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Sample records for irp advancement strategy

  1. Strategy for advancement of IRP in public power, Volume 2: Technical appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Garrick, C.J.

    1995-10-01

    NREL and subcontractor Garrick & Associates are conducting the Advancement of integrated resource planning (IRP) in Public Power Program, sponsored by DOE. The program is intended to develop a consistent strategy for DOE to advance IRP practices in the publicly and cooperatively owned utility sector. The IRP advancement program includes two major tasks: key participant involvement and strategy development. The Program`s initial task is to involve key public and cooperative utility organizations and their constituents in the development of the IRP advancement strategy. Key Participant Involvement is accomplished through two distinct subtasks: Needs Assessment and Steering Committee Involvement. The Needs Assessment identifies key participant needs, expectations, common interests, issues, and divergences that must be addressed by the IRP program. The results of this effort, which are presented in this {open_quotes}Needs Assessment Summary Report,{close_quotes} provide a foundation for the specific strategy development efforts conducted later in the IRP project. The remaining sections of this report present the approach to the Needs Assessment subtask and summarize the findings of this effort.

  2. Riding the circuit for IRP

    SciTech Connect

    Mashaw, R.

    1996-09-01

    In its original usage, the term {open_quotes}circuit rider{close_quotes} described a minister supported by several congregations, who rode from rural church to rural church spreading religion. Today, thanks to a grant from the Department of Energy, there`s a new kind of circuit rider at work in small communities and rural areas, spreading the gospel of integrated resource planning. The concept of the circuit rider was advanced in 1994 by a coalition of associations, private businesses and government agencies, including the American Public Power Association, the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, the federal power marketing agencies and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The group proposed to DOE the creation of a program for the advancement of integrated resource planning (IRP) in public power, designed to extend the resources and capabilities of publicly and cooperatively owned utilities in IRP by offering a several types of assistance, including training, direct consultation and publications.

  3. Rural electric cooperatives IRP survey

    SciTech Connect

    Garrick, C.

    1995-11-01

    This report summarizes the integrated resource planning (IRP) practices of US rural electric cooperatives and the IRP policies which influence these practices. It was prepared by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and its subcontractor Garrick and Associates to assist the US Department of Energy (DOE) in satisfying the reporting requirements of Title 1, Subtitle B, Section 111(e)(3) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct), which states: (e) Report--Not later than 2 years after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Secretary (of the US Department of Energy) shall transmit a report to the President and to the Congress containing--(the findings from several surveys and evaluations, including:); (3) a survey of practices and policies under which electric cooperatives prepare IRPs, submit such plans to REA, and the extent to which such integrated resource planning is reflected in rates charged to customers.

  4. Avionics advanced development strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyer, D.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed here is the problem of how to put together an integrated, phased, and affordable avionics advanced development program that links and applies to operational, evolving, and developing programs/vehicles, as well as those in the planning phases. Collecting technology needs from individual programs/vehicles and proposed technology items from individual developers usually results in a mismatch and something that is unaffordable. A strategy to address this problem is outlined with task definitions which will lead to avionics advanced development items that will fit within an overall framework, prioritized to support budgeting, and support the scope of NASA space transportations needs.

  5. Power system modeling and optimization methods vis-a-vis integrated resource planning (IRP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsali, Mohammad H.

    1998-12-01

    The state-of-the-art restructuring of power industries is changing the fundamental nature of retail electricity business. As a result, the so-called Integrated Resource Planning (IRP) strategies implemented on electric utilities are also undergoing modifications. Such modifications evolve from the imminent considerations to minimize the revenue requirements and maximize electrical system reliability vis-a-vis capacity-additions (viewed as potential investments). IRP modifications also provide service-design bases to meet the customer needs towards profitability. The purpose of this research as deliberated in this dissertation is to propose procedures for optimal IRP intended to expand generation facilities of a power system over a stretched period of time. Relevant topics addressed in this research towards IRP optimization are as follows: (1) Historical prospective and evolutionary aspects of power system production-costing models and optimization techniques; (2) A survey of major U.S. electric utilities adopting IRP under changing socioeconomic environment; (3) A new technique designated as the Segmentation Method for production-costing via IRP optimization; (4) Construction of a fuzzy relational database of a typical electric power utility system for IRP purposes; (5) A genetic algorithm based approach for IRP optimization using the fuzzy relational database.

  6. 10 CFR 905.12 - How must IRPs be submitted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How must IRPs be submitted? 905.12 Section 905.12 Energy... IRPs be submitted? (a) Number of IRPs submitted. Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section... the customer and Western. (b) Method of submitting IRPs. Customers must submit IRPs to Western...

  7. 10 CFR 905.13 - When must IRPs be submitted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When must IRPs be submitted? 905.13 Section 905.13 Energy... IRPs be submitted? (a) Submitting the initial IRP. Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, customers that have not previously had an IRP approved by Western must submit the initial IRP to...

  8. Advances in resuscitation strategies.

    PubMed

    Alam, Hasan B

    2011-01-01

    Shock, regardless of etiology is characterized by decreased delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the tissues and our interventions are directed towards reversing the cellular ischemia and preventing its consequences. The treatment strategies that are most effective in achieving this goal obviously depend upon the different types of shock (hemorrhagic, septic, neurogenic and cardiogenic). This brief review focuses on the two leading etiologies of shock in the surgical patients: bleeding and sepsis, and addresses a number of new developments that have profoundly altered the treatment paradigms. The emphasis here is on new research that has dramatically altered our treatment strategies rather than the basic pathophysiology of shock. PMID:20833279

  9. 10 CFR 905.13 - When must IRPs be submitted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false When must IRPs be submitted? 905.13 Section 905.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Integrated Resource Planning § 905.13 When must... disapproval letter. Western's approval of IRP cooperative status will not be based on any...

  10. 10 CFR 905.13 - When must IRPs be submitted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false When must IRPs be submitted? 905.13 Section 905.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Integrated Resource Planning § 905.13 When must... disapproval letter. Western's approval of IRP cooperative status will not be based on any...

  11. 10 CFR 905.11 - What must an IRP include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Integrated Resource Planning § 905.11 What must an IRP include? (a) General. Integrated resource planning is a planning process for new energy... directors or city council, a responsible official must sign the IRP submitted to Western or the...

  12. 10 CFR 905.11 - What must an IRP include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Integrated Resource Planning § 905.11 What must an IRP include? (a) General. Integrated resource planning is a planning process for new energy... directors or city council, a responsible official must sign the IRP submitted to Western or the...

  13. 10 CFR 905.11 - What must an IRP include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Integrated Resource Planning § 905.11 What must an IRP include? (a) General. Integrated resource planning is a planning process for new energy... directors or city council, a responsible official must sign the IRP submitted to Western or the...

  14. 10 CFR 905.11 - What must an IRP include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Integrated Resource Planning § 905.11 What must an IRP include? (a) General. Integrated resource planning is a planning process for new energy... directors or city council, a responsible official must sign the IRP submitted to Western or the...

  15. 10 CFR 905.11 - What must an IRP include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Integrated Resource Planning § 905.11 What must an IRP include? (a) General. Integrated resource planning is a planning process for new energy... directors or city council, a responsible official must sign the IRP submitted to Western or the...

  16. IRP methods for Environmental Impact Statements of utility expansion plans

    SciTech Connect

    Cavallo, J.D.; Hemphill, R.C.; Veselka, T.D.

    1992-10-01

    Most large electric utilities and a growing number of gas utilities in the United States are using a planning method -- Integrated Resource Planning (IRP) - which incorporates demand-side management (DSM) programs whenever the marginal cost of the DSM programs are lower than the marginal cost of supply-side expansion options. Argonne National Laboratory has applied the IRP method in its socio-economic analysis of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) of power marketing for a system of electric utilities in the mountain and western regions of the United States. Applying the IRP methods provides valuable information to the participants in an EIS process involving capacity expansion of an electric or gas utility. The major challenges of applying the IRP method within an EIS are the time consuming and costly task of developing a least cost expansion path for each altemative, the detailed quantification of environmental damages associated with capacity expansion, and the explicit inclusion of societal-impacts to the region.

  17. IRP methods for Environmental Impact Statements of utility expansion plans

    SciTech Connect

    Cavallo, J.D.; Hemphill, R.C.; Veselka, T.D.

    1992-01-01

    Most large electric utilities and a growing number of gas utilities in the United States are using a planning method -- Integrated Resource Planning (IRP) - which incorporates demand-side management (DSM) programs whenever the marginal cost of the DSM programs are lower than the marginal cost of supply-side expansion options. Argonne National Laboratory has applied the IRP method in its socio-economic analysis of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) of power marketing for a system of electric utilities in the mountain and western regions of the United States. Applying the IRP methods provides valuable information to the participants in an EIS process involving capacity expansion of an electric or gas utility. The major challenges of applying the IRP method within an EIS are the time consuming and costly task of developing a least cost expansion path for each altemative, the detailed quantification of environmental damages associated with capacity expansion, and the explicit inclusion of societal-impacts to the region.

  18. Chromatin Isolation by RNA Purification (ChIRP)

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Ci; Quinn, Jeffrey; Chang, Howard Y.

    2012-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs are key regulators of chromatin states for important biological processes such as dosage compensation, imprinting, and developmental gene expression 1,2,3,4,5,6,7. The recent discovery of thousands of lncRNAs in association with specific chromatin modification complexes, such as Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) that mediates histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3), suggests broad roles for numerous lncRNAs in managing chromatin states in a gene-specific fashion 8,9. While some lncRNAs are thought to work in cis on neighboring genes, other lncRNAs work in trans to regulate distantly located genes. For instance, Drosophila lncRNAs roX1 and roX2 bind numerous regions on the X chromosome of male cells, and are critical for dosage compensation 10,11. However, the exact locations of their binding sites are not known at high resolution. Similarly, human lncRNA HOTAIR can affect PRC2 occupancy on hundreds of genes genome-wide 3,12,13, but how specificity is achieved is unclear. LncRNAs can also serve as modular scaffolds to recruit the assembly of multiple protein complexes. The classic trans-acting RNA scaffold is the TERC RNA that serves as the template and scaffold for the telomerase complex 14; HOTAIR can also serve as a scaffold for PRC2 and a H3K4 demethylase complex 13. Prior studies mapping RNA occupancy at chromatin have revealed substantial insights 15,16, but only at a single gene locus at a time. The occupancy sites of most lncRNAs are not known, and the roles of lncRNAs in chromatin regulation have been mostly inferred from the indirect effects of lncRNA perturbation. Just as chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by microarray or deep sequencing (ChIP-chip or ChIP-seq, respectively) has greatly improved our understanding of protein-DNA interactions on a genomic scale, here we illustrate a recently published strategy to map long RNA occupancy genome-wide at high resolution 17. This method, Chromatin Isolation by RNA Purification

  19. Advanced Practice Nursing Education: Challenges and Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, Cynthia; Kantrowitz-Gordon, Ira; Katz, Janet; Hirsch, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Nursing education programs may face significant difficulty as they struggle to prepare sufficient numbers of advanced practice registered nurses to fulfill the vision of helping to design an improved US healthcare system as described in the Institute of Medicine's “Future of nursing” report. This paper describes specific challenges and provides strategies to improve advanced practice nursing clinical education in order to ensure that a sufficient number of APRNs are available to work in educational, practice, and research settings. Best practices are identified through a review of classic and current nursing literature. Strategies include intensive interprofessional collaborations and radical curriculum revisions such as increased use of simulation and domestic and international service work. Nurse educators must work with all stakeholders to create effective and lasting change. PMID:22220273

  20. Is there a future for electric-industry IRP?

    SciTech Connect

    Hirst, E.

    1996-05-01

    Historically, regulators imposed resource-planning rules on electric utilities because of the utility`s obligation to serve. Given that obligation, regulators wanted utilities to plan for and procure a portfolio of resources that provided customers with low-cost electricity, stable prices, and a clean environment. What, if any, portfolio-management responsibilities will the future utility have? To answer that question, one must first define a ``utility`` in the future industry. If utilities are distribution entities with an obligation only to connect customers to the grid, then integrated resource planning (IRP) as it has been practiced during the past decade is over. If distribution entities retain an obligation to serve ``core`` customers, then IRP will continue in some form. This paper reviews recent IRPs to see how utilities and their regulators are responding to current and likely changes in the electricity industry. The paper then discusses how IRP might change in the future. These changes include the use of shorter time horizons for planning, a focus on contracts rather than utility built power plants, an emphasis on transmission and distribution planning, treatment of electricity pricing (with time and location dependence) as a resource, and substantial changes in how demand-side management (DSM) is treated. In summary, resource planning will continue. But integrated resource planning will either disappear or will play a much smaller role in utility and regulatory affairs and be conducted quite differently than in the past.

  1. Advanced Material Strategies for Tissue Engineering Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Engelmayr, George C.; Borenstein, Jeffrey T.; Moutos, Franklin T.; Guilak, Farshid

    2010-01-01

    Tissue engineering seeks to restore the function of diseased or damaged tissues through the use of cells and biomaterial scaffolds. It is now apparent that the next generation of functional tissue replacements will require advanced material strategies to achieve many of the important requirements for long-term success. Here we provide representative examples of engineered skeletal and myocardial tissue constructs in which scaffolds were explicitly designed to match native tissue mechanical properties as well as to promote cell alignment. We discuss recent progress in microfluidic devices that can potentially serve as tissue engineering scaffolds, since mass transport via microvascular-like structures will be essential in the development of tissue engineered constructs on the length scale of native tissues. Given the rapid evolution of the field of tissue engineering, it is important to consider the use of advanced materials in light of the emerging role of genetics, growth factors, bioreactors, and other technologies. PMID:20882506

  2. The IRP/IRE system in vivo: insights from mouse models

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Nicole; Pantopoulos, Kostas

    2014-01-01

    Iron regulatory proteins 1 and 2 (IRP1 and IRP2) post-transcriptionally control the expression of several mRNAs encoding proteins of iron, oxygen and energy metabolism. The mechanism involves their binding to iron responsive elements (IREs) in the untranslated regions of target mRNAs, thereby controlling mRNA translation or stability. Whereas IRP2 functions solely as an RNA-binding protein, IRP1 operates as either an RNA-binding protein or a cytosolic aconitase. Early experiments in cultured cells established a crucial role of IRPs in regulation of cellular iron metabolism. More recently, studies in mouse models with global or localized Irp1 and/or Irp2 deficiencies uncovered new physiological functions of IRPs in the context of systemic iron homeostasis. Thus, IRP1 emerged as a key regulator of erythropoiesis and iron absorption by controlling hypoxia inducible factor 2α (HIF2α) mRNA translation, while IRP2 appears to dominate the control of iron uptake and heme biosynthesis in erythroid progenitor cells by regulating the expression of transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) and 5-aminolevulinic acid synthase 2 (ALAS2) mRNAs, respectively. Targeted disruption of either Irp1 or Irp2 in mice is associated with distinct phenotypic abnormalities. Thus, Irp1−/− mice develop polycythemia and pulmonary hypertension, while Irp2−/− mice present with microcytic anemia, iron overload in the intestine and the liver, and neurologic defects. Combined disruption of both Irp1 and Irp2 is incombatible with life and leads to early embryonic lethality. Mice with intestinal- or liver-specific disruption of both Irps are viable at birth but die later on due to malabsorption or liver failure, respectively. Adult mice lacking both Irps in the intestine exhibit a profound defect in dietary iron absorption due to a “mucosal block” that is caused by the de-repression of ferritin mRNA translation. Herein, we discuss the physiological function of the IRE/IRP regulatory system. PMID

  3. Multimodal treatment strategies for advanced hilar cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Matthew J; Cosgrove, David; Herman, Joseph M; Rastegar, Neda; Kamel, Ihab; Pawlik, Timothy M

    2014-08-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is the second most common primary malignancy of the liver arising from malignant transformation and growth of biliary ductal epithelium. Approximately 50-70 % of CCAs arise at the hilar plate of the biliary tree, which are termed hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HC). Various staging systems are currently employed to classify HCs and determine resectability. Depending on the pre-operative staging, the mainstays of treatment include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and photodynamic therapy. Surgical resection offers the only chance for cure of HC and achieving an R0 resection has demonstrated improved overall survival. However, obtaining longitudinal and radial surgical margins that are free of tumor can be difficult and frequently requires extensive resections, particularly for advanced HCs. Pre-operative interventions may be necessary to prepare patients for major hepatic resections, including endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, and portal vein embolization. Multimodal therapy that combines chemotherapy with external beam radiation, stereotactic body radiation therapy, bile duct brachytherapy, and/or photodynamic therapy are all possible strategies for advanced HC prior to resection. Orthotopic liver transplantation is another therapeutic option that can achieve complete extirpation of locally advanced HC in judiciously selected patients following standardized neoadjuvant protocols. PMID:24962146

  4. Shemya AFB, Alaska 1992 IRP field investigation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The US Air Force is currently investigating 22 sites on Shemya Air Force Base (AFB) to determine if past spill and disposal activities have caused environmental damage. These investigations are being carried out under the Air Force's Installation Restoration Program (IRP). As a part of the IRP program, field investigations were performed in 1992 to obtain the information needed to assess what future actions willneed to be carried out at each site. The island's drinking water supply was also investigated. Activities completed at 10 selected sites during the 1992 field investigation included surface sampling to determine the lateral extent of contamination, subsurface sampling to determine the vertical extent of contamination, and the installation of well points and monitoring wells to determine the direction of groundwater flow and if the groundwater has been affected by a site. In addition, geophysical surveys were performed at most sites to identify site boundaries and check for the presence of buried metal to be avoided during drilling activities.

  5. A high-capacity RNA affinity column for the purification of human IRP1 and IRP2 overexpressed in Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    ALLERSON, CHARLES R.; MARTINEZ, ALAN; YIKILMAZ, EMINE; ROUAULT, TRACEY A.

    2003-01-01

    Regulated expression of proteins involved in mammalian iron metabolism is achieved in part through the interaction of the iron regulatory proteins IRP1 and IRP2 with highly conserved RNA stem-loop structures, known as iron-responsive elements (IREs), that are located within the 5′ or 3′ untranslated regions of regulated transcripts. As part of an effort to determine the structures of the IRP–IRE complexes using crystallographic methods, we have developed an efficient process for obtaining functionally pure IRP1 and IRP2 that relies upon the improved overexpression (>10 mg of soluble IRP per liter of culture) of each human IRP in the yeast Pichia pastoris and large-scale purification using RNA affinity chromatography. Despite the utility of RNA affinity chromatography in the isolation of RNA-binding proteins, current methods for preparing RNA affinity matrices produce columns of low capacity and limited stability. To address these limitations, we have devised a simple method for preparing stable, reusable, high-capacity RNA affinity columns. This method utilizes a bifunctional linker to covalently join a 5′-amino tethered RNA with a thiol-modified Sepharose, and can be used to load 150 nmole or more of RNA per milliliter of solid support. We demonstrate here the use of an IRE affinity column in the large-scale purification of IRP1 and IRP2, and suggest that the convenience of this approach will prove attractive in the analysis of other RNA-binding proteins. PMID:12592010

  6. IRP and the electricity industry of the future: Workshop results

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, B.; Hirst, E.; Bauer, D.

    1994-09-01

    During the next several years, the U.S. electricity industry is likely to change dramatically. Instead of an industry dominated by vertically integrated companies that are regulated primarily by state public utility commissions, we may see an industry with many more participants and less regulation. These new participants may include independent power producers, entities that dispatch and control power plants on a real-time basis, entities that build and maintain transmission networks, entities that build and maintain distribution systems and also sell electricity and related to services to some retail customers, and a variety of other organizations that sell electricity and other services to retail customers. Because markets are intended to be the primary determinant of success, the role of state and federal regulators might be less than it has been in the past. During the past decade, utilities and state regulators have developed new ways to meet customer energy-service needs, called integrated resource planning (IRP). IRP provides substantial societal benefits through the consideration and acquisition of a broad array of resources, including renewables and demand-side management (DSM) programs as well as traditional power plants-, explicit consideration of the environmental effects of electricity production and transmission; public participation in utility planning; and attention to the uncertainties associated with different resources, future demands for electricity, and other factors. IRP might evolve in different ways as the electricity industry is restructured (Table S-I). To explore these issues, we ran a Workshop on IRP and the Electricity Industry of the Future in July 1994. This report presents the wisdom and experience of the 30 workshop participants. To focus discussions, we created three scenarios to represent a few of the many ways that the electricity industry might develop.

  7. IRP applied to district heating in Eastern Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Bull, M.; Secrest, T.; Zeman, J.; Popelka, A.

    1994-08-01

    The cities of Plzen, Czech Republic, and Handlova, Republic of Slovakia, are examining options for meeting the thermal energy requirements of their citizens with consideration of both economics and the environment. Major energy related issues faced by the cities are: the frequent need to replace and/or implement a major rehabilitation of the central heating plants and the transmission and distribution systems that supply the consumers; and the need to reduce emissions in order to comply with more stringent environmental regulations and improve air quality; and the need to minimize consumer energy bills, particularly to accommodate the upcoming decontrol of energy prices and to minimize non-payment problems. The intent of the integrated resource planning (IRP) projects is to present analyses of options to support the cities` decision-making processes, not to provide specific recommendations or guidance for the cities to follow.

  8. An Investigation of Pronunciation Learning Strategies of Advanced EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hismanoglu, Murat

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims at investigating the kinds of strategies deployed by advanced EFL learners at English Language Teaching Department to learn or improve English pronunciation and revealing whether there are any significant differences between the strategies of successful pronunciation learners and those of unsuccessful pronunciation learners. After…

  9. The challenge of implementing an IRP process in Asia: The case of Hainan Province, China

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, L.J.

    1994-12-31

    Developing a modern electric power sector is necessary for economic growth and development to proceed. Institutions to implement an IRP (integrated resource planning) process do not exist in many countries. Hainan`s economy is growing rapidly with a concomitant increase in electricity demand. This is an ideal time in Hainan`s development to implement an IRP process. The challenge is for Hainan to develop institutions and incentive mechanisms for HEPCO (Hainan Electric Power Co.) to adopt cost-based pricing, run DSM programs, construct renewable generating plants, etc. One proposal is to great a Hainan government-wide IRP committee.

  10. Advances in fluorescence labeling strategies for dynamic cellular imaging

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Kevin M; Palmer, Amy E

    2014-01-01

    Synergistic advances in optical physics, probe design, molecular biology, labeling techniques and computational analysis have propelled fluorescence imaging into new realms of spatiotemporal resolution and sensitivity. This review aims to discuss advances in fluorescent probes and live-cell labeling strategies, two areas that remain pivotal for future advances in imaging technology. Fluorescent protein– and bio-orthogonal–based methods for protein and RNA imaging are discussed as well as emerging bioengineering techniques that enable their expression at specific genomic loci (for example, CRISPR and TALENs). Important attributes that contribute to the success of each technique are emphasized, providing a guideline for future advances in dynamic live-cell imaging. PMID:24937069

  11. A National Strategy for Advancing Climate Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Dunlea, Edward; Elfring, Chris

    2012-12-04

    Climate models are the foundation for understanding and projecting climate and climate-related changes and are thus critical tools for supporting climate-related decision making. This study developed a holistic strategy for improving the nation's capability to accurately simulate climate and related Earth system changes on decadal to centennial timescales. The committee's report is a high level analysis, providing a strategic framework to guide progress in the nation's climate modeling enterprise over the next 10-20 years. This study was supported by DOE, NSF, NASA, NOAA, and the intelligence community.

  12. Radioprotective Agents: Strategies and Translational Advances.

    PubMed

    Kamran, Mohammad Zahid; Ranjan, Atul; Kaur, Navrinder; Sur, Souvik; Tandon, Vibha

    2016-04-01

    Radioprotectors are agents required to protect biological system exposed to radiation, either naturally or through radiation leakage, and they protect normal cells from radiation injury in cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy. It is imperative to study radioprotectors and their mechanism of action comprehensively, looking at their potential therapeutic applications. This review intimately chronicles the rich intellectual, pharmacological story of natural and synthetic radioprotectors. A continuous effort is going on by researchers to develop clinically promising radioprotective agents. In this article, for the first time we have discussed the impact of radioprotectors on different signaling pathways in cells, which will create a basis for scientific community working in this area to develop novel molecules with better therapeutic efficacy. The bright future of exceptionally noncytotoxic derivatives of bisbenzimidazoles is also described as radiomodulators. Amifostine, an effective radioprotectant, has been approved by the FDA for limited clinical use. However, due to its adverse side effects, it is not routinely used clinically. Recently, CBLB502 and several analog of a peptide are under clinical trial and showed high success against radiotherapy in cancer. This article reviews the different types of radioprotective agents with emphasis on the strategies for the development of novel radioprotectors for drug development. In addition, direction for future strategies relevant to the development of radioprotectors is also addressed. PMID:26807693

  13. Advanced control strategies for fluidized bed dryers

    SciTech Connect

    Siettos, C.I.; Kiranoudis, C.T.; Bafas, G.V.

    1999-11-01

    Generating the best possible control strategy comprises a necessity for industrial processes, by virtue of product quality, cost reduction and design simplicity. Three different control approaches, namely an Input-Output linearizing, a fuzzy logic and a PID controller, are evaluated for the control of a fluidized bed dryer, a typical non-linear drying process of wide applicability. Based on several closed loop characteristics such as settling times, maximum overshoots and dynamic performance criteria such as IAE, ISE and ITAE, it is shown that the Input-Output linearizing and the fuzzy logic controller exhibit a better performance compared to the PID controller tuned optimally with respect to IAE, for a wide range of disturbances; yet, the relevant advantage of the fuzzy logic over the conventional nonlinear controller issues upon its design simplicity. Typical load rejection and set-point tracking examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  14. Crew workload strategies in advanced cockpits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Sandra G.

    1990-01-01

    Many methods of measuring and predicting operator workload have been developed that provide useful information in the design, evaluation, and operation of complex systems and which aid in developing models of human attention and performance. However, the relationships between such measures, imposed task demands, and measures of performance remain complex and even contradictory. It appears that we have ignored an important factor: people do not passively translate task demands into performance. Rather, they actively manage their time, resources, and effort to achieve an acceptable level of performance while maintaining a comfortable level of workload. While such adaptive, creative, and strategic behaviors are the primary reason that human operators remain an essential component of all advanced man-machine systems, they also result in individual differences in the way people respond to the same task demands and inconsistent relationships among measures. Finally, we are able to measure workload and performance, but interpreting such measures remains difficult; it is still not clear how much workload is too much or too little nor the consequences of suboptimal workload on system performance and the mental, physical, and emotional well-being of the human operators. The rationale and philosophy of a program of research developed to address these issues will be reviewed and contrasted to traditional methods of defining, measuring, and predicting human operator workload. Viewgraphs are given.

  15. The IRP1-HIF-2α axis coordinates iron and oxygen sensing with erythropoiesis and iron absorption.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Sheila A; Nizzi, Christopher P; Chang, Yuan-I; Deck, Kathryn M; Schmidt, Paul J; Galy, Bruno; Damnernsawad, Alisa; Broman, Aimee T; Kendziorski, Christina; Hentze, Matthias W; Fleming, Mark D; Zhang, Jing; Eisenstein, Richard S

    2013-02-01

    Red blood cell production is a finely tuned process that requires coordinated oxygen- and iron-dependent regulation of cell differentiation and iron metabolism. Here, we show that translational regulation of hypoxia-inducible factor 2α (HIF-2α) synthesis by iron regulatory protein 1 (IRP1) is critical for controlling erythrocyte number. IRP1-null (Irp1(-/-)) mice display a marked transient polycythemia. HIF-2α messenger RNA (mRNA) is derepressed in kidneys of Irp1(-/-) mice but not in kidneys of Irp2(-/-) mice, leading to increased renal erythropoietin (Epo) mRNA and inappropriately elevated serum Epo levels. Expression of the iron transport genes DCytb, Dmt1, and ferroportin, as well as other HIF-2α targets, is enhanced in Irp1(-/-) duodenum. Analysis of mRNA translation state in the liver revealed IRP1-dependent dysregulation of HIF-2α mRNA translation, whereas IRP2 deficiency derepressed translation of all other known 5' iron response element (IRE)-containing mRNAs expressed in the liver. These results uncover separable physiological roles of each IRP and identify IRP1 as a therapeutic target for manipulating HIF-2α action in hematologic, oncologic, and other disorders. PMID:23395174

  16. Shemya AFB, Alaska 1992 IRP field investigation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The US Air Force is currently investigating 22 sites on Shemya Air Force Base (AFB) to determine if past spill and disposal activities have caused environmental damage. These investigations are being carried out under the Air Force's Installation Restoration Program (IRP). Field investigations were performed in 1992 to obtain the information needed to assess what future actions will need to be carried out at each site. The island's drinking water supply was also investigated. Activities completed at 10 selected sites during the 1992 field investigation included surface sampling to determine the lateral extent of contamination, subsurface sampling to determine the vertical extent of contamination, and the installation of well points and monitoring wells to determine the direction of groundwater flow and if the groundwater has been affected by a site. In addition, geophysical surveys were performed at most sites to identify site boundaries and check for the presence of buried metal to be avoided during drilling activities. This report, appendix A, contains the analytical results.

  17. Shemya AFB, Alaska 1992 IRP field investigation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The US Air Force is currently investigating 22 sites on Shemya Air Force Base (AFB) to determine if past spill and disposal activities have caused environmental damage. These investigations are being carried out under the Air Force's Installation Restoration Program (IRP). Field investigations were performed in 1992 to obtain the information needed to assess what future actions will need to be carried out at each site. The island's drinking water supply was also investigated. Activities completed at 10 selected sites included surface sampling to determine the lateral extent of contamination, subsurface sampling to determine the vertical extent of contamination, and the installation of well points and monitoring wells to determine the direction of groundwater flow and if the groundwater has been affected by a site. In addition, geophysical surveys were performed at most sites to identify site boundaries and check for the presence of buried metal, to be avoided during drilling activities. This report contains appendices E and F with information on the following: soil boring logs, and data validation of samples analyzed.

  18. Shemya AFB, Alaska 1992 IRP field investigation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The US Air Force is currently investigating 22 sites on Shemya Air Force Base (AFB) to determine if past spill and disposal activities have caused environmental damage. These investigations are being carried out under the Air Force's Installation Restoration Program (IRP). Field investigations were performed in 1992 to obtain the information needed to assess what future actions will need to be carried out at each site. The island's drinking water supply was also investigated. Activities completed at 10 selected sites included surface sampling to determine the lateral extent of contamination, subsurface sampling to determine the vertical extent of contamination, and the installation of well points and monitoring wells to determine the direction of groundwater flow and if the groundwater has been affected by a site. Geophysical surveys were performed at most sites to identify site boundaries and check for the presence of buried metal to be avoided during drilling activities. This report, appendices B, C, and D contains information on the following: geophysical contour maps and profile plots; human health risk assessment; and ecological risk assessment.

  19. Natural Gas for Advanced Dual-Fuel Combustion Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Nicholas Ryan

    Natural gas fuels represent the next evolution of low-carbon energy feedstocks powering human activity worldwide. The internal combustion engine, the energy conversion device widely used by society for more than one century, is capable of utilizing advanced combustion strategies in pursuit of ultra-high efficiency and ultra-low emissions. Yet many emerging advanced combustion strategies depend upon traditional petroleum-based fuels for their operation. In this research the use of natural gas, namely methane, is applied to both conventional and advanced dual-fuel combustion strategies. In the first part of this work both computational and experimental studies are undertaken to examine the viability of utilizing methane as the premixed low reactivity fuel in reactivity controlled compression ignition, a leading advanced dual-fuel combustion strategy. As a result, methane is shown to be capable of significantly extending the load limits for dual-fuel reactivity controlled compression ignition in both light- and heavy-duty engines. In the second part of this work heavy-duty single-cylinder engine experiments are performed to research the performance of both conventional dual-fuel (diesel pilot ignition) and advanced dual-fuel (reactivity controlled compression ignition) combustion strategies using methane as the premixed low reactivity fuel. Both strategies are strongly influenced by equivalence ratio; diesel pilot ignition offers best performance at higher equivalence ratios and higher premixed methane ratios, whereas reactivity controlled compression ignition offers superior performance at lower equivalence ratios and lower premixed methane ratios. In the third part of this work experiments are performed in order to determine the dominant mode of heat release for both dual-fuel combustion strategies. By studying the dual-fuel homogeneous charge compression ignition and single-fuel spark ignition, strategies representative of autoignition and flame propagation

  20. Management Strategies in Advanced Uterine Leiomyosarcoma: Focus on Trabectedin

    PubMed Central

    Amant, Frédéric; Lorusso, Domenica; Duffaud, Florence; Pautier, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of advanced uterine leiomyosarcomas (U-LMS) represents a considerable challenge. Radiological diagnosis prior to hysterectomy is difficult, with the diagnosis frequently made postoperatively. Whilst a total abdominal hysterectomy is the cornerstone of management of early disease, the role of routine adjuvant pelvic radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy is less clear, since they may improve local tumor control in high risk patients but are not associated with an overall survival benefit. For recurrent or disseminated U-LMS, cytotoxic chemotherapy remains the mainstay of treatment. There have been few active chemotherapy drugs approved for advanced disease, although newer drugs such as trabectedin with its pleiotropic mechanism of actions represent an important addition to the standard front-line systemic therapy with doxorubicin and ifosfamide. In this review, we outline the therapeutic potential and in particular the emerging evidence-based strategy of therapy with trabectedin in patients with advanced U-LMS. PMID:26089739

  1. Conditional Derepression of Ferritin Synthesis in Cells Expressing a Constitutive IRP1 Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian; Pantopoulos, Kostas

    2002-01-01

    Iron regulatory protein 1 (IRP1), a major posttranscriptional regulator of cellular iron and energy metabolism, is controlled by an iron-sulfur cluster switch. Cysteine-437 is critical for coordinating the cluster, and its replacement yields mutants that do not respond to iron perturbations and constitutively bind to cognate mRNA iron-responsive elements (IREs). The expression of IRP1C437S in cells has been associated with aberrations in iron homeostasis and toxicity. We have established clones of human lung (H1299) and breast (MCF7) cancer cells that express high levels of IRP1C437S in a tetracycline-inducible manner. As expected, IRP1C437S stabilizes transferrin receptor mRNA and inhibits translation of ferritin mRNA in both cell types by binding to their respective IREs. However, H1299 transfectants grown at high densities are able to overcome the IRP1C437S-mediated inhibition in ferritin synthesis. The mechanism involves neither alteration in ferritin mRNA levels nor utilization of alternative transcription start sites to eliminate the IRE or relocate it in less inhibitory downstream positions. The derepression of ferritin mRNA translation occurs under conditions where global protein synthesis appears to be impaired, as judged by a significant enrichment in the expression of the underphosphorylated form of the translational regulator 4E-BP1. Collectively, these data document an example where ferritin mRNA translation evades control of the IRE-IRP system. The physiological implications of this response are reflected in protection against iron-mediated toxicity, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. PMID:12052872

  2. Expression of the iron-responsive irpA gene from the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp strain PCC 7942.

    PubMed

    Durham, Kathryn A; Porta, David; McKay, R Michael L; Bullerjahn, George S

    2003-01-01

    Expression of the iron-stress-induced irpA gene of Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942 was investigated by constructing luminescent p irpA::luxAB promoter fusions. Growth of Fe-replete and Fe-limited cultures yielded high levels of luminescence only under conditions of iron deficiency. Promoter fusion deletions revealed that low Fe irpA transcription is dependent on a 25-nucleotide sequence that includes a region of dyad symmetry centered 19 nucleotides from the transcription start. Assaying luminescence at defined iron concentrations in trace-metal-buffered media showed that irpA transcription is activated at concentrations below 100 nm Fe. Overall, the expression pattern and promoter structure of irpAsuggests a novel form of metal-dependent regulation in this species. PMID:12560991

  3. Advanced chemical separations in support of the clean option strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.; Diamond, H.; Leonard, R.A.; Rogers, R.D.

    1993-09-01

    The objective of the Clean Option Strategy is to reduce the volume of waste from Hanford Storage tanks that must be vitrified and subsequently buried in a deep geologic repository to less than 1000 canisters (1) Advanced chemical separations in support of the Clean Option Strategy comprise a series of novel processes that are designed to extract and recover U, TRUs (Np, Pu, Am, Cm), {sup 90}Sr, {sup 99}Tc and {sup 137}Cs from dissolved sludge waste obtained from Hanford storage tanks. All inert constituents and the balance of the fission products, including barium and the lanthanides (Ln), will remain in the raffinates and effluent streams generated in these processes. The aim of the advanced chemical processes is to reduce the complexity and cost of the chemical pretreatment of the dissolved sludge from the single- and double-shelled tanks. To achieve this goal, Hanford must minimize the number of processes to extract U, TRUs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 99}Tc and {sup 137}Cs, minimize the number of times that the initial volume of dissolved sludge must be handled, and concentrate product streams to reduce the scale of operation. To meet the requirements of advanced chemical separation processes, all systems must: Readily achieve the desired decontamination factors, have good chemical and radiolytic stability, not use highly hazardous substances, not significantly increase the volume of feed or waste and lend themselves to easy engineering scale-up.

  4. Abnormal Brain Iron Metabolism in Irp2 Deficient Mice Is Associated with Mild Neurological and Behavioral Impairments

    PubMed Central

    Zumbrennen-Bullough, Kimberly B.; Becker, Lore; Garrett, Lillian; Hölter, Sabine M.; Calzada-Wack, Julia; Mossbrugger, Ilona; Quintanilla-Fend, Leticia; Racz, Ildiko; Rathkolb, Birgit; Klopstock, Thomas; Wurst, Wolfgang; Zimmer, Andreas; Wolf, Eckhard; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valerie; de Angelis, Martin Hrabě; Romney, Steven J.; Leibold, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Iron Regulatory Protein 2 (Irp2, Ireb2) is a central regulator of cellular iron homeostasis in vertebrates. Two global knockout mouse models have been generated to explore the role of Irp2 in regulating iron metabolism. While both mouse models show that loss of Irp2 results in microcytic anemia and altered body iron distribution, discrepant results have drawn into question the role of Irp2 in regulating brain iron metabolism. One model shows that aged Irp2 deficient mice develop adult-onset progressive neurodegeneration that is associated with axonal degeneration and loss of Purkinje cells in the central nervous system. These mice show iron deposition in white matter tracts and oligodendrocyte soma throughout the brain. A contrasting model of global Irp2 deficiency shows no overt or pathological signs of neurodegeneration or brain iron accumulation, and display only mild motor coordination and balance deficits when challenged by specific tests. Explanations for conflicting findings in the severity of the clinical phenotype, brain iron accumulation and neuronal degeneration remain unclear. Here, we describe an additional mouse model of global Irp2 deficiency. Our aged Irp2−/− mice show marked iron deposition in white matter and in oligodendrocytes while iron content is significantly reduced in neurons. Ferritin and transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1, Tfrc), expression are increased and decreased, respectively, in the brain from Irp2−/− mice. These mice show impairments in locomotion, exploration, motor coordination/balance and nociception when assessed by neurological and behavioral tests, but lack overt signs of neurodegenerative disease. Ultrastructural studies of specific brain regions show no evidence of neurodegeneration. Our data suggest that Irp2 deficiency dysregulates brain iron metabolism causing cellular dysfunction that ultimately leads to mild neurological, behavioral and nociceptive impairments. PMID:24896637

  5. Treatment strategies in early and advanced Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Ossig, Christiana; Reichmann, Heinz

    2015-02-01

    The initiation of therapy in Parkinson disease (PD), altering the medication, adding new substances, and switching to alternative therapies throughout the disease is always a matter of debate. In the past, experts in PD have propagated different medication strategies. Even though there is no new medical treatment on the horizon, much has changed in consideration of the known treatments in the early and advanced therapy for PD. Therapeutic regimens have to be adapted and adjusted on a regular basis to accomplish the best medical care for the predominant symptom of the individual patient with PD. PMID:25432721

  6. Iron-dependent turnover of IRP-1/c-aconitase in kidney cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Templeton, Douglas M

    2015-05-01

    The kidney plays an important role in iron homeostasis and actively reabsorbs citrate. The bifunctional iron-regulatory protein IRP-1 potentially regulates iron trafficking and participates in citrate metabolism as a cytosolic (c-) aconitase. We investigated the role of cellular iron status in determining the expression and dynamics of IRP-1 in two renal cell types, with the aim of identifying a role of the protein in cellular ROS levels, citrate metabolism and glutamate production. The effects of iron supplementation and chelation on IRP-1 protein and mRNA levels and protein turnover were compared in cultured primary rat mesangial cells and a porcine renal tubule cell line (LLC-PK1). Levels of ROS were measured in both cell types, and c-aconitase activity, glutamate, and glutathione were measured in LLC-PK1 cells, with and without IRP-1 silencing and in glutamine-supplemented or nominally glutamine-free medium. Iron supplementation decreased IRP-1 levels (e.g., approx. 40% in mesangial cells treated with 10 μg ml(-1) iron for 16 h) and increased ubiquitinated IRP-1 levels in both cells types, with iron chelation having the opposite effect. Although iron increased ROS levels (three-fold with 20 μg ml(-1) iron in mesangial cells and more modestly by about 30% with 50 μg ml(-1) in LLC-PK1 cells, both after 24 h), protein degradation was not ROS-dependent. In LLC-PK1 cells, 10 μg ml(-1) iron (24 h) increased both aconitase activity (30%) and secreted glutamate levels (65%). Silencing did not remove the glutamate response to iron but decreased the c-aconitase activity of the residual protein independent of iron loading (37% and 46% of control levels, without and with iron treatment, respectively). However, in glutamine-free medium, glutamate was still increased by iron, even in IRP-1-silenced cells, and did not correspond to c-aconitase. Silencing decreased the amount of ferritin measured in response to iron loading, decreased the affect of iron on total

  7. Advanced control strategy for plant heat rate improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, P.; Frerichs, D.K.; Kyr, D.

    1995-12-31

    Florida Power & Light Company (FPL) supplies electricity to about half of the population of Florida, roughly 6.5 million people. The load base is largely residential/business with the obvious seasonal extremes due to the climate. FPL`s generating capacity is 16,320 MW composed of 70% traditional fossil cycle, 18% nuclear, and 12% gas turbine. The system load profile coupled with bulk power purchases is such that the 400 MW class units (9 Foster Wheeler drum type units comprising 24% of total capacity) are now forced to cycle daily all year, and to come off line on weekends during the winter months. The current economic realities of power generation force utility companies to seek methods to improve plant heat rate, and FPL is no exception. FPL believed it possible to achieve the goal of lower heat rate and follow the required load demand with the 400 MW class units through the use of an advanced control strategy implemented totally within the unit`s Distributed Control System (DCS). As of the writing of this paper, the project is still ongoing. This paper will present the theory and methodology of the advanced control strategy along with the current design and implementation status and results obtained to date.

  8. Installation Restoration Program (IRP) for IRP sites numbers 4, 5, 7 and 14. 152 Tactical Reconnaissance Group, Nevada Air National Guard, Reno Tahoe International Airport, Reno, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    Remedial Investigation Report for IRP Site Nos. 4,5,7, and 14, Nevada Air National Guard, 152nd Tactical Reconnaissance Group, Reno Tahoe International Airport, Reno, Nevada. This is the remedial investigation report. The sites were investigated under the Installation Restoration Program. Soil and groundwater samples were collected and analyzed. An Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis was recommended to fully delineate the extent of contamination and conduct remediation activities, if required for sites 4,5,7, and 14. Groundwater monitoring was recommended for the all sites.

  9. Polymeric nanotherapeutics: clinical development and advances in stealth functionalization strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Che-Ming J.; Fang, Ronnie H.; Luk, Brian T.; Zhang, Liangfang

    2013-12-01

    Long-circulating polymeric nanotherapeutics have garnered increasing interest in research and in the clinic owing to their ability to improve the solubility and pharmacokinetics of therapeutic cargoes. Modulation of carrier properties promises more effective drug localization at the disease sites and can lead to enhanced drug safety and efficacy. In the present review, we highlight the current development of polymeric nanotherapeutics in the clinic. In light of the importance of stealth properties in therapeutic nanoparticles, we also review the advances in stealth functionalization strategies and examine the performance of different stealth polymers in the literature. In addition, we discuss the recent development of biologically inspired ``self'' nanoparticles, which present a differing stealth concept from conventional approaches.

  10. Sulfur-free cleaning strategy for advanced mask manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kindt, Louis; Watts, Andrew; Burnham, Jay; Aaskov, William

    2006-10-01

    Existing cleaning technology using sulfuric acid based chemistry has served the mask industry quite well over the years. However, the existence of residue on mask surfaces is becoming more and more of a problem at the high energy wavelengths used in lithography tool for wafer manufacturing. This is evident by the emergence of sub-pellicle defect growth and backside hazing issues. A large source of residual contamination on the surface of masks is from the mask manufacturing process, particularly the cleaning portion involving sulfuric acid. Cleaning strategies can be developed that eliminate the use of sulfuric acid in the cleaning process for advanced photomasks and alternative processes can be used for cleaning masks at various stages of the manufacturing process. Implementation of these new technologies into manufacturing will be discussed as will the resulting improvements, advantages, and disadvantages over pre-existing mask cleaning processes.

  11. [Treatment strategy for advanced prostate cancer with bone metastases].

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Mikio; Kakehi, Yoshiyuki

    2006-08-01

    The introduction of PSA screening has led to confirming a shift towards an earlier pathological stage in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. Consequently, the proportion of detecting early stage prostate cancer has clearly been increasing. On the other hand, progressive cancers in the form of distant metastases and locally advanced ones that have been confirmed at the initial diagnosis exhibit a constant rate. In addition, there have been a lot of cases where hormonal resistance was acquired during hormonal therapy which resulted in advanced metastases of the prostate. Prostate cancer has a tendency to be metastatic to bones. Combining the fact that the survival period of patients undergoing treatment is prolonged after metastases, the length of suffering caused by complications, such as ostealgia, pathological fracture and myelopathy, becomes an issue in which QOL and ADL of the patient are sacrificed for a long time. As for treatment of prostate cancer with metastases, a palliative treatment is common in the clinical scene. However, we can extend a life prognosis with use of radiotherapy and surgical treatment in addition to the palliative treatment at an appropriate time. It appears that a combination of new chemotherapy and hormonal therapy will be promising. In the future, we believe that the appearance of new anticancer drugs, endocrine therapies, bisphosphonates and strontium treatment could be used as a part of the treatment strategy for prostate cancer with bone metastases. PMID:16912523

  12. Iron insufficiency compromises motor neurons and their mitochondrial function in Irp2-null mice.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Suh Young; Crooks, Daniel R; Wilson-Ollivierre, Hayden; Ghosh, Manik C; Sougrat, Rachid; Lee, Jaekwon; Cooperman, Sharon; Mitchell, James B; Beaumont, Carole; Rouault, Tracey A

    2011-01-01

    Genetic ablation of Iron Regulatory Protein 2 (Irp2, Ireb2), which post-transcriptionally regulates iron metabolism genes, causes a gait disorder in mice that progresses to hind-limb paralysis. Here we have demonstrated that misregulation of iron metabolism from loss of Irp2 causes lower motor neuronal degeneration with significant spinal cord axonopathy. Mitochondria in the lumbar spinal cord showed significantly decreased Complex I and II activities, and abnormal morphology. Lower motor neurons appeared to be the most adversely affected neurons, and we show that functional iron starvation due to misregulation of iron import and storage proteins, including transferrin receptor 1 and ferritin, may have a causal role in disease. We demonstrated that two therapeutic approaches were beneficial for motor neuron survival. First, we activated a homologous protein, IRP1, by oral Tempol treatment and found that axons were partially spared from degeneration. Secondly, we genetically decreased expression of the iron storage protein, ferritin, to diminish functional iron starvation. These data suggest that functional iron deficiency may constitute a previously unrecognized molecular basis for degeneration of motor neurons in mice. PMID:22003390

  13. The FBXL5-IRP2 axis is integral to control of iron metabolism in vivo.

    PubMed

    Moroishi, Toshiro; Nishiyama, Masaaki; Takeda, Yukiko; Iwai, Kazuhiro; Nakayama, Keiichi I

    2011-09-01

    Iron-dependent degradation of iron-regulatory protein 2 (IRP2) is a key event for maintenance of an appropriate intracellular concentration of iron. Although FBXL5 (F box and leucine-rich repeat protein 5) is thought to mediate this degradation, the role of FBXL5 in the control of iron homeostasis in vivo has been poorly understood. We have now found that mice deficient in FBXL5 died in utero, associated with excessive iron accumulation. This embryonic mortality was prevented by additional ablation of IRP2, suggesting that impaired IRP2 degradation is primarily responsible for the death of Fbxl5(-)(/-) mice. We also found that liver-specific deletion of Fbxl5 resulted in deregulation of both hepatic and systemic iron homeostasis, leading to the development of steatohepatitis. The liver-specific mutant mice died with acute liver failure when fed a high-iron diet. Thus, our results uncover a major role for FBXL5 in ensuring an appropriate supply of iron to cells. PMID:21907140

  14. The role of IRP in the natural gas industry: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, J.A.; Brockman, L.; Herman, P.

    1994-09-29

    The natural gas industry has changed radically over the last decade. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission`s Order 636 completed plans to unbundle interstate pipeline services and create open access for distribution companies and their customers. There has also been increasing competition for local distribution companies (LDCs) from fuel oil, electricity and unregulated energy service companies. Meanwhile, the Energy Policy Act of 1992 includes provisions that encourage energy efficiency and promote reliance on competitive forces. In response to these changes, coupled with growing environmental concerns and the need for increased energy efficiency, a number of state public utility commissions and LDCs took an interest in integrated resource planning (IRP) for gas utilities. Gas IRP was in its formative stages and a variety of regulatory approaches were being considered when this project began. In response, this project originated with the total project scope being to define, implement and institutionalize an IRP process for the Gas Customer Service Business Unit of Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation (NMGas).

  15. Salicylate Biosynthesis: Overexpression, Purification, and Characterization of Irp9, a Bifunctional Salicylate Synthase from Yersinia enterocolitica

    PubMed Central

    Kerbarh, Olivier; Ciulli, Alessio; Howard, Nigel I.; Abell, Chris

    2005-01-01

    In some bacteria, salicylate is synthesized using the enzymes isochorismate synthase and isochorismate pyruvate lyase. In contrast, gene inactivation and complementation experiments with Yersinia enterocolitica suggest the synthesis of salicylate in the biosynthesis of the siderophore yersiniabactin involves a single protein, Irp9, which converts chorismate directly into salicylate. In the present study, Irp9 was for the first time heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli as a hexahistidine fusion protein, purified to near homogeneity, and characterized biochemically. The recombinant protein was found to be a dimer, each subunit of which has a molecular mass of 50 kDa. Enzyme assays, reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic analyses confirmed that Irp9 is a salicylate synthase and converts chorismate to salicylate with a Km for chorismate of 4.2 μM and a kcat of 8 min−1. The reaction was shown to proceed through the intermediate isochorismate, which was detected directly using 1H NMR spectroscopy. PMID:16030197

  16. Advances in Risk Classification and Treatment Strategies for Neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Navin R; Applebaum, Mark A; Volchenboum, Samuel L; Matthay, Katherine K; London, Wendy B; Ambros, Peter F; Nakagawara, Akira; Berthold, Frank; Schleiermacher, Gudrun; Park, Julie R; Valteau-Couanet, Dominique; Pearson, Andrew D J; Cohn, Susan L

    2015-09-20

    Risk-based treatment approaches for neuroblastoma have been ongoing for decades. However, the criteria used to define risk in various institutional and cooperative groups were disparate, limiting the ability to compare clinical trial results. To mitigate this problem and enhance collaborative research, homogenous pretreatment patient cohorts have been defined by the International Neuroblastoma Risk Group classification system. During the past 30 years, increasingly intensive, multimodality approaches have been developed to treat patients who are classified as high risk, whereas patients with low- or intermediate-risk neuroblastoma have received reduced therapy. This treatment approach has resulted in improved outcome, although survival for high-risk patients remains poor, emphasizing the need for more effective treatments. Increased knowledge regarding the biology and genetic basis of neuroblastoma has led to the discovery of druggable targets and promising, new therapeutic approaches. Collaborative efforts of institutions and international cooperative groups have led to advances in our understanding of neuroblastoma biology, refinements in risk classification, and stratified treatment strategies, resulting in improved outcome. International collaboration will be even more critical when evaluating therapies designed to treat small cohorts of patients with rare actionable mutations. PMID:26304901

  17. Advances in genetic therapeutic strategies for Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Guiraud, Simon; Chen, Huijia; Burns, David T.

    2015-01-01

    New Findings What is the topic of this review? This review highlights recent progress in genetically based therapies targeting the primary defect of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. What advances does it highlight? Over the last two decades, considerable progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms underlying Duchenne muscular dystrophy, leading to the development of genetic therapies. These include manipulation of the expression of the gene or related genes, the splicing of the gene and its translation, and replacement of the gene using viral approaches. Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a lethal X‐linked disorder caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. In the absence of the dystrophin protein, the link between the cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix is destroyed, and this severely compromises the strength, flexibility and stability of muscle fibres. The devastating consequence is progressive muscle wasting and premature death in Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients. There is currently no cure, and despite exhaustive palliative care, patients are restricted to a wheelchair by the age of 12 years and usually succumb to cardiac or respiratory complications in their late 20s. This review provides an update on the current genetically based therapies and clinical trials that target or compensate for the primary defect of this disease. These include dystrophin gene‐replacement strategies, genetic modification techniques to restore dystrophin expression, and modulation of the dystrophin homologue, utrophin, as a surrogate to re‐establish muscle function. PMID:26140505

  18. Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Services (AHPS) Science Infusion Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaake, J.; Smith, G.; Carter, G.

    2002-05-01

    NWS is implementing an Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Services (AHPS) Science initiative to meet NWS Vision 2005 goals and related hydrologic services requirements, including the goal of being a world leader using state of the art forecast science and technology. AHPS includes a science infusion strategy to meet the following objectives: extend forecast lead time, improve forecast accuracy, and provide better information for user decisions. AHPS will meet these goals by implementing hydrologic forecast models tuned to local conditions and operated to account for uncertainty in hydrologic forecasts. AHPS will use ensemble weather and climate forecasts of precipitation and other conditions, such as air temperature, that affect the forecasts. This ensemble approach to weather, climate and water forecasting will provide a probabilistic basis for AHPS forecast products. Meeting AHPS goals and objectives requires an infusion of new science into the existing forecast system. Three AHPS requirements for science infusion are: 1. Quantify the uncertainty of river forecasts and provide users with a clear view of future hydrologic conditions together with hard evidence that AHPS products are based on valid forecast probability information; 2. Reduce the space and time scale, improve the accuracy, and extend the lead time of hydrologic forecasts. Demonstrate that new improvements to hydrologic forecast procedures add value to the forecasts and meet user requirements; 3. Improve the ability of forecasters to use the tools provided by integrating these into an efficient operational forecast system that includes automatic techniques for data quality control, access to data, model calibration, data assimilation, processing of ensemble forecasts, verification of forecasts and monitoring of all stages of the forecast process.

  19. Institutional Advancement Strategies in Hard Times. AAHE-ERIC/Higher Education Research Report No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Michael D.; Sherratt, Gerald R.

    The historical role of institutional advancement and the specific activities and trends currently affecting it are reviewed, and four strategies for advancement programs are suggested. Institutional advancement includes alumni relations, fund-raising, public relations, internal and external communications, and government relations, and its…

  20. Advance Organizer Strategy for Educable Mentally Retarded and Regular Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Moon K.

