community structures. The depth-related changes in culturable weathering communities were primarily attributable to minor bacterial groups rather than to a change in the major population structure.

Huang, Jing; Xi, Jun; Huang, Zhi; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Zhen-Dong

2014-01-01

336

Incorporating microbial ecology concepts into global soil mineralization models to improve predictions of carbon and nitrogen fluxes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

models of soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) fluxes become increasingly needed to describe climate change impacts, yet they typically have limited ability to reflect microbial activities that may affect global-scale soil dynamics. Benefiting from recent advances in microbial knowledge, we evaluated critical assumptions on microbial processes to be applied in global models. We conducted a sensitivity analysis of soil respiration rates (Cmin) and N mineralization rates (Nmin) for different model structures and parameters regarding microbial processes and validated them with laboratory incubation data of diverse soils. Predicted Cmin was sensitive to microbial biomass, and the model fit to observed Cmin improved when using site-specific microbial biomass. Cmin was less affected by the approach of microbial substrate consumption (i.e., linear, multiplicative, or Michaelis-Menten kinetics). The sensitivity of Cmin to increasing soil N fertility was idiosyncratic and depended on the assumed mechanism of microbial C:N stoichiometry effects: a C overflow mechanism upon N limitation (with decreased microbial growth efficiency) led to the best model fit. Altogether, inclusion of microbial processes reduced prediction errors by 26% (for Cmin) and 7% (for Nmin) in our validation data set. Our study identified two important aspects to incorporate into global models: site-specific microbial biomass and microbial C:N stoichiometry effects. The former requires better understandings of spatial patterns of microbial biomass and its drivers, while the latter urges for further conceptual progress on C-N interactions. With such advancements, we envision improved predictions of global C and N fluxes for a current and projected climate.

Fujita, Yuki; Witte, Jan-Philip M.; Bodegom, Peter M.

2014-03-01

337

Data compilation, synthesis, and calculations used for organic-carbon storage and inventory estimates for mineral soils of the Mississippi River Basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

U.S. Geological Survey investigations of environmental controls on carbon cycling in soils and sediments of the Mississippi River Basin (MRB), an area of 3.3 x 106 square kilometers (km2), have produced an assessment tool for estimating the storage and inventory of soil organic carbon (SOC) by using soil-characterization data from Federal, State, academic, and literature sources. The methodology is based on the linkage of site-specific SOC data (pedon data) to the soil-association map units of the U.S. Department of Agriculture State Soil Geographic (STATSGO) and Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) digital soil databases in a geographic information system. The collective pedon database assembled from individual sources presently contains 7,321 pedon records representing 2,581 soil series. SOC storage, in kilograms per square meter (kg/m2), is calculated for each pedon at standard depth intervals from 0 to 10, 10 to 20, 20 to 50, and 50 to 100 centimeters. The site-specific storage estimates are then regionalized to produce national-scale (STATSGO) and county-scale (SSURGO) maps of SOC to a specified depth. Based on this methodology, the mean SOC storage for the top meter of mineral soil in the MRB is approximately 10 kg/m2, and the total inventory is approximately 32.3 Pg (1 petagram = 109 metric tons). This inventory is from 2.5 to 3 percent of the estimated global mineral SOC pool.

Buell, Gary R.; Markewich, Helaine W.

2004-01-01

338

Sorption of VX to Clay Minerals and Soils: Thermodynamic and Kinetic Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Organophosphorus-based chemical warfare agents are unique military chemicals that are extremely toxic and could be found in the soils of military installations and former production facilities. Little data exists on the fate and transport of these chemica...

