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Sample records for iron-oxyhydroxide soil minerals

  1. Iron oxyhydroxide mineralization on microbial extracellular polysaccharides

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Clara S.; Fakra, Sirine C.; Edwards, David C.; Emerson, David; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2010-06-22

    Iron biominerals can form in neutral pH microaerophilic environments where microbes both catalyze iron oxidation and create polymers that localize mineral precipitation. In order to classify the microbial polymers that influence FeOOH mineralogy, we studied the organic and mineral components of biominerals using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM), micro X-ray fluorescence ({mu}XRF) microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). We focused on iron microbial mat samples from a creek and abandoned mine; these samples are dominated by iron oxyhydroxide-coated structures with sheath, stalk, and filament morphologies. In addition, we characterized the mineralized products of an iron-oxidizing, stalk-forming bacterial culture isolated from the mine. In both natural and cultured samples, microbial polymers were found to be acidic polysaccharides with carboxyl functional groups, strongly spatially correlated with iron oxyhydroxide distribution patterns. Organic fibrils collect FeOOH and control its recrystallization, in some cases resulting in oriented crystals with high aspect ratios. The impact of polymers is particularly pronounced as the materials age. Synthesis experiments designed to mimic the biomineralization processes show that the polysaccharide carboxyl groups bind dissolved iron strongly but release it as mineralization proceeds. Our results suggest that carboxyl groups of acidic polysaccharides are produced by different microorganisms to create a wide range of iron oxyhydroxide biomineral structures. The intimate and potentially long-term association controls the crystal growth, phase, and reactivity of iron oxyhydroxide nanoparticles in natural systems.

  2. Iron oxyhydroxide mineralization by microbes in terrestrial environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, C. S.; Fakra, S.; Banfield, J. F.

    2004-12-01

    Many microorganisms produce extracellular organic structures that become mineralized and thus preserved. As in higher organism mineralization (e.g. shells and bones), organics template mineral nucleation and control growth. However, polymer-mediated crystal growth is a more general phenomenon that can occur in extracellular, geochemically open systems. We have been studying microbial polymers mineralized by iron oxyhydroxides in a variety of natural environments, including a flooded mine in Wisconsin, creeks in Virginia and California, and cold springs in Oregon. Enrichment culturing showed that these environments are all populated by neutrophilic iron-oxidizers. We used scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and synchrotron-based scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) to investigate the mineralogy and organic polymer functional groups. Microscopic observations revealed that these samples, while often dominated by the sheaths and stalks generally attributed to Leptothrix spp. and Gallionella, actually contain mineralized structures with a wide range of morphologies. The extent of mineralization is variable, with some environments characterized by heavy encrustations that likely formed via abiotic precipitation. We focused on the lightly mineralized polymers as this allows us to more closely examine the organic-mineral interactions. STXM work shows that the organics in the flooded mine and Virginia creek have common functional groups, including carboxyls. However, the exact ratio of functional groups may be more dependent on environmental factors than species. Our previous work showed that organic polymer fibrils template unusually long akaganeite (beta FeOOH) crystals in biofilm samples from the flooded mine. Subsequent work has shown that polymers in other environments, including polymers contained in organized structures, also template iron oxyhydroxide mineralization. Thus, microbial polymer templation of iron oxide minerals appears to be a general phenomenon. We also examined polymer mineralization in culture and abiotic synthesis experiments. We combined alginate, a well-characterized microbial polymer with carboxylic functional groups, and Fe(III) in various forms and reproduced some of the simple structures found in nature. We used STXM (with C, N, O, and Fe NEXAFS) and Fe EXAFS to follow the influence of polymers during mineral formation. NEXAFS data collected to date clearly show an evolution in interactions between polymer functional groups as iron is bound and mineralization proceeds. An understanding of polymer-mediated formation of unique minerals will allow us to better establish these minerals as biosignatures.

  3. Magnetic Properties of Antiferromagnetic Iron Oxyhydroxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guyodo, Y. J.; Till, J. L.; Lagroix, F.; Bonville, P.; Penn, R. L.; Sainctavit, P.; Carvallo, C.; ona-Nguema, G.; Morin, G.

    2013-12-01

    Weakly magnetic iron oxyhydroxides such as ferrihydrite, lepidocrocite or goethite are commonly found in diverse geological and environmental setting, including ground waters and streams, sediments, soils, or acid mine drainage. These minerals take part in multiple biological and abiological processes, and can evolve to more magnetic phases such as hematite, maghemite, or magnetite. Therefore, they represent key minerals with regard to paleoclimate, paleoenvironmental, and paleomagnetic studies. At this meeting, we will present low temperature magnetic properties acquired on fully characterized synthetic samples. The complex nature of the magnetism of these minerals is revealed by comparing magnetic data with other types of characterizations such as high-resolution transmission electron microscopy or synchrotron X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD), or by studying the early-stages of solid-state alteration (under oxidizing or reducing atmosphere). In particular, we will present recent results about the presence of ferri-magnetic nano-clusters in lepidocrocite, and about uncompensated magnetic moments in goethite nanoparticles.

  4. Linking selective chemical extraction of iron oxyhydroxides to arsenic bioaccessibility in soil.

    PubMed

    Palumbo-Roe, Barbara; Wragg, Joanna; Cave, Mark

    2015-12-01

    The relationship between As bioaccessibility using the physiologically based extraction test (PBET) and As extracted by hydroxylamine hydrochloride (HH), targeting the dissolution of amorphous Fe oxyhydroxides, is established in soils from the British Geological Survey Geochemical Baseline Survey of SW England, UK, to represent low As background and high As mineralised/mined soils. The HH-extracted As was of the same order of magnitude as the As extracted in the bioaccessibility test and proved to be a better estimate of bioaccessible As than total As (bioaccessible As - total As: r = 0.955; bioaccessible As - HH-extracted As: r = 0.974; p-values = 0.000). These results provide a means of estimating soil As bioaccessibility on the basis of the HH extraction. Further selective extraction data, using hydrochloride acid that seeks to dissolve both amorphous and crystalline Fe oxyhydroxides, indicates a decrease in the As bioaccessible fraction with the increase of the soil Fe oxyhydroxide crystallinity. PMID:26412265

  5. Modified composites based on mesostructured iron oxyhydroxide and synthetic minerals: a potential material for the treatment of various toxic heavy metals and its toxicity.

    PubMed

    Chung, Seung-Gun; Ryu, Jae-Chun; Song, Mi-Kyung; An, Byungryul; Kim, Song-Bae; Lee, Sang-Hyup; Choi, Jae-Woo

    2014-02-28

    The composites of mesostructured iron oxyhydroxide and/or commercial synthetic zeolite were investigated for use in the removal of toxic heavy metals, such as cadmium, copper, lead and arsenic, from aqueous solution. Four types of adsorbents, dried alginate beads (DABs), synthetic-zeolite impregnated beads (SZIBs), meso-iron-oxyhydroxide impregnated beads (MIOIBs) and synthetic-zeolite/meso-iron-oxyhydroxide composite beads (SZMIOIBs), were prepared for heavy metal adsorption tests. Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the removal efficiencies of cations and anions of heavy metals and the possibility of regenerating the adsorbents. Among these adsorbents, the MIOIBs can simultaneously remove cations and anions of heavy metals; they have high adsorption capacities for lead (60.1mgg(-1)) and arsenic (71.9mgg(-1)) compared with other adsorbents, such as DABs (158.1 and 0.0mgg(-1)), SZIB (42.9 and 0.0mgg(-1)) and SZMIOIB (54.0 and 5.9mgg(-1)) for lead and arsenic, respectively. Additionally, the removal efficiency was consistent at approximately 90%, notwithstanding repetitive regeneration. The characteristics of meso-iron-oxyhydroxide powder were confirmed by X-ray diffraction, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller and transmission electron microscopy. We also performed a comparative toxicity study that indicated that much lower concentrations of the powdered form of mesostructured iron oxyhydroxide had stronger cytotoxicity than the granular form. These results suggest that the granular form of meso iron oxyhydroxide is a more useful and safer adsorbent for heavy metal treatment than the powdered form. This research provides promising results for the application of MIOIBs as an adsorbent for various heavy metals from wastewater and sewage. PMID:24444456

  6. Assessing the utility of trace and rare earth elements as biosignatures in microbial iron oxyhydroxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heim, Christine; Simon, Klaus; Ionescu, Danny; Reimer, Andreas; De Beer, Dirk; Quéric, Nadia-Valérie; Reitner, Joachim; Thiel, Volker

    2015-02-01

    Microbial iron oxyhydroxides are common deposits in natural waters, recent sediments and mine drainage systems and often contain significant accumulations of trace and rare earth elements (TREE). TREE patterns are widely used to characterize minerals and rocks, and to elucidate their evolution and origin. Whether and which characteristic TREE signatures distinguish between a biological and an abiological origin of iron minerals is still not well understood. Long-term flow reactor studies were performed in the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory to investigate the development of microbial mats dominated by iron-oxidizing bacteria, namely Mariprofundus sp. and Gallionella sp. The experiments investigated the accumulation and fractionation of TREE under controlled conditions and enabled us to assess potential biosignatures evolving within the microbial iron oxyhydroxides. Concentrations of Be, Y, Zn, Zr, Hf, W, Th, Pb, and U in the microbial mats were 1e3- to 1e5-fold higher than in the feeder fluids whereas the rare earth elements and Y (REE+Y) contents were 1e4 and 1e6 fold enriched. Except for a hydrothermally induced Eu anomaly, the normalized REE+Y patterns of the microbial iron oxyhydroxides were very similar to published REE+Y distributions of Archaean Banded Iron Formations. The microbial iron oxyhydroxides from the flow reactors were compared to iron oxyhydroxides that were artificially precipitated from the same feeder fluid. These abiotic and inorganic iron oxyhydroxides show the same REE+Y distribution patterns. Our results indicate that the REE+Y mirror quite exactly the water chemistry, but they do not allow to distinguish microbially mediated from inorganic iron precipitates. All TREE studied showed an overall similar fractionation behavior in biogenic, abiotic and inorganic iron oxyhydroxides. Exceptions are Ni and Tl, which were only accumulated in the microbial iron oxyhydroxides and may point to a potential usage of these elements as microbial biosignatures.

  7. Microbial reduction of ferric iron oxyhydroxides as a way for remediation of grey forest soils heavily polluted with toxic metals by infiltration of acid mine drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiev, Plamen; Groudev, Stoyan; Spasova, Irena; Nicolova, Marina

    2015-04-01

    The abandoned uranium mine Curilo is a permanent source of acid mine drainage (AMD) which steadily contaminated grey forest soils in the area. As a result, the soil pH was highly acidic and the concentration of copper, lead, arsenic, and uranium in the topsoil was higher than the relevant Maximum Admissible Concentration (MAC) for soils. The leaching test revealed that approximately half of each pollutant was presented as a reducible fraction as well as the ferric iron in horizon A was presented mainly as minerals with amorphous structure. So, the approach for remediation of the AMD-affected soils was based on the process of redoxolysis carried out by iron-reducing bacteria. Ferric iron hydroxides reduction and the heavy metals released into soil solutions was studied in the dependence on the source of organic (fresh or silage hay) which was used for growth and activity of soil microflora, initial soil pH (3.65; 4.2; and 5.1), and the ion content of irrigation solutions. The combination of limestone (2.0 g/ kg soil), silage addition (at rate of 45 g dry weight/ kg soil) in the beginning and reiterated at 6 month since the start of soil remediation, and periodical soil irrigation with slightly acidic solutions containing CaCl2 was sufficient the content of lead and arsenic in horizon A to be decreased to concentrations similar to the relevant MAC. The reducible, exchangeable, and carbonate mobile fractions were phases from which the pollutants was leached during the applied soil remediation. It determined the higher reduction of the pollutants bioavailability also as well as the process of ferric iron reduction was combined with neutralization of the soil acidity to pH (H2O) 6.2.

  8. Magnetic birefringence of iron oxyhydroxide nanoparticles stabilised by sucrose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koralewski, M.; Pochylski, M.; Gierszewski, J.

    2011-05-01

    Magnetically induced optical birefringence is used to investigate pharmaceutically important iron-sucrose aqueous suspensions. XRD and TEM measurements of the system of oxyhydroxide particles stabilised by sucrose have shown that this system contains iron oxyhydroxide in the form of 2-5 nm particles. The mineral form of the iron-core is suggested to be akaganeite. Anisotropy of the optical polarizability and magnetic susceptibility of akaganeite nanoparticles are calculated. The permanent dipole moment obtained for the nanoparticles studied was found to be negligible, in agreement with the characteristic superparamagnetic behaviour of the magnetic nanoparticles observed at room temperature. The Neel temperature of these nanoparticles is estimated as below 276 K. The results obtained are discussed against a background of the earlier studies of similar nanoscale systems.

  9. Biomimetic lithography and deposition kinetics of iron oxyhydroxide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Rieke, P.C.; Wood, L.L.; Marsh, B.M.; Fryxell, G.E.; Engelhard, M.H.; Baer, D.R.; Tarasevich, B.J. |; John, C.M.

    1993-12-01

    Heterogeneous nucleation and crystal growth on functionalized organic substrates is a critical step in biological hard tissue formation. Self assembled monolayers can be derivatized with various organic functional groups to mimic the ``nucleation proteins`` for induction of mineral growth. Studies of nucleation and growth on SAMs can provide a better understanding of biomineralization and can also form the basis of a superior thin film deposition process. We demonstrate that micron-scale, electron and ion beam, lithographic techniques can be used to pattern SAMs with functional organic groups that either inhibit or promote mineral deposition. Patterned films of iron oxyhydroxide were deposited on the areas patterned with nucleation sites. Studies of the deposition kinetic of these films show that indeed the surface induces heterogeneous nucleation and that film formation does not occur via absorption of polymers or colloidal material formed homogeneously in solution. The nucleus interfacial free energy was calculated to be 24 mJ/m2 on a SAM surface composed entirely of sulfonate groups.

  10. Spectroscopic Evidence for Ni(Ii) Surface Speciation at the Iron Oxyhydroxides-Water Interface

    SciTech Connect

    Arai, Y.

    2009-05-11

    Understanding in situ metal surface speciation on mineral surfaces is critical to predicting the natural attenuation of metals in the subsurface environment. In this study, we have demonstrated the novel Ni K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurements needed to understand Ni(II) surface speciation in three synthetic iron oxyhydroxides (ferrihydrite, goethite, and hematite). The adsorption of Ni gradually increases with increasing pH from 5 to 8, and the adsorption edge appears at near the point of zero salt effect (PZSE) of the solids. The results of XAS analysis indicate four different Ni inner-sphere surface species are present. While total Ni surface species in hematite at pH 6.85 surfaces consist of {approx}63% face-sharing (interatomic distance of Ni-Fe (R{sub Ni-Fe}) {approx}2.9 {angstrom}) and {approx}37% corner-sharing (R{sub Ni-Fe} 4.0 {angstrom}) surface species on iron octahedra, a combination of two different edge-sharing (between NiO{sub 6} and FeO{sub 6} octahedra, in chains or in rows) and corner-sharing surface species are observed in goethite and ferrihydrite at pH 5.09-6.89. In ferrihydrite, approximately 70% of surface species are edge-sharing surface species (in chains) (R{sub Ni-Fe} 3.0 {angstrom}), followed by {approx}30% of edge-sharing species (in rows) (R{sub Ni-Fe} {approx}3.2 {angstrom}) and {approx}3-5% of corner-sharing surface species (R{sub Ni-Fe} 4.0{angstrom}). Goethite contains {approx}54% edge-sharing (R{sub Ni-Fe} 3.0 {angstrom}), {approx}26% edge-sharing (R{sub Ni-Fe} {approx}3.2 {angstrom}), and 20% corner-sharing surface species. These findings indicate that the reactivity and surface speciation of Ni are sensitive to the crystallinity of iron oxyhydroxides. The spectroscopic evidence for multi-Ni surface speciation should be factored into predictions of the transport of Ni in soil-water environments.

  11. Adsorption of selenium by amorphous iron oxyhydroxide and manganese dioxide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Balistrieri, L.S.; Chao, T.T.

    1990-01-01

    This work compares and models the adsorption of selenium and other anions on a neutral to alkaline surface (amorphous iron oxyhydroxide) and an acidic surface (manganese dioxide). Selenium adsorption on these oxides is examined as a function of pH, particle concentration, oxidation state, and competing anion concentration in order to assess how these factors might influence the mobility of selenium in the environment. The data indicate that 1. 1) amorphous iron oxyhydroxide has a greater affinity for selenium than manganese dioxide, 2. 2) selenite [Se(IV)] adsorption increases with decreasing pH and increasing particle concentration and is stronger than selenate [Se(VI)] adsorption on both oxides, and 3. 3) selenate does not adsorb on manganese dioxide. The relative affinity of selenate and selenite for the oxides and the lack of adsorption of selenate on a strongly acidic surface suggests that selenate forms outer-sphere complexes while selenite forms inner-sphere complexes with the surfaces. The data also indicate that the competition sequence of other anions with respect to selenite adsorption at pH 7.0 is phosphate > silicate > molybdate > fluoride > sulfate on amorphous iron oxyhydroxide and molybdate ??? phosphate > silicate > fluoride > sulfate on manganese dioxide. The adsorption of phosphate, molybdate, and silicate on these oxides as a function of pH indicates that the competition sequences reflect the relative affinities of these anions for the surfaces. The Triple Layer surface complexation model is used to provide a quantitative description of these observations and to assess the importance of surface site heterogeneity on anion adsorption. The modeling results suggest that selenite forms binuclear, innersphere complexes with amorphous iron oxyhydroxide and monodentate, inner-sphere complexes with manganese dioxide and that selenate forms outer-sphere, monodentate complexes with amorphous iron oxyhydroxide. The heterogeneity of the oxide surface sites is reflected in decreasing equilibrium constants for selenite with increasing adsorption density and both experimental observations and modeling results suggest that manganese dioxide has fewer sites of higher energy for selenite adsorption than amorphous iron oxyhydroxide. Modeling and interpreting the adsorption of phosphate, molybdate, and silicate on the oxides are made difficult by the lack of constraint in choosing surface species and the fact that equally good fits can be obtained with different surface species. Finally, predictions of anion competition using the model results from single adsorbate systems are not very successful because the model does not account for surface site heterogeneity. Selenite adsorption data from a multi-adsorbate system could be fit if the equilibrium constant for selenite is decreased with increasing anion adsorption density. ?? 1990.

  12. Molecular Mechanisms of Iron Oxyhydroxide Biomineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, C. S.; Fakra, S.; de Stasio, G.; Banfield, J. F.

    2003-12-01

    Neutrophilic iron-oxidizing microbes such as Gallionella and PV-1 (Emerson and Moyer, 1997) extrude polymers that become encrusted with iron oxides. Little is known about the identity of these polymers, their biological function and the roles they play in mineralization. To this end, we are investigating iron oxidizers in natural terrestrial iron-rich microbial mat communities, culturing and characterizing them in the laboratory and performing abiotic synthesis experiments based on the natural mineralization processes. Our sampling site is in a flooded former lead-zinc mine in Tennyson, WI, which is host to thick reddish-orange microbial mats. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy studies show that the mat is composed of iron oxide-covered stalks and sheaths (like those formed by Gallionella and Leptothrix spp.), as well as tangled masses of mineralized filaments. There is evidence of polymer influence on mineral phase and morphology in the form of extremely thin (few-unit cell wide), microns-long akaganeite (β -FeOOH) crystals at the center of these mineralized filaments. We are using synchrotron-based X-ray spectromicroscopy (PEEM-photoelectron emisson microscopy and STXM-scanning transmission X-ray microscopy), which has the ability to give chemical information on heterogenous samples at high spatial resolutions. Both PEEM and STXM show that these filaments contain polysaccharides, which are likely templating the akaganeite formation. Initial iron oxide synthesis experiments using model microbial polysaccharides support this hypothesis. Further synthesis and characterization by X-ray absorption and infrared spectroscopy methods is being performed in order to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of mineral nucleation and growth.

  13. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions of pedogenic phyllosilicates and iron oxyhydroxides: Development of modern surface domain arrays and implications for paleotemperature reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabor, N. J.; Montanez, I. P.

    2002-12-01

    Mineralogic, chemical, and oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions of 68 different modern soil and paleosol phyllosilicate and iron oxyhydroxide samples are presented. The chemical and mineralogic data are used in conjunction with published thermodynamic data to calculate hydrogen and oxygen isotope fractionation factors for each sample. These temperature-dependent fractionation values are then combined with modern global oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions of meteoric water and temperature data from the IAEA database to construct modern surface domains (MSD) for each phyllosilicate and iron oxyhydroxide sample with the coordinates dD and d18O. The hydrogen isotopic compositions of the phyllosilicates range from -108S to -24S, whereas the oxygen isotopic compositions range from +10.2S to +22.7S. The hydrogen isotopic compositions of the iron oxyhydroxides range from -113S to -154S, whereas the oxygen isotopic compositions range from +3.1S to -3.2S. All of the phyllosilicate samples from modern soils plot within the MSD and yield equilibrium temperatures of formation similar to measured temperatures at each respective site. These results suggest that published thermodynamic data provide good estimates of natural systems. Paleo-equatorial Permo-Pennsylvanian phyllosilicates and iron oxyhydroxides plot within the MSD, or at slightly higher temperatures than MSD values (25 to 35° C). Eocene kaolinites plot within the MSD with equilibrium temperatures above modern temperatures (22°). Late Triassic iron oxyhydroxides from Argentina plot within the modern surface domain at temperatures of 12° C. However, the phyllosilicate data points plot well outside their respective MSDs, suggesting the phyllosilicate δ D values of these Triassic samples have likely been altered by proton-diffusion.

  14. Stable Cluster Formation in Aqueous Suspensions of Iron Oxyhydroxide Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, B.; Lu, G.; Kim, C.S.

    2007-07-09

    Metal oxide and oxyhydroxide nanoparticles are important components of natural aqueous systems and have application in photocatalysis. Uncoated (oxyhydr)oxide nanoparticles can form charge-stabilized colloids in water, but the precise regimes of dispersion and aggregation have been determined for very few nanomaterials. We studied the colloidal behavior of {approx}6 nm nanoparticles of iron oxyhydroxide (FeOOH), a common natural nanoscale colloid, and found that these nanoparticles formed stable suspended clusters under a range of aqueous conditions. Light and X-ray scattering methods show that suspended fractal nanoclusters are formed between pH 5 and 6.6 with well-defined maximum diameters that can be varied from 25 nm to approximately 1000 nm. The nanoclusters retain a very high surface area, and persist in suspension for at least 10 weeks in solution. The process is partially reversible because optically transparent suspensions are regained when nanoparticles that aggregated and settled at pH >7 are adjusted to pH 4 without stirring. However, completely redispersed nanoparticles are not obtained even after one month. Because nanocluster formation is controlled predominantly by surface charge, we anticipate that many metal oxide and other inorganic nanoparticles will exhibit equivalent cluster-forming behavior. Our results indicate that natural nanoparticles could form stable nanoclusters in groundwater that are likely to be highly mobile, with implications for the long-range transport of surface sorbed contaminants.

  15. Sequestration of non-pure carbon dioxide streams in iron oxyhydroxide-containing saline repositories

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcia, S.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Palandri, James L.; Maroto-Valer, M. Mercedes

    2012-01-01

    Iron oxyhydroxide, goethite (α-FeOOH), was evaluated as a potential formation mineral reactant for trapping CO2 in a mineral phase such as siderite (FeCO3), when a mixture of CO2-SO 2 flue gas is injected into a saline aquifer. Two thermodynamic simulations were conducted, equilibrating a CO2-SO2 fluid mixture with a NaCl-brine and Fe-rich rocks at 150 °C and 300 bar. The modeling studies evaluated mineral and fluid composition at equilibrium and the influence of pH buffering in the system. Results show siderite precipitates both in the buffered and unbuffered system; however, the presence of an alkaline pH buffer enhances the stability of the carbonate. Based on the model, an experiment was designed to compare with thermodynamic predictions. A CO2-SO2 gas mixture was reacted in 150 ml of NaCl-NaOH brine containing 10 g of goethite at 150 °C and 300 bar for 24 days. Mineralogical and brine chemistry confirmed siderite as the predominant reaction product in the system. Seventy-six mg of CO2 are sequestered in siderite per 10 g of goethite.

  16. Effect of Transport and Aging Processes on Metal Speciation in Iron Oxyhydroxide Aggregates, Tar Creek Superfund Site, Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estes, E. R.; Schaider, L. A.; Shine, J. P.; Brabander, D. J.

    2010-12-01

    Following the cessation of mining activity in the late 20th century, Tar Creek Superfund Site was left highly contaminated by Pb, Zn, and Cd. Tar Creek, which flows through the site and into the Neosho River, has been studied extensively because of its potential to transport metals from the mining site to downstream communities. Previous research identified aggregated iron oxyhydroxide material, which forms when mine seepage mixes with Tar Creek surface water, as a major transport vector of metals. Frequent flooding in Tar Creek deposits aggregates on downstream floodplains, where wetting and drying processes alter the speciation of iron and other metals. This study seeks to better quantify those changes and to determine how transport and aging affects the human and ecological health risk. Sequential extractions of aggregate samples collected from the creek demonstrate that Fe is present in both amorphous (10-35% of Fe extracted) and more crystalline (8-23% of Fe extracted) phases. Substantial portions of heavy metals sorb to amorphous iron oxyhydroxide phases (accounting for 10-30% of Pb and Zn extracted) but are not associated with more crystalline iron oxide phases (representing only 1% or less of the Pb and Zn extracted). Samples have a high organic matter content (18-25% mass loss on ignition), but only Fe was significantly extracted by the oxidizing step targeting organic matter (1-2% of Pb and Zn extracted, but 10-26% of Fe extracted). The majority of metals were extracted by the soluble or residual steps. If metals and organic matter inhibit transformation of amorphous iron oxyhydroxide material to nano and crystalline iron oxides, then a steady-state volume of amorphous iron oxyhydroxide material with a high total sorption capacity may exist within Tar Creek, enhancing the metal flux accommodated by this transport mechanism. Once transported downstream and deposited on floodplains, however, it is hypothesized that repeated changes in soil matrix composition and thermodynamic conditions could facilitate a transformation to more crystalline iron phases and increase metal bioavailability. While preliminary data from in-creek aggregates show no clear trend in mineralogical composition with downstream transport, only the furthest downstream samples have 2-line ferrihydrite in amounts detectable by XRD.

  17. The nanosphere iron mineral(s) in Mars soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banin, A.; Ben-Shlomo, T.; Margulies, L.; Blake, D. F.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Gehring, A. U.

    1993-01-01

    A series of surface-modified clays containing nanophase (np) iron/oxyhydroxides of extremely small particle sizes, with total iron contents as high as found in Mars soil, were prepared by iron deposition on the clay surface from ferrous chloride solution. Comprehensive studies of the iron mineralogy in these 'Mars-soil analogs' were conducted using chemical extractions, solubility analyses, pH and redox, x ray and electron diffractometry, electron microscopic imaging specific surface area and particle size determinations, differential thermal analyses, magnetic properties characterization, spectral reflectance, and Viking biology simulation experiments. The clay matrix and the procedure used for synthesis produced nanophase iron oxides containing a certain proportion of divalent iron, which slowly converts to more stable, fully oxidized iron minerals. The noncrystalline nature of the iron compounds precipitated on the surface of the clay was verified by their complete extractability in oxalate. Lepidocrocite (gamma-FeOOH) was detected by selected area electron diffraction. It is formed from a double iron Fe(II)/Fe(III) hydroxyl mineral such as 'green rust', or ferrosic hydroxide. Magnetic measurements suggested that lepidocrocite converted to the more stable meaghemite (gamma-Fe203) by mild heat treatment and then to nanophase hematite (aplha-Fe203) by extensive heat treatment. Their chemical reactivity offers a plausible mechanism for the somewhat puzzling observations of the Viking biology experiments. Their unique chemical reactivities are attributed to the combined catalytic effects of the iron oxide/oxyhydroxide and silicate phase surfaces. The mode of formation of these (nanophase) iron oxides on Mars is still unknown.

  18. Associations between iron oxyhydroxide nanoparticle growth and metal adsorption/structural incorporation

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, C.S.; Lentini, C.J.; Waychunas, G.A.

    2008-09-15

    The interaction of metal ions and oxyanions with nanoscale mineral phases has not yet been extensively studied despite the increased recognition of their prevalence in natural systems as a significant component of geomedia. A combination of macroscopic uptake studies to investigate the adsorption behavior of As(V), Cu(II), Hg(II), and Zn(II) onto nanoparticulate goethite ({alpha}-FeOOH) as a function of aging time at elevated temperature (75 C) and synchrotron-based X-ray studies to track changes in both the sorption mode and the rate of nanoparticle growth reveal the effects that uptake has on particle growth. Metal(loid) species which sorb quickly to the iron oxyhydroxide particles (As(V), Cu(II)) appear to passivate the particle surface, impeding the growth of the nanoparticles with progressive aging; in contrast, species that sorb more slowly (Hg(II), Zn(II)) have considerably less impact on particle growth. Progressive changes in the speciation of these particular metals with time suggest shifts in the mode of metal uptake with time, possibly indicating structural incorporation of the metal(loid) into the nanoparticle; this is supported by the continued increase in uptake concomitant with particle growth, implying that metal species may transform from surface-sorbed species to more structurally incorporated forms. This type of incorporation would have implications for the long-term fate and mobility of metals in contaminated regions, and affect the strategy for potential remediation/modeling efforts.

  19. Biogenic iron oxyhydroxide formation at mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal vents: Juan de Fuca Ridge

    SciTech Connect

    Toner, Brandy M.; Santelli, Cara M.; Marcus, Matthew A.; Wirth, Richard; Chan, Clara S.; McCollom, Thomas; Bach, Wolfgang; Edwards, Katrina J.

    2008-05-22

    Here we examine Fe speciation within Fe-encrusted biofilms formed during 2-month seafloor incubations of sulfide mineral assemblages at the Main Endeavor Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. The biofilms were distributed heterogeneously across the surface of the incubated sulfide and composed primarily of particles with a twisted stalk morphology resembling those produced by some aerobic Fe-oxidizing microorganisms. Our objectives were to determine the form of biofilm-associated Fe, and identify the sulfide minerals associated with microbial growth. We used micro-focused synchrotron-radiation X-ray fluorescence mapping (mu XRF), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (mu EXAFS), and X-ray diffraction (mu XRD) in conjunction with focused ion beam (FIB) sectioning, and highresolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The chemical and mineralogical composition of an Fe-encrusted biofilm was queried at different spatial scales, and the spatial relationship between primary sulfide and secondary oxyhydroxide minerals was resolved. The Fe-encrusted biofilms formed preferentially at pyrrhotite-rich (Fe1-xS, 0<_ x<_ 0.2) regions of the incubated chimney sulfide. At the nanometer spatial scale, particles within the biofilm exhibiting lattice fringing and diffraction patterns consistent with 2-line ferrihydrite were identified infrequently. At the micron spatial scale, Fe mu EXAFS spectroscopy and mu XRD measurements indicate that the dominant form of biofilm Fe is a short-range ordered Fe oxyhydroxide characterized by pervasive edge-sharing Fe-O6 octahedral linkages. Double corner-sharing Fe-O6 linkages, which are common to Fe oxyhydroxide mineral structures of 2-line ferrihydrite, 6-line ferrihydrite, and goethite, were not detected in the biogenic iron oxyhydroxide (BIO). The suspended development of the BIO mineral structure is consistent with Fe(III) hydrolysis and polymerization in the presence of high concentrations of Fe-complexing ligands. We hypothesize that microbiologically produced Fe-complexing ligands may play critical roles in both the delivery of Fe(II) to oxidases, and the limited Fe(III) oxyhydroxide crystallinity observed within the biofilm. Our research provides insight into the structure and formation of naturally occurring, microbiologically produced Fe oxyhydroxide minerals in the deep-sea. We describe the initiation of microbial seafloor weathering, and the morphological and mineralogical signals that result from that process. Our observations provide a starting point from which progressively older and more extensively weathered seafloor sulfide minerals may be examined, with the ultimate goal of improved interpretation of ancient microbial processes and associated biological signatures.

  20. The immobilization of U(vi) on iron oxyhydroxides under various physicochemical conditions.

    PubMed

    Ping, Li; Zhuoxin, Yin; Jianfeng, Lin; Qiang, Jin; Yaofang, Du; Qiaohui, Fan; Wangsuo, Wu

    2014-01-01

    The immobilization of U(vi) at the solid-water interface is an important process affecting its transportation and migration in the environment, and is predominantly controlled by the sorption behavior of U(vi). In this study, U(vi) sorption on Fe(ii) and Fe(iii) oxyhydroxides prepared by a coprecipitation method was studied under a range of physicochemical conditions, including pH, ionic strength, presence of humic acid (HA) and temperature. The results showed that the sorption of U(vi) on iron oxyhydroxides is chemical, and that the principal rate limitation is due to intraparticle diffusion. The sorption of U(vi) on iron oxyhydroxides is strongly dependent on pH, but only weakly dependent on ionic strength through the entire pH range studied. Under acidic conditions, the presence of HA increases U(vi) sorption to a large degree, but an inhibiting effect on the sorption of U(vi) can be observed under alkaline conditions, due to the formation of soluble U(vi)-HA complexes. The sorption of U(vi) on iron oxyhydroxides is an endothermic process and favors high temperatures. The surface complexation model suggests three dominant monodentate inner-sphere complexes of [triple bond, length as m-dash]Fe(s)OUO2(+) (log K = 1.65), [triple bond, length as m-dash]Fe(w)OUO2OH(0) (log K = -8.00), and [triple bond, length as m-dash]Fe(w)OUO2(CO3)2(3-) (log K = 17.50), contributing to U(vi) sorption on iron oxyhydroxides over the entire observed pH range. PMID:25043996

  1. Comparison study on transformation of iron oxyhydroxides: Based on theoretical and experimental data

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Bin; Guo Hui; Li Ping; Liu Hui; Wei Yu; Hou Denglu

    2011-08-15

    We have investigated the catalytic transformation of ferrihydrite, feroxyhyte, and lepidocrocite in the presence of Fe(II). In this paper, the transformation from akaganeite and goethite to hematite in the presence of trace Fe(II) was studied in detail. The result indicates that trace Fe(II) can accelerate the transformation of akaganeite and goethite. Compared with the transformation of other iron oxyhydroxides (e.g., ferrihydrite, feroxyhyte, lepidocrocite, and akaganeite), a complete transformation from goethite to hematite was not observed in the presence of Fe(II). On the basis of our earlier and present experimental results, the transformation of various iron oxyhydroxides was compared based on their thermodynamic stability, crystalline structure, transformation mechanism, and transformation time. - Graphical abstract: The transformation of various iron oxyhydroxides in the presence of trace Fe(II) was compared based on experimental results, thermodynamic stability, crystalline structure, and transformation mechanism. Highlights: > Fe(II) can accelerate the transformation from akaganeite to hematite. > Small particles of goethite can transform to hematite in the presence of Fe(II). > Some hematite particles were found to be embedded within the crystal of goethite. > The relationship between structure and transformation mechanism was revealed.

  2. To improve the performance of sediment microbial fuel cell through amending colloidal iron oxyhydroxide into freshwater sediments.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan-Li; Yang, Ying; Chen, Mo; Zhao, Zhi-Wei; Jiang, He-Long

    2014-05-01

    Effects of iron oxide amendment into freshwater sediments on performance of sediment microbial fuel cell (SMFC) were investigated. It was found that amending amorphous bulk ferric oxyhydroxide, and crystalline goethite and magnetite did not affect SMFC operation. However, amendment of the mixed solution including soluble ferric citrate and colloidal iron oxyhydroxide, stably improved SMFC performance with voltage outputs up to threefolds higher than those without amendment. The enhanced voltage production corresponded to lower anode potential, but was not related to organic matter removal in sediments. Further experiments demonstrated that colloidal iron oxyhydroxide instead of soluble ferric iron played an important role in voltage production through maintaining high-concentration ferrous iron in pore water of sediments as electron shuttle and for chemical oxidation on the anode. Thus, colloidal iron oxyhydroxide amendment was a promising strategy to improve power production from SMFC employed in sediments especially with low content of organic matters. PMID:24657753

  3. Electron transport in pure and substituted iron oxyhydroxides by small-polaron migration

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandrov, Vitali Y.; Rosso, Kevin M.

    2014-08-12

    Iron oxyhydroxides (FeOOH) are common crystalline forms of iron that play a critical role in technology and the natural environment via a variety of important reduction-oxidation reactions, including electrical semiconduction as an aspect. However, a basic understanding of the electron transport properties of these systems is still lacking. We examine the electron mobility in goethite (α-FeOOH), akaganéite (β-FeOOH), and lepidocrocite (γ -FeOOH) polymorphs by means of density functional theory based (DFT+U) calculations.We show that room temperature charge transport should be dominated by the small-polaron hopping type, and that the attendant mobility should be highest for pure goethite and akaganéite. Hopping pathways through the various lattices are discussed in terms of individual electron exchange steps and rates for each. Given the usual occurrence of compositional impurities in natural iron oxyhydroxides, we also investigate the effect of common stoichiometric defects on the electron hopping activation energies such as Al and Cr substitutional cations in goethite, and Cl anions in the channels of akaganéite.

  4. Electron transport in pure and substituted iron oxyhydroxides by small-polaron migration

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandrov, Vitaly Rosso, Kevin M.

    2014-06-21

    Iron oxyhydroxides (FeOOH) are common crystalline forms of iron that play a critical role in technology and the natural environment via a variety of important reduction-oxidation reactions, including electrical semiconduction as an aspect. However, a basic understanding of the electron transport properties of these systems is still lacking. We examine the electron mobility in goethite (α-FeOOH), akaganéite (β-FeOOH), and lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH) polymorphs by means of density functional theory based (DFT+U) calculations. We show that room temperature charge transport should be dominated by the small-polaron hopping type, and that the attendant mobility should be highest for pure goethite and akaganéite. Hopping pathways through the various lattices are discussed in terms of individual electron exchange steps and rates for each. Given the usual occurrence of compositional impurities in natural iron oxyhydroxides, we also investigate the effect of common stoichiometric defects on the electron hopping activation energies such as Al and Cr substitutional cations in goethite, and Cl anions in the channels of akaganéite.

  5. Molecular Dynamics Simulation Study of the Early Stages of Nucleation of Iron Oxyhydroxide Nanoparticles in Aqueous Solutions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hengzhong; Waychunas, Glenn A; Banfield, Jillian F

    2015-08-20

    Nucleation is a fundamental step in crystal growth. Of environmental and materials relevance are reactions that lead to nucleation of iron oxyhydroxides in aqueous solutions. These reactions are difficult to study experimentally due to their rapid kinetics. Here, we used classical molecular dynamics simulations to investigate nucleation of iron hydroxide/oxyhydroxide nanoparticles in aqueous solutions. Results show that in a solution containing ferric ions and hydroxyl groups, iron-hydroxyl molecular clusters form by merging ferric monomers, dimers, and other oligomers, driven by strong affinity of ferric ions to hydroxyls. When deprotonation reactions are not considered in the simulations, these clusters aggregate to form small iron hydroxide nanocrystals with a six-membered ring-like layered structure allomeric to gibbsite. By comparison, in a solution containing iron chloride and sodium hydroxide, the presence of chlorine drives cluster assembly along a different direction to form long molecular chains (rather than rings) composed of Fe-O octahedra linked by edge sharing. Further, in chlorine-free solutions, when deprotonation reactions are considered, the simulations predict ultimate formation of amorphous iron oxyhydroxide nanoparticles with local atomic structure similar to that of ferrihydrite nanoparticles. Overall, our simulation results reveal that nucleation of iron oxyhydroxide nanoparticles proceeds via a cluster aggregation-based nonclassical pathway. PMID:26222332

  6. Zn(II) and Cu(II) adsorption and retention onto iron oxyhydroxide nanoparticles: effects of particle aggregation and salinity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Iron oxyhydroxides are commonly found in natural aqueous systems as nanoscale particles, where they can act as effective sorbents for dissolved metals due to their natural surface reactivity, small size and high surface area. These properties make nanoscale iron oxyhydroxides a relevant option for the remediation of water supplies contaminated with dissolved metals. However, natural geochemical processes, such as changes in ionic strength, pH, and temperature, can cause these particles to aggregate, thus affecting their sorption capabilities and remediation potential. Other environmental parameters such as increasing salinity may also impact metal retention, e.g. when particles are transported from freshwater to seawater. Results After using synthetic iron oxyhydroxide nanoparticles and nanoparticle aggregates in batch Zn(II) adsorption experiments, the addition of increasing concentrations of chloride (from 0.1 M to 0.6 M) appears to initially reduce Zn(II) retention, likely due to the desorption of outer-sphere zinc surface complexes and subsequent formation of aqueous Zn-Cl complexes, before then promoting Zn(II) retention, possibly through the formation of ternary surface complexes (supported by EXAFS spectroscopy) which stabilize zinc on the surface of the nanoparticles/aggregates. In batch Cu(II) adsorption experiments, Cu(II) retention reaches a maximum at 0.4 M chloride. Copper-chloride surface complexes are not indicated by EXAFS spectroscopy, but there is an increase in the formation of stable aqueous copper-chloride complexes as chloride concentration rises (with CuCl+ becoming dominant in solution at ~0.5 M chloride) that would potentially inhibit further sorption or encourage desorption. Instead, the presence of bidentate edge-sharing and monodentate corner-sharing complexes is supported by EXAFS spectroscopy. Increasing chloride concentration has more of an impact on zinc retention than the mechanism of nanoparticle aggregation, whereas aggregation condition is a stronger determinant of copper retention. Conclusions Based on these model uptake/retention studies, iron oxyhydroxide nanoparticles show potential as a strategy to remediate zinc-contaminated waters that migrate towards the ocean. Copper retention, in contrast, appears to be optimized at an intermediate salinity consistent with brackish water, and therefore may release considerable fractions of retained copper at higher (e.g. seawater) salinity levels. PMID:24843322

  7. High-intensity ultrasonication as a way to prepare graphene/amorphous iron oxyhydroxide hybrid electrode with high capacity in lithium battery.

    PubMed

    González, José R; Menéndez, Rosa; Alcántara, Ricardo; Nacimiento, Francisco; Tirado, José L; Zhecheva, Ekaterina; Stoyanova, Radostina

    2015-05-01

    The preparation of graphene/iron oxyhydroxide hybrid electrode material with very homogeneous distribution and close contact of graphene and amorphous iron oxyhydroxide nanoparticles has been achieved by using high-intensity ultrasonication. Due to the negative charge of the graphene surface, iron ions are attracted toward the surface of dispersed graphene, according to the zeta potential measurements. The anchoring of the FeO(OH) particles to the graphene layers has been revealed by using mainly TEM, XPS and EPR. TEM observations show that the size of the iron oxide particles is about 4 nm. The ultrasonication treatment is the key parameter to achieve small particle size in these graphene/iron oxyhydroxide hybrid materials. The electrochemical behavior of composite graphene/amorphous iron oxyhydroxide prepared by using high-intensity ultrasonication is outstanding in terms of gravimetric capacity and cycling stability, particularly when metallic foam is used as both the substrate and current collector. The XRD-amorphous character of iron oxyhydroxide in the hybrid electrode material and the small particle size contribute to achieve the improved electrochemical performance. PMID:25499466

  8. Rapid sedimentation of iron oxyhydroxides in an active hydrothermal shallow semi-enclosed bay at Satsuma Iwo-Jima Island, Kagoshima, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyokawa, Shoichi; Ueshiba, Takuya

    2015-04-01

    Hydrothermal activity is common in the fishing port of Nagahama Bay, a small semi-enclosed bay located on the southwest coast of Satsuma Iwo-Jima Island (38 km south of Kyushu Island, Japan). The bay contains red-brown iron oxyhydroxides and thick deposits of sediment. In this work, the high concentration and sedimentation rates of oxyhydroxide in this bay were studied and the sedimentary history was reconstructed. Since dredging work in 1998, a thickness of ~ 1.0-1.5 m of iron oxyhydroxide-rich sediments has accumulated on the floor of the bay. To estimate the volume of iron oxyhydroxide sediments and the amount discharged from hydrothermal vents, sediment traps were operated for several years and 13 sedimentary core samples were collected to reconstruct the 10-year sedimentary history of Nagahama Bay. To confirm the timing of sedimentary events, the core data were compared with meteorological records obtained on the island, and the ages of characteristic key beds were thus identified. The sedimentation rate of iron oxyhydroxide mud was calculated, after correcting for sediment input from other sources. The sediments in the 13 cores from Nagahama Bay consist mainly of iron oxyhydroxide mud, three thick tephra beds, and a topmost thick sandy mud bed. Heavy rainfall events in 2000, 2001, 2002, and 2004-2005 coincide with tephra beds, which were reworked from Iwo-Dake ash deposits to form tephra-rich sediment. Strong typhoon events with gigantic waves transported outer-ocean-floor sediments and supplied quartz, cristobalite, tridymite, and albite sands to Nagahama Bay. These materials were redeposited together with bay sediments as the sandy mud bed. Based on the results from the sediment traps and cores, it is estimated that the iron oxyhydroxide mud accumulated in the bay at the relatively rapid rate of 33.3 cm/year (from traps) and 2.8-4.9 cm/year (from cores). The pore water contents within the sediment trap and core sediments are 73%-82% and 47%-67%, respectively. The estimated production of iron oxyhydroxide for the whole fishing port from trap cores is 142.7-253.3 t/year/5000 m2. From sediment cores, however, the accumulation of iron oxyhydroxide sediments on the sea floor is 39-95 t/year/5000 m2. This finding indicates that the remaining 63%-73% of iron was transported out to sea from Nagahama Bay. Even with a high rate of iron oxyhydroxide production, the sedimentation rate of iron oxyhydroxides in the bay is considerably higher than that observed in modern deep-ocean sediments. This example of rapid and abundant oxyhydroxide sedimentation might provide a modern analog for the formation of iron deposits in the geological record, such as ironstones and banded iron formations.

  9. The soils of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banin, A.

    1988-01-01

    A mineralogical model for the Mars fine soil that includes as major components smectite clays absorbed and coated with amorphous iron oxyhydroxides and perhaps mixed with small amounts of better-crystalized iron oxides as separate phases is proposed. Also present as accessory minerals are sulfate minerals such as kieserite (MgSO4.H2O) and/or anhydrite (CaSO4), rutile (TiO2), and maghemite (Fe2O3) or magnetite (Fe3O4), the last two as magnetic components. Carbonates may be present at low concentrations only (less than 1 to 2 pct). However, a prime question to be addressed by a Mars Sample Return Mission shall be related to the mineralogical composition of the soil, and its spatial variability.

  10. Ecophysiology of Zetaproteobacteria Associated with Shallow Hydrothermal Iron-Oxyhydroxide Deposits in Nagahama Bay of Satsuma Iwo-Jima, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Hoshino, Tatsuhiko; Kuratomi, Takashi; Morono, Yuki; Hori, Tomoyuki; Oiwane, Hisashi; Kiyokawa, Shoichi; Inagaki, Fumio

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies of microbial communities in deep-sea hydrothermal ferric deposits have demonstrated that members of Zetaproteobacteria play significant ecological roles in biogeochemical iron-cycling. However, the ecophysiological characteristics and interaction between other microbial members in the habitat still remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated microbial communities in a core sample obtained from shallow hydrothermal iron-oxyhydroxide deposits at Nagahama Bay of Satsuma Iwo-Jima, Japan. Scanning electron microscopic observation showed numerous helical stalk structures, suggesting the occurrence of iron-oxidizing bacteria. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated the co-occurrence of iron-oxidizing Zetaproteobacteria and iron-reducing bacteria such as the genera Deferrisoma and Desulfobulbus with strong correlations on the sequence abundance. CARD-FISH indicated that the numbers of Zetaproteobacteria were not always consistent to the frequency of stalk structures. In the stalk-abundant layers with relatively small numbers of Zetaproteobacteria cells, accumulation of polyphosphate was observed inside Zetaproteobacteria cells, whereas no polyphosphate grains were observed in the topmost layers with fewer stalks and abundant Zetaproteobacteria cells. These results suggest that Zetaproteobacteria store intracellular polyphosphates during active iron oxidation that contributes to the mineralogical growth and biogeochemical iron cycling. PMID:26793184

  11. Aggregation of nanoscale iron oxyhydroxides and corresponding effects on metal uptake, retention, and speciation: II. Temperature and time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stegemeier, J. P.; Reinsch, B. C.; Lentini, C. J.; Dale, J. G.; Kim, C. S.

    2015-01-01

    The aggregation and growth of nanosized particles can greatly impact their capacity to sorb and retain dissolved metals, thus affecting metal fate and transport in contaminated systems. Aqueous suspensions of synthesized nanoscale iron oxyhydroxides were exposed to dissolved Zn(II) or Cu(II) and aged at room temperature (∼20 °C), 50 °C, and 75 °C for timeframes ranging from 0 to 96 h before sorbed metal ions were desorbed by lowering the suspension pH. Atomic absorption spectroscopic analysis of supernatants both before and after the desorption step determined how temperature and time affect macroscopic metal uptake and retention capacities. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy analysis described the local binding environment of the sorbed/retained metals on the solid phase. With increasing aging temperature and time, the initial ∼5-nm oblong nanoparticles formed dense aggregates, lost reactive surface area, and retained progressively larger fractions of the initially-introduced Zn(II) and Cu(II) following the desorption step, with the copper species inhibiting the oriented aggregation of the nanoparticles into nanorods. Based on EXAFS analysis, the speciation of the sorbed metal species evolves with increasing time and temperature from surface-sorbed metal ions, which readily desorb and return to solution, to more strongly-bound, structurally-incorporated metal ions. These retained metals appear to associate intimately with the nanoparticle aggregates by substituting for iron in the nanoparticle lattice or by binding within nanoparticle aggregate pore spaces.

  12. Ecophysiology of Zetaproteobacteria Associated with Shallow Hydrothermal Iron-Oxyhydroxide Deposits in Nagahama Bay of Satsuma Iwo-Jima, Japan.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Tatsuhiko; Kuratomi, Takashi; Morono, Yuki; Hori, Tomoyuki; Oiwane, Hisashi; Kiyokawa, Shoichi; Inagaki, Fumio

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies of microbial communities in deep-sea hydrothermal ferric deposits have demonstrated that members of Zetaproteobacteria play significant ecological roles in biogeochemical iron-cycling. However, the ecophysiological characteristics and interaction between other microbial members in the habitat still remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated microbial communities in a core sample obtained from shallow hydrothermal iron-oxyhydroxide deposits at Nagahama Bay of Satsuma Iwo-Jima, Japan. Scanning electron microscopic observation showed numerous helical stalk structures, suggesting the occurrence of iron-oxidizing bacteria. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated the co-occurrence of iron-oxidizing Zetaproteobacteria and iron-reducing bacteria such as the genera Deferrisoma and Desulfobulbus with strong correlations on the sequence abundance. CARD-FISH indicated that the numbers of Zetaproteobacteria were not always consistent to the frequency of stalk structures. In the stalk-abundant layers with relatively small numbers of Zetaproteobacteria cells, accumulation of polyphosphate was observed inside Zetaproteobacteria cells, whereas no polyphosphate grains were observed in the topmost layers with fewer stalks and abundant Zetaproteobacteria cells. These results suggest that Zetaproteobacteria store intracellular polyphosphates during active iron oxidation that contributes to the mineralogical growth and biogeochemical iron cycling. PMID:26793184

  13. Iron oxyhydroxide nanorods with high electrochemical reactivity as a sensitive and rapid determination platform for 4-chlorophenol.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Cheng, Qin; Zheng, Meng; Liu, Xin; Wu, Kangbing

    2016-04-15

    Iron oxyhydroxide (FeOOH) nanorods were prepared through solvothermal reaction, and characterized using Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Thereafter, the prepared FeOOH nanorods were used as sensing material to construct a novel detection platform for 4-chlorophenol (4-CP). The electrochemical behaviors of 4-CP were studied, and the oxidation peak currents increased greatly on the surface of FeOOH nanorods. The signal enhancement mechanism was studied for 4-CP, and it was found that the prepared FeOOH nanorods remarkably improved the electron transfer ability and surface adsorption efficiency of 4-CP. The influences of pH value, amount of FeOOH nanorods and accumulation time were examined. As a result, a highly-sensitive electrochemical method was developed for the rapid determination of 4-CP. The linear range was from 10 to 500nM, and the detection limit was 3.2nM. It was used in different water samples, and the results consisted with the values that obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography. PMID:26775105

  14. The Effects of Wildfires on the Magnetic Properties of Soils in the Everglades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javier, J.; Clement, B. M.; Sah, J.; Ross, M.

    2008-12-01

    As part of an effort to better understand the role of wildfire in the Everglades ecosystem, we are studying the effects of fires on the magnetic properties of Everglades soils. We present results from a suite of soil samples collected at vegetation survey sites within the Cape Sable seaside sparrow (CSSS) habitat in southern Everglades, for which vegetation data, hydrologic data, organic carbon content, iron concentration and the fire history of the sites (burn frequency and time since the most recent burn) are available. We conducted a series of rock magnetic experiments (initial susceptibility, frequency dependent susceptibility, anhysteretic remanence acquisition and isothermal remanence acquisition) designed to identify the magnetic minerals present in these soils. Each of the samples is characterized by contributions from both low and very high-coercivity magnetic components. We interpret these components as magnetite-maghemite and goethite respectively. Following a major fire in the late Spring of 2008, we collected 20 soil cores (10 cm) from within the fire boundary, and 10 cores from nearby unburned sites. Each core was sub-sampled from the surface, and from 2 and 7 cm depths. The sites burned in 2008 showed a consistent pattern defined by a major decrease to complete removal of the very high-coercivity phase iron oxyhydroxides (goethite) in the surface and shallow samples, while greater concentrations of this phase persist at depth. The iron oxyhydroxides appeared to be nearly completely replaced by the more reduced, low-coercivity phase (magnetite/maghemite) in the surface/shallow samples as a result of the fire. Because phosphorous is strongly adsorbed onto iron oxyhydroxides (such as goethite), these results may have important implications for phosphorous cycling in fire-prone environments.

  15. Phosphate binders for the treatment of chronic kidney disease: role of iron oxyhydroxide.

    PubMed

    Cernaro, Valeria; Santoro, Domenico; Lacquaniti, Antonio; Costantino, Giuseppe; Visconti, Luca; Buemi, Antoine; Buemi, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder is frequent in patients with renal failure. It is characterized by abnormalities in mineral and bone metabolism with resulting hyperphosphatemia, low serum vitamin D, secondary hyperparathyroidism, altered bone morphology and strength, higher risk of bone fractures, and development of vascular or other soft tissue calcifications. Besides the recommendation to reduce phosphorus dietary intake, many drugs are currently available for the treatment of calcium/phosphate imbalance. Among them, phosphate binders represent a milestone. Calcium-based binders (calcium carbonate, calcium acetate) are effective in lowering serum phosphate, but their use has been associated with an increased risk of hypercalcemia and calcifications. Calcium-free binders (sevelamer hydrochloride, sevelamer carbonate, and lanthanum carbonate) are equally or slightly less effective than calcium-containing compounds. They would not induce an increase in calcium levels but may have relevant side effects, including gastrointestinal symptoms for sevelamer and risk of tissue accumulation for lanthanum. Accordingly, new phosphate binders are under investigation and some of them have already been approved. A promising option is sucroferric oxyhydroxide (Velphoro(®), PA21), an iron-based phosphate binder consisting of a mixture of polynuclear iron(III)-oxyhydroxide, sucrose, and starches. The present review is focused on pharmacology, mode of action, and pharmacokinetics of sucroferric oxyhydroxide, with a discussion on comparative efficacy, safety, and tolerability studies of this drug in chronic kidney disease and patient perspectives such as quality of life, satisfaction, and acceptability. Sucroferric oxyhydroxide has proven to be as effective as sevelamer in reducing phosphatemia with a similar safety profile and lower pill burden. Experimental and clinical studies have documented a minimal percentage of iron absorption without inducing toxicity. In conclusion, the overall benefit-risk balance of sucroferric oxyhydroxide is deemed to be positive, and this new drug may therefore represent a good alternative to traditional phosphate binders for the treatment of hyperphosphatemia in dialysis patients. PMID:26893577

  16. Phosphate binders for the treatment of chronic kidney disease: role of iron oxyhydroxide

    PubMed Central

    Cernaro, Valeria; Santoro, Domenico; Lacquaniti, Antonio; Costantino, Giuseppe; Visconti, Luca; Buemi, Antoine; Buemi, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder is frequent in patients with renal failure. It is characterized by abnormalities in mineral and bone metabolism with resulting hyperphosphatemia, low serum vitamin D, secondary hyperparathyroidism, altered bone morphology and strength, higher risk of bone fractures, and development of vascular or other soft tissue calcifications. Besides the recommendation to reduce phosphorus dietary intake, many drugs are currently available for the treatment of calcium/phosphate imbalance. Among them, phosphate binders represent a milestone. Calcium-based binders (calcium carbonate, calcium acetate) are effective in lowering serum phosphate, but their use has been associated with an increased risk of hypercalcemia and calcifications. Calcium-free binders (sevelamer hydrochloride, sevelamer carbonate, and lanthanum carbonate) are equally or slightly less effective than calcium-containing compounds. They would not induce an increase in calcium levels but may have relevant side effects, including gastrointestinal symptoms for sevelamer and risk of tissue accumulation for lanthanum. Accordingly, new phosphate binders are under investigation and some of them have already been approved. A promising option is sucroferric oxyhydroxide (Velphoro®, PA21), an iron-based phosphate binder consisting of a mixture of polynuclear iron(III)-oxyhydroxide, sucrose, and starches. The present review is focused on pharmacology, mode of action, and pharmacokinetics of sucroferric oxyhydroxide, with a discussion on comparative efficacy, safety, and tolerability studies of this drug in chronic kidney disease and patient perspectives such as quality of life, satisfaction, and acceptability. Sucroferric oxyhydroxide has proven to be as effective as sevelamer in reducing phosphatemia with a similar safety profile and lower pill burden. Experimental and clinical studies have documented a minimal percentage of iron absorption without inducing toxicity. In conclusion, the overall benefit–risk balance of sucroferric oxyhydroxide is deemed to be positive, and this new drug may therefore represent a good alternative to traditional phosphate binders for the treatment of hyperphosphatemia in dialysis patients. PMID:26893577

  17. Transformations of mercury, iron, and sulfur during the reductive dissolution of iron oxyhydroxide by sulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slowey, Aaron J.; Brown, Gordon E.

    2007-02-01

    Methylmercury can accumulate in fish to concentrations unhealthy for humans and other predatory mammals. Most sources of mercury (Hg) emit inorganic species to the environment. Therefore, ecological harm occurs when inorganic Hg is converted to methylmercury. Sulfate- and iron-reducing bacteria (SRB and FeRB) methylate Hg, but the effects of processes involving oxidized and reduced forms of sulfur and iron on the reactivity of Hg, including the propensity of inorganic Hg to be methylated, are poorly understood. Under abiotic conditions, using a laboratory flow reactor, bisulfide (HS -) was added at 40 to 250 μM h -1 to 5 g L -1 goethite (α-FeOOH) suspensions to which Hg(II) was adsorbed (30-100 nmol m -2) at pH 7.5. Dissolved Hg initially decreased from 10 3 or 10 4 nM (depending on initial conditions) to 10 -1 nM, during which the concentration of Hg(II) adsorbed to goethite decreased by 80% and metacinnabar (β-HgS (s)) formed, based on identification using Hg L III-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopic analysis. The apparent coordination of oxygens surrounding Hg(II), measured with EXAFS spectroscopy, increased during one flow experiment, suggesting desorption of monodentate-bound Hg(II) while bidentate-bound Hg(II) persisted on the goethite surface. Further sulfidation increased dissolved Hg concentrations by one to two orders of magnitude (0.5 to 10 nM or 30 nM), suggesting that byproducts of bisulfide oxidation and Fe(III) reduction, primarily polysulfide and potentially Fe(II), enhanced the dissolution of β-HgS (s) and/or desorption of Hg(II). Rapid accumulation of Fe(II) in the solid phase (up to 40 μmol g -1) coincided with faster elevation of dissolved Hg concentrations. Fe(II) served as a proxy for elemental sulfur [S(0)], as S(0) was the dominant bisulfide oxidation product coupled to Fe(III) reduction, based on sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. In one experiment, dissolved Hg concentrations tracked those of all sulfide species [S(-II)]. These results suggest that S(-II) reacted with S(0) to form polysulfide, which then caused the dissolution of β-HgS (s). A secondary Fe-bearing phase resembling poorly formed green rust was observed in sulfidized solids with scanning electron microscopy, although there was no clear evidence that either surface-bound or mineralized Fe(II) strongly affected Hg speciation. Examination of interrelated processes involving S(-II) and Fe(III) revealed new modes of Hg solubilization previously not considered in Hg reactivity models.

  18. Measuring Soil Nitrogen Mineralization under Field Conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land application of animal manure is known to alter rates of nitrogen (N) mineralization in soils, but quantitative information concerning intensity and duration of these effects has been difficult to obtain under field conditions. We estimated net effects of manure on N mineralization in soils unde...

  19. Synthesis of iron oxyhydroxide-coated rice straw (IOC-RS) and its application in arsenic(V) removal from water.

    PubMed

    Ouédraogo, Igor W K; Pehlivan, Erol; Tran, Hien T; Bonzi-Coulibaly, Yvonne L; Zachmann, Dieter; Bahadir, Müfit

    2015-09-01

    Because of the recognition that arsenic (As) at low concentrations in drinking water causes severe health effects, the technologies of As removal have become increasingly important. In this study, a simplified and effective method was used to immobilize iron oxyhydroxide onto a pretreated naturally occurring rice straw (RS). The modified RS adsorbent was characterized, using scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analyzer, and surface area analyzer. Experimental batch data of As(V) adsorption were modeled by the isotherms and kinetics models. Although all isotherms, the Langmuir model fitted the equilibrium data better than Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich models and confirmed the surface homogeneity of adsorbent. The iron oxyhydroxide-coated rice straw (IOC-RS) was found to be effective for the removal of As(V) with 98.5% sorption efficiency at a concentration of <50 mg/L of As(V) solution, and thus maximum uptake capacity is ∼22 and 20 mg As(V)/g of IOC-RS at pH 4 and 6, respectively. The present study might provide new avenues to achieve the As concentrations required for drinking water recommended by the World Health Organization. PMID:26322758

  20. Neptunium and Plutonium Sorption to Snake River Plain, Idaho Soil

    SciTech Connect

    Mincher, Bruce Jay; Fox, Robert Vincent; Cooper, David Craig; Groenewold, Gary Steven

    2003-07-01

    The behavior of Np and Pu on soil collected from the subsurface disposal area at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory was investigated by performing short-duration, sorption experiments to measure sorption isotherms. Neptunium sorption can be described with a Freundlich isotherm; however, Pu sorption can only be described in this fashion as a conservative estimate of minimum sorption. Geochemical modeling predictions suggest that initial sorption of Np is controlled predominantly by surface complexation on clay minerals, while Pu is controlled by a competition between complexation with iron oxyhydroxides and the precipitation of hydrolysis products. Longer-term sorption is governed by the transformation of these species to oxide minerals. Solution ionic strength and carbonate alkalinity did not significantly affect Np or Pu soil sorption.

  1. Mineralization of cellulose in frozen boreal soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oquist, Mats G.; Segura, Javier; Sparrman, Tobias; Nilsson, Mats; Schleucher, Jurgen

    2015-04-01

    Soils of high-latitude ecosystems store a large fraction of the global soil carbon. In boreal forests, the microbial mineralization of soil organic matter (SOM) during winter can affect the ecosystems net carbon balance. Recent research has shown that microorganisms in the organic surface layer of boreal forest soil can mineralize and grow on simple, soluble monomeric substrates under frozen conditions. However, any substantial impacts of microbial activity in frozen soils on long-term soil carbon balances ultimately depends on whether soil microorganisms can utilize and grow the more complex, polymeric constituents of SOM. In order to evaluate the potential for soil microorganisms to metabolize carbon polymers at low temperatures, we incubated boreal forest soil samples amended with [13C]-cellulose and studied the microbial catabolic and anabolic utilization of the substrate under frozen and unfrozen conditions (-4 and +4°C). Freezing of the soil markedly reduced microbial utilization of the cellulose. The [13C]-CO2 production rate in the samples at +4°C were 0.52 mg CO2 SOM -1 day-1 while rates in the frozen samples (-4°C) were 0.01 mg CO2 SOM -1 day-1. However, newly synthetized [13C]-enriched cell membrane lipids, PLFAs, were detected in soil samples incubated both above and below freezing, confirming that cellulose can sustain also anabolic activity of the microbial populations under frozen conditions. The reduced metabolic rates induced by freezing indicate constraints on exoenzymatic activity, as well as substrate diffusion rates that we can attribute to reduced liquid water content of the frozen soil. We conclude that the microbial population in boreal forest soil has the capacity to metabolize, and grow, on polymeric substrates at temperatures below zero, which involves maintaining exoenzymatic activity in frozen soils. This capacity manifests the importance of SOM mineralization during the winter season and its importance for the net carbon balance of soils of high-latitude ecosystems.

  2. The nanophase iron mineral(s) in Mars soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banin, A.; Ben-Shlomo, T.; Margulies, L.; Blake, D. F.; Gehring, A. U.

    1992-01-01

    Iron-enriched smectites have been suggested as important mineral compounds of the Martian soil. They were shown to comply with the chemical analysis of the Martian soil, to simulate many of the findings of the Viking Labeled Release Experiments on Mars, to have spectral reflectance in the VIS-NIR strongly resembling the bright regions on Mars. The analogy with Mars soil is based, in a number of aspects, on the nature and behavior of the iron oxides and oxyhydroxides deposited on the surface of the clay particles. A summary of the properties of these iron phases and some recent findings are presented. Their potential relevance to Mars surface processes is discussed.

  3. Soil Microbial Mineralization of Cellulose in Frozen Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segura, J.; Haei, M.; Sparrman, T.; Nilsson, M. B.; Schleucher, J.; Oquist, M. G.

    2014-12-01

    Soils of high-latitude ecosystems store a large fraction of the global soil carbon pool. In boreal forests, the mineralization of soil organic matter (SOM) during winter by soil heterotrophic activity can affect the ecosystems net carbon balance. Recent research has shown that microorganisms in the organic surface layer of boreal forest soil can mineralize and grow on simple, monomeric substrates under frozen conditions. However, any substantial impacts of microbial activity in frozen soils on long-term soil carbon balances depend on whether soil microorganisms can utilize the more complex, polymeric substrates in SOM. In order to evaluate the potential for soil microorganisms to metabolize carbon polymers at low temperatures, we incubated boreal forest soil samples amended with [13C]-cellulose and studied the microbial catabolic and anabolic utilization of the substrate under frozen and unfrozen conditions (-4 and +4°C). The [13C]-CO2 production rate in the samples at +4°C were 0.524 mg CO2 SOM -1 day-1 while rates in the frozen samples (-4°C) were 0.008 mg CO2 SOM -1 day-1. Thus, freezing of the soil markedly reduced microbial utilization of the cellulose. However, newly synthetized [13C]-enriched cell membrane lipids, PLFAs, were detected in soil samples incubated both above and below freezing, confirming microbial growth also in the frozen soil matrix. The reduced metabolic rates induced by freezing indicate constraints on exoenzymatic activity, as well as substrate diffusion rates that we can attribute to reduced liquid water content of the frozen soil. We conclude that the microbial population in boreal forest soil has the capacity to metabolize, and grow, on polymeric substrates at temperatures below zero. This also involves maintaining exoenzymatic activity in frozen soils. This capacity manifests the importance of SOM mineralization during the winter season and its importance for the net carbon balance of soils of high-latitude ecosystems.

  4. Soil pore structure and substrate C mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sleutel, Steven; Maenhout, Peter; Vanhoorebeke, Luc; Cnudde, Veerle; De Neve, Stefaan

    2014-05-01

    Our aim was to investigate the complex interactions between soil pore structure, soil biota and decomposition of added OM substrates. We report on a lab incubation experiment in which CO2 respiration from soil cores was monitored (headspace GC analysis) and an X-ray CT approach yielded soil pore size distributions. Such combined use of X-ray CT with soil incubation studies was obstructed, until now, by many practical constraints such as CT-volume quality, limited resolution, scanning time and complex soil pore network quantification, which have largely been overcome in this study. We incubated a sandy loam soil (with application of ground grass or sawdust) in 18 small aluminium rings (Ø 1 cm, h 1 cm). Bulk density was adjusted to 1.1 or 1.3 Mg m-3 (compaction) and 6 rings were filled at a coarser Coarse Sand:Fine Sand:Silt+Clay ratio. While compaction induced a strong reduction in the cumulative C mineralization for both grass and sawdust substrates, artificial change to a coarser soil texture only reduced net C mineralization from the added sawdust. There thus appears to be a strong interaction effect between soil pore structure and substrate type on substrate decomposition. Correlation coefficients between the C mineralization rates and volumes of 7 pore size classes (from the X-ray CT data) also showed an increasing positive correlation with increasing pore size. Since any particulate organic matter initially present in the soil was removed prior to the experiment (sieving, ashing the >53µm fraction and recombining with the <53µm fraction), the added OM can be localized by means of X-ray CT. Through on-going image analysis the surrounding porosity of the added grass or sawdust particles is being quantified to further study the interaction between the soil pore structure and substrate decomposition.

  5. Aggregation of nanoscale iron oxyhydroxides and corresponding effects on metal uptake, retention, and speciation: I. Ionic-strength and pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dale, J. G.; Stegemeier, J. P.; Kim, C. S.

    2015-01-01

    The capacity of nanosized particles to adsorb and sequester dissolved metals can be significantly impacted by the mechanism and extent of aggregation the particles have undergone, which in turn can affect the long-term fate and transport of potentially toxic metals in natural aqueous systems. Suspensions of monodisperse nanoscale iron oxyhydroxides were synthesized and subjected to increased pH (pH 8.0, 10.0) or ionic strength (0.1, 1.0 M NaNO3) conditions to induce various states of aggregation prior to conducting macroscopic adsorption/desorption experiments with dissolved Cu(II) or Zn(II). The metal adsorption and retention capacities of the nanoparticle aggregates were compared to one another and to non-aggregated control nanoparticles, while the mode(s) of metal sorption to the nanoparticle surfaces were characterized by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy analysis. With increasing aggregation by both pH and ionic strength, the proportion of introduced zinc adsorbed to the iron oxyhydroxide nanoparticles progressively decreased from 45% on the monodispersed control particles to as low as 16% on the aggregates, while the proportion of introduced zinc retained upon desorption (obtained by lowering the suspension pH) increased from 7% on the control particles to as much as 17% on the aggregated particles. Copper exhibited a subtler trend of only slightly declining uptake (from 43% to 36%) and retention (from 35% to 30%) with increasing aggregation state. EXAFS analysis was consistent with the macroscopic results, showing relatively little change in Cu speciation between samples analyzed before and after the desorption step but significant increases in Zn-Fe interatomic distances and coordination numbers after desorption. This suggests the presence of both strongly- and weakly-bound zinc ions; the latter are likely affiliated with less stable, more distorted surface sorption sites and are thus more readily desorbed, resulting in the retention of zinc that is bound to more stable, less-distorted sorption sites. For both metals, inner-sphere bidentate sorption appears to dominate the sorption process to the nanoparticle aggregates, with potential structural incorporation into the aggregates themselves.

  6. Recycling Ni from Contaminated and Mineralized Soils.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rare plant species accumulate potentially valuable concentrations of some metals. Alyssum murale readily accumulates over 2% Ni in aboveground dry matter when grown on Ni-mineralized serpentine soils in Oregon, allowing production of “hay” biomass with at least 400 kg Ni ha-1 with low levels of fer...

  7. Mineralization of metsulfuron-methyl in Chinese paddy soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A laboratory study was conducted to investigate the mineralization of metsulfuron-methyl (MSM) in paddy soils in response to soil moisture, temperature and soil properties. The results indicated that MSM mineralization was relatively limited in the paddy soils when soil temperature was low. Only 2.2...

  8. Pentachlorophenol mineralization in an immobilized soil bioreactor

    SciTech Connect

    Karamanev, D.; Chavarie, C.; Samson, R.

    1996-12-31

    The biological degradation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) was conducted in a new type of reactor-the immobilized soil bioreactor. In this bioreactor soil particles having natural microbial activity in degrading the target pollutant are entrapped into a solid membrane with a large pore size distribution. The resulting {open_quotes}immobilized soil{close_quotes} system can be easily supplied with dissolved mineral salts, oxygen and target pollutant and as a result an active microbial consortium will be quickly established. This consortium is later used for treatment of aqueous solutions of the pollutant, for instance, contaminated ground water. We have studied the process of PCP biodegradation in both batch and continuous regime. our results showed that the volumetric effectiveness of the process of PCP mineralization in the immobilized soil bioreactor is between 7 and 4000 times higher than results reported in the literature. It has been found that both chlorine and carbon atoms of PCP are at least 99% mineralized. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Humic acid facilitates the transport of ARS-labeled hydroxyapatite nanoparticles in iron oxyhydroxide-coated sand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (nHAP) have been widely used to remediate soil and wastewater contaminated with metals and radionuclides. However, our understanding of nHAP transport and fate is limited in natural environments that exhibit significant variability in solid and solution chemistry. The tr...