    The study examined the effects of an advance organizer on the learning and retention of facts and concepts obtained from a sound film by educable mentally retarded (N=30) and regular children (N=30) in a mainstreamed secondary public school class. Also examined was the interaction between the advance organizer and ability levels of the Ss. Results…

  1. Advanced Algorithms for Local Routing Strategy on Complex Networks.

    PubMed

    Lin, Benchuan; Chen, Bokui; Gao, Yachun; Tse, Chi K; Dong, Chuanfei; Miao, Lixin; Wang, Binghong

    2016-01-01

    Despite the significant improvement on network performance provided by global routing strategies, their applications are still limited to small-scale networks, due to the need for acquiring global information of the network which grows and changes rapidly with time. Local routing strategies, however, need much less local information, though their transmission efficiency and network capacity are much lower than that of global routing strategies. In view of this, three algorithms are proposed and a thorough investigation is conducted in this paper. These algorithms include a node duplication avoidance algorithm, a next-nearest-neighbor algorithm and a restrictive queue length algorithm. After applying them to typical local routing strategies, the critical generation rate of information packets Rc increases by over ten-fold and the average transmission time 〈T〉 decreases by 70-90 percent, both of which are key physical quantities to assess the efficiency of routing strategies on complex networks. More importantly, in comparison with global routing strategies, the improved local routing strategies can yield better network performance under certain circumstances. This is a revolutionary leap for communication networks, because local routing strategy enjoys great superiority over global routing strategy not only in terms of the reduction of computational expense, but also in terms of the flexibility of implementation, especially for large-scale networks. PMID:27434502

  2. Advanced Algorithms for Local Routing Strategy on Complex Networks

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Benchuan; Chen, Bokui; Gao, Yachun; Tse, Chi K.; Dong, Chuanfei; Miao, Lixin; Wang, Binghong

    2016-01-01

    Despite the significant improvement on network performance provided by global routing strategies, their applications are still limited to small-scale networks, due to the need for acquiring global information of the network which grows and changes rapidly with time. Local routing strategies, however, need much less local information, though their transmission efficiency and network capacity are much lower than that of global routing strategies. In view of this, three algorithms are proposed and a thorough investigation is conducted in this paper. These algorithms include a node duplication avoidance algorithm, a next-nearest-neighbor algorithm and a restrictive queue length algorithm. After applying them to typical local routing strategies, the critical generation rate of information packets Rc increases by over ten-fold and the average transmission time 〈T〉 decreases by 70–90 percent, both of which are key physical quantities to assess the efficiency of routing strategies on complex networks. More importantly, in comparison with global routing strategies, the improved local routing strategies can yield better network performance under certain circumstances. This is a revolutionary leap for communication networks, because local routing strategy enjoys great superiority over global routing strategy not only in terms of the reduction of computational expense, but also in terms of the flexibility of implementation, especially for large-scale networks. PMID:27434502

  3. Shemya AFB, Alaska 1992 IRP field investigation report. Volume 1: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The US Air Force is currently investigating 22 sites on Shemya Air Force Base (AFB) to determine if past spill and disposal activities have caused environmental damage. These investigations are being carried out under the Air Force`s Installation Restoration Program (IRP). As a part of the IRP program, field investigations were performed in 1992 to obtain the information needed to assess what future actions willneed to be carried out at each site. The island`s drinking water supply was also investigated. Activities completed at 10 selected sites during the 1992 field investigation included surface sampling to determine the lateral extent of contamination, subsurface sampling to determine the vertical extent of contamination, and the installation of well points and monitoring wells to determine the direction of groundwater flow and if the groundwater has been affected by a site. In addition, geophysical surveys were performed at most sites to identify site boundaries and check for the presence of buried metal to be avoided during drilling activities.

  4. [Advances of consolidated bioprocessing based on recombinant strategy].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zongbao; Zhao, Meina; Chen, Tao; Zhao, Xueming

    2013-10-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass represents an abundant, low-cost and renewable source of potentially fermentable sugars. It is acandidate besides petroleum as feedstock for fuel and chemical production. Recent researches on utilizing lignocellulosicsas feedstock boost development of numerous-promising processes for a variety of fuels and chemicals, such as biodiesel, biohydrogen and ethanol. However, high cost in depolymerization is a primary obstacle preventing the use of lignocellulosic biomass as feedstock. Consolidated bioprocessing (CBP), refers to the bioprocess without any exogenous cellulolyotic enzymes added, converting the lignocellulosic material into biochemicals directly, which could potentially avoid the cost of the dedicated enzyme generation step by incorporating enzyme-generating, biomass-degrading and bioproduct-producing capabilities into a single organism through genetic engineering. There are two CBP strategies, native strategy and recombinant strategy. We mainly introduce the recombinant strategy, including its principle, the two responding styles, the contributions of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering and the future challenges. PMID:24432651

  5. Strategy to Promote Active Learning of an Advanced Research Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Hilary J.; Dovey, Terence M.

    2013-01-01

    Research methods courses aim to equip students with the knowledge and skills required for research yet seldom include practical aspects of assessment. This reflective practitioner report describes and evaluates an innovative approach to teaching and assessing advanced qualitative research methods to final-year psychology undergraduate students. An…

  6. A Test of the Instructional Strategy of Using Advance Organizers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastick, Tony

    This study tested the common assumption that lists of instructional objectives (LIOs) presented at the start of a lesson are used as advance organizers (AOs). Because traditional research designs have yielded conflicting results, an alternative design was used that sought to falsify the necessary association between the objectives and their use…

  7. Advanced Image Search: A Strategy for Creating Presentation Boards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Diane K.; Hines, Jean D.; Swinker, Mary E.

    2008-01-01

    Finding relevant digital images to create presentation boards requires advanced search skills. This article describes a course assignment involving a technique designed to develop students' literacy skills with respect to locating images of desired quality and content from Internet databases. The assignment was applied in a collegiate apparel…

  8. Effects of Narrative Script Advance Organizer Strategies Used to Introduce Video in the Foreign Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambard, Philip D.; Ambard, Linda K.

    2012-01-01

    The study compared participant comprehension of foreign language video content using two advance organizer (AO) strategies while exploring the benefits of AOs as proficiency increases. Participants were 50 advanced-beginner Spanish college students in three sections. Collaborative reading condition participants read a target language narrative…

  9. Advanced Unit Commitment Strategies for the U.S. Eastern Interconnection: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Ela, E.; Milligan, M.; Meibom, P.; Barth, R.; Tuohy, A.

    2010-10-01

    This paper outlines a study undertaken for the U.S. Eastern Interconnection in which different advanced unit commitment strategies were simulated for three different years to evaluate the benefits that may occur from using these strategies as an operational tool.

  10. Fundraising Strategies for Community Colleges: The Definitive Guide for Advancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingaman, Steve

    2012-01-01

    "Fundraising Strategies for Community Colleges" is a hands-on, step-by-step guide to building a million-dollar-a-year development office. Community colleges educate nearly half the undergraduates in America yet receive as little as two percent of all gifts to higher education. Private philanthropy is now essential to the mission of community…

  11. English Language Learning Strategies Reported by Advanced Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Juyeon; Heinz, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate effective English language learning strategies (LLSs) employed by successful language learners. The participants in this study were 20 student interpreters enrolled in the graduate school of interpretation and translation in Korea. Data on LLSs were collected through unstructured essay writing, a…

  12. Advanced Simulation and Computing Co-Design Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Ang, James A.; Hoang, Thuc T.; Kelly, Suzanne M.; McPherson, Allen; Neely, Rob

    2015-11-01

    This ASC Co-design Strategy lays out the full continuum and components of the co-design process, based on what we have experienced thus far and what we wish to do more in the future to meet the program’s mission of providing high performance computing (HPC) and simulation capabilities for NNSA to carry out its stockpile stewardship responsibility.

  13. Novel strategies in tendon and ligament tissue engineering: Advanced biomaterials and regeneration motifs

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Tendon and ligaments have poor healing capacity and when injured often require surgical intervention. Tissue replacement via autografts and allografts are non-ideal strategies that can lead to future problems. As an alternative, scaffold-based tissue engineering strategies are being pursued. In this review, we describe design considerations and major recent advancements of scaffolds for tendon/ligament engineering. Specifically, we outline native tendon/ligament characteristics critical for design parameters and outcome measures, and introduce synthetic and naturally-derived biomaterials used in tendon/ligament scaffolds. We will describe applications of these biomaterials in advanced tendon/ligament engineering strategies including the utility of scaffold functionalization, cyclic strain, growth factors, and interface considerations. The goal of this review is to compile and interpret the important findings of recent tendon/ligament engineering research in an effort towards the advancement of regenerative strategies. PMID:20727171

  14. AmeriFlux US-Wi2 Intermediate red pine (IRP)

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jiquan

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Wi2 Intermediate red pine (IRP). Site Description - The Wisconsin Intermediate Red Pine site is located in the Washburn Ranger District of the northeastern section of Chequamegon National Forest. A member of the northern coniferous-deciduous biome, surveys from the mid-19th century indicate the region consisted of a mixed stand of red, white, and jack pines. After extensive timber harvesting, wildfires, and farming activity, the region turned into a fragmented mosaic of stands of various ages and composition. The intermediate red pine site is one of ten sites that collectively represent the successional stages of development in the predominant stand types of a physically homogeneous landscape. Thinned every 7 years until they reach 100 to 150 years of age, the red pine plantations of all ages occupy approximately 25% of the region.

  15. Scientific Society Partnerships & Effective Strategies for Advancing Policy Objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, P. W.; Greenamoyer, J.

    2012-12-01

    From the perspective of Congress, science is just another interest group that seeks a generous slice of an increasingly shrinking federal budget pie. Traditionally, the science community has not been effective at lobbying for the legislative advances and federal appropriations that enable the R&D enterprise. However, over the last couple decades, science societies have become more strategic in their outreach to Congress and the President. Indeed, many societies have lobbyists on staff, many of whom have a background in science. Yet, while science societies are beginning to be more effective as a political interest group, their members have been much slower to come around to this perspective as an important component of their professional lives. In this talk, we will illustrate how the American Institute of Physics partners with AGU and other science societies to identify joint policy priorities and then reach out to Congress and the President to advance these priorities. The biggest issue is funding for R&D, but science education is increasingly important as is other issues such as publishing policy. We will draw from a number examples, such as the NSF budget, funding for Pu-238, K-12 physical science education policy, and Open Access to illustrate how partnerships work and how scientists can be engaged as powerful political actors in the process.

  16. Advances in pharmacological strategies for the prevention of cataract development

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, S K; Selvan, V Kalai; Agrawal, S S; Saxena, Rohit

    2009-01-01

    Cataractous-opacification of the lens is one of the leading causes of blindness in India. The situation can be managed by surgical removal of the cataractous lens. Various pharmacological strategies have been proposed for the prevention and treatment of cataract. Information on possible benefits of putative anticataract agents comes from a variety of approaches, ranging from laboratory experiments, both in vitro and in vivo, to epidemiological studies in patients. This review deals with the various mechanisms, and possible pharmacological interventions for the prevention of cataract. The article also reviews research on potential anticataractous agents, including aldose reductase inhibitors, glutathione boosters, antiglycating agents, vitamins and various drugs from indigenous sources. PMID:19384010

  17. Pharmacological Drug Delivery Strategies for Improved Therapeutic Effects: Recent Advances.

    PubMed

    Savaliya, Reema; Singh, Poornima; Singh, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    The latest pharmacologic research has resulted number of new molecules with the potential to modernize the prevention or treatment of different complex diseases, including cancer. The therapeutics generally include moieties such as proteins, drugs and genes, etc. Current activities in the pharmacological field include the development of novel drug-delivery systems to overcome pharmacokinetic glitches such as limited bioavailability, unwanted distribution, drug resistant, and stability, etc. Therefore, to address these issues various biotechnological and pharmacological techniques has been introduced. However, effective drug delivery with improved efficacy remains challenging. This review is focused towards different strategies such as physical and biological methods for efficacious delivery at desired tissues and even sub-cellular targeting. Emphasis is also given about nanotechnology based drug or gene delivery strategies and co-delivery of drug-drug; gene-gene or combinations of drug-gene, etc. are the current cuttingedge methods, which are under clinical or pre-clinical stage of research. Uses of biodegradable materials, such as liposomes and polymeric particles are another class of drug delivery vehicles, which have shown tremendous success, are also discussed. Towards the end, future directions of pharmacological drug delivery methods have also been summarized. PMID:26654439

  18. Advancements in Tumor Targeting Strategies for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy.

    PubMed

    Luderer, Micah John; de la Puente, Pilar; Azab, Abdel Kareem

    2015-09-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a promising cancer therapy modality that utilizes the nuclear capture reaction of epithermal neutrons by boron-10 resulting in a localized nuclear fission reaction and subsequent cell death. Since cellular destruction is limited to approximately the diameter of a single cell, primarily only cells in the neutron field with significant boron accumulation will be damaged. However, the emergence of BNCT as a prominent therapy has in large part been hindered by a paucity of tumor selective boron containing agents. While L-boronophenylalanine and sodium borocaptate are the most commonly investigated clinical agents, new agents are desperately needed due to their suboptimal tumor selectivity. This review will highlight the various strategies to improve tumor boron delivery including: nucleoside and carbohydrate analogs, unnatural amino acids, porphyrins, antibody-dendrimer conjugates, cationic polymers, cell-membrane penetrating peptides, liposomes and nanoparticles. PMID:26033767

  19. Experimental and computing strategies in advanced material characterization problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolzon, G.

    2015-10-01

    The mechanical characterization of materials relies more and more often on sophisticated experimental methods that permit to acquire a large amount of data and, contemporarily, to reduce the invasiveness of the tests. This evolution accompanies the growing demand of non-destructive diagnostic tools that assess the safety level of components in use in structures and infrastructures, for instance in the strategic energy sector. Advanced material systems and properties that are not amenable to traditional techniques, for instance thin layered structures and their adhesion on the relevant substrates, can be also characterized by means of combined experimental-numerical tools elaborating data acquired by full-field measurement techniques. In this context, parameter identification procedures involve the repeated simulation of the laboratory or in situ tests by sophisticated and usually expensive non-linear analyses while, in some situation, reliable and accurate results would be required in real time. The effectiveness and the filtering capabilities of reduced models based on decomposition and interpolation techniques can be profitably used to meet these conflicting requirements. This communication intends to summarize some results recently achieved in this field by the author and her co-workers. The aim is to foster further interaction between engineering and mathematical communities.

  20. Bunch cleaning strategies and experiments at the Advanced Photon Source.

    SciTech Connect

    Sereno, N. S.

    1999-04-15

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) design incorporated a positron accumulator ring (PAR) as part of the injector chain. In order to increase reliability and accommodate other uses of the injector, APS will run with electrons, eliminating the need for the PAR, provided another method of eliminating rf bucket pollution in the APS is found. Satellite bunches captured from an up to 30-ns-long beam from the linac need to be removed in the injector synchrotron and storage ring. The bunch cleaning method considered here relies on driving a stripline kicker with an amplitude modulated (AM) carrier signal where the carrier is at a revolution harmonic sideband corresponding to the vertical tune. The envelope waveform is phased so that all bunches except a single target bunch (eventually to be injected into the storage ring) are resonated vertically into a scraper. The kicker is designed with a large enough shunt impedance to remove satellite bunches from the injection energy of 0.4 GeV up to 1 GeV. Satellite bunch removal in the storage ring relies on the single bunch current tune shift resulting from the machine impedance. Small bunches remaining after initial preparation in the synchrotron may be removed by driving the beam vertically into a scraper using a stripline kicker operating at a sideband corresponding to the vertical tune for small current bunches. In this paper both design specifications and bunch purity measurements are reported for both the injector synchrotron and storage ring.

  1. Advanced Variance Reduction Strategies for Optimizing Mesh Tallies in MAVRIC

    SciTech Connect

    Peplow, Douglas E.; Blakeman, Edward D; Wagner, John C

    2007-01-01

    More often than in the past, Monte Carlo methods are being used to compute fluxes or doses over large areas using mesh tallies (a set of region tallies defined on a mesh that overlays the geometry). For problems that demand that the uncertainty in each mesh cell be less than some set maximum, computation time is controlled by the cell with the largest uncertainty. This issue becomes quite troublesome in deep-penetration problems, and advanced variance reduction techniques are required to obtain reasonable uncertainties over large areas. The CADIS (Consistent Adjoint Driven Importance Sampling) methodology has been shown to very efficiently optimize the calculation of a response (flux or dose) for a single point or a small region using weight windows and a biased source based on the adjoint of that response. This has been incorporated into codes such as ADVANTG (based on MCNP) and the new sequence MAVRIC, which will be available in the next release of SCALE. In an effort to compute lower uncertainties everywhere in the problem, Larsen's group has also developed several methods to help distribute particles more evenly, based on forward estimates of flux. This paper focuses on the use of a forward estimate to weight the placement of the source in the adjoint calculation used by CADIS, which we refer to as a forward-weighted CADIS (FW-CADIS).

  2. Experimental and computing strategies in advanced material characterization problems

    SciTech Connect

    Bolzon, G.

    2015-10-28

    The mechanical characterization of materials relies more and more often on sophisticated experimental methods that permit to acquire a large amount of data and, contemporarily, to reduce the invasiveness of the tests. This evolution accompanies the growing demand of non-destructive diagnostic tools that assess the safety level of components in use in structures and infrastructures, for instance in the strategic energy sector. Advanced material systems and properties that are not amenable to traditional techniques, for instance thin layered structures and their adhesion on the relevant substrates, can be also characterized by means of combined experimental-numerical tools elaborating data acquired by full-field measurement techniques. In this context, parameter identification procedures involve the repeated simulation of the laboratory or in situ tests by sophisticated and usually expensive non-linear analyses while, in some situation, reliable and accurate results would be required in real time. The effectiveness and the filtering capabilities of reduced models based on decomposition and interpolation techniques can be profitably used to meet these conflicting requirements. This communication intends to summarize some results recently achieved in this field by the author and her co-workers. The aim is to foster further interaction between engineering and mathematical communities.

  3. Utilizing object-oriented design to build advanced optimization strategies with generic implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Eldred, M.S.; Hart, W.E.; Bohnhoff, W.J.; Romero, V.J.; Hutchinson, S.A.; Salinger, A.G.

    1996-08-01

    the benefits of applying optimization to computational models are well known, but their range of widespread application to date has been limited. This effort attempts to extend the disciplinary areas to which optimization algorithms may be readily applied through the development and application of advanced optimization strategies capable of handling the computational difficulties associated with complex simulation codes. Towards this goal, a flexible software framework is under continued development for the application of optimization techniques to broad classes of engineering applications, including those with high computational expense and nonsmooth, nonconvex design space features. Object-oriented software design with C++ has been employed as a tool in providing a flexible, extensible, and robust multidisciplinary toolkit with computationally intensive simulations. In this paper, demonstrations of advanced optimization strategies using the software are presented in the hybridization and parallel processing research areas. Performance of the advanced strategies is compared with a benchmark nonlinear programming optimization.

  4. A strategy for advancing tilt-rotor technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morlok, Edward K.; Schoendorfer, David L.

    1985-01-01

    Tilt-rotor technology has many features which make it a very promising development in aviation which might have application to a wide variety of transportation and logistics situations. However, aside from military applications and rather specialized industrial applications, little is known regarding the potential of tilt-rotor for commercial transportation and hence it is difficult to plan a development program which would gain support and be likely to produce a stream of significant benefits. The purpose is to attempt to provide some of this information in a manner that would be useful for preparing a strategy for development of tilt-rotor aircraft technology. Specifically, the objectives were: to identify promising paths of development and deployment of tilt-rotor aircraft technology in the air transportation system considering both benefits and disbenefits, and to identify any particular groups that are likely to benefit significantly and propose plans for gaining their support of research and development of this technology. Potential advantages of the tilt-rotor technology in the context of air transportation as a door-to-door system were identified, and then promising paths of development of such tilt-rotor systems were analyzed. These then lead to recommendations for specific studies, information dissemination and development of awareness of the tilt-rotor among specific transport-related groups.

  5. Neoadjuvant Treatment Strategies for Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Gollins, S; Sebag-Montefiore, D

    2016-02-01

    Improved surgical technique plus selective preoperative radiotherapy have decreased rectal cancer pelvic local recurrence from, historically, 25% down to about 5-10%. However, this improvement has not reduced distant metastatic relapse, which is the main cause of death and a key issue in rectal cancer management. The current standard is local pelvic treatment (surgery ± preoperative radiotherapy) followed by adjuvant chemotherapy, depending on resection histology. For circumferential resection margin (CRM)-threatened cancer on baseline magnetic resonance imaging, downstaging long-course preoperative chemoradiation (LCPCRT) is generally used. However, for non-CRM-threatened disease, varying approaches are currently adopted in the UK, including straight to surgery, short-course preoperative radiotherapy and LCPCRT. Clinical trials are investigating intensification of concurrent chemoradiation. There is also increasing interest in investigating preoperative neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) as a way of exposing micro-metastatic disease to full-dose systemic chemotherapy as early as possible and potentially reducing metastatic relapse. Phase II trials suggest that this strategy is feasible, with promising histological response and low rates of tumour progression during NAC. Phase III trials are needed to determine the benefit of NAC when added to standard therapy and also to determine if it can be used instead of neoadjuvant radiotherapy-based schedules. Although several measures of neoadjuvant treatment response assessment based on imaging or pathology are promising predictive biomarkers for long-term survival, none has been validated in prospective phase III studies. The phase III setting will enable this, also providing translational opportunities to examine molecular predictors of response and survival. PMID:26645661

  6. An evaluation of descent strategies for TNAV-equipped aircraft in an advanced metering environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izumi, K. H.; Schwab, R. W.; Groce, J. L.; Coote, M. A.

    1986-01-01

    Investigated were the effects on system throughput and fleet fuel usage of arrival aircraft utilizing three 4D RNAV descent strategies (cost optimal, clean-idle Mach/CAS and constant descent angle Mach/CAS), both individually and in combination, in an advanced air traffic control metering environment. Results are presented for all mixtures of arrival traffic consisting of three Boeing commercial jet types and for all combinations of the three descent strategies for a typical en route metering airport arrival distribution.

  7. Photochemical Strategies for the Synthesis of Advanced Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billone, Paul S.

    This thesis describes the study of a variety of nanoscale materials and the development of novel synthetic strategies for their production. While the focus and bulk of this study have been directed specifically at subwavelength lithography, a significant portion of this thesis research involves nanoparticle synthesis, characterization, and functionalization. Put in very simple terms, optical lithography is a process where a beam of light, focused in a specific pattern, is used to generate a physical pattern on a solid substrate. This technology forms the basis for almost all microchip production in the world at the present time. As demand for faster and more powerful chips increases, the need to further miniaturize the patterns while minimizing cost has become very important. Multiple photochemical systems were developed in the search for non-reciprocal photochemistry at 193 nm to increase the resolution of lithographic processes at that wavelength. One approach, based on anthracene sensitization of sulfonium salts for acid generation, used photochemically reversible 4+4 aromatic cycloaddition reactions to introduce the non-linear photochemistry. A second approach took advantage of the photochemistry of N-methylphenothiazine and provided the first true example of a lithographically-relevant multi-photon acid generating process. Since all of the systems we studied used sulfonium salts as the acid generating species, we also looked at the photochemistry of the salts themselves. We evaluated the structural effects of the salts on their direct photochemistry and the implications for sensitized multi-photon photochemistry. We found that the identity of the anion plays a significant role in both processes and propose a new photochemical mechanism for acid generation that involves a charge transfer excitation process. We also describe the synthesis and characterization of novel fluorescent silver nanoparticles, both in solution and polymer films. We show that the

  8. Strategies towards advanced ion track-based biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfonta, L.; Bukelman, O.; Chandra, A.; Fahrner, W. R.; Fink, D.; Fuks, D.; Golovanov, V.; Hnatowicz, V.; Hoppe, K.; Kiv, A.; Klinkovich, I.; Landau, M.; Morante, J. R.; Tkachenko, N. V.; Vacík, J.; Valden, M.

    Three approaches towards ion track-based biosensors appear to be feasible. The development of the first one began a decade ago [Siwy, Z.; Trofin, L.; Kohl, P.; Baker, L.A.; Martin, C.R.; Trautmann, C. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2005, 127, 5000-5001; Siwy, Z.S.; Harrell, C.C.; Heins, E.; Martin, C.R.; Schiedt, B.; Trautmann, C.; Trofin, L.; Polman, A. Presented at the 6th International Conference on Swift Heavy Ions in Matter, Aschaffenburg, Germany, May 28-31, 2005] and makes use of the concept that the presence of certain biomolecules within liquids can block the passage through narrow pores if being captured there, thus switching off the pore's electrical conductivity. The second, having been successfully tested half a year ago [Fink, D.; Klinkovich, I.; Bukelman, O.; Marks, R.S.; Fahrner, W.; Kiv, A.; Fuks, D.; Alfonta, L. Biosens. Bioelectron. 2009, 24, 2702-2706], is based on the accumulation of enzymatic reaction products within the confined volume of narrow etched ion tracks which modifies the pore's electrical conductivity. The third and most elegant, at present under development, will exploit the charge transfer from enzymes to semiconductors embedded within etched tracks, enabling the enzymes undergoing specific reactions with the biomolecules to be detected. These strategies can be realized either within carrier-free nanoporous polymeric membranes embedded in the corresponding bioliquids, or within contacted nanoporous insulating layers on semiconducting substrates, the so-called TEMPOS structures [Fink, D.; Petrov, A.; Hoppe, H.; Fahrner, W.R.; Papaleo, R.M.; Berdinsky, A.; Chandra, A.; Biswas, A.; Chadderton, L.T. Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 2004, 218, 355-361]. The latter have the advantage of exhibiting a number of peculiar electronic properties, such as the ability for logic and/or combination of input signals, tunable polarity, negative differential resistances, tunability by external parameters such as light, magnetic fields, etc. and self-pulsations, which

  9. Scoping study of integrated resource planning needs in the public utility sector

    SciTech Connect

    Garrick, C J; Garrick, J M; Rue, D R

    1993-06-01

    Integrated resource planning (IRP) is an approach to utility resource planning that integrates the evaluation of supply- and demand-site options for providing energy services at the least cost. Many utilities practice IRP; however, most studies about IRP focus on investor-owned utilities (IOUs). This scoping study investigates the IRP activities and needs of public utilities (not-for-profit utilities, including federal, state, municipal, and cooperative utilities). This study (1) profiles IRP-related characteristics of the public utility sector, (2) articulates the needs of public utilities in understanding and implementing IRP, and (3) identifies strategies to advance IRP principles in public utility planning.

  10. Multisectoral Strategies for Advancing Girls' Education: Principles and Practice. SAGE Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Howard

    This paper describes issues, experiences, and strategies used in developing successful multisectoral partnerships to advance girls' education, using Guinea and Morocco as examples. Chapter 1 introduces the issue, discussing barriers to girls' education and describing the multisectoral response to interrelated barriers. Chapter 2 defines the…

  11. Development of cost effective fenceline monitoring approaches to support advanced leak detection and repair strategies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cost-effective fence line and process monitoring systems to support advanced leak detection and repair (LDAR) strategies can enhance protection of public health, facilitate worker safety, and help companies realize cost savings by reducing lost product. The U.S. EPA Office of Re...

  12. Handbook II: Advanced Teaching Strategies for Adjunct and Part-Time Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greive, Donald E., Ed.

    This handbook is designed to help part-time and adjunct faculty who need professional enhancement but do not have the time for formal coursework. The focus is on the modern student, who differs in many ways from the traditional college student. The book provides more advanced strategies that those presented in the earlier "Handbook for…

  13. Shemya AFB, Alaska 1992 IRP field investigation report. Volume 2, Appendix A: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The US Air Force is currently investigating 22 sites on Shemya Air Force Base (AFB) to determine if past spill and disposal activities have caused environmental damage. These investigations are being carried out under the Air Force`s Installation Restoration Program (IRP). Field investigations were performed in 1992 to obtain the information needed to assess what future actions will need to be carried out at each site. The island`s drinking water supply was also investigated. Activities completed at 10 selected sites during the 1992 field investigation included surface sampling to determine the lateral extent of contamination, subsurface sampling to determine the vertical extent of contamination, and the installation of well points and monitoring wells to determine the direction of groundwater flow and if the groundwater has been affected by a site. In addition, geophysical surveys were performed at most sites to identify site boundaries and check for the presence of buried metal to be avoided during drilling activities. This report, appendix A, contains the analytical results.

  14. Shemya AFB, Alaska 1992 IRP field investigation report. Volume 4, Appendixes E and F: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The US Air Force is currently investigating 22 sites on Shemya Air Force Base (AFB) to determine if past spill and disposal activities have caused environmental damage. These investigations are being carried out under the Air Force`s Installation Restoration Program (IRP). Field investigations were performed in 1992 to obtain the information needed to assess what future actions will need to be carried out at each site. The island`s drinking water supply was also investigated. Activities completed at 10 selected sites included surface sampling to determine the lateral extent of contamination, subsurface sampling to determine the vertical extent of contamination, and the installation of well points and monitoring wells to determine the direction of groundwater flow and if the groundwater has been affected by a site. In addition, geophysical surveys were performed at most sites to identify site boundaries and check for the presence of buried metal, to be avoided during drilling activities. This report contains appendices E and F with information on the following: soil boring logs, and data validation of samples analyzed.

  15. Advanced Control Technologies and Strategies Linking DemandResponse and Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann

    2005-09-02

    This paper presents a preliminary framework to describe how advanced controls can support multiple modes of operations including both energy efficiency and demand response (DR). A general description of DR, its benefits, and nationwide status is outlined. The role of energy management and control systems for DR is described. Building systems such as HVAC and lighting that utilize control technologies and strategies for energy efficiency are mapped on to DR and demand shedding strategies are developed. Past research projects are presented to provide a context for the current projects. The economic case for implementing DR from a building owner perspective is also explored.

  16. Energy Savings and Economics of Advanced Control Strategies for Packaged Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Weimin; Huang, Yunzhi; Katipamula, Srinivas

    2012-10-31

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Program (BTP), evaluated a number of control strategies for packaged cooling equipment that can be implemented in an advanced controller, which can be retrofit into existing packaged heat pump units to improve their operational efficiency. This report documents the results of that analysis.

  17. Advanced Control Strategy for Single-Phase Voltage-Source Active Rectifier with Low Harmonic Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blahník, Vojtĕch; Peroutka, Zdenĕk; Talla, Jakub

    2014-03-01

    This paper introduces the advanced control of single-phase voltage-source active rectifier. This control provide direct control of trolley-wire current and active damping of low-frequency disturbances at the converter ac side. Our proposed control strategy combines PR controller with feed-forward model and low-frequency harmonic compensator based on resonant controllers. Achieved experimental results show excellent converter behavior, where converter is fed by strongly distorted supply voltage.

  18. Strategies of laparoscopic spleen-preserving splenic hilar lymph node dissection for advanced proximal gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qi-Yue; Huang, Chang-Ming; Zheng, Chao-Hui; Li, Ping; Xie, Jian-Wei; Wang, Jia-Bin; Lin, Jian-Xian; Lu, Jun; Cao, Long-Long; Lin, Mi; Tu, Ru-Hong; Hong, Zhi-Liang

    2016-06-27

    For advanced proximal gastric cancer (GC), splenic hilar (No. 10) lymph nodes (LN) are crucial links in lymphatic drainage. According to the 14(th) edition of the Japanese GC treatment guidelines, a D2 lymphadenectomy is the standard surgery for advanced GC, and No. 10 LN should be dissected for advanced proximal GC. In recent years, the preservation of organ function and the use of minimally invasive technology are being accepted by an increasing number of clinicians. Laparoscopic spleen-preserving splenic hilar LN dissection has become more accepted and is gradually being used in operations. However, because of the complexity of splenic hilar anatomy, mastering the strategies for laparoscopic spleen-preserving splenic hilar LN dissection is critical for successfully completing the operation. PMID:27358672

  19. Strategies of laparoscopic spleen-preserving splenic hilar lymph node dissection for advanced proximal gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qi-Yue; Huang, Chang-Ming; Zheng, Chao-Hui; Li, Ping; Xie, Jian-Wei; Wang, Jia-Bin; Lin, Jian-Xian; Lu, Jun; Cao, Long-Long; Lin, Mi; Tu, Ru-Hong; Hong, Zhi-Liang

    2016-01-01

    For advanced proximal gastric cancer (GC), splenic hilar (No. 10) lymph nodes (LN) are crucial links in lymphatic drainage. According to the 14th edition of the Japanese GC treatment guidelines, a D2 lymphadenectomy is the standard surgery for advanced GC, and No. 10 LN should be dissected for advanced proximal GC. In recent years, the preservation of organ function and the use of minimally invasive technology are being accepted by an increasing number of clinicians. Laparoscopic spleen-preserving splenic hilar LN dissection has become more accepted and is gradually being used in operations. However, because of the complexity of splenic hilar anatomy, mastering the strategies for laparoscopic spleen-preserving splenic hilar LN dissection is critical for successfully completing the operation. PMID:27358672

  20. Advanced image reconstruction strategies for 4D prostate DCE-MRI: steps toward clinical practicality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stinson, Eric G.; Borisch, Eric A.; Froemming, Adam T.; Kawashima, Akira; Young, Phillip M.; Warndahl, Brent A.; Grimm, Roger C.; Manduca, Armando; Riederer, Stephen J.; Trzasko, Joshua D.

    2015-09-01

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI is an important tool for the detection and characterization of primary and recurring prostate cancer. Advanced reconstruction strategies (e.g., sparse or low-rank regression) provide improved depiction of contrast dynamics and pharmacokinetic parameters; however, the high computation cost of reconstructing 4D (3D+time, 50+ frames) datasets typically inhibits their routine clinical use. Here, a novel alternating direction method-of-multipliers (ADMM) optimization strategy is described that enables these methods to be executed in ∠5 minutes, and thus within the standard clinical workflow. After overviewing the mechanics of this approach, high-performance implementation strategies will be discussed and demonstrated through clinical cases.

  1. Advances in BAC-Based Physical Mapping and Map Integration Strategies in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Ariyadasa, Ruvini; Stein, Nils

    2012-01-01

    In the advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS) platforms, map-based sequencing strategy has been recently suppressed being too expensive and laborious. The detailed studies on NGS drafts alone indicated these assemblies remain far from gold standard reference quality, especially when applied on complex genomes. In this context the conventional BAC-based physical mapping has been identified as an important intermediate layer in current hybrid sequencing strategy. BAC-based physical map construction and its integration with high-density genetic maps have benefited from NGS and high-throughput array platforms. This paper addresses the current advancements of BAC-based physical mapping and high-throughput map integration strategies to obtain densely anchored well-ordered physical maps. The resulted maps are of immediate utility while providing a template to harness the maximum benefits of the current NGS platforms. PMID:22500080

  2. Seismic isolation of Advanced LIGO: Review of strategy, instrumentation and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matichard, F.; Lantz, B.; Mittleman, R.; Mason, K.; Kissel, J.; Abbott, B.; Biscans, S.; McIver, J.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, S.; Allwine, E.; Barnum, S.; Birch, J.; Celerier, C.; Clark, D.; Coyne, D.; DeBra, D.; DeRosa, R.; Evans, M.; Foley, S.; Fritschel, P.; Giaime, J. A.; Gray, C.; Grabeel, G.; Hanson, J.; Hardham, C.; Hillard, M.; Hua, W.; Kucharczyk, C.; Landry, M.; Le Roux, A.; Lhuillier, V.; Macleod, D.; Macinnis, M.; Mitchell, R.; O'Reilly, B.; Ottaway, D.; Paris, H.; Pele, A.; Puma, M.; Radkins, H.; Ramet, C.; Robinson, M.; Ruet, L.; Sarin, P.; Shoemaker, D.; Stein, A.; Thomas, J.; Vargas, M.; Venkateswara, K.; Warner, J.; Wen, S.

    2015-09-01

    The new generation of gravitational waves detectors require unprecedented levels of isolation from seismic noise. This article reviews the seismic isolation strategy and instrumentation developed for the Advanced LIGO observatories. It summarizes over a decade of research on active inertial isolation and shows the performance recently achieved at the Advanced LIGO observatories. The paper emphasizes the scientific and technical challenges of this endeavor and how they have been addressed. An overview of the isolation strategy is given. It combines multiple layers of passive and active inertial isolation to provide suitable rejection of seismic noise at all frequencies. A detailed presentation of the three active platforms that have been developed is given. They are the hydraulic pre-isolator, the single-stage internal isolator and the two-stage internal isolator. The architecture, instrumentation, control scheme and isolation results are presented for each of the three systems. Results show that the seismic isolation sub-system meets Advanced LIGO’s stringent requirements and robustly supports the operation of the two detectors.

  3. Coping strategies for existencial and spiritual suffering in Israeli patients with advanced cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Coping with existential and spiritual concerns is inescapable in end-of-life care although not enough is known about the strategies and mechanisms involved. This pilot study focused on identifying the strategies for coping with existential and spiritual suffering at the end of life of secular Jews with advanced-stage cancer. Using the phenomenological approach to data collection, in-depth interviews were conducted with 22 patients receiving symptom relief care at a daycare oncology clinic. The interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim, and the content was analyzed. Advanced-stage cancer patients employ several approaches to cope with existential and spiritual concerns. The themes emerging from the interviews present five dimensions of coping strategies: openness and choosing to face reality, connectedness and the significance of family, pursuit of meaning, the connection of body, mind and spirit and, lastly, humor and a positive outlook. Conclusions Since these concerns cause suffering and distress, intervention models targeting existential and spiritual suffering should be disseminated among professionals involved in caring for people with life-threatening illnesses. PMID:24984840

  4. Selecting the best strategy of treatment in newly diagnosed advanced-stage ovarian cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Minig, Lucas; Zorrero, Cristina; Iserte, Pablo Padilla; Poveda, Andres

    2015-01-01

    Although it is assumed that the combination of chemotherapy and radical surgery should be indicated in all newly diagnosed advanced-stage ovarian cancer patients, one of the main raised questions is how to select the best strategy of initial treatment in this group of patients, neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by interval debulking surgery or primary debulking surgery followed by adjuvant chemotherapy. The selection criteria to offer one strategy over the other as well as a stepwise patient selection for initial treatment are described. Selecting the best strategy of treatment in newly diagnosed advanced stage ovarian cancer patients is a multifactorial and multidisciplinary decision. Several factors should be taken into consideration: (1) the disease factor, related to the extension and localization of the disease as well as tumor biology; (2) the patient factor, associated with patient age, poor performance status, and co-morbidities; and (3) institutional infrastructure factor, related to the lack of prolonged operative time, an appropriate surgical armamentarium, as well as well-equipped intensive care units with well-trained personnel. PMID:26713279

  5. Installation restoration program final remedial investigation report IRP sites 8 and 10. 151st air refueling group Utah Air National Guard, Salt Lake City, Utah. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    This report presents the results from a Remedial Investigation (RI) for two sites at the Utah Air National Guard (UANG) Base located in Salt Lake City, Utah. The two sites investigated are identified as Installation Restoration Program (IRP) Site 8, a former underground storage tank (UST) location, and IRP Site 10, an existing petroleum, oil, and lubricants (POL) yard. The RI was conducted as outlined in the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Work Plan prepared by Stone Webster and submitted to and approved by the ANG in May 1993. The field work associated with the RI was performed in June, July, and August 1995.

  6. Energy savings and economics of advanced control strategies for packaged air conditioners with gas heat

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Huang, Yunzhi; Brambley, Michael R.

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of the potential energy savings from adding advanced control to existing packaged air conditioners. Advanced control options include air-side economizer, multi-speed fan control, demand control ventilation and staged cooling. The energy and cost savings from the different control strategies individually and in combination are estimated using the EnergyPlus detailed energy simulation program for four building types, namely, a small office building, a stand-alone retail building, a strip mall building and a supermarket building. For each of the four building types, the simulation was run for 16 locations covering all 15 climate zones in the U.S. The maximum installed cost of a replacement controller that provides acceptable payback periods to owners is estimated.

  7. Current advances and strategies towards fully automated sample preparation for regulated LC-MS/MS bioanalysis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Naiyu; Jiang, Hao; Zeng, Jianing

    2014-09-01

    Robotic liquid handlers (RLHs) have been widely used in automated sample preparation for liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) bioanalysis. Automated sample preparation for regulated bioanalysis offers significantly higher assay efficiency, better data quality and potential bioanalytical cost-savings. For RLHs that are used for regulated bioanalysis, there are additional requirements, including 21 CFR Part 11 compliance, software validation, system qualification, calibration verification and proper maintenance. This article reviews recent advances in automated sample preparation for regulated bioanalysis in the last 5 years. Specifically, it covers the following aspects: regulated bioanalysis requirements, recent advances in automation hardware and software development, sample extraction workflow simplification, strategies towards fully automated sample extraction, and best practices in automated sample preparation for regulated bioanalysis. PMID:25384595

  8. New Strategies for Multimodality Therapy in Treating Locally Advanced Cervix Cancer.

    PubMed

    Verma, Jonathan; Monk, Bradley J; Wolfson, Aaron H

    2016-10-01

    Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cause of cancer of women worldwide. In the developing world, it comprises 12% of all cancers of women. Since 1999, the mainstay of treatment for locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC) has been concurrent cisplatin-based chemoradiation. However, outcomes in this disease remain suboptimal, with long-term progression-free survival and overall survival rates of approximately 60%. There are several new strategies of combined modality treatment under evaluation in LACC, including chemotherapy before and after treatment as well as novel agents such as poly-adenosine diphosphate ribose polymerase inhibitors, antiangiogenic blockage, and immunotherapy. We provide a brief overview of these strategies and their potential in the treatment of women with LACC. PMID:27619255

  9. Advanced Strategies for End-Stage Heart Failure: Combining Regenerative Approaches with LVAD, a New Horizon?

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Cheyenne C. S.; Ramjankhan, Faiz Z.; de Jonge, Nicolaas; Chamuleau, Steven A. J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the improved treatment of cardiovascular diseases, the population with end-stage heart failure (HF) is progressively growing. The scarcity of the gold standard therapy, heart transplantation, demands novel therapeutic approaches. For patients awaiting transplantation, ventricular-assist devices have been of great benefit on survival. To allow explantation of the assist device and obviate heart transplantation, sufficient and durable myocardial recovery is necessary. However, explant rates so far are low. Combining mechanical circulatory support with regenerative therapies such as cell (-based) therapy and biomaterials might give rise to improved long-term results. Although synergistic effects are suggested with mechanical support and stem cell therapy, evidence in both preclinical and clinical setting is lacking. This review focuses on advanced and innovative strategies for the treatment of end-stage HF and furthermore appraises clinical experience with combined strategies. PMID:25905105

  10. The nuclear reactor strategy between fast breeder reactors and advanced pressurized water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Seifritz, W.

    1983-11-01

    A nuclear reactor strategy between fast breeder reactors (FBRs) and advanced pressurized water reactors (APWRs) is being studied. The principal idea of this strategy is that the discharged plutonium from light water reactors (LWRs) provides the inventories of the FBRs and the high-converter APWRs, whereby the LWRs are installed according to the derivative of a logistical S curve. Special emphasis is given to the dynamics of reaching an asymptotic symbiosis between FBRs and APWRs. The main conclusion is that if a symbiotic APWR-FBR family with an asymptotic total power level in the terawatt range is to exist in about half a century from now, we need a large number of FBRs already in an early phase.

  11. Predictive and preventive strategies to advance the treatments of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases: the Ukrainian context

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Despite great efforts in treatments of cardiovascular diseases, the field requires innovative strategies because of high rates of morbidity, mortality and disability, indicating evident deficits in predictive vascular diagnosis and individualized treatment approaches. Talking about the vascular system, currently, physicians are not provided with integrated medical approaches to diagnose and treat vascular diseases. Only an individual global approach to the analysis of all segments in the vascular system of a patient allows finding the optimal way for vascular disease treatment. As for the existing methodology, there is a dominance of static methods such as X-ray contrast angiography and magnetic resonance imaging in angiomode. Taking into account the world experience, this article deals with innovative strategies, aiming at predictive diagnosis in vascular system, personalization of the biomedical treatment approaches, and targeted prevention of individual patient cohorts. Clinical examples illustrate the advances in corresponding healthcare sectors. Recommendations are provided to promote the field. PMID:23083430

  12. Installation restoration program. Site investigation report, IRP sites No. 1, No. 2, and No. 3. 106th Civil Engineering Flight, New York Air National Guard, Roslyn Air National Guard Station, Roslyn, New York. Volume 1. Site Investigation report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    This report presents the results of the Site Investigation (SI) conducted at IRP Sites No. 1, No. 2, and No. 3 at the 106th Civil Engineering Flight (CEF) located at Roslyn Air National Guard Station (ANGS), Roslyn, Long Island, New York. A Preliminary Assessment (PA) (AD-A238 847) of the 106th CEF resulted in the identification of two potentially contaminated waste holding areas and a waste sludge application site. These sites were identified as IRP Site No. 1 (Access Road to Aerospace Ground Equipment `AGE` Shop), IRP Site No. 2 (Old Waste Holding Area No. 1), and IRP Site No. 3 (Old Waste Holding Area No. 2) and recommended for further investigation under the Installation Restoration Program (IRP).

  13. Summary report on the project to develop recommendations on effective linkages between state IRP, facility siting and regional transmission planning in a competitive environment. Final report, May 24, 1994--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    This project, which began on May 1, 1994, was designed to: improve the understanding of the types of linkages (or lack of linkages) between utility-specific IRP, state facility siting, and regional transmission planning given (1) the current level of competition, (2) increased generation competition, and (3) retail competition; identify opportunities to better coordinate utility-specific IRP and state facility siting with regional transmission planning, including better regional market and transmission planning information for utility-specific plans; and improve the understanding of the influence of competition on utility-specific IRP in terms of planning objectives, planning process, plan implementation and plan output, and identify potential changes to utility-specific IRP to allow IRP to meet planning objectives in a competitive environment.

  14. New Strategies To Promote Stable Employment and Career Progression: An Introduction to the Employment Retention and Advancement Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Dan; Anderson, Jacquelyn; Wavelet, Melissa; Gardiner, Karen N.; Fishman, Michael E.

    The Employment Retention and Advancement (ERA) project was undertaken to identify effective strategies for helping low-income parents work more steadily and advance in the labor market. The 15 ERA demonstration projects that were operating in nine states (California, Florida, Illinois, Minnesota, New York, Oregon, South Carolina; Tennessee, and…

  15. Advanced Behavioral Applications in Schools: A Review of R. Douglas Greer's "Designing Teaching Strategies: An Applied Behavior Analysis Systems Approach"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moxley, Roy A.

    2004-01-01

    R. Douglas Greer's "Designing Teaching Strategies" is an important book directed to advanced students in applied behavior analysis for classrooms. This review presents some of the striking features of the Comprehensive Applied Behavior Analysis to Schooling (CABAS[R]) program and the individualized instruction that the book advances. These include…

  16. Strategies and Advancement in Antibody-Drug Conjugate Optimization for Targeted Cancer Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eunhee G.; Kim, Kristine M.

    2015-01-01

    Antibody-drug conjugates utilize the antibody as a delivery vehicle for highly potent cytotoxic molecules with specificity for tumor-associated antigens for cancer therapy. Critical parameters that govern successful antibody-drug conjugate development for clinical use include the selection of the tumor target antigen, the antibody against the target, the cytotoxic molecule, the linker bridging the cytotoxic molecule and the antibody, and the conjugation chemistry used for the attachment of the cytotoxic molecule to the antibody. Advancements in these core antibody-drug conjugate technology are reflected by recent approval of Adectris® (anti-CD30-drug conjugate) and Kadcyla® (anti-HER2 drug conjugate). The potential approval of an anti-CD22 conjugate and promising new clinical data for anti-CD19 and anti-CD33 conjugates are additional advancements. Enrichment of antibody-drug conjugates with newly developed potent cytotoxic molecules and linkers are also in the pipeline for various tumor targets. However, the complexity of antibody-drug conjugate components, conjugation methods, and off-target toxicities still pose challenges for the strategic design of antibody-drug conjugates to achieve their fullest therapeutic potential. This review will discuss the emergence of clinical antibody-drug conjugates, current trends in optimization strategies, and recent study results for antibody-drug conjugates that have incorporated the latest optimization strategies. Future challenges and perspectives toward making antibody-drug conjugates more amendable for broader disease indications are also discussed. PMID:26535074

  17. Two Structures of a Thiazolinyl Imine Reductase from Yersinia enterocolitica (Irp3) Provide Insight for Catalysis and Binding to the Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetase Module of HMWP1

    PubMed Central

    Meneely, Kathleen M.; Lamb, Audrey L.

    2012-01-01

    The thiazolinyl imine reductase from Yersinia enterocolitica (Irp3) catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of a thiazoline ring in an intermediate for the formation of the siderophore yersiniabactin. Two structures of Irp3 were determined in the apo- (1.85 Å) and NADP+-bound (2.31 Å) forms. Irp3 shows structural homology to sugar oxidoreductases such as glucose-fructose oxidoreductase and 1,5-anhydro-D-fructose reductase, as well as to biliverdin reductase. A homology model of the thiazolinyl imine reductase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PchG) was generated. Extensive loop insertions are observed in the C-terminal domain that are unique to Irp3 and PchG and not found in the structural homologs that recognize small molecular substrates. These loops are hypothesized to be important for binding of the nonribosomal peptide synthetase modules (found in HMWP1 and PchF, respectively) to which the substrate of the reductase is covalently attached. A catalytic mechanism of proton donation from a general acid (either histidine-101 or tyrosine-128) and hydride donation from C4 of nicotinamide of the NADPH cofactor is proposed for reduction of the carbon-nitrogen double bond of the thiazoline. PMID:23066849

  18. Occurrence and analysis of irp2 virulence gene in isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter spp. from microbiota and hospital and community-acquired infections.

    PubMed

    Souza Lopes, Ana Catarina; Rodrigues, Juliana Falcão; Cabral, Adriane Borges; da Silva, Maíra Espíndola; Leal, Nilma Cintra; da Silveira, Vera Magalhães; de Morais Júnior, Marcos Antônio

    2016-07-01

    Eighty-five isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter spp., originating from hospital- and community-acquired infections and from oropharyngeal and faecal microbiota from patients in Recife-PE, Brazil, were analyzed regarding the presence of irp2 gene. This is a Yersinia typical gene involved in the synthesis of siderophore yersiniabactin. DNA sequencing confirmed the identity of irp2 gene in five K. pneumoniae, five Enterobacter aerogenes and one Enterobacter amnigenus isolates. To our knowledge in the current literature, this is the first report of the irp2 gene in E. amnigenus, a species considered an unusual human pathogen, and in K. pneumoniae and E. aerogenes isolates from the normal microbiota and from community infections, respectively. Additionally, the analyses of nucleotide and amino acid sequences suggest the irp2 genes derived from isolates used in this study are more closely related to that of Yersinia pestis P.CE882 than to that of Yersinia enterocolitica 8081. These data demonstrated that K. pneumoniae and Enterobacter spp. from normal microbiota and from community- and hospital-acquired infections possess virulence factors important for the establishment of extra-intestinal infections. PMID:27133266

  19. Advancing Risk Analysis for Nanoscale Materials: Report from an International Workshop on the Role of Alternative Testing Strategies for Advancement.

    PubMed

    Shatkin, J A; Ong, Kimberly J; Beaudrie, Christian; Clippinger, Amy J; Hendren, Christine Ogilvie; Haber, Lynne T; Hill, Myriam; Holden, Patricia; Kennedy, Alan J; Kim, Baram; MacDonell, Margaret; Powers, Christina M; Sharma, Monita; Sheremeta, Lorraine; Stone, Vicki; Sultan, Yasir; Turley, Audrey; White, Ronald H

    2016-08-01

    The Society for Risk Analysis (SRA) has a history of bringing thought leadership to topics of emerging risk. In September 2014, the SRA Emerging Nanoscale Materials Specialty Group convened an international workshop to examine the use of alternative testing strategies (ATS) for manufactured nanomaterials (NM) from a risk analysis perspective. Experts in NM environmental health and safety, human health, ecotoxicology, regulatory compliance, risk analysis, and ATS evaluated and discussed the state of the science for in vitro and other alternatives to traditional toxicology testing for NM. Based on this review, experts recommended immediate and near-term actions that would advance ATS use in NM risk assessment. Three focal areas-human health, ecological health, and exposure considerations-shaped deliberations about information needs, priorities, and the next steps required to increase confidence in and use of ATS in NM risk assessment. The deliberations revealed that ATS are now being used for screening, and that, in the near term, ATS could be developed for use in read-across or categorization decision making within certain regulatory frameworks. Participants recognized that leadership is required from within the scientific community to address basic challenges, including standardizing materials, protocols, techniques and reporting, and designing experiments relevant to real-world conditions, as well as coordination and sharing of large-scale collaborations and data. Experts agreed that it will be critical to include experimental parameters that can support the development of adverse outcome pathways. Numerous other insightful ideas for investment in ATS emerged throughout the discussions and are further highlighted in this article. PMID:27510619

  20. Responsiveness of Trichomonas vaginalis to iron concentrations: evidence for a post-transcriptional iron regulation by an IRE/IRP-like system.

    PubMed

    Torres-Romero, J C; Arroyo, R

    2009-12-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis has high iron-dependency, favoring its growth and multiplication in culture. Iron also regulates some of the trichomonal virulence properties by yet unknown mechanisms. Iron is an essential but potentially toxic metal for the majority of organisms. Thus, its concentration must be tightly regulated within the cell. In mammals, the iron homeostasis is mainly regulated at the post-transcriptional level by a well known mechanism mediated by the binding of iron regulatory proteins (IRP1 and IRP2) to hairpin-loop structures, dubbed iron-responsive elements (IREs), localized in the untranslated regions (UTRs) of target mRNAs. The knowledge of iron regulation in T. vaginalis is still very limited. An iron-responsive promoter and other regulatory elements in the 5'-UTR of the ap65-1 gene were identified as a mechanism for the positive transcriptional regulation of trichomonad genes by iron. Recently, two IRE-like hairpin-loop structures in mRNAs of differentially iron-regulated TVCP4 and TVCP12 cysteine proteinases, as well as IRP-like trichomonad proteins were identified in T. vaginalis, suggesting the existence in this protozoan of a post-transcriptional iron regulatory mechanism by an IRE/IRP-like system. The responsiveness of T. vaginalis to distinct iron concentrations was examined here. Also, the comparison of the atypical IRE-like sequences of T. vaginalis with the consensus IRE and other putative IRE sequences present in parasite and bacteria mRNAs suggest that these trichomonad IRE-like sequences might be the ancestral forms of the RNA stem-loop structures of the IRE/IRP system. PMID:19539055

  1. Biotechnological advances on penicillin G acylase: pharmaceutical implications, unique expression mechanism and production strategies.

    PubMed

    Srirangan, Kajan; Orr, Valerie; Akawi, Lamees; Westbrook, Adam; Moo-Young, Murray; Chou, C Perry

    2013-12-01

    In light of unrestricted use of first-generation penicillins, these antibiotics are now superseded by their semisynthetic counterparts for augmented antibiosis. Traditional penicillin chemistry involves the use of hazardous chemicals and harsh reaction conditions for the production of semisynthetic derivatives and, therefore, is being displaced by the biosynthetic platform using enzymatic transformations. Penicillin G acylase (PGA) is one of the most relevant and widely used biocatalysts for the industrial production of β-lactam semisynthetic antibiotics. Accordingly, considerable genetic and biochemical engineering strategies have been devoted towards PGA applications. This article provides a state-of-the-art review in recent biotechnological advances associated with PGA, particularly in the production technologies with an emphasis on using the Escherichia coli expression platform. PMID:23721991

  2. Advanced FE homogenization strategies for failure analysis of double curvature masonry elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessandri, Claudio; Milani, Gabriele; Tralli, Antonio

    2014-10-01

    The paper addresses the topic of the numerical analysis up to collapse of masonry vaults. At this aim, an advanced numerical model is utilized, which requires the discretization of the structure by means of three dimensional six-noded wedge finite elements rigid and infinitely resistant and interfaces exhibiting a non linear behavior with softening. The incremental problem is solved by means of a robust quadratic programming procedure and interfaces mechanical properties are estimated by means of a consolidated homogenization strategy. Failure mechanisms and collapse loads are evaluated numerically for a case study in Italy (a masonry cross vault subjected to increasing vertical live loads up to collapse), varying mechanical properties of the vault and considering the stabilizing role played by the backfill. In light of the results obtained, limitations and possibilities of the widely diffusedtraditional approaches based on the subdivision of the vault into a series of arches are addressed.