A. M. Schenning K. B. Sumpter K. M. Morrissey R. L. Cheicante

2012-01-01

339

Nitrogen mineralization and availability of mixed leguminous and non-leguminous cover crop residues in soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whereas non-leguminous cover crops such as cereal rye (Secale cereale) or annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorium) are capable of reducing nitrogen (N) leaching during wet seasons, leguminous cover crops such as hairy vetch (Vicia villosa) improve soil N fertility for succeeding crops. With mixtures of grasses and legumes as cover crop, the goal of reducing\\u000a N leaching while increasing soil N

S. Kuo; U. M. Sainju

1998-01-01

340

Factors controlling humification and mineralization of soil organic matter in the tropics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first part of this review focuses on the chemical composition and morphological features that characterize primary and secondary organic resources for humification. The chemical pathways of decomposition and humification of SOM in tropical soils are discussed referring mainly to the chemical structural changes identified by using both solid-state13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (13C NMR) of bulk soil samples and

Wolfgang Zech; Nicola Senesi; Georg Guggenberger; Klaus Kaiser; Johannes Lehmann; Teodoro M. Miano; Anja Miltner; Götz Schroth

1997-01-01

341

Effect of simulated acid rain on nitrification and nitrogen mineralization in forest soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the possible microbiological changes in soil resulting from acid rain, columns containing samples of forest soils were leached with either a continuous application of 100 cm of simulated acid rain (pH 3.2-4.1) at 5 cm\\/hour or an intermittent 1.5-hour application of 1.2 cm of simulated acid rain twice weekly for 19 weeks. The upper 1.0- to 1.5-cm portions

Richard F. Strayer; Chyi-Jiin Lin; Martin Alexander

1981-01-01

342

Fine root biomass and tree species effects on potential N mineralization in afforested sodic soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was carried out under three types of plantation forest of 40 years, growing on infertile sodic soils, poor in organic matter and N content, of Indogangetic alluvium at Lucknow (26°45' N; 80°53' E). Fine root biomass estimated under three forests did not differ much with season, or with species (106–113 g m-2) but varied with soil depth to

Bajrang Singh; K. P. Tripathi; R. K. Jain; H. M. Behl

2000-01-01

343

EFFECT OF SIMULATED ACID PRECIPITATION ON NITROGEN MINERALIZATION AND NITRIFICATION IN FOREST SOILS  

EPA Science Inventory

After exposure of samples of three forest soils(pH 3.4 and 3.9) from the Adirondacks region of New York to 60, 230, or 400 cm of simulated rain of pH 3.5 or 5.6 in 4, 14 or 24 weeks, respectively, the soil samples were seperated into the 0 to 2 and 2 to 5 cm organic layers and fu...

344

Intercropping hybrid poplar with soybean increases soil microbial biomass, mineral N supply and tree growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

We hypothesized that tree-based intercropping in southwestern Québec, Canada, would stimulate soil microbial activity and\\u000a increase soil nutrient supply, thereby benefiting the growth of trees. Our experimental design comprised alternating rows\\u000a of hybrid poplar (Populus nigra L. × P. maximowiczii A. Henry) and high-value hardwood species spaced 8 m apart, between which two alley treatments were applied 5–6 years after\\u000a planting the

David Rivest; Alain Cogliastro; Robert L. Bradley; Alain Olivier

2010-01-01

345

Impact of Organic Amendments with and Without Mineral Fertilizers on Soil Microbial Respiration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of Sewage Sludge (SS), Municipal Waste Compost (MWC) and Vermicompost (VC) with and without chemical fertilizer (Urea, 50 kg ha-1 + Potassium sulfate, 100 kg ha-1 + Triple super phosphate, 127.5 kg ha-1) on Soil Microbial Respiration (SMR) and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) in a soil cropped to soybean. Experiment was arranged in a complete block design with three replications. Organic amendments were added to soil at rate of 0 (control treatment), 20 and 40 Mg ha-1. Furthermore each level of organic fertilizers with ½ normal of chemical fertilizer was also enriched. Soil samples were taken after one year of fertilization. Results illustrated that application of organic amendments increased TOC and SMR and soybean yield compared to control and chemical fertilizer treatments. Sewage sludge amended soils showed higher SMR, TOC and soybean yield than that of other organic amendment treatments. An increasing trend was observed in all studied parameters, as rates of application increased. All parameters were greater in treatments receiving a combination of chemical fertilizers and organic amendments (enriched treatments) compared to soils receiving organic amendments alone. Results obtained by discriminate analysis indicated that rates of application were more effective to create discriminating among treatments. This study showed that TOC was significantly correlated with SMR. Significant correlation was also observed between SMR and soybean yield.

Gilani, S. S.; Bahmanyar, M. A.