  10. Poliovirus Adsorption by 34 Minerals and Soils

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Rebecca S.; Taylor, Dene H.; Sturman, Lawrence S.; Reddy, Michael M.; Fuhs, G. Wolfgang

    1981-01-01

    The adsorption of radiolabeled infectious poliovirus type 2 by 34 well-defined soils and mineral substrates was analyzed in a synthetic freshwater medium containing 1 mM CaCl2 and 1.25 mM NaHCO3 at pH 7. In a model system, adsorption of poliovirus by Ottawa sand was rapid and reached equilibrium within 1 h at 4°C. Near saturation, the adsorption could be described by the Langmuir equation; the apparent surface saturation was 2.5 × 106 plaque-forming units of poliovirus per mg of Ottawa sand. At low surface coverage, adsorption was described by the Freundlich equation. The soils and minerals used ranged from acidic to basic and from high in organic content to organic free. The available negative surface charge on each substrate was measured by the adsorption of a cationic polyelectrolyte, polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride. Most of the substrates adsorbed more than 95% of the virus. In general, soils, in comparison with minerals, were weak adsorbents. Among the soils, muck and Genesee silt loam were the poorest adsorbents; among the minerals, montmorillonite, glauconite, and bituminous shale were the least effective. The most effective adsorbents were magnetite sand and hematite, which are predominantly oxides of iron. Correlation coefficients for substrate properties and virus adsorption revealed that the elemental composition of the adsorbents had little effect on poliovirus uptake. Substrate surface area and pH, by themselves, were not significantly correlated with poliovirus uptake. A strong negative correlation was found between poliovirus adsorption and both the contents of organic matter and the available negative surface charge on the substrates as determined by their capacities for adsorbing the cationic polyelectrolyte, polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride. PMID:6274259

  11. Poliovirus adsorption by 34 minerals and soils.

    PubMed

    Moore, R S; Taylor, D H; Sturman, L S; Reddy, M M; Fuhs, G W

    1981-12-01

    The adsorption of radiolabeled infectious poliovirus type 2 by 34 well-defined soils and mineral substrates was analyzed in a synthetic freshwater medium containing 1 mM CaCl(2) and 1.25 mM NaHCO(3) at pH 7. In a model system, adsorption of poliovirus by Ottawa sand was rapid and reached equilibrium within 1 h at 4 degrees C. Near saturation, the adsorption could be described by the Langmuir equation; the apparent surface saturation was 2.5 x 10(6) plaque-forming units of poliovirus per mg of Ottawa sand. At low surface coverage, adsorption was described by the Freundlich equation. The soils and minerals used ranged from acidic to basic and from high in organic content to organic free. The available negative surface charge on each substrate was measured by the adsorption of a cationic polyelectrolyte, polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride. Most of the substrates adsorbed more than 95% of the virus. In general, soils, in comparison with minerals, were weak adsorbents. Among the soils, muck and Genesee silt loam were the poorest adsorbents; among the minerals, montmorillonite, glauconite, and bituminous shale were the least effective. The most effective adsorbents were magnetite sand and hematite, which are predominantly oxides of iron. Correlation coefficients for substrate properties and virus adsorption revealed that the elemental composition of the adsorbents had little effect on poliovirus uptake. Substrate surface area and pH, by themselves, were not significantly correlated with poliovirus uptake. A strong negative correlation was found between poliovirus adsorption and both the contents of organic matter and the available negative surface charge on the substrates as determined by their capacities for adsorbing the cationic polyelectrolyte, polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride. PMID:6274259

  12. Reverse micelle synthesis of nanoscale metal containing catalysts. [Nickel metal (with a nickel oxide surface layer) and iron oxyhydroxide nanoscale powders

    SciTech Connect

    Darab, J.G.; Fulton, J.L.; Linehan, J.C.

    1993-03-01

    The need for morphological control during the synthesis of catalyst precursor powders is generally accepted to be important. In the liquefaction of coal, for example, iron-bearing catalyst precursor particles containing individual crystallites with diameters in the 1-100 nanometer range are believed to achieve good dispersion through out the coal-solvent slurry during liquefaction 2 runs and to undergo chemical transformations to catalytically active iron sulfide phases. The production of the nanoscale powders described here employs the confining spherical microdomains comprising the aqueous phase of a modified reverse micelle (MRM) microemulsion system as nanoscale reaction vessels in which polymerization, electrochemical reduction and precipitation of solvated salts can occur. The goal is to take advantage of the confining nature of micelles to kinetically hinder transformation processes which readily occur in bulk aqueous solution in order to control the morphology and phase of the resulting powder. We have prepared a variety of metal, alloy, and metal- and mixed metal-oxide nanoscale powders from appropriate MRM systems. Examples of nanoscale powders produced include Co, Mo-Co, Ni[sub 3]Fe, Ni, and various oxides and oxyhydroxides of iron. Here, we discuss the preparation and characterization of nickel metal (with a nickel oxide surface layer) and iron oxyhydroxide MRM nanoscale powders. We have used extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy to study the chemical polymerization process in situ, x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning and transmission electron microcroscopies (SEM and TEM), elemental analysis and structural modelling to characterize the nanoscale powders produced. The catalytic activity of these powders is currently being studied.

  13. The nanophase iron mineral(s) in Mars soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banin, A.; Ben-Shlomo, T.; Margulies, L.; Blake, D. F.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Gehring, A. U.

    1993-01-01

    A series of surface-modified clays containing nanophase (np) iron oxide/oxyhydroxides of extremely small particle sizes, with total iron contents as high as found in Mars soil, were prepared by iron deposition on the clay surface from ferrous chloride solution. Comprehensive studies of the iron mineralogy in these "Mars-soil analogs" were conducted using chemical extractions, solubility analyses, pH and redox, x ray and electron diffractometry, electron microscopic imaging, specific surface area and particle size determinations, differential thermal analyses, magnetic properties characterization, spectral reflectance, and Viking biology simulation experiments. The clay matrix and the procedure used for synthesis produced nanophase iron oxides containing a certain proportion of divalent iron, which slowly converts to more stable, fully oxidized iron minerals. The clay acted as an effective matrix, both chemically and sterically, preventing the major part of the synthesized iron oxides from ripening, i.e., growing and developing larger crystals. The precipitated iron oxides appear as isodiametric or slightly elongated particles in the size range 1-10 nm, having large specific surface area. The noncrystalline nature of the iron compounds precipitated on the surface of the clay was verified by their complete extractability in oxalate. Lepidocrocite (gamma-FeOOH) was detected by selected area electron diffraction. It is formed from a double iron Fe(II)/Fe(III) hydroxy mineral such as "green rust," or ferrosic hydroxide. Magnetic measurements suggested that lepidocrocite converted to the more stable maghemite (gamma-Fe2O3) by mild heat treatment and then to nanophase hematite (alpha-Fe2O3) by extensive heat treatment. After mild heating, the iron-enriched clay became slightly magnetic, to the extent that it adheres to a hand-held magnet, as was observed with Mars soil. The chemical reactivity of the iron-enriched clays strongly resembles, and offers a plausible mechanism for, the somewhat puzzling observations of the Viking biology experiments. Their unique chemical reactivities are attributed to the combined catalytic effects of the iron oxide/oxyhydroxides and silicate phase surfaces. The reflectance spectrum of the clay-iron preparations in the visible range is generally similar to the reflectance curves of bright regions on Mars. This strengthens the evidence for the predominance of nanophase iron oxides/oxyhydroxides in Mars soil. The mode of formation of these nanophase iron oxides on Mars is still unknown. It is puzzling that despite the long period of time since aqueous weathering took place on Mars, they have not developed from their transitory stage to well-crystallized end-members. The possibility is suggested that these phases represent a continuously on-going, extremely slow weathering process.

  14. Eucalyptus obliqua seedling growth in organic vs. mineral soil horizons.

    PubMed

    Barry, Karen M; Janos, David P; Nichols, Scott; Bowman, David M J S

    2015-01-01

    Eucalyptus obliqua, the most widespread timber tree in Tasmania, is a pioneer after fire which can eliminate the organic layer of forest soil, exposing the underlying mineral soil. We compared seedling growth, mycorrhiza formation, and mineral nutrient limitation in organic layer vs. mineral soil. We grew E. obliqua seedlings separately in pots of organic layer and mineral soil in a glasshouse. Additional treatments of organic soil only, involved fully crossed methyl-bromide fumigation and fertilization. Fertilization comprised chelated iron for 121 days after transplant (DAT) followed by soluble phosphorus. At 357 DAT, whole plant dry weight was three times greater in ambient organic than in mineral soil. In organic soil, fumigation halved ectomycorrhiza abundance and reduced seedling growth at 149 DAT, but by 357 DAT when negative effects of fumigation on seedling growth had disappeared, neither fumigation nor fertilization affected mycorrhiza abundance. Iron fertilization diminished seedling growth, but subsequent phosphorus fertilization improved it. E. obliqua seedlings grow much better in organic layer soil than in mineral soil, although phosphorus remains limiting. The prevalent forestry practice of burning to mineral soil after timber harvest exposes a poor growth medium likely only partially compensated by fire-induced mineral soil alterations. PMID:25750650

  15. Eucalyptus obliqua seedling growth in organic vs. mineral soil horizons

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Karen M.; Janos, David P.; Nichols, Scott; Bowman, David M. J. S.

    2015-01-01

    Eucalyptus obliqua, the most widespread timber tree in Tasmania, is a pioneer after fire which can eliminate the organic layer of forest soil, exposing the underlying mineral soil. We compared seedling growth, mycorrhiza formation, and mineral nutrient limitation in organic layer vs. mineral soil. We grew E. obliqua seedlings separately in pots of organic layer and mineral soil in a glasshouse. Additional treatments of organic soil only, involved fully crossed methyl-bromide fumigation and fertilization. Fertilization comprised chelated iron for 121 days after transplant (DAT) followed by soluble phosphorus. At 357 DAT, whole plant dry weight was three times greater in ambient organic than in mineral soil. In organic soil, fumigation halved ectomycorrhiza abundance and reduced seedling growth at 149 DAT, but by 357 DAT when negative effects of fumigation on seedling growth had disappeared, neither fumigation nor fertilization affected mycorrhiza abundance. Iron fertilization diminished seedling growth, but subsequent phosphorus fertilization improved it. E. obliqua seedlings grow much better in organic layer soil than in mineral soil, although phosphorus remains limiting. The prevalent forestry practice of burning to mineral soil after timber harvest exposes a poor growth medium likely only partially compensated by fire-induced mineral soil alterations. PMID:25750650

  16. Potential anthropogenic mobilisation of mercury and arsenic from soils on mineralised rocks, Northland, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Craw, D

    2005-02-01

    Eroded roots of hot spring systems in Northland, New Zealand consist of mineralised rocks containing sulfide minerals. Marcasite and cinnabar are the dominant sulfides with subordinate pyrite. Deep weathering and leached soil formation has occurred in a warm temperate to subtropical climate with up to 3 m/year rainfall. Decomposition of the iron sulfides in natural and anthropogenic rock exposures yields acid rock drainage with pH typically between 2 and 4, and locally down to pH 1. Soils and weathered rocks developed on basement greywacke have negligible acid neutralisation capacity. Natural rainforest soils have pH between 4 and 5 on unmineralised greywacke, and pH is as low as 3.5 in soils on mineralised rocks. Roads with aggregate made from mineralised rocks have pH near 3, and quarries from which the rock was extracted can have pH down to 1. Mineralised rocks are enriched in arsenic and mercury, both of which are environmentally available as solid solution impurities in iron sulfides and phosphate minerals. Base metals (Cu, Pb, Zn) are present at low levels in soils, at or below typical basement rock background. Decomposition of the iron sulfides releases the solid solution arsenic and mercury into the acid rock drainage solutions. Phosphate minerals release their impurities only under strongly acid conditions (pH<1). Arsenic and mercury are adsorbed on to iron oxyhydroxides in soils, concentrated in the C horizon, with up to 4000 ppm arsenic and 100 ppm mercury. Waters emanating from acid rock drainage areas have arsenic and mercury below drinking water limits. Leaching experiments and theoretical predictions indicate that both arsenic and mercury are least mobile in acid soils, at pH of c. 3-4. This optimum pH range for fixation of arsenic and mercury on iron oxyhydroxides in soils is similar to natural pH at the field site of this study. However, neutralisation of acid soils developed on mineralised rocks is likely to decrease adsorption and enhance mobility of arsenic and mercury. Hence, development of farmland by clearing forest and adding agricultural lime may mobilise arsenic and mercury from underlying soils on mineralised rocks. In addition, arsenic and mercury release into runoff water will be enhanced where sediment is washed off mineralised road aggregate (pH 3) on to farm land (pH>6). The naturally acid forest soils, or even lower pH of natural acid rock drainage, are the most desirable environmental conditions to restrict dissolution of arsenic and mercury from soils. This approach is only valid where mineralised soils have low base metal concentrations. PMID:15644268

  17. Hydrogeomorphology influences soil nitrogen and phosphorus mineralization in floodplain wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noe, Gregory B.; Hupp, Cliff R.; Rybicki, Nancy B.

    2013-01-01

    Conceptual models of river–floodplain systems and biogeochemical theory predict that floodplain soil nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) mineralization should increase with hydrologic connectivity to the river and thus increase with distance downstream (longitudinal dimension) and in lower geomorphic units within the floodplain (lateral dimension). We measured rates of in situ soil net ammonification, nitrification, N, and P mineralization using monthly incubations of modified resin cores for a year in the forested floodplain wetlands of Difficult Run, a fifth order urban Piedmont river in Virginia, USA. Mineralization rates were then related to potentially controlling ecosystem attributes associated with hydrologic connectivity, soil characteristics, and vegetative inputs. Ammonification and P mineralization were greatest in the wet backswamps, nitrification was greatest in the dry levees, and net N mineralization was greatest in the intermediately wet toe-slopes. Nitrification also was greater in the headwater sites than downstream sites, whereas ammonification was greater in downstream sites. Annual net N mineralization increased with spatial gradients of greater ammonium loading to the soil surface associated with flooding, soil organic and nutrient content, and herbaceous nutrient inputs. Annual net P mineralization was associated negatively with soil pH and coarser soil texture, and positively with ammonium and phosphate loading to the soil surface associated with flooding. Within an intensively sampled low elevation flowpath at one site, sediment deposition during individual incubations stimulated mineralization of N and P. However, the amount of N and P mineralized in soil was substantially less than the amount deposited with sedimentation. In summary, greater inputs of nutrients and water and storage of soil nutrients along gradients of river–floodplain hydrologic connectivity increased floodplain soil nutrient mineralization rates.

  18. Sorption of copper, zinc and lead on soil mineral phases.

    PubMed

    Sipos, Pter; Nmeth, Tibor; Kis, Viktria Kovcs; Mohai, Ilona

    2008-09-01

    Soil mineral phases play a significant role in controlling heavy metal mobility in soils. The effective study of their relation needs the integrated use of several analytical methods. In this study, analytical electron microscopy analyses were combined with sequential chemical extractions on soils spiked with Cu, Zn and Pb. Our aims were to study the metal sorption capacity of soil mineral phases and the effect of presence of iron oxide and carbonate on this property of soil minerals. Copper and Pb were found to be characterized by higher and stronger sorption on the studied samples than Zn. Only the former two metals showed significant differences in their immobilized metal amounts on the studied samples and soil mineral particles. Highest metal amounts were sorbed on the swelling clay mineral particles (smectites and vermiculites), but iron-oxide phases may also have similar lead sorption capacity. Alkaline conditions due to the carbonate content of soils resulted both in increased sorption on the mineral particles for Cu and in enhanced role of precipitation for all the studied metals. On the other hand, the intimate association of phyllosilicates and iron resulted in significant increase in metal sorption capacity of the given particle. The results of sequential extractions could be successfully completed by the analytical electron microscopy analyses for studying the sorption capacity of discrete mineral particles. Their integrated use helps us in better understanding the heavy metal-mineral interactions in soils. PMID:18674797

  19. Relationship between carbon and nitrogen mineralization in a subtropical soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qianru; Sun, Yue; Zhang, Xinyu; Xu, Xingliang; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2014-05-01

    In most soils, more than 90% nitrogen is bonded with carbon in organic forms. This indicates that carbon mineralization should be closely coupled with nitrogen mineralization, showing a positive correlation between carbon and nitrogen mineralization. To test this hypothesis above, we conducted an incubation using a subtropical soil for 10 days at 15 °C and 25 °C. 13C-labeled glucose and 15N-labeled ammonium or nitrate was used to separate CO2 and mineral N released from mineralization of soil organic matter and added glucose or inorganic nitrogen. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) and four exoenzymes (i.e. β-1,4- Glucosaminidase, chitinase, acid phosphatase, β-1,4-N- acetyl glucosamine glycosidase) were also analyzed to detect change in microbial activities during the incubation. Our results showed that CO2 release decreased with increasing nitrogen mineralization rates. Temperature did not change this relationship between carbon and nitrogen mineralization. Although some changes in PLFA and the four exoenzymes were observed, these changes did not contribute to changes in carbon and nitrogen mineralization. These findings indicates that carbon and nitrogen mineralization in soil are more complicated than as previously expected. Future investigation should focus on why carbon and nitrogen mineralization are coupled in a negative correlation not in a positive correlation in many soils for a better understanding of carbon and nitrogen transformation during their mineralization.

  20. Study of mineralogical speciation of arsenic in soils using X ray microfluorescence and scanning electronic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Parrales, Isidoro; Bellinfante, Nicolás; Tejada, Manuel

    2011-05-15

    In this paper we studied the As content in natural contaminated soils, classified as Dystric Leptosol, Chromic Luvisol, Eutric Cambisol and Mollic Leptosol. In soil samples, sieved (<2mm), total As was determined by XRF and chemical speciation by sequential extraction. As-bearing minerals were concentrated from fine sand fraction of soil (200-20 μm) using heavy liquid. In this fraction, mineralogical speciation was studied by X-ray microfluorescence, XRD with Göbbel mirror and SEM-BEI-EDX. Total As contents ranging from 61.00 to 131.00 mg kg(-1). The results of the sequential extraction showed that As was, mainly, in the residual fraction (52.51-98.76 mg kg(-1)) and in the fraction bound to iron oxyhydroxides (0-36.5 mg kg(-1)). Mapping of As with X-ray microfluorescence show strongly relationship between Fe and As. Iron (III) oxyhydroxides (FeOHs) (lepidocrocite and goethite), scorodite, angelellite, schultenite and dussertite were identified by XRD analysis as most likely mineral phases. The contents of As, Fe, Pb and Ba obtained with EDX-microprobe, confirmed the results of XRD. The results of sequential extraction and X-ray microfluorescence indicate that As is strongly bound to the soils because the identified As-bearing mineral phases are very stable at the pH conditions of studied soils. Consequently, a low mobility of As can be assumed in these soils. PMID:21482293

  1. Response of Microbial Soil Carbon Mineralization Rates to Oxygen Limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keiluweit, M.; Denney, A.; Nico, P. S.; Fendorf, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    The rate of soil organic matter (SOM) mineralization is known to be controlled by climatic factors as well as molecular structure, mineral-organic associations, and physical protection. What remains elusive is to what extent oxygen (O2) limitations impact overall rates of microbial SOM mineralization (oxidation) in soils. Even within upland soils that are aerobic in bulk, factors limiting O2 diffusion such as texture and soil moisture can result in an abundance of anaerobic microsites in the interior of soil aggregates. Variation in ensuing anaerobic respiration pathways can further impact SOM mineralization rates. Using a combination of (first) aggregate model systems and (second) manipulations of intact field samples, we show how limitations on diffusion and carbon bioavailability interact to impose anaerobic conditions and associated respiration constraints on SOM mineralization rates. In model aggregates, we examined how particle size (soil texture) and amount of dissolved organic carbon (bioavailable carbon) affect O2 availability and distribution. Monitoring electron acceptor profiles (O2, NO3-, Mn and Fe) and SOM transformations (dissolved, particulate, mineral-associated pools) across the resulting redox gradients, we then determined the distribution of operative microbial metabolisms and their cumulative impact on SOM mineralization rates. Our results show that anaerobic conditions decrease SOM mineralization rates overall, but those are partially offset by the concurrent increases in SOM bioavailability due to transformations of protective mineral phases. In intact soil aggregates collected from soils varying in texture and SOM content, we mapped the spatial distribution of anaerobic microsites. Optode imaging, microsensor profiling and 3D tomography revealed that soil texture regulates overall O2 availability in aggregate interiors, while particulate SOM in biopores appears to control the fine-scale distribution of anaerobic microsites. Collectively, our results suggest that texture and particulate organic matter content are useful predictors for the impact of O2 limitations on SOM mineralization rates.

  2. Fractionation of Fe isotopes by soil microbes and organic acids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brantley, Susan L.; Liermann, Laura; Bullen, Thomas D.

    2001-01-01

    Small natural variations in Fe isotopes have been attributed to biological cycling. However, without understanding the mechanism of fractionation, it is impossible to interpret such variations. Here we show that the δ56Fe of Fe dissolved from a silicate soil mineral by siderophore-producing bacteria is as much as 0.8% lighter than bulk Fe in the mineral. A smaller isotopic shift is observed for Fe released abiotically by two chelates, and the magnitude of the shift increases with affinity of the ligand for Fe, consistent with a kinetic isotope effect during hydrolysis of Fe at the mineral surface. Fe dissolved abiotically without chelates shows no isotopic shift. The δ56Fe of the exchange fraction on soil grains is also lighter by ~0.6%-1% than Fe from both hornblende and iron oxyhydroxides. The kinetic isotope effect is therefore preserved in open systems such as soils. when recorded in the rock record, Fe isotopic fractionation could document Fe transport by organic molecules or by microbes where such entities were present in the geologic past.

  3. Radon sources emanation in granitic soil and saprolite

    SciTech Connect

    Wollenberg, H.; Flexser, S.; Brimhall, G.; Lewis, C.

    1993-08-01

    Petrological and geochemical examinations of soil, saprolite, and quartz diorite protolith have been made at the Small Structures field site, Ben Lomond Mountain, California. Variations in Ra in soil and saprolite are mainly controlled by heterogeneities inherited from the parent quartz diorite. Fission-track radiography shows that U is concentrated in the primary accessory minerals, zircon and sphene. However, most importantly for Rn emanation, U is also concentrated in secondary sites: weathered sphene, biotite and plagioclase, grain coatings, and Fe-rich fracture linings which also contain a rare-earth phosphate mineral. This occurrence of U along permeable fracture zones suggests that soil-gas Rn from depth (> 2 m) is a significant contributor to Rn availability near the surface. Zones highest in emanation occur where fine pedogenic phases: gibbsite, amorphous silica, and iron oxyhydroxide are most abundant. Mass balance analyses of this soil-saprolite profile are in progress and preliminary indicate that a high-emanation zone corresponds to the upper portion of a zone of accumulation of U and Ba.

  4. Does the preferential microbial colonisation of ferromagnesian minerals affect mineral weathering in soil?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Michael J.; Certini, Giacomo; Campbell, Colin D.; Anderson, Ian C.; Hillier, Stephen

    2008-09-01

    Fungal activity is thought to play a direct and effective role in the breakdown and dissolution of primary minerals and in the synthesis of clay minerals in soil environments, with important consequences for plant growth and ecosystem functioning. We have studied primary mineral weathering in volcanic soils developed on trachydacite in southern Tuscany using a combination of qualitative and quantitative mineralogical and microbiological techniques. Specifically, we characterized the weathering and microbiological colonization of the magnetically separated ferromagnesian minerals (biotite and orthopyroxene) and non-ferromagnesian constituents (K-feldspar and volcanic glass) of the coarse sand fraction (250-1,000 µm). Our results show that in the basal horizons of the soils, the ferromagnesian minerals are much more intensively colonized by microorganisms than K-feldspar and glass, but that the composition of the microbial communities living on the two mineral fractions is similar. Moreover, X-ray diffraction, optical and scanning electron microscope observations show that although the ferromagnesian minerals are preferentially associated with an embryonic form of the clay mineral halloysite, they are still relatively fresh. We interpret our results as indicating that in this instance microbial activity, and particularly fungal activity, has not been an effective agent of mineral weathering, that the association with clay minerals is indirect, and that fungal weathering of primary minerals may not be as important a source of plant nutrients as previously claimed.

  5. Relevance of mineral-organic associations in cryoturbated permafrost soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentsch, Norman; Mikutta, Robert; Bárta, Jiří; Čapek, Petr; Gittel, Antje; Richter, Andreas; Šantrůčková, Hanna; Schnecker, Jörg; Shibistova, Olga; Urich, Tim; Wild, Birgit; Guggenberger, Georg

    2014-05-01

    Enhanced microbial decomposition of deep buried organic matter (OM) increase the release of CO2and CH4from high latitude ecosystems, thus being an uncertain but potentially crucial positive feedback to global warming. The role of soil minerals as stabilization agents of OM against microbial attack gain in importance as soon abiotic soil conditions will change in permafrost soils. We investigated changes in storage and turnover of soil organic carbon (OC) and total nitrogen (TN) associated with minerals in 27 cryoturbated permafrost soils from the west to the east Siberian Arctic. Furthermore, we studied the mineral composition and the potential of OM to interact with soil minerals via different binding mechanisms. Mineral-associated organic matter (MOM) was separated from particulate plant debris by density fractionation in sodium polytungstate (density cut-off 1.6 g cm-3). Their apparent 14C ages were determined by accelerator mass spectrometry and potential mineralization rates were analyzed in a 180 days incubation experiments at 5 and 15° C. The mineral composition was analyzed by X-ray diffraction and selective extractions. Desorption experiments (stepwise extraction with KCl and NaH2PO4) using the permafrost soils as well as reference soils from temperate regions (three Stagnolsols from Germany) were performed to study OM sorbed to mineral surfaces or complexed with polyvalent metal ions. The proportion of OC associated with minerals (MOC) ranged from 5.1 to 14.9 kg m-2 (average: 11.0 kg m-2), corresponding to ~55% from the total soil OC storage (average: 20.2 ± 8.0 kg m-2) in the first meter of the Cryosols. In contrast to temperate soils, where maximum MOC concentrations are present in topsoils, cambic, or spodic horizons, cryoturbation in permafrost soils leads to high MOC concentrations within the whole solum. Cryoturbated OM-rich pockets in the subsoil store 18% (2.0 ± 1.3 kg m-2) of the MOC while another 34% (3.8 ± 3.5 kg m-2) was located in the uppermost permafrost. In topsoil horizons, mineralization rates showed a similar pattern for MOM and the bulk soil controls. In contrast, even higher MOM respiration rates then the bulk control were found in the cryoturbated OM-rich pockets and permafrost horizons. These findings deviate from temperate soil environments where MOM is considered to contribute to a 'stabilized pool' with mean residence times from hundreds to thousands of years. Statistical analysis indicated that mineral-organic interactions primarily occurred with poorly crystalline Fe and Al phases and Fe/Al-OM complexes. However, the minor desorption of organic polyelectrolytes by NaH2PO4 in permafrost soils indicated that significantly lower amounts of OC were bound by ligand exchange to Fe and Al minerals or the edges of clay minerals in permafrost soils compared to the temperate reference soils. Therefore, stabilization of OM by mineral surfaces or polyvalent metal ions appears to be of minor relevance in arctic environments compared to temperate soils.

  6. Uranium Sequestration by Aluminum Phosphate Minerals in Unsaturated Soils

    SciTech Connect

    Jerden, James L. Jr.

    2007-07-01

    A mineralogical and geochemical study of soils developed from the unmined Coles Hill uranium deposit (Virginia) was undertaken to determine how phosphorous influences the speciation of uranium in an oxidizing soil/saprolite system typical of the eastern United States. This paper presents mineralogical and geochemical results that identify and quantify the processes by which uranium has been sequestered in these soils. It was found that uranium is not leached from the saturated soil zone (saprolites) overlying the deposit due to the formation of a sparingly soluble uranyl phosphate mineral of the meta-autunite group. The concentration of uranium in the saprolites is approximately 1000 mg uranium per kg of saprolite. It was also found that a significant amount of uranium was retained in the unsaturated soil zone overlying uranium-rich saprolites. The uranium concentration in the unsaturated soils is approximately 200 mg uranium per kg of soil (20 times higher than uranium concentrations in similar soils adjacent to the deposit). Mineralogical evidence indicates that uranium in this zone is sequestered by a barium-strontium-calcium aluminum phosphate mineral of the crandallite group (gorceixite). This mineral is intimately inter-grown with iron and manganese oxides that also contain uranium. The amount of uranium associated with both the aluminum phosphates (as much as 1.4 weight percent) has been measured by electron microprobe micro-analyses and the geochemical conditions under which these minerals formed has been studied using thermodynamic reaction path modeling. The geochemical data and modeling results suggest the meta-autunite group minerals present in the saprolites overlying the deposit are unstable in the unsaturated zone soils overlying the deposit due to a decrease in soil pH (down to a pH of 4.5) at depths less than 5 meters below the surface. Mineralogical observations suggest that, once exposed to the unsaturated environment, the meta-autunite group minerals react to form U(VI)- bearing aluminum phosphates. (author)

  7. Picloram and Aminopyralid Sorption to Soil and Clay Minerals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aminopyralid sorption data are lacking, and these data are needed to predict off-target transport and plant available herbicide in soil solution. The objective of this research was to determine the sorption of picloram and aminopyralid to five soils and three clay minerals and determine if the pote...

  8. Kinetics of methane oxidation in selected mineral soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walkiewicz, A.; Bulak, P.; Brzeziñska, M.; Włodarczyk, T.; Polakowski, C.

    2012-10-01

    The kinetic parameters of methane oxidation in three mineral soils were measured under laboratory conditions. Incubationswere preceded by a 24-day preincubationwith 10%vol. of methane. All soils showed potential to the consumption of added methane. None of the soils, however, consumed atmospheric CH4. Methane oxidation followed the Michaelis-Menten kinetics, with relatively low values of parameters for Eutric Cambisol, while high values for Haplic Podzol, and especially for Mollic Gleysol which showed the highest methanotrophic activity and much lower affinity to methane. The high values of parameters for methane oxidation are typical for organic soils and mineral soils from landfill cover. The possibility of the involvement of nitrifying microorganisms, which inhabit the ammonia-fertilized agricultural soils should be verified.

  9. Mineral protection of soil carbon counteracted by root exudates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keiluweit, Marco; Bougoure, Jeremy J.; Nico, Peter S.; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer; Weber, Peter K.; Kleber, Markus

    2015-06-01

    Multiple lines of existing evidence suggest that climate change enhances root exudation of organic compounds into soils. Recent experimental studies show that increased exudate inputs may cause a net loss of soil carbon. This stimulation of microbial carbon mineralization (`priming’) is commonly rationalized by the assumption that exudates provide a readily bioavailable supply of energy for the decomposition of native soil carbon (co-metabolism). Here we show that an alternate mechanism can cause carbon loss of equal or greater magnitude. We find that a common root exudate, oxalic acid, promotes carbon loss by liberating organic compounds from protective associations with minerals. By enhancing microbial access to previously mineral-protected compounds, this indirect mechanism accelerated carbon loss more than simply increasing the supply of energetically more favourable substrates. Our results provide insights into the coupled biotic-abiotic mechanisms underlying the `priming’ phenomenon and challenge the assumption that mineral-associated carbon is protected from microbial cycling over millennial timescales.

  10. Adsorption coefficients for TNT on soil and clay minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, Rosángela; Pabón, Julissa; Pérez, Omarie; Muñoz, Miguel A.; Mina, Nairmen

    2007-04-01

    To understand the fate and transport mechanisms of TNT from buried landmines is it essential to determine the adsorption process of TNT on soil and clay minerals. In this research, soil samples from horizons Ap and A from Jobos Series at Isabela, Puerto Rico were studied. The clay fractions were separated from the other soil components by centrifugation. Using the hydrometer method the particle size distribution for the soil horizons was obtained. Physical and chemical characterization studies such as cation exchange capacity (CEC), surface area, percent of organic matter and pH were performed for the soil and clay samples. A complete mineralogical characterization of clay fractions using X-ray diffraction analysis reveals the presence of kaolinite, goethite, hematite, gibbsite and quartz. In order to obtain adsorption coefficients (K d values) for the TNT-soil and TNT-clay interactions high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used. The adsorption process for TNT-soil was described by the Langmuir model. A higher adsorption was observed in the Ap horizon. The Freundlich model described the adsorption process for TNT-clay interactions. The affinity and relative adsorption capacity of the clay for TNT were higher in the A horizon. These results suggest that adsorption by soil organic matter predominates over adsorption on clay minerals when significant soil organic matter content is present. It was found that, properties like cation exchange capacity and surface area are important factors in the adsorption of clayey soils.

  11. [Occurrence relationship between iron minerals and clay minerals in net-like red soils: evidence from X-ray diffraction].

    PubMed

    Yin, Ke; Hong, Han-Lie; Han, Weni; Ma, Yu-Bo; Li, Rong-Biao

    2013-04-01

    The high purity of clay minerals is a key factor to reconstruct the palaeoclimate in clay mineralogy, however, the existence of iron minerals (such as goethite and hematite) and organics lead to the intergrowth of clay minerals and other minerals, producing other mineral impurities in enriched clay minerals. Although the removal of organics in soil sediments has been fully investigated, the occurrence state of iron minerals remains controversial, hindering the preparation of high-purity clay minerals. Therefore, the occurrence relationship of iron minerals and clay minerals in Jiujiang net-like red soils of the middle to lower reaches of the Yangtze River was investigated using the sequential separation method, which provided some implications for the removal of iron minerals in soil sediments. The results indicated that goethite and hematite were mostly absorbed on the surface of hydroxy-interlayered smectite and illite in the form of films, and the rest were absorbed by kaolinite. PMID:23841442

  12. The effect of soil horizon and mineral type on the distribution of siderophores in soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Engy; Holmström, Sara J. M.

    2014-04-01

    Iron is a key component of the chemical architecture of the biosphere. Due to the low bioavailability of iron in the environment, microorganisms have developed specific uptake strategies like production of siderophores. Siderophores are operationally defined as low-molecular-mass biogenic Fe(III)-binding compounds, that can increase the bioavailability of iron by promoting the dissolution of iron-bearing minerals. In the present study, we investigated the composition of dissolved and adsorbed siderophores of the hydroxamate family in the soil horizons of podzol and the effect of specific mineral types on siderophores. Three polished mineral specimens of 3 cm × 4 cm × 3 mm (apatite, biotite and oligioclase) were inserted in the soil horizons (O (organic), E (eluvial) and B (upper illuvial)). After two years, soil samples were collected from both the bulk soil of the whole profile and from the soil attached to the mineral surfaces. The concentration of ten different fungal tri-hydroxamates within ferrichromes, fusigen and coprogens families, and five bacterial hydroxamates within the ferrioxamine family were detected. All hydroxamate types were determined in both soil water (dissolved) and soil methanol (adsorbed) extracts along the whole soil profile by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS); hence, the study is the most extensive of its kind. We found that coprogens and fusigen were present in much higher concentrations in bulk soil than were ferrioxamines and ferrichromes. On the other hand, the presence of the polished mineral completely altered the distribution of siderophores. In addition, each mineral had a unique interaction with the dissolved and adsorbed hydroxamates in the different soil horizons. Thus siderophore composition in the soil environment is controlled by the chemical, physical and biological characteristics of each soil horizon and also by the available mineral types.

  13. Flumioxazin soil persistence and mineralization in laboratory experiments.

    PubMed

    Ferrell, Jason A; Vencill, William K

    2003-07-30

    Flumioxazin is an herbicide registered for use in soybean and peanut. However, few published papers concerning the soil persistence of flumioxazin are available. Therefore, laboratory studies were initiated to determine the half-life (t(1/2)) of flumioxazin in Greenville sandy clay loam and Tifton loamy sand soils when incubated at 15 and 25 degrees C. Results indicated that temperature had little effect on flumioxazin persistence. The t(1/2) for the Greenville soil was 17.9 and 16.0 days while the Tifton soil was 13.6 and 12.9 days, at 15 and 25 degrees C, respectively. These data correspond to the greater clay content of the Greenville soil (32%) as compared to the Tifton soil (2%). Therefore, the Greenville soil had greater soil adsorption and less flumioxazin was generally available to be degraded by soil microorganisms. In soils that were heat treated to reduce microbe populations, 99% of initial flumioxazin was accounted for after 16 days. Mineralization of flumioxazin, measured as 14CO2 evolution, was also greater in the Tifton soil (2.2% after 64 days) than in the Greenville soil (2.0% after 64 days). From these data, it was concluded that microbes were the most influential factor concerning the degradation of flumioxazin. PMID:14705902

  14. [Effects of soil texture and water content on the mineralization of soil organic carbon in paddy soils].

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhong-lin; Wu, Jin-shui; Ge, Ti-da; Tang, Guo-yong; Tong, Cheng-li

    2009-01-01

    To understand how soil texture and water content affect the mineralization of organic C in paddy soil, 3 selected soils (sandy loam, clay loam, and silty clay) were incubated (25 degrees C) with 14 C-labelled rice straw (1.0 g x kg(-1)) at water content varied from 45% to 105% of water holding capacity (WHC). Data indicated that, in the sandy loam and clay loam, the mineralization rate of 14 C-labelled rice straw reached the maximum at 75% WHC, as 53% and 58% of the straw C mineralized in the incubation period of 160 d, whereas in the silty clay, it increased gradually (from 41.8% to 49.0%) as water content increased up to 105% WHC. For all of the three soils, the mineralization rate of soil native organic C reached the maximum at 75% WHC, with 5.8% of the organic C mineralized in the same period for the sandy loam, and 8.0% and 4.8% for the clay loam and silty clay, respectively. As water content increased further, the mineralization rate of native organic C in the three soils significantly declined. The mineralization rate of added rice straw and native organic C in all the three soils, was well fitted with a conic curve. These results suggest that water-logging can decrease the mineralization of organic C in paddy soils. PMID:19353883

  15. Qualitative soil mineral analysis by EDXRF, XRD and AAS probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Virendra; Agrawal, H. M.

    2012-12-01

    Soil minerals study is vital in terms of investigating the major soil forming compounds and to find out the fate of minor and trace elements, essential for the soil-plant interaction purpose. X-ray diffraction (XRD) has been a popular technique to search out the phases for different types of samples. For the soil samples, however, employing XRD is not so straightforward due to many practical problems. In the current approach, principal component analysis (PCA) has been used to have an idea of the minerals present, in qualitative manner, in the soil under study. PCA was used on the elemental concentrations data of 17 elements, determined by the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) technique. XRD analysis of soil samples has been done also to identify the minerals of major elements. Some prior treatments, like removal of silica by polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) slurry and grinding with alcohol, were given to samples to overcome the peak overlapping problems and to attain fine particle size which is important to minimize micro-absorption corrections, to give reproducible peak intensities and to minimize preferred orientation. A 2θ step of 0.05°/min and a longer dwell time than normal were used to reduce interferences from background noise and to increase the counting statistics. Finally, the sequential extraction procedure for metal speciation study has been applied on soil samples. Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) was used to find the concentrations of metal fractions bound to various forms. Applying all the three probes, the minerals in the soils can be studied and identified, successfully.

  16. Bromide Adsorption by Reference Minerals and Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bromide, Br-, adsorption behavior was investigated on amorphous Al and Fe oxide, montmorillonite, kaolinite, and temperate and tropical soils. Bromide adsorption decreased with increasing solution pH with minimal adsorption occurring above pH 7. Bromide adsorption was higher for amorphous oxides t...

  17. Characterizing regional soil mineral composition using spectroscopyand geostatistics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulder, V.L.; de Bruin, S.; Weyermann, J.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Schaepman, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    This work aims at improving the mapping of major mineral variability at regional scale using scale-dependent spatial variability observed in remote sensing data. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and statistical methods were combined with laboratory-based mineral characterization of field samples to create maps of the distributions of clay, mica and carbonate minerals and their abundances. The Material Identification and Characterization Algorithm (MICA) was used to identify the spectrally-dominant minerals in field samples; these results were combined with ASTER data using multinomial logistic regression to map mineral distributions. X-ray diffraction (XRD)was used to quantify mineral composition in field samples. XRD results were combined with ASTER data using multiple linear regression to map mineral abundances. We testedwhether smoothing of the ASTER data to match the scale of variability of the target sample would improve model correlations. Smoothing was donewith Fixed Rank Kriging (FRK) to represent the mediumand long-range spatial variability in the ASTER data. Stronger correlations resulted using the smoothed data compared to results obtained with the original data. Highest model accuracies came from using both medium and long-range scaled ASTER data as input to the statistical models. High correlation coefficients were obtained for the abundances of calcite and mica (R2 = 0.71 and 0.70, respectively). Moderately-high correlation coefficients were found for smectite and kaolinite (R2 = 0.57 and 0.45, respectively). Maps of mineral distributions, obtained by relating ASTER data to MICA analysis of field samples, were found to characterize major soil mineral variability (overall accuracies for mica, smectite and kaolinite were 76%, 89% and 86% respectively). The results of this study suggest that the distributions of minerals and their abundances derived using FRK-smoothed ASTER data more closely match the spatial variability of soil and environmental properties at regional scale.

  18. Active Layer Soil Carbon and Nutrient Mineralization, Barrow, Alaska, 2012

    DOE Data Explorer

    Stan D. Wullschleger; Holly M. Vander Stel; Colleen Iversen; Victoria L. Sloan; Richard J. Norby; Mallory P. Ladd; Jason K. Keller; Ariane Jong; Joanne Childs; Deanne J. Brice

    2015-10-29

    This data set consists of bulk soil characteristics as well as carbon and nutrient mineralization rates of active layer soils manually collected from the field in August, 2012, frozen, and then thawed and incubated across a range of temperatures in the laboratory for 28 day periods in 2013-2015. The soils were collected from four replicate polygons in each of the four Areas (A, B, C, and D) of Intensive Site 1 at the Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE) Arctic site near Barrow, Alaska. Soil samples were coincident with the established Vegetation Plots that are located in center, edge, and trough microtopography in each polygon. Data included are 1) bulk soil characteristics including carbon, nitrogen, gravimetric water content, bulk density, and pH in 5-cm depth increments and also by soil horizon, 2) carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus mineralization rates for soil horizons incubated aerobically (and in one case both aerobically and anaerobically) for 28 days at temperatures that included 2, 4, 8, and 12 degrees C. Additional soil and incubation data are forthcoming. They will be available when published as part of another paper that includes additional replicate analyses.

  19. NATURAL ATTENUATION OF COPPER IN SOILS AND SOIL MINERALS - II

    EPA Science Inventory

    The bioabailability and toxicity of Cu in soils is controlled by a number of soil properties and processes. Some of these such as pH, adsorption/desorption and competition with beneficial cations have been extensively studied. However, the effects of natural attenuation (or aging...

  20. NATURAL ATTENUATION OF COPPER IN SOILS AND SOIL MINERALS - I

    EPA Science Inventory

    The bioavailability and toxicity of Cu in soils is controlled by a number of soil properties and processes. Some of these such as pH, adsorption/desorption and competition with beneficial cations have been extensively studied. However, the effects of natural attenuation (or aging...

  1. Rapid mineral differentiation among horizons of a meadow soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szalai, Zoltán; Ringer, Marianna; Kiss, Klaudia; Horváth Szabó, Kata; Németh, Tibor; Sipos, Péter; Madarász, Balázs; Jakab, Gergely

    2015-04-01

    Soil development under hydromorphic conditions may results intense mineral transformation and rapid vertical differentiation in the profile. Original papers refer more than hundreds of years for this kinds of mineral transformations. We suppose that this process could be more rapid. Present paper focuses on the profile development of a sandy meadow soil (calcic, gleyic Phaeozem ferric, arenic) from the soil mineralogical viewpoint. The main aim was to explore the degree of mineral phase alteration via soil formation during a half-century under hydromorphic conditions. The studied soil is located in a swampy area (near to Ceglédbercel, Hungary). The parent material deposited during an extremely heavy flood event in 1963. The reference (parent) material can be found near to the study site. We combined routine field tests (carbonate content, dipididil test) with laboratory measurements (selective extractions for the determination of amorphous and crystalline Fe, and Mn content; X-ray phase analysis; X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy; particle sizing by laser diffraction; NDIR and FT-IR and DRS spectrometry), whereas Eh and pH measured by field monitoring station. The most intense mineralogical transformations developed in the zone of the heaviest redox oscillation. Results show that well developed horizons have emerged during fifty years in the studied soil. This time was enough for bivalent and trivalent iron mineral crystallisation and smectite formation in this zone. The high proportion of amorphous and colloidal phases refers to very intensive recent processes. Soil formation under hydromorphic conditions proceeds at higher speeds contrariwise to the century time scale reported in sources (discussing non-waterlogged cases). Support of the Hungarian Research Fund OTKA under contracts K100180 (for Z. Szalai) and K100181 (for T Németh) are gratefully acknowledged.

  2. [Analysis of XRD spectral characteristics of soil clay mineral in two typical cultivated soils].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Dan; Luo, Xiang-Li; Jiang, Hai-Chao; Li, Qiao; Shen, Cong-Ying; Liu, Hang; Zhou, Ya-Juan; Zhao, Lan-Po; Wang, Ji-Hong

    2014-07-01

    The present paper took black soil and chernozem, the typical cultivated soil in major grain producing area of Northeast, as the study object, and determinated the soil particle composition characteristics of two cultivated soils under the same climate and location. Then XRD was used to study the composition and difference of clay mineral in two kinds of soil and the evolutionary mechanism was explored. The results showed that the two kinds of soil particles were composed mainly of the sand, followed by clay and silt. When the particle accumulation rate reached 50%, the central particle size was in the 15-130 microm interval. Except for black soil profile of Shengli Xiang, the content of clay showed converse sequence to the central particle in two soils. Clay accumulated under upper layer (18.82%) in black soil profile while under caliche layer (17.41%) in chernozem profile. Clay content was the least in parent material horizon except in black profile of Quanyanling. Analysis of clay XRD atlas showed that the difference lied in not only the strength of diffraction peak, but also in the mineral composition. The main contents of black soil and chernozem were both 2 : 1 clay, the composition of black soil was smectite/illite mixed layer-illite-vermiculite and that of chernozem was S/I mixture-illite-montmorillonite, and both of them contained little kaolinite, chlorite, quartz and other primary mineral. This paper used XRD to determine the characteristics of clay minerals comprehensively, and analyzed two kinds of typical cultivated soil comparatively, and it was a new perspective of soil minerals study. PMID:25269317

  3. Spectroscopy and reactivity of mineral analogs of the Martian soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banin, A.; Orenberg, J.; Roush, T.

    1991-01-01

    To answer the question of why life occurred on Earth but not on Mars requires a study of the geochemical and physical aspects of the Martian soil. Some of the best Mars analog mineral models of the soil have been prepared and justified according to known constraints of chemical composition, reflectance spectroscopy, and chemical reactivity. Detailed laboratory reflectance spectra in the ultraviolet, visible, and near infrared (.30 to 2.5 microns) and the infrared (2.5 to 25 microns) regions have been obtained for the pure candidate minerals and some analog mixtures and compared to Mars reflectance spectra. Modeling of the reflectance spectra from optical constraints determined for the analog minerals has begun and will be interpreted in terms of the effects of particle size variation, component mixing, and soil packing upon remotely sensed reflectance spectra. This has implications not only for Mars, but for other planets and planetoids. The ratio of Fe(II)/Fe(III) in the Martian soil analog materials on spectral reflectance in the visible range has begun, and the results will be evaluated according to conformity with the visible Mars reflectance spectrum. Some initial LR and GEX data have been collected for the mineral samples and their mixtures, which can be compared with the Viking data and interpreted in terms of the redox (Fe(II)/Fe(III) environment.

  4. A disconnect between O horizon and mineral soil carbon - Implications for soil C sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Garten Jr, Charles T

    2009-01-01

    Changing inputs of carbon to soil is one means of potentially increasing carbon sequestration in soils for the purpose of mitigating projected increases in atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations. The effect of manipulations of aboveground carbon input on soil carbon storage was tested in a temperate, deciduous forest in east Tennessee, USA. A 4.5-year experiment included exclusion of aboveground litterfall and supplemental litter additions (three times ambient) in an upland and a valley that differed in soil nitrogen availability. The estimated decomposition rate of the carbon stock in the O horizon was greater in the valley than in the upland due to higher litter quality (i.e., lower C/N ratios). Short-term litter exclusion or addition had no effect on carbon stock in the mineral soil, measured to a depth of 30 cm, or the partitioning of carbon in the mineral soil between particulate- and mineral-associated organic matter. A two-compartment model was used to interpret results from the field experiments. Field data and a sensitivity analysis of the model were consistent with little carbon transfer between the O horizon and the mineral soil. Increasing aboveground carbon input does not appear to be an effective means of promoting carbon sequestration in forest soil at the location of the present study because a disconnect exists in carbon dynamics between O horizon and mineral soil. Factors that directly increase inputs to belowground soil carbon, via roots, or reduce decomposition rates of organic matter are more likely to benefit efforts to increase carbon sequestration in forests where carbon dynamics in the O horizon are uncoupled from the mineral soil.

  5. A disconnect between O horizon and mineral soil carbon - Implications for soil C sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garten, Charles T., Jr.

    2009-03-01

    Changing inputs of carbon to soil is one means of potentially increasing carbon sequestration in soils for the purpose of mitigating projected increases in atmospheric CO 2 concentrations. The effect of manipulations of aboveground carbon input on soil carbon storage was tested in a temperate, deciduous forest in east Tennessee, USA. A 4.5-year experiment included exclusion of aboveground litterfall and supplemental litter additions (three times ambient) in an upland and a valley that differed in soil nitrogen availability. The estimated decomposition rate of the carbon stock in the O horizon was greater in the valley than in the upland due to higher litter quality (i.e., lower C/N ratios). Short-term litter exclusion or addition had no effect on carbon stock in the mineral soil, measured to a depth of 30 cm, or the partitioning of carbon in the mineral soil between particulate- and mineral-associated organic matter. A two-compartment model was used to interpret results from the field experiments. Field data and a sensitivity analysis of the model were consistent with little carbon transfer between the O horizon and the mineral soil. Increasing aboveground carbon input does not appear to be an effective means of promoting carbon sequestration in forest soil at the location of the present study because a disconnect exists in carbon dynamics between O horizon and mineral soil. Factors that directly increase inputs to belowground soil carbon, via roots, or reduce decomposition rates of organic matter are more likely to benefit efforts to increase carbon sequestration in forests where carbon dynamics in the O horizon are uncoupled from the mineral soil.

  6. Soil type influences crop mineral composition in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Joy, Edward J M; Broadley, Martin R; Young, Scott D; Black, Colin R; Chilimba, Allan D C; Ander, E Louise; Barlow, Thomas S; Watts, Michael J

    2015-02-01

    Food supply and composition data can be combined to estimate micronutrient intakes and deficiency risks among populations. These estimates can be improved by using local crop composition data that can capture environmental influences including soil type. This study aimed to provide spatially resolved crop composition data for Malawi, where information is currently limited. Six hundred and fifty-two plant samples, representing 97 edible food items, were sampled from >150 sites in Malawi between 2011 and 2013. Samples were analysed by ICP-MS for up to 58 elements, including the essential minerals calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn). Maize grain Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Se and Zn concentrations were greater from plants grown on calcareous soils than those from the more widespread low-pH soils. Leafy vegetables from calcareous soils had elevated leaf Ca, Cu, Fe and Se concentrations, but lower Zn concentrations. Several foods were found to accumulate high levels of Se, including the leaves of Moringa, a crop not previously been reported in East African food composition data sets. New estimates of national dietary mineral supplies were obtained for non-calcareous and calcareous soils. High risks of Ca (100%), Se (100%) and Zn (57%) dietary deficiencies are likely on non-calcareous soils. Deficiency risks on calcareous soils are high for Ca (97%), but lower for Se (34%) and Zn (31%). Risks of Cu, Fe and Mg deficiencies appear to be low on the basis of dietary supply levels. PMID:25461061

  7. Anaerobic N mineralization in paddy soils in relation to inundation management, physicochemical soil fractions, mineralogy and soil properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sleutel, Steven; Kader, Mohammed Abdul; Ara Begum, Shamim; De Neve, Stefaan

    2013-04-01

    Anaerobic N mineralization measured from (saturated) repacked soil cores from 25 paddy fields in Bangladesh and was previously found to negatively related to soil N content on a relative basis. This suggests that other factors like soil organic matter (SOM) quality or abiotic factors instead control the anaerobic N mineralization process. We therefore assessed different physical and chemical fractions of SOM, management factors and various soil properties as predictors for the net anaerobic N mineralization. 1° First, we assessed routinely analyzed soil parameters (soil N and soil organic carbon, texture, pH, oxalate- and pyrophosphate-extractable Fe, Al, and Mn, fixed-NH4 content). We found no significant influences of neither soil mineralogy nor the annual length of inundation on soil N mineralization. The anaerobic N mineralization correlated positively with Na-pyrophosphate-extractable Fe and negatively with pH (both at P<0.01). At this stage it is, however, not known if these relations between net evolution of NH4 and pH and Fe content are causal or indirect. 2° Second, the 25 samples collected from farmers' fields were physically fractionated into particulate OM and silt and clay associated OM. The silt and clay sized OM was further chemically fractionated by oxidation with 6%NaOCl to isolate an oxidation-resistant OM fraction, followed by extraction of mineral bound OM with 10%HF thereby isolating the HF-resistant OM. None of the physicochemical SOM fractions were found useful predictors anaerobic N mineralization. The linkage between these chemical soil N fractions and N supplying processes actually occurring in the soil thus appears to be weak. Regardless, we hypothesize that variation in strength of N-mineral and N-OM linkages is likely to explain variation in bio-availability of organic N and proneness to mineralization. Yet, in order to separate kinetically different soil N fractions we then postulated that an alternative approach would be required, which instead isolates soil N fractions on the basis of bonding strength. In this respect bonding strength should be seen as opposite of proneness to dissolution of released N into water, the habitat of soil microorganisms mediating soil N mineralization. We hypothesize that soil N extracted by water at increasing temperatures would reflect such N fractions with increasing bonding strength, in turn equivalent to decreasing bio-availability. Although water has frequently been used to extract labile SOM, its use has mostly been limited to 100°C. 3° Third we developed sub critical water extraction (SCWE) at 100°C, 150°C and 200°C to isolate SOM fractions from the set of 25 paddy soil samples. In all cases, SCWE organic carbon (SCWE-OC) and N (SCWE-N) increased exponentially with the increase of temperature. SCWE preferentially extracted N over OC with increasing temperature. The efficiency of SCWE and the selectivity towards N were both lower in soils with increasingly reactive clay mineralogy. No correlations were found between the SCWE fractions and anaerobic N mineralization rate. In conclusion, SOM quantity and SOM quality, here represented by C and N distribution over physicochemical fractions, don't seem to dominantly determine anaerobic N mineralization in primarily young floodplain paddy soils. Other factors with exceeding control (pH and pyrophosphate extractable Fe) appear to exist. Possibly, the specific young genesis stage of most of the soils included (termed 'floodplain' soils) results in a limited availability of readily reducible Fe. Being an important alternative electron acceptor under submerged conditions, the availability of Fe, which is also controlled by pH, may be a bottleneck in the anaerobic N mineralization process. This needs to be further investigated by controlled incubation experiments with detailed follow-up of pH, redox potential, Fe in solution and mineral N.

  8. Activities of N-Mineralization Enzymes Associated With Soil Aggregate Size Fractions of Three Tillage Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen mineralization occurring near the soil surface of agro-ecosystems determines the quantity of plant available N, and soil enzymes produced by microorganisms play significant roles in the N mineralization process. Tillage systems may influence soil microbial communities and N mineralization e...

  9. Mineralization of N in Soils Amended with Dairy Manure as Affected by Wetting/Drying Cycles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interest in manure management and its effects on nitrogen (N) mineralization has increased in recent years. The focus of this research was to investigate the N mineralization rates of different soil types in Coastal Plain soils and compare them to a soil from Illinois. Soils with and without dairy ...

  10. Activities of N-mineralization enzymes associated with soil aggregates in three different tillage systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil enzymes released by microorganisms play a significant role in N mineralization process that determines N availability for plant growth. Soil aggregates of different sizes provide diverse microhabitats for microorganisms and therefore influence soil enzyme activities. We hypothesize that enzyme ...

  11. Temperature sensitivity of microbial respiration, nitrogen mineralization, and potential soil enzyme activities in organic alpine soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Oliver; Tscherko, Dagmar; Kandeler, Ellen

    2007-12-01

    Investigations focusing on the temperature sensitivity of microbial activity and nutrient turnover in soils improve our understanding of potential effects of global warming. This study investigates the temperature sensitivity of C mineralization, N mineralization, and potential enzyme activities involved in the C and N cycle (tyrosine amino-peptidase, leucine amino-peptidase, ß-glucosidase, ß-xylosidase, N-acetyl-ß-glucosaminidase). Four different study sites in the Austrian alpine zone were selected, and soils were sampled in three seasons (summer, autumn, and winter). A simple first-order exponential equation was used to calculate constant Q10 values for the C and N mineralization over the investigated temperature range (0-30°C). The Q10 values of the C mineralization (average 2.0) for all study sites were significantly higher than for the N mineralization (average 1.7). The Q10 values of both activities were significantly negatively related to a soil organic matter quality index calculated by the ratios of respiration to the organic soil carbon and mineralized N to the total soil nitrogen. The chemical soil properties or microbial biomass did not affect the Q10 values of C and N mineralization. Moreover, the Q10 values showed no distinct pattern according to sampling date, indicating that the substrate quality and other factors are more important. Using a flexible model function, the analysis of relative temperature sensitivity (RTS) showed that the temperature sensitivity of activities increased with decreasing temperature. The C and N mineralization and potential amino-peptidase activities (tyrosine and leucine) showed an almost constant temperature dependence over 0-30°C. In contrast, ß-glucosidase, ß-xylosidase, and N-acetyl-ß-glucosaminidase showed a distinctive increase in temperature sensitivity with decreasing temperature. Low temperature at the winter sampling date caused a greater increase in the RTS of all microbial activities than for the autumn and summer sampling dates. Our results indicate (1) a disproportion of the RTS for potential enzyme activities of the C and N cycle and (2) a disproportion of the RTS for easily degradable C compounds (ß-glucose, ß-xylose) compared with the C mineralization of soil organic matter. Thus temperature may play an important role in regulating the decay of different soil organic matter fractions due to differences in the relative temperature sensitivities of enzyme activities.

  12. The structure of iron-oxyhydroxide mounds affected by iron-oxidizing bacteria at shallow submarine hydrothermal vent in Satsuma Iwo-Jima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuratomi, T.; Kiyokawa, S.; Ikehara, M.; Goto, S.; Hoshino, T.; Ikegami, F.; Minowa, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Satsuma Iwo-Jima, located 38km south of Kyusyu island, Japan, is preserved and identified on occurring iron precipitation at shallow ocean where can be recorded modern analogy of iron precipitation and sedimentation. This is a volcanic island in the northwestern rim of Kikai caldera. Iron- and silica-rich mounds (0.5-3m wide and 0.2-7m high) are developing with hydrothermal activity (pH=5.5, 50-60 degree Celsius), and there is high deposition rate of iron-oxides (33 cm/year). In this study, we analyzed samples (20-30 cm long) recovered from iron oxidized mounds at seafloor by the observation with CT scan, FE-SEM and thin-sectioned samples, and the chemical analysis with EDS, XRF, XRD and DNA, and found that the structure of mounds has unique information. Each mounds are formed two layers: blackish hard layer and brownish soft layer. The inside of samples is constructed from the aggregation of convex structure (3-4 cm) covered by hard layers as a rim. Petrographic observations indicate that both layers have filament-like forms, and the form in soft layer is perpendicular to that in the hard layer. The number of iron oxides particles observed on filament-like forms in soft layer increases toward hard layer. Hard layer consists of aggregation of bacillus-like form as the chain of particle (about 2 um). At soft layer, on the other hand, bacteria-like form with smaller particles (<0.5 um) is observed. Bacteria-like form could be classified into 3 types (helix, ribbon-like, twisted). Furthermore, hard layers consist of ferrihydrite and opal-A (Si: 26.8%, Fe: 56.0%) and soft one is composed by ferrihydrite, opal-A and silica mineral (Si: 36.5%, Fe: 43.5%). Mariprofundus ferrooxydansknown as iron-oxidizing bacteria belonging to Zeta-proteobacteria identified in this matter. Bacteria-like form is considered to be the stalk made by iron-oxidizing bacteria. Such neutrophilic iron-oxidizing bacteria prefers an environment of redox interface between hydrothermal water and seawater, and their activity made hard rim at outer soft layer. This high deposition rate of iron hydroxides probably derives from the chemical reaction of oxidizing ferrous to ferric around stalks of iron-oxidizing bacteria.

  13. Mineral Dissolution and Precipitation due to Carbon Dioxide-Water-Rock Interactions: The Significance of Accessory Minerals in Carbonate Reservoirs (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaszuba, J. P.; Marcon, V.; Chopping, C.

    2013-12-01

    Accessory minerals in carbonate reservoirs, and in the caprocks that seal these reservoirs, can provide insight into multiphase fluid (CO2 + H2O)-rock interactions and the behavior of CO2 that resides in these water-rock systems. Our program integrates field data, hydrothermal experiments, and geochemical modeling to evaluate CO2-water-rock reactions and processes in a variety of carbonate reservoirs in the Rocky Mountain region of the US. These studies provide insights into a wide range of geologic environments, including natural CO2 reservoirs, geologic carbon sequestration, engineered geothermal systems, enhanced oil and gas recovery, and unconventional hydrocarbon resources. One suite of experiments evaluates the Madison Limestone on the Moxa Arch, Southwest Wyoming, a sulfur-rich natural CO2 reservoir. Mineral textures and geochemical features developed in the experiments suggest that carbonate minerals which constitute the natural reservoir will initially dissolve in response to emplacement of CO2. Euhedral, bladed anhydrite concomitantly precipitates in response to injected CO2. Analogous anhydrite is observed in drill core, suggesting that secondary anhydrite in the natural reservoir may be related to emplacement of CO2 into the Madison Limestone. Carbonate minerals ultimately re-precipitate, and anhydrite dissolves, as the rock buffers the acidity and reasserts geochemical control. Another suite of experiments emulates injection of CO2 for enhanced oil recovery in the Desert Creek Limestone (Paradox Formation), Paradox Basin, Southeast Utah. Euhedral iron oxyhydroxides (hematite) precipitate at pH 4.5 to 5 and low Eh (approximately -0.1 V) as a consequence of water-rock reaction. Injection of CO2 decreases pH to approximately 3.5 and increases Eh by approximately 0.1 V, yielding secondary mineralization of euhedral pyrite instead of iron oxyhydroxides. Carbonate minerals also dissolve and ultimately re-precipitate, as determined by experiments in the Madison Limestone, but pyrite will persist and iron oxyhydroxides will not recrystallize.

  14. Mineral exploration and soil analysis using in situ neutron activation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senftle, F.E.; Hoyte, A.F.

    1966-01-01

    A feasibility study has been made to operate by remote control an unshielded portable positive-ion accelerator type neutron source to induce activities in the ground or rock by "in situ" neutron irradiation. Selective activation techniques make it possible to detect some thirty or more elements by irradiating the ground for periods of a few minutes with either 3-MeV or 14-MeV neutrons. The depth of penetration of neutrons, the effect of water content of the soil on neutron moderation, gamma ray attenuation in the soil and other problems are considered. The analysis shows that, when exploring for most elements of economic interest, the reaction 2H(d,n)3He yielding ??? 3-MeV neutrons is most practical to produce a relatively uniform flux of neutrons of less than 1 keV to a depth of 19???-20???. Irradiation with high energy neutrons (??? 14 MeV) can also be used and may be better suited for certain problems. However, due to higher background and lower sensitivity for the heavy minerals, it is not a recommended neutron source for general exploration use. Preliminary experiments have been made which indicate that neutron activation in situ is feasible for a mineral exploration or qualititative soil analysis. ?? 1976.

  15. Vertical profile measurements of soil air suggest immobilization of gaseous elemental mercury in mineral soil.

    PubMed

    Obrist, Daniel; Pokharel, Ashok K; Moore, Christopher

    2014-02-18

    Evasion of gaseous elemental Hg (Hg(0)g) from soil surfaces is an important source of atmospheric Hg, but the volatility and solid-gas phase partitioning of Hg(0) within soils is poorly understood. We developed a novel system to continuously measure Hg(0)g concentrations in soil pores at multiple depths and locations, and present a total of 297 days of measurements spanning 14 months in two forests in the Sierra Nevada mountains, California, U.S. Temporal patterns showed consistent pore Hg(0)g concentrations below levels measured in the atmosphere (termed Hg(0)g immobilization), ranging from 66 to 94% below atmospheric concentrations throughout multiple seasons. The lowest pore Hg(0)g concentrations were observed in the deepest soil layers (40 cm), but significant immobilization was already present in the top 7 cm. In the absence of sinks or sources, pore Hg(0)g levels would be in equilibrium with atmospheric concentrations due to the porous nature of the soil matrix and gas diffusion. Therefore, we explain decreases in pore Hg(0)g in mineral soils below atmospheric concentrations--or below levels found in upper soils as observed in previous studies--with the presence of an Hg(0)g sink in mineral soils possibly related to Hg(0)g oxidation or other processes such as sorption or dissolution in soil water. Surface chamber measurements showing daytime Hg(0)g emissions and nighttime Hg(0)g deposition indicate that near-surface layers likely dominate net atmospheric Hg(0)g exchange resulting in typical diurnal cycles due to photochemcial reduction at the surface and possibly Hg(0)g evasion from litter layers. In contrast, mineral soils seem to be decoupled from this surface exchange, showing consistent Hg(0)g uptake and downward redistribution--although our calculations indicate these fluxes to be minor compared to other mass fluxes. A major implication is that once Hg is incorporated into mineral soils, it may be unlikely subjected to renewed Hg(0)g re-emission from undisturbed, background soils emphasizing the important role of soils in sequestering past and current Hg pollution loads. PMID:24428735

  16. GEMAS: Mineral magnetic properties of European agricultural soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzina, Dilyara; Kosareva, Lina; Fattakhova, Leysan; Fabian, Karl; Nourgaliev, Danis; Reimann, Clemens

    2015-04-01

    The GEMAS survey of European agricultural soil provides a unique opportunity to create the first comprehensive overview of mineral magnetic properties in agricultural soil on a continental scale. Samples from the upper 20 cm were taken in large agricultural fields (Ap-sample) at a density of 1 site/2500 km2. After air drying and sieving to < 2 mm, low (460 Hz), and high frequency (4600 Hz) magnetic susceptibility k was measured on 2500 samples using a Bartington MS2B sensor to obtain frequency dependence of magnetic susceptibility kfd. Hysteresis properties are determined using a J coercivity spectrometer, built in the paleomagnetic laboratory of Kazan University, providing for each sample a modified hysteresis loop, backfield curve, acquisition curve of isothermal remanent magnetization, and a viscous IRM decay spectrum. Each measurement set is obtained in a single run from zero field up to 1.5 T and back to -1.5 T, taking approximately 15 minutes. This allows to measure a wide range of magnetic parameters for large sample collections. Because the GEMAS geochemical atlas provides a comprehensive set of geochemical measurements characterizing the individual soil samples, the new data allow to study magnetic parameters in relation to chemical and geological parameters. The results show a clear large scale spatial distribution with e.g. broad distinct lows of k over sandy sediments of the last glaciation in central northern Europe and other sedimentary basins. More localized positive k anomalies occur near young volcanism, or old basalts exposed on the surface. On the other hand, frequency dependence of k displays a much more scattered behavior, indicating either high noise level, or large local variability. Clearly distinguishable, small-scale patterns in the randomized data set indicate that the latter is more likely. This indicates that local influences on soil magnetic properties, including anthropogenic effects, may be easier detected by frequency dependence than by k itself, which is largely controlled by geological and climatic background variability. Mapping the isothermal mineral magnetic properties shows again a clear relation to large scale European geology. Thereby, the GEMAS data set of magnetic parameters provides a continent wide reference of the natural background in Ap soil. For the first time the geological background variability of magnetic minerals for national and local soil studies is defined at the European scale.

  17. Infrared spectra of lunar soil analogs. [spectral reflectance of minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aronson, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    The infrared spectra of analogs of lunar soils were investigated to further the development of methodology for interpretation of remotely measured infrared spectra of the lunar surface. The optical constants of dunite, bytownite, augite, ilmenite, and a mare glass analog were obtained. The infrared emittance spectra of powdered minerals were measured and compared with spectra calculated by the reflectance theory using a catalog of optical constants. The results indicate that the predictions of the theory closely simulate the experimental measurements if the optical constants are properly derived.

  18. Interaction of root exudates with the mineral soil constituents and their effect on mineral weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mimmo, T.; Terzano, R.; Medici, L.; Lettino, A.; Fiore, S.; Tomasi, N.; Pinton, R.; Cesco, S.

    2012-04-01

    Plants release significant amounts of high and low molecular weight organic compounds into the rhizosphere. Among these exudates organic acids (e.g. citric acid, malic acid, oxalic acid), phenolic compounds (e.g. flavonoids), amino acids and siderophores of microbial and/or plant origin strongly influence and modify the biogeochemical cycles of several elements, thus causing changes in their availability for plant nutrition. One class of these elements is composed by the trace elements; some of them are essential for plants even if in small concentrations and are considered micronutrients, such as Fe, Zn, Mn. Their solubility and bioavailability can be influenced, among other factors, by the presence in soil solution of low molecular weight root exudates acting as organic complexing agents that can contribute to the mineral weathering and therefore, to their mobilization in the soil solution. The mobilized elements, in function of the element and of its concentration, can be either important nutrients or toxic elements for plants. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of several root exudates (citric acid, malic acid, oxalic acid, genistein, quercetin and siderophores) on the mineralogy of two different soils (an agricultural calcareous soil and an acidic polluted soil) and to evaluate possible synergic or competitive behaviors. X-ray diffraction (XRD) coupled with Electron Probe Micro Analysis (EPMA) was used to identify the crystalline and amorphous phases which were subjected to mineral alteration when exposed to the action of root exudates. Solubilization of trace metals such as Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Pb, Cd as well as of major elements such as Si, Al, Fe and Mn was assessed by means of Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Soil microorganisms have proven to decrease mineral weathering by reducing the concentration of active root exudates in solution. Results obtained are an important cornerstone to better understand the biogeochemical processes acting in the rhizosphere which can play an important role in the availability of trace elements (either nutrient or toxic) for plant uptake. Research is supported by MIUR - FIRB "Futuro in ricerca", internal grant of Unibz (TN5031 & TN5046) and the Autonomous Province of Bolzano (Rhizotyr TN5218).

  19. Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Mineralization with Flexible Soil and Microbial C:N Ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, G.; Mayes, M. A.; Thornton, P. E.; Hoffman, F. M.

    2014-12-01

    Microbial assimilation of C-N and the physicochemical protection of soil organic matter (SOM) play fundamental roles in regulating land-atmosphere interactions. However, these microbial and physicochemical processes are not explicitly represented in current region/global terrestrial ecosystem models, e.g., the Community Land Model (CLM). The lack of explicit representation of microbial pools and functions results in unrealistic fixed-C:N ratios in SOM pools currently in CLM. Thus current soil C-N model configuration is inadequate to model the effects of litter inputs or fertilization on soil carbon and nitrogen mineralization and linkages between plant litter C:N ratios and soil or microbial C:N ratios. We propose a coupled C-N model that allows for flexible C:N ratios in microbe and SOM pools and thus the ability to represent the decomposition response to fertilization and/or litter inputs with various C:N ratios. Our preliminary analysis has shown that the C:N ratios in SOM, dissolved organic matter (DOM), and microbial pools can be well constrained by the new C-N model and microbes regulate the C:N ratios in SOM and DOM pools. We will use this new model framework to evaluate the soil carbon and nitrogen mineralization processes under conditions of excess organic C, excess organic N, or limited mineral N.

  20. Soil Exometabolomics: An Approach to Investigate Adsorption of Metabolites on Soils and Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swenson, T.; Nico, P. S.; Northen, T.

    2014-12-01

    A large fraction of soil organic matter (SOM) is composed of small molecules of microbial origin resulting from lysed cells and released metabolites. However, the cycling of these nutrients by microorganisms, a critical component of the global carbon cycle, remains poorly understood. Although there are many biotic and abiotic factors affecting the accessibility of SOM to microbes, adsorption to mineral surfaces is among the most important. Here, we are developing exometabolomics methods to further understand the types of microbial metabolites remaining in the water extractable fraction of SOM (WEOM). To estimate which compounds adsorb to a sandy loam soil (obtained from the Angelo Coast Range Reserve in Mendocino, CA), an extract was prepared from the soil bacterium Pseudomonas stutzerii RCH2 grown on 13C acetate. This approach produced highly labeled metabolites that were easily discriminated from the endogenous soil metabolites by gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry. Comparison of the composition of the fresh bacteria extract with what was recovered following a 15 min incubation with soil revealed that only 26% of the metabolites showed >50% recovery in the WEOM. Most cations (polyamines) and anions showed <10% recovery. These represent metabolites that may be inaccessible to microbes in this environment and would be most likely to accumulate as SOM presumably due to binding with minerals and negatively-charged clay particles. Ongoing studies are focused on comparing the adsorption capacity of bacteria extract with several minerals (ferrihydrite, goethite, meghemite, lepidocrocite). Varying conditions such as metabolite-mineral contact time (ranging from hours to days) and temperature (4-37°C) will provide insight into how microbial metabolites behave in a given mineral-rich environment under certain climatic conditions.