  3. Optimization of an advanced non-invasive light activated disinfection strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, S.; Kishen, A.

    2007-07-01

    A photosensitizer formulation and strategy was developed based on the photophysical, photochemical and photobiological characteristics of methylene blue (MB) for the disinfection of root canal using light activated therapy. Disinfection of matured E. faecalis biofilms on root canal dentine was tried with the newly developed 'Advanced Non- Invasive Light Activated Disinfection' (ANILAD), conventional photodynamic therapy, and conventional root canal therapy alone or in combination with ANILAD. The results showed that, although complete disinfection of nonmatured biofilm is possible by ANILAD alone, a combination of conventional root canal treatment (RCT) with ANILAD could achieve significantly higher bacterial killing (6log 10-7log 10 bacterial reduction) compared to any other tested treatment in matured biofilm (p<0.001).

  4. Current therapeutic strategies of anti-HER2 treatment in advanced breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Nowara, Elżbieta

    2016-01-01

    The HER2/neu (ERBB2) oncogene is amplified and/or overexpressed in approximately 20% of breast cancers, and is a strong prognostic factor for relapse and poor overall survival, particularly in node-positive patients. It is also an important predictor for response to trastuzumab, which has established efficacy against breast cancer with overexpression or amplification of the HER2 oncogene. Treatment with the anti-HER2 humanized monoclonal antibody – trastuzumab significantly improves progression-free and overall survival among patients with HER2-positive breast cancer. However, in most patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer, the disease progresses occurred, what cause the need for new targeted therapies for advanced disease. In clinical trials, there are tested new drugs to improve the results of treatment for this group of patients. This paper presents new drugs introduced into clinical practice for treatment of advanced breast cancer, whose molecular target are receptors of the HER2 family. In addition, new therapeutic strategies and drugs that are currently in clinical researches are discussed. PMID:27095932

  5. Which strategy after first-line therapy in advanced colorectal cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Andrea, Coinu; Fausto, Petrelli; Francesca, Borgonovo Karen; Mary, Cabiddu; Mara, Ghilardi; Veronica, Lonati; Sandro, Barni

    2014-01-01

    Second-line therapy for advanced colorectal cancer is an integral part of the treatment strategy that needs to be set from the beginning for each patient, bearing in mind the expected toxicities of chosen treatments, the patient's clinical condition, comorbidities, preferences, the aims of the treatment and the molecular status. Furthermore, the distinction between lines of therapy is no longer absolute. The perspective of “continuum of care” includes switching chemotherapy prior to disease progression, maintenance therapy, drug "holidays" if needed, surgical resection of metastases in selected patients, and seems to allow a tailored treatment, in which patients are more likely to benefit from exposure to all active agents, which is known to correlate with overall survival. The scenario of second-line treatment has changed dramatically over the years and could currently benefit from several options including chemotherapy with a single agent or in combination and the addition of molecular-targeted agents developed in the last decade, such as epidermal growth factor receptor antibodies (cetuximab, panitumumab) and vascular endothelial growth factor-targeting agents (bevacizumab, aflibercept), with the possibility of bevacizumab use even beyond first progression. The purpose of this review is to summarize the most important scientific data supporting the use of chemotherapy and the new biologic agents in the second-line setting in advanced colorectal cancer. PMID:25083064

  6. Strategies to Circumvent Testosterone Surge and Disease Flare in Advanced Prostate Cancer: Emerging Treatment Paradigms.

    PubMed

    Pokuri, Venkata K; Nourkeyhani, Houman; Betsy, Bodie; Herbst, Laurie; Sikorski, Marcus; Spangenthal, Edward; Fabiano, Andrew; George, Saby

    2015-07-01

    The testosterone surge and disease flare is a feared complication from initiation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist treatment in advanced prostate adenocarcinoma. It is a common practice to start an average 7-day pretreatment regimen with an antiandrogen agent before initiating GnRH agonist therapy, to circumvent disease flare from testosterone surge. However, this might not be the best strategy and can be harmful, especially in patients at high risk of imminent organ damage from minimal testosterone surge. Surgical castration is a simple and cost-effective method that should be considered in these scenarios. But most patients refuse this procedure because of the permanent and psychologic impact of surgery. Novel GnRH antagonists, such as degarelix, and cytochrome P450 17 (CYP17) enzyme inhibitors, such as ketoconazole, achieve castrate-equivalent serum testosterone levels much faster than traditional GnRH agonists without the need for coadministration of antiandrogens. This article reports on 3 cases of impending oncologic emergencies in advanced prostate adenocarcinoma treated promptly with degarelix and ketoconazole without any disease flare related to testosterone surge. In the setting of symptomatic hormone-naïve metastatic prostate cancer, the authors suggest clinical trials using abiraterone, orteronel, and other newer agents that target the CYP17 axis (eg, ketoconazole) for fine-tuning the emergent medical castration methods and avoiding the dangers from the flare phenomenon. PMID:26150586

  7. Enhancing presentation skills for the advanced practice nurse: strategies for success.

    PubMed

    Vollman, Kathleen M

    2005-01-01

    Professional speaking is a component of the professional practice role of the advanced practice nurse (APN). The skills to communicate effectively to one person or an audience of 100 provide the APN with the essential tools for implementing change, collaborating effectively, presenting information at professional meetings, or communicating the impact of clinical outcomes in the boardroom. Public speaking skills, a professional image, and improved communication can facilitate advancement along any career ladder. The greater your fear, the more self-confidence you will gain by stepping up to a challenge and conquering it. This article describes strategies for organizing and presenting your message in a clear and concise format. Techniques to manage the anxiety produced when attempting to articulate your thoughts is essential for effective communication. Skills for enhancing the delivery of your message through effective body language, professional image, voice modulation, and use of audiovisual aids are addressed. Creative techniques for fielding questions are key in promoting a dynamic closure and provide consistent reinforcement of the key message content. PMID:15714019

  8. Analysis of R&D Strategy for Advanced Combined Cycle Power Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akimoto, Keigo; Hayashi, Ayami; Kosugi, Takanobu; Tomoda, Toshimasa

    This article analyzes and evaluates the R&D strategy for advanced power generation technologies, such as natural gas combined cycles, IGCCs (Integrated coal Gasification Combined Cycles), and large-scale fuel cell power generation systems with a mixed-integer programming model. The R&D processes are explicitly formulated in the model through GERT (Graphical Evaluation and Review Technique), and the data on each required time of R&D was collected through questionnaire surveys among the experts. The obtained cost-effective strategy incorporates the optimum investment allocation among the developments of various elemental technologies, and at the same time, it incorporates the least-cost expansion planning of power systems in Japan including other power generation technologies such as conventional coal, oil, and gas fired, and hydro and wind power. The simulation results show the selection of the cost-effective technology developments and the importance of the concentrated investments in them. For example, IGCC, which has a relatively high thermal efficiency, and LNG-CCs of the assumed two efficiencies are the cost-effective investment targets in the no-CO2-regulation case.

  9. New advances in models and strategies for developing anti-obesity drugs

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Gilbert W.; Lin, Jieru E.; Blomain, Erik S.; Waldman, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Obesity is a worldwide pandemic. Obesity-related health and economic costs are staggering. Existing strategies to combat obesity through lifestyle improvements and medical intervention have had limited success. Pharmacotherapy, in combination with lifestyle modification, may play a vital role in reversing the disease burden. However, past and current weight-loss medications have had serious safety risks, notably cardiovascular and psychiatric events. Areas covered We review the strategies for designing new anti-obesity drugs by describing those currently in development. We describe their target, mechanism of action, and developmental or regulatory status. We also discuss the problem of weight regain following weight loss, and its relevance to the long-term success of anti-obesity pharmacotherapy. Expert opinion For weight management drugs to achieve the safety and efficacy required to be impactful, current studies are uncovering and characterizing new targets, including new signaling circuits and hormones regulating appetite and metabolism, and re-evaluating the role of pharmacotherapy in weight management. To avoid the safety failures of many past weight-loss drugs, the models and strategies covered in this article incorporate recent advances in knowledge and technology. We discuss the emergence of cGMP signaling as a potentially transformative target in weight management. Modulating cGMP signaling may represent an ideal goal for an anti-obesity pharmacotherapy, reflecting some of the major themes described in the present review: targeting pathways that are newly realized as relevant for weight management; promoting safety by re-purposing drugs that are safe, proven, and approved for clinical use; and having a synergistic effect on multiple, reinforcing pathways. PMID:23621300

  10. Efficient method development strategy for challenging separation of pharmaceutical molecules using advanced chromatographic technologies.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Kang Ping; Xiong, Yuan; Liu, Fang Zhu; Rustum, Abu M

    2007-09-01

    In this paper, we describe a strategy that can be used to efficiently develop a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation of challenging pharmaceutical molecules. This strategy involves use of advanced chromatographic technologies, such as a computer-assisted chromatographic method development tool (ChromSword) and an automated column switching system (LC Spiderling). This process significantly enhances the probability of achieving adequate separations and can be a large time saver for bench analytical scientists. In our study, the ChromSword was used for mobile phase screening and separation optimization, and the LC Spiderling was used to identify the most appropriate HPLC columns. For proof of concept, the analytes employed in this study are the structural epimers betamethylepoxide and alphamethylepoxide (also known as 16-beta methyl epoxide and 16-alpha methyl epoxide). Both of these compounds are used in the synthesis of various active pharmaceutical ingredients that are part of the steroid pharmaceutical products. While these molecules are relatively large in size and contain various polar functional groups and non-polar cyclic carbon chains, their structures differ only in the orientation of one methyl group. To our knowledge, there is no reported HPLC separation of these two molecules. A simple gradient method was quickly developed on a 5 cm YMC Hydrosphere C(18) column that separated betamethylepoxide and alphamethylepoxide in 10 min with a resolution factor of 3.0. This high resolution provided a true baseline separation even when the concentration ratio between these two epimers was 10,000:1. Although outside of the scope of this paper, stability-indicating assay and impurity profile methods for betamethylepoxide and for alphamethylepoxide have also been developed by our group based on a similar method development strategy. PMID:17628579

  11. Implementation strategy of wafer-plane and aerial-plane inspection for advanced mask manufacture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Won-Sun; Chung, Dong-Hoon; Jeon, Chan-Uk; Cho, HanKu; Huang, William; Miller, John; Inderhees, Gregg; Pinto, Becky; Hur, Jiuk; Park, Kihun; Han, Jay

    2009-04-01

    Inspection of aggressive Optical Proximity Correction (OPC) designs, improvement of usable sensitivity, and reduction of cost of ownership are the three major challenges for today's mask inspection methodologies. In this paper we will discuss using aerial-plane inspection and wafer-plane inspection as novel approaches to address these challenges for advanced reticles. Wafer-plane inspection (WPI) and aerial-plane inspection (API) are two lithographic inspection modes. This suite of new inspection modes is based on high resolution reflected and transmitted light images in the reticle plane. These images together with scanner parameters are used to generate the aerial plane image using either vector or scalar models. Then information about the resist is applied to complete construction of the wafer plane image. API reports defects based on intensity differences between test and reference images at the aerial plane, whereas WPI applies a resist model to the aerial image to enhance discrimination between printable and non-printable defects at the wafer plane. The combination of WPI and API along with the industry standard Reticle Plane Inspection (RPI) is designed to handle complex OPC features, improve usable sensitivity and reduce the cost of ownership. This paper will explore the application of aerial-plane and wafer-plane die-to-die inspections on advanced reticles. Inspection sensitivity, inspectability, and comparison with Aerial Imaging Measurement System (AIMSTM[1]) or wafer-print-line will be analyzed. Most importantly, the implementation strategy of a combination of WPI and API along with RPI leading-edge mask manufacturing will be discussed.

  12. BRAF inhibition for advanced locoregional BRAF V600E mutant melanoma: a potential neoadjuvant strategy.

    PubMed

    Sloot, Sarah; Zager, Jonathan S; Kudchadkar, Ragini R; Messina, Jane L; Benedict, Jacob J; Gonzalez, Ricardo J; DeConti, Ronald; Turner, Leslie M; McCardle, Timothy; Smalley, Keiran S M; Weber, Jeffrey S; Sondak, Vernon K; Gibney, Geoffrey T

    2016-02-01

    Selective BRAF inhibitors (BRAFi) yield objective responses in 50% of patients with metastatic BRAF V600E mutant melanoma. Adding an MEK inhibitor increases this response rate to 70%. Limited data are available on the outcomes of unresectable stage III patients, and it remains unclear whether BRAF-targeted therapy can be utilized as a neoadjuvant strategy. Data on patients with advanced locoregional BRAF V600E mutant melanoma treated with BRAF-targeted therapy at Moffitt Cancer Center were analyzed to determine response rates, subsequent resection rates after tumor downsizing, pathologic responses, and patient survival. Fifteen patients with locoregional disease treated with BRAF-targeted therapy, either BRAFi alone (vemurafenib; 11 patients) or a combination of BRAFi and an MEK inhibitor (dabrafenib plus trametinib or placebo; four patients), were identified. The median age was 50 years; the median follow-up was 25.4 months. The median BRAF-targeted therapy treatment duration was 6.0 months (range 1.2-29.4 months). Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors-based evaluation demonstrated objective response in 11 patients (73.3%). Six patients underwent resection of the remaining disease after therapy. Pathological analysis showed complete pathologic response (n=2), partial pathologic response (n=2), or no pathologic response (n=2). Four of six patients undergoing surgery have been alive for more than 2 years, including three patients currently free from active disease. No complications attributable to BRAF-targeted therapy were observed in the perioperative period. Dose reduction or discontinuation because of toxicities occurred in 10/15 patients. Neoadjuvant BRAF-targeted therapy may be effective in advanced locoregional BRAF V600E mutant melanoma patients in increasing resectability, yielding pathological responses, and achieving prolonged survival. PMID:26731560

  13. Back Translation: An Emerging Sophisticated Cyber Strategy to Subvert Advances in "Digital Age" Plagiarism Detection and Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Michael; Sheridan, Lynnaire

    2015-01-01

    Advances have been made in detecting and deterring the student plagiarism that has accompanied the uptake and development of the internet. Many authors from the late 1990s onwards grappled with plagiarism in the digital age, presenting articles that were provoking and established the foundation for strategies to address cyber plagiarism, including…

  14. Development, Implementation, and Testing of Fault Detection Strategies on the National Wind Technology Center's Controls Advanced Research Turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, K. E.; Fleming, P. A.

    2011-06-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's National Wind Technology Center dedicates two 600 kW turbines for advanced control systems research. A fault detection system for both turbines has been developed, analyzed, and improved across years of experiments to protect the turbines as each new controller is tested. Analysis of field data and ongoing fault detection strategy improvements have resulted in a system of sensors, fault definitions, and detection strategies that have thus far been effective at protecting the turbines. In this paper, we document this fault detection system and provide field data illustrating its operation while detecting a range of failures. In some cases, we discuss the refinement process over time as fault detection strategies were improved. The purpose of this article is to share field experience obtained during the development and field testing of the existing fault detection system, and to offer a possible baseline for comparison with more advanced turbine fault detection controllers.

  15. Nanotheranostics ˗ Application and Further Development of Nanomedicine Strategies for Advanced Theranostics

    PubMed Central

    Muthu, Madaswamy S.; Leong, David Tai; Mei, Lin; Feng, Si-Shen

    2014-01-01

    Nanotheranostics is to apply and further develop nanomedicine strategies for advanced theranostics. This review summarizes the various nanocarriers developed so far in the literature for nanotheranostics, which include polymer conjugations, dendrimers, micelles, liposomes, metal and inorganic nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, and nanoparticles of biodegradable polymers for sustained, controlled and targeted co-delivery of diagnostic and therapeutic agents for better theranostic effects with fewer side effects. The theranostic nanomedicine can achieve systemic circulation, evade host defenses and deliver the drug and diagnostic agents at the targeted site to diagnose and treat the disease at cellular and molecular level. The therapeutic and diagnostic agents are formulated in nanomedicine as a single theranostic platform, which can then be further conjugated to biological ligand for targeting. Nanotheranostics can also promote stimuli-responsive release, synergetic and combinatory therapy, siRNA co-delivery, multimodality therapies, oral delivery, delivery across the blood-brain barrier as well as escape from intracellular autophagy. The fruition of nanotheranostics will be able to provide personalized therapy with bright prognosis, which makes even the fatal diseases curable or at least treatable at the earliest stage. PMID:24723986

  16. Solid state fermentation for production of microbial cellulases: Recent advances and improvement strategies.

    PubMed

    Behera, Sudhanshu S; Ray, Ramesh C

    2016-05-01

    Lignocellulose is the most plentiful non-food biomass and one of the most inexhaustible renewable resources on the planet, which is an alternative sustainable energy source for the production of second generation biofuels. Lignocelluloses are composed of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, in which the sugar polymers account for a large portion of the biomass. Cellulases belong to the glycoside hydrolase family and catalyze the hydrolysis of glyosidic linkages depolymerizing cellulose to fermentable sugars. They are multi-enzymatic complex proteins and require the synergistic action of three key enzymes: endoglucanase (E.C. 3.2.1.4), exoglucanase (E.C. 3.2.1.176) (E.C. 3.2.1.91) and β-glucosidase (E.C. 3.2.1.21) for the depolymerization of cellulose to glucose. Solid state fermentation, which holds growth of microorganisms on moist solid substrates in the absence of free flowing water, has gained considerable attention of late due its several advantages over submerged fermentation. The review summarizes the critical analysis of recent literature covering production of cellulase in solid state fermentation using advance technologies such as consolidated bioprocessing, metabolic engineering and strain improvement, and circumscribes the strategies to improve the enzyme yield. PMID:26601764

  17. Strategies and Advancements in Harnessing the Immune System for Gastric Cancer Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Subhash, Vinod Vijay; Yeo, Mei Shi; Tan, Woei Loon; Yong, Wei Peng

    2015-01-01

    In cancer biology, cells and molecules that form the fundamental components of the tumor microenvironment play a major role in tumor initiation, and progression as well as responses to therapy. Therapeutic approaches that would enable and harness the immune system to target tumor cells mark the future of anticancer therapy as it could induce an immunological memory specific to the tumor type and further enhance tumor regression and relapse-free survival in cancer patients. Gastric cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortalities that has a modest survival benefit from existing treatment options. The advent of immunotherapy presents us with new approaches in gastric cancer treatment where adaptive cell therapies, cancer vaccines, and antibody therapies have all been used with promising outcomes. In this paper, we review the current advances and prospects in the gastric cancer immunotherapy. Special focus is laid on new strategies and clinical trials that attempt to enhance the efficacy of various immunotherapeutic modalities in gastric cancer. PMID:26579545

  18. Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy: recent advances in the understanding of the molecular pathogenic mechanisms and treatment strategies.

    PubMed

    Abu-Baker, Aida; Rouleau, Guy A

    2007-02-01

    Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) is an adult-onset disorder characterized by progressive eyelid drooping, swallowing difficulties and proximal limb weakness. OPMD is caused by a small expansion of a short polyalanine tract in the poly (A) binding protein nuclear 1 protein (PABPN1). The mechanism by which the polyalanine expansion mutation in PABPN1 causes disease is unclear. PABPN1 is a nuclear multi-functional protein which is involved in pre-mRNA polyadenylation, transcription regulation, and mRNA nucleocytoplasmic transport. The distinct pathological hallmark of OPMD is the presence of filamentous intranuclear inclusions (INIs) in patient's skeletal muscle cells. The exact relationship between mutant PABPN1 intranuclear aggregates and pathology is not clear. OPMD is a unique disease sharing common pathogenic features with other polyalanine disorders, as well as with polyglutamine and dystrophic disorders. This chapter aims to review the rapidly growing body of knowledge concerning OPMD. First, we outline the background of OPMD. Second, we compare OPMD with other trinucleotide repeat disorders. Third, we discuss the recent advances in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying OPMD pathogenesis. Finally, we review recent therapeutic strategies for OPMD. PMID:17110089

  19. Nanotheranostics - application and further development of nanomedicine strategies for advanced theranostics.

    PubMed

    Muthu, Madaswamy S; Leong, David Tai; Mei, Lin; Feng, Si-Shen

    2014-01-01

    Nanotheranostics is to apply and further develop nanomedicine strategies for advanced theranostics. This review summarizes the various nanocarriers developed so far in the literature for nanotheranostics, which include polymer conjugations, dendrimers, micelles, liposomes, metal and inorganic nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, and nanoparticles of biodegradable polymers for sustained, controlled and targeted co-delivery of diagnostic and therapeutic agents for better theranostic effects with fewer side effects. The theranostic nanomedicine can achieve systemic circulation, evade host defenses and deliver the drug and diagnostic agents at the targeted site to diagnose and treat the disease at cellular and molecular level. The therapeutic and diagnostic agents are formulated in nanomedicine as a single theranostic platform, which can then be further conjugated to biological ligand for targeting. Nanotheranostics can also promote stimuli-responsive release, synergetic and combinatory therapy, siRNA co-delivery, multimodality therapies, oral delivery, delivery across the blood-brain barrier as well as escape from intracellular autophagy. The fruition of nanotheranostics will be able to provide personalized therapy with bright prognosis, which makes even the fatal diseases curable or at least treatable at the earliest stage. PMID:24723986

  20. New strategies in metastatic melanoma: oncogene-defined taxonomy leads to therapeutic advances.

    PubMed

    Flaherty, Keith T; Fisher, David E

    2011-08-01

    The discovery of BRAF and KIT mutations provided the first basis for a molecular classification of cutaneous melanoma on therapeutic grounds. As BRAF-targeted therapy quickly moves toward regulatory approval and incorporation as standard therapy for patients with metastatic disease, proof of concept has also been established for targeting mutated KIT in melanoma. NRAS mutations have long been known to be present in a subset of melanomas and represent an elusive subgroup for targeted therapies. Matching patient subgroups defined by genetic aberrations in the phosphoinositide 3-kinase and p16/cyclin dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) pathways with appropriate targeted therapies has not yet been realized. And, an increasing understanding of lineage-specific transcriptional regulators, most notably MITF, and how they may play a role in melanoma pathophysiology, has provided another axis to approach with therapies. The foundation has been established for individual oncogene targeting, and current investigations seek to understand the intersection of these susceptibilities and other described potential targets and pathways. The melanoma field stands poised to take the lead among cancer subtypes in advancing combination therapy strategies that simultaneously target multiple biologic underpinnings of the disease. PMID:21670085

  1. Recycling of Na in advanced life support: strategies based on crop production systems.

    PubMed

    Guntur, S V; Mackowiak, C; Wheeler, R M

    1999-01-01

    Sodium is an essential dietary requirement in human nutrition, but seldom holds much importance as a nutritional element for crop plants. In Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems, recycling of gases, nutrients, and water loops is required to improve system closure. If plants are to play a significant role in recycling of human wastes, Na will need to accumulate in edible tissues for return to the crew diet. If crops fail to accumulate the incoming Na into edible tissues, Na could become a threat to the hydroponic food production system by increasing the nutrient solution salinity. Vegetable crops of Chenopodiaceae such as spinach, table beet, and chard may have a high potential to supply Na to the human diet, as Na can substitute for K to a large extent in metabolic processes of these crops. Various strategies are outlined that include both genetic and environmental management aspects to optimize the Na recovery from waste streams and their resupply through the human diet in ALS. PMID:11542242

  2. Safety Design Strategy for the Advanced Test Reactor Emergency Firewater Injection System Replacement Project

    SciTech Connect

    Noel Duckwitz

    2011-06-01

    In accordance with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 413.3B, “Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets,” safety must be integrated into the design process for new or major modifications to DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, and 3 nuclear facilities. The intended purpose of this requirement involves the handling of hazardous materials, both radiological and chemical, in a way that provides adequate protection to the public, workers, and the environment. Requirements provided in DOE Order 413.3B and DOE Order 420.1B, “Facility Safety,” and the expectations of DOE-STD-1189-2008, “Integration of Safety into the Design Process,” provide for identification of hazards early in the project and use of an integrated team approach to design safety into the facility. This safety design strategy provides the basic safety-in-design principles and concepts that will be used for the Advanced Test Reactor Reliability Sustainment Project. While this project does not introduce new hazards to the ATR, it has the potential for significant impacts to safety-related systems, structures, and components that are credited in the ATR safety basis and are being replaced. Thus the project has been determined to meet the definition of a major modification and is being managed accordingly.

  3. Safety Design Strategy for the Advanced Test Reactor Diesel Bus (E-3) and Switchgear Replacement Project

    SciTech Connect

    Noel Duckwitz

    2011-06-01

    In accordance with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 413.3B, “Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets,” safety must be integrated into the design process for new or major modifications to DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, and 3 nuclear facilities. The intended purpose of this requirement involves the handling of hazardous materials, both radiological and chemical, in a way that provides adequate protection to the public, workers, and the environment. Requirements provided in DOE Order 413.3B and DOE Order 420.1B, “Facility Safety,” and the expectations of DOE-STD-1189-2008, “Integration of Safety into the Design Process,” provide for identification of hazards early in the project and use of an integrated team approach to design safety into the facility. This safety design strategy provides the basic safety-in-design principles and concepts that will be used for the Advanced Test Reactor Reliability Sustainment Project. While this project does not introduce new hazards to the ATR, it has the potential for significant impacts to safety-related systems, structures, and components that are credited in the ATR safety basis and are being replaced. Thus the project has been determined to meet the definition of a major modification and is being managed accordingly.

  4. Safety Design Strategy for the Advanced Test Reactor Primary Coolant Pump and Motor Replacement Project

    SciTech Connect

    Noel Duckwitz

    2011-06-01

    In accordance with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 413.3B, “Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets,” safety must be integrated into the design process for new or major modifications to DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, and 3 nuclear facilities. The intended purpose of this requirement involves the handling of hazardous materials, both radiological and chemical, in a way that provides adequate protection to the public, workers, and the environment. Requirements provided in DOE Order 413.3B and DOE Order 420.1B, “Facility Safety,” and the expectations of DOE-STD-1189-2008, “Integration of Safety into the Design Process,” provide for identification of hazards early in the project and use of an integrated team approach to design safety into the facility. This safety design strategy provides the basic safety-in-design principles and concepts that will be used for the Advanced Test Reactor Reliability Sustainment Project. While this project does not introduce new hazards to the ATR, it has the potential for significant impacts to safety-related systems, structures, and components that are credited in the ATR safety basis and are being replaced. Thus the project has been determined to meet the definition of a major modification and is being managed accordingly.

  5. Kinematic Analysis of the Upper Limb Motor Strategies in Stroke Patients as a Tool towards Advanced Neurorehabilitation Strategies: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Simbolotti, Chiara

    2014-01-01

    Advanced rehabilitation strategies of the upper limb in stroke patients focus on the recovery of the most important daily activities. In this study we analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively the motor strategies employed by stroke patients when reaching and drinking from a glass. We enrolled 6 hemiparetic poststroke patients and 6 healthy subjects. Motion analysis of the task proposed (reaching for the glass, bringing it to the mouth, and putting it back on the table) with the affected limb was performed. Clinical assessment using the Fugl-Meyer Assessment for Upper Extremity was also included. During the reaching for the glass the patients showed a reduced arm elongation and trunk axial rotation due to motor deficit. For this reason, as observed, they carried out compensatory strategies which included trunk forward displacement and head movements. These preliminary data should be considered to address rehabilitation treatment. Moreover, the kinematic analysis protocol developed might represent an outcome measure of upper limb rehabilitation processes. PMID:24868536

  6. Defining Advancement Career Paths and Succession Plans: Critical Human Capital Retention Strategies for High-Performing Advancement Divisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croteau, Jon Derek; Wolk, Holly Gordon

    2010-01-01

    There are many factors that can influence whether a highly talented staff member will build a career within an institution or use it as a stepping stone. This article defines and explores the notions of developing career paths and succession planning and why they are critical human capital investment strategies in retaining the highest performers…

  7. Shemya AFB, Alaska 1992 IRP field investigation report. Volume 3, Appendixes B, C, and D: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The US Air Force is currently investigating 22 sites on Shemya Air Force Base (AFB) to determine if past spill and disposal activities have caused environmental damage. These investigations are being carried out under the Air Force`s Installation Restoration Program (IRP). Field investigations were performed in 1992 to obtain the information needed to assess what future actions will need to be carried out at each site. The island`s drinking water supply was also investigated. Activities completed at 10 selected sites included surface sampling to determine the lateral extent of contamination, subsurface sampling to determine the vertical extent of contamination, and the installation of well points and monitoring wells to determine the direction of groundwater flow and if the groundwater has been affected by a site. Geophysical surveys were performed at most sites to identify site boundaries and check for the presence of buried metal to be avoided during drilling activities. This report, appendices B, C, and D contains information on the following: geophysical contour maps and profile plots; human health risk assessment; and ecological risk assessment.

  8. Advanced biomaterial strategies to transplant preformed micro-tissue engineered neural networks into the brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, J. P.; Struzyna, L. A.; Murphy, P. L.; Adewole, D. O.; Kuo, E.; Cullen, D. K.

    2016-02-01

    Objective. Connectome disruption is a hallmark of many neurological diseases and trauma with no current strategies to restore lost long-distance axonal pathways in the brain. We are creating transplantable micro-tissue engineered neural networks (micro-TENNs), which are preformed constructs consisting of embedded neurons and long axonal tracts to integrate with the nervous system to physically reconstitute lost axonal pathways. Approach. We advanced micro-tissue engineering techniques to generate micro-TENNs consisting of discrete populations of mature primary cerebral cortical neurons spanned by long axonal fascicles encased in miniature hydrogel micro-columns. Further, we improved the biomaterial encasement scheme by adding a thin layer of low viscosity carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) to enable needle-less insertion and rapid softening for mechanical similarity with brain tissue. Main results. The engineered architecture of cortical micro-TENNs facilitated robust neuronal viability and axonal cytoarchitecture to at least 22 days in vitro. Micro-TENNs displayed discrete neuronal populations spanned by long axonal fasciculation throughout the core, thus mimicking the general systems-level anatomy of gray matter—white matter in the brain. Additionally, micro-columns with thin CMC-coating upon mild dehydration were able to withstand a force of 893 ± 457 mN before buckling, whereas a solid agarose cylinder of similar dimensions was predicted to withstand less than 150 μN of force. This thin CMC coating increased the stiffness by three orders of magnitude, enabling needle-less insertion into brain while significantly reducing the footprint of previous needle-based delivery methods to minimize insertion trauma. Significance. Our novel micro-TENNs are the first strategy designed for minimally invasive implantation to facilitate nervous system repair by simultaneously providing neuronal replacement and physical reconstruction of long-distance axon pathways in the brain

  9. Current therapeutic strategies for advanced pancreatic cancer: A review for clinicians

    PubMed Central

    Spadi, Rosella; Brusa, Federica; Ponzetti, Agostino; Chiappino, Isabella; Birocco, Nadia; Ciuffreda, Libero; Satolli, Maria Antonietta

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) would become the second leading cause of cancer death in the near future, despite representing only 3% of new cancer diagnosis. Survival improvement will come from a better knowledge of risk factors, earlier diagnosis, better integration of locoregional and systemic therapies, as well as the development of more efficacious drugs rising from a deeper understanding of disease biology. For patients with unresectable, non-metastatic disease, combined strategies encompassing primary chemotherapy and radiation seems to be promising. In fit patients, new polychemotherapy regimens can lead to better outcomes in terms of slight but significant survival improvement associated with a positive impact on quality of life. The upfront use of these regimes can also increase the rate of radical resections in borderline resectable and locally advanced PC. Second line treatments showed to positively affect both overall survival and quality of life in fit patients affected by metastatic disease. At present, oxaliplatin-based regimens are the most extensively studied. Nonetheless, other promising drugs are currently under evaluation. Presently, in addition to surgery and conventional radiation therapy, new locoregional treatment techniques are emerging as alternative options in the multimodal approach to patients or diseases not suitable for radical surgery. As of today, in contrast with other types of cancer, targeted therapies failed to show relevant activity either alone or in combination with chemotherapy and, thus, current clinical practice does not include them. Up to now, despite the fact of extremely promising results in different tumors, also immunotherapy is not in the actual therapeutic armamentarium for PC. In the present paper, we provide a comprehensive review of the current state of the art of clinical practice and research in PC aiming to offer a guide for clinicians on the most relevant topics in the management of this disease. PMID:26862489

  10. Current therapeutic strategies for advanced pancreatic cancer: A review for clinicians.

    PubMed

    Spadi, Rosella; Brusa, Federica; Ponzetti, Agostino; Chiappino, Isabella; Birocco, Nadia; Ciuffreda, Libero; Satolli, Maria Antonietta

    2016-02-10

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) would become the second leading cause of cancer death in the near future, despite representing only 3% of new cancer diagnosis. Survival improvement will come from a better knowledge of risk factors, earlier diagnosis, better integration of locoregional and systemic therapies, as well as the development of more efficacious drugs rising from a deeper understanding of disease biology. For patients with unresectable, non-metastatic disease, combined strategies encompassing primary chemotherapy and radiation seems to be promising. In fit patients, new polychemotherapy regimens can lead to better outcomes in terms of slight but significant survival improvement associated with a positive impact on quality of life. The upfront use of these regimes can also increase the rate of radical resections in borderline resectable and locally advanced PC. Second line treatments showed to positively affect both overall survival and quality of life in fit patients affected by metastatic disease. At present, oxaliplatin-based regimens are the most extensively studied. Nonetheless, other promising drugs are currently under evaluation. Presently, in addition to surgery and conventional radiation therapy, new locoregional treatment techniques are emerging as alternative options in the multimodal approach to patients or diseases not suitable for radical surgery. As of today, in contrast with other types of cancer, targeted therapies failed to show relevant activity either alone or in combination with chemotherapy and, thus, current clinical practice does not include them. Up to now, despite the fact of extremely promising results in different tumors, also immunotherapy is not in the actual therapeutic armamentarium for PC. In the present paper, we provide a comprehensive review of the current state of the art of clinical practice and research in PC aiming to offer a guide for clinicians on the most relevant topics in the management of this disease. PMID:26862489

  11. Energy Savings and Economics of Advanced Control Strategies for Packaged Air-Conditioning Units with Gas Heat

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Huang, Yunzhi; Brambley, Michael R.

    2011-12-31

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's Building Technologies Program (BTP) evaluated a number of control strategies that can be implemented in a controller, to improve the operational efficiency of the packaged air conditioning units. The two primary objectives of this research project are: (1) determine the magnitude of energy savings achievable by retrofitting existing packaged air conditioning units with advanced control strategies not ordinarily used for packaged units and (2) estimating what the installed cost of a replacement control with the desired features should be in various regions of the U.S. This document reports results of the study.

  12. Advanced control strategies for HVAC&R systems—An overview: Part II: Soft and fusion control

    SciTech Connect

    D. Subbaram Naidu; Craig G. Rieger

    2011-04-01

    A chronological overview of the advanced control strategies for HVAC&R is presented. The overview focuses on hard-computing or control techniques, such as proportional-integral-derivative, optimal, nonlinear, adaptive, and robust; soft-computing or control techniques, such as neural networks, fuzzy logic, genetic algorithms; and the fusion or hybrid of hard and soft control techniques. Part I focused on hardcontrol strategies; Part II focuses on soft and fusion control and some future directions in HVA&R research. This overview is not intended to be an exhaustive survey on this topic, and any omissions of other works is purely unintentional.

  13. Investigating the Use of Advance Organizers as an Instructional Strategy for Web-Based Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Baiyun; Hirumi, Atsusi; Zhang, Ning Jackie

    2007-01-01

    It is synthesized that advance organizers (AOs)--an effective orienting device in traditional classroom instruction--may enhance students' information literacy in self-directed online classes. The current study investigated 2 types of advance organizers, graphic and text, in a fully Web-based undergraduate course of health care ethics. Both the…

  14. Linguistic Alternatives to Quantitative Research Strategies. Part One: How Linguistic Mechanisms Advance Research Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeager, Joseph; Sommer, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Combining psycholinguistic technologies and systems analysis created advances in motivational profiling and numerous new behavioral engineering applications. These advances leapfrog many mainstream statistical research methods, producing superior research results via cause-effect language mechanisms. Entire industries explore motives ranging from…

  15. Advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma: a review of current treatment strategies and developing therapies

    PubMed Central

    Teague, Andrea; Lim, Kian-Huat

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is one of the deadliest solid malignancies. A large proportion of patients are diagnosed with locally advanced or metastatic disease at the time of presentation and, unfortunately, this severely limits the number of patients who can undergo surgical resection, which offers the only chance for cure. Recent therapeutic advances for patients with advanced pancreatic cancer have extended overall survival, but prognosis still remains grim. Given that traditional chemotherapy is ineffective in curing advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma, current research is taking a multidirectional approach in the hopes of developing more effective treatments. This article reviews the major clinical trial data that is the basis for the current chemotherapy regimens used as first- and second-line treatments for advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma. We also review the current ongoing clinical trials, which include the use of agents targeting the oncogenic network signaling of K-Ras, agents targeting the extracellular matrix, and immune therapies. PMID:25755680

  16. Learner-Centered Strategies and Advanced Mathematics: A Study of Students' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortiz-Robinson, Norma L.; Ellington, Aimee J.

    2009-01-01

    A number of learner-centered strategies were implemented during a two-semester course in real analysis that is traditionally taught in lecture format. We seek to understand the role that these strategies can have in this proof-intensive theoretical mathematics classroom and the perceived benefits by the students. Although learner-centered…

  17. DOE Project: Optimization of Advanced Diesel Engine Combustion Strategies "University Research in Advanced Combustion and Emissions Control" Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program

    SciTech Connect

    Reitz, Rolf; Foster, D.; Ghandhi, J.; Rothamer, D.; Rutland, C.; Sanders, S.; Trujillo, M.

    2012-10-26

    The goal of the present technology development was to increase the efficiency of internal combustion engines while minimizing the energy penalty of meeting emissions regulations. This objective was achieved through experimentation and the development of advanced combustion regimes and emission control strategies, coupled with advanced petroleum and non-petroleum fuel formulations. To meet the goals of the project, it was necessary to improve the efficiency of expansion work extraction, and this required optimized combustion phasing and minimized in-cylinder heat transfer losses. To minimize fuel used for diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration, soot emissions were also minimized. Because of the complex nature of optimizing production engines for real-world variations in fuels, temperatures and pressures, the project applied high-fidelity computing and high-resolution engine experiments synergistically to create and apply advanced tools (i.e., fast, accurate predictive models) developed for low-emission, fuel-efficient engine designs. The companion experiments were conducted using representative single- and multi-cylinder automotive and truck diesel engines.

  18. Surgery for Locally Advanced T4 Rectal Cancer: Strategies and Techniques.

    PubMed

    Helewa, Ramzi M; Park, Jason

    2016-06-01

    Locally advanced T4 rectal cancer represents a complex clinical condition that requires a well thought-out treatment plan and expertise from multiple specialists. Paramount in the management of patients with locally advanced rectal cancer are accurate preoperative staging, appropriate application of neoadjuvant and adjuvant treatments, and, above all, the provision of high-quality, complete surgical resection in potentially curable cases. Despite the advanced nature of this disease, extended and multivisceral resections with clear margins have been shown to result in good oncological outcomes and offer patients a real chance of cure. In this article, we describe the assessment, classification, and multimodality treatment of primary locally advanced T4 rectal cancer, with a focus on surgical planning, approaches, and outcomes. PMID:27247535

  19. Impact of Comorbidity and Age on Determinants Therapeutic Strategies in Advanced Pancreatic Head Cancer Patients With Obstructive Jaundices

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Guang; Pan, Hsueh-Hsing; Dai, Ming-Shen; Lin, Chin; Lu, Chieh-Sheng; Su, Sui-Lung; Chang, Ping-Ying; Huang, Tzu-Chuan; Chen, Jia-Hong; Wu, Yi-Ying; Chen, Yeu-Chin; Ho, Ching Liang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The current retrospective study aimed to investigate the relationship between prognostic factors and overall survival (OS) in patients with advanced pancreatic head cancers who initially presented with obstructive jaundice. Furthermore, the impact of age and comorbidities on therapeutic strategies in such patients was evaluated. A total of 79 advanced pancreatic head cancer patients who were treated at our institution between January 2006 and November 2013 were reviewed. We analyzed OS risk factors including sex, age, laboratory characteristics, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, Charlson Comorbidity Index Scores (CCIS), and therapeutic strategies using Cox proportional hazards regression models. There was no difference in the OS of patients according to the type biliary drainage procedure they underwent. Other related factors, such as better performance status, lower CCIS, and receiving chemotherapy significantly correlated with survival in multivariate analyses. There was a significant survival benefit in systemic chemotherapy compared to best supportive care (BSC) or local radiotherapy. However, no survival benefit was found in elderly patients (age >70 years) undergoing systemic therapy compared to younger patients, except in those elderly patients with CCIS ≤ 1. In advanced pancreatic head cancer patients with obstructive jaundice, systemic therapy and adequate biliary drainage were still the most effective procedures for improving OS in the general population. However, in elderly patients with relatively higher CCIS, BSC with adequate biliary drainage was palliative and no less effective than systemic/local therapies. PMID:26252308

  20. Development of advanced host cell protein enrichment and detection strategies to enable process relevant spike challenge studies.

    PubMed

    Soderquist, Ryan G; Trumbo, Mihaela; Hart, Roger A; Zhang, Qingchun; Flynn, Gregory C

    2015-01-01

    An orthogonal chromatography methodology for the enrichment of host cell protein (HCP) species relative to monoclonal antibody (mAb) products was developed and applied for the successful enrichment of HCP from post-Protein A process pools for seven different mAb products. An advanced two-dimensional liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry platform (2D-LC/MS(E) ) was utilized to demonstrate that the HCP enriched material was representative, in terms of species content, to pre-enriched process pools. The HCP enrichment methodology was scaled up for two different mAb products, and this process relevant enriched HCP material was used to conduct advanced spike challenge studies to demonstrate the utility of the approach for the understanding of (1) quantitative HCP clearance, (2) individual species clearance, and (3) species clearance redundancy across polishing chromatography steps. The combined ability to enrich process relevant HCP, detect individual HCP species with 2D-LC/MS(E) technology, and conduct advanced challenge studies with process relevant material surmounts prior limitations to high integrity process challenge study implementation, and facilitates significant process understanding for development of risk-based control strategies and strategic process design. This also demonstrates implementation of a foundational strategy for conducting spike-challenge studies using process-relevant impurities isolated from processes of interest using orthogonal approaches. PMID:26014278

  1. Advancing Circadian Rhythms Before Eastward Flight: A Strategy to Prevent or Reduce Jet Lag

    PubMed Central

    Eastman, Charmane I.; Gazda, Clifford J; Burgess, Helen J.; Crowley, Stephanie J.; Fogg, Louis F.

    2005-01-01

    Study Objectives To develop a practical pre-eastward flight treatment to advance circadian rhythms as much as possible but not misalign them with sleep. Design One group had their sleep schedule advanced by 1 hour per day and another by 2 hours per day. Setting Baseline at home, treatment in lab. Participants Young healthy adults (11 men, 15 women) between the ages of 22 and 36 years. Interventions Three days of a gradually advancing sleep schedule (1 or 2 hours per day) plus intermittent morning bright light (one-half hour ~5000 lux, one-half hour of < 60 lux) for 3.5 hours. Measurements and Results The dim light melatonin onset was assessed before and after the 3-day treatment. Subjects completed daily sleep logs and symptom questionnaires and wore wrist activity monitors. The dim light melatonin onset advanced more in the 2-hours-per-day group than in the 1-hour-per-day group (median phase advances of 1.9 and 1.4 hours), but the difference between the means (1.8 and 1.5 hours) was not statistically significant. By the third treatment day, circadian rhythms were misaligned relative to the sleep schedule, and subjects had difficulty falling asleep in the 2-hours-per-day group, but this was not the case in the 1-hour-per-day group. Nevertheless, the 2-hours-per-day group did slightly better on the symptom questionnaires. In general, sleep disturbance and other side effects were small. Conclusions A gradually advancing sleep schedule with intermittent morning bright light can be used to advance circadian rhythms before eastward flight and, thus, theoretically, prevent or reduce subsequent jet lag. Given the morning light treatment used here, advancing the sleep schedule 2 hours per day is not better than advancing it 1 hour per day because it was too fast for the advance in circadian rhythms. A diagram is provided to help the traveler plan a preflight schedule. PMID:15700719

  2. Neurology Academic Advisory Committee: a strategy for faculty retention and advancement.

    PubMed

    Schenkenberg, T; Foster, N L; Bromberg, M B; DeWitt, L D; Flanigan, K M

    2011-08-16

    Major effort and expense are devoted to faculty recruitment. Subsequent direction, support, and guidance of faculty members for retention and academic advancement are often inconsistent and ineffective. Individual mentorship is widely endorsed as an important element in advancement but often does not occur or is uneven in its pragmatic benefit. We formed a Departmental Academic Advisory Committee to provide individualized advice and guidance about career development and institutional promotion, retention, and tenure procedures. To assess the effectiveness of this process, a survey was sent to faculty members. A 100% response rate was achieved. The results of the survey demonstrated high levels of acceptance by faculty members and described benefits experienced by faculty, including better understanding of promotion and tenure policies and specific actions taken to achieve professional goals. An academic advisory committee can be a valuable adjunct to individual mentorship and to meetings with department chairs to enhance faculty satisfaction and advancement of neurology faculty members. PMID:21795659

  3. Recent advances in microbial production of fuels and chemicals using tools and strategies of systems metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Cho, Changhee; Choi, So Young; Luo, Zi Wei; Lee, Sang Yup

    2015-11-15

    The advent of various systems metabolic engineering tools and strategies has enabled more sophisticated engineering of microorganisms for the production of industrially useful fuels and chemicals. Advances in systems metabolic engineering have been made in overproducing natural chemicals and producing novel non-natural chemicals. In this paper, we review the tools and strategies of systems metabolic engineering employed for the development of microorganisms for the production of various industrially useful chemicals belonging to fuels, building block chemicals, and specialty chemicals, in particular focusing on those reported in the last three years. It was aimed at providing the current landscape of systems metabolic engineering and suggesting directions to address future challenges towards successfully establishing processes for the bio-based production of fuels and chemicals from renewable resources. PMID:25450194

  4. Advanced Modeling Strategies for the Analysis of Tile-Reinforced Composite Armor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, Carlos G.; Chen, Tzi-Kang

    1999-01-01

    A detailed investigation of the deformation mechanisms in tile-reinforced armored components was conducted to develop the most efficient modeling strategies for the structural analysis of large components of the Composite Armored Vehicle. The limitations of conventional finite elements with respect to the analysis of tile-reinforced structures were examined, and two complementary optimal modeling strategies were developed. These strategies are element layering and the use of a tile-adhesive superelement. Element layering is a technique that uses stacks of shear deformable shell elements to obtain the proper transverse shear distributions through the thickness of the laminate. The tile-adhesive superelement consists of a statically condensed substructure model designed to take advantage of periodicity in tile placement patterns to eliminate numerical redundancies in the analysis. Both approaches can be used simultaneously to create unusually efficient models that accurately predict the global response by incorporating the correct local deformation mechanisms.

  5. Advancing Prevention Research on Child Abuse, Youth Violence, and Domestic Violence: Emerging Strategies and Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guterman, Neil B.

    2004-01-01

    Prevention research on the related problems of child abuse, youth violence, and domestic violence has grown at an accelerating pace in recent years. In this context, a set of shared methodological issues has emerged as investigators seek to advance the interpersonal violence prevention knowledge base. This article considers some of the persistent…

  6. Advanced Placement Strategy: A Framework for Identifying School-Level Barriers to AP Success. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batiwalla, Mary

    2014-01-01

    In 2013, Tennessee counted nearly 7,000 students in the senior cohort whose academic skills when they entered high school suggested they were on track to earn college credits through Advanced Placement (AP) exams. Yet just over half of these students actually graduated with an AP credit, and less than a third of the economically disadvantaged…

  7. New strategies in advanced cervical cancer: from angiogenesis blockade to immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Tewari, Krishnansu S; Monk, Bradley J

    2014-11-01

    Cervical cancer remains unique among solid tumor malignancies. Persistent infection with oncogenic subtypes of the human papillomavirus (HPV) results in carcinogenesis, predominantly occurring at the cervical transformation zone where endocervical columnar cells undergo metaplasia to a stratified squamous epithelium. The molecular cascade involving viral oncoproteins, E6 and E7 and their degradative interactions with cellular tumor suppressor gene products, p53 and pRb, respectively, has been precisely delineated. The precursor state of cervical neoplasia may last for years allowing for ready detection through successful screening programs in developed countries using cervical cytology and/or high-risk HPV DNA testing. Prophylactic HPV L1 capsid protein vaccines using virus-like-particle technology have been developed to prevent primary infection by the most common high-risk HPVs (16 and 18). Women who lack access to health care and those who undergo sporadic screening remain at risk. Although radical surgery (including fertility-sparing surgery) is available for patients with early-stage cancers, and chemoradiation plus high-dose-rate brachytherapy can cure the majority of those with locally advanced disease, patients with metastatic and nonoperable recurrent cervical cancer constitute a high-risk population with an unmet clinical need. On August 14, 2014, the FDA approved the antiangiogenesis drug bevacizumab for women with advanced cervical cancer. This review will highlight advances in translational science, antiangiogenesis therapy and immunotherapy for advanced disease. PMID:25104084

  8. Advanced Cantonese ESL Learners' Production of English Speech Sounds: Problems and Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Alice Y. W.

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the production of English speech sounds by advanced Cantonese ESL learners in Hong Kong. A total of forty university students participated in the study, which included three speech production tasks investigating participants' production of target English speech sounds in isolated words, minimal pairs and passages. The…

  9. Strategies for Increasing Advanced Placement Participation for Underrepresented Students: Barriers, Practices, and Positive Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Sergio; Gomez, Martin O.

    2011-01-01

    Some school leaders have viewed programs such as Advanced Placement (AP) as an attractive option to resolve the ongoing achievement gap problem. However, the ongoing debate in the field about maintaining the ostensible purity of the AP program versus diluting it with program expansion has hindered the full utilization of AP classes to close the…

  10. Transforming Tech Ed: The Advanced Technological Education Community Leads in Developing and Implementing Teaching Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Madeline

    2015-01-01

    After years of working in the background to build the capacity of two-year college science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) faculty and the skills of technicians, the Advanced Technological Education (ATE) program is gaining recognition as a source of STEM workforce expertise. The ATE program's effective mentoring of STEM educators and its…

  11. Rhetorical Strategies in Engineering Research Articles and Research Theses: Advanced Academic Literacy and Relations of Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koutsantoni, Dimitra

    2006-01-01

    Research articles and research theses constitute two key genres used by scientific communities for the dissemination and ratification of knowledge. Both genres are produced at advanced stages of individuals' enculturation in disciplinary communities present original research aim to persuade the academic community to accept new knowledge claims,…

  12. Advanced pricing strategies for hospitals in contracting with managed care organizations.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, J L; Kleiman, M A

    1994-01-01

    This article provides both a conceptual overview of pricing health care services and two pricing strategy examples. The overview addresses the underlying concepts of pricing, the factors that influence it, and the risk continuum of pricing approaches. The pricing strategy examples highlight some of the issues and considerations involved in pricing services in a changing health care market. Because the payors of health care will continue to shift economic risk to the providers of health care, the examples emphasize the importance of managing risk. PMID:10131103

  13. Strategies for Broadening Participation in Advanced Technological Education Programs: Practice and Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Corey; Wingate, Lori

    2016-01-01

    Expanding and diversifying the STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) workforce is a national priority. The National Science Foundation is investing efforts at post secondary education institutions to engage individuals who have been historically underrepresented in STEM. This paper investigated the use of strategies to broaden…

  14. Advancing Entrepreneurship Education. A Report of the Youth Entrepreneurship Strategy Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspen Institute, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The Youth Entrepreneurship Strategy Group convened its inaugural meeting from September 26-28, 2007 at the Aspen Institute in Aspen, Colorado. A group of dynamic national leaders from the fields of education, entrepreneurship and business, public policy, media, and philanthropy met over three days to explore the promise of, and obstacles to,…

  15. Exploring Early Reading Instructional Strategies to Advance the Print Literacy Development of Adolescent SLIFE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montero, M. Kristiina; Newmaster, Sharon; Ledger, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    The research presented in this article examines the English language and print literacy development of adolescent refugee students with limited and interrupted formal education (SLIFE) aged 14 to 21. The aim of this research was to determine if and how teaching early reading strategies to secondary ESL/ELD teachers could improve students'…

  16. Seven Actionable Strategies for Advancing Women in Science, Engineering, and Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kristin A.; Arlotta, Paola; Watt, Fiona M.; Solomon, Susan L.

    2015-01-01

    Achieving gender equality in science will require devising and implementing strategies to overcome the political, administrative, financial, and cultural challenges that exist in the current environment. In this forum, we propose an initial shortlist of recommendations to promote gender equality in science and stimulate future efforts to level the field. PMID:25748929

  17. Strategies for Advancing Preschool Adequacy and Efficiency in California. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karoly, Lynn A.

    2009-01-01

    California has fallen behind on many key indicators of education performance, prompting policymakers to look for strategies to improve student outcomes. This research brief summarizes the fourth and final report from the California Preschool Study, synthesizing findings from earlier reports, and recommending policies to improve preschool education…

  18. Research on treating neuropsychiatric symptoms of advanced dementia with non-pharmacological strategies, 1998–2008: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Kverno, Karan S.; Black, Betty S.; Nolan, Marie T.; Rabins, Peter V.

    2011-01-01

    Background Advanced dementia is characterized by severe cognitive and functional impairments that lead to almost total dependency in self-care. Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) are common in advanced dementia, diminishing quality of life and increasing the care burden. The challenge for health care providers is to find safe and effective treatments. Non-pharmacological interventions offer the potential for safer alternatives to pharmacotherapy, but little is known about their efficacy. This review evaluates the published literature on non-pharmacological interventions for treating NPS in advanced dementia. Methods A literature search was undertaken to find non-pharmacological intervention studies published between 1998 and 2008 that measured NPS outcomes in individuals diagnosed with advanced dementia. Strict inclusion criteria initially required that all study participants have severe or very severe dementia, but this range was later broadened to include moderately severe to very severe stages. Results Out of 215 intervention studies, 21 (9.8%) specifically focused on treatments for individuals with moderately severe to very severe dementia. The studies provide limited moderate to high quality evidence for the use of sensory-focused strategies, including aroma, preferred or live music, and multi-sensory stimulation. Emotion-oriented approaches, such as simulated presence may be more effective for individuals with preserved verbal interactive capacity. Conclusions Most studies of interventions for dementia-related NPS have focused on individuals with mild to moderate cognitive impairment. Individuals with severe cognitive impairment do not necessarily respond to NPS treatments in the same manner. Future studies should be specifically designed to further explore the stage-specific efficacy of non-pharmacological therapies for patients with advanced dementia. Areas of particular need for further research include movement-based therapies, hands-on (touch) therapies

  19. Advancing Therapeutic Strategies for Inherited Retinal Degeneration: Recommendations From the Monaciano Symposium

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Debra A.; Ali, Robin R.; Banin, Eyal; Branham, Kari E.; Flannery, John G.; Gamm, David M.; Hauswirth, William W.; Heckenlively, John R.; Iannaccone, Alessandro; Jayasundera, K. Thiran; Khan, Naheed W.; Molday, Robert S.; Pennesi, Mark E.; Reh, Thomas A.; Weleber, Richard G.; Zacks, David N.