346

Nitrogen mineralization in riparian soils along a river continuum within a multi-landuse basin  

EPA Science Inventory

Nitrogen dynamics in riparian systems are often addressed within one landuse type and are rarely studied on watershed scales involving multiple land uses. This study tested for both temporal trends and watershed-wide spatial patterns in N mineralization and identified site fact...

347

Nitrogen mineralization and transformation from composts and biosolids during field incubation in a sandy soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field evaluation of nutrient release from composts is important to estimate nutrient contribution to crops, potential leaching of nutrients, and, ultimately, to determine optimum application rates, timing, and placement of composts. Field incubation and laboratory analyses were conducted to evaluate the mineralization rate and transformation of N in biosolids (BSD), yard waste (YW), and West Palm Beach co-compost (WPCC). Each

Z. L. He; A. K. Alva; P. Yan; Y. C. Li; D. V. Calvert; P. J. Stoffella; D. J. Banks

2000-01-01

348

The role of DOM sorption to mineral surfaces in the preservation of organic matter in soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sorption of dissolved organic matter (DOM) is considered to be a major process in the preservation of organic matter (OM) in marine sediments. Evidence for this hypothesis includes the close relationship between sediment surface area (SA) and organic carbon (OC) concentrations and the strongly reduced biological degradability after DOM has sorbed to mineral surfaces. The aim of this study was

Klaus Kaiser; Georg Guggenberger

2000-01-01

349

Integrating plant-microbe interactions to understand soil C stabilization with the MIcrobial-MIneral Carbon Stabilization model (MIMICS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

If soil organic matter is predominantly microbial biomass, plant inputs that build biomass should also increase SOM. This seems obvious, but the implications fundamentally change how we think about the relationships between plants, microbes and SOM. Plant residues that build microbial biomass are typically characterized by low C/N ratios and high lignin contents. However, plants with high lignin contents and high C/N ratios are believed to increase SOM, an entrenched idea that still strongly motivates agricultural soil management practices. Here we use a combination of meta-analysis with a new microbial-explicit soil biogeochemistry model to explore the relationships between plant litter chemistry, microbial communities, and SOM stabilization in different soil types. We use the MIcrobial-MIneral Carbon Stabilization (MIMICS) model, newly built upon the Community Land Model (CLM) platform, to enhance our understanding of biology in earth system processes. The turnover of litter and SOM in MIMICS are governed by the activity of r- and k-selected microbial groups and temperature sensitive Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Plant and microbial residues are stabilized short-term by chemical recalcitrance or long-term by physical protection. Fast-turnover litter inputs increase SOM by >10% depending on temperature in clay soils, and it's only in sandy soils devoid of physical protection mechanisms that recalcitrant inputs build SOM. These results challenge centuries of lay knowledge as well as conventional ideas of SOM formation, but are they realistic? To test this, we conducted a meta-analysis of the relationships between the chemistry of plant liter inputs and SOM concentrations. We find globally that the highest SOM concentrations are associated with plant inputs containing low C/N ratios. These results are confirmed by individual tracer studies pointing to greater stabilization of low C/N ratio inputs, particularly in clay soils. Our model and meta-analysis results suggest that current ideas about plant-microbe-SOM relationships are unraveling. If so, our reconsideration of the mechanisms stabilizing SOM will also challenge long-held views about how to optimize plant community management to increase SOM.

Grandy, Stuart; Wieder, Will; Kallenbach, Cynthia; Tiemann, Lisa

2014-05-01

350

Impact of planted fallows and a crop rotation on nitrogen mineralization and phosphorus and organic matter fractions on a Colombian volcanic-ash soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil fertility replenishment is a critical factor that many farmers in the tropical American hillsides have to cope with to\\u000a increase food crop production. The effect of three planted fallow systems (Calliandra houstoniana-CAL, Indigofera zollingeriana-IND, Tithonia diversifolia-TTH) and a crop rotation (maize\\/beans-ROT) on soil nitrogen mineralization, organic matter and phosphorus fractions was compared\\u000a to the usual practice of allowing natural

T. A. Basamba; E. Barrios; B. R. Singh; I. M. Rao

2007-01-01

351