  1. Changes in Soil Minerology Reduce Phosphorus Mobility During Anoxic Soil Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giri, S. K.; Geohring, L. D.; Richards, B. K.; Walter, M.; Steenhuis, T. S.

    2008-05-01

    Phosphorus (P) transfer from the landscape to receiving waters is an important environmental concern because these diffuse losses may cause widespread water quality impairments which can accelerate freshwater eutrophication. Phosphorus (P) mobilization from soil to surface and subsurface flow paths is controlled by numerous factors, and thus it can vary greatly with time and landscape scale. To determine whether P mobilization during soil saturation in the landscape was caused or controlled by complexation, iron reduction or ligand exchange, experiments were carried out to better characterize the interrelationships of varying P sources with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and soil anoxic conditions. The soil incubation experiments consisted of treatments with distilled water, 5 mM acetic acid (HAc), 0.05% humic acid (HA) and glucose (40 mM) at 26 o C under anaerobic conditions to isolate effects of the various P exchange processes. The experimental results suggest that during soil saturation, the loosely bound P, which is primarily associated with iron oxyhydroxides, was mobilized by both reduction and complexation processes. Good correlations were observed between ferrous iron (Fe+2) and DOC, and between total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) and DOC, facilitating P desorption to the soil water. The anaerobic soil conditions with different P sources also indicated that mineralization facilitated P mobility, mainly due to chelation (humics and metabolites) and as a result of the bio-reduction of iron when fresh litter and grass were present. The organic P sources which are rich in carbohydrate and cellulose and that undergo fermentation due to the action of lactate forming organisms also caused a release of P. The easily metabolizable DOC sources lead to intensive bio-reduction of soil with the release of Fe, however this did not necessarily appear to cause more TDP in the soil solution. The varying P additions in soils with water, HAc and glucose (40mm) before and after soil incubation showed higher P sorption than aerobic soil due to reduced iron (Fe+2) - P mineral formation. Some of the readily available P in the soil solution tended to co-precipitate quickly with Fe, Al, Ca, and Mn, but it also resulted in the formation of earthy masses of vivianite [Fe2+3(PO4)2 . 8 H20], thus almost completely immobilizing P. These findings suggest that where conditions in the landscape are saturated, but remain stagnant for extended time periods, P additions may not necessarily enhance leaching once hydrological transport resumes. The temporal nature of P mobilization processes combined with rapid (i.e., preferential flow) hydrological transport appears to have a more important role in controlling P transport through the landscape.

  2. Does plant uptake or low soil mineral-N production limit mineral-N losses to surface waters and groundwater from soils under grass in summer?

    PubMed

    Bhatti, Ambreen; McClean, Colin J; Cresser, Malcolm S

    2013-07-01

    Summer minima and autumn/winter maxima in nitrate concentrations in rivers are reputedly due to high plant uptake of nitrate from soils in summer. A novel alternative hypothesis is tested here for soils under grass. By summer, residual readily mineralizable plant litter from the previous autumn/winter is negligible and fresh litter input low. Consequently little mineral-N is produced in the soil. Water-soluble and KCl-extractable mineral N in fresh soils and soils incubated outdoors for 7 days have been monitored over 12 months for soil transects at two permanent grassland sites near York, UK, using 6 replicates throughout. Vegetation-free soil is shown to produce very limited mineral-N in summer, despite the warm, moist conditions. Litter accumulates in autumn/winter and initially its high C:N ratio favours N accumulation in the soil. It is also shown that mineral-N generated monthly in situ in soil substantially exceeds the monthly mineral-N inputs via wet deposition at the sites. PMID:23562960

  3. COMPARISON OF NUTRIENT SOURCES OF MINERAL SOIL NUTRITION IN FLORIDA SUGARCANE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improving soil organic matter and soil fertility are important factors in the sustainability of sugarcane production on mineral soils. A trial was established in 2004 on a sandy Spodosol in Florida to compare the effect of organic and inorganic nutrient sources on soil fertility and sugarcane produ...

  4. Carbon mineralization and microbial biomass in soil aggregates from two tillage systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil quality is a concept of many interrelated factors that perform in concert to improve soil productivity. Few of the factors for soil quality are microbial biomass, soil aggregate fractions, and carbon mineralization in different aggregate fractions that are influenced by the agricultural practic...

  5. [Seasonal dynamics of soil net nitrogen mineralization under moss crust in Shapotou region, northern China].

    PubMed

    Hu, Rui; Wang, Xin-ping; Pan, Yan-xia; Zhang, Ya-feng; Zhang, Hao; Cheng, Ning

    2015-04-01

    Seasonal variations of soil inorganic nitrogen (N) pool and net N transformation rate in moss-covered soil and in the bare soil were comparatively observed by incubating intact soil columns with parafilm capping in the field in a natural vegetation area of Shapotou, southeastern fringe of the Tengger Desert. We found pronounced seasonal variations in soil available N content and net N transformation rate in both moss-covered soil and bare soil, with significant differences among different months. In non-growing season, soil available N content and net N transformation rate were significantly higher in March and October than in other months. Furthermore, immobilization was the dominant form of N mineralization, and no significant difference in net soil N mineralization rate was found between the two sampling soils. In growing season, soil available N content and net N transformation rate markedly increased and reached their peak values during June to August (17.18 mg x kg(-1) and 0.11 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1), respectively). Both soil net nitrification and N mineralization rates in moss-covered soil were significantly higher than in bare soil. Soil ammonium and nitrate N content in April and May were higher in moss-covered soil (2.66 and 3.16 mg x kg(-1), respectively) than in bare soil (1.02 and 2.37 mg x kg(-1), respectively); while the tendency was the converse in June and September, with 7.01 mg x kg(-1) for soil ammonium content and 7.40 mg x kg(-1) for nitrate N content in bare soil, and they were 6.39 and 6.36 mg x kg(-1) in moss-covered soil, respectively. Therefore, the existence and succession of moss crusts could be considered as one of the important biological factors affecting soil N cycling through regulating soil available N content and promoting soil N mineralization process. PMID:26259453

  6. Statistical analysis of mineral soils in the Odra valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudak, Magda; Rojna, Arkadiusz

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this article is to present the results of statistical analyses of laboratory experiment results obtained from an ITB ZW-K2 apparatus, Kamieński tubes and grain-size distribution curves. Beside basic statistical parameters (mean, sum, minimum and maximum), correlation analysis and multivariate analysis of variance at significance levels α < 0.01 and α < 0.05 were taken into account, as well as calculations of LSD confidence half-intervals. The research material was collected from the valley of the Odra river near the town of Słubice in Lubuskie province. The research involved mineral, non-rock fine-grained, non-cohesive soils lying at the depth of 0.3-1.5 m.

  7. Soil quality assessment for peat-mineral mix cover soil used in oil sands reclamation.

    PubMed

    Ojekanmi, A A; Chang, S X

    2014-09-01

    A soil quality (SQ) assessment and rating framework that is quantitative, iterative, and adaptable, with justifiable weighting for quality scores, is required for evaluating site-specific SQ at land reclamation sites. Such a framework needs to identify the minimum dataset that reflects the current knowledge regarding relationships between SQ indicators and relevant measures of ecosystem performance. Our objective was to develop nonlinear scoring functions for assessing the impact on SQ of peat-mineral mix (PMM) used as a cover soil at land reclamation sites. Soil functional indicators affected by PMM were extracted from existing databases and correlated with soil organic carbon (SOC). Based on defined objectives for SQ assessment, indicators with significant correlation ( < 0.05) to SOC were selected, normalized, and fitted to sigmoid functions using nonlinear regression procedure to establish SQ functions (SQFs) that can analyze changes in field capacity, permanent wilting point, soil nitrogen, and cation exchange capacity of PMM using SOC as input parameter. Application of the SQFs to an independent dataset produced ratings with mean differences similar to the treatment effects of mixing three levels of peat and mineral soil. These results show that derived ratings and weighing factors using SOC reflect the relationship between PMM treatment and other SQ indicators. Applying the developed SQFs to a long-term soil monitoring dataset shows that an increase or decrease in SOC from 10 to 20 g kg causes a significant change in SQ. This identifies the need for further nutrient and moisture management of PMM to support long-term SQ development in land reclamation. PMID:25603242

  8. Kinetics of di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate mineralization in sludge-amended soil

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, P.L.; Thyme, J.B.; Henriksen, K.; Moeldrup, P.; Roslev, P. . Environmental Engineering Lab.)

    1999-08-01

    Sewage sludge is frequently used as a soil fertilizer although it may contain elevated concentrations of priority pollutants including di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP). In the present study, the kinetics of microbial [[sup 14]C]DEHP mineralization was studied in laboratory microcosms with sewage sludge and agricultural soil. A biphasic model with two independent kinetic expressions was used to fit the mineralization data. The initial mineralization activity was described well by first-order kinetics, whereas mineralization in long-term incubations was described better by fractional power kinetics. The mineralization activity was much lower in the late phase presumably due to a decline in the bioavailability of DEHP caused by diffusion-limited desorption. The initial DEHP mineralization rate in sludge-amended soil varied between 3.7 and 20.3 ng of DEHP (g dw)[sup [minus]1]d[sup [minus]1] depending on incubation conditions. Aerobic DEHP mineralization was 4--5 times faster than anaerobic mineralization, DEHP mineralization in sludge-amended soil was much more temperature sensitive than was DEHP mineralization in soil without sludge. Indigenous microorganisms in the sewage sludge appeared to dominate DEHP degradation in sludge-amended soil. It was estimated that > 41% of the DEHP in sludge-amended soil will have escaped mineralization after 1 year. In the absence of oxygen, > 68% of the DEHP will not be mineralized within 1 year. Collectively, the data suggest that a significant fraction of the DEHP in sludge-amended soils may escape mineralization under in situ conditions.

  9. Soil and plant minerals associated with rice straighthead disorder induced by arsenic

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Application of arsenic (As) as monosodium methanearsonate (MSMA) to soil has become the common practice for evaluation of rice straighthead, a physiological disorder. So far, no study has reported on soil mineral availability and plant mineral uptake as affected by the MSMA straighthead evaluation. ...

  10. LONG-TERM URANIUM MIGRATION IN AGRICULTURAL FIELD SOILS FOLLOWING MINERAL P FERTILIZATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To preserve soil fertility, organic and mineral fertilizers are often applied to agricultural fields. Mineral fertilizers such as phosphates and super phosphates contain a certain amount of long-lived alpha activity due to 238-U, 230-Th, amongst others. The fate of U in soil systems is quite complex...

  11. Experimental warming effects on C and N mineralization in an Austrian mountain forest soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schütt, Marianne; Anzenhofer, Regina; Heuck, Christine; Hubach, Alena; Matzner, Egbert; Schindlbacher, Andreas; Borken, Werner

    2013-04-01

    An increase in soil temperatures substantially increases soil respiration rates as both processes are positively correlated. This has been demonstrated in a wide range of manipulative field and laboratory studies. However, the response of gross and net nitrogen (N) mineralization rates to enhanced soil temperatures has rarely been investigated. Previous studies ascribed the increased carbon (C) mineralization rates under elevated soil temperatures to enhanced microbial metabolic activity. We conduct a laboratory incubation experiment to determine gross and net N mineralization rates as well as CO2 production rates to test the hypothesis that elevated soil temperatures lead to an increase in gross and net N mineralization rates likewise as observed in C mineralization. We expect that gross N mineralization has a different temperature sensitivity than C mineralization. Soil samples were taken from the Achenkirch (Austria) soil warming experiment. Warmed and control plots were established in a mixed spruce-beech forest stand each with three replications in 2004. Soil temperature was enhanced in the warmed plots by 4°C above ambient temperature during the vegetation period. Due to anthropogenic deposition this site is highly N-saturated. Soil samples were taken in two depths (Oi/Oe layer and 0-10 cm). Gross ammonification and nitrification rates were measured by the 15N pool dilution technique, net N and CO2 production rates were determined in lab incubations over 12 weeks. First results of this study will be presented.

  12. Surface complexation modeling of arsenate adsorption on soil minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Manning, B.A.; Goldberg, S.

    1995-12-01

    Arsenic (As) is a toxic trace element that occurs naturally in some groundwaters of the semiarid southwestern United States and can be mobilized from soils during irrigated agricultural practices. The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of surface complexation models to describe anion adsorption on the soil minerals {alpha}-FeOOH (goethite), {gamma}-Al(OH){sub 3} (gibbsite), kaolinite, montmorillonite, and illite in the single arsenate (As(V)) anion and binary arsenate-phosphate (As(V)/P) and arsenate-molybdate (As(V)/Mo) systems. Surface complexation constants for As(V), P, and Mo were optimized using experimental batch adsorption envelope data (adsorption vs. pH) from single anion systems. The constant capacitance model predicted competitive adsorption in binary As(V)/P systems. The minor influence of Mo on As(V) adsorption in the As(V)/Mo systems was predicted and was consistent with an experimentally-derived affinity order of P>=As(V)>Mo. The application of other surface complexation models to experimental adsorption data will also be discussed.

  13. Indigenous and enhanced mineralization of pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene, and carbazole in soils.

    PubMed Central

    Grosser, R J; Warshawsky, D; Vestal, J R

    1991-01-01

    We studied the mineralization of pyrene, carbazole, and benzo[a]pyrene in soils obtained from three abandoned coal gasification plants in southern Illinois. The soils had different histories of past exposure to hydrocarbon contamination and different amounts of total organic carbon, microbial biomass, and microbial activity. Mineralization was measured by using serum bottle radiorespirometry. The levels of indigenous mineralization of 14C-labeled compounds ranged from 10 to 48% for pyrene, from undetectable to 46% for carbazole, and from undetectable to 25% for benzo[a]pyrene following long-term (greater than 180-day) incubations. Pyrene and carbazole were degraded with short or no lag periods in all soils, but benzo[a]pyrene mineralization occurred after a 28-day lag period. Mineralization was not dependent on high levels of microbial biomass and activity in the soils. Bacterial cultures that were capable of degrading pyrene and carbazole were isolated by enrichment, grown in pure culture, and reintroduced into soils. Reintroduction of a pyrene-degrading bacterium enhanced mineralization to a level of 55% within 2 days, compared with a level of 1% for the indigenous population. The carbazole degrader enhanced mineralization to a level of 45% after 7 days in a soil that showed little indigenous carbazole mineralization. The pyrene and carbazole degraders which we isolated were identified as a Mycobacterium sp. and a Xanthamonas sp., respectively. Our results indicated that mineralization of aromatic hydrocarbons can be significantly enhanced by reintroducing isolated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria. PMID:1785924

  14. Interactive priming of biochar and labile organic matter mineralization in a smectite-rich soil.

    PubMed

    Keith, Alexandra; Singh, Balwant; Singh, Bhupinder Pal

    2011-11-15

    Biochar is considered as an attractive tool for long-term carbon (C) storage in soil. However, there is limited knowledge about the effect of labile organic matter (LOM) on biochar-C mineralization in soil or the vice versa. An incubation experiment (20 °C) was conducted for 120 days to quantify the interactive priming effects of biochar-C and LOM-C mineralization in a smectitic clayey soil. Sugar cane residue (source of LOM) at a rate of 0, 1, 2, and 4% (w/w) in combination with two wood biochars (450 and 550 °C) at a rate of 2% (w/w) were applied to the soil. The use of biochars (~ -36‰) and LOM (-12.7‰) or soil (-14.3‰) with isotopically distinct δ(13)C values allowed the quantification of C mineralized from biochar and LOM/soil. A small fraction (0.4-1.1%) of the applied biochar-C was mineralized, and the mineralization of biochar-C increased significantly with increasing application rates of LOM, especially during the early stages of incubation. Concurrently, biochar application reduced the mineralization of LOM-C, and the magnitude of this effect increased with increasing rate of LOM addition. Over time, the interactive priming of biochar-C and LOM-C mineralization was stabilized. Biochar application possesses a considerable merit for long-term soil C-sequestration, and it has a stabilizing effect on LOM in soil. PMID:21950729

  15. [Mineralization of soil organic carbon and its relationship with soil enzyme activities in apple orchard in Weibei].

    PubMed

    Jia, Man-Li; Guo, Hong; Li, Hui-Ke

    2014-07-01

    A total of 36 kinds of soil samples were collected from apple orchards under three kinds of management model, including clear tillage model, intercropping white clover model and intercropping small crown flower model, the mineralization of soil organic carbon and four kinds of soil enzymes activities were determined, and the relationship between the two parameters was also analyzed. The results showed that the soil organic carbon mineralization of all the three treatments was almost the same. The daily SOC mineralization rate first increased and then decreased, and finally tended to be stable. After 31 days incubation experiment, the maximum accumulative amount of SOC mineralization occurred in white clover treatment with 590 mg x kg(-1), followed by small crown flower treatment with 541 mg x kg(-1), and the minimum value was 367 mg x kg(-1) in the control treatment, and the accumulative amount of SOC mineralization decreased with increasing soil depth. Discovered by the first-order kinetics, the fitting parameter Cp value ranged from 0.252 to 2.74 g x kg(-1) and k value ranged from 0.019 to 0.051 d(-1), and the two grass treatments both showed significant difference in Cp value from the control treatment, and the soil invertase and cellulose activities showed obvious relationship with soil organic carbon mineralization. PMID:25244868

  16. [Effects of temperature on organic carbon mineralization in paddy soils with different clay content].

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiu-E; Tong, Cheng-Li; Sun, Zhong-Lin; Tang, Guo-Yong; Xiao, He-Ai; Wu, Jin-Shui

    2007-10-01

    An incubation test with three kinds of paddy soil (sandy loam, clay loam, and silty clay soils) in subtropical region was conducted at 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 degrees C to examine the response of the mineralization of soil organic carbon (SOC) to temperature change. The results showed that during the period of 160 d incubation, the accumulative mineralized amount of SOC in sandy loam, clay loam, and silty clay soils at 30 degrees C was 3.5, 5.2 and 4.7 times as much as that at 10 degrees C, respectively. The mineralization rate was lower and relatively stable at lower temperatures (< or = 20 C), but was higher at the beginning of incubation and decreased and became stable as the time prolonged at higher temperatures (> or = 25 degrees C). During incubation, the temperature coefficient (Q10) of SOC mineralization in test soils fluctuated, with an average Q10 in sandy loam, clay loam, and silty clay soils being 1.92, 2.37 and 2.32, respectively. There was a positive exponential correlation between SOC mineralization constant k and temperature (P < 0.01), and the response of SOC mineralization to temperature change was in the order of clay loam soil > silty clay soil > sandy loam soil. PMID:18163305

  17. Adsorption and structural fractionation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) by soil mineral surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avneri, Shani; Polubesova, Tamara; Chefetz, Benny

    2015-04-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) represents a small but highly reactive fraction of the soil organic matter (SOM). One of the important processes affecting the fate of DOM in soils is its interactions with mineral phases. Adsorptive fractionation of DOM by soils and minerals has been observed previously, however detailed changes in composition of DOM due to its interactions with mineral soils were not yet elucidated. In this research the adsorption and physico-chemical fractionation of DOM by soil poor with organic matter and rich with iron oxides and clay fraction was investigated. The changes in DOM structural composition were studied using separation with polymeric resins. The following fractions were obtained: hydrophobic acid (HoA), hydrophobic neutral (HoN), hydrophilic acid (HiA), hydrophilic base (HiB), and hydrophilic neutral (HiN). Two types of DOM were studied: DOM extracted from composted biosolids (compost DOM) and DOM from Suwanee River (SRNOM). Sorption affinity of DOM to soil mineral surfaces was source and chemistry dependent. SRNOM, which was characterized by higher content of aromatic and carboxylic groups demonstrated higher affinity to the studied soil than compost DOM. For both DOM samples preferential adsorption of HoA by soil (50-85% from adsorbed carbon) was observed. Desorption of both DOM types demonstrated significant hysteresis (up to 90-100% of dissolved organic carbon was retained by the soil after 3 cycles of desorption stages). This suggests that DOM desorption behavior was affected by HoA dominant adsorption to the soil mineral fraction, and not by DOM source. Results of this study indicate that interactions of different types of DOM with mineral soil may result in similar changes in composition and properties of DOM both in the supernatant as well as in the adsorbed phase. The change in DOM composition due to its interaction with soil minerals may influence the interactions of pollutants with DOM and soil particle surfaces.

  18. [Compositional characteristics and roles of soil mineral substances in depressions between hills in karst region].

    PubMed

    Han, Mei-Rong; Song, Tong-Qing; Peng, Wan-Xia; Huang, Guo-Qin; Du, Hu; Lu, Shi-Yang; Shi, Wei-Wei

    2012-03-01

    Based on the investigation and analysis of seven soil mineral substance variables, nine vegetation factors, four topographical factors, and ten soil physicochemical factors in the 200 m x 40 m dynamic monitoring plots in farmland, forest plantation, secondary forest, and primary forest in the depressions between hills in karst region, and by using traditional statistical analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), and canonical correlation analysis (CCA), this paper studied the compositional characteristics and roles of soil mineral substances as well as the coupling relationships between the mineral substances and the vegetation, topography, and other soil properties. In the depressions, soil mineral substances were mainly composed of SiO2, Al2O3, K2O, and Fe2O3, whose contents were obviously lower than the mean background values of the soils in the world and in the zonal red soils at the same latitudes. The soil CaO and MgO contents were at medium level, while the soil MnO content was very low. The composition of soil mineral substances and their variation degrees varied with the ecosystems, and the soil development degree also varied. There was a positive correlation between vegetation origin and soil origin, suggesting the potential risk of rock desertification. Due to the high landscape heterogeneity of the four ecosystems, PCA didn't show good effect in lowering dimension. In all of the four ecosystems, soil mineral substances were the main affecting factors, and had very close relationships with vegetation, topography, and other soil properties. Especially for SiO2, CaO, and MnO, they mainly affected the vegetation species diversity and the soil organic matter, total nitrogen, and total potassium. This study indicated that soil mineral substances were the one of the factors limiting the soil fertility and vegetation growth in the depressions between hills in karst region. To effectively use the soil mineral resources and rationally apply mineral nutrients would have significances in the restoration and reconstruction of karst degraded ecosystems. PMID:22720612

  19. Nitrogen Mineralization in a Semiarid Silt Loam Soil in the Pacific Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mineralization of nitrogen from soil organic matter or plant residues can provide a substantial amount of nitrogen for crop growth. Microbial activity in a soil may be adversely affected by either very high or low soil water content. A field study was conducted to determine the affect of three...

  20. Mechanistic roles of soil humus and minerals in the sorption of nonionic organic compounds from aqueous and organic solutions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chiou, C.T.; Shoup, T.D.; Porter, P.E.

    1985-01-01

    Mechanistic roles of soil humus and soil minerals and their contributions to soil sorption of nonionic organic compounds from aqueous and organic solutions are illustrated. Parathion and lindane are used as model solutes on two soils that differ greatly in their humic and mineral contents. In aqueous systems, observed sorptive characteristics suggest that solute partitioning into the soil-humic phase is the primary mechanism of soil uptake. By contrast, data obtained from organic solutions on dehydrated soil partitioning into humic phase and adsorption by soil minerals is influenced by the soil-moisture content and by the solvent medium from which the solute is sorbed. ?? 1985.

  1. Carbon and nitrogen mineralization in vineyard acid soils amended with a bentonitic winery waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Calviño, David; Rodríguez-Salgado, Isabel; Pérez-Rodríguez, Paula; Díaz-Raviña, Montserrat; Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Arias-Estévez, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    Carbon mineralization and nitrogen ammonification processes were determined in different vineyard soils. The measurements were performed in samples non-amended and amended with different bentonitic winery waste concentrations. Carbon mineralization was measured as CO2 released by the soil under laboratory conditions, whereas NH4+ was determined after its extraction with KCl 2M. The time evolution of both, carbon mineralization and nitrogen ammonification, was followed during 42 days. The released CO2 was low in the analyzed vineyard soils, and hence the metabolic activity in these soils was low. The addition of the bentonitic winery waste to the studied soils increased highly the carbon mineralization (2-5 fold), showing that the organic matter added together the bentonitic waste to the soil have low stability. In both cases, amended and non-amended samples, the maximum carbon mineralization was measured during the first days (2-4 days), decreasing as the incubation time increased. The NH4+ results showed an important effect of bentonitic winery waste on the ammonification behavior in the studied soils. In the non-amended samples the ammonification was no detected in none of the soils, whereas in the amended soils important NH4+ concentrations were detected. In these cases, the ammonification was fast, reaching the maximum values of NH4 between 7 and 14 days after the bentonitic waste additions. Also, the percentages of ammonification respect to the total nitrogen in the soil were high, showing that the nitrogen provided by the bentonitic waste to the soil is non-stable. The fast carbon mineralization found in the soils amended with bentonitic winery wastes shows low possibilities of the use of this waste for the increasing the organic carbon pools in the soil.On the other hand, the use of this waste as N-fertilizer can be possible. However, due its fast ammonification, the waste should be added to the soils during active plant growth periods.

  2. What shapes edaphic communities in mineral and ornithogenic soils of Cierva Point, Antarctic Peninsula?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mataloni, G.; Garraza, G. González; Bölter, M.; Convey, P.; Fermani, P.

    2010-08-01

    Three mineral soil and four ornithogenic soil sites were sampled during summer 2006 at Cierva Point (Antarctic Peninsula) to study their bacterial, microalgal and faunal communities in relation to abiotic and biotic features. Soil moisture, pH, conductivity, organic matter and nutrient contents were consistently lower and more homogeneous in mineral soils. Ornithogenic soils supported larger and more variable bacterial abundances than mineral ones. Algal communities from mineral soils were more diverse than those from ornithogenic soils, although chlorophyll- a concentrations were significantly higher in the latter. This parameter and bacterial abundance were correlated with nutrient and organic matter contents. The meiofauna obtained from mineral soils was homogeneous, with one nematode species dominating all samples. The fauna of ornithogenic soils varied widely in composition and abundance. Tardigrades and rotifers dominated the meiofauna at eutrophic O2, where they supported a large population of the predatory nematode Coomansus gerlachei. At site O3, high bacterial abundance was consistent with high densities of the bacterivorous nematodes Plectus spp. This study provides evidence that Antarctic soils are complex and diverse systems, and suggests that biotic interactions (e.g. competition and predation) may have a stronger and more direct influence on community variability in space and time than previously thought.

  3. Protozoan predation in soil slurries compromises determination of contaminant mineralization potential.

    PubMed

    Badawi, Nora; Johnsen, Anders R; Brandt, Kristian K; Sørensen, Jan; Aamand, Jens

    2012-11-01

    Soil suspensions (slurries) are commonly used to estimate the potential of soil microbial communities to mineralize organic contaminants. The preparation of soil slurries disrupts soil structure, however, potentially affecting both the bacterial populations and their protozoan predators. We studied the importance of this "slurry effect" on mineralization of the herbicide 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA, (14)C-labelled), focussing on the effects of protozoan predation. Mineralization of MCPA was studied in "intact" soil and soil slurries differing in soil:water ratio, both in the presence and absence of the protozoan activity inhibitor cycloheximide. Protozoan predation inhibited mineralization in dense slurry of subsoil (soil:water ratio 1:3), but only in the most dilute slurry of topsoil (soil:water ratio 1:100). Our results demonstrate that protozoan predation in soil slurries may compromise quantification of contaminant mineralization potential, especially when the initial density of degrader bacteria is low and their growth is controlled by predation during the incubation period. PMID:22763328

  4. Global distribution of minerals in arid soils as lower boundary condition in dust models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nickovic, Slobodan

    2010-05-01

    Mineral dust eroded from arid soils affects the radiation budget of the Earth system, modifies ocean bioproductivity and influences human health. Dust aerosol is a complex mixture of minerals. Dust mineral composition has several potentially important impacts to environment and society. Iron and phosphorus embedded in mineral aerosol are essential for the primary marine productivity when dust deposits over the open ocean. Dust also acts as efficient agent for heterogeneous ice nucleation and this process is dependent on mineralogical structure of dust. Recent findings in medical geology indicate possible role of minerals to human health. In this study, a new 1-km global database was developed for several minerals (Illite, Kaolinite, Smectite, Calcite, Quartz, Feldspar, Hematite and Gypsum) embedded in clay and silt populations of arid soils. For the database generation, high-resolution data sets on soil textures, soil types and land cover was used. Tin addition to the selected minerals, phosphorus was also added whose geographical distribution was specified from compiled literature and data on soil types. The developed global database was used to specify sources of mineral fractions in the DREAM dust model and to simulate atmospheric paths of minerals and their potential impacts on marine biochemistry and tropospheric ice nucleation.

  5. Changes in mineral soil biogeochemical cycling and environmental conditions following tree harvest in the Northeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vario, C.; Friedland, A.

    2012-12-01

    In the northeastern United States, reductions in carbon dioxide emissions have been attempted by using local wood as a renewable alternative to oil. Although woody biomass products are readily available, recent findings suggest that forest disturbance may cause release of carbon from the deeper mineral soil. Worldwide, deep soils sequester more than half of soil carbon, making it critical in the global carbon cycle; however, most studies on the effect of harvesting have focused on the organic soil horizon. Our research aimed to uncover changes in biogeochemistry and environmental conditions in deeper, mineral soil after clear cutting forests. We quantified post-harvest mineral soil carbon pools through a regional study. We utilized stands of different ages to measure the recovery of soil carbon over time since harvest. Stands included in this study were cut approximately 5, 12, 25, 50, or 120 ybp, in order to identify changes in soil carbon over time since harvest. We sampled harvested stands in six research or protected forests across New York, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, and Vermont. Soil samples were collected to a depth of 60 cm below the surface of the mineral soil using a gas-powered augur and 9.5 cm diameter drill bit. Soil samples were analyzed at Dartmouth College. In order to understand specific changes in mineral soil carbon dynamics following harvest, measurements of carbon fluxes, such as soil respiration and DOC transport were conducted at five different-aged stands at Bartlett Experimental Forest, NH. While parameters that may influence carbon storage—such as pH, clay content, tree cover and elevation— did not vary across the different-aged stands in each forest, carbon pools did vary over time. We found changes in carbon pools in at least three experimental forests across the northeast. At Bartlett Experimental Forest, we found a gradual decline in mineral soil carbon storage from between 85-87 Mg ha-1 in 120 year old and primary forest stands to a minimum of 53 Mg ha-1 in the 75 year old stand. In our carbon flux measurements, we observed higher DOC concentrations in lysimeter samples collected at 30 cm at 12 years after harvest. We have also documented consistently higher soil temperatures across summer months at 50 cm below the mineral soil in the recently clear-cut site at Bartlett Experimental Forest. These changes in biogeochemical and environmental conditions suggest that forest clearing does affect mineral soil, and our findings may help identify a mechanism to explain the observed carbon loss from soils in clear-cut forests.

  6. X-ray digital imaging petrography of lunar mare soils: modal analyses of minerals and glasses.

    PubMed

    Taylor, L A; Patchen, A; Taylor, D H; Chambers, J G; McKay, D S

    1996-12-01

    It is essential that accurate modal (i.e., volume) percentages of the various mineral and glass phases in lunar soils be used for addressing and resolving the effects of space weathering upon reflectance spectra, as well as for their calibration such data are also required for evaluating the resource potential of lunar minerals for use at a lunar base. However, these data are largely lacking. Particle-counting information for lunar soils, originally obtained to study formational processes, does not provide these necessary data, including the percentages of minerals locked in multi-phase lithic fragments and fused-soil particles, such as agglutinates. We have developed a technique for modal analyses, sensu stricto, of lunar soils, using digital imaging of X-ray maps obtained with an energy-dispersive spectrometer mounted on an electron microprobe. A suite of nine soils (90 to 150 micrometers size fraction) from the Apollo 11, 12, 15, and 17 mare sites was used for this study. This is the first collection of such modal data on soils from all Apollo mare sites. The abundances of free-mineral fragments in the mare soils are greater for immature and submature soils than for mature soils, largely because of the formation of agglutinitic glass as maturity progresses. In considerations of resource utilization at a lunar base, the best lunar soils to use for mineral beneficiation (i.e., most free-mineral fragments) have maturities near the immature/submature boundary (Is/FeO approximately or = 30), not the mature soils with their complications due to extensive agglutination. The particle data obtained from the nine mare soils confirm the generalizations for lunar soils predicted by L.A. Taylor and D.S. McKay (1992, Lunar Planet Sci. Conf. 23rd, pp. 1411-1412 [Abstract]). PMID:11539387

  7. X-ray digital imaging petrography of lunar mare soils: modal analyses of minerals and glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, L. A.; Patchen, A.; Taylor, D. H.; Chambers, J. G.; McKay, D. S.

    1996-01-01

    It is essential that accurate modal (i.e., volume) percentages of the various mineral and glass phases in lunar soils be used for addressing and resolving the effects of space weathering upon reflectance spectra, as well as for their calibration such data are also required for evaluating the resource potential of lunar minerals for use at a lunar base. However, these data are largely lacking. Particle-counting information for lunar soils, originally obtained to study formational processes, does not provide these necessary data, including the percentages of minerals locked in multi-phase lithic fragments and fused-soil particles, such as agglutinates. We have developed a technique for modal analyses, sensu stricto, of lunar soils, using digital imaging of X-ray maps obtained with an energy-dispersive spectrometer mounted on an electron microprobe. A suite of nine soils (90 to 150 micrometers size fraction) from the Apollo 11, 12, 15, and 17 mare sites was used for this study. This is the first collection of such modal data on soils from all Apollo mare sites. The abundances of free-mineral fragments in the mare soils are greater for immature and submature soils than for mature soils, largely because of the formation of agglutinitic glass as maturity progresses. In considerations of resource utilization at a lunar base, the best lunar soils to use for mineral beneficiation (i.e., most free-mineral fragments) have maturities near the immature/submature boundary (Is/FeO approximately or = 30), not the mature soils with their complications due to extensive agglutination. The particle data obtained from the nine mare soils confirm the generalizations for lunar soils predicted by L.A. Taylor and D.S. McKay (1992, Lunar Planet Sci. Conf. 23rd, pp. 1411-1412 [Abstract]).

  8. Regional Sr-Nd isotopic ratios of soil minerals in northern China as Asian dust fingerprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Takanori; Yokoo, Yoriko; Nishikawa, Masataka; Koyanagi, Hideaki

    We report that arid soils in various areas of northern China can be distinguished by using Sr-Nd isotopic ratios of acid-resistant minerals and Sr isotopic ratios of water- and weak-acid-soluble minerals. Our results show that contemporary dust falling on Beijing is transported mainly from the adjacent northwestern to western areas and is more likely to be related to desertification than dust from the remote Takla Makan desert, the southwestern Gobi desert, or the Loess Plateau. Mineral isotope fingerprinting of arid soils is a powerful tool for source identification and impact assessment of mineral dust, and can serve as a desertification index.

  9. Minerals

    MedlinePlus

    Minerals are important for your body to stay healthy. Your body uses minerals for many different jobs, including building bones, making ... regulating your heartbeat. There are two kinds of minerals: macrominerals and trace minerals. Macrominerals are minerals your ...

  10. A comparison of in situ methods for measuring net nitrogen mineralization rates of organic soil amendments.

    PubMed

    Hanselman, Travis A; Graetz, Donald A; Obreza, Thomas A

    2004-01-01

    In situ incubation methods may help provide site-specific estimates of N mineralization from land-applied wastes. However, there are concerns about the reliability of the data generated by the various methods due to containment artifacts. We amended a sandy soil with either poultry manure, biosolids, or yard-waste compost and incubated the mixtures using four in situ methods (buried bags, covered cylinders, standard resin traps, and "new" soil-resin traps) and a conventional laboratory technique in plastic bags. Each incubation device was destructively sampled at 45-d intervals for 180 d and net N mineralization was determined by measuring the amount of inorganic N that accumulated in the soil or soil plus resin traps. Containment effects were evaluated by comparing water content of the containerized soil to a field-reference soil column. In situ incubation methods provided reasonable estimates of short-term (< 45 d) N mineralization, but long-term (> 45 d) mineralization data were not accurate due to a variety of problems specific to each technique. Buried bags and covered cylinders did not retain mineralized N due to water movement into and out of the containers. Neither resin method captured all of the mineralized N that leached through the soil columns, but the new soil-resin trap method tracked field soil water content better than all other in situ methods evaluated. With further refinement and validation, the new soil-resin trap method may be a useful in situ incubation technique for measuring net N mineralization rates of organic soil amendments. PMID:15224949

  11. Hexadecane mineralization and denitrification in two diesel fuel-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Roy; Greer

    2000-04-01

    The effect of nitrate, ammonium and urea on the mineralization of [(14)C]hexadecane (C(16)H(34)) and on denitrification was evaluated in two soils contaminated with diesel fuel. In soil A, addition of N fertilizers did not stimulate or inhibit background hexadecane mineralization (4.3 mg C(16)H(34) kg(-1) day(-1)). In soil B, only NaNO(3) stimulated hexadecane mineralization (0.91 mg C(16)H(34) kg(-1) day(-1)) compared to soil not supplemented with any nitrogen nutrient (0.17 mg C(16)H(34) kg(-1) day(-1)). Hexadecane mineralization was not stimulated in this soil by NH(4)NO(3) (0.13 mg C(16)H(34) kg(-1) day(-1)), but the addition of NH(4)Cl or urea suppressed hexadecane mineralization (0.015 mg C(16)H(34) kg(-1) day(-1)). Addition of 2 kPa C(2)H(2) did not inhibit the mineralization process in either soil. Denitrification occurred in both soils studied when supplemented with NaNO(3) and NH(4)NO(3), but was not detected with other N sources. Denitrification started after a longer lag in soil A (10 days) than in soil B (4 days). In soil A microcosms supplemented with NaNO(3) or NH(4)NO(3), rates of denitrification were 20.6 and 13.6 mg NO(3)(-) kg(-1) day(-1), respectively, and in soil B, they were 18.5 and 12.5 mg NO(3)(-) kg(-1) day(-1), respectively. We conclude that denitrification may lead to a substantial loss of nitrate, making it unavailable to the mineralizing bacterial population. Nitrous oxide was an important end-product accounting for 30-100% of total denitrification. These results indicate the need for preliminary treatability studies before implementing full-scale treatment processes incorporating commercial fertilizers. PMID:10779615

  12. Magnetic beneficiation of highland and hi-Ti mare soils - Rock, mineral, and glassy components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Lawrence A.; Oder, Robin R.

    1990-01-01

    The exploitation of lunar soil can provide valuable raw materials for in situ resource utilization at a lunar base. A study of magnetic characterization was undertaken of three mare and two highland soils obtained from NASA. Beneficiation of mare and highland soils by sizing and magnetic separation can effectively concentrate the important components of the soils (e.g., ilmenite, native Fe, plagioclase, and aggluminates). As a soil matures and the impact melts consume additional minerals and rocks, the modal percentage of the minerals will decrease. The 'normative' percentage will become much greater than the modal percentage. Therefore, greater efficiency of separation can be realized with the proper selection of maturity of the soil, as well as by secondary grinding to further liberate specific minerals from lithic fragments (e.g., ilmenite and plagioclase).

  13. Carbon mineralization in surface and subsurface soils in a subtropical mixed forest in central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, F.; Tian, Q.

    2014-12-01

    About a half of soil carbon is stored in subsurface soil horizons, their dynamics have the potential to significantly affect carbon balancing in terrestrial ecosystems. However, the main factors regulating subsurface soil carbon mineralization are poorly understood. As affected by mountain humid monsoon, the subtropical mountains in central China has an annual precipitation of about 2000 mm, which causes strong leaching of ions and nutrition. The objectives of this study were to monitor subsurface soil carbon mineralization and to determine if it is affected by nutrient limitation. We collected soil samples (up to 1 m deep) at three locations in a small watershed with three soil layers (0-10 cm, 10-30 cm, below 30 cm). For the three layers, soil organic carbon (SOC) ranged from 35.8 to 94.4 mg g-1, total nitrogen ranged from 3.51 to 8.03 mg g-1, microbial biomass carbon (MBC) ranged from 170.6 to 718.4 μg g-1 soil. We measured carbon mineralization with the addition of N (100 μg N/g soil), P (50 μg P/g soil), and liable carbon (glucose labeled by 5 atom% 13C, at five levels: control, 10% MBC, 50% MBC, 100% MBC, 200% MBC). The addition of N and P had negligible effects on CO2 production in surface soil layers; in the deepest soil layer, the addition of N and P decreased CO2 production from 4.32 to 3.20 μg C g-1 soil carbon h-1. Glucose addition stimulated both surface and subsurface microbial mineralization of SOC, causing priming effects. With the increase of glucose addition rate from 10% to 200% MBC, the primed mineralization rate increased from 0.19 to 3.20 μg C g-1 soil carbon h-1 (fifth day of glucose addition). The magnitude of priming effect increased from 28% to 120% as soil layers go deep compare to the basal CO2 production (fifth day of 200% MBC glucose addition, basal CO2 production rate for the surface and the deepest soil was 11.17 and 2.88 μg C g-1 soil carbon h-1). These results suggested that the mineralization of subsurface carbon is more sensitive to nutrient addition, and carbon mineralization in this layer is likely limited by carbon availability. Thus, any changes in environment conditions (global warming, nitrogen deposition, precipitation pattern change etc.) that affect the distribution of fresh carbon in soil profiles could then stimulate the release of deep soil carbon.

  14. Depth-Dependent Mineral Soil CO2 Production Processes: Sensitivity to Harvesting-Induced Changes in Soil Climate.

    PubMed

    Kellman, Lisa; Myette, Amy; Beltrami, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    Forest harvesting induces a step change in the climatic variables (temperature and moisture), that control carbon dioxide (CO2) production arising from soil organic matter decomposition within soils. Efforts to examine these vertically complex relationships in situ within soil profiles are lacking. In this study we examined how the climatic controls on CO2 production change within vertically distinct layers of the soil profile in intact and clearcut forest soils of a humid temperate forest system of Atlantic Canada. We measured mineral soil temperature (0, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 cm depth) and moisture (0-15 cm and 30-60 cm depth), along with CO2 surface efflux and subsurface concentrations (0, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 35, 50, 75 and 100 cm depth) in 1 m deep soil pits at 4 sites represented by two forest-clearcut pairs over a complete annual cycle. We examined relationships between surface efflux at each site, and soil heat, moisture, and mineral soil CO2 production. Following clearcut harvesting we observed increases in temperature through depth (1-2°C annually; often in excess of 4°C in summer and spring), alongside increases in soil moisture (30%). We observed a systematic breakdown in the expected exponential relationship between CO2 production and heat with mineral soil depth, consistent with an increase in the role moisture plays in constraining CO2 production. These findings should be considered in efforts to model and characterize mineral soil organic matter decomposition in harvested forest soils. PMID:26263510

  15. Depth-Dependent Mineral Soil CO2 Production Processes: Sensitivity to Harvesting-Induced Changes in Soil Climate

    PubMed Central

    Kellman, Lisa; Myette, Amy; Beltrami, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    Forest harvesting induces a step change in the climatic variables (temperature and moisture), that control carbon dioxide (CO2) production arising from soil organic matter decomposition within soils. Efforts to examine these vertically complex relationships in situ within soil profiles are lacking. In this study we examined how the climatic controls on CO2 production change within vertically distinct layers of the soil profile in intact and clearcut forest soils of a humid temperate forest system of Atlantic Canada. We measured mineral soil temperature (0, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 cm depth) and moisture (0–15 cm and 30–60 cm depth), along with CO2 surface efflux and subsurface concentrations (0, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 35, 50, 75 and 100 cm depth) in 1 m deep soil pits at 4 sites represented by two forest-clearcut pairs over a complete annual cycle. We examined relationships between surface efflux at each site, and soil heat, moisture, and mineral soil CO2 production. Following clearcut harvesting we observed increases in temperature through depth (1–2°C annually; often in excess of 4°C in summer and spring), alongside increases in soil moisture (30%). We observed a systematic breakdown in the expected exponential relationship between CO2 production and heat with mineral soil depth, consistent with an increase in the role moisture plays in constraining CO2 production. These findings should be considered in efforts to model and characterize mineral soil organic matter decomposition in harvested forest soils. PMID:26263510

  16. Effects of electrolytes, soil and soil minerals on CH4 recovery from gas hydrates with CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, N.; Lee, W.

    2012-12-01

    Large amount of natural gas hydrates, which are known as future energy source, are stored in permafrost regions and under subsea sediments. One of innovative CH4 recovery mechanism from clathrate hydrates is swapping CH4 molecules by CO2 in cage structure. It can provide not only a promising solution for scarcity of energy, also a carbon reduction method for global warming. Previous studies on swapping have been conducted majorly with pure gas hydrates and a little consideration of geochemical factors recently begins. For future application in real environment of CH4 and CO2 replacement process, thorough investigation on the effect of electrolytes, soil and soil minerals, which are coexisted with gas hydrates under deep-sea sediment, is required. In this study, for understanding the impact of changes of surrounding matters, recovery ratio of CH4 during swapping process is measured as time passed with electrolytes (NaCl, MgCl2, CaCl2, KCl), soil (soil, marine sediment) and soil minerals (montmorillonite, kaolinite, nontronite, pyrite) by gas chromatography (GC). Replacement rates between CH4 and CO2 of samples reach the maximum replacement rate which can occur with pure hydrates sample in the last, however the required time is varied according to samples. There is the tendency that takes more time with soil and soil minerals than others due to the hydrates which are placed in the structure of soil and soil minerals. The experimental results imply that electrolytes, soil and soil minerals have significant effects on CH4 recovery by CO2 in gas hydrates. It could be applicable to excavate CH4 from hydrate deposits and also store the CO2 in existed hydrates structures in the future.

  17. Sorption-desorption behavior of PCP on soil organic matter and clay minerals.

    PubMed

    Pu, Xunchi; Cutright, Teresa J

    2006-08-01

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) contamination is a severe environmental problem due to its widespread occurrence, toxicity and recalcitrance. In order to gain a better understanding of the fate of PCP in soils, the role of the soil organic matter (SOM) and clay minerals in the PCP sorption-desorption was studied on two bulk field soils, two subsoils (i.e., SOM or clay-removed soil) and two artificial soils. The two field soils used were a silty loam from New Mexico (NM) containing 10% clay and a sandy-clay-loam from Colombia (CO) South America comprised of 18% clay minerals. The bulk CO soil containing kaolinite sorbed significantly less PCP than the NM soil. All soils depicted an apparent hysteresis during sorption. The CO bulk and subsoils desorbed 14-20% and 15-26% of the sorbed PCP respectively whereas the NM bulk and subsoils desorbed only 4-12% and 5-16%, respectively. Experiments conducted with pure clay and artificial soils indicated that the expandable clay minerals were key sorbent material. Additional studies to investigate the interaction between SOM and clay minerals are needed to fully understand sorptive phenomena. PMID:16473390

  18. Influence of crop residues on trifluralin mineralization in a silty clay loam soil.

    PubMed

    Farenhorst, Annemieke

    2007-01-01

    Trifluralin is typically applied onto crop residues (trash, stubble) at the soil surface, or onto the bare soil surface after the incorporation of crop residues into the soil. The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of the type and amount of crop residues in soil on trifluralin mineralization in a Wellwood silty clay loam soil. Leaves and stubble of Potato (Solanum tuberosum) (P); Canola (Brassica napus) (C), Wheat (Triticum aestivum) (W), Oats (Avena sativa), (O), and Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) (A) were added to soil microcosms at rates of 2%, 4%, 8% and 16% of the total soil weight (25 g). The type and amount of crop residues in soil had little influence on the trifluralin first-order mineralization rate constant, which ranged from 3.57E-03 day(-1) in soil with 16% A to 2.89E-02 day(-1) in soil with 8% W. The cumulative trifluralin mineralization at 113 days ranged from 1.15% in soil with 16% P to 3.21% in soil with 4% C, again demonstrating that the observed differences across the treatments are not of agronomic or environmental importance. PMID:17454379

  19. Spatial Arrangment of Organic Compounds on a Model Mineral Surface: Implications for Soil Organic Matter Stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Petridis, Loukas; Ambaye, Haile Arena; Jagadamma, Sindhu; Kilbey, S. Michael; Lokitz, Bradley S; Lauter, Valeria; Mayes, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    The complexity of the mineral organic carbon interface may influence the extent of stabilization of organic carbon compounds in soils, which is important for global climate futures. The nanoscale structure of a model interface was examined here by depositing films of organic carbon compounds of contrasting chemical character, hydrophilic glucose and amphiphilic stearic acid, onto a soil mineral analogue (Al2O3). Neutron reflectometry, a technique which provides depth-sensitive insight into the organization of the thin films, indicates that glucose molecules reside in a layer between Al2O3 and stearic acid, a result that was verified by water contact angle measurements. Molecular dynamics simulations reveal the thermodynamic driving force behind glucose partitioning on the mineral interface: The entropic penalty of confining the less mobile glucose on the mineral surface is lower than for stearic acid. The fundamental information obtained here helps rationalize how complex arrangements of organic carbon on soil mineral surfaces may arise

  20. Factors affecting microbial 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene mineralization in contaminated soil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, P.M.; Chapelle, F.H.

    1995-01-01

    The influence of selected environmental factors on microbial TNT mineralization in soils collected from a TNT-contaminated site at Weldon Spring, MO, was examined using uniformly ring-labeled [14C]TNT. Microbial TNT mineralization was significantly inhibited by the addition of cellobiose and syringate. This response suggests that the indigenous microorganisms are capable of metabolizing TNT but preferentially utilize less recalcitrant substrates when available. The observed inhibition of TNT mineralization by TNT concentrations higher than 100 ??mol/kg of soil and by dry soil conditions suggests that toxic inhibition of microbial activity at high TNT concentrations and the periodic drying of these soils have contributed to the long-term persistence of TNT at Weldon Spring. In comparison to aerobic microcosms, mineralization was inhibited in anaerobic microcosms and in microcosms with a headspace of air amended with oxygen, suggesting that a mosaic of aerobic and anaerobic conditions may optimize TNT degradation at this site.

  1. DYNAMICS OF MINERAL STRUCTURES AND THE FATE OF METALS IN SOILS AND SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Significant progress has been made in elucidating sorption reactions that control the partitioning of metals from solution to mineral surfaces in contaminated soil/sediment systems. Surface complexation models have been developed to quantify the forward reaction with reasonable ...

  2. Clay mineralogy of weathering rinds and possible implications concerning the sources of clay minerals in soils.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colman, Steven M.

    1982-01-01

    Weathering rinds on volcanic clasts in Quaternary deposits in the western US contain only very fine-grained and poorly crystalline clay minerals. Rinds were sampled from soils containing well-developed argillic B horizons in deposits approx 105 yr old or more. The clay-size fraction of the rinds is dominated by allophane and iron hydroxy-oxides, whereas the B horizons contain abundant well-crystallized clay minerals. The contrast between the clay mineralogy of the weathering rinds, in which weathering is isolated from other soil processes, and that of the associated soil matrices suggests a need to reassess assumptions concerning the rates at which clay minerals form and the sources of clay minerals in argillic B horizons. It seems that crystalline clay minerals form more slowly in weathering rinds than is generally assumed for soil environments and that the weathering of primary minerals may not be the dominant source of crystalline clay minerals in Middle to Late Pleistocene soil.-A.P.

  3. Resources for a lunar base: Rocks, minerals, and soil of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Lawrence A.

    1992-01-01

    The rocks and minerals of the Moon will be included among the raw materials used to construct a lunar base. The lunar regolith, the fragmental material present on the surface of the Moon, is composed mostly of disaggregated rocks and minerals, but also includes glassy fragments fused together by meteorite impacts. The finer fraction of the regolith (i.e., less than 1 cm) is informally referred to as soil. The soil is probably the most important portion of the regolith for use at a lunar base. For example, soil can be used as insulation against cosmic rays, for lunar ceramics and abodes, or for growing plants. The soil contains abundant solar-wind-implanted elements as well as various minerals, particularly oxide phases, that are of potential economic importance. For example, these components of the soil are sources of oxygen and hydrogen for rocket fuel, helium for nuclear energy, and metals such as Fe, Al, Si, and Ti.

  4. Mineral Soil Carbon in Managed Hardwood Forests of the Northeastern US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vario, C.; Friedland, A.; Hornig, C.

    2013-12-01

    New England is characterized by extensive forest cover and large reservoirs of soil carbon (C). In northern hardwood forests, mineral soil C can account for up to 50% of total ecosystem C. There has been an increasing demand for forests to serve both as a C sink and a renewable energy source, and effective management of the ecosystem C balance relies on accurate modeling of each compartment of the ecosystem. However, the dynamics of soil C storage with respect to forest use are variable and poorly understood, particularly in mineral soils. For example, current regional models assume C pools after forest harvesting do not change, while some studies suggest that belowground mineral soil C pools can be affected by disturbances at the soil surface. We quantified mineral soil C pools in previously clear-cut stands in seven research or protected forests across New York, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, and Vermont. The ages of the sites sampled ranged from recently cleared to those with no disturbance history, with 21 forest stands represented in the study. Within each research forest studied, physical parameters such as soil type, forest type, slope and land-use history (aside from forest harvest) did not vary between the stands of different ages. Soil samples were collected to a depth of 60 cm below the mineral-organic boundary using a gas-powered augur and 9.5-cm diameter drill bit. Samples were collected in 10-cm increments in shallow mineral soil and 15-cm increments from 30-60 cm depth. Carbon, nitrogen (N), pH, texture and soil mineralogy were measured across the regional sites. At Bartlett Experimental Forest (BEF) in New Hampshire, mineral soil biogeochemistry in cut and uncut sites was studied at a finer scale. Measurements included soil temperature to 55 cm depth, carbon compound analyses using Py-GCMS and soil microbial messenger RNA extractions from mineral soil. Finally, we simulated C dynamics after harvesting by building a model in Stella, with a particular interest in the role that priming effects may play if C is transported from organic to mineral soil layers after forest harvest. Laboratory analyses were conducted at Dartmouth College and at the University of New Hampshire. For the regional study, mineral soil C and N concentrations, and in some cases, pools were highest at locations that had never been harvested. Although sites represented different stages of succession after clearing, there were no significant patterns over time since harvest. At BEF, soil temperature at 55 cm depth in a recently cleared stand was on average 1.5° C higher than surrounding forested sites between June and September, and shallower depths had greater temperature discrepancies. Our model, which was parameterized using published field data from Bartlett and Hubbard Brook forests, showed that inputs of labile C to mineral soil after harvest could prime the decomposition of preexisting mineral soil C and account for up to 40% of the observed difference in C pools between harvested and undisturbed sites.

  5. Particulate Organic Matter Affects Soil Nitrogen Mineralization under Two Crop Rotation Systems

    PubMed Central

    Bu, Rongyan; Lu, Jianwei; Ren, Tao; Liu, Bo; Li, Xiaokun; Cong, Rihuan

    2015-01-01

    Changes in the quantity and/or quality of soil labile organic matter between and after different types of cultivation system could play a dominant role in soil nitrogen (N) mineralization. The quantity and quality of particulate organic matter (POM) and potentially mineralizable-N (PMN) contents were measured in soils from 16 paired rice-rapeseed (RR)/cotton-rapeseed (CR) rotations sites in Hubei province, central China. Then four paired soils encompassing low (10th percentile), intermediate (25th and 75th percentiles), and high (90th percentile) levels of soil PMN were selected to further study the effects of POM on soil N mineralization by quantifying the net N mineralization in original soils and soils from which POM was removed. Both soil POM carbon (POM-C) and N (POM-N) contents were 45.8% and 55.8% higher under the RR rotation compared to the CR rotation, respectively. The PMN contents were highly correlated with the POM contents. The PMN and microbial biomass N (MBN) contents concurrently and significantly decreased when POM was removed. The reduction rate of PMN was positively correlated with changes in MBN after the removal of POM. The reduction rates of PMN and MBN after POM removal are lower under RR rotations (38.0% and 16.3%, respectively) than CR rotations (45.6% and 19.5%, respectively). Furthermore, infrared spectroscopy indicated that compounds with low-bioavailability accumulated (e.g., aromatic recalcitrant materials) in the soil POM fraction under the RR rotation but not under the CR rotation. The results of the present study demonstrated that POM plays a vital role in soil N mineralization under different rotation systems. The discrepancy between POM content and composition resulting from different crop rotation systems caused differences in N mineralization in soils. PMID:26647157

  6. MINERALIZATION OF A SORBED POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON IN TWO SOILS USING CATALYZED HYDROGEN PEROXIDE. (R826163)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) catalyzed by soluble iron or naturally occurring soil minerals, (i.e., modified Fenton's reagent) was investigated as a basis for mineralizing sorbed and NAPL-phase benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a hydrophobic and toxic polycyclic a...

  7. Effect of sulfate and carbonate minerals on particle-size distributions in arid soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goossens, Dirk; Buck, Brenda J.; Teng, Yuazxin; Robins, Colin; Goldstein, Harland L.

    2014-01-01

    Arid soils pose unique problems during measurement and interpretation of particle-size distributions (PSDs) because they often contain high concentrations of water-soluble salts. This study investigates the effects of sulfate and carbonate minerals on grain-size analysis by comparing analyses in water, in which the minerals dissolve, and isopropanol (IPA), in which they do not. The presence of gypsum, in particular, substantially affects particle-size analysis once the concentration of gypsum in the sample exceeds the mineral’s solubility threshold. For smaller concentrations particle-size results are unaffected. This is because at concentrations above the solubility threshold fine particles cement together or bind to coarser particles or aggregates already present in the sample, or soluble mineral coatings enlarge grains. Formation of discrete crystallites exacerbates the problem. When soluble minerals are dissolved the original, insoluble grains will become partly or entirely liberated. Thus, removing soluble minerals will result in an increase in measured fine particles. Distortion of particle-size analysis is larger for sulfate minerals than for carbonate minerals because of the much higher solubility in water of the former. When possible, arid soils should be analyzed using a liquid in which the mineral grains do not dissolve, such as IPA, because the results will more accurately reflect the PSD under most arid soil field conditions. This is especially important when interpreting soil and environmental processes affected by particle size.

  8. Characterization of Minerals: From the Classroom to Soils to Talc Deposits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamee, Brittani D.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation addresses different methods and challenges surrounding characterizing and identifying minerals in three environments: in the classroom, in soils, and in talc deposits. A lab manual for a mineralogy and optical mineralogy course prepares students for mineral characterization and identification by giving them the methods and tools…

  9. Characterization of Minerals: From the Classroom to Soils to Talc Deposits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamee, Brittani D.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation addresses different methods and challenges surrounding characterizing and identifying minerals in three environments: in the classroom, in soils, and in talc deposits. A lab manual for a mineralogy and optical mineralogy course prepares students for mineral characterization and identification by giving them the methods and tools

  10. Minerals

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sledding, Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Minerals KidsHealth > For Kids > Minerals Print A A A Text Size What's in ... commercials for breakfast cereal always mention vitamins and minerals ? But when you think of minerals, food isn' ...

  11. How relevant is chemical recalcitrance for predicting climatic effects on mineral soil carbon stocks?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, F. M.; Torn, M. S.; Trumbore, S.

    2011-12-01

    The role of chemical recalcitrance in mediating the effect of warming on soil carbon stocks has been a focus of research efforts aimed toward the larger goal of prediction of carbon loss from soils in the 21st century. Arrhenius kinetics provides a theoretical basis for the prediction that reaction of chemically recalcitrant carbon compounds (those with higher activation energy) should be more temperature sensitive than compounds with faster turnover rates (lower activation energy). This relationship has even been integrated into models of soil carbon dynamics. However, since chemically recalcitrant compounds have, by definition, slower turnover rates, their response to warming should ultimately be far smaller than those of faster turnover compounds in terms of overall respiratory loss (Sierra 2011). Regardless of the relative temperature sensitivity of recalcitrant soil carbon, it remains an open question how important enhanced decomposition of chemically recalcitrant carbon in mineral soils is for potential feedbacks between warming and soil carbon stocks. To lend insight to this question, we present a series of incubation warming experiments with soils from two forest Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) sites. Because of the distinct carbon isotope (radiocarbon free) signature of the CO2 fumigation gas, soil carbon in elevated CO2 plots has incorporated a decade of labeled carbon. By measuring the radiocarbon signature of flux, which reflects FACE label carbon in CO2 elevated plots, and the atmospheric history of radiocarbon in CO2 control plots, we attributed warming-induced increases in flux rates to soil carbon pools of different ages. Much of our knowledge about decomposition of recalcitrant compounds comes from litter decomposition, where chemical recalcitrance is the presumed control on decomposition rates. By comparing the response of litter and mineral soils to warming, we infer the role of chemical recalcitrance in mineral soils. Flux rates from both organic and mineral soils were initially stimulated by warming, but diminished in time for the organic soils, and not for mineral soils. These data suggest different long term decomposition controls on mineral soil carbon, which may be more temperature sensitive than those acting on litter carbon over the long term. In addition, the 14C signature of respiration suggests an increase in loss of older carbon with warming in mineral soils, but not in organic soils. The absence of change in ?14C respired by organic soils suggests that the change in mineral soils is likely due to a factor other than recalcitrance. While the effects of warming on chemically recalcitrant carbon may play a role in the short term response, it is not likely contributing to the long term stimulation of fluxes from mineral soils. Ultimately, to predict the response of carbon stocks to warming, we need a more detailed understanding of the processes controlling soil carbon stabilization in mineral soils. While chemical recalcitrance may play a limited role, we need to acknowledge and account for other stabilization pathways.

  12. Food Safety Issues: Mineral fertilizers and soil amendments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fertilizers and other soil amendments are required to maintain soil fertility, but some may be naturally rich in trace elements, or contaminated. Thus, as part of the overall consideration of using fertilizers and soil amendments, one should consider the levels of trace elements present in relation...

  13. Microbial Contribution to Organic Carbon Sequestration in Mineral Soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil productivity and sustainability are dependent on soil organic matter (SOM). Our understanding on how organic inputs to soil from microbial processes become converted to SOM is still limited. This study aims to understand how microbes affect carbon (C) sequestration and the formation of recalcit...

  14. Enhanced mineralization of polychlorinated biphenyls in soil inoculated with chlorobenzoate-degrading bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Hickey, W J; Searles, D B; Focht, D D

    1993-01-01

    An Altamont soil containing no measurable population of chlorobenzoate utilizers was examined for the potential to enhance polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mineralization by inoculation with chlorobenzoate utilizers, a biphenyl utilizer, combinations of the two physiological types, and chlorobiphenyl-mineralizing transconjugants. Biphenyl was added to all soils, and biodegradation of 14C-Aroclor 1242 was assessed by disappearance of that substance and by production of 14CO2. Mineralization of PCBs was consistently greatest (up to 25.5%) in soils inoculated with chlorobenzoate degraders alone. Mineralization was significantly lower in soils receiving all other treatments: PCB cometabolizer (10.7%); chlorobiphenyl mineralizers (8.7 and 14.9%); and mixed inocula of PCB cometabolizers and chlorobenzoate utilizers (11.4 and 18.0%). However, all inoculated soils had higher mineralization than did the uninoculated control (3.1%). PCB disappearance followed trends similar to that observed with the mineralization data, with the greatest degradation occurring in soils inoculated with the chlorobenzoate-degrading strains Pseudomonas aeruginosa JB2 and Pseudomonas putida P111 alone. While the mechanism by which the introduction of chlorobenzoate degraders alone enhanced biodegradation of PCBs could not be elucidated, the possibility that chlorobenzoate inoculants acquired the ability to metabolize biphenyl and possibly PCBs was explored. When strain JB2, which does not utilize biphenyl, was inoculated into soil containing biphenyl and Aroclor 1242, the frequency of isolates able to utilize biphenyl and 2,5-dichlorobenzoate increased progressively with time from 3.3 to 44.4% between 15 and 48 days, respectively. Since this soil contained no measurable level of chlorobenzoate utilizers yet did contain a population of biphenyl utilizers, the possibility of genetic transfer between the latter group and strain JB2 cannot be excluded. PMID:8476293

  15. NATIONALLY COORDINATED EVALUATION OF SOIL NITROGEN MINERALIZATION RATE USING A STANDARDIZED AEROBIC INCUBATION PROTOCOL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aerobic incubation methods have been widely used to assess soil nitrogen (N) mineralization, but standardized protocols are lacking. A silt loam soil (Catlin silt loam; fine-silty, mixed, superactive, mesic, Oxyaquic Arguidoll) was subjected to aerobic incubation at six USDA-ARS locations using a ...

  16. Factors Affecting Mineral Nitrogen Transformations by Soil Heating: A Laboratory Simulated Fire Study.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two forest soils from the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California were brought into the laboratory and subjected to simulated burning in a muffle furnace at several durations, oven temperatures, and water contents. Soils were analyzed for NO3-, NH4+, mineral N, total N, total C, and C:N responses to t...

  17. Mineralization of soil organic matter in two elevated CO2 by warming experiments in grassland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experimentally elevated atmospheric CO2 has enhanced carbon (C) allocation belowground, while ecosystem warming has led to losses of soil C due to enhanced mineralization of soil organic matter (SOM). Few investigations of possible interactions between elevated CO2 and temperature have been reported...

  18. Nitrogen Mineralization Response to Tillage Practices on Low and High Nitrogen Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In strip tillage, crop residue is left on soil surface, decreasing the contact between soil and the residue, and therefore reducing decomposition rates compared to conventional tillage methods. Decomposition rates directly affect carbon and nitrogen ratios, which can affect nitrogen mineralization r...

  19. Composition of structural fragments and the mineralization rate of organic matter in zonal soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larionova, A. A.; Zolotareva, B. N.; Kolyagin, Yu. G.; Kvitkina, A. K.; Kaganov, V. V.; Kudeyarov, V. N.

    2015-10-01

    Comparative analysis of the climatic characteristics and the recalcitrance against decomposition of organic matter in the zonal soil series of European Russia, from peat surface-gley tundra soil to brown semidesert soil, has assessed the relationships between the period of biological activity, the content of chemically stable functional groups, and the mineralization of humus. The stability of organic matter has been determined from the ratio of functional groups using the solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy of soil samples and the direct measurements of organic matter mineralization from CO2 emission. A statistically significant correlation has been found between the period of biological activity and the humification indices: the CHA/CFA ratio, the aromaticity, and the alkyl/ O-alkyl ratio in organic matter. The closest correlation has been observed between the period of biological activity and the alkyl/ O-alkyl ratio; therefore, this parameter can be an important indicator of the soil humus status. A poor correlation between the mineralization rate and the content of chemically stable functional groups in soil organic matter has been revealed for the studied soil series. At the same time, the lowest rate of carbon mineralization has been observed in southern chernozem characterized by the maximum content of aromatic groups (21% Corg) and surface-gley peat tundra soil, where an extremely high content of unsubstituted CH2 and CH3 alkyl groups (41% Corg) has been noted.

  20. A Simulation of the Interaction of Acid Rain with Soil Minerals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Amber L.; Hess, Kenneth R.; Leber, Phyllis A.; Yoder, Claude H.

    2004-01-01

    The atmospheric issue of acid rains is subjected to a five-part laboratory experiment by concentrating on the chemistry of the infiltration process of acid rainwater through soils. This procedure of quantitative scrutiny helps students realize the efficacy of soil minerals in the consumption of surplus acidity in rainwater.

  1. Nitrogen Mineralization of Broiler Litter Applied to Southeastern Coastal Plain Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A field study was conducted to determine nitrogen (N) mineralization of broiler litter (BL) in two Coastal Plain soils of differing texture, sandy or clayey. The soils were a Tifton loamy sand (fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic, Plinthic Kandiudults) and a Greenville sandy clay loam (clayey, kaoliniti...

  2. SULFUR DYNAMICS IN MINERAL HORIZONS OF TWO NORTHERN HARDWOOD SOILS A COLUMN STUDY WITH 35S

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sulfur dynamics of two Spodosols were ascertained using soil columns constructed from homogenized mineral soil from northern hardwood ecosystems at the Huntington Forest (HF) in the Adirondack Mountains of New York and Bear Brook Watershed in Maine (BBWM). olumns were leached for...

  3. A rapid and cost effective method for soil carbon mineralization under static incubations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil incubations with subsequent measurement of carbon dioxide (CO2) evolved are common soil assays to estimate C mineralization rates and active organic C. Two common methods used to detect CO2 in laboratory incubations are gas chromatography (GC) and alkali absorption followed by titration (NaOH)...

  4. A rapid and cost effective method for soil carbon mineralization under static incubations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil incubations with subsequent determination of carbon dioxide (CO2) are common soil assays used to estimate C mineralization rates and active organic C pools. Two common methods used to detect CO2 in laboratory incubations are gas chromatography (GC) and alkali absorption followed by titration (...

  5. A Seasonal Nitrogen Mineralization Study as Influenced by Soil Properties and Landscape Position

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An in situ study was conducted to evaluate N mineralization patterns using three different soil types located in close proximity of each other during the summer and winter months. Three Coastal Plain soils investigated were Bama (Ultisol), Lynchburg (Ultisol) and Goldsboro (Ultisol). Dairy composted...

  6. Mercury contamination in agricultural soils from abandoned metal mines classified by geology and mineralization.

    PubMed

    Kim, Han Sik; Jung, Myung Chae

    2012-01-01

    This survey aimed to compare mercury concentrations in soils related to geology and mineralization types of mines. A total of 16,386 surface soils (0~15 cm in depth) were taken from agricultural lands near 343 abandoned mines (within 2 km from each mine) and analyzed for Hg by AAS with a hydride-generation device. To meaningfully compare mercury levels in soils with geology and mineralization types, three subclassification criteria were adapted: (1) five mineralization types, (2) four valuable ore mineral types, and (3) four parent rock types. The average concentration of Hg in all soils was 0.204 mg kg(-1) with a range of 0.002-24.07 mg kg(-1). Based on the mineralization types, average Hg concentrations (mg kg(-1)) in the soils decreased in the order of pegmatite (0.250) > hydrothermal vein (0.208) > hydrothermal replacement (0.166) > skarn (0.121) > sedimentary deposits (0.045). In terms of the valuable ore mineral types, the concentrations decreased in the order of Au-Ag-base metal mines ≈ base metal mines > Au-Ag mines > Sn-W-Mo-Fe-Mn mines. For parent rock types, similar concentrations were found in the soils derived from sedimentary rocks and metamorphic rocks followed by heterogeneous rocks with igneous and metamorphic processes. Furthermore, farmland soils contained relatively higher Hg levels than paddy soils. Therefore, it can be concluded that soils in Au, Ag, and base metal mines derived from a hydrothermal vein type of metamorphic rocks and pegmatite deposits contained relatively higher concentrations of mercury in the surface environment. PMID:21814815

  7. Recovery of Minerals in Martian Soils Via Supercritical Fluid Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debelak, Kenneth A.; Roth, John A.

    2001-03-01

    We are investigating the use of supercritical fluids to extract mineral and/or carbonaceous material from Martian surface soils and its igneous crust. Two candidate supercritical fluids are carbon dioxide and water. The Martian atmosphere is composed mostly of carbon dioxide (approx. 95.3%) and could therefore provide an in-situ source of carbon dioxide. Water, although present in the Martian atmosphere at only approx. 0.03%, is also a candidate supercritical solvent. Previous work done with supercritical fluids has focused primarily on their solvating properties with organic compounds. Interestingly, the first work reported by Hannay and Hogarth at a meeting of the Royal Society of London in 1879 observed that increasing or decreasing the pressure caused several inorganic salts e.g., cobalt chloride, potassium iodide, and potassium bromide, to dissolve or precipitate in supercritical ethanol. In high-pressure boilers, silica, present in most boiler feed waters, is dissolved in supercritical steam and transported as dissolved silica to the turbine blades. As the pressure is reduced the silica precipitates onto the turbine blades eventually requiring the shutdown of the generator. In supercritical water oxidation processes for waste treatment, dissolved salts present a similar problem. The solubility of silicon dioxide (SiO2) in supercritical water is shown. The solubility curve has a shape characteristic of supercritical systems. At a high pressure (greater than 1750 atmospheres) increasing the temperature results in an increase in solubility of silica, while at low pressures, less than 400 atm., the solubility decreases as temperature increases. There are only a few studies in the literature where supercritical fluids are used in extractive metallurgy. Bolt modified the Mond process in which supercritical carbon monoxide was used to produce nickel carbonyl (Ni(CO)4). Tolley and Tester studied the solubility of titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) in supercritical CO2. They reported complete miscibility of TiCl4 with supercritical CO2 (infinite solubility). At 1500 psig, TiCl4 and CO2 form a single liquid phase below 50 C. Tolley et al. also reported on the solubility and thermodynamics of tin tetrachloride in supercritical CO2. Some of their data for TiC14 are shown. Three criteria have been suggested to predict which materials are suitable for supercritical extraction: 1) Hydrocarbons or lipophilic compounds of low molecular weight and polarity are easily extracted with supercritical CO2. 2) Compounds with polar groups are not easily extracted with supercritical CO2. 3) Separation of mixtures is facilitated if components differing mass, vapor pressure, or polarity.

  8. An AEM-TEM study of nanometer-scale mineral associations in an aquifer sand: Implications for colloid mobilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swartz, Christopher H.; Ulery, April L.; Gschwend, Philip M.