    2015-01-01

    Although rare in the general population, retinal dystrophies occupy a central position in current efforts to develop innovative therapies for blinding diseases. This status derives, in part, from the unique biology, accessibility, and function of the retina, as well as from the synergy between molecular discoveries and transformative advances in functional assessment and retinal imaging. The combination of these factors has fueled remarkable progress in the field, while at the same time creating complex challenges for organizing collective efforts aimed at advancing translational research. The present position paper outlines recent progress in gene therapy and cell therapy for this group of disorders, and presents a set of recommendations for addressing the challenges remaining for the coming decade. It is hoped that the formulation of these recommendations will stimulate discussions among researchers, funding agencies, industry, and policy makers that will accelerate the development of safe and effective treatments for retinal dystrophies and related diseases. PMID:25667399

  20. Development and Deployment Strategy for a Small Advanced Light Water Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Modro, S. Michael; Reith, Raymond; Babka, Pierre

    2002-07-01

    This paper discusses development and deployment strategies for the modular Multi-Application Small Light Water Reactor (MASLWR). Modularity, small size, capability to transport whole modules including containment on road or by rail, simplicity and safety of this reactor allows innovative deployment strategies for a variety of applications. A larger plant may be constructed of many independent power generation units. The multi-module plant is intended to be operated as a base-load plant. Each reactor is to be operated at full load. However, in response to changes in power demand individual units can brought on line or shut down. A larger plant can be built in small increments to match the power demand balancing capital commitments with revenues from sales of electricity. Also, an unplanned shutdown of a reactor only affects a relatively small portion of the total plant capacity. Simplification of MASLWR design and extensive use of modularization coupled with factory fabrication will result in improved productivity of fieldwork and improved quality achieved in a factory environment. The initial MASLWR design concept development has been completed under the U.S. DOE (Department of Energy) Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) project. This paper discusses a strategy for developing and deploying a MASLWR plant by 2015. This schedule is realistic because the plant design relies on existing industrial experience and manufacturing capabilities. The development strategy consists of the following elements: concept confirmation through testing (under the NERI program a scaled integral test facility has been constructed and initial testing performed), design concept optimization, and design certification based on prototype testing. (authors)

  1. Recent advances in enrichment and separation strategies for mass spectrometry-based phosphoproteomics

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chenxi; Zhong, Xuefei; Li, Lingjun

    2016-01-01

    Due to the significance of protein phosphorylation in various biological processes and signaling events, new analytical techniques for enhanced phosphoproteomics have been rapidly introduced in recent years. The combinatorial use of the phospho-specific enrichment techniques and prefractionation methods prior to MS analysis enables comprehensive profiling of the phosphoproteome and facilitates deciphering the critical roles that phosphorylation plays in signaling pathways in various biological systems. This review places special emphasis on the recent five-year (2009–2013) advances for enrichment and separation techniques that have been utilized for phosphopeptides prior to MS analysis. PMID:24687451

  2. Towards an advanced e-Infrastructure for Civil Protection applications: Research Strategies and Innovation Guidelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzetti, P.; Nativi, S.; Verlato, M.; Angelini, V.

    2009-04-01

    In the context of the EU co-funded project CYCLOPS (http://www.cyclops-project.eu) the problem of designing an advanced e-Infrastructure for Civil Protection (CP) applications has been addressed. As a preliminary step, some studies about European CP systems and operational applications were performed in order to define their specific system requirements. At a higher level it was verified that CP applications are usually conceived to map CP Business Processes involving different levels of processing including data access, data processing, and output visualization. At their core they usually run one or more Earth Science models for information extraction. The traditional approach based on the development of monolithic applications presents some limitations related to flexibility (e.g. the possibility of running the same models with different input data sources, or different models with the same data sources) and scalability (e.g. launching several runs for different scenarios, or implementing more accurate and computing-demanding models). Flexibility can be addressed adopting a modular design based on a SOA and standard services and models, such as OWS and ISO for geospatial services. Distributed computing and storage solutions could improve scalability. Basing on such considerations an architectural framework has been defined. It is made of a Web Service layer providing advanced services for CP applications (e.g. standard geospatial data sharing and processing services) working on the underlying Grid platform. This framework has been tested through the development of prototypes as proof-of-concept. These theoretical studies and proof-of-concept demonstrated that although Grid and geospatial technologies would be able to provide significant benefits to CP applications in terms of scalability and flexibility, current platforms are designed taking into account requirements different from CP. In particular CP applications have strict requirements in terms of: a) Real

  3. Optimal pharmacotherapeutic strategies for elderly patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Quoix, Elisabeth

    2011-11-01

    Increases in both life expectancy and cancer incidence with age result in a significant rise in lung cancer rates among elderly patients, with a median age at diagnosis of between 63 and 70 years. However, elderly patients are under-represented in clinical trials and generally receive suboptimal treatment, mainly because of fears about increased toxicity of chemotherapy. Indeed, physiological modification of renal and haematopoietic functions with age together with co-morbidity and associated polypharmacy may alter the metabolism of chemotherapy drugs, resulting in greater toxicity. Moreover, performance status (PS), the main prognostic factor in younger patients, does not correlate well with geriatric indexes such as activities of daily living, cognition and physical performance, and comprehensive geriatric assessment is important in elderly patients. Until 2010, based on the small number of clinical trials designed for elderly patients, monotherapy was the recommended treatment for those with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), whereas for fit younger patients, a platinum-based doublet was and continues to be the recommended first-line therapy. However, at the plenary session of the 2010 Annual Meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology, results were presented from a randomized controlled trial conducted by the French Intergroup of Thoracic Oncology that demonstrated that in PS 0-2 patients aged≥70 years with advanced NSCLC, monthly carboplatin with weekly paclitaxel resulted in significantly longer survival than single-agent therapy (vinorelbine or gemcitabine). It should be noted that even in a priori unfavourable prognostic subgroups (patients with a PS score of 2, those aged>80 years or those with an activities of daily living scale score of <6), doublet therapy was associated with a survival advantage over monotherapy. Thus, the new paradigm of treatment of elderly patients with advanced NSCLC and a PS score of 0-2 should now be monthly

  4. Recent advances in RNAi-based strategies for therapy and prevention of HIV-1/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Swamy, Manjunath N; Wu, Haoquan; Shankar, Premlata

    2016-08-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) provides a powerful tool to silence specific gene expression and has been widely used to suppress host factors such as CCR5 and/or viral genes involved in HIV-1 replication. Newer nuclease-based gene-editing technologies, such as zinc finger nucleases (ZFN), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALEN) and the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 system, also provide powerful tools to ablate specific genes. Because of differences in co-receptor usage and the high mutability of the HIV-1 genome, a combination of host factors and viral genes needs to be suppressed for effective prevention and treatment of HIV-1 infection. Whereas the continued presence of small interfering/short hairpin RNA (si/shRNA) mediators is needed for RNAi to be effective, the continued expression of nucleases in the gene-editing systems is undesirable. Thus, RNAi provides the only practical way for expression of multiple silencers in infected and uninfected cells, which is needed for effective prevention/treatment of infection. There have been several advances in the RNAi field in terms of si/shRNA design, targeted delivery to HIV-1 susceptible cells, and testing for efficacy in preclinical humanized mouse models. Here, we comprehensively review the latest advances in RNAi technology towards prevention and treatment of HIV-1. PMID:27013255

  5. MS PHD'S: Effective Strategies for the Retention and Advancement of URM Students in ESS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escalera, J.; Burgess, A. K.; Pace, L.; Scott, O.; Strickland, J.; Johnson, A.; Williamson Whitney, V.; Ithier-Guzman, W.

    2012-12-01

    The Minorities Striving and Pursuing Higher Degrees of Success (MS PHD'S) Professional Development Program in Earth system science (ESS) is a model initiative for improving the retention of underrepresented minority (URM) students in STEM fields. Entering its ninth cohort, MS PHD'S remains committed to helping URM undergraduate and graduate students achieve outstanding careers in ESS. MS PHD'S facilitates URM student achievement through a three-phase program designed to increase student exposure to the ESS community. By engaging in a series of professional development and skill building exercises, peer-to-peer community building activities, participation in scientific society conferences and workshops, mentoring by URM and other scientists, and a virtual community, URM students gain the confidence and support necessary to achieve their academic goals and enter the ESS workforce. Since its inception, MS PHD'S continues to support 189 participants. Of these 189 participants, 35 have advanced from undergraduate and graduate academic pathways to completion of their PhD and another 60 are currently enrolled in doctoral programs. MS PHD'S maintains close ties with program alumni to further support retention, inclusivity, and broadening participation of URM students and graduates in STEM activities. Its model is built on reengaging alumni to become mentors and leaders for each new cohort as well as facilitating valuable opportunities for alumni to advance in their ESS related academic and professional career pathways.

  6. Advances in HSP27 and HSP90-targeting strategies for glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    van Ommeren, Randy; Staudt, Michael D; Xu, Hu; Hebb, Matthew O

    2016-04-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and malignant primary brain tumor in adults. There is a critical need for novel strategies to abolish the molecular mechanisms that support GBM growth, invasion and treatment resistance. The heat shock proteins, HSP27 and HSP90, serve these pivotal roles in tumor cells and have been identified as effective targets for developing therapeutics. Natural and synthetic inhibitors have been evaluated in clinical trials for several forms of systemic cancer but none as yet for GBM. This topic review summarizes the current preclinical evidence and rationale to define the potential of HSP27 and HSP90 inhibitors in GBM management. PMID:26842818

  7. GHG emissions during the high-rate production of compost using standard and advanced aeration strategies.

    PubMed

    Puyuelo, B; Gea, T; Sánchez, A

    2014-08-01

    In this study, we have evaluated different strategies for the optimization of the aeration during the active thermophilic stage of the composting process of source-selected Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (or biowaste) using reactors at bench scale (50L). These strategies include: typical cyclic aeration, oxygen feedback controller and a new self-developed controller based on the on-line maximization of the oxygen uptake rate (OUR) during the process. Results highlight differences found in the emission of most representative greenhouse gases (GHG) emitted from composting (methane and nitrous oxide) as well as in gases typically related to composting odor problems (ammonia as typical example). Specifically, the cyclic controller presents emissions that can double that of OUR controller, whereas oxygen feedback controller shows a better performance with respect to the cyclic controller. A new parameter, the respiration index efficiency, is presented to quantitatively evaluate the GHG emissions and, in consequence, the main negative environmental impact of the composting process. Other aspects such as the stability of the compost produced and the consumption of resources are also evaluated for each controller. PMID:24873708

  8. Multi-source recruitment strategies for advancing addiction recovery research beyond treated samples

    PubMed Central

    Subbaraman, Meenakshi Sabina; Laudet, Alexandre B.; Ritter, Lois A.; Stunz, Aina; Kaskutas, Lee Ann

    2014-01-01

    Background The lack of established sampling frames makes reaching individuals in recovery from substance problems difficult. Although general population studies are most generalizable, the low prevalence of individuals in recovery makes this strategy costly and inefficient. Though more efficient, treatment samples are biased. Aims To describe multi-source recruitment for capturing participants from heterogeneous pathways to recovery; assess which sources produced the most respondents within subgroups; and compare treatment and non-treatment samples to address generalizability. Results Family/friends, Craigslist, social media and non-12-step groups produced the most respondents from hard-to-reach groups, such as racial minorities and treatment-naïve individuals. Recovery organizations yielded twice as many African-Americans and more rural dwellers, while social media yielded twice as many young people than other sources. Treatment samples had proportionally fewer females and older individuals compared to non-treated samples. Conclusions Future research on recovery should utilize previously neglected recruiting strategies to maximize the representativeness of samples. PMID:26166909

  9. [Recent advances in pathogenic concepts and therapeutic strategies in Rasmussen's encephalitis].

    PubMed

    Bahi-Buisson, N; Nabbout, R; Plouin, P; Bulteau, C; Delalande, O; Hertz Pannier, L; Dulac, O; Chiron, C

    2005-04-01

    Rasmussen's encephalitis (RE) is a rare inflammatory brain disease mainly affecting children and characterised by intractable epilepsy involving a single hemisphere that undergoes progressive atrophy. RE is characterized by refractory focal seizures, often associated with epilepsia partialis continua, progressive unilateral motor defect, slow EEG activity over the entire contralateral hemisphere, with focal white matter hyperintensity and insular cortical atrophy on neuroimaging. Surgical exclusion of the affected hemisphere is the only treatment that interrupts progression of the disease. Pathogenic concepts have considered viruses, autoimmune antibodies and autoimmune cytotoxic T lymphocytes that might contribute to the initiating or perpetuating events in the central nervous system. Based on these concepts, different therapeutic strategies have been pursued, such as antiviral agents, plasmapheresis, immuno-adsorption, immunosuppression or immunomodulation with intravenous immunoglobulins. However, due to the lack of large studies, to date there is no established therapeutic strategy for this devastating condition. In this review, we give an overview of the current state of immunopathogenic concepts for Rasmussen's encephalitis and discuss the different therapeutic options for future perspectives. PMID:15924075

  10. Dietary phosphorus restriction in advanced chronic kidney disease: merits, challenges, and emerging strategies.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Orlando M; Wolf, Myles

    2010-01-01

    Hyperphosphatemia is an independent risk factor for mortality in patients on maintenance dialysis. Since phosphorus clearance by standard three times-weekly dialysis is insufficient to balance ongoing dietary phosphorus intake, strategies to prevent absorption of dietary phosphorus are essential for attenuating increased serum levels. Dietary phosphorus binders are used widely for this purpose but dietary phosphorus restriction is relatively underutilized, most likely because of the logistical complexity of instituting and monitoring a low phosphorus diet, and for fear of worsening protein-energy wasting, which itself is a potent risk factor for mortality. In this review, we propose sustainable strategies for reducing phosphorus intake while avoiding exacerbation of protein-energy wasting. The approach is based on recognition of the dissociation between protein and phosphorus content in phosphorus-rich processed foods and the varying phosphorus bioavailability in different dietary sources. Controlling serum phosphate levels is among the most challenging aspects of day-to-day dialysis care but integration of sensible dietary interventions will likely improve phosphorus control. PMID:20557490

  11. Site investigation report for IRP site numbers 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, West Virginia Air National Guard, 130th Airlift Group, Yeager Field, Charleston, West Virginia. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    Site Investigation Report for IRP Sites Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 West Virginia Air National Guard, 130th Airlift Group, Yeager Field, Charleston, West Virginia. No further action was recommended for all 5 sites, and was agreed to by the WVDEP.

  12. Recent advances and future perspectives in therapeutic strategies for pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Yao, Atsushi

    2012-11-01

    Since the innovation of epoprostenol, a prostacyclin analog, providing treatment for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in the 1990s, two types of oral drugs, endothelin receptor antagonists (ERAs) and phosphodiesterase V inhibitors, have further improved therapy for PAH. In contrast, it has become clear that the efficacy of monotherapy with these drugs is limited, and the establishment of combination therapies should be considered for PAH. Given that the newest PAH drugs include a receptor tyrosine kinase antagonist (imatinib), a soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator (riociguat), an oral analog of prostacyclin (selexipag), and a tissue targeting ERA (macitentan) determination of appropriate combinations for various etiologies and clinical stages is urgently required. In the next decade, it can be expected that the discovery of efficacious combination therapies, involving old and new drugs, will lead to significant advances in the treatment of PAH. PMID:23068290

  13. Clinical challenges in HIV/AIDS: Hints for advancing prevention and patient management strategies.

    PubMed

    Sued, Omar; Figueroa, María Inés; Cahn, Pedro

    2016-08-01

    Acquired immune deficiency syndrome has been one of the most devastating epidemics of the last century. The current estimate for people living with the HIV is 36.9 million. Today, despite availability of potent and safe drugs for effective treatment, lifelong therapy is required for preventing HIV re-emergence from a pool of latently infected cells. However, recent evidence show the importance to expand HIV testing, to offer antiretroviral treatment to all infected individuals, and to ensure retention through all the cascade of care. In addition, circumcision, pre-exposure prophylaxis, and other biomedical tools are now available for included in a comprehensive preventive package. Use of all the available tools might allow cutting the HIV transmission in 2030. In this article, we review the status of the epidemic, the latest advances in prevention and treatment, the concept of treatment as prevention and the challenges and opportunities for the HIV cure agenda. PMID:27117711

  14. Nursing entrepreneurship: motivators, strategies and possibilities for professional advancement and health system change.

    PubMed

    Wall, Sarah

    2013-06-01

    In Canada, as well as internationally, efficiency-focused organizational restructuring in healthcare has resulted in stressful job change for nurses, although nurses continue to work in a system that values technology-based, physician-provided services. Employed nurses have had to participate in organizational activities that undermine their professional values and goals. Nursing entrepreneurship presents an opportunity to explore nursing's professional potential in nursing practice that is uniquely independent. In this study, a focused ethnographic approach was used to explore the experiences of self-employed nurses, who see themselves as leaders in advancing the profession of nursing and its contribution to healthcare. Key themes in the findings include the responses of self-employed nurses to health system change, expanded roles for nurses, the consequences of this non-traditional approach to nursing work and the possibilities for change that arise from nursing entrepreneurship. This research has implications for healthcare policy, professional advocacy and nursing education. PMID:23809640

  15. An optimal control strategy for crop growth in advanced life support systems.

    PubMed

    Fleisher, D H; Baruh, H

    2001-01-01

    A feedback control method for regulating crop growth in advanced life support systems is presented. Two models for crop growth are considered, one developed by the agricultural industry and used by the Ames Research Center, and a mechanistic model, termed the Energy Cascade model. Proportional and pointwise-optimal control laws are applied to both models using wheat as the crop and light intensity as the control input. The control is particularly sensitive to errors in measurement of crop dry mass. However, it is shown that the proposed approach is a potentially viable way of controlling crop growth as it compensates for model errors and problems associated with applying the desired control input due to environmental disturbances. Grant numbers: NGT5-50229. PMID:11725784

  16. An evaluation of the total quality management implementation strategy for the advanced solid rocket motor project at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. M.S. Thesis - Tennessee Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, Harry F.; Sullivan, Kenneth W.

    1991-01-01

    An evaluation of the NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) strategy to implement Total Quality Management (TQM) in the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) Project is presented. The evaluation of the implementation strategy reflected the Civil Service personnel perspective at the project level. The external and internal environments at MSFC were analyzed for their effects on the ASRM TQM strategy. Organizational forms, cultures, management systems, problem solving techniques, and training were assessed for their influence on the implementation strategy. The influence of ASRM's effort was assessed relative to its impact on mature projects as well as future projects at MSFC.

  17. Battles between an insurgent army and an advanced army - focus on strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Surajit; Shanahan, Linda

    2008-03-01

    Detailed and aggregate analyses of the outcome of past battles focusing on rates of troop losses or on the ratios of forces on each side is at the heart of present knowledge about battles. Here we present non-equilibrium statistical mechanics based studies of possible outcomes of well matched strategic battles by a ``blue'' army against insurgency based attacks by well matched opponents in a ``red'' army in red territory. We assume that the red army attacks with randomly varying force levels to potentially confuse and drive the blue's strategies. The temporal evolution of the model battles incorporate randomness in the deployment of the reds and hence possess attendant history dependence. Our results reveal that while unpredictable events play a major role in battles, a balance between risk of exposure in a battlefield and the use of short range intelligence is needed in determining whether one side can decimate the other, and hence force a battle to end.

  18. Advances in biosensing strategies for HIV-1 detection, diagnosis, and therapeutic monitoring.

    PubMed

    Lifson, Mark A; Ozen, Mehmet Ozgun; Inci, Fatih; Wang, ShuQi; Inan, Hakan; Baday, Murat; Henrich, Timothy J; Demirci, Utkan

    2016-08-01

    HIV-1 is a major global epidemic that requires sophisticated clinical management. There have been remarkable efforts to develop new strategies for detecting and treating HIV-1, as it has been challenging to translate them into resource-limited settings. Significant research efforts have been recently devoted to developing point-of-care (POC) diagnostics that can monitor HIV-1 viral load with high sensitivity by leveraging micro- and nano-scale technologies. These POC devices can be applied to monitoring of antiretroviral therapy, during mother-to-child transmission, and identification of latent HIV-1 reservoirs. In this review, we discuss current challenges in HIV-1 diagnosis and therapy in resource-limited settings and present emerging technologies that aim to address these challenges using innovative solutions. PMID:27262924

  19. RECENT ADVANCES IN STRATEGIES FOR IMMUNOTHERAPY OF HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS-INDUCED LESIONS

    PubMed Central

    Kanodia, Shreya; Da Silva, Diane M.; Kast, W. Martin

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced lesions are distinct in that they have targetable foreign antigens, the expression of which is necessary to maintain the cancerous phenotype. Hence, they pose as a very attractive target for “proof of concept” studies in the development of therapeutic vaccines. This review will focus on the most recent clinical trials for the immunotherapy of mucosal and cutaneous HPV-induced lesions as well as emerging therapeutic strategies that have been tested in pre-clinical models for HPV-induced lesions. Progress in peptide-based vaccines, DNA-based vaccines, viral/bacterial vector-based vaccines, immune response modifiers, photodynamic therapy and T cell receptor based therapy for HPV will be discussed. PMID:17973257

  20. Proteomic strategies in the search for novel pancreatic cancer biomarkers and drug targets: recent advances and clinical impact.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Orla; Henry, Michael; McVey, Gerard; Clynes, Martin; Moriarty, Michael; Meleady, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the deadliest cancers; despite a low incidence rate it is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death in the world. Improvement of the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment remains the main focus of pancreatic cancer research. Rapid developments in proteomic technologies has improved our understanding of the pancreatic cancer proteome. Here, the authors summarise the recent proteomic strategies undertaken in the search for: novel biomarkers for early diagnosis, pancreatic cancer-specific proteins which may be used for novel targeted therapies and proteins which may be useful for monitoring disease progression post-therapy. Recent advances and findings discussed here provide great promise of having a significant clinical impact and improving the outcome of patients with this malignancy. PMID:26985644

  1. Effects of 12 metal ions on iron regulatory protein 1 (IRP-1) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1{alpha}) and HIF-regulated genes

    SciTech Connect

    Li Qin; Chen Haobin; Huang Xi; Costa, Max . E-mail: costam@env.med.nyu.edu

    2006-06-15

    Several metal ions that are carcinogenic affect cellular iron homeostasis by competing with iron transporters or iron-regulated enzymes. Some metal ions can mimic a hypoxia response in cells under normal oxygen tension, and induce expression of HIF-1{alpha}-regulated genes. This study investigated whether 12 metal ions altered iron homeostasis in human lung carcinoma A549 cells as measured by an activation of IRP-1 and ferritin level. We also studied hypoxia signaling by measuring HIF-1{alpha} protein levels, hypoxia response element (HRE)-driven luciferase reporter activity, and Cap43 protein level (an HIF-1{alpha} responsive gene). Our results show the following: (i) Ni(II), Co(II), V(V), Mn(II), and to a lesser extent As(III) and Cu(II) activated the binding of IRP-1 to IRE after 24 h, while the other metal ions had no effect; (ii) 10 of 12 metal ions induced HIF-1{alpha} protein but to strikingly different degrees. Two of these metal ions, Al(III) and Cd(II), did not induce HIF-1{alpha} protein; however, as indicated below, only Ni(II), Co (II), and to lesser extent Mn(II) and V(V) activated HIF-1{alpha}-dependent transcription. The combined effects of both [Ni(II) + As(III)] and [Ni(II) + Cr(VI)] on HIF-1{alpha} protein were synergistic; (iii) Addition of Fe(II) with Ni(II), Co(II), and Cr(VI) attenuated the induction of HIF-1{alpha} after 4 h treatment; (iv) Ni(II), Co(II), and Mn(II) significantly decrease ferritin level after 24 h exposure; (v) Ni(II), Co(II), V(V), and Mn(II) activated HRE reporter gene after 20 h treatment; (vi) Ni(II), Co(II), V(V), and Mn(II) increased the HIF-1-dependent Cap43 protein level after 24 h treatment. In conclusion, only Ni (II), Co (II), and to a lesser extent Mn(II) and V(V) significantly stabilized HIF-1{alpha} protein, activated IRP, decreased the levels of ferritin, induced the transcription of HIF-dependent reporter, and increased the expression of Cap43 protein levels (HIF-dependent gene). The mechanism for the

  2. U.S. Geological Survey Ecosystems science strategy: advancing discovery and application through collaboration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Byron K.; Wingard, G. Lynn; Brewer, Gary; Cloern, James E.; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Jacobson, Robert B.; Kershner, Jeffrey L.; McGuire, Anthony David; Nichols, James D.; Shapiro, Carl D.; van Riper, Charles, III; White, Robin P.

    2013-01-01

    Ecosystem science is critical to making informed decisions about natural resources that can sustain our Nation’s economic and environmental well-being. Resource managers and policymakers are faced with countless decisions each year at local, regional, and national levels on issues as diverse as renewable and nonrenewable energy development, agriculture, forestry, water supply, and resource allocations at the urbanrural interface. The urgency for sound decisionmaking is increasing dramatically as the world is being transformed at an unprecedented pace and in uncertain directions. Environmental changes are associated with natural hazards, greenhouse gas emissions, and increasing demands for water, land, food, energy, mineral, and living resources. At risk is the Nation’s environmental capital, the goods and services provided by resilient ecosystems that are vital to the health and wellbeing of human societies. Ecosystem science—the study of systems of organisms interacting with their environment and the consequences of natural and human-induced change on these systems—is necessary to inform decisionmakers as they develop policies to adapt to these changes. This Ecosystems Science Strategy is built on a framework that includes basic and applied science. It highlights the critical roles that U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists and partners can play in building scientific understanding and providing timely information to decisionmakers. The strategy underscores the connection between scientific discoveries and the application of new knowledge, and it integrates ecosystem science and decisionmaking, producing new scientific outcomes to assist resource managers and providing public benefits. We envision the USGS as a leader in integrating scientific information into decisionmaking processes that affect the Nation’s natural resources and human well-being. The USGS is uniquely positioned to play a pivotal role in ecosystem science. With its wide range of

  3. Insoluble drug delivery strategies: review of recent advances and business prospects

    PubMed Central

    Kalepu, Sandeep; Nekkanti, Vijaykumar

    2015-01-01

    The emerging trends in the combinatorial chemistry and drug design have led to the development of drug candidates with greater lipophilicity, high molecular weight and poor water solubility. Majority of the failures in new drug development have been attributed to poor water solubility of the drug. Issues associated with poor solubility can lead to low bioavailability resulting in suboptimal drug delivery. About 40% of drugs with market approval and nearly 90% of molecules in the discovery pipeline are poorly water-soluble. With the advent of various insoluble drug delivery technologies, the challenge to formulate poorly water soluble drugs could be achieved. Numerous drugs associated with poor solubility and low bioavailabilities have been formulated into successful drug products. Several marketed drugs were reformulated to improve efficacy, safety and patient compliance. In order to gain marketing exclusivity and patent protection for such products, revitalization of poorly soluble drugs using insoluble drug delivery technologies have been successfully adopted by many pharmaceutical companies. This review covers the recent advances in the field of insoluble drug delivery and business prospects. PMID:26579474

  4. Insoluble drug delivery strategies: review of recent advances and business prospects.

    PubMed

    Kalepu, Sandeep; Nekkanti, Vijaykumar

    2015-09-01

    The emerging trends in the combinatorial chemistry and drug design have led to the development of drug candidates with greater lipophilicity, high molecular weight and poor water solubility. Majority of the failures in new drug development have been attributed to poor water solubility of the drug. Issues associated with poor solubility can lead to low bioavailability resulting in suboptimal drug delivery. About 40% of drugs with market approval and nearly 90% of molecules in the discovery pipeline are poorly water-soluble. With the advent of various insoluble drug delivery technologies, the challenge to formulate poorly water soluble drugs could be achieved. Numerous drugs associated with poor solubility and low bioavailabilities have been formulated into successful drug products. Several marketed drugs were reformulated to improve efficacy, safety and patient compliance. In order to gain marketing exclusivity and patent protection for such products, revitalization of poorly soluble drugs using insoluble drug delivery technologies have been successfully adopted by many pharmaceutical companies. This review covers the recent advances in the field of insoluble drug delivery and business prospects. PMID:26579474

  5. Highlights from the 2015 WIN Symposium: novel targets, innovative agents, and advanced technologies—a WINning strategy?

    PubMed Central

    Schilsky, Richard L

    2015-01-01

    The worldwide innovative networking (WIN) consortium comprises a global alliance of 28 academic and clinical cancer centres, 11 pharmaceutical and technology companies and five charitable or health payer organisations. Since its inception the consortium has striven to provide a forum for all of its members to network, share information and experience, and perform clinical trials with the overarching goal of advancing the care of patients with cancer through the use of precision medicine. The annual 2-day WIN Symposium is the most visible output of the consortium and provides an opportunity for around 400 experts and other delegates to meet and discuss the latest research and initiatives in personalised cancer medicine. The seventh WIN Symposium, held in Paris, France, 29–30 June 2015, consisted of nine plenary and eight poster sessions that covered the overarching theme of novel targets, innovative agents, and advanced technologies being a winning strategy. Highlights included discussions of immune mechanisms and ways to target the cancer immunome and systems biology approaches to supporting personalised cancer. The latest data from the BATTLE-2 and WINther trials were discussed, and round table discussions were held that focused on how best to design the next generation of clinical trials, which included SPRING, SUMMER, and BOOSTER being initiated by the WIN Consortium. PMID:26316885

  6. Comparison of NF membrane fouling and cleaning by two pretreatment strategies for the advanced treatment of antibiotic production wastewater.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianxing; Li, Kun; Yu, Dawei; Zhang, Junya; Wei, Yuansong; Chen, Meixue; Shan, Baoqing

    2016-01-01

    The nanofiltration (NF) membrane fouling characteristics and cleaning strategies were investigated and compared for treating membrane bioreactor (MBR) effluent and MBR-granular activated carbon (GAC) effluent of an antibiotic production wastewater by DK membrane. Results showed that the fouling of treating MBR effluent was more severe than that of treating MBR-GAC effluent. After filtering for 216 h, the difference of membrane flux decline was obvious between MBR effluent and MBR-GAC effluent, with 14.9% and 10.3% flux decline, respectively. Further study showed that organic fouling is the main NF membrane fouling in the advanced treatment of antibiotic production wastewater for both of the two different effluents. Soluble microbial by-product like and tyrosine-like substances were the dominant components in the foulants, whereas humic-like substances existing in the effluents had little contribution to the NF membrane fouling. A satisfactory efficiency of NF chemical cleaning could be obtained using combination of acid (HCl, pH 2.0-2.5) and alkali (NaOH + 0.3 wt% NaDS, pH 10.0-10.5). The favorable cleaning strategy is acid-alkali for treating the MBR-GAC effluent, while it is alkali-acid for treating the MBR effluent. PMID:27148729

  7. Advanced control strategies for heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, and refrigeration systems—An overview: Part I: Hard control

    SciTech Connect

    D. Subbaram Naidu; Craig G. Rieger

    2011-02-01

    A chronological overview of the advanced control strategies for heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, and refrigeration (HVAC&R) is presented in this article. The overview focuses on hard-computing or control techniques, such as proportional-integral-derivative, optimal, nonlinear, adaptive, and robust; soft-computing or control techniques, such as neural networks, fuzzy logic, genetic algorithms; and on the fusion or hybrid of hard- and soft-control techniques. Thus, it is to be noted that the terminology “hard” and “soft” computing/control has nothing to do with the “hardware” and “software” that is being generally used. Part I of a two-part series focuses on hard-control strategies, and Part II focuses on softand fusion-control in addition to some future directions in HVAC&R research. This overview is not intended to be an exhaustive survey on this topic, and any omission of other works is purely unintentional.

  8. Recent advances in surface chemistry strategies for the fabrication of functional iron oxide based magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turcheniuk, Kostiantyn; Tarasevych, Arkadii V.; Kukhar, Valeriy P.; Boukherroub, Rabah; Szunerits, Sabine

    2013-10-01

    The synthesis of superparamagnetic nanostructures, especially iron-oxide based nanoparticles (IONPs), with appropriate surface functional groups has been intensively researched for many high-technological applications, including high density data storage, biosensing and biomedicine. In medicine, IONPs are nowadays widely used as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in hyperthermia therapy, but are also exploited for drug and gene delivery, detoxification of biological fluids or immunoassays, as they are relatively non-toxic. The use of magnetic particles in vivo requires IONPs to have high magnetization values, diameters below 100 nm with overall narrow size distribution and long time stability in biological fluids. Due to the high surface energies of IONPs agglomeration over time is often encountered. It is thus of prime importance to modify their surface to prevent aggregation and to limit non-specific adsorption of biomolecules onto their surface. Such chemical modifications result in IONPs being well-dispersed and biocompatible, and allow for targeted delivery and specific interactions. The chemical nature of IONPs thus determines not only the overall size of the colloid, but also plays a significant role for in vivo and in vitro applications. This review discusses the different concepts currently used for the surface functionalization and coating of iron oxide nanoparticles. The diverse strategies for the covalent linking of drugs, proteins, enzymes, antibodies, and nucleotides will be discussed and the chemically relevant steps will be explained in detail.

  9. Bone and brain metastasis in lung cancer: recent advances in therapeutic strategies

    PubMed Central

    Passaro, Antonio; Gori, Bruno; Del Signore, Ester; Migliorino, Maria Rita; Ricciardi, Serena; Fulvi, Alberto; de Marinis, Filippo

    2014-01-01

    Bone and brain metastases are a very common secondary localization of disease in patients with lung cancer. The prognosis of these patients is still poor with a median survival of less than 1 year. Current therapeutic approaches include palliative radiotherapy and systemic therapy with chemotherapy and targeted agents. For bone metastasis, zoledronic acid is the most commonly used bisphosphonate to prevent, reduce the incidence and delay the onset of skeletal-related events (SREs). Recently, denosumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody directed against the receptor activator of nuclear factor κB (RANK) ligand inhibiting the maturation of pre-osteoclasts into osteoclasts, showed increased time to SREs and overall survival compared with zoledronic acid. The treatment of brain metastasis is still controversial. Available standard therapeutic options, such as whole brain radiation therapy and systemic chemotherapy, provide a slight improvement in local control, overall survival and symptom relief. More recently, novel target agents such as the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) erlotinib, gefitinib and afatinib have shown activity in patients with brain metastasis. Inter alia, in patients harboring EGFR mutations, the administration of EGFR TKIs is followed by a response rate of 70–80%, and a longer progression-free and overall survival than those obtained with standard chemotherapeutic regimens. This review is focused on the evidence for therapeutic strategies in bone and brain metastases due to lung cancer. PMID:24790650

  10. Advanced Strategies for Outdoor LED Lighting Applications and Technologies to Curtail Regional Light Pollution Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monrad, Christian Karl; Benya, James R.

    2015-08-01

    LED lighting systems for outdoor lighting applications continue to evolve as do strategies to mitigate related effects upon regional astronomical and ecological assets. The improving availability and relative lumen-per-watt efficiencies of blue-suppressed low correlated color temperature emitters, narrow band amber, phosphor converted amber, and various combinations of broadband emitters and sub-550NM and sub-500NM filters allow for a wide palette of choices to be assessed to suit site-specific and task-specific lighting needs. In addition to static spectral content options, readily available luminaire designs also include precise geometric beam shape selections and adaptive controls to include dimming, dynamic spectral shifting, motion detection, and dynamic beam shaping to minimize total environmental lumen emissions throughout the course of the nighttime hours.Regional and international light pollution mitigation regulations will also be briefly addressed in the context of luminaire shielding and spectral content control efforts to better protect human quality of life issues as well as astronomical and ecological interests.The presentation will include numerous spectral content graphs for various luminaire options as well as project-specific case studies to document comparisons of legacy lighting systems versus high-performance LED systems with regard to total lumen emissions, skyglow contributions, energy efficiency, and end-user satisfaction with the installed LED lighting systems. Physical samples of various luminaires will also be available for hands-on assessments.

  11. Advancing probiotic research in humans in the United States: Challenges and strategies.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Mary Ellen; Shane, Andi L; Merenstein, Daniel J

    2016-03-01

    This is a summary from a workshop convened as part of the 13(th) annual meeting of the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics. A group of 24 stakeholders, including clinical experts, researchers, federal government officials, funding agencies, lawyers and industry experts met to review the challenges of the current regulatory approach to human research on probiotics in the USA and to discuss ways to move research forward. There was agreement that some of the current regulatory requirements imposed on probiotic research in the United States hindered research progress and increased cost without improving study subject safety. Many situations were outlined by clinical investigators demonstrating the impact of regulatory delays on research progress. Additionally, research is compromised when study designs and outcomes require manipulation so as to invoke less burdensome regulatory requirements. These responses by investigators to regulatory requirements have placed United States' researchers at a disadvantage. The public ultimately suffer when research to clarify the role of these products on health is stalled. Workshop participants concurred that regulatory oversight should balance study subject vulnerability with documented safety for the intended use for the probiotic strain, and that human research on foods and supplements should not be be regulated as drug research. Challenges and potential improvement strategies are discussed. PMID:26963522

  12. Advancing probiotic research in humans in the United States: Challenges and strategies

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Mary Ellen; Shane, Andi L.; Merenstein, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This is a summary from a workshop convened as part of the 13th annual meeting of the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics. A group of 24 stakeholders, including clinical experts, researchers, federal government officials, funding agencies, lawyers and industry experts met to review the challenges of the current regulatory approach to human research on probiotics in the USA and to discuss ways to move research forward. There was agreement that some of the current regulatory requirements imposed on probiotic research in the United States hindered research progress and increased cost without improving study subject safety. Many situations were outlined by clinical investigators demonstrating the impact of regulatory delays on research progress. Additionally, research is compromised when study designs and outcomes require manipulation so as to invoke less burdensome regulatory requirements. These responses by investigators to regulatory requirements have placed United States' researchers at a disadvantage. The public ultimately suffer when research to clarify the role of these products on health is stalled. Workshop participants concurred that regulatory oversight should balance study subject vulnerability with documented safety for the intended use for the probiotic strain, and that human research on foods and supplements should not be be regulated as drug research. Challenges and potential improvement strategies are discussed. PMID:26963522

  13. Multifunctional tin dioxide materials: advances in preparation strategies, microstructure, and performance.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiwen; Wu, Minghong; Shek, Chan-Hung; Wu, C M Lawrence; Lai, Joseph K L

    2015-01-25

    Tin oxide materials are a class of unique semiconductor materials with widespread technological applications because of their valuable semiconducting, gas sensing, electrical and optical properties in the fields of macro/mesoscopic materials and micro/nanodevices. In this review, we describe the efforts toward understanding the synthetic strategies and formation mechanisms of the micro/nanostructures of various tin dioxide thin films prepared by pulsed laser ablation, highlighting contributions from our laboratory. First, we present the preparation and formation processes of tetragonal-phase tin dioxide thin films with interesting fractal clusters. In addition, the quantum-dot formation and dynamic scaling behavior in tetragonal-phase tin dioxide thin films induced by pulsed delivery will be discussed experimentally and theoretically. Finally, we emphasize the fabrication, properties and formation mechanism of orthorhombic-phase tin dioxide thin films by using pulsed laser deposition. This research may provide a novel approach to modulate their competent performance and promote rational design of micro/nanodevices. Once mastered, tin dioxide thin films with a variety of fascinating micro/nanostructures will offer vast and unforeseen opportunities in the semiconductor industry as well as in other fields of science and technology. PMID:25364791

  14. Advanced management strategies for remote-area power-supply systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newnham, R. H.; Baldsing, W. G. A.

    An operating strategy based on partial-state-of-charge (PSoC) operation has been developed for a remote-area power-supply (RAPS) system in Peru. The facility will power an entire village and comprises a photovoltaic array, a bank of gel valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries, a diesel generator, and a sophisticated control system. The PSoC schedule involves operation below a full state-of-charge (SoC) for 28 days, followed by an equalization charge. The schedule has been evaluated by operating a 24 V battery bank under simulated RAPS conditions in the laboratory. It is found that operation between 58 and 83% SoC causes the negative-plate potentials to move to significantly more negative values during charging as the PSoC duty progresses. This behaviour is undesirable, because it can lead to the activation of a preset limit and a subsequent reduction in system efficiency. Lowering the PSoC window to 47-72% SoC or 40-65% SoC during the 28-day cycle is found to stabilize the negative-plate potentials. The behaviour of the negative plates in gel batteries is very similar to that observed for absorptive glass mat (AGM) designs of VRLA batteries operated in hybrid electric vehicles.

  15. Advanced in-line metrology strategy for self-aligned quadruple patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Robin; Breton, Mary; L'herron, Benoit; Mendoza, Brock; Muthinti, Raja; Nelson, Florence; De La Pena, Abraham; Le, Fee li; Miller, Eric; Sieg, Stuart; Demarest, James; Gin, Peter; Wormington, Matthew; Cepler, Aron; Bozdog, Cornel; Sendelbach, Matthew; Wolfling, Shay; Cardinal, Tom; Kanakasabapathy, Sivananda; Gaudiello, John; Felix, Nelson

    2016-03-01

    Self-Aligned Quadruple Patterning (SAQP) is a promising technique extending the 193-nm lithography to manufacture structures that are 20nm half pitch or smaller. This process adopts multiple sidewall spacer image transfers to split a rather relaxed design into a quarter of its original pitch. Due to the number of multiple process steps required for the pitch splitting in SAQP, the process error propagates through each deposition and etch, and accumulates at the final step into structure variations, such as pitch walk and poor critical dimension uniformity (CDU). They can further affect the downstream processes and lower the yield. The impact of this error propagation becomes significant for advanced technology nodes when the process specifications of device design CD requirements are at nanometer scale. Therefore, semiconductor manufacturing demands strict in-line process control to ensure a high process yield and improved performance, which must rely on precise measurements to enable corrective actions and quick decision making for process development. This work aims to provide a comprehensive metrology solution for SAQP. During SAQP process development, the challenges in conventional in-line metrology techniques start to surface. For instance, critical-dimension scanning electron microscopy (CDSEM) is commonly the first choice for CD and pitch variation control. However, it is found that the high aspect ratio at mandrel level processes and the trench variations after etch prevent the tool from extracting the true bottom edges of the structure in order to report the position shift. On the other hand, while the complex shape and variations can be captured with scatterometry, or optical CD (OCD), the asymmetric features, such as pitch walk, show low sensitivity with strong correlations in scatterometry. X-ray diffraction (XRD) is known to provide useful direct measurements of the pitch walk in crystalline arrays, yet the data analysis is influenced by the incoming

  16. Advances in peripheral nervous system regenerative therapeutic strategies: A biomaterials approach.

    PubMed

    Dalamagkas, Kyriakos; Tsintou, Magdalini; Seifalian, Alexander

    2016-08-01

    Peripheral nerve injury is a very common medical condition with varying clinical severity but always great impact on the patients' productivity and the quality of life. Even the current 1st-choice surgical therapeutic approach or the "gold standard" as frequently called in clinical practice, is not addressing the problem efficiently and cost-effectively, increasing the mortality through the need of a second surgical intervention, while it does not take into account the several different types of nerves involved in peripheral nerve injuries. Neural tissue engineering approaches could potentially offer a very promising and attractive tool for the efficient peripheral nerve injury management, not only by mechanically building the gap, but also by inducing neuroregenerative mechanisms in a well-regulated microenvironment which would mimic the natural environment of the specific nerve type involved in the injury to obtain an optimum clinical outcome. There is still room for a lot of optimizations in regard to the conduits which have been developed with the help of neural engineering since many parameters affect the clinical outcome and the underlying mechanisms are still not well understood. Especially the intraluminal cues controlling the microenvironment of the conduits are in an infantile stage but there is profound potential in the application of the scaffolds. The aim of our review is to provide a quick reference to the recent advances in the field, focusing on the parameters that can significantly affect the clinical potentials of each approach, with suggestions for future improvements that could take the current work from bench to bedside. Thus, further research could shed light to those questions and it might hold the key to discover new more efficient and cost-effective therapies. PMID:27157770

  17. Novel findings in patients with primary hyperoxaluria type III and implications for advanced molecular testing strategies.

    PubMed

    Beck, Bodo B; Baasner, Anne; Buescher, Anja; Habbig, Sandra; Reintjes, Nadine; Kemper, Markus J; Sikora, Przemyslaw; Mache, Christoph; Pohl, Martin; Stahl, Mirjam; Toenshoff, Burkhard; Pape, Lars; Fehrenbach, Henry; Jacob, Dorrit E; Grohe, Bernd; Wolf, Matthias T; Nürnberg, Gudrun; Yigit, Gökhan; Salido, Eduardo C; Hoppe, Bernd

    2013-02-01

    Identification of mutations in the HOGA1 gene as the cause of autosomal recessive primary hyperoxaluria (PH) type III has revitalized research in the field of PH and related stone disease. In contrast to the well-characterized entities of PH type I and type II, the pathophysiology and prevalence of type III is largely unknown. In this study, we analyzed a large cohort of subjects previously tested negative for type I/II by complete HOGA1 sequencing. Seven distinct mutations, among them four novel, were found in 15 patients. In patients of non-consanguineous European descent the previously reported c.700+5G>T splice-site mutation was predominant and represents a potential founder mutation, while in consanguineous families private homozygous mutations were identified throughout the gene. Furthermore, we identified a family where a homozygous mutation in HOGA1 (p.P190L) segregated in two siblings with an additional AGXT mutation (p.D201E). The two girls exhibiting triallelic inheritance presented a more severe phenotype than their only mildly affected p.P190L homozygous father. In silico analysis of five mutations reveals that HOGA1 deficiency is causing type III, yet reduced HOGA1 expression or aberrant subcellular protein targeting is unlikely to be the responsible pathomechanism. Our results strongly suggest HOGA1 as a major cause of PH, indicate a greater genetic heterogeneity of hyperoxaluria, and point to a favorable outcome of type III in the context of PH despite incomplete or absent biochemical remission. Multiallelic inheritance could have implications for genetic testing strategies and might represent an unrecognized mechanism for phenotype variability in PH. PMID:22781098

  18. Evolutionary pressure on reproductive strategies in flatfish and groundfish: Relevant concepts and methodological advancements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjesbu, O. S.; Witthames, P. R.

    2007-07-01

    Flatfish and groundfish show many similarities in reproductive strategies and tactics, both in types present and in responses to fishing pressure or changes in their environment. Over the last 20-30 years the reproduction of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua, Atlantic halibut Hippoglossus hippoglossus, plaice Pleuronectes platessa, sole Solea solea, and turbot Scophthalmus maximus have been extensively studied in the North Atlantic. For cod, halibut and turbot, the research has progressed rapidly due to interest from the aquaculture industry. Extensive overexploitation over many years in combination with climate change represents a potential evolutionary pressure towards changes in growth, lower age at maturity, increased fecundity, smaller egg size (and thereby larval size) and change in spawning time. Early sexual maturity/precocious maturation is also seen in aquaculture and is problematic economically due to a reduction in fillet production. In this paper information is reviewed from studies on both wild and captive populations in experiments, the latter considered important because overexploitation, such as observed in the North Sea, often reduces the natural dynamics in growth and reproduction and complicates collection of sufficiently large samples. Evidence from laboratory experiments demonstrates the inherent plasticity of fecundity production and how this is controlled by food availability and length of photoperiod, while recent information from field studies demonstrates the evolution of genotypes in response to fishing mortality. Today several laboratories have adopted modern techniques for analysis of reproductive investments (fecundity, atresia and sperm characterisation) in controlled experimental situations to explore the effect of temperature or other environmental parameters (such as salinity) on reproduction. These developments, in combination with the rapid implementation of molecular techniques, should make it possible in the future to present highly

  19. The U.S. Geological Survey Ecosystem Science Strategy, 2012-2022 - Advancing discovery and application through collaboration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Byron K.; Wingard, G. Lynn; Brewer, Gary; Cloern, James; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Jacobson, Robert B.; Kershner, Jeffrey L.; McGuire, Anthony David; Nichols, James D.; Shapiro, Carl D.; van Riper, Charles, III; White, Robin P.

    2012-01-01

    technologies for data collection, management, and visualization. Collectively, these capabilities can be used to reveal ecological patterns and processes, explain how and why ecosystems change, and forecast change over different spatial and temporal scales. USGS science can provide managers with options and decision-support tools to use resources sustainably. The USGS has long-standing, collaborative relationships with the DOI and other partners in the natural sciences, in both conducting science and its application. The USGS engages these partners in cooperative investigations that otherwise would lack the necessary support or be too expensive for a single bureau to conduct. The heart of this strategy is a framework and vision for USGS ecosystems science that focuses on five long-term goals, which are seen as interconnected and reinforcing components: * Improve understanding of ecosystem structure, function, and processes. The focus for this goal is an understanding of how ecosystems work, including the dynamics of species, their populations, interactions, and genetics, and how they change across spatial and temporal scales. * Advance understanding of how drivers influence ecosystem change. The challenges here are explaining the drivers of ecosystem change, their spatio-temporal patterns, their uncertainties and interactions, and their influence on ecosystem processes and dynamics. * Improve understanding of the services that ecosystems provide to society. Here the emphasis is on the measurement of environmental capital and ecosystem services, and the identification of sources and patterns of change in space and time. * Develop tools, technologies, and capacities to inform decision-making about ecosystems. This includes developing new technologies and approaches for conducting applications-oriented ecosystem science. A principal challenge will be how to quantify uncertainty and incorporate it in decision analysis. * Apply science to enhance strategies for management

  20. Encouraging Evidence on a Sector-Focused Advancement Strategy: Two-Year Impacts from the WorkAdvance Demonstration. Preview Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendra, Richard; Greenberg, David H.; Hamilton, Gayle; Oppenheim, Ari; Pennington, Alexandra; Schaberg, Kelsey; Tessler, Betsy L.

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes the two-year findings of a rigorous random assignment evaluation of the WorkAdvance model, a sectoral training and advancement initiative. Launched in 2011, WorkAdvance goes beyond the previous generation of employment programs by introducing demand-driven skills training and a focus on jobs that have career pathways. The…

  1. Building a Governance Strategy for CER: The Patient Outcomes Research to Advance Learning (PORTAL) Network Experience

    PubMed Central

    Paolino, Andrea R.; McGlynn, Elizabeth A.; Lieu, Tracy; Nelson, Andrew F.; Prausnitz, Stephanie; Horberg, Michael A.; Arterburn, David E.; Gould, Michael K.; Laws, Reesa L.; Steiner, John F.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The Patient Outcomes Research to Advance Learning (PORTAL) Network was established with funding from the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) in 2014. The PORTAL team adapted governance structures and processes from past research network collaborations. We will review and outline the structures and processes of the PORTAL governance approach and describe how proactively focusing on priority areas helped us to facilitate an ambitious research agenda. Background: For years a variety of funders have supported large-scale infrastructure grants to promote the use of clinical datasets to answer important comparative effectiveness research (CER) questions. These awards have provided the impetus for health care systems to join forces in creating clinical data research networks. Often, these scientific networks do not develop governance processes proactively or systematically, and address issues only as problems arise. Even if network leaders and collaborators foresee the need to develop governance approaches, they may underestimate the time and effort required to develop sound processes. The resulting delays can impede research progress. Innovation: Because the PORTAL sites had built trust and a foundation of collaboration by participating with one another in past research networks, essential elements of effective governance such as guiding principles, decision making processes, project governance, data governance, and stakeholders in governance were familiar to PORTAL investigators. This trust and familiarity enabled the network to rapidly prioritize areas that required sound governance approaches: responding to new research opportunities, creating a culture of trust and collaboration, conducting individual studies, within the broader network, assigning responsibility and credit to scientific investigators, sharing data while protecting privacy/security, and allocating resources. The PORTAL Governance Document, complete with a Toolkit of

  2. Advanced Aromatic Polymers with Excellent Antiatomic Oxygen Performance Derived from Molecular Precursor Strategy and Copolymerization of Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pei; Tang, Yusheng; Yu, Zhen; Gu, Junwei; Kong, Jie

    2015-09-16

    In this contribution, the advanced aromatic polymers with excellent antiatomic oxygen (AO) performance were designed and synthesized using molecular precursor strategy and copolymerization of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS). A soluble poly(p-phenylene benzobisoxazole) (PBO) precursor, that is, TBS-PBO (tert-butyldimethylsilyl was denoted as TBS), was designed to overcome the poor solubility of PBO in organic solvents. Then the new copolymer of TBS-PBO-POSS was synthesized by the copolymerization of TBS-PBO and POSS, which possessed good solubility and film-forming ability in common organic solvents, such as N-methylpyrrolidone, N,N-dimethylacetamide, and dimethyl sulfoxide. More importantly, the TBS-PBO-POSS films exhibited outstanding antiatomic oxygen properties because of the incorporation of POSS monomers with cagelike structure into the main chain of copolymer, which drastically reduced the AO-induced erosion owing to the formation of the passivating silica layer on the surface of polymers. When the TBS-PBO-POSS films were exposed to AO effective fluences of 1.5495×10(20) atom cm(-2) (5 h) and 4.6486×10(20) atom cm(-2) (15 h), the relative mass loss was merely 0.19% and 0.41%, respectively. This work provides a new perspective and efficient strategy for the molecular design of aromatic heterocyclic polymers possessing excellent combination properties including processing convenience and antioxidative and mechanical properties, which can be employed as potential candidates to endure the aggressive environment encountered in low earth orbits. PMID:26322523

  3. Extension Strategies Used To Develop a Traditional Farming Sector in an Advanced Agricultural Surrounding. The Case of the Nazareth Region in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Abraham

    A case study of the Nazareth Region in Israel analyzed the extension strategies used to develop the traditional Arab farming sector in an advanced agricultural surrounding. As part of the study, the history of the Arab farmer before and after the creation of the State of Israel was given. The methodology for the study involved interviews with…

  4. Dignity and Deferral Narratives as Strategies in Facilitated Technology-Based Support Groups for People with Advanced Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Street, Annette F.; Wakelin, Kate; Hordern, Amanda; Bruce, Nicola; Horey, Dell

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the value of facilitated telephone and online support groups for palliative care. Telephone interviews were conducted with twenty people living with advanced cancer who had participated in either a telephone or online support group facilitated by the Cancer Council Victoria, Melbourne, Australia. Two dominant participant narratives emerged: a focus on dying with dignity or an interest in deferring discussion of death and dying to focus on the present. Despite the different approaches, participants found the technology-based support groups to be accessible and safe environments in which to discuss difficult topics in privacy. Technology-based strategies provide opportunities for health professionals to provide social and emotional care to more people by moving beyond individualised care and facilitate peer-to-peer support at the end of life, especially to those with specific needs. Such options are feasible for palliative care services to set up and acceptable to a group of clients, especially for younger clients or those socially or geographically isolated. PMID:22530115

  5. Preparing High School Students for Success in Advanced Placement Statistics: An Investigation of Pedagogies and Strategies Used in an Online Advanced Placement Statistics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, James Thomson, III

    2012-01-01

    Research into teaching practices and strategies has been performed separately in AP Statistics and in K-12 online learning (Garfield, 2002; Ferdig, DiPietro, Black & Dawson, 2009). This study seeks combine the two and build on the need for more investigation into online teaching and learning in specific content (Ferdig et al, 2009; DiPietro,…

  6. Strategies employed by inner-city activists to reduce alcohol-related problems and advance social justice.

    PubMed

    Drabble, Laurie; Herd, Denise

    2014-01-01

    This study explored strategies employed by activists engaged in efforts to change policies and laws related to selling and promoting alcoholic beverages based on in-depth interviews with 184 social activists in seven U.S. major cities. Nine strategies aimed at improving local conditions and influencing policy were described by activists across regional contexts. Grassroots mobilization was central to all other strategies, which included the creation or enforcement of laws, meeting with elected officials, media advocacy, working with police/law enforcement, education and training, direct action, changing community norms, and negotiating with store owners. PMID:25397637

  7. Development of real-time PCR assays for specific detection of hmsH, hmsF, hmsR, and irp2 located within the 102-kb pgm locus of Yersinia pestis.

    PubMed

    Gaddy, Charla E; Cuevas, Pedro F; Hartman, Laurie J; Howe, Gerald B; Worsham, Patricia L; Minogue, Timothy D

    2014-01-01

    Virulent isolates of three pathogenic Yersinia species (Yersinia pestis, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, and Yersinia enterocolitica) harbor a 102-kb chromosomal region which encodes elements critical for virulence. A 35-kb high pathogenicity island is contained in this region, is a known virulence determinant, contains irp1 and irp2 iron-regulating genes. An additional segment, the 68-kb high pathogenicity island, contains genetic elements responsible for conferring the Y. pestis pigmentation phenotype on Congo red agar at 28 °C. Collectively, these contiguous segments are referred to as the pigmentation (pgm) locus, the absence of which results in strain attenuation and exemption from CDC Select Agent status. In this study, we developed a set of four real-time PCR assays to detect the presence or absence of multiple virulence genes located within this region. Specifically, we designed TaqMan(®) PCR assays to individually detect three hemin storage genes (hmsH, hmsF, and hmsR) which are genetic elements that confer the pigmentation phenotype, as well as the iron-regulating status of 25 Y. pestis isolates (representing 23 different strains), thus establishing a molecular based assay capable of determining the pgm status of candidate Y. pestis isolates. Included in the validation process, was a comparison of these real-time PCR assays and newly developed conventional PCR assays targeting much larger areas of the 102-kb region (including one assay spanning hmsR and hmsF, one spanning hmsH and hsmF, one targeting hmsF, and one targeting irp2). There was high concordance between the conventional and real-time PCR assays for all Y. pestis strains tested. The results from the comparative analysis document the specificity and sensitivity of the real-time PCR assays and further solidify the ostensible benefits of real-time PCR over conventional PCR. PMID:25261118

  8. Installation restoration program. Site investigation report for IRP site No. 12 and 13, South Dakota Air National Guard, 114th Fighter Wing, Joe Foss Field, Sioux Falls, South Dakota - Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    Site Investigation Report for IRP Site No 12 and 13, South Dakota Air National Guard, 114th Fighter Wing, Joe Foss Field, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, Volume I. This is the first volume of a two volume site investigation report. Two sites (Site 12 - Ramp area and Site 13 - Motor Vehicle Maintenance Facility) was investigated under the Installation Restoration Program. Soil and groundwater samples were collected and analyzed. No further action was recommended on site 13 and quarterly sampling was recommended for site 12. South Dakota Regulators have agreed to both recommendations. Decision documents will be prepared for each site.

  9. Treatment strategies for advanced hormone receptor-positive and human epidermal growth factor 2-negative breast cancer: the role of treatment order.

    PubMed

    Perez, Edith A

    2016-01-01

    Although survival rates among patients with breast cancer have improved in recent years, those diagnosed with advanced disease with distant metastasis face a 5-year survival rate of less than 25%, making the management of these patients an area still in significant need of continued research. Selecting the optimal treatment order from among the variety of currently available therapy options presents a relevant challenge for medical oncologists. With the understanding that the majority of patients with breast cancer and those who succumb to this disease have HR-positive disease, this review will focus on treatment options and treatment order in patients with HR-positive advanced breast cancer. While endocrine therapy is considered the preferred treatment for first-line therapy in HR-positive/HER2-negative breast cancer, selection of the specific agent depends on the menopausal status of the patient. Palbociclib, a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4/6 inhibitor, is also recommended as first-line treatment in patients with ER-positive/HER2-negative disease. In patients with endocrine therapy-resistant disease, specific strategies include sequencing of other antiestrogen receptor agents, or agents that target other molecular pathways. Future treatment strategies for patients with primary or secondary resistance to endocrine therapy for advanced disease are discussed. These strategies include first-line therapy with high-dose fulvestrant or everolimus (in combination with exemestane or letrozole or with other endocrine therapies), use of the PI3K inhibitors (e.g., buparlisib, alpelisib, pictilisib, taselisib), entinostat, CDK 4/6 inhibitors (e.g., palbociclib, ribociclib, abemaciclib), and novel selective estrogen receptor degradation agents that may enhance the targeting of acquired mutations in the ESR1 gene. PMID:26830312

  10. What is the correct staging and treatment strategy for locally advanced prostate cancer extending to the bladder?

    PubMed

    Yüksel, Özgür Haki; Verit, Ayhan; Ürkmez, Ahmet

    2015-06-01

    In locally advanced prostate cancer with bladder invasion, frequently encountered problems such as bleeding, urinary retention, hydronephrosis, and pain create distress for the patients. Therefore patients' quality of life is disrupted and duration of hospitalization is prolonged. Relevant literature about accurate staging and treatment of locally advanced prostate cancer with bladder invasion was investigated. Locally advanced prostate cancer can present as a large-volume aggressive tumor extending beyond boundaries of prostate gland, and involving neighboring structures which can be involved as recurrence(s) following initial local therapy. Survival times of these patients can range between 5 and 8 years. Their common characteristics are adverse and severe local symptoms unfavorably affecting quality of life Control of local symptoms and their effective palliation are independent clinical targets influencing survival outcomes of these patients. The treatment outcomes of locally advanced prostate cancer into the bladder are currently debatable. Although in the current TNM classification, it is defined in T4a, we think that this may be categorized as a subgroup of T3 and thus encourage surgeons for the indication of radical surgeries (radical prostatectomy, radical cystoprostatectomy) in selected patient populations after discussing issues concerning consequences of the treatment alternatives, and expectations with the patients. Cystoprostatectomy followed by immediate androgen deprivation therapy may be a feasible option for selected patients with previously untreated prostate cancer involving the bladder neck because of excellent local control and long term survival. PMID:26150029

  11. Effects of Advance Organiser Strategy during Instruction on Secondary School Students' Mathematics Achievement in Kenya's Nakuru District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Githua, Bernard N.; Nyabwa, Rachel Angela

    2008-01-01

    Students have continued to perform poorly in KCSE examinations in certain mathematics topics taught in secondary schools in Kenya. One such topic is commercial arithmetic. Successful teaching of mathematics depends partly on correct use of teaching methods in classroom settings. This study sought to examine how the use of advance organisers during…

  12. Current and Future Treatment Strategies for Patients with Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Role of mTOR Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Finn, Richard S

    2012-11-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common cancer that has the third highest cancer-related mortality rate worldwide. Although potentially curable by transplantation if detected early, the majority of cases are diagnosed at an advanced stage of disease for which limited treatment options are available. The only proven systemic therapy for advanced HCC is sorafenib, a multi-kinase inhibitor that has demonstrated modest efficacy and reasonable tolerability in patients with advanced HCC. Five years after the approval of sorafenib, no other agent has been proven to be beneficial in the first- or second-line setting in advanced HCC. While molecular studies have highlighted various potential targets in HCC, the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) has emerged as an exciting target for cancer therapy including HCC. Laboratory data have linked the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT/mTOR axis to various oncogenic processes, including survival and angiogenesis. Historically, mTOR inhibitors have been used for their immunosuppressive properties, but more recently they have been approved as anticancer agents. Retrospective HCC studies suggest that the inclusion of mTOR inhibition as part of an immunosuppressant regimen after transplantation may reduce HCC recurrence compared with other immunosuppressive agents such as calcineurin inhibitors. More recently, single-arm, phase I/II studies have shown that mTOR inhibitors also have activity as monotherapy in cases of recurrent HCC or de novo advanced HCC. This article will review the rationale for targeting the mTOR pathway in HCC, and the currently available clinical data supporting its development for HCC. PMID:24159589

  13. LDC and MDC Strategies Help Schools Prepare Students for Careers, Advanced Training and Further Study. Best Practices Newsletter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2014

    2014-01-01

    The Literacy Design Collaborative (LDC) and the Mathematics Design Collaborative (MDC) are strategies designed to improve how teachers teach and students learn. The designs encourage teacher collaboration and creativity and offer flexible frameworks for building lessons in all disciplines. Their purpose is to engage students to read challenging…

  14. Speech Recognition with the Advanced Combination Encoder and Transient Emphasis Spectral Maxima Strategies in Nucleus 24 Recipients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Laura K.; Vandali, Andrew E.; Skinner, Margaret W.; Fourakis, Marios S.; Holden, Timothy A.

    2005-01-01

    One of the difficulties faced by cochlear implant (CI) recipients is perception of low-intensity speech cues. A. E. Vandali (2001) has developed the transient emphasis spectral maxima (TESM) strategy to amplify short-duration, low-level sounds. The aim of the present study was to determine whether speech scores would be significantly higher with…

  15. Strategies for Success of Women Faculty in Science: The ADVANCE Program at the University of Rhode Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wishner, K.; Silver, B.; Boudreaux-Bartels, F.; Harlow, L.; Knickle, H.; Mederer, H.; Peckham, J.; Roheim, C.; Trubatch, J.; Webster, K.

    2004-12-01

    The NSF-funded ADVANCE program seeks to increase the recruitment and retention of women faculty in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines as part of a national goal of creating a broad-based scientific workforce able to effectively address societal demands. The University of Rhode Island, a recipient of an Institutional Transformation ADVANCE grant in 2003, has begun a campus-wide initiative. The 5 goals are (1) to increase the numbers of women STEM faculty, (2) to provide faculty development opportunities, (3) to improve networks of professional and social support, (4) to assess the academic work environment for all faculty, and (5) to implement long-term changes throughout the university that promote a supportive work environment for women STEM faculty. Accomplishments during the first year include (1) hiring several ADVANCE Assistant Professors, (2) developing workshops on critical skills for junior faculty (grant writing, negotiations, mentoring), (3) initiating a series of lunch meetings where pertinent topical and work-family issues are discussed informally, (4) awarding small Incentive grants for research and other projects that enhance the careers of women STEM faculty, (5) developing and modifying university policies on family leave and dual career couple recruitment, (6) developing and implementing quantitative and qualitative assessment tools for baseline and ongoing campus-wide work climate surveys within the context of a theoretical model for change, and (7) offering directed self-study workshops for entire departments using a trained facilitator. The ADVANCE Assistant Professor position, unique to URI's program, allows a new hire to spend the first 2-3 years developing a research program without teaching obligations. ADVANCE pays their salary during this time, at which point they transition to a regular faculty position. During this first of five years of NSF funding, the ADVANCE program has been met with campus wide

  16. Using EnergyPlus to Simulate the Dynamic Response of a Residential Building to Advanced Cooling Strategies: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Booten, C.; Tabares-Velasco, P. C.

    2012-08-01

    This study demonstrates the ability of EnergyPlus to accurately model complex cooling strategies in a real home with a goal of shifting energy use off peak and realizing energy savings. The house was retrofitted through the Sacramento Municipal Utility District's (SMUD) deep energy retrofit demonstration program; field tests were operated by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The experimental data were collected as part of a larger study and are used here to validate simulation predictions.

  17. Master’s programs in advanced nursing practice: new strategies to enhance course design for subspecialty training in neonatology and pediatrics

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Colin; Barry, Catherine; Barnes, Katie

    2012-01-01

    The advanced nurse practitioner (ANP) role first developed in the USA in the 1960s in primary care. Since then, it has evolved in many different countries and subspecialties, creating a variety of challenges for those designing and implementing master’s programs for this valuable professional group. We focus on ANPs in the neonatal and pediatric intensive care setting to illustrate the complexity of issues faced by both faculty and students in such a program. We review the impact of limited resources, faculty recruitment/accreditation, and the relationship with the medical profession in establishing a curriculum. We explore the evidence for the importance of ANP role definition, supervision, and identity among other health professionals to secure a successful role transition. We describe how recent advances in technology can be used to innovate with new styles of teaching and learning to overcome some of the difficulties in running master’s programs for small subspecialties. We illustrate, through our own experience, how a thorough assessment of the available literature can be used to innovate and develop strategies to create an individual MSc programs that are designed to meet the needs of highly specialized advanced neonatal and pediatric nursing practice. PMID:23762011

  18. Advancing Understanding of Acculturation for Adolescents of Asian Immigrants: Person-Oriented Analysis of Acculturation Strategy Among Korean American Youth.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yoonsun; Tan, Kevin Poh Hiong; Yasui, Miwa; Hahm, Hyeouk Chris

    2016-07-01

    Acculturation strategy, a significant predictor of immigrant adaptation, has been under-studied with Asian Americans, in particular, Asian American youth. Using person-oriented latent profile analysis, this study identified acculturation strategies among Korean American early adolescents living in the Midwest. Two-hundred ninety-one families were interviewed in 2007 that included 220 youth (mean age 13, 47.7 % female), along with 272 mothers and 164 fathers (N = 656). They were re-interviewed in 2008 (N = 588). The study found three distinct acculturation strategies: separation (11.8 %, n = 26), integrated bicultural (66.9 %, n = 150), and modest bicultural (21.3 %, n = 44). Integrated bicultural youth reported the strongest sense of ethnic identity and the most favorable characteristics, providing empirical support for the benefit of biculturalism. The findings further suggest that separation may not be as detrimental as previously thought, and modest bicultural-biculturalism that is not fully developed-may in fact be less desirable among Korean American youth. PMID:27146143

  19. Adoptive T-cell therapies for refractory/relapsed leukemia and lymphoma: current strategies and recent advances

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Lauren; Cruz, C. Russell; Bollard, Catherine M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite significant advancements in the treatment and outcome of hematologic malignancies, prognosis remains poor for patients who have relapsed or refractory disease. Adoptive T-cell immunotherapy offers novel therapeutics that attempt to utilize the noted graft versus leukemia effect. While CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cells have thus far been the most clinically successful application of adoptive T immunotherapy, further work with antigen specific T cells and CARs that recognize other targets have helped diversify the field to treat a broad spectrum of hematologic malignancies. This article will focus primarily on therapies currently in the clinical trial phase as well as current downfalls or limitations. PMID:26622998

  20. Adoptive T-cell therapies for refractory/relapsed leukemia and lymphoma: current strategies and recent advances.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Lauren; Cruz, C Russell; Bollard, Catherine M

    2015-12-01

    Despite significant advancements in the treatment and outcome of hematologic malignancies, prognosis remains poor for patients who have relapsed or refractory disease. Adoptive T-cell immunotherapy offers novel therapeutics that attempt to utilize the noted graft versus leukemia effect. While CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cells have thus far been the most clinically successful application of adoptive T immunotherapy, further work with antigen specific T cells and CARs that recognize other targets have helped diversify the field to treat a broad spectrum of hematologic malignancies. This article will focus primarily on therapies currently in the clinical trial phase as well as current downfalls or limitations. PMID:26622998

  1. Strategies of dose escalation in the treatment of locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer: image guidance and beyond.

    PubMed

    Chi, Alexander; Nguyen, Nam Phong; Welsh, James S; Tse, William; Monga, Manish; Oduntan, Olusola; Almubarak, Mohammed; Rogers, John; Remick, Scot C; Gius, David

    2014-01-01

    Radiation dose in the setting of chemo-radiation for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has been historically limited by the risk of normal tissue toxicity and this has been hypothesized to correlate with the poor results in regard to local tumor recurrences. Dose escalation, as a means to improve local control, with concurrent chemotherapy has been shown to be feasible with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy in early phase studies with good clinical outcome. However, the potential superiority of moderate dose escalation to 74 Gy has not been shown in phase III randomized studies. In this review, the limitations in target volume definition in previous studies; and the factors that may be critical to safe dose escalation in the treatment of locally advanced NSCLC, such as respiratory motion management, image guidance, intensity modulation, FDG-positron emission tomography incorporation in the treatment planning process, and adaptive radiotherapy, are discussed. These factors, along with novel treatment approaches that have emerged in recent years, are proposed to warrant further investigation in future trials in a more comprehensive and integrated fashion. PMID:24999451

  2. Concomitant cetuximab and radiation therapy: A possible promising strategy for locally advanced inoperable non-melanoma skin carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    DELLA VITTORIA SCARPATI, GIUSEPPINA; PERRI, FRANCESCO; PISCONTI, SALVATORE; COSTA, GIUSEPPE; RICCIARDIELLO, FILIPPO; DEL PRETE, SALVATORE; NAPOLITANO, ALBERTO; CARRATURO, MARCO; MAZZONE, SALVATORE; ADDEO, RAFFAELE

    2016-01-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) include a heterogeneous group of malignancies arising from the epidermis, comprising squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), basal cell carcinoma (BCC), Merkel cell carcinoma and more rare entities, including malignant pilomatrixoma and sebaceous gland tumours. The treatment of early disease depends primarily on surgery. In addition, certain patients present with extensive local invasion or metastasis, which renders these tumours surgically unresectable. Improving the outcome of radiotherapy through the use of concurrent systemic therapy has been demonstrated in several locally advanced cancer-treatment paradigms. Recently, agents targeting the human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) have exhibited a consolidated activity in phase II clinical trials and case series reports. Cetuximab is a monoclonal antibody that binds to and completely inhibits the EGFR, which has been revealed to be up-regulated in a variety of SCCs, including NMSCs. The present review aimed to summarize the role of anti-EGFR agents in the predominant types of NMSC, including SCC and BCC, and focuses on the cetuximab-based studies, highlighting the biological rationale of this therapeutic option. In addition, the importance of the association between cetuximab and radiotherapy for locally advanced NMSC is discussed. PMID:27073643

  3. Advances in alloimmune thrombocytopenia: perspectives on current concepts of human platelet antigens, antibody detection strategies, and genotyping

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Tomoya; Hirayama, Fumiya

    2015-01-01

    Alloimmunisation to platelets leads to the production of antibodies against platelet antigens and consequently to thrombocytopenia. Numerous molecules located on the platelet surface are antigenic and induce immune-mediated platelet destruction with symptoms that can be serious. Human platelet antigens (HPA) cause thrombocytopenias, such as neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia, post-transfusion purpura, and platelet transfusion refractoriness. Thirty-four HPA are classified into 28 systems. Assays to identify HPA and anti-HPA antibodies are critically important for preventing and treating thrombocytopenia caused by anti-HPA antibodies. Significant progress in furthering our understanding of HPA has been made in the last decade: new HPA have been discovered, antibody-detection methods have improved, and new genotyping methods have been developed. We review these advances and discuss issues that remain to be resolved as well as future prospects for preventing and treating immune thrombocytopenia. PMID:26057488

  4. Surgical monotherapy may be a suitable therapeutic strategy for advanced collecting (Bellini) duct carcinoma: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Liang; Wang, Zijian; Pan, Cizhong; Peng, Ran; Wei, Xiong; Zhong, Zhaohui

    2016-01-01

    Collecting duct carcinoma (CDC), which is also known as Bellini duct carcinoma, accounts for less than 1% of all renal cell carcinoma, which has a poor prognosis. Predominantly, clinicians recognize this disease due to past experience and case reports, and a standard treatment is yet to be established. The present case report describes a 57-year-old male patient with CDC who was successfully treated with a left laparoscopic radical nephrectomy without any adjuvant therapy and compares the present patient's clinical presentation with previously reported cases. By analyzing the differences between these cases, the findings of the present case report and literature review suggested that surgery alone remains the only suitable choice for patients with advanced CDC. PMID:27446340

  5. Promoting sustainable energy strategies in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, R.K.

    1995-12-31

    Enormous structural changes are taking place in the economy of Russia. It is important that vital sectors of the economy undergo a smooth transition from a centrally-planned paradigm to a more market-oriented structure. Introducing market-oriented-institutional structures and energy planning approaches to Russian utilities can facilitate the transition to the market and allow them to become vehicles for change rather than mere witnesses. As real electricity prices increase relative to other prices, a significant industrial restructuring can be expected, with an accompanying reduction of energy consumption. By developing programs to help industry become more energy-efficiency, the electricity sector can play a central role in Russia`s economic recovery. A robust energy sector will be in a much better position to lead other sectors of the economy toward market-oriented solutions to the present economic crisis. Because of the magnitude of the task of recreating an economy for one of the world`s superpowers, institutional restructuring should take place incrementally. The transition of US utilities from a {open_quotes}build-and-grow{close_quotes} paradigm to one of Integrated Resource Planning (IRP) and subsequently to a hybrid of competition and IRP began and is continuing on the state and regional level. Local success stories on the West Coast and New England persuaded other states to adopt these methods. This strategy could also prove to be very effective in regions of Russia that are served by integrated electricity grids, such as the South Russia Power pool (Yuzhenergo) that serves the North Caucasus region. As the Russian energy system currently undergoes change, simultaneously privatizing and restructuring, these issues will be largely decided within the next two years. One of the greatest challenges involves implementing an environmentally sustainable strategy which ensures that energy efficiency and renewable energy are incorporated into the new structure.

  6. Advances of flue gas desulfurization technology for coal-fired boilers and strategies for sulfur dioxide pollution prevention in China

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, C.; Zeng, G.; Li, G.; Qiu, J.

    1999-07-01

    Coal is one of the most important kinds of energy resources at the present time and in the immediate future in China. Sulfur dioxide resulting from combustion of coal is one of the principle pollutants in the air. Control of SO{sub 2} discharge is still a major challenge for environmental protection in developing China. In this paper, research, development and application of technology of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) for coal-fired boilers in China will be reviewed with emphasis on cost-effective technology, and the development trends of FGD technology, as well as the strategy for SO{sub 2} discharge control in China, will be analyzed. A practical technology for middle-small-sized boilers developed by the primary author and the field investigation results will also be presented. At present, there are four major kinds of FGD technologies that are practical to be applied in China for their cost-effectiveness and efficiency to middle-small-sized boilers. An important development trend of the FGD technology for middle-small-sized boilers for the next decade is improvement of the existing cost-effective wet-type FGD technology, and in the future it will be the development of dry-type FGD technology. For middle-sized generating boilers, the development direction of the FGD technology is the spraying and drying process. For large-sized generating boilers, the wet-type limestone-plaster process will still be applied in the immediate future, and dry-type FGD technologies, such as ammonia with electron beam irradiation, will be developed in the future. State strategies for the control of SO{sub 2} discharge will involve the development and popularization of efficient coal-fired devices, extension of gas coal and liquefied coal, spreading coal washing, and centralized heating systems.

  7. Application of Microsatellite Markers in Conservation Genetics and Fisheries Management: Recent Advances in Population Structure Analysis and Conservation Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Abdul-Muneer, P. M.

    2014-01-01

    Microsatellites are the most popular and versatile genetic marker with myriads of applications in population genetics, conservation biology, and evolutionary biology. These are the arrays of DNA sequences, consisting of tandemly repeating mono-, di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide units, which are distributed throughout the genomes of most eukaryotic species. Microsatellites are codominant in nature, highly polymorphic, easily typed, and Mendelian inherited, all properties which make them very suitable for the study of population structure and pedigree analysis and capable of detecting differences among closely related species. PCR for microsatellites can be automated for identifying simple sequence repeat polymorphism. Small amount of blood samples or alcohol preserved tissue is adequate for analyzing them. Most of the microsatellites are noncoding, and therefore variations are independent of natural selection. These properties make microsatellites ideal genetic markers for conservation genetics and fisheries management. This review addresses the applications of microsatellite markers in conservation genetics and recent advances in population structure analysis in the context of fisheries management. PMID:24808959

  8. Advanced Glycation End-Products and Their Receptors: Related Pathologies, Recent Therapeutic Strategies, and a Potential Model for Future Neurodegeneration Studies.

    PubMed

    Pinkas, Adi; Aschner, Michael

    2016-05-16

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are the result of a nonenzymatic reaction between sugars and proteins, lipids, or nucleic acids. AGEs are both consumed and endogenously formed; their accumulation is accelerated under hyperglycemic and oxidative stress conditions, and they are associated with the onset and complication of many diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and Alzheimer's disease. AGEs exert their deleterious effects by either accumulating in the circulation and tissues or by receptor-mediated signal transduction. Several receptors bind AGEs: some are specific and contribute to clearance of AGEs, whereas others, like the RAGE receptor, are nonspecific, associated with inflammation and oxidative stress, and considered to be mediators of the aforementioned AGE-related diseases. Although several anti-AGE compounds have been studied, understanding the underlying mechanisms of RAGE and targeting it as a therapeutic strategy is becoming increasingly desirable. For achieving these goals efficiently and expeditiously, the C. elegans model has been suggested. This model is already used for studying several human diseases and, by expressing RAGE, could also be used to study RAGE-related pathways and pathologies to facilitate the development of novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:27054356

  9. Human pluripotent stem cell-derived products: Advances towards robust, scalable and cost-effective manufacturing strategies

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Michael J; Farid, Suzanne S

    2015-01-01

    The ability to develop cost-effective, scalable and robust bioprocesses for human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) will be key to their commercial success as cell therapies and tools for use in drug screening and disease modelling studies. This review outlines key process economic drivers for hPSCs and progress made on improving the economic and operational feasibility of hPSC bioprocesses. Factors influencing key cost metrics, namely capital investment and cost of goods, for hPSCs are discussed. Step efficiencies particularly for differentiation, media requirements and technology choice are amongst the key process economic drivers identified for hPSCs. Progress made to address these cost drivers in hPSC bioprocessing strategies is discussed. These include improving expansion and differentiation yields in planar and bioreactor technologies, the development of xeno-free media and microcarrier coatings, identification of optimal bioprocess operating conditions to control cell fate and the development of directed differentiation protocols that reduce reliance on expensive morphogens such as growth factors and small molecules. These approaches offer methods to further optimise hPSC bioprocessing in terms of its commercial feasibility. PMID:25524780

  10. Human pluripotent stem cell-derived products: advances towards robust, scalable and cost-effective manufacturing strategies.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Michael J; Farid, Suzanne S

    2015-01-01

    The ability to develop cost-effective, scalable and robust bioprocesses for human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) will be key to their commercial success as cell therapies and tools for use in drug screening and disease modelling studies. This review outlines key process economic drivers for hPSCs and progress made on improving the economic and operational feasibility of hPSC bioprocesses. Factors influencing key cost metrics, namely capital investment and cost of goods, for hPSCs are discussed. Step efficiencies particularly for differentiation, media requirements and technology choice are amongst the key process economic drivers identified for hPSCs. Progress made to address these cost drivers in hPSC bioprocessing strategies is discussed. These include improving expansion and differentiation yields in planar and bioreactor technologies, the development of xeno-free media and microcarrier coatings, identification of optimal bioprocess operating conditions to control cell fate and the development of directed differentiation protocols that reduce reliance on expensive morphogens such as growth factors and small molecules. These approaches offer methods to further optimise hPSC bioprocessing in terms of its commercial feasibility. PMID:25524780

  11. Experimental and Clinical Advances in Immunotherapy Strategies for Spinal Cord Injury Target on MAIs and Their Receptors.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiu-Min; Wei, Jing-Xiang; Xiao, Lan; Shu, Ya-Hai; Wang, Yong-Tang

    2016-01-01

    In the injured adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS), the failure of axonal regeneration is thought to be attributed, at least in part, to various myelin-associated inhibitors (MAIs), such as Nogo, myelinassociated glycoprotein (MAG), and oligodendrocyte-myelin glycoprotein (OMgp) around the damaged site. Interestingly, these three structurally different inhibitors share two common receptors, Nogo-66 receptor (NgR) and paired immunoglobulin-like receptor B (PirB), and transduce the inhibitory signal into neurons via their complex combinant and co-receptors, such as p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR), Nogo receptor-interacting protein 1 (LINGO-1), and TROY. Accordingly, targeting of the whole myelin or just portions by immunization has been proved to be neuroprotective and is able to promote regeneration in the injured spinal cords. In the past few years, vaccine approaches were initially achieved and could induce the production of antibodies against inhibitors in myelin to block the inhibitory effects and promote functional recovery in spinal cord injury (SCI) models by immunizing with MAIs, such as purified myelin, spinal cord homogenates, or their receptors with the concept of protective autoimmunity formulated. However, for safety consideration, further work is necessary before the immunotherapy strategies can be adopted to treat human injured spinal cords. PMID:26635269

  12. ‘You can’t just hit a button’: an ethnographic study of strategies to repurpose data from advanced clinical information systems for clinical process improvement

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Current policies encourage healthcare institutions to acquire clinical information systems (CIS) so that captured data can be used for secondary purposes, including clinical process improvement. Such policies do not account for the extra work required to repurpose data for uses other than direct clinical care, making their implementation problematic. This paper aims to analyze the strategies employed by clinical units to use data effectively for both direct clinical care and clinical process improvement. Methods Ethnographic methods were employed. A total of 54 contextual interviews with health professionals spanning various disciplines and 18 hours of observation were carried out in 5 intensive care units in England using an advanced CIS. Case studies of how the extra work was achieved in each unit were derived from the data and then compared. Results We found that extra work is required to repurpose CIS data for clinical process improvement. Health professionals must enter data not required for clinical care and manipulation of this data into a machine-readable form is often necessary. Ambiguity over who should be responsible for this extra work hindered CIS data usage for clinical process improvement. We describe 11 strategies employed by units to accommodate this extra work, distributing it across roles. Seven of these motivated data entry by health professionals and four addressed the machine readability of data. Many of the strategies relied heavily on the skill and leadership of local clinical customizers. Conclusions To realize the expected clinical process improvements by the use of CIS data, clinical leaders and policy makers need to recognize and support the redistribution of the extra work that is involved in data repurposing. Adequate time, funding, and appropriate motivation are needed to enable units to acquire and deliver the necessary skills in CIS customization. PMID:23574920

  13. Is there room for combined modality treatments? Dosimetric comparison of boost strategies for advanced head and neck and prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Góra, Joanna; Hopfgartner, Johannes; Kuess, Peter; Paskeviciute, Brigita; Georg, Dietmar

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the dosimetric difference between three emerging treatment modalities—volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT), intensity-modulated proton beam therapy (IMPT) and intensity-modulated carbon ion beam therapy (IMIT)—for two tumour sites where selective boosting of the tumour is applied. For 10 patients with locally advanced head and neck (H&N) cancer and 10 with high-risk prostate cancer (PC) a VMAT plan was generated for PTVinitial that included lymph node regions, delivering 50 Gy (IsoE) for H&N and 50.4 Gy (IsoE) for PC patients. Furthermore, separate boost plans (VMAT, IMPT and IMIT) were created to boost PTVboost up to 70 Gy (IsoE) and 78 Gy (IsoE) for H&N and PC cases, respectively. Doses to brainstem, myelon, larynx and parotid glands were assessed for H&N cases. Additionally, various OARs (e.g. cochlea, middle ear, masticator space) were evaluated that are currently discussed with respect to quality of life after treatment. For PC cases, bladder, rectum and femoral heads were considered as OARs. For both tumour sites target goals were easily met. Looking at OAR sparing, generally VMAT + VMAT was worst. VMAT + IMIT had the potential to spare some structures in very close target vicinity (such as cochlea, middle ear, masticator space ) significantly better than VMAT + IMPT. Mean doses for rectal and bladder wall were on average 4 Gy (IsoE) and 1.5 Gy (IsoE) higher, respectively, compared to photons plus particles scenarios. Similar results were found for parotid glands and larynx. Concerning target coverage, no significant differences were observed between the three treatment concepts. Clear dosimetric benefits were observed for particle beam therapy as boost modality. However, the clinical benefit of combined modality treatments remains to be demonstrated. PMID:23824134

  14. Is there room for combined modality treatments? Dosimetric comparison of boost strategies for advanced head and neck and prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Góra, Joanna; Hopfgartner, Johannes; Kuess, Peter; Paskeviciute, Brigita; Georg, Dietmar

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the dosimetric difference between three emerging treatment modalities--volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT), intensity-modulated proton beam therapy (IMPT) and intensity-modulated carbon ion beam therapy (IMIT)--for two tumour sites where selective boosting of the tumour is applied. For 10 patients with locally advanced head and neck (H&N) cancer and 10 with high-risk prostate cancer (PC) a VMAT plan was generated for PTV initial that included lymph node regions, delivering 50 Gy (IsoE) for H&N and 50.4 Gy (IsoE) for PC patients. Furthermore, separate boost plans (VMAT, IMPT and IMIT) were created to boost PTV boost up to 70 Gy (IsoE) and 78 Gy (IsoE) for H&N and PC cases, respectively. Doses to brainstem, myelon, larynx and parotid glands were assessed for H&N cases. Additionally, various OARs (e.g. cochlea, middle ear, masticator space) were evaluated that are currently discussed with respect to quality of life after treatment. For PC cases, bladder, rectum and femoral heads were considered as OARs. For both tumour sites target goals were easily met. Looking at OAR sparing, generally VMAT + VMAT was worst. VMAT + IMIT had the potential to spare some structures in very close target vicinity (such as cochlea, middle ear, masticator space ) significantly better than VMAT + IMPT. Mean doses for rectal and bladder wall were on average 4 Gy (IsoE) and 1.5 Gy (IsoE) higher, respectively, compared to photons plus particles scenarios. Similar results were found for parotid glands and larynx. Concerning target coverage, no significant differences were observed between the three treatment concepts. Clear dosimetric benefits were observed for particle beam therapy as boost modality. However, the clinical benefit of combined modality treatments remains to be demonstrated. PMID:23824134

  15. The GEO Water Strategy: Advances in Monitoring, Modeling, and Predicting Groundwater Variations at Regional to Local Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, N. L.; Heinrich, L.; Kukuri, N.; Plag, H.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Rodell, M.

    2012-12-01

    Groundwater remains one of the most important freshwater resources, especially during droughts and as global warming increases. For informed decisions on managing these resources sustainably, it is important to have sound assessments of the current state of groundwater resources as well as future predictions. This requires reliable groundwater quantity and quality data. However global access to this data is limited. As part of the GEOSS Water Strategy, the International Groundwater Assessment Centre (IGRAC) is therefore implementing the Global Groundwater Monitoring Network (GGMN). The GGMN facilitates periodic assessments of changes in groundwater quantity and quality by aggregating data and information from existing groundwater monitoring networks and regional hydrogeological knowledge (Fig. 1). The GGMN is a participatory process that relies upon contributions from regional and national networks of groundwater experts. Such observation data, along with local well data, surface displacements observed by and GPS data and InSAR, and local in situ gravity data, are necessary for evaluation and simulation of groundwater, leading to improved understanding and prediction of groundwater variations. In conjunction with these observations, regional scale groundwater variations are derived as a residual from land surface-groundwater models through extraction of the total mass of water using geo-rectified Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data. Such model-based studies have quantified overdraft and regions at risk of groundwater depletion in parts of Asia, US, and Africa (Fig. 2).We provide an overview of these systems, planned missions, and new model-based approaches toward local-scale methods for assimilation of well data for several regions.igure 1. Example of GGMN (Example of Botswana with fictitious data, with local precipitation map) igure 2. GRACE-derived groundwater storage in northwestern India for 2002 - 2008, relative to the mean. Deviations from

  16. Non-surgical organ preservation strategies for locally advanced laryngeal tumors: what is the Italian attitude? Results of a national survey on behalf of AIRO and AIOM.

    PubMed

    Alterio, D; Franco, P; Numico, G; Licitra, L; Cossu Rocca, M; Ferrari, A; Pinto, C; Russi, E G; Ricardi, U; Jereczek Fossa, B A

    2016-07-01

    Chemoradiotherapy is the treatment mostly used as organ preservation (OP) strategy worldwide in advanced laryngo-hypopharyngeal cancer. Due to the not homogeneous results of the literature data regarding the pre-treatment assessment and treatment schedule in this setting of patients, the Italian societies of radiation oncology and medical oncology surveyed (by an online survey) their memberships regarding the Italian attitude on larynx preservation in clinical practice. The survey outline addressed different items such as: demographics (11 items), pre-treatment evaluation (12 items), treatment schedules (10 items) and outcomes (3 items). The survey was filled in by 116 clinical oncologists (64 % radiation and 36 % medical oncologists). Results highlighted that pretreatment evaluation was not homogeneous among the respondents. The treatment of choice for the OP program resulted the concurrent chemoradiotherapy (66 %). Induction chemotherapy was proposed mostly in case of aggressive tumors such as advanced stage (T4 or N3) and/or unfavorable primary sites (hypopharynx). Moreover, after induction chemotherapy, for responders patients most participants (46 %) proposed concurrent chemoradiotherapy, while 18 and 19 % proposed radiotherapy alone or radiotherapy and cetuximab, respectively. For patients with stable disease after induction chemotherapy, the respondents declared to suggest surgery, radiotherapy and cetuximab or radiotherapy alone in 38, 32 and 15 % of cases, respectively. Results of the present survey highlighted the variability of therapeutic approaches offered in clinical practice for patients candidate to a larynx OP program. Analysis of abovementioned results may give the chance to modify some clinical attitudes and create the background for future clinical investigation in this field. PMID:27290695

  17. High prevalence of cardiovascular and respiratory abnormalities in advanced, intensively treated (transplanted) myeloma: The case for ‘late effects’ screening and preventive strategies

    PubMed Central

    Samuelson, Clare; O'Toole, Laurence; Boland, Elaine; Greenfield, Diana; Ezaydi, Yousef; Ahmedzai, Sam H.; Snowden, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Modern management of myeloma has significantly improved survival, with increasing numbers of patients living beyond a decade. However, little is known about the long-term cardiovascular and respiratory status of intensively treated and multiply relapsed survivors. Methods: We performed detailed cardiovascular and respiratory evaluations in patients with intensively treated, advanced but stable myeloma. All patients had received at least two lines of treatment, including at least one haematopoietic stem cell transplantation procedure, but had stable, controlled disease and were off active treatment at the time of evaluation. Results: Thirty-two patients with a median duration of 6 years (range 2–12) from original diagnosis of myeloma and three lines (range 2–6) of treatment were evaluated. Despite normal physical examination in the majority, there was a high prevalence of sub-clinical cardiac and respiratory dysfunction, reflected by abnormalities of electrocardiography (45%), echocardiography (50%), serum N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide level (NT-pro-BNP, 50%), and pulmonary function testing (45%). NT-pro-BNP level correlated negatively with quality of life (P = 0.012) and positively with serum ferritin (P = 0.027). Dyspnoea score correlated with BMI (P = 0.001). Risk factors for cardiovascular disease (obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, and hyperinsulinaemia) were common. Discussion: Even in the absence of overt clinical features, the majority of intensively treated long-term survivors of myeloma have established cardiovascular and/or respiratory dysfunction, above levels expected in the general population of a similar age. Conclusion: This study supports routine screening and lifestyle modification combined with primary and secondary preventive strategies to reduce cardiovascular and respiratory disease and to preserve quality of life in transplanted myeloma patients. PMID:27077780

  18. A hybrid strategy of offline adaptive planning and online image guidance for prostate cancer radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Yu; Wu, Qiuwen

    2010-04-01

    Offline adaptive radiotherapy (ART) has been used to effectively correct and compensate for prostate motion and reduce the required margin. The efficacy depends on the characteristics of the patient setup error and interfraction motion through the whole treatment; specifically, systematic errors are corrected and random errors are compensated for through the margins. In online image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) of prostate cancer, the translational setup error and inter-fractional prostate motion are corrected through pre-treatment imaging and couch correction at each fraction. However, the rotation and deformation of the target are not corrected and only accounted for with margins in treatment planning. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the offline ART strategy is necessary for an online IGRT protocol and to evaluate the benefit of the hybrid strategy. First, to investigate the rationale of the hybrid strategy, 592 cone-beam-computed tomography (CBCT) images taken before and after each fraction for an online IGRT protocol from 16 patients were analyzed. Specifically, the characteristics of prostate rotation were analyzed. It was found that there exist systematic inter-fractional prostate rotations, and they are patient specific. These rotations, if not corrected, are persistent through the treatment fraction, and rotations detected in early fractions are representative of those in later fractions. These findings suggest that the offline adaptive replanning strategy is beneficial to the online IGRT protocol with further margin reductions. Second, to quantitatively evaluate the benefit of the hybrid strategy, 412 repeated helical CT scans from 25 patients during the course of treatment were included in the replanning study. Both low-risk patients (LRP, clinical target volume, CTV = prostate) and intermediate-risk patients (IRP, CTV = prostate + seminal vesicles) were included in the simulation. The contours of prostate and seminal vesicles were

  19. Rate and determinants of treatment response to different antiretroviral combination strategies in subjects presenting at HIV-1 diagnosis with advanced disease

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The optimal therapeutic strategies for patients presenting with advanced disease at HIV-1 diagnosis are as yet incompletely defined. Methods All patients presenting at two outpatient clinics in 2000-2009 with an AIDS-defining clinical condition or a CD4+ T cell count < 200/μL at HIV-1 diagnosis were analyzed for the presence of combined immunovirological response, defined by the concomitant presence of an absolute number of CD4+ T cells > 200 cells/μL and a plasma HIV-1 RNA copy number < 50/mL after 12 months of HAART. Results Among 102 evaluable patients, first-line regimens were protease inhibitors [PI]-based in 78 cases (77%) and efavirenz-based in 24 cases (23%). The overall response rate was 65% (95% CI: 55-74), with no differences by gender, age, nationality, route of transmission, hepatitis virus coinfections, presence of AIDS-defining clinical events, baseline HIV-1 viral load, or type of regimen (response rates with PI-based and efavirenz-based therapy: 63% and 71%, respectively, p = 0.474). Response rate was significantly better with higher baseline CD4+ T cell counts (78% with CD4+ ≥ 100/μL, compared to 50% with CD4+ < 100/μL; odds ratio: 3.5; 95% CI: 1.49-8.23, p = 0.003). Median time on first-line antiretroviral therapy was 24 months (interquartile range: 12-48). Switch to a second line treatment occurred in 57% of patients, mainly for simplification (57%), and was significantly more common with PI-based regimens [adjusted hazard ratios (AHR) with respect to efavirenz-based regimens: 3.88 for unboosted PIs (95% CI: 1.40-10.7, p = 0.009) and 4.21 for ritonavir-boosted PI (95%CI 1.7-10.4, p = 0.002)] and in older subjects (≥ 50 years) (AHR: 1.83; 95% CI: 1.02-3.31, p = 0.044). Overall mortality was low (3% after a median follow up of 48 months). Conclusions Our data indicate that a favorable immunovirological response is possible in the majority of naive patients presenting at HIV-1 diagnosis with AIDS or low CD4+ T cell counts, and

  20. Accelerating advanced-materials commercialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maine, Elicia; Seegopaul, Purnesh

    2016-05-01

    Long commercialization times, high capital costs and sustained uncertainty deter investment in innovation for advanced materials. With appropriate strategies, technology and market uncertainties can be reduced, and the commercialization of advanced materials accelerated.

  1. Analyzing the Relationship of Geographic Mobility and Institutional Prestige to Career Advancement of Women in Academic Medicine Pursuing Midcareer-, Senior-, or Executive-Level Administrative Positions: Implications for Career Advancement Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Marsha Renee

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of geographic mobility and institutional prestige to career advancement defined as administrative promotions of women seeking midcareer-, senior-, or executive-level positions at academic health centers (AHCs) and their medical schools or in non-AHC related medical schools in the United…

  2. Combined therapy of percutaneous cryoablation and traditional Chinese medicine can be a promising strategy for elderly or advanced lung cancer patients based on a retrospective clinical study.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lei; Li, Quanwang; Jiang, Min; Liu, Chuanbo; Song, Zilin; Bao, Xiaoling; Shen, Yang; Liu, Guijian; Hu, Kaiwen

    2014-08-01

    Presently, elderly and advanced lung cancer patients have very limited treatment options. With no promising therapy, treatment of these patients is challenging. We have reviewed 119 primary lung cancer patients who received a combined percutaneous cryoablation and traditional Chinese medicine therapy (Cryo-TCM therapy) between 2005 and 2013. Out of 119 patients, 84.1% patients were elderly or advanced lung cancer when receiving cryoablation. Overall Survival time from the time of Diagnosis (DOS) and Cryoablation (COS) was 19 and 10 months respectively, which were longer than data previously published. Patients who accepted only Cryo-TCM therapy got similar DOS as those who were treated with Cryo-TCM and other classic anticancer therapies. Thus, Cryo-TCM therapy can prolong the survival time and can be used as the main therapy for the elderly or advanced lung cancer patients in China both in quality of life and cost effectiveness. PMID:24859157

  3. Advanced planetary studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Eleven study tasks are described and key results are discussed for the following: advanced planning activity; cost estimation research; planetary missions performance handbooks-revisions; multiple discipline science assessment; asteroid workshop; galilean lander mission strategies; asteroid exploration study; ion drive transport capabilities; Mars strategy study; Venus surface sample return; and ion drive/solar sail assessment study.

  4. Job-Linked Literacy: Innovative Strategies at Work. Part III. Moving Ahead: Basic Skills for Career Advancement. A Work in America Policy Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosow, Jerome M.; Zager, Robert

    This volume, Interim Report No. 3 in a 3-year study, considers literacy programs designed to qualify employees for promotions or professional advancement. It adopts a multidimensional definition of moving ahead, one that extends to monetary rewards, career development, and employment security. The volume is divided into two parts: report and case…

  5. The Effects of Advance Graphic Organizers Strategy Intervention on Academic Achievement, Self Efficacy, and Motivation to Learn Social Studies in Learning Disabled Second Year Prep Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eissa, Mourad Ali

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of using advance graphic organizers on academic achievement, self efficacy, and motivation to learn social studies in learning disabled second year prep students. A total of 60 students identified with LD were invited to participate. The sample was randomly divided into two groups; experimental (n = 30, 23 boys,…

  6. Persistent hyperactivity and distinctive strategy features in the Morris water maze in 3xTg-AD mice at advanced stages of disease.

    PubMed

    Baeta-Corral, Raquel; Giménez-Llort, Lydia

    2015-04-01

    Search strategies in the Morris water maze provide useful insights on cognitive function that may reveal genotype differences not reflected by escape latency or distance. Its analysis is pointed out as a complementary tool to better define the phenotype and the effect of treatments in animal models in which both cognitive impairment and behavioral symptoms reproduce the clinical complexity of the Alzheimer's disease patient. Here, we studied the performance of 13-month-old male 3xTg-AD mice in 3 different paradigms (cue learning, place task, and probe trial) and as compared with age-matched nontransgenic mice. The quantitative analysis (escape latency, distance, and speed) showed that in all tasks, the cognitive performance of 3xTg-AD mice was interfered with by a persistent hyperactive pattern. Their worse cognitive function was revealed by the qualitative features of nonsearch behaviors (floating and circling) and search strategies (single and /mixed, goal directed and nongoal directed). The search pattern was based on mixed and nongoal-directed strategies, in contrast to the single and goal-directed strategies used by controls. In the place task, poor cognitive flexibility of 3xTg-AD mice was also shown in persistence of search in the cue-trained position and the need to correct the strategy to find the new location. Trials involving a naïve situation (first trial of the cue task) or the difficulty of a new task (first trial of the place task and the probe trial) were the most suitable to show the deficits. This qualitative analysis may also be useful in the assessment of preventive or therapeutical treatments. PMID:25730122

  7. Networking strategies of the microscopy community for improved utilization of advanced instruments: (2) The national network for transmission electron microscopy and atom probe studies in France (METSA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Épicier, Thierry; Snoeck, Étienne

    2014-02-01

    With the development, over the past ten years, of a new generation of electron microscopes with advanced performance, incorporating aberration correctors, monochromators, more sensitive detectors, and innovative specimen environments, quantitative measurements at the subnanometer and, in certain cases, at the unique atom level, are now accessible. However, an optimized use of these possibilities requires access to costly instruments and support by specialized trained experts. For these reasons, a national network (METSA) has been created in France with the support of CNRS and CEA in order to offer, in centres with complementary equipment and expertise, an open access to an enlarged and multidisciplinary community of academic and industrial users.

  8. The use of SPECT-CT improves accuracy of post-radioiodine therapy imaging and changes the management strategy in a case of advanced follicular thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wong, T H; Amir Hassan, S Z

    2015-12-01

    This is a case of follicular thyroid carcinoma with extensive lung, bone and brain metastases. Multi-modality treatments including total thyroidectomy, modified radical neck dissection, cranial radiotherapy and Iodine-131 (RAI) therapy were instituted. Post RAI therapy planar whole body scan showed RAI avid metastases in the skull, cervical spine, bilateral lungs and abdomen. With the use of SPECTCT imaging, rare adrenal metastasis and additional rib metastasis were identified. Besides, management strategy was altered due to detection of non-RAI avid brain and lung metastatic lesions. PMID:26988209

  9. Extensive Central Nervous System Cryptococcal Disease Presenting as Immune Reconstitution Syndrome in a Patient with Advanced HIV: Report of a Case and Review of Management Dilemmas and Strategies.

    PubMed

    Ogbuagu, Onyema; Villanueva, Merceditas

    2014-11-19

    One of the complications of the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART), immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), is particularly problematic in the management of cryptococcal meningitis. We present the case of a 35-year-old male with acquired immune deficiency syndrome diagnosed with extensive central nervous system (CNS) cryptococcal disease, including meningitis and multiple intracranial cysts, diagnosed eight weeks after the initiation of ART. The patient experienced a relapsing and remitting clinical course despite repeated courses of potent antifungal therapy and aggressive management of raised intracranial pressure. This review highlights therapeutic dilemmas and strategies in the management of CNS cryptococcosis complicated with IRIS and highlights gaps in available treatment guidelines. PMID:25568756

  10. Identification and characterization of in vivo metabolites of asulacrine using advanced mass spectrophotometry technique in combination with improved data mining strategy.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Attia; Zhong, Yunxi; Sarfraz, Muhammad; Peng, Ying; Sheng, Longsheng; Wu, Zimei; Sun, Jianguo; Wang, Guangji

    2016-04-29

    Asulacrine (ASL) is a broad-spectrum, antitumor drug whose data are promising for the treatment of breast and lung cancers; however, a high incidence of phlebitis hampered its further development. Phlebitis is associated with generation of reactive species. Asulacrine donates electrons and produces oxidative stress in chemical reactions. It was expected that ASL would actively metabolize to oxidized products through reactive intermediates and produce more products in vivo than reported and thus cause phlebitis. A comprehensive study was planned to investigate in vivo metabolism of ASL, using high-resolution mass spectrometry LC/IT-TOF MS in positive mode. Metabolites were detected by different software by applying annotated detection strategy. The possible metabolites and their product ions were simultaneously detected by segmented data acquisition to get accurate mass values. Segmented data acquisition improved signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio, which was helpful to detect metabolites and their fragments even when present in trace amounts. A total of 21 metabolites were detected in gender-based biological fluids and characterized by comparing their accurate mass values, fragmentation patterns, and relative retention times with that of ASL. Among previously reported glucuronosylation metabolites, some oxidation, hydroxylation, carboxylation, demethylation, hydrogenation, glutamination, and acetylcysteine conjugation were detected for the first time. Twenty metabolites were tentatively identified by using the annotated strategy for data acquisition and post-data mining. PMID:27040513

  11. Treatment of advanced soft-tissue sarcomas using a combined strategy of high-dose ifosfamide, high-dose doxorubicin and salvage therapies

    PubMed Central

    Leyvraz, S; Herrmann, R; Guillou, L; Honegger, H P; Christinat, A; Fey, M F; Sessa, C; Wernli, M; Cerny, T; Dietrich, D; Pestalozzi, B

    2006-01-01

    Having determined in a phase I study the maximum tolerated dose of high-dose ifosfamide combined with high-dose doxorubicin, we now report the long-term results of a phase II trial in advanced soft-tissue sarcomas. Forty-six patients with locally advanced or metastatic soft-tissue sarcomas were included, with age <60 years and all except one in good performance status (0 or 1). The chemotherapy treatment consisted of ifosfamide 10 g m−2 (continuous infusion for 5 days), doxorubicin 30 mg m−2 day−1 × 3 (total dose 90 mg m−2), mesna and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor. Cycles were repeated every 21 days. A median of 4 (1–6) cycles per patient was administered. Twenty-two patients responded to therapy, including three complete responders and 19 partial responders for an overall response rate of 48% (95% CI: 33–63%). The response rate was not different between localised and metastatic diseases or between histological types, but was higher in grade 3 tumours. Median overall survival was 19 months. Salvage therapies (surgery and/or radiotherapy) were performed in 43% of patients and found to be the most significant predictor for favourable survival (exploratory multivariate analysis). Haematological toxicity was severe, including grade ⩾3 neutropenia in 59%, thrombopenia in 39% and anaemia in 27% of cycles. Three patients experienced grade 3 neurotoxicity and one patient died of septic shock. This high-dose regimen is toxic but nonetheless feasible in multicentre settings in non elderly patients with good performance status. A high response rate was obtained. Prolonged survival was mainly a function of salvage therapies. PMID:17031396

  12. A new surgical strategy for breast conservation in locally advanced breast cancer that achieves a good locoregional control rate: preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Moneer, M; Ismael, S; Khaled, H; El-Gantery, M; Zaghloul, M S; El-Didi, M

    2001-06-01

    The scope of breast conserving surgery has recently expanded to include locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) patients who are downstaged following neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT). However, the efficacy of this approach in achieving adequate locoregional control of disease is in doubt. Some reports have attributed the failure to the association of NACT-induced tumour downstaging which can leave multifocal in situ and invasive lesions around the main tumour mass. In the present study, in order to eradicate all possible tumour satellites, a very wide local excision that included the whole original tumour-bearing area was performed regardless of the expected wide defect. This defect was then immediately reconstructed by an ipsilateral pedicled latissimus dorsi myocutaneous (LDM) flap. The study included 26 patients with LABC without evidence of primary tumour-multicentricity. Tumours were downstaged following NACT. The early cosmetic outcome was good in the majority of cases. Early complications were minimal. Twenty-two patients had a mean follow up period of 30.2 (range 7-50) months. In those evaluable cases, locoregional control of the disease was excellent (100%) but distant metastases occurred in seven cases (31.8%). PMID:14965588

  13. The effects of a test-taking strategy intervention for high school students with test anxiety in advanced placement science courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markus, Doron J.

    Test anxiety is one of the most debilitating and disruptive factors associated with underachievement and failure in schools (Birenbaum, Menucha, Nasser, & Fadia, 1994; Tobias, 1985). Researchers have suggested that interventions that combine multiple test-anxiety reduction techniques are most effective at reducing test anxiety levels (Ergene, 2003). For the current study, involving 62 public high school students enrolled in advanced placement science courses, the researcher designed a multimodal intervention designed to reduce test anxiety. Analyses were conducted to assess the relationships among test anxiety levels, unit examination scores, and irregular multiple-choice error patterns (error clumping), as well as changes in these measures after the intervention. Results indicate significant, positive relationships between some measures of test anxiety and error clumping, as well as significant, negative relationships between test anxiety levels and student achievement. In addition, results show significant decreases in holistic measures of test anxiety among students with low anxiety levels, as well as decreases in Emotionality subscores of test anxiety among students with high levels of test anxiety. There were no significant changes over time in the Worry subscores of test anxiety. Suggestions for further research include further confirmation of the existence of error clumping, and its causal relationship with test anxiety.

  14. The use of the United States FDA programs as a strategy to advance the development of drug products for neglected tropical diseases.