    1997-02-01

    Analytical and transmission electron microscopy (AEM-TEM) techniques were used to identify mineral juxtapositions at the nanometer-scale in the interstitial matrix of a shallow, Southeastern Coastal plain aquifer sand (Georgetown, South Carolina, USA). In doing so, we sought to infer particle-particle interaction mechanisms holding the matrix intact. The aquifer is a fine-to-medium quartz sand with approximately 12% by weight <63 μm size fraction composing the interstitial matrix. The clay-size fraction contains kaolinite, goethite, gibbsite, and vermiculite. The arrangement of the clay minerals is that of a framework of face-associated domains. Selective extraction revealed that goethite constituted 95% by weight of the free iron oxyhydroxides in the <63 μm size fraction, but AEM-TEM and high resolution TEM (HRTEM) indicated that the goethite occurred only in discrete aggregates among the clays. Conversely, the remaining 5% of the free iron oxyhydroxides comprised an amorphous iron phase which was found to be distributed throughout the matrix and directly associated with the clay particles. This evidence suggests that the amorphous iron oxyhydroxide phase could act as an effective binding intermediary among the clay-clay associations, possibly electrostatically or through bond linkages with the clay surfaces. In addition, HRTEM indicated the presence of another amorphous phase which appeared to hold the clay particle aggregates in a cementitious web. AEM suggested that this amorphous phase was silicon enriched, probably biogenic opal. This evidence suggests that instigating dissolution of the opaline silica phase may be necessary to induce substantial colloid mobilization in this aquifer sediment.

  9. Is the geological concept of clay minerals appropriate for soil science? A literature-based and philosophical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churchman, G. Jock

    Data in the literature for soils that are dominated by each of the main types of clay minerals were examined and compared with those for reference clay minerals of the same types to determine the extent to which the nature and properties of clay-size minerals in soils could be explained by those of clay minerals with the same name from non-soil, ‘geological’ environments. Published information on soils from Australia, New Zealand and Iran was sourced for this study. The clay fractions of each of the soils are dominated by either one of the common phyllosilicates: kaolinite, halloysite, illite/mica, vermiculite, smectite, and palygorskite, or by the nanocrystalline mineral, allophane. Data for samples of kaolinite that had been extracted from soils from several countries (Australia, Thailand, Indonesia and Brazil) and purified before characterization have also been examined. In soils, each dominant clay mineral is generally associated with other materials, including iron oxides, other phyllosilicates and/or nanocrystalline minerals and organic matter. As the most studied example of an extracted phyllosilicate, kaolinite shows a wide range of properties in different soils, but a narrower range of properties within a particular locality. However, almost all of the soil kaolinites studied have larger specific surface areas and higher cation exchange capacities than reference kaolinites. The literature also reveals that, among phyllosilicates in soils, illites have a wide range of potassium contents, expandable minerals (vermiculites and smectites) may be interlayered by hydroxy-Al species particularly, and smectitic layers often occur interstratified with other layers, including those of illite, kaolinite and halloysite. The variability of soil phyllosilicates and their common association with other, often poorly crystallized but highly reactive minerals and compounds can be explained by their formation in the highly heterogeneous and dynamic soil environment. Phyllosilicates from non-soil or geological sources are poor models for the representation of secondary clay-size minerals in soils. In philosophical terms, the reduction of soil mineralogy to mineralogy as it is practiced within geology is misleading because of the differences between the minerals formed in soil and geological environments. In other words, clay minerals as they are defined as mineralogical entities for geology are of a different ‘kind’ to clay minerals in soils and cannot serve as ‘types’ or ‘stereotypes’ to enable explanation of the contribution of secondary clay-size minerals to soil properties or behavior. It is more useful to view clay minerals in soils as secondary inorganic compounds of clay-size than to follow their definition for non-soil purposes as plastic phyllosilicate minerals.

  10. Physically based model of organic carbon mineralization under varying soil environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghezzehei, Teamrat; Arnold, Chelsea; Asefaw Berhe, Asmeret

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, it is increasingly becoming clear that soil encironmental conditions exert significant control on the rate of organic matter mineralization. However, the exact mechanistic coupling between hydrological and biogeochemical processes that govern the rate of mineralization remains poorly understood. Here we present a modification of the conventional exponential decay model of organic matter mineralization (dC/dt = -kC) by incorporating the effects of water content and temperature. First, we redefine the instantaneous labile carbon concentration term as accessibility of the bulk carbon to decomposers. This in turn is related to water saturation (S); with the end members being that all the carbon is accessible in saturated soil and none of the carbon is accessible in completely dry soil (C ≈ S). The decay constant is refined as a product of several environmental and biogeochemical factors that regulate rate of mineralization (k = kWkAkTkB..., where the W, A, T, and B denote water, oxygen, temperature, and biology, respectively). This modeling framework is tested by comparison with a large set of experimental data. One important advantage of this physically based model is that it can be used to describe carbon mineralization rate under dynamic soil environmental conditions (such as temperature and water content fluctuations). In addition, the model accurately captures the complex mineralization pattern in aggregated soils that are characterized by multiple classes of pores (e.g., inter- and intra-aggregate pores).

  11. Microfluidic Leaching of Soil Minerals: Release of K+ from K Feldspar.

    PubMed

    Ciceri, Davide; Allanore, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    The rate of K+ leaching from soil minerals such as K-feldspar is believed to be too slow to provide agronomic benefit. Currently, theories and methods available to interpret kinetics of mineral processes in soil fail to consider its microfluidic nature. In this study, we measure the leaching rate of K+ ions from a K-feldspar-bearing rock (syenite) in a microfluidic environment, and demonstrate that at the spatial and temporal scales experienced by crop roots, K+ is available at a faster rate than that measured with conventional apparatuses. We present a device to investigate kinetics of mineral leaching at an unprecedented simultaneous resolution of space (~101-102 μm), time (~101-102 min) and fluid volume (~100-101 mL). Results obtained from such a device challenge the notion that silicate minerals cannot be used as alternative fertilizers for tropical soils. PMID:26485160

  12. Microfluidic Leaching of Soil Minerals: Release of K+ from K Feldspar

    PubMed Central

    Ciceri, Davide; Allanore, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    The rate of K+ leaching from soil minerals such as K-feldspar is believed to be too slow to provide agronomic benefit. Currently, theories and methods available to interpret kinetics of mineral processes in soil fail to consider its microfluidic nature. In this study, we measure the leaching rate of K+ ions from a K-feldspar-bearing rock (syenite) in a microfluidic environment, and demonstrate that at the spatial and temporal scales experienced by crop roots, K+ is available at a faster rate than that measured with conventional apparatuses. We present a device to investigate kinetics of mineral leaching at an unprecedented simultaneous resolution of space (~101-102 μm), time (~101-102 min) and fluid volume (~100-101 mL). Results obtained from such a device challenge the notion that silicate minerals cannot be used as alternative fertilizers for tropical soils. PMID:26485160

  13. Mineral Contamination from Cemetery Soils: Case Study of Zandfontein Cemetery, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Jonker, Cornelia; Olivier, Jana

    2012-01-01

    The burial of coffins may pose an environmental and health hazard since the metals that are used in coffin-making may corrode or degrade into harmful toxins. These may leach into the surrounding soils and groundwater. Very little research has been conducted world-wide on the mineral contamination potential of cemeteries, and virtually none in South Africa. The aim of the study is to determine whether burial practices affect the mineral content of soils in cemeteries. This was done by comparing the mineral concentrations of soils within the Zandfontein Cemetery in Tshwane (Gauteng, South Africa) to those off-site as well as those in zones with high burial loads with those zones with fewer burials. Twenty three soil samples were collected from various sites on- and off-site and analyzed for 31 minerals using ICP-AES. It was found that mineral concentrations of soils within the Zandfontein Cemetery were considerably higher than those off-site. Soil samples in multiple burials blocks also have elevated metal concentrations. These excess metals are probably of anthropogenic origin associated with burial practices and could pose an environmental and human health hazard. Strict monitoring of water quality in boreholes in the vicinity of the cemetery is recommended. PMID:22470306

  14. Mineral contamination from cemetery soils: case study of Zandfontein Cemetery, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Jonker, Cornelia; Olivier, Jana

    2012-02-01

    The burial of coffins may pose an environmental and health hazard since the metals that are used in coffin-making may corrode or degrade into harmful toxins. These may leach into the surrounding soils and groundwater. Very little research has been conducted world-wide on the mineral contamination potential of cemeteries, and virtually none in South Africa. The aim of the study is to determine whether burial practices affect the mineral content of soils in cemeteries. This was done by comparing the mineral concentrations of soils within the Zandfontein Cemetery in Tshwane (Gauteng, South Africa) to those off-site as well as those in zones with high burial loads with those zones with fewer burials. Twenty three soil samples were collected from various sites on- and off-site and analyzed for 31 minerals using ICP-AES. It was found that mineral concentrations of soils within the Zandfontein Cemetery were considerably higher than those off-site. Soil samples in multiple burials blocks also have elevated metal concentrations. These excess metals are probably of anthropogenic origin associated with burial practices and could pose an environmental and human health hazard. Strict monitoring of water quality in boreholes in the vicinity of the cemetery is recommended. PMID:22470306

  15. Correlation of the Abundance of Betaproteobacteria on Mineral Surfaces with Mineral Weathering in Forest Soils

    PubMed Central

    Lepleux, C.; Turpault, M. P.; Oger, P.; Frey-Klett, P.

    2012-01-01

    Pyrosequencing-based analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed a significant correlation between apatite dissolution and the abundance of betaproteobacteria on apatite surfaces, suggesting a role for the bacteria belonging to this phylum in mineral weathering. Notably, the cultivation-dependent approach demonstrated that the most efficient mineral-weathering bacteria belonged to the betaproteobacterial genus Burhkolderia. PMID:22798365

  16. Comparison of soil CO2 emission in poorly and well-drained mineral soil at a small agricultural hillside scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    TETE, Emmanuel; Viaud, Valerie; Flechard, Chris; Walter, Christian

    2014-05-01

    The increase of greenhouse gases (GHG) in the atmosphere and the climate change which results from it, will have major effects in the 21th century. In agricultural landscapes and others ecosystems, soil CO2 emissions are controlled by thermal and hydrological regimes, but their relative importance seems to be dependant of soil drainage conditions. The purpose of this study was to measure and model soil CO2 emissions at the scale of a hillslope presenting a gradient of soil drainage conditions. The studied hillslope is located in the Kervidy-Naizin headwater catchment (Brittany, France, 48°00'N 2°50W) and corresponds to an agricultural field cropped in a maize / winter wheat rotation. Soil CO2 emissions were measured once per week from February 2013 to March 2014, in two locations contrasting by soil drainage condition: (1) well-drained mineral (WDM) soil classified as Cambisol in upslope position, (2) poorly-drained mineral (PDM) soil classified as Haplic Albeluvisol and which undergoes continuous or periodic saturation and reduction conditions in downslope position. The measurement sites of 9m2 were equipped for continuous measurement of soil water content (TDR probes) and soil temperature. Soil CO2 emissions were measured with the infrared gas analyzer (IRGA) Li-8100A (Li-Cor, Lincoln, USA) until now. Results showed that PDM soils were waterlogged in winter and autumn inducing a low CO2 emission (average of 1.1±0.2µmol.m-2.s-1) which was two times lower than CO2 emissions in WDM soil. A shift of soil moisture to field capacity leading to an availability of oxygen in soil in the spring and summer induced an increase of soil CO2 emissions in PDM soil with a maximum of 5.03±0.5µmol.m-2.s-1 at the end of July. In WDM soil, CO2 emissions were high at the end of spring (average of 7µmol.m-2.s-1) and decreased of 65% at the end of summer because of the drought conditions. The modeling of temporal variability of soil CO2 emission by temperature and moisture empirical functions showed that the combined effect of soil temperature and soil moisture explained 77% (61% by T° and 39% by SWC) of soil CO2 emission variability in PDM soil, against 63% (53% by T° and 47% by SWC) in WDM soil. Others factors such as C input, and oxygen availability due to soil management may also controlled soil CO2 emission and mostly in WDM soil. The integration of these factors in model could help to well understand the difference in soil CO2 emission in Poorly-drained mineral soil compared with well-drained soil at agricultural hillside scale.

  17. Soil-specific response functions of organic matter mineralization to the availability of labile carbon.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Eric; Sim, Allan

    2013-05-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) mineralization processes are central to the functioning of soils in relation to feedbacks with atmospheric CO2 concentration, to sustainable nutrient supply, to structural stability and in supporting biodiversity. Recognition that labile C-inputs to soil (e.g. plant-derived) can significantly affect mineralization of SOM ('priming effects') complicates prediction of environmental and land-use change effects on SOM dynamics and soil C-balance. The aim of this study is to construct response functions for SOM priming to labile C (glucose) addition rates, for four contrasting soils. Six rates of glucose (3atm% (13) C) addition (in the range 0-1mg glucose g(-1) soil day(-1) ) were applied for 8days. Soil CO2 efflux was partitioned into SOM- and glucose-derived components by isotopic mass balance, allowing quantification of SOM priming over time for each soil type. Priming effects resulting from pool substitution effects in the microbial biomass ('apparent priming') were accounted for by determining treatment effects on microbial biomass size and isotopic composition. In general, SOM priming increased with glucose addition rate, approaching maximum rates specific for each soil (up to 200%). Where glucose additions saturated microbial utilization capacity (>0.5mg glucose g(-1) soil), priming was a soil-specific function of glucose mineralization rate. At low to intermediate glucose addition rates, the magnitude (and direction) of priming effects was more variable. These results are consistent with the view that SOM priming is supported by the availability of labile C, that priming is not a ubiquitous function of all components of microbial communities and that soils differ in the extent to which labile C stimulates priming. That priming effects can be represented as response functions to labile C addition rates may be a means of their explicit representation in soil C-models. However, these response functions are soil-specific and may be affected by several interacting factors at lower addition rates. PMID:23505211

  18. Lunar mineral feedstocks from rocks and soils: X-ray digital imaging in resource evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, John G.; Patchen, Allan; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Higgins, Stefan J.; Mckay, David S.

    1994-01-01

    The rocks and soils of the Moon provide raw materials essential to the successful establishment of a lunar base. Efficient exploitation of these resources requires accurate characterization of mineral abundances, sizes/shapes, and association of 'ore' and 'gangue' phases, as well as the technology to generate high-yield/high-grade feedstocks. Only recently have x-ray mapping and digital imaging techniques been applied to lunar resource evaluation. The topics covered include inherent differences between lunar basalts and soils and quantitative comparison of rock-derived and soil-derived ilmenite concentrates. It is concluded that x-ray digital-imaging characterization of lunar raw materials provides a quantitative comparison that is unattainable by traditional petrographic techniques. These data are necessary for accurately determining mineral distributions of soil and crushed rock material. Application of these techniques will provide an important link to choosing the best raw material for mineral beneficiation.

  19. Soil moisture influence on the interannual variation in temperature sensitivity of soil organic carbon mineralization in the Loess Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. J.; Guo, S. L.; Zhao, M.; Du, L. L.; Li, R. J.; Jiang, J. S.; Wang, R.; Li, N. N.

    2015-06-01

    Temperature sensitivity of soil organic carbon (SOC) mineralization (i.e., Q10) determines how strong the feedback from global warming may be on the atmospheric CO2 concentration; thus, understanding the factors influencing the interannual variation in Q10 is important for accurately estimating local soil carbon cycle. In situ SOC mineralization rate was measured using an automated CO2 flux system (Li-8100) in long-term bare fallow soil in the Loess Plateau (35°12' N, 107°40' E) in Changwu, Shaanxi, China from 2008 to 2013. The results showed that the annual cumulative SOC mineralization ranged from 226 to 298 g C m-2 yr-1, with a mean of 253 g C m-2 yr-1 and a coefficient of variation (CV) of 13%, annual Q10 ranged from 1.48 to 1.94, with a mean of 1.70 and a CV of 10%, and annual soil moisture content ranged from 38.6 to 50.7% soil water-filled pore space (WFPS), with a mean of 43.8% WFPS and a CV of 11%, which were mainly affected by the frequency and distribution of precipitation. Annual Q10 showed a quadratic correlation with annual mean soil moisture content. In conclusion, understanding of the relationships between interannual variation in Q10, soil moisture, and precipitation are important to accurately estimate the local carbon cycle, especially under the changing climate.

  20. Persistence of Mineral-Associated Soil Organic Carbon in European Soil Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, A.; Schrumpf, M.; Trumbore, S.

    2014-12-01

    Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) is a heterogeneous mixture of components that are not equally biologically available, including light, plant derived material, dissolved organic carbon, and mineral-associated organic matter (MOM). Radiocarbon ages of bulk SOC average across this heterogeneity. Of particular interest is whether there are small amounts of very old OC (the so-called 'passive' pool) that can mask the fact that much of the OM is much younger. MOM has been shown to be older than the light fraction and DOC, but MOM is also a mixture of old and young material. This study seeks to clarify the quantity of C persisting on millennial time scales at different depths in the soil profile, and what factors allow this fraction to be more persistent than other fractions. We studied the fraction and age of C of the most chemically and physically stable fraction we could isolate from five European soils with differing land use, parent material, and soil type. First we isolated the MOM fraction by density, and then oxidized the MOM fraction with H2O2 to remove the labile C. The oxidation resistant residue was analyzed for C content and radiocarbon signature. The oxidation procedure removed 70-95% of the MOM fraction; the residue had a consistently older radiocarbon signature than the initial MOM, indicating that the C removed was younger than the bulk average. This stable fraction ranged from 100 radiocarbon years Before Present (BP) in the top 5 cm, to 10,000 years BP at the 30-40 cm depth. Non-crystalline iron concentrations were correlated with the absolute amount of SOC protected from oxidation, but not its proportion or age. With the exception of a tilled cropland site, all examined profiles exhibited a nearly linear depletion in radiocarbon signature with depth in both the protected and oxidizable MOM, confirming that the most chemically and physically stable C is oldest at the deepest point in a 50 cm profile. Ongoing work on this study will further elucidate how the origin of the MOM (microbe-, plant-, or parent material-derived) relates to the radiocarbon age along the soil depth profile.

  1. Impact of lead and sewage sludge on soil microbial biomass and carbon and nitrogen mineralization

    SciTech Connect

    Dar, G.H.

    1997-02-01

    Sewage sludge disposal on arable land is viewed as a method to reduce waste accumulation and to enrich soil fertility. However, such disposal can degrade soil ecosystems due to the presence of potentially harmful substances, such as heavy metals. Pb has assumed greater significance because currently its dispersal through anthropogenic activities has exceeded the inputs from natural sources by about 17 fold. Several soil variables such as texture, organic matter content, clay, cation exchange capacity, soil pH, and CaCO{sub 3} content influence the toxic effects of heavy metals on sol microbes and their activities. Microbes have an essential function in cycling of nutrients through mineralization activities. However, the addition of 375 and 1500 {mu}g Pb g{sup -1} soil in sandy loam and clay loam has been reported to cause a 15% decrease in soil microbial respiration. Contrarily, in an organic soil microbial respiration and enzyme activities were observed to remain unaltered by the addition of 1000 {mu}g Pb g{sup -1} soil. While the nitrification process in a sandy loam soil has been reported to be significantly inhibited at 100 {mu}g Pb g{sup -1} soil, the addition of similar amount of Pb to alluvial and clay loam had no effect on nitrification and ammonifying and nitrifying bacteria. This study assesses the effects of lead and sewages sludge on microbial biomass and mineralization processes in soils of varied texture and organic matter content. 17 refs., 4 tabs.

  2. Clay minerals and its influence on soil respiration in southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, José, Jr.; Tadeu Pereira, Gener; La Scala, Newton, Jr.

    2010-05-01

    Carbon dioxide is the greenhouse gas with the highest concentration increases in the last century caused by human activities. Despite all the efforts, new investigations should be conducted in order to understand how agricultural management and its variations would impact on soil respiration and consequently in soils potential for carbon sequestration. Soil iron content is an important aspect of tropical soils, especially in sugarcane fields, that are located in regions where iron content in soil is among the highest concentrations in world. In this work we show that as iron content increases and changes its constitution FCO2 decreases monotonically. A transect was established on an acid oxisol in a direction where soil color changed from a yellow (10 YR), passing to a red (5 YR) and finishing with a dark red latosol (2.5 YR), in just 420 meters. Soil respiration was taken each 10 meters (42 points) while soil samples were extracted (0-20 cm) in each point for further soil property analysis. X-ray analysis shows that the goethite per hematite ratio and kaolinite per gibbsite ratio are directly related to soil respiration rates, and this is confirmed by spectroreflectance analysis performed in the same samples. Also, soils with iron clay minerals having lower degree of cristalinity were the ones having the higher soil respirations. Our study suggests a more complex relationship between clay minerals and biological activity, including soil iron level as an important factor in order to infer the ecological impact of tropical soil management in the biosphere. Due to the distinguishable characteristics of the Brazilian soils in terms of iron level, new experiments are needed to elucidate the relationship of iron content and CO2 loss in different classes of soils.

  3. Microbes residing in young organic rich Alaskan soils contain older carbon than those residing in old mineral high Arctic soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziolkowski, L. A.; Slater, G. F.; Onstott, T. C.; Whyte, L.; Townsend-Small, A.

    2013-12-01

    Arctic soils range from very organic rich to low carbon and mineral-dominated soils. At present, we do not yet fully understand if all carbon in the Arctic is equally vulnerable to mineralization in a warmer climate. Many studies have demonstrated that ancient carbon is respired when permafrost has thawed, yet our understanding of the active layer and permafrost carbon dynamics is still emerging. In an effort to remedy this disconnect between our knowledge of surface fluxes and below ground processes, we used radiocarbon to examine the microbial carbon dynamics in soil cores from organic rich soils near Barrow, Alaska and mineral soils from the Canadian high Arctic. Specifically, we compared the microbial community using lipid biomarkers, the inputs of carbon using n-alkanes and measured the 14C of both the bulk organic carbon and of the microbial lipids. In theory, the microbial lipids (phospholipid fatty acids, PLFA) represent the viable microbial community, as these lipids are hydrolyzed quickly after cell death. Variations in the PLFA distributions suggested that different microbial communities inhabit organic rich Alaskan soils and those of the Canadian high Arctic. When the PLFA concentrations were converted to cellular concentration, they were within the same order of magnitude (1 to 5 x 108 cells/g dry soil) with slightly higher cell concentrations in the organic rich Alaskan soils. When these cellular concentrations were normalized to the organic carbon content, the Canadian high Arctic soils contained a greater proportion of microbes. Although bulk organic carbon 14C of Alaskan soils indicated more recent carbon inputs into the soil than the Canadian high Arctic soils, the 14C of the PLFA revealed the opposite. For corresponding depth horizons, microbes in Alaskan soils were consuming carbon 1000 to 1500 years older than those in the Canadian high Arctic. Differences between the 14C content of bulk organic carbon and the microbial lipids were much smaller in Alaskan soil than that of the Canadian high Arctic soil, indicating that Alaskan microbes were interacting with the bulk organic carbon pool and Canadian high Arctic soil microbes were disconnected from the bulk organic carbon pool. Additionally, dissimilarities in the n-alkane distributions suggest vastly different carbon sources to these different soils. Collectively, these results suggest that (a) these Arctic soils contain a comparable abundance of microbes, (b) the organic carbon being accumulated in the Alaskan soil is likely from recent biomass, (c) mineral soil accumulation in the Canadian high Arctic is likely due to erosional inputs of ancient carbon and (d) the carbon stocks in Alaskan soils are more bioavailable to the microbes than those in mineral soils of the Canadian high Arctic. Incubation studies that incorporate gas fluxes and proteomics may tease apart if the observed differences in bioavailability are a function of temperature, substrate availability or some other variable.

  4. Soil Genesis and Development, Lesson 1 - Rocks and Minerals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    All soil ultimately forms from rocks or their weathering products. Geologists classify rocks according to their origins. General rock types can weather to give soils with distinctive properties. The objectives of this lesson are: 1. To be able to classify rocks based on visual characteristics accord...

  5. Bacteria-mineral interactions in soil and their effect on particle surface properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miltner, Anja; Achtenhagen, Jan; Goebel, Marc-Oliver; Bachmann, Jörg; Kästner, Matthias

    2015-04-01

    Interactions between bacteria or their residues and mineral surfaces play an important role for soil processes and properties. It is well known that bacteria tend to grow attached to surfaces and that they get more hydrophobic when grown under stress conditions. In addition, bacterial and fungal biomass residues have recently been shown to contribute to soil organic matter formation. The attachment of bacteria or their residues to soil minerals can be expected to modify the surface properties of these particles, in particular the wettability. We hypothesize that the extent of the effect depends on the surface properties of the bacteria, which change depending on environmental conditions. As the wettability of soil particles is crucial for the distribution and the availability of water, we investigated the effect of both living cells and bacterial residues (cell envelope fragments and cytosol) on the wettability of model mineral particles in a simplified laboratory system. We grew Pseudomonas putida cells in mineral medium either without (unstressed) or with additional 1.5 M NaCl (osmotically stressed). After 2 h of incubation, the cells were disintegrated by ultrasonic treatment. Different amounts of either intact cells, cell envelope fragments or cytosol (each corresponding to 108, 109, or 1010 cells per gram of mineral) were mixed with quartz sand, quartz silt or kaolinite. The bacteria-mineral associations were air-dried for 2 hours and analyzed for their contact angle. We found that the surfaces of osmotically stressed cells were more hydrophobic than the surfaces of unstressed cells and that the bacteria-mineral associations had higher contact angles than the pure minerals. A rather low surface coverage (~10%) of the mineral surfaces by bacteria was sufficient to increase the contact angle significantly, and the different wettabilities of stressed and unstressed cells were reflected in the contact angles of the bacteria-mineral associations. The increases in the contact angles were similar for intact cells and cell envelope fragments, whereas they were even more pronounced if the minerals interacted with the cytosol. Based on these results we conclude that bacterial cells and their residues play an important role in controlling soil particle surface properties, in particular wettability. This process can explain the development of water repellency in soils, which has a major impact on the distribution and availability of water in soils at the microscale.

  6. Improvement of pesticide mineralization in on-farm biopurification systems by bioaugmentation with pesticide-primed soil.

    PubMed

    Sniegowski, Kristel; Bers, Karolien; Van Goetem, Kris; Ryckeboer, Jaak; Jaeken, Peter; Spanoghe, Pieter; Springael, Dirk

    2011-04-01

    Microcosms were used to examine whether pesticide-primed soils could be preferentially used over nonprimed soils for bioaugmentation of on-farm biopurification systems (BPS) to improve pesticide mineralization. Microcosms containing a mixture of peat, straw and either linuron-primed soil or nonprimed soil were irrigated with clean or linuron-contaminated water. The lag time of linuron mineralization, recorded for microcosm samples, was indicative of the dynamics of the linuron-mineralizing biomass in the system. Bioaugmentation with linuron-primed soil immediately resulted in the establishment of a linuron-mineralizing capacity, which increased in size when fed with the pesticide. Also, microcosms containing nonprimed soil developed a linuron-mineralizing population, but after extended linuron feeding. Additional experiments showed that linuron-mineralization only developed with some nonprimed soils. Concomitant with the increase in linuron degradation capacity, targeted PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis showed the proliferation of a Variovorax phylotype related to the linuron-degrading Variovorax sp. SRS16 in microcosms containing linuron-primed soil, suggesting the involvement of Variovorax in linuron degradation. The correlation between the appearance of specific Variovorax phylotypes and linuron mineralization capacity was less clear in microcosms containing nonprimed soil. The data indicate that supplementation of pesticide-primed soil results in the establishment of pesticide-mineralizing populations in a BPS matrix with more certainty and more rapidly than the addition of nonprimed soil. PMID:21231937

  7. On the origin of superparamagnetic minerals of tropical soils and their impact on landmine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igel, Jan; Preetz, Holger; Altfelder, Sven

    2010-05-01

    Magnetic susceptibility of soils is mainly determined by their content of ferrimagnetic minerals whereas titanomagnetite, magnetite and maghemite being the most important ones. Titanomagnetite and magnetite are of magmatic origin, i.e. they crystallise during cooling of iron-rich magma and are part of many igneous rocks. Maghemite and sometimes magnetite are of pedogenic origin. They develop by crystallisation of dissolved iron during soil forming processes. Ferrimagnetic minerals that are smaller than some tens of nanometres are superparamagnetic (SP) and show frequency dependent susceptibility. SP minerals crystallise if magma cools down rapidly (e.g. volcanic magmas, glasses and ashes) and are frequently formed during pedogenesis. In order to investigate the origin and formation of SP minerals in tropical soils, we analyse magnetic properties of 594 samples from the entire tropics comprising the whole range of weathering states from unweathered rock to highly weathered soil. Tropical soils are subject to intense chemical weathering and are rich in ferrimagnetic and in particular SP minerals. The process leading to a high content of these minerals is either residual enrichment due to their weathering resistance or neo-formation. In this study we focus on the frequency dependent susceptibility (absolute and relative) of the samples and classify it according to the parent material and alteration. We observe that • within each parent-material group, rock material shows in general lower susceptibility and absolute frequency dependence than soil material • ultrabasic and basic/intermediate rocks and soils developed from these rocks show high absolute frequency dependent susceptibility and, in contrast, acid rocks and sediments show lower absolute frequency dependence • absolute frequency dependence increases from unweathered rock to weathered rock, and from subsoil to topsoil material within every group of parent material • relative frequency dependence rises successively with weathering for ultrabasic, basic/intermediate and acid igneous parent material, but, it tends to decrease for clay/clay slate and sandstone. Based on the above observations we conclude that the content of SP minerals depends on both: parent rock and alteration of the material. The total amount of SP minerals rises during weathering, regardless of the parent material. The process is either preferential accumulation of weathering resistant magnetic minerals, including the ultra-fine grained fraction, or neo-formation of new magnetic minerals. The increase of relative frequency dependence of igneous rocks is a clear indication that SP minerals are formed during soil genesis. However, for some sedimentary rocks, the amount of SP minerals is already high and is not subsequently increased further during weathering. Electromagnetic induction (EMI) based metal detectors are the most widely used sensing techniques in landmine clearance operations. They are negatively influenced by magnetic susceptibility and its frequency dependence. In particular tropical soils show to have a negative impact on EMI sensors. Besides, the tropics are the regions which are most affected by landmines where most of the humanitarian demining-activities concentrate. Currently, no soil classification system exists that helps to predict the influence of frequency dependent susceptibility on landmine detection. We deduce a system that can be used to predict the soil impact depending on parent material and weathering. Our system can be consulted by demining organisations to predict metal detector performance in tropical regions based on geologic and soil maps. Ultra-basic, basic and intermediate igneous rocks have a moderate influence on EMI detectors in average cases and a very severe influence in extreme cases. Soils developed from these rocks have a severe or very severe influence. In contrast, acid igneous rocks and sediments do not influence EMI detectors severely. Soils developed from these rocks have no influence in average cases; however, they may have a very severe influence in extreme cases.

  8. Carbon Mineralizability Determines Interactive Effects on Mineralization of Pyrogenic Organic Matter and Soil Organic Carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Whitman, Thea L.; Zhu, Zihua; Lehmann, Johannes C.

    2014-10-31

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is a critical and active pool in the global C cycle, and the addition of pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM) has been shown to change SOC cycling, increasing or decreasing mineralization rates (often referred to as priming). We adjusted the amount of easily mineralizable C in the soil, through 1-day and 6-month pre-incubations, and in PyOM made from maple wood at 350°C, through extraction. We investigated the impact of these adjustments on C mineralization interactions, excluding pH and nutrient effects and minimizing physical effects. We found short-term increases (+20-30%) in SOC mineralization with PyOM additions in the soil pre-incubated for 6 months. Over the longer term, both the 6-month and 1-day pre-incubated soils experienced net ~10% decreases in SOC mineralization with PyOM additions. This was possibly due to stabilization of SOC on PyOM surfaces, suggested by nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry. Additionally, the duration of pre-incubation affected priming interactions, indicating that there may be no optimal pre-incubation time for SOC mineralization studies. We show conclusively that relative mineralizability of SOC in relation to PyOM-24 C is an important determinant of the effect of PyOM additions on SOC mineralization.

  9. High Temperature and Salinity Enhance Soil Nitrogen Mineralization in a Tidal Freshwater Marsh

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Haifeng; Bai, Junhong; He, Xinhua; Zhao, Qingqing; Lu, Qiongqiong; Wang, Junjing

    2014-01-01

    Soil nitrogen (N) mineralization in wetlands is sensitive to various environmental factors. To compare the effects of salinity and temperature on N mineralization, wetland soils from a tidal freshwater marsh locating in the Yellow River Delta was incubated over a 48-d anaerobic incubation period under four salinity concentrations (0, 10, 20 and 35) and four temperature levels (10, 20, 30 and 40C). The results suggested that accumulated ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N) increased with increasing incubation time under all salinity concentrations. Higher temperatures and salinities significantly enhanced soil N mineralization except for a short-term (?10 days) inhibiting effect found under 35 salinity. The incubation time, temperature, salinity and their interactions exhibited significant effects on N mineralization (P<0.001) except the interactive effect of salinity and temperature (P>0.05), while temperature exhibited the greatest effect (P<0.001). Meanwhile, N mineralization processes were simulated using both an effective accumulated temperature model and a one-pool model. Both models fit well with the simulation of soil N mineralization process in the coastal freshwater wetlands under a range of 30 to 40C (R2?=?0.880.99, P<0.01). Our results indicated that an enhanced NH4+-N release with increasing temperature and salinity deriving from the projected global warming could have profound effects on nutrient cycling in coastal wetland ecosystems. PMID:24733366

  10. Carbon mineralizability determines interactive effects on mineralization of pyrogenic organic matter and soil organic carbon.

    PubMed

    Whitman, Thea; Zhu, Zihua; Lehmann, Johannes

    2014-12-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is a critical and active pool in the global C cycle, and the addition of pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM) has been shown to change SOC cycling, increasing or decreasing mineralization rates (often referred to as priming). We adjusted the amount of easily mineralizable C in the soil, through 1-day and 6-month preincubations, and in PyOM made from maple wood at 350 °C, through extraction. We investigated the impact of these adjustments on C mineralization interactions, excluding pH and nutrient effects and minimizing physical effects. We found short-term increases (+20-30%) in SOC mineralization with PyOM additions in the soil preincubated for 6 months. Over the longer term, both the 6-month and 1-day preincubated soils experienced net ∼10% decreases in SOC mineralization with PyOM additions. Additionally, the duration of preincubation affected interactions, indicating that there may be no optimal preincubation time for SOC mineralization studies. We show conclusively that mineralizability of SOC in relation to PyOM-C is an important determinant of the effect of PyOM additions on SOC mineralization. PMID:25361379

  11. Ultrasonically aided mineral processing technique for remediation of soil contaminated by heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Kyllönen, Hanna; Pirkonen, Pentti; Hintikka, Väinö; Parvinen, Pekka; Grönroos, Antti; Sekki, Hannu

    2004-05-01

    In this study, power ultrasound was used as aiding method for the mineral processing technique, which have recently been developed for the remediation of soil contaminated by heavy metal containing bullets, their broken parts and alteration products. Power ultrasound was used to disperse the soil to remove metals and metal compounds from soil particle surfaces instead of attrition conditioning. The soil diluted with water was treated using 22 kHz ultrasound power of 100 W up to 500 W. The effect of different ultrasonic treatment time and pulsation of ultrasound were studied on the purity of sink and float fractions in heavy medium separation process, screen fractions, and mineral concentrates and tailings from flotation process. Ultrasound enhanced the remediation of soil fractions in all the studied cases. Optimisation of the ultrasonic power will be done in the continuation study. PMID:15081983

  12. Effects of flooding and warming on soil organic matter mineralization in Avicennia germinans mangrove forests and Juncus roemerianus salt marshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, David Bruce; Brown, Jewel A.; Jimenez, Kristine L.

    2014-02-01

    Under a changing climate, coastal wetlands experience sea level rise, warming, and vegetation change, all of which may influence organic matter mineralization. In coastal wetlands of subtropical west-central Florida (USA), we investigated how soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) mineralization respond to soil water, temperature, and ecosystem type (Avicennia germinans mangrove forest vs. Juncus roemerianus salt marsh). We evaluated how soil respiration and mineral N concentration varied along a soil moisture gradient, and whether these relationships differed between ecosystem types. Then, we manipulated soils in a 28-d laboratory incubation to evaluate how potentially mineralizable C and N respond to temperature (23 vs. 27 °C), soil hydroperiod (inundated 4 vs. 20 h/d), and soil source. Soil saturation and inundation suppressed short-term (minutes to weeks) C mineralization from near-surface soils. Soil CO2 efflux declined by 65% as soil moisture increased from 75% to 85%, and potentially mineralizable C was 18% lower with a 20-h hydroperiod than with a 4-h hydroperiod. Organic C quality appears to be greater in A. germinans than in J. roemerianus soils, as A. germinans soils had higher field CO2 efflux rates and greater mineralizable C:N (despite lower total C:N). Increasing incubation temperature from 23 to 27 °C elevated potentially mineralizable C by 40%, indicating that two symptoms of climate change (increased inundation from sea level rise, and warming) may have opposing effects on soil C mineralization. Temperature sensitivity of C mineralization was high for long-hydroperiod soils, however, suggesting that protection of soil organic matter (SOM) due to prolonged inundation will be undermined by warming. Potentially mineralizable N was greater in J. roemerianus soils, although in situ mineral N was not different between ecosystems, instead correlating positively with SOM. These results indicate that models forecasting soil elevation responses to climate change might include inundation effects on mineralization rates.

  13. Nitrogen mineralization in soils under grasses and under trees in a protected Venezuelan savanna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snchez, L. F.; Garca-Miragaya, J.; Chacn, N.

    Nitrogen mineralization was evaluated in soils beneath the most common woody species growing isolated within the grass matrix of a Venezuelan Trachypogon savanna, which has been protected from fire and cattle grazing since 1961. Adult trees of three evergreen species, Byrsonima crassifolia (L) H. B. K., Curatella americana L., and Bowdichia virgilioides H. B. K; and two deciduous, Godmania macrocarpa Hemsley and Cochlospermun vitifolium (Wild) Spreng were selected. The amount of N mineralized (NH 4+-N+NO 3--N) during 15 weeks of laboratory incubation of soils collected from beneath trees, was significantly higher ( p<0.01) than those from under grasses. Values of N mineralized on soil from under trees were from 21.28 to 82.65% greater than for soil from under grasses. A highly significant ( p<0.01) positive correlation, for all soils, was found between Nm and SOC, and between Nm and Nt. The higher N mineralization rates under trees would reflect a higher soil biological activity, due to higher SOC and Nt, of the soils under the tree canopies than those under grasses. The N availability values obtained under all species reveal the importance these trees have for creating enriched areas on generally oligotrophic soils. Nitrogen mineralized in the soil from beneath evergreen trees was significantly ( p<0.01) higher than from under deciduous trees, being 25.87% higher on average. Similarly to the relation found for all soils, a highly significant ( p<0.01) positive correlation between Nm and SOC and between Nm and Nt was also obtained for soils beneath all trees, indicating the importance of SOC and Nt for nitrogen mineralization processes in this savanna. The higher SOC and Nt contents found under evergreen trees are probably due to the longer time they have been established on the site as compared to the deciduous ones. The chemical quality of fresh fallen leaves (as measured by their lignin/nitrogen ratio) did not seem to influence the quality of the SOM (as measured by C/N ratio), since the C/N ratio was not statistically different for the soils under the two groups of trees. Apparently, whatever the chemical quality of the fresh fallen leaves (higher lignin/nitrogen ratio in evergreen trees), the humification processes in this savanna soil environment seems to homogenize the SOM beneath both types of trees.

  14. Redistribution of soil water by a saprotrophic fungus enhances carbon mineralization.

    PubMed

    Guhr, Alexander; Borken, Werner; Spohn, Marie; Matzner, Egbert

    2015-11-24

    The desiccation of upper soil horizons is a common phenomenon, leading to a decrease in soil microbial activity and mineralization. Recent studies have shown that fungal communities and fungal-based food webs are less sensitive and better adapted to soil desiccation than bacterial-based food webs. One reason for a better fungal adaptation to soil desiccation may be hydraulic redistribution of water by mycelia networks. Here we show that a saprotrophic fungus (Agaricus bisporus) redistributes water from moist (-0.03 MPa) into dry (-9.5 MPa) soil at about 0.3 cm ⋅ min(-1) in single hyphae, resulting in an increase in soil water potential after 72 h. The increase in soil moisture by hydraulic redistribution significantly enhanced carbon mineralization by 2,800% and enzymatic activity by 250-350% in the previously dry soil compartment within 168 h. Our results demonstrate that hydraulic redistribution can partly compensate water deficiency if water is available in other zones of the mycelia network. Hydraulic redistribution is likely one of the mechanisms behind higher drought resistance of soil fungi compared with bacteria. Moreover, hydraulic redistribution by saprotrophic fungi is an underrated pathway of water transport in soils and may lead to a transfer of water to zones of high fungal activity. PMID:26554004

  15. Redistribution of soil water by a saprotrophic fungus enhances carbon mineralization

    PubMed Central

    Guhr, Alexander; Borken, Werner; Spohn, Marie; Matzner, Egbert

    2015-01-01

    The desiccation of upper soil horizons is a common phenomenon, leading to a decrease in soil microbial activity and mineralization. Recent studies have shown that fungal communities and fungal-based food webs are less sensitive and better adapted to soil desiccation than bacterial-based food webs. One reason for a better fungal adaptation to soil desiccation may be hydraulic redistribution of water by mycelia networks. Here we show that a saprotrophic fungus (Agaricus bisporus) redistributes water from moist (–0.03 MPa) into dry (–9.5 MPa) soil at about 0.3 cm⋅min−1 in single hyphae, resulting in an increase in soil water potential after 72 h. The increase in soil moisture by hydraulic redistribution significantly enhanced carbon mineralization by 2,800% and enzymatic activity by 250–350% in the previously dry soil compartment within 168 h. Our results demonstrate that hydraulic redistribution can partly compensate water deficiency if water is available in other zones of the mycelia network. Hydraulic redistribution is likely one of the mechanisms behind higher drought resistance of soil fungi compared with bacteria. Moreover, hydraulic redistribution by saprotrophic fungi is an underrated pathway of water transport in soils and may lead to a transfer of water to zones of high fungal activity. PMID:26554004

  16. Mineralization of the Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac endotoxin in soil.

    PubMed

    Accinelli, Cesare; Koskinen, William C; Becker, Joanna M; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2008-02-13

    Although a number of studies have been done describing the fate of Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal endotoxins in soil, there is conflicting information on the persistence of this class of insecticidal toxins. This is partly due to methodological limitations in many of the previous studies. In the experiments reported here, 14C-labeled B. thuringiensis Cry1Ac endotoxin was used to study its mineralization in soil incubated under controlled conditions. Fifty-nine percent of the radiolabeled Cry1Ac was recovered as 14CO2 at the end of the 20 day incubation period. The addition of 4.5% corn residues stimulated mineralization of [14C]Cry1Ac toxin, and mineralization of glucose was 3.6 times faster than that of the Cry1Ac toxin, indicating that the soil was microbiologically and metabolically active. Because only low mineralization (approximately 6%) of the radiolabeled toxin was observed in autoclaved soil, the current findings indicate that microbial processes play a major role in the dissipation of the Cry1Ac endotoxin in soil. The results of this study suggest that there may be limited risk of the bioaccumulation of Cry1Ac in soil due to the eventual release of this insecticidal toxin by Bt-protected crops. PMID:18181567

  17. Effects of amendment of different biochars on soil physical and biological properties related to carbon mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Renduo; Zhu, Shuzhi; Ouyang, Lei

    2014-05-01

    Biochar addition to soils potentially affects various soil properties, and these effects are dependent on biochars derived from different feedstock materials and pyrolysis processes. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of amendment of different biochars on soil physical and biological properties. Biochars were produced with dairy manure and woodchip at temperatures of 300, 500, and 700°C, respectively. Each biochar was mixed at 5% (w/w) with a forest soil and the mixture was incubated for 180 days, during which soil physical and biological properties, and soil respiration rates were measured. Results showed that the biochar addition significantly enhanced the formation of soil macroaggregates at the early incubation time. The biochar application significantly reduced soil bulk density, increased the amount of soil organic matter, and stimulated microbial activity and soil respiration rates at the early incubation stage. Biochar applications improved water retention capacity, with stronger effects by biochars produced at higher pyrolysis temperatures. At the same suction, the soil with woodchip biochars possessed higher water content than with the dairy manure biochars. Biochar addition significantly affected the soil physical and biological properties, which resulted in different soil carbon mineralization rates.

  18. Iron Redox Cycling Drives Decomposition of Mineral-Associated C in Humid Tropical Forest Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, S. J.; Mcnicol, G.; Silver, W. L.

    2013-12-01

    The stabilization of soil carbon (C) by reactive minerals and an inhibition of decomposition due to oxygen (O2) limitation (reducing conditions) have been proposed as drivers of the high soil C concentrations characteristic of humid tropical forests, which constitute a major terrestrial C reservoir. Here, we examined relationships between these factors and spatial patterns of C concentrations and C turnover (using radiocarbon modeling) in surface soils of the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico. We used concentrations of reduced iron (Fe(II)) as an index of reducing conditions given the importance of Fe reduction to anaerobic metabolism in these soils. Concentrations of Fe(II), reactive iron and aluminum (Al) minerals, interactions between Fe(II) and Al, and live fine root biomass explained most variation in C concentrations across the landscape (pseudo R2 = 0.84). Carbon increased with chelatable "poorly crystalline" Fe, in agreement with previous research, but C decreased with citrate/ascorbate extractable Fe, an index of Fe oxides susceptible to microbial reduction. We suggest that availability of Fe oxides to sustain anaerobic respiration partially offsets soil C accumulation in these ecosystems, despite the role of a subset of reactive Fe in promoting C stabilization. We estimated decomposition rates of mineral-associated C using 14C content of the heavy soil density fraction from a subset of samples. Turnover times averaged 108 years but decreased with Fe(II) concentrations. Thus, our data suggest that Fe redox cycling in soil microsites is associated with increased turnover of mineral-associated C in this fluctuating-oxygen environment, implying that the capacity of reactive metals to stabilize C may be partially contingent on O2 dynamics. Our results suggest a multifaceted role for reactive minerals in soil C cycling, emphasizing the importance of ecosystem-scale interactions among geochemical, physical, and biological factors.

  19. Effect of cyclodextrins on surface and pore properties of soil clay minerals.

    PubMed

    Jozefaciuk, G; Muranyi, A; Fenyvesi, E

    2001-12-15

    Although cyclodextrins are increasingly used in soil decontamination, little is known about their effects on soil physicochemical properties. In this work, the surface and pore properties of randomly methylated beta-cyclodextrin (RAMEB) and three typical clay minerals were characterized, and the effects of RAMEB concentrations on clay minerals were studied using water vapor adsorption-desorption and mercury intrusion porosimetry techniques. As compared to clay minerals, for pure RAMEB very large surface area and volume of nanometer-size pores (micropores) were determined. Energy of interaction with water vapor, volume of micrometer-size pores (mesopores), and fractal dimensions in both pore size ranges of RAMEB were lower than those of the minerals. When increasing amounts of RAMEB were added to the minerals, the surface area and micropore volume decreased and adsorption energy increased. The volume of mesopores decreased after RAMEB treatments for bentonite and kaolin and increased for illite. As deduced from the fractal dimensions increase, the pore structure of the minerals became more complex with RAMEB addition. The observed changes were in general contrary to these expected when RAMEB and minerals coexist as separate, nonreactive phases and suggested strong interaction of RAMEB with clay minerals. PMID:11775177

  20. Adsorption and desorption processes of MCPA in Polish mineral soils.

    PubMed

    Paszko, Tadeusz

    2011-01-01

    Studies on the adsorption and desorption of MCPA (4-chloro-2-methylophenoxyacetic acid) were performed in soil horizons of three representative Polish agricultural soils. The Hyperdystric Arenosol, the Haplic Luvisol and the Hypereutric Cambisol were investigated in laboratory batch experiments. Initially, both the adsorption and desorption proceeded rapidly, and either the equilibrium was reached after approximately 30 min or the process slowed down and continued at a slow rate. In the latter case, the equilibrium was reached after 8 hours. Data on the adsorption/desorption kinetics fitted well to the two-site kinetic model. The measured sorption and desorption isotherms were of L-type. The sorption distribution coefficients (K(ads) (d)) were in the range of 0.75--0.97 for Ap soil horizons and significantly lower in deeper soil layers. The corresponding desorption coefficients (K(des) (d)) were higher and ranged from 1.02 to 2.01. Both the adsorption and desorption of MCPA in all soil horizons was strongly and negatively related to soil pH. It appears that hydrophobic sorption plays a dominant role in the MCPA retention in topsoils whereas hydrophilic sorption of MCPA anions is the dominant adsorption mechanism in subsoils. PMID:21722084

  1. Forest type affects the coupled relationships of soil C and N mineralization in the temperate forests of northern China

    PubMed Central

    Quan, Quan; Wang, Changhui; He, Nianpeng; Zhang, Zhen; Wen, Xuefa; Su, Hongxin; Wang, Qing; Xue, Jingyue

    2014-01-01

    Decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) is sensitive to vegetation and climate change. Here, we investigated the influence of changes in forest types on the mineralization of soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N), and their temperature sensitivity (Q10) and coupling relationships by using a laboratory soil incubation experiments. We sampled soils from four forest types, namely, a primary Quercus liaotungensis forest (QL), Larix principis-rupprechtii plantation (LP), Pinus tabulaeformis plantation (PT), and secondary shrub forest (SS) in temperate northern China. The results showed that soil C and N mineralization differed significantly among forest types. Soil C and N mineralization were closely coupled in all plots, and C:N ratios of mineralized SOM ranged from 2.54 to 4.12. Forest type significantly influenced the Q10 values of soil C and N mineralization. The activation energy (Ea) of soil C and N mineralization was negatively related to the SOM quality index in all forest types. The reverse relationships suggested that the carbon quality-temperature (CQT) hypothesis was simultaneously applicable to soil C and N mineralization. Our findings show that the coupled relationships of soil C and N mineralization can be affected by vegetation change. PMID:25322802

  2. ASSESSING CHANGES IN SOIL MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES AND CARBON MINERALIZATION IN BT AND NON-BT CORN RESIDUE-AMENDED SOILS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of Bt corn (Zea mays L.) residue on soil microbial communities and rates of C mineralization were investigated. The Bt corn residue had a higher lignin content (12%) and lignin/N (9.9) ratio compared with its non-Bt near-isoline (10% lignin; lignin/N = 8.6). We examined the relationships...

  3. Soil sorption and leaching of active ingredients of Lumax® under mineral or organic fertilization.

    PubMed

    Pinna, Maria Vittoria; Roggero, Pier Paolo; Seddaiu, Giovanna; Pusino, Alba

    2014-09-01

    The study describes the soil sorption of the herbicide Lumax®, composed of S-metolachlor (MTC), terbuthylazine (TBZ), and mesotrione (MST), as influenced by mineral and organic fertilizers. The investigation was performed on a sandy soil of an agricultural area designated as a Nitrate Vulnerable Zone, where mineral and organic fertilizers were applied for many years. Two organic fertilizers, cattle manure and slurry, respectively, and a mineral fertilizer with a nitrification inhibitor, Entec®, were compared. According to the experiments, performed with a batch method, the sorption conformed to Freundlich model. The extent of sorption of Lumax® ingredients was closely related to their octanol-water partition coefficient Kow. The respective desorption was hysteretic. Leaching trials were carried out by using water or solutions of DOM or Entec® as the eluants. Only the elution with the mineral fertilizer promoted the leaching of Lumax® active ingredients. PMID:24997942

  4. Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1983-06-01

    The Minerals Program of the Australian Bureau of Mineral Resources aims to develop the understanding of the origin, abundance, age, and distribution of Australia's mineral resources in the context of the structure and geological history of the continent as a basis for exploration and assessment. Research from the following subprograms of the Minerals Program was reviewed: (1) the origin and distribution of minerals in space and time, (2) the metallogenic provinces of Australia, (3) remote sensing techniques applied to Australia's weathered zone and its related minerals, (4) airborne geophysical mapping, (5) crustal geophysics, and (6) the origin and distribution of offshore mineral deposits.

  5. In situ observations of soil minerals and organic matter in the early phases of prescribed fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavouras, Ilias G.; Nikolich, George; Etyemezian, Vic; Dubois, David W.; King, James; Shafer, David

    2012-06-01

    We examined the chemical composition of aerosol samples collected during a prescribed fire at a Great Basin Desert site in the context of samples collected from controlled combustion of vegetation clippings from the same site and resuspension of soil samples obtained prior to and after the burn event. We observed a distinct difference in the composition of organic carbon resuspended soil dust after the burn, reflecting changes caused by the heating of the soil. The relative abundances of minerals and organic carbon fractions in aerosols collected during the first period of the burn were identical to those measured in soil dust. For aerosol samples collected for the remaining two periods of the burn event, the profiles of both minerals and organic carbon matched quite well those observed for vegetation combustion. Reconstruction of aerosol samples collected during the burn event showed that vegetation combustion dominated emissions but mineral soil dust may account for about 10% of PM10emissions (reconstructed) during the early stages of the fire. A large fraction of emissions during the first two hours was also unaccounted mainly because of the insufficient conversion of organic carbon to organic mass. The abundance of heavier non-volatile organics in soil dust suggested the presence of humic/fulvic acids that exhibit higher OM-to-OC ratios and thus, account for a proportion of the unaccounted emissions. These findings indicated that soil dust may be released into the air during a fire event, probably due to the enhanced turbulent mixing near the burn front.

  6. The priming effect of soluble carbon inputs in organic and mineral soils from a temperate forest.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Xu, Wenhua; Hu, Guoqing; Dai, Weiwei; Jiang, Ping; Bai, Edith

    2015-08-01

    The priming effect (PE) is one of the most important interactions between C input and output in soils. Here we aim to quantify patterns of PE in response to six addition rates of (13)C-labeled water-soluble C (WSC) and determine if these patterns are different between soil organic and mineral layers in a temperate forest. Isotope mass balance was used to distinguish WSC derived from SOC-derived CO2 respiration. The relative PE was 1.1-3.3 times stronger in the mineral layer than in the organic layer, indicating higher sensitivity of the mineral layer to WSC addition. However, the magnitude of cumulative PE was significantly higher in the organic layer than in the mineral layer due to higher SOC in the organic layer. With an increasing WSC addition rate, cumulative PE increased for both layers, but tended to level off when the addition rate was higher than 400 mg C kg(-1) soil. This saturation effect indicates that stimulation of soil C loss by exogenous substrate would not be as drastic as the increase of C input. In fact, we found that the mineral layer with an WSC addition rate of 160-800 mg C kg(-1) soil had net C storage although positive PE was observed. The addition of WSC basically caused net C loss in the organic layer due to the high magnitude of PE, pointing to the importance of the organic layer in C cycling of forest ecosystems. Our findings provide a fundamental understanding of PE on SOC mineralization of forest soils and warrant further in situ studies of PE in order to better understand C cycling under global climate change. PMID:25790803

  7. Microbial nitrogen dynamics in organic and mineral soil horizons along a latitudinal transect in western Siberia

    PubMed Central

    Wild, Birgit; Schnecker, Jörg; Knoltsch, Anna; Takriti, Mounir; Mooshammer, Maria; Gentsch, Norman; Mikutta, Robert; Alves, Ricardo J Eloy; Gittel, Antje; Lashchinskiy, Nikolay; Richter, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Soil N availability is constrained by the breakdown of N-containing polymers such as proteins to oligopeptides and amino acids that can be taken up by plants and microorganisms. Excess N is released from microbial cells as ammonium (N mineralization), which in turn can serve as substrate for nitrification. According to stoichiometric theory, N mineralization and nitrification are expected to increase in relation to protein depolymerization with decreasing N limitation, and thus from higher to lower latitudes and from topsoils to subsoils. To test these hypotheses, we compared gross rates of protein depolymerization, N mineralization and nitrification (determined using 15N pool dilution assays) in organic topsoil, mineral topsoil, and mineral subsoil of seven ecosystems along a latitudinal transect in western Siberia, from tundra (67°N) to steppe (54°N). The investigated ecosystems differed strongly in N transformation rates, with highest protein depolymerization and N mineralization rates in middle and southern taiga. All N transformation rates decreased with soil depth following the decrease in organic matter content. Related to protein depolymerization, N mineralization and nitrification were significantly higher in mineral than in organic horizons, supporting a decrease in microbial N limitation with depth. In contrast, we did not find indications for a decrease in microbial N limitation from arctic to temperate ecosystems along the transect. Our findings thus challenge the perception of ubiquitous N limitation at high latitudes, but suggest a transition from N to C limitation of microorganisms with soil depth, even in high-latitude systems such as tundra and boreal forest. Key Points We compared soil N dynamics of seven ecosystems along a latitudinal transectShifts in N dynamics suggest a decrease in microbial N limitation with depthWe found no decrease in microbial N limitation from arctic to temperate zones PMID:26693204

  8. Effect of clay minerals and nanoparticles on chromium fractionation in soil contaminated with leather factory waste.

    PubMed

    Taghipour, Marzieh; Jalali, Mohsen

    2015-10-30

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of time, clay minerals and nanoparticles (NPs) on chromium (Cr) fractionation in a soil contaminated with leather factory waste (LFW). Soil was mixed with LFW, then, the contaminated soils were treated with clay minerals (bentonite and zeolite) and nanoparticles (MgO, TiO2 and ZnO) at 5% and 1%, respectively. The samples were incubated for 15-180 days at 25 °C and constant moisture. After incubation, Cr in control and treated soils was fractionated by the sequential extraction procedure. The distribution of various Cr fractions in control soil indicated that the greatest amounts of Cr were found in the residual fraction (RES) followed by the carbonate (CAR), organic matter (OM) and exchangeable (EXC) fractions. The addition of LFW in soils increased Cr concentration in all fractions. The higher proportion of EXC fraction in the soil treated with LFW indicates its higher potential of leaching and runoff transport. In all treated soils, the RES fraction was increased, while EXC and OM fractions were decreased during incubation. The results indicated that NPs are effective adsorbent for the removal of Cr ions from LFW treated soil, and they could be useful in reducing their environment risk. PMID:25956643

  9. Spatial Arrangement of Organic Compounds on a Model Mineral Surface: Implications for Soil Organic Matter Stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambaye, Haile; Petridis, Loukas; Jagadamma, Sindhu; Kilbey, Michael; Lauter, Valeria; Lokitz, Bradley; Mayes, Melanie

    2015-03-01

    Stability of organic carbon compounds in soil is important for global climate futures which could be affected by the complexity of the mineral-organic carbon interfaces. We examined the nanoscale structure of model interfaces by depositing films of organic carbon compounds of contrasting chemical character, hydrophilic glucose, deuterated-amphiphilic stearic acid (SA) and Natural Organic Matters (NOM) onto a soil mineral analogue (Al2O3) . The NOM was separated into its constituent components such as NOM-Philic and NOM-Phobic when it is deposited onto the soil mineral. We used Neutron Reflectivity technique to understand the depth organization of the thin films. The result indicates that glucose molecules reside in a layer between Al2O3 and stearic acid and SA self-assembles. No self-assembly of SA was observed when SA and NOM-Phobic was deposited on the mineral soil. Molecular dynamics simulations reveal the thermodynamic driving force behind glucose partitioning on the mineral interface. Funded by ORNL Director's Research and Development Program. Research at ORNL was sponsored by the BES, DOE.

  10. Importance of soil and vineyard management in the determination of grapevine mineral composition.

    PubMed

    Likar, M; Vogel-Mikuš, K; Potisek, M; Hančević, K; Radić, T; Nečemer, M; Regvar, M

    2015-02-01

    The spatial variability of the mineral composition of grapevines in production vineyards along the east Adriatic coast was determined and compared between conventional and sustainable vineyard management. Cluster analysis shows a high level of spatial variability even within the individual locations. Factor analysis reveals three factors with strong loading for the macronutrients K and P and the micronutrient Mn, which explain 67% of the total variance in the mineral composition. Here, 26% to 34% of the variance of these three elements can be explained by abiotic and biotic soil parameters, with soil concentrations of K, Fe and Cu, organic matter content, and vesicular colonisation showing the strongest effects on the mineral composition of the grapevines. In addition, analysis of the mineral composition data shows significant differences between differently managed vineyards, with increased bioaccumulation of P and K in sustainable vineyards, while Zn bioaccumulation was increased in conventional vineyards. Our data confirm the importance of soil and vineyard management in the concept of terroir, and demonstrate the effects of sustainable management practices on the mineral nutrition of grapevines that result from modified nutrient availability related to changes in the abiotic and biotic characteristics of the soil. PMID:25461075

  11. Sorption equilibria of vapor-phase organic pollutants on unsaturated soils and soil minerals. Final report, Mar 85-Mar 89

    SciTech Connect

    Lion, L.W.; Ong, S.K.; Linder, S.R.; Swager, J.L.; Schwager, S.J.

    1990-04-01

    Most groundwater pollutants are volatile organic compounds; however, there is relatively little understanding of the sorption reactions that control the transport and fate of organic vapors in the vadose zone. This investigation identified the physical/chemical properties of the soil matrix and organic vapors which control vapor-solid phase distribution. The dominant property which regulates vapor sorption in the unsaturated zone is the moisture content of the soil. Under very dry conditions, soil mineral/vapor interactions are regulated by specific surface area, indicating the dominance of a relatively non-specific physical adsorption process. However, at moisture contents exceeding an average surface coverage of four to eight layers of water, vapor uptake is controlled by partitioning reactions into soil moisture and soil organic matter.

  12. Association of Growth Substrates and Bacterial Genera with Benzo[a]pyrene Mineralization in Contaminated Soil

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Maiysha D.; Rodgers-Vieira, Elyse A.; Hu, Jing; Aitken, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) that is not known to be a bacterial growth substrate. Organisms capable of cometabolizing BaP in complex field-contaminated systems have not previously been identified. We evaluated BaP mineralization by a bacterial community from a bioreactor treating PAH-contaminated soil during coincubation with or after pre-enrichment on various PAHs as growth substrates. Pyrosequence libraries of 16S rRNA genes were used to identify bacteria that were enriched on the added growth substrate as a means of associating specific organisms with BaP mineralization. Coincubating the bioreactor-treated soil with naphthalene, phenanthrene, or pyrene inhibited BaP mineralization, whereas pre-enriching the soil on the same three PAHs enhanced BaP mineralization. Combined, these results suggest that bacteria in the bioreactor community that are capable of growing on naphthalene, phenanthrene, and/or pyrene can metabolize BaP, with coincubation competitively inhibiting BaP metabolism. Anthracene, fluoranthene, and benz[a]anthracene had little effect on BaP mineralization compared to incubations without an added growth substrate under either coincubation or pre-enrichment conditions. Substantial increases in relative abundance after pre-enrichment with phenanthrene, naphthalene, or pyrene, but not the other PAHs, suggest that members of the genera Cupriavidus and Luteimonas may have been associated with BaP mineralization. PMID:25469077

  13. Organic matter mineralization in frozen boreal soils-environmental constraints on catabolic and anabolic microbial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oquist, Mats G.; Sparrman, Tobias; Schleucher, Jürgen; Nilsson, Mats B.

    2014-05-01

    Heterotrophic microbial mineralization of soil organic matter (SOM) and associated production and emission of atmospheric trace gases proceed during the winter months in the frozen soils of high latitude ecosystems. However, in what ways this microbial activity is constrained by the environmental conditions prevailing in a frozen soil matrix is uncertain. This presentation will address how temperature, water availability and substrate availability combine to regulate rates of microbial activity at below freezing temperatures and the implications of this activity for SOM mineralization in the surface layers of boreal forest soils experiencing seasonal freezing. We show that the amount and availability of liquid water is an integral factor regulating rates of microbial activity in the frozen soil matrix and can also explain frequently observed deviations in the temperature responses of biogenic CO2 production in frozen soils, as compared to unfrozen soils. Using stable isotope labeling (13C) we also show that the partitioning of substrate carbon, in the form of monomeric sugar (glucose), for catabolic and anabolic metabolism remain constant in the temperature range of -4C to 9C. This confirms that microbial growth may proceed even when soils are frozen. In addition we present corresponding data for organisms metabolizing polymeric substrates (cellulose) requiring exoenzymatic activity prior to substrate uptake. We conclude that the metabolic response of soil microorganism to controlling factors may change substantially across the freezing point of soil water, and also the patterns of interaction among controlling factors are affected. Thus, it is evident that metabolic response functions derived from investigations of unfrozen soils cannot be superimposed on frozen soils. Nonetheless, the soil microbial population appear very adapted to seasonal freezing with respect to their metabolic performance.

  14. [Research on characteristics of soil clay mineral evolution in paddy field and dry land by XRD spectrum].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-dan; Li, Qiao; Luo, Xiang-li; Jiang, Hai-chao; Zheng, Qing-fu; Zhao, Lan-po; Wang, Ji-hong

    2014-08-01

    The present paper took the typical saline-alkali soil in Jilin province as study object, and determinated the soil clay mineral composition characteristics of soil in paddy field and dry land. Then XRD spectrum was used to analyze the evolutionary mechanism of clay mineral in the two kinds of soil. The results showed that the physical and chemical properties of soil in paddy field were better than those in dry land, and paddy field would promote the weathering of mineral particles in saline-alkali soil and enhance the silt content. Paddy field soil showed a strong potassium-removal process, with a higher degree of clay mineral hydration and lower degree of illite crystallinity. Analysis of XRD spectrum showed that the clay mineral composition was similar in two kinds of soil, while the intensity and position of diffraction peak showed difference. The evolution process of clay mineral in dry land was S/I mixture-->vermiculite, while in paddy field it was S/I mixture-->vermiculite-->kaolinite. One kind of hydroxylated 'chlorite' mineral would appear in saline-alkali soil in long-term cultivated paddy field. Taking into account that the physical and chemical properties of soil in paddy field were better then those in dry land, we could know that paddy field could help much improve soil structure, cultivate high-fertility soil and improve saline-alkali soil. This paper used XRD spectrum to determine the characteristics of clay minerals comprehensively, and analyzed two'kinds of land use comparatively, and was a new perspective of soil minerals study. PMID:25508755

  15. [Research on characteristics of soil clay mineral evolution in paddy field and dry land by XRD spectrum].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-dan; Li, Qiao; Luo, Xiang-li; Jiang, Hai-chao; Zheng, Qing-fu; Zhao, Lan-po; Wang, Ji-hong

    2014-08-01

    The present paper took the typical saline-alkali soil in Jilin province as study object, and determinated the soil clay mineral composition characteristics of soil in paddy field and dry land. Then XRD spectrum was used to analyze the evolutionary mechanism of clay mineral in the two kinds of soil. The results showed that the physical and chemical properties of soil in paddy field were better than those in dry land, and paddy field would promote the weathering of mineral particles in saline-alkali soil and enhance the silt content. Paddy field soil showed a strong potassium-removal process, with a higher degree of clay mineral hydration and lower degree of illite crystallinity. Analysis of XRD spectrum showed that the clay mineral composition was similar in two kinds of soil, while the intensity and position of diffraction peak showed difference. The evolution process of clay mineral in dry land was S/I mixture-->vermiculite, while in paddy field it was S/I mixture-->vermiculite-->kaolinite. One kind of hydroxylated 'chlorite' mineral would appear in saline-alkali soil in long-term cultivated paddy field. Taking into account that the physical and chemical properties of soil in paddy field were better then those in dry land, we could know that paddy field could help much improve soil structure, cultivate high-fertility soil and improve saline-alkali soil. This paper used XRD spectrum to determine the characteristics of clay minerals comprehensively, and analyzed two'kinds of land use comparatively, and was a new perspective of soil minerals study. PMID:25474976

  16. Impact of clay mineral on air oxidation of PAH-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Biache, Coralie; Kouadio, Olivier; Lorgeoux, Catherine; Faure, Pierre

    2014-09-01

    This work investigated the impact of a clay mineral (bentonite) on the air oxidation of the solvent extractable organic matters (EOMs) and the PAHs from contaminated soils. EOMs were isolated from two coking plant soils and mixed with silica sand or bentonite. These samples, as well as raw soils and bentonite/soil mixtures, were oxidized in air at 60 and 100 °C for 160 days. Mineralization was followed by measuring the CO2 produced over the experiments. EOM, polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC), including PAH, contents were also determined. Oxidation led to a decrease in EOM contents and PAH concentrations, these diminutions were enhanced by the presence of bentonite. Transfer of carbon from EOM to insoluble organic matter pointed out a condensation phenomenon leading to a stabilization of the contamination. Higher mineralization rates, observed during the oxidation of the soil/bentonite mixtures, seem to indicate that this clay mineral had a positive influence on the transformation of PAC into CO2. PMID:24816462

  17. Clay mineral formation and transformation in rocks and soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eberl, D.D.

    1983-01-01

    Three mechanisms for clay mineral formation (inheritance, neoformation, and transformation) operating in three geological environments (weathering, sedimentary, and diagenetic-hydrothermal) yield nine possibilities for the origin of clay minerals in nature. Several of these possibilities are discussed in terms of the rock cycle. The mineralogy of clays neoformed in the weathering environment is a function of solution chemistry, with the most dilute solutions favoring formation of the least soluble clays. After erosion and transportation, these clays may be deposited on the ocean floor in a lateral sequence that depends on floccule size. Clays undergo little reaction in the ocean, except for ion exchange and the neoformation of smectite; therefore, most clays found on the ocean floor are inherited from adjacent continents. Upon burial and heating, however, dioctahedral smectite reacts in the diagenetic environment to yield mixed-layer illite-smectite, and finally illite. With uplift and weathering, the cycle begins again. Refs.

  18. Microbial carbon mineralization in tropical lowland and montane forest soils of Peru

    PubMed Central

    Whitaker, Jeanette; Ostle, Nicholas; McNamara, Niall P.; Nottingham, Andrew T.; Stott, Andrew W.; Bardgett, Richard D.; Salinas, Norma; Ccahuana, Adan J. Q.; Meir, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is affecting the amount and complexity of plant inputs to tropical forest soils. This is likely to influence the carbon (C) balance of these ecosystems by altering decomposition processes e.g., “positive priming effects” that accelerate soil organic matter mineralization. However, the mechanisms determining the magnitude of priming effects are poorly understood. We investigated potential mechanisms by adding 13C labeled substrates, as surrogates of plant inputs, to soils from an elevation gradient of tropical lowland and montane forests. We hypothesized that priming effects would increase with elevation due to increasing microbial nitrogen limitation, and that microbial community composition would strongly influence the magnitude of priming effects. Quantifying the sources of respired C (substrate or soil organic matter) in response to substrate addition revealed no consistent patterns in priming effects with elevation. Instead we found that substrate quality (complexity and nitrogen content) was the dominant factor controlling priming effects. For example a nitrogenous substrate induced a large increase in soil organic matter mineralization whilst a complex C substrate caused negligible change. Differences in the functional capacity of specific microbial groups, rather than microbial community composition per se, were responsible for these substrate-driven differences in priming effects. Our findings suggest that the microbial pathways by which plant inputs and soil organic matter are mineralized are determined primarily by the quality of plant inputs and the functional capacity of microbial taxa, rather than the abiotic properties of the soil. Changes in the complexity and stoichiometry of plant inputs to soil in response to climate change may therefore be important in regulating soil C dynamics in tropical forest soils. PMID:25566230

  19. [Impacts of land-use types on soil C mineralization and temperature sensitivity of forests in Qianyanzhou, Jiangxi Province, China].

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Wei, Xue-Hong; Chai, Hua; Wang, Ruo-Meng; Wang, Dan; He, Nian-Peng

    2014-07-01

    Decomposition of soil organic matter plays an important role in the regulation of carbon (C) cycles at ecosystem or regional scales, and is closely related to temperature, moisture, and land-use types. The influences of soil temperature, moisture, and land-use types on soil C mineralization in Citrus reticulata and Pinus elliottii forests were investigated at the Qianyanzhou Ecological Experiment Station, Chinese Academy of Sciences, by conducting incubation experiments at 5-level temperatures (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 degrees C) and 3-level moistures (30%, 60% and 90% saturated soil moisture, SSM). The results showed that soil temperature, moisture, and land-use types had significant effects on soil C mineralization and they had significant interaction effects. Soil C mineralization was positively correlated with incubation temperature in the two forests, and the maximum of soil C mineralization was in the 60% SSM treatment. The accumulation of soil C mineralization was higher in the C. reticulata forest than in the P. elliottii forest under the same temperature and moisture conditions. The temperature sensitivity (Q10) of soil C mineralization was influenced by land-use type and soil moisture. Q10 increased with the increasing soil moisture in both C. reticulata and P. elliottii forests at incubation 7 and 42 d. Q10 in the C. reticulata forest was higher than in the P. elliottii forest in the same moisture level, and the deviation increased with the increasing soil moisture. The model including temperature and moisture could depict the response of soil C mineralization to temperature and moisture. Temperature and moisture together explained 79.9% -91.9% of the variation in soil C mineralization. PMID:25345040

  20. Anaerobic mineralization of indigenous organic matters and methanogenesis in tropical wetland soils

    SciTech Connect

    Miyajima, Toshihiro; Wada, Eitaro; Hanba, Yuko T.; Vijarnsorn, P.

    1997-09-01

    Tropical wetlands are one of the largest natural sources in the global methane budget due to high biological activities and the anaerobiosis in soil. We studied mineralization and gas production during the early stage of anaerobic decomposition of indigenous organic matters in soils of Narathiwat, southern Thailand, to clarify the significance of the substrate quality in controlling decomposition and methanogenesis in some different tropical wetland soils. The optimal temperature of decomposition was around 35{degrees}C, while methanogenesis did not proceed at 45{degrees}C. During the first 50 days of anaerobic incubation, 5 {approximately} 63% (carbon basis) of indigeneous plant leaves were mineralized. The mineralization rate was strongly and negatively correlated with the lignin and/or fiber contents, but not the C/N ratio, of the substrate plant materials. Difference in {delta}{sup 13}C between the substrate, indicating that H{sub 2} as opposed to acetate becomes a more important metabolic intermediate in the anaerobic food web when the decomposition rate is limited by substrate recalcitrance. Thus, the CH{sub 4} isotope signature may be used to evaluate the importance of new vs. old organic matter as CH{sub 4} isotope signature may be used to evaluate the importance of new vs. old organic matter as CH{sub 4} source in natural soils. The mineralization rate was higher, and the isotopic difference between the substrate and CH{sub 4} was smaller when plant materials were incubated with sulfate-contaminated soils than with native peat soils. The isotopic difference between the substrate and CH{sub 4} was significantly different between native peat soils. Results of a tracer experiment using {sup 13}C-labeled substrates indicated that these differences could be ascribed to difference in the mode of acetate metabolism between soils. 49 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs.