    PubMed

    Sachs-Barrable, Kristina; Conway, Jocelyn; Gershkovich, Pavel; Ibrahim, Fady; Wasan, Kishor M

    2014-11-01

    Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are infections which are endemic in poor populations in lower- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Approximately one billion people have now or are at risk of getting an NTD and yet less than 5% of research dollars are focused on providing treatments and prevention of these highly debilitating and deadly conditions. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Orphan Drug Designation program (ODDP) provides orphan status to drugs and biologics, defined as those intended for the safe and effective treatment, diagnosis or prevention of rare diseases and/or disorders that affect fewer than 200 000 people in the United States, or that affect more than 200 000 persons but are not expected to recover the costs of developing and marketing a treatment drug. These regulations have led to the translation of rare disease knowledge into innovative rare disease therapies. The FDA Guidance for Industry on developing drugs for the treatment and prevention of NTDs describes the following regulatory strategies: Orphan Product Designation, Fast Track Designation, Priority Review Designation, Accelerated Approval and Tropical Disease Priority Review Voucher. This paper will discuss how these regulations and especially the ODDP can improve the clinical development and accessibility of drug products for NTDs. PMID:24512098

  15. Recent advances in the dissection of drought-stress regulatory networks and strategies for development of drought-tolerant transgenic rice plants

    PubMed Central

    Todaka, Daisuke; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko

    2015-01-01

    Advances have been made in the development of drought-tolerant transgenic plants, including cereals. Rice, one of the most important cereals, is considered to be a critical target for improving drought tolerance, as present-day rice cultivation requires large quantities of water and as drought-tolerant rice plants should be able to grow in small amounts of water. Numerous transgenic rice plants showing enhanced drought tolerance have been developed to date. Such genetically engineered plants have generally been developed using genes encoding proteins that control drought regulatory networks. These proteins include transcription factors, protein kinases, receptor-like kinases, enzymes related to osmoprotectant or plant hormone synthesis, and other regulatory or functional proteins. Of the drought-tolerant transgenic rice plants described in this review, approximately one-third show decreased plant height under non-stressed conditions or in response to abscisic acid treatment. In cereal crops, plant height is a very important agronomic trait directly affecting yield, although the improvement of lodging resistance should also be taken into consideration. Understanding the regulatory mechanisms of plant growth reduction under drought stress conditions holds promise for developing transgenic plants that produce high yields under drought stress conditions. Plant growth rates are reduced more rapidly than photosynthetic activity under drought conditions, implying that plants actively reduce growth in response to drought stress. In this review, we summarize studies on molecular regulatory networks involved in response to drought stress. In a separate section, we highlight progress in the development of transgenic drought-tolerant rice plants, with special attention paid to field trial investigations. PMID:25741357

  16. Decolouration of H2SO4 leachate from phosphorus-saturated alum sludge using H2O2 and advanced oxidation processes in phosphorus recovery strategy.

    PubMed

    Zhao, X H; Zhao, Y Q

    2009-12-01

    As a part of attempt for phosphorus (P) recovery from P-saturated alum sludge, which was used as a low-cost P-adsorbent in treatment reed bed for wastewater treatment, decolouration of H(2)SO(4) leachate obtained from previous experiment, possessing a great deal of P, aluminum and red-brown coloured materials (RBCMs), by using H(2)O(2) and advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) was investigated. The use of H(2)O(2) and AOPs in the forms of Fenton (H(2)O(2)/Fe(2 +)) and photo-Fenton (UV/H(2)O(2)/Fe(2 +)) were tested. The changes in colour and total organic carbon (TOC) were taken place as a result of mineralization of RBCMs. The results revealed that all of these three processes examined were efficient. It was found that about 98% colour and 47% TOC can be removed under photo-Fenton treatment after 8 hours of UV irradiation.Correspondingly, the reaction rates of H(2)O(2) and Fenton systems were slow, but 100% colour and 59% TOC removal of H(2)O(2) process and 100% colour and 67% TOC reductions of Fenton process can be achieved after 72 hours of reaction. The changes of structure and molecular weight/size of RBCMs were also evaluated by HPLC and UV-vis spectroscopic analysis. From the results, some chromophores of RBCMs such as aromatic groups were appeared to be easily degraded to the smaller refractory components. Hence, based on the experimental results and considering the investment and expediency of operation, H(2)O(2) and Fenton oxidation could be suitable technologies for the treatment of the RBCMs derived from P-extraction stage by using H(2)SO(4) leaching. PMID:20183514

  17. Descendants and advance directives.

    PubMed

    Buford, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Some of the concerns that have been raised in connection to the use of advance directives are of the epistemic variety. Such concerns highlight the possibility that adhering to an advance directive may conflict with what the author of the directive actually wants (or would want) at the time of treatment. However, at least one objection to the employment of advance directives is metaphysical in nature. The objection to be discussed here, first formulated by Rebecca Dresser and labeled by Allen Buchanan as the slavery argument and David DeGrazia the someone else problem, aims to undermine the legitimacy of certain uses of advance directives by concluding that such uses rest upon an incorrect assumption about the identity over time of those ostensibly governed by the directives. There have been numerous attempts to respond to this objection. This paper aims to assess two strategies that have been pursued to cope with the problem. PMID:25743056

  18. Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options

    SciTech Connect

    Roald Wigeland; Temitope Taiwo; Michael Todosow; William Halsey; Jess Gehin

    2010-06-01

    A systematic evaluation has been conducted of the potential for advanced nuclear fuel cycle strategies and options to address the issues ascribed to the use of nuclear power. Issues included nuclear waste management, proliferation risk, safety, security, economics and affordability, and sustainability. The two basic strategies, once-through and recycle, and the range of possibilities within each strategy, are considered for all aspects of the fuel cycle including options for nuclear material irradiation, separations if needed, and disposal. Options range from incremental changes to today’s implementation to revolutionary concepts that would require the development of advanced nuclear technologies.

  19. [Treatment strategies for advanced prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Küronya, Zsófia; Bíró, Krisztina; Géczi, Lajos; Németh, Hajnalka

    2015-09-01

    There has been dramatic improvement in the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer recently. The treatment of localized disease became more successful with the application of new, sophisticated techniques available for urologic surgeons and radiotherapists. Nevertheless a significant proportion of patients relapses after the initial local treatment or is diagnosed with metastatic disease at the beginning. In the past five years, six new drugs became registered for the treatment of metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer, such as sipuleucel-T, cabazitaxel, abiraterone, enzalutamide, the α-emitting radionuclide alpharadin and the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B (RANK) ligand inhibitor denosumab. The availability of these new treatment options raises numerous questions. In this review we present the standard of care of metastatic prostate cancer by disease stage (hormone naive/ hormone sensitive metastatic prostate cancer, non-metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, oligometastatic/multimetastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer) and the emerging treatment modalities presently assessed in clinical trials. We would also like to give advice on debatable aspects of the management of metastatic prostate cancer. PMID:26339912

  20. Advanced dimming strategy for solid state luminaires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beczkowski, Szymon

    2010-08-01

    Increased luminaire gamut as well as increase in luminous efficiency is found when the LED based luminaire is driven by a hybrid PWM/AM dimming technique. This technique is applicable to any n-chromaticity luminaire but it is especially suitable for trichromatic RGB luminaires that do not have inherent degrees of freedom. Diodes' properties under the hybrid dimming method were measured and used in nonlinear optimization routine to find the driving conditions that yield e.g. the highest possible efficacy for a given color point.

  1. Comprehensive national energy strategy

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    This Comprehensive National Energy Strategy sets forth a set of five common sense goals for national energy policy: (1) improve the efficiency of the energy system, (2) ensure against energy disruptions, (3) promote energy production and use in ways that respect health and environmental values, (4) expand future energy choices, and (5) cooperate internationally on global issues. These goals are further elaborated by a series of objectives and strategies to illustrate how the goals will be achieved. Taken together, the goals, objectives, and strategies form a blueprint for the specific programs, projects, initiatives, investments, and other actions that will be developed and undertaken by the Federal Government, with significant emphasis on the importance of the scientific and technological advancements that will allow implementation of this Comprehensive National Energy Strategy. Moreover, the statutory requirement of regular submissions of national energy policy plans ensures that this framework can be modified to reflect evolving conditions, such as better knowledge of our surroundings, changes in energy markets, and advances in technology. This Strategy, then, should be thought of as a living document. Finally, this plan benefited from the comments and suggestions of numerous individuals and organizations, both inside and outside of government. The Summary of Public Comments, located at the end of this document, describes the public participation process and summarizes the comments that were received. 8 figs.

  2. Faculty Development for Institutional Change: Lessons from an Advance Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laursen, Sandra; Rocque, Bill

    2009-01-01

    The ADVANCE Institutional Transformation projects are remarkably diverse in their theories of action and choice of strategies. However, faculty development plays a role in many, and it was the central change strategy chosen by Leadership Education for Advancement and Promotion (LEAP), the 2002-2008 ADVANCE project at the University of Colorado at…

  3. Advance directives

    PubMed Central

    O’Sullivan, Rory; Mailo, Kevin; Angeles, Ricardo; Agarwal, Gina

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To establish the prevalence of patients with advance directives in a family practice, and to describe patients’ perspectives on a family doctor’s role in initiating discussions about advance directives. Design A self-administered patient questionnaire. Setting A busy urban family medicine teaching clinic in Hamilton, Ont. Participants A convenience sample of adult patients attending the clinic over the course of a typical business week. Main outcome measures The prevalence of advance directives in the patient population was determined, and the patients’ expectations regarding the role of their family doctors were elucidated. Results The survey population consisted of 800 participants (a response rate of 72.5%) well distributed across age groups; 19.7% had written advance directives and 43.8% had previously discussed the topic of advance directives, but only 4.3% of these discussions had occurred with family doctors. In 5.7% of cases, a family physician had raised the issue; 72.3% of respondents believed patients should initiate the discussion. Patients who considered advance directives extremely important were significantly more likely to want their family doctors to start the conversation (odds ratio 3.98; P < .05). Conclusion Advance directives were not routinely addressed in the family practice. Most patients preferred to initiate the discussion of advance directives. However, patients who considered the subject extremely important wanted their family doctors to initiate the discussion. PMID:25873704

  4. Advanced Microsensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This video looks at a spinoff application of the technology from advanced microsensors -- those that monitor and determine conditions of spacecraft like the Space Shuttle. The application featured is concerned with the monitoring of the health of premature babies.

  5. Literacy Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Instructional Services.

    The literacy strategies in this guide provide practical suggestions for teachers, regardless of discipline, to help middle school and high school students move to Levels III and IV on the North Carolina End-of-Grade Reading/Competency Tests. The strategies in the guide are designed for use with "inefficient" readers (not nonreaders). After an…

  6. Using Steffe's Advanced Fraction Schemes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCloskey, Andrea V.; Norton, Anderson H.

    2009-01-01

    Recognizing schemes, which are different from strategies, can help teachers understand their students' thinking about fractions. Using Steffe's advanced fraction schemes, the authors describe a progression of development that upper elementary and middle school students might follow in understanding fractions. Each scheme can be viewed as a…

  7. Advanced glycation end products

    PubMed Central

    Gkogkolou, Paraskevi; Böhm, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Aging is the progressive accumulation of damage to an organism over time leading to disease and death. Aging research has been very intensive in the last years aiming at characterizing the pathophysiology of aging and finding possibilities to fight age-related diseases. Various theories of aging have been proposed. In the last years advanced glycation end products (AGEs) have received particular attention in this context. AGEs are formed in high amounts in diabetes but also in the physiological organism during aging. They have been etiologically implicated in numerous diabetes- and age-related diseases. Strategies inhibiting AGE accumulation and signaling seem to possess a therapeutic potential in these pathologies. However, still little is known on the precise role of AGEs during skin aging. In this review the existing literature on AGEs and skin aging will be reviewed. In addition, existing and potential anti-AGE strategies that may be beneficial on skin aging will be discussed. PMID:23467327

  8. Advance Care Planning

    Cancer.gov

    The thirteenth module of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans explores the attitudes and practices of African Americans related to completion of advance directives, and recommends effective strategies to improve decision-making in the setting of serious, life-threatening illness, in ways that augment patient autonomy and support patient-centered goal-setting and decision-making among African American patients and their families.

  9. Methods and Strategies: Talk Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Lauren M.; Shanahan, Therese B.

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses how to promote oral language development through science. The authors describe how they incorporate academic "talk strategies" into science lessons in a nonintrusive and meaningful manner. These talk strategies are adapted from the "Avenues" (2007) curriculum for English learners (ELs), which gives examples of cooperative…

  10. Advanced fuel chemistry for advanced engines.

    SciTech Connect

    Taatjes, Craig A.; Jusinski, Leonard E.; Zador, Judit; Fernandes, Ravi X.; Miller, James A.

    2009-09-01

    Autoignition chemistry is central to predictive modeling of many advanced engine designs that combine high efficiency and low inherent pollutant emissions. This chemistry, and especially its pressure dependence, is poorly known for fuels derived from heavy petroleum and for biofuels, both of which are becoming increasingly prominent in the nation's fuel stream. We have investigated the pressure dependence of key ignition reactions for a series of molecules representative of non-traditional and alternative fuels. These investigations combined experimental characterization of hydroxyl radical production in well-controlled photolytically initiated oxidation and a hybrid modeling strategy that linked detailed quantum chemistry and computational kinetics of critical reactions with rate-equation models of the global chemical system. Comprehensive mechanisms for autoignition generally ignore the pressure dependence of branching fractions in the important alkyl + O{sub 2} reaction systems; however we have demonstrated that pressure-dependent 'formally direct' pathways persist at in-cylinder pressures.

  11. Technological Advancements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2010-01-01

    The influx of technology has brought significant improvements to school facilities. Many of those advancements can be found in classrooms, but when students head down the hall to use the washrooms, they are likely to find a host of technological innovations that have improved conditions in that part of the building. This article describes modern…

  12. Research Advances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Angela G.

    2004-01-01

    Research advances, a new feature in Journal of Chemical Engineering that brings information about innovations in current areas of research to high school and college science faculty with an intent to provide educators with timely descriptions of latest progress in research that can be integrated into existing courses to update course content and…

  13. Advance Planning by Same-Sex Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggle, Ellen D. B.; Rostosky, Sharon S.; Prather, Robert A.

    2006-01-01

    The lack of legal recognition of same-sex couples can leave partners vulnerable in a crisis or emergency. Advance planning is one strategy couples can use to establish legal rights. Analyses of data collected from both partners in 131 same-sex couples suggested that executing advance-planning documents (wills, powers of attorney for finance and…

  14. Using Advance Organizers in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Searls, Evelyn F.

    After expanding on the definition of advance organizers as proposed by David Ausubel, this paper offers possible reasons for the lack of strong empirical support for the use of the strategy. It then cites examples of the successful use of advance organizers with learners from nursery school through college and in a variety of disciplines. The…

  15. Cetacean Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliland, Denise DelGrosso

    1991-01-01

    Suggested are activities about whales for children in schools not near the ocean. Activities designed to pique students' interest in whales and to investigate the size, breathing, buoyancy, and feeding strategies of whales are discussed. (CW)

  16. A Forum To Expand Advanced Placement Opportunities: Increasing Access and Improving Preparation in High Schools. Strategies To Overcome Challenges in Rural and Small Schools. Transcript of Proceedings (Washington, D.C., February 11, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    This transcript reproduces a Department of Education/College Board sponsored discussion on ways to expand advanced placement (AP) opportunities in high schools. The deliberations opened with a presentation by Phil Chavez, an assistant principal in San Antonio, Texas, who outlined the genesis and development of the AP program in his predominantly…

  17. Advanced Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, Gordon R.

    2013-03-11

    The activity reported in this presentation is to provide the mechanical and physical property information needed to allow rational design, development and/or choice of alloys, manufacturing approaches, and environmental exposure and component life models to enable oxy-fuel combustion boilers to operate at Ultra-Supercritical (up to 650{degrees}C & between 22-30 MPa) and/or Advanced Ultra-Supercritical conditions (760{degrees}C & 35 MPa).

  18. Advanced computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Advanced concepts in hardware, software and algorithms are being pursued for application in next generation space computers and for ground based analysis of space data. The research program focuses on massively parallel computation and neural networks, as well as optical processing and optical networking which are discussed under photonics. Also included are theoretical programs in neural and nonlinear science, and device development for magnetic and ferroelectric memories.

  19. Advanced Nanoemulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fryd, Michael M.; Mason, Thomas G.

    2012-05-01

    Recent advances in the growing field of nanoemulsions are opening up new applications in many areas such as pharmaceuticals, foods, and cosmetics. Moreover, highly controlled nanoemulsions can also serve as excellent model systems for investigating basic scientific questions about soft matter. Here, we highlight some of the most recent developments in nanoemulsions, focusing on methods of formation, surface modification, material properties, and characterization. These developments provide insight into the substantial advantages that nanoemulsions can offer over their microscale emulsion counterparts.

  20. Establishing the value of advanced glazings

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, E; Selkowitz, S.

    1999-01-01

    Numerous glazing technologies are under development worldwide to improve the performance of building facades. High-performance glazings can provide substantial energy and related environmental benefits, but often at greatly increased first cost when compared to conventional design solutions. To increase market viability, we discuss strategies to reduce the actual and owner-perceived costs associated with developing and producing advanced window systems, specifically switchable electrochromic glazings, and we also suggest marketing strategies designed to appeal to early adopter and mainstream purchasers. These strategies may be applicable to a broad range of advanced glazing materials.

  1. Dos Hermanas Chicanas: Overcoming Barriers to Professional Advancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prospero, Moises

    2007-01-01

    Women and ethnic minorities face steep barriers to professional advancement, and those who rise to the executive level typically use a variety of strategies to overcome obstacles in their way. This study first reviewed the literature on barriers to professional advancement for women and ethnic minorities and the strategies that they report using…

  2. College Enhancement Strategies and Socioeconomic Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolniak, Gregory C.; Wells, Ryan S.; Engberg, Mark E.; Manly, Catherine A.

    2016-01-01

    The study provides new information on the relationships between students' socioeconomic backgrounds, utilization of college enhancement strategies, and subsequent 4-year college enrollment. Enhancement strategies represent student behaviors used to bolster the competitiveness of a college application, such as Advanced Placement exams and a variety…

  3. Advanced solar thermal receiver technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kudirka, A. A.; Leibowitz, L. P.

    1980-01-01

    Development of advanced receiver technology for solar thermal receivers designed for electric power generation or for industrial applications, such as fuels and chemical production or industrial process heat, is described. The development of this technology is focused on receivers that operate from 1000 F to 3000 F and above. Development strategy is mapped in terms of application requirements, and the related system and technical requirements. Receiver performance requirements and current development efforts are covered for five classes of receiver applications: high temperature, advanced Brayton, Stirling, and Rankine cycle engines, and fuels and chemicals.

  4. [Potentiation strategies].

    PubMed

    Doumy, Olivier; Bennabi, Djamila; El-Hage, Wissam; Allaïli, Najib; Bation, Rémy; Bellivier, Frank; Holtzmann, Jérôme; Bubrovszky, Maxime; Camus, Vincent; Charpeaud, Thomas; Courvoisier, Pierre; d'Amato, Thierry; Garnier, Marion; Haesebaert, Frédéric; Bougerol, Thierry; Lançon, Christophe; Moliere, Fanny; Nieto, Isabel; Richieri, Raphaëlle; Saba, Ghassen; Courtet, Philippe; Vaiva, Guillaume; Leboyer, Marion; Llorca, Pierre-Michel; Aouizerate, Bruno; Haffen, Emmanuel

    2016-03-01

    Lithium is among the most classically recommended add-on therapeutic strategy for the management of depressive patients showing unsuccessful response to standard antidepressant medications. The effectiveness of the add-on strategy with lithium requires achieving plasma levels above 0.5 mEq/L. Mood-stabilizing antiepileptic drugs such as carbamazepine, valproate derivatives or lamotrigine have not demonstrated conclusive therapeutic effects for the management of depressive patients showing unsuccessful response to standard antidepressant medications. Thyroid hormones are considered among the currently recommended add-on therapeutic strategy for the management of depressive patients showing unsuccessful response to standard antidepressant medications. The effectiveness of the add-on strategy with thyroid hormones requires achieving plasma concentration of TSH close to the lower limits at the normal range (0.4 μUI/L) or even below it. Second-generation antipsychotics such as aripiprazole or quetiapine have consistently demonstrated significant therapeutic effects for the management of depressive patients showing unsuccessful response to standard antidepressant medications. Second-generation antipsychotics however require the careful monitoring of both cardiovascular and metabolic adverse effects. PMID:26970936

  5. Advanced LIGO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Aasi, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M. R.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V.; Affeldt, C.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Alemic, A.; Allen, B.; Amariutei, D.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C.; Areeda, J. S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, S.; Aston, S. M.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Aylott, B. E.; Babak, S.; Baker, P. T.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barbet, M.; Barclay, S.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Bartlett, J.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Behnke, B.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C.; Benacquista, M.; Bergman, J.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Biscans, S.; Biwer, C.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Bojtos, P.; Bond, C.; Bork, R.; Born, M.; Bose, Sukanta; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Brau, J. E.; Bridges, D. O.; Brinkmann, M.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Buchman, S.; Buikema, A.; Buonanno, A.; Cadonati, L.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Caride, S.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cepeda, C.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chen, Y.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Collette, C.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Countryman, S.; Couvares, P.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cutler, C.; Dahl, K.; Dal Canton, T.; Damjanic, M.; Danilishin, S. L.; Danzmann, K.; Dartez, L.; Dave, I.; Daveloza, H.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; DeBra, D.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; D´ıaz, M.; Di Palma, I.; Dojcinoski, G.; Dominguez, E.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Dwyer, S.; Eberle, T.; Edo, T.; Edwards, M.; Edwards, M.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Essick, R.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Factourovich, M.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Fang, Q.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Feldbaum, D.; Ferreira, E. C.; Fisher, R. P.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fuentes-Tapia, S.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gair, J. R.; Gaonkar, S.; Gehrels, N.; Gergely, L. Á.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Gleason, J.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gordon, N.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S.; Goßler, S.; Gräf, C.; Graff, P. B.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guido, C. J.; Guo, X.; Gushwa, K.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.; Hanke, M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Hee, S.; Heintze, M.; Heinzel, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Hollitt, S. E.; Holt, K.; Hopkins, P.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Houston, E.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huerta, E.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh, M.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Idrisy, A.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Islas, G.; Isler, J. C.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacobson, M.; Jang, H.; Jawahar, S.; Ji, Y.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Ju, L.; Haris, K.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, H.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kawazoe, F.; Keiser, G. M.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Keppel, D. G.; Key, J. S.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kim, C.; Kim, K.; Kim, N. G.; Kim, N.; Kim, Y.-M.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Klimenko, S.; Kline, J.; Koehlenbeck, S.; Kokeyama, K.; Kondrashov, V.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, P.; Kuo, L.; Landry, M.; Lantz, B.; Larson, S.; Lasky, P. D.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Le, J.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Leong, J. R.; Levin, Y.; Levine, B.; Lewis, J.; Li, T. G. F.; Libbrecht, K.; Libson, A.; Lin, A. C.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lockett, V.; Logue, J.; Lombardi, A. L.; Lormand, M.; Lough, J.; Lubinski, M. J.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Macarthur, J.; MacDonald, T.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Magee, R.; Mageswaran, M.; Maglione, C.; Mailand, K.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A.; Maros, E.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Martynov, D.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Massinger, T. J.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; Mazzolo, G.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McLin, K.; McWilliams, S.; Meadors, G. D.; Meinders, M.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Meyers, P. M.; Miao, H.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Miller, A.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moe, B.; Mohanty, S. D.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Moore, B.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, C. L.; Mueller, G.; Mukherjee, S.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Nash, T.; Nayak, R. K.; Necula, V.; Nedkova, K.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A. H.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, R.; O'Reilly, B.; Ortega, W.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Osthelder, C.; Ott, C. D.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Padilla, C.; Pai, A.; Pai, S.; Palashov, O.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H.; Patrick, Z.; Pedraza, M.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Phelps, M.; Pierro, V.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poeld, J.; Post, A.; Poteomkin, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Premachandra, S.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prokhorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Pürrer, M.; Qin, J.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E.; Quiroga, G.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajalakshmi, G.; Rakhmanov, M.; Ramirez, K.; Raymond, V.; Reed, C. M.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Reula, O.; Riles, K.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V.; Romano, J. D.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Sammut, L.; Sandberg, V.; Sanders, J. R.; Sannibale, V.; Santiago-Prieto, I.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Savage, R.; Sawadsky, A.; Scheuer, J.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sergeev, A.; Serna, G.; Sevigny, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shao, Z.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Sidery, T. L.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Simakov, D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L.; Singh, R.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, M. R.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith-Lefebvre, N. D.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Souradeep, T.; Staley, A.; Stebbins, J.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Steplewski, S.; Stevenson, S.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Strigin, S.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sutton, P. J.; Szczepanczyk, M.; Szeifert, G.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tápai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, R.; Tellez, G.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, V.; Tomlinson, C.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Traylor, G.; Tse, M.; Tshilumba, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; Vallisneri, M.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vass, S.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Vincent-Finley, R.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vorvick, C.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L.; Wade, M.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Welborn, T.; Wen, L.; Wessels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whitcomb, S. E.; White, D. J.; Whiting, B. F.; Wilkinson, C.; Williams, L.; Williams, R.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Worden, J.; Xie, S.; Yablon, J.; Yakushin, I.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yang, Q.; Zanolin, M.; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S.; Zweizig, J.

    2015-04-01

    The Advanced LIGO gravitational wave detectors are second-generation instruments designed and built for the two LIGO observatories in Hanford, WA and Livingston, LA, USA. The two instruments are identical in design, and are specialized versions of a Michelson interferometer with 4 km long arms. As in Initial LIGO, Fabry-Perot cavities are used in the arms to increase the interaction time with a gravitational wave, and power recycling is used to increase the effective laser power. Signal recycling has been added in Advanced LIGO to improve the frequency response. In the most sensitive frequency region around 100 Hz, the design strain sensitivity is a factor of 10 better than Initial LIGO. In addition, the low frequency end of the sensitivity band is moved from 40 Hz down to 10 Hz. All interferometer components have been replaced with improved technologies to achieve this sensitivity gain. Much better seismic isolation and test mass suspensions are responsible for the gains at lower frequencies. Higher laser power, larger test masses and improved mirror coatings lead to the improved sensitivity at mid and high frequencies. Data collecting runs with these new instruments are planned to begin in mid-2015.

  6. Advanced Pacemaker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Synchrony, developed by St. Jude Medical's Cardiac Rhythm Management Division (formerly known as Pacesetter Systems, Inc.) is an advanced state-of-the-art implantable pacemaker that closely matches the natural rhythm of the heart. The companion element of the Synchrony Pacemaker System is the Programmer Analyzer APS-II which allows a doctor to reprogram and fine tune the pacemaker to each user's special requirements without surgery. The two-way communications capability that allows the physician to instruct and query the pacemaker is accomplished by bidirectional telemetry. APS-II features 28 pacing functions and thousands of programming combinations to accommodate diverse lifestyles. Microprocessor unit also records and stores pertinent patient data up to a year.

  7. Space Science Enterprise Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The 2003 Space Science Enterprise Strategy represents the efforts of hundreds of scientists, staff, and educators, as well as collaboration with the other NASA Enterprises. It reveals the progress we have made, our plans for the near future, and our opportunity to support the Agency's Mission to "explore the universe and search for life." Space science has made spectacular advances in the recent past, from the first baby pictures of the universe to the discovery of water ice on Mars. Each new discovery impels us to ask new questions or regard old ones in new ways. How did the universe begin? How did life arise? Are we alone? These questions continue to inspire all of us to keep exploring and searching. And, as we get closer to answers, we will continue to share our findings with the science community, educators, and the public as broadly and as rapidly as possible. In this Strategy, you will find science objectives that define NASA's quest for discovery. You will also find the framework of programs, such as flight missions and ground-based research, that will enable us to achieve these objectives. This Strategy is founded on recommendations from the community, as well as lessons learned from past programs, and maps the stepping-stones to the future of space science.

  8. Bio-Inspired Antifouling Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirschner, Chelsea M.; Brennan, Anthony B.

    2012-08-01

    Biofouling is a complex, dynamic problem that globally impacts both the economy and environment. Interdisciplinary research in marine biology, polymer science, and engineering has led to the implementation of bio-inspired strategies for the development of the next generation of antifouling marine coatings. Natural fouling defense mechanisms have been mimicked through chemical, physical, and/or stimuli-responsive strategies. This review outlines the detrimental effects associated with biofouling, describes the theoretical basis for antifouling coating design, and highlights prominent advances in bio-inspired antifouling technologies.

  9. Advanced capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, R. D.; Buritz, R. S.; Taylor, A. R.; Bullwinkel, E. P.

    1982-11-01

    An experimental development program was conducted to develop and test advanced dielectric materials for capacitors for airborne power systems. High rep rate and low rate capacitors for use in pulse-forming networks, high voltage filter capacitors, and high frequency ac capacitors for series resonant inverters were considered. The initial goal was to develop an improved polysulfone film. Initially, low breakdown strength was thought to be related to inclusions of conductive particles. The effect of filtration of the casting solution was investigated. These experiments showed that more filtration was not the entire solution to low breakdown. The film samples were found to contain dissolved ionic impurities that move through the dielectric when voltage is applied and cause enhancement of the electric field. These contaminants enter the film via the resin and solvent, and can be partially removed. However, these treatments did not significantly improve the breakdown characteristics. A new material, Ultem, was proposed for use in high energy density capacitors. This new polyetherimide resin has properties similar to polysulfone and polyimide, with improvement in breakdown characteristics and temperature capability. The technique of casting films on a roughened drum was demonstrated, and found useful in preparing textured films. this is the first step toward a replacement for kraft paper.

  10. Advanced capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ennis, J. B.; Buritz, R. S.

    1984-10-01

    This report describes an experimental program to develop and test advanced dielectric materials for capacitors for airborne power systems. Five classes of capacitors were considered: high rep rate and low rep rate pulse capacitors for use in pulse-forming networks, high voltage filter capacitors, high frequency AC capacitors for series resonant inverters, and AC filter capacitors. To meet these requirements, existing dielectric materials were modified, and new materials were developed. The initial goal was to develop an improved polysulfone film with fewer imperfections that could operate at significantly higher electrical stresses. It was shown that contaminants enter the film via the resin and solvent, and that they can be partially removed. As far as developed, however, these treatments did not significantly improved the breakdown characteristics. The technique of casting films on a roughened drum was demonstrated, and found useful in preparing textured films -- the first step toward a replacement for Kraft paper. A new material, Ultem, was proposed for use in high energy density capacitors. This new polyetherimide resin has properties similar to polysulfone and polyimide, with improvement in breakdown characteristics and temperature capability. This material was selected for further study in model capacitor designs.

  11. Future advances.

    PubMed

    Celesia, Gastone G; Hickok, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Future advances in the auditory systems are difficult to predict, and only educated guesses are possible. It is expected that innovative technologies in the field of neuroscience will be applied to the auditory system. Optogenetics, Brainbow, and CLARITY will improve our knowledge of the working of neural auditory networks and the relationship between sound and language, providing a dynamic picture of the brain in action. CLARITY makes brain tissue transparent and offers a three-dimensional view of neural networks, which, combined with genetically labeling neurons with multiple, distinct colors (Optogenetics), will provide detailed information of the complex brain system. Molecular functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) will allow the study of neurotransmitters detectable by MRI and their function in the auditory pathways. The Human Connectome project will study the patterns of distributed brain activity that underlie virtually all aspects of cognition and behavior and determine if abnormalities in the distributed patterns of activity may result in hearing and behavior disorders. Similarly, the programs of Big Brain and ENIGMA will improve our understanding of auditory disorders. New stem-cell therapy and gene therapies therapy may bring about a partial restoration of hearing for impaired patients by inducing regeneration of cochlear hair cells. PMID:25726297

  12. Use of Cognitive Strategies by High School Social Studies Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Leisa A.

    2005-01-01

    This research study used grounded theory in an attempt to explain how 10th-grade public school students in average and advanced classes used strategies to learn material in their high school social studies classes. This study sought to understand the strategies that students used to learn information, the frequency of their strategy use, and the…

  13. Strategy Guideline: High Performance Residential Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Holton, J.

    2012-02-01

    The Strategy Guideline: High Performance Residential Lighting has been developed to provide a tool for the understanding and application of high performance lighting in the home. The high performance lighting strategies featured in this guide are drawn from recent advances in commercial lighting for application to typical spaces found in residential buildings. This guide offers strategies to greatly reduce lighting energy use through the application of high quality fluorescent and light emitting diode (LED) technologies. It is important to note that these strategies not only save energy in the home but also serve to satisfy the homeowner's expectations for high quality lighting.

  14. Mining Social Entrepreneurship Strategies Using Topic Modeling.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Yanto; Jiang, Li Crystal; Wang, Cheng-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Despite the burgeoning research on social entrepreneurship (SE), SE strategies remain poorly understood. Drawing on extant research on the social activism and social change, empowerment and SE models, we explore, classify and validate the strategies used by 2,334 social entrepreneurs affiliated with the world's largest SE support organization, Ashoka. The results of the topic modeling of the social entrepreneurs' strategy profiles reveal that they employed a total of 39 change-making strategies that vary across resources (material versus symbolic strategies), specificity (general versus specific strategies), and mode of participation (mass versus elite participation strategies); they also vary across fields of practice and time. Finally, we identify six meta-SE strategies-a reduction from the 39 strategies-and identify four new meta-SE strategies (i.e., system reform, physical capital development, evidence-based practices, and prototyping) that have been overlooked in prior SE research. Our findings extend and deepen the research into SE strategies and offer a comprehensive model of SE strategies that advances theory, practice and policy making. PMID:26998970

  15. Short- and Long-Term Quality of Life and Bowel Function in Patients With MRI-Defined, High-Risk, Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer Treated With an Intensified Neoadjuvant Strategy in the Randomized Phase 2 EXPERT-C Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Sclafani, Francesco; Peckitt, Clare; Cunningham, David; Tait, Diana; Giralt, Jordi; Glimelius, Bengt; Keränen, Susana Roselló; Bateman, Andrew; Hickish, Tamas; Tabernero, Josep; Thomas, Janet; Brown, Gina; Oates, Jacqueline; Chau, Ian

    2015-10-01

    Objective: Intensified preoperative treatments have been increasingly investigated in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC), but limited data are available for the impact of these regimens on quality of life (QoL) and bowel function (BF). We assessed these outcome measures in EXPERT-C, a randomized phase 2 trial of neoadjuvant capecitabine combined with oxaliplatin (CAPOX), followed by chemoradiation therapy (CRT), total mesorectal excision, and adjuvant CAPOX with or without cetuximab in magnetic resonance imaging-defined, high-risk LARC. Methods and Materials: QoL was assessed using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 and QLQ-CR29 questionnaires. Bowel incontinence was assessed using the modified Fecal Incontinence Severity Index questionnaire. Results: Compared to baseline, QoL scores during preoperative treatment were better for symptoms associated with the primary tumor in the rectum (blood and mucus in stool, constipation, diarrhea, stool frequency, buttock pain) but worse for global health status, role functioning, and symptoms related to the specific safety profile of each treatment modality. During follow-up, improved emotional functioning and lessened anxiety and insomnia were observed, but deterioration of body image, increased urinary incontinence, less sexual interest (men), and increased impotence and dyspareunia were observed. Cetuximab was associated with a deterioration of global health status during neoadjuvant chemotherapy but did not have any long-term detrimental effect. An improvement in bowel continence was observed after preoperative treatment and 3 years after sphincter-sparing surgery. Conclusions: Intensifying neoadjuvant treatment by administering induction systemic chemotherapy before chemoradiation therapy improves tumor-related symptoms and does not appear to have a significantly detrimental effect on QoL and BF, in both the short and the long term.

  16. Recent advances in understanding and treating ARDS

    PubMed Central

    Baron, Rebecca M.; Levy, Bruce D.

    2016-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome represents a complex syndrome with considerable morbidity and mortality, for which there exist no targeted treatment strategies. However, recent advances in clinical care have improved outcomes, and we will review a number of these approaches here, as well as explore the mechanisms underlying the benefit of intervention that might point us in the direction toward future treatment and preventive strategies for this devastating syndrome. PMID:27158460

  17. SCIENCE BRIEF: ADVANCED CONCEPTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research on advanced concepts will evaluate and demonstrate the application of innovative infrastructure designs, management procedures and operational approaches. Advanced concepts go beyond simple asset management. The infusion of these advanced concepts into established wastew...

  18. Recent advancements in the cardiovascular drug carriers.

    PubMed

    Singh, Baljeet; Garg, Tarun; Goyal, Amit K; Rath, Goutam

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the disease that affects the cardiovascular system, vascular diseases of the brain and kidney, and peripheral arterial disease. Despite of all advances in pharmacological and clinical treatment, heart failure is a leading cause of morbidness and mortality worldwide. Many new therapeutic advance strategies, including cell transplantation, gene delivery or therapy, and cytokines or other small molecules, have been research to treat heart failure. The main aim of this review article is to focus on nano carriers advancement and addressing the problems associated with old and modern therapeutics such as nonspecific effects and poor stability. PMID:25046615

  19. Nanomaterial-based advanced immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Hu, Weihua; Li, Chang Ming

    2011-01-01

    Immunoassay has been the main stream in clinic diagnostics and still attracts extensive research interest in recent years to develop reliable, fast, sensitive, and specific detection methods and platforms to expand its applications in various areas including proteomics, drug discovery, homeland security, food safety, environmental monitoring, and health care. With the dramatic progress in material science, nanotechnology, and bioconjugation techniques, a great diversity of nanomaterials with desirable superior properties have been designed, synthesized, and tailored to facilitate high-performance detections for advanced immunoassays. This paper comprehensively reviews recent advances in nanomaterial-based immunoassay technologies and particularly highlights newly developed strategies associated with interdisciplinary areas for performance enhancement and related mechanisms. The future perspectives of immunosensing technologies are also discussed. PMID:25363746

  20. Subsea completion technology needs advances

    SciTech Connect

    Ledbetter, R.

    1995-09-18

    Subsea technology needs further advances to reduce operational costs before operators will expand the use of subsea well completions in the Gulf of Mexico. They will continue to choose surface completion-oriented systems as long as these are more economical operationally than subsea system. Designs of subsea equipment such as trees, connectors, control pods, umbilicals, and flow lines, must bring about reductions in the cost of both installation and workover compatibility. Remote operated vehicle (ROV) manipulation is one avenue that should be exploited. The bottom line is that significant cooperation between equipment manufacturers and ROV companies is needed to develop advanced ROV technology, and operators should be involved to help guide operational strategies.

  1. The Advanced Manufacturing Laboratory at RPI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desrochers, A.; DeRusso, P. M.

    1984-01-01

    An Advanced Manufacturing Laboratory (AML) has been established at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI). AML courses, course objectives, instructional strategies, student experiences in design and manufacturing, and AML equipment are discussed. Overall recommendations based on student and instructor experiences are also presented. (JN)

  2. TECHcitement: Advances in Technology Education, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Madeline

    2008-01-01

    This publication presents the following articles: (1) Advanced Technological Education (ATE) Develops Student Recruitment and Retention Strategies; (2) Marketer Advises Tech Educators Appeal to Teens' Emotions, Desires to Do Something Important; (3) Digital Bridge Academy Gets At-Risk Students on Paths to Knowledge-Based Careers; (4) Project…

  3. Advancing Technological Education: Keeping America Competitive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Madeline

    2005-01-01

    This publication profiles the strategies and best practices of Advanced Technological Education (ATE) Centers in developing faculty skills, cultivating partnerships, implementing new curricula, recruiting students, preparing for change, utilizing advisors, managing organizations, and nurturing leaders. In this report, ATE center leaders share with…

  4. Advanced Biorefineries for Production of Fuel Ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review, "Advanced biorefineries for production of fuel ethanol," is a chapter in the Wiley book entitled Biomass to Biofuels: Strategies for Global Industries and is intended to cover all major ethanol production processes to date. The chapter discusses current fuel ethanol production processe...

  5. Population in Advanced Placement Human Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Martha B.

    2000-01-01

    Addresses the population section of the Advanced Placement course outline for human geography, focusing on four themes: (1) geographical analysis of population; (2) population distribution and composition; (3) population growth and decline over time and space; and (4) population movement. Identifies strategies for instructional activities.…

  6. The Research Paper for Advanced ESL Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Donald; And Others

    A strategy for including writing of a research paper in a university's advanced intensive English course for students of English as a second language is described. The method consists of eight assignments given over the course of 11 weeks, resulting in a short research paper. The method is designed to minimize error by dealing with specific…

  7. Recent Advances in Preventing Adverse Reactions to Transfusion

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Thomas S; Fung, Mark K; Harm, Sarah K

    2015-01-01

    The spectrum of adverse reactions to blood product transfusion ranges from a benign clinical course to serious morbidity and mortality.  There have been many advances in technologies and transfusion strategies to decrease the risk of adverse reactions. Our aim is to address a few of the advancements in increasing the safety of the blood supply, specifically pathogen reduction technologies, bacterial contamination risk reduction, and transfusion associated acute lung injury risk mitigation strategies. PMID:27081471

  8. Recent Advances in Preventing Adverse Reactions to Transfusion.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Thomas S; Fung, Mark K; Harm, Sarah K

    2015-01-01

    The spectrum of adverse reactions to blood product transfusion ranges from a benign clinical course to serious morbidity and mortality.  There have been many advances in technologies and transfusion strategies to decrease the risk of adverse reactions. Our aim is to address a few of the advancements in increasing the safety of the blood supply, specifically pathogen reduction technologies, bacterial contamination risk reduction, and transfusion associated acute lung injury risk mitigation strategies. PMID:27081471

  9. Advances in reprogramming to pluripotency.

    PubMed

    Alateeq, Suad; Fortuna, Patrick R J; Wolvetang, Ernst

    2015-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) derived from somatic cells represent a powerful experimental tool for investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying the disease phenotype; with prospects to advance medical therapies. They also have significant potential as a renewable source of autologous cells for cellular therapy. Various approaches for PSC derivation from somatic cells have been reported in the literature. The method used for reprogramming is particularly relevant as it may affect the characteristics and quality of PSCs. This review will present an overview of the basic strategies and methods for reprogramming to pluripotency. These strategies will be briefly discussed in the context of how the mechanism of reprogramming could influence PSC characteristics with respect to safety and quality. Aspects of the reprogramming approach that can influence PSC properties, such as culture conditions and donor cell source, are also discussed. PMID:25697500

  10. ADVANCED EMISSIONS CONTROL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    G.A. Farthing

    2001-02-06

    The primary objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs, or air toxics) from coal-fired boilers. The project goal is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), fabric filters (baghouses), and wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) systems. Development work initially concentrated on the capture of trace metals, fine particulate, hydrogen chloride, and hydrogen fluoride. Recent work has focused almost exclusively on the control of mercury emissions.

  11. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    G. A. Farthing; G. T. Amrhein; G. A. Kudlac; D. A. Yurchison; D. K. McDonald; M. G. Milobowski

    2001-03-31

    The primary objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs, or air toxics) from coal-fired boilers. This objective is being met by identifying ways to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), fabric filters (fabric filters), and wet flue gas desulfurization (wet FGD) systems. Development work initially concentrated on the capture of trace metals, hydrogen chloride, and hydrogen fluoride. Recent work has focused almost exclusively on the control of mercury emissions.

  12. Mining Social Entrepreneurship Strategies Using Topic Modeling

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Despite the burgeoning research on social entrepreneurship (SE), SE strategies remain poorly understood. Drawing on extant research on the social activism and social change, empowerment and SE models, we explore, classify and validate the strategies used by 2,334 social entrepreneurs affiliated with the world’s largest SE support organization, Ashoka. The results of the topic modeling of the social entrepreneurs’ strategy profiles reveal that they employed a total of 39 change-making strategies that vary across resources (material versus symbolic strategies), specificity (general versus specific strategies), and mode of participation (mass versus elite participation strategies); they also vary across fields of practice and time. Finally, we identify six meta-SE strategies―a reduction from the 39 strategies―and identify four new meta-SE strategies (i.e., system reform, physical capital development, evidence-based practices, and prototyping) that have been overlooked in prior SE research. Our findings extend and deepen the research into SE strategies and offer a comprehensive model of SE strategies that advances theory, practice and policy making. PMID:26998970

  13. Advanced Cyberinfrastructure Investments Addressing Earth Science Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, A. L.; Spengler, S. J.; Zanzerkia, E. E.

    2014-12-01

    The National Science Foundation supports infrastructure development and research into Big Data challenges as part of its long-term cyberinfrastructure strategy. This strategy highlights the critical need to leverage and partner with other agencies, resources and service providers to the U.S. research community. The current cyberinfrastructure and research activities within NSF support advanced technology development, pilot demonstrations of new capabilities for the scientific community in general, and integration and interoperability of data resources across the Geoscience community. These activities include the Data Infrastructure Building Blocks, Big Data and EarthCube programs, among others. Investments are competitively solicited; the resulting portfolio of high performance computing, advanced information systems, new software capabilities, analytics and modeling supports a range of science disciplines. This presentation provides an overview of these research programs, highlighting some of the key investments in advanced analytics, coupled modeling, and seamless collaboration. Examples related to the geosciences, computer-aided discovery and hypothesis generation are highlighted.

  14. Advances in influenza vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Reperant, Leslie A.; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F.

    2014-01-01

    Influenza virus infections yearly cause high morbidity and mortality burdens in humans, and the development of a new influenza pandemic continues to threaten mankind as a Damoclean sword. Influenza vaccines have been produced by using egg-based virus growth and passaging techniques that were developed more than 60 years ago, following the identification of influenza A virus as an etiological agent of seasonal influenza. These vaccines aimed mainly at eliciting neutralizing antibodies targeting antigenically variable regions of the hemagglutinin (HA) protein, which requires regular updates to match circulating seasonal influenza A and B virus strains. Given the relatively limited protection induced by current seasonal influenza vaccines, a more universal influenza vaccine that would protect against more—if not all—influenza viruses is among the largest unmet medical needs of the 21st century. New insights into correlates of protection from influenza and into broad B- and T-cell protective anti-influenza immune responses offer promising avenues for innovative vaccine development as well as manufacturing strategies or platforms, leading to the development of a new generation of vaccines. These aim at the rapid and massive production of influenza vaccines that provide broad protective and long-lasting immunity. Recent advances in influenza vaccine research demonstrate the feasibility of a wide range of approaches and call for the initiation of preclinical proof-of-principle studies followed by clinical trials in humans. PMID:24991424

  15. Advanced Production Planning Models

    SciTech Connect

    JONES,DEAN A.; LAWTON,CRAIG R.; KJELDGAARD,EDWIN A.; WRIGHT,STEPHEN TROY; TURNQUIST,MARK A.; NOZICK,LINDA K.; LIST,GEORGE F.

    2000-12-01

    >This report describes the innovative modeling approach developed as a result of a 3-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development project. The overall goal of this project was to provide an effective suite of solvers for advanced production planning at facilities in the nuclear weapons complex (NWC). We focused our development activities on problems related to operations at the DOE's Pantex Plant. These types of scheduling problems appear in many contexts other than Pantex--both within the NWC (e.g., Neutron Generators) and in other commercial manufacturing settings. We successfully developed an innovative and effective solution strategy for these types of problems. We have tested this approach on actual data from Pantex, and from Org. 14000 (Neutron Generator production). This report focuses on the mathematical representation of the modeling approach and presents three representative studies using Pantex data. Results associated with the Neutron Generator facility will be published in a subsequent SAND report. The approach to task-based scheduling described here represents a significant addition to the literature for large-scale, realistic scheduling problems in a variety of production settings.

  16. Strategy Guideline. High Performance Residential Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Holton, J.

    2012-02-01

    This report has been developed to provide a tool for the understanding and application of high performance lighting in the home. The strategies featured in this guide are drawn from recent advances in commercial lighting for application to typical spaces found in residential buildings. This guide offers strategies to greatly reduce lighting energy use through the application of high quality fluorescent and light emitting diode (LED) technologies. It is important to note that these strategies not only save energy in the home but also serve to satisfy the homeowner’s expectations for high quality lighting.

  17. TEAM MODEL FOR EVALUATING ALTERNATIVE ADAPTATION STRATEGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Advances in the scientific literature have focused attention on the need to develop adaptation strategies to reduce the risks, and take advantage of the opportunities, posed by climate change and climate variability. Adaptation needs to be considered as part of any response plan....

  18. Health Promoting Schools: Consensus, Strategies, and Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macnab, Andrew J.; Gagnon, Faith A.; Stewart, Donald

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to summarize a consensus statement generated on the current challenges, strategies, and potential of health promoting schools (HPS) at a 2011 colloquium at the Stellenbosch Institute for Advanced Study where 40 people from five continents came together to share their global and regional experience surrounding…

  19. Achievement Goals, Learning Strategies and Instrumental Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Siw Graabraek

    2008-01-01

    The current study is a survey of the achievement goals of music students and the manner in which their strategies and instrumental performance relate to these goals. In the context of advanced instrumental learning, the rationale for the present study was to contribute to the literature on motivation in music students, and thereby, help teachers…

  20. ESL Reading Proficiency Assessment: Testing Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homburg, Taco Justus; Spaan, Mary C.

    Strategies used by English as second language readers to reconstruct an interrupted line of meaning were investigated using a cloze procedure in which selected words were replaced by nonsense words. The test was administered to 39 adults enrolled in intensive intermediate and advanced level English classes. The students were required to identify…

  1. Treatment of advanced Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Giugni, Juan C.; Okun, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of the review Later stage Parkinson’s disease (PD), sometimes referred to as advanced disease, has been characterized by motor complication, as well as by the potential emergence non-levodopa responsive motor and non-motor symptoms. The management of advanced stage PD can be complex. This review summarizes the currently available treatment strategies for addressing advanced PD. Recent findings We will discuss the latest pharmacological strategies (e.g. inhibitors of dopamine-metabolizing enzymes, dopamine agonists and extended release dopamine formulations) for addressing motor dysfunction. We will summarize the risks and benefits of current invasive treatments. Finally, we will address the current evidence supporting the treatment of non-motor symptoms in the advanced PD patient. We will conclude by detailing the potential non-pharmacological and multidisciplinary approaches for advanced stage PD. Summary The optimization of levodopa is in most cases the most powerful therapeutic option available, however medication optimization requires an advanced understanding of PD. Failure of conventional pharmacotherapy, should precipitate a discussion of the potential risks and benefits of more invasive treatments. Currently, there are no comparative studies of invasive treatment. Among the invasive treatments, deep brain stimulation has the largest amount of existing evidence, but also has the highest individual per patient risk. Non-motor symptoms will affect quality of life more than the motor PD symptoms, and these non-motor symptoms should be aggressively treated. Many advanced PD patients will likely benefit from multi- and interdisciplinary PD teams with multiple professionals collaborating to develop a collective and tailored strategy for an individual patient. PMID:24978634

  2. Supervisory Control Strategy Development

    SciTech Connect

    Gary D. Storrick; Bojan Petrovic

    2007-02-28

    Task 4 of this collaborative effort between ORNL, Brazil, and Westinghouse for the International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative entitled “Development of Advanced Instrumentation and Control for an Integrated Primary System Reactor” focused on the design of the hierarchical supervisory control for multiple-module units. The state of the IRIS plant design – specifically, the lack of a detailed secondary system design – made developing a detailed hierarchical control difficult at this time. However, other simultaneous and ongoing efforts have contributed to providing the needed information. This report summarizes the results achieved under Task 4 of this Financial Assistance Award. Section 1.2 describes the scope of this effort. Section 2 discusses the IRIS control functions. Next, it briefly reviews the current control concepts, and then reviews the maneuvering requirements for the IRIS plant. It closes by noting the benefits that automated sequences have in reducing operator workload. Section 3 examines reactor loading in the frequency domain to establish some guidelines for module operation, paying particular attention to strategies for using process steam for desalination and/or district heating. The final subsection discusses the implications for reactor control, and argues that using the envisioned percentage (up to 10%) of the NSSS thermal output for these purposes should not significantly affect the NSSS control strategies. Section 4 uses some very general economic assumptions to suggest how one should approach multi-module operation. It concludes that the well-known algorithms used for economic dispatching could be used to help manage a multi-unit IRIS site. Section 5 addresses the human performance factors of multi-module operation. Section 6 summarizes our conclusions.

  3. What Is Green Growth Strategy for Government Link Company?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamilah Asha’ari, Maryam; Daud, Salina; Hassan, Hasmaizan

    2016-03-01

    Disasters around the world are very extreme because of the global warming and climate change. Malaysia firms have to play their role in handling the challenging of environmental problems in order to sustain. The feature of the new strategy which is green growth strategy has been identified. The study focuses on the features of the green growth strategy which discuss on the keys to sustaining the strategy, marketing emphasis, production emphasis, product line, basis of competitive advantage and strategic target. Business had contributed to the industrialisation era positively or negatively and therefore there is a must for business people to use the best strategy in reducing the environmental risks. By 2020, Malaysia will achieve the target in becoming an advanced economy by applying the right strategy. The objective of this paper is to propose a feature for new strategy known as green growth strategy. Future study is to propose to conduct an empirical analysis to confirm the green growth strategy features.

  4. Defense display strategy and roadmaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopper, Darrel G.

    2002-08-01

    The Department of Defense (DoD) is developing a new strategy for displays. The new displays science and technology roadmap will incorporate urgent warfighter needs as well as investment opportunities where military advantage is foreseen. Thrusts now ending include the High Definition System (HDS) program and related initiatives, like flexible displays, at the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). Continuing thrusts include a variety of Serviceled programs to develop micro-displays for virtual image helmet-/rifle-mounted systems for pilots and soldiers, novel displays, materials, and basic research. New thrusts are being formulated for ultra-resolution, true 3D, and intelligent displays (integration of computers and communication functions into screens). The new strategy is Service-led.

  5. Emerging strategies for cancer immunoprevention.

    PubMed

    Roeser, J C; Leach, S D; McAllister, F

    2015-12-10

    The crucial role of the immune system in the formation and progression of tumors has been widely accepted. On one hand, the surveillance role of the immune system plays an important role in endogenous tumor prevention, but on the other hand, in some special circumstances such as in chronic inflammation, the immune system can actually contribute to the formation and progression of tumors. In recent years, there has been an explosion of novel targeted immunotherapies for advanced cancers. In the present manuscript, we explore known and potential various types of cancer prevention strategies and focus on nonvaccine-based cancer preventive strategies targeting the immune system at the early stages of tumorigenesis. PMID:26364615

  6. Immune Evasion Strategies of Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Razavi, Seyed-Mostafa; Lee, Karen E.; Jin, Benjamin E.; Aujla, Parvir S.; Gholamin, Sharareh; Li, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most devastating brain tumor, with associated poor prognosis. Despite advances in surgery and chemoradiation, the survival of afflicted patients has not improved significantly in the past three decades. Immunotherapy has been heralded as a promising approach in treatment of various cancers; however, the immune privileged environment of the brain usually curbs the optimal expected response in central nervous system malignancies. In addition, GBM cells create an immunosuppressive microenvironment and employ various methods to escape immune surveillance. The purpose of this review is to highlight the strategies by which GBM cells evade the host immune system. Further understanding of these strategies and the biology of this tumor will pave the way for developing novel immunotherapeutic approaches for treatment of GBM. PMID:26973839

  7. FOREWORD: Focus on Advanced Ceramics Focus on Advanced Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohashi, Naoki

    2011-06-01

    Much research has been devoted recently to developing technologies for renewable energy and improving the efficiency of the processes and devices used in industry and everyday life. Efficient solutions have been found using novel materials such as platinum and palladium-based catalysts for car exhaust systems, samarium-cobalt and neodymium-iron-boron permanent magnets for electrical motors, and so on. However, their realization has resulted in an increasing demand for rare elements and in their deficit, the development of new materials based on more abundant elements and new functionalities of traditional materials. Moreover, increasing environmental and health concerns demand substitution of toxic or hazardous substances with nature-friendly alternatives. In this context, this focus issue on advanced ceramics aims to review current trends in ceramics science and technology. It is related to the International Conference on Science and Technology of Advanced Ceramics (STAC) held annually to discuss the emerging issues in the field of ceramics. An important direction of ceramic science is the collaboration between experimental and theoretical sciences. Recent developments in density functional theory and computer technology have enabled the prediction of physical and chemical properties of ceramics, thereby assisting the design of new materials. Therefore, this focus issue includes articles devoted to theory and advanced characterization techniques. As mentioned above, the potential shortage of rare elements is becoming critical to the industry and has resulted in a Japanese government initiative called the 'Ubiquitous Element Strategy'. This focus issue also includes articles related to this strategy and to the associated topics of energy conversion, such as phosphors for high-efficiency lighting and photocatalysts for solar-energy harvesting. We hope that this focus issue will provide a timely overview of current trends and problems in ceramics science and

  8. Advance Care Planning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Division of Geriatrics and Clinical Gerontology Division of Neuroscience FAQs Funding Opportunities Intramural Research Program Office of ... Is Advance Care Planning? Advance care planning involves learning about the types of decisions that might need ...