  1. Anaerobic mineralization of indigenous organic matters and methanogenesis in tropical wetland soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyajima, Toshihiro; Wada, Eitaro; Hanba, Yuko T.; Vijarnsorn, Pisoot

    1997-09-01

    Tropical wetlands are one of the largest natural sources in the global methane budget due to high biological activities and the anaerobiosis in soil. We studied mineralization and gas production during the early stage of anaerobic decomposition of indigenous organic matters in soils of Narathiwat, southern Thailand, to clarify the significance of the substrate quality in controlling decomposition and methanogenesis in some different tropical wetland soils. The optimal temperature of decomposition was around 35°C, while methanogenesis did not proceed at 45°C. During the first 50 days of anaerobic incubation, 5 ˜ 63% (carbon basis) of indigenous plant leaves were mineralized. The mineralization rate was strongly and negatively correlated with the lignin and/or fiber contents, but not theC/N ratio, of the substrate plant materials. Difference in δ 13C between the substrate and the produced CH 4 was generally greater (more negative in CH 4) for more recalcitrant substrates, indicating that H 2 as opposed to acetate becomes a more important metabolic intermediate in the anaerobic food web when the decomposition rate is limited by substrate recalcitrance. Thus, the CH 4 isotope signature may be used to evaluate the importance of new vs. old organic matter as CH 4 source in natural soils. The mineralization rate was higher, and the isotopic difference between the substrate and CH 4 was smaller when plant materials were incubated with sulfate-contaminated soils than with native peat soils. The isotopic difference between the substrate and CH 4 was significantly different between native peat soils. Results of a tracer experiment using 13C-labeled substrates indicated that these differences could be ascribed to difference in the mode of acetate metabolism between soils.

  2. Carbon delivery to deep mineral horizons in Hawaiian rain forest soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin-Spiotta, Erika; Chadwick, Oliver A.; Kramer, Marc; Carbone, Mariah S.

    2011-09-01

    This study aimed to better understand the mechanisms for soil organic matter delivery to and accumulation in mineral horizons of tropical rain forest, volcanic soils. We used soil morphology, lysimetry, isotopes, and spectroscopy to investigate the role of preferential flow paths in the delivery of carbon (C) to the subsoil. High rainfall, high primary productivity, and the dominance of highly reactive, short-range-order minerals combine to sequester substantial stocks of soil C with long mean residence times. The soils have large peds, separated by wide cracks, which form a network of channels propagating downward through the top 40 to 60 cm, facilitating macropore flow. The channel infillings and crack surfaces were enriched in organic material (OM) with lower C:N ratios, and had higher ammonium oxalate-extractable Al, and lower ammonium oxalate-extractable Fe than the adjacent mineral bulk soil. CP MAS 13C-NMR spectra of OM accumulating at depth showed strong signal intensities in the carboxyl and carbonyl C regions, indicative of organic acids, while decaying roots showed greater contributions of aromatic and O-alkyl C. The ratios of alkyl-to-O-alkyl C in the organic infillings were more similar to those of the bulk Bh and to dissolved organic matter than to those of decaying roots. Radiocarbon-based ages of OM infillings at >50 cm depth were significantly younger than the mineral soil (2000 years versus 7000 years). Respired CO2 from incubated soils showed that OM accumulating at depth is a mixture of modern and much older C, providing further evidence for the downward movement of fresh C.

  3. Natural abundance measurements of 13C indicate increased deep soil carbon mineralization after forest disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diochon, Amanda; Kellman, Lisa

    2008-07-01

    Northern forest soils represent globally important stores of carbon (C), yet there is no consensus about how they are altered by the widespread practice of harvesting that dominates many forested landscapes. Here we present the first study to systematically investigate the utility of δ 13C and C content depth profiles to infer temporal changes in belowground carbon cycling processes following disturbance in a pure C3 ecosystem. We document carbon concentration and δ 13C depth profile enrichment trends consistent with a kinetic fractionation arising from soil organic carbon (SOC) humification across a northern forest chronosequence (1, 15, 45, 80 and 125+ yrs). Reduced soil C storage that coincided with observed soil profile δ 13C-enrichment patterns which intensified following clearcut harvesting, pointed to losses of SOC in the deeper (>20 cm) mineral soil. This study suggests the δ 13C approach may assist in identifying mechanisms responsible for soil C storage changes in disturbed C3 forest ecosystems.

  4. Impact of soils minerals and properties with application of MSMA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Straighthead is a physiological disorder of rice and threatens rice production in southern states. It is know that arsenic (As) is closely associated with occurrence of straighthead, so soil application of MSMA (monosodium methanearsonate) is commonly used to study this disease. Analysis was conduct...

  5. ROLE OF SOIL ORGANIC ACIDS IN MINERAL WEATHERING PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The soluble organic acids in soils consist largely of complex mixtures of polymeric compounds referred to collectively as fluvic and humic acids. These compounds are relatively refactory, and are broken down only slowly by bacteria. ow-molecular-mass acids (e.g., acetic, oxalic, ...

  6. The influence of biological soil crusts on mineral uptake by associated vascular plants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harper, K.T.; Belnap, Jayne

    2001-01-01

    Soil surfaces dominated by cyanobacteria and cyanolichens (such as Collema sp.) are widespread in deserts of the world. The influence of these biological soil crusts on the uptake of bioessential elements is reported for the first time for six seed plants of the deserts of Utah. This sample almost doubles the number of species for which the influence of biological soil crusts on mineral uptake of associated vascular plants is known. These new case studies, and others previously published, demonstrate that cyanobacterial or cyanobacteria- Collema crusts significantly alter uptake by plants of many bioessential elements. In studies now available, these crusts always increase the N content of associated seed plants. Uptake of Cu, K, Mg, and Zn is usually (>70% of reported cases) increased in the presence of the biological soil crusts. Soil crusts are generally negatively associated with Fe and P levels in associated seed plant tissue, while plant tissue levels of Ca, Mn, and Na are positively as often as negatively associated with the presence of soil crusts. Increases in bioessential elements in vascular plant tissue from biologically-crusted areas are greatest for short-lived herbs that are rooted primarily within the surface soil, the horizon most influenced by crustal organisms. The mineral content of a deeply rooted shrub (Coleogyne ramosissima) was less influenced by co-occurrence of biological soil crusts.

  7. Effect of three typical sulfide mineral flotation collectors on soil microbial activity.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zunwei; Yao, Jun; Wang, Fei; Yuan, Zhimin; Bararunyeretse, P; Zhao, Yue

    2016-04-01

    The sulfide mineral flotation collectors are wildly used in China, whereas their toxic effect on soil microbial activity remains largely unexplored. In this study, isothermal microcalorimetric technique and soil enzyme assay techniques were employed to investigate the toxic effect of typical sulfide mineral flotation collectors on soil microbial activity. Soil samples were treated with different concentrations (0-100 μg•g - 1 soil) of butyl xanthate, butyl dithiophosphate, and sodium diethyldithiocarbamate. Results showed a significant adverse effect of butyl xanthate (p < 0.05), butyl dithiophosphate, and sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (p < 0.01) on soil microbial activity. The growth rate constants k decreased along with the increase of flotation collectors concentration from 20.0 to 100.0 μg•g(-1). However, the adverse effects of these three floatation collectors showed significant difference. The IC 20 of the investigated flotation reagents followed such an order: IC 20 (butyl xanthate) > IC 20 (sodium diethyldithiocarbamate) > IC 20 (butyl dithiophosphate) with their respective inhibitory concentration as 47.03, 38.36, and 33.34 μg•g(-1). Besides, soil enzyme activities revealed that these three flotation collectors had an obvious effect on fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis (FDA) enzyme and catalase (CAT) enzyme. The proposed methods can provide meaningful toxicological information of flotation reagents to soil microbes in the view of metabolism and biochemistry, which are consistent and correlated to each other. PMID:26695417

  8. Organic farming and cover crops as an alternative to mineral fertilizers to improve soil physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez de Cima, Diego; Luik, Anne; Reintam, Endla

    2015-10-01

    For testing how cover crops and different fertilization managements affect the soil physical properties in a plough based tillage system, a five-year crop rotation experiment (field pea, white potato, common barley undersown with red clover, red clover, and winter wheat) was set. The rotation was managed under four different farming systems: two conventional: with and without mineral fertilizers and two organic, both with winter cover crops (later ploughed and used as green manure) and one where cattle manure was added yearly. The measurements conducted were penetration resistance, soil water content, porosity, water permeability, and organic carbon. Yearly variations were linked to the number of tillage operations, and a cumulative effect of soil organic carbon in the soil as a result of the different fertilization amendments, organic or mineral. All the systems showed similar tendencies along the three years of study and differences were only found between the control and the other systems. Mineral fertilizers enhanced the overall physical soil conditions due to the higher yield in the system. In the organic systems, cover crops and cattle manure did not have a significant effect on soil physical properties in comparison with the conventional ones, which were kept bare during the winter period. The extra organic matter boosted the positive effect of crop rotation, but the higher number of tillage operations in both organic systems counteracted this effect to a greater or lesser extent.

  9. Characterization of minerals: From the classroom to soils to talc deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamee, Brittani D.

    This dissertation addresses different methods and challenges surrounding characterizing and identifying minerals in three environments: in the classroom, in soils, and in talc deposits. A lab manual for a mineralogy and optical mineralogy course prepares students for mineral characterization and identification by giving them the methods and tools to identify any mineral. Students begin with familiarizing themselves with the tools (e.g. Polarizing Light Microscope and refractive index liquids) and the methods (e.g. defining properties) needed to identify a mineral. Next, they work through characterizing the most common minerals to hone their skills. The students finish the semester with two projects: characterizing single mineral grains with a spindle stage and creating a mineral collection. Evaluation of mineralogical data from selected sand or silt fraction of soils from the USDA-NRCS National Cooperative Soil Survey database, show that soils in all states (except for Rhode Island) contain amphiboles. Forty-one of the fifty states had 10 % or more sampled pedons containing amphiboles. Overall, about 13 % of pedons sampled in the USA contained amphiboles. While amphibole asbestos deposits occur in mafic and ultramafic provinces, soil amphiboles occur evenly distributed across the USA. The majority of the amphiboles found in the soils would probably not meet the mineralogical definition of asbestos (i.e., they would not have been derived from asbestiform amphiboles); however, the majority would probably meet a commonly used regulatory definition to be considered a fiber (i.e., are over 5 microns in length with a greater that 3 to 1 aspect ratio). Furthermore, chemical and morphological characterization was done on minerals in talc deposits and R. T. Vanderbilt Co. processed talc products from the Gouverneur Mining District, New York. The main mineral phases detected within the samples are tremolite, anthophyllite, and talc. Compositional analyses were preformed by WDS via electron microprobe. Morphological analyses were done using the PLM and electron microprobe. Amounts of each mineralogical phase were calculated by the Reitveld method using X-ray diffraction scans.

  10. Reversibility of soil forming clay mineral reactions induced by plant - clay interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barré, P.; Velde, B.

    2012-04-01

    Recent data based upon observations of field experiments and laboratory experiments suggest that changes in phyllosilicate mineralogy, as seen by X-ray diffraction analysis, which is induced by plant action can be reversed in relatively short periods of time. Changes from diagenetic or metamorphic mineral structures (illite and chlorite) to those found in soils (mixed layered minerals in the smectite, hydroxy-interlayer mineral and illites) observed in Delaware Bay salt marsh sediments in periods of tens of years and observed under different biologic (mycorhize) actions in coniferous forests in the soil environment can be found to be reversed under other natural conditions. Reversal of this process (chloritisation of smectitic minerals in soils) has been observed in natural situations over a period of just 14 years under sequoia gigantia. Formation of smectite minerals from illite (potassic mica-like minerals) has been observed to occur under intensive agriculture conditions over periods of 80 years or so under intensive zea mais production. Laboratory experiments using rye grass show that this same process can be accomplished to a somewhat lesser extent after one growing season. However experiments using alfalfa for 30 year growing periods show that much of the illite content of a soil can be reconstituted or even increased. Observations on experiments using zea mais under various fertilizer and mycorhize treatments indicate that within a single growing season potassium can be extracted from the clay (illite layers) but at the end of the season the potassium can be restored to the clay structures and more replaced that extracted. Hence it is clear that the change in clay mineralogy normally considered to be irreversible, illite to smectite or chlorite to smectite observed in soils, is a reversible process where plant systems control the soil chemistry and the soil mineralogy. The changes in clay mineralogy concern mostly the chemical composition of the interlayer ion population of a 2:1 clay structure. However the differences in interlayer ion chemistry give us such mineral names as chloritic hydroxyinterlayered mineral (Mg, OH interlayer), illite (K interlayer), and smectite (essentially hydrated Ca interlayer ions). Extraction of these interlayer ions can be reversed by chemistry engendered by plant regimes.

  11. Redistributed water by saprotrophic fungi triggers carbon mineralization in dry soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guhr, Alexander; Borken, Werner; Matzner, Egbert

    2015-04-01

    Summer droughts are common in temperate forests and especially the upper soil horizons experience soil drought. Drought events can be accompanied by negative effects for forest ecosystems but many plants can reduce drought stress by hydraulic redistribution (HR). Similar processes were recently described for ectomycorrhizal networks but no information is available for mycelia networks of saprotrophic fungi. They strongly contribute to belowground nutrient cycling, C and N mineralization. We hypothesize that redistributed water by saprotrophic fungi triggers mineralization of organic matter in soils under drought conditions. The impact of HR by saprotrophic fungi on mineralization was determined using mesocosms comprising two chambers, separated by a 2 mm air gap to prevent bulk flow of water. After inoculation with fungal cultures and a growth phase, both chambers were desiccated. Subsequently, only chamber I was rewetted while chamber II was treated with 13C labelled plant material. CO2 samples were collected over 7 days after rewetting and analyzed for stable isotope ratio. In addition, enzymatic activity of chitinases and cellobiohydrolases in chamber II was determined after 7 days using the soil zymographie method with fluorogenic 4-Methylumbelliferyl-substrates. A negative control was provided by mesocosms in which hyphal connections between the chambers were severed before rewetting. Intact fungal connections between the chambers led to a strong increase in volumetric water content in chamber II after rewetting of chamber I and the CO2 had a higher enrichment in 13C than in the control mescosms with severed connections. Enrichment started 48 h after rewetting and continued for the rest of the experiment. This resulted in a more than two fold higher total carbon mineralization after 7 days in chamber II of mesocosms with intact hyphal connections. In addition, enzyme activities were also strongly increased compared to controls. In conclusion, mycelia networks of saprotrophic fungi contribute to redistribution of water from wet to dry soil and the redistributed water triggers carbon mineralization in dry soils.

  12. Nitrogen mineralization and nitrate leaching of a sandy soil amended with different organic wastes.

    PubMed

    Burgos, Pilar; Madejón, Engracia; Cabrera, Francisco

    2006-04-01

    Organic wastes can be recycled as a source of plant nutrients, enhancing crop production by improving soil quality. However, the study of the dynamic of soil nutrient, especially the N dynamic, after soil application of any organic material is vital for assessing a correct and effective use of the material, minimizing the losses of nitrate in leachates and avoiding the negative environmental effects that it may cause in groundwater. To estimate the effect of three organic materials, a municipal solid waste compost (MWC), a non-composted paper mill sludge (PS), and an agroforest compost (AC) on the N dynamic of a sandy soil two experiments were carried out: an incubation experiment and a column experiment. The incubation experiment was conducted to estimate the N mineralization rate of the different soil-amendment mixtures. The soil was mixed with the organic amendments at a rate equivalent to 50,000 kg ha(-1) and incubated during 40 weeks at constant moisture content (70% of its water-holding capacity) and temperature (28 degrees C) under aerobic conditions. Organic amendment-soil samples showed an immobilization of N during the first weeks, which was more noticeable and longer in the case of PS-treated soil compared to the other two amendments due to its high C/N ratio. After this immobilization stage, a positive mineralization was observed for all treatment, especially in MWC treated soil. Contemporaneously a 1-year column (19 cm diameter and 60 cm height) experiment was carried out to estimate the nitrate losses from the soil amended with the same organic materials. Amendments were mixed with the top soil (0-15 cm) at a rate equivalent to 50,000 kg ha(-1). The columns were periodically irrigated simulating rainfall in the area of study, receiving in total 415 mm of water, and the water draining was collected during the experimental period and analysed for NO3-N. At the end of the experimental period NO3-N content in soil columns at three depths (0-20, 20-35 and 35-50 cm) was determined. The nitrate concentration in drainage water confirmed the results obtained in the incubation experiment: nitrate leaching was higher in soil treated with MWC due to its higher N-mineralization rate. Nevertheless, the nitrate losses represented a low amount compared with the total nitrogen added to soil. No clear signs of water-draining contamination were observed during the first year after the application of AC and PS; however, the nitrate leaching in soil treated with MWC slightly exceeded the limit allowed for the Drinking Water Directive 98/83/CE. PMID:16634232

  13. Microbial nitrogen dynamics in organic and mineral soil horizons along a latitudinal transect in western Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, Birgit; Schnecker, Jörg; Knoltsch, Anna; Takriti, Mounir; Mooshammer, Maria; Gentsch, Norman; Mikutta, Robert; Alves, Ricardo J. Eloy; Gittel, Antje; Lashchinskiy, Nikolay; Richter, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    Soil N availability is constrained by the breakdown of N-containing polymers such as proteins to oligopeptides and amino acids that can be taken up by plants and microorganisms. Excess N is released from microbial cells as ammonium (N mineralization), which in turn can serve as substrate for nitrification. According to stoichiometric theory, N mineralization and nitrification are expected to increase in relation to protein depolymerization with decreasing N limitation, and thus from higher to lower latitudes and from topsoils to subsoils. To test these hypotheses, we compared gross rates of protein depolymerization, N mineralization and nitrification (determined using 15N pool dilution assays) in organic topsoil, mineral topsoil, and mineral subsoil of seven ecosystems along a latitudinal transect in western Siberia, from tundra (67°N) to steppe (54°N). The investigated ecosystems differed strongly in N transformation rates, with highest protein depolymerization and N mineralization rates in middle and southern taiga. All N transformation rates decreased with soil depth following the decrease in organic matter content. Related to protein depolymerization, N mineralization and nitrification were significantly higher in mineral than in organic horizons, supporting a decrease in microbial N limitation with depth. In contrast, we did not find indications for a decrease in microbial N limitation from arctic to temperate ecosystems along the transect. Our findings thus challenge the perception of ubiquitous N limitation at high latitudes, but suggest a transition from N to C limitation of microorganisms with soil depth, even in high-latitude systems such as tundra and boreal forest.

  14. Reactive Clay Minerals in a land use sequence of disturbed soils of the Belgian Loam Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barao, Lucia; Vandevenne, Floor; Ronchi, Benedicta; Meire, Patrick; Govers, Gerard; Struyf, Eric

    2014-05-01

    Clay minerals play a key role in soil biogeochemistry. They can stabilize organic matter, improve water storage, increase cation exchange capacity of the soil (CEC) and lower nutrient leaching. Phytoliths - the biogenic silica bodies (BSi) deposited in cell walls of plants - are important Si pools in soil horizons due to their higher solubility compared to minerals. They provide the source of Si for plant uptake in short time scales, as litter dissolves within soils. In a recent study, we analyzed the BSi pool differences across a set of different land uses (forests, pastures, croplands) in 6 long-term disturbed (multiple centuries) soil sites in the Belgium Loam Belt. Results from a simultaneous chemical extraction in 0.5M NaOH of Si and Al, showed that soils were depleted in the BSi pool while showing high levels of reactive secondary clay minerals, mainly in the deeper horizons and especially in the forests and the croplands. During the extraction, clays were similar in reactivity to the biogenic pool of phytoliths. In order to study the kinetics in a more natural environment, batch dissolution experiments were conducted. Samples from different soil depths for each land use site (0.5 g) were mixed with 0.5 L of demineralised water modified to pH 4, 7 and 10. Subsamples of 2 ml were taken during 3 months. In the end of the period, results for pH 7 showed that in the pastures, where reactive clays were almost absent, the ratio Si/RSi (defined as the Si concentration in the end of the batch experiment divided by the reactive silica extracted from the soil with the alkaline extraction) was lower than 0.005%. The same ratio was higher in the mineral horizons of forests (Si/RSi>0.01%) and croplands (0.005% < Si/RSi <0.01%) where clay minerals were the dominant fraction. These preliminary results highlight the clay minerals' strong potential for Si mobilization. More attention should be paid to this important fraction as it can contribute strongly to Si availability, in close competition with phytoliths and other soluble amorphous Si forms, strongly interfering with frequently applied methods to quantify biogenic Si in soils.

  15. Effect of pH on the adsorption of carbendazim in Polish mineral soils.

    PubMed

    Paszko, Tadeusz

    2012-10-01

    The study aimed to determine the influence of pH on the adsorption of carbendazim in soil profiles of three mineral agricultural soils: Hyperdystric Arenosol, Haplic Luvisol and Hypereutric Cambisol. In the examined pH range between 3 and 7 the adsorption of carbendazim was inversely correlated to the pH of the soil. The adsorption coefficients were in the range between 0.3 and 151.8 m Lg(-1). Decreasing the pH in the soil suspensions from 7 to 3 increased the value of this coefficient by 3 to 70 times. A decrease in the amounts of organic matter down the soil profiles was not associated with weaker carbendazim adsorption. In the samples from all soil horizons, at pH values between 3 and 6, the predominant sorption process was carbendazim adsorption on clay minerals. The adsorption of carbendazim on organic matter prevailed over that on clays only at pH>6 and only in the Ap horizon of the examined soils. The developed mathematical models yielded very good results when the adsorption of the protonated form of carbendazim was assumed to be the predominant adsorption process on clays together with the adsorption of neutral molecules on organic matter and clays. The results from both the model fitting and the experiments revealed the negative effect of Al oxides and hydroxides and Al cations on the adsorption of the protonated form of carbendazim on clay minerals. The developed models successfully described the pH-dependent adsorption processes of carbendazim for both data from particular soil horizons and those from all three examined soil profiles. PMID:22854093

  16. Crop Rotation and N Input Effects on Mineral Elements in Soil, Corn, and Grain as Revealed by Discriminant Analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We were interested in identifying soil, plant, and grain mineral nutrient variables that best discriminate N input treatments as well as rotation treatments from one another. Study objectives were to use multivariate discriminant analysis to measure soil, shoot, and grain mineral nutrient responses...

  17. Minerals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fish require the same minerals or inorganic elements as terrestrial animals for tissue formation, osmoregulation and various metabolic functions. Those required in large quantities are termed macro- or major minerals and those required in small quantities are called micro- or trace minerals. Fish ca...

  18. The effects of soil mineral phases on the abiotic degradation of selected organic compounds. [Tetraphenylboron

    SciTech Connect

    Sandu, S.S.

    1992-06-01

    Tetraphonylboron (TPB) will be used to precipitate radioactive 137Cs from high level nuclear waste water, at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) which is operated by the US Department of Energy (US DOE), at the Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC. The decontaminated wastewater will contain millimolar quantities of TPB that will be processed into salt concretions. The waste processing operations will require about 3[times]l0[sup 5] kg/yr of TPB during its full scale operation. The transportation and use of large amounts of TPB can potentially result in the release of TPB into soil or aquatic environments where its degradation will take place. Previous studies have shown that TPB degrades abiotically in soils; however, the role of specific mineral surfaces in mediating the reaction kinetics and mechanisms for the abiotic degradation of TPB are not clearly known. Laboratory studies have been undertaken to evaluate the surface facilitated degradation of TPB by aluminum silicate clay minerals-kaolinite and montmorillonite. Preliminary results indicate that the rate of degradation of TPB is much higher in kaolinite-a single layer mineral-than in montmorillonite - a double layer mineral- and Orangeburg loamy soil. The initial products of TPB degradation in both minerals are diphenylboric acid (DPBA) and biphenyl. However, HPLC monitoring of degradation products of TPB in montmorillonite appears to indicate the presence of phenol and monophenyboric acid (MPBA).

  19. Mineral composition of native woody plants growing on a serpentine soil in California

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, A.; Jones, M.B.; Alexander, G.V.

    1982-07-01

    Using optical emission spectrography, we analyzed leaves of five native plant species (Adenostoma fasciculatum, Arctostaphylos viscida, Cupressus macnabiana, Cupressus sargentii, and Quercus durata) for mineral elements. There were 112 plants in all. In these plants, which are reasonably adapted to serpentine soil conditions, the calcium:magnesium ratios were normal in contrast to plants not adapted to such soil conditions. The nickel concentrations in the leaves were low for serpentine soil conditions, and there was no tendency for accumulation of chromium or cobalt. Strontium varied, as did calcium.

  20. Adsorption of Trametes versicolor laccase to soil iron and aluminum minerals: enzyme activity, kinetics and stability studies.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yue; Jiang, Ying; Jiao, Jiaguo; Liu, Manqiang; Hu, Feng; Griffiths, Bryan S; Li, Huixin

    2014-02-01

    Laccases play an important role in the degradation of soil phenol or phenol-like substance and can be potentially used in soil remediation through immobilization. Iron and aluminum minerals can adsorb extracellular enzymes in soil environment. In the present study, we investigated the adsorptive interaction of laccase, from the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor, with soil iron and aluminum minerals and characterized the properties of the enzyme after adsorption to minerals. Results showed that both soil iron and aluminum minerals adsorbed great amount of laccase, independent of the mineral specific surface areas. Adsorbed laccases retained 26-64% of the activity of the free enzyme. Compared to the free laccase, all adsorbed laccases showed higher Km values and lower Vmax values, indicating a reduced enzyme-substrate affinity and a lower rate of substrate conversion in reactions catalyzed by the adsorbed laccase. Adsorbed laccases exhibited increased catalytic activities compared to the free laccase at low pH, implying the suitable application of iron and aluminum mineral-adsorbed T. versicolor laccase in soil bioremediation, especially in acid soils. In terms of the thermal profiles, adsorbed laccases showed decreased thermal stability and higher temperature sensitivity relative to the free laccase. Moreover, adsorption improved the resistance of laccase to proteolysis and extended the lifespan of laccase. Our results implied that adsorbed T. versicolor laccase on soil iron and aluminum minerals had promising potential in soil remediation. PMID:24225344

  1. The Accumulation of Organic Carbon in Mineral Soils by Afforestation of Abandoned Farmland

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiaorong; Qiu, Liping; Shao, Mingan; Zhang, Xingchang; Gale, William J.

    2012-01-01

    The afforestation of abandoned farmland significantly influences soil organic carbon (OC). However, the dynamics between OC inputs after afforestation and the original OC are not well understood. To learn more about soil OC dynamics after afforestation of farmland, we measured the soil OC content in paired forest and farmland plots in Shaanxi Province, China. The forest plots had been established on farmland 18, 24, 48, 100, and 200 yr previously. The natural 13C abundance of soil organic matter was also analyzed to distinguish between crop- and forest-derived C in the afforested soils. We observed a nonlinear accumulation of total OC in the 0–80 cm depth of the mineral soil across time. Total soil OC accumulated more rapidly under forest stands aged 18 to 48 yr than under forest stands aged 100 or 200 yrs. The rate of OC accumulation was also greater in the 0–10 cm depth than in the 10–80 cm depth. Forest-derived OC in afforested soils also accumulated nonlinearly across time, with the greatest increase in the 0–20 cm depth. Forest-derived OC in afforest soils accounted for 52–86% of the total OC in the 0–10 cm depth, 36–61% of the total OC in the 10–20 cm depth, and 11–50% of the total OC in the 20–80 cm depth. Crop-derived OC concentrations in the 0–20 cm depth decreased slightly after afforestation, but there was no change in crop-derived OC concentrations in the 20–80 cm depth. The results of our study support the claim that afforestation of farmland can sequester atmospheric CO2 by increasing soil OC stocks. Changes in the OC stocks of mineral soils after afforestation appear to be influenced mainly by the input of forest-derived C rather than by the loss of original OC. PMID:22412854

  2. Distinguishing boron desorption from mineral dissolution in arid-zone soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Boron release from six arid-zone soils from the San Joaquin Valley of California was investigated as a function of reaction time, solution pH, and suspension density. A multiple batch extraction experiment was carried out for 362 days to distinguish B desorption from mineral dissolution. Amounts o...

  3. Natural soil mineral nanoparticles are novel sorbents for pentachlorophenol and phenanthrene removal.

    PubMed

    He, Yan; Zeng, Fanfeng; Lian, Zhenghua; Xu, Jianming; Brookes, Philip C

    2015-10-01

    Natural soil montmorillonite and kaolinite nanoparticles (NPs) were tested as efficient sorbents for organic contaminant (OC) removal through mimicking their natural environmental dispersive states. Sorption of both mineral NPs decreased with increasing pH with ionizable pentachlorophenol (PCP), but increased with pH with non-ionizable phenanthrene (PHE), within the pH range of 4-10. In contrast, sorption decreased consistently for both PCP and PHE, as a function of increasing ion concentration (0.001-0.1 mol L(-1)). Sorption differences were likely caused by the electrolytic conditions dependent upon surface chemistry of OCs and mineral NPs. The results confirmed that the highly dispersive soil mineral NPs would prevail over both engineered NPs and their regular μm-sized colloids for OC removal, due to their ecological advantages and higher sorption properties. This finding provided a realistic assessment of the environmental function of soil natural minerals in water once they are released from soil into OC polluted aqueous systems. PMID:26005862

  4. Sugarcane Genotype Selection Efficiency on Organic and Mineral Soils in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) genotype selection during the past 35 yrs has been more successful at developing cultivars for the organic (muck) than for the mineral (sand) soils in Florida, more likely a consequence of conducting the early and intermediate stages of selection exclusively on organic soi...

  5. Modeling selenate adsorption behavior on oxides, clay minerals, and soils using the triple layer model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selenate adsorption behavior was investigated on amorphous aluminum oxide, amorphous iron oxide, goethite, clay minerals: kaolinites, montmorillonites, illite, and 18 soil samples from Hawaii, and the Southwestern and the Midwestern regions of the US as a function of solution pH. Selenate adsorpti...

  6. Long-Term Tillage and Poultry Litter Impacts Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Mineralization and Fertility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term tillage and manure application are thought to alter the ability of the soil to sequester plant nutrients and mineralize carbon and nitrogen. Thus, a laboratory incubation study was conducted under aerobic conditions to evaluate the residual effect of long-term poultry litter (litter) appli...

  7. Modeling selenite adsorption envelopes on oxides, clay minerals, and soils using the triple layer model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selenite adsorption behavior was investigated on amorphous aluminum and iron oxides, clay minerals: kaolinite, montmorillonite, and illite, and 45 surface and subsurface soil samples from the Southwestern and Midwestern regions of the USA as a function of solution pH. Selenite adsorption decreased ...

  8. Soil Property and Landscape Position Effects on Seasonal Nitrogen Mineralization of Composted Dairy Manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To develop better management practices that optimize the amount of N derived from manure, more information is needed regarding the mineralization and dynamics of N under normal field conditions. Thus, an in situ field study, using three different soil types located in close proximity, was conducted ...

  9. Effects of redox conditions on the adsorption of dissolved organic matter to soil minerals and differently aged paddy soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauerwein, Meike; Hanke, Alexander; Kaiser, Klaus; Kalbitz, Karsten

    2010-05-01

    Effects of redox conditions on the adsorption of dissolved organic matter to soil minerals and differently aged paddy soils Meike Sauerwein1, Alexander Hanke2, Klaus Kaiser3, Karsten Kalbitz2 1) Dept. of Soil Ecology, Bayreuth Centre of Ecology and Environmental Research (BayCEER), University of Bayreuth, 95440 Bayreuth, Germany, meike.sauerwein@gmail.com 2) Institute of ecosystem dynamics and biodiversity, University of Amsterdam, 1018 WV, Netherlands, a.hanke@uva.nl, k.kalbitz@uva.nl 3) Soil Sciences, Martin Luther University Halle, 06099 Halle, Germany, klaus.kaiser@landw.uni-halle.de Current knowledge on dissolved organic matter (DOM) in soils is based mainly on observations and experiments in aerobic environments. Adsorption to soil minerals is an important mechanism of DOM retention and stabilization against microbial decay under oxic conditions. Under anoxic conditions where hydrous iron oxides, the potential main adsorbents of DOM, possibly dissolve, the importance of adsorption seems questionable. Therefore, we studied the adsorption of DOM to selected soil minerals and to mineral soils under oxic and anoxic conditions. In detail, we tested the following hypotheses: 1. Minerals and soils adsorb less DOM under anoxic conditions than under oxic ones. 2. The reduced adsorption under anoxic conditions is result of the smaller adsorption to hydrous Fe oxides whereas adsorption to clay minerals and Al hydroxides is not sensitive to changes in redox conditions 3. DOM adsorption will increase with the number of redox cycles, thus time of soil formation, due to increasing contents of poorly crystalline Fe oxides. This will, however, cause a stronger sensitivity to redox changes as poor crystalline Fe oxides are more reactive. 4. Aromatic compounds, being preferentially adsorbed under oxic conditions, will be less strongly adsorbed under anoxic conditions. We chose paddy soils as models because their periodically and regular exposure to changing redox cycles, with anoxic conditions during the rice growing period and oxic conditions during harvest and growth of other crops. Soils of a unique chronosequence of paddy soils (50, 300, 700 and 2000 years) in China were studied in direct comparison to non-paddy soils of the same age. In additions, selected soil minerals (goethite, ferrihydrite, amorphous Al hydroxide, hydrobiotite, nontronite and ripodolite), differing in their response to changes in redox conditions, were studied in order to indentify those mineral constituents responsible for redox-induced changes in DOM adsorption to the test soils. The DOM for the adsorption was extracted from composted rice straw as a surrogate for DOM percolating in paddy soils. Batch adsorption experiments were carried out with DOM pre-incubated to give oxic and anoxic conditions and maintaining these redox conditions during the whole procedure. The redox potential resulting from anoxic pre-incubation was about 100 mV, thus in the range of Fe reduction. Besides of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), we determined changes in the composition of DOM by the specific UV absorbance. We also analyzed main cations, anions and redox-sensitive elements to give a comprehensive picture of the effects of changing redox conditions on the dynamics of organic C, N, P, S, Fe and Al. First results indicated indeed less adsorption of DOM to Fe oxides under anoxic than under oxic conditions, with a more pronounced effect for ferrihydrite than for goethite. Maximum adsorption of DOM was more than 50% larger under oxic than under anoxic conditions. The effect was less pronounced but still detectable for clay minerals such as hydrobiotite, nontronite, and ripodolite. The specific UV absorbance of DOM contact with minerals was 20-50% stronger under anoxic than under oxic conditions. These changes in DOM composition indicated that preferential adsorption of aromatic compounds might be limited to aerated soils. We conclude that adsorption, although less strong than under oxic conditions, is an important mechanism of DOM retention also under anoxic conditions. Decreasing amounts of adsorbed DOM and changes in its composition might result in a less effective sorptive stabilization against microbial decay under anoxic than under oxic conditions.

  10. Disentangling controls on mineral-stabilized soil organic matter using a slurry incubation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavallee, J. M.; Cotrufo, M. F.; Paul, E. A.; Conant, R. T.

    2014-12-01

    Mineral-stabilized organic matter (OM) is the largest and oldest pool of soil carbon and nitrogen. Mineral stabilization limits OM availability to soil microbes, preventing its decomposition and prolonging its turnover. Thus, understanding controls on the decomposition of mineral-stabilized OM is key to understanding soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics. The very slow turnover of mineral-stabilized OM makes it challenging to study in a typical incubation, and as a result, many potential controls (temperature, OM chemistry, and mineralogy) on its turnover remain unclear. We aimed to better understand controls on decomposition of mineral-stabilized OM by employing a slurry incubation technique, which speeds up microbial processing of OM by maximizing OM accessibility to microbes. In a slurry incubation, we expect that any OM that is not stabilized on mineral surfaces will be available for decomposition and will be converted to CO2. Using this technique, we studied the interactive effects of incubation temperature, plant material type (aboveground vs. belowground), and soil fraction (silt vs. clay) on CO2 efflux and OM stabilization. We separated silt-sized and clay-sized fractions from an agricultural soil, added aboveground or belowground plant material to each, and incubated them at 15°C, 25°C and 35°C. The added plant material was isotopically labeled (13C and 15N), which allowed us to trace it through the system and distinguish between the responses of the new (derived from the plant material) and old (derived from what was already present in the silt and clay) OM to warming. We measured CO2 efflux and 13CO2 efflux throughout the incubation. We performed one short-term harvest at day 6 and one final harvest at day 60. Initial results show higher cumulative CO2 efflux at warmer temperatures regardless of plant material type or soil fraction. A larger fraction of that CO2 came from OM that was initially present in the silt and clay, rather than from the plant material that we added, which suggests faster turnover of that "old" OM at warmer temperatures. We will present CO2 efflux data in addition to total [C] and [N] and the isotopic ratios of 13C and 15N in the silt and clay at each harvest to explain how the interactions between warming, plant material type and soil fraction affect turnover of mineral stabilized OM.

  11. Endogeic earthworms shape bacterial functional communities and affect organic matter mineralization in a tropical soil

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Laetitia; Chapuis-Lardy, Lydie; Razafimbelo, Tantely; Razafindrakoto, Malalatiana; Pablo, Anne-Laure; Legname, Elvire; Poulain, Julie; Brüls, Thomas; O'Donohue, Michael; Brauman, Alain; Chotte, Jean-Luc; Blanchart, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Priming effect (PE) is defined as a stimulation of the mineralization of soil organic matter (SOM) following a supply of fresh organic matter. This process can have important consequences on the fate of SOM and on the management of residues in agricultural soils, especially in tropical regions where soil fertility is essentially based on the management of organic matter. Earthworms are ecosystem engineers known to affect the dynamics of SOM. Endogeic earthworms ingest large amounts of soil and assimilate a part of organic matter it contains. During gut transit, microorganisms are transported to new substrates and their activity is stimulated by (i) the production of readily assimilable organic matter (mucus) and (ii) the possible presence of fresh organic residues in the ingested soil. The objective of our study was to see (i) whether earthworms impact the PE intensity when a fresh residue is added to a tropical soil and (ii) whether this impact is linked to a stimulation/inhibition of bacterial taxa, and which taxa are affected. A tropical soil from Madagascar was incubated in the laboratory, with a 13C wheat straw residue, in the presence or absence of a peregrine endogeic tropical earthworm, Pontoscolex corethrurus. Emissions of 12CO2 and 13CO2 were followed during 16 days. The coupling between DNA-SIP (stable isotope probing) and pyrosequencing showed that stimulation of both the mineralization of wheat residues and the PE can be linked to the stimulation of several groups especially belonging to the Bacteroidetes phylum. PMID:21753801

  12. Sorption of a nonionic surfactant Tween 80 by minerals and soils.

    PubMed

    Kang, Soyoung; Jeong, Hoon Young

    2015-03-01

    Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate Tween 80 sorption by oxides, aluminosilicates, and soils. For oxides, the sorption by silica and alumina follow linear isotherms, and that by hematite follows a Langmuir isotherm. Considering isotherm type and surface coverage, Tween 80 may partition into the silica/alumina-water interface, whereas it may bind to hematite surface sites. Among aluminosilicates, montmorillonite shows the greatest sorption due to the absorption of Tween 80 into interlayers. For other aluminosilicates, it sorbs to surfaces, with the sorption increasing as plagioclasesoils reveal that fine-grained clay minerals, difficult to separate by dry-sieving, contribute significantly to Tween 80 sorption. The greater sorption by untreated soils than H2O2-treated soils indicates that soil organic matter is a vital sorbent. The sorption hysteresis, contributed to by clay minerals and soil organic matter, is characterized by the greater sorption during the desorption than the sorption stages. This suggests the potential difficulty in removing surfactants from soils. Also, sorption of surfactants can adversely affect surfactant-enhanced remediation by decreasing the aquifer permeability and the availability of surfactants for micellar solubilization. PMID:25463228

  13. Parameters of microbial respiration in soils of the impact zone of a mineral fertilizer factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhukova, A. D.; Khomyakov, D. M.

    2015-08-01

    The carbon content in the microbial biomass and the microbial production of CO2 (the biological component of soil respiration) were determined in the upper layer (0-10 cm) of soils in the impact zone of the OJSC Voskresensk Mineral Fertilizers, one of the largest factories manufacturing mineral fertilizers in Russia. Statistical characteristics and schematic distribution of the biological parameters in the soil cover of the impact zone were analyzed. The degree of disturbance of microbial communities in the studied objects varied from weak to medium. The maximum value (0.44) was observed on the sampling plot 4 km away from the factory and 0.5 km away from the place of waste (phosphogypsum) storage. Significantly lower carbon content in the microbial biomass and its specific respiration were recorded in the agrosoddy-podzolic soil as compared with the alluvial soil sampled at the same distance from the plant. The effects of potential soil pollutants (fluorine, sulfur, cadmium, and stable strontium) on the characteristics of soil microbial communities were described with reliable regression equations.

  14. Endogeic earthworms shape bacterial functional communities and affect organic matter mineralization in a tropical soil.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Laetitia; Chapuis-Lardy, Lydie; Razafimbelo, Tantely; Razafindrakoto, Malalatiana; Pablo, Anne-Laure; Legname, Elvire; Poulain, Julie; Brüls, Thomas; O'Donohue, Michael; Brauman, Alain; Chotte, Jean-Luc; Blanchart, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Priming effect (PE) is defined as a stimulation of the mineralization of soil organic matter (SOM) following a supply of fresh organic matter. This process can have important consequences on the fate of SOM and on the management of residues in agricultural soils, especially in tropical regions where soil fertility is essentially based on the management of organic matter. Earthworms are ecosystem engineers known to affect the dynamics of SOM. Endogeic earthworms ingest large amounts of soil and assimilate a part of organic matter it contains. During gut transit, microorganisms are transported to new substrates and their activity is stimulated by (i) the production of readily assimilable organic matter (mucus) and (ii) the possible presence of fresh organic residues in the ingested soil. The objective of our study was to see (i) whether earthworms impact the PE intensity when a fresh residue is added to a tropical soil and (ii) whether this impact is linked to a stimulation/inhibition of bacterial taxa, and which taxa are affected. A tropical soil from Madagascar was incubated in the laboratory, with a (13)C wheat straw residue, in the presence or absence of a peregrine endogeic tropical earthworm, Pontoscolex corethrurus. Emissions of (12)CO(2) and (13)CO(2) were followed during 16 days. The coupling between DNA-SIP (stable isotope probing) and pyrosequencing showed that stimulation of both the mineralization of wheat residues and the PE can be linked to the stimulation of several groups especially belonging to the Bacteroidetes phylum. PMID:21753801

  15. Calculating carbon mass balance from unsaturated soil columns treated with CaSO₄₋minerals: test of soil carbon sequestration.

    PubMed

    Han, Young-Soo; Tokunaga, Tetsu K

    2014-12-01

    Renewed interest in managing C balance in soils is motivated by increasing atmospheric concentrations of CO2 and consequent climate change. Here, experiments were conducted in soil columns to determine C mass balances with and without addition of CaSO4-minerals (anhydrite and gypsum), which were hypothesized to promote soil organic carbon (SOC) retention and soil inorganic carbon (SIC) precipitation as calcite under slightly alkaline conditions. Changes in C contents in three phases (gas, liquid and solid) were measured in unsaturated soil columns tested for one year and comprehensive C mass balances were determined. The tested soil columns had no C inputs, and only C utilization by microbial activity and C transformations were assumed in the C chemistry. The measurements showed that changes in C inventories occurred through two processes, SOC loss and SIC gain. However, the measured SOC losses in the treated columns were lower than their corresponding control columns, indicating that the amendments promoted SOC retention. The SOC losses resulted mostly from microbial respiration and loss of CO2 to the atmosphere rather than from chemical leaching. Microbial oxidation of SOC appears to have been suppressed by increased Ca(2+) and SO4(2)(-) from dissolution of CaSO4 minerals. For the conditions tested, SIC accumulation per m(2) soil area under CaSO4-treatment ranged from 130 to 260 g C m(-1) infiltrated water (20-120 g C m(-1) infiltrated water as net C benefit). These results demonstrate the potential for increasing C sequestration in slightly alkaline soils via CaSO4-treatment. PMID:24974014

  16. Passive sequestration of atmospheric CO2 through coupled plant-mineral reactions in urban soils.

    PubMed

    Manning, David A C; Renforth, Phil

    2013-01-01

    Photosynthetic removal of CO(2) from the atmosphere is an important planetary carbon dioxide removal mechanism. Naturally, an amount equivalent to all atmospheric carbon passes through the coupled plant-soil system within 7 years. Plants cycle up to 40% of photosynthesized carbon through their roots, providing a flux of C at depth into the soil system. Root-exuded carboxylic acids have the potential to supply 4-5 micromoles C hr(-1)g(-1) fresh weight to the soil solution, and enhance silicate mineral weathering. Ultimately, the final product of these root-driven processes is CO(2), present in solution as bicarbonate. This combines with Ca liberated by corrosion associated with silicate mineral weathering to enter the soil-water system and to produce pedogenic calcium carbonate precipitates. Combining understanding of photosynthesis and plant root physiology with knowledge of mineral weathering provides an opportunity to design artificial soils or to plan land use in ways that maximize removal and sequestration of atmospheric CO(2) through artificially enhanced pedogenic carbonate precipitation. This process requires relatively low energy and infrastructure inputs. It offers a sustainable carbon dioxide removal mechanism analogous to the use of constructed wetlands for the passive remediation of contaminated waters, and is likely to achieve wide public acceptance. PMID:22616942

  17. Application of microwave method for moisture determination of organic and organic-mineral soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramarenko, V. V.; Nikitenkov, A. N.; Molokov, V. Yu; Shramok, A. V.; Pozdeeva, G. P.

    2016-03-01

    The problem of rapid drying arises when determining moisture, ash and organic matter content, as well as during many other soil tests. For highly-organic and organo-mineral peat soils the problem of advanced measurement of moisture content is of special importance, since after reweighing the dry sample increase in mass may be observed. The article examines the methods in determining the moisture content in peat and organic soils via microwave radiation, which will greatly speed up the process, simplify the complexity and cost of laboratory tests. The paper presents a detailed review of the methods determining moisture content in soils and characteristics, as well as application scope. The work contains the research results on moisture organic soils: drying in a microwave oven and the current domestic standards.

  18. The biological factors influence on the conversion of mineral components of Extremely Arid Desert Soils (Kazakhstan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutovaya, Olga; Vasilenko, Elena; Lebedeva, Marina; Tkhakakhova, Azida

    2013-04-01

    Extremely arid soils of stony deserts (hamadas) along the southern periphery of the Ili Depression are considered to be analogous to extremely arid soils of Mongolia, also named as "ultra-arid primitive gray-brown soils." In general, the morphology of extremely arid soils of hamadas in the Ili Depression is similar to that of the soils of stony deserts in other parts of the world, including the Gobi, Atacama, and Tarim deserts. The diagnostics of the active communities of microorganisms were performed according to the method of Rybalkina-Kononenko. The exact identification of the living forms of microorganisms to the species level is not always possible with the use of this method. However, it allows us to study the physiological role of the microorganisms and their ecological functions, including the relationships with the soil matrix and other organisms. In particular, it is possible to estimate the contribution of the microorganisms to the transformation of mineral soil components. The obtained materials allow us to conclude that the extremely arid desert soils are characterized by the very high biological activity during short periods of the increased soil moistening after rare and strong rains. The diversity of living forms is very considerable; both prokaryotes (cyanobacteria, actinomycetes, and iron bacteria) and protists (green algae, diatoms, and dinoflagellates) are developed in the soil. Thus, during a short period after the rains, these microorganisms pass from the stage of anabiosis to the stage of active growth and reproduction. Then, upon drying of the soil, the biotic activity of the soil slows down and, finally, terminates. The organisms remain in the state of anabiosis until the next rain. During the period of active growth, the microorganisms compose a specific consortium of different species and exert a profound impact on the soil properties. They participate in the transformation of the soil minerals with the formation of amorphous substances that are clearly seen in biofilms on the surface of gravels of the desert pavement and on the walls of vesicular pores in the crust and subcrust (AKL) horizons of the soil. The organomineral compounds are accumulated in the vesicular pores due to the synthesis and mineralization of the microbial biomass. This is a specific feature of the humus-accumulative process in the extremely arid desert soils. The biogenic transformation of iron-containing minerals, the mobility of iron, and its accumulation in films and coagulated microforms is largely due to the living activity of iron bacteria. These iron pedofeatures are specific of the extremely arid desert soils. We suppose that some part of vesicular pores in the AKL horizon has a microbiological origin, because separate bacterial cells may form intracellular gas vacuoles and extracellular gas bulbs, as well as membrane sacs and cell dilatations that can shape the vesicular pores. In general, our data indicate that soils, including extremely arid desert soils, serve as reservoirs of the microbial diversity and ensure the development and preservation of diverse microorganisms with specific mechanisms of adaptation to the sharp changes in the environmental conditions. This biota-protecting role of soils is particularly well pronounced during the climatic pessimum. This study was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, project no. 12-04-00990a.

  19. A Combination of Biochar–Mineral Complexes and Compost Improves Soil Bacterial Processes, Soil Quality, and Plant Properties

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Jun; Zhang, Rui; Nielsen, Shaun; Joseph, Stephen D.; Huang, Danfeng; Thomas, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    Organic farming avoids the use of synthetic fertilizers and promises food production with minimal environmental impact, however this farming practice does not often result in the same productivity as conventional farming. In recent years, biochar has received increasing attention as an agricultural amendment and by coating it with minerals to form biochar–mineral complex (BMC) carbon retention and nutrient availability can be improved. However, little is known about the potential of BMC in improving organic farming. We therefore investigated here how soil, bacterial and plant properties respond to a combined treatment of BMC and an organic fertilizer, i.e., a compost based on poultry manure. In a pakchoi pot trial, BMC and compost showed synergistic effects on soil properties, and specifically by increasing nitrate content. Soil nitrate has been previously observed to increase leaf size and we correspondingly saw an increase in the surface area of pakchoi leaves under the combined treatment of BMC and composted chicken manure. The increase in soil nitrate was also correlated with an enrichment of bacterial nitrifiers due to BMC. Additionally, we observed that the bacteria present in the compost treatment had a high turnover, which likely facilitated organic matter degradation and a reduction of potential pathogens derived from the manure. Overall our results demonstrate that a combination of BMC and compost can stimulate microbial process in organic farming that result in better vegetable production and improved soil properties for sustainable farming. PMID:27092104

  20. The Interfacial Behavior between Biochar and Soil Minerals and Its Effect on Biochar Stability.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Zhao, Ling; Gao, Bin; Xu, Xiaoyun; Cao, Xinde

    2016-03-01

    In this study, FeCl3, AlCl3, CaCl2, and kaolinite were selected as model soil minerals and incubated with walnut shell derived biochar for 3 months and the incubated biochar was then separated for the investigation of biochar-mineral interfacial behavior using XRD and SEM-EDS. The XPS, TGA, and H2O2 oxidation were applied to evaluate effects of the interaction on the stability of biochar. Fe8O8(OH)8Cl1.35 and AlCl3·6H2O were newly formed on the biochar surface or inside of the biochar pores. At the biochar-mineral interface, organometallic complexes such as Fe-O-C were generated. All the 4 minerals enhanced the oxidation resistance of biochar surface by decreasing the relative contents of C-O, C═O, and COOH from 36.3% to 16.6-26.5%. Oxidation resistance of entire biochar particles was greatly increased with C losses in H2O2 oxidation decreasing by 13.4-79.6%, and the C recalcitrance index (R50,bicohar) in TGA analysis increasing from 44.6% to 45.9-49.6%. Enhanced oxidation resistance of biochar surface was likely due to the physical isolation from newly formed minerals, while organometallic complex formation was probably responsible for the increase in oxidation resistance of entire biochar particles. Results indicated that mineral-rich soils seemed to be a beneficial environment for biochar since soil minerals could increase biochar stability, which displays an important environmental significance of biochar for long-term carbon sequestration. PMID:26828311

  1. Carbon mineralization and soil fertility at high altitude grasslands in the Bolivian Andean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zornoza, R.; Muñoz, M. A.; Faz, A.

    2012-04-01

    The high grasslands of Apolobamba provide a natural habitat for a high number of wild and domestic camelids such as vicuna (Vicugna vicugna) and alpaca (Lama pacos) in Bolivia. Because of the importance of the camelid raising for the Apolobambás inhabitant economy, it is fundamental to determine the natural resources condition and their availability for the camelid support. The soil organic matter plays a crucial role in the maintenance of the soil fertility at high grasslands. On the other hand, soil respiration is the primary pathway for CO2 fixed by plants returning to the atmosphere and its study is essential to evaluate the soil organic matter mineralization and the global C cycle. Based on this, the objectives of this research were to: (i) evaluate the soil fertility and (ii) determine soil organic matter mineralization on the basis of CO2 releases in Apolobamba. Regarding the lastly vicuna censuses carried out in the studied area, eight representative zones with dissimilar vicuna densities were selected. Other characteristics were also considered to select the study zones: (1) alpaca densities, (2) vegetation communities (3) plant cover and (4) landscape and geo-morphological description. Soil samples from different samplings were collected. Soil respiration was determined at two temperatures: 15 °C (based on the highest atmosphere temperature that was registered in the area) and 25 °C, in order to monitor the increase in soil respiration (Q10). The physico-chemical soil results pointed out the good soil fertility. However, erosive processes could be taken place likely caused by the alpaca grazing. High total organic carbon contents were observed corresponding to the highest soil respiration at 15 °C. This observation was supported by the relationship found between the total organic carbon and the soil respiration. A noticeable increase of the soil respiration when the temperature increased 10 °C was reported (from 1083 ± 47 g C m-2 yr-1 at 15 °C to 2786 ± 343 g C m-2 yr-1 at 25 °C ) which indicated the organic matter mineralization increase and likely the high C reservoirs decrease. Additionally, high Q10 values were observed (13.8 ± 1.5 in subsurface). This indicates that basically climate conditions are actually controlling organic matter mineralization and it is more evident in zones with high total organic carbon contents. Although no vicuna affection on the soil fertility was observed, the camelid grazing generally causes a reduction in the soil respiration rate in Apolobamba. Therefore, it should be undertaken some protection actions to prevent the biodiversity affection bringing camelid overexploitation under control in Bolivian Andean. Keywords: biodiversity, high grasslands, camelid grazing, carbon mineralization, soil respiration

  2. Evaluating sensitivity of silicate mineral dissolution rates to physical weathering using a soil evolution model (SoilGen2.25)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opolot, E.; Finke, P. A.

    2015-08-01

    Silicate mineral dissolution rates depend on the interaction of a number of factors categorized either as intrinsic (e.g. mineral surface area, mineral composition) or extrinsic (e.g. climate, hydrology, biological factors, physical weathering). Estimating the integrated effect of these factors on the silicate mineral dissolution rates therefore necessitates the use of fully mechanistic soil evolution models. This study applies a mechanistic soil evolution model (SoilGen) to explore the sensitivity of silicate mineral dissolution rates to the integrated effect of other soil forming processes and factors. The SoilGen soil evolution model is a 1-D model developed to simulate the time-depth evolution of soil properties as a function of various soil forming processes (e.g. water, heat and solute transport, chemical and physical weathering, clay migration, nutrient cycling and bioturbation) driven by soil forming factors (i.e., climate, organisms, relief, parent material). Results from this study show that although soil solution chemistry (pH) plays a dominant role in determining the silicate mineral dissolution rates, all processes that directly or indirectly influence the soil solution composition equally play an important role in driving silicate mineral dissolution rates. Model results demonstrated a decrease of silicate mineral dissolution rates with time, an obvious effect of texture and an indirect but substantial effect of physical weathering on silicate mineral dissolution rates. Results further indicated that clay migration and plant nutrient recycling processes influence the pH and thus the silicate mineral dissolution rates. Our silicate mineral dissolution rates results fall between field and laboratory rates but were rather high and more close to the laboratory rates owing to the assumption of far from equilibrium reaction used in our dissolution rate mechanism. There is therefore need to include secondary mineral precipitation mechanism in our formulation. In addition, there is need for a more detailed study that is specific to field sites with detailed measurements of silicate mineral dissolution rates, climate, hydrology and mineralogy to enable the calibration and validation of the model. Nevertheless, this study is another important step to demonstrate the critical need to couple different soil forming processes with chemical weathering in order to explain differences observed between laboratory and field measured silicate mineral dissolution rates.

  3. Evaluating sensitivity of silicate mineral dissolution rates to physical weathering using a soil evolution model (SoilGen2.25)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opolot, E.; Finke, P. A.

    2015-11-01

    Silicate mineral dissolution rates depend on the interaction of a number of factors categorized either as intrinsic (e.g. mineral surface area, mineral composition) or extrinsic (e.g. climate, hydrology, biological factors, physical weathering). Estimating the integrated effect of these factors on the silicate mineral dissolution rates therefore necessitates the use of fully mechanistic soil evolution models. This study applies a mechanistic soil evolution model (SoilGen) to explore the sensitivity of silicate mineral dissolution rates to the integrated effect of other soil-forming processes and factors. The SoilGen soil evolution model is a 1-D model developed to simulate the time-depth evolution of soil properties as a function of various soil-forming processes (e.g. water, heat and solute transport, chemical and physical weathering, clay migration, nutrient cycling, and bioturbation) driven by soil-forming factors (i.e., climate, organisms, relief, parent material). Results from this study show that although soil solution chemistry (pH) plays a dominant role in determining the silicate mineral dissolution rates, all processes that directly or indirectly influence the soil solution composition play an equally important role in driving silicate mineral dissolution rates. Model results demonstrated a decrease of silicate mineral dissolution rates with time, an obvious effect of texture and an indirect but substantial effect of physical weathering on silicate mineral dissolution rates. Results further indicated that clay migration and plant nutrient recycling processes influence the pH and thus the silicate mineral dissolution rates. Our silicate mineral dissolution rates results fall between field and laboratory rates but were rather high and more close to the laboratory rates possibly due to the assumption of far from equilibrium reaction used in our dissolution rate mechanism. There is therefore a need to include secondary mineral precipitation mechanism in our formulation. In addition, there is a need for a more detailed study that is specific to field sites with detailed measurements of silicate mineral dissolution rates, climate, hydrology, and mineralogy to enable the calibration and validation of the model. Nevertheless, this study is another important step to demonstrate the critical need to couple different soil-forming processes with chemical weathering in order to explain differences observed between laboratory and field measured silicate mineral dissolution rates.

  4. Low dissolved organic carbon input from fresh litter to deep mineral soils

    SciTech Connect

    Froeberg, Mats J; Jardine, Philip M; Hanson, Paul J; Swanston, Christopher; Todd Jr, Donald E; Phillips, Jana Randolph; Garten Jr, Charles T

    2007-01-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) leached from recent litter in the forest floor has been suggested to be an important source of C to the mineral soil of forest ecosystems. In order to determine the rate at which this flux of C occurs we have taken advantage of a local release of 14C at Oak Ridge National Laboratory Reservation, USA (latitude N 35 58'; longitude W 84 16'). Eight replicate 7x7 m plots were estab lished at four field sites on the reservation in an upland oak forest setting. Half of the plots were provided with 14C-enriched litter (∆14C ≈1000 ), and the other half with near-background litter (∆14C ≈220 ) over multiple years. Differences in the labeled leaf litter were used to quantify the movement of litter derived DOC through the soil profile. Soil solutions were collected over several years with tension lysimeters at 15 and 70 cm depth and measured for DOC concentration and 14C abundance. The net amount of DOC retained between 15 and 70 cm was 1.5-6 g m-2 y-1. There were significant effects of the litter additions on the 14C abundance in the DOC, but the net transport of 14C from the added litter was small. The difference in ∆14C between the treatments with enriched and near-background litter was only about 130 at both depths, which is small compared with the difference in Δ14C in the added litter. The primary source of DOC within the mineral soil must therefore have been either the Oe/Oa horizon or the organic matter in the mineral soil. Over a 2-year time frame, leaching of DOC from recent litter did not have a major impact on the C stock in the mineral soil below 15 cm in this ecosystem.

  5. Influence of edaphic factors on the mineralization of neem oil coated urea in four Indian soils.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajesh; Devakumar, C; Kumar, Dinesh; Panneerselvam, P; Kakkar, Garima; Arivalagan, T

    2008-11-12

    The utility of neem (Azadirachta indica A Juss) oil coated urea as a value-added nitrogenous fertilizer has been now widely accepted by Indian farmers and the fertilizer industry. In the present study, the expeller grade (EG) and hexane-extracted (HE) neem oils, the two most common commercial grades, were used to prepare neem oil coated urea (NOCU) of various oil doses, for which mineralization rates were assessed in four soils at three incubation temperatures (20, 27, and 35 degrees C). Neem oil dose-dependent conservation of ammonium N was observed in NOCU treatments in all of the soils. However, a longer incubation period and a higher soil temperature caused depletion of ammonium N. Overall, the nitrification in NOCU treatment averaged 56.6% against 77.3% for prilled urea in four soils. NOCU prepared from EG neem oil was consistently superior to that derived from hexane-extracted oil. The performance of NOCUs was best in coarse-textured soil and poorest in sodic soil. The nitrification rate (NR) of the NOCUs in the soils followed the order sodic > fine-textured > medium-textured > coarse-textured. The influence of edaphic factors on NR of NOCUs has been highlighted. The utility of the present study in predicting the performance of NOCU in diverse Indian soils was highlighted through the use of algorithms for computation of the optimum neem oil dose that would cause maximum inhibition of nitrification in any soil. PMID:18841982

  6. Factors driving carbon mineralization priming effect in a soil amended with different types of biochar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cely, P.; Tarquis, A. M.; Paz-Ferreiro, J.; Méndez, A.; Gascó, G.

    2014-03-01

    The effect of biochar on soil carbon mineralization priming effect depends on the characteristics of the raw materials, production method and pyrolysis conditions. The goal of the present study is to evaluate the impact of three different types of biochar on soil CO2 emissions and in different physicochemical properties. For this purpose, a sandy-loam soil was amended with the three biochars (BI, BII and BIII) at a rate of 8 wt % and soil CO2 emissions were measured for 45 days. BI is produced from a mixed wood sieving's from wood chip production, BII from a mixture of paper sludge and wheat husks and BIII from sewage sludge. Cumulative CO2 emissions of biochars, soil and amended soil were well fit to a simple first-order kinetic model with correlation coefficients (r2) greater than 0.97. Results shown a negative priming effect in the soil after addition of BI and a positive priming effect in the case of soil amended with BII and BIII. These results can be related with different biochar properties such as ash content, volatile matter, fixed carbon, organic carbon oxidised with dichromate, soluble carbon and metal and phenolic substances content in addition to surface biochar properties. Three biochars increased the values of soil field capacity and wilting point, while effects over pH and cation exchange capacity were not observed.

  7. Microbial Mineralization of Soil Organic Matter: Role of Chemical Composition and Structural Organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalaf, M. M. R.; Chilom, G.; Rice, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to quantitatively assess the effect of organic matter self-assembly on its resistance to microbial mineralization. Humic acids isolated from leonardite, two peats and a mineral soil were used as organic matter samples because they provide a broad range of variability in terms of the origin and nature of their organic components. Using a solvent-based fractionation method, humic acid samples were disassembled into a humic-like component and a humic-lipid composite. The humic-lipid composite was further disassembled into an amphiphilic and a lipid component using an alkaline aqueous solution. Mixtures that reproduced the composition of self-assembled samples were prepared by mixing the solid individual fractions in the exact proportions that they were present in the original material. The original humic acids or their corresponding mixtures were added as the sole carbon source in separate aerobic cultures containing a microbial consortium isolated from a mineral soil. After incubation for 125 days mineralization of the self-assembled samples was shown to be higher by as much as 70% compared to their corresponding physical mixtures. The extent of mineralization of the self-assembled samples was not correlated to the material's chemical composition or hydrophobicity index obtained from their 13C solid-state NMR spectra. In contrast, mineralization of the physical mixtures and the individual fractions did vary with chemical composition and was accompanied by preferential mineralization of alkyl carbon. These results suggest the microbial mineralization of humic acids is related to their self-assembly.

  8. Effect of long-term application of biosolids on biological soil quality: C mineralization, and particulate and non-particulate soil organic C

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Assessment of C mineralization and fractions in biosolids-amended soil can increase our knowledge on the impact of biosolids application on soil nutrient availability and C sequestration. Soil samples were collected in 2006 from 20 strip-mined fields at Fulton County, Illinois, which received biosol...

  9. A general evaluation of the frequency distribution of clay and associated minerals in the alluvial soils of ceylon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herath, J.W.; Grimshaw, R.W.

    1971-01-01

    Clay mineral analyses were made of several alluvial clay materials from Ceylon. These studies show that the soil materials can be divided into 3 clay mineral provinces on the basis of the frequency distribution of clay and associated minerals. The provinces closely follow the climatic divisions. The characteristic feature of this classification is the progressive development of gibbsite from Dry to Wet Zone areas. Gibbsite has been used as a reliable indicator mineral. ?? 1971.

  10. Organic nitrogen storage in mineral soil: Implications for policy and management.

    PubMed

    Bingham, Andrew H; Cotrufo, M Francesca

    2016-05-01

    Nitrogen is one of the most important ecosystem nutrients and often its availability limits net primary production as well as stabilization of soil organic matter. The long-term storage of nitrogen-containing organic matter in soils was classically attributed to chemical complexity of plant and microbial residues that retarded microbial degradation. Recent advances have revised this framework, with the understanding that persistent soil organic matter consists largely of chemically labile, microbially processed organic compounds. Chemical bonding to minerals and physical protection in aggregates are more important to long-term (i.e., centuries to millennia) preservation of these organic compounds that contain the bulk of soil nitrogen rather than molecular complexity, with the exception of nitrogen in pyrogenic organic matter. This review examines for the first time the factors and mechanisms at each stage of movement into long-term storage that influence the sequestration of organic nitrogen in the mineral soil of natural temperate ecosystems. Because the factors which govern persistence are different under this newly accepted paradigm we examine the policy and management implications that are altered, such as critical load considerations, nitrogen saturation and mitigation consequences. Finally, it emphasizes how essential it is for this important but underappreciated pool to be better quantified and incorporated into policy and management decisions, especially given the lack of evidence for many soils having a finite capacity to sequester nitrogen. PMID:26874768

  11. Ectomycorrhizal influence on particle size, surface structure, mineral crystallinity, functional groups, and elemental composition of soil colloids from different soil origins.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanhong; Wang, Huimei; Wang, Wenjie; Yang, Lei; Zu, Yuangang

    2013-01-01

    Limited data are available on the ectomycorrhizae-induced changes in surface structure and composition of soil colloids, the most active portion in soil matrix, although such data may benefit the understanding of mycorrhizal-aided soil improvements. By using ectomycorrhizae (Gomphidius viscidus) and soil colloids from dark brown forest soil (a good loam) and saline-alkali soil (heavily degraded soil), we tried to approach the changes here. For the good loam either from the surface or deep soils, the fungus treatment induced physical absorption of covering materials on colloid surface with nonsignificant increases in soil particle size (P > 0.05). These increased the amount of variable functional groups (O-H stretching and bending, C-H stretching, C=O stretching, etc.) by 3-26% and the crystallinity of variable soil minerals (kaolinite, hydromica, and quartz) by 40-300%. However, the fungus treatment of saline-alkali soil obviously differed from the dark brown forest soil. There were 12-35% decreases in most functional groups, 15-55% decreases in crystallinity of most soil minerals but general increases in their grain size, and significant increases in soil particle size (P < 0.05). These different responses sharply decreased element ratios (C:O, C:N, and C:Si) in soil colloids from saline-alkali soil, moving them close to those of the good loam of dark brown forest soil. PMID:23766704

  12. Ex situ bioremediation of mineral oil in soils: Land treatment and composting. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gauger, K.

    1998-06-01

    Mineral oil dielectric fluid (MODF) has replaced PCB oil as the insulating medium in electrical transformers. Although eliminating PCBs has reduced the environmental impact resulting from transformer leaks, soil contaminated with mineral oil still often requires remediation. This study evaluated the feasibility of ex situ biotreatment by land farming and composting for Southern Company Services/Georgia Power. Research results indicate that composting does not enhance the biodegradation of mineral oil compared to land treatment. Furthermore, while land treatment does degrade mineral oil, the process takes nearly a year and may not meet regulatory limits. Because the environmental impact of MODF spills into soil is not well understood, states regulate this fluid similarly to petroleum fuel oil for cleanup purposes. This has led to costly remedial efforts, with utilities excavating contaminated media and disposing it in landfills. However, landfills are becoming increasingly regulated, and their use leaves future liability issues unresolved. Southern Company Services/Georgia Power and EPRI sought to explore the effectiveness of ex situ treatment technologies of land farming and composting to decontaminate soil for on-site reuse.

  13. Watershed-Scale Geochemical Inventory of Soils by Portable X-Ray Fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaudette, D. E.; Stupi, L. K.; Swarowsky, A.; O'Geen, A. T.; Chang, J. F.; Gallagher, B.

    2009-12-01

    Spatial databases of geochemical data are an excellent source of point-scale information on naturally occurring toxic elements (arsenic, selenium or radon), contamination from industrial processes (lead, mercury, or cesium), mineralogical variability, and the fate of toxic compounds (i.e. sorption of pesticides to iron oxyhydroxide minerals) in soil. Sample preparation time, safety concerns associated with HF or HNO3 acid dissolution, instrument availability, and cost are all common constraints that limit the scale at which new geochemical surveys can be conducted. We used a Thermo-Fisher Niton portable X-Ray fluorescence (XRF) meter to perform comparatively rapid geochemical surveys in soils of two (35 ha) watersheds. The watersheds have contrasting parent materials, one formed from metavolcanic rock and the other from granite. The X-Ray fluorescence inventory of genetic soil horizons (n=660) was used to identify trends in soil development and landscape processes. Since soil samples are usually sieved and ground for standard laboratory characterization, the additional time required to prepare samples for XRF analysis was minimal, approximately 2 minutes for sample preparation and 6 minutes for machine scan time per sample. Preliminary analysis of the resulting geochemical data show strong spatial trends in watershed- and hillslope-scale variability in weathering indices (FeCBD:FeTotal and K:Ti), inferred mineralogy (Si:Al, Si:Al+Fe), and geologic signatures (multivariate analysis of 20 common elements). Depth trends and spatial patterns were correlated with common terrain-shape indices (slope, upslope contributing area, surface curvatures, local prominence, etc.), degree of soil development, parent material, and hydrological conditions. For example, Si:Al was higher in soils with greater upslope contributing area, and in seasonally saturated soils (Fig 1). Our findings demonstrate that portable XRF technology is a promising new tool for rapid lab-based and in situ geochemical surveys of soils. Ratio of silicon to aluminum (molecular mass) at six depth ranges, within a Sierra Foothill watershed. Watershed area is approximately 35ha, north is aligned with the y-axis.

  14. Effects of temperature and amendments on nitrogen mineralization in selected Australian soils.

    PubMed

    Thangarajan, Ramya; Bolan, Nanthi S; Naidu, Ravi; Surapaneni, Aravind

    2015-06-01

    The effects of temperature (18, 24, and 37 °C) and form of nitrogen (N) input from various sources (organic-green waste compost, biosolids, and chicken manure; inorganic-urea) on N transformation in three different Australian soils with varying pH (4.30, 7.09, and 9.15) were examined. Ammonification rate (ammonium concentration) increased with increase in temperature in all soil types. The effect of temperature on nitrification rate (nitrate concentration) followed 24 > 37 > 18 °C. Nitrification rate was higher in neutral and alkaline soils than acidic soil. Mineral N (bioavailable N) concentration was high in urea treatments than in organic N source treatments in all soil types. Acidic soil lacked nitrification activity resulting in low nitrate (NO3) buildup in urea treatment, whereas a significant NO3 buildup was noticed in green waste compost treatment. In neutral and alkaline soils, the nitrification activity was low at 37 °C in urea treatment but with a significant NO3 buildup in organic amendment added soils. Addition of organic N sources supplied ammonia oxidizing bacteria thereby triggering nitrification in the soils (even at 37 °C). This study posits the following implications: (1) inorganic fertilizer accumulate high NO3 content in soils in a short period of incubation, thereby becoming a potential source of NO3 leaching; (2) organic N sources can serve as possible source of nitrifying bacteria, thereby increasing bioavailable N (NO3) in soils regardless of the soil properties and temperature. PMID:24114384

  15. N Isotope Composition of the Soil Microbial Biomass Reflects N Mineralization and C and N Availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dijkstra, P.; Hungate, B. A.; Schwartz, E.; Hart, S. C.