  9. Advanced Strategy Guideline. Air Distribution Basics and Duct Design

    SciTech Connect

    Burdick, Arlan

    2011-12-01

    This report discusses considerations for designing an air distribution system for an energy efficient house that requires less air volume to condition the space. Considering the HVAC system early in the design process will allow adequate space for equipment and ductwork and can result in cost savings.

  10. Advanced Strategy Guideline: Air Distribution Basics and Duct Design

    SciTech Connect

    Burdick, A.

    2011-12-01

    This report discusses considerations for designing an air distribution system for an energy efficient house that requires less air volume to condition the space. Considering the HVAC system early in the design process will allow adequate space for equipment and ductwork and can result in cost savings. Principles discussed that will maximize occupant comfort include delivery of the proper amount of conditioned air for appropriate temperature mixing and uniformity without drafts, minimization of system noise, the impacts of pressure loss, efficient return air duct design, and supply air outlet placement, as well as duct layout, materials, and sizing.

  11. Strategies to identify microRNA targets: New advances

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small regulatory RNA molecules functioning to modulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level, and playing an important role in many developmental and physiological processes. Ten thousand miRNAs have been discovered in various organisms. Although considerable progr...

  12. Strategy Guideline: Advanced Construction Documentation Recommendations for High Performance Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Lukachko, A.; Gates, C.; Straube, J.

    2011-12-01

    As whole house energy efficiency increases, new houses become less like conventional houses that were built in the past. New materials and new systems require greater coordination and communication between industry stakeholders. The Guideline for Construction Documents for High Performance Housing provides advice to address this need. The reader will be presented with four changes that are recommended to achieve improvements in energy efficiency, durability and health in Building America houses: create coordination drawings, improve specifications, improve detail drawings, and review drawings and prepare a Quality Control Plan.

  13. Advanced marketing strategies to build the esthetic dental practice.

    PubMed

    Levin, R P

    1994-01-01

    Esthetic dentistry is truly a major part of the future of the fee-for-service practice. There are still many patients who seek high-quality elective care and these individuals need to be swayed to make an initial appointment with you. Whether you reach them through your present patients or through outreach to the community, the important key is your method of handling each of these patients as they join your practice. Customer service needs to be stronger and more obvious than ever before in order to differentiate your practice from others and to attract more referrals. The days of waiting for patients to arrive have clearly come to an end. Managed care and a decline in the need for traditional services has eroded a significant component of the dental market. When you combine that with the realization that only 50% of the population visits the dentist even once a year (and far less in many countries outside the United States), then it becomes obvious that the total available market for the elective services of esthetic dentistry has declined. Esthetic dentistry programs must be better defined, with an ongoing focus to educate present patients and to attract new patients. As I state in my seminars, I firmly believe that any practice today can still be highly successful. I do not feel that I will be making that statement three to five years from now. The time to begin positioning your practice for future growth of esthetic dentistry is now. As managed-care programs increase, it will become more difficult to turn around a declining practice. Having a quality marketing program already in place will make the difference for your esthetic practice. The new patient phone call is critical. It is there that you will begin to help patients understand fully the overall attitude and policies of your office. Successful management of new patients is to win their trust by giving them ultimate customer service while convincing them to fit your present system and schedule. When a new patient calls the practice, you want to get them scheduled within a reasonable time frame while their motivation is still positive. Remember, you only get one first chance to make a great impression. Each office should decide which questions are appropriate to ask. The front desk coordinator should ask these questions calmly and clearly so that the new patient has an opportunity to answer them without feeling that they are going through the inquisition. At the same time, the more information you have about this patient, the easier it will be to gain treatment acceptance because of your understanding of the new patient's needs. Many offices will ask new patients how they came to choose their particular office. Since many practices gain new patients from existing patients, it is appropriate to know when this has occurred and properly thank the referral patient. By thanking the patient who referred the new patient, you will encourage further referrals. PMID:9470523

  14. Strategy Guideline. Advanced Construction Documentation Recommendations for High Performance Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Lukachko, A.; Gates, C.; Straube, J.

    2011-12-01

    As whole house energy efficiency increases, new materials and new systems require greater coordination and communication between industry stakeholders. This report presents four changes that are recommended to achieve improvements in energy efficiency, durability and health in Building America houses: create coordination drawings, improve specifications, improve detail drawings, and review drawings and prepare a Quality Control Plan.

  15. Recent Advances in Diagnostic Strategies for Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is an increasing epidemic in Korea, and associated diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is its most common and disabling complication. DPN has an insidious onset and heterogeneous clinical manifestations, making it difficult to detect high-risk patients of DPN. Early diagnosis is recommended and is the key factor for a better prognosis and preventing diabetic foot ulcers, amputation, or disability. However, diagnostic tests for DPN are not clearly established because of the various pathophysiology developing from the nerve injury to clinical manifestations, differences in mechanisms according to the type of diabetes, comorbidities, and the unclear natural history of DPN. Therefore, DPN remains a challenge for physicians to screen, diagnose, follow up, and evaluate for treatment response. In this review, diagnosing DPN using various methods to assess clinical symptoms and/or signs, sensorineural impairment, and nerve conduction studies will be discussed. Clinicians should rely on established modalities and utilize current available testing as complementary to specific clinical situations. PMID:27246283

  16. Strategies to advance vaccine technologies for resource-poor settings.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Debra; Chen, Dexiang

    2013-04-18

    New vaccine platform and delivery technologies that can have significant positive impacts on the effectiveness, acceptability, and safety of immunizations in developing countries are increasingly available. Although donor support for vaccine technology development is strong, the uptake of proven technologies by the vaccine industry and demand for them by purchasers continues to lag. This article explains the challenges and opportunities associated with accelerating the availability of innovative and beneficial vaccine technologies to meet critical needs in resource-poor settings over the next decade. Progress will require increased dialog between the public and private sectors around vaccine product attributes; establishment of specifications for vaccines that mirror programmatic needs; stronger encouragement of vaccine developers to consider novel technologies early in the product development process; broader facilitation of research and access to technologies through the formation of centers of excellence; the basing of vaccine purchase decisions on immunization systems costs rather than price per dose alone; possible subsidization of early technology adoption costs for vaccine producers that take on the risks of new technologies of importance to the public sector; and the provision of data to purchasers, better enabling them to make informed decisions that take into account the value of specific product attributes. PMID:23598477

  17. Advancement of Women in Dental Education: Trends and Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinkford, Jeanne C.; Valachovic, Richard W.; Harrison, Sonja

    2003-01-01

    Reviews progress made since the adoption of formal policies in support of women in the profession by the American Dental Education Association (ADEA). Provides an overview of current ADEA programs designed to increase the number of women in academic dentistry and sustain an environment in which they can contribute. (EV)

  18. Strategies to Advance College-Ready Writing Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Manhui Amy

    2013-01-01

    While many college students at two-year public colleges need Basic Writing classes before entering college-level writing courses, only 34% have successfully passed their Basic Writing classes (Ternes, 2008). Troyo (2000) maintained that the reason students failed in Basic Writing classes was that more research-based effective teaching strategies…

  19. Advances in the discovery of novel repellents and application strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The United States Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Insects Affecting Man and Animals Research Laboratory in Orlando, Florida received its first sample insecticide, a natural pyrethrin mixture, in 1942. In 1963, this laboratory moved to Gainesville, Florida, where it now resides at the Center for ...

  20. Kenyan Women: Challenges and Strategies toward Higher Educational Advancement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otieno, Tabitha N.

    1998-01-01

    Examines challenges faced by female students at Nairobi universities and postsecondary training institutions, using questionnaires administered to students of both sexes and interviews of male and female education officers. All groups named financial constraints, strict teenage pregnancy policies, inadequate girls' school resources, low…

  1. Novel device-based interventional strategies for advanced heart failure.

    PubMed

    Toth, Gabor G; Vanderheyden, Marc; Bartunek, Jozef

    2016-01-01

    While heart failure is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity, our tools to provide ultimate treatment solutions are still limited. Recent developments in new devices are designed to fill this therapeutic gap. The scope of this review is to focus on two particular targets, namely (1) left ventricular geometric restoration and (2) atrial depressurization. (1) Reduction of the wall stress by shrinking the ventricular cavity has been traditionally attempted surgically. Recently, the Parachute device (CardioKinetix Inc., Menlo Park, CA, USA) has been introduced to restore ventricular geometry and cardiac mechanics. The intervention aims to partition distal dysfunctional segments that are non-contributory to the ventricular mechanics and forward cardiac output. (2) Diastolic heart failure is characterized by abnormal relaxation and chamber stiffness. The main therapeutic goal achieved should be the reduction of afterload and diastolic pressure load. Recently, new catheter-based approaches were proposed to reduce left atrial pressure and ventricular decompression: the InterAtrial Shunt Device (IASD™) (Corvia Medical Inc., Tewksbury, MA, USA) and the V-Wave Shunt (V-Wave Ltd, Or Akiva, Israel). Both are designed to create a controlled atrial septal defect in symptomatic patients with heart failure. While the assist devices are aimed at end-stage heart failure, emerging device-based percutaneous or minimal invasive techniques comprise a wide spectrum of innovative concepts that target ventricular remodeling, cardiac contractility or neuro-humoral modulation. The clinical adoption is in the early stages of the initial feasibility and safety studies, and clinical evidence needs to be gathered in appropriately designed clinical trials. PMID:26966444

  2. Novel device-based interventional strategies for advanced heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Vanderheyden, Marc; Bartunek, Jozef

    2016-01-01

    While heart failure is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity, our tools to provide ultimate treatment solutions are still limited. Recent developments in new devices are designed to fill this therapeutic gap. The scope of this review is to focus on two particular targets, namely (1) left ventricular geometric restoration and (2) atrial depressurization. (1) Reduction of the wall stress by shrinking the ventricular cavity has been traditionally attempted surgically. Recently, the Parachute device (CardioKinetix Inc., Menlo Park, CA, USA) has been introduced to restore ventricular geometry and cardiac mechanics. The intervention aims to partition distal dysfunctional segments that are non-contributory to the ventricular mechanics and forward cardiac output. (2) Diastolic heart failure is characterized by abnormal relaxation and chamber stiffness. The main therapeutic goal achieved should be the reduction of afterload and diastolic pressure load. Recently, new catheter-based approaches were proposed to reduce left atrial pressure and ventricular decompression: the InterAtrial Shunt Device (IASD™) (Corvia Medical Inc., Tewksbury, MA, USA) and the V-Wave Shunt (V-Wave Ltd, Or Akiva, Israel). Both are designed to create a controlled atrial septal defect in symptomatic patients with heart failure. While the assist devices are aimed at end-stage heart failure, emerging device-based percutaneous or minimal invasive techniques comprise a wide spectrum of innovative concepts that target ventricular remodeling, cardiac contractility or neuro-humoral modulation. The clinical adoption is in the early stages of the initial feasibility and safety studies, and clinical evidence needs to be gathered in appropriately designed clinical trials. PMID:26966444

  3. Advanced Electrophysiologic Mapping Systems

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    has not been found to be effective for the treatment of complex arrhythmias such as chronic atrial fibrillation or ventricular tachycardia. Advanced nonfluoroscopic mapping systems have been developed for guiding the ablation of these complex arrhythmias. The Technology Four nonfluoroscopic advanced mapping systems have been licensed by Health Canada: CARTO EP mapping System (manufactured by Biosense Webster, CA) uses weak magnetic fields and a special mapping/ablation catheter with a magnetic sensor to locate the catheter and reconstruct a 3-dimensional geometry of the heart superimposed with colour-coded electric potential maps to guide ablation. EnSite System (manufactured by Endocardial Solutions Inc., MN) includes a multi-electrode non-contact catheter that conducts simultaneous mapping. A processing unit uses the electrical data to computes more than 3,000 isopotential electrograms that are displayed on a reconstructed 3-dimensional geometry of the heart chamber. The navigational system, EnSite NavX, can be used separately with most mapping catheters. The LocaLisa Intracardiac System (manufactured by Medtronics Inc, MN) is a navigational system that uses an electrical field to locate the mapping catheter. It reconstructs the location of the electrodes on the mapping catheter in 3-dimensional virtual space, thereby enabling an ablation catheter to be directed to the electrode that identifies abnormal electric potential. Polar Constellation Advanced Mapping Catheter System (manufactured by Boston Scientific, MA) is a multielectrode basket catheter with 64 electrodes on 8 splines. Once deployed, each electrode is automatically traced. The information enables a 3-dimensional model of the basket catheter to be computed. Colour-coded activation maps are reconstructed online and displayed on a monitor. By using this catheter, a precise electrical map of the atrium can be obtained in several heartbeats. Review Strategy A systematic search of Cochrane, MEDLINE and EMBASE

  4. Evaluating software testing strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selby, R. W., Jr.; Basili, V. R.; Page, J.; Mcgarry, F. E.

    1984-01-01

    The strategies of code reading, functional testing, and structural testing are compared in three aspects of software testing: fault detection effectiveness, fault detection cost, and classes of faults detected. The major results are the following: (1) Code readers detected more faults than did those using the other techniques, while functional tester detected more faults than did structural testers; (2) Code readers had a higher fault detection rate than did those using the other methods, while there was no difference between functional testers and structural testers; (3) Subjects testing the abstract data type detected the most faults and had the highest fault detection rate, while individuals testing the database maintainer found the fewest faults and spent the most effort testing; (4) Subjects of intermediate and junior expertise were not different in number or percentage of faults found, fault detection rate, or fault detection effort; (5) subjects of advanced expertise found a greater number of faults than did the others, found a greater percentage of faults than did just those of junior expertise, and were not different from the others in either fault detection rate or effort; and (6) Code readers and functional testers both detected more omission faults and more control faults than did structural testers, while code readers detected more interface faults than did those using the other methods.

  5. Advanced planetary studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Results of planetary advanced studies and planning support are summarized. The scope of analyses includes cost estimation research, planetary mission performance, penetrator advanced studies, Mercury mission transport requirements, definition of super solar electric propulsion/solar sail mission discriminators, and advanced planning activities.

  6. Advanced materials for energy storage.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang; Li, Feng; Ma, Lai-Peng; Cheng, Hui-Ming

    2010-02-23

    Popularization of portable electronics and electric vehicles worldwide stimulates the development of energy storage devices, such as batteries and supercapacitors, toward higher power density and energy density, which significantly depends upon the advancement of new materials used in these devices. Moreover, energy storage materials play a key role in efficient, clean, and versatile use of energy, and are crucial for the exploitation of renewable energy. Therefore, energy storage materials cover a wide range of materials and have been receiving intensive attention from research and development to industrialization. In this Review, firstly a general introduction is given to several typical energy storage systems, including thermal, mechanical, electromagnetic, hydrogen, and electrochemical energy storage. Then the current status of high-performance hydrogen storage materials for on-board applications and electrochemical energy storage materials for lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors is introduced in detail. The strategies for developing these advanced energy storage materials, including nanostructuring, nano-/microcombination, hybridization, pore-structure control, configuration design, surface modification, and composition optimization, are discussed. Finally, the future trends and prospects in the development of advanced energy storage materials are highlighted. PMID:20217798

  7. Learning Strategies: Secondary LD Students in the Mainstream.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Antoni, Alice; And Others

    The paper presents four learning strategy techniques--the SQ3R method of study, the Multipass Strategy, the Advanced Study Guide Technique, and Cognitive Mapping--for use with secondary level learning disabled students. The SQ3R method involves the five steps of survey, question, read, recite, and review. An adaption of the SQ3R method, the…

  8. MONITORING STRATEGIES FOR FLUIDIZED BED COMBUSTION COAL PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air and water monitoring strategies for commercial-size Fluidized Bed Combustion (FBC) coal plants are presented. This is one of five reports developing air and water monitoring strategies for advanced coal combustion (FBC), coal conversion (coal gasification and liquefaction), a...

  9. [Innovation in Surgery for Advanced Lung Cancer].

    PubMed

    Nakano, Tomoyuki; Yasunori, Sohara; Endo, Shunsuke

    2016-07-01

    Thoracoscopic surgery can be one of less invasive surgical interventions for early stage lung cancer. Locally advanced lung cancer, however, cannot avoid aggressive procedures including pneumonectomy and/or extended combined resection of chest wall, aorta, esophagus, etc. for complete resection. Surgical approach even for advanced lung cancer can be less invasive by benefit from new anti-cancer treatment, innovated manipulations of bronchoplasty and angioplasty, and bench surgery( lung autotransplantation technique). We herein reviewed the strategy to minimize invasive interventions for locally advanced lung cancer, introducing 2 successful cases with advanced lung cancer. The 1st patient is a 62-year old man with centrally advanced lung cancer invading to mediastinum. Right upper sleeve lobectomy with one-stoma carinoplasty following induction chemoradiation therapy was successful. The operation time was 241 minutes. The performance status is good with no recurrence for 60 months after surgery. The 2nd is a 79-year old man with advanced lung cancer invading to the distal aortic arch. Left upper segmentectomy following thoracic endovascular aortic repair with stentgraft was successful with no extracorporeal circulation. The operation time was 170 minutes. The performance status is good with no recurrence for 30 months after surgery. The invasiveness of surgical interventions for local advanced lung cancer can be minimized by innovated device and new anti-cancer drugs. PMID:27440037

  10. Advanced midwifery practice or advancing midwifery practice?

    PubMed

    Smith, Rachel; Leap, Nicky; Homer, Caroline

    2010-09-01

    Advanced midwifery practice is a controversial notion in midwifery, particularly at present in Australia. The proposed changes in legislation around access to the publicly funded Medical Benefits Scheme (MBS) and the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) in 2009-2010 have meant that the issue of advanced midwifery practice has again taken prominence. Linking midwifery access to MBS and PBS to a safety and quality framework that includes an 'advanced midwifery credentialling framework' is particularly challenging. The Haxton and Fahy paper in the December 2009 edition of Women and Birth is timely as it enables a reflection upon these issues and encourages debate and discussion about exactly what is midwifery, what are we educating our students for and is working to the full scope of practice practising at advanced level? This paper seeks to address some of these questions and open up the topic for further debate. PMID:20018582

  11. Advanced information society (12)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsuzaki, Seisuke

    In this paper, the original Japanese idea of "advanced information society" was reviewed at the first step. Thus, advancement of information/communication technology, advancement of information/communication needs and tendency of industrialization of information" were examined. Next, by comparing studies on advanced information society in various countries, the Japanese characteristics of consensus building was reviewed. Finally, in pursuit of prospect and tasks for the society, advancement of innovation and convergence information/communication technology, information/communication needs, institutional environment for utilization of information/communication and countermeasures against information pollution. Matching of information/communication technology and needs, besides with countermeasures against information pollution were discussed.

  12. The Employment Retention and Advancement Project: Paths to Advancement for Single Parents. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Cynthia; Deitch, Victoria; Hill, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Between 2000 and 2003, the Employment Retention and Advancement (ERA) project identified and implemented a diverse set of innovative models designed to promote employment stability and wage or earnings progression among low-income individuals, mostly current or former welfare recipients. The project's goal was to determine which strategies could…

  13. The Employment Retention and Advancement Project: Paths to Advancement for Single Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Cynthia; Deitch, Victoria; Hill, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Between 2000 and 2003, the Employment Retention and Advancement (ERA) project identified and implemented a diverse set of innovative models designed to promote employment stability and wage or earnings progression among low-income individuals, mostly current or former welfare recipients. The project's goal was to determine which strategies could…

  14. Advances in gene therapy for muscular dystrophies

    PubMed Central

    Abdul-Razak, Hayder; Malerba, Alberto; Dickson, George

    2016-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a recessive lethal inherited muscular dystrophy caused by mutations in the gene encoding dystrophin, a protein required for muscle fibre integrity. So far, many approaches have been tested from the traditional gene addition to newer advanced approaches based on manipulation of the cellular machinery either at the gene transcription, mRNA processing or translation levels. Unfortunately, despite all these efforts, no efficient treatments for DMD are currently available. In this review, we highlight the most advanced therapeutic strategies under investigation as potential DMD treatments. PMID:27594988

  15. Advances in gene therapy for muscular dystrophies.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Razak, Hayder; Malerba, Alberto; Dickson, George

    2016-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a recessive lethal inherited muscular dystrophy caused by mutations in the gene encoding dystrophin, a protein required for muscle fibre integrity. So far, many approaches have been tested from the traditional gene addition to newer advanced approaches based on manipulation of the cellular machinery either at the gene transcription, mRNA processing or translation levels. Unfortunately, despite all these efforts, no efficient treatments for DMD are currently available. In this review, we highlight the most advanced therapeutic strategies under investigation as potential DMD treatments. PMID:27594988

  16. Predicting success on the Advanced Placement Biology Examination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, Lesa Hanlin

    individuals potentially in need of extra assistance, and the development of strategies to improve the Advanced Placement Biology Program.

  17. Office of Space Science: Integrated technology strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntress, Wesley T., Jr.; Reck, Gregory M.

    1994-01-01

    This document outlines the strategy by which the Office of Space Science, in collaboration with the Office of Advanced Concepts and Technology and the Office of Space Communications, will meet the challenge of the national technology thrust. The document: highlights the legislative framework within which OSS must operate; evaluates the relationship between OSS and its principal stakeholders; outlines a vision of a successful OSS integrated technology strategy; establishes four goals in support of this vision; provides an assessment of how OSS is currently positioned to respond to the goals; formulates strategic objectives to meet the goals; introduces policies for implementing the strategy; and identifies metrics for measuring success. The OSS Integrated Technology Strategy establishes the framework through which OSS will satisfy stakeholder expectations by teaming with partners in NASA and industry to develop the critical technologies required to: enhance space exploration, expand our knowledge of the universe, and ensure continued national scientific, technical and economic leadership.

  18. Advances in Procedural Techniques - Antegrade

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, William; Spratt, James C.

    2014-01-01

    There have been many technological advances in antegrade CTO PCI, but perhaps most importantly has been the evolution of the “hybrid’ approach where ideally there exists a seamless interplay of antegrade wiring, antegrade dissection re-entry and retrograde approaches as dictated by procedural factors. Antegrade wire escalation with intimal tracking remains the preferred initial strategy in short CTOs without proximal cap ambiguity. More complex CTOs, however, usually require either a retrograde or an antegrade dissection re-entry approach, or both. Antegrade dissection re-entry is well suited to long occlusions where there is a healthy distal vessel and limited “interventional” collaterals. Early use of a dissection re-entry strategy will increase success rates, reduce complications, and minimise radiation exposure, contrast use as well as procedural times. Antegrade dissection can be achieved with a knuckle wire technique or the CrossBoss catheter whilst re-entry will be achieved in the most reproducible and reliable fashion by the Stingray balloon/wire. It should be avoided where there is potential for loss of large side branches. It remains to be seen whether use of newer dissection re-entry strategies will be associated with lower restenosis rates compared with the more uncontrolled subintimal tracking strategies such as STAR and whether stent insertion in the subintimal space is associated with higher rates of late stent malapposition and stent thrombosis. It is to be hoped that the algorithms, which have been developed to guide CTO operators, allow for a better transfer of knowledge and skills to increase uptake and acceptance of CTO PCI as a whole. PMID:24694104

  19. Instrumentation to Enhance Advanced Test Reactor Irradiations

    SciTech Connect

    J. L. Rempe; D. L. Knudson; K. G. Condie; J. E. Daw; S. C. Taylor

    2009-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) designated the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) as a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) in April 2007 to support U.S. leadership in nuclear science and technology. By attracting new research users - universities, laboratories, and industry - the ATR will support basic and applied nuclear research and development, further advancing the nation's energy security needs. A key component of the ATR NSUF effort is to prove new in-pile instrumentation techniques that are capable of providing real-time measurements of key parameters during irradiation. To address this need, an assessment of instrumentation available and under-development at other test reactors has been completed. Based on this review, recommendations are made with respect to what instrumentation is needed at the ATR and a strategy has been developed for obtaining these sensors. Progress toward implementing this strategy is reported in this document. It is anticipated that this report will be updated on an annual basis.

  20. Advanced Gearless Drivetrain - Phase I Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Butterfield, Sandy; Smith, Jim; Petch, Derek; Sullivan, Brian; Smith, Peter; Pierce, Kirk

    2012-08-31

    Boulder Wind Power (BWP) collaborated with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado, to demonstrate the economics of scaling an advanced gearless drivetrain technology to 6MW (and larger) turbine applications. The project goal was to show that this advanced drivetrain technology enables a cost of energy of less than $0.10/kWH in offshore applications. This drivetrain technology achieves this Cost of Energy (COE) advantage via a 70% greater torque density versus current state-of-the-art drivetrain technologies. In addition, a new dynamically compliant design strategy is required to optimize turbine system-level COE. The BWP generator is uniquely suited for this new design strategy. This project developed a concept design for a 6MW drivetrain and culminated in a plan for a system-level test of this technology at 3MW scale. The project further demonstrated the advantage of the BWP drivetrain with increasing power ratings, with conceptual designs through 10 MW.

  1. How Advancements in Science are Made

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osheroff, Douglas

    2010-06-01

    How advances in science are made, and how they may come to benefit mankind at large are complex issues. The discoveries that most influence the way we think about nature seldom can be anticipated, and frequently the applications for new technologies developed to probe a specific characteristic of nature are also seldom clear, even to the inventors of these technologies. One thing is most clear: Seldom are such advances made by individuals alone. Rather, they result from the progress of the scientific community; asking questions, developing new technologies to answer those questions, and sharing their results and their ideas with others. However, there are indeed research strategies that can substantially increase the probability of oneŠs making a discovery. Professor Osheroff will illustrate some of these strategies in the context of a number of well known discoveries, including the work he did as a graduate student, for which he shared the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1996.

  2. Advance Care Planning.

    PubMed

    Stallworthy, Elizabeth J

    2013-04-16

    Advance care planning should be available to all patients with chronic kidney disease, including end-stage kidney disease on renal replacement therapy. Advance care planning is a process of patient-centred discussion, ideally involving family/significant others, to assist the patient to understand how their illness might affect them, identify their goals and establish how medical treatment might help them to achieve these. An Advance Care Plan is only one useful outcome from the Advance Care Planning process, the education of patient and family around prognosis and treatment options is likely to be beneficial whether or not a plan is written or the individual loses decision making capacity at the end of life. Facilitating Advance Care Planning discussions requires an understanding of their purpose and communication skills which need to be taught. Advance Care Planning needs to be supported by effective systems to enable the discussions and any resulting Plans to be used to aid subsequent decision making. PMID:23586906

  3. Which strategy for a protein crystallization project?

    PubMed

    Kundrot, C E

    2004-03-01

    The three-dimensional, atomic-resolution protein structures produced by X-ray crystallography over the past 50+ years have led to tremendous chemical understanding of fundamental biochemical processes. The pace of discovery in protein crystallography has increased greatly with advances in molecular biology, crystallization techniques, cryocrystallography, area detectors, synchrotrons and computing. While the methods used to produce single, well-ordered crystals have also evolved over the years in response to increased understanding and advancing technology, crystallization strategies continue to be rooted in trial-and-error approaches. This review summarizes the current approaches in protein crystallization and surveys the first results to emerge from the structural genomics efforts. PMID:15004692

  4. Modular Strategies for PET Imaging Agents

    PubMed Central

    Hooker, Jacob M

    2009-01-01

    Summary of Recent Advances In recent years, modular and simplified chemical and biological strategies have been developed for the synthesis and implementation of positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracers. New developments in bioconjugation and synthetic methodologies, in combination with advances in macromolecular delivery systems and gene-expression imaging, reflect a need to reduce radiosynthesis burden in order to accelerate imaging agent development. These new approaches, which are often mindful of existing infrastructure and available resources, are anticipated to provide a more approachable entry point for researchers interested in using PET to translate in vitro research to in vivo imaging. PMID:19880343

  5. Which strategy for a protein crystallization project?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundrot, C. E.

    2004-01-01

    The three-dimensional, atomic-resolution protein structures produced by X-ray crystallography over the past 50+ years have led to tremendous chemical understanding of fundamental biochemical processes. The pace of discovery in protein crystallography has increased greatly with advances in molecular biology, crystallization techniques, cryocrystallography, area detectors, synchrotrons and computing. While the methods used to produce single, well-ordered crystals have also evolved over the years in response to increased understanding and advancing technology, crystallization strategies continue to be rooted in trial-and-error approaches. This review summarizes the current approaches in protein crystallization and surveys the first results to emerge from the structural genomics efforts.

  6. Which Strategy for a Protein Crystallization Project?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundrot, Craig E.

    2003-01-01

    The three-dimensional, atomic-resolution protein structures produced by X-ray crystallography over the past 50+ years have led to tremendous chemical understanding of fundamental biochemical processes. The pace of discovery in protein crystallography has increased greatly with advances in molecular biology, crystallization techniques, cryo-crystallography, area detectors, synchrotrons and computing. While the methods used to produce single, well-ordered crystals have also evolved over the years in response to increased understanding and advancing technology, crystallization strategies continue to be rooted in trial-and-error approaches. This review summarizes the current approaches in protein crystallization and surveys the first results to emerge from the structural genomics efforts.

  7. Hydromechanical Advanced Coal Excavator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estus, Jay M.; Summers, David

    1990-01-01

    Water-jet cutting reduces coal dust and its hazards. Advanced mining system utilizes full-face, hydromechanical, continuous miner. Coal excavator uses high-pressure water-jet lances, one in each of cutting heads and one in movable lance, to make cuts across top, bottom and middle height, respectively, of coal face. Wedge-shaped cutting heads advance into lower and upper cuts in turn, thereby breaking coal toward middle cut. Thrust cylinders and walking pads advance excavator toward coal face.

  8. National Center for Advanced Manufacturing Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vickers, J.

    2001-01-01

    The National Center for Advanced Manufacturing (NCAM) is a strategy, organization, and partnership focused on long-term technology development. The NCAM initially will be a regional partnership, however the intent is national in scope. Benchmarking is needed to follow the concept to the finished project, not using trial and error. Significant progress has been made to date, and NCAM is setting the vision for the future.

  9. NASA's National Center for Advanced Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vickers, John H.; Frazier, Michael K.; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    An investment in the future, NASA has designated a new initiative where government, industry, and academia collaborate to meet the manufacturing needs of future space systems. The Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama has the principal responsibility for implementation of the National Center for Advanced Manufacturing (NCAM). The mission of the NCAM is to build partnerships that will jointly conduct program planning and develop strategies to perform manufacturing research and technology development for critical national missions.

  10. Learning to Control Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subramanian, Devika

    2004-01-01

    Advanced life support systems have many interacting processes and limited resources. Controlling and optimizing advanced life support systems presents unique challenges. In particular, advanced life support systems are nonlinear coupled dynamical systems and it is difficult for humans to take all interactions into account to design an effective control strategy. In this project. we developed several reinforcement learning controllers that actively explore the space of possible control strategies, guided by rewards from a user specified long term objective function. We evaluated these controllers using a discrete event simulation of an advanced life support system. This simulation, called BioSim, designed by Nasa scientists David Kortenkamp and Scott Bell has multiple, interacting life support modules including crew, food production, air revitalization, water recovery, solid waste incineration and power. They are implemented in a consumer/producer relationship in which certain modules produce resources that are consumed by other modules. Stores hold resources between modules. Control of this simulation is via adjusting flows of resources between modules and into/out of stores. We developed adaptive algorithms that control the flow of resources in BioSim. Our learning algorithms discovered several ingenious strategies for maximizing mission length by controlling the air and water recycling systems as well as crop planting schedules. By exploiting non-linearities in the overall system dynamics, the learned controllers easily out- performed controllers written by human experts. In sum, we accomplished three goals. We (1) developed foundations for learning models of coupled dynamical systems by active exploration of the state space, (2) developed and tested algorithms that learn to efficiently control air and water recycling processes as well as crop scheduling in Biosim, and (3) developed an understanding of the role machine learning in designing control systems for

  11. Attic or Roof? An Evaluation of Two Advanced Weatherization Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Neuhauser, Ken

    2012-06-01

    This project examines implementation of advanced retrofit measures in the context of a large-scale weatherization program and the archetypal Chicago brick bungalow. One strategy applies best practice air sealing methods and a standard insulation method to the attic floor. The other strategy creates an unvented roof assembly using materials and methods typically available to weatherization contractors. Through implementations of the retrofit strategies in a total of eight (8) test homes, the research found that the two different strategies achieve similar reductions in air leakage measurement (55%) and predicted energy performance (18%) relative to the pre-retrofit conditions.

  12. Vinflunine – an active chemotherapy for treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer previously treated with a platinum-based regimen: results of a phase II study

    PubMed Central

    Bennouna, J; Breton, J-L; Tourani, J-M; Ottensmeier, C; O'Brien, M; Kosmidis, P; Huat, T E; Pinel, M-C; Colin, C; Douillard, J-Y

    2006-01-01

    A multicentre, single-arm, phase II trial designed to determine the efficacy of single-agent vinflunine in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) previously treated with a platinum-based regimen. The objectives were to assess efficacy in terms of tumour response rate (primary end point), duration of response, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS), and to evaluate the toxicity associated with this treatment. Patients with advanced NSCLC with progressive disease having failed prior platinum-based first-line treatment for advanced disease. Five responses out of the 63 treated patients were documented by WHO criteria and validated by an independent panel review (IRP), yielding a response rate of 7.9% (95% CI: 2.6–17.6) in the intent-to-treat analysis and 8.3% (95% CI: 2.8–18.4) in the evaluable population. Disease control was achieved in 35 out of 60 evaluable patients (58.3%). The median duration of response (complete response+partial response), according to modified WHO criteria was 7.8 months (95% CI: 4.6–NR). Median PFS was 2.6 months (95% CI: 1.4–3.8), and the median survival was 7.0 months (95% CI: 5.8–9.2). Grades 3–4 neutropenia was reported in 50% of patients; febrile neutropenia was observed in two patients (3.2%); grades 3–4 myalgia and grade 3 constipation were experienced by 10 (15.9%) and six (9.5%) of patients, respectively. Constipation was manageable, noncumulative and could be prevented with laxative prophylaxis. The encouraging results from this phase II study with vinflunine warrant further investigations in phase III trials as second- or first-line treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung carcinoma, as a single agent or in combination with other active drugs. PMID:16641911

  13. Recent Advances in Azaborine Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Patrick G.; Marwitz, Adam J. V.

    2013-01-01

    The chemistry of organoboron compounds has been primarily dominated by their use as powerful reagents in synthetic organic chemistry. Recently, the incorporation of boron as part of a functional target structure has emerged as a useful way to generate diversity in organic compounds. A commonly applied strategy is the replacement of a CC unit with its isoelectronic BN unit. In particular, the BN/CC isosterism of the ubiquitous arene motif has undergone a renaissance in the past decade. The parent molecule of the 1,2-dihydro-1,2-azaborine family has now been isolated. New mono- and polycyclic BN heterocycles have been synthesized for potential use in biomedical and materials science applications. This review is a tribute to Dewar's first synthesis of a monocyclic 1,2-dihydro-1,2-azaborine 50 years ago and discusses recent advances in the synthesis and characterization of carbon(C)-boron(B)-nitrogen(N)-containing heterocycles. PMID:22644658

  14. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    A.P.Evans; K.E. Redinger; M.J. Holmes

    1998-04-01

    The objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers. Ideally, the project aim is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPS), fabric filters (baghouse), and wet flue gas desulfurization. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate and hydrogen chloride. Following the construction and evaluation of a representative air toxics test facility in Phase I, Phase II focused on the evaluation of mercury and several other air toxics emissions. The AECDP is jointly funded by the United States Department of Energy's Federal Energy Technology Center (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development (oCDO), and Babcock& Wilcox-a McDermott company (B&W).

  15. Development of Advanced Alarm System for SMART

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Gwi-sook; Seoung, Duk-hyun; Suh, Sang-moon; Lee, Jong-bok; Park, Geun-ok; Koo, In-soo

    2004-07-01

    A SMART-Alarm System (SMART-AS) is a new system being developed as part of the SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced Reactor) project. The SMART-AS employs modern digital technology to implement the alarm functions of the SMART. The use of modern digital technology can provide advanced alarm processing in which new algorithms such as a signal validation, advanced alarm processing logic and other features are applied to improve the control room man-machine interfaces. This paper will describe the design process of the SMART-AS, improving the system reliability and availability using the reliability prediction tool, design strategies regarding the human performance topics associated with a computer-based SMART-AS and the results of the performance analysis using a prototype of the SMART-AS. (authors)

  16. The Advanced Controls Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Knee, H.E.; White, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (DOE), is conducting research that will lead to advanced, automated control of new liquid-metal-reactor (LMR) nuclear power plants. Although this program of research (entitled the Advanced Controls Program'') is focused on LMR technology, it will be capable of providing control design, test, and qualification capability for other advanced reactor designs (e.g., the advanced light water reactor (ALWR) and high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) designs), while also benefiting existing nuclear plants. The Program will also have applicability to complex, non-nuclear process control environments (e.g., petrochemical, aerospace, etc.). The Advanced Controls Program will support capabilities throughout the entire plant design life cycle, i.e., from the initial interactive first-principle dynamic model development for the process, systems, components, and instruments through advanced control room qualification. The current program involves five principal areas of research activities: (1) demonstrations of advanced control system designs, (2) development of an advanced controls design environment, (3) development of advanced control strategies, (4) research and development (R D) in human-system integration for advanced control system designs, and (5) testing and validation of advanced control system designs. Discussion of the research in these five areas forms the basis of this paper. Also included is a description of the research directions of the program. 8 refs.

  17. Strategy Markers in Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sindermann, Gerda; Horsella, Maria

    1989-01-01

    Part of a research project is presented that aims at identifying the difficulties tertiary level students encounter in reading scientific texts in a foreign language and the strategies they apply to overcome them. Strategy markers are identified and listed, and are then analyzed to interpret the linguistic difficulty and the strategy used.…

  18. Social Strategies and Loneliness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Toivonen, Sari; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Eronen, Sanna

    1997-01-01

    Studies the association between loneliness and cognitive and social strategies that young people employ in social situations. Finds that low self-esteem is associated with subsequent feelings of loneliness, strategies of avoidance are associated with the development of loneliness, men and women benefit from different strategies, and self-esteem is…

  19. Online Strategy Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dye, Bryan

    2002-01-01

    A strategy game is an online interactive game that requires thinking in order to be played at its best and whose winning strategy is not obvious. Provides information on strategy games that are written in Java or JavaScript and freely available on the web. (KHR)

  20. A Shuttle evolution strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teixeira, Charles; Mallini, Charles

    1989-01-01

    An overview of a potential Space Shuttle evolution strategy is presented. A Shuttle development study which reviews past and ongoing studies, implements a Shuttle Enhancement Data Base, and develops a methodology and a strawman evolution strategy is discussed. The long-term goals of a Shuttle evolution strategy, including increased reliability, lower cost, robustness, resiliency, increased capability, and assured access are addressed.

  1. Fresh SETI Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tough, A.

    If a smart probe or some other form of extraterrestrial intelligence has reached our planet, what is the next logical step in our scientific search for it? Fresh new search strategies are required. One innovative strategy, an invitation to ETI launched in 1996, was made possible by the creation of the World Wide Web. Other fresh search strategies, too, are emerging.

  2. Advanced Airspace Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, Heinz

    2002-01-01

    A general overview of the Advanced Airspace Concept (AAC) is presented. The topics include: 1) Limitations of the existing system; 2) The Advanced Airspace Concept; 3) Candidate architecture for the AAC; 4) Separation assurance and conflict avoidance system (TSAFE); and 5) Ground-Air Interactions. This paper is in viewgraph form.

  3. Kansas Advanced Semiconductor Project

    SciTech Connect

    Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Bolton, T.; Horton-Smith, G.; Maravin, Y.; Ratra, B.; Stanton, N.; von Toerne, E.; Wilson, G.

    2007-09-21

    KASP (Kansas Advanced Semiconductor Project) completed the new Layer 0 upgrade for D0, assumed key electronics projects for the US CMS project, finished important new physics measurements with the D0 experiment at Fermilab, made substantial contributions to detector studies for the proposed e+e- international linear collider (ILC), and advanced key initiatives in non-accelerator-based neutrino physics.

  4. Advanced Engineering Fibers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edie, Dan D.; Dunham, Michael G.

    1987-01-01

    Describes Clemson University's Advanced Engineered Fibers Laboratory, which was established to provide national leadership and expertise in developing the processing equipment and advance fibers necessary for the chemical, fiber, and textile industries to enter the composite materials market. Discusses some of the laboratory's activities in…

  5. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fikes, John

    2016-01-01

    Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT) is developing and maturing innovative and advanced manufacturing technologies that will enable more capable and lower-cost spacecraft, launch vehicles and infrastructure to enable exploration missions. The technologies will utilize cutting edge materials and emerging capabilities including metallic processes, additive manufacturing, composites, and digital manufacturing. The AMT project supports the National Manufacturing Initiative involving collaboration with other government agencies.

  6. Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambliss, Joe

    2004-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Advanced Life Support (ALS) Systems are presented. The topics include: 1) Fundamental Need for Advanced Life Support; 2) ALS organization; 3) Requirements and Rationale; 4) Past Integrated tests; 5) The need for improvements in life support systems; 6) ALS approach to meet exploration goals; 7) ALS Projects showing promise to meet exploration goals; and 9) GRC involvement in ALS.

  7. Drilling at Advanced Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Doug

    1977-01-01

    Instances where drilling is useful for advanced language are discussed. Several types of drills are recommended, with the philosophy that advanced level drills should have a lighter style and be regarded as a useful, occasional means of practicing individual new items. (CHK)

  8. Advanced concepts in knee arthrodesis

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Jennifer H; Conway, Janet D

    2015-01-01

    The aim is to describe advanced strategies that can be used to diagnose and treat complications after knee arthrodesis and to describe temporary knee arthrodesis to treat infected knee arthroplasty. Potential difficult complications include nonunited knee arthrodesis, limb length discrepancy after knee arthrodesis, and united but infected knee arthrodesis. If a nonunited knee arthrodesis shows evidence of implant loosening or failure, then bone grafting the nonunion site as well as exchange intramedullary nailing and/or supplemental plate fixation are recommended. If symptomatic limb length discrepancy cannot be satisfactorily treated with a shoe lift, then the patient should undergo tibial lengthening over nail with a monolateral fixator or exchange nailing with a femoral internal lengthening device. If a united knee arthrodesis is infected, the nail must be removed. Then the surgeon has the option of replacing it with a long, antibiotic cement-coated nail. The authors also describe temporary knee arthrodesis for infected knee arthroplasty in patients who have the potential to undergo insertion of a new implant. The procedure has two goals: eradication of infection and stabilization of the knee. A temporary knee fusion can be accomplished by inserting both an antibiotic cement-coated knee fusion nail and a static antibiotic cement-coated spacer. These advanced techniques can be helpful when treating difficult complications after knee arthrodesis and treating cases of infected knee arthroplasty. PMID:25793160

  9. Nanobiocatalyst advancements and bioprocessing applications

    PubMed Central

    Misson, Mailin; Zhang, Hu; Jin, Bo

    2015-01-01

    The nanobiocatalyst (NBC) is an emerging innovation that synergistically integrates advanced nanotechnology with biotechnology and promises exciting advantages for improving enzyme activity, stability, capability and engineering performances in bioprocessing applications. NBCs are fabricated by immobilizing enzymes with functional nanomaterials as enzyme carriers or containers. In this paper, we review the recent developments of novel nanocarriers/nanocontainers with advanced hierarchical porous structures for retaining enzymes, such as nanofibres (NFs), mesoporous nanocarriers and nanocages. Strategies for immobilizing enzymes onto nanocarriers made from polymers, silicas, carbons and metals by physical adsorption, covalent binding, cross-linking or specific ligand spacers are discussed. The resulting NBCs are critically evaluated in terms of their bioprocessing performances. Excellent performances are demonstrated through enhanced NBC catalytic activity and stability due to conformational changes upon immobilization and localized nanoenvironments, and NBC reutilization by assembling magnetic nanoparticles into NBCs to defray the high operational costs associated with enzyme production and nanocarrier synthesis. We also highlight several challenges associated with the NBC-driven bioprocess applications, including the maturation of large-scale nanocarrier synthesis, design and development of bioreactors to accommodate NBCs, and long-term operations of NBCs. We suggest these challenges are to be addressed through joint collaboration of chemists, engineers and material scientists. Finally, we have demonstrated the great potential of NBCs in manufacturing bioprocesses in the near future through successful laboratory trials of NBCs in carbohydrate hydrolysis, biofuel production and biotransformation. PMID:25392397

  10. Advanced Chemical Propulsion Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, Gordon; Byers, Dave; Alexander, Leslie A.; Krebsbach, Al

    2004-01-01

    A study was performed of advanced chemical propulsion technology application to space science (Code S) missions. The purpose was to begin the process of selecting chemical propulsion technology advancement activities that would provide greatest benefits to Code S missions. Several missions were selected from Code S planning data, and a range of advanced chemical propulsion options was analyzed to assess capabilities and benefits re these missions. Selected beneficial applications were found for higher-performing bipropellants, gelled propellants, and cryogenic propellants. Technology advancement recommendations included cryocoolers and small turbopump engines for cryogenic propellants; space storable propellants such as LOX-hydrazine; and advanced monopropellants. It was noted that fluorine-bearing oxidizers offer performance gains over more benign oxidizers. Potential benefits were observed for gelled propellants that could be allowed to freeze, then thawed for use.

  11. [Questions about the ADVANCE study].

    PubMed

    Jean, Guillaume; Chazot, Charles

    2012-06-01

    The symptoms of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) were substantially changed by the availability of cinacalcet (CC). The recent ADVANCE study, which was a prospective randomized trial comparing two treatment strategies-CC plus low doses of calcitriol analogues (CA) versus higher doses of CA without CC-reports the absence of difference in the primary endpoint, i.e. coronary artery calcification score progression after 12 months. The progression of coronary calcification was related to the initial hypercalcemia and hyperphosphataemia, and low serum PTH level. What was the rationale for defining SHPT with only serum PTH value of more than 300 pg/mL or more than 150 pg/mL associated with a high Ca×P product? Why was this coronary score chosen as the primary endpoint and why was a seemingly short observational period used? Is it correct to consider all forms of SHPT equivalent in terms of set point, response to conventional treatment, or vascular and bone consequences? Why are the biological values of patients not provided? Were the CAs, dialysate calcium, and PTH assay values really equal? Why were only calcium-based phosphate binders used? The main controversial point of the study was to consider all HPT cases as equivalent and able to be treated by one fixed strategy. Therefore, the nephrologist community should conduct relevant independent studies in order to improve the diagnosis and treatment of SHPT. PMID:21962855

  12. Canadian Educational Approaches for the Advancement of Pharmacy Practice

    PubMed Central

    Louizos, Christopher; Austin, Zubin

    2014-01-01

    Canadian faculties (schools) of pharmacy are actively engaged in the advancement and restructuring of their programs in response to the shift in pharmacy to pharmacists having/assuming an advanced practitioner role. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of evidence outlining optimal strategies for accomplishing this task. This review explores several educational changes proposed in the literature to aid in the advancement of pharmacy education such as program admission requirements, critical-thinking assessment and teaching methods, improvement of course content delivery, value of interprofessional education, advancement of practical experiential education, and mentorship strategies. Collectively, implementation of these improvements to pharmacy education will be crucial in determining the direction the profession will take. PMID:25258448

  13. Advancing-layers method for generation of unstructured viscous grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirzadeh, Shahyar

    1993-01-01

    A novel approach for generating highly stretched grids which is based on a modified advancing-front technique and benefits from the generality, flexibility, and grid quality of the conventional advancing-front-based Euler grid generators is presented. The method is self-sufficient for the insertion of grid points in the boundary layer and beyond. Since it is based on a totally unstructured grid strategy, the method alleviates the difficulties stemming from the structural limitations of the prismatic techniques.

  14. Neonatal ethical issues: viability, advance directives, family centered care.

    PubMed

    Sudia-Robinson, Tanya

    2011-01-01

    Ethical issues in perinatal and NICU settings can arise from a variety of situations. This article focuses on issues surrounding viability and the incorporation of advance directives and family-centered care. Prenatal education about infant viability, probable scenarios, and parental involvement in decision-making are addressed. Considerations for advance directives for complex births and critical decisions at the time of birth are also discussed. Implications for nurses and suggested dialogue strategies are provided. PMID:21407121

  15. Advanced Combustion and Fuels; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Zigler, Brad

    2015-06-08

    Presented at the U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Office 2015 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, held June 8-12, 2015, in Arlington, Virginia. It addresses technical barriers of inadequate data and predictive tools for fuel and lubricant effects on advanced combustion engines, with the strategy being through collaboration, develop techniques, tools, and data to quantify critical fuel physico-chemical effects to enable development of advanced combustion engines that use alternative fuels.

  16. The ADvanced SEParation (ADSEP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The ADvanced SEParation (ADSEP) commercial payload is making use of major advances in separation technology: The Phase Partitioning Experiment (PPE); the Micorencapsulation experiment; and the Hemoglobin Separation Experiment (HSE). Using ADSEP, commercial researchers will attempt to determine the partition coefficients for model particles in a two-phase system. With this information, researchers can develop a higher resolution, more effective cell isolation procedure that can be used for many different types of research and for improved health care. The advanced separation technology is already being made available for use in ground-based laboratories.

  17. Advanced information society(7)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, Toshihiro

    Various threats are hiding in advanced informationalized society. As we see car accident problems in motorization society light aspects necessarily accompy shady ones. Under the changing circumstances of advanced informationalization added values of information has become much higher. It causes computer crime, hacker, computer virus to come to the surface. In addition it can be said that infringement of intellectual property and privacy are threats brought by advanced information. Against these threats legal, institutional and insurance measures have been progressed, and newly security industry has been established. However, they are not adequate individually or totally. The future vision should be clarified, and countermeasures according to the visions have to be considered.

  18. Advanced Neuroimaging in Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Edlow, Brian L.; Wu, Ona

    2013-01-01

    Advances in structural and functional neuroimaging have occurred at a rapid pace over the past two decades. Novel techniques for measuring cerebral blood flow, metabolism, white matter connectivity, and neural network activation have great potential to improve the accuracy of diagnosis and prognosis for patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI), while also providing biomarkers to guide the development of new therapies. Several of these advanced imaging modalities are currently being implemented into clinical practice, whereas others require further development and validation. Ultimately, for advanced neuroimaging techniques to reach their full potential and improve clinical care for the many civilians and military personnel affected by TBI, it is critical for clinicians to understand the applications and methodological limitations of each technique. In this review, we examine recent advances in structural and functional neuroimaging and the potential applications of these techniques to the clinical care of patients with TBI. We also discuss pitfalls and confounders that should be considered when interpreting data from each technique. Finally, given the vast amounts of advanced imaging data that will soon be available to clinicians, we discuss strategies for optimizing data integration, visualization and interpretation. PMID:23361483

  19. Living Fully in the Shadow of Mortal Time: Psychosocial Assets in Advanced Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wise, Meg; Marchand, Lucille

    2013-01-01

    Objective To characterize the strategies and psychosocial conditions that influence how resilient people live in the face of advanced cancer. Methods Grounded theory interviews and surveys of ten resilient people with advanced cancer were collected and analyzed. Findings Personal assets including positive relationships, purpose in life, faith, and a sense of mastery contributed to living fully in “mortal time.” Strategies included embracing paradox, reframing time, deepening connections, and aligning actions with priorities. Open-ended interviews yielded rich illness and life stories; many participants requested a copy of the transcript. Conclusions Resilient people use a range of strategies to thrive in the face of advanced cancer. PMID:23923470

  20. Advanced information society(2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuyama, Keiichi

    Our modern life is full of information and information infiltrates into our daily life. Networking of the telecommunication is extended to society, company, and individual level. Although we have just entered the advanced information society, business world and our daily life have been steadily transformed by the advancement of information network. This advancement of information brings a big influence on economy, and will play they the main role in the expansion of domestic demands. This paper tries to view the image of coming advanced information society, focusing on the transforming businessman's life and the situation of our daily life, which became wealthy by the spread of daily life information and the visual information by satellite system, in the development of the intelligent city.

  1. Advanced launch system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, Jan C.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Launch System (ALS) is presented. The costs, reliability, capabilities, infrastructure are briefly described. Quality approach, failure modes, structural design, technology benefits, and key facilities are outlined. This presentation is represented by viewgraphs.

  2. Advanced camera for surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clampin, Mark; Ford, Holland C.; Bartko, Frank; Bely, Pierre Y.; Broadhurst, Tom; Burrows, Christopher J.; Cheng, Edward S.; Crocker, James H.; Franx, Marijn; Feldman, Paul D.; Golimowski, David A.; Hartig, George F.; Illingworth, Garth; Kimble, Randy A.; Lesser, Michael P.; Miley, George H.; Postman, Marc; Rafal, Marc D.; Rosati, Piero; Sparks, William B.; Tsvetanov, Zlatan; White, Richard L.; Sullivan, Pamela; Volmer, Paul; LaJeunesse, Tom

    2000-07-01

    The Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) is a third generation instrument for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). It is currently planned for installation in HST during the fourth servicing mission in Summer 2001. The ACS will have three cameras.

  3. The Advanced Energy Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milliken, JoAnn; Joseck, Fred; Wang, Michael; Yuzugullu, Elvin

    The President's Advanced Energy Initiative (AEI), launched in 2006, addresses the challenges of energy supply and demand facing our Nation by supporting research and development of advanced technologies for transportation and stationary power generation. The AEI portfolio includes clean coal, nuclear and renewable energy technologies (solar and wind) for stationary power generation and advanced battery technologies, cellulosic ethanol as a fuel and hydrogen fuel cells for transportation. These research and development programs are underpinned by comprehensive life-cycle analysis efforts using models such as Hydrogen Analysis (H2A) and Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) to enable a better understanding of the characteristics and trade-offs associated with advanced energy options and to help decision makers choose viable pathways for clean, reliable and affordable energy.

  4. Advances in Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, David L.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Advances in electronics and computer science have enabled industries (pulp/paper, iron/steel, petroleum/chemical) to attain better control of their processes with resulting increases in quality, productivity, profitability, and compliance with government regulations. (JN)

  5. Advanced Welding Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Four advanced welding techniques and their use in NASA are briefly reviewed in this poster presentation. The welding techniques reviewed are: Solid State Welding, Friction Stir Welding (FSW), Thermal Stir Welding (TSW) and Ultrasonic Stir Welding.

  6. Advances in cell culture

    SciTech Connect

    Maramorosch, K. )

    1987-01-01

    This book presents papers on advances in cell culture. Topics covered include: Genetic changes in the influenza viruses during growth in cultured cells; The biochemistry and genetics of mosquito cells in culture; and Tree tissue culture applications.

  7. Advanced Lab Consortium ``Conspiracy''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichert, Jonathan F.

    2006-03-01

    Advanced Laboratory instruction is a time-honored and essential element of an undergraduate physics education. But, from my vantage point, it has been neglected by the two major professional societies, APS and AAPT. At some schools, it has been replaced by ``research experiences,'' but I contend that very few of these experiences in the research lab, particularly in the junior year, deliver what they promise. It is time to focus the attention of APS, AAPT, and the NSF on the advanced lab. We need to create an Advanced Lab Consortium (ALC) of faculty and staff to share experiments, suppliers, materials, pedagogy, ideas, in short to build a professional network for those committed to advanced lab instruction. The AAPT is currently in serious discussions on this topic and my company stands ready with both financial and personnel resources to support the effort. This talk is a plea for co-conspirators.