    2009-04-01

    It has been an open question for several decades whether N mineralization is a fractionating process. This question is important for N cycling in terrestrial ecosystems because even a small fractionation during N mineralization could potentially have a large influence on the N isotope composition of other ecosystem N pools, since N mineralization represents the largest N flux in ecosystems. Fractionation during N mineralization should result in a difference between the N isotope composition of the soil microorganisms and that of its substrates. We analyzed the N isotope composition of the soil microbial biomass in a variety of ecosystems, and found that it was 15N enriched compared to that of other soil N pools, such as soil soluble, organic and inorganic N (Dijkstra et al. 2006a,b). We observed a negative correlation between the 15N enrichment of the microorganisms and the relative C and N availability for soil from ecosystems in Hawaii and Arizona, across a broad range of climates, grasslands and forests, and more than four million years of ecosystem development. This result suggests that during N dissimilation (and associated transaminations) and N export, the lighter 14N isotope is preferentially removed in a manner similar to that proposed for animals and ectomycorrhizae. This was further confirmed by the positive correlation between microbial 15N enrichment and net N mineralization rate (Dijkstra et al. 2008) and by culture experiments with Escherichia coli (Collins et al 2008). Since mineralization is the largest flux of N in ecosystems, fractionation during N mineralization has the potential to influence and even determine the N isotope composition of other N pools, such as inorganic N, plant N and soil organic matter N. We will show that the N isotope composition of these ecosystem N pools exhibit differences that are consistent with fractionation during N mineralization. Collins JG, Dijkstra P, Hart SC, Hungate BA, Flood NM and Schwartz E. 2008. Nitrogen source influences natural abundance 15N of Escherichia coli. FEMS Microbiol Lett 282: 246-250 Dijkstra, P, Ishizu A, Doucett RR, Hart SC, Schwartz E, Menyailo OV and Hungate BA 2006a. 13C and 15N natural abundances of soil microbial biomass. Soil Biol Biochem 38:3257-3266. Dijkstra, P, Menyailo OV, Doucett RR, Hart SC, Schwartz E and Hungate BA 2006b. C and N availability affects the 15N natural abundance of the soil microbial biomass across a cattle manure gradient. Eur J Soil Sci 57:468-475. Dijkstra P, LaViolette CM, Coyle JS, Doucett RR, Schwartz E, Hart SC and Hungate BA 2008. 15N enrichment as an integrator of the effects of C and N on microbial metabolism and ecosystem function. Ecol Lett 11: 389-397.

  16. From bulk soil to intracrystalline investigation of plant-mineral interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemarchand, D.; Voinot, A.; Chabaux, F.; Turpault, M.

    2011-12-01

    Understanding the controls and feedbacks regulating the flux of matter between bio-geochemical reservoirs in forest ecosystems receives a fast growing interest for the last decades. A complex question is to understand how minerals and vegetation interact in soils to sustain life and, to a broader scope, how forest ecosystems may respond to human activity (acid rain, harvesting,...) and climate perturbations (temperature, precipitation,...). Many mineralogical and biogeochemical approaches have longtime been developed, and occasionally coupled, in order to investigate the mechanisms by which chemical elements either are exchanged between soil particles and solutions, or are transferred to plants or to deeper soil layers and finally leave the system. But the characterization of particular processes like the contribution of minor reactive minerals to plant nutrition and global fluxes or the mechanisms by which biology can modify reaction rates and balance the bioavailability of nutrients in response to environmental perturbation sometimes fails because of the lack of suitable tracers. Recent analytical and conceptual advances have opened new perspectives for the use of light "non traditional" stable isotopes. Showing a wild range of concentrations and isotopic compositions between biogeochemical reservoirs in forest ecosystem, boron has physico-chemical properties particularly relevant to the investigation of water/rock interactions even when evolving biologically-mediated reactions. In this study, we focused on the distribution of boron isotopes from intracrystalline to bulk soil scales. An overview of the boron distribution and annual fluxes in the soil-plant system clearly indicates that the vegetation cycling largely controls the mobility of boron. We also observe that the mineral and biological B pools have drastically different isotopic signature that makes the transfer of B between them very easy to follow. In particular, the podzol soil we analyzed shows a clear contribution of vegetation-recycled B to neoformed mineral phases, whereas B in minerals from the brown acidic soil rather indicates predominant mineral dissolution with little or even no B supply from the soil solution. If B isotopes thus proved their sensitivity to the soil forming conditions, a simple isotopic budget also demonstrates that the isotopic signature shown by the vegetation cannot result from fractionation during boron absorption. Analyses of B isotopes within intracrystalline phyllosilicate minerals further identify the interfoliar layers as the major source of B during plant nutrition. Additionally, weathering experiments placing phyllosilicates in contact with various alteration agents (protons, organic acid or siderophore) point to the role of the latters as likely responsible for the boron liberation from the phyllosilicate interfoliar layers. This scenario gives the phyllosilicate interfoliar layers a central function in the plant nutrition in context studied here of soils developed on granitic bedrocks. It also implies a very dynamic system in which plants and minerals can exchange matter over very short periods of time.

  17. Sorption and Transport of Pharmaceutical chemicals in Organic- and Mineral-rich Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vulava, V. M.; Schwindaman, J.; Murphey, V.; Kuzma, S.; Cory, W.

    2011-12-01

    Pharmaceutical, active ingredients in personal care products (PhACs), and their derivative compounds are increasingly ubiquitous in surface waters across the world. Sorption and transport of four relatively common PhACs (naproxen, ibuprofen, cetirizine, and triclosan) in different natural soils was measured. All of these compounds are relatively hydrophobic (log KOW>2) and have acid/base functional groups, including one compound that is zwitterionic (cetirizine.) The main goal of this study was to correlate organic matter (OM) and clay content in natural soils and sediment with sorption and degradation of PhACs and ultimately their potential for transport within the subsurface environment. A- and B-horizon soils were collected from four sub-regions within a pristine managed forested watershed near Charleston, SC, with no apparent sources of anthropogenic contamination. These four soil series had varying OM content (fOC) between 0.4-9%, clay mineral content between 6-20%, and soil pH between 4.5-6. The A-horizon soils had higher fOC and lower clay content than the B-horizon soils. Sorption isotherms measured from batch sorption experimental data indicated a non-linear sorption relationship in all A- and B-horizon soils - stronger sorption was observed at lower PhAC concentrations and lower sorption at higher concentrations. Three PhACs (naproxen, ibuprofen, and triclosan) sorbed more strongly with higher fOC A-horizon soils compared with the B-horizon soils. These results show that soil OM had a significant role in strongly binding these three PhACs, which had the highest KOW values. In contrast, cetirizine, which is predominantly positively charged at pH below 8, strongly sorbed to soils with higher clay mineral content and least strongly to higher fOC soils. All sorption isotherms fitted well to the Freundlich model. For naproxen, ibuprofen, and triclosan, there was a strong and positive linear correlation between the Freundlich adsorption constant, Kf, and fOC, again indicating that these PhACs preferentially partition into the soil OM. Such a correlation was absent for cetirizine. Breakthrough curves of PhACs measured in homogeneous packed soil columns indicated that PhAC transport was affected by chemical nonequilibrium processes depending on the soil and PhAC chemistry. The shape of the breakthrough curves indicated that there were two distinct sorption sites - OM and clay minerals - which influence nonequilibrium transport of these compounds. The retardation factor estimated using the distribution coefficient, Kd, measured from the sorption experiments was very similar to the measured value. While the sorption and transport data do not provide mechanistic information regarding the nature of PhAC interaction with chemical reactive components within geological materials, they do provide important information regarding potential fate of such compounds in the environment. The results also show the role that soil OM and mineral surfaces play in sequestering or transporting these chemicals. These insights have implications to the quality of the water resources in our communities.

  18. Reforestation in southern China: revisiting soil N mineralization and nitrification after 8 years restoration

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Qifeng; Li, Zhi’an; Zhu, Weixing; Zou, Bi; Li, Yingwen; Yu, Shiqin; Ding, Yongzhen; Chen, Yao; Li, Xiaobo; Wang, Faming

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen availability and tree species selection play important roles in reforestation. However, long-term field studies on the effects and mechanisms of tree species composition on N transformation are very limited. Eight years after tree seedlings were planted in a field experiment, we revisited the site and tested how tree species composition affects the dynamics of N mineralization and nitrification. Both tree species composition and season significantly influenced the soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON). N-fixing Acacia crassicarpa monoculture had the highest DON, and 10-mixed species plantation had the highest DOC. The lowest DOC and DON concentrations were both observed in Eucalyptus urophylla monoculture. The tree species composition also significantly affected net N mineralization rates. The highest rate of net N mineralization was found in A. crassicarpa monoculture, which was over twice than that in Castanopsis hystrix monoculture. The annual net N mineralization rates of 10-mixed and 30-mixed plantations were similar as that of N-fixing monoculture. Since mixed plantations have good performance in increasing soil DOC, DON, N mineralization and plant biodiversity, we recommend that mixed species plantations should be used as a sustainable approach for the restoration of degraded land in southern China. PMID:26794649

  19. Reforestation in southern China: revisiting soil N mineralization and nitrification after 8 years restoration.

    PubMed

    Mo, Qifeng; Li, Zhi'an; Zhu, Weixing; Zou, Bi; Li, Yingwen; Yu, Shiqin; Ding, Yongzhen; Chen, Yao; Li, Xiaobo; Wang, Faming

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen availability and tree species selection play important roles in reforestation. However, long-term field studies on the effects and mechanisms of tree species composition on N transformation are very limited. Eight years after tree seedlings were planted in a field experiment, we revisited the site and tested how tree species composition affects the dynamics of N mineralization and nitrification. Both tree species composition and season significantly influenced the soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON). N-fixing Acacia crassicarpa monoculture had the highest DON, and 10-mixed species plantation had the highest DOC. The lowest DOC and DON concentrations were both observed in Eucalyptus urophylla monoculture. The tree species composition also significantly affected net N mineralization rates. The highest rate of net N mineralization was found in A. crassicarpa monoculture, which was over twice than that in Castanopsis hystrix monoculture. The annual net N mineralization rates of 10-mixed and 30-mixed plantations were similar as that of N-fixing monoculture. Since mixed plantations have good performance in increasing soil DOC, DON, N mineralization and plant biodiversity, we recommend that mixed species plantations should be used as a sustainable approach for the restoration of degraded land in southern China. PMID:26794649

  20. Soil Phosphorus Stoichiometry Drives Carbon Turnover Along a Soil C Gradient Spanning Mineral and Organic Soils Under Rice Cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartman, W.; Ye, R.; Horwath, W. R.; Tringe, S. G.

    2014-12-01

    Soil carbon (C) cycling is linked to the availability of nutrients like nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). However, the role of soil P in influencing soil C turnover and accumulation is poorly understood, with most models focusing on C:N ratios based on the assumption that terrestrial ecosystems are N limited. To determine the effects of N and P availability on soil C turnover, we compared soil respiration over the course of a growing season in four adjacent rice fields with 5%, 10%, 20% and 25% soil C. In each of these fields, plots were established to test the effect of N additions on plant growth, using control and N addition treatments (80 kg N/ha urea). Although soil P was not manipulated in parallel, prior work has shown soil P concentrations decline markedly with increasing soil C content. Soil CO2 flux was monitored using static chambers at biweekly intervals during the growing season, along with porewater dissolved organic C and ammonium. Soils were collected at the end of the growing season, and tested for total C, N, and P, extractable N and P, pH, base cations and trace metals. Soil DNA was also extracted for 16S rRNA sequencing to profile microbial communities. Soil N additions significantly increased CO2 flux and soil C turnover (seasonal CO2 flux per unit soil C) in 5% and 10% C fields, but not in 20% or 25% C fields. Soil C content was closely related to soil N:P stoichiometry, with N:P ratios of ca. 12, 16, 24, and 56 respectively in the 5, 10, 20 and 25% C fields. Seasonal CO2 fluxes (per m2) were highest in 10% C soils. However, soil C turnover was inversely related to soil C concentrations, with the greatest C turnover at the lowest values of soil C. Soil C turnover showed stronger relationships with soil chemical parameters than seasonal CO2 fluxes alone, and the best predictors of soil C turnover were soil total and extractable N:P ratios, along with extractable P alone. Our results show that soil P availability and stoichiometry influence the turnover of soil C, even where primary producers are clearly limited by N. Prior work has suggested these contrasting patterns in nutrient limitation may arise due to stoichiometric differences among plants and soil microbes. We hypothesize that differences in soil carbon turnover may in part reflect shifts in metabolism of microbial communities associated with stoichiometric variation in soils.

  1. Fire effects on peat and organo-mineral soils of Meshchera plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsibart, Anna; Koshovskii, Timur; Gamova, Natalia; Kovach, Roman

    2015-04-01

    The fire effects the soil properties depend on soil type and on their vulnerability to fires. The most of available data is devoted to changes in organo-mineral soils. But the peat fires can cause deeper changes in soil profiles, especially in case of drained peat soils. Now the lack of information exists in the sphere of the comparison of these fire types on soil cover. Meshchera plain (Moscow and Ryazan Regions, Russia) has different soil types. Moreover peatlands were partly drained, and the plain was affected by numerous fires of different time. So there is a need of detailed post-fire soil investigations in this region. During current research the soils Meshchera plain subjected by wildfires of 2002, 2007, 2010 and 2012 were studied. A total of 32 profiles including background and post-fire histosols, histic and sod podzols were investigated. Moreover the detailed description of vegetation cover was conducted. The samples were taken from genetic horizons. The morfological properties of soil profiles were sudied and the samples were analysed on organic carbon, pH, macroelements, magnetic susceptibility. After the wildfires changes in morfological and physico-chemical properties of soils were detected in most cases. The formation of ash and charry horizons was observed only in cases of peat soils affecetd by intense fires, and all post-fire drained peat soils had thick ash horizons even after 10 years after the fires. The significant loss of organic matter took place after burning. But almost immediately after the fires new stage of humus formation usually started. For instance, in post-fire histosols in 2 years after the burning the content of organic carbon reached to 10-12 % in upper horizons. ph values in background histosols were approximately 4-5. After the fire pH increased in these soil type to 8, and two years after the fire event pH decreased to 6-7. In podzols pH values returned to the pre-fire level 4-5 in two years. The magnetic susceptibility of soil samples in background histosols was 2-40 ×10-6 cm3/g. After the fires it increased in ash horizons up to 250 ×10-6 cm3/g. In sod podzols the changes also occurred. Background podzols had 2- 5×10-6 cm3/g. Post-fire horizons had up to 50- 60×10-6 cm3/g after the fires. And even 10 years later the differences between post-fire and background soils preserved. So this parameter could be used as an indicator of fire events in soil profiles. After the fire the significant changes occurred in horizon mineral composition. Ash horizons had elevated concentrations of Al2O3 (9-17%), Fe2O3 (4-11%), P2O3 (1-1,8 %), CaO (1,9-2,8 %) and K2O (0,1-1,9%). The observed trends were similar for histosols and for histic podzols. And the changes in horizon mineral composition remained 2 and 10 years after the fire. So the more significant morphological and chemical changes occurred in the profiles of histosols, especially fire altered the soils of drained peatlands. These soil type keeps changes even 10 years after the fires.

  2. Distribution and speciation of ambient selenium in contrasted soils, from mineral to organic rich.

    PubMed

    Tolu, Julie; Thiry, Yves; Bueno, Maïté; Jolivet, Claudy; Potin-Gautier, Martine; Le Hécho, Isabelle

    2014-05-01

    Selenium adsorption onto oxy-hydroxides mainly controls its mobility in volcanic soils, red earths and soils poor in organic matter (OM) while the influence of OM was emphasized in podzol and peat soils. This work aims at deciphering how those solid phases influence ambient Se mobility and speciation under less contrasted conditions in 26 soils spanning extensive ranges of OM (1-32%), Fe/Al oxy-hydroxides (0.3-6.1%) contents and pH (4.0-8.3). The soil collection included agriculture, meadow and forest soils to assess the influence of OM quality as well. Trace concentrations of six ambient Se species (Se(IV), Se(VI) and 4 organo-Se compounds) were analyzed by HPLC-ICP-MS in three extractants (ultrapure water, phosphate and sodium hydroxide) targeting Se associated to different soil phases. The Kd values determined from ultrapure water extraction were higher than those reported in commonly used short-term experiments after Se-spiking. Correlations of ambient Se content and distribution with soil parameters explained this difference by an involvement of slow processes in Se retention in soils. The 26 Kd values determined here for a wide variety of soils thus represent a relevant database for long-term prediction of Se mobility. For soils containing less than 20% OM, ambient Se solubility is primarily controlled by its adsorption onto crystalline oxy-hydroxides. However, OM plays an important role in Se mobility by forming organo-mineral associations that may protect adsorbed Se from leaching and/or create anoxic zones (aggregates) where Se is immobilized after its reduction. Although for the first time, inorganic Se(IV), Se(VI) and organo-Se compounds were simultaneously investigated in a large soil collection, high Se proportions remain unidentified in each soil extract, most probably due to Se incorporation and/or binding to colloidal-sized OM. Variations of environmental factors regulating the extent of OM-mineral associations/aggregation may thus lead to changes in Se mobility and bio-availability. PMID:24548882

  3. Temperature effect on mineralization of SOM, plant litter and priming: modified by soil type?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzaroli Bleken, Marina; Berland Frøseth, Randi

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide improved temperature response functions to be used in models of soil organic carbon (SOC) and litter mineralization, with focus on the winter period. Our working hypothesis were: 1) decomposition of SOM and plant residue occurs also at temperature close to the freezing point; 2) the effect of temperature on SOC decomposition is stronger in clayey than in sandy soil; 3) decomposition and response to temperature of added plant litter is not affected by soil type. A silty clay loam (27% clay, 3% sand) and a sandy loam (6% clay, 51% sand) with similar weather and cultivation history were pre-incubated at about 15° C for about 4.5 months. Clover leaves labelled with 13C were added to half of the samples, and soil with and without clover was incubated for 142 days at 0, 4, 8.5 or 15 °C. Mineralization of SOC and clover leaves was observed also at 0° C. In the absence of added plant material, SOC decomposition followed a first order reaction which was twice as fast in the sandy soil as in the clay soil. The decomposition rate of clover leaves was also higher in the sandy soil than in the clay soil. However, the influence of temperature on SOC and on clover decomposition was the same in both soils. In presence of plant material, there was a positive priming effect on SOC, which initially correlated with decomposition of plant litter. There was a progressively lower priming effect at higher temperatures, particularly in the sandy soil, that could be understood as substrates exhaustion in a restricted volume of influence around the added clover leaves. We provide parameterised Arrhenius and alternative modifying linear temperature functions together with decay rates at reference temperature, which can be used for predicting decay rates of SOC per se and of the labile pool of clover leaves. We also show the superiority of these functions compared to the use of Q10 as temperature factor. Further, we suggest approaches for modelling the priming effect caused by plant litter. Reference: Frøseth RB, Bleken MA(2015) Effect of low temperature and soil type on the decomposition rate of soil organic carbon and clover leaves, and related priming effect. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 80:156-166.

  4. A new generator for mineral dust aerosol production from soil samples in the laboratory: GAMEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafon, Sandra; Alfaro, Stéphane C.; Chevaillier, Servanne; Rajot, Jean Louis

    2014-12-01

    A generator has been developed for producing mineral dust from small samples of desert soils. The objective is to perform a thorough characterization of this new tool and show that it is adapted to the future laboratory studies of the relationship between aerosols and their parent soils. This work describes the principles and operating protocol of the so-called GAMEL generator. A first series of detailed measurements was performed with a Niger soil. During these tests the aerosol size-distribution was monitored in real time with an optical counter and the particles collected on filters submitted to XRF analysis. This allowed characterizing the emission in terms of time evolution of the aerosol production, repeatability of the experiment, and assessing the influence of such generation parameters as the mass of soil and the frequency and duration of the shaking. For this sandy Niger soil, the optimal generation parameters were found to be 1 g of soil agitated 9 min at the frequency of 500 cycles/min, but the effect of modifications of these recommended values have also been quantified. In terms of size-distribution as well as of elemental composition, the generated aerosol is found to compare well to the one collected in natural conditions during local events. For testing the capability of the GAMEL to produce aerosols from different soils, tests were also performed with 3 other soils from arid and semi-arid areas. Results showed that the GAMEL is able to produce aerosols whose characteristics encompass the regional variability of naturally produced mineral aerosols.

  5. Exchangeable and secondary mineral reactive pools of aluminium in coastal lowland acid sulfate soils.

    PubMed

    Yvanes-Giuliani, Yliane A M; Waite, T David; Collins, Richard N

    2014-07-01

    The use of coastal floodplain sulfidic sediments for agricultural activities has resulted in the environmental degradation of many areas worldwide. The generation of acidity and transport of aluminium (Al) and other metals to adjacent aquatic systems are the main causes of adverse effects. Here, a five-step sequential extraction procedure (SEP) was applied to 30 coastal lowland acid sulfate soils (CLASS) from north-eastern New South Wales, Australia. This enabled quantification of the proportion of aluminium present in 'water-soluble', 'exchangeable', 'organically-complexed', 'reducible iron(III) (oxyhydr)oxide/hydroxysulfate-incorporated' and 'amorphous Al mineral' fractions. The first three extractions represented an average of 5% of 'aqua regia' extractable Al and their cumulative concentrations were extremely high, reaching up to 4000 mg·kg(-1). Comparison of Al concentrations in the final two extractions indicated that 'amorphous Al minerals' are quantitatively a much more important sink for the removal of aqueous Al derived from the acidic weathering of these soils than reducible Fe(III) minerals. Correlations were observed between soil pH, dissolved and total organic carbon (DOC and TOC) and Al concentrations in organic carbon-rich CLASS soil horizons. These results suggest that complexation of Al by dissolved organic matter significantly increases soluble Al concentrations at pH values >5.0. As such, present land management practices would benefit with redefinition of an 'optimal' soil from pH ≥5.5 to ~4.8 for the preservation of aquatic environments adjacent to organic-rich CLASS where Al is the sole or principle inorganic contaminant of concern. Furthermore, it was observed that currently-accepted standard procedures (i.e. 1 M KCl extraction) to measure exchangeable Al concentrations in these types of soils severely underestimate exchangeable Al and a more accurate representation may be obtained through the use of 0.2 M CuCl2. PMID:24727041

  6. Topsoil organic carbon mineralization and CO2 evolution of three paddy soils from South China and the temperature dependence.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu-Hui; Li, Lian-Qing; Pan, Gen-Xing

    2007-01-01

    Carbon mineralization and its response to climatic warming have been receiving global attention for the last decade. Although the virtual influence of temperature effect is still in great debate, little is known on the mineralization of organic carbon (SOC) of paddy soils of China under warming. SOC mineralization of three major types of China's paddy soils is studied through laboratory incubation for 114 d under soil moisture regime of 70% water holding capacity at 20 degrees C and 25 degrees C respectively. The carbon that mineralized as CO2 evolved was measured every day in the first 32 d and every two days in the following days. Carbon mineralized during the 114 d incubation ranged from 3.51 to 9.22 mg CO2-C/gC at 20 degrees C and from 4.24 to 11.35 mg CO2-C/gC at 25 degrees C respectively; and a mineralizable C pool in the range of 0.24 to 0.59 gC/kg, varying with different soils. The whole course of C mineralization in the 114 d incubation could be divided into three stages of varying rates, representing the three subpools of the total mineralizable C: very actively mineralized C at 1-23 d, actively mineralized C at 24-74 d and a slowly mineralized pool with low and more or less stabilized C mineralization rate at 75-114 d. The calculated Q10 values ranged from 1.0 to 2.4, varying with the soil types and N status. Neither the total SOC pool nor the labile C pool could account for the total mineralization potential of the soils studied, despite a well correlation of labile C with the shortly and actively mineralized C, which were shown in sensitive response to soil warming. However, the portion of microbial C pool and the soil C/N ratio controlled the C mineralization and the temperature dependence. Therefore, C sequestration may not result in an increase of C mineralization proportionally. The relative control of C bioavailability and microbial metabolic activity on C mineralization with respect to stabilization of sequestered C in the paddy soils of China is to be further studied. PMID:17918594

  7. Carbon dioxide exchange of a perennial bioenergy crop cultivation on a mineral soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lind, S. E.; Shurpali, N. J.; Peltola, O.; Mammarella, I.; Hyvönen, N.; Maljanen, M.; Räty, M.; Virkajärvi, P.; Martikainen, P. J.

    2015-10-01

    One of the strategies to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the energy sector is to increase the use of renewable energy sources such as bioenergy crops. Bioenergy is not necessarily carbon neutral because of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during biomass production, field management and transportation. The present study focuses on the cultivation of reed canary grass (RCG, Phalaris arundinaceae L.), a perennial bioenergy crop, on a mineral soil. To quantify the CO2 exchange of this RCG cultivation system, and to understand the key factors controlling its CO2 exchange, the net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) was measured during three years using the eddy covariance (EC) method. The RCG cultivation thrived well producing yields of 6200 and 6700 kg DW ha-1 in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Gross photosynthesis (GPP) was controlled mainly by radiation from June to September. Vapour pressure deficit (VPD), air temperature or soil moisture did not limit photosynthesis during the growing season. Total ecosystem respiration (TER) increased with soil temperature, green area index and GPP. Annual NEE was -262 and -256 g C m-2 in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Throughout the studied period, cumulative NEE was -575 g C m-2. When compared to the published data for RCG on an organic soil, the cultivation of this crop on a mineral soil had higher capacity to take up CO2 from the atmosphere.

  8. Pathogenic prion protein is degraded by a manganese oxide mineral found in soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Russo, F.; Johnson, C.J.; McKenzie, D.; Aiken, Judd M.; Pedersen, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Prions, the aetiological agents of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, exhibit extreme resistance to degradation. Soil can retain prion infectivity in the environment for years. Reactive soil components may, however, contribute to the inactivation of prions in soil. Members of the birnessite family of manganese oxides (MnO2) rank among the strongest natural oxidants in soils. Here, we report the abiotic degradation of pathogenic prion protein (PrPTSE) by a synthetic analogue of naturally occurring birnessite minerals. Aqueous MnO2 suspensions degraded the PrPTSE as evidenced by decreased immunoreactivity and diminished ability to seed protein misfolding cyclic amplification reactions. Birnessite-mediated PrPTSE degradation increased as a solution's pH decreased, consistent with the pH-dependence of the redox potential of MnO2. Exposure to 5.6 mg MnO2 ml-1 (PrPTSE:MnO2=1 : 110) decreased PrPTSE levels by ???4 orders of magnitude. Manganese oxides may contribute to prion degradation in soil environments rich in these minerals. ?? 2009 SGM.

  9. Organic nitrogen storage in mineral soil: implications for policy and management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingham, A. H.; Cotrufo, M. F.

    2015-06-01

    Nitrogen is one of the most important ecosystem nutrients and often its availability limits net primary production as well as stabilization of soil organic matter. The long-term storage of nitrogen-containing organic matter in soils was classically attributed to chemical complexity of plant and microbial residues that retarded microbial degradation. Recent advances have revised this framework, with the understanding that persistent soil organic matter consists largely of chemically labile, microbially processed organic compounds. Chemical bonding to minerals and physical protection in aggregates are more important to long-term (i.e., centuries to millennia) preservation of these organic compounds that contain the bulk of soil nitrogen rather than molecular complexity, with the exception of nitrogen in pyrogenic organic matter. This review examines the factors and mechanisms that influence the long-term sequestration of organic nitrogen in mineral soils. It examines the policy and management implications which stem from this newly accepted paradigm, such as critical loads considerations and nitrogen saturation and mitigation consequences. Finally, it emphasizes how essential it is for this important but underappreciated pool to be better quantified and incorporated into policy and management decisions.

  10. Mineral control of soil carbon storage with reforestation of abandoned pastures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marín-Spiotta, E.; Silver, W. L.; Swanston, C. W.; Torn, M. S.; Burton, S. D.

    2006-12-01

    We applied CP MAS 13C-NMR spectroscopy and radiocarbon modeling to soil C density fractions to track changes in the quality and turnover of C with forest regrowth on former pasturelands. Our results showed that inter-aggregate, unattached particulate organic C (free light fraction) and C located inside soil aggregates (occluded light fraction) represent distinct soil C pools. The signal intensity of the O-alkyl region, representing cellulose, decreased with mineral-association, while alkyl C, attributed to waxy compounds and microbially resynthesized lipids, increased from the free to the occluded light fractions. The alkyl/O-alkyl ratio changed consistently with changes in C-to-N and δ15N across different land cover types, and thus appears to be a reliable index of humification. In contrast to cellulose, proteins, lipids and lignin did not show any consistent trends, suggesting different controls on their decomposition. Greater variability in the chemical makeup of the occluded light fraction suggests that it represents material in different stages of decay. Mean residence times (MRT) of the free light C were significantly shorter (4.3 ± 0.5 yrs) than for the occluded fraction (7.3 ± 0.8 yrs). The occluded fraction in active pastures and secondary forests in the earliest stage of succession had shorter MRT than in primary forests and older secondary forests, which would be explained by lower aggregate stability and faster cycling rates in disturbed versus undisturbed soils. The mineral associated C in the disturbed soils had slower cycling C (MRT = 98.9 ± 10.6 yrs) than the undisturbed sites (65.8 ± 2.1 yrs), most likely due to a preferential loss of labile C in the first. Incorporation of C into soil aggregates afforded some protection from decomposition, but the main mechanism of stabilization was direct mineral association. As the sorptive capacity of a soil is dependent on its mineral composition, it appears that the Oxisols at our sites have reached their maximum C storage capacity. This may explain their resiliency to land-use change and why we have observed no significant accumulation of soil C despite large increases in aboveground biomass with reforestation.

  11. Assessing the Influence of Mineral Surface Chemistry on Soil Organic Matter Stability in the US in Response to Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toledo, A.; Heckman, K.; Rasmussen, C.; Harden, J. W.; Johnson, M.; Swanston, C.

    2014-12-01

    Soils represent a significant pool for carbon storage and sequestration. Previous field experiments have indicated that some mineral compositions are more effective in preserving soil organic matter (SOM) from microbial degradation. Due to climate change, it is important to quantify which soil types are changing in mineral surface chemistry. One way to do that is by differentiating the SOM stabilization mechanisms in different soil types at various depths. This study focused on examining the distribution of soil mass and composition by the soils density and mineral classification and the soils stability by measuring the amount of carbon and radiocarbon abundance. The United States Geological Survey collected the soils in Oregon, Mississippi, Alaska, and Arizona. The four different soil types were separated by density using density fractionation. Radiocarbon analysis of the different soils varying in density was conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Lab-Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry to determine the 13C/14C ratios. The ratios were used to determine the average age of the carbon in the samples. To determine the composition of the soil types, the soils were processed at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab using Fourier Transform Infrared-Attenuated Total Reflection. Results confirmed the amount of carbon, radiocarbon abundance and composition varied among the sites, thus SOM responds differently to climate change depending on the soil type.

  12. Geochemical soil sampling for deeply-buried mineralized breccia pipes, northwestern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wenrich, K.J.; Aumente-Modreski, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    Thousands of solution-collapse breccia pipes crop out in the canyons and on the plateaus of northwestern Arizona; some host high-grade uranium deposits. The mineralized pipes are enriched in Ag, As, Ba, Co, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, V and Zn. These breccia pipes formed as sedimentary strata collapsed into solution caverns within the underlying Mississippian Redwall Limestone. A typical pipe is approximately 100 m (300 ft) in diameter and extends upward from the Redwall Limestone as much as 1000 m (3000 ft). Unmineralized gypsum and limestone collapses rooted in the Lower Permian Kaibab Limestone or Toroweap Formation also occur throughout this area. Hence, development of geochemical tools that can distinguish these unmineralized collapse structures, as well as unmineralized breccia pipes, from mineralized breccia pipes could significantly reduce drilling costs for these orebodies commonly buried 300-360 m (1000-1200 ft) below the plateau surface. Design and interpretation of soil sampling surveys over breccia pipes are plagued with several complications. (1) The plateau-capping Kaibab Limestone and Moenkopi Formation are made up of diverse lithologies. Thus, because different breccia pipes are capped by different lithologies, each pipe needs to be treated as a separate geochemical survey with its own background samples. (2) Ascertaining true background is difficult because of uncertainties in locations of poorly-exposed collapse cones and ring fracture zones that surround the pipes. Soil geochemical surveys were completed on 50 collapse structures, three of which are known mineralized breccia pipes. Each collapse structure was treated as an independent geochemical survey. Geochemical data from each collapse feature were plotted on single-element geochemical maps and processed by multivariate factor analysis. To contrast the results between geochemical surveys (collapse structures), a means of quantifying the anomalousness of elements at each site was developed. This degree of anomalousness, named the "correlation value", was used to rank collapse features by their potential to overlie a deeply-buried mineralized breccia pipe. Soil geochemical results from the three mineralized breccia pipes (the only three of the 50 that had previously been drilled) show that: (1) Soils above the SBF pipe contain significant enrichment of Ag, Al, As, Ba, Ga, K, La, Mo, Nd, Ni, Pb, Sc, Th, U and Zn, and depletion in Ca, Mg and Sr, in contrast to soils outside the topographic and structural rim; (2) Soils over the inner treeless zone of the Canyon pipe show Mo and Pb enrichment anf As and Ga depletion, in contrast to soils from the surrounding forest; and (3) The soil survey of the Mohawk Canyon pipe was a failure because of the rocky terrane and lack of a B soil horizon, or because the pipe plunges. At least 11 of the 47 other collapse structures studied contain anomalous soil enrichments similar to the SBF uranium ore-bearing pipe, and thus have good potential as exploration targets for uranium. One of these 11, #1102, does contain surface mineralized rock. These surveys suggest that soil geochemical sampling is a useful tool for the recognition of many collapse structures with underlying ore-bearing breccia pipes. ?? 1994.

  13. Linking annual N2O emission in organic soils to mineral nitrogen input as estimated by heterotrophic respiration and soil C/N ratio.

    PubMed

    Mu, Zhijian; Huang, Aiying; Ni, Jiupai; Xie, Deti

    2014-01-01

    Organic soils are an important source of N2O, but global estimates of these fluxes remain uncertain because measurements are sparse. We tested the hypothesis that N2O fluxes can be predicted from estimates of mineral nitrogen input, calculated from readily-available measurements of CO2 flux and soil C/N ratio. From studies of organic soils throughout the world, we compiled a data set of annual CO2 and N2O fluxes which were measured concurrently. The input of soil mineral nitrogen in these studies was estimated from applied fertilizer nitrogen and organic nitrogen mineralization. The latter was calculated by dividing the rate of soil heterotrophic respiration by soil C/N ratio. This index of mineral nitrogen input explained up to 69% of the overall variability of N2O fluxes, whereas CO2 flux or soil C/N ratio alone explained only 49% and 36% of the variability, respectively. Including water table level in the model, along with mineral nitrogen input, further improved the model with the explanatory proportion of variability in N2O flux increasing to 75%. Unlike grassland or cropland soils, forest soils were evidently nitrogen-limited, so water table level had no significant effect on N2O flux. Our proposed approach, which uses the product of soil-derived CO2 flux and the inverse of soil C/N ratio as a proxy for nitrogen mineralization, shows promise for estimating regional or global N2O fluxes from organic soils, although some further enhancements may be warranted. PMID:24798347

  14. Rebuilding Peatlands on Mineral Soils Utilizing Lessons Learned from Past Peatland Initiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitt, D. H.; Koropchak, S. C.; Xu, B.; Bloise, R.; Wieder, R.; Mowbray, S.

    2010-12-01

    Recent surveys of peatland initiation during the past 10,000 years in northeastern Alberta have revealed that nearly all peatlands, regardless of whether they are currently bogs and fens, were initiated by paludification, or swamping of upland soils. Terrestrialization (or infilling of water bodies) rarely if ever was involved in the initiation of peatlands across the mid boreal of Canada. Although the importance of paludification as a significant natural process in the initiation of peatland ecosystems has long been known by peatland ecologists, this knowledge has not been transferred to peatland and wetland restoration methodologies. We initiated this study to determine if wetland structure and function could be re-established on mineral gas/oil pads that were originally placed on organic soils. We have attempted to emulate the paludification process by removing mineral material to near the surrounding peatland natural water level and introducing a suite of wetland plants to the rewetted mineral soils. The experimental design comprised two well sites at the Shell Carmon Creek in situ plant near Peace River, Alberta. We placed 292 2 x 2 m plots over a series of fertilizer, water level, cultivation, and amendment treatments. In this presentation, we address four questions: 1) Will locally available peatland vascular plant species establish on these wet, compacted, mineral soils? If so; 2) Are species responses affected by water level, amendment, cultivation, and fertilization treatments, 3) Are invasive weeds a concern in these re-establishment trials, and 4) Will the surrounding bog water chemistry have an effect on water in contact with the mineral soils? Results after three growing season are: 1) All three species originally planted (a sedge, a willow, and tamarack) have successfully established at both well sites; 2) Carex aquatilis has performed well and responses to differing water levels and cultivation are not significant; 3) The plant responses to amendments are, in general, not different from the control plots; 4) The abundance of weeds is significantly different among some of the amendment types; and 5) Water chemistry (pH and electrical conductivity) of the ditches is affected by the surrounding bog waters. In addition, a fifth question was asked: Can Carex aquatilis establish by seed and if so, do C. aquatilis seeds require a peat amendment? In May 2009, three blank 4 m2 plots were selected on each of the experimental well site reclamations. Half of each plot was covered with approximately 4 cm of peat and the other half remained a mineral soil substrate. Each plot half was divided into 2 halves (1 m2); one that had approximately 600 Carex aquatilis seeds scattered across it and one that had no seeds added. Results from reassessment in July 2010 showed that subplots with added seeds had more seedlings than the subplots without added seeds. There was no difference between the number of seedlings between the peat and mineral soil subplots on either site, but on one of the sites, the subplots with peat had much higher percent cover of weeds than the mineral soil subplots.

  15. Soil Fauna Alter the Effects of Litter Composition on Nitrogen Cycling in a Mineral Soil

    EPA Science Inventory

    Plant chemical composition and the soil community are known to influence litter and soil organic matter decomposition. Although these two factors are likely to interact, their mechanisms and outcomes of interaction are not well understood. Studies of their interactive effects are...

  16. Net N and C mineralization and soil microbial biomass with elevated CO2 in a Mojave Desert ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billings, S. A.; Schaeffer, S. M.; Evans, R. D.

    2002-12-01

    We quantified changes in soil microbial activity and N availability with elevated CO2 in a Mojave Desert ecosystem by measuring microbial biomass N and net N and C mineralization in long-term (280 d) incubations of soil from four different cover types: Lycium spp., Larrea tridentata, Pleuraphis rigida, and plant interspaces. We also measured soil respiration in the field under the same cover types. There was no effect of elevated CO2 on microbial biomass N. Soils from under Larrea and Lycium had higher microbial biomass N (52.94 mg kg-1) than soils from plant interspaces (31.55 mg kg-1). Soil δ15N increased during the incubation (7.3 vs. 6.3‰ ), reflecting microbial activity; but there was no difference in soil δ15N with CO2 treatment. Carbon mineralization for soils under Lycium was 40% greater with elevated CO2 for the last four of the seven extraction dates. Soils from interspaces had significantly lower amounts of C mineralized (1.89 +/- 0.11 g kg-1) than soils from under shrubs (2.99 +/- 0.38 g kg-1). On the last extraction date, soils from under Lycium experienced 40% greater net N mineralization with elevated CO2. Soils from under shrubs experienced greater cumulative net N mineralization (102.64 +/- 24.15 ng kg-1) than soils from under grasses and plant interspaces (39.96 +/- 9.69 ng kg-1). Mean soil respiration across all cover types was higher with elevated CO2 (2.72 +/- 0.50 vs. 1.59 +/- 0.29 µ g C m-2 s-1). These results indicate four findings: 1) microbial activity can result in shifts in bulk soil δ15N; 2) shifts in soil microbial activity and/or structure may occur with elevated CO2; 3) these shifts may increase gross N mineralization, but increases in microbial immobilization can limit changes in net mineralization; and 4) increased rhizosphere activity can occur with elevated CO2. We suggest that elevated CO2 may induce increases in rhizodeposition and/or soil microbial activity that promote both gross N mineralization and immobilization.

  17. Reactivity of Primary Soil Minerals and Secondary Precipitates beneath Leaking Hanford Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Nagy, Kathryn L.; Serne, R. Jeff; Yabusaki

    2001-06-01

    Since the late 1950s, leaks from 67 single-shell tanks at the Hanford Site have released about 1 million curies to the underlying sediments. At issue is the distribution of contaminants beneath the tanks, and the processes that led to their current disposition and will control their future mobility. The high ionic strength, high pH, and high aluminum concentrations in the tank liquids can significantly alter the vadose zone sediments through dissolution of primary minerals and precipitation of secondary minerals. Dissolution and precipitation directly influence (1) the flow paths that control contaminant transport and (2) the reactivity of the solid matrix that controls contaminant mobility. The impact of these processes, however, depends on mineral reaction kinetics and the dynamic interaction of the reactions with the flow field and contaminant sorption, neither of which are well-known for this extreme chemical system. Data obtained will be directly useful to other EMSP projects addressing contaminant mobility in the vadose zone. We are addressing three specific issues: (1) Recognized factors that control the kinetics of dissolution and precipitation must be quantified for the unnatural system of tank solutions mixing with soils, including effects of high pH, high ionic strength (especially NaNO3 solutions), temperature, and saturation state. (2) A clear understanding of the roles of nucleation mechanism, nucleation sites on soils minerals, and the role of reactive surface area in simultaneous dissolution and precipitation reactions are the key unknown components in comprehending this contaminated soil system. (3) Results obtained will help build a mechanistic understanding of how tank fluids migrate through the vadose zone. Local changes in porosity and permeability will dictate preferential flow paths which directly regulate the transport of later arriving chemical species. Changes in mineral surface area affect sorption site distribution. A comprehensive model is needed that integrates these feedback mechanisms with all the critically available data.

  18. Effect of Mineral Reactions on the Hydraulic Properties of Unsaturated Soils: Model Development and Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wissmeier, L. C.; Barry, D. A.

    2008-12-01

    Precipitation/dissolution induces changes in the pore radii of water-filled pores, and, consequently, affects flow in porous media. The selective radius shift model was developed to relate changes in mineral volume due to precipitation/dissolution reactions to changes in hydraulic properties of unsaturated soils. The model considers the dependency of the amount of mineral precipitation/dissolution within a pore on the local pore volume. Furthermore, it accounts for precipitation/dissolution taking place only in the water-filled part of the pore space. The pore bundle concept was used to relate the pore-scale process of dissolution/precipitation to changes in macroscopic soil hydraulic properties. In the numerical model, the finite change in mineral volume at a discrete time step leads to a discontinuous pore-size distribution, because only the water-filled pores are affected. This pore-size distribution is converted back to a discontinuous soil moisture characteristic to which, at every time step, a new water retention curve is fitted under physically plausible constraints. The model equations were derived for the commonly used van Genuchten/Mualem hydraulic properties. Together with the selective radius shift model a head-based solution of Richards' equation for aqueous phase flow was implemented into the geochemical modelling framework PHREEQC, thereby making available PHREEQC's comprehensive geochemical reactions. The model was applied to kinetic halite dissolution and calcite precipitation as a consequence of cation exchange in a variety of unsaturated flow situations. The applications showed marked changes in the soil's hydraulic properties due to mineral precipitation/dissolution and the dependency of these changes on the water content. Furthermore, it was shown that the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity at fixed reduced water content can even increase during precipitation due to changes in the pore-size distribution.

  19. Reductive capacity of iron-bearing soil minerals for U(VI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sihn, Y.; Lee, W.

    2011-12-01

    Oxidation-reduction processes play a major role in the mobility, transport, and fate of uranium (U) in the geological system. Under reducing conditions, U mobility is much slower than in oxidizing conditions. Previous studies have reported that iron oxides, hydroxides, and oxyhydroxides are associated with U retention in the subsurface environment. Therefore, measuring reductive capacity of iron-bearing soil minerals is important for assessing the U mobility in geological systems where U can be easily disposed. In this study, magnetite (Fe3O4), greenrust (GR-SO4), nZVI, mackinawite (FeS), and pyrite (FeS2) were used to estimate and compare their reductive capacity for U(VI). nZVI showed the fastest U(VI) removal kinetic and highest reduction capacity among the iron-bearing soil minerals tested. We found that the iron-bearing soil mineral with higher content of reactive Fe(II) on its surface is more favorable for U(VI) sorption and reduction. This is because the U(VI) reduction capacity is attributed to surface Fe-O complexes and amount of surface Fe(II) reducing sorbed U(VI). The experimental results show that surface Fe(II) in iron-bearing soil minerals is an important factor that significantly stabilize and immobilize U(VI) in the geological system. This can be used as basic knowledge for the prediction of U fate in the natural environment and for the development of remediation technology to treat uranium-contaminated sites.

  20. Soft X-ray spectromicroscopy study of mineral-organic matter associations in pasture soil clay fractions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chunmei; Dynes, James J; Wang, Jian; Karunakaran, Chithra; Sparks, Donald L

    2014-06-17

    There is a growing acceptance that associations with soil minerals may be the most important overarching stabilization mechanism for soil organic matter. However, direct investigation of organo-mineral associations has been hampered by a lack of methods that can simultaneously characterize organic matter (OM) and soil minerals. In this study, STXM-NEXAFS spectroscopy at the C 1s, Ca 2p, Fe 2p, Al 1s, and Si 1s edges was used to investigate C associations with Ca, Fe, Al, and Si species in soil clay fractions from an upland pasture hillslope. Bulk techniques including C and N NEXAFS, Fe K-edge EXAFS spectroscopy, and XRD were applied to provide additional information. Results demonstrated that C was associated with Ca, Fe, Al, and Si with no separate phase in soil clay particles. In soil clay particles, the pervasive C forms were aromatic C, carboxyl C, and polysaccharides with the relative abundance of carboxyl C and polysaccharides varying spatially at the submicrometer scale. Only limited regions in the soil clay particles had aliphatic C. Good C-Ca spatial correlations were found for soil clay particles with no CaCO3, suggesting a strong role of Ca in organo-mineral assemblage formation. Fe EXAFS showed that about 50% of the total Fe in soils was contained in Fe oxides, whereas Fe-bearing aluminosilicates (vermiculite and Illite) accounted for another 50%. Fe oxides in the soil were mainly crystalline goethite and hematite, with lesser amounts of poorly crystalline ferrihydrite. XRD revealed that soil clay aluminosilicates were hydroxy-interlayered vermiculite, Illite, and kaolinite. C showed similar correlation with Fe to Al and Si, implying a similar association of Fe oxides and aluminosilicates with organic matter in organo-mineral associations. These direct microscopic determinations can help improve understanding of organo-mineral interactions in soils. PMID:24837340

  1. Amino acid and N mineralization dynamics in heathland soil after long-term warming and repetitive drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andresen, L. C.; Bode, S.; Tietema, A.; Boeckx, P.; Rütting, T.

    2015-04-01

    Monomeric organic nitrogen (N) compounds such as free amino acids (FAAs) are an important resource for both plants and soil microorganisms and a source of ammonium (NH4+) via microbial FAA mineralization. We compared gross FAA dynamics with gross N mineralization in a Dutch heathland soil using a 15N tracing technique. A special focus was made on the effects of climate change factors warming and drought, followed by rewetting. Our aims were to (1) compare FAA mineralization (NH4+ production from FAAs) with gross N mineralization, (2) assess gross FAA production rate (depolymerization) and turnover time relative to gross N mineralization rate, and (3) assess the effects of a 14 years of warming and drought treatment on these rates. The turnover of FAA in the soil was ca. 3 h, which is almost 2 orders of magnitude faster than that of NH4+ (i.e. ca. 4 days). This suggests that FAA is an extensively used resource by soil microorganisms. In control soil (i.e. no climatic treatment), the gross N mineralization rate (10 ± 2.9 μg N g-1 day-1) was 8 times smaller than the total gross FAA production rate of five AAs (alanine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, proline: 127.4 to 25.0 μg N g-1 day-1). Gross FAA mineralization (3.4 ± 0.2 μg N g-1 day-1) contributed 34% to the gross N mineralization rate and is therefore an important component of N mineralization. In the drought treatment, a 6-29% reduction in annual precipitation caused a decrease of gross FAA production by 65% and of gross FAA mineralization by 41% compared to control. On the other hand, gross N mineralization was unaffected by drought, indicating an increased mineralization of other soil organic nitrogen (SON) components. A 0.5-1.5 °C warming did not significantly affect N transformations, even though gross FAA production declined. Overall our results suggest that in heathland soil exposed to droughts a different type of SON pool is mineralized. Furthermore, compared to agricultural soils, FAA mineralization was relatively less important in the investigated heathland. This indicates more complex mineralization dynamics in semi-natural ecosystems.

  2. Amino acid and N mineralization dynamics in heathland soil after long-term warming and repetitive drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andresen, L. C.; Bode, S.; Tietema, A.; Boeckx, P.; Rtting, T.

    2014-11-01

    Monomeric organic nitrogen (N) such as free amino acids (fAA) is an important resource for both plants and soil microorganisms and is, furthermore, a source of ammonium (NH4+) via microbial fAA mineralization. We compared gross fAA dynamics with gross N mineralization in a Dutch heathland soil using 15N labelling. A special focus was made on the effects of climate change factors warming and drought, followed by rewetting. Our aims were to: (1) compare fAA mineralization (NH4+ production from fAAs) with gross N mineralization, (2) assess gross fAA production rate (depolymerization) and turnover time relative to gross N mineralization rate, and (3) assess the effects of warming and drought on these rates. The turnover of fAA in the soil was ca. 3 h, which is almost two orders of magnitude faster than that of NH4+ (i.e. ca. 4 days). This suggests that fAAs is an extensively used resource by soil microorganisms. In control soil (i.e. no climatic treatment), the gross N mineralization rate (10 2.9 ?g N g-1 day-1) was eight-times smaller than the summed gross fAA production rate of five AAs (alanine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, proline: 127.4 to 25.0 ?g N g-1 day-1). Gross fAA mineralization (3.4 0.2 ?g N g-1 day-1) contributed by 34% to the gross N mineralization rate and is, thus, an important component of N mineralization. In the drought treatment, gross fAA production was reduced by 65% and gross fAA mineralization by 41%, compared to control. On the other hand, gross N mineralization was unaffected by drought, indicating an increased mineralization of other soil organic nitrogen (SON) components. Warming did not significantly affect N transformations, even though that gross fAA production was more than halved. Overall our results suggest that heathland soil exposed to droughts has a shift in the composition of the SON being mineralized. Furthermore, compared to agricultural soils, fAA mineralization was relatively less important in the investigated heathland. This indicates a more complex mineralization dynamics in semi-natural ecosystems.

  3. Adsorption of iron cyanide complexes onto clay minerals, manganese oxide, and soil.

    PubMed

    Kang, Dong-Hee; Schwab, A Paul; Johnston, C T; Banks, M Katherine

    2010-09-01

    The adsorption characteristics of an iron cyanide complex, soluble Prussian blue KFe(III)[Fe(II)(CN)(6)], were evaluated for representative soil minerals and soil at pH 3.7, 6.4 and 9.7. Three specimen clay minerals (kaolinite, montmorillonite, and illite), two synthesized manganese oxides (birnessite and cryptomelane), and a Drummer soil from Indiana were used as the adsorbents. Surface protonation of variable charge sites increased with decreasing pH yielding positively charged sites on crystal edges and enhancing the attractive force between minerals and iron cyanide complexes. Anion adsorption on clays often is correlated to the metal content of the adsorbent, and a positive relationship was observed between iron or aluminum content and Prussian blue adsorption. Illite had high extractable iron and adsorbed more ferro-ferricyande anion, while kaolinite and montmorillonite had lower extractable iron and adsorbed less. However, less pH effect was observed on the adsorption of iron cyanide to manganese oxides. This may due to the manganese oxide mediated oxidation of ferrocyanide [Fe(II)(CN)(6)(4-)], to ferricyanide [Fe(III)(CN)(6)(3-)], which has a low affinity for manganese oxides. PMID:20665323

  4. An improved radiative transfer model for estimating mineral abundance of immature and mature lunar soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dawei; Li, Lin; Sun, Ying

    2015-06-01

    An improved Hapke's radiative transfer model (RTM) is presented to estimate mineral abundance for both immature and mature lunar soils from the Lunar Soil Characterization Consortium (LSCC) dataset. Fundamental to this improved Hapke's model is the application of an alternative equation to describe the effects of larger size submicroscopic metallic iron (SMFe) (>50 nm) in the interior of agglutinitic glass that mainly darken the host material, contrasting to the darkening and reddening effects of smaller size SMFe (<50 nm) residing in the rims of mineral grains. Results from applying a nonlinear inversion procedure to the improved Hapke's RTM show that the average mass fraction of smaller and larger size SMFe in lunar soils was estimated to be 0.30% and 0.31% respectively, and the particle size distribution of soil samples is all within their measured range. Based on the derived mass fraction of SMFe and particle size of the soil samples, abundances of end-member components composing lunar soil samples were derived via minimizing the difference between measured and calculated spectra. The root mean square error (RMSE) between the fitted and measured spectra is lower than 0.01 for highland samples and 0.005 for mare samples. This improved Hapke's model accurately estimates abundances of agglutinitic glass (R-squared = 0.88), pyroxene (R-squared = 0.69) and plagioclase (R-squared = 0.95) for all 57 samples used in this study including both immature and mature lunar soils. However, the improved Hapke's RTM shows poor performance for quantifying abundances of olivine, ilmenite and volcanic glass. Improving the model performance for estimation of these three end-member components is the central focus for our future work.

  5. Pristine soils mineralize 3-chlorobenzoate and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate via different microbial populations.

    PubMed Central

    Fulthorpe, R R; Rhodes, A N; Tiedje, J M

    1996-01-01

    Biodegradation of two chlorinated aromatic compounds was found to be a common capability of the microorganisms found in the soils of undisturbed, pristine ecosystems. We used 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate (2,4-D) and 3-chlorobenzoate (3CBA) as enrichment substrates to compare populations of degrading bacteria from six different regions making up two ecosystems. We collected soil samples from four Mediterranean (California, central Chile, the Cape region of South Africa, and southwestern Australia) and two boreal (northern Saskatchewan and northwestern Russia) ecosystems that had no direct exposure to pesticides or to human disturbance. Between 96 and 120 samples from each of the six regions were incubated with 50 ppm of [U-14C]2,4-D or [U-14C]3CBA. Soils from all regions samples mineralized both 2,4-D and 3CBA, but 3CBA was mineralized without a lag period, while 2,4-D was generally not mineralized until the second week. 3CBA degradative capabilities were more evenly distributed spatially than those for 2,4-D. The degradative capabilities of the soils were readily transferred to fresh liquid medium. 3CBA degraders were easily isolated from most soils. We recovered 610 strains that could release carbon dioxide from ring-labeled 3CBA. Of these, 144 strains released chloride and degraded over 80% of 1 mM 3CBA in 3 weeks or less. In contrast, only five 2,4-D degraders could be isolated, although a variety of methods were used in an attempt to culture the degraders. The differences in the distribution and culturability of the bacteria responsible for 3CBA and 2,4-D degradation in these ecosystems suggest that the two substrates are degraded by different populations. We also describe a 14C-based microtiter plate method that allows efficient screening of a large number of samples for biodegradation activity. PMID:8919776

  6. [Impacts of Biochar Input on Mineralization of Native Soil Organic Carbon].

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Hu, Xue-yu; Lu, Hai-nan

    2015-06-01

    Since the biochar was applied in soil, its function in carbon sink had become a research hotspot recently. However, the present studies showed that its function in carbon sink remained controversial and the interaction between biochar and soil organic carbon remained to be investigated. So our study used paddy soil (C3 soil) as the experimental soil, and added washed (CS) or unwashed (CN) corn stalk (C4 crop). Biochar was mixed with soil uniformity by two kinds of weight, each treatment was 1% and 3% of the soil (CS1%, CS3% and CN1%, CN3%). Soil without biochar was used as the control treatment (CK), every treatments repeated three times. Then indoor culturing experiments was carried out to study the effect of biochar on the mineralization of organic carbon. The results showed as follows: (1) During the 180 days' experiment, the accumulated amount of released CO2 in CS1%, CS3% and CN1% groups were 1865.7, 1864.4 and 1856.2 mL x kg(-1) respectively, all were higher than the CK (1779.0 mL x kg(-1)). But the differences were not significant. However, the accumulated amount of released CO2 in the CN3% group was the highest (2289.1 mL x kg(-1)), which was significantly higher than those of all other groups. This showed that high addition of CS biochar significantly reduced the soil CO2 release. (2) The accumulated amount of released CO2 of native soil from the CK treatment, CS treatment and CN treatment were 1534.2, 1000.4 and 1153.7 mL x kg(-1) respectively, among which the CK group is significantly higher than the others. It showed that additions of two kinds of biochar both could inhibit the mineralization of organic carbon in the soil. The result of priming effect also proved that: the PE value of CS 3% group was -34.8%, and the PE value of CN 3% group was -24.8%. This showed that the negative priming effect significantly induced by washed (CS) biochar. PMID:26387339

  7. Atrazine and its metabolites degradation in mineral salts medium and soil using an enrichment culture.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anup; Singh, Neera

    2016-03-01

    An atrazine-degrading enrichment culture was used to study degradation of atrazine metabolites viz. hydroxyatrazine, deethylatrazine, and deisopropylatrazine in mineral salts medium. Results suggested that the enrichment culture was able to degrade only hydroxyatrazine, and it was used as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. Hydroxyatrazine degradation slowed down when sucrose and/or ammonium hydrogen phosphate were supplemented as the additional sources of carbon and nitrogen, respectively. The enrichment culture could degrade high concentrations of atrazine (up to 110 μg/mL) in mineral salts medium, and neutral pH was optimum for atrazine degradation. Further, except in an acidic soil, enrichment culture was able to degrade atrazine in three soil types having different physico-chemical properties. Raising the pH of acidic soil to neutral or alkaline enabled the enrichment culture to degrade atrazine suggesting that acidic pH inhibited atrazine-degrading ability. The study suggested that the enrichment culture can be successfully utilized to achieve complete degradation of atrazine and its persistent metabolite hydroxyatrazine in the contaminated soil and water. PMID:26846292

  8. Dynamic Response of Forest Litter and Mineral Soil to Pulsed Water Additions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boot, C. M.; Schaeffer, S. M.; Carbone, M. S.; Still, C. J.; Schimel, J.

    2010-12-01

    Quantifying microbial responses to drought and moisture pulses are essential to understanding terrestrial C cycling in a changing climate. Using laboratory incubations we sought to determine if water added in multiple consecutive pulses to pine forest litter and mineral soil resulted in different C dynamics than water added in a single event. Soils were collected from two sites on Santa Cruz Island located in Channel Islands National Park 40 km southwest of Santa Barbara, CA. Both sites are dominated by Bishop pine (Pinus muricata) mixed with chaparral shrubs, with a ~3-10 cm thick litter layer. The sites differ, however, in the frequency and amount of precipitation received. Following water additions as either one or three pulses (equal total volume) we measured respiration, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) over twenty-two days after the first water addition. Three days after the initial water addition in the litter samples the DOC and MBC for both treatments were not different; however, the temporal dynamics varied by site with the high precipitation site responding more quickly and with a higher magnitude than the low precipitation site. In both the litter and mineral soil respiration rate correlated with soil moisture (r2=0.91 and 0.84 respectively). Our results suggest that the water history and other site-specific characteristics were more important in the response to pulsed water additions than how the water was introduced to the system.

  9. Bioremediation of experimental petroleum spills on mineral soils in the Vestfold Hills, Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Kerry, E. )

    1993-01-01

    The effect of nutrient and water enhancement on the biodegradation of petroleum was tested in Antarctic mineral soils. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were applied in solution, with or without gum xanthan or plastic covers, to sites artificially contaminated with distillate. The effectiveness of these procedures was assessed by measuring changes in total petroleum hydrocarbons; heptadecane/pristane and octadecane/phytane ratios; in concentrations of major hydrocarbon components and in microbial numbers and activity. Significantly lower hydrocarbon concentration were recorded after one year in soils treated with fertilizer solutions, but only in the surface 3 cm. These soils also showed lowered heptadecane/pristane and octadecane/phytane ratios and had the highest levels of microbial activity relative to other plots. Soils treated with gum xanthan or covered with plastic had the highest residual hydrocarbon levels. Both treatments inhibited evaporative loss of hydrocarbon, and there were indications that gum xanthan was utilized by the microbiota as an alternative carbon source to distillate. Higher temperatures were recorded under the plastic but no stimulation of biodegradation was detected. Estimated numbers of metabolically active bacteria were in the range 10[sup 7] to 10[sup 8] g[sup [minus]1] dry weight of soil, with an estimated biomass of 0.03 to 0.26 mg g[sup [minus]1] soil. Estimated numbers of amoebae were in the range 10[sup 6] 10[sup 7] g[sup [minus]1] soil (biomass of 2 to 4 mg g[sup [minus]1]). The highest populations were recorded in fertilized, contaminated soils, the only soils where petroleum degradation was demonstrated. 23 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  10. The Role of Elevated PCO2 on Selenate and Selenite Sorption to and Desorption from Calcareous Soils and Carbonate Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, A. R.; Wen, L.

    2013-12-01

    Selenium is a minor component of highly weatherable rock formations in the Uintah Basin Utah from which soils are formed. Activities such as soil/gas extraction and irrigated agriculture may be accelerating the mobilization of Se in the soils, which eventually reach the Pariette Wetlands. Since the wetlands are a stopping point for migratory water fowl, the elevated levels of Se detected in the sediments and waters are of concern. Understanding soil mechanisms related to selenium transport through soils is critical to managing the contamination. In microbially active agricultural soils concentrations of CO2 in the soil air may be 10 to 100 times higher than at the soil surface. CO2 dissolved in the soil solution forms numerous carbonate species that may enhance or compete with selenate and selenite sorption/desorption from soil. Thus we investigated the partitioning of Se between the immobile solid phase and mobile solution phase in six calcareous soils and three carbonate minerals by the batch sorption method at ambient and elevated PCO2. We hypothesized that in these highly buffered soils competition from carbonate species would result in decreased Se sorption. Results indicate that at elevated PCO2 selenate and selenite sorption increased in all soils and minerals tested relative to sorption at ambient levels. Minimal desorption occurred with a dilute electrolyte solution, but could be induced in the presence of phosphate. This finding suggests that actively respiring soils mitigate Se transport to ground or surface waters.

  11. The effect of soil mineral phases on the abiotic degradation of selected organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Sandhu, S.S.

    1991-07-01

    Microbial and chemical transformations of organic chemicals in soils and water are important processes that directly affect their environmental distribution, persistence and toxicity. A major impetus for research in this area has been the need for reliable estimates of lifetimes of pollutants in the soil, surface and groundwater. Tetraphenylborate (TPB) is used to precipitate radioactive 137Cs from high-level nuclear waste water at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) in Aiken, SC. TPB and its degradation product diphenylboric acid (DPBA) are contaminants of concern at SRP. However, the factors controlling their rates of abiotic degradation are not fully understood. The major objectives of the proposed research are to determine the effects of soil mineral phases on the rates of surface facilitated degradation of tetraphenylborate and diphenylboric acid. 38 refs., 5 figs. (SM)

  12. Carbonation of Artificial Silicate Minerals in Soils: Passive Removal of Atmospheric CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washbourne, C.; Renforth, P.; Manning, D. A.

    2010-12-01

    Sequestration of CO2 in global soils is a widely recognised phenomenon, which is amenable to an environmental engineering approach. It is proposed that the use of direct soil engineering, promoting CO2 sequestration by accelerating the activity of reactive mineral substrates, has the potential to harness the significant carbon turnover of the global pedologic system (75 x 10^15 gC/yr [1]) [2][3][4]. Estimates of C capture potential through this process are 100-1000 MTa-1. This study focuses on the ambient carbonation of high-Ca residues as agents of mineral CCS. A synergy of contemporary field observations is presented, alongside data acquired from laboratory testing (acid digestion, optical petrography, SEM, IRMS) of carbonated material recovered from urban brown-field and former industrial sites in north east England. It is demonstrated that urban soils may accumulate ~30 kg/m2 (300 T/ha) of carbon over 10 years as inorganic calcium carbonate, approximately twice the typical organic C content of rural soils, ~17.5 kg/m2 in the UK. Stable isotope data (δ13C and δ18O) confirm that over 90% of the carbon is derived from the atmosphere. Economic and mechanical constraints on experimental performance in industrial batch reactor settings have strongly influenced the contemporary view on the efficacy of mineral CCS for large-scale environmental application [5][6][7]. Effective, low-energy field-scale implementation of mineral CCS through soil engineering would counter many of these concerns. Proof of principle for carbon capture efficacy of artificial silicates in soil engineering has been demonstrated [4]; proof of field scale feasibility will be demonstrated though continuing empirical field observation, engineered field cell construction and laboratory investigation. [1] Schlesinger, W. H., et al. (2000), Biogeochemistry, Vol. 48: 7-20. [2] Lal, R. (2003), Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences, 22, pp. 151-184. [3] Manning, D. A. C., (2008), Mineralogical Magazine, Mineralogical Society, Vol. 72: 639-649. [4] Renforth, P., et al., (2009), Applied Geochemistry, Vol. 24(9): 1757-1764 [5] Butt, D. P., Lackner, K.S., Wendt, C.H., et al. (1997), Global Warming International Conference, Columbia University, NY. [6] Huijgen, W. J. J., et al. (2005), Environmental Science and Technology Vol. 39: 9676-9682. [7] Lackner, K. S., et al. (1997), Energy Conversion and Management Vol. 38: S259-S264.

  13. Differential controls on soil carbon density and mineralization among contrasting forest types in a temperate forest ecosystem.

    PubMed

    You, Ye-Ming; Wang, Juan; Sun, Xiao-Lu; Tang, Zuo-Xin; Zhou, Zhi-Yong; Sun, Osbert Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the controls on soil carbon dynamics is crucial for modeling responses of ecosystem carbon balance to global change, yet few studies provide explicit knowledge on the direct and indirect effects of forest stands on soil carbon via microbial processes. We investigated tree species, soil, and site factors in relation to soil carbon density and mineralization in a temperate forest of central China. We found that soil microbial biomass and community structure, extracellular enzyme activities, and most of the site factors studied varied significantly across contrasting forest types, and that the associations between activities of soil extracellular enzymes and microbial community structure appeared to be weak and inconsistent across forest types, implicating complex mechanisms in the microbial regulation of soil carbon metabolism in relation to tree species. Overall, variations in soil carbon density and mineralization are predominantly accounted for by shared effects of tree species, soil, microclimate, and microbial traits rather than the individual effects of the four categories of factors. Our findings point to differential controls on soil carbon density and mineralization among contrasting forest types and highlight the challenge to incorporate microbial processes for constraining soil carbon dynamics in global carbon cycle models. PMID:26925871

  14. Differential controls on soil carbon density and mineralization among contrasting forest types in a temperate forest ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Ye-Ming; Wang, Juan; Sun, Xiao-Lu; Tang, Zuo-Xin; Zhou, Zhi-Yong; Sun, Osbert Jianxin

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the controls on soil carbon dynamics is crucial for modeling responses of ecosystem carbon balance to global change, yet few studies provide explicit knowledge on the direct and indirect effects of forest stands on soil carbon via microbial processes. We investigated tree species, soil, and site factors in relation to soil carbon density and mineralization in a temperate forest of central China. We found that soil microbial biomass and community structure, extracellular enzyme activities, and most of the site factors studied varied significantly across contrasting forest types, and that the associations between activities of soil extracellular enzymes and microbial community structure appeared to be weak and inconsistent across forest types, implicating complex mechanisms in the microbial regulation of soil carbon metabolism in relation to tree species. Overall, variations in soil carbon density and mineralization are predominantly accounted for by shared effects of tree species, soil, microclimate, and microbial traits rather than the individual effects of the four categories of factors. Our findings point to differential controls on soil carbon density and mineralization among contrasting forest types and highlight the challenge to incorporate microbial processes for constraining soil carbon dynamics in global carbon cycle models.

  15. Differential controls on soil carbon density and mineralization among contrasting forest types in a temperate forest ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    You, Ye-Ming; Wang, Juan; Sun, Xiao-Lu; Tang, Zuo-Xin; Zhou, Zhi-Yong; Sun, Osbert Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the controls on soil carbon dynamics is crucial for modeling responses of ecosystem carbon balance to global change, yet few studies provide explicit knowledge on the direct and indirect effects of forest stands on soil carbon via microbial processes. We investigated tree species, soil, and site factors in relation to soil carbon density and mineralization in a temperate forest of central China. We found that soil microbial biomass and community structure, extracellular enzyme activities, and most of the site factors studied varied significantly across contrasting forest types, and that the associations between activities of soil extracellular enzymes and microbial community structure appeared to be weak and inconsistent across forest types, implicating complex mechanisms in the microbial regulation of soil carbon metabolism in relation to tree species. Overall, variations in soil carbon density and mineralization are predominantly accounted for by shared effects of tree species, soil, microclimate, and microbial traits rather than the individual effects of the four categories of factors. Our findings point to differential controls on soil carbon density and mineralization among contrasting forest types and highlight the challenge to incorporate microbial processes for constraining soil carbon dynamics in global carbon cycle models. PMID:26925871

  16. Effects of belowground litter addition, increased precipitation and clipping on soil carbon and nitrogen mineralization in a temperate steppe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, L.; Guo, C.; Xin, X.; Yuan, S.; Wang, R.

    2013-11-01

    Soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling are sensitive to changes in environmental factors and play critical roles in the responses of terrestrial ecosystems to natural and anthropogenic perturbations. This study was conducted to quantify the effects of belowground particulate litter (BPL) addition, increased precipitation and their interactions on soil C and N mineralization in two adjacent sites where belowground photosynthate allocation was manipulated through vegetation clipping in a temperate steppe of northeastern China from 2010 to 2011. The results show that BPL addition significantly increase soil C mineralization rate (CMR) and net N mineralization rate (NMR). Although increased precipitation-induced enhancement of soil CMR essentially ceased after the first year, stimulation of soil NMR and net nitrification rate continued into the second year. Clipping only marginally decreased soil CMR and NMR during the two years. There were significant synergistic interactions between BPL addition (and increased precipitation) and clipping on soil CMR and NMR, likely to reflect shifts in soil microbial community structure and a decrease in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi biomass due to the reduction of belowground photosynthate allocation. These results highlight the importance of plants in mediating the responses of soil C and N mineralization to potentially increased BPL and precipitation by controlling belowground photosynthate allocation in the temperate steppe.

  17. The study of the soil clay minerals within the framework of the integrated research headed by N.I. Bazilevich

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chizhikova, N. P.

    2010-11-01

    The main areas of the integrated biogeochemical studies performed under the supervision of N.I. Bazilevich dealing with the investigation of soil minerals were considered. The development of the clay profiles in soils under the effect of chernozem formation, solodization, salinization, solonetzization, and gleyzation, the spatial differentiation of which favored the development of the pronounced complexity of the soil cover in the forest-steppe zone of the Baraba Lowland, was described. It was shown that irrigation with sodic water induces the evolution of chernozems to solodized soils due to the dispersion and destruction of the clay minerals. The behavior of the minerals in the sodic solonetz-solonchaks of Armenia during their reclamation with sulfuric acid and iron (II) sulfate was explained. The effect of the root exudates from black saxaul ( Haloxylon aphyllum) on the transformation of the layered silicates in the rooting zone of sandy desert soils was noted.

  18. Effect of mineral reactions on the hydraulic properties of unsaturated soils: Model development and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wissmeier, L.; Barry, D. A.

    2009-08-01

    The selective radius shift model was used to relate changes in mineral volume due to precipitation/dissolution reactions to changes in hydraulic properties affecting flow in porous media. The model accounts for (i) precipitation/dissolution taking place only in the water-filled part of the pore space and further that (ii) the amount of mineral precipitation/dissolution within a pore depends on the local pore volume. The pore bundle concept was used to connect pore-scale changes to macroscopic soil hydraulic properties. Precipitation/dissolution induces changes in the pore radii of water-filled pores and, consequently, in the effective porosity. In a time step of the numerical model, mineral reactions lead to a discontinuous pore-size distribution because only the water-filled pores are affected. The pore-size distribution is converted back to a soil moisture characteristic function to which a new water retention curve is fitted under physically plausible constraints. The model equations were derived for the commonly used van Genuchten/Mualem hydraulic properties. Together with a mixed-form solution of Richards' equation for aqueous phase flow, the model was implemented into the geochemical modelling framework PHREEQC, thereby making available PHREEQC's comprehensive geochemical reactions. Example applications include kinetic halite dissolution and calcite precipitation as a consequence of cation exchange. These applications showed marked changes in the soil's hydraulic properties due to mineral precipitation/dissolution and the dependency of these changes on water contents. The simulations also revealed the strong influence of the degree of saturation on the development of the saturated hydraulic conductivity through its quadratic dependency on the van Genuchten parameter α. Furthermore, it was shown that the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity at fixed reduced water content can even increase during precipitation due to changes in the pore-size distribution.

  19. Effect of foliar and soil application of potassium fertilizer on soybean seed protein, oil, fatty acids, and minerals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of soil and foliar application of potassium (K) on leaf and seed mineral concentration levels, and seed composition (protein, oil, fatty acids, and minerals). Soybean cultivar (Pioneer 95470) of maturity group 5.7 was grown in a repeat...