  8. Advanced space propulsion concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapointe, Michael R.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has been actively involved in the evaluation and development of advanced spacecraft propulsion. Recent program elements have included high energy density propellants, electrode less plasma thruster concepts, and low power laser propulsion technology. A robust advanced technology program is necessary to develop new, cost-effective methods of spacecraft propulsion, and to continue to push the boundaries of human knowledge and technology.

  9. Advanced planetary studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Results of planetary advanced studies and planning support provided by Science Applications, Inc. staff members to Earth and Planetary Exploration Division, OSSA/NASA, for the period 1 February 1981 to 30 April 1982 are summarized. The scope of analyses includes cost estimation, planetary missions performance, solar system exploration committee support, Mars program planning, Galilean satellite mission concepts, and advanced propulsion data base. The work covers 80 man-months of research. Study reports and related publications are included in a bibliography section.

  10. Advanced Welding Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Some of the applications of advanced welding techniques are shown in this poster presentation. Included are brief explanations of the use on the Ares I and Ares V launch vehicle and on the Space Shuttle Launch vehicle. Also included are microstructural views from four advanced welding techniques: Variable Polarity Plasma Arc (VPPA) weld (fusion), self-reacting friction stir welding (SR-FSW), conventional FSW, and Tube Socket Weld (TSW) on aluminum.

  11. Advanced drilling systems study

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, K.G.; Livesay, B.J.

    1995-03-01

    This work was initiated as part of the National Advanced Drilling and Excavation Technologies (NADET) Program. It is being performed through joint finding from the Department of Energy Geothermal Division and the Natural Gas Technology Branch, Morgantown Energy Technology Center. Interest in advanced drilling systems is high. The Geothermal Division of the Department of Energy has initiated a multi-year effort in the development of advanced drilling systems; the National Research Council completed a study of drilling and excavation technologies last year; and the MIT Energy Laboratory recently submitted a proposal for a national initiative in advanced drilling and excavation research. The primary reasons for this interest are financial. Worldwide expenditures on oil and gas drilling approach $75 billion per year. Also, drilling and well completion account for 25% to 50% of the cost of producing electricity from geothermal energy. There is incentive to search for methods to reduce the cost of drilling. Work on ideas to improve or replace rotary drilling technology dates back at least to the 1930`s. There was a significant amount of work in this area in the 1960`s and 1970`s; and there has been some continued effort through the 1980`s. Undoubtedly there are concepts for advanced drilling systems that have yet to be studied; however, it is almost certain that new efforts to initiate work on advanced drilling systems will build on an idea or a variation of an idea that has already been investigated. Therefore, a review of previous efforts coupled with a characterization of viable advanced drilling systems and the current state of technology as it applies to those systems provide the basis for the current study of advanced drilling.

  12. Hydrocarbon geoscience research strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-04-01

    This document outlines a strategy for oil and gas related research focused on optimizing the economic producibility of the Nation's resources. The Hydrocarbon Geoscience Strategy was developed by the Hydrocarbon Geoscience Research Coordinating Committee of the Department of Energy (DOE). This strategy forms the basis for the development of DOE Fossil Energy's Oil Research Program Implementation Plan and Natural Gas Program Implementation Plan. 24 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Updated NGNP Fuel Acquisition Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    David Petti; Tim Abram; Richard Hobbins; Jim Kendall

    2010-12-01

    A Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) fuel acquisition strategy was first established in 2007. In that report, a detailed technical assessment of potential fuel vendors for the first core of NGNP was conducted by an independent group of international experts based on input from the three major reactor vendor teams. Part of the assessment included an evaluation of the credibility of each option, along with a cost and schedule to implement each strategy compared with the schedule and throughput needs of the NGNP project. While credible options were identified based on the conditions in place at the time, many changes in the assumptions underlying the strategy and in externalities that have occurred in the interim requiring that the options be re-evaluated. This document presents an update to that strategy based on current capabilities for fuel fabrication as well as fuel performance and qualification testing worldwide. In light of the recent Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) project closure, the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) fuel development and qualification program needs to support both pebble and prismatic options under the NGNP project. A number of assumptions were established that formed a context for the evaluation. Of these, the most important are: • Based on logistics associated with the on-going engineering design activities, vendor teams would start preliminary design in October 2012 and complete in May 2014. A decision on reactor type will be made following preliminary design, with the decision process assumed to be completed in January 2015. Thus, no fuel decision (pebble or prismatic) will be made in the near term. • Activities necessary for both pebble and prismatic fuel qualification will be conducted in parallel until a fuel form selection is made. As such, process development, fuel fabrication, irradiation, and testing for pebble and prismatic options should not negatively influence each other during the period prior to a decision on reactor type

  14. Withdrawal strategies for outpatients

    PubMed Central

    Mezciems, Edgar

    1996-01-01

    This article discusses outpatient withdrawal strategies for patients addicted to alcohol, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, and opiates and describes some practical ways to support recovery. PMID:8828877

  15. Advanced Microturbine Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rosfjord, T; Tredway, W; Chen, A; Mulugeta, J; Bhatia, T

    2008-12-31

    In July 2000, the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) was one of five recipients of a US Department of Energy contract under the Advanced Microturbine System (AMS) program managed by the Office of Distributed Energy (DE). The AMS program resulted from several government-industry workshops that recognized that microturbine systems could play an important role in improving customer choice and value for electrical power. That is, the group believed that electrical power could be delivered to customers more efficiently and reliably than the grid if an effective distributed energy strategy was followed. Further, the production of this distributed power would be accomplished with less undesirable pollutants of nitric oxides (NOx) unburned hydrocarbons (UHC), and carbon monoxide (CO). In 2000, the electrical grid delivered energy to US customers at a national average of approximately 32% efficiency. This value reflects a wide range of powerplants, but is dominated by older, coal burning stations that provide approximately 50% of US electrical power. The grid efficiency is also affected by transmission and distribution (T&D) line losses that can be significant during peak power usage. In some locations this loss is estimated to be 15%. Load pockets can also be so constrained that sufficient power cannot be transmitted without requiring the installation of new wires. New T&D can be very expensive and challenging as it is often required in populated regions that do not want above ground wires. While historically grid reliability has satisfied most customers, increasing electronic transactions and the computer-controlled processes of the 'digital economy' demand higher reliability. For them, power outages can be very costly because of transaction, work-in-progress, or perishable commodity losses. Powerplants that produce the grid electrical power emit significant levels of undesirable NOx, UHC, and CO pollutants. The level of emission is quoted as either a technology

  16. Advanced Distillation Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Maddalena Fanelli; Ravi Arora; Annalee Tonkovich; Jennifer Marco; Ed Rode

    2010-03-24

    The Advanced Distillation project was concluded on December 31, 2009. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded project was completed successfully and within budget during a timeline approved by DOE project managers, which included a one year extension to the initial ending date. The subject technology, Microchannel Process Technology (MPT) distillation, was expected to provide both capital and operating cost savings compared to conventional distillation technology. With efforts from Velocys and its project partners, MPT distillation was successfully demonstrated at a laboratory scale and its energy savings potential was calculated. While many objectives established at the beginning of the project were met, the project was only partially successful. At the conclusion, it appears that MPT distillation is not a good fit for the targeted separation of ethane and ethylene in large-scale ethylene production facilities, as greater advantages were seen for smaller scale distillations. Early in the project, work involved flowsheet analyses to discern the economic viability of ethane-ethylene MPT distillation and develop strategies for maximizing its impact on the economics of the process. This study confirmed that through modification to standard operating processes, MPT can enable net energy savings in excess of 20%. This advantage was used by ABB Lumus to determine the potential impact of MPT distillation on the ethane-ethylene market. The study indicated that a substantial market exists if the energy saving could be realized and if installed capital cost of MPT distillation was on par or less than conventional technology. Unfortunately, it was determined that the large number of MPT distillation units needed to perform ethane-ethylene separation for world-scale ethylene facilities, makes the targeted separation a poor fit for the technology in this application at the current state of manufacturing costs. Over the course of the project, distillation experiments were

  17. Cognitive learning strategies: their effectiveness in acquiring racquetball skill.

    PubMed

    Tennant, L M

    2000-06-01

    Racquetball players were compared to assess whether a Self-directed strategy (self-monitoring), a Task-oriented strategy (attentional focusing), or a Combined use of both strategies would be beneficial in acquisition of racquetball skills. According to skill (Beginning, Advanced), players (N=80) were assigned into treatment groups. After treatment, participants executed diagonal lob serves and rallies for Acquisition and Retention phases (Session 1). During Session 2, subjects competed in a modified play setting (Transfer phase). Analysis of variance with repeated measures showed differences by skill during the basic tests favored Advanced players. During modified play, the Task-oriented group won significantly more points and games compared to the Self-directed and Control groups, regardless of skill. Results are discussed relative to skill and the literature on learning strategies. PMID:10883768

  18. Mask cost of ownership for advanced lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzio, Edward G.; Seidel, Philip K.

    2000-07-01

    As technology advances, becoming more difficult and more expensive, the cost of ownership (CoO) metric becomes increasingly important in evaluating technical strategies. The International SEMATECH CoC analysis has steadily gained visibility over the past year, as it attempts to level the playing field between technology choices, and create a fair relative comparison. In order to predict mask cots for advanced lithography, mask process flows are modeled using bets-known processing strategies, equipment cost, and yields. Using a newly revised yield mode, and updated mask manufacture flows, representative mask flows can be built. These flows are then used to calculate mask costs for advanced lithography down to the 50 nm node. It is never the goal of this type of work to provide absolute cost estimates for business planning purposes. However, the combination of a quantifiable yield model with a clearly defined set of mask processing flows and a cost model based upon them serves as an excellent starting point for cost driver analysis and process flow discussion.

  19. Precision medicine for advanced prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mullane, Stephanie A.; Van Allen, Eliezer M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Precision cancer medicine, the use of genomic profiling of patient tumors at the point-of-care to inform treatment decisions, is rapidly changing treatment strategies across cancer types. Precision medicine for advanced prostate cancer may identify new treatment strategies and change clinical practice. In this review, we discuss the potential and challenges of precision medicine in advanced prostate cancer. Recent findings Although primary prostate cancers do not harbor highly recurrent targetable genomic alterations, recent reports on the genomics of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer has shown multiple targetable alterations in castration-resistant prostate cancer metastatic biopsies. Therapeutic implications include targeting prevalent DNA repair pathway alterations with PARP-1 inhibition in genomically defined subsets of patients, among other genomically stratified targets. In addition, multiple recent efforts have demonstrated the promise of liquid tumor profiling (e.g., profiling circulating tumor cells or cell-free tumor DNA) and highlighted the necessary steps to scale these approaches in prostate cancer. Summary Although still in the initial phase of precision medicine for prostate cancer, there is extraordinary potential for clinical impact. Efforts to overcome current scientific and clinical barriers will enable widespread use of precision medicine approaches for advanced prostate cancer patients. PMID:26909474

  20. A direct advance on advance directives.

    PubMed

    Shaw, David

    2012-06-01

    Advance directives (ADs), which are also sometimes referred to as 'living wills', are statements made by a person that indicate what treatment she should not be given in the event that she is not competent to consent or refuse at the future moment in question. As such, ADs provide a way for patients to make decisions in advance about what treatments they do not want to receive, without doctors having to find proxy decision-makers or having recourse to the doctrine of necessity. While patients can request particular treatments in an AD, only refusals are binding. This paper will examine whether ADs safeguard the autonomy and best interests of the incompetent patient, and whether legislating for the use of ADs is justified, using the specific context of the legal situation in the United Kingdom to illustrate the debate. The issue of whether the law should permit ADs is itself dependent on the issue of whether ADs are ethically justified; thus we must answer a normative question in order to answer the legislative one. It emerges that ADs suffer from two major problems, one related to autonomy and one to consent. First, ADs' emphasis on precedent autonomy effectively sentences some people who want to live to death. Second, many ADs might not meet the standard criteria for informed refusal of treatment, because they fail on the crucial criterion of sufficient information. Ultimately, it transpires that ADs are typically only appropriate for patients who temporarily lose physical or mental capacity. PMID:21133977

  1. Recruit and ADVANCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosser, Sue V.

    2007-04-01

    Beginning in 2001, the National Science Foundation launched the ADVANCE Initiative, which has now awarded more than 70 million to some thirty institutions for transformations to advance women. Results of studies on how to attract and retain women students and faculty underpinned our ADVANCE Institutional Transformation grant funded by the NSF for 3.7 million for five years, beginning in 2001. As co-principal investigator on this grant, I insured that this research informed the five major threads of the grant: 1) Four termed ADVANCE professors to mentor junior women faculty in each college; 2) Collection of MIT-Report-like data indicators to assess whether advancement of women really occurs during and after the institutional transformation undertaken through ADVANCE; 3) Family-friendly policies and practices to stop the tenure clock and provide active service, modified duties, lactation stations and day care; 4) Mini-retreats to facilitate access for tenure-track women faculty to male decision-makers and administrators for informal conversations and discussion on topics important to women faculty; 5) Removal of subtle gender, racial, and other biases in promotion and tenure. The dynamic changes resulting from the grant in quality of mentoring, new understanding of promotion and tenure, numbers of women retained and given endowed chairs, and emergence of new family friendly policies gave me hope for genuine diversification of leadership in science and technology. As the grant funding ends, the absence of NSF prestige and monitoring, coupled with a change in academic leadership at the top, provide new challenges for institutionalization, recruitment, and advancement of women into leadership positions in science and engineering.

  2. Recruitment and retention: successful strategies in critical care.

    PubMed

    Doering, L

    1990-05-01

    Recruitment and retention of critical care nurses is a major concern for nurse managers. Factors that affect recruitment and retention are management style, perceptions of isolation, stress, and burnout. Decentralization, primary nursing, and clinical advancement programs are strategies that allow nurses to participate in decision making at the unit level and to be recognized for their individual contributions. The application of these strategies to a cardiac surgery intensive care unit is presented. PMID:2341259

  3. Cellular imaging: a key phenotypic screening strategy for predictive toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jinghai J.

    2015-01-01

    Incorporating phenotypic screening as a key strategy enhances predictivity and translatability of drug discovery efforts. Cellular imaging serves as a “phenotypic anchor” to identify important toxicologic pathology that encompasses an array of underlying mechanisms, thus provides an effective means to reduce drug development failures due to insufficient safety. This mini-review highlights the latest advances in hepatotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, and genetic toxicity tests that utilized cellular imaging as a screening strategy, and recommends path forward for further improvement. PMID:26441648

  4. Let Strategies Serve Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senechal, Diana

    2011-01-01

    When the teaching of strategies for understanding literature crowds out a close reading of literary works themselves, something is amiss in language arts instruction, and students lose out. This has become the case in too many elementary and even secondary classrooms today, Senechal believes. Using a strategy-based lesson proposed by Stephanie…

  5. Strategies for Dropout Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Far West Lab. for Educational Research and Development, San Francisco, CA.

    This report provides descriptions of strategies for dropout prevention at the secondary level and presents examples of programs that successfully utilize these strategies. The information is based on data from a review of nearly 200 programs at secondary schools across the four-state Western region that includes Arizona, California, Nevada, and…

  6. Wildfire Prevention Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Wildlife Coordinating Group, Boise, ID.

    This document provides information and guidance on wildfire prevention strategies. Chapters include: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "How to Use this Guide"; (3) "Fire Cause Classification"; (4) "Relative Effectiveness"; (5) "Degree of Difficulty"; (6) "Intervention Techniques"; (7) "Prevention Activities"; (8) "Sample Prevention Strategies"; and (9)…

  7. MERCURY RESEARCH STRATEGY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA's ORD is pleased to announce the availability of its Mercury Research Strategy. This strategy guides ORD's mercury research program and covers the FY2001-2005 time frame. ORD will use it to prepare a multi-year mercury research implementation plan in 2001. The Mercury R...

  8. MERCURY RESEARCH STRATEGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Office of Research and Development (ORD) is pleased to announce the availability of its Mercury Research Strategy. This strategy guides ORD's mercury research program and covers the FY2001 2005 time frame. ORD will use it to ...

  9. Strategies for Parent Partnerships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felber, Stacey Ann

    1997-01-01

    Identifies seven strategies that will help strengthen the bond between parents and teachers of children with learning disabilities. Strategies include celebrating children's individuality, identifying with parents, providing information, talking with parents, avoiding stereotyping, reaching out to parents, and warning about media portrayals of…

  10. Children's Reading Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Rexel E., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    This issue of the "Journal of Children and Youth" focuses on children's strategies for decoding and comprehending written language and teacher's strategies for facilitating this process. The issue includes eleven papers by members of the Indiana Reading Professors division of the Indiana State Reading Council and several invited guests. Peggy…

  11. Methods & Strategies: I Wonder...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Anne

    2013-01-01

    "I Wonder" boards are a teaching strategy that can be used in the classroom, as well as during science learning opportunities in nonformal settings, such as after-school science programs or summer camps.This simple strategy has led to deeper science exploration in 4-H, as young people learn alongside program staff, teachers, or…

  12. Behavioral Strategies: Building Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandoz, Charles J.

    Using a construction building analogy, this guide provides a plan for building a system of behavior strategies. These strategies are designed to assist behavior analysts of contracted provider agencies in the construction and maintenance of procedures which will help monitor and reduce the frequency of problematic behaviors in individuals with…

  13. The Strategies Instructional Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deshler, Donald D.; Lenz, B. Keith

    1989-01-01

    The strategies instructional approach developed at the University of Kansas Institute for Research in Learning Disabilities is described. The approach teaches students strategies in the academic, social, motivational, and executive functioning areas that will enable students to meet content learning demands and modifies instructional environments…

  14. Integrating Technology: Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kercher, Lydia

    Developed by participants in an inservice workshop at the University of Wyoming, this manual lists 26 educational strategies that make use of current educational technologies, their corresponding skill development, and the content areas involved. For example, one strategy listed is to have students create their own letterhead to be used throughout…

  15. Strategies and Classification Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medin, Douglas L.; Smith, Edward E.

    1981-01-01

    How strategies affect learning of categories that lack necessary and sufficient attributes is explored. The authors propose that strategy variations induced by instructions affect only the amount of information represented about attributes, not processes operating on representations. An experiment required subjects to classify schematic faces into…

  16. Advanced access appointments

    PubMed Central

    Hudec, John C.; MacDougall, Steven; Rankin, Elaine

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To examine the effects of advanced access (same-day physician appointments) on patient and provider satisfaction and to determine its association with other variables such as physician income and patient emergency department use. DESIGN Patient satisfaction survey and semistructured interviews with physicians and support staff; analysis of physician medical insurance billings and patient emergency department visits. SETTING Cape Breton, NS. PARTICIPANTS Patients, physicians, and support staff of 3 comparable family physician practices that had not implemented advanced access and an established advanced access practice. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Self-reported provider and patient satisfaction, physician office income, and patients’ emergency department use. RESULTS The key benefits of implementation of advanced access were an increase in provider and patient satisfaction levels, same or greater physician office income, and fewer less urgent (triage level 4) and nonurgent (triage level 5) emergency department visits by patients. CONCLUSION Currently within the Central Cape Breton Region, 33% of patients wait 4 or more days for urgent appointments. Findings from this study can be used to enhance primary care physician practice redesign. This research supports many benefits of transitioning to an advanced access model of patient booking. PMID:20944024

  17. Strategy as simple rules.

    PubMed

    Eisenhardt, K M; Sull, D N

    2001-01-01

    The success of Yahoo!, eBay, Enron, and other companies that have become adept at morphing to meet the demands of changing markets can't be explained using traditional thinking about competitive strategy. These companies have succeeded by pursuing constantly evolving strategies in market spaces that were considered unattractive according to traditional measures. In this article--the third in an HBR series by Kathleen Eisenhardt and Donald Sull on strategy in the new economy--the authors ask, what are the sources of competitive advantage in high-velocity markets? The secret, they say, is strategy as simple rules. The companies know that the greatest opportunities for competitive advantage lie in market confusion, but they recognize the need for a few crucial strategic processes and a few simple rules. In traditional strategy, advantage comes from exploiting resources or stable market positions. In strategy as simple rules, advantage comes from successfully seizing fleeting opportunities. Key strategic processes, such as product innovation, partnering, or spinout creation, place the company where the flow of opportunities is greatest. Simple rules then provide the guidelines within which managers can pursue such opportunities. Simple rules, which grow out of experience, fall into five broad categories: how- to rules, boundary conditions, priority rules, timing rules, and exit rules. Companies with simple-rules strategies must follow the rules religiously and avoid the temptation to change them too frequently. A consistent strategy helps managers sort through opportunities and gain short-term advantage by exploiting the attractive ones. In stable markets, managers rely on complicated strategies built on detailed predictions of the future. But when business is complicated, strategy should be simple. PMID:11189455

  18. New advances in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Pascual, Sonia; Herrera, Iván; Irurzun, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the leading cause of deaths in cirrhotic patients and the third cause of cancer related deaths. Most HCC are associated with well known underlying risk factors, in fact, HCC arise in cirrhotic patients in up to 90% of cases, mainly due to chronic viral hepatitis and alcohol abuse. The worldwide prevention strategies are conducted to avoid the infection of new subjects and to minimize the risk of liver disease progression in infected patients. HCC is a condition which lends itself to surveillance as at-risk individuals can readily be identified. The American and European guidelines recommended implementation of surveillance programs with ultrasound every six months in patient at-risk for developing HCC. The diagnosis of HCC can be based on non-invasive criteria (only in cirrhotic patient) or pathology. Accurately staging patients is essential to oncology practice. The ideal tumour staging system in HCC needs to account for both tumour characteristics and liver function. Treatment allocation is based on several factors: Liver function, size and number of tumours, macrovascular invasion or extrahepatic spread. The recommendations in terms of selection for different treatment strategies must be based on evidence-based data. Resection, liver transplant and interventional radiology treatment are mainstays of HCC therapy and achieve the best outcomes in well-selected candidates. Chemoembolization is the most widely used treatment for unresectable HCC or progression after curative treatment. Finally, in patients with advanced HCC with preserved liver function, sorafenib is the only approved systemic drug that has demonstrated a survival benefit and is the standard of care in this group of patients. PMID:27028578

  19. New advances in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Sonia; Herrera, Iván; Irurzun, Javier

    2016-03-28

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the leading cause of deaths in cirrhotic patients and the third cause of cancer related deaths. Most HCC are associated with well known underlying risk factors, in fact, HCC arise in cirrhotic patients in up to 90% of cases, mainly due to chronic viral hepatitis and alcohol abuse. The worldwide prevention strategies are conducted to avoid the infection of new subjects and to minimize the risk of liver disease progression in infected patients. HCC is a condition which lends itself to surveillance as at-risk individuals can readily be identified. The American and European guidelines recommended implementation of surveillance programs with ultrasound every six months in patient at-risk for developing HCC. The diagnosis of HCC can be based on non-invasive criteria (only in cirrhotic patient) or pathology. Accurately staging patients is essential to oncology practice. The ideal tumour staging system in HCC needs to account for both tumour characteristics and liver function. Treatment allocation is based on several factors: Liver function, size and number of tumours, macrovascular invasion or extrahepatic spread. The recommendations in terms of selection for different treatment strategies must be based on evidence-based data. Resection, liver transplant and interventional radiology treatment are mainstays of HCC therapy and achieve the best outcomes in well-selected candidates. Chemoembolization is the most widely used treatment for unresectable HCC or progression after curative treatment. Finally, in patients with advanced HCC with preserved liver function, sorafenib is the only approved systemic drug that has demonstrated a survival benefit and is the standard of care in this group of patients. PMID:27028578

  20. Advanced Sensors and Controls for Building Applications: Market Assessment and Potential R&D Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Brambley, M. R.; Haves, P.; McDonald, S. C.; Torcellini, P.; Hansen, D.; Holmberg, D. R.; Roth, K. W.

    2005-04-01

    This document provides a market assessment of existing building sensors and controls and presents a range of technology pathways (R&D options) for pursuing advanced sensors and building control strategies.

  1. Plan for an Advanced Turbine Systems Program

    SciTech Connect

    Bajura, R.A.; Webb, H.A.; Parks, W.P.

    1993-03-01

    A draft version of this paper was presented at the Clemson Clean, affordable, and reliable natural gas utilization technologies will play a growing role in meeting future power generation needs in the United States. The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) National Energy Strategy projected that total demand for natural gas will rise from 18.5 trillion cubic feet (tcf) in 1990 to 24.2 tcf by the year 2000. Much of this increase is attributed to the increased use of natural gas as a fuel for electric power generation. Candidate technologies for gas fired power generation include gas turbine and fuel cell systems. The first workshop on research needs for advanced gas turbine systems for power generation was held on April 8-10, 1991 in Greenville, South Carolina. The goals of the Clemson-I Workshop were to identify research needs which would accelerate the development of advanced gas turbines and to consider new approaches to implement this research. The Clemson-I Workshop focused on advanced gas turbine systems which would have a lower cost of electricity or better environmental performance than systems currently under development. The workshop was cosponsored by the DOE`s Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Clemson University, and the South Carolina Energy Research and Development Center. The proceedings from the workshop have been published. The 75 participants in the Clemson-I Workshop represented a broad spectrum of the gas turbine Research & Development (R&D) community as well as potential users of advanced gas turbines. Gas turbine manufacturers, the electric utility industry, the university community, as well as government and private sector R&D sponsors were represented. Participants in the Clemson-I Workshop concluded that it is technically feasible to develop advanced turbine systems and that Government participation would accelerate the developmental effort. Advanced turbine systems could be operated on natural gas or adapted to coal or biomass firing.

  2. Plan for an Advanced Turbine Systems Program

    SciTech Connect

    Bajura, R.A.; Webb, H.A. ); Parks, W.P. )

    1993-01-01

    A draft version of this paper was presented at the Clemson Clean, affordable, and reliable natural gas utilization technologies will play a growing role in meeting future power generation needs in the United States. The US Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Strategy projected that total demand for natural gas will rise from 18.5 trillion cubic feet (tcf) in 1990 to 24.2 tcf by the year 2000. Much of this increase is attributed to the increased use of natural gas as a fuel for electric power generation. Candidate technologies for gas fired power generation include gas turbine and fuel cell systems. The first workshop on research needs for advanced gas turbine systems for power generation was held on April 8-10, 1991 in Greenville, South Carolina. The goals of the Clemson-I Workshop were to identify research needs which would accelerate the development of advanced gas turbines and to consider new approaches to implement this research. The Clemson-I Workshop focused on advanced gas turbine systems which would have a lower cost of electricity or better environmental performance than systems currently under development. The workshop was cosponsored by the DOE's Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Clemson University, and the South Carolina Energy Research and Development Center. The proceedings from the workshop have been published. The 75 participants in the Clemson-I Workshop represented a broad spectrum of the gas turbine Research Development (R D) community as well as potential users of advanced gas turbines. Gas turbine manufacturers, the electric utility industry, the university community, as well as government and private sector R D sponsors were represented. Participants in the Clemson-I Workshop concluded that it is technically feasible to develop advanced turbine systems and that Government participation would accelerate the developmental effort. Advanced turbine systems could be operated on natural gas or adapted to coal or biomass firing.

  3. Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Development

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, John

    2015-09-30

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratories, Siemens has completed the Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Development Program to develop an advanced gas turbine for incorporation into future coal-based Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants. All the scheduled DOE Milestones were completed and significant technical progress was made in the development of new technologies and concepts. Advanced computer simulations and modeling, as well as subscale, full scale laboratory, rig and engine testing were utilized to evaluate and select concepts for further development. Program Requirements of: A 3 to 5 percentage point improvement in overall plant combined cycle efficiency when compared to the reference baseline plant; 20 to 30 percent reduction in overall plant capital cost when compared to the reference baseline plant; and NOx emissions of 2 PPM out of the stack. were all met. The program was completed on schedule and within the allotted budget

  4. Advanced thermionic energy conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britt, E. J.; Fitzpatrick, G. D.; Hansen, L. K.; Rasor, N. S.

    1974-01-01

    Basic analytical and experimental exploration was conducted on several types of advanced thermionic energy converters, and preliminary analysis was performed on systems utilizing advanced converter performance. The Pt--Nb cylindrical diode which exhibited a suppressed arc drop, as described in the preceding report, was reassembled and the existence of the postulated hydrid mode of operation was tentatively confirmed. Initial data obtained on ignited and unignited triode operation in the demountable cesium vapor system essentially confirmed the design principles developed in earlier work, with a few exceptions. Three specific advanced converter concepts were selected as candidates for concentrated basic study and for practical evaluation in fixed-configuration converters. Test vehicles and test stands for these converters and a unique controlled-atmosphere station for converter assembly and processing were designed, and procurement was initiated.

  5. Advanced transmission studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coy, John J.; Bill, Robert C.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center and the U.S. Army Aviation Systems Command share an interest in advancing the technology for helicopter propulsion systems. In particular, this paper presents highlights from that portion of the program in drive train technology and the related mechanical components. The major goals of the program are to increase the life, reliability, and maintainability; reduce the weight, noise, and vibration; and maintain the relatively high mechanical efficiency of the gear train. The current activity emphasizes noise reduction technology and analytical code development followed by experimental verification. Selected significant advances in technology for transmissions are reviewed, including advanced configurations and new analytical tools. Finally, the plan for future transmission research is presented.

  6. Advanced rocket propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, Charles J.

    1993-01-01

    Existing NASA research contracts are supporting development of advanced reinforced polymer and metal matrix composites for use in liquid rocket engines of the future. Advanced rocket propulsion concepts, such as modular platelet engines, dual-fuel dual-expander engines, and variable mixture ratio engines, require advanced materials and structures to reduce overall vehicle weight as well as address specific propulsion system problems related to elevated operating temperatures, new engine components, and unique operating processes. High performance propulsion systems with improved manufacturability and maintainability are needed for single stage to orbit vehicles and other high performance mission applications. One way to satisfy these needs is to develop a small engine which can be clustered in modules to provide required levels of total thrust. This approach should reduce development schedule and cost requirements by lowering hardware lead times and permitting the use of existing test facilities. Modular engines should also reduce operational costs associated with maintenance and parts inventories.

  7. Advanced Aerodynamic Control Effectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.; Bauer, Steven X. S.

    1999-01-01

    A 1990 research program that focused on the development of advanced aerodynamic control effectors (AACE) for military aircraft has been reviewed and summarized. Data are presented for advanced planform, flow control, and surface contouring technologies. The data show significant increases in lift, reductions in drag, and increased control power, compared to typical aerodynamic designs. The results presented also highlighted the importance of planform selection in the design of a control effector suite. Planform data showed that dramatic increases in lift (greater than 25%) can be achieved with multiple wings and a sawtooth forebody. Passive porosity and micro drag generator control effector data showed control power levels exceeding that available from typical effectors (moving surfaces). Application of an advanced planform to a tailless concept showed benefits of similar magnitude as those observed in the generic studies.

  8. Advanced rocket propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obrien, Charles J.

    1993-02-01

    Existing NASA research contracts are supporting development of advanced reinforced polymer and metal matrix composites for use in liquid rocket engines of the future. Advanced rocket propulsion concepts, such as modular platelet engines, dual-fuel dual-expander engines, and variable mixture ratio engines, require advanced materials and structures to reduce overall vehicle weight as well as address specific propulsion system problems related to elevated operating temperatures, new engine components, and unique operating processes. High performance propulsion systems with improved manufacturability and maintainability are needed for single stage to orbit vehicles and other high performance mission applications. One way to satisfy these needs is to develop a small engine which can be clustered in modules to provide required levels of total thrust. This approach should reduce development schedule and cost requirements by lowering hardware lead times and permitting the use of existing test facilities. Modular engines should also reduce operational costs associated with maintenance and parts inventories.

  9. Cascaded humidified advanced turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Nakhamkin, M.; Swenson, E.C.; Cohn, A.; Bradshaw, D.; Taylor, R.; Wilson, J.M.; Gaul, G.; Jahnke, F.; Polsky, M.

    1995-05-01

    This article describes how, by combining the best features of simple- and combined-cycle gas turbine power plants, the CHAT cycle concept offers power producers a clean, more efficient and less expensive alternative to both. The patented cascaded advanced turbine and its cascaded humidified advanced turbine (CHAT) derivative offer utilities and other power producers a practical advanced gas turbine power plant by combining commercially-available gas turbine and industrial compressor technologies in a unique way. Compared to combined-cycle plants, a CHAT power plant has lower emissions and specific capital costs-approximately 20 percent lower than what is presently available. Further, CHAT`s operating characteristics are especially well-suited to load following quick start-up scenarios and they are less susceptible to power degradation from higher ambient air temperature conditions.

  10. Advanced Worker Protection System

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) is a liquid-air-based, self-contained breathing and cooling system with a duration of 2 hrs. AWPS employs a patented system developed by Oceaneering Space Systems (OSS), and was demonstrated at their facility in Houston, TX as well as at Kansas State University, Manhattan. The heart of the system is the life-support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack is combined with advanced protective garments, an advanced liquid cooling garment (LCG), a respirator, and communications and support equipment. The prototype unit development and testing under Phase 1 has demonstrated that AWPS has the ability to meet performance criteria. These criteria were developed with an understanding of both the AWPS capabilities and the DOE decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) activities protection needs.

  11. Advanced ramjet concepts program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leingang, J. L.

    1992-01-01

    Uniquely advantageous features, on both the performance and weight sides of the ledger, can be achieved through synergistic design integration of airbreathing and rocket technologies in the development of advanced orbital space transport propulsion systems of the combined cycle type. In the context of well understood advanced airbreathing and liquid rocket propulsion principles and practices, this precept of synergism is advanced mainly through six rather specific examples. These range from the detailed component level to the overall vehicle system level as follows: using jet compression; achieving a high area ratio rocket nozzle; ameliorating gas generator cycle rocket system deficiencies; using the in-duct special rocket thrust chamber assembly as the principal scramjet fuel injection operation; using the unstowed, covered fan as a duct closure for effecting high area ratio rocket mode operation; and creating a unique airbreathing rocket system via the onboard, cryogenic hydrogen induced air liquefaction process.

  12. Commercialization of advanced batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Mader, J.

    1996-11-01

    Mader and Associates has been working as a contractor for the South Coast Air Quality Management District (District) for the past several years. During this period it has performed various assessments of advanced battery technology as well as established the Advanced Battery Task Force. The following paper is Mader`s view of the status of battery technologies that are competing for the electric vehicle (EV) market being established by the California Air Resources Board`s Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) Mandate. The ZEV market is being competed for by various advanced battery technologies. And, given the likelihood of modifications to the Mandate, the most promising technologies should capture the following market share during the initial 10 years: Lead-Acid--8.4%, Nickel Metal Hydride--50.8%, Sodium Sulfur--7.8%, Lithium Ion 33.0%.

  13. The Advanced LIGO Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritschel, Peter

    2016-03-01

    After decades of development, the Advanced LIGO gravitational wave detectors are now operating, and they completed their first observational run in early 2016. Advanced LIGO consists of two 4-km scale interferometric detectors located at separate sites in the US. The first year of detector commissioning that led to the first observation run produced instruments that have several times better sensitivity to gravitational-wave strain than previous instruments. At their final design sensitivity, the detectors will be another factor of 2-3x more sensitive than current performance. This talk will cover the design of Advanced LIGO, explain how the sensitivity improvements have been achieved, and lay out the path to reaching final design sensitivity.

  14. [Advanced Composites Technology Initiatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Julian, Mark R.

    2002-01-01

    This final report closes out the W02 NASA Grant #NCC5-646. The FY02 grant for advanced technology initiatives through the Advanced Composites Technology Institute in Bridgeport, WV, at the Robert C. Byrd Institute (RCBI) Bridgeport Manufacturing Technology Center, is complete; all funding has been expended. RCBI continued to expand access to technology; develop and implement a workforce-training curriculum; improve material development; and provide prototyping and demonstrations of new and advanced composites technologies for West Virginia composites firms. The FY 02 efforts supported workforce development, technical training and the HST development effort of a super-lightweight composite carrier prototype and expanded the existing technical capabilities of the growing aerospace industry across West Virginia to provide additional support for NASA missions. Additionally, the Composites Technology and Training Center was awarded IS0 9001 - 2000 certification and Cleanroom Class 1000 certification during this report period.

  15. Advanced Space Fission Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Borowski, Stanley K.

    2010-01-01

    Fission has been considered for in-space propulsion since the 1940s. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) systems underwent extensive development from 1955-1973, completing 20 full power ground tests and achieving specific impulses nearly twice that of the best chemical propulsion systems. Space fission power systems (which may eventually enable Nuclear Electric Propulsion) have been flown in space by both the United States and the Former Soviet Union. Fission is the most developed and understood of the nuclear propulsion options (e.g. fission, fusion, antimatter, etc.), and fission has enjoyed tremendous terrestrial success for nearly 7 decades. Current space nuclear research and technology efforts are focused on devising and developing first generation systems that are safe, reliable and affordable. For propulsion, the focus is on nuclear thermal rockets that build on technologies and systems developed and tested under the Rover/NERVA and related programs from the Apollo era. NTP Affordability is achieved through use of previously developed fuels and materials, modern analytical techniques and test strategies, and development of a small engine for ground and flight technology demonstration. Initial NTP systems will be capable of achieving an Isp of 900 s at a relatively high thrust-to-weight ratio. The development and use of first generation space fission power and propulsion systems will provide new, game changing capabilities for NASA. In addition, development and use of these systems will provide the foundation for developing extremely advanced power and propulsion systems capable of routinely and affordably accessing any point in the solar system. The energy density of fissile fuel (8 x 10(exp 13) Joules/kg) is more than adequate for enabling extensive exploration and utilization of the solar system. For space fission propulsion systems, the key is converting the virtually unlimited energy of fission into thrust at the desired specific impulse and thrust

  16. [Advancement in the treatment against prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Shinohara, Nobuo; Abe, Takashige; Maruyama, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    With the advancement of basic science and medical technology, the treatment against prostate cancer (PC) has dramatically changed. Although the introduction of robotic radical prostatectomy and particle therapies in patients with early stage PC is of much note, the issues on the over-treatment and treatment cost should be heeded. From these points, active surveillance has been an important strategy in these patients. In patients with metastatic hormone-sensitive PC, especially high volume metastases, androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) with docetaxel has been reported to prolong overall survival compared with ADT alone. Lastly, several novel therapeutic agents have been investigated and shown to be favorable outcomes in patients with castration resistant PC. This review focuses on the recent advancement in the treatment against PCs. PMID:26793875

  17. Recent advancements in ion concentration polarization.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Anand, Robbyn K

    2016-06-21

    In this minireview, we discuss advancements in ion concentration polarization (ICP)-based preconcentration, separation, desalination, and dielectrophoresis that have been made over the past three years. ICP as a means of controlling the distribution of the ions and electric field in a microfluidic device has rapidly expanded its areas of application. Recent advancements have focused on the development of ion-permselective materials with tunable dimensions and surface chemistry, adaptation to paper microfluidics, higher-throughput device geometries, and coupling ICP with other separation (isotachophoresis and dielectrophoresis) and fluidic (valve and droplet microfluidic) strategies. These studies have made great strides toward solving real-world problems such as low-cost and rapid analysis, accessible desalination technology, and single-cell research tools. PMID:26965754

  18. Advances in Light Microscopy for Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Wilt, Brian A.; Burns, Laurie D.; Ho, Eric Tatt Wei; Ghosh, Kunal K.; Mukamel, Eran A.

    2010-01-01

    Since the work of Golgi and Cajal, light microscopy has remained a key tool for neuroscientists to observe cellular properties. Ongoing advances have enabled new experimental capabilities using light to inspect the nervous system across multiple spatial scales, including ultrastructural scales finer than the optical diffraction limit. Other progress permits functional imaging at faster speeds, at greater depths in brain tissue, and over larger tissue volumes than previously possible. Portable, miniaturized fluorescence microscopes now allow brain imaging in freely behaving mice. Complementary progress on animal preparations has enabled imaging in head-restrained behaving animals, as well as time-lapse microscopy studies in the brains of live subjects. Mouse genetic approaches permit mosaic and inducible fluorescence-labeling strategies, whereas intrinsic contrast mechanisms allow in vivo imaging of animals and humans without use of exogenous markers. This review surveys such advances and highlights emerging capabilities of particular interest to neuroscientists. PMID:19555292

  19. Direct therapeutic intervention for advanced pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Takakura, Kazuki; Koido, Shigeo

    2015-01-01

    Currently, chemotherapy is an accredited, standard treatment for unresectable, advanced pancreatic cancer (PC). However, it has been still showed treatment-resistance and followed dismal prognosis in many cases. Therefore, some sort of new, additional treatments are needed for the better therapeutic results for advanced PC. According to the previous reports, it is obvious that interventional endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is a well-established, helpful and low-risky procedure in general. As the additional treatments of the conventional therapy for advanced PC, many therapeutic strategies, such as immunotherapies, molecular biological therapies, physiochemical therapies, radioactive therapies, using siRNA, using autophagy have been developing in recent years. Moreover, the efficacy of the other potential therapeutic targets for PC using EUS-fine needle injection, for example, intra-tumoral chemotherapeutic agents (paclitaxel, irinotecan), several ablative energies (radiofrequency ablation and cryothermal treatment, neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser, high-intensity focused ultrasound), etc., has already been showed in animal models. Delivering these promising treatments reliably inside tumor, interventional EUS may probably be indispensable existence for the treatment of locally advanced PC in near future. PMID:26677434

  20. Direct therapeutic intervention for advanced pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Takakura, Kazuki; Koido, Shigeo

    2015-12-10

    Currently, chemotherapy is an accredited, standard treatment for unresectable, advanced pancreatic cancer (PC). However, it has been still showed treatment-resistance and followed dismal prognosis in many cases. Therefore, some sort of new, additional treatments are needed for the better therapeutic results for advanced PC. According to the previous reports, it is obvious that interventional endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is a well-established, helpful and low-risky procedure in general. As the additional treatments of the conventional therapy for advanced PC, many therapeutic strategies, such as immunotherapies, molecular biological therapies, physiochemical therapies, radioactive therapies, using siRNA, using autophagy have been developing in recent years. Moreover, the efficacy of the other potential therapeutic targets for PC using EUS-fine needle injection, for example, intra-tumoral chemotherapeutic agents (paclitaxel, irinotecan), several ablative energies (radiofrequency ablation and cryothermal treatment, neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser, high-intensity focused ultrasound), etc., has already been showed in animal models. Delivering these promising treatments reliably inside tumor, interventional EUS may probably be indispensable existence for the treatment of locally advanced PC in near future. PMID:26677434

  1. Advanced Solar Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, J. H.; Hobgood, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    The Advanced Solar Power System (ASPS) concentrator uses a technically sophisticated design and extensive tooling to produce very efficient (80 to 90%) and versatile energy supply equipment which is inexpensive to manufacture and requires little maintenance. The advanced optical design has two 10th order, generalized aspheric surfaces in a Cassegrainian configuration which gives outstanding performance and is relatively insensitive to temperature changes and wind loading. Manufacturing tolerances also have been achieved. The key to the ASPS is the direct absorption of concentrated sunlight in the working fluid by radiative transfers in a black body cavity. The basic ASPS design concepts, efficiency, optical system, and tracking and focusing controls are described.

  2. Advanced Containment System

    DOEpatents

    Kostelnik, Kevin M.; Kawamura, Hideki; Richardson, John G.; Noda, Masaru

    2005-02-08

    An advanced containment system for containing buried waste and associated leachate. The advanced containment system comprises a plurality of casing sections with each casing section interlocked to an adjacent casing section. Each casing section includes a complementary interlocking structure that interlocks with the complementary interlocking structure on an adjacent casing section. A barrier filler substantially fills the casing sections and may substantially fill the spaces of the complementary interlocking structure to form a substantially impermeable barrier. Some of the casing sections may include sensors so that the casing sections and the zone of interest may be remotely monitored after the casing sections are emplaced in the ground.

  3. MR Neurography: Advances

    PubMed Central

    Chhabra, Avneesh; Zhao, Lianxin; Carrino, John A.; Trueblood, Eo; Koceski, Saso; Shteriev, Filip; Lenkinski, Lionel; Sinclair, Christopher D. J.; Andreisek, Gustav

    2013-01-01

    High resolution and high field magnetic resonance neurography (MR neurography, MRN) is shown to have excellent anatomic capability. There have been considerable advances in the technology in the last few years leading to various feasibility studies using different structural and functional imaging approaches in both clinical and research settings. This paper is intended to be a useful seminar for readers who want to gain knowledge of the advancements in the MRN pulse sequences currently used in clinical practice as well as learn about the other techniques on the horizon aimed at better depiction of nerve anatomy, pathology, and potential noninvasive evaluation of nerve degeneration or regeneration. PMID:23589774

  4. Advanced engine study program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masters, A. I.; Galler, D. E.; Denman, T. F.; Shied, R. A.; Black, J. R.; Fierstein, A. R.; Clark, G. L.; Branstrom, B. R.

    1993-01-01

    A design and analysis study was conducted to provide advanced engine descriptions and parametric data for space transfer vehicles. The study was based on an advanced oxygen/hydrogen engine in the 7,500 to 50,000 lbf thrust range. Emphasis was placed on defining requirements for high-performance engines capable of achieving reliable and versatile operation in a space environment. Four variations on the expander cycle were compared, and the advantages and disadvantages of each were assessed. Parametric weight, envelope, and performance data were generated over a range of 7,500 to 50,000 lb thrust and a wide range of chamber pressure and nozzle expansion ratio.

  5. Advanced concepts for acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Keefe, D.

    1986-07-01

    Selected examples of advanced accelerator concepts are reviewed. Such plasma accelerators as plasma beat wave accelerator, plasma wake field accelerator, and plasma grating accelerator are discussed particularly as examples of concepts for accelerating relativistic electrons or positrons. Also covered are the pulsed electron-beam, pulsed laser accelerator, inverse Cherenkov accelerator, inverse free-electron laser, switched radial-line accelerators, and two-beam accelerator. Advanced concepts for ion acceleration discussed include the electron ring accelerator, excitation of waves on intense electron beams, and two-wave combinations. (LEW)

  6. Advances in attosecond science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calegari, Francesca; Sansone, Giuseppe; Stagira, Salvatore; Vozzi, Caterina; Nisoli, Mauro

    2016-03-01

    Attosecond science offers formidable tools for the investigation of electronic processes at the heart of important physical processes in atomic, molecular and solid-state physics. In the last 15 years impressive advances have been obtained from both the experimental and theoretical points of view. Attosecond pulses, in the form of isolated pulses or of trains of pulses, are now routinely available in various laboratories. In this review recent advances in attosecond science are reported and important applications are discussed. After a brief presentation of various techniques that can be employed for the generation and diagnosis of sub-femtosecond pulses, various applications are reported in atomic, molecular and condensed-matter physics.

  7. Technological advances in teleradiology.

    PubMed

    Orphanoudakis, S C; Kaldoudi, E; Tsiknakis, M

    1996-06-01

    Teleradiology consists of a set of added-value telematic services, implemented over an advanced telecommunications infrastructure and supported by different information technologies and related applications. The main goal of teleradiology is to provide different levels of support for remote diagnostic imaging procedures. This paper considers technological advances in this important area, including a discussion of the various added-value telematic services, applications supporting these services, and the required information technology and telecommunications infrastructure. Teleradiology is also considered in the general context of an integrated regional health telematics network, emphasizing its role and its interaction with other information and networking services. PMID:8832235

  8. Advancing cardiovascular tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Truskey, George A.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular tissue engineering offers the promise of biologically based repair of injured and damaged blood vessels, valves, and cardiac tissue. Major advances in cardiovascular tissue engineering over the past few years involve improved methods to promote the establishment and differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), scaffolds from decellularized tissue that may produce more highly differentiated tissues and advance clinical translation, improved methods to promote vascularization, and novel in vitro microphysiological systems to model normal and diseased tissue function. iPSC technology holds great promise, but robust methods are needed to further promote differentiation. Differentiation can be further enhanced with chemical, electrical, or mechanical stimuli. PMID:27303643

  9. Advanced Neuroimaging of Tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, Prashant; Steven, Andrew; Rath, Tanya; Gandhi, Dheeraj

    2016-05-01

    Although tinnitus may originate in damage to the peripheral auditory apparatus, its perception and distressing symptomatology are consequences of alterations to auditory, sensory, and limbic neural networks. This has been described in several studies, some using advanced structural MR imaging techniques such as diffusion tensor imaging. An understanding of these complex changes could enable development of targeted treatment. New MR imaging techniques enabling detailed depiction of the labyrinth may be useful when diagnosis of Meniere disease is equivocal. Advances in computed tomography and MR imaging have enabled noninvasive diagnosis of dural arteriovenous fistulae. PMID:27154611

  10. Advanced sensors technology survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Tommy G.; Costello, David J.; Davis, Jerry G.; Horst, Richard L.; Lessard, Charles S.; Peel, H. Herbert; Tolliver, Robert

    1992-01-01

    This project assesses the state-of-the-art in advanced or 'smart' sensors technology for NASA Life Sciences research applications with an emphasis on those sensors with potential applications on the space station freedom (SSF). The objectives are: (1) to conduct literature reviews on relevant advanced sensor technology; (2) to interview various scientists and engineers in industry, academia, and government who are knowledgeable on this topic; (3) to provide viewpoints and opinions regarding the potential applications of this technology on the SSF; and (4) to provide summary charts of relevant technologies and centers where these technologies are being developed.

  11. Advanced Monitoring systems initiative

    SciTech Connect

    R.J. Venedam; E.O. Hohman; C.F. Lohrstorfer; S.J. Weeks; J.B. Jones; W.J. Haas

    2004-09-30

    The Advanced Monitoring Systems Initiative (AMSI) actively searches for promising technologies and aggressively moves them from the research bench into DOE/NNSA end-user applications. There is a large unfulfilled need for an active element that reaches out to identify and recruit emerging sensor technologies into the test and evaluation function. Sensor research is ubiquitous, with the seeds of many novel concepts originating in the university systems, but at present these novel concepts do not move quickly and efficiently into real test environments. AMSI is a widely recognized, self-sustaining ''business'' accelerating the selection, development, testing, evaluation, and deployment of advanced monitoring systems and components.

  12. Institutional Advancement: A Marketing Perspective. Part I: A Proposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Daniel F.

    Strategies are proposed for the implementation of the marketing concept at Triton College. The report begins by describing the establishment and goals of the Marketing Task Force and goes on to define "institutional advancement," as a positive, progressive response to community educational needs, and "the marketing concept," as suggesting an…

  13. Advancement Factors of Women in Administration: Patterns and Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slimmer, Virginia M.

    Patterns of advancement of women administrators were studied with a sample of 188 administrators of home economics departments. The respondents ranged in age from the late twenties to the mid-sixties. A specially-developed instrument was administered to the sample--Women in Higher Education: Characteristics and Employment Strategies. About 75…

  14. Advanced EFL Apologies: What Remains To Be Learned?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Andrew D.; And Others

    A study of the structure of the speech act known as an apology looked at the differences in linguistic strategies used by advanced nonnative English language learners and native speakers in apology behavior, and whether the differences result from the severity of the offense or the familiarity of the interlocutors. An apology is seen as consisting…

  15. Advances in Learning and Behavioral Disabilities. Volume 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scruggs, Thomas E., Ed.; Mastropieri, Margo A., Ed.

    Advances in learning and behavioral disabilities are considered in this 10-chapter volume. Contents include: "Developmental Language Disorders and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder" (Cynthia A. Riccio and George W. Hynd); "Self-Regulated Strategy Development: A Theoretical and Practical Perspective" (Lisa P. Case et al.); "Mapping the…

  16. Beginning an Advanced Placement Music Course. Edition Y.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, William; And Others

    The College Entrance Examination Board has prepared this publication to help secondary school teachers develop Advanced Placement (AP) courses in music. The discussion of strategy recommendations, reading materials, and record collections should be adapted to suit local preferences and individual skills. An opening section of general remarks…

  17. New Therapeutic Approaches for Advanced Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors (GISTs)

    PubMed Central

    Somaiah, Neeta

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis The management of advanced GIST is increasingly complex due to imatinib refractory disease. Primary resistance to imatinib is uncommon, and most patients progress after development of additional genetic changes. This article reviews management strategies including surgical approaches, local modalities for progressive liver metastases, as well as novel therapeutic agents. PMID:19248977

  18. Teaching Melodic Dictation in Advanced Placement Music Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paney, Andrew S.; Buonviri, Nathan O.

    2014-01-01

    In this study approaches to teaching melodic dictation skills used by Advanced Placement (AP) Music Theory teachers were examined. Twelve high school teachers from four states were interviewed. Four themes emerged from the interview transcripts: cognitive frameworks, processing strategies, rhythm, and course design. Participants generally…

  19. The chief strategy officer.

    PubMed

    Breene, R Timothy S; Nunes, Paul F; Shill, Walter E

    2007-10-01

    They're nominally and ultimately responsible for strategy, but today's CEOs have less and less time to devote to it. As a result, CEOs are appointing "chief strategy officers"--executives specifically tasked with creating, communicating, executing, and sustaining a company's strategic initiatives. In this article, three authors from Accenture share the results of their research on this emerging organizational role. The typical CSO or top strategy executive is not a pure strategist, conducting long-range planning in relative isolation. Most CSOs consider themselves doers first, with the mandate, credentials, and desire to act as well as advise. They are seasoned executives with a strong strategy orientation who have usually worn many operations hats before taking on the role. Strategy executives are charged with three critical jobs that together form the very definition of strategy execution. First, they must clarify the company's strategy for themselves and for every business unit and function, ensuring that all employees understand the details of the strategic plan and how their work connects to corporate goals. Second, CSOs must drive immediate change. The focus of the job almost always quickly evolves from creating shared alignment around a vision to riding herd on the ensuing change effort. Finally, a CSO must drive decision making that sustains organizational change. He or she must be that person who, in the CEO's stead, can walk into any office and test whether the decisions being made are aligned with the strategy and are creating the desired results. When decisions below the executive suite aren't being made in accordance with strategy, much of the CSO's job involves learning why and quickly determining whether to stay the course or change tack. PMID:17972497

  20. Typhoid fever vaccination strategies.

    PubMed

    Date, Kashmira A; Bentsi-Enchill, Adwoa; Marks, Florian; Fox, Kimberley

    2015-06-19

    Typhoid vaccination is an important component of typhoid fever prevention and control, and is recommended for public health programmatic use in both endemic and outbreak settings. We reviewed experiences with various vaccination strategies using the currently available typhoid vaccines (injectable Vi polysaccharide vaccine [ViPS], oral Ty21a vaccine, and injectable typhoid conjugate vaccine [TCV]). We assessed the rationale, acceptability, effectiveness, impact and implementation lessons of these strategies to inform effective typhoid vaccination strategies for the future. Vaccination strategies were categorized by vaccine disease control strategy (preemptive use for endemic disease or to prevent an outbreak, and reactive use for outbreak control) and vaccine delivery strategy (community-based routine, community-based campaign and school-based). Almost all public health typhoid vaccination programs used ViPS vaccine and have been in countries of Asia, with one example in the Pacific and one experience using the Ty21a vaccine in South America. All vaccination strategies were found to be acceptable, feasible and effective in the settings evaluated; evidence of impact, where available, was strongest in endemic settings and in the short- to medium-term. Vaccination was cost-effective in high-incidence but not low-incidence settings. Experience in disaster and outbreak settings remains limited. TCVs have recently become available and none are WHO-prequalified yet; no program experience with TCVs was found in published literature. Despite the demonstrated success of several typhoid vaccination strategies, typhoid vaccines remain underused. Implementation lessons should be applied to design optimal vaccination strategies using TCVs which have several anticipated advantages, such as potential for use in infant immunization programs and longer duration of protection, over the ViPS and Ty21a vaccines for typhoid prevention and control. PMID:25902360