  20. Influence of pH and electrolyte composition on adsorption of poliovirus by soils and minerals.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, D H; Moore, R S; Sturman, L S

    1981-01-01

    The pH and the nature an concentration of simple electrolytes influenced the interaction of poliovirus type 2 with three soils, a sand, and a clay mineral. In electrolytes above pH 9 the virus was not adsorbed extensively to the substrates, but below pH 7 almost all virus was bound. For each adsorbent there was a characteristic pH region of transition from strong to weak uptake. Differences between the soils in virus uptake were shown to parallel their pH-dependent mineral. In electrolytes above pH 9 the virus was not adsorbed extensively to the substrates, but below pH 7 almost all virus was bound. For each adsorbent there was a characteristic pH region of transition from strong to weak uptake. Differences between the soils in virus uptake were shown to parallel their pH-dependent mineral. In electrolytes above pH 9 the virus was not adsorbed extensively to the substrates, but below pH 7 almost all virus was bound. For each adsorbent there was a characteristic pH region of transition from strong to weak uptake. Differences between the soils in virus uptake were shown to parallel their pH-dependent charge properties, as determined by whole-particle microelectrophoresis. Only when the pH was close to or above the critical region was uptake increased with electrolyte concentration. The transition region for all substrates was above pH 7.5 the isoelectric point of the virus. Thus, it appears that when both the virus and substrate are highly negative charged, repulsive electrostatic effects may exceed inherent attractive interactions, thereby inhibiting adsorption. PMID:6274260

  1. Nitrous oxide emissions respond differently to mineral and organic nitrogen sources in contrasting soil types.

    PubMed

    Pelster, David E; Chantigny, Martin H; Rochette, Philippe; Angers, Denis A; Rieux, Christine; Vanasse, Anne

    2012-01-01

    The use of various animal manures for nitrogen (N) fertilization is often viewed as a viable replacement for mineral N fertilizers. However, the impacts of amendment type on NO production may vary. In this study, NO emissions were measured for 2 yr on two soil types with contrasting texture and carbon (C) content under a cool, humid climate. Treatments consisted of a no-N control, calcium ammonium nitrate, poultry manure, liquid cattle manure, or liquid swine manure. The N sources were surface applied and immediately incorporated at 90 kg N ha before seeding of spring wheat ( L.). Cumulative NO-N emissions from the silty clay ranged from 2.2 to 8.3 kg ha yr and were slightly lower in the control than in the fertilized plots ( = 0.067). The 2-yr mean NO emission factors ranged from 2.0 to 4.4% of added N, with no difference among N sources. Emissions of NO from the sandy loam soil ranged from 0.3 to 2.2 kg NO-N ha yr, with higher emissions with organic than mineral N sources ( = 0.015) and the greatest emissions with poultry manure ( < 0.001). The NO emission factor from plots amended with poultry manure was 1.8%, more than double that of the other treatments (0.3-0.9%), likely because of its high C content. On the silty clay, the yield-based NO emissions (g NO-N kg grain yield N) were similar between treatments, whereas on the sandy loam, they were greatest when amended with poultry manure. Our findings suggest that, compared with mineral N sources, manure application only increases soil NO flux in soils with low C content. PMID:22370405

  2. Beryllium geochemistry in soils: Evaluation of 10Be/9Be ratios in authigenic minerals as a basis for age models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barg, E.; Lal, D.; Pavich, M.J.; Caffee, M.W.; Southon, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    Soils contain a diverse and complex set of chemicals and minerals. Being an 'open system', both in the chemical and nuclear sense, soils have defied quantitative nuclear dating. However, based on the published studies of the cosmogenic atmospheric 10Be in soils, its relatively long half-life (1.5 Ma), and the fact that 10Be gets quickly incorporated in most soil minerals, this radionuclide appears to be potentially the most useful for soil dating. We therefore studied the natural variations in the specific activities of 10Be with respect to the isotope 9Be in mineral phases in eight profiles of diverse soils from temperate to tropical climatic regimes and evaluated the implications of the data for determining the time of formation of soil minerals, following an earlier suggestion [Lal et al., 1991. Development of cosmogenic nuclear methods for the study of soil erosion and formation rates. Current Sci. 61, 636-639.]. We find that the 10Be/9Be ratios in both bulk soils and in the authigenic mineral phases are confined within a narrower range than in 10Be concentrations. Also, the highest 10Be/9Be ratios in authigenic minerals are observed at the soil-rock interface as predicted by the model. We present model 10Be/9Be ages of the B-horizon and the corresponding soil formation rates for several soil profiles. The present study demonstrates that the 10Be/9Be ratios in the authigenic phases, e.g. clay and Fe-hydroxides, can indeed be used for obtaining useful model ages for soils younger than 10-15 Ma. However, the present work has to be pushed considerably further, to take into account more realistic age models in which, for instance, downward transport of 10Be and clays, and in-situ dissolution of clay minerals at depths, altering the 10Be/9Be ratios of the acidic solutions, are included. We show that in the case of younger soils (< 1 Ma) studied here, their 10Be inventories and 10Be/9Be ratios have been significantly disturbed possibly by mixing with transported soils. ?? 1997 Elsevier Science B.V.

  3. Accumulation and turnover of carbon in organic and mineral soils of the BOREAS northern study area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trumbore, S.E.; Harden, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    Rates of input, accumulation, and turnover of C differ markedly within soil profiles and in soils with different drainage in the BOREAS northern study area. Soil C storage increases from ???3 kg C m-2 in well-drained, sandy soils to greater than 100 kg C m-2 in wetlands. Two modes of C accumulation were observed in upland soil profiles. Large annual C inputs (0.06-0.1 kg C m-2 yr-1) and slow decomposition (turnover times of 6-250 years) lead to rapid C accumulation in regrowing surface moss and detrital layers following fire. Deep organic layers that have accumulated over the millennia since the initiation of soil development, and are located below the most recent charred horizon, show slower rates of input (0.015-0.03 kg C m-2 yr-1) and turnover (100-1600 years) and accumulate C about 10 times slower than surface detrital layers. Rates of C input to soils derived from C and 14C data were in accord with net primary production estimates, with highest rates of input (0.14-0.6 kg C m-2 yr-1) in wetlands. Turnover times for C in surface detrital layers were 6-15 years for well-drained sand soils that showed highest soil temperatures in summer, 30-40 years for wetlands, and 36-250 years for uplands with thick moss cover and black spruce trees. Long (>100 years) turnover times in upland black spruce/clay soils most likely reflect the influence of woody debris incorporated into detrital layers. Turnover times for deep organic and mineral layer C were controlled by drainage, with fastest turnover (80-130 years) in well-drained sand soils and slowest turnover (>3000 years) in wetlands. Total C accumulation rates, which account for C losses from both deep organic and surface detrital layers, are close to zero for sand/jack pine soils, 0.003-0.01 kg C m-2 yr-1 for moderately to poorly drained sites in mature forest stands, and 0.03 kg C m-2 yr-1 for a productive fen. Decomposition of organic matter more than several decades old accounts for 9-22% of total heterotrophic respiration at these sites. The rates of C accumulation derived here are decadal averages for specific stands and will vary as stands age or undergo disturbance. Extrapolation to larger regions and longer timescales, where burning offsets C gains in moss layers, will yield smaller rates of C storage.

  4. Andic soils : mineralogical effect onto organic matter dynamics, organic matter effect onto mineral dynamics, or both?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basile-Doelsch, Isabelle; Amundson, Ronald; Balesdent, Jérome; Borschneck, Daniel; Bottero, Jean-Yves; Colin, Fabrice; de Junet, Alexis; Doelsch, Emmanuel; Legros, Samuel; Levard, Clément; Masion, Armand; Meunier, Jean-Dominique; Rose, Jérôme

    2014-05-01

    From a strictly mineralogical point of view, weathering of volcanic glass produces secondary phases that are short range ordered alumino-silicates (SRO-AlSi). These are imogolite tubes (2 to 3 nm of diameter) and allophane supposedly spheres (3.5 to 5 nm). Their local structure is composed of a curved gibbsite Al layer and Si tetrahedra in the vacancies (Q0). Proto-imogolites have the same local structure but are roof-shape nanoparticles likely representing the precursors of imogolite and allophanes (Levard et al. 2010). These structures and sizes give to the SRO-AlSi large specific surfaces and high reactivities. In some natural sites, imogolites and allophanes are formed in large quantities. Aging of these phases may lead to the formation of more stable minerals (halloysite, kaolinite and gibbsite) (Torn et al 1997). In natural environments, when the weathering of volcanic glass is associated with the establishment of vegetation, the soils formed are generally andosols. These soils are particularly rich in organic matter (OM), which is explained by the high ability of SRO-AlSi mineral phases to form bonds with organic compounds. In a first order "bulk" approach, it is considered that these bonds strongly stabilize the organic compounds as their mean age can reach more than 10 kyrs in some studied sites (Basile-Doelsch et al. 2005; Torn et al. 1997). However, the structure of the mineral phases present in andosols deserves more attention. Traditionally, the presence in the SRO-AlSi andosols was shown by selective dissolution approaches by oxalate and pyrophosphate. Using spectroscopic methods, mineralogical analysis of SRO-AlSi in andosols samples showed that these mineral phases were neither imogolites nor allophanes as originally supposed, but only less organized structures remained in a state of proto-imogolites (Basile-Doelsch al. 2005 ; Levard et al., 2012). The presence of OM would have an inhibitory effect on the formation of secondary mineral phases, by blocking the crystal growth of SRO-AlSi. Conversely, the effect of minerals on the dynamics of organic compounds also deserves to be studied in greater detail. If the "bulk" approaches showed that proto-imogolites involve long-term stabilized OM, other approaches such as densimetric fractionation and C3/C4 chronosequences (Basile-Doelsch et al. 2007; De Junet et al. 2013) led us to consider a new model involving two types of organo-mineral interactions: (1) OM stabilized by strong bonds to proto-imogolite, leading to a slow OM turnover and (2) OM retained within the porosity of the 3D structure formed by the proto-imogolite (similar to a gel structure), leading to a faster OM turnover. Understanding the mechanisms of organo-mineral interactions in andosols will open new research directions for understanding the mechanisms of stabilization of OM in any type of soil (Bonnard et al. 2012). Basile-Doelsch et al., Geoderma, 137, 477-489, 2007. Basile-Doelsch et al., European Journal of Soil Science, 56, 689-703, 2005. Bonnard et al., European Journal of Soil Science, 63, 5, 625-636, 2012. de Junet, et al., Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 99, 92-10, 2013, Levard et al, Geoderma, 183-184, 100-108, 2012. Levard et al. Chemistry Of Materials, 22, 2466-2473, 2010 Torn et al. Nature, London, 389, 170-173, 1997.

  5. SOIL NITROGEN MINERALIZATION AND MICROBIAL BIOMASS IN FORAGE PRODUCTION SYSTEMS: INFLUENCES OF NITROGEN FERTILIZATION RATES AND TYPES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to determine the effects of swine lagoon effluent (SLE)and ammonium nitrate (AN) on soil N supplying capacity and microbial functional groups of N mineralizers and nitrifiers in a forage production system. We collected soils at 0 7.5 cm depth in 2004 from field plots planted with...

  6. ACCUMULATION AND CROP UPTAKE OF SOIL MINERAL NITROGEN AS INFLUEMCED BY TILLAGE, COVER CROPS, AND NITROGEN FERTILIZATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil and crop management practices may influence soil mineral N, crop N uptake, and N leaching. We evaluated the effects of three tillage practices [no-till (NT), strip till (ST), and chisel till (CT)], four cover crops {legume [hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth)], nonlegume [rye (Secaele cereale L.)]...

  7. Biochar and manure effects on net nitrogen mineralization and greenhouse gas emissions from calcareous soil under corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Few multiyear field studies have examined the impacts of a one-time biochar application on net N mineralization and greenhouse gas emissions in an irrigated, calcareous soil; yet such applications are hypothesized as a means of sequestering atmospheric CO2 and improving soil quality. We fall-applie...

  8. Influence of residue and nitrogen fertilizer additions on carbon mineralization in soils with different texture and cropping histories

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To improve our ability to predict SOC mineralization response to residue and N additions in soils with different inherent and dynamic organic matter properties, a 330-day incubation was conducted using soil sampled from two long-term experiments (clay loam Mollisols in Iowa [IAsoil] and silt loam Ul...

  9. Zinc Fertilization Plus Liming to Reduce Cadmium Uptake by Romaine Lettuce on Cd-Mineralized Lockwood Soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lockwood shaly loam (Pachic Argixerolls) and similar Cd mineralized soils derived from marine shale in California contain higher Cd levels and higher Cd:Zn ratios than uncontaminated US soils, and produce leafy vegetables with considerably higher Cd than is normal for US lettuce. Previous work by B...

  10. Carbon dioxide exchange of a perennial bioenergy crop cultivation on a mineral soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lind, Saara E.; Shurpali, Narasinha J.; Peltola, Olli; Mammarella, Ivan; Hyvönen, Niina; Maljanen, Marja; Räty, Mari; Virkajärvi, Perttu; Martikainen, Pertti J.

    2016-03-01

    One of the strategies to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the energy sector is to increase the use of renewable energy sources such as bioenergy crops. Bioenergy is not necessarily carbon neutral because of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during biomass production, field management and transportation. The present study focuses on the cultivation of reed canary grass (RCG, Phalaris arundinacea L.), a perennial bioenergy crop, on a mineral soil. To quantify the CO2 exchange of this RCG cultivation system, and to understand the key factors controlling its CO2 exchange, the net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) was measured from July 2009 until the end of 2011 using the eddy covariance (EC) method. The RCG cultivation thrived well producing yields of 6200 and 6700 kg DW ha-1 in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Gross photosynthesis (GPP) was controlled mainly by radiation from June to September. Vapour pressure deficit (VPD), air temperature or soil moisture did not limit photosynthesis during the growing season. Total ecosystem respiration (TER) increased with soil temperature, green area index and GPP. Annual NEE was -262 and -256 g C m-2 in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Throughout the study period from July 2009 until the end of 2011, cumulative NEE was -575 g C m-2. Carbon balance and its regulatory factors were compared to the published results of a comparison site on drained organic soil cultivated with RCG in the same climate. On this mineral soil site, the RCG had higher capacity to take up CO2 from the atmosphere than on the comparison site.

  11. Carbon and nitrogen mineralization in a vineyard soil amended with grape marc vermicompost.

    PubMed

    Paradelo, Remigio; Moldes, Ana Belén; Barral, María Teresa

    2011-11-01

    Vineyard soils in many areas suffer from low organic matter contents, which can be the cause of negative effects such as increasing the risk of erosion, so the use of organic amendments must be considered a good agricultural practice. Even more, if grape marc is recycled as a soil amendment in the vineyards, benefits from a good waste management strategy are also obtained. In the present study, a grape marc from the wine region of Valdeorras (north-west Spain) was used for the production of vermicompost, and this added to a vineyard soil of the same area in a laboratory study. Mixtures of soil and grape marc vermicompost (2 and 4%, dry weight) were incubated for ten weeks at 25°C and the mineralization of C and N studied. The respiration data were fitted to a first-order kinetic model. The rates of grape marc vermicompost which should be added to the vineyard soil in order to maintain the initial levels of organic matter were estimated from the laboratory data, and found to be 1.7 t ha(-1) year(-1) of bulk vermicompost (if the present mean temperature is considered) and 2.1 t ha(-1) year(-1) of bulk vermicompost (if a 2°C increment in temperature is considered), amounts which could be obtained recycling the grape marc produced in the exploitation. PMID:20837558

  12. Mineral cycling in soil and litter arthropod food chains. Progress report, November 1, 1979-October 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Crossley, Jr, D A

    1980-08-01

    Recent progress and current status are reported for research concerned with mineral element dynamics in soil arthropod food chains. Research is performed within the larger context of terrestrial decomposition systems, in which soil arthropods may act as regulators of nutrient dynamics during decomposition. Research is measuring rates of nutrient accumulation and excretion by using radioactive tracer techniques with radioactive analogs of nutrients. Experimental measurement of radioactive tracer excretion and nutrient element pools are reported for soil microarthropods, using new methods of counting and microprobe elemental analysis. Research on arthropod-fungal relations is utilizing high-efficiency extraction followed by dissection of 13 x 13 cm soil blocks. A two-component excretion model is reported for Cobalt-60 in earthworms (Eisenia foetida), demonstrating that no assimilation of cobalt occurs from the mineral soil fraction but is entirely from organic matter. Collection of data sets on soil arthropod communities and abundances is completed.

  13. Transfer of atrazine degradation capability to mineralize aged ¹⁴C-labeled atrazine residues in soils.

    PubMed

    Jablonowski, Nicolai David; Krutz, Jason L; Martinazzo, Rosane; Zajkoska, Petra; Hamacher, Georg; Borchard, Nils; Burauel, Peter

    2013-07-01

    The degradation of environmentally long-term aged (22 years) ¹⁴C-labeled atrazine residues in soil stimulated by inoculation with atrazine-adapted soil from Belgium, the United States (U.S.), and Brazil at two different moisture regimes (50% WHCmax/slurried conditions) was evaluated. Inoculation of the soil containing the aged ¹⁴C-labeled atrazine residues with 5, 50, and 100% (w/w) Belgian, U.S., or Brazilian atrazine-adapted soil increased ¹⁴C-atrazine residue mineralization by a factor of 3.1-13.9, depending upon the amount of atrazine-adapted soil inocula and the moisture conditions. Aged ¹⁴C-atrazine residue mineralization varied between 2 and 8% for Belgian and between 1 and 2% for U.S. and Brazilian soil inoculum at 50% WHCmax but was increased under slurried conditions, accounting for 8-10% (Belgian soil), 2-7% (Brazilian soil), and 3% (American soil). The results show that an increased degradation of long-term aged ¹⁴C-labeled atrazine residues is possible by the transfer of atrazine-adapted soil microflora from different soils and regions to non-adapted soil. PMID:23789631

  14. Prediction of nitrogen responses of corn by soil nitrogen mineralization indicators.

    PubMed

    Simard, R R; Ziadi, N; Nolin, M C; Cambouris, A N

    2001-11-01

    Soil nitrogen mineralization potential (N min) has to be spatially quantified to enable farmers to vary N fertilizer rates, optimize crop yields, and minimize N transfer from soils to the environment. The study objectives were to assess the spatial variability in soil N min potential based on clay and organic matter (OM) contents and the impact of grouping soils using these criteria on corn grain (Zea mays L.) yield, N uptake response curves to N fertilizer, and soil residual N. Four indicators were used: OM content and three equations involving OM and clay content. The study was conducted on a 15-ha field near Montreal, Quebec, Canada. In the spring 2000, soil samples (n = 150) were collected on a 30- x 30-m grid and six rates of N fertilizer (0 to 250 kg N ha(-1)) were applied. Kriged maps of particle size showed areas of clay, clay loam, and fine sandy loam soils. The N min indicators were spatially structured but soil nitrate (NO3-) was not. The N fertilizer rate to reach maximum grain yield (N max), as estimated by a quadratic model, varied among textural classes and Nmin indicators, and ranged from 159 to 250 kg N ha(-1). The proportion of variability (R2) and the standard error of the estimate (SE) varied among textural groups and N min indicators. The R2 ranged from 0.53 to 0.91 and the SE from 0.13 to 1.62. Corn grain N uptake was significantly affected by N fertilizer and the pattern of response differed with soil texture. For the 50 kg N ha(-1) rate, the apparent N min potential (ANM) was significantly larger in the clay loam (122 kg ha(-1)) than in the fine sandy loam (80 kg ha(-1)) or clay (64 kg ha(-1)) soils. The fall soil residual N was not affected by N fertlizer inputs. Textural classes can be used to predict N max. The N min indicators may also assist the variable rate N fertilizer inputs for corn production. PMID:12805786

  15. A Comparative Analyses of Granulometry, Mineral Composition and Major and Trace Element Concentrations in Soils Commonly Ingested by Humans

    PubMed Central

    Ngole-Jeme, Veronica M.; Ekosse, Georges-Ivo E.

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the granulometric properties, mineralogical composition and concentrations of major and trace element oxides of commonly ingested soils (geophagic soil) collected from different countries with a view of understanding how varied they may be in these properties and to understand the possible health implications of ingesting them. Soil samples were collected from three different countries (South Africa, Swaziland and Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)) and their granulometric properties, concentrations of major and trace element oxides as well as mineralogical composition determined. Differences were observed in the granulometric properties of geophagic soil from the three different countries with most of them having <20% clay content. The soils also showed varied degrees of weathering with values of Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA) and Chemical Index of Weathering (CIW) being between 60% and 99.9% respectively. The mineral assemblages of the soils from South Africa and Swaziland were dominated by the primary minerals quartz and feldspar whereas soils from DRC had more of kaolinite, a secondary mineral than primary minerals. Soils from DRC were associated with silt, clay, Al2O3, and CIA unlike most samples from South Africa which were associated with SiO2, sand, K2O, CaO, and MgO. The soils from Swaziland were closely associated with silt, H2O and Fe2O3(t). These associations reflect the mineralogy of the samples. These soils are not likely to serve as nutrient supplements because of the low concentrations of the nutrient elements contained. The coarse texture of the samples may also result in dental destruction during mastication. Sieving of the soils before ingestion to remove coarse particles is recommended to reduce the potential health threat associated with the ingestion of coarse-textured soils. PMID:26264010

  16. A Comparative Analyses of Granulometry, Mineral Composition and Major and Trace Element Concentrations in Soils Commonly Ingested by Humans.

    PubMed

    Ngole-Jeme, Veronica M; Ekosse, Georges-Ivo E

    2015-08-01

    This study compared the granulometric properties, mineralogical composition and concentrations of major and trace element oxides of commonly ingested soils (geophagic soil) collected from different countries with a view of understanding how varied they may be in these properties and to understand the possible health implications of ingesting them. Soil samples were collected from three different countries (South Africa, Swaziland and Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)) and their granulometric properties, concentrations of major and trace element oxides as well as mineralogical composition determined. Differences were observed in the granulometric properties of geophagic soil from the three different countries with most of them having <20% clay content. The soils also showed varied degrees of weathering with values of Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA) and Chemical Index of Weathering (CIW) being between 60% and 99.9% respectively. The mineral assemblages of the soils from South Africa and Swaziland were dominated by the primary minerals quartz and feldspar whereas soils from DRC had more of kaolinite, a secondary mineral than primary minerals. Soils from DRC were associated with silt, clay, Al2O3, and CIA unlike most samples from South Africa which were associated with SiO2, sand, K2O, CaO, and MgO. The soils from Swaziland were closely associated with silt, H2O and Fe2O3(t). These associations reflect the mineralogy of the samples. These soils are not likely to serve as nutrient supplements because of the low concentrations of the nutrient elements contained. The coarse texture of the samples may also result in dental destruction during mastication. Sieving of the soils before ingestion to remove coarse particles is recommended to reduce the potential health threat associated with the ingestion of coarse-textured soils. PMID:26264010

  17. Geoarchaeological conclusions through investigating sediments, soils and minerals in karst depressions in Mount Ida, Central Crete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzhauer, I.; Siart, C.; Meyer, H. P.; Schukraft, G.; Altherr, R.; Eitel, B.

    2009-04-01

    The investigation of sediments, soils and minerals can provide important information for the reconstruction of past landscapes and the human impact on the environment. In this context, sediment-filled karst depressions function as archives as their different sediment structures reflect various superficial conditions and associated man-made changes in the environmental system. The study area, namely the doline of Zominthos, is located at 1200 m a.s.l. in the Ida Mountains in Central Crete and is known for its remnants of a late Minoan settlement complex (Neopalatial Period, ~1600 BC). Our purpose is to help understand the past human-environmental interactions in the Central Cretan highlands through the use of several sedimentological and mineralogical methods including percussion drilling and subsequent analysis with polarisation microscopy, SEM, EPMA and XRD investigations. The macroscopic evaluation of the core profiles and the micromorphological studies of thin sections give evidence of colluvial sediments within the doline which are interbedded with fine-grained, graded horizons featuring clearly fluvial textures. They must be considered with regard to intense landuse and deforestation of the surrounding escarpments. The mineralogical investigations show the coincident abundance of well-preserved angular minerals on the one side and heavily weathered minerals on the other side. This leads to the assumption of at least two different generations of minerals that underwent a various history of subaerial exposure. The vast majority of heavy minerals (e.g. carpholites, chloritoid, garnets, spinels) cannot derive from the limestone bedrock and must stem from allochthonous sources. They originate from metamorphic rocks that do not outcrop in the catchment area of Zominthos. However, they must have existed here in former times when klippes provided the concerning minerals for the buildup of the soil cover. Hence, the palaeorelief must have been different with divergent lithology. Considerable amounts of volcanogenic pyroxenes and amphiboles have been found, which can clearly be connected with the Thera eruption of Santorini 1620 BC. They have been found all over the core profiles and thus provide a time marker for the intense man-made geomorphodynamics since the date of the intense ash fallout over Crete. More than 10 up to 15 metres of pedosediments have been deposited in the Zominthos doline in the last 3400 years. Furthermore, large amounts of remarkable and very rare mineral species have been detected within the pedosediments, e.g. ferrocarpholite. The observed light minerals, respectively diverse quartz grains, show varied grain morphologies that indicate fluvial, aeolian as well as tectonic impacts. The clay mineralogy of the limestone residues and the pedosediments was investigated, showing significant amounts of kaolinite within the latter, which can be attributed to strong southern wind regimes that transported the particles from the Sahara into the study area. In contrast, the bedrock lacks completely in this allochthonous aeolian dust component. In addition, the strong polygenetic nature of the sediment fills has to be stated. The prevalent assumption of an autochthonous thin and clayey residue in karst depressions can not be confirmed. The human impact on this landscape is crucial and plays a major role regarding the composition and genesis of the sedimentary fills. The application of combined sedimentological and mineralogical investigations for (geo)archaeological purposes is still a quite exceptional approach. As shown by the results, it can deliver important information for the reconstruction of past human-environmental systems, which are encoded in minerals, sediments and soil properties.

  18. Effects of temperature on microbial C metabolism in peat and mineral soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagerty, S.; Dijkstra, P.; Miller, E.; Schwartz, E.; KOCH, G. W.; Hungate, B. A.

    2013-12-01

    Microbial metabolism, the main mechanism responsible for soil CO2 emissions, plays an important role in the global C cycle. Increased temperature generally stimulates decomposition and respiration, indicative of increased microbial C metabolism and possibly greater energy demand by microbes for growth and maintenance. Changes in microbial metabolism with temperature may manifest differently in microbial communities from soils with different C availability because it is generally expected that when more organic C is present, carbon use efficiency (CUE) will be lower and more CO2 will be released per unit C assimilated by microbes than when less C substrate is available. In this study we examined the effect of temperature on C processing in peat and mineral soil from the Marcel Experimental Forest in Minnesota. Samples were incubated for 7 days at 5, 10, 15, and 20°C. We used position-specific 13C-labeled tracers to model C flux through the central C metabolic network (i.e. glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, and the citric acid cycle) and to asses the CUE of microbial communities. We also measured total CO2 production and microbial biomass, and we calculated the metabolic quotient (qCO2), which is the rate of CO2, respired per unit of microbial biomass. We found that temperature and soil type did not affect CUE and patterns of C flow through the central C metabolic network. Increased temperature stimulated respiration and decreased qCO2 in peat more than the mineral soil. These results suggest temperature affects rate of C cycling, but does not alter the relative demand for energy production and biosynthesis per unit substrate-C. This implies, in contrast to expectations that at higher temperatures more substrate will be used to offset greater demand for maintenance energy, warmer temperatures will not alter the balance of growth and maintenance energy by soil microbes. Moreover, substrate availability did not result in ';wasteful' C use, but increased C cycling rates. These findings may simplify the modeling of soil respiration with climatic warming.

  19. Phosphate-Based Mineralization of Arsenic in Contaminated Soil: A Potential Remediation Method for Soil and Groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neupane, G.; Donahoe, R. J.

    2009-12-01

    Soil arsenic contamination resulting from the use of arsenical compounds is a widespread environmental problem. A phosphate-based remediation method which has the potential to immobilize arsenic in both oxidizing and reducing subsurface systems is under laboratory investigation. Although phosphate treatments have been reported to be effective in removal of arsenic from contaminated water, its use in contaminated soils has not been tested. This study aims to (1) determine the competitive adsorption/desorption of arsenate and phosphate at surfaces of ferric hydroxide coated sand in the absence or presence of calcium ions, and (2) develop a method of arsenic fixation which involves phosphoric acid flushing of arsenic from contaminated soil and precipitation of arsenic as apatite-like phases. Ferric hydroxide is a significant arsenic sequestering constituent in soil. Phosphate competes with arsenate for adsorption sites on the ferric hydroxide surface. Batch adsorption experiments conducted using ferric hydroxide coated sand have indicated similar pH-controlled adsorption mechanisms for both arsenate and phosphate. The data obtained from the adsorption experiments is being used to guide the development of a phosphate-based method for soil and groundwater arsenic remediation. Batch experiments were performed using 3g of contaminated soil in contact with 45 ml of treatment fluid (a dilute phosphoric acid and calcium hydroxide solution). Solution samples were collected at 24, 72, 144, 312, and 384 hours, with continuous agitation at 200 rpm. Solution concentrations of phosphorus and calcium generally decreased with time and were primarily controlled by pH. It has been experimentally demonstrated that solution arsenic concentrations can be lowered by maintaining high pH with adequate calcium supply. A batch experiment conducted at pH > 11, using 1 kg of soil in contact with 1 liter of 0.25% H3PO4, precipitated a white material giving an XRD signature indicative of brushite, an apatite precursor phase. Additional experiments will be performed to determine the optimum conditions for arsenic mineralization as apatite-like phases for both oxidizing and reducing subsurface environments.

  20. Sol-Gel Precursors for Ceramics from Minerals Simulating Soils from the Moon and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibille, Laurent; Gavira-Gallardo, Jose-Antonio; Hourlier-Bahloul, Djamila

    2003-01-01

    Recent NASA mission plans for the human exploration of our Solar System has set new priorities for research and development of technologies necessary to enable a long-term human presence on the Moon and Mars. The recovery and processing of metals and oxides from mineral sources on other planets is under study to enable use of ceramics, glasses and metals by explorer outposts. We report some preliminary results on the production of sol-gel precursors for ceramic products using mineral resources available in Martian or Lunar soil. The presence of SiO2, TiO2, and A12O3 in both Martian (44 wt.% SiO2, 1 wt.% TiO2, 7 wt.% Al2O3) and Lunar (48 wt.% SiO2, 1.5 wt.% TiO2, 16 wt.% Al2O3) soils and the recent developments in chemical processes to solubilize silicates using organic reagents and relatively little energy indicate that such an endeavor is possible. In order to eliminate the risks involved in the use of hydrofluoric acid to dissolve silicates, two distinct chemical routes are investigated to obtain soluble silicon oxide precursors from Lunar and Martian simulant soils. Clear sol-gel precursors have been obtained by dissolution of silica from Lunar simulant soil in basic ethylene glycol (C2H4(OH)2) solutions to form silicon glycolates. Thermogravimetric Analysis and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy were used to characterize the elemental composition and structure of the precursor molecules. Further concentration and hydrolysis of the products was performed to obtain gel materials for evaluation as ceramic precursors. In the second set of experiments, we used the same starting materials to synthesize silicate esters in acidified alcohol mixtures. Preliminary results indicate the presence of silicon alkoxides in the product of distillation.

  1. Temporal dynamics of available and microbial phosphorus and organic phosphorus mineralization in a grassland soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebisch, Frank; Keller, Fabrizio; Frossard, Emmanuel; Huguenin-Elie, Olivier; Oberson, Astrid; Bünemann, Else

    2010-05-01

    Turnover of phosphorus (P) through the microbial biomass and P mineralization have been reported as two main biological factors controlling P availability in soils. This is particularly true for grassland soils where organic matter is accumulated in the topsoil and microbial activity is high. The amounts of plant available inorganic P and microbial P can fluctuate over the season, but their interaction and responses to changes in environmental conditions, fertilization and cutting are not yet well understood. Also, gross P mineralization has not yet been measured in grassland soils. We studied P mineralization and immobilization in a species rich grassland managed at low intensity (with three harvests per season) under different P inputs. The trial was established in 1992 in Watt (Switzerland). Three different P input treatments were selected: no P (NK), mineral P (NPK) and organic P (NPKorg) fertilization, with 17 kg P ha-1yr-1 applied as superphosphate and slurry, respectively (rates according to Swiss fertilizer recommendations). We used two different approaches. Firstly, available (anion exchange resin extractable) and microbial P (hexanol labile P) were measured in fresh samples periodically taken throughout the vegetation period. Secondly, an isotopic dilution technique was applied on composite topsoil samples (0-5 cm) to determine rates of basal P mineralization and microbial immobilization of P in an incubation experiment. During the season available P ranged from 0.9-3.5, 5.3-11.2 and 1.9-6.7 mg kg-1 soil-1 and microbial P from 20-44, 43-59 and 61-93 mg kg-1 soil-1 in NK, NPK and NPKorg, respectively. Thus, microbial P was highest in NPKorg whereas available P was highest in NPK. Both P pools were lowest in NK. Average annual yield was lowest in NK (4.5 t ha-1), NPKorg (6.5 kg ha-1) and highest in NPK (7.5 t ha-1). However, no consistent relationship between changes in microbial and available P and plant productivity was found. Changes in weather conditions were reflected by changes in available and microbial P measured in the field. Phosphorus flushes were observed after dry periods (microbial P reduced and available P increased). Whereas fluctuations show microbial P release and P immobilization, an expected counteraction of microbial and available P could not be fully confirmed. In the incubation experiment microbial and available P were similar to average values in the field. A higher respiration rate measured in NPKorg indicated a higher microbial activity than in the other two treatments. Despite the differences in microbial P and respiration, the 33P recovery in the microbial biomass between 3 and 30 days of incubation was about 30% in all treatments. In conclusion we found complex interactions of available and microbial P with climate, fertilization, sward cutting and plant growth. An increased immobilization of P indicated by higher microbial P in the organic fertilized treatment was not confirmed in the isotope study. Gross and net mineralization data are still under analysis and will be presented at the conference.

  2. Effects of Simulated Nitrogen Deposition on Soil Net Nitrogen Mineralization in the Meadow Steppe of Inner Mongolia, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xing-ren; Ren, Jian-qiang; Li, Sheng-gong; Zhang, Qing-wen

    2015-01-01

    Effects of simulated nitrogen (N) deposition on soil net nitrogen mineralization (NNM) were examined in situ during two growing seasons, using the resin-core technique in the semiarid meadow steppe in Inner Mongolia, China. The aim of this study is to clarify the effect of N levels (0, 10, and 20 kg N ha−1yr−1) and forms (NH4+ and NO3-) on soil mineral N and NNM. Our results showed that N levels had no significant differences on soil mineral N and NNM. In the first year, three N treatments ((NH4)2SO4, NH4Cl and KNO3) increased soil NH4+ concentrations but had no significant effects on soil NO3- concentrations. In the second year, (NH4)2SO4 treatment increased soil NO3- concentrations, NH4Cl and KNO3 treatments decreased them. Three N treatments significantly decreased soil NH4+ concentrations in the later stages of the second year. As for the soil NNM, three N treatments had no significant effects on the rates of soil NNM (Rm) and net nitrification (Rn) in the first year, but significantly decreased them in the second year. The contribution of N addition to Rm was higher from (NH4)2SO4 than from NH4Cl and KNO3. However, Soil Rm was mainly affected by soil water content (SWC), accumulated temperature (Ta), and soil total N (TN). These results suggest that the short-term atmospheric N deposition may inhibit soil NNM in the meadow steppe of Inner Mongolia. PMID:26218275

  3. Evaluation of the genotoxic potential of soil contaminated with mineral coal tailings on snail Helix aspersa.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Melissa Rosa; da Silva, Fernanda Rabaioli; de Souza, Claudia Telles; Niekraszewicz, Liana; Dias, Johnny Ferraz; Premoli, Suziane; Corrêa, Dione Silva; Soares, Mariana do Couto; Marroni, Norma Possa; Morgam-Martins, Maria Isabel; da Silva, Juliana

    2015-11-01

    Coal remains an important source of energy, although the fuel is a greater environmental pollutant. Coal is a mixture of several chemicals, especially inorganic elements and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Many of these compounds have mutagenic and carcinogenic effects on organisms exposed to this mineral. In the town of Charqueadas (Brazil), the tailings from mining were used for landfill in the lower areas of the town, and the consequence is the formation of large deposits of this material. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic potential of soil samples contaminated by coal waste in different sites at Charqueadas, using the land snail Helix aspersa as a biomonitor organism. Thirty terrestrial snails were exposed to different treatments: 20 were exposed to the soil from two different sites in Charqueadas (site 1 and 2; 10 in each group) and 10 non-exposed (control group). Hemolymph cells were collected after 24h, 5days and 7days of exposure and comet assay, micronucleus test, oxidative stress tests were performed. Furthermore, this study quantified the inorganic elements present in soil samples by the PIXE technique and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) by HPLC. This evaluation shows that, in general, soils from sites in Charqueadas, demonstrated a genotoxic effect associated with increased oxidative stress, inorganic and PAH content. These results demonstrate that the coal pyrite tailings from Charqueadas are potentially genotoxic and that H. aspersa is confirmed to be a sensitive instrument for risk assessment of environmental pollution. PMID:26295689

  4. Impact of Surface Roughness and Soil Texture on Mineral Dust Emission Fluxes Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menut, Laurent; Perez, Carlos; Haustein, Karsten; Bessagnet, Bertrand; Prigent, Catherine; Alfaro, Stephane

    2013-01-01

    Dust production models (DPM) used to estimate vertical fluxes of mineral dust aerosols over arid regions need accurate data on soil and surface properties. The Laboratoire Inter-Universitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques (LISA) data set was developed for Northern Africa, the Middle East, and East Asia. This regional data set was built through dedicated field campaigns and include, among others, the aerodynamic roughness length, the smooth roughness length of the erodible fraction of the surface, and the dry (undisturbed) soil size distribution. Recently, satellite-derived roughness length and high-resolution soil texture data sets at the global scale have emerged and provide the opportunity for the use of advanced schemes in global models. This paper analyzes the behavior of the ERS satellite-derived global roughness length and the State Soil Geographic data base-Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (STATSGO-FAO) soil texture data set (based on wet techniques) using an advanced DPM in comparison to the LISA data set over Northern Africa and the Middle East. We explore the sensitivity of the drag partition scheme (a critical component of the DPM) and of the dust vertical fluxes (intensity and spatial patterns) to the roughness length and soil texture data sets. We also compare the use of the drag partition scheme to a widely used preferential source approach in global models. Idealized experiments with prescribed wind speeds show that the ERS and STATSGO-FAO data sets provide realistic spatial patterns of dust emission and friction velocity thresholds in the region. Finally, we evaluate a dust transport model for the period of March to July 2011 with observed aerosol optical depths from Aerosol Robotic Network sites. Results show that ERS and STATSGO-FAO provide realistic simulations in the region.

  5. Impact of surface roughness and soil texture on mineral dust emission fluxes modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menut, Laurent; PéRez, Carlos; Haustein, Karsten; Bessagnet, Bertrand; Prigent, Catherine; Alfaro, StéPhane

    2013-06-01

    Dust production models (DPM) used to estimate vertical fluxes of mineral dust aerosols over arid regions need accurate data on soil and surface properties. The Laboratoire Inter-Universitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques (LISA) data set was developed for Northern Africa, the Middle East, and East Asia. This regional data set was built through dedicated field campaigns and include, among others, the aerodynamic roughness length, the smooth roughness length of the erodible fraction of the surface, and the dry (undisturbed) soil size distribution. Recently, satellite-derived roughness length and high-resolution soil texture data sets at the global scale have emerged and provide the opportunity for the use of advanced schemes in global models. This paper analyzes the behavior of the ERS satellite-derived global roughness length and the State Soil Geographic data base-Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (STATSGO-FAO) soil texture data set (based on wet techniques) using an advanced DPM in comparison to the LISA data set over Northern Africa and the Middle East. We explore the sensitivity of the drag partition scheme (a critical component of the DPM) and of the dust vertical fluxes (intensity and spatial patterns) to the roughness length and soil texture data sets. We also compare the use of the drag partition scheme to a widely used preferential source approach in global models. Idealized experiments with prescribed wind speeds show that the ERS and STATSGO-FAO data sets provide realistic spatial patterns of dust emission and friction velocity thresholds in the region. Finally, we evaluate a dust transport model for the period of March to July 2011 with observed aerosol optical depths from Aerosol Robotic Network sites. Results show that ERS and STATSGO-FAO provide realistic simulations in the region.

  6. Measurement of net nitrogen and phosphorus mineralization in wetland soils using a modification of the resin-core technique

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noe, Gregory B.

    2011-01-01

    A modification of the resin-core method was developed and tested for measuring in situ soil N and P net mineralization rates in wetland soils where temporal variation in bidirectional vertical water movement and saturation can complicate measurement. The modified design includes three mixed-bed ion-exchange resin bags located above and three resin bags located below soil incubating inside a core tube. The two inner resin bags adjacent to the soil capture NH4+, NO3-, and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) transported out of the soil during incubation; the two outer resin bags remove inorganic nutrients transported into the modified resin core; and the two middle resin bags serve as quality-control checks on the function of the inner and outer resin bags. Modified resin cores were incubated monthly for a year along the hydrogeomorphic gradient through a floodplain wetland. Only small amounts of NH4+, NO3-, and SRP were found in the two middle resin bags, indicating that the modified resin-core design was effective. Soil moisture and pH inside the modified resin cores typically tracked changes in the surrounding soil abiotic environment. In contrast, use of the closed polyethylene bag method provided substantially different net P and N mineralization rates than modified resin cores and did not track changes in soil moisture or pH. Net ammonification, nitrifi cation, N mineralization, and P mineralization rates measured using modified resin cores varied through space and time associated with hydrologic, geomorphic, and climatic gradients in the floodplain wetland. The modified resin-core technique successfully characterized spatiotemporal variation of net mineralization fluxes in situ and is a viable technique for assessing soil nutrient availability and developing ecosystem budgets.

  7. Water vapor diffusion into a nanostructured iron oxyhydroxide.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaowei; Boily, Jean-François

    2013-06-17

    Water diffusion through 0.4 nm × 0.4 nm wide tunnels of synthesized akaganéite (β-FeOOH) nanoparticles was studied by a coupled experimental-molecular modeling approach. A sorption isotherm model obtained from quartz crystal microbalance measurements suggests that the akaganéite bulk can accommodate a maximum of 22.4 mg of water/g (44% bulk site occupancy) when exposed to atmospheres of up to 16 Torr water vapor. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy also showed that water molecules interact with (hydr)oxo groups on both the akaganéite bulk and surface. Diffusion reactions through the akaganéite bulk were confirmed through important changes in the hydrogen-bonding environment of bulk hydroxyl groups. Molecular dynamics simulations showed that water molecules are localized in cavities that are bound by eight hydroxyl groups, forming short-lived (<0.5 ps) hydrogen bonds with one another. Diffusion coefficients of water are three orders of magnitude lower than they are in liquid water (D = 0.0-11.1 × 10(-12) m(2)·s(-1)), whereas large integral rotational correlation times are 4 to 15 times higher (τr = 8.4-31.8 ps). Moreover, both of these properties are strongly loading-dependent. The simulations of the interface between the water vapor phase and the (010) surface plane of the akaganéite, where tunnel openings are exposed, revealed sluggish rates of incorporation between interfacial water species and their tunnel counterparts. The presence of defects in the synthesized particles are suspected to contribute to different diffusion rates in the laboratory when compared to those observed in pristine crystalline materials, as studied by molecular modeling. PMID:23701490

  8. Soils in the zone affected by mineral water springs at the foothills of the Eastern Sayan Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopatovskaya, O. G.

    2009-08-01

    Data on soils in the zone affected by mineral water springs at the foothills of the Eastern Sayan Ridge are analyzed. Changes in the soil properties take place with the increase in the distance from the sites of the water discharge: primitive petrozems (Lithosols) are replaced by calcareous petrozems and, then, by burozems (brown taiga soils, Cambisols). In dependence on the degree of the water mineralization, the salt content in the soils varies from 0.05 to 0.26%. The readily soluble salts include calcium, magnesium, and sodium chlorides; sulfates; and bicarbonates. The soil reaction varies from acid to alkaline, and the organic matter content varies from 0.5 to 15.0%.

  9. Patterns of spatial distribution of mineral components of the complex of gray forest soils Vladimir opolye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpova, Dina; Chizhikova, Natalya; Starokozhko, Natalya; Hadyushina, Viktorya; Korotaeva, Valentina

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the work is the analysis of spatial distribution of soil fundamental characteristics - fine fractions content (less than 1, 1-5, 5-10 and more than 10 mkm) and their mineralogical composition. The experiments were carried out on the experimental field in Suzdal region in a trench (22 m length and 2 m depth) laid in upland, well-drained conditions. Soil samples from 5 different soil profiles were collected. Fractions were obtained by Gorbunov method. Mineralogical analysis were carried out by universal X-ray diffractometer (Carl Zeiss Jena, Germany). The dominant fraction is a coarse silt fraction, the sand fraction content is negligible. The soil is characterized by medium-textured loam composition from the above and a sandy loam composition in the bottom. Textural differentiation occured due to the distribution of clay fraction. The content of this fraction in plough horizons varies depending on addition of part of other horizons during plowing. The plogh-layer of the residual-carbonate agrogrey soil is characterized by higher (20-23 %) amount of fraction less than 1 mkm, in comparison with plough horizon above the second humus horizon (SHH ), where the amount of silt is 15-16 %. The main components of the fraction derived from the rock are complex mixed- lattice formations dominated by mica - smectite with a high proportion of smectite packages, mica - smectites with low content of smectite packages were in subordinate quantity. The next component is hydromica - a mixture of dioctahedral and trioctahedral varieties. Smectite phase and hydromica add up to 85-90 % of the silt component. The amount of kaolinite and chlorite usually range in 7-13 %. Kaolinite is generally imperfect, chlorite is magnesia-ferric. The presence of fine quartz and feldspars (less amount) is revealed. During the soil formation the redistribution of the above minerals whose behavior is caused by the type of soil is occurring. Agrogrey heavy-textured soils are characterized by textural differentiation of the profile. The main carrier of this differentiation is the silt fraction, mainly its component - the swelling phase. Smectite phase dominates in silt fraction and it is eluvially distributed within the soil profile. Silty fraction of loess loam contains 72 % of the smectite phase. Behavior of minerals constituting the sum of kaolinite and chlorite content indicates its relatively uniform distribution. A slight increase in their content is noted in the eluvial part of the profile, mainly due to increasing in the proportion of kaolinite. The amount of hydromica reduces down the profile from 44.2 % to 19.8% in loess loam (soil-forming rock). The ratio of dioctahedral structures of hydromica to trioctahedral changes within the soil profile: trioctahedral varieties are more abundant in the upper part of the profile.

  10. Process conditions for the mineralization of a biorefractory polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in soils using catalyzed hydrogen peroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Stanton, P.C.; Watts, R.J.

    1996-12-31

    Catalyzed hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and soluble iron or mineral catalysts) was investigated as a basis for mineralizing benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a hydrophobic and toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, in two soils of varied complexity. The process is based on Fenton`s reagent, which can be implemented in soils to generate hydroxyl radicals. This short-lived species reacts with most organic contaminants at near diffusion-controlled rates, providing a mechanism for potential rapid soil remediation. Benzo[a]pyrene labeled with {sup 14}C was added to silica sand and a silt loam loess soil; mineralization processes were then optimized using central composite rotatable experimental designs. Variables investigated during the optimization included H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration, slurry volume, iron (II) amendment, and pH. Experimental data were evaluated by linear regression to develop empirical relationships and interactions between the variables. The equations were then used to develop three-dimensional response surfaces to describe BaP mineralization. The results from the response surfaces showed that 74% and 78% BaP mineralization was achieved in the silica sand and loess soils, respectively. The balance of the contaminant carbon remained with the soil fraction and was probably irreversibly sorbed. Desorption measurements over 5 d confirmed negligible desorption; however, oxidation reactions, which were complete within 24 h, documented >78% BaP mineralization, suggesting that the contaminant was oxidized, at least in part, in the sorbed phase. The results show that catalyzed H{sub 2}O{sub 2} has the ability to rapidly mineralize BaP that is not irreversibly sorbed.

  11. Cd Mobility in Anoxic Fe-Mineral-Rich Environments - Potential Use of Fe(III)-Reducing Bacteria in Soil Remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muehe, E. M.; Adaktylou, I. J.; Obst, M.; Schröder, C.; Behrens, S.; Hitchcock, A. P.; Tylsizczak, T.; Michel, F. M.; Krämer, U.; Kappler, A.

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural soils are increasingly burdened with heavy metals such as Cd from industrial sources and impure fertilizers. Metal contaminants enter the food chain via plant uptake from soil and negatively affect human and environmental health. New remediation approaches are needed to lower soil metal contents. To apply these remediation techniques successfully, it is necessary to understand how soil microbes and minerals interact with toxic metals. Here we show that microbial Fe(III) reduction initially mobilizes Cd before its immobilization under anoxic conditions. To study how microbial Fe(III) reduction influences Cd mobility, we isolated a new Cd-tolerant, Fe(III)-reducing Geobacter sp. from a heavily Cd-contaminated soil. In lab experiments, this Geobacter strain first mobilized Cd from Cd-loaded Fe(III) hydroxides followed by precipitation of Cd-bearing mineral phases. Using Mössbauer spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, the original and newly formed Cd-containing Fe(II) and Fe(III) mineral phases, including Cd-Fe-carbonates, Fe-phosphates and Fe-(oxyhydr)oxides, were identified and characterized. Using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and synchrotron-based scanning transmission X-ray microscopy, Cd was mapped in the Fe(II) mineral aggregates formed during microbial Fe(III) reduction. Microbial Fe(III) reduction mobilizes Cd prior to its precipitation in Cd-bearing mineral phases. The mobilized Cd could be taken up by phytoremediating plants, resulting in a net removal of Cd from contaminated sites. Alternatively, Cd precipitation could reduce Cd bioavailability in the environment, causing less toxic effects to crops and soil microbiota. However, the stability and thus bioavailability of these newly formed Fe-Cd mineral phases needs to be assessed thoroughly. Whether phytoremediation or immobilization of Cd in a mineral with reduced Cd bioavailability are feasible mechanisms to reduce toxic effects of Cd in the environment remains to be determined.

  12. A mineral support and biotic catalyst are essential in the formation of highly polymeric soil humic substances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavarzina, A. G.

    2006-12-01

    The hypothesis was proposed that highly polymeric humic substances in the mineral horizons of soils in a temperate humid climate originate from polymerization of water-soluble structural precursors directly on mineral surfaces under the catalytic effect of immobilized phenoloxidases (heterophasic biocatalysis). This hypothesis was confirmed by a laboratory experiment using a mixture of monomeric phenols and nitrogenous compounds as structural precursors, fungal laccase as a biotic catalyst, and a hydroxyaluminum-kaolinite complex as a mineral support. Enzymic oxidation of phenolic precursors on the mineral surface was substantially more rapid than abiotic oxidation and led to synthesis of a highly polymeric fraction with a molecular weight over 75 kDa. These products were not produced on the mineral with an absence of laccase (abiotic catalysis) or in solution without the mineral matrix (homogeneous catalysis).

  13. Influence of soil minerals on chromium(VI) reduction by sulfide under anoxic conditions

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Yeqing; Deng, Baolin; Kim, Chulsung; Thornton, Edward C

    2007-01-01

    The effects of soil minerals on chromate (CrVIO42-, noted as Cr(VI)) reduction by sulfide were investigated in the pH range of 7.67 to 9.07 under the anoxic condition. The examined minerals included montmorillonite (Swy-2), illite (IMt-2), kaolinite (KGa-2), aluminum oxide (?-Al2O3), titanium oxide (TiO2, P-25, primarily anatase), and silica (SiO2). Based on their effects on Cr(VI) reduction, these minerals were categorized into three groups: (i) minerals catalyzing Cr(VI) reduction illite; (ii) minerals with no effect Al2O3; and (iii) minerals inhibiting Cr(VI) reduction- kaolinite, montmorillonite, SiO2 and TiO2 . The catalysis of illite was attributed primarily to the low concentration of iron solubilized from the mineral, which could accelerate Cr(VI) reduction by shuttling electrons from sulfide to Cr(VI). Additionally, elemental sulfur produced as the primary product of sulfide oxidation could further catalyze Cr(VI) reduction in the heterogeneous system. Previous studies have shown that adsorption of sulfide onto elemental sulfur nanoparticles could greatly increase sulfide reactivity towards Cr(VI) reduction. Consequently, the observed rate constant, kobs, increased with increasing amounts of both iron solubilized from illite and elemental sulfur produced during the reaction. The catalysis of iron, however, was found to be blocked by phenanthroline, a strong complexing agent for ferrous iron. In this case, the overall reaction rate at the initial stage of reaction was pseudo first order with respect to Cr(VI), i.e., the reaction kinetics was similar to that in the homogeneous system, because elemental sulfur exerted no effect at the initial stage prior to accumulation of elemental sulfur nanoparticles. In the suspension of kaolinite, which belonged to group (iii), an inhibitive effect to Cr(VI) reduction was observed and subsequently examined in more details. The inhibition was due to the sorption of elemental sulfur onto kaolinite, which reduced or completely eliminated the catalytic effect of elemental sulfur, depending on kaolinite concentration. This was consistent with the observation that the catalysis of externally added elemental sulfur (50 ?M) on Cr(VI) reduction would disappear with a kaolinite concentration of more than 5.0 g/L. In kaolinite suspension, the overall reaction rate law was: -d[Cr(VI)]/dt = kobs[H+]2[Cr(VI)][HS-]0.70 PMID:17430591

  14. Extraction Pattern of Arsenic Species with Mineral Composition in Contaminated Soils in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, M.; Shin, M.; Yoon, H.; Kim, Y.; Kim, K.; Ko, I.

    2006-12-01

    Specific determination of various arsenic species is gaining increasing attention because the toxicity of arsenic differs with chemical forms such as organic (MMA, DMA) or inorganic (arsenite, arsenate). Knowledge of extraction method for arsenic speciation in contaminated soils then notified and tested by many researchers. However, the analytical technique for separation of different arsenic species has been always challenging in different environmental samples. A achieving correct analytical results and resolving the lowest detection limit is also desirable. Extraction method for arsenic speciation have been studied by many researchers with the use of a variety of extractants such as H3PO4, HCl, Na2CO3, EDTA 'in soils and sediments including plenty of clay. We, in this study, reported a benign extraction method and presented the pattern of arsenic in contaminated soils of different mineral compositions. Soil samples were collected from tailings of 2 places (Kyungbuk, Jeonnam); both were from abandoned metal mines in Korea. Samples were air dried at room temperature and separated by mechanical sieving to three fractions (2mm_200 μm, 200_64μm, <64μm). Prepared samples were examined for total arsenic analysis used by KBSI method and modified Garcia-Manyes method for arsenic speciation. We extracted arsenic species from the soils by using a mixture of 1M phosphoric acid and 0.1% ascorbic acid. 0.2g of sample was placed in microwave digestion vessels along with 10ml extraction solution and treated for 15min at 60w microwave power. After the microwave stage, the contents were transferred to 30ml sample bottles and diluted to 16ml with deionized water, then centrifuged for 15min at 2500rpm. Total arsenic concentration of sample was analyzed by using ICP-AES (ICP-OES, Ultima2C, Jobin Yvon) and the arsenic species were analyzed by hyphenated system, SPE-HG-ICP-AES. To identify the mineral phases in bulk soil samples, we used XRD (Phillips X'Pert MPD) under 40kV/30mA condition. XRD data was collected between 5 and 70° 2theta values using CuKα target.

  15. Long-term fertilization of a boreal Norway spruce forest increases the temperature sensitivity of soil organic carbon mineralization

    PubMed Central

    Coucheney, Elsa; Strömgren, Monika; Lerch, Thomas Z; Herrmann, Anke M

    2013-01-01

    Boreal ecosystems store one-third of global soil organic carbon (SOC) and are particularly sensitive to climate warming and higher nutrient inputs. Thus, a better description of how forest managements such as nutrient fertilization impact soil carbon (C) and its temperature sensitivity is needed to better predict feedbacks between C cycling and climate. The temperature sensitivity of in situ soil C respiration was investigated in a boreal forest, which has received long-term nutrient fertilization (22 years), and compared with the temperature sensitivity of C mineralization measured in the laboratory. We found that the fertilization treatment increased both the response of soil in situ CO2 effluxes to a warming treatment and the temperature sensitivity of C mineralization measured in the laboratory (Q10). These results suggested that soil C may be more sensitive to an increase in temperature in long-term fertilized in comparison with nutrient poor boreal ecosystems. Furthermore, the fertilization treatment modified the SOC content and the microbial community composition, but we found no direct relationship between either SOC or microbial changes and the temperature sensitivity of C mineralization. However, the relation between the soil C:N ratio and the fungal/bacterial ratio was changed in the combined warmed and fertilized treatment compared with the other treatments, which suggest that strong interaction mechanisms may occur between nutrient input and warming in boreal soils. Further research is needed to unravel into more details in how far soil organic matter and microbial community composition changes are responsible for the change in the temperature sensitivity of soil C under increasing mineral N inputs. Such research would help to take into account the effect of fertilization managements on soil C storage in C cycling numerical models. PMID:24455147

  16. The use of volcanic soil as mineral landfill liner--I. Physicochemical characterization and comparison with zeolites.

    PubMed

    Navia, Rodrigo; Hafner, Georg; Raber, Georg; Lorber, Karl E; Schöffmann, Elke; Vortisch, Walter

    2005-06-01

    The main physicochemical characteristics of the volcanic soil of Southern Chile, with allophane as the main pedogenic mineral phase were analysed and compared with common zeolites (clinoptilolite) of the European market. The ultimate goal of this study was to test volcanic soil for the use as mineral landfill liner. The main results indicated that the clay and silt fractions together of the volcanic soil were between 38 and 54%. The buffering capacity of the volcanic soil was higher compared with the studied zeolites, whereas the cationic exchange capacity of the volcanic soil (between 5.2 and 6.5 cmol + kg(-1)) is of the same order of magnitude of the studied zeolites (between 9.7 and 11.4 cmol + kg(-1)). Moreover, the anionic exchange capacity of the volcanic soil was higher compared to the zeolites analysed. The hydraulic conductivity of the volcanic soil, measured in the laboratory at maximum proctor density, ranges between 5.16 x 10(-9) and 6.48 x 10(-9) m s(-1), a range that is comparable to the value of 4.51 x 10(-9) m s(-1) of the studied zeolite. The Proctor densities of the volcanic soil are in a lower range (between 1.11 and 1.15 g ml(-1)) compared with zeolites (between 1.19 and 1.34 g ml(-1)). The volcanic soil physicochemical characteristics are comparable to all the requirements established in the Austrian landfill directive (DVO, 2000). Therefore, the use as mineral landfill basal sealing of the analysed volcanic soil appears reasonable, having a pollutant adsorption capacity comparable to zeolites. It is of special interest for Southern Chile, because there are no alternative mineral raw materials for basal liners of landfills. PMID:15988944

  17. Soil Mineral Composition Matters: Response of Microbial Communities to Phenanthrene and Plant Litter Addition in Long-Term Matured Artificial Soils

    PubMed Central

    Babin, Doreen; Vogel, Cordula; Zühlke, Sebastian; Schloter, Michael; Pronk, Geertje Johanna; Heister, Katja; Spiteller, Michael; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid; Smalla, Kornelia

    2014-01-01

    The fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil is determined by a suite of biotic and abiotic factors, and disentangling their role in the complex soil interaction network remains challenging. Here, we investigate the influence of soil composition on the microbial community structure and its response to the spiked model PAH compound phenanthrene and plant litter. We used long-term matured artificial soils differing in type of clay mineral (illite, montmorillonite) and presence of charcoal or ferrihydrite. The soils received an identical soil microbial fraction and were incubated for more than two years with two sterile manure additions. The matured artificial soils and a natural soil were subjected to the following spiking treatments: (I) phenanthrene, (II) litter, (III) litter + phenanthrene, (IV) unspiked control. Total community DNA was extracted from soil sampled on the day of spiking, 7, 21, and 63 days after spiking. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal internal transcribed spacer amplicons were quantified by qPCR and subjected to denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). DGGE analysis revealed that the bacterial community composition, which was strongly shaped by clay minerals after more than two years of incubation, changed in response to spiked phenanthrene and added litter. DGGE and qPCR showed that soil composition significantly influenced the microbial response to spiking. While fungal communities responded only in presence of litter to phenanthrene spiking, the response of the bacterial communities to phenanthrene was less pronounced when litter was present. Interestingly, microbial communities in all artificial soils were more strongly affected by spiking than in the natural soil, which might indicate the importance of higher microbial diversity to compensate perturbations. This study showed the influence of soil composition on the microbiota and their response to phenanthrene and litter, which may increase our understanding of complex interactions in soils for bioremediation applications. PMID:25222697

  18. Application of calcium carbonate slows down organic amendments mineralization in reclaimed soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zornoza, Ral; Faz, ngel; Acosta, Jos A.; Martnez-Martnez, Silvia; ngeles Muoz, M.

    2014-05-01

    A field experiment was set up in Cartagena-La Unin Mining District, SE Spain, aimed at evaluating the short-term effects of pig slurry (PS) amendment alone and together with marble waste (MW) on organic matter mineralization, microbial activity and stabilization of heavy metals in two tailing ponds. These structures pose environmental risk owing to high metals contents, low organic matter and nutrients, and null vegetation. Carbon mineralization, exchangeable metals and microbiological properties were monitored during 67 days. The application of amendments led to a rapid decrease of exchangeable metals concentrations, except for Cu, with decreases up to 98%, 75% and 97% for Cd, Pb and Zn, respectively. The combined addition of MW+PS was the treatment with greater reduction in metals concentrations. The addition of PS caused a significant increase in respiration rates, although in MW+PS plots respiration was lower than in PS plots. The mineralised C from the pig slurry was low, approximately 25-30% and 4-12% for PS and MW+PS treatments, respectively. Soluble carbon (Csol), microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and ?-galactosidase and ?-glucosidase activities increased after the application of the organic amendment. However, after 3 days these parameters started a decreasing trend reaching similar values than control from approximately day 25 for Csol and MBC. The PS treatment promoted highest values in enzyme activities, which remained high upon time. Arylesterase activity increased in the MW+PS treatment. Thus, the remediation techniques used improved soil microbiological status and reduced metal availability. The combined application of PS+MW reduced the degradability of the organic compounds. Keywords: organic wastes, mine soils stabilization, carbon mineralization, microbial activity.

  19. Tracking rainfall variations in the late Pleistocene using U isotopes in dated secondary soil minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarra, D. E.; Oster, J. L.; Maher, K.

    2011-12-01

    Past changes in rainfall are an important indicator of variations in atmospheric circulation. However, there are very few approaches that are uniquely sensitive to past changes in rainfall and use common materials that can be accurately dated. Secondary minerals in arid soils form directly from rainfall and can precipitate continuously over hundreds of thousands of years. Previous studies have used stable isotope measurements of soil carbonates to look at a variety of processes such as precipitation source and amount, evaporation, temperature, and vegetation. Often, the challenge with stable isotope approaches is to distinguish between these factors. In addition, stable isotope studies have not traditionally used high-resolution analytical techniques to capture the temporal variations within a given sample. The development of alternative isotopic systems that more directly reflect rainfall would provide a complimentary tool to more traditional strategies. In order to evaluate whether widely observed variations in the calculated initial U isotopic composition of dated soil minerals (e.g. (234U/238U)0) reflect changes in past rainfall, we sampled modern soil pore waters, soils and dust from a rainfall gradient in Fish Lake Valley, NV. In situ ion microprobe (SHRIMP-RG) techniques were used to determine the 230Th-U ages and (234U/238U)0 from uranium-rich soil opal collected at three field sites in western North America. Modern pore waters in desert soils from Fish Lake Valley, NV show systematic decreases in (234U/238U) with increasing rainfall. This is attributed to increasing infiltration flux and chemical weathering at higher rainfall rates, as the eolian influence should likely remain the same across the rainfall gradient. Although changes in the uranium concentration and isotopic composition of dust through time may also influence the (234U/238U) of soil water, these changes are likely minimal relative to changes in infiltration flux. The variations in (234U/238U)0 obtained from 230Th-U dating of soil opal span approximately the last 5-60 kyrs. Based on the modern pore water data, we interpret low (234U/238U)0 to indicate periods of higher rainfall, and high (234U/238U)0 to indicate periods of reduced rainfall. We observe nearly synchronous shifts during the last glacial-interglacial transition along the latitudinal transect of our field sites. Our initial results show that the transition from MIS 3 to 2 was likely characterized by increasing precipitation, with peak rainfall at the beginning of MIS 2. This corresponds to generally decreasing SST off of the California coast and rainier periods in speleothem records from the southwestern United States. Additionally (234U/238U)0 from our soil opal records co-varies with fluctuations in lake levels of large pluvial lake systems in western North America. The synchronous signal of increased rainfall during MIS 2 is consistent with a southward-shift in westerly storm tracks at the LGM. Our approach demonstrates an alternative method for increasing the spatial coverage and chronology of climate records in arid regions.

  20. Mineral cycling in soil and litter arthropod food chains. Annual progress report, February 1, 1983-January 31, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Crossley, D.A. Jr.

    1983-09-30

    This annual report describes progress in research on the influence of soil fauna on the general process of terrestrial decomposition. The major goal is to investigate the regulation of decomposition by soil arthropods. Methods have included radioactive tracer measurements of food chain dynamics, rates of nutrient or mineral element flow during decomposition, and simulation modeling. This year's report describes significant progress in defining the influence of soil arthropods in stimulating microbial immobilization of nutrients. Preliminary efforts to define the importance of the soil-litter macroarthropods are also reported.

  1. Stable isotopes of carbon dioxide in soil gas over massive sulfide mineralization at Crandon, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alpers, C.N.; Dettman, D.L.; Lohmann, K.C.; Brabec, D.

    1990-01-01

    Stable isotope ratios of oxygen and carbon were determined for CO2 in soil gas in the vicinity of the massive sulfide deposit at Crandon, Wisconsin with the objective of determining the source of anomalously high CO2 concentrations detected previously by McCarthy et al. (1986). Values of ??13C in soil gas CO2 from depths between 0.5 and 1.0 m were found to range from -12.68??? to -20.03??? (PDB). Organic carbon from the uppermost meter of soil has ??13C between -24.1 and -25.8??? (PDB), indicating derivation from plant species with the C3 (Calvin) type of photosynthetic pathway. Microbial decomposition of the organic carbon and root respiration from C3 and C4 (Hatch-Slack) plants, together with atmospheric CO2 are the likely sources of carbon in soil gas CO2. Values of ??18O in soil-gas CO2 range from 32 to 38??? (SMOW). These ??18O values are intermediate between that calculated for CO2 gas in isotopic equilibrium with local groundwaters and that for atmospheric CO2. The ??18O data indicate that atmospheric CO2 has been incorporated by mixing or diffusion. Any CO2 generated by microbial oxidation of organic matter has equilibrated its oxygen isotopes with the local groundwaters. The isotopic composition of soil-gas CO2 taken from directly above the massive sulfide deposit was not distinguishable from that of background samples taken 1 to 2 km away. No enrichment of the ??13C value of soil-gas CO2 was observed, contrary to what would be expected if the anomalous CO2 were derived from the dissolution of Proterozoic marine limestone country rock or of Paleozoic limestone clasts in glacial till. Therefore, it is inferred that root respiration and decay of C3 plant material were responsible for most CO2 generation both in the vicinity of the massive sulfide and in the "background" area, on the occasion of our sampling. Interpretation of our data is complicated by the effects of rainfall, which significantly reduced the magnitude of the CO2 anomaly. Therefore, we cannot rule out the possible mechanism of carbonate dissolution driven by pyrite oxidation, as proposed by Lovell et al. (1983) and McCarthy et al. (1986). Further work is needed on seasonal and daily variations of CO2 concentrations and stable isotope ratios in various hydrogeologic and ecologic settings so that more effective sampling strategies can be developed for mineral exploration using soil gases. ?? 1990.

  2. Potential for Rapid Physical Protection of Wood and Pyrolyzed Carbon in the Mineral Soil Matrix: Effects of Soil Type, Depth, and Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castanha, C.; Tas, N.; Reichl, K.; Jansson, J. K.; Brodie, E. L.; Fischer, M. L.; Torn, M. S.

    2012-12-01

    To determine how soil type, depth, and temperature affect the stabilization of biochar and wood in soils, we conducted an incubation study using soils from a moist tropical forest in Tabonuco, Puerto Rico and from a Mediterranean grassland in Hopland, California, collected from surface and from deep horizons. To these four soil types we added ground 13C-labeled biochar (or the wood from which it was derived) and incubated at ambient (14 °C for the Hopland and 20 °C for the Tabonuco soil) and elevated (ambient +6 °C) temperatures at field gravimetric moisture content (20% for Hopland and 80% for Tabonuco) for 13 months. Preliminary analysis of the 13CO2 evolution from these soils indicates that wood was mineralized faster than biochar. Differences in the matrix of the soils - greater clay and iron oxide content in the Tabonuco Oxisol than in the Hopland Ultisol, but also greater clay and iron oxide content in the deep compared to the surface Hopland soil - lead to the expectation that the potential for physical protection of organic carbon substrates from mineralization is greater in the tropical soils and also greater in the deeper horizons. Here we present results from 13C analyses of density fractionations conducted on the soils after they incubated for 13 months, and thereby quantify the extent to which the introduced 13C was mobilized from the free particulate fraction, where it was added, to the intra-aggregate particulate fraction and the mineral-associated fraction. Our results will enable better predictions of the environmental conditions under which biochar (and wood) is more likely to contribute to stable soil carbon pools.

  3. Substrate quality alters the microbial mineralization of added substrate and soil organic carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagadamma, S.; Mayes, M. A.; Steinweg, J. M.; Schaeffer, S. M.

    2014-09-01

    The rate and extent of decomposition of soil organic carbon (SOC) is dependent, among other factors, on substrate chemistry and microbial dynamics. Our objectives were to understand the influence of substrate chemistry on microbial decomposition of carbon (C), and to use model fitting to quantify differences in pool sizes and mineralization rates. We conducted an incubation experiment for 270 days using four uniformly labeled 14C substrates (glucose, starch, cinnamic acid and stearic acid) on four different soils (a temperate Mollisol, a tropical Ultisol, a sub-arctic Andisol, and an arctic Gelisol). The 14C labeling enabled us to separate CO2 respired from added substrates and from native SOC. Microbial gene copy numbers were quantified at days 4, 30 and 270 using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Substrate C respiration was always higher for glucose than other substrates. Soils with cinnamic and stearic acid lost more native SOC than glucose- and starch-amended soils. Cinnamic and stearic acid amendments also exhibited higher fungal gene copy numbers at the end of incubation compared to unamended soils. We found that 270 days were sufficient to model the decomposition of simple substrates (glucose and starch) with three pools, but were insufficient for more complex substrates (cinnamic and stearic acid) and native SOC. This study reveals that substrate quality exerts considerable control on the microbial decomposition of newly added and native SOC, and demonstrates the need for multi-year incubation experiments to constrain decomposition parameters for the most recalcitrant fractions of SOC and complex substrates.

  4. Substrate quality alters microbial mineralization of added substrate and soil organic carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagadamma, S.; Mayes, M. A.; Steinweg, J. M.; Schaeffer, S. M.

    2014-03-01

    The rate and extent of decomposition of soil organic carbon (SOC) is dependent on substrate chemistry and microbial dynamics. Our objectives were to understand the influence of substrate chemistry on microbial processing of carbon (C), and to use model fitting to quantify differences in pool sizes and mineralization rates. We conducted an incubation experiment for 270 days using four uniformly-labeled 14C substrates (glucose, starch, cinnamic acid and stearic acid) on four different soils (a temperate Mollisol, a tropical Ultisol, a sub-arctic Andisol, and an arctic Gelisol). The 14C labeling enabled us to separate CO2 respired from added substrates and from native SOC. Microbial gene copy numbers were quantified at days 4, 30 and 270 using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Substrate C respiration was always higher for glucose than other substrates. Soils with cinnamic and stearic acid lost more native SOC than glucose- and starch-amended soils, despite an initial delay in respiration. Cinnamic and stearic acid amendments also exhibited higher fungal gene copy numbers at the end of incubation compared to unamended soils. We found that 270 days was sufficient to model decomposition of simple substrates (glucose and starch) with three pools, but was insufficient for more complex substrates (cinnamic and stearic acid) and native SOC. This study reveals that substrate quality imparts considerable control on microbial decomposition of newly added and native SOC, and demonstrates the need for multi-year incubation experiments to constrain decomposition parameters for the most recalcitrant fractions of SOC and added substrates.

  5. Amplification of plasmid DNA bound on soil colloidal particles and clay minerals by the polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Cai, Peng; Huang, Qiao-yun; Lu, Yan-du; Chen, Wen-li; Jiang, Dai-hua; Liang, Wei

    2007-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to amplify a 600-base pair (bp) sequence of plasmid pGEX-2T DNA bound on soil colloidal particles from Brown soil (Alfisol) and Red soil (Ultisol), and three different minerals (goethite, kaolinite, montmorillonite). DNA bound on soil colloids, kaolinite, and montmorillonite was not amplified when the complexes were used directly but amplification occurred when the soil colloid or kaolinite-DNA complex was diluted, 10- and 20-fold. The montmorillonite-DNA complex required at least 100-fold dilution before amplification could be detected. DNA bound on goethite was amplified irrespective of whether the complex was used directly, or diluted 10- and 20-fold. The amplification of mineral-bound plasmid DNA by PCR is, therefore, markedly influenced by the type and concentration of minerals used. This information is of fundamental importance to soil molecular microbial ecology with particular reference to monitoring the fate of genetically engineered microorganisms and their recombinant DNA in soil environments. PMID:18232226

  6. Carbon mineralization of flooded boreal soil and vegetation under different temperature and oxygen conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Ullah, S.; Roulet, N.; Moore, T.

    2009-05-01

    Flooding of terrestrial ecosystems significantly alters carbon (C) mineralization rates, which results in increasing emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4). To better understand the changes after water impoundment, C mineralization under flooded conditions needs to be investigated. This study investigates CO2 and CH4 fluxes from flooded boreal soil and vegetation, compares them to the fluxes of non- flooded treatment, and examines how environmental factors affect the fluxes. We conducted short-term in vitro experiments using boreal forest soil (FH layer), peat soil (0 to 5 and 5 to 15 cm) layer, and black spruce needles and small twigs, and shrub, sedge, lichen, and moss tissues. Flooded samples were incubated in 1- L Mason jars without light, under three temperatures (5, 12, and 24degC) and 0 and 50 percent of ambient oxygen (O2) concentration, and non-flooded ones were incubated in 1-L plastic containers under same light and temperature conditions to those of flooded samples and ambient oxygen concentration. We collected gas samples after flushing with nitrogen gas and air, and the fluxes of CO2 and CH4 were determined by gas chromatography. The average CO2 and CH4 fluxes in all materials were 200 and 0.8 microgram C/g organic matter/day, with smaller CO2 fluxes and larger CH4 fluxes than the fluxes of non-flooding (CO2 and CH4: 370 and 0.2 microgram C/g organic matter/day). Among the flooded samples, forest and peatland ground vegetation showed much high CO2 fluxes, and peat soils released more CH4 than other materials. Higher temperatures increased emissions of both CO2 and CH4, and the lower O2 concentration increased CH4 emissions. These results suggest the flooded vegetation and peat soil largely contribute to the total C emission in the flooded ecosystem and that spatial and temporal variability in CO2 and CH4 emissions can be related to substrate type, temperature and O2 concentration.

  7. Nitrogen mineralization and transformation from composts and biosolids during field incubation in a sandy soil

    SciTech Connect

    He, Z.L.; Alva, A.K.; Yan, P.; Li, Y.C.; Calvert, D.V.; Stoffella, P.J.; Banks, D.J.

    2000-02-01

    Field evaluation of nutrient release from composts is important to estimate nutrient contribution to crops, potential leaching of nutrients, and, ultimately, to determine optimum application rates, timing, and placement of composts. Field incubation and laboratory analyses were conducted to evaluate the mineralization rate and transformation of N in biosolids (BSD), yard waste (YW), and West Palm Beach co-compost (WPCC). Each of the composts or biosolids was packed into PVC columns and inserted vertically into the upper layer of an Oldsmar fine sand of raised citrus beds. The top end of the PVC column was capped to prevent excessive leaching of nutrients from the columns. The moisture equilibrium between the incubated sample and the soil in the field was attained through the bottom and four side holes of each column, which were separated from the contacting soil by 400-mesh nylon screen. A set of the incubated columns was removed at monthly intervals, and the soil underlying each column was sampled to analyze for KCl-extractable NH{sub 4}-N and NO{sub 3}-N. Total C and N of the incubated samples were determined at the end of the 1-year incubation.

  8. Stimulating soil microorganisms for mineralizing the herbicide isoproturon by means of microbial electroremediating cells.

    PubMed

    Rodrigo Quejigo, Jose; Dörfler, Ulrike; Schroll, Reiner; Esteve-Núñez, Abraham

    2016-05-01

    The absence of suitable terminal electron acceptors (TEA) in soil might limit the oxidative metabolism of environmental microbial populations. Microbial electroremediating cells (MERCs) consist in a variety of bioelectrochemical devices that aim to overcome electron acceptor limitation and maximize metabolic oxidation with the purpose of enhancing the biodegradation of a pollutant in the environment. The objective of this work was to use MERCs principles for stimulating soil bacteria to achieve the complete biodegradation of the herbicide (14) C-isoproturon (IPU) to (14) CO2 in soils. Our study concludes that using electrodes at a positive potential [+600 mV (versus Ag/AgCl)] enhanced the mineralization by 20-fold respect the electrode-free control. We also report an overall profile of the (14) C-IPU metabolites and a (14) C mass balance in response to the different treatments. The remarkable impact of electrodes on the microbial activity of natural communities suggests a promising future for this emerging environmental technology that we propose to name bioelectroventing. PMID:26880137

  9. Characterization of mineral phosphate solubilization traits from a barley rhizosphere soil functional metagenome.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, Sagar; Brazil, Dina; Morrissey, John; Burke, James I; O'Gara, Fergal; N Dowling, David

    2013-10-01

    Mineral phosphate solubilization (MPS) microorganisms are important for their provision of orthophosphate anions for plant growth promotion activity in soil. In this study, we applied a functional metagenomic approach to identify this trait directly from the microbiome in barley rhizosphere soil that had not received P fertilizer over a 15-year period. A fosmid system was used to clone the metagenome of which 18,000 clones (~666 Mb of DNA) was screened for MPS. Functional assays and High Performance Liquid Chromatography analysis recognized gluconic acid production and MPS activity in the range 24.8-77.1 mmol/L and 27.6-38.16 ?g/mL, respectively, when screened in an Escherichia coli host (at frequency of one MPS-positive clone hit per 114 Mb DNA tested). The MPS clones (with average insert size of ~37 kb) were analysed by 454 Roche sequencing and annotated. A number of genes/operons with homology to Phosphorous (P) uptake, regulatory and solubilization mechanisms were identified, linking the MPS function to the uncultivated microbiome present in barley rhizosphere soil. PMID:23894099

  10. Characterization of mineral phosphate solubilization traits from a barley rhizosphere soil functional metagenome

    PubMed Central

    Chhabra, Sagar; Brazil, Dina; Morrissey, John; Burke, James I; O'Gara, Fergal; N Dowling, David

    2013-01-01

    Mineral phosphate solubilization (MPS) microorganisms are important for their provision of orthophosphate anions for plant growth promotion activity in soil. In this study, we applied a functional metagenomic approach to identify this trait directly from the microbiome in barley rhizosphere soil that had not received P fertilizer over a 15-year period. A fosmid system was used to clone the metagenome of which 18,000 clones (∼666 Mb of DNA) was screened for MPS. Functional assays and High Performance Liquid Chromatography analysis recognized gluconic acid production and MPS activity in the range 24.8–77.1 mmol/L and 27.6–38.16 μg/mL, respectively, when screened in an Escherichia coli host (at frequency of one MPS-positive clone hit per 114 Mb DNA tested). The MPS clones (with average insert size of ∼37 kb) were analysed by 454 Roche sequencing and annotated. A number of genes/operons with homology to Phosphorous (P) uptake, regulatory and solubilization mechanisms were identified, linking the MPS function to the uncultivated microbiome present in barley rhizosphere soil. PMID:23894099

  11. Mineral soil carbon and nitrogen still low three decades following clearcut harvesting in a typical Acadian Forest stand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellman, L. M.; Prest, D.; Lavigne, M.; Gabriel, C.

    2013-12-01

    Given the important role forest soil organic matter (SOM) plays in global greenhouse gas regulation, forest productivity, and functioning of forest ecosystems, it is imperative to understand the effect of intensive forest management practices on forest SOM stores. This study compared SOM in two typical Acadian Forest stands that were both heavily logged in 1900. One of the two stands was clearcut harvested again in 1974, allowing comparison between a 35-year-old clearcut stand and a 110 year-old reference stand. We found lower mineral soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) storage (27% and 26%, respectively), and lower C and N concentrations in the top 50 cm of soil of the 35-year-old stand compared with the 110-year-old stand. Isotopic compositions of C and N characterized for each site through the soil profile, showed patterns consistent with other profile studies, but did not identify significant differences between sites within specific soil strata. This study demonstrates a clear trend of soil C and N losses following clearcut harvesting in this temperate forest system by sampling to a depth of at least 50 cm and using a reference site that had been left undisturbed for at least 110 years. The study design emphasized within stand spatial representation and analysis of the mineral soil component of the soil profile, factors that have helped to elucidate forest soil C and N dynamics in the decades following this intensive forest management practice.

  12. Long Term Effect of Land Reclamation from Lake on Chemical Composition of Soil Organic Matter and Its Mineralization

    PubMed Central

    He, Dongmei; Ruan, Honghua

    2014-01-01

    Since the late 1950s, land reclamation from lakes has been a common human disturbance to ecosystems in China. It has greatly diminished the lake area, and altered natural ecological succession. However, little is known about its impact on the carbon (C) cycle. We conducted an experiment to examine the variations of chemical properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and C mineralization under four land uses, i.e. coniferous forest (CF), evergreen broadleaf forest (EBF), bamboo forest (BF) and cropland (CL) in a reclaimed land area from Taihu Lake. Soils and lake sediments (LS) were incubated for 360 days in the laboratory and the CO2 evolution from each soil during the incubation was fit to a double exponential model. The DOM was analyzed at the beginning and end of the incubation using UV and fluorescence spectroscopy to understand the relationships between DOM chemistry and C mineralization. The C mineralization in our study was influenced by the land use with different vegetation and management. The greatest cumulative CO2-C emission was observed in BF soil at 0–10 cm depth. The active C pool in EBF at 10–25 cm had longer (62 days) mean residence time (MRT). LS showed the highest cumulative CO2-C and shortest MRT comparing with the terrestrial soils. The carbohydrates in DOM were positively correlated with CO2-C evolution and negatively correlated to phenols in the forest soils. Cropland was consistently an outlier in relationships between DOM chemistry and CO2-evolution, highlighting the unique effects that this land use on soil C cycling, which may be attributed the tillage practices. Our results suggest that C mineralization is closely related to the chemical composition of DOM and sensitive to its variation. Conversion of an aquatic ecosystem into a terrestrial ecosystem may alter the chemical structure of DOM, and then influences soil C mineralization. PMID:24905998

  13. Interactive control of minerals, wildfire, and erosion on soil carbon stabilization in conifer ecosystems of the western U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, C.

    2014-12-01

    Answering the question of what controls the fate and stabilization of organic carbon in forest soils is central to understanding the role of western US ecosystems in mitigating climate change, optimizing forest management, and quantifying local and regional terrestrial carbon budgets. Over half of forest soil C is stored belowground, stabilized by a number of separate, but interacting physical, chemical and biological mechanisms. Here we synthesize data from a series of field and laboratory studies focused on identifying mineral, physical, and landscape position controls on belowground C stabilization mechanisms in western U.S. conifer ecosystems. Results from these studies demonstrate an important for role for short-range-order Fe- and Al-oxyhydroxides and Al-humus complexes in C stabilization, and that the soil mineral assemblage moderates C cycling via control on partitioning of C into physical fractions ("free", "occluded", "mineral") with varying MRT and chemistry. Measures of occluded fraction chemical composition by 13C-NMR indicate this fraction is 2-5 times more enriched in pyrogenic C than the bulk soil and that this fraction is on the order of ~25 to 65% charred materials. Radiocarbon analyses of a large set of conifer soil samples from California and Arizona further indicate the occluded fraction is generally older than either the free light or mineral fraction. In particular, soil C in convergent, water and sediment gathering portions of the landscape are enriched in long MRT charred materials. These results indicate an important role for the interaction of soil mineral assemblage, wildfire, and erosion in controlling belowground C storage and stabilization in western conifer forests. Drought and wildfire are expected to increase with climate change and thus may exert significant control on belowground C storage directly through biochemical and physical changes in aboveground biomass, production of charred materials, and indirectly via post-fire physical erosion and redistribution of C-rich sediment across the landscape.

  14. Seasonal Soil Nitrogen Mineralization within an Integrated Crop and Livestock System in Western North Dakota, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landblom, Douglas; Senturklu, Songul; Cihacek, Larry; Pfenning, Lauren; Brevik, Eric C.

    2015-04-01

    Protecting natural resources while maintaining or maximizing crop yield potential is of utmost importance for sustainable crop and livestock production systems. Since soil organic matter and its decomposition by soil organisms is at the very foundation of healthy productive soils, systems research at the North Dakota State University Dickinson Research Extension Center is evaluating seasonal soil nitrogen fertility within an integrated crop and livestock production system. The 5-year diverse crop rotation is: sunflower (SF) - hard red spring wheat (HRSW) - fall seeded winter triticale-hairy vetch (THV; spring harvested for hay)/spring seeded 7-species cover crop (CC) - Corn (C) (85-90 day var.) - field pea-barley intercrop (PBY). The HRSW and SF are harvested as cash crops and the PBY, C, and CC are harvested by grazing cattle. In the system, yearling beef steers graze the PBY and C before feedlot entry and after weaning, gestating beef cows graze the CC. Since rotation establishment, four crop years have been harvested from the crop rotation. All crops have been seeded using a JD 1590 no-till drill except C and SF. Corn and SF were planted using a JD 7000 no-till planter. The HRSW, PBY, and CC were seeded at a soil depth of 3.8 cm and a row width of 19.1 cm. Seed placement for the C and SF crops was at a soil depth of 5.1 cm and the row spacing was 0.762 m. The plant population goal/ha for C, SF, and wheat was 7,689, 50,587, and 7,244 p/ha, respectively. During the 3rd cropping year, soil bulk density was measured and during the 4th cropping year, seasonal nitrogen fertility was monitored throughout the growing season from June to October. Seasonal nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N), ammonium nitrogen (NH4-N), total season mineral nitrogen (NO3-N + NH4-N), cropping system NO3-N, and bulk density were measured in 3 replicated non-fertilized field plot areas within each 10.6 ha triple replicated crop fields. Within each plot area, 6 - 20.3 cm x 0.61 m aluminum irrigation pipes were pressed into the soil as enclosures to restrict root access to soil nitrogen. Soil samples were taken as close to 2-week intervals as possible from both inside and outside the enclosures. The crop rotation N values were also compared to triple replicated perennial native grassland plot areas (predominate sp. Western wheatgrass - Pascopyrum smithii, Blue grama - Bouteloua gracilis, Little bluestem - Schizachyrium scoparium, Switchgrass - Panicum virgatum). Trends identified for both NH4-N and NO3-N indicate that the values are relatively similar with respect to seasonal change over time. There was a greater amount of soil nitrogen accumulation inside the enclosures indicating that outside the enclosures roots scavenge nitrogen for plant growth and production. Seasonally, comparing the cropping system crops, NO3-N declined mid-July and then rebounded by mid-August and continued to increase until leveling off in September. Corn NO3-N, however, did not follow this pattern, but increased from early June to the end of June and remained high until the first of September. We will present the results of bulk density data and seasonal N fertility data providing evidence for the impact of previous CC on corn production. Probable explanation for the mid-summer nitrogen decline will be presented and justification for reduced fertilizer application will be discussed.

  15. Applications of PIXE to mineral characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Graham C.; Rucklidge, John C.; Campbell, John L.; Nejedly, Zdenek; Teesdale, William J.

    2002-04-01

    This article illustrates the application of the proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique to detailed documentation of mineral assemblages, with emphasis on base-metal ores. Some of the investigations aided by the PIXE laboratory at Guelph since 1993 include determinations of the distribution of minor and trace elements in magmatic Ni-Cu ores, volcanogenic massive sulphide Cu-Pb-Zn-(Ag-Au) ores and lode Au-(Ag) deposits. Minor elements of importance include possible by-products or co-products of metal refining, as well as deleterious impurities in mill-feed, e.g. Cd, In, Sn, As, Se, Te, Tl and Hg. Weathering products of primary sulphide mineralization, including tropical laterites and other oxidized assemblages, have been analysed successfully and can contain a wide range of minor elements which reflect the bedrock style of mineralization. The iron oxyhydroxide goethite, ?-FeO(OH), contains trace levels of many elements, and in some cases 1 wt.% or more of base metals and arsenic, elements which are invisible in reflected-light microscopy. Other metals such as Ag are of sporadic occurrence in oxidized ores: they may be found as discrete mineral species, not incorporated into the dominant oxyhydroxides. A summary of findings from three base-metal deposits in Canada, the Philippines and Portugal serves to illustrate the manner in which PIXE data benefit our knowledge of metal distributions in metallic ores. PIXE can contribute to several facets of mineral-deposit research, such as: (1) the development of ore textures, and specifically the distribution of elements within zoned crystals, or between multiple generations of a particular mineral; (2) the location of precious metals, Ag being in general the simplest case; and (3) pinpointing elements that may have implications for ore genesis, environmental quality or metal refining, such as Cr, As and Se.

  16. Clay fractions from a soil chronosequence after glacier retreat reveal the initial evolution of organo-mineral associations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dümig, Alexander; Häusler, Werner; Steffens, Markus; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid

    2012-05-01

    Interactions between organic and mineral constituents prolong the residence time of organic matter in soils. However, the structural organization and mechanisms of organic coverage on mineral surfaces as well as their development with time are still unclear. We used clay fractions from a soil chronosequence (15, 75 and 120 years) in the foreland of the retreating Damma glacier (Switzerland) and from mature soils outside the proglacial area (>700 and <3000 years) to elucidate the evolution of organo-mineral associations during initial soil formation. The chemical composition of the clay-bound organic matter (OM) was assessed by solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy while the quantities of amino acids and neutral sugar monomers were determined after acid hydrolysis. The mineral phase was characterized by X-ray diffraction, oxalate extraction, specific surface area by N2 adsorption (BET approach), and cation exchange capacity at pH 7 (CECpH7). The last two methods were applied before and after H2O2 treatment. We found pronounced shifts in quantity and quality of OM during aging of the clay fractions, especially within the first one hundred years of soil formation. The strongly increasing organic carbon (OC) loading of clay-sized particles resulted in decreasing specific surface areas (SSA) of the mineral phases and increasing CECpH7. Thus, OC accumulation was faster than the supply of mineral surfaces and cation exchange capacity was mainly determined by the OC content. Clay-bound OC of the 15-year-old soils showed high proportions of carboxyl C and aromatic C. This may point to remnants of ancient OC which were inherited from the recently exposed glacial till. With increasing age (75 and 120 years), the relative proportions of carboxyl and aromatic C decreased. This was associated with increasing O-alkyl C proportions, whereas accumulation of alkyl C was mainly detected in clay fractions from the mature soils. These findings from solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy are in line with the increasing amounts of microbial-derived carbohydrates with soil age. The large accumulation of proteins, which was comparable to those of carbohydrates, and the very low C/N ratios of H2O2-resistant OM indicated strong and preferential associations between proteinaceous compounds and mineral surfaces. In the acid soils, poorly crystalline Fe oxides were the main providers of mineral surface area and important for the stabilization of OM during aging of the clay fractions. This was indicated by (I) the strong correlations between oxalate soluble Fe and both, SSA of H2O2-treated clay fractions and OC content, and (II) the low formation of expandable clays due to small extents of mineral weathering. Our chronosequence approach provided new insights into the evolution of organo-mineral interactions in acid soils. The formation of organo-mineral associations started with the sorption of proteinaceous compounds and microbial-derived carbohydrates on mineral surfaces which were mainly provided by ferrihydrite. The sequential accumulation of different organic compounds and the large OC loadings point to multiple accretion of OM in distinct zones or layers during the initial evolution of clay fractions.

  17. Microbial weathering of apatite and wollastonite in a forest soil: Evidence from minerals buried in a root-free zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nezat, C. A.

    2011-12-01

    Mineral weathering is an important process in biogeochemical cycling because it releases nutrients from less labile pools (e.g., rocks) to the food chain. A field experiment was undertaken to determine the degree to which microbes - both fungi and bacteria - are responsible for weathering of Ca-bearing minerals. The experiment was performed at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF) in the northeastern USA, where acid deposition has leached plant-available calcium from soils for decades. Trees obtain soil nutrients through root uptake as well as through mycorrhizal fungi with which they are symbiotically associated. These fungi extend their hyphae from the tree roots into the soil and exude organic acids that may enhance mineral dissolution. The two most common types of symbiotic fungal-tree associations are ectomycorrhizae, which are associated with spruce (Picea), fir (Abies), and beech (Fagus); and arbuscular mycorrhizae which are commonly associated with angiosperms, such as maples (Acer). To examine the role of fungi and bacteria in weathering of Ca- and/or P-bearing minerals, mesh bags containing sand-sized grains of quartz (as a control), quartz plus 1% wollastonite (CaSiO3), or quartz plus 1% apatite (Ca5(PO4)3F) were buried ~15 cm deep in mineral soil beneath American beech, sugar maple, and mixed spruce and balsam fir stands at the HBEF. Half of the bags were constructed of 50-μm mesh to exclude roots but allow fungal hyphae and bacteria to enter the bags; the remaining bags had 1-μm mesh to exclude fungi and roots but allow bacteria to enter. The bags were retrieved ~ 1, 2 or 4 years after burial. Microbial community composition and biomass in the mesh bags and surrounding soil were characterized and quantified using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. Fungal biomass in the soil and control bags did not differ significantly among stand types. In contrast, the degree of fungal colonization in apatite- and wollastonite-amended bags varied significantly, suggesting that microbial response was due to tree species, type of mycorrhizal fungi, nutrient status of the soils, and mineral composition of the mesh bags. Mineral surfaces were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to investigate the degree of mineral dissolution as a function of stand type, microbial composition, and time.

  18. Spectrophotometric determination of vanadium(V) in minerals, steels, soil and biological samples using phenothiazine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Melwanki, M B; Seetharamappa, J; Masti, S P

    2001-08-01

    Two simple, rapid and sensitive spectrophotometric methods have been proposed for the determination of vanadium(V) using butaperazine dimaleate (BPD) and propionyl promazine phosphate (PPP). These methods are based on the formation of red-colored radical cations on reaction with vanadium(V) in phosphoric acid medium, with their absorbance maxima at 513 nm. Beer's law is valid over the concentration range of 0.25-5.0 micrograms ml-1 and 0.2-4.0 micrograms ml-1, with Sandell's sensitivity values of 6.1 ng cm-2 and 6.0 ng cm-2 for BPD and PPP respectively. The proposed methods have been successfully applied to the analysis of vanadium steels, minerals, biological samples and soil samples. PMID:11708104

  19. Biomass estimation approach impacts on calculated soil organic carbon maintenance requirements and associated mineralization rate constants.

    PubMed

    Clay, David; Carlson, Gregg; Schumacher, Thomas; Owens, Vance; Mamani-Pati, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    To reduce atmospheric CO(2) concentrations and provide food for a growing world population, sustainable management practices must be adopted. An important consideration in the development of sustainable practices is the maintenance of soil organic carbon (SOC). Critical assumptions, with unknown errors, are used to calculate SOC maintenance requirements. This study investigated the impact of three approaches for estimating belowground nonharvested carbon (NHC) on SOC maintenance requirements, SOC and nonharvested C mineralization rate constants, and the capacity of the soil to sequester carbon. Common protocols were used to develop databases from eight historical carbon studies. The SOC to CO(2) (k(SOC)) and NHC to SOC (k(NHC)) rate constants were calculated using the model NHC(a)/SOC(i) = k(SOC)/k(NHC) + dSOC/dt(1/k(NHC)SOC(i)), where NHC(a) is the amount of applied NHC, SOC(e) is SOC at the equilibrium point, t = time, and SOC(i) is the initial SOC value. Analysis showed that (i) despite the difficulty in measuring belowground biomass, it is needed to calculate the SOC and NHC mineralization rate constants when using nonisotopic approaches; (ii) decreasing NHC by reducing the relative contribution of roots to NHC reduced the calculated SOC maintenance requirements and the amount of corn stover that could be sustainably harvested; iii) changes in the belowground NHC calculation approach do not result in a consistent impact on calculated rate constants; iv) changes in the belowground NHC calculation approach had a minimal impact on the calculated carbon sequestration potential (k(NHC)NHC)/k(SOC); (v) SOC at the beginning of the experiments was negatively correlated with temperature, while k(SOC) was positively correlated with tillage intensity; and (vi) the k(SOC) and k(NHC) rate constants can be used to directly assess the impact of different management scenarios on carbon turnover. PMID:20400574

  20. Effects of different parent material on the mineral characteristics of soils in the arid region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Irmak, S; Surucu, A K; Aydogdu, I H

    2007-02-15

    Physical, chemical and mineralogical characteristics of seven soils developed on four different parent materials such as basalt, limestone, marine and alluvium were studied to determine the effect of parent material on the soil characteristics in the arid and semiarid regions in the Southeast Anatolia Region of Turkey. Parent material have affected the morphology and chemistry of the soils. Carbonate contents of the soils are changing between 14.1 and 42.6%. The high carbonate contents of the soils, developed on the basalt rocks, might be attributed to eolian additions from calcareous soils. The red colour of basaltic soils might be associated with the Fe2O3 content of the parent material. Available Fe2O3 content of the basaltic soils was relatively higher than other soils and measured between 0.56 and 2.05%. Available Fe2O3 content of the soils on the marine was very low and changed between 0.26 and 0.37%. Total Fe2O3 content of the basaltic soils was higher than other soils and changed between 4.36 and 6.70%. The total Al2O3 content of the basaltic soils was obtained relatively higher than other soils and changed between 4.92 and 8.72%. The high Al2O3 and Fe2O3 contents of the basaltic soils may be associated with the weathering of basalt rocks. Also analysis of the basaltic rock samples has showed similar mineralogical composition. X-Ray diffraction analysis data showed that smectite was the dominant clay mineral in all the soils. Palygorskite was the second most abundant mineral after smectite. Moreover, some mineralogical properties reflected the traces of climatic changed during the Holocene. The leaching factor were determined as >1 in the Profile PL2 and as < 1 in the Profiles PL1, PL3, PL4, PL5; PL6 and PL7. The low leaching factor (< 1) may be attributed to weathering of parent material. The soils were classified according to Soil Taxonomy as Aridisol, Entisol, Vertisol and Inceptisol. PMID:19069531

  1. Sorption-desorption of ionogenic compounds at the mineral-water interface: study of metal oxide-rich soils and pure-phase minerals.

    PubMed

    Vasudevan, Dharni; Cooper, Ellen M; Van Exem, Oliver L

    2002-02-01

    Sorption of the ionic compounds 2,4-D and quinmerac onto iron oxide-rich, variable charged soils was strongly influenced by mineralogy, particularly soil iron and aluminum oxides, whereas sorption of the neutral norflurazon was only related to total soil C. An appreciable fraction of the mass sorbed in stirred-flow studies was easily desorbed by deionized water, and desorption of ionic compounds was initially more rapid than sorption. This sorption-desorption behavior, although contrary to desorption hysteresis commonly observed in batch studies, suggests that the reversibly sorbed fraction is weakly bound to the soil surface. 2,4-D sorption to iron oxide-rich soils and pure-phase metal oxides appears to be driven by nonspecific electrostatic attraction, with specific electrostatic attraction and van der Waals interactions being secondary. Both the carboxylate and the heterocyclic N groups may participate in sorption of quinmerac, facilitated by specific and nonspecific electrostatic attraction and surface complexation. The heterocyclic N, amine, and carbonyl groups of norflurazon do not appear to interact with soil minerals. PMID:11871567

  2. Post-fire spatial patterns of soil nitrogen mineralization and microbial abundance.

    PubMed

    Smithwick, Erica A H; Naithani, Kusum J; Balser, Teri C; Romme, William H; Turner, Monica G

    2012-01-01

    Stand-replacing fires influence soil nitrogen availability and microbial community composition, which may in turn mediate post-fire successional dynamics and nutrient cycling. However, fires create patchiness at both local and landscape scales and do not result in consistent patterns of ecological dynamics. The objectives of this study were to (1) quantify the spatial structure of microbial communities in forest stands recently affected by stand-replacing fire and (2) determine whether microbial variables aid predictions of in situ net nitrogen mineralization rates in recently burned stands. The study was conducted in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) and Engelmann spruce/subalpine fir (Picea engelmannii/Abies lasiocarpa) forest stands that burned during summer 2000 in Greater Yellowstone (Wyoming, USA). Using a fully probabilistic spatial process model and Bayesian kriging, the spatial structure of microbial lipid abundance and fungi-to-bacteria ratios were found to be spatially structured within plots two years following fire (for most plots, autocorrelation range varied from 1.5 to 10.5 m). Congruence of spatial patterns among microbial variables, in situ net N mineralization, and cover variables was evident. Stepwise regression resulted in significant models of in situ net N mineralization and included variables describing fungal and bacterial abundance, although explained variance was low (R²<0.29). Unraveling complex spatial patterns of nutrient cycling and the biotic factors that regulate it remains challenging but is critical for explaining post-fire ecosystem function, especially in Greater Yellowstone, which is projected to experience increased fire frequencies by mid 21(st) Century. PMID:23226324

  3. Post-Fire Spatial Patterns of Soil Nitrogen Mineralization and Microbial Abundance

    PubMed Central

    Smithwick, Erica A. H.; Naithani, Kusum J.; Balser, Teri C.; Romme, William H.; Turner, Monica G.

    2012-01-01

    Stand-replacing fires influence soil nitrogen availability and microbial community composition, which may in turn mediate post-fire successional dynamics and nutrient cycling. However, fires create patchiness at both local and landscape scales and do not result in consistent patterns of ecological dynamics. The objectives of this study were to (1) quantify the spatial structure of microbial communities in forest stands recently affected by stand-replacing fire and (2) determine whether microbial variables aid predictions of in situ net nitrogen mineralization rates in recently burned stands. The study was conducted in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) and Engelmann spruce/subalpine fir (Picea engelmannii/Abies lasiocarpa) forest stands that burned during summer 2000 in Greater Yellowstone (Wyoming, USA). Using a fully probabilistic spatial process model and Bayesian kriging, the spatial structure of microbial lipid abundance and fungi-to-bacteria ratios were found to be spatially structured within plots two years following fire (for most plots, autocorrelation range varied from 1.5 to 10.5 m). Congruence of spatial patterns among microbial variables, in situ net N mineralization, and cover variables was evident. Stepwise regression resulted in significant models of in situ net N mineralization and included variables describing fungal and bacterial abundance, although explained variance was low (R2<0.29). Unraveling complex spatial patterns of nutrient cycling and the biotic factors that regulate it remains challenging but is critical for explaining post-fire ecosystem function, especially in Greater Yellowstone, which is projected to experience increased fire frequencies by mid 21st Century. PMID:23226324

  4. Carbon dioxide emissions from semi-arid soils amended with biochar alone or combined with mineral and organic fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Fernández, José M; Nieto, M Aurora; López-de-Sá, Esther G; Gascó, Gabriel; Méndez, Ana; Plaza, César

    2014-06-01

    Semi-arid soils cover a significant area of Earth's land surface and typically contain large amounts of inorganic C. Determining the effects of biochar additions on CO2 emissions from semi-arid soils is therefore essential for evaluating the potential of biochar as a climate change mitigation strategy. Here, we measured the CO2 that evolved from semi-arid calcareous soils amended with biochar at rates of 0 and 20tha(-1) in a full factorial combination with three different fertilizers (mineral fertilizer, municipal solid waste compost, and sewage sludge) applied at four rates (equivalent to 0, 75, 150, and 225kg potentially available Nha(-1)) during 182 days of aerobic incubation. A double exponential model, which describes cumulative CO2 emissions from two active soil C compartments with different turnover rates (one relatively stable and the other more labile), was found to fit very well all the experimental datasets. In general, the organic fertilizers increased the size and decomposition rate of the stable and labile soil C pools. In contrast, biochar addition had no effects on any of the double exponential model parameters and did not interact with the effects ascribed to the type and rate of fertilizer. After 182 days of incubation, soil organic and microbial biomass C contents tended to increase with increasing the application rates of organic fertilizer, especially of compost, whereas increasing the rate of mineral fertilizer tended to suppress microbial biomass. Biochar was found to increase both organic and inorganic C contents in soil and not to interact with the effects of type and rate of fertilizer on C fractions. As a whole, our results suggest that the use of biochar as enhancer of semi-arid soils, either alone or combined with mineral and organic fertilizers, is unlikely to increase abiotic and biotic soil CO2 emissions. PMID:24632059

  5. The effects of soil mineral phases on the abiotic degradation of selected organic compounds. Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Sandu, S.S.

    1992-06-01

    Tetraphonylboron (TPB) will be used to precipitate radioactive 137Cs from high level nuclear waste water, at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) which is operated by the US Department of Energy (US DOE), at the Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC. The decontaminated wastewater will contain millimolar quantities of TPB that will be processed into salt concretions. The waste processing operations will require about 3{times}l0{sup 5} kg/yr of TPB during its full scale operation. The transportation and use of large amounts of TPB can potentially result in the release of TPB into soil or aquatic environments where its degradation will take place. Previous studies have shown that TPB degrades abiotically in soils; however, the role of specific mineral surfaces in mediating the reaction kinetics and mechanisms for the abiotic degradation of TPB are not clearly known. Laboratory studies have been undertaken to evaluate the surface facilitated degradation of TPB by aluminum silicate clay minerals-kaolinite and montmorillonite. Preliminary results indicate that the rate of degradation of TPB is much higher in kaolinite-a single layer mineral-than in montmorillonite - a double layer mineral- and Orangeburg loamy soil. The initial products of TPB degradation in both minerals are diphenylboric acid (DPBA) and biphenyl. However, HPLC monitoring of degradation products of TPB in montmorillonite appears to indicate the presence of phenol and monophenyboric acid (MPBA).

  6. EFFECT OF SOIL TYPE AND FERTILIZATION LEVEL ON MINERAL CONCENTRATION OF PASTURE: RELATIONSHIP TO RUMINANT PERFORMANCE AND HEALTH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to measure the effects of varying levels of dairy slurry application on mineral content of forages from three soils types. Slurry was applied to orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L., cv. Pennlate) using 60 cm diameter drainage lysimeters to measure the direct impact of four lev...

  7. The effect of increasing salinity and forest mortality on soil nitrogen and phosphorus mineralization in tidal freshwater forested wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noe, Gregory B.; Krauss, Ken W.; Lockaby, B. Graeme; Conner, William H.; Hupp, Cliff R.

    2013-01-01

    Tidal freshwater wetlands are sensitive to sea level rise and increased salinity, although little information is known about the impact of salinification on nutrient biogeochemistry in tidal freshwater forested wetlands. We quantified soil nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) mineralization using seasonal in situ incubations of modified resin cores along spatial gradients of chronic salinification (from continuously freshwater tidal forest to salt impacted tidal forest to oligohaline marsh) and in hummocks and hollows of the continuously freshwater tidal forest along the blackwater Waccamaw River and alluvial Savannah River. Salinification increased rates of net N and P mineralization fluxes and turnover in tidal freshwater forested wetland soils, most likely through tree stress and senescence (for N) and conversion to oligohaline marsh (for P). Stimulation of N and P mineralization by chronic salinification was apparently unrelated to inputs of sulfate (for N and P) or direct effects of increased soil conductivity (for N). In addition, the tidal wetland soils of the alluvial river mineralized more P relative to N than the blackwater river. Finally, hummocks had much greater nitrification fluxes than hollows at the continuously freshwater tidal forested wetland sites. These findings add to knowledge of the responses of tidal freshwater ecosystems to sea level rise and salinification that is necessary to predict the consequences of state changes in coastal ecosystem structure and function due to global change, including potential impacts on estuarine eutrophication.

  8. Temperature, Water Content and Wet-Dry Cycle Effects on DOC Production and Carbon Mineralization in Agricultural Peat Soils.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of controlled laboratory experiments were utilized to examine factors affecting dissolved organic carbon (DOC) production and C mineralization rates over a range of conditions experienced resulting from agricultural practices in peat soils from the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. We conclude...

  9. Metagenomes from thawing low-soil-organic-carbon mineral cryosols and permafrost of the canadian high arctic.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Archana; Layton, Alice C; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A; Williams, Daniel; Pfiffner, Susan M; Rekepalli, Bhanu; Stackhouse, Brandon; Lau, Maggie C Y; Phelps, Tommy J; Mykytczuk, Nadia; Ronholm, Jennifer; Whyte, Lyle; Onstott, Tullis C; Sayler, Gary S

    2014-01-01

    Microbial release of greenhouse gases from thawing permafrost is a global concern. Seventy-six metagenomes were generated from low-soil-organic-carbon mineral cryosols from Axel Heiberg Island, Nunavut, Canada, during a controlled thawing experiment. Permafrost thawing resulted in an increase in anaerobic fermenters and sulfate-reducing bacteria but not methanogens. PMID:25414511

  10. EFFECT OF SOIL TYPE AND FERTILIZATION LEVEL ON MINERAL CONCENTRATION OF PASTURE: RELATIONSHIP TO RUMINANT PERFORMANCE AND HEALTH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A three-year study was conducted to measure the effects of varying levels of dairy slurry application on mineral concentration of forages from three soils types. Slurry was applied to orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L., cv. Pennlate) growing in 60 cm diameter drainage lysimeters to measure the dir...

  11. Submicron mineral structures control the stabilization of litter-derived organic matter in soils - A NanoSIMS study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Cordula; Mueller, Carsten W.; Hschen, Carmen; Buegger, Franz; Heister, Katja; Schulz, Stefanie; Schloter, Michael; Kgel-Knabner, Ingrid

    2014-05-01

    The sequestration of carbon and nitrogen by clay-sized particles in soils is well established. However, in the most cases, the complex structure of the organo-mineral associations remain a black box due to the common measurements of soil fractions as a whole. By combining nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) with isotopic tracing it is possible to study the formation and spatial heterogeneity of organo-mineral associations. NanoSIMS enables the detection of up to seven secondary ion species (e.g. 13C-, 12N15N-, 27Al16O-, 56Fe16O-) simultaneously, to generate a submicron-scale image of the elemental and isotopic composition (e.g. 13C, 15N, Al and Fe) down to a lateral resolution of ~150 nm. Therefore this technique can be used to study organo-mineral associations at the relevant scale. The aim of our study was to follow the formation of organo-mineral associations over different time steps and the distribution of C and N by imaging the complex arrangement between soil mineral surfaces and litter-derived organic matter (OM). Parallel to the determination of the isotopic N and C composition of bulk soil and soil fractions (combined density and particle size fractionation) using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), the spatial distribution of the OM was investigated by NanoSIMS analysis of the clay-sized fraction. In our study we show that only some of the clay-sized surfaces bind OM. Surprisingly, less than 19% of the mineral areas visible by scanning electron microscopy and NanoSIMS show an OM attachment. We demonstrate that mineral clusters with rough surfaces exhibit the preferential binding spots for OM. By combining NanoSIMS and isotopic tracing, we distinguish between new labelled and pre-existing OM and show that new OM is preferentially attached to already present organo-mineral clusters. Vogel, C., Mueller, C.W., Hschen, C., Buegger, F., Heister, K., Schulz, S., Schloter, M., Kgel-Knabner, I., 2014. Submicron structures provide preferential spots for carbon and nitrogen sequestration in soils. Nature Communications 5. doi:10.1038/ncomms3947

  12. DRIFT and HR MAS NMR characterization of humic substances from a soil treated with different organic and mineral fertilizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, Erika; Francioso, Ornella; Nardi, Serenella; Saladini, Monica; Ferro, Nicola Dal; Morari, Francesco

    2011-07-01

    In this study, using DRIFT and HR MAS NMR, we analyzed the humic substances isolated from a soil treated, over 40 years, with different organic, mineral and organic plus mineral treatments and cultivated with maize as the main crop. As expected, the structure of humic substances was very complex but by combining both techniques (DRIFT and HR MAS NMR) additional information was obtained on aromatic and aliphatic components, the most recalcitrant parts of these macromolecules. In so doing we wanted to investigate the relationship between HS structure and long-term management practices. An elevated content of lignin, aminoacids, peptides and proteins was observed mainly for farmyard manure treatments with respect to mineral or liquid manure amendments; this supports how the different management practices have greatly influenced the humification process of cultivated soils.

  13. Characterization of ^{239,240}Pu Radionuclide Adsorption to Soil Particles and Mineral Dust Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatro, D. P.; Arimoto, R.; McMillan, N. J.; Barnes, M.

    2006-12-01

    The release of ^{239,240}Pu into the environment by nuclear weapons testing 50 years ago initiated the cyclic mobilization of Pu-contaminated soil particles via the resuspension of dust resulting in a widespread distribution of Pu and other radionuclides. It is unclear what enables the aeolian transport of Pu in the environment; plausible hypotheses of Pu binding to dust and soil particles include Pu adsorption to iron oxides/hydroxides, organic acids, or silicate minerals such as clays. To investigate the connections between surface soils, dust and radionuclides, samples of soil and/or dust were collected from the Project Gnome Site in Eddy County, NM, the Jemez Mountains near Los Alamos, NM, and two 50-year old attics and wind-blown dust in Big Spring, TX. This study tests the hypothesis that Pu is adsorbed onto Fe oxides and hydroxides that coat dust/soil particles. The samples are generally low in organic carbon (0.2 - 4.8%, except for the unburned Los Alamos sample at 9.4%), as measured by LOI (Loss On Ignition) at 360 °C. The citrate-bicarbonate-dithionite method (CDB) of Fe oxide removal, first proposed by Mehra and Jackson in 1960, was used to selectively extract Fe oxides from the samples while leaving silicate Fe intact. Chemical digestion of each sample creates two fractions, the extracted supernatant and a solid pellet residue. If the Pu were associated with Fe oxides, then Fe and Pu should both be selectively removed from the bulk sample during the CBD process, leaving the pellet depleted in Fe and Pu and the supernatant enriched. For Fe, this was confirmed by scanning electron microscope and petrographic analyses. Preliminary radiochemical analyses of Pu activity also verify this hypothesis. Pu activity is significantly lower in pellets than bulk samples (Pu activitypellet/Pu activitybulk average = 0.07, range 0.02-0.12); Pu activity in supernatants is significantly higher than in bulk samples (Pu activitysupernatant/Pu activitybulk average = 4.45, range 2.53-6.92). The Big Springs wind-blown dust sample is an outlier; further analyses are in progress to evaluate its composition.

  14. Impact of soil primary size fractions on sorption and desorption of atrazine on organo-mineral fractions.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yufen; Liu, Zhongzhen; He, Yan; Li, Yanliang

    2015-03-01

    In the current study, a mechanical dispersion method was employed to separate clay (<2 μm), silt (2-20 μm), and sand (20-50 μm) fraction in six bulk soils. Batch equilibrium method was used to conduct atrazine sorption and desorption experiments on soil organo-mineral fractions with bulk soils and their contrasting size fractions separately. The potential contribution of total organic carbon (TOC) for atrazine retention in different fractions was further investigated. It was found that clay fraction had the highest adsorption but the least desorption capacities for atrazine, while sand fraction had the lowest adsorption but the highest desorption capacities for atrazine. The adsorption percentage of atrazine, as compared with adsorption by the corresponding bulk soils, ranged from 53.6 to 80.5%, 35.7 to 56.4%, and 0.2 to 4.5% on the clay, silt, and sand fractions, respectively. TOC was one of the key factors affecting atrazine retention in soils, with the exact contribution dependent on varying degree of coating with mineral component in different soil size fractions. The current study may be useful to predict the bioavailability of atrazine in different soil size fractions. PMID:25300187

  15. The adsorption and release of sulfur in mineral and organic soils of the Athabasca Oil Sands Region, Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, C J; Adkinson, A; Eimers, M C; Watmough, S A

    2010-01-01

    Mineral soil and fibric peat from acid-sensitive western boreal catchments in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region of Alberta, Canada were evaluated for their ability to adsorb and release SO(4)(2-). Laboratory batch studies indicated that SO(4)(2-) adsorption in mineral soil from both the A and B horizons exhibits a limited response to elevated SO(4)(2-) concentrations, with the slope of initial mass isotherms <0.2 for all soils, likely due to low iron and aluminum oxide content. Although S retention is the dominant process in peat soils in the region, drought simulations in the lab using fibric peat collected from a poor fen exhibited as much as a five-fold increase in SO(4)(2-) concentration after drying and rewetting. Given the limited SO(4)(2-) adsorption capacity of mineral soils and the potential drought-induced S release from peatlands in this region where increased S deposition is expected, further investigation of acidification impacts is warranted. PMID:20400606

  16. Evolution of soil organic matter changes using pyrolysis and metabolic indices: a comparison between organic and mineral fertilization.

    PubMed

    Marinari, S; Masciandaro, G; Ceccanti, B; Grego, S

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate chemical and biochemical changes of organic matter in fertilized (ammonium nitrate) and amended (vermicompost and manure) soils using pyrolysis and metabolic indices. The metabolic potential [dehydrogenase (DH-ase)/water soluble organic carbon (WSOC)], the metabolic quotient (qCO2) and the microbial quotient (Cmic:Corg) were calculated as indices of soil organic matter evolution. Pyrolysis-gas chromatography (Py-GC) was used to study structural changes in the organic matter. Carbon forms and microbial biomass have been measured by dichromate oxidation and fumigation-extraction methods, respectively. Dehydrogenase activity has been tested using INT (p-Iodonitrotetrazolium violet) as substrate. The results showed that organic amendment increased soil microbial biomass and its activity which were strictly related to pyrolytic mineralization and humification indices (N/O, B/E3). Mineral fertilization caused a greater alteration of native soil organic matter than the organic amendments, in that a high release of WSOC and relatively large amounts of aliphatic pyrolytic products, were observed. Therefore, the pyrolysis and metabolic indices provided similar and complementary information on soil organic matter changes after mineral and organic fertilization. PMID:17067793

  17. Alaska Geochemical Database (AGDB)-Geochemical data for rock, sediment, soil, mineral, and concentrate sample media

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Granitto, Matthew; Bailey, Elizabeth A.; Schmidt, Jeanine M.; Shew, Nora B.; Gamble, Bruce M.; Labay, Keith A.

    2011-01-01

    The Alaska Geochemical Database (AGDB) was created and designed to compile and integrate geochemical data from Alaska in order to facilitate geologic mapping, petrologic studies, mineral resource assessments, definition of geochemical baseline values and statistics, environmental impact assessments, and studies in medical geology. This Microsoft Access database serves as a data archive in support of present and future Alaskan geologic and geochemical projects, and contains data tables describing historical and new quantitative and qualitative geochemical analyses. The analytical results were determined by 85 laboratory and field analytical methods on 264,095 rock, sediment, soil, mineral and heavy-mineral concentrate samples. Most samples were collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel and analyzed in USGS laboratories or, under contracts, in commercial analytical laboratories. These data represent analyses of samples collected as part of various USGS programs and projects from 1962 to 2009. In addition, mineralogical data from 18,138 nonmagnetic heavy mineral concentrate samples are included in this database. The AGDB includes historical geochemical data originally archived in the USGS Rock Analysis Storage System (RASS) database, used from the mid-1960s through the late 1980s and the USGS PLUTO database used from the mid-1970s through the mid-1990s. All of these data are currently maintained in the Oracle-based National Geochemical Database (NGDB). Retrievals from the NGDB were used to generate most of the AGDB data set. These data were checked for accuracy regarding sample location, sample media type, and analytical methods used. This arduous process of reviewing, verifying and, where necessary, editing all USGS geochemical data resulted in a significantly improved Alaska geochemical dataset. USGS data that were not previously in the NGDB because the data predate the earliest USGS geochemical databases, or were once excluded for programmatic reasons, are included here in the AGDB and will be added to the NGDB. The AGDB data provided here are the most accurate and complete to date, and should be useful for a wide variety of geochemical studies. The AGDB data provided in the linked database may be updated or changed periodically. The data on the DVD and in the data downloads provided with this report are current as of date of publication.

  18. [Effects of nitrification inhibitors DCD and DMPP on cinnamon soil' s gross nitrogen mineralization and nitrification rates].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Xu, Hui; Xia, Zong-Wei; Guo, Yan-Ling

    2012-01-01

    By using 15N pool dilution technique in combining with in situ soil cultivation, this paper studied the effects of nitrification inhibitors dicyandiamide (DCD) and 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) on the gross nitrogen (N) mineralization and nitrification rates in a saline-alkali cinnamon soil in North China. The experiment was carried out in a maize-wheat rotation field in Yuncheng City of Shanxi Province, and three treatments were installed, i.e., urea, urea + DCD, and urea + DMPP. In the first two weeks after fertilization, DCD and DMPP made the gross N mineralization rate and gross N nitrification rate decreased by 25.5% and 7.3%, and by 60.3% and 59.1%, respectively, with a significant difference in the gross N mineralization rate but less difference in the gross N nitrification rate between the effects of DCD and DMPP. However, significant difference was observed in the gross N nitrification rate between the effects of DCD and DMPP after seven weeks of fertilization. The gross N mineralization and nitrification rates and the NH4+ and NO3-consumption rates after two weeks of fertilization were 7.2-10.0, 5.5-21.5, 9.1-12.2, and 5.1-8.4 times of those before fertilization, respectively, possibly due to the stimulating effect of N fertilization. DCD and DMPP made the fertilizer urea N more maintained in NH(4+)-N form and less accumulated in NO(3-)-N form in soil. The decreases of the gross N mineralization and nitrifications rate in the test soil due to the effects of the inhibitors would benefit the reduction of N2O emission from the soil. PMID:22489495

  19. The content of available mineral phosphorus compounds in chestnut soils of Northern Mongolia upon application of different forms of phosphorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubugunov, L. L.; Enkhtuyaa, B.; Merkusheva, M. G.

    2015-06-01

    The effect of different forms of phosphorite (activated and crude ground) of the Burenkhansk deposit on the phosphate status of chestnut soils and the productivity of spring wheat was studied in Northern Mongolia. It was found that the transformation of mineral soil phosphates upon the application of activated phosphorite (together with NK) is similar to that upon superphosphate application, and the available phosphorus concentration is even a gradation higher. The application of crude ground phosphorite helped to preserve the content of mineral phosphates in the soil at the initial level. Optimum concentrations of available phosphorus and the sum of loosely bound and calcium phosphates in the plow horizon were estimated 33-35 mg/kg) and 16-18 mg/100 g, respectively. Under these concentrations, high and sustainable yields of spring wheat were obtained upon application of activated phosphorite.

  20. Effect of clay minerals present in aquifer soils on the adsorption and desorption of hydrophobic organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, D.R. ); Keinath, T.M. )

    1994-02-01

    Adsorption of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) onto clay minerals and organic matter present in soils results in retarding their mobility. To study the impact of clay minerals on HOC sorption, kinetic and equilibrium studies were performed using naphthalene as a test surrogate contaminant. The results of these studies indicated that expandable clay minerals (clays that expand and expose large internal surface area on wetting), such as montmorillonite and vermiculite, had a significant impact on naphthalene partitioning. A mathematical model was developed from the equilibrium data which related clay mineral concentrations with the naphthalene partition coefficient. Equilibrium desorption studies were also performed by adding a micellar solution of a surfactant mixture (50:50) of Tween 20 and Aerosol AY-65 to mobilize the adsorbed naphthalene. The surfactant mixture was generally unable to mobilize the sorbed contaminant due to sorption irreversibility and adsorption hysteresis. 36 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  1. Factors driving the carbon mineralization priming effect in a sandy loam soil amended with different types of biochar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cely, P.; Tarquis, A. M.; Paz-Ferreiro, J.; Méndez, A.; Gascó, G.

    2014-06-01

    The effect of biochar on the soil carbon mineralization priming effect depends on the characteristics of the raw materials, production method and pyrolysis conditions. The goal of the present study is to evaluate the impact of three different types of biochar on physicochemical properties and CO2 emissions of a sandy loam soil. For this purpose, soil was amended with three different biochars (BI, BII and BIII) at a rate of 8 wt% and soil CO2 emissions were measured for 45 days. BI is produced from a mixed wood sieving from wood chip production, BII from a mixture of paper sludge and wheat husks and BIII from sewage sludge. Cumulative CO2 emissions of biochars, soil and amended soil were well fit to a simple first-order kinetic model with correlation coefficients (r2) greater than 0.97. Results show a negative priming effect in the soil after addition of BI and a positive priming effect in the case of soil amended with BII and BIII. These results can be related to different biochar properties such as carbon content, carbon aromaticity, volatile matter, fixed carbon, easily oxidized organic carbon or metal and phenolic substance content in addition to surface biochar properties. Three biochars increased the values of soil field capacity and wilting point, while effects over pH and cation exchange capacity were not observed.

  2. How biological crusts are stabilizing the soil surface? The devolpment of organo-mineral interactions in the initial phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, T.; Veste, M.; Wiehe, W.; Lange, P.

    2009-04-01

    First colonizers of new land surfaces are cryptogames which often form biological soil crusts (BSC) covering the first millimetre of the top soil in many ecosystems from polar to desert ecosystems. These BSC are assemblages of cyanobacteria, green algae, mosses, liverworts, fungi and/or lichens. The development of soil surface crusts plays a major role for the further vegetation pattern through changes to the physico-chemical conditions and influencing various ecosystem processes. We studied the development of BSC on quaternary substrate of an initial artificial water catchment in Lusatia, Germany. Due to lack of organic matter in the geological substrate, photoautotrophic organisms like green algae and cyanobacteria dominated the initial phases of ecosystem development and, hence, of organo-mineral ineractions. We combined SEM/EDX and FTIR microscopy to study the contact zone of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of green algae and cyanobacteria with quartz, spars and mica on a >40 µm scale in undisturbed biological soil crusts, which had a maximum thickness of approx. 2 mm. SEM/EDX microscopy was used to determine the spatial distribution of S, Ca, Fe, Al, Si and K in the profiles, organic compounds were identified using FTIR microscopy. Exudates of crust organisms served as cementing material between sand particles. The crust could be subdivided into two horizontal layers. The upper layer, which had a thickness of approx. 200 µm, is characterized by accumulation of Al and K, but absence of Fe in microbial derived organic matter, indicating capture of weathering products of feldspars and mica by microbial exudates. The pore space between mineral particles was entirely filled with organic matter here. The underlying layer can be characterized by empty pores and organo-mineral bridges between the sand particles. Contrarily to the upper layer of the crust, Fe, Al and Si were associated with organic matter here but K was absent. Highest similarity of the FTIR spectra of EPS was observed with carbohydrates, using cellulose, dextran and humic acid Na salt as controls. Obviously, humification does not play a key role during this initial phase of soil formation. It was hypothesized that biological soil crusts facilitate the weathering of mineral substrate by (I) circumventing loss of fine particles with erosion, (II) by chemical treatment of minerals and (III) by catching small mineral-particles by glutinous EPS on the soil surface from the surrounding area.

  3. Maize Varieties Released in Different Eras Have Similar Root Length Density Distributions in the Soil, Which Are Negatively Correlated with Local Concentrations of Soil Mineral Nitrogen

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Peng; Li, Sa; White, Philip J.; Li, Chunjian

    2015-01-01

    Larger, and deeper, root systems of new maize varieties, compared to older varieties, are thought to have enabled improved acquisition of soil resources and, consequently, greater grain yields. To compare the spatial distributions of the root systems of new and old maize varieties and their relationships with spatial variations in soil concentrations of available nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K), two years of field experiments were performed using six Chinese maize varieties released in different eras. Vertical distributions of roots, and available N, P and K in the 0–60 cm soil profile were determined in excavated soil monoliths at silking and maturity. The results demonstrated that new maize varieties had larger root dry weight, higher grain yield and greater nutrient accumulation than older varieties. All varieties had similar total root length and vertical root distribution at silking, but newer varieties maintained greater total root length and had more roots in the 30–60 cm soil layers at maturity. The spatial variation of soil mineral N (Nmin) in each soil horizon was larger than that of Olsen-P and ammonium-acetate-extractable K, and was inversely correlated with root length density (RLD), especially in the 0–20 cm soil layer. It was concluded that greater acquisition of mineral nutrients and higher yields of newer varieties were associated with greater total root length at maturity. The negative relationship between RLD and soil Nmin at harvest for all varieties suggests the importance of the spatial distribution of the root system for N uptake by maize. PMID:25799291

  4. Maize varieties released in different eras have similar root length density distributions in the soil, which are negatively correlated with local concentrations of soil mineral nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Ning, Peng; Li, Sa; White, Philip J; Li, Chunjian

    2015-01-01

    Larger, and deeper, root systems of new maize varieties, compared to older varieties, are thought to have enabled improved acquisition of soil resources and, consequently, greater grain yields. To compare the spatial distributions of the root systems of new and old maize varieties and their relationships with spatial variations in soil concentrations of available nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K), two years of field experiments were performed using six Chinese maize varieties released in different eras. Vertical distributions of roots, and available N, P and K in the 0-60 cm soil profile were determined in excavated soil monoliths at silking and maturity. The results demonstrated that new maize varieties had larger root dry weight, higher grain yield and greater nutrient accumulation than older varieties. All varieties had similar total root length and vertical root distribution at silking, but newer varieties maintained greater total root length and had more roots in the 30-60 cm soil layers at maturity. The spatial variation of soil mineral N (Nmin) in each soil horizon was larger than that of Olsen-P and ammonium-acetate-extractable K, and was inversely correlated with root length density (RLD), especially in the 0-20 cm soil layer. It was concluded that greater acquisition of mineral nutrients and higher yields of newer varieties were associated with greater total root length at maturity. The negative relationship between RLD and soil Nmin at harvest for all varieties suggests the importance of the spatial distribution of the root system for N uptake by maize. PMID:25799291

  5. Recent (<4 year old) Leaf Litter is Not a Major Source of Microbial Carbon in a Temperate Forest Mineral Soil

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, Christiane; Trumbore, Susan E.; Froberg, Mats J.; Cisneros dozal, Luz Maria; Zhang, Dachun; Xu, Xiamei; Santos, Guaciara; Hanson, Paul J

    2010-01-01

    Microbial communities in soil A horizons derive their carbon from several potential sources: organic carbon (C) transported down from overlying litter and organic horizons, root-derived C, or soil organic matter. We took advantage of a multi-year experiment that manipulated the {sup 14}C isotope signature of surface leaf litter inputs in a temperate forest at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee, USA, to quantify the contribution of recent leaf litter C to microbial respiration and biomarkers in the underlying mineral soil. We observed no measurable difference (< {approx}40{per_thousand} given our current analytical methods) in the radiocarbon signatures of microbial phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) isolated from the top 10 cm of mineral soil in plots that experienced 3 years of litterfall that differed in each year by {approx}750{per_thousand} between high-{sup 14}C and low-{sup 14}C treatments. Assuming any difference in {sup 14}C between the high- and low-{sup 14}C plots would reflect C derived from these manipulated litter additions, we estimate that <6% of the microbial C after 4 years was derived from the added 1-4-year-old surface litter. Large contributions of C from litter < 1 year (or >4 years) old (which fell after (or prior to) the manipulation and therefore did not differ between plots) are not supported because the {sup 14}C signatures of the PLFA compounds (averaging 200-220{per_thousand}) is much higher that of the 2004-5 leaf litter (115{per_thousand}) or pre-2000 litter. A mesocosm experiment further demonstrated that C leached from {sup 14}C-enriched surface litter or the O horizon was not a detectable C source in underlying mineral soil microbes during the first eight months after litter addition. Instead a decline in the {sup 14}C of PLFA over the mesocosm experiment likely reflected the loss of a pre-existing substrate not associated with added leaf litter. Measured PLFA {Delta}{sup 14}C signatures were higher than those measured in bulk mineral soil organic matter in our experiments, but fell within the range of {sup 14}C values measured in mineral soil roots. Together, our experiments suggest that root-derived C is the major (>60%) source of C for microbes in these temperate deciduous forest soils.

  6. Effects of Soil Management on N Mineralization and Nitrification Rates in Soybean Fields of the Amazon, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueira, M.; Mitsuya, M.; Moura, J. M. S.

    2014-12-01

    The biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) promoted by the cultivation of soybean [Glycine max. (L.) Merrill], consists in a significant input of reactive nitrogen (N) in the system. The availability of this nutrient to plants occurs through the mineralization of organic-N of the soil, conducted by soil organic matter and / or crop residues. Thus, understanding the fate of this increased supply, as well as changes in the dynamics of N in the system is essential in the context of the recent expansion of soybean in the Amazon. This work aims to understand the dynamics of N in the soil cultivated with soybean, through the determination of ammonium and nitrate concentrations, as well as, mineralization and nitrification rates in soybean fields under till and no-till systems in the municipality of Santarém, Brazil. We collected 12 soil samples (0-10cm depth) in each crop and the extractions were done in 2M KCl solution using 10 g of soil. The samples were incubated for 7 days when new extractions were done to determine the rates of mineralization and nitrification. The till system showed higher concentrations of nitrate (0.82 ± 0.13 mg kg-1) and ammonium (8.15 ± 0.54 mg kg-1) compared to the results found in no-till system (0.59 ± 0.09 mg kg-1 and 5.25 ± 0.28 mg kg-1 for nitrate and ammonium respectively). The mineralization rates were negative in the till system, indicating possible immobilization of N in the soil during that period. In contrast, no-till system showed higher rates of mineralization in the soil. Although there is a great removal of N by grain harvest, it is possible to infer that no-till system has higher nitrogen availability to soybean and that this management could contribute to an increased productivity mainly due to deposition of crop residues enriched in N on the soil.

  7. Integrating microbial physiology and physiochemical principles in soils with the MIcrobial-MIneral Carbon Stabilization (MIMICS) model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieder, W. R.; Grandy, A. S.; Kallenbach, C. M.; Bonan, G. B.

    2014-01-01

    Previous modeling efforts document divergent responses of microbial explicit soil biogeochemistry models when compared to traditional models that implicitly simulate microbial activity, particularly following environmental perturbations. However, microbial models are needed that capture current soil biogeochemical theories emphasizing the relationships between litter quality, functional differences in microbial physiology, and the physical protection of microbial byproducts in forming stable soil organic matter (SOM). To address these limitations we introduce the MIcrobial-MIneral Carbon Stabilization (MIMICS) model. In MIMICS, the turnover of litter and SOM pools are governed by temperature sensitive Michaelis-Menten kinetics and the activity of two physiologically distinct microbial functional types. The production of microbial residues through microbial turnover provides inputs to SOM pools that are considered physically or chemically protected. Soil clay content determines the physical protection of SOM in different soil environments. MIMICS adequately simulates the mean rate of leaf litter decomposition observed at a temperate and boreal forest sites, and captures observed effects of litter quality on decomposition rates. Initial results from MIMICS suggest that soil C storage can be maximized in sandy soils with low-quality litter inputs, whereas high-quality litter inputs may maximize SOM accumulation in finely textured soils that physically stabilize microbial products. Assumptions in MIMICS about the degree to which microbial functional types differ in the production, turnover, and stabilization of microbial residues provides a~mechanism by which microbial communities may influence SOM dynamics in mineral soils. Although further analyses are needed to validate model results, MIMICS allows us to begin exploring theoretical interactions between substrate quality, microbial community abundance, and the formation of stable SOM.

  8. Changes in the biological diversity and concentration of total DNA under the influence of mineral fertilizers in agrochernozemic soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkhakakhova, Azida; Kutovaya, Olga; Ivanova, Ekaterina; Pavlyuchenko, Anatoly

    2014-05-01

    Chernozems represent the most valuable soil resource for Russian agriculture. Their sustainable use in intensive farming systems with preservation of the biological diversity and biological activity of these soils is of crucial importance for the agri-environmental security of Russia. We studied the influence of different rates of mineral fertilizers on the biological activity of chernozems on experimental fields of the Dokuchaev Research Institute of Agriculture in Kamennaya Steppe (Voronezh oblast). Soil samples were taken at the end of April 2013 from the plow horizon on trials with different rates of fertilization: NPK-0, NPK-60, and NPK-120 (kg/ha); a long-term fallow plot was used as an absolute control. The biological activity was analyzed by routine inoculation methods and by the molecular biology techniques based on DNA isolation from the soil samples. Quantitative parameters of the isolated and purified DNA were determined by measuring the fluorescence of the DNA preparations with added intercalating dyes; GelDoc XR system and Image Lab and TotalLab Quant. software were used. Microbiological studies showed the high biological activity of the chernozems soil in all the trials. No significant differences were found between the trials for the microbiological processes of the carbon cycle. There was a weakly expressed tendency for an increase in the activity of actinomycetes from the soil with zero fertilization (5.11 log10CFU/g) to the soil with maximum (NPK-120) fertilization (5.69 log10CFU/g) and the fallow soil (5.73 log10CFU/g); the number of cultivated micromycetes decreased from the soil with zero fertilization (4.76 log10CFU/g) to the soil with maximum fertilization (4.14 log10CFU/g) and to the fallow soil (4.1 log10CFU/g). A less equilibrium state is typical of the microorganisms participating in the nitrogen cycle. The number of cultivated aerobic and anaerobic nitrogen-fixing bacteria somewhat increased in the fertilized trials (NPK-60, NPK-120). The most active development of denitrifiers was in the fallow soil. It is known that cultivated forms comprise only about 1 to 10% of the total number of soil microorganisms. Quantitative analysis by the methods of molecular biology makes it possible to consider the full range of microorganisms. The concentration of extracted DNA can serve as an indicator of the total "biogenity" of the soil, as we isolated the genetic material of all organisms living in the soil. The highest concentration of DNA found in the samples from the fallow soil. Much lower values were found in the soils treated with mineral fertilizers: 38.9% in trial NPK-60 and 53.3% in trials NPK-120 and NPK-0. Thus, to sustain biota in cultivated chernozems and to improve the ecological state of the fields, the rates of mineral fertilizers have to be properly controlled. Moderate rates can be recommended. Features of the soil microbiome can serve as universal and sensitive indicators of the state of the soils under different farming systems. The quantitative analysis of isolated total DNA is an efficient tool to control the ecological state of the soils, especially those involved in agriculture.

  9. Influences upon the lead isotopic composition of organic and mineral horizons in soil profiles from the National Soil Inventory of Scotland (2007-09).

    PubMed

    Farmer, John G; Graham, Margaret C; Eades, Lorna J; Lilly, Allan; Bacon, Jeffrey R

    2016-02-15

    Some 644 individual soil horizons from 169 sites in Scotland were analyzed for Pb concentration and isotopic composition. There were three scenarios: (i) 36 sites where both top and bottom (i.e. lowest sampled) soil horizons were classified as organic in nature, (ii) 67 with an organic top but mineral bottom soil horizon, and (iii) 66 where both top and bottom soil horizons were mineral. Lead concentrations were greater in the top horizon relative to the bottom horizon in all but a few cases. The top horizon (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratio was lesser (outside analytical error) than the corresponding bottom horizon (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratio at (i) 64%, (ii) 94% and (iii) 73% of sites, and greater at only (i) 8%, (ii) 3% and (iii) 8% of sites. A plot of (208)Pb/(207)Pb vs. (208)Pb/(206)Pb ratios showed that the Pb in organic top (i, ii) and bottom (i) horizons was consistent with atmospherically deposited Pb of anthropogenic origin. The (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratio of the organic top horizon in (ii) was unrelated to the (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratio of the mineral bottom horizon as demonstrated by the geographical variation in the negative shift in the ratio, a result of differences in the mineral horizon values arising from the greater influence of radiogenic Pb in the north. In (iii), the lesser values of the (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratio for the mineral top horizon relative to the mineral bottom horizon were consistent with the presence of anthropogenic Pb, in addition to indigenous Pb, in the former. Mean anthropogenic Pb inventories of 1.5 and 4.5gm(-2) were obtained for the northern and southern halves of Scotland, respectively, consistent with long-range atmospheric transport of anthropogenic Pb (mean (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratio~1.16). For cultivated agricultural soils (Ap), this corresponded to about half of the total Pb inventory in the top 30cm of the soil column. PMID:26674702

  10. The role of reaction affinity and secondary minerals in regulating chemical weathering rates at the Santa Cruz Soil Chronosequence, California

    SciTech Connect

    Maher, K.; Steefel, C. I.; White, A.F.; Stonestrom, D.A.

    2009-02-25

    In order to explore the reasons for the apparent discrepancy between laboratory and field weathering rates and to determine the extent to which weathering rates are controlled by the approach to thermodynamic equilibrium, secondary mineral precipitation and flow rates, a multicomponent reactive transport model (CrunchFlow) was used to interpret soil profile development and mineral precipitation and dissolution rates at the 226 ka marine terrace chronosequence near Santa Cruz, CA. Aqueous compositions, fluid chemistry, transport, and mineral abundances are well characterized (White et al., 2008, GCA) and were used to constrain the reaction rates for the weathering and precipitating minerals in the reactive transport modeling. When primary mineral weathering rates are calculated with either of two experimentally determined rate constants, the nonlinear, parallel rate law formulation of Hellmann and Tisser and [2006] or the aluminum inhibition model proposed by Oelkers et al. [1994], modeling results are consistent with field-scale observations when independently constrained clay precipitation rates are accounted for. Experimental and field rates, therefore, can be reconciled at the Santa Cruz site. Observed maximum clay abundances in the argillic horizons occur at the depth and time where the reaction fronts of the primary minerals overlap. The modeling indicates that the argillic horizon at Santa Cruz can be explained almost entirely by weathering of primary minerals and in situ clay precipitation accompanied by undersaturation of kaolinite at the top of the profile. The rate constant for kaolinite precipitation was also determined based on model simulations of mineral abundances and dissolved Al, SiO{sub 2}(aq) and pH in pore waters. Changes in the rate of kaolinite precipitation or the flow rate do not affect the gradient of the primary mineral weathering profiles, but instead control the rate of propagation of the primary mineral weathering fronts and thus total mass removed from the weathering profile. Our analysis suggests that secondary clay precipitation is as important as aqueous transport in governing the amount of dissolution that occurs within a profile because clay minerals exert a strong control over the reaction affinity of the dissolving primary minerals. The modeling also indicates that the weathering advance rate and the total mass of mineral dissolved is controlled by the thermodynamic saturation of the primary dissolving phases plagioclase and K-feldspar, as is evident from the difference in propagation rates of the reaction fronts for the two minerals despite their very similar kinetic rate laws.

  11. Leaf litter and roots as sources of mineral soil organic matter in temperate deciduous forest with and without earthworms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahey, T.; Yavitt, J. B.

    2012-12-01

    We labeled sugar maple trees with 13C to quantify the separate contributions of decaying leaf litter and root turnover/rhizosphere C flux to mineral soil organic matter (SOM). Labeled leaf litter was applied to forest plots with and without earthworms and recovery of the label in SOM was quantified over three years. In parallel, label recovery was quantified in soils from the labeling chambers where all label was supplied by belowground C flux. In the absence of earthworms about half of the label added as leaf litter remained in the surface organic horizons after three years, with about 3% recovered in mineral SOM. The label was most enriched on silt + clay surfaces, representing precipitation of DOC derived from litter. Earthworms mixed nearly all the leaf litter into mineral soil within one year, and after two years the label was most enriched in particulate organic matter held within soil aggregates produced by worms. After three years 15-20% of the added label was recovered in mineral SOM. In the labeling chambers over 75% of belowground C allocation (BCA) was used in root and rhizosphere respiration in the first year after labeling. We recovered only 3.8% of estimated BCA in SOM after 3 years; however, expressed as a proportion of fine root production plus rhizosphere C flux, this value is 15.4%, comparable to that for leaf litter in the presence of earthworms. In conclusion, both roots and leaf litter contribute significantly to the formation of stabilized mineral SOM in temperate deciduous forests, and this process is profoundly altered by the invasion of lumbricid earthworms.

  12. Quantification of the effects of various soil fumigation treatments on nitrogen mineralization and nitrification in laboratory incubation and field studies.

    PubMed

    Yan, Dongdong; Wang, Qiuxia; Mao, Liangang; Li, Wei; Xie, Hongwei; Guo, Meixia; Cao, Aocheng

    2013-01-01

    Better quantification of nitrogen mineralization and nitrification after fumigation would indicate if any adjustment is needed in fertilizer application. The effects of chloropicrin (Pic), 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) and metham sodium (MS) fumigation on soil nitrogen dynamics were evaluated in lab incubation and field studies. Although some differences were observed in NH(4)(+)-N and NO(3)(-)-N concentrations in lab incubation and field experiments, both studies led to the same conclusions: (1) Soil fumigation was shown to increase soil mineral nitrogen only during the first 2 weeks after fumigation (WAF). In particular, Pic significantly increased soil mineral nitrogen in both studies at 1 WAF. However, for all fumigant treatments the observed effect was temporary; the soil mineral content of treated samples recovered to the general level observed in the untreated control. (2) All the fumigation treatments depressed nitrification temporarily, although the treatments exhibited significant differences in the duration of nitrification inhibition. In both studies, for a limited period of time, Pic showed a stronger inhibitory effect on nitrification compared to other fumigant treatments. An S-shaped function was fitted to the concentrations of NO(3)(-)-N in lab incubation samples. The times of maximum nitrification (t(max)) in DMDS and MS treatments were 0.97 week and 1.03 week, which is similar to the untreated control (t(max)=1.02 week). While Pic has the longest effect on nitrifying bacteria, nitrification appears to restart at a later time (t(max)=14.37 week). PMID:23062947

  13. Mineralization of organic-matter labile fragments in the humus-accumulative horizon of soddy-podzolic soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimov, S. Ya.; Lazarev, A. S.; Fokin, A. D.

    2012-12-01

    The mineralization rate of the 14C-labeled organic matter (OM) in the humus-accumulative AE horizon of a soddy-podzolic soil was determined in a laboratory experiment. The labeling was performed in a field experiment when microamounts of 14C-labeled glucose, glycine, and uracil were added to tree waste in sacks embedded in the upper layer of the forest litter. Samples containing 14C were taken from the AE horizon (above which the sacks with the labeled material were placed) 7 and 20 months after the beginning of the experiment. The soil samples were wetted to a water content corresponding to ˜80% of the total water capacity and placed in hermetic vessels containing vials with a periodically renewed alkali solution. The incubation